Science.gov

Sample records for 10-12 cm3 molecule-1

  1. Adaptation of California Measure of Mental Motivation-CM3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Özdemir, Hasan Fehmi; Demirtasli, Nükhet Çikrikçi

    2015-01-01

    Education without doubt, plays a vital role for individuals to gain the essential personal traits of the 21st century, also known as "knowledge age". One of the most important skills among these fundamental qualities which the individuals should be equipped with is critical thinking. California Measure of Mental Motivation-CM3 was…

  2. 50 CFR 10.12 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Definitions § 10.12 Definitions. Aircraft means any contrivance used for flight in the air. Amphibians means a... dead, including without limitation any wild mammal, bird, reptile, amphibian, fish, mollusk,...

  3. 50 CFR 10.12 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Definitions § 10.12 Definitions. Aircraft means any contrivance used for flight in the air. Amphibians means a... dead, including without limitation any wild mammal, bird, reptile, amphibian, fish, mollusk,...

  4. 50 CFR 10.12 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Definitions § 10.12 Definitions. Aircraft means any contrivance used for flight in the air. Amphibians means a... dead, including without limitation any wild mammal, bird, reptile, amphibian, fish, mollusk,...

  5. 50 CFR 10.12 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Definitions § 10.12 Definitions. Aircraft means any contrivance used for flight in the air. Amphibians means a... dead, including without limitation any wild mammal, bird, reptile, amphibian, fish, mollusk,...

  6. 50 CFR 10.12 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Definitions § 10.12 Definitions. Aircraft means any contrivance used for flight in the air. Amphibians means a... dead, including without limitation any wild mammal, bird, reptile, amphibian, fish, mollusk,...

  7. English Literature Grades 10-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Instructional Objectives Exchange, Los Angeles, CA.

    This collection is composed of objectives and evaluation items in poetry, novel, short story, drama, and essay for Senior High, Grades 10-12. Each objective contains four elements: (1) the objective, (2) measurement items, (3) means for judging the adequacy of the student response, and (4) an IOX (Instructional Objectives Exchange) acceptability…

  8. 43 CFR 10.12 - Civil penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... REPATRIATION REGULATIONS Human Remains, Funerary Objects, Sacred Objects, or Objects of Cultural Patrimony in Museums and Federal Collections § 10.12 Civil penalties. (a) The Secretary's authority to assess civil penalties. The Secretary is authorized by section 9 of the Act to assess civil penalties on any museum...

  9. 43 CFR 10.12 - Civil penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... REPATRIATION REGULATIONS Human Remains, Funerary Objects, Sacred Objects, or Objects of Cultural Patrimony in Museums and Federal Collections § 10.12 Civil penalties. (a) The Secretary's authority to assess civil penalties. The Secretary is authorized by section 9 of the Act to assess civil penalties on any museum...

  10. 43 CFR 10.12 - Civil penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... REPATRIATION REGULATIONS Human Remains, Funerary Objects, Sacred Objects, or Objects of Cultural Patrimony in Museums and Federal Collections § 10.12 Civil penalties. (a) The Secretary's authority to assess civil penalties. The Secretary is authorized by section 9 of the Act to assess civil penalties on any museum...

  11. 43 CFR 10.12 - Civil penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... REPATRIATION REGULATIONS Human Remains, Funerary Objects, Sacred Objects, or Objects of Cultural Patrimony in Museums and Federal Collections § 10.12 Civil penalties. (a) The Secretary's authority to assess civil penalties. The Secretary is authorized by section 9 of the Act to assess civil penalties on any museum...

  12. 43 CFR 10.12 - Civil penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... REPATRIATION REGULATIONS Human Remains, Funerary Objects, Sacred Objects, or Objects of Cultural Patrimony in Museums and Federal Collections § 10.12 Civil penalties. (a) The Secretary's authority to assess civil penalties. The Secretary is authorized by section 9 of the Act to assess civil penalties on any museum...

  13. The amino acid sequence of protein CM-3 from Dendroaspis polylepis polylepis (black mamba) venom.

    PubMed

    Joubert, F J

    1985-01-01

    Protein CM-3 from Dendroaspis polylepis polylepis venom was purified by gel filtration and ion exchange chromatography. It comprises 65 amino acids including eight half-cystines. The complete amino acid sequence of protein CM-3 has been elucidated. The sequence (residues 1-50) resembles that of the N-terminal sequence of the subunits of a synergistic type protein and residues 51-65 that of the C-terminal sequence of an angusticeps type protein. Mixtures of protein CM-3 and angusticeps type proteins showed no apparent synergistic effect, in that their toxicity in combination was no greater than the sum of their individual toxicities.

  14. 24 CFR 10.12 - Additional rulemaking proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional rulemaking proceedings. 10.12 Section 10.12 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development RULEMAKING: POLICY AND PROCEDURES Procedures § 10.12 Additional rulemaking...

  15. 1 CFR 10.12 - Format, indexes, and ancillaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Format, indexes, and ancillaries. 10.12 Section 10.12 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER SPECIAL EDITIONS OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER PRESIDENTIAL PAPERS Annual Publication § 10.12 Format, indexes, and ancillaries. (a)...

  16. 1 CFR 10.12 - Format, indexes, and ancillaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Format, indexes, and ancillaries. 10.12 Section 10.12 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER SPECIAL EDITIONS OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER PRESIDENTIAL PAPERS Annual Publication § 10.12 Format, indexes, and ancillaries. (a)...

  17. 46 CFR 90.10-12 - Gas free.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Gas free. 90.10-12 Section 90.10-12 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 90.10-12 Gas free. This term means free from dangerous concentrations...

  18. 46 CFR 90.10-12 - Gas free.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Gas free. 90.10-12 Section 90.10-12 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 90.10-12 Gas free. This term means free from dangerous concentrations...

  19. 46 CFR 90.10-12 - Gas free.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Gas free. 90.10-12 Section 90.10-12 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 90.10-12 Gas free. This term means free from dangerous concentrations...

  20. 46 CFR 90.10-12 - Gas free.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gas free. 90.10-12 Section 90.10-12 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 90.10-12 Gas free. This term means free from dangerous concentrations...

  1. 46 CFR 90.10-12 - Gas free.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Gas free. 90.10-12 Section 90.10-12 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 90.10-12 Gas free. This term means free from dangerous concentrations...

  2. 10 CFR 10.12 - Interview and other investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Interview and other investigation. 10.12 Section 10.12... Eligibility for Access to Restricted Data or National Security Information or an Employment Clearance § 10.12... pursuant to § 10.11(a) (5) and (12). (c) If the Director, Division of Facilities and Security, cannot...

  3. 10 CFR 10.12 - Interview and other investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interview and other investigation. 10.12 Section 10.12... Eligibility for Access to Restricted Data or National Security Information or an Employment Clearance § 10.12... pursuant to § 10.11(a) (5) and (12). (c) If the Director, Division of Facilities and Security, cannot...

  4. 10 CFR 10.12 - Interview and other investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Interview and other investigation. 10.12 Section 10.12... Eligibility for Access to Restricted Data or National Security Information or an Employment Clearance § 10.12... pursuant to § 10.11(a) (5) and (12). (c) If the Director, Division of Facilities and Security, cannot...

  5. 10 CFR 10.12 - Interview and other investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Interview and other investigation. 10.12 Section 10.12... Eligibility for Access to Restricted Data or National Security Information or an Employment Clearance § 10.12... pursuant to § 10.11(a) (5) and (12). (c) If the Director, Division of Facilities and Security, cannot...

  6. 10 CFR 10.12 - Interview and other investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Interview and other investigation. 10.12 Section 10.12... Eligibility for Access to Restricted Data or National Security Information or an Employment Clearance § 10.12... pursuant to § 10.11(a) (5) and (12). (c) If the Director, Division of Facilities and Security, cannot...

  7. Smart-power integrated circuits to drive piezoelectric actuators for a cm3 microrobot system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puig-Vidal, Manel; Lopez-Sanchez, J.; Miribel-Catala, P.; Montane, Enric; Bota, Sebastian A.; Samitier, Josep; Simu, Urban; Johansson, Stefan A. I.

    2001-08-01

    Today, the use of robots for self acting tasks in applications ranging from biology and medicine to microsystems technology demand miniaturized dimensions and high-precision handling techniques. A lot of these tasks have been carried out by humans, but the manual capabilities are restricted to certain tolerances. Transport and manipulation of biological cells or assembly of micromechanical parts are the best suited applications for microrobots with sizes about cm3. Low cost and high-resolution actuators are critical performances which determine to choose piezoceramic materials as more suitable for micropositioning and micromanipulation units of a cm3 microrobot. Smart Piezoactuator Unit (SPUs) as a basic element of a new generation of cm3 microrobots have been developped. The main characteristic of this proposed Smart Piezoactuator Unit system is the integration of driving circuitry with the piezoelectric actuators and to include a serial communication interface to minimize the number of power and command wires. Micropositioning and micromanipulation units are developed combining properly 6 Smart Piezoactuator Units each one. A BCD technology (Bipolar, CMOS, DMOS) is used to design high voltage smart power integrated circuit for these Smart Piezoactuator Units. Using this technology we integrate in the same chip 4 power drivers with its control and protection circuitry.

  8. Accuracy of free energies of hydration using CM1 and CM3 atomic charges.

    PubMed

    Udier-Blagović, Marina; Morales De Tirado, Patricia; Pearlman, Shoshannah A; Jorgensen, William L

    2004-08-01

    Absolute free energies of hydration (DeltaGhyd) have been computed for 25 diverse organic molecules using partial atomic charges derived from AM1 and PM3 wave functions via the CM1 and CM3 procedures of Cramer, Truhlar, and coworkers. Comparisons are made with results using charges fit to the electrostatic potential surface (EPS) from ab initio 6-31G* wave functions and from the OPLS-AA force field. OPLS Lennard-Jones parameters for the organic molecules were used together with the TIP4P water model in Monte Carlo simulations with free energy perturbation theory. Absolute free energies of hydration were computed for OPLS united-atom and all-atom methane by annihilating the solutes in water and in the gas phase, and absolute DeltaGhyd values for all other molecules were computed via transformation to one of these references. Optimal charge scaling factors were determined by minimizing the unsigned average error between experimental and calculated hydration free energies. The PM3-based charge models do not lead to lower average errors than obtained with the EPS charges for the subset of 13 molecules in the original study. However, improvement is obtained by scaling the CM1A partial charges by 1.14 and the CM3A charges by 1.15, which leads to average errors of 1.0 and 1.1 kcal/mol for the full set of 25 molecules. The scaled CM1A charges also yield the best results for the hydration of amides including the E/Z free-energy difference for N-methylacetamide in water.

  9. Kidney Injury Molecule-1: A Translational Journey

    PubMed Central

    Bonventre, Joseph V.

    2014-01-01

    Kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1, also named TIM-1 and HAVCR-1) was identified as the most highly upregulated protein in the proximal tubule of the kidney after injury. This protein is present with injury in multiple species including man, and also after a large number of acute and chronic insults to the kidney. It is a type-1 membrane protein whose ectodomain is released into the lumen of the tubule. The ectodomain is heavily glycosylated and stable and appears in the urine after injury. It has been qualified by the United States Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency for preclinical assessment of nephrotoxicity and on a case-by-case basis for clinical evaluation. As a biomarker in humans, its utility has been demonstrated in acute and chronic injury and in renal cell carcinoma, a condition similar to injury, where there is dedifferentiation of the epithelial cell. KIM-1 is a phosphatidylserine receptor which recognizes apoptotic cells directing them to lysosomes. It also serves as a receptor for oxidized lipoproteins and hence is important for uptake of components of the tubular lumen which may be immunomodulatory and/or toxic to the cell. KIM-1 is unique in being the first molecule, not also present on myeloid cells, that transforms kidney proximal epithelial cells into semi-professional phagocytes. Data suggest that KIM-1 expression is protective during early injury, whereas in chronic disease states, prolonged KIM-1 expression may be maladaptive and may represent a target for therapy of chronic kidney disease. PMID:25125746

  10. Improvement of surface albedo parameterization within a regional climate model (RegCM3)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Y.; Lü, S.

    2009-03-01

    A parameterization for calculating surface albedo of Solar Zenith Angel (SZA) dependence with coefficient for each vegetation type determined on the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectro-radiometer (MODIS) reformed by the Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) is incorporated within the latest Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) Regional Climate Model (RegCM3), and evaluated with a high resolution one-way nesting simulation in China using the Climate Research Unit (CRU) data and the observations from the Field Experiment on Interaction between Land and Atmosphere in Arid Region of Northwest China (NWC-ALIEX). The performance of the SZA method modeling surface characteristic is investigated.Results indicate, RegCM with SZA method (RCM_SZA) considerably improve the cold bias of original RegCM (RCM_ORI) in air surface temperature in East Asia with 1.2 degree increased in summer due to the lower albedo produced by SZA method which makes more solar radiation absorbed by the surface and used for heating the atmosphere near to the surface. The simulated diurnal cycle of ground temperature conforms fairly well to the observation in the nesting simulation in Northwest China, especially during the noon time when the SZA has the lowest value. However, the modification can not obviously affect the East Asia summer monsoon precipitation simulation although RCM_SZA produce more evapo-transpiration in surface with more than 2 Wm-2 increases in simulated latent heat fluxes both in East Asia and in Northwest China compared to RCM_ORI.

  11. Music, Grades 10-12. Secondary Schools Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cranston School Dept., RI.

    Nine courses are included in this music guide for grades 10-12: Music Theory; Humanities: Renaissance, Baroque, and Classical; Humanities: Idealism vs. Realism; Humanities: 20th Century Man and His World; A Capella Choir; Chorale; Band; and Basic Keyboard Study. Major objectives, numbered objectives, and activities indicate level of learning,…

  12. Social Studies, Grades 10-12. Secondary Schools Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cranston School Dept., RI.

    This curriculum guide provides a one-year course in social studies for grades 10-12. The guide is intended to serve as a resource to teachers, students, department chairmen, guidance personnel, curriculum planners, and anyone else involved in present or future curriculum planning. The course is divided into 22 section areas covering the topics of…

  13. Newspapers and Law-Related Education. Grades 10-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, Sandra; Riekes, Linda

    Designed to assist teachers of students in grades 10-12 who wish to use the newspaper as a supplemental tool in law-related education, this guide provides model lessons demonstrating ways in which the daily newspaper can enhance textbook material. Although the guide is based on ongoing law-related education programs in St. Louis Public Schools, it…

  14. Black American Literature, Grades 10-12. Experimental.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunn, Evelyn, Ed.

    This black American literature course for grades 10-12 is designed to introduce students to the unique contribution that the black American has made to American life. The course guide is divided into four units--Slave Narrative and Autobiography, Poetry, Short Story, Drama--with suggested activites, including class discussions, small group…

  15. Evaluation and analysis of RegCM3 simulated summer rainfall over the Huaihe River Basin of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zong, Peishu; Wang, Huijun

    2011-06-01

    This study evaluates the ability of the Abdus Salam International Center for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) version 3 Regional Climate Model (RegCM3) in simulating the summer rainfall amount and distribution and large-scale circulation over the Huaihe River basin of China. We conducted the simulation for the period of 1982-2001 and the wet year of 2003 to test the ensemble simulation capacity of RegCM3. First, by comparing the simulated rainfall amount and distribution against the observations, it is found that RegCM3 can reproduce the rainfall pattern and its annual variations. In addition, the simulated spatial patterns of 850-hPa wind and specific humidity fields are close to the observations, although the wind speed and humidity values are larger. Finally, the ensemble simulation of RegCM3 for summer 2003 failed to capture the spatial distribution and underestimated the magnitude of the precipitation anomalies, and the reasons are analyzed.

  16. High resolution climate change simulation of the 21st century over East Asia by RegCM3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xuejie

    2010-05-01

    To meet the increasing demands from the climate change impact assessment studies, a high resolution climate change simulation over East Asia region has being performed in the National Climate Center of the China Meteorological Administration. The model employed in the study is the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) Regional Climate Model (RegCM3). A global model of the CCSR/NIES/FRCGC MIROC3.2_hires is selected to drive RegCM3 because of its high resolution (T106) and its good performances in simulating the present day climate over the region. The simulation is conducted at 25-km grid spacing for the period of 1951-2100. Observed CO2 concentration are used for the present day simulation of 1951-2000 and the emission scenario of IPCC SRES A1B is used as the GHG (greenhouse gases) forcing. Simulations of present day climate over China by RegCM3 and MIROC3.2_hires are compared against observation to valid the model performances. Results show that both models reproduced the general pattern of surface air temperature and precipitation well over the region. Compared to the driving MIROC3.2_hires, RegCM3 provides with more spatial details of the surface fields. Differed from previous GCM-RegCM3 simulations, the RegCM3 did not improves the general pattern of the precipitation due to the good performances of MIROC3.2_hires. Preliminary analysis of the future changes simulated by the two models' show difference, in particular during June-July-August. For example while the MIROC3.2_hires projected a prevailing increase of precipitation in JJA over China, the RegCM3 projected extended areas of decreased precipitation. The data are available for those interested from the community of climate change impacts studies.

  17. Hn PAHs and the 2940 and 28050/cm (3.40 and 3.51 Microns) Infrared Emission Features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernstein, Max; Sandford, Scott; Allamandola, Louis; Witteborn, Fred (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    The 3150-2700/cm (3.17-3.70 microns) range of the spectra of a number of Ar matrix isolated PAHs containing excess H atoms (Hn-PAHs) are presented. This region covers features produced by aromatic and aliphatic C-H stretching vibrations as well as overtone and combination bands involving lower lying fundamentals. It is demonstrated that the aliphatic C-H stretches in molecules of this type having low-to-modest excess H coverage provide excellent fits to a number of the weak emission features superposed on the plateau between 3080 and 2700/cm (3.25 and 3.7 microns) in the spectra of many planetary nebulae, reflection nebulae, and HII regions. Higher H coverage is implied for a few objects. We compare these results in context with the other suggested identifications of the emission features in the 2950-2700/cm (3.39-3.70 microns) region and briefly discuss their astrophysical implications.

  18. Sensitivity of the GCM driven summer monsoon simulations to cumulus parameterization schemes in nested RegCM3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, P.; Mohanty, U. C.; Kar, S. C.; Dash, S. K.; Kumari, S.

    2013-04-01

    The regional climate model (RegCM3) from the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics has been used to simulate the Indian summer monsoon for three different monsoon seasons such as deficit (1987), excess (1988) and normal (1989). Sensitivity to various cumulus parameterization and closure schemes of RegCM3 driven by the National Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasting global spectral model products has been tested. The model integration of the nested RegCM3 is conducted using 90 and 30-km horizontal resolutions for outer and inner domains, respectively. The India Meteorological Department gridded rainfall (1° × 1°) and National Centre for Environment Prediction (NCEP)-Department of Energy (DOE) reanalysis-2 of 2.5° × 2.5° horizontal resolution data has been used for verification. The RegCM3 forced by NCEP-DOE reanalysis-2 data simulates monsoon seasons of 1987 and 1988 reasonably well, but the monsoon season of 1989 is not represented well in the model simulations. The RegCM3 runs driven by the global model are able to bring out seasonal mean rainfall and circulations well with the use of the Grell and Anthes-Kuo cumulus scheme at 90-km resolution. While the rainfall intensity and distribution is brought out well with the Anthes-Kuo scheme, upper air circulation features are brought out better by the Grell scheme. The simulated rainfall distribution is better with RegCM3 using the MIT-Emanuel cumulus scheme for 30-km resolution. Several statistical analyses, such as correlation coefficient, root mean square error, equitable threat score, confirm that the performance of MIT-Emanuel scheme at 30-km resolution is better in simulating all-India summer monsoon rainfall. The RegCM3 simulated rainfall amount is more and closer to observations than that from the global model. The RegCM3 has corrected its driven GCM in terms of rainfall distribution and magnitude over some parts of India during extreme years. This study brings out several

  19. New α-adrenergic property for synthetic MTβ and CM-3 three-finger fold toxins from black mamba.

    PubMed

    Blanchet, Guillaume; Upert, Gregory; Mourier, Gilles; Gilquin, Bernard; Gilles, Nicolas; Servent, Denis

    2013-12-01

    Despite their isolation more than fifteen years ago from the venom of the African mamba Dendroaspis polylepis, very few data are known on the functional activity of MTβ and CM-3 toxins. MTβ was initially classified as a muscarinic toxin interacting non-selectively and with low affinity with the five muscarinic receptor subtypes while no biological function was determined for CM-3. Recent results highlight the multifunctional activity of three-finger fold toxins for muscarinic and adrenergic receptors and reveal some discrepancies in the pharmacological profiles of their venom-purified and synthetic forms. Here, we report the pharmacological characterization of chemically-synthesized MTβ and CM-3 toxins on nine subtypes of muscarinic and adrenergic receptors and demonstrate their high potency for α-adrenoceptors and in particular a sub-nanomolar affinity for the α1A-subtype. Strikingly, no or very weak affinity were found for muscarinic receptors, highlighting that pharmacological characterizations of venom-purified peptides may be risky due to possible contaminations. The biological profile of these two homologous toxins looks like that one previously reported for the Dendroaspis angusticeps ρ-Da1a toxin. Nevertheless, MTβ and CM-3 interact more potently than ρ-Da1a with α1B- and α1D-AR subtypes. A computational analysis of the stability of the MTβ structure suggests that mutation S38I, could be involved in this gain in function.

  20. Outcomes in men with large prostates (≥ 60 cm(3)) treated with definitive proton therapy for prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    McGee, Lisa; Mendenhall, Nancy P; Henderson, Randal H; Morris, Christopher G; Nichols, Romaine C; Marcus, Robert J; Li, Zuofeng; Mendenhall, William M; Williams, Christopher R; Hoppe, Bradford S

    2013-04-01

    Large prostate size is associated with higher rates of genitourinary and gastrointestinal toxicities after definitive treatment for prostate cancer, and because of this many men will undergo cytoreduction with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) before definitive therapy, which results in its own unique toxicities and worsens quality of life. This series investigates genitourinary and gastrointestinal toxicity in men with large prostates (> 60 cm(3)) undergoing definitive proton therapy (PT) for prostate cancer. Material and methods. From 2006 to 2010, 186 men with prostates ≥ 60 cm(3) were treated with definitive PT (median dose, 78 CGE) for low- (47%), intermediate- (37%) and high-risk (16%) prostate cancer. Median prostate size was 76 cm(3) (range, 60-143 cm(3)) and pretreatment IPSS was > 15 in 27%. At baseline, 51% were managed for obstructive symptoms with transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) (9.7%) or medical management with α blockers (32%), 5 α-reductase inhibitors (15%), and/or saw palmetto (11%). Fourteen men received ADT for cytoreduction. Results. Median follow-up was two years. Grade 3 genitourinary toxicities occurred in 14 men, including temporary catheterization (n = 7), TURP (n = 6), and balloon dilation for urethral stricture (n = 1). Multivariate analysis demonstrated pretreatment medical management (p = 0.0065) and pretreatment TURP (p = 0.0002) were significantly associated with grade 3 genitourinary toxicity. One man experienced grade 3 gastrointestinal toxicity and 15 men had grade 2 gastrointestinal toxicities. On multivariate analysis, dose > 78 CGE was associated with increased grade 2 + gastrointestinal toxicity (p = 0.0142). Conclusion. Definitive management of men with large prostates without ADT was associated with low rates of genitourinary and gastrointestinal toxicity.

  1. Tellurite-, tellurate-, and selenite-based anaerobic respiration by strain CM-3 isolated from gold mine tailings.

    PubMed

    Maltman, Chris; Piercey-Normore, Michele D; Yurkov, Vladimir

    2015-09-01

    The newly discovered strain CM-3, a Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium from gold mine tailings of the Central Mine in Nopiming Provincial Park, Canada, is capable of dissimilatory anaerobic reduction of tellurite, tellurate, and selenite. CM-3 possesses very high level resistance to these oxides, both aerobically and anaerobically. During aerobic growth, tellurite and tellurate resistance was up to 1500 and 1000 µg/ml, respectively. In the presence of selenite, growth occurred at the highest concentration tested, 7000 µg/ml. Under anaerobic conditions, resistance was decreased to 800 µg/ml for the Te oxides; however, much like under aerobic conditions, growth with selenite still took place at 7000 µg/ml. In the absence of oxygen, CM-3 couples oxide reduction to an increase in biomass. Following an initial drop in viable cells, due to switching from aerobic to anaerobic conditions, there was an increase in CFU/ml greater than one order of magnitude in the presence of tellurite (6.6 × 10(3)-8.6 × 10(4) CFU/ml), tellurate (4.6 × 10(3)-1.4 × 10(5) CFU/ml), and selenite (2.7 × 10(5)-5.6 × 10(6) CFU/ml). A control culture without metalloid oxides showed a steady decrease in CFU/ml with no recovery. ATP production was also increased in the presence of each oxide, further indicating anaerobic respiration. Partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed a 99.0 % similarity of CM-3 to Pseudomonas reactans.

  2. Sensitivity of simulated extreme precipitation and temperature to convective parameterization using RegCM3 in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hui, Pinhong; Tang, Jianping; Wang, Shuyu; Wu, Jian

    2015-10-01

    In this study, the regional climate model of RegCM3 is applied to investigate the sensitivity of regional climate over China using four cumulus parameterizations, the modified Anthes-Kuo (AK), the Grell with Arakawa-Schubert closure, the Grell with Fritsch-Chappell closure, and the MIT-Emanuel (EM). The model was integrated over the period of 1982 to 2001 using the NCEP Reanalysis data NNRP2 as boundary conditions. RegCM3 coupled with various cumulus parameterizations is evaluated firstly as for its ability to represent regional climatology and climate extreme indices, and the results show that simulated regional climate in China is sensitive to the option of cumulus parameterizations. All the cumulus schemes produce a northward expansion of heavy rain area and an underestimation of surface air temperature. For precipitation, the AK scheme simulates relatively better magnitude, while the EM scheme has more reliable performance on the spatial distribution. RegCM3 can represent the spatial distributions of extreme indices for both precipitation and temperature, as well as their decadal trends irrelevant to the cumulus parameterizations. However, the model underestimates the consecutive dry days and overestimates the three extreme wet indices, with the EM scheme giving the worst result. Slight underestimations of extreme temperature indices are detected in all cumulus parameterization scheme runs. The shapes of probability distribution functions for extreme indices are correctly produced, though the probabilities of extreme dry and warm events are underestimated.

  3. Regional Climate Responses To Planetary-Scale Geoengineering Activities, as Modeled Using climateprediction.net/HadCM3L

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricke, K.

    2009-12-01

    Concerns that climate mitigation is occurring too slowly, or that there may be a rapid "climate surprise," have lead to renewed dialogue within the scientific community about cooling the planet through geoengineering, specifically stratospheric albedo modification (SAM). There is little consensus about regional hydrological effects of such activities despite a recent spate of climate modeling studies looking at its potential impacts. Here we present the results from one large-ensemble experiment that used Hadley Centre Coupled Model, version 3 with reduced resolution over the ocean (HadCM3L), implemented through climateprediction.net. The analysis examines 54 globally-uniform stratospheric optical depth modification scenarios designed to stabilize global temperatures under SRES A1B. We present normalized regional temperature anomalies versus normalized regional precipitation and subsurface runoff anomalies (for example, see Figure 1) and the results of regression analyses to quantify the relationships between level of stratospheric optical property modification (i.e., geoengineering) and regional hydrology. Results show that while such shortwave compensations for longwave anthropogenic forcings does generally return regional climates to closer to their baseline climate states than the no-geoengineering, business-as-usual scenarios, the magnitudes and sensitivities of regional responses to this type of activity, as modeled in HadCM3L, are highly variable. Regions, such as Eastern China and India, migrate away from their baseline climate states in different ways, illustrating the impossibility of simultaneous stabilization of regional climates. The linearity of the effect of incrementally increasing stratospheric optical depth also varies regionally. Figure 1: Normalized regional temperature and precipitation anomalies (<2020s>-<1990s> and <2070s>-<1990s>) in units of baseline standard deviations for each region). Each grayscale point in-series near the origin

  4. High-resolution δ13C measurements on ancient air extracted from less than 10 cm3 of ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leuenberger, M. C.; Eyer, M.; Nyfeler, P.; Stauffer, B.; Stocker, T. F.

    2003-04-01

    A new method for δ13C analysis of very small air amounts of less than 0.5 cm3 STP was developed. This corresponds to less than 10 g of ice. It is based on the needle-crasher technique, which is routinely used for CO2 concentration measurements by infrared laser absorption. The extracted air is slowly expanded into a large volume through a water trap held at -70 °C where the pressure is measured. This sampled air is then carried by a high helium flux through a preconcentration system to separate CO2 cryogenically from the air. The small CO2 amount is then released into a low helium stream which forces the CO2 via an open split device to a mass spectrometer. The overall precision, based on replicates of standard air without crushing, is significantly better than 0.1‰ for a single analysis, and is further improved by a triplicate measurement of the same sample through a specially designed gas splitter. Performing δ13C measurements on ice air through the whole system, we reach a reproducibility of 0.12‰. Additional information is obtained through amplitude vs. pressure ratio determination, which results in a good control of the CO2 concentration (1 ppm precision for 1σ). The new method allows us to produce highly resolved records of atmospheric δ13C from air enclosed in ice, which is required to better understand the evolution and the temporal variability of the global carbon cycle.

  5. Particle- and gas-phase emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from two-stroke, 50-cm 3 mopeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spezzano, Pasquale; Picini, Paolo; Cataldi, Dario; Messale, Fabrizio; Manni, Claudio

    2008-06-01

    The emissions of gas- and particle-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were evaluated in the exhaust of 10 mopeds (4 EURO-0, 4 EURO-1 and 2 EURO-2) equipped with two-stroke engines with displacement of 50 cm3. Sampling was performed on a dynamometer bench both during the "cold-start" and the "hot" phases of the ECE-47 driving cycle. Eighteen PAHs were quantified and total PAH emission factors (∑PAH) ranged from 1790 to 15,059 μg km-1. Expressed in benzo(a)pyrene equivalent (BaPeq), emission factors ranged 4.7-86.3 μg km-1. PAH emissions are reduced according to the legislation class: EURO-0>EURO-1>EURO-2. PAH emission factors were greater during the cold-start phase than the hot phase of the ECE-47 cycle. Results show that despite their small engine size, two-stroke mopeds can emit amounts of particulate PAHs comparable or even higher than PAH emissions reported elsewhere from gasoline- and diesel-powered passenger cars and light- and heavy-duty vehicles.

  6. The eastern Tropical Pacific hydroclimate over the last 120kyr: a perspective from HadCM3.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, W. H. G.; Valdes, P. J.

    2014-12-01

    The focus of the majority of studies looking into the evolving tropical pacific climate on glacial/interglacial timescales has been the role of the changing orbital forcing. While this is of course the fundamental forcing that drives changes in the climate on these time scales, without a fully interactive Earth System Model the effects that the evolving ice sheets/sea level and green house gases have on the climate will be missed. In the absence of such models these other forcings must be imposed. While the impact on the temperature in both the high latitudes, and to some extent in the tropics, of all of the forcings is reasonably clear, their impact on the hydroclimate is less obvious. In this study we shall investigate what role all of the different forcings that vary over a glacial/interglacial cycle play on the hydroclimate in the eastern Tropical Pacific. We use as the basis of our study a set of three climate model experiments using the model HadCM3. Each of these simulates the last 120 thousand years as a series of time slices in one of three configurations: varying the orbital forcing; varying the orbital and greenhouse gas forcing; varying the orbital, greenhouse and ice sheet/sea level forcing. With these experiments we can deconvolve the role that each forcing plays. We will show that, in addition to the orbital forcing, both the greenhouse gas forcing and the ice sheet configuration have a large impact on the eastern Tropical Pacific's hydroclimate. Using a set of more idealised model simulations we shall elucidate the mechanisms by which each of these different forcing mechanism causes the simulated changes.

  7. Coupling of a regional atmospheric model (RegCM3) and a regional oceanic model (FVCOM) over the maritime continent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Jun; Malanotte-Rizzoli, Paola; Eltahir, Elfatih A. B.; Xue, Pengfei; Xu, Danya

    2014-09-01

    Climatological high resolution coupled climate model simulations for the maritime continent have been carried out using the regional climate model (RegCM) version 3 and the finite volume coastal ocean model (FVCOM) specifically designed to resolve regions characterized by complex geometry and bathymetry. The RegCM3 boundary forcing is provided by the EMCWF-ERA40 re-analysis. FVCOM is embedded in the Global MITgcm which provides boundary forcing. The domain of the coupled regional model covers the entire South China Sea with its through-flow, the entire Indonesian archipelago with the Indonesian through-flow (ITF) and includes a large region in the western Pacific and eastern Indian oceans. The coupled model is able to provide stable and realistic climatological simulations for a specific decade of atmospheric-oceanic variables without flux correction. The major focus of this work is on oceanic properties. First, the coupled simulation is assessed against ocean-only simulations carried out under two different sets of air-sea heat fluxes. The first set, provided by the MITgcm, is proved to be grossly deficient as the heat fluxes are evaluated by a two-dimensional, zonally averaged atmosphere and the simulated SST have anomalous cold biases. Hence the MITgcm fluxes are discarded. The second set, the NCEP re-analysis heat fluxes, produces a climatological evolution of the SST with an average cold bias of ~-0.8 °C. The coupling eliminates the cold bias and the coupled SST evolution is in excellent agreement with the analogous evolution in the SODA re-analysis data. The detailed comparison of oceanic circulation properties with the International Nusantara Stratification and Transport observations shows that the coupled simulation produces the best estimate of the total ITF transport through the Makassar strait while the transports of three ocean-only simulations are all underestimated. The annual cycle of the transport is also very well reproduced. The coupling also

  8. DFT studies on a high energy density cage compound 4-trinitroethyl-2,6,8,10,12-pentanitrohezaazaisowurtzitane.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian-ying; Du, Hong-chen; Wang, Fang; Gong, Xue-dong; Huang, Yin-sheng

    2011-06-23

    Polynitro cage compound 4-trinitroethyl-2,6,8,10,12-pentanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane has the same framework with but higher stability than CL-20 and is a potential new high energy density compound (HEDC). In this paper, the B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) method of density functional theory (DFT) has been used to study its heat of formation, IR spectrum, and thermodynamic properties. The stability of the compound was evaluated by the bond dissociation energies. The calculated results show that the first step of pyrolysis is the rupture of the N-NO(2) bond in the side chain and verify the experimental observation that the title compound has better stability than CL-20. The crystal structure obtained by molecular mechanics belongs to the P2(1)2(1)2(1) space group, with lattice parameters a = 12.59 Å, b = 10.52 Å, c = 12.89 Å, Z = 4, and ρ = 2.165 g·cm(-3). Both the detonation velocity of 9.767 km·s(-1) and the detonation pressure of 45.191 GPa estimated using the Kamlet-Jacobs equation are better than those of CL-20. Considering that this cage compound has a better detonation performance and stability than CL-20, it may be a superior HEDC.

  9. Intercellular Adhesion Molecule 1 Knockout Abrogates Radiation Induced Pulmonary Inflammation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallahan, Dennis E.; Virudachalam, Subbulakshmi

    1997-06-01

    Increased expression of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1; CD54) is induced by exposure to ionizing radiation. The lung was used as a model to study the role of ICAM-1 in the pathogenesis of the radiation-induced inflammation-like response. ICAM-1 expression increased in the pulmonary microvascular endothelium and not in the endothelium of larger pulmonary vessels following treatment of mice with thoracic irradiation. To quantify radiation-induced ICAM-1 expression, we utilized fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis of anti-ICAM-1 antibody labeling of pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells from human cadaver donors (HMVEC-L cells). Fluorochrome conjugates and UV microscopy were used to quantify the fluorescence intensity of ICAM in the irradiated lung. These studies showed a dose- and time-dependent increase in ICAM-1 expression in the pulmonary microvascular endothelium. Peak expression occurred at 24 h, while threshold dose was as low as 2 Gy. To determine whether ICAM-1 is required for inflammatory cell infiltration into the irradiated lung, the anti-ICAM-1 blocking antibody was administered by tail vein injection to mice following thoracic irradiation. Inflammatory cells were quantified by immunofluorescence for leukocyte common antigen (CD45). Mice treated with the anti-ICAM-1 blocking antibody showed attenuation of inflammatory cell infiltration into the lung in response to ionizing radiation exposure. To verify the requirement of ICAM-1 in the inflammation-like radiation response, we utilized the ICAM-1 knockout mouse. ICAM-1 was not expressed in the lungs of ICAM-1-deficient mice following treatment with thoracic irradiation. ICAM-1 knockout mice had no increase in the inflammatory cell infiltration into the lung in response to thoracic irradiation. These studies demonstrate a radiation dose-dependent increase in ICAM-1 expression in the pulmonary microvascular endothelium, and show that ICAM-1 is required for inflammatory cell infiltration

  10. Analysis of the present and future winter Pacific-North American teleconnection in the ECHAM5 global and RegCM3 regional climate models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allan, Andrea M.; Hostetler, Steven W.; Alder, Jay R.

    2014-01-01

    We use the NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis (NCEP) and the MPI/ECHAM5 general circulation model to drive the RegCM3 regional climate model to assess the ability of the models to reproduce the spatiotemporal aspects of the Pacific-North American teleconnection (PNA) pattern. Composite anomalies of the NCEP-driven RegCM3 simulations for 1982–2000 indicate that the regional model is capable of accurately simulating the key features (500-hPa heights, surface temperature, and precipitation) of the positive and negative phases of the PNA with little loss of information in the downscaling process. The basic structure of the PNA is captured in both the ECHAM5 global and ECHAM5-driven RegCM3 simulations. The 1950–2000 ECHAM5 simulation displays similar temporal and spatial variability in the PNA index as that of NCEP; however, the magnitudes of the positive and negative phases are weaker than those of NCEP. The RegCM3 simulations clearly differentiate the climatology and associated anomalies of snow water equivalent and soil moisture of the positive and negative PNA phases. In the RegCM3 simulations of the future (2050–2100), changes in the location and extent of the Aleutian low and the continental high over North America alter the dominant flow patterns associated with positive and negative PNA modes. The future projections display a shift in the patterns of the relationship between the PNA and surface climate variables, which suggest the potential for changes in the PNA-related surface hydrology of North America.

  11. Impact of resolution on regional climate modeling in the source region of Yellow River with complex terrain using RegCM3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hui, Pinhong; Tang, Jianping; Wang, Shuyu; Wu, Jian; Niu, Xiaorui; Kang, Yue

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents results from a 20-year (1990-2009) simulation by RegCM3 with both 45- and 15-km horizontal resolutions. The research focuses on the source region of Yellow River and its surrounding area, which is located on the northeast edge of the Tibetan Plateau with its very complex topography. Driven by the ECMWF ERA-interim reanalysis data, RegCM3 displays reasonable ability to reproduce the spatial patterns, annual cycles, and the interannual variabilities of regional surface climate, though the model shows wet and cold bias. The model's performance is more close to observation for the source region of Yellow River than the other part of the analysis region, and the application of high resolution of 15 km demonstrates better skill with less bias for mean climate and larger correlation coefficients for interannual variability at most stations. However, the high-resolution simulation shows little advantage for reproducing the variations of precipitation and surface air temperature with altitude. The RegCM3 model also generally reproduces the probability distribution functions (PDFs) of surface climate and, consequently, the occurrence of climatic extremes and extreme indices. The simulation with high resolution again proves to be more reliable to generate climatic extremes over complex terrain of the source region of the Yellow River, related to its better representation of complex terrain and local processes.

  12. The dynamical core, physical parameterizations, and basic simulation characteristics of the atmospheric component AM3 of the GFDL global coupled model CM3

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Donner, L.J.; Wyman, B.L.; Hemler, R.S.; Horowitz, L.W.; Ming, Y.; Zhao, M.; Golaz, J.-C.; Ginoux, P.; Lin, S.-J.; Schwarzkopf, M.D.; Austin, J.; Alaka, G.; Cooke, W.F.; Delworth, T.L.; Freidenreich, S.M.; Gordon, C.T.; Griffies, S.M.; Held, I.M.; Hurlin, W.J.; Klein, S.A.; Knutson, T.R.; Langenhorst, A.R.; Lee, H.-C.; Lin, Y.; Magi, B.I.; Malyshev, S.L.; Milly, P.C.D.; Naik, V.; Nath, M.J.; Pincus, R.; Ploshay, J.J.; Ramaswamy, V.; Seman, C.J.; Shevliakova, E.; Sirutis, J.J.; Stern, W.F.; Stouffer, R.J.; Wilson, R.J.; Winton, M.; Wittenberg, A.T.; Zeng, F.

    2011-01-01

    The Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) has developed a coupled general circulation model (CM3) for the atmosphere, oceans, land, and sea ice. The goal of CM3 is to address emerging issues in climate change, including aerosol-cloud interactions, chemistry-climate interactions, and coupling between the troposphere and stratosphere. The model is also designed to serve as the physical system component of earth system models and models for decadal prediction in the near-term future-for example, through improved simulations in tropical land precipitation relative to earlier-generation GFDL models. This paper describes the dynamical core, physical parameterizations, and basic simulation characteristics of the atmospheric component (AM3) of this model. Relative to GFDL AM2, AM3 includes new treatments of deep and shallow cumulus convection, cloud droplet activation by aerosols, subgrid variability of stratiform vertical velocities for droplet activation, and atmospheric chemistry driven by emissions with advective, convective, and turbulent transport. AM3 employs a cubed-sphere implementation of a finite-volume dynamical core and is coupled to LM3, a new land model with ecosystem dynamics and hydrology. Its horizontal resolution is approximately 200 km, and its vertical resolution ranges approximately from 70 m near the earth's surface to 1 to 1.5 km near the tropopause and 3 to 4 km in much of the stratosphere. Most basic circulation features in AM3 are simulated as realistically, or more so, as in AM2. In particular, dry biases have been reduced over South America. In coupled mode, the simulation of Arctic sea ice concentration has improved. AM3 aerosol optical depths, scattering properties, and surface clear-sky downward shortwave radiation are more realistic than in AM2. The simulation of marine stratocumulus decks remains problematic, as in AM2. The most intense 0.2% of precipitation rates occur less frequently in AM3 than observed. The last two decades of

  13. Secondary School Curriculum Guide. Music. Grades 10-12. Draft Copy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Arnold R., Ed.; And Others

    This draft curriculum guide provides curriculum materials that are organized into behavioral objectives with a scope and sequence. Divided by grade and levels, each section includes level objectives and suggested activities. To be covered in grades 10-12 are 5 levels of musical content. They are: 1) why man creates and how he perceives; 2) the…

  14. Steps towards Healthy Growth; Health Education Curriculum Guide. Grades 10-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dippo, Jeanette, Ed.

    GRADES OR AGES: Grades 10-12. SUBJECT MATTER: Health Education--includes chapters on a) nutrition; b) disease prevention and control; c) tobacco; d) alcohol; e) drugs; f) personality development; g) family life and sexuality; h) environmental, public, and world health; i) consumer health; and j) safety, first aid, and survival education.…

  15. A Resource File for Social Studies in Utah. Level 10-12: U.S. Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utah State Office of Education, Salt Lake City.

    This resource file contains information for Utah secondary school teachers to help their students at level 10-12 to meet the state's instructional objectives in the social studies. This particular student level emphasizes U.S. studies. The following disciplines are covered in the resource file: psychology, anthropology, sociology, geography,…

  16. Climate Impact on South America due to Land Use Degradation of Amazon Rainforest during Winter and Summer Periods by RegCM3 Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, M. E. S.; Da Rocha, R.; Pereira, G.

    2015-12-01

    In this study we investigated the climatic impact over South America region due to the increasing of deforestation at the eastern and southern regions of Amazon through the use of the climate model RegCM3 with 50 km of spatial resolution. Many studies, among global and regional models have been used to simulate climatic impact due to deforestation. Most of them used relatively coarse resolution, small domains over South America, besides do not consider deforestation as usually observed. In order to verify the RegCM3 ability to simulate climate impacts due to Amazon deforestation including relatively higher horizontal resolutions, 50 km, a larger domain, the whole South America, deforested areas more similar to the route-shaped commonly seen, and a landuse updating, the model was run for the 2001-2006 period. As the major part of the previous studies focusing Amazon deforestation, RegCM3-50km simulated over degraded areas air temperature increase, ranging from 1.0 to 2.5oC, and precipitation decreasing, ~10%. These aspects are mainly resulting from soil water depletion and roughness vegetation decreasing, both inhibiting evapotranspiration processes. Apart from these results, the model with 50 km simulated precipitation increasing, ~10%, over the eastern South America and adjacent South Atlantic ocean, after Amazon deforestation. Seeking for physical related reasons able to provide the precipitation increasing during rainy seasons, over eastern South America, we found out that upper levels high pressure system (the Bolivian High) intensification, coupled to the southeastward trough, what follows the low troposphere warming, seems to contribute to the precipitation increasing. The climatic impact simulated for winter seasons presents strongest values for areas with altered landuse, over the north region of South America.

  17. An optical fiber spool for laser stabilization with reduced acceleration sensitivity to 10-12/g

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yong-Qi; Dong, Jing; Huang, Jun-Chao; Li, Tang; Liu, Liang

    2015-10-01

    Environmental vibration causes mechanical deformation in optical fibers, which induces excess frequency noise in fiber-stabilized lasers. In order to solve such a problem, we propose an ultralow acceleration sensitivity fiber spool with symmetrically mounted structure. By numerical analysis with the finite element method, we obtain the optimal geometry parameters of the spool with which the horizontal and vertical acceleration sensitivity can be reduced to 3.25 × 10-12/g and 5.38 × 10-12/g respectively. Moreover, the structure features the insensitivity to the variation of geometry parameters, which will minimize the influence from numerical simulation error and manufacture tolerance. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11034008 and 11274324) and the Key Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No. KJZD-EW-W02).

  18. Tuning The Sea-Ice Seasonal Cycle Of HadCM3: Can It Reproduce Observed Trends In Sea-Ice?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tett, S. F.; Roach, L.; Rae, C.; Cartis, C.; Mineter, M.; Steig, E. J.; Yamazaki, K.; Schurer, A. P.

    2015-12-01

    Since high quality satellite observations of sea-ice begin in 1979 Artic sea-ice extent has declined . Observed losses in Arctic sea-ice during September are greater than the majority of models in the CMIP5 archive and the multi-model average. In contrast Antarctic sea-ice has increased in contrast to an expected decline. We have carried out a set of perturbations to the HadCM3 model in which we changed the maximum ice area (a proxy for ice leads), albedo parameterizations, ice thermal conductivity and ocean diffusion. Changes in these parameters affected ice extent in both the Arctic and Antarctic. We used these simulations to identify four parameters that had most impact on minimum and maximum sea-ice extent in both hemispheres. To tune the model we used a Gauss-Newton algorithm to adjust those four parameters to minimize differences between simulated and observed sea-ice extents. With this new parameter set we then simulated the period 1940 to 2015 and compared with the default configuration of HadCM3. Compared to the default configuration the perturbed model had greater summer sea-loss in the Arctic and is consistent with observed loss estimates. However, in the Antarctic neither the perturbed or default simulations show an increase in sea-ice extent. This is in contrast to the observations which do show an increase in sea-ice extent.

  19. Coffee Beverage Quality Assessment Based on ETA/CPTEC-HadCM3 Model (A1B-IPCC/SRES Scenario), Southeastern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giarolla, A.; Resende, N.; Chou, S. C.; Tavares, P. S.; Rodrigues, D. C.

    2012-04-01

    Environmental factors influence the coffee beverage quality and air temperature has a significant importance in this process. The grain maturation occurs very quickly in regions that present high temperatures and sometimes there is not enough time to complete all this phase adequately. In the other hand, with mild temperatures, the grain maturation occurs more slowly and it promotes a better quality beverage. The aim of this study was to assess the coffee beverage quality in the southeastern Brazil, based on climate projections using the Eta-CPTEC regional model driven by four members of an ensemble of the Met Office Hadley Centre Global Coupled climate model (HadCM3). The global model ensemble was run over the 21st century according to IPCC SRES, A1B emissions scenario. Each ensemble member presented different climate sensitivity in the analysis. The Eta-CPTEC-HadCM3 model was configured with a 40-km grid size and was run over the period of 1961-90 to represent a baseline climate, and over the period of 2011-2100 to simulate possible future changes and the effects on the coffee beverage quality. A coffee beverage quality classification, which depends on the annual air temperature proposed by Bressani (2007) and also, a quality coffee beverage sensory classification, based on Camargo and Cortez (1998) were considered in this study. An evaluation of the systematic errors (BIAS) for each member for the period from 1961 to 1990 was made. The results presented by Eta/CPTEC-HadCM3 model indicated that in the case of an occurrence of A1B emission scenario, the coffee beverage quality could be affected in this region due to the fact that the flavor may become stronger and unpleasant caused by rising air temperatures. The BIAS evaluation and subsequent errors removal demonstrated improvement in the scenarios simulations. A short review concerning agronomic techniques to mitigate extreme meteorological events or global warming on coffee crop based on Camargo (2010) also is

  20. Accurate quantum chemical modelling of the separation of Eu(3+) from Am(3+)/Cm(3+) by liquid-liquid extraction with Cyanex272.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Jun; Weissmann, Daniel; Dolg, Michael; Chen, Xuebo

    2015-08-28

    The experimentally observed extraction complexes of trivalent lanthanide Eu(3+) and actinide Am(3+)/Cm(3+) cations with Cyanex272 [bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl) phosphinic acid, denoted as HC272] and Cyanex301 [bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl) dithiophosphinic acid, denoted as HC301] have been studied by using relativistic energy-consistent 4f- and 5f-in-core pseudopotentials for trivalent f elements, combined with density functional theory and a continuum solvation model. It has been found that, as a result of hydrogen bonding, HC272 exists primarily as a self-associated species, whereas HC301 is preferably a monomer. The calculations show that in case of all three M(3+) (M = Eu, Am, Cm) ions for HC272 the extraction complexes M[H(C272)2]3 are formed prior to M(C272)3, whereas for HC301 the extraction complexes M(C301)3 have priority over M[H(C301)2]3. The calculated M-O and M-S bond lengths and the M-P distances of these preferred extraction complexes agree very well with the available experimental data. The obtained changes of the Gibbs free energies in the liquid-liquid extraction reactions (1): Maqu(3+) + 3(HC272)2,org→ M[H(C272)2]3,org + 3Haqu(+) and (2): Maqu(3+) + 3HC301org→ M(C301)3,org + 3Haqu(+) agree with the experimentally observed thermodynamical priorities of HC272 and HC301, i.e., HC272 prefers Eu(3+) over Am(3+)/Cm(3+) and HC301 prefers Am(3+)/Cm(3+) over Eu(3+). The obtained changes of the Gibbs free energies in reaction (2) (Eu, 68.1 kJ mol(-1); Am, 46.5 kJ mol(-1)) agree quite well with the experimental findings (Eu, 63.3 kJ mol(-1); Am, 44.1 kJ mol(-1)).

  1. Parameter Tuning and Calibration of RegCM3 with MIT-Emanuel Cumulus Parameterization Scheme over CORDEX East Asian Domain

    SciTech Connect

    Zou, Liwei; Qian, Yun; Zhou, Tianjun; Yang, Ben

    2014-10-01

    In this study, we calibrated the performance of regional climate model RegCM3 with Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)-Emanuel cumulus parameterization scheme over CORDEX East Asia domain by tuning the selected seven parameters through multiple very fast simulated annealing (MVFSA) sampling method. The seven parameters were selected based on previous studies, which customized the RegCM3 with MIT-Emanuel scheme through three different ways by using the sensitivity experiments. The responses of model results to the seven parameters were investigated. Since the monthly total rainfall is constrained, the simulated spatial pattern of rainfall and the probability density function (PDF) distribution of daily rainfall rates are significantly improved in the optimal simulation. Sensitivity analysis suggest that the parameter “relative humidity criteria” (RH), which has not been considered in the default simulation, has the largest effect on the model results. The responses of total rainfall over different regions to RH were examined. Positive responses of total rainfall to RH are found over northern equatorial western Pacific, which are contributed by the positive responses of explicit rainfall. Followed by an increase of RH, the increases of the low-level convergence and the associated increases in cloud water favor the increase of the explicit rainfall. The identified optimal parameters constrained by the total rainfall have positive effects on the low-level circulation and the surface air temperature. Furthermore, the optimized parameters based on the extreme case are suitable for a normal case and the model’s new version with mixed convection scheme.

  2. Tropical Cyclone Paka's Initial Explosive Development (10-12 December, 1997)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodgers, Edward B.; Halverson, Jeff; Simpson, Joanne; Olson, William; Pierce, Harold

    1999-01-01

    Convection associated with an equatorial westerly wind burst was first observed late November during the strong El Nino of 1997 at approximately 2000 km southwest of the Hawaiian Islands. This region of convection lead to the formation of twin tropical cyclones, one in the southern hemisphere named Pam and the other in the northern hemisphere named Paka. During the first week in December, tropical cyclone Paka, the system of concern, reached tropical storm stage as it moved rapidly westward at relatively low latitudes. During the 10-12 of December, Paka rapidly developed into a typhoon.

  3. a Theoretical Investigation on 10-12 Potential of Hydrogen-Hydrogen Covalent Bond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taneri, Sencer

    2013-05-01

    This is an analytical investigation of well-known 10-12 potential of hydrogen-hydrogen covalent bond. In this research, we will make an elaboration of the well-known 6-12 Lennard-Jones potential in case of this type of bond. Though the results are illustrated in many text books and literature, an analytical analysis for these potentials is missing almost everywhere. The power laws are valid for small radial distances, which are calculated to some extent. The internuclear separation as well as the binding energy of the hydrogen molecule are evaluated with success.

  4. Angiogenesis mediated by soluble forms of E-selectin and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, Alisa E.; Halloran, Margaret M.; Haskell, Catherine J.; Shah, Manisha R.; Polverini, Peter J.

    1995-08-01

    ENDOTHELIAL adhesion molecules facilitate the entry of leukocytes into inflamed tissues. This in turn promotes neovascularization, a process central to the progression of rheumatoid arthritis, tumour growth and wound repair1. Here we test the hypothesis that soluble endothelial adhesion molecules promote angiogenesis2á¤-4. Human recombinant soluble E-selectin and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 induced chemotaxis of human endothelial cells in vitro and were angiogenic in rat cornea. Soluble E-selectin acted on endothelial cells in part through a sialyl Lewis-X-dependent mechanism, while soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 acted on endothelial cells in part through a very late antigen (VLA)-4 dependent mechanism. The chemotactic activity of rheumatoid synovial fluid for endothelial cells, and also its angiogenic activity, were blocked by antibodies to either soluble E-selectin or soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1. These results suggest a novel function for soluble endothelial adhesion molecules as mediators of angiogenesis.

  5. Evaluation of MG-101 course Machine guarding'' taught in Stanford, California, November 10--12, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, T.S.

    1993-03-01

    This report summarizes trainee evaluations for the Safety Training Section course, Machine Guarding,'' (MG-101) which was conducted November 10--12, 1992 at Stanford Linear Accelerator, in Stanford, California. This report summarizes the quantitative course evaluations that trainees provided upon completion of the course, including presents examination results, and recommendations for course improvement. Numeric course ratings were generally positive and show that the course material and instruction were very effective. Written comments supported the positive numeric ratings. The course content and knowledge gained by the trainees exceeded most of the students' expectations of the course. This course is now in the format that has been requested by past attendees. It appears to be meeting their needs. Results from the final examination showed that students gained appropriate knowledge from the course.

  6. Simulation of the GeoMIP G1 and G2 experiments with a perturbed parameter ensemble of HadCM3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irvine, P. J.; Ridgwell, A. J.; Lunt, D. J.

    2012-12-01

    The geoengineering model intercomparison project is an attempt to assess the uncertainties in the effectiveness and climate impacts of solar radiation management (SRM) geoengineering using a multi-model ensemble (MME) of Global Circulation Models (GCM). Another approach for assessing GCM uncertainty is to use a perturbed parameter ensemble (PPE) generated from a single GCM. Although the PPE approach is limited in that all the members of the ensemble have many similarities it is still a useful way to explore uncertainty in GCM results. We simulate the G1 and G2 using a 27 member PPE of a fully-coupled CMIP3-era GCM, HadCM3, without using flux adjustments. The PPE we use is described in an article that has been submitted to the geoscientific model development journal. An analysis of the mean and spread of the PPE is made and comparisons are made with the geoMIP MME results. This comparison will support the geoMIP effort to identify the robust, and the uncertain, aspects of the simulated climate response to SRM geoengineering. This work will be complementary to the main GeoMIP MME approach and will test the utility of using PPEs of earlier generation GCMs alongside latest generation models.

  7. Perovskite CH3NH3PbI3(Cl) Single Crystals: Rapid Solution Growth, Unparalleled Crystalline Quality, and Low Trap Density toward 10(8) cm(-3).

    PubMed

    Lian, Zhipeng; Yan, Qingfeng; Gao, Taotao; Ding, Jie; Lv, Qianrui; Ning, Chuangang; Li, Qiang; Sun, Jia-Lin

    2016-08-03

    Single crystal reflects the intrinsic physical properties of a material, and single crystals with high-crystalline quality are highly desired for the acquisition of high-performance devices. We found that large single crystals of perovskite CH3NH3PbI3(Cl) could be grown rapidly from chlorine-containing solutions. Within 5 days, CH3NH3PbI3(Cl) single crystal as large as 20 mm × 18 mm × 6 mm was harvested. As a most important index to evaluate the crystalline quality, the full width at half-maximum (fwhm) in the high-resolution X-ray rocking curve (HR-XRC) of as-grown CH3NH3PbI3(Cl) single crystal was measured as 20 arcsec, which is far superior to so far reported CH3NH3PbI3 single crystals (∼1338 arcsec). The unparalleled crystalline quality delivered a low trap-state density of down to 7.6 × 10(8) cm(-3), high carrier mobility of 167 ± 35 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1), and long transient photovoltaic carrier lifetime of 449 ± 76 μs. The improvement in the crystalline quality, together with the rapid growth rate and excellent carrier transport property, provides state-of-the-art single crystalline hybrid perovskite materials for high-performance optoelectronic devices.

  8. Investigating the Feedbacks between Land Surface Cover and North Atlantic Climate Variability in the HadCM3 Coupled Climate Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, E.; Valdes, P.; House, J.; Singarayer, J. S.

    2015-12-01

    The North Atlantic displays a number of major modes of decadal variability, namely the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC). On decadal to multi-decadal timescales, this unforced climate variability is expected to be more influential on the overall pattern of climate than anthropogenic forcing. Greater understanding of this decadal-scale variability is essential to improve its predictability, which in turn is vital to constrain uncertainty in decadal to centennial climate change predictions. Numerous studies have investigated how oceanic and atmospheric forcing modulates climate variability. However the feedbacks between the land surface and decadal variability have not been examined to the same degree. The land surface influences climate via biogeophysical and biogeochemical processes which interact and vary across a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. Increasing concentrations of CO2 are expected to drive a change in the distribution and physiology (i.e. stomatal conductance and leaf area index) of vegetation, which can alter land surface structure and influence biogeophysical processes. It is important to more accurately constrain if/how land surface cover influences decadal variability and the associated feedback mechanisms and how these may change in a warming climate. This sensitivity study will use the HadCM3 climate model to investigate the impact of a range of vegetation distributions on the strength and variability of the AMOC/NAO at increasing CO2 concentrations. We aim to elucidate feedbacks between the land surface, ocean and atmosphere in a coupled climate model and potential implications for decadal modelling studies.

  9. Sensitivity studies of high-resolution RegCM3 simulations of precipitation over the European Alps: the effect of lateral boundary conditions and domain size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadeem, Imran; Formayer, Herbert

    2016-11-01

    A suite of high-resolution (10 km) simulations were performed with the International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) Regional Climate Model (RegCM3) to study the effect of various lateral boundary conditions (LBCs), domain size, and intermediate domains on simulated precipitation over the Great Alpine Region. The boundary conditions used were ECMWF ERA-Interim Reanalysis with grid spacing 0.75∘, the ECMWF ERA-40 Reanalysis with grid spacing 1.125 and 2.5∘, and finally the 2.5∘ NCEP/DOE AMIP-II Reanalysis. The model was run in one-way nesting mode with direct nesting of the high-resolution RCM (horizontal grid spacing Δx = 10 km) with driving reanalysis, with one intermediate resolution nest (Δx = 30 km) between high-resolution RCM and reanalysis forcings, and also with two intermediate resolution nests (Δx = 90 km and Δx = 30 km) for simulations forced with LBC of resolution 2.5∘. Additionally, the impact of domain size was investigated. The results of multiple simulations were evaluated using different analysis techniques, e.g., Taylor diagram and a newly defined useful statistical parameter, called Skill-Score, for evaluation of daily precipitation simulated by the model. It has been found that domain size has the major impact on the results, while different resolution and versions of LBCs, e.g., 1.125∘ ERA40 and 0.7∘ ERA-Interim, do not produce significantly different results. It is also noticed that direct nesting with reasonable domain size, seems to be the most adequate method for reproducing precipitation over complex terrain, while introducing intermediate resolution nests seems to deteriorate the results.

  10. Present-day climatology and projected changes of warm and cold days in the CNRM-CM3 global climate model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballester, J.; Douville, H.; Chauvin, F.

    2009-01-01

    The impact of global warming on the warmest and coldest days of the annual cycle is explored according to an A2 scenario simulated by the CNRM-CM3 climate model in the framework of the IPCC AR4 intercomparison. Given the multi-model spread in IPCC projections, a validation strategy is proposed using the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis. Validation of the late twentieth century model climatology shows that warm and cold model events are slightly too long and infrequent. Although interannual trends in the warm (cold) day occurrence were positive (negative) only for six (three) of the nine considered sub-continental regions, simulated model trends are always positive (negative). This different behaviour suggests that simulated non-anthropogenic decadal variability is small relative to anthropogenic trends. Large-scale synoptic processes associated with European regional warm and cold peaks are also described and validated. Regional cold peaks are better reproduced than warm peaks, whose intensity accuracy is limited by other physical variables. Positive (negative) winter anomalies of sea and land surface temperature lead to summers with severe (weak) temperatures. These inter-annual anomalies are generated by a persistent pressure dipole over Europe. Regarding climate change, warm (cold) events will become more (less) frequent and longer (shorter). The number of warm days will largely rise and the number of cold days will dramatically decrease. The intensity of warm days will be particularly pronounced over Europe, given the projected summer drying in this region. However, according to the limited skill of the CNRM model, these results must be considered with caution.

  11. Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule 1, Intercellular Adhesion Molecule 1, and Cluster of Differentiation 146 Levels in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes with Complications

    PubMed Central

    Saribal, Devrim; Yenmis, Guven; Guvenen, Guvenc

    2017-01-01

    Background Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a multisystemic, chronic disease accompanied by microvascular complications involving various complicated mechanisms. Intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1), and cluster of differentiation-146 (CD146) are mainly expressed by endothelial cells, and facilitate the adhesion and transmigration of immune cells, leading to inflammation. In the present study, we evaluated the levels of soluble adhesion molecules in patients with microvascular complications of T2DM. Methods Serum and whole blood samples were collected from 58 T2DM patients with microvascular complications and 20 age-matched healthy subjects. Levels of soluble ICAM-1 (sICAM-1) and soluble VCAM-1 (sVCAM-1) were assessed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, while flow cytometry was used to determine CD146 levels. Results Serum sICAM-1 levels were lower in T2DM patients with microvascular complications than in healthy controls (P<0.05). No significant differences were found in sVCAM-1 and CD146 levels between the study and the control group. Although patients were subdivided into groups according to the type of microvascular complications that they experienced, cell adhesion molecule levels were not correlated with the complication type. Conclusion In the study group, most of the patients were on insulin therapy (76%), and 95% of them were receiving angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitor agents. Insulin and ACE-inhibitors have been shown to decrease soluble adhesion molecule levels via various mechanisms, so we suggest that the decreased or unchanged levels of soluble forms of cellular adhesion molecules in our study group may have resulted from insulin and ACE-inhibitor therapy, as well as tissue-localized inflammation in patients with T2DM. PMID:28345319

  12. Behavior of the Aurora During 10-12 May, 1999 When The Solar Wind Nearly Disappeared

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parks, G.; Brittnacher, M.; Chua, D.; Fillingim, M.; Germany, G.; Spann, J.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The aurora was still active with occasional pseudobreakup events when the solar wind density diminished to unusually small densities (0.2 cc -1) during May 10-12, 1999. The aurora was observed at high magnetic latitudes indicating that the electron precipitation source moved northward as the geomagnetic activity decreased. The events we have studied indicate that the solar wind density alone is not the primary parameter that controls the auroral activity. The weak auroral activity was observed with 150 nT magnetic bays and when the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) Bz was small and positive resulting in small _ parameter. A new auroral feature was observed on May 11, 1999, between 0900-2000 UT. The electron precipitation was energetic, uniform, and covered the region commonly identified as the polar cap. This precipitation lasted for more than 10 hours and was stable over time scales of tens of minutes. On May 12, as the solar wind began to recover, a prolonged period of dayside activity occurred and was followed by a typical aurora at 0500 UT.

  13. Sodium chloride in supercritical water as a function of density: potentials of mean force and an equation for the dissociation constant from 723 to 1073 K and from 0 to 0.9 g/cm(3).

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenbin; Wood, Robert H; Doren, Douglas J

    2008-06-19

    The potential of mean force (PMF) of sodium chloride in water has been calculated by using the ab initio classical free-energy perturbation method at five state points: at 973 K with densities of 0.2796, 0.0935, and 0.0101 g/cm (3) and at 723 K with densities of 0.0897 and 0.0098 g/cm (3). The method is based on a QM-MM model in which Na-H 2O, Cl-H 2O, and Na-Cl interactions are calculated by ab initio methods. The water-water interactions are from the polarizable TIP4P-FQ model. The logarithm of the dissociation constant (log K c) has been calculated from the PMF. These predictions, together with experimental measurements, were used to derive an equation for log K c at densities from 0 to 0.9 g/cm (3) and temperatures from 723 to 1073 K, as well as from 600 to 1073 K for densities from 0.29 g/cm (3) to 0.9 g/cm (3). Extrapolation of the present equation below 723 K for densities less than 0.29 g/cm (3) does not fit the experimental results. This is attributed to long-range changes in the local dielectric constant due to the high compressibility. Comparisons with previous predictions and simulations are presented.

  14. Complement activation and kidney injury molecule-1-associated proximal tubule injury in severe preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Burwick, Richard M; Easter, Sarah Rae; Dawood, Hassan Y; Yamamoto, Hidemi S; Fichorova, Raina N; Feinberg, Bruce B

    2014-10-01

    Kidney injury with proteinuria is a characteristic feature of preeclampsia, yet the nature of injury in specific regions of the nephron is incompletely understood. Our study aimed to use existing urinary biomarkers to describe the pattern of kidney injury and proteinuria in pregnancies affected by severe preeclampsia. We performed a case-control study of pregnant women from Brigham and Women's Hospital from 2012 to 2013. We matched cases of severe preeclampsia (n=25) 1:1 by parity and gestational age to 2 control groups with and without chronic hypertension. Urinary levels of kidney injury molecule-1 and complement components (C3a, C5a, and C5b-9) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and other markers (albumin, β2 microglobulin, cystatin C, epithelial growth factor, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, osteopontin, and uromodulin) were measured simultaneously with a multiplex electrochemiluminescence assay. Median values between groups were compared with the Wilcoxon signed-rank test and correlations with Spearman correlation coefficient. Analysis of urinary markers revealed higher excretion of albumin and kidney injury molecule-1 and lower excretion of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin and epithelial growth factor in severe preeclampsia compared with chronic hypertension and healthy controls. Among subjects with severe preeclampsia, urinary excretion of complement activation products correlated most closely with kidney injury molecule-1, a specific marker of proximal tubule injury (C5a: r=0.60; P=0.001; and C5b-9: r=0.75; P<0.0001). Taken together, we describe a pattern of kidney injury in severe preeclampsia that is characterized by glomerular impairment and complement-mediated inflammation and injury, possibly localized to the proximal tubule in association with kidney injury molecule-1.

  15. Targeting sites of inflammation: intercellular adhesion molecule-1 as a target for novel inflammatory therapies

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Targeted drug delivery to sites of inflammation will provide effective, precise, and safe therapeutic interventions for treatment of diverse disease conditions, by limiting toxic side effects and/or increasing drug action. Disease-site targeting is believed to play a major role in the enhanced efficacy observed for a variety of drugs when formulated inside lipid vesicles. This article will focus on the factors and mechanisms involved in drug targeting to sites of inflammation and the importance of cell adhesion molecules, in particular intercellular adhesion molecule-1, in this process. PMID:24109453

  16. Strand V: Education for Survival. First Aid and Survival Education. Health Curriculum Materials Grades 10-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Secondary Curriculum Development.

    GRADES OR AGES: Grades 10-12. SUBJECT MATTER: First aid and survival education. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The guide is divided into six sections: transportation of the injured, automobile accidents, conditions resulting from nuclear explosion, chemical warfare, natural catastrophes, and psychological first aid. The publication format…

  17. Dynamics of Clothing II. Curriculum Guide. A Family and Consumer Sciences Education Course of Study for Grades 10-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunger, Dean-Ellen, Ed.; Hancey, Helen-Louise; Hendrickson, Diane; Hicks, Camille; Munns, Barbara; Price, Barbara

    This document is a nine-unit curriculum guide for a high school (grades 10-12) course in clothing instruction. The units contain one or two lessons on the following topics: (1) psychological aspects of clothing (behavior, image, and dress; self-concept and self-image); (2) wardrobe selections (wardrobe consumerism, wardrobe evaluation and…

  18. Laboratory-Scale Column Testing Using IONSIV IE-911 for Removing Cesium from Acidic Tank Waste Simulant. 2: Determination of Cesium Exchange Capacity and Effective Mass Transfer Coefficient from a 500-cm3 Column Experiement

    SciTech Connect

    T.J. Tranter; R.D. Tillotson; T.A. Todd

    2005-04-01

    A semi-scale column test was performed using a commercial form of crystalline silicotitanate (CST) for removing radio-cesium from a surrogate acidic tank solution, which represents liquid waste stored at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The engineered form of CST ion exchanger, known as IONSIVtmIE-911 (UOP, Mt. Laurel,NJ, USA), was tested in a 500-cm3 column to obtain a cesium breakthrough curve. The cesium exchange capacity of this column matched that obtained from previous testing with a 15-mc3 column. A numerical algorithm using implicit finite difference approximations was developed to solve the governing mass transport equations for the CST columns. An effective mass transfer coefficient was derived from solving these equations for previously reported 15 cm3 tests. The effective mass transfer coefficient was then used to predict the cesium breakthrough curve for the 500-cm3 column and compared to the experimental data reported in this paper. The calculated breakthrough curve showed excellent agreement with the data from the 500-cm3 column even though the interstitial velocity was a factor of two greater. Thus, this approach should provide a reasonable method for scale up to larger columns for treating actual tank waste.

  19. Adsorption of 2,4,6,8,10,12-hexanitro-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexaazaisowurtzitane (CL-20) on a soil organic matter. A DFT M05 computational study.

    PubMed

    Sviatenko, Liudmyla K; Gorb, Leonid; Shukla, Manoj K; Seiter, Jennifer M; Leszczynska, Danuta; Leszczynski, Jerzy

    2016-04-01

    Adsorption of 2,4,6,8,10,12-hexanitro-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexaazaisowurtzitane (CL-20) by soil organic matter considering the Leonardite Humic Acid (LHA) model at the M05/tzvp level of Density Functional Theory (DFT) applying cluster approximation has been investigated. Different orientations of CL-20 toward LHA surface were examined. It was found that deprotonation of LHA is required to obtain stable complexes with CL-20. Hydrogen bonds between CL-20 and deprotonated LHA were analyzed applying the atoms in molecules (AIM) theory. An attachment or removal of an electron with respect to the complex does not have significant effect on mutual orientation of the adsorbent in complexes. It was shown that adsorbed CL-20 does not undergo redox transformation and, therefore, adsorption on soil organic matter may be responsible for decrease of the degradation rate of CL-20 in soil.

  20. Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites cross retinal endothelium assisted by intercellular adhesion molecule-1 in vitro.

    PubMed

    Furtado, João M; Bharadwaj, Arpita S; Chipps, Timothy J; Pan, Yuzhen; Ashander, Liam M; Smith, Justine R

    2012-10-01

    Retinal infection is the most common clinical manifestation of toxoplasmosis. The route by which circulating Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites cross the vascular endothelium to enter the human retina is unknown. Convincing studies using murine encephalitis models have strongly implicated leukocyte taxis as one pathway used by the parasite to access target organs. To establish whether tachyzoites might also interact directly with vascular endothelium, we populated a transwell system with human ocular endothelial cells. Human retinal endothelial monolayers permitted transmigration of tachyzoites of RH and three natural isolate strains. Antibody blockade of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 significantly reduced this migration, but did not impact tachyzoite movement across an endothelial monolayer derived from the choroid, which lies adjacent to the retina within the eye. In demonstrating that tachyzoites are capable of independent migration across human vascular endothelium in vitro, this study carries implications for the development of therapeutics aimed at preventing access of T. gondii to the retina.

  1. Critical roles of co-activation receptor DNAX accessory molecule-1 in natural killer cell immunity

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Peng; Sang, Hai-Wei; Zhu, Min

    2015-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells, which can exert early and powerful anti-tumour and anti-viral responses, are important components of the innate immune system. DNAX accessory molecule-1 (DNAM-1) is an activating receptor molecule expressed on the surface of NK cells. Recent findings suggest that DNAM-1 is a critical regulator of NK cell biology. DNAM-1 is involved in NK cell education and differentiation, and also plays a pivotal role in the development of cancer, viral infections and immune-related diseases. However, tumours and viruses have developed multiple mechanisms to evade the immune system. They are able to impair DNAM-1 activity by targeting the DNAM-1 receptor–ligand system. We have reviewed the roles of DNAM-1, and its biological functions, with respect to NK cell biology and DNAM-1 chimeric antigen receptor-based immunotherapy. PMID:26235210

  2. MORPHEUS' MOLECULE1 is required to prevent aberrant RNA transcriptional read-through in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yue; Zhang, Jun; Lin, Huixin; Guo, Guangqin; Guo, Yan

    2010-11-01

    Several pathways function to remove aberrant mRNA in eukaryotic cells; however, the exact mechanisms underlying the restriction of aberrant mRNA transcription are poorly understood. In this study, we found that MORPHEUS' MOLECULE1 (MOM1) is a key component of this regulatory machinery. The Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mom1-44 mutation was identified by luciferase imaging in transgenic plants harboring a cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter-LUCIFERASE transgene lacking the 3'-untranslated region. In the mom1-44 mutant, transcriptional read-though occurred in genes with an aberrant RNA structure. Analysis of an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase2 mom1 double mutant revealed that the RNA-directed DNA methylation pathway is not involved in this regulatory process. Moreover, the prevention of aberrant mRNA transcriptional read-through by MOM1 is gene locus and transgene copy number independent.

  3. Comparative evaluation of hand wrist radiographs with cervical vertebrae for skeletal maturation in 10-12 years old children.

    PubMed

    Kamal, M; Goyal, S

    2006-09-01

    A comparative evaluation of hand wrist and cervical vertebrae was done to know the validity of cervical vertebrae as maturity indicators. A sample of 50 subjects (25 females and 25 males) in the age group of 10-12 years were selected on criteria of normal occlusion and the result showed that cervical vertebrae can be used with the same confidence as hand wrist radiographs to evaluate skeletal maturity, thus avoiding the need for an additional radiograph.

  4. Role of Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 in Radiation-Induced Brain Injury

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, K.-L.; Tu Ba; Li Yuqing; Wong, C. Shun

    2010-01-15

    Purpose: To determine the role of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in the pathogenesis of brain injury after irradiation (IR). Methods and Materials: We assessed the expression of ICAM-1 in mouse brain after cranial IR and determined the histopathologic and behavioral changes in mice that were either wildtype (+/+) or knockout (-/-) of the ICAM-1 gene after IR. Results: There was an early dose-dependent increase in ICAM-1 mRNA and protein expression after IR. Increased ICAM-1 immunoreactivity was observed in endothelia and glia of ICAM-1+/+ mice up to 8 months after IR. ICAM-1-/- mice showed no expression. ICAM-1+/+ and ICAM-1-/- mice showed similar vascular abnormalities at 2 months after 10-17 Gy, and there was evidence for demyelination and inhibition of hippocampal neurogenesis at 8 months after 10 Gy. After 10 Gy, irradiated ICAM-1+/+ and ICAM-1-/- mice showed similar behavioral changes at 2-6 months in open field, light-dark chamber, and T-maze compared with age-matched genotype controls. Conclusion: There is early and late upregulation of ICAM-1 in the vasculature and glia of mouse brain after IR. ICAM-1, however, does not have a causative role in the histopathologic injury and behavioral dysfunction after moderate single doses of cranial IR.

  5. Kidney injury molecule-1 is an early biomarker of cadmium nephrotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Prozialeck, WC; Vaidya, VS; Liu, J; Waalkes, MP; Edwards, JR; Lamar, PC; Bernard, AM; Dumont, X; Bonventre, JV

    2009-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) exposure results in injury to the proximal tubule characterized by polyuria and proteinuria. Kidney injury molecule-1 (Kim-1) is a transmembrane glycoprotein not normally detected in the mature kidney, but is upregulated and shed into the urine following nephrotoxic injury. In this study, we determine if Kim-1 might be a useful early biomarker of Cd nephrotoxicity. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were given daily injections of Cd for up to 12 weeks. Weekly urine samples were analyzed for Kim-1, protein, creatinine, metallothionein, and Clara cell protein CC-16. Significant levels of Kim-1 were detected in the urine by 6 weeks and continued to increase throughout the treatment period. This appearance of Kim-1 occurred 4-5 weeks before the onset of proteinuria, and 1-3 weeks before the appearance of metallothionein and CC-16. Higher doses of Cd gave rise to higher Kim-1 excretion. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) expression analysis showed that Kim-1 transcript levels were increased after 6 weeks at the low dose of Cd. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that Kim-1 was present in proximal tubule cells of the Cd-treated rats. Our results suggest that Kim-1 may be a useful biomarker of early stages of Cd-induced proximal tubule injury. PMID:17687258

  6. Reduced Hepatic Carcinoembryonic Antigen-Related Cell Adhesion Molecule 1 Level in Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Heinrich, Garrett; Muturi, Harrison T.; Rezaei, Khadijeh; Al-Share, Qusai Y.; DeAngelis, Anthony M.; Bowman, Thomas A.; Ghadieh, Hilda E.; Ghanem, Simona S.; Zhang, Deqiang; Garofalo, Robert S.; Yin, Lei; Najjar, Sonia M.

    2017-01-01

    Impairment of insulin clearance is being increasingly recognized as a critical step in the development of insulin resistance and metabolic disease. The carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1) promotes insulin clearance. Null deletion or liver-specific inactivation of Ceacam1 in mice causes a defect in insulin clearance, insulin resistance, steatohepatitis, and visceral obesity. Immunohistological analysis revealed reduction of hepatic CEACAM1 in obese subjects with fatty liver disease. Thus, we aimed to determine whether this occurs at the hepatocyte level in response to systemic extrahepatic factors and whether this holds across species. Northern and Western blot analyses demonstrate that CEACAM1 mRNA and protein levels are reduced in liver tissues of obese individuals compared to their lean age-matched counterparts. Furthermore, Western analysis reveals a comparable reduction of CEACAM1 protein in primary hepatocytes derived from the same obese subjects. Similar to humans, Ceacam1 mRNA level, assessed by quantitative RT-PCR analysis, is significantly reduced in the livers of obese Zucker (fa/fa, ZDF) and Koletsky (f/f) rats relative to their age-matched lean counterparts. These studies demonstrate that the reduction of hepatic CEACAM1 in obesity occurs at the level of hepatocytes and identify the reduction of hepatic CEACAM1 as a common denominator of obesity across multiple species.

  7. Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 Expression by Skeletal Muscle Cells Augments Myogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Goh, Qingnian; Dearth, Christopher L.; Corbett, Jacob T.; Pierre, Philippe; Chadee, Deborah N.; Pizza, Francis X.

    2014-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) by skeletal muscle cells after muscle overload contributes to ensuing regenerative and hypertrophic processes in skeletal muscle. The objective of the present study is to reveal mechanisms through which skeletal muscle cell expression of ICAM-1 augments regenerative and hypertrophic processes of myogenesis. This was accomplished by genetically engineering C2C12 myoblasts to stably express ICAM-1, and by inhibiting the adhesive and signaling functions of ICAM-1 through the use of a neutralizing antibody or cell penetrating peptide, respectively. Expression of ICAM-1 by cultured skeletal muscle cells augmented myoblast-myoblast adhesion, myotube formation, myonuclear number, myotube alignment, myotube-myotube fusion, and myotube size without influencing the ability of myoblasts to proliferate or differentiate. ICAM-1 augmented myotube formation, myonuclear accretion, and myotube alignment through a mechanism involving adhesion-induced activation of ICAM-1 signaling, as these dependent measures were reduced via antibody and peptide inhibition of ICAM-1. The adhesive and signaling functions of ICAM-1 also facilitated myotube hypertrophy through a mechanism involving myotube-myotube fusion, protein synthesis, and Akt/p70s6k signaling. Our findings demonstrate that ICAM-1 expression by skeletal muscle cells augments myogenesis, and establish a novel mechanism through which the inflammatory response facilitates growth processes in skeletal muscle. PMID:25281303

  8. Polymorphisms in the intercellular adhesion molecule 1 gene and cancer risk: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Weifeng; Wang, Yafeng; Chen, Yuanmei; Gu, Haiyong; Chen, Shuchen; Kang, Mingqiang

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The correlation between intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) common polymorphisms (rs5498 A>G and rs3093030 C>T) and cancer susceptibility has been explored in various ethnic groups and different cancer types; however, these investigations have yielded contradictory results. To address the relationship more precisely, we performed this meta-analysis. Design and methods: EmBase, PubMed and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) databases were searched by two authors independently for eligible publications before April 8, 2015. Random-effects or fixed-effects model was harnessed to calculate the pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) when appropriate. Results: The result suggested that the ICAM-1 rs5498 A>G polymorphism is not associated with cancer susceptibility in overall cancer. In a stratified analysis by ethnicity, a significant increased cancer risk was identified among Asians, but the inverse association was found among Caucasians. In a stratified analysis by cancer type, ICAM-1 rs5498 A>G polymorphism was associated with a significantly increased risk of oral cancer, but with protection from colorectal cancer and melanoma. ICAM-1 rs3093030 C>T polymorphism is not correlated with cancer susceptibility. Conclusions: In summary, this meta-analysis highlights that the ICAM-1 rs5498 A>G polymorphism probably contributes to decreased susceptibility to cancer, especially in Caucasians, in melanoma and colorectal cancer subgroup, but it may be a risk factor for oral cancer and Asians. PMID:26550112

  9. Kidney Injury Molecule-1 and Cardiovascular Diseases: From Basic Science to Clinical Practice

    PubMed Central

    Medić, Branislava; Rovčanin, Branislav; Basta Jovanović, Gordana; Radojević-Škodrić, Sanja; Prostran, Milica

    2015-01-01

    Despite the recent findings concerning pathogenesis and novel therapeutic strategies, cardiovascular disease (CVD) still stays the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with renal dysfunction, especially acute kidney injury (AKI). Early detection of patients with impaired renal function with cardiovascular risk may help ensure more aggressive treatment and improve clinical outcome. Kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) is a new, promising marker of kidney damage which is currently the focus of countless studies worldwide. Some recent animal and human studies established KIM-1 as an important marker of acute tubular necrosis (ATN) and reliable predictor of development and prognosis of AKI. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in USA acclaimed KIM-1 as an AKI biomarker for preclinical drug development. Recent data suggest the importance of monitoring of KIM-1 for early diagnosis and clinical course not only in patients with various forms of AKI and other renal diseases but also in patients with cardiorenal syndrome, heart failure, cardiopulmonary bypass, cardiothoracic surgical interventions in the pediatric emergency setting, and so forth. The aim of this review article is to summarize the literature data concerning KIM-1 as a potential novel marker in the early diagnosis and prediction of clinical outcome of certain cardiovascular diseases. PMID:26697493

  10. Kidney injury molecule-1: more than just an injury marker of tubular epithelial cells?

    PubMed

    Lim, Ai Ing; Tang, Sydney C W; Lai, Kar Neng; Leung, Joseph C K

    2013-05-01

    Regardless of the original causes and etiology, the progression to renal function declines follows a final common pathway associated with tubulointerstitial injury, in which the proximal tubular epithelial cells (PTEC) are instrumental. Kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) is an emerging biomarker, and its expression and release are induced in PTEC upon injury. KIM-1 plays the role as a double-edged sword and implicates in the process of kidney injury and healing. Expression of KIM-1 is also associated with tubulointerstitial inflammation and fibrosis. More importantly, KIM-1 expressing PTEC play the role as the residential phagocytes, contribute to the removal of apoptotic cells and facilitate the regeneration of injured tubules. The precise mechanism of KIM-1 and its sheded ectodomain on restoration of tubular integrity after injury is not fully understood. Other than PTEC, macrophages (Mø) also implicate in tubular repair. Understanding the crosstalk between Mø and the injured PTEC is essential for designing appropriate methods for controlling the sophisticated machinery in tubular regeneration and healing. This article will review the current findings of KIM-1, beginning with its basic structure, utility as a biomarker, and possible functions, with focus on the role of KIM-1 in regeneration and healing of injured PTEC.

  11. Effect of Cell Adhesion Molecule 1 Expression on Intracellular Granule Movement in Pancreatic α Cells.

    PubMed

    Yokawa, Satoru; Furuno, Tadahide; Suzuki, Takahiro; Inoh, Yoshikazu; Suzuki, Ryo; Hirashima, Naohide

    2016-09-01

    Although glucagon secreted from pancreatic α cells plays a role in increasing glucose concentrations in serum, the mechanism regulating glucagon secretion from α cells remains unclear. Cell adhesion molecule 1 (CADM1), identified as an adhesion molecule in α cells, has been reported not only to communicate among α cells and between nerve fibers, but also to prevent excessive glucagon secretion from α cells. Here, we investigated the effect of CADM1 expression on the movement of intracellular secretory granules in α cells because the granule transport is an important step in secretion. Spinning disk microscopic analysis showed that granules moved at a mean velocity of 0.236 ± 0.010 μm/s in the mouse α cell line αTC6 that expressed CADM1 endogenously. The mean velocity was significantly decreased in CADM1-knockdown (KD) cells (mean velocity: 0.190 ± 0.016 μm/s). The velocity of granule movement decreased greatly in αTC6 cells treated with the microtubule-depolymerizing reagent nocodazole, but not in αTC6 cells treated with the actin-depolymerizing reagent cytochalasin D. No difference in the mean velocity was observed between αTC6 and CADM1-KD cells treated with nocodazole. These results suggest that intracellular granules in pancreatic α cells move along the microtubule network, and that CADM1 influences their velocity.

  12. The Prion Protein Controls Polysialylation of Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule 1 during Cellular Morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Mehrabian, Mohadeseh; Brethour, Dylan; Wang, Hansen; Xi, Zhengrui; Rogaeva, Ekaterina; Schmitt-Ulms, Gerold

    2015-01-01

    Despite its multi-faceted role in neurodegenerative diseases, the physiological function of the prion protein (PrP) has remained elusive. On the basis of its evolutionary relationship to ZIP metal ion transporters, we considered that PrP may contribute to the morphogenetic reprogramming of cells underlying epithelial-to-mesenchymal transitions (EMT). Consistent with this hypothesis, PrP transcription increased more than tenfold during EMT, and stable PrP-deficient cells failed to complete EMT in a mammalian cell model. A global comparative proteomics analysis identified the neural cell adhesion molecule 1 (NCAM1) as a candidate mediator of this impairment, which led to the observation that PrP-deficient cells fail to undergo NCAM1 polysialylation during EMT. Surprisingly, this defect was caused by a perturbed transcription of the polysialyltransferase ST8SIA2 gene. Proteomics data pointed toward β-catenin as a transcriptional regulator affected in PrP-deficient cells. Indeed, pharmacological blockade or siRNA-based knockdown of β-catenin mimicked PrP-deficiency in regards to NCAM1 polysialylation. Our data established the existence of a PrP-ST8SIA2-NCAM signaling loop, merged two mature fields of investigation and offer a simple model for explaining phenotypes linked to PrP. PMID:26288071

  13. Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule 1: testing for a role in insect immunity, behaviour and reproduction.

    PubMed

    Peuß, Robert; Wensing, Kristina U; Woestmann, Luisa; Eggert, Hendrik; Milutinović, Barbara; Sroka, Marlene G U; Scharsack, Jörn P; Kurtz, Joachim; Armitage, Sophie A O

    2016-04-01

    Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule 1 (Dscam1) has wide-reaching and vital neuronal functions although the role it plays in insect and crustacean immunity is less well understood. In this study, we combine different approaches to understand the roles that Dscam1 plays in fitness-related contexts in two model insect species. Contrary to our expectations, we found no short-term modulation of Dscam1 gene expression after haemocoelic or oral bacterial exposure in Tribolium castaneum, or after haemocoelic bacterial exposure in Drosophila melanogaster. Furthermore, RNAi-mediated Dscam1 knockdown and subsequent bacterial exposure did not reduce T. castaneum survival. However, Dscam1 knockdown in larvae resulted in adult locomotion defects, as well as dramatically reduced fecundity in males and females. We suggest that Dscam1 does not always play a straightforward role in immunity, but strongly influences behaviour and fecundity. This study takes a step towards understanding more about the role of this intriguing gene from different phenotypic perspectives.

  14. Integrin engagement mediates tyrosine dephosphorylation on platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1.

    PubMed Central

    Lu, T T; Yan, L G; Madri, J A

    1996-01-01

    Platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1 (PECAM-1, CD31) is a 130-kDa member of the immunoglobulin gene superfamily expressed on endothelial cells, platelets, neutrophils, and monocytes and plays a role during endothelial cell migration. Phosphoamino acid analysis and Western blot analysis with anti-phosphotyrosine antibody show that endothelial PECAM-1 is tyrosine-phosphorylated. Phosphorylation is decreased with endothelial cell migration on fibronectin and collagen and with cell spreading on fibronectin but not on plastic. Cell adhesion on anti-integrin antibodies is also able to specifically induce PECAM-1 dephosphorylation while concurrently inducing pp125 focal adhesion kinase phosphorylation. Inhibition of dephosphorylation with sodium orthovanadate suggests that this effect is at least partially mediated by phosphatase activity. Tyr-663 and Tyr-686 are identified as potential phosphorylation sites and mutated to phenylalanine. When expressed, both mutants show reduced PECAM-1 phosphorylation but Phe-686 mutants also show significant reversal of PECAM-1-mediated inhibition of cell migration and do not localize PECAM-1 to cell borders. Our results suggest that beta 1-integrin engagement can signal to dephosphorylate PECAM-1 and that this signaling pathway may play a role during endothelial cell migration. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:8876219

  15. Lack of Platelet Endothelial Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 Attenuates Foreign Body Inflammation because of Decreased Angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Solowiej, Anna; Biswas, Purba; Graesser, Donnasue; Madri, Joseph A.

    2003-01-01

    Platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1, CD31) is a 130-kd member of the immunoglobulin superfamily of proteins, expressed on endothelial cells, leukocytes, and platelets. Antibody-blocking studies have implicated it in modulating leukocyte transmigration and angiogenesis. However, the generation of the PECAM-1 knockout mouse has shown that its function can be compensated for by similarly acting proteins because most acute inflammatory models proceed in a comparable manner in wild-type and knockout animals. We decided to examine the function of PECAM-1 in the chronic process of foreign body inflammation. We show that PECAM-1-deficient mice exhibit attenuated neutrophil infiltration in and around a subcutaneous polyvinyl acetyl implant. Bone marrow engraftment studies indicate that the lack of CD31 expression on the endothelium determines the diminished leukocyte accumulation in the knockout implants. Specifically, we find that decreased angiogenesis (as manifested by lower vessel density, decreased hemoglobin content, and less laminin deposition) correlates with lower neutrophil accumulation in the knockout animals. This study indicates that the absence of endothelial PECAM-1 results in decreased angiogenesis and therefore in diminished delivery of leukocytes to the foreign body implants. PMID:12598328

  16. Control of islet intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression by interferon-alpha and hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarti, D; Huang, X; Beck, J; Henrich, J; McFarland, N; James, R F; Stewart, T A

    1996-10-01

    The ability of interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) to induce the adhesion molecules that characterize the islets of patients with type I diabetes has been investigated. We have found that all tested recombinant IFN-as will induce major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I on arterial endothelial cells. Some but not all IFN-as will induce intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). However, there is only a transient and modest increase in VCAM on arterial endothelial cells. IFN-alpha has very little effect on endothelial MHC class II expression but will induce these proteins on monocytes. Thus, there is a close concordance between the biological actions of IFN-alpha and the appearance of those adhesion molecules induced in the islets of patients with type I diabetes. IFN-alpha is also produced in normal human islets during short-term cultures, probably as a result of the ischemia present at the center of the islet. This induction of IFN-alpha by hypoxia may explain the previously reported spontaneous induction of ICAM-1 in human islets and may also be a contributing factor to the failure of islet grafts.

  17. The Prion Protein Controls Polysialylation of Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule 1 during Cellular Morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Mehrabian, Mohadeseh; Brethour, Dylan; Wang, Hansen; Xi, Zhengrui; Rogaeva, Ekaterina; Schmitt-Ulms, Gerold

    2015-01-01

    Despite its multi-faceted role in neurodegenerative diseases, the physiological function of the prion protein (PrP) has remained elusive. On the basis of its evolutionary relationship to ZIP metal ion transporters, we considered that PrP may contribute to the morphogenetic reprogramming of cells underlying epithelial-to-mesenchymal transitions (EMT). Consistent with this hypothesis, PrP transcription increased more than tenfold during EMT, and stable PrP-deficient cells failed to complete EMT in a mammalian cell model. A global comparative proteomics analysis identified the neural cell adhesion molecule 1 (NCAM1) as a candidate mediator of this impairment, which led to the observation that PrP-deficient cells fail to undergo NCAM1 polysialylation during EMT. Surprisingly, this defect was caused by a perturbed transcription of the polysialyltransferase ST8SIA2 gene. Proteomics data pointed toward β-catenin as a transcriptional regulator affected in PrP-deficient cells. Indeed, pharmacological blockade or siRNA-based knockdown of β-catenin mimicked PrP-deficiency in regards to NCAM1 polysialylation. Our data established the existence of a PrP-ST8SIA2-NCAM signaling loop, merged two mature fields of investigation and offer a simple model for explaining phenotypes linked to PrP.

  18. Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule 1: testing for a role in insect immunity, behaviour and reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Wensing, Kristina U.; Eggert, Hendrik; Scharsack, Jörn P.

    2016-01-01

    Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule 1 (Dscam1) has wide-reaching and vital neuronal functions although the role it plays in insect and crustacean immunity is less well understood. In this study, we combine different approaches to understand the roles that Dscam1 plays in fitness-related contexts in two model insect species. Contrary to our expectations, we found no short-term modulation of Dscam1 gene expression after haemocoelic or oral bacterial exposure in Tribolium castaneum, or after haemocoelic bacterial exposure in Drosophila melanogaster. Furthermore, RNAi-mediated Dscam1 knockdown and subsequent bacterial exposure did not reduce T. castaneum survival. However, Dscam1 knockdown in larvae resulted in adult locomotion defects, as well as dramatically reduced fecundity in males and females. We suggest that Dscam1 does not always play a straightforward role in immunity, but strongly influences behaviour and fecundity. This study takes a step towards understanding more about the role of this intriguing gene from different phenotypic perspectives. PMID:27152227

  19. Stromal interaction molecule 1 regulates growth, cell cycle, and apoptosis of human tongue squamous carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Cui, Xiaobo; Song, Laixiao; Bai, Yunfei; Wang, Yaping; Wang, Boqian; Wang, Wei

    2017-04-30

    Oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (OTSCC) is the most common type of oral carcinomas. However, the molecular mechanism by which OTSCC developed is not fully identified. Stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1) is a transmembrane protein, mainly located in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). STIM1 is involved in several types of cancers. Here, we report that STIM1 contributes to the development of human OTSCC. We knocked down STIM1 in OTSCC cell line Tca-8113 with lentivirus-mediated shRNA and found that STIM1 knockdown repressed the proliferation of Tca-8113 cells. In addition, we also showed that STIM1 deficiency reduced colony number of Tca-8113 cells. Knockdown of STIM1 repressed cells to enter M phase of cell cycle and induced cellular apoptosis. Furthermore, we performed microarray and bioinformatics analysis and found that STIM1 was associated with p53 and MAPK pathways, which may contribute to the effects of STIM1 on cell growth, cell cycle, and apoptosis. Finally, we confirmed that STIM1 controlled the expression of MDM2, cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4), and growth arrest and DNA damage inducible α (GADD45A) in OTSCC cells. In conclusion, we provide evidence that STIM1 contributes to the development of OTSCC partially through regulating p53 and MAPK pathways to promote cell cycle and survival.

  20. Epigenetic silencing of endogenous repetitive sequences by MORPHEUS' MOLECULE1 in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Habu, Yoshiki

    2010-10-01

    Morpheus' molecule1 (MOM1) is a plant-specific epigenetic regulator of transcriptional gene silencing. Mutants of MOM1 release silencing of subsets of endogenous repetitive elements and transgenes without affecting their cytosine methylation status. Although MOM1 is evolutionarily related to chromodomain helicase DNA binding protein3 (CHD3), a family of chromatin remodeling proteins involved in repression of gene expression, MOM1 does not carry the functional ATPase/helicase domain essential for chromatin remodeling activity, and therefore, its mode of action is unknown. We recently performed a genome-wide survey for endogenous targets silenced by MOM1 and identified loci that are concentrated around centromeres and rich in sequences homologous to the 24-nt small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) that accumulate in wild type plants. Further and independent analyses indicated that the degree of contribution of MOM1 to maintenance of the silent states varies in different loci and that other silencing machineries, including those in the RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) pathway, interact genetically with MOM1. In this short article, I review what we know about MOM1 and discuss its possible functions in silencing through examination of other silencing factors that interact genetically with MOM1.

  1. Solubility of chlorargyrite (AgCl(cr./l.)) in water: New experimental data and a predictive model valid for a wide range of temperatures (273-873 K) and water densities (0.01-1 g·cm-3)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akinfiev, Nikolay N.; Zotov, Alexander V.

    2016-04-01

    The solubility of chlorargyrite, AgCl(cr./l.), in pure water at 623, 673 and 753 (±2) K as a function of pressure in a wide range aqueous densities (0.01-0.7 g·cm-3) was determined using various experimental approaches. Combined theoretical quantum chemistry simulations of Ag speciation and structure with a recently developed equation of state (EoS) for aqueous neutral species (Akinfiev and Diamond, 2003) were applied to describe published and newly made AgCl(cr./l.) solubility measurements in water. The use of the employed EoS for AgCl(H2O)(aq) cluster is found out to provide a good description of the whole set of experimental measurements in a wide range of temperatures (273-753 K), water densities (0.01-0.7 g·cm-3), and pressures of 0.1-100 MPa. Also, the proposed AgCl(H2O)(aq) thermodynamic description is proved to be valid for a dense aqueous fluid (0.7-1 g·cm-3) at 273-623 K and saturation water pressure. Although silver obviously shows greater affinity to dense aqueous fluid, AgCl hydration in the vapour phase is demonstrated to be also significant. A model extrapolation to magmatic conditions predicts an appreciable silver content even in low density fluids, thus supporting the hypothesis of metal transport with vapour.

  2. Prevalence of Malocclusion among 10-12-year-old Schoolchildren in Kozhikode District, Kerala: An Epidemiological Study

    PubMed Central

    Jeseem, MT; Kumar, TV Anupam

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: A malocclusion is an irregularity of the teeth or a malrelationship of the dental arches beyond the range of what is accepted as normal. Objectives: To determine the prevalence of malocclusion in children aged 10-12 years in Kozhikode district of Kerala, South India. Materials and methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among schoolchildren aged 10-12 years in six schools in Kozhikode district of Kerala, South India. A total of 2,366 children satisfied the inclusion criteria. Occlusal characteristics like crossbite, open bite, deep bite, protrusion of teeth, midline deviations, midline diastema and tooth rotation were recorded. The data were tabulated and analyzed using Chi-square test. Results: The results revealed that the overall prevalence of malocclusion was 83.3%. Of this, 69.8% of the children had Angle’s class I malocclusion, 9.3% had class II malocclusion (division 1 = 8.85%, division 2 = 0.5%) and 4.1% had class III malocclusion; 23.2% showed an increased overjet (>3 mm), 0.4% reverse overjet, 35.6% increased overbite (>3 mm), 0.29% open bite, 7.2% crossbite with 4.6% crossbite of complete anterior teeth, 63.3% deviation of midline, 0.76% midline diastema and 3.25% rotated tooth. No significant differences in gender distributions of malocclusions were noted except for increased overjet and overbite. Conclusion: There is high prevalence of malocclusion among schoolchildren in Kozhikode district of Kerala. Early interception and early correction of these malocclusions will eliminate the potential irregularities and malpositions in the developing dentofacial complex. How to cite this article: Narayanan RK, Jeseem MT, Kumar TVA. Prevalence of Malocclusion among 10-12-year-old Schoolchildren in Kozhikode District, Kerala: An Epidemiological Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(1):50-55. PMID:27274156

  3. Involvement of oxidative stress and mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule-1 (MAdCAM-1) in inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Tanida, Satoshi; Mizoshita, Tsutomu; Mizushima, Takashi; Sasaki, Makoto; Shimura, Takaya; Kamiya, Takeshi; Kataoka, Hiromi; Joh, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    The pathophysiology of inflammatory bowel disease involves excessive immune effects of inflammatory cells against gut microbes. In genetically predisposed individuals, these effects are considered to contribute to the initiation and perpetuation of mucosal injury. Oxidative stress is a fundamental tissue-destructive mechanisms that can occur due to the reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen metabolites which are released in abundance from numerous inflammatory cells that have extravasated from lymphatics and blood vessels to the lamina propria. This extravasation is mediated by interactions between adhesion molecules including mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 on the surface of lymphocytes or neutrophils and their ligands on endothelial cells. Thus, reactive oxygen species and adhesion molecules play an important role in the development of inflammatory bowel disease. The present review focuses on the involvement of oxidative stress and adhesion molecules, in particular mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule-1, in inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:21373262

  4. Differential up-regulation of circulating soluble and endothelial cell intercellular adhesion molecule-1 in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Komatsu, S.; Flores, S.; Gerritsen, M. E.; Anderson, D. C.; Granger, D. N.

    1997-01-01

    Although circulating levels of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) are frequently used as an indicator of the severity of different immune, inflammatory, or neoplastic diseases, little is known about the factors that govern plasma sICAM-1 concentration and its relationship to the membranous form of ICAM-1 (mICAM-1) expressed on vascular endothelial cells. Plasma sICAM-1 concentration (measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) and mICAM-1 expression (measured using the dual radiolabeled monoclonal antibody technique) in different vascular beds (eg, lung, small intestine, and spleen) were monitored in wild-type (C57BL) and ICAM-1-deficient mice, before and after administration of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha. In wild-type mice, TNF-alpha elicited time-dependent increases in lung and intestine mICAM-1 (plateau achieved at 12 hours), with a corresponding increase in plasma sICAM-1 (peaked at 5 hours and then declined). The initial increases in mICAM-1 and pulmonary leukocyte sequestration (measured as lung myeloperoxidase activity) induced by TNF-alpha preceded any detectable elevation in sICAM-1. In ICAM-1-deficient mice, plasma sICAM-1 was reduced by approximately 70%, with > 95% reductions of mICAM-1 in lung and intestine, and > 75% reduction in splenic accumulation of anti-ICAM-1 antibody. Although TNF-alpha doubled plasma sICAM-1 in ICAM-1-deficient mice, mICAM-1 was unaffected in all tissues. Either splenectomy or pretreatment with cycloheximide resulted in an attenuated TNF-induced increase in sICAM-1, without affecting mICAM-1 expression. These findings indicate that plasma sICAM-1 concentration does not accurately reflect the level of ICAM-1 expression on endothelial cells in different vascular beds. PMID:9212746

  5. Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 (ICAM-1) Polymorphisms and Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    CHENG, Daye; LIANG, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) Lys469Glu (K469E) polymorphism and Gly 241Arg (G241R) polymorphism might play important roles in cancer development and progression. However, the results of previous studies are inconsistent. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between ICAM-1 K469E and G241R polymorphisms and the risk of cancer by meta-analysis. Methods: A comprehensive literature search (last search updated in November 2013) was conducted to identify case-control studies that investigated the association between ICAM-1 K469E and G241R polymorphisms and cancer risk. Results: A total of 18 case-control studies for ICAM-1 polymorphisms were included in the meta-analysis, including 4,844 cancer cases and 5,618 healthy controls. For K469E polymorphism, no significant association was found between K469E polymorphism and cancer risk. However, subgroup analysis by ethnicity revealed one genetic comparison (GG vs. AA) presented the relationship with cancer risk in Asian subgroup, and two genetic models (GG+GA vs. AA and GA vs. AA) in European subgroup, respectively. For G241R polymorphism, G241R polymorphism was significantly association with cancer risk in overall analysis. The subgroup analysis by ethnicity showed that G241R polymorphism was significantly associated with cancer risk in European subgroup. Conclusion: ICAM-1 G241R polymorphism might be associated with cancer risk, especially in European populations, but the results doesn’t support ICAM-1 K469E polymorphism as a risk factor for cancer. PMID:26284202

  6. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression is upregulated in autoimmune murine lupus nephritis.

    PubMed Central

    Wuthrich, R. P.; Jevnikar, A. M.; Takei, F.; Glimcher, L. H.; Kelley, V. E.

    1990-01-01

    Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) is a cell-surface protein regulating interactions among immune cells. To determine whether altered expression of ICAM-1 occurs in autoimmune lupus nephritis, we studied ICAM-1 expression in kidneys of normal and autoimmune MRL-lpr and (NZBX NZW)F1 (NZB/W) mice. By immunoperoxidase staining, ICAM-1 is constitutively expressed at low levels in proximal tubules (PT), endothelium and interstitial cells in normal C3H/FeJ mice. In nephritic MRL-lpr and NZB/W kidneys, staining for ICAM-1 is increased in the PT, particularly in the brush border, and is prominent in the glomerular mesangium and the endothelium of large vessels. By Western blot analysis, ICAM-1 is not detected in the urine of normal BALB/c and C3H/FeJ or autoimmune MRL-lpr. By Northern blot analysis, nephritic MRL-lpr and NZB/W have a two- to fivefold increase in steady state levels of ICAM-1 transcripts in the kidney as compared with normal or prenephritic mice. This is paralleled by an increase in MHC class II transcripts. In cultured PT cells, ICAM-1 is expressed at basal levels in PT and is increased by the cytokines interferon-gamma, IL-1 alpha, and TNF-alpha. Thus cytokine-mediated upregulation of ICAM-1 in lupus nephritis may promote interaction of immune cells with renal tissue. The predominant apical expression of ICAM-1 opposite to the basolateral Ia expression suggests a novel role for this adhesion molecule in PT. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:1968316

  7. R-Ras Regulates Murine T Cell Migration and Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 Binding

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Xiaocai; Yan, Mingfei; Guo, Yihe; Singh, Gobind; Chen, Yuhong; Yu, Mei; Wang, Demin; Hillery, Cheryl A.; Chan, Andrew M.

    2015-01-01

    The trafficking of T-lymphocytes to peripheral draining lymph nodes is crucial for mounting an adaptive immune response. The role of chemokines in the activation of integrins via Ras-related small GTPases has been well established. R-Ras is a member of the Ras-subfamily of small guanosine-5’-triphosphate-binding proteins and its role in T cell trafficking has been investigated in R-Ras null mice (Rras−/−). An examination of the lymphoid organs of Rras−/− mice revealed a 40% reduction in the cellularity of the peripheral lymph nodes. Morphologically, the high endothelial venules of Rras−/− mice were more disorganized and less mature than those of wild-type mice. Furthermore, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells from Rras−/− mice had approximately 42% lower surface expression of L-selectin/CD62L. These aberrant peripheral lymph node phenotypes were associated with proliferative and trafficking defects in Rras−/− T cells. Furthermore, R-Ras could be activated by the chemokine, CCL21. Indeed, Rras−/− T cells had approximately 14.5% attenuation in binding to intercellular adhesion molecule 1 upon CCL21 stimulation. Finally, in a graft-versus host disease model, recipient mice that were transfused with Rras−/− T cells showed a significant reduction in disease severity when compared with mice transplanted with wild-type T cells. These findings implicate a role for R-Ras in T cell trafficking in the high endothelial venules during an effective immune response. PMID:26710069

  8. Leukocytosis and resistance to septic shock in intercellular adhesion molecule 1-deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    Intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) is one of three immunoglobulin superfamily members that bind to the integrins lymphocyte function associated 1 (LFA-1) and Mac-1 on leukocytes. We have generated mice that are genetically and functionally deficient in ICAM-1. These mice have elevated numbers of circulating neutrophils and lymphocytes, as well as diminished allogeneic T cell responses and delayed type hypersensitivity. Mutant mice are resistant to lethal effects of high doses of endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide [LPS]), and this correlates with a significant decrease in neutrophil infiltration in the liver. Production of inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor alpha or interleukin 1 is normal in ICAM-1-deficient mice, and thus protection appears to be related to a diminution in critical leukocyte-endothelial interactions. After sensitization with D- galactosamine (D-Gal), ICAM-1-deficient mice are resistant to the lethal effect of low doses of exotoxin (Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin B [SEB]), which has been shown to mediate its toxic effects via the activation of specific T cells. In this model, ICAM-1-mediated protection against SEB lethality correlates with a decrease in the systemic release of inflammatory cytokines, as well as with prevention of extensive hepatocyte necrosis and hemorrhage. ICAM-1-deficient mice sensitized with D-Gal, however, are not protected from lethality when challenged with low doses of endotoxin (LPS). These studies show that the different contribution of ICAM-1 in the activation of either T cells or macrophages is decisive for the fatal outcome of the shock in these two models. This work suggests that anti-ICAM-1 therapy may be beneficial in both gram-positive and -negative septic shock, either by reducing T cell activation or by diminishing neutrophil infiltration. PMID:7911822

  9. Localization of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in the lungs of silica-exposed mice.

    PubMed Central

    Nario, R C; Hubbard, A K

    1997-01-01

    Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) is expressed on a variety of cells including endothelial cells, alveolar epithelial cells, and alveolar macrophages. Endothelial/epithelial cell ICAM-1 participates in the migration of leukocytes out of the blood in response to pulmonary inflammation, whereas alveolar macrophage ICAM-1 may represent cell activation. Our previous studies have shown that there is increased expression of ICAM-1 in lung tissue during acute inflammation following intratracheal injection with silica particles (2 mg/mouse). This increased expression was shown to play a role, in part, in the migration of neutrophils from the circulation into the tissue parenchyma. The aim of the current work is to localize expression of ICAM-1 during acute inflammation in lungs of mice exposed to either silica or the nuisance dust, titanium dioxide. In silica-exposed mice, a significant increase in ICAM-1 was detected on day-1 and localized by immunohistochemistry to aggregates of pulmonary macrophages and to type II epithelial cells. Areas of the lung with increased ICAM-1 expression also showed increased tumor necrosis factor alpha expression. Immunocytochemical staining of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells demonstrated increased ICAM-1 expression associated with alveolar macrophages 3, 5, and 7 days following silica exposure. Finally, soluble ICAM-1 levels in the BAL fluid were significantly increased in mice exposed to silica on the same days. Titanium dioxide exposure elicited a minimal increase in expression of ICAM-1 in the lungs. These data demonstrate that exposure to the toxic particle silica specifically increases ICAM-1 expression localized to pulmonary macrophages and type II epithelial cells. Images Figure 2. B Figure 2. A Figure 2. D Figure 2. C Figure 3. A Figure 3. B Figure 5. B Figure 5. A Figure 5. C PMID:9400721

  10. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression by skeletal muscle cells augments myogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Goh, Qingnian; Dearth, Christopher L.; Corbett, Jacob T.; Pierre, Philippe; Chadee, Deborah N.; Pizza, Francis X.

    2015-02-15

    We previously demonstrated that the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) by skeletal muscle cells after muscle overload contributes to ensuing regenerative and hypertrophic processes in skeletal muscle. The objective of the present study is to reveal mechanisms through which skeletal muscle cell expression of ICAM-1 augments regenerative and hypertrophic processes of myogenesis. This was accomplished by genetically engineering C2C12 myoblasts to stably express ICAM-1, and by inhibiting the adhesive and signaling functions of ICAM-1 through the use of a neutralizing antibody or cell penetrating peptide, respectively. Expression of ICAM-1 by cultured skeletal muscle cells augmented myoblast–myoblast adhesion, myotube formation, myonuclear number, myotube alignment, myotube–myotube fusion, and myotube size without influencing the ability of myoblasts to proliferate or differentiate. ICAM-1 augmented myotube formation, myonuclear accretion, and myotube alignment through a mechanism involving adhesion-induced activation of ICAM-1 signaling, as these dependent measures were reduced via antibody and peptide inhibition of ICAM-1. The adhesive and signaling functions of ICAM-1 also facilitated myotube hypertrophy through a mechanism involving myotube–myotube fusion, protein synthesis, and Akt/p70s6k signaling. Our findings demonstrate that ICAM-1 expression by skeletal muscle cells augments myogenesis, and establish a novel mechanism through which the inflammatory response facilitates growth processes in skeletal muscle. - Highlights: • We examined mechanisms through which skeletal muscle cell expression of ICAM-1 facilitates events of in vitro myogenesis. • Expression of ICAM-1 by cultured myoblasts did not influence their ability to proliferate or differentiate. • Skeletal muscle cell expression of ICAM-1 augmented myoblast fusion, myotube alignment, myotube–myotube fusion, and myotube size. • ICAM-1 augmented myogenic processes through

  11. Environmental exposure to arsenic and chromium in children is associated with kidney injury molecule-1.

    PubMed

    Cárdenas-González, M; Osorio-Yáñez, C; Gaspar-Ramírez, O; Pavković, M; Ochoa-Martínez, A; López-Ventura, D; Medeiros, M; Barbier, O C; Pérez-Maldonado, I N; Sabbisetti, V S; Bonventre, J V; Vaidya, V S

    2016-10-01

    Environmental hazards from natural or anthropological sources are widespread, especially in the north-central region of Mexico. Children represent a susceptible population due to their unique routes of exposure and special vulnerabilities. In this study we evaluated the association of exposure to environmental kidney toxicants with kidney injury biomarkers in children living in San Luis Potosi (SLP), Mexico. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 83 children (5-12 years of age) residents of Villa de Reyes, SLP. Exposure to arsenic, cadmium, chromium, fluoride and lead was assessed in urine, blood and drinking water samples. Almost all tap and well water samples had levels of arsenic (81.5%) and fluoride (100%) above the permissible levels recommended by the World Health Organization. Mean urine arsenic (45.6ppb) and chromium (61.7ppb) were higher than the biological exposure index, a reference value in occupational settings. Using multivariate adjusted models, we found a dose-dependent association between kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) across chromium exposure tertiles [(T1: reference, T2: 467pg/mL; T3: 615pg/mL) (p-trend=0.001)]. Chromium upper tertile was also associated with higher urinary miR-200c (500 copies/μl) and miR-423 (189 copies/μL). Arsenic upper tertile was also associated with higher urinary KIM-1 (372pg/mL). Other kidney injury/functional biomarkers such as serum creatinine, glomerular filtration rate, albuminuria, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin and miR-21 did not show any association with arsenic, chromium or any of the other toxicants evaluated. We conclude that KIM-1 might serve as a sensitive biomarker to screen children for kidney damage induced by environmental toxic agents.

  12. Intraocular soluble intracellular adhesion molecule-1 correlates with subretinal fluid height of diabetic macular edema

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Dan; Zhu, He; Wang, Chunyan; Yang, Dayong

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the correlations between aqueous concentrations of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), soluble intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) and diabetic macular edema (DME). Materials and Methods: VEGF, MCP-1 and sICAM-1 concentrations in aqueous humor samples of 22 patients with DME and 23 patients with cataract of a control group were measured with solid-phase chemiluminescence immunoassay. Results: Aqueous VEGF (89.2 ± 58.5 pg/ml versus 48.5 ± 27.8 pg/ml, P = 0.006), MCP-1 (684.2 ± 423.4 pg/ml versus 432.4 ± 230.4 pg/ml, P = 0.019) and sICAM-1 (3213.8 ± 2581.6 pg/ml versus 260.2 ± 212.2 pg/ml, P < 0.001) all vary significantly between DME group and control group. Maximum height of submacular fluid measured by Optical coherence tomography (OCT) was significantly associated with aqueous sICAM-1 (r = -0.45, P = 0.034). The maximum height of macular thickness measured by OCT was not significantly associated with either VEGF (P = 0.300), MCP-1 (P = 0.320) or sICAM-1 (P = 0.285). Conclusions: Our results suggest that sICAM-1 may majorly contribute to the formation of subretinal fluid in DME patients and imply that MCP-1 and sICAM-1 may be the potential therapy targets, besides VEGF. PMID:23619489

  13. DFT studies on a high-energy density cage compound 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11-hexo(N(CH3)NO2)-2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12-hexaazatetracyclo[5, 5, 0, 0, 0] dodecane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiao-Hong; Yong, Yong-Liang; Zhang, Xian-Zhou

    2014-04-01

    The infrared and Raman spectra, heat of formation (HOF) and thermodynamic properties were investigated by B3LYP/6-31G** method for a new designed polynitro cage compound 1,3,5,7,9,11-hexo(N(CH3)NO2)-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexaazatetracyclo[5,5,0,0,0]dodecane. The detonation velocity (D) and pressure (P) were predicted by the Kamlet-Jacobs equations based on the theoretical density and condensed HOF. The bond dissociation energies and bond orders for the weakest bonds were analysed to investigate the thermal stability of the title compound. The computational result shows that the detonation velocity and pressure of the title compound are superior to those of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), but inferior to those of 1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetraazacyclooctane (HMX) and hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane (HNIW). And the analysis of thermal stability shows that the first step of pyrolysis is the rupture of the N7-NO2 bond. The crystal structure obtained by molecular mechanics belongs to the P21 space group, with the lattice parameters Z = 2, a = 11.8246 Å, b = 10.4632 Å, c = 15.9713 Å, ρ = 1.98 g cm-3.

  14. Differential effects of heme oxygenase isoforms on heme mediation of endothelial intracellular adhesion molecule 1 expression.

    PubMed

    Wagener, F A; da Silva, J L; Farley, T; de Witte, T; Kappas, A; Abraham, N G

    1999-10-01

    Heme oxygenase (HO), by catabolizing heme to bile pigments, down-regulates cellular hemoprotein, hemoglobin, and heme; the latter generates pro-oxidant products, including free radicals. Two HO isozymes, the products of distinct genes, have been described; HO-1 is the inducible isoform, whereas HO-2 is suggested to be constitutively expressed. We studied the inducing effect of several metal compounds (CoCl(2), stannic mesoporphyrin, and heme) on HO activity. Additionally, we studied HO-1 expression in experimental models of adhesion molecule expression produced by heme in endothelial cells, and the relationship of HO-1 expression to the induced adhesion molecules. Flow cytometry analysis showed that heme induces intracellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) expression in a concentration (10-100 microM)- and time (1-24 h)-dependent fashion in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Pretreatment with stannic mesoporphyrin, an inhibitor of HO activity, caused a 2-fold increase in heme-induced ICAM-1 expression. In contrast, HO induction by CoCl(2) decreased heme-induced ICAM-1 expression by 33%. To examine the contribution of HO-1 and HO-2 to endothelial HO activity, specific antisense oligonucleotides (ODNs) of each isoform were tested for their specificity to inhibit HO activity in cells exposed to heme. Endothelial cells exposed to heme elicited increased HO activity, which was prevented (70%) by HO-1 antisense ODNs. HO-2 antisense ODN inhibited heme-induced HO activity by 21%. Addition of HO-1 antisense ODNs prevented heme degradation and resulted in elevation of microsomal heme. Western blot analysis showed that HO-1 antisense ODNs selectively inhibited HO-1 protein and failed to inhibit HO-2 protein. Incubation of endothelial cells with HO-1 antisense enhanced heme-dependent increase of ICAM-1. In contrast, addition of HO-2 antisense to endothelial cells failed to increase adhesion molecules. The role of glutathione, an important antioxidant, was examined on heme

  15. Role of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 in glucan-induced pulmonary granulomatosis in the rat.

    PubMed

    Barton, P A; Imlay, M M; Flory, C M; Warren, J S

    1996-08-01

    Glucan-induced pulmonary granulomatous vasculitis in the rat mimics several human lung diseases (e.g., Wegener's granulomatosis, intravenous talcosis). We sought to clarify the role of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in the pathogenesis of glucan-induced granulomatous vasculitis. Immunohistochemical analysis of lung sections from rats with florid vasculitis (48 hours) revealed marked alveolar septal and lesional expression of ICAM-1. An ex vivo binding analysis with isotope-labeled antibodies and lung sections taken at various times up to 48 hours after glucan infusion revealed a progressive increase in whole-lung ICAM-1 expression. In vivo measurements of vascular wall-associated ICAM-1 expression revealed an earlier rise that began less than 6 hours after glucan infusion, peaked at 24 to 48 hours, and then declined to near baseline during the ensuing 24 to 96 hours. To assess whether ICAM-1 expression both within blood vessel walls and within lesions per se is important in granuloma development, we carried out in vivo neutralization experiments with several different routes of administration of antibody to ICAM-1. Monoclonal antibody to rat ICAM-1 was either infused intravenously at time 0 (when glucan was infused), infused intravenously at time 0 and after 24 hours, instilled only intratracheally 24 hours after glucan infusion, or given both intravenously (time = 0 and 24 hours) and intratracheally (time = 24 hours). Infusions of monoclonal antibody to rat ICAM-1 resulted in dose-dependent reductions in mean granuloma number and cross-sectional area. Intrapulmonary instillation of antibody to rat ICAM-1 (via tracheostomy 24 hours after glucan infusion) resulted in a modest reduction in mean granuloma number and cross-sectional area. When antibody to ICAM-1 was both infused and instilled via the trachea, we found an additive reduction in mean granuloma size and number. There was a 12-fold increase in adhesion of ED-1-positive peripheral blood

  16. Metabolically distinct weight loss by 10,12 CLA and caloric restriction highlight the importance of subcutaneous white adipose tissue for glucose homeostasis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shari; Goodspeed, Leela; Wietecha, Tomasz; Houston, Barbara; Omer, Mohamed; Ogimoto, Kayoko; Subramanian, Savitha; Gowda, G. A. Nagana; O’Brien, Kevin D.; Kaiyala, Karl J.; Morton, Gregory J.; Chait, Alan

    2017-01-01

    Background Widely used as a weight loss supplement, trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (10,12 CLA) promotes fat loss in obese mice and humans, but has also been associated with insulin resistance. Objective We therefore sought to directly compare weight loss by 10,12 CLA versus caloric restriction (CR, 15–25%), an acceptable healthy method of weight loss, to determine how 10,12 CLA-mediated weight loss fails to improve glucose metabolism. Methods Obese mice with characteristics of human metabolic syndrome were either supplemented with 10,12 CLA or subjected to CR to promote weight loss. Metabolic endpoints such as energy expenditure, glucose and insulin tolerance testing, and trunk fat distribution were measured. Results By design, 10,12 CLA and CR caused equivalent weight loss, with greater fat loss by 10,12 CLA accompanied by increased energy expenditure, reduced respiratory quotient, increased fat oxidation, accumulation of alternatively activated macrophages, and browning of subcutaneous white adipose tissue (WAT). Moreover, 10,12 CLA-supplemented mice better defended their body temperature against a cold challenge. However, 10,12 CLA concurrently induced the detrimental loss of subcutaneous WAT without reducing visceral WAT, promoted reduced plasma and WAT adipokine levels, worsened hepatic steatosis, and failed to improve glucose metabolism. Obese mice undergoing CR were protected from subcutaneous-specific fat loss, had improved hepatic steatosis, and subsequently showed the expected improvements in WAT adipokines, glucose metabolism and WAT inflammation. Conclusions These results suggest that 10,12 CLA mediates the preferential loss of subcutaneous fat that likely contributes to hepatic steatosis and maintained insulin resistance, despite significant weight loss and WAT browning in mice. Collectively, we have shown that weight loss due to 10,12 CLA supplementation or CR results in dramatically different metabolic phenotypes, with the latter

  17. Surface complexation studied via combined grazing-incidence EXAFS and surface diffraction: Arsenate on hematite (0001) and (10-12)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waychunas, G.; Trainor, T.; Eng, P.; Catalano, J.; Brown, G.; Davis, J.; Rogers, J.; Bargar, J.

    2005-01-01

    X-ray diffraction [crystal-truncation-rod (CTR)] studies of the surface structure of moisture-equilibrated hematite reveal sites for complexation not present on the bulk oxygen-terminated surface, and impose constraints on the types of inner-sphere sorption topologies. We have used this improved model of the hematite surface to analyze grazing-incidence EXAFS results for arsenate sorption on the c(0001) and r(10-12) surfaces measured in two electric vector polarizations. This work shows that the reconfiguration of the surface under moist conditions is responsible for an increased adsorption density of arsenate complexes on the (0001) surface relative to predicted ideal termination, and an abundance of "edge-sharing" bidentate complexes on both studied surfaces. We consider possible limitations on combining the methods due to differing surface sensitivities, and discuss further analysis possibilities using both methods. ?? Springer-Verlag 2005.

  18. Colorimetric Detection of Some Highly Hydrophobic Flavonoids Using Polydiacetylene Liposomes Containing Pentacosa-10,12-diynoyl Succinoglycan Monomers

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Deokgyu; Jeong, Daham; Cho, Eunae; Jung, Seunho

    2015-01-01

    Flavonoids are a group of plant secondary metabolites including polyphenolic molecules, and they are well known for antioxidant, anti-allergic, anti-inflammatory and anti-viral propertied. In general, flavonoids are detected with various non-colorimetric detection methods such as column liquid chromatography, thin-layer chromatography, and electrochemical analysis. For the first time, we developed a straightforward colorimetric detection system allowing recognition of some highly hydrophobic flavonoids such as alpha-naphthoflavone and beta-naphthoflavone, visually using 10,12-pentacosadiynoic acid (PCDA) derivatized with succinoglycan monomers isolated from Sinorhizobium meliloti. Besides changes in visible spectrum, we also demonstrate fluorescence changes using our detection system in the presence of those flavonoids. The succinoglycan monomers attached to PCDA molecules may function as an unstructured molecular capturer for some highly hydrophobic flavonoids by hydrophobic interactions, and transmit their molecular interactions as a color change throughout the PCDA liposome. PMID:26600071

  19. Studying the properties and response of a large volume (946 cm3) LaBr3:Ce detector with γ-rays up to 22.5 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazumdar, I.; Gothe, D. A.; Anil Kumar, G.; Yadav, N.; Chavan, P. B.; Patel, S. M.

    2013-03-01

    This paper presents the results of our measurements and detailed simulations using GEANT4 to investigate the performance of a large volume (946 cm3) cylindrical (3.5 in.diameter×6 in.length) LaBr3:Ce detector. The properties of the detector have been studied using γ-rays from radioactive sources and in-beam reaction, from few hundred keV to 22.5 MeV. The salient features, which have been studied in-depth, are the uniformity and internal activity of the crystal, the energy and timing resolutions, linearity of the response up to 22.5 MeV, and efficiencies. A highly linear response has been observed by extracting the energy signal from a lower dynode and operating the PMT at a low voltage. The detector is to be primarily used for measuring high energy γ-rays spectra from Giant Dipole Resonance (GDR) decay studies.

  20. 1015 cm-3 eV-1 level detection of density of states of a p-type polymer by hν-dependent high-sensitivity ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Tomoya; Kinjo, Hiroumi; Yamazaki, Junki; Ishii, Hisao

    2017-01-01

    We propose a method, called hν-dependent high-sensitivity ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy, to observe the density of states (DOS) in a very wide range from HOMO to extremely weak gap states (1022 to 1015 cm-3 eV-1 in density of states). The method was applied to a p-type semiconducting polymer. A series of spectra for hν = 4.4-7.7 eV were recorded, and the DOS was obtained by overlapping the spectral part with a similar line shape between adjacent photon energy spectra to eliminate the photon energy dependence of the photoionization cross section. This method can be applied to both organic and inorganic materials, providing useful information about the DOS of functional materials.

  1. Moderate physical activity correlates with elevated leptin in physically active 10-12-year-old boys with normal BMI.

    PubMed

    Cicchella, Antonio; Stefanelli, Claudio; Jürimäe, Toivo; Saar, Meeli; Purge, Priit

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the relations between physical activity of differing intensity and duration with body energy-balance hormone leptin in 10-12-year-old boys (N = 94) who participated in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity at least four to five times per week. The boys reported their physical activity using a questionnaire. They had normal body mass index (BMI, kg/ m2), and were at Tanner Stage 2 of development. Boys were divided into three subgroups by leptin levels: normal serum leptin (M +/- .5 SD, n = 44, 1.2-3.9 ng/ml), low leptin (< or = M - .5 SD; n = 31, < 1.2 ng/ml), and high leptin (> or = M + .5 SD; n = 19, > 3.9 ng/ml). There were significant differences between subgroups in anthropometric parameters and serum leptin levels, but not in physical activity. A significant correlation was found between leptin and moderate physical activity of at least five times per week for at least 30 minutes each time in the high leptin group (r = .61). In conclusion, the correlations between physical activity and leptin are weak; only moderate physical activity was correlated with leptin levels in the high leptin

  2. PROCEEDINGS OF RIKEN BNL RESEARCH CENTER WORKSHOP, VOLUME 77, RBRC SCIENTIFIC REVIEW COMMITTEE MEETING, OCTOBER 10-12, 2005

    SciTech Connect

    SAMIOS, N.P.

    2005-10-10

    The eighth evaluation of the RIKEN BNL Research Center (RBRC) took place on October 10-12, 2005, at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The members of the Scientific Review Committee (SRC) were Dr. Jean-Paul Blaizot, Professor Makoto Kobayashi, Dr. Akira Masaike, Professor Charles Young Prescott (Chair), Professor Stephen Sharpe (absent), and Professor Jack Sandweiss. We are grateful to Professor Akira Ukawa who was appointed to the SRC to cover Professor Sharpe's area of expertise. In addition to reviewing this year's program, the committee, augmented by Professor Kozi Nakai, evaluated the RBRC proposal for a five-year extension of the RIKEN BNL Collaboration MOU beyond 2007. Dr. Koji Kaya, Director of the Discovery Research Institute, RIKEN, Japan, presided over the session on the extension proposal. In order to illustrate the breadth and scope of the RBRC program, each member of the Center made a presentation on higher research efforts. In addition, a special session was held in connection with the RBRC QCDSP and QCDOC supercomputers. Professor Norman H. Christ, a collaborator from Columbia University, gave a presentation on the progress and status of the project, and Professor Frithjof Karsch of BNL presented the first physics results from QCDOC. Although the main purpose of this review is a report to RIKEN Management (Dr. Ryoji Noyori, RIKEN President) on the health, scientific value, management and future prospects of the Center, the RBRC management felt that a compendium of the scientific presentations are of sufficient quality and interest that they warrant a wider distribution. Therefore we have made this compilation and present it to the community for its information and enlightenment.

  3. Laboratory-Scale Column Testing Using IONSIV IE-911 for Removing Cesium from Acidic Tank Waste Simulant. 1: Cesium Exchange Capacity of a 15-cm3 Column and Dynamic Stability of the Exchange Media

    SciTech Connect

    T.J. Tranter; R.D. Tillotson; T.A. Todd

    2005-04-01

    Bench-scale column tests were performed using a commercial form of crystalline silicotitanate (CST) for removing radio-cesium from a surrogate acidic tank solution representative of liquid waste stored at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). An engineered form of CST ion exchanger, known as IONSIVtm IE-911 (UOP, Mt Laurel, NJ, USA), was tested in 15 cm3 columns at a flow rate of 5 bed volumes per hour. These experiments showed the ion exchange material to have reasonable selectivity and capacity for removing cesium from the complex chemical matrix of the solution. However, previous testing indicated that partial neutralization of the feed stream was necessary to increase the stability of the ion exchange media. Thus, in these studies, CST degradation was determined as a function of throughput in order to better assess the stability characteristics of the exchanger for potential future waste treatment applications. Results of these tests indicate that the degradation of the CST reaches a maximum very soon after the acidic feed is introduced to the column and then rapidly declines. Total dissolution of bed material did not exceed 3% under the experimental regime used.

  4. Suggestions for Curriculum Development [And] Handbook High School Grades, Part D, 10-12. Environmental Education Interdependence: A Concept Approach. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, David C.; Wood, Jayne Millar

    Two booklets comprise the grades 10-12 component of a series of guides for incorporating environmental education into the existing curriculum. The guide and handbook emphasize a multidisciplinary approach, use the concept of interdependence as an organizing theme, and offer suggestions for using the local community as a resource. The guide…

  5. MITF is a critical regulator of the carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1) in malignant melanoma.

    PubMed

    Ullrich, Nico; Löffek, Stefanie; Horn, Susanne; Ennen, Marie; Sánchez-Del-Campo, Luis; Zhao, Fang; Breitenbuecher, Frank; Davidson, Irwin; Singer, Bernhard B; Schadendorf, Dirk; Goding, Colin R; Helfrich, Iris

    2015-11-01

    The multifunctional Ig-like carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1) is neo-expressed in the majority of malignant melanoma lesions. CEACAM1 acts as a driver of tumor cell invasion, and its expression correlates with poor patient prognosis. Despite its importance in melanoma progression, how CEACAM1 expression is regulated is largely unknown. Here, we show that CEACAM1 expression in melanoma cell lines and melanoma tissue strongly correlates with that of the microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), a key regulator of melanoma proliferation and invasiveness. MITF is revealed as a direct and positive regulator for CEACAM1 expression via binding to an M-box motif located in the CEACAM1 promoter. Taken together, our study provides novel insights into the regulation of CEACAM1 expression and suggests an MITF-CEACAM1 axis as a potential determinant of melanoma progression.

  6. Role of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 in pathogenesis of staphylococcal arthritis and in host defense against staphylococcal bacteremia.

    PubMed Central

    Verdrengh, M; Springer, T A; Gutierrez-Ramos, J C; Tarkowski, A

    1996-01-01

    Intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily that interacts with two integrins, LFA-1 and Mac-1. These interactions are critical for leukocyte extravasation into inflamed tissue. To assess the role of ICAM-1 expression in the pathogenesis of bacterial infection, homozygously mutant mice lacking the ICAM-1 gene were exposed to Staphylococcus aureus. Within 6 days after inoculation 50% of the animals in the ICAM-1(-/-) group, but none of the controls, had died. Despite the high level of mortality, ICAM-1(-/-) mice developed less frequent and less severe arthritis than their wild-type littermates. In agreement, normal mice inoculated with staphylococci and administered anti-ICAM-1 antibodies exhibited a higher frequency of mortality but less severe arthritis than the controls. Our results indicate that ICAM-1 on the one hand provides protection against systemic disease but on the other hand aggravates the local disease manifestation. PMID:8698512

  7. Cutting edge: DNAX accessory molecule 1-deficient CD8+ T cells display immunological synapse defects that impair antitumor immunity.

    PubMed

    Ramsbottom, Kelly M; Hawkins, Edwin D; Shimoni, Raz; McGrath, Mairi; Chan, Christopher J; Russell, Sarah M; Smyth, Mark J; Oliaro, Jane

    2014-01-15

    DNAX accessory molecule 1 (DNAM-1) is expressed on all CD8(+) T cells and promotes their activation and effector function. DNAM-1 interacts with LFA-1, a critical molecule for immunological synapse formation between T cells and APCs, and for cytotoxic killing of target cells. Mice that lack DNAM-1 display abnormal T cell responses and antitumor activity; however, the mechanism involved is unclear. In this article, we show that DNAM-1 deficiency results in reduced proliferation of CD8(+) T cells after Ag presentation and impaired cytotoxic activity. We also demonstrate that DNAM-1-deficient T cells show reduced conjugations with tumor cells and decreased recruitment of both LFA-1 and lipid rafts to the immunological synapse, which correlates with reduced tumor cell killing in vitro. This synapse defect may explain why DNAM-1-deficient mice cannot clear tumors in vivo, and highlights the importance of DNAM-1 and the immunological synapse in T cell-mediated antitumor immunity.

  8. Human Dermal Mast Cells Contain and Release Tumor Necrosis Factor α, which Induces Endothelial Leukocyte Adhesion Molecule 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, Laurence J.; Trinchieri, Giorgio; Waldorf, Heidi A.; Whitaker, Diana; Murphy, George F.

    1991-05-01

    Tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) is a proinflammatory cytokine that mediates endothelial leukocyte interactions by inducing expression of adhesion molecules. In this report, we demonstrate that human dermal mast cells contain sizeable stores of immunoreactive and biologically active TNF-α within granules, which can be released rapidly into the extracellular space upon degranulation. Among normal human dermal cells, mast cells are the predominant cell type that expresses both TNF-α protein and TNF-α mRNA. Moreover, induction of endothelial leukocyte adhesion molecule 1 expression is a direct consequence of release of mast cell-derived TNF-α. These findings establish a role for human mast cells as "gatekeepers" of the dermal microvasculature and indicate that mast cell products other than vasoactive amines influence endothelium in a proinflammatory fashion.

  9. Electrical detection of kidney injury molecule-1 with AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, H. T.; Kang, B. S.; Ren, F.; Pearton, S. J.; Johnson, J. W.; Rajagopal, P.; Roberts, J. C.; Piner, E. L.; Linthicum, K. J.

    2007-11-26

    AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) were used to detect kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), an important biomarker for early kidney injury detection. The gate region consisted of 5 nm gold deposited onto the AlGaN surface. The gold was conjugated to highly specific KIM-1 antibodies through a self-assembled monolayer of thioglycolic acid. The HEMT source-drain current showed a clear dependence on the KIM-1 concentration in phosphate-buffered saline solution. The limit of detection was 1 ng/ml using a 20x50 {mu}m{sup 2} gate sensing area. This approach shows potential for both preclinical and clinical kidney injury diagnosis with accurate, rapid, noninvasive, and high throughput capabilities.

  10. Electrical detection of kidney injury molecule-1 with AlGaN /GaN high electron mobility transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H. T.; Kang, B. S.; Ren, F.; Pearton, S. J.; Johnson, J. W.; Rajagopal, P.; Roberts, J. C.; Piner, E. L.; Linthicum, K. J.

    2007-11-01

    AlGaN /GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) were used to detect kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), an important biomarker for early kidney injury detection. The gate region consisted of 5nm gold deposited onto the AlGaN surface. The gold was conjugated to highly specific KIM-1 antibodies through a self-assembled monolayer of thioglycolic acid. The HEMT source-drain current showed a clear dependence on the KIM-1 concentration in phosphate-buffered saline solution. The limit of detection was 1ng/ml using a 20×50μm2 gate sensing area. This approach shows potential for both preclinical and clinical kidney injury diagnosis with accurate, rapid, noninvasive, and high throughput capabilities.

  11. Identification of Human Junctional Adhesion Molecule 1 as a Functional Receptor for the Hom-1 Calicivirus on Human Cells.

    PubMed

    Sosnovtsev, Stanislav V; Sandoval-Jaime, Carlos; Parra, Gabriel I; Tin, Christine M; Jones, Ronald W; Soden, Jo; Barnes, Donna; Freeth, Jim; Smith, Alvin W; Green, Kim Y

    2017-02-14

    The Hom-1 vesivirus was reported in 1998 following the inadvertent transmission of the animal calicivirus San Miguel sea lion virus to a human host in a laboratory. We characterized the Hom-1 strain and investigated the mechanism by which human cells could be infected. An expression library of 3,559 human plasma membrane proteins was screened for reactivity with Hom-1 virus-like particles, and a single interacting protein, human junctional adhesion molecule 1 (hJAM1), was identified. Transient expression of hJAM1 conferred susceptibility to Hom-1 infection on nonpermissive Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. Virus infection was markedly inhibited when CHO cells stably expressing hJAM were pretreated with anti-hJAM1 monoclonal antibodies. Cell lines of human origin were tested for growth of Hom-1, and efficient replication was observed in HepG2, HuH7, and SK-CO15 cells. The three cell lines (of hepatic or intestinal origin) were confirmed to express hJAM1 on their surface, and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/Cas9-mediated knockout of the hJAM1 gene in each line abolished Hom-1 propagation. Taken together, our data indicate that entry of the Hom-1 vesivirus into these permissive human cell lines is mediated by the plasma membrane protein hJAM1 as a functional receptor.IMPORTANCE Vesiviruses, such as San Miguel sea lion virus and feline calicivirus, are typically associated with infection in animal hosts. Following the accidental infection of a laboratory worker with San Miguel sea lion virus, a related virus was isolated in cell culture and named Hom-1. In this study, we found that Hom-1 could be propagated in a number of human cell lines, making it the first calicivirus to replicate efficiently in cultured human cells. Screening of a library of human cell surface membrane proteins showed that the virus could utilize human junctional adhesion molecule 1 as a receptor to enter cells and initiate replication. The Hom-1 virus presents a new

  12. Epidermal Expression of Intercellular Adhesion Molecule 1 is Not a Primary Inducer of Cutaneous Inflammation in Transgenic Mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Ifor R.; Kupper, Thomas S.

    1994-10-01

    Keratinocytes at sites of cutaneous inflammation have increased expression of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), a cytokine-inducible adhesion molecule which binds the leukocyte integrins LFA-1 and Mac-1. Transgenic mice were prepared in which the expression of mouse ICAM-1 was targeted to basal keratinocytes by using the human K14 keratin promoter. The level of constitutive expression attained in the transgenic mice exceeded the peak level of ICAM-1 expression induced on nontransgenic mouse keratinocytes in vitro by optimal combinations of interferon γ and tumor necrosis factor α or in vivo by proinflammatory stimuli such as phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate. In vitro adhesion assays demonstrated that cultured transgenic keratinocytes were superior to normal keratinocytes as a substrate for the LFA-1-dependent binding of mouse T cells, confirming that the transgene-encoded ICAM-1 was expressed in a functional form. However, the high level of constitutive ICAM-1 expression achieved on keratinocytes in vivo in these transgenic mice did not result in additional recruitment of CD45^+ leukocytes into transgenic epidermis, nor did it elicit dermal inflammation. Keratinocyte ICAM-1 expression also did not potentiate contact-hypersensitivity reactions to epicutaneous application of haptens. The absence of a spontaneous phenotype in these transgenic mice was not the result of increased levels of soluble ICAM-1, since serum levels of soluble ICAM-1 were equal in transgenic mice and controls. We conclude that elevated ICAM-1 expression on keratinocytes cannot act independently to influence leukocyte trafficking and elicit cutaneous inflammation.

  13. Early Detection of Junctional Adhesion Molecule-1 (JAM-1) in the Circulation after Experimental and Clinical Polytrauma.

    PubMed

    Denk, Stephanie; Wiegner, Rebecca; Hönes, Felix M; Messerer, David A C; Radermacher, Peter; Weiss, Manfred; Kalbitz, Miriam; Ehrnthaller, Christian; Braumüller, Sonja; McCook, Oscar; Gebhard, Florian; Weckbach, Sebastian; Huber-Lang, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Severe tissue trauma-induced systemic inflammation is often accompanied by evident or occult blood-organ barrier dysfunctions, frequently leading to multiple organ dysfunction. However, it is unknown whether specific barrier molecules are shed into the circulation early after trauma as potential indicators of an initial barrier dysfunction. The release of the barrier molecule junctional adhesion molecule-1 (JAM-1) was investigated in plasma of C57BL/6 mice 2 h after experimental mono- and polytrauma as well as in polytrauma patients (ISS ≥ 18) during a 10-day period. Correlation analyses were performed to indicate a linkage between JAM-1 plasma concentrations and organ failure. JAM-1 was systemically detected after experimental trauma in mice with blunt chest trauma as a driving force. Accordingly, JAM-1 was reduced in lung tissue after pulmonary contusion and JAM-1 plasma levels significantly correlated with increased protein levels in the bronchoalveolar lavage as a sign for alveolocapillary barrier dysfunction. Furthermore, JAM-1 was markedly released into the plasma of polytrauma patients as early as 4 h after the trauma insult and significantly correlated with severity of disease and organ dysfunction (APACHE II and SOFA score). The data support an early injury- and time-dependent appearance of the barrier molecule JAM-1 in the circulation indicative of a commencing trauma-induced barrier dysfunction.

  14. Soluble Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 (VCAM-1) as a Biomarker in the Mouse Model of Experimental Autoimmune Myocarditis (EAM)

    PubMed Central

    Grabmaier, U.; Kania, G.; Kreiner, J.; Grabmeier, J.; Uhl, A.; Huber, B. C.; Lackermair, K.; Herbach, N.; Todica, A.; Eriksson, U.; Weckbach, L. T.; Brunner, S.

    2016-01-01

    Vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) is strongly upregulated in hearts of mice with coxsackie virus-induced as well as in patients with viral infection-triggered dilated cardiomyopathy. Nevertheless, the role of its soluble form as a biomarker in inflammatory heart diseases remains unclear. Therefore, we investigated whether plasma levels of soluble VCAM-1 (sVCAM-1) directly correlated with disease activity and progression of cardiac dysfunction in the mouse model of experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM). EAM was induced by immunization of BALB/c mice with heart-specific myosin-alpha heavy chain peptide together with complete Freund`s adjuvant. ELISA revealed strong expression of cardiac VCAM-1 (cVCAM-1) throughout the course of EAM in immunized mice compared to control animals. Furthermore, sVCAM-1 was elevated in the plasma of immunized compared to control mice at acute and chronic stages of the disease. sVCAM-1 did not correlate with the degree of acute cardiac inflammation analyzed by histology or cardiac cytokine expression investigated by ELISA. Nevertheless, heart to body weight ratio correlated significantly with sVCAM-1 at chronic stages of EAM. Cardiac systolic dysfunction studied with positron emission tomography indicated a weak relationship with sVCAM-1 at the chronic stage of the disease. Our data provide evidence that plasma levels of sVCAM-1 are elevated throughout all stages of the disease but showed no strong correlation with the severity of EAM. PMID:27501319

  15. Mechanism of Collaborative Enhancement of Binding of Paired Antibodies to Distinct Epitopes of Platelet Endothelial Cell Adhesion Molecule-1

    PubMed Central

    Greineder, Colin F.; Villa, Carlos H.; Hood, Elizabeth D.; Shuvaev, Vladimir V.; Sun, Jing; Chacko, Ann-Marie; Abraham, Valsamma; DeLisser, Horace M.; Muzykantov, Vladimir R.

    2017-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) directed to extracellular epitopes of human and mouse Platelet Endothelial Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 (CD31 or PECAM-1) stimulate binding of other mAbs to distinct adjacent PECAM-1 epitopes. This effect, dubbed Collaborative Enhancement of Paired Affinity Ligands, or CEPAL, has been shown to enhance delivery of mAb-targeted drugs and nanoparticles to the vascular endothelium. Here we report new insights into the mechanism underlying this effect, which demonstrates equivalent amplitude in the following models: i) cells expressing a full length PECAM-1 and mutant form of PECAM-1 unable to form homodimers; ii) isolated fractions of cellular membranes; and, iii) immobilized recombinant PECAM-1. These results indicate that CEPAL is mediated not by interference in cellular functions or homophilic PECAM-1 interactions, but rather by conformational changes within the cell adhesion molecule induced by ligand binding. This mechanism, mediated by exposure of partially occult epitopes, is likely to occur in molecules other than PECAM-1 and may represent a generalizable phenomenon with valuable practical applications. PMID:28085903

  16. Expression of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) on the human oviductal epithelium and mediation of lymphoid cell adherence.

    PubMed

    Utreras, E; Ossandon, P; Acuña-Castillo, C; Varela-Nallar, L; Müller, C; Arraztoa, J A; Cardenas, H; Imarai, M

    2000-09-01

    The epithelium of the human oviduct expresses the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II and shows endocytic properties towards luminal antigens. Therefore, the epithelial cells might behave as antigen-presenting cells, inducing a local immune response. The activation of antigen-specific T cells not only requires presentation of the peptide antigen by MHC class II, but also the presence of co-stimulatory molecules in the antigen-presenting cells. Therefore, the expression of the intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) was examined in the epithelium of the human oviduct. Most oviducts showed epithelial ICAM-1 expression, as assessed by immunocytochemistry, western blot analysis and RT-PCR assay, and the expression was restricted to the luminal border of ciliated and secretory cells. Interferon gamma, interleukin 1 and lipopolysaccharide treatments increased the percentage of ICAM-1-positive cells in primary cultures, indicating that the expression of ICAM-1 in the oviduct might be upregulated in vivo by inflammatory cytokines or bacterial infections. Binding assays between allogenic phytohaemagglutinin-activated lymphocytes and epithelial monolayers expressing ICAM-1 demonstrated that this molecule stimulated lymphocyte adherence. The presence of ICAM-1, in addition to MHC class II, supports the putative role of the oviductal epithelium in antigen presentation. The exclusive apical distribution of ICAM-1 indicates that T-cell activation would occur in a polarized manner. Binding of lymphoid cells to the surface of the oviductal epithelium may help to retain these immune cells that are required for the clearance of pathogens.

  17. Novel Wnt Regulator NEL-Like Molecule-1 Antagonizes Adipogenesis and Augments Osteogenesis Induced by Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Jia; James, Aaron W.; Zhang, Xinli; Pang, Shen; Zara, Janette N.; Asatrian, Greg; Chiang, Michael; Lee, Min; Khadarian, Kevork; Nguyen, Alan; Lee, Kevin S.; Siu, Ronald K.; Tetradis, Sotirios; Ting, Kang; Soo, Chia

    2017-01-01

    The differentiation factor NEL-like molecule-1 (NELL-1) has been reported as osteoinductive in multiple in vivo preclinical models. Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 is used clinically for skeletal repair, but in vivo administration can induce abnormal, adipose-filled, poor-quality bone. We demonstrate that NELL-1 combined with BMP2 significantly optimizes osteogenesis in a rodent femoral segmental defect model by minimizing the formation of BMP2-induced adipose-filled cystlike bone. In vitro studies using the mouse bone marrow stromal cell line M2-10B4 and human primary bone marrow stromal cells have confirmed that NELL-1 enhances BMP2-induced osteogenesis and inhibits BMP2-induced adipogenesis. Importantly, the ability of NELL-1 to direct BMP2-treated cells toward osteogenesis and away from adipogenesis requires intact canonical Wnt signaling. Overall, these studies establish the feasibility of combining NELL-1 with BMP2 to improve clinical bone regeneration and provide mechanistic insight into canonical Wnt pathway activity during NELL-1 and BMP2 osteogenesis. The novel abilities of NELL-1 to stimulate Wnt signaling and to repress adipogenesis may highlight new treatment approaches for bone loss in osteoporosis. PMID:26772960

  18. Active Site Formation, Not Bond Kinetics, Limits Adhesion Rate between Human Neutrophils and Immobilized Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule 1

    PubMed Central

    Waugh, Richard E.; Lomakina, Elena B.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The formation of receptor ligand bonds at the interface between different cells and between cells and substrates is a widespread phenomenon in biological systems. Physical measurements of bond formation rates between cells and substrates have been exploited to increase our understanding of the biophysical mechanisms that regulate bond formation at interfaces. Heretofore, these measurements have been interpreted in terms of simple bimolecular reaction kinetics. Discrepancies between this simple framework and the behavior of neutrophils adhering to surfaces expressing vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) motivated the development of a new kinetic framework in which the explicit formation of active bond formation sites (reaction zones) are a prerequisite for bond formation to occur. Measurements of cells interacting with surfaces having a wide range of VCAM-1 concentrations, and for different durations of contact, enabled the determination of novel kinetic rate constants for the formation of reaction zones and for the intrinsic bond kinetics. Comparison of these rates with rates determined previously for other receptor-ligand pairs points to a predominant role of extrinsic factors such as surface topography and accessibility of active molecules to regions of close contact in determining forward rates of bond formation at cell interfaces. PMID:19134479

  19. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression in experimental alcoholic liver disease: relationship to endotoxemia and TNF alpha messenger RNA.

    PubMed

    Nanji, A A; Griniuviene, B; Yacoub, L K; Fogt, F; Tahan, S R

    1995-02-01

    We used the intragastric feeding rat model for alcoholic liver disease to evaluate the relationship among intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), plasma endotoxin, and inflammatory changes in the liver. Rats were fed different dietary fats (saturated fat, corn oil, and fish oil) with ethanol; control rats were fed isocaloric amounts of dextrose instead of ethanol. At sacrifice the following were evaluated: liver pathologic changes, TNF-alpha mRNA by reverse transcription-PCR, plasma endotoxin, and ICAM-1 by immunohistochemistry and immunoblot analysis. Upregulation of ICAM-1 in endothelial lining cells in central and portal veins was observed in rats showing evidence of pathologic changes. Rats fed fish oil and ethanol, which exhibited the most severe inflammation, also showed hepatocyte ICAM-1 staining. The presence of ICAM-1 staining, in general, correlated with the level of TNF-alpha mRNA expression and plasma endotoxin levels. Upregulation of ICAM-1 in rats fed ethanol may contribute to the inflammatory changes seen in this model. The association between ICAM-1 upregulation and endotoxin and TNF-alpha mRNA suggests a role for these mediators in the inflammatory process in alcoholic liver injury.

  20. Soluble interleukin-2 receptor, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and interleukin-10 serum levels in patients with melanoma.

    PubMed

    Boyano, M D; Garcia-Vázquez, M D; López-Michelena, T; Gardeazabal, J; Bilbao, J; Cañavate, M L; Galdeano, A G; Izu, R; Díaz-Ramón, L; Raton, J A; Díaz-Pérez, J L

    2000-10-01

    Serum soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2R), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) have each been reported as useful markers for melanoma progression. To evaluate the clinical relevance of these three markers, we simultaneously analysed their serum levels in patients with melanoma. A longitudinal study with a 3-year follow-up was performed and different stages of the disease were considered. Mean values of sIL-2R were significantly higher than in normal controls in all stages and correlated with the disease progression. The prognosis of patients with levels > 529 U/ml of sIL-2R was significantly poorer than in patients with sIL-2R levels < 529 U/ml. Levels of sICAM-1 were also elevated in melanoma patients, specially at the time of the metastatic disease. Serum IL-10 levels were more frequently detectable in the patients that developed metastasis during follow-up, and the prognosis of patients with detectable IL-10 levels was significantly poorer than in those patients with IL-10 undetected levels. Statistical analysis based on Logistic and Cox regression models showed that only sex, stage and sIL-2R value are factors significantly associated with metastatic progression. Moreover, high levels of sIL-2R could be a risk factor for malignant progression in melanoma.

  1. Stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1) silencing inhibits tumor growth and promotes cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in hypopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yuanhao; Cui, Xiaobo; Wang, Jun; Wu, Shuai; Bai, Yunfei; Wang, Yaping; Wang, Boqian; Fang, Jugao

    2015-05-01

    As an important pathway maintaining the balance of intracellular calcium (Ca(2+)), store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE) is critical for cellular functions. Stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1), a key component of SOCE, plays a dual role as an endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) receptor and an SOCE exciter. Aberrant expression of STIM1 could be discovered in several human cancer cells. However, the role of STIM1 in regulating human hypopharyngeal carcinoma still remains unclear. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to detect expression of STIM1 in human hypopharyngeal carcinoma cell line FaDu. STIM1 on FaDu cells was knocked down by lentiviral transduction method. The biological impacts after knocking down of STIM1 on FaDu cells were investigated in vitro and in vivo. The result of real-time PCR showed that STIM1 was expressed in FaDu cells. Lentiviral transduction efficiently downregulated the expression of STIM1 in FaDu cells at both mRNA and protein levels. Significant downregulation of STIM1 on FaDu cells inhibited cell proliferation, induced cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase, promoted cell apoptosis, and restrained cell growth rate. The antigrowth effect of STIM1 silencing was also discovered in FaDu hypopharyngeal tumor model. Our findings indicate that STIM1 is likely to become a new therapeutic target for hypopharyngeal carcinoma treatment.

  2. Identification of Human Junctional Adhesion Molecule 1 as a Functional Receptor for the Hom-1 Calicivirus on Human Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sandoval-Jaime, Carlos; Parra, Gabriel I.; Tin, Christine M.; Jones, Ronald W.; Soden, Jo; Barnes, Donna; Freeth, Jim; Smith, Alvin W.; Green, Kim Y.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The Hom-1 vesivirus was reported in 1998 following the inadvertent transmission of the animal calicivirus San Miguel sea lion virus to a human host in a laboratory. We characterized the Hom-1 strain and investigated the mechanism by which human cells could be infected. An expression library of 3,559 human plasma membrane proteins was screened for reactivity with Hom-1 virus-like particles, and a single interacting protein, human junctional adhesion molecule 1 (hJAM1), was identified. Transient expression of hJAM1 conferred susceptibility to Hom-1 infection on nonpermissive Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. Virus infection was markedly inhibited when CHO cells stably expressing hJAM were pretreated with anti-hJAM1 monoclonal antibodies. Cell lines of human origin were tested for growth of Hom-1, and efficient replication was observed in HepG2, HuH7, and SK-CO15 cells. The three cell lines (of hepatic or intestinal origin) were confirmed to express hJAM1 on their surface, and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/Cas9-mediated knockout of the hJAM1 gene in each line abolished Hom-1 propagation. Taken together, our data indicate that entry of the Hom-1 vesivirus into these permissive human cell lines is mediated by the plasma membrane protein hJAM1 as a functional receptor. PMID:28196955

  3. Kidney Injury Molecule-1 Protects against Gα12 Activation and Tissue Damage in Renal Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, Ola Z.; Zhang, Xizhong; Wei, Junjun; Haig, Aaron; Denker, Bradley M.; Suri, Rita S.; Sener, Alp; Gunaratnam, Lakshman

    2016-01-01

    Ischemic acute kidney injury is a serious untreatable condition. Activation of the G protein α12 (Gα12) subunit by reactive oxygen species is a major cause of tissue damage during renal ischemia-reperfusion injury. Kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) is a transmembrane glycoprotein that is highly up-regulated during acute kidney injury, but the physiologic significance of this up-regulation is unclear. Here, we report for the first time that Kim-1 inhibits Gα12 activation and protects mice against renal ischemia-reperfusion injury. We reveal that Kim-1 physically interacts with and inhibits cellular Gα12 activation after inflammatory stimuli, including reactive oxygen species, by blocking GTP binding to Gα12. Compared with Kim-1+/+ mice, Kim-1−/− mice exhibited greater Gα12 and downstream Src activation both in primary tubular epithelial cells after in vitro stimulation with H2O2 and in whole kidneys after unilateral renal artery clamping. Finally, we show that Kim-1–deficient mice had more severe kidney dysfunction and tissue damage after bilateral renal artery clamping, compared with wild-type mice. Our results suggest that KIM-1 is an endogenous protective mechanism against renal ischemia-reperfusion injury through inhibition of Gα12. PMID:25759266

  4. Folate deficiency and aberrant expression of cell adhesion molecule 1 are potential indicators of prognosis in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Hao; Ma, Min; Ma, Rui; Zhang, Chao; Zeng, Wei; Xing, Lu Qi

    2016-01-01

    The etiology of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) has not yet been adequately examined. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the association between serum folate deficiency and abnormal expression of the cell adhesion molecule 1 (CADM1) protein in the progression of LSCC. Samples were collected from 60 patients with LSCC and 30 healthy people. Radioimmunoassays and immunohistochemical staining were performed to measure serum folate levels and CADM1 protein expression, respectively. The results demonstrated that CADM1 expression in LSCC specimens was significantly lower than in adjacent normal tissues (χ2=28.229, P<0.001), which was associated with histological differentiation and clinical stage (P=0.010 and 0.020, respectively). Levels of serum folate in patients with LSCC were significantly lower than those observed in healthy individuals (P=0.002). Furthermore, TSLCl expression and serum folate levels were positively correlated in LSCC (r=0.642, P=0.001). Thus, the present study determined that decreased CADM1 protein expression and low levels of serum folate were correlated with an increased severity of LSCC. PMID:28105160

  5. Association between the levels of urine kidney injury molecule-1 and the progression of acute kidney injury in the elderly

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chunlin; Che, Xiajing; Shao, Xinghua; Xu, Yao; Ni, Zhaohui; Mou, Shan

    2017-01-01

    Background The factors influencing the prognosis of acute kidney injury (AKI) were analyzed in a group of elderly AKI patients to determine the markers of early prognosis. Methods A total of 258 patients were screened, and 201 patients were enrolled in the study. Eventually, 184 AKI patients were included in the study, including 79 elderly AKI patients (≥60 years old). During one year of follow-up, renal function changes were observed, and the risk factors that influenced the prognosis of AKI were analyzed. Results When AKI occurred, the urine kidney injury molecule-1 (uKIM-1) level was significantly higher in the progressive deterioration of renal function group than in the renal function stable group. The ROC curve analysis revealed that the area under the curve for poor progressive deterioration of renal function as predicted by the uKIM-1 level was 0.681. At a cutoff point of 2.46 ng/mg, the sensitivity was 71.9% and the specificity was 70.0%. In elderly AKI patients, uKIM-1 levels exceeding 2.46 ng/mg were positively associated with poor kidney prognosis. Conclusions Elderly AKI patients are at risk of developing progressive deterioration of renal function. In elderly AKI patients, the high uKIM-1 level may predict the prognosis of kidney function and may be used as an early screening indicator of poor kidney prognosis. PMID:28187124

  6. Circulating thrombomodulin and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and renal vascular lesion in patients with lupus nephritis.

    PubMed

    Yao, G H; Liu, Z H; Zhang, X; Zheng, C X; Chen, H P; Zeng, C H; Li, L S

    2008-08-01

    Currently, the detection of renal vascular lesions (VLS) in lupus nephritis (LN) mainly depends on biopsy examination, and lack surrogate biomarkers for clinical dynamic evaluation. The aim of the present study is to explore the correlation between circulatory endothelial damage biomarkers and VLS. Soluble E-selectin, thrombomodulin (TM) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) were measured by ELISA. TM and VCAM-1 levels both were significantly elevated in LN with VLS than in LN without VLS (P < 0.01). However, the serum E-selectin was not significantly changed in LN patients with and without VLS. A positive correlation was found between TM and serum creatinine (r = 0.617, P < 0.05) in patients with vascular lesions. In order to further analyse the relationship between TM level and severity degree of vascular lesions in LN patients, we subdivided the patients with vascular lesions into two groups: with thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) and without TMA. TM level of the patients with TMA is significantly higher than those without TMA (P < 0.01). In conclusion, combined with renal pathological examination, monitoring the circulatory levels of TM and VCAM-1, can provide circulating biomarkers of VLS in LN patients.

  7. MicroRNA-221 controls expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 in epithelial cells in response to Cryptosporidium parvum infection

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Ai-Yu; Hu, Guoku; Zhou, Rui; Liu, Jun; Feng, Yaoyu; Soukup, Garrett A.; Chen, Xian-Ming

    2011-01-01

    Cryptosporidium parvum is a protozoan parasite that infects gastrointestinal epithelial cells and causes diarrheal disease in humans and animals globally. Pathological changes following C. parvum infection include crypt hyperplasia, a modest inflammatory reaction with increased infiltration of lymphocytes into intestinal mucosa. Expression of adhesion molecules such as intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), on infected epithelial cell surfaces may facilitate adhesion and recognition of lymphocytes at infection sites. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small RNA molecules of 23 nucleotides that negatively regulate protein-coding gene expression via translational suppression or mRNA degradation. We recently reported that microRNA-221 (miR-221) regulates ICAM-1 translation through targeting the ICAM-1 3′-untranslated region (UTR). In this study, we tested the role of miR-221 in regulating ICAM-1 expression in epithelial cells in response to C. parvum infection using an in vitro model of human biliary cryptosporidiosis. Up-regulation of ICAM-1 at both message and protein levels was detected in epithelial cells following C. parvum infection. Inhibition of ICAM-1 transcription with actinomycin D could only partially block C. parvum-induced ICAM-1 expression at the protein level. Cryptosporidium parvum infection decreased miR-221 expression in infected epithelial cells. When cells were transfected with a luciferase reporter construct covering the miR-221 binding site in the ICAM-1 3′-UTR and then exposed to C. parvum, an enhanced luciferase activity was detected. Transfection of miR-221 precursor abolished C. parvum-stimulated ICAM-1 protein expression. In addition, expression of ICAM-1 on infected epithelial cells facilitated epithelial adherence of co-cultured Jurkat cells. These results indicate that miR-221-mediated translational suppression controls ICAM-1 expression in epithelial cells in response to C. parvum infection. PMID:21236259

  8. Prognostic value of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (s-ICAM-1) in HIV-infected children.

    PubMed

    Gaddi, E; Laucella, S; Balbaryski, J; Cantisano, C; Barboni, G; Candi, M; Giraudi, V

    2000-12-01

    Central events in the host defence system and immune-mediated damage are tightly regulated by cell adhesion molecules. Sera from 28 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infected children divided into groups according to disease severity, six seroreverting (SR) children and 25 healthy controls were studied to detect the presence of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (s-ICAM-1). Soluble ICAM-1 levels were found to be significantly increased in HIV-infected children in comparison with SR children or healthy controls. Levels of soluble ICAM-1 were higher in patients with severe forms of HIV-infection than in those with a milder form of the disease. Significant differences in titers of s-ICAM-1 were recorded between SR children and HIV-infected children with mild disease or healthy controls. There was a significant correlation between s-ICAM-1 levels and the concentrations of beta 2 microglobulin (beta 2m) and, to a lesser extend, immunoglobulin A levels (IgA). Soluble ICAM-1 levels didn't change considerably in HIV-infected children in stable clinical conditions, independently of their clinical stage of the disease, during a follow-up period of 9-12 months. Conversely, s-ICAM-1 levels increased simultaneously with the appearance of new well-defined clinical disorders or decreased during the improvement of clinical conditions. A significant negative correlation was recorded between the titers of the s-ICAM-1 and the CD4(+) T-cell levels. These results suggest that the s-ICAM-1 might be another useful tool to evaluate disease progression.

  9. Structural organization and function of mouse photoreceptor ribbon synapses involve the immunoglobulin protein synaptic cell adhesion molecule 1.

    PubMed

    Ribic, Adema; Liu, Xinran; Crair, Michael C; Biederer, Thomas

    2014-03-01

    Adhesive interactions in the retina instruct the developmental specification of inner retinal layers. However, potential roles of adhesion in the development and function of photoreceptor synapses remain incompletely understood. This contrasts with our understanding of synapse development in the CNS, which can be guided by select adhesion molecules such as the Synaptic Cell Adhesion Molecule 1 (SynCAM 1/CADM1/nectin-like 2 protein). This immunoglobulin superfamily protein modulates the development and plasticity of classical excitatory synapses. We show here by immunoelectron microscopy and immunoblotting that SynCAM 1 is expressed on mouse rod photoreceptors and their terminals in the outer nuclear and plexiform layers in a developmentally regulated manner. Expression of SynCAM 1 on rods is low in early postnatal stages (P3-P7) but increases after eye opening (P14). In support of functional roles in the photoreceptors, electroretinogram recordings demonstrate impaired responses to light stimulation in SynCAM 1 knockout (KO) mice. In addition, the structural integrity of synapses in the OPL requires SynCAM 1. Quantitative ultrastructural analysis of SynCAM 1 KO retina measured fewer fully assembled, triadic rod ribbon synapses. Furthermore, rod synapse ribbons are shortened in KO mice, and protein levels of Ribeye, a major structural component of ribbons, are reduced in SynCAM 1 KO retina. Together, our results implicate SynCAM 1 in the synaptic organization of the rod visual pathway and provide evidence for novel roles of synaptic adhesion in the structural and functional integrity of ribbon synapses.

  10. SNPs in the neural cell adhesion molecule 1 gene (NCAM1) may be associated with human neural tube defects

    PubMed Central

    Deak, Kristen L.; Boyles, Abee L.; Etchevers, Heather C.; Melvin, Elizabeth C.; Siegel, Deborah G.; Graham, Felicia L.; Slifer, Susan H.; Enterline, David S.; George, Timothy M.; Vekemans, Michel; McClay, David; Bassuk, Alexander G.; Kessler, John A.; Linney, Elwood; Gilbert, John R.

    2011-01-01

    Neural tube defects (NTDs) are common birth defects, occurring in approximately 1/1,000 births; both genetic and environmental factors are implicated. To date, no major genetic risk factors have been identified. Throughout development, cell adhesion molecules are strongly implicated in cell–cell interactions, and may play a role in the formation and closure of the neural tube. To evaluate the role of neural cell adhesion molecule 1 (NCAM1) in risk of human NTDs, we screened for novel single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the gene. Eleven SNPs across NCAM1 were genotyped using TaqMan. We utilized a family-based approach to evaluate evidence for association and/or linkage disequilibrium. We evaluated American Caucasian simplex lumbosacral myelomeningocele families (n=132 families) using the family based association test (FBAT) and the pedigree disequilibrium test (PDT). Association analysis revealed a significant association between risk for NTDs and intronic SNP rs2298526 using both the FBAT test (P=0.0018) and the PDT (P=0.0025). Using the HBAT version of the FBAT to look for haplotype association, all pairwise comparisons with SNP rs2298526 were also significant. A replication study set, consisting of 72 additional families showed no significant association; however, the overall trend for overtransmission of the less common allele of SNP rs2298526 remained significant in the combined sample set. In addition, we analyzed the expression pattern of the NCAM1 protein in human embryos, and while NCAM1 is not expressed within the neural tube at the time of closure, it is expressed in the surrounding and later in differentiated neurons of the CNS. These results suggest variations in NCAM1 may influence risk for human NTDs. PMID:15883837

  11. Plasma zinc levels inversely correlate with vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 concentration in children with sickle cell disease.

    PubMed Central

    Kuvibidila, Solo R.; Sandoval, Manuel; Lao, Juan; Velez, Maria; Yu, Lolie; Ode, David; Gardner, Renée; Lane, Gerald; Warrier, Raj P.

    2006-01-01

    Zinc deficiency has been implicated in impaired cell-mediated immunity of children with sickle cell disease (SCD). However, its influence on the expression of vascular cell-adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) on endothelial cells, a protein involved in vasoocclusion, has not been previously investigated. We therefore measured (soluble) sVCAM-1 and zinc in 76 SCD children and 96 non-SCD children, mean age 7.73 years and 11.24 years, respectively. Although mean zinc levels of both groups were within the normal range (approximately 14.5 micromol/l), 14.5 % of SCD and 11% of non-SCD children (without inflammation) had levels below normal (10.7 micromol/L). Mean sVCAM-1 concentrations of SCD children (837 microg/l) were significantly higher than those of controls (627 microg/l) (p < 0.001). Differences persisted after taking into account age, hemoglobin phenotype, and inflammation (alpha-l acid glycoprotein >l g/l and C-reactive protein >10 mg/I). sVCAM-1 negatively correlated with serum (r = -0.444) and red blood cells zinc (r = -0.242, p < 0.05) but not with acute-phase proteins. Mean sVCAM-1 tended to be higher in SCD children with than in those without a history of a health problem (infection, pain crisis or were transfused; not significant). Data suggest that zinc may modulate the clinical status of SCD children through VCAM-1 expression, and zinc supplementation may be beneficial in these patients. PMID:16916123

  12. Targeted disruption of carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 promotes diet-induced hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Xu, Elaine; Dubois, Marie-Julie; Leung, Nelly; Charbonneau, Alexandre; Turbide, Claire; Avramoglu, Rita Kohen; DeMarte, Luisa; Elchebly, Mounib; Streichert, Thomas; Lévy, Emile; Beauchemin, Nicole; Marette, André

    2009-08-01

    Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 (CC1) is a cell adhesion molecule within the Ig superfamily. The Tyr-phosphorylated isoform of CC1 (CC1-L) plays an important metabolic role in the regulation of hepatic insulin clearance. In this report, we show that CC1-deficient (Cc1(-/-)) mice are prone to hepatic steatosis, as revealed by significantly elevated hepatic triglyceride and both total and esterified cholesterol levels compared with age-matched wild-type controls. Cc1(-/-) mice were also predisposed to lipid-induced hepatic steatosis and dysfunction as indicated by their greater susceptibility to store lipids and express elevated levels of enzymatic markers of liver damage after chronic feeding of a high-fat diet. Hepatic steatosis in the Cc1(-/-) mice was linked to a significant increase in the expression of key lipogenic (fatty acid synthase, acetyl CoA carboxylase) and cholesterol synthetic (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase) enzymes under the control of sterol regulatory element binding proteins-1c and -2 transcription factors. Cc1(-/-) mice also exhibited impaired insulin clearance, glucose intolerance, liver insulin resistance, and elevated hepatic expression of the key gluconeogenic transcriptional activators peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1 and Forkhead box O1. Lack of CC1 also exacerbated both glucose intolerance and hepatic insulin resistance induced by high-fat feeding, but insulin clearance was not further deteriorated in the high-fat-fed Cc1(-/-) mice. In conclusion, our data indicate that CC1 is a key regulator of hepatic lipogenesis and that Cc1(-/-) mice are predisposed to liver steatosis, leading to hepatic insulin resistance and liver damage, particularly when chronically exposed to dietary fat.

  13. Leptin Resistance Contributes to Obesity in Mice with Null Mutation of Carcinoembryonic Antigen-related Cell Adhesion Molecule 1.

    PubMed

    Heinrich, Garrett; Russo, Lucia; Castaneda, Tamara R; Pfeiffer, Verena; Ghadieh, Hilda E; Ghanem, Simona S; Wu, Jieshen; Faulkner, Latrice D; Ergün, Süleyman; McInerney, Marcia F; Hill, Jennifer W; Najjar, Sonia M

    2016-05-20

    Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1) promotes hepatic insulin clearance. Consistently, mice with null mutation of Ceacam1 (Cc1(-/-)) exhibit impaired insulin clearance with increased lipid production in liver and redistribution to white adipose tissue, leading to visceral obesity at 2 months of age. When the mutation is propagated on the C57/BL6J genetic background, total fat mass rises significantly with age, and glucose intolerance and systemic insulin resistance develop at 6 months of age. This study was carried out to determine the mechanisms underlying the marked increase in total fat mass in 6-month-old mutants. Indirect calorimetry analysis showed that Cc1(-/-) mice develop hyperphagia and a significant reduction in physical activity, in particular in the early hours of the dark cycle, during which energy expenditure is only slightly lower than in wild-type mice. They also exhibit increased triglyceride accumulation in skeletal muscle, due in part to incomplete fatty acid β-oxidation. Mechanistically, hypothalamic leptin signaling is reduced, as demonstrated by blunted STAT3 phosphorylation in coronal sections in response to an intracerebral ventricular injection of leptin. Hypothalamic fatty-acid synthase activity is also elevated in the mutants. Together, the data show that the increase in total fat mass in Cc1(-/-) mice is mainly attributed to hyperphagia and reduced spontaneous physical activity. Although the contribution of the loss of CEACAM1 from anorexigenic proopiomelanocortin neurons in the arcuate nucleus is unclear, leptin resistance and elevated hypothalamic fatty-acid synthase activity could underlie altered energy balance in these mice.

  14. Benzo[a]pyrene induces intercellular adhesion molecule-1 through a caveolae and aryl hydrocarbon receptor mediated pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Oesterling, Elizabeth; Toborek, Michal; Hennig, Bernhard

    2008-10-15

    Toxicologic and epidemiologic studies have linked benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) exposure with cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis. The mechanisms of action leading to these diseases have not been fully understood. One key step in the development of atherosclerosis is vascular endothelial dysfunction, which is characterized by increased adhesiveness. To determine if B[a]P could lead to increased endothelial adhesiveness, the effects of B[a]P on human endothelial cell intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression was investigated. B[a]P was able to increase ICAM-1 protein only after pretreatment with the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonist {beta}-naphthoflavone ({beta}-NF). Knockdown of AhR by siRNA or treatment with AhR antagonist {alpha}-naphthoflavone ({alpha}-NF) eliminated the induction of ICAM-1 from B[a]P, confirming the necessity of AhR in this process. Likewise, B[a]P only increased monocyte adhesion to the vascular endothelium when cells were pretreated with {beta}-NF. Experiments were done to define a signaling mechanism. B[a]P increased phosphorylation of MEK and p38-MAPK, and inhibitors to these proteins blunted the ICAM-1 induction. B[a]P was also able to increase AP-1 DNA binding and phosphorylation of cJun. Phosphorylation of cJun was disrupted by MEK and p38-MAPK inhibitors linking the signaling cascade. Finally, the importance of membrane microdomains, caveolae, was demonstrated by knockdown of the structural protein caveolin-1. Disruption of caveolae eliminated the B[a]P-induced ICAM-1 expression. These data suggest a possible pro-inflammatory mechanism of action of B[a]P involving caveolae, leading to increased vascular endothelial adhesiveness, and this inflammation may be a critical step in the development of B[a]P-induced atherosclerosis.

  15. Inducible expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 by vascular smooth muscle cells in vitro and within rabbit atheroma.

    PubMed Central

    Li, H.; Cybulsky, M. I.; Gimbrone, M. A.; Libby, P.

    1993-01-01

    Vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), a mononuclear leukocyte adhesion molecule, is expressed in cultured vascular endothelial cells activated by cytokines and is induced in rabbit aortic endothelium in vivo within 1 week after initiation of an atherogenic diet. We now demonstrate that vascular smooth muscle cells can also express VCAM-1 in rabbit atherosclerotic lesions in vivo and in response to cytokines in vitro. Immunohistochemical staining of aortas from rabbits fed a 0.3% cholesterol-containing diet revealed that a portion of smooth muscle cells within intimal foam cell-rich lesions expressed VCAM-1. The intimal VCAM-1-expressing cells localized predominantly in regions above the internal elastic lamina. These VCAM-1-positive cells had the typical spindle shape of smooth muscle cells but had reduced alpha-actin expression in comparison to normal medial smooth muscle cells, and did not bear markers for endothelium, macrophages, and T cells. In culture, rabbit aortic smooth muscle cells expressed VCAM-1 mRNA and protein in a time- and concentration-dependent fashion when exposed to interferon-gamma or Gram-negative bacterial lipopolysaccharide. Cultured human vascular smooth muscle cells also expressed VCAM-1 mRNA and protein in response to lipopolysaccharide, interferon-gamma, and interleukin-4. The monokines interleukin-1 alpha and tumor necrosis factor-alpha did not induce VCAM-1 expression in either rabbit or human vascular smooth muscle cells. Inducible VCAM-1 expression by vascular smooth muscle cells in vivo during hypercholesterolemia and in vitro in response to certain cytokines suggests a broader range of VCAM-1 functions in vascular biology than heretofore appreciated. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:7504883

  16. Identification of the binding site in intercellular adhesion molecule 1 for its receptor, leukocyte function-associated antigen 1.

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, K L; Lu, J; Riddle, L; Kim, K J; Presta, L G; Bodary, S C

    1997-01-01

    Intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1, CD54) is a member of the Ig superfamily and is a counterreceptor for the beta 2 integrins: lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1, CD11a/CD18), complement receptor 1 (MAC-1, CD11b/CD18), and p150,95 (CD11c/CD18). Binding of ICAM-1 to these receptors mediates leukocyte-adhesive functions in immune and inflammatory responses. In this report, we describe a cell-free assay using purified recombinant extracellular domains of LFA-1 and a dimeric immunoadhesin of ICAM-1. The binding of recombinant secreted LFA-1 to ICAM-1 is divalent cation dependent (Mg2+ and Mn2+ promote binding) and sensitive to inhibition by antibodies that block LFA-1-mediated cell adhesion, indicating that its conformation mimics that of LFA-1 on activated lymphocytes. We describe six novel anti-ICAM-1 monoclonal antibodies, two of which are function blocking. Thirty-five point mutants of the ICAM-1 immunoadhesin were generated and residues important for binding of monoclonal antibodies and purified LFA-1 were identified. Nineteen of these mutants bind recombinant LFA-1 equivalently to wild type. Sixteen mutants show a 66-2500-fold decrease in LFA-1 binding yet, with few exceptions, retain binding to the monoclonal antibodies. These mutants, along with modeling studies, define the LFA-1 binding site on ICAM-1 as residues E34, K39, M64, Y66, N68, and Q73, that are predicted to lie on the CDFG beta-sheet of the Ig fold. The mutant G32A also abrogates binding to LFA-1 while retaining binding to all of the antibodies, possibly indicating a direct interaction of this residue with LFA-1. These data have allowed the generation of a highly refined model of the LFA-1 binding site of ICAM-1. Images PMID:9188101

  17. Physics: Grades 10-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Instructional Objectives Exchange, Los Angeles, CA.

    The physics objectives are geared to use in college preparatory, high school physics courses and are based on the three most common physics curricula: (1) Physical Science Study Committee (PSSC); (2) The Project Physics Course; and (3) Modern Physics by Dull, Metcalf, and Williams. Since many of the sample items can be answered in various ways,…

  18. Study of the 20,22Ne+20,22Ne and 10,12,13,14,15C+12C Fusion Reactions with MUSIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avila, M. L.; Rehm, K. E.; Almaraz-Calderon, S.; Carnelli, P. F. F.; DiGiovine, B.; Esbensen, H.; Hoffman, C. R.; Jiang, C. L.; Kay, B. P.; Lai, J.; Nusair, O.; Pardo, R. C.; Santiago-Gonzalez, D.; Talwar, R.; Ugalde, C.

    2016-05-01

    A highly efficient MUlti-Sampling Ionization Chamber (MUSIC) detector has been developed for measurements of fusion reactions. A study of fusion cross sections in the 10,12,13,14,15C+12C and 20,22Ne+20,22Ne systems has been performed at ATLAS. Experimental results and comparison with theoretical predictions are presented. Furthermore, results of direct measurements of the 17O(α, n)20Ne, 23Ne(α, p)26Mg and 23Ne(α, n)26Al reactions will be discussed.

  19. FMC46, a cell protrusion-associated leukocyte adhesion molecule-1 epitope on human lymphocytes and thymocytes.

    PubMed

    Pilarski, L M; Turley, E A; Shaw, A R; Gallatin, W M; Laderoute, M P; Gillitzer, R; Beckman, I G; Zola, H

    1991-07-01

    In this report, we describe a 76-kDa glycoprotein recognized by mAb FMC46 that, by virtue of its concentration on cell protrusions involved in motility, may be important in lymphoid cell locomotion. FMC46 detects an epitope of the leukocyte adhesion molecule-1 (LAM-1), a member of the selecting family (LAM-1, Endothelial Leukocyte Adhesion Molecular-1 (ELAM-1), and Granule Membrane Protein-140 (GMP-140), that is expressed on LAM-1-transfected cell lines, is a glycosylation epitope based on its loss after culture in tunicamycin, and is closely related to the LAM-1.2 epitope. FMC46 is expressed at high density on the majority of CD45RA+ and CD45RO+ peripheral blood T cells (60 to 70%) and on a subset of thymocytes that includes the multinegative CD3- CD4- CD8- progenitor cells (100% FMC46hi) and the CD45R0- presumptive thymic generative lineage (70% FMC46hi). It appears at reduced density and frequency on CD45RA- thymocytes (50% FMC46lo), comprised mainly of death-committed thymocytes. Among thymic subsets defined by expression of CD4 and/or CD8, FMC46 is expressed at high density predominantly on a subset of single-positive cells and not on double-positive cells. These results suggest a fundamental role for LAM-1 in thymic development, with a high density preferentially expressed on cells involved in thymic generative processes and a low density on cells progressing to intrathymic death. A major subset of peripheral blood B cells and thymic B cells also express FMC46. Immunohistochemistry on frozen sections indicated strong staining in splenic follicles and around blood vessels, staining of the thymic medulla and subcapsular areas, and staining of the mantle zone of germinal centers of the lymph node. FMC46+ lymphocytes accumulated along high endothelial venules in the lymph node. On locomoting multinegative thymocytes, FMC46 is concentrated on the leading tip of extended processes, on pseudopods, and on ruffles, unlike the distribution of either CD44 or TQ1 (LAM 1

  20. Soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1, D-lactate and diamine oxidase in patients with inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Song, Wei-Bing; Lv, Yong-Hui; Zhang, Zhen-Shu; Li, Ya-Nan; Xiao, Li-Ping; Yu, Xin-Pei; Wang, Yuan-Yuan; Ji, Hong-Li; Ma, Li

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To study the levels of serum soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), plasma D-lactate and diamine oxidase (DAO) in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and the potential clinical significance. METHODS: Sixty-nine patients with IBD and 30 healthy controls were included in this study. The concentration of sICAM-1 was detected with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, the level of D-lactate and DAO was measured by spectroscopic analysis, and the number of white blood cells (WBC) was determined by routine procedure. RESULTS: The levels of sICAM-l, DAO, and WBC in IBD patients were significantly higher than those in the control group (P < 0.01). sICAM-l in IBD patients was found to be closely related to the levels of DAO and D-lactate (212.94 ± 69.89 vs 6.35 ± 2.35, P = 0.000), DAO 212.94 ± 69.89 vs 8.65 ± 3.54, P = 0.000) and WBC (212.94 ± 69.89 vs 7.40 ± 2.61, P = 0.000), but no significant difference was observed between patients with ulcerative colitis and patients with Crohn’s disease. The post-treatment levels of sICAM-l, D-lactate and WBC were significantly lower than before treatment (sICAM-l 206.57 ± 79.21 vs 146.21 ± 64.43, P = 0.000), (D-lactate 1.46 ± 0.94 vs 0.52 ± 0.32, P = 0.000) and (WBC 7.24 ± 0.2.33 vs 5.21 ± 3.21, P = 0.000). CONCLUSION: sICAM-1, D-lactate and DAO are closely related to the specific conditions of IBD, and thus could be used as a major diagnostic index. PMID:19701972

  1. Brain Gym To Increase Academic Performance Of Children Aged 10-12 Years Old ( Experimental Study in Tembalang Elementary School and Pedalangan Elementary School Semarang)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marpaung, M. G.; Sareharto, T. P.; Purwanti, A.; Hermawati, D.

    2017-02-01

    Academic performance becomes an important determinant of individual quality. it is determined by the function of affective, cognitive, psychomotor, and intelligence. Brain gym can improve learning processes and integrate all areas that related to the learning process. To prove the effect of brain gym towards academic performance of children aged 10-12 years. This study was a quasy experiment study with one group pre and post test design. Samples (n=18 male=7 and female=11) were taken from five and six grader and conducted in Tembalang and Pedalangan Elementary School, Semarang. Pretest were administered, followed by brain gym, and post test administered in the end of study. The measurement of Intelligence Quotient pre and post test using Culture Fair Intelligence Test Scale 2. Among the 18 subjects (male=7 and female=11) the average of academic performance and IQ score after brain gym showed improvement. The Improvement of IQ score with Culture Fair Test Scale 2 was analyzed by Dependent T test showed significant results (p=0,000). The improvement of Bahasa score was analyzed by Wilcoxon test showed significant results (p=0,001), an unsignificant result were shown in Mathematics p=0,079 and natural sciences p=0,306. Brain gym can increase academic performance of children aged 10-12 years old.

  2. The relationship between platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 and paraquat-induced lung injury in rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Jing; Hu, Chun-lin; Gao, Yu-feng; Liao, Xiao-xing; Xu, Hope

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1), also known as CD31, is mainly distributed in vascular endothelial cells. Studies have shown that PECAM-1 is a very significant indicator of angiogenesis, and has been used as an indicator for vascular endothelial cells. The present study aimed to explore the relationship between the expression of PECAM-1 and the degree of acute lung injury (ALI) and fibrosis in paraquat (PQ) induced lung injury in rabbits. METHODS: Thirty-six adult New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into three groups (12 rabbits in each group) according to PQ dosage: 8 mg/kg (group A), 16 mg/kg (group B), and 32 mg/kg (group C). After PQ infusion, the rabbits were monitored for 7 days and then euthanized. The lungs were removed for histological evaluation. Masson staining was used to determine the degree of lung fibrosis (LF), and semi-quantitative immune-histochemistry analysis to determine the expression of PECAM-1. Pearson’s product-moment correlation analysis was performed to evaluate the relationship between the expression of PECAM-1 and the extent of lung injuries expressed by ALI score and degree of LF. RESULTS: Rabbits in the three groups showed apparent poisoning. The rabbits survived longer in group A than in groups B and C (6.47±0.99 days vs. 6.09±1.04 days vs. 4.77±2.04 days) (P<0.05). ALI score was lower in group A than in groups B and C (8.33±1.03 vs. 9.83±1.17 vs. 11.50±1.38) (P<0.05), and there was statistically significant difference between group B and group C (P=0.03). LF was slighter in group A than in groups B and C (31.09%±2.05 % vs. 34.37%±1.62 % vs. 36.54%±0.44%) (P<0.05), and there was statistically significant difference between group B and group C (P=0.026). The PEACAM-1 expression was higher in group A than in groups B and C (20.31%±0.70% vs. 19.34%±0.68% vs. 18.37%±0.46%) (P<0.05), and there was statistically significant difference between group B and group C (P=0.017). Pearson

  3. Evidence for a High-Pressure Phase Transition of ε-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane (CL-20) Using Vibrational Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Ciezak, J.; Jenkins, T; Liu, Z

    2007-01-01

    The high-pressure response of {epsilon}-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexanitrohexaazaisowurtizane (CL-20) has been examined to 27 GPa in diamond anvil cells using vibrational spectroscopy. The results reveal evidence of an {epsilon}{yields}{Upsilon} pressure-induced phase transition between 4.1 and 6.4 GPa and suggest the existence of a {Upsilon}{yields}{zeta} transition near 18.7 GPa. Several Raman and infrared frequencies were found to decrease in intensity as the phase boundaries are approached. An anomalous intensity increase was noted in the C-N-C infrared mode that is believed to result from an increase in the Raman cross-section due to a stronger interlayer coupling under pressure.

  4. Thermal Nondestructive Evaluation Report: Inspection of the Refurbished Manipulator Arm System in the Manipulator Development Facility at Johnson Space Center 10-12 January 2001

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cramer, K. Elliott

    2002-01-01

    On 4 December 2002, a failure of the Refurbished Manipulator Arm System (RMAS) occurred in the Manipulator Development Facility (MDF) at Johnson Space Center. When the Test Director commanded a should pitch maneuver to lift the arm from its payload bay pedestal, the yaw controls failed. This, coupled with a gravitational forces (due to the angle of the shoulder joint with respect to vertical), resulted in uncontrolled arm motion. The shoulder yaw joint moved approximately 20 degrees, causing the extended arm to strike and severely damage the port side MDF catwalk handrails. The arm motion stopped after impact with the handrails. On 10-12 January 2001, inspections were performed on the port face of the lower and upper arms of the RMAS using a infrared thermography developed at Langley Research Center. This paper presents the results of those nondestructive inspections and provides a complete description of the anomalies found and their locations.

  5. Reading comprehension among typically developing Swedish-speaking 10-12-year-olds: examining subgroups differentiated in terms of language and decoding skills.

    PubMed

    Asberg, Jakob; Carlsson, Marika; Oderstam, Ann-Marie; Miniscalco, Carmela

    2010-12-01

    Based on data from 156 typically developing 10-12-year-olds from Sweden, reading comprehension skills were studied in three subgroups: those classified with specific poor word decoding skills (n = 10), those with specific poor language comprehension (n = 12), and those with mixed difficulties in word decoding and language comprehension (n = 11). The mixed poor group achieved significantly lower scores than both specific groups in reading comprehension, and was the only group displaying poor reading comprehension test results relative to the performance of the full sample. Results are indicative of the necessity of a combined effect of poor word decoding and language in reading comprehension difficulties for this group. Implications and limitations are discussed.

  6. Stereospecificity of an enzymatic monoene 1,4-dehydrogenation reaction: conversion of (Z)-11-tetradecenoic acid into (E,E)-10,12-tetradecadienoic acid.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Sergio; Clapés, Pere; Camps, Francisco; Fabriàs, Gemma

    2002-04-05

    In this article, we report the first stereochemical study of an enzymatic 1,4-dehydrogenation reaction, namely, the transformation of (Z)-11-tetradecenoic acid into (E,E)-10,12-tetradecadienoic acid, involved in the sex pheromone biosynthesis of the moth Spodoptera littoralis. The investigation was carried out using the labeled substrates (R)-[10-(2)H]- and (S)-[10-(2)H]-tridecanoic acids ((R)-2 and (S)-2, respectively) and (R)-[2,2,3,3,13-(2)H(5)]- and (S)-[2,2,3,3,13-(2)H(5)]-tetradecanoic acids ((R)-1 and (S)-1, respectively). Probes (R)-2 and (S)-2 were prepared as described in a previous article.(1) The synthesis of the pentadeuterated chiral substrates (R)-1 and (S)-1 was accomplished by kinetic resolution of the racemic 12-tridecyn-2-ol (6) with immobilized porcine pancreatic lipase. The enantiomerically pure alcohols (R)-6 and (S)-6 were transformed into the final acids (S)-1 and (R)-1, respectively, by a sequence of well-established reactions. The analyses of methanolyzed lipidic extracts from glands incubated separatedly with each individual probe showed that in the transformation of (Z)-11-tetradecenoic acid into (E,E)-10,12-tetradecadienoic acid, both pro-(R) hydrogen atoms at C-10 and C-13 are removed from the substrate. This is the first example reported of a desaturase with pro-(R)/pro-(R) stereospecificities that gives rise to (E)-double bonds. A mechanistic explanation for the stereochemical outcome of this reaction is advanced.

  7. [PhSiO1.5]8,10,12 as nanoreactors for non-enzymatic introduction of ortho, meta or para-hydroxyl groups to aromatic molecules.

    PubMed

    Bahrami, Mozhgan; Zhang, Xingwen; Ehsani, Morteza; Jahani, Yousef; Laine, Richard M

    2017-03-20

    Traditional electrophilic bromination follows long established "rules": electron-withdrawing substituents cause bromination selective for meta positions, whereas electron-donating substituents favor ortho and para bromination. In contrast, in the [PhSiO1.5]8,10,12 silsesquioxanes, the cages act as bulky, electron withdrawing groups equivalent to CF3; yet bromination under mild conditions, without a catalyst, greatly favors ortho substitution. Surprisingly, ICl iodination without a catalyst favors (>90%) para substitution [p-IC6H4SiO1.5]8,10,12. Finally, nitration and Friedel-Crafts acylation and sulfonylation are highly meta selective, >80%. In principle, the two halogenation formats coupled with the traditional electrophilic reactions provide selective functionalization at each position on the aromatic ring. Furthermore, halogenation serves as a starting point for the synthesis of two structural isomers of practical utility, i.e. in drug prospecting. The o-bromo and p-iodo compounds are easily modified by catalytic cross-coupling to append diverse functional groups. Thereafter, F(-)/H2O2 treatment cleaves the Si-C bonds replacing Si with OH. This represents a rare opportunity to introduce hydroxyl groups to aromatic rings, a process not easily accomplished using traditional organic synthesis methods. The as-produced phenol provides additional opportunities for modification. Each cage can be considered a nanoreactor generating 8-12 product molecules. Examples given include syntheses of 4,2'-R,OH-stilbenes and 4,4'-R,OH-stilbenes (R = Me, CN). Unoptimized cleavage of the Br/I derivatives yields 55-85% phenol. Unoptimized cleavage of the stilbene derivatives yields 35-40% (3-5 equivalents of phenol) in the preliminary studies presented here. In contrast, meta R-phenol yields are 80% (7-10 mol per cage).

  8. A convenient approach to 10-12 g/ g ICP-MS limits for Th and U in aurubis electrolytic NA-ESN brand copper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonard, Douglas S.

    2014-06-01

    Inductively-coupled-plasma mass spectroscopy is a powerful technique for measuring trace levels of radioactive contaminants, specifically Th and U, in materials for use in construction of low-background rare-event detectors such as double beta decay and dark matter detectors. I describe here a technique for measuring Th and U contamination in copper by using direct acid digestion and dilution without further chemical processing, achieving results comparable to those achieved in previous work [1, 2] which utilized more complex chemical pre-concentration techniques. A convenient research-oriented analysis environment is described as well. Results are presented for measurements of three samples from the production line of electrolytically-purified, LME (London Metal Exchange) grade A, NA-ESN Aurubis copper. Purified samples showed levels consistent with zero contamination for both elements, while weak, but inconclusive, indications of contamination were present for the unpurified anode copper. The best limits achieved are near 1•10-12 g/ g (95% CL) for both Th and U measured for copper from the cathode of the purification process.

  9. Characterization of 10,12-pentacosadiynoic acid Langmuir–Blodgett monolayers and their use in metal–insulator–metal tunnel devices

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Saumya; Khawaja, Mohamad; Ram, Manoj K; Goswami, D Yogi

    2014-01-01

    Summary The characterization of Langmuir–Blodgett thin films of 10,12-pentacosadiynoic acid (PDA) and their use in metal–insulator–metal (MIM) devices were studied. The Langmuir monolayer behavior of the PDA film was studied at the air/water interface using surface tension–area isotherms of polymeric and monomeric PDA. Langmuir–Blodgett (LB, vertical deposition) and Langmuir–Schaefer (LS, horizontal deposition) techniques were used to deposit the PDA film on various substrates (glass, quartz, silicon, and nickel-coated film on glass). The electrochemical, electrical and optical properties of the LB and LS PDA films were studied using cyclic voltammetry, current–voltage characteristics (I–V), and UV–vis and FTIR spectroscopies. Atomic force microscopy measurements were performed in order to analyze the surface morphology and roughness of the films. A MIM tunnel diode was fabricated using a PDA monolayer assembly as the insulating barrier, which was sandwiched between two nickel layers. The precise control of the thickness of the insulating monolayers proved critical for electron tunneling to take place in the MIM structure. The current–voltage characteristics of the MIM diode revealed tunneling behavior in the fabricated Ni–PDA LB film–Ni structures. PMID:25551052

  10. Frequency-agile, rapid scanning spectroscopy: absorption sensitivity of 2 × 10-12 cm-1 Hz-1/2 with a tunable diode laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, D. A.; Truong, G.-W.; van Zee, R. D.; Plusquellic, D. F.; Hodges, J. T.

    2014-03-01

    We present ultrasensitive measurements of molecular absorption using frequency-agile rapid scanning, cavity ring-down spectroscopy with an external-cavity diode laser. A microwave source that drives an electro-optic phase modulator with a bandwidth of 20 GHz generates pairs of sidebands on the probe laser. The optical cavity provides for high sensitivity and filters the carrier and all but a single, selected sideband. Absorption spectra were acquired by stepping the tunable sideband from mode-to-mode of the ring-down cavity at a rate that was limited only by the cavity decay time. This approach allows for scanning rates of 8 kHz per cavity resonance, a minimum detectable absorption coefficient of 1.7 × 10-11 cm-1 after only 20 ms of averaging, and a noise-equivalent absorption coefficient of 1.7 × 10-12 cm-1 Hz-1/2. By comparison with cavity-enhanced laser absorption spectrometers reported in the literature, the present system is, to the best of our knowledge, among the most sensitive and has by far the highest spectrum scanning rate.

  11. Geochemical Characterization of Bitumen Carbonate from Grosmont Formation, Alberta: Well 10-12-93-24W4 and 11-33-94-22W4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seol, J.; Kil, Y. W.; Kim, J. H.; Choi, J.

    2014-12-01

    Carbonate bitumen, one of the unconventional oils, has been attracting attention as an energy resource, which can substitute petroleum resources. Various researchers have been investigating carbonate rocks to exploit bitumen reservoirs. Grosmont Formation, located in northern Alberta, is one of the largest carbonate reservoirs in the world. We conducted inorganic geochemical analysis about two-carbonate rock cores of Grosmont Formation (well 10-12-93-24W4, 11-33-94-22W4), obtained from Core Research Center (CRC) in Canada to investigate the characteristics and origin of dolomite in the Grosmont Formation. Grosmont Formation consists of four carbonate units, UG3, UG2, UG1 and LG, with three shale beds, SB3, SB2 and SB1. Major and trace elements, and isotope compositions of dolomites from UG and LG units indicate that UG dolomites were formed within a near surface environment under evaporitic condition, whereas LG dolomites were formed in a diagenetic environment. UG and LG dolomites might be formed at temperature ranging from 43.9 °C to 56.7 °C with Devonian seawater.

  12. Complexes of DNA Bases and Watson-Crick Base Pairs Interaction with Neutral Silver Agn (n = 8, 10, 12) Clusters: A DFT and TDDFT Study.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Ruby

    2017-03-21

    We study the binding of the neutral Agn (n = 8, 10, 12) to the DNA base- adenine (A), guanine (G) and Watson-Crick -adenine-thymine (AT), guanine-cytosine (GC) pairs. Geometries of complexes were optimized at the DFT level using the hybrid B3LYP functional. LANL2DZ effective core potential (ECP) was used for silver and 6-31+G(**) was used for all other atoms. NBO charges were analyzed using the Natural population analysis. The absorption properties of Agn-A,G/WC complexes were also studied using time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT). The absorption spectra for these complexes show wavelength in the visible region. It was revealed that silver clusters interact more strongly with WC pairs than with isolated DNA complexes. Furthermore, it was found that the electronic charge transferred from silver to isolated DNA clusters are less than the electronic charge transferred from silver to the Agn-WC complexes. The vertical ionization potential, vertical electron affinity, hardness and electrophilicity index of Agn-DNA/WC complexes have also been discussed.

  13. The Prevalence of Spine Deformities and Flat Feet among 10-12 Year Old Children Who Train Basketball--Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Puzovic, Vladimir; Rotim, Kresimir; Jurisic, Vladimir; Samardzic, Miroslav; Zivkovic, Bojana; Savic, Andrija; Rasulic, Lukas

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study is to estimate the prevalence of spine and feet deformities among children who are regularly involved in basketball trainings, as well as finding differences in the prevalence of those deformities between children of different gender and age. The study included a total of 64 children, of which 43 were boys and 21 were girls, ages 10-12. All subjects have been regularly participating in basketball trainings for at least one year. Postural disorder is defined as an irregularity in posture of the spine and feet, and it is assessed by visual methods from the front, side and rear side of the body. The prevalence of spinal deformities in our group was 53.13%. The boys had a significantly higher prevalence than girls, 65.1% compared to 28.57% (p=0.006). There was no significant difference in prevalence of spine deformities between children of different ages. The prevalence of feet deformities was 64.06%. There was a statistically significant difference between the sexes, where boys had a significantly greater prevalence of the feet deformities than girls, 83.7% compared to 23.81% (p=0.001). Flat feet were the most common in 10 year old children (85.71%). In conclusion, it can be said that despite regular participation in basketball training, subjects in this study have high prevalence of deformities; especially boys who stand out with the high prevalence of flat feet.

  14. Keishibukuryogan (Gui-Zhi-Fu-Ling-Wan), a Kampo Formula, Decreases Disease Activity and Soluble Vascular Adhesion Molecule-1 in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Nozaki, Kazuya; Hikiami, Hiroaki; Goto, Hirozo; Nakagawa, Takako; Shibahara, Naotoshi; Shimada, Yutaka

    2006-01-01

    An increasing death rate due to cardiovascular disease in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has been reported. Keishibukuryogan (KBG) is a traditional Chinese/Japanese (Kampo) formula that has been administered to patients with blood stagnation, e.g. thrombotic disease and atherosclerosis. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of KBG on disease activity and endothelial dysfunction in RA patients. Sixteen RA patients were enrolled and administered KBG (12 g per day) for 12 weeks in addition to continuing other drugs. The disease activity of RA was assessed by modified disease activity scores for 28 joints (DAS28). Plasma levels of adhesion molecules, soluble E-selectin (sE-selectin), soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1) were evaluated. C-reactive protein (CRP), inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α) and lipid peroxide (LPO) were also evaluated. Fourteen patients completed the study. The disease activity of RA, tender joint count, swollen joint count and DAS28 decreased significantly. Among adhesion molecules, only sVCAM-1 decreased significantly. LPO also decreased significantly, whereas CRP and inflammatory cytokines remained unchanged. These results suggest that KBG has insufficient anti-inflammatory or immunomodulating effect but does have a beneficial effect on articular symptoms and a protective effect against endothelial dysfunction in RA patients. PMID:16951720

  15. Kinin B1 receptor regulates interactions between neutrophils and endothelial cells by modulating the levels of Mac-1, LFA-1 and intercellular adhesion molecule-1.

    PubMed

    Figueroa, Carlos D; Matus, Carola E; Pavicic, Francisca; Sarmiento, Jose; Hidalgo, Maria A; Burgos, Rafael A; Gonzalez, Carlos B; Bhoola, Kanti D; Ehrenfeld, Pamela

    2015-04-01

    Kinins are pro-inflammatory peptides that mimic the cardinal features of inflammation. We examined the concept that expression levels of endothelial intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and neutrophil integrins Mac-1 and LFA-1 are modulated by the kinin B1 receptor (B1R) agonist, Lys-des[Arg(9)]bradykinin (LDBK). Stimulation of endothelial cells with LDBK increased the levels of ICAM-1 mRNA transcripts/protein, and also of E-selectin and platelet endothelial adhesion molecule-1. ICAM-1 levels increased in a magnitude comparable with that produced by TNF-α. This stimulatory effect was reduced when endothelial cells, which had been previously transfected with a B1R small interfering RNA, were stimulated with LDBK, under comparable conditions. Similarly, LDBK produced a significant increase in protein levels of LFA-1 and Mac-1 integrins in human neutrophils, an effect that was reversed by pretreatment of cells with 10 µg/ml cycloheximide or a B1R antagonist. Functional experiments performed with post-confluent monolayers of endothelial cells stimulated with LDBK and neutrophils primed with TNF-α, and vice versa, resulted in enhanced adhesiveness between both cells. Neutralizing Abs to ICAM-1 and Mac-1 reduced the adhesion between them. Our results indicate that kinin B1R is a novel modulator that promotes adhesion of leukocytes to endothelial cells, critically enhancing the movement of neutrophils from the circulation to sites of inflammation.

  16. The 18-kDa Translocator Protein Inhibits Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 Expression via Inhibition of Mitochondrial Reactive Oxygen Species

    PubMed Central

    Joo, Hee Kyoung; Lee, Yu Ran; Kang, Gun; Choi, Sunga; Kim, Cuk-Seong; Ryoo, Sungwoo; Park, Jin Bong; Jeon, Byeong Hwa

    2015-01-01

    Translocator protein 18 kDa (TSPO) is a mitochondrial outer membrane protein and is abundantly expressed in a variety of organ and tissues. To date, the functional role of TSPO on vascular endothelial cell activation has yet to be fully elucidated. In the present study, the phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA, 250 nM), an activator of protein kinase C (PKC), was used to induce vascular endothelial activation. Adenoviral TSPO overexpression (10–100 MOI) inhibited PMA-induced vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and intracellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression in a dose dependent manner. PMA-induced VCAM-1 expressions were inhibited by Mito-TEMPO (0.1–0.5 μM), a specific mitochondrial antioxidants, and cyclosporin A (1–5 μM), a mitochondrial permeability transition pore inhibitor, implying on an important role of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) on the endothelial activation. Moreover, adenoviral TSPO overexpression inhibited mitochondrial ROS production and manganese superoxide dismutase expression. On contrasts, gene silencing of TSPO with siRNA increased PMA-induced VCAM-1 expression and mitochondrial ROS production. Midazolam (1–50 μM), TSPO ligands, inhibited PMA-induced VCAM-1 and mitochondrial ROS production in endothelial cells. These results suggest that mitochondrial TSPO can inhibit PMA-induced endothelial inflammation via suppression of VCAM-1 and mitochondrial ROS production in endothelial cells. PMID:26608360

  17. Amino Acid Sequences Mediating Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule 1 Binding to Integrin Alpha 4: Homologous DSP Sequence Found for JC Polyoma VP1 Coat Protein

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Michael Andrew

    2013-01-01

    The JC polyoma viral coat protein VP1 was analyzed for amino acid sequences homologies to the IDSP sequence which mediates binding of VLA-4 (integrin alpha 4) to vascular cell adhesion molecule 1. Although the full sequence was not found, a DSP sequence was located near the critical arginine residue linked to infectivity of the virus and binding to sialic acid containing molecules such as integrins (3). For the JC polyoma virus, a DSP sequence was found at residues 70, 71 and 72 with homology also noted for the mouse polyoma virus and SV40 virus. Three dimensional modeling of the VP1 molecule suggests that the DSP loop has an accessible site for interaction from the external side of the assembled viral capsid pentamer. PMID:24147211

  18. Platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1/CD31) tyrosine phosphorylation state changes during vasculogenesis in the murine conceptus.

    PubMed Central

    Pinter, E.; Barreuther, M.; Lu, T.; Imhof, B. A.; Madri, J. A.

    1997-01-01

    Vasculogenesis, the differentiation of mesodermal cells to angioblasts and the subsequent formation of blood islands and blood vessels by angioblasts in the conceptus, is a dynamic process modulated, in part, by cell-extracellular matrix and cell-cell interactions in the presence of a variety of growth factors and morphogens. In this report we demonstrate differential tyrosine phosphorylation of platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1) during the formation of blood islands and vessels from clusters of extraembryonic and embryonic angioblasts in the murine conceptus. In addition, we identify the phosphorylation of a particular tyrosine residue in the PECAM-1 cytoplasmic domain, Tyr686, which has the potential of mediating binding to Src homology 2 domain-containing proteins, affecting PECAM-1 cellular localization and endothelial cell migration. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:9137078

  19. Amino Acid Sequences Mediating Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule 1 Binding to Integrin Alpha 4: Homologous DSP Sequence Found for JC Polyoma VP1 Coat Protein.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Michael Andrew

    2013-01-01

    The JC polyoma viral coat protein VP1 was analyzed for amino acid sequences homologies to the IDSP sequence which mediates binding of VLA-4 (integrin alpha 4) to vascular cell adhesion molecule 1. Although the full sequence was not found, a DSP sequence was located near the critical arginine residue linked to infectivity of the virus and binding to sialic acid containing molecules such as integrins (3). For the JC polyoma virus, a DSP sequence was found at residues 70, 71 and 72 with homology also noted for the mouse polyoma virus and SV40 virus. Three dimensional modeling of the VP1 molecule suggests that the DSP loop has an accessible site for interaction from the external side of the assembled viral capsid pentamer.

  20. Monocyte adhesion to endothelium in simian immunodeficiency virus-induced AIDS encephalitis is mediated by vascular cell adhesion molecule-1/alpha 4 beta 1 integrin interactions.

    PubMed Central

    Sasseville, V. G.; Newman, W.; Brodie, S. J.; Hesterberg, P.; Pauley, D.; Ringler, D. J.

    1994-01-01

    Because the mechanisms associated with recruitment of monocytes to brain in AIDS encephalitis are unknown, we used tissues from rhesus monkeys infected with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) to examine the relative contributions of various adhesion pathways in mediating monocyte adhesion to endothelium from encephalitic brain. Using a modified Stamper and Woodruff tissue adhesion assay, we found that the human monocytic cell lines, THP-1 and U937, and the B cell line, Ramos, preferentially bound to brain vessels from monkeys with AIDS encephalitis. Using a combined tissue adhesion/immunohistochemistry approach, these cells only bound to vessels expressing vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1). Furthermore, pretreatment of tissues with antibodies to VCAM-1 or cell lines with antibodies to VLA-4 (CD49d) inhibited adhesion by more than 70%. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1)/beta 2 integrin interactions were not significant in mediating cell adhesion to the vasculature in encephalitic simian brain using a cell line (JY) capable of binding rhesus monkey ICAM-1. In addition, selectin-mediated interactions did not significantly contribute to cell binding to encephalitic brain as there was no immunohistochemical expression of E-selectin and P-selectin in either normal or encephalitic brain, nor was there a demonstrable adhesive effect from L-selectin using L-selectin-transfected 300.19 cells on simian encephalitic brain. These results demonstrate that using the tissue adhesion assay, THP-1, U937, and Ramos cells bind to vessels in brain from animals with AIDS encephalitis using VCAM-1/alpha 4 beta 1 integrin interactions and suggest that VCAM-1 and VLA-4 may be integral for monocyte recruitment to the central nervous system during the development of AIDS encephalitis. Images Figure 1 PMID:7507300

  1. Micromanipulation of adhesion of phorbol 12-myristate-13-acetate-stimulated T lymphocytes to planar membranes containing intercellular adhesion molecule-1.

    PubMed Central

    Tözeren, A; Mackie, L H; Lawrence, M B; Chan, P Y; Dustin, M L; Springer, T A

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents an analytical and experimental methodology to determine the physical strength of cell adhesion to a planar membrane containing one set of adhesion molecules. In particular, the T lymphocyte adhesion due to the interaction of the lymphocyte function associated molecule 1 on the surface of the cell, with its counter-receptor, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), on the planar membrane, was investigated. A micromanipulation method and mathematical analysis of cell deformation were used to determine (a) the area of conjugation between the cell and the substrate and (b) the energy that must be supplied to detach a unit area of the cell membrane from its substrate. T lymphocytes stimulated with phorbol 12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) conjugated strongly with the planar membrane containing purified ICAM-1. The T lymphocytes attached to the planar membrane deviated occasionally from their round configuration by extending pseudopods but without changing the size of the contact area. These adherent cells were dramatically deformed and then detached when pulled away from the planar membrane by a micropipette. Detachment occurred by a gradual decrease in the radius of the contact area. The physical strength of adhesion between a PMA-stimulated T lymphocyte and a planar membrane containing 1,000 ICAM-1 molecules/micron 2 was comparable to the strength of adhesion between a cytotoxic T cell and its target cell. The comparison of the adhesive energy density, measured at constant cell shape, with the model predictions suggests that the physical strength of cell adhesion may increase significantly when the adhesion bonds in the contact area are immobilized by the actin cytoskeleton. Images FIGURE 2 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 PMID:1358239

  2. Short-term high-fat diet alters postprandial glucose metabolism and circulating vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 in healthy males.

    PubMed

    Numao, Shigeharu; Kawano, Hiroshi; Endo, Naoya; Yamada, Yuka; Takahashi, Masaki; Konishi, Masayuki; Sakamoto, Shizuo

    2016-08-01

    Short-term intake of a high-fat diet aggravates postprandial glucose metabolism; however, the dose-response relationship has not been investigated. We hypothesized that short-term intake of a eucaloric low-carbohydrate/high-fat diet (LCHF) would aggravate postprandial glucose metabolism and circulating adhesion molecules in healthy males. Seven healthy young males (mean ± SE; age: 26 ± 1 years) consumed either a eucaloric control diet (C, approximately 25% fats), a eucaloric intermediate-carbohydrate/intermediate-fat diet (ICIF, approximately 50% fats), or an LCHF (approximately 70% fats) for 3 days. An oral meal tolerance test (MTT) was performed after the 3-day dietary intervention. The concentrations of plasma glucose, insulin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), intercellular adhesion molecule-1, and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) were determined at rest and during MTT. The incremental area under the curve (iAUC) of plasma glucose concentration during MTT was significantly higher in LCHF than in C (P = 0.009). The first-phase insulin secretion indexes were significantly lower in LCHF than in C (P = 0.04). Moreover, the iAUC of GLP-1 and VCAM-1 concentrations was significantly higher in LCHF than in C (P = 0.014 and P = 0.04, respectively). The metabolites from ICIF and C were not significantly different. In conclusion, short-term intake of eucaloric diet containing a high percentage of fats in healthy males excessively increased postprandial glucose and VCAM-1 concentrations and attenuated first-phase insulin release.

  3. Education For All: A Committment and an Opportunity. National EFA Coordinators Meeting under the Sub-Regional EFA Forum for East and Southeast Asia Final Report (2nd, Bangkok, Thailand, December 10-12, 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and the Pacific.

    The working group of Sub-Regional Forum (SRF) and the Thematic Working Group (TWG) on Education for All (EFA) organized the second meeting of the SRF for East and Southeast Asia and the National EFA Coordinators in Bangkok, Thailand December 10-12, 2001. The meeting offered an opportunity for EFA coordinators to reflect on the outcomes of the EFA…

  4. Serum activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 in patients with gastric cancer: Can they be used as biomarkers?

    PubMed

    Erturk, Kayhan; Tastekin, Didem; Bilgin, Elif; Serilmez, Murat; Bozbey, Hamza Ugur; Sakar, Burak

    2016-02-01

    Cellular adhesion molecules might be used as markers in diagnosis and prognosis in some types of malignant tumors. The purpose of this study was to determine the clinical significance of the serum levels of activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule-1 (ALCAM) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in gastric cancer (GC) patients. Fifty-eight GC patients and 20 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were enrolled into this study. Pretreatment serum markers were determined by the solid-phase sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The median age at diagnosis was 59.5 years (range 32-82 years). Tumor localizations of the majority of the patients were antrum (n=42, 72.4%) and tumor histopathologies of the majority of the patients were diffuse (n=43, 74.1%). The majority of the patients had stage IV disease (n=41, 70.7%). Thirty six (62.1%) patients had lymph node involvement. The median follow-up time was 66 months (range 1-97.2 months). At the end of the observation period, 26 patients (44.8%) were dead. The median survival for all patients was 21.4±5 months (%95 CI, 11.5-31.3). The 1-year survival rates were 66.2%. The baseline serum ALCAM levels of the patients were significantly higher than those of the controls (p=0.001). There was no significant difference in the serum levels of ICAM-1 between the patients and controls (p=0.232). No significant correlation was detected between the levels of the serum markers and other clinical parameters (p>0.05). Tumor localization (p=0.03), histopathology (p=0.05), and response to chemotherapy (p=0.003) had prognostic factors on survival. Neither serum ALCAM levels nor serum ICAM-1 levels were identified to have a prognostic role on overall survival (ICAM-1 p=0.6, ALCAM p=0.25). In conclusion, serum levels of ALCAM were found to have diagnostic value in GC patients.

  5. Sesamin attenuates intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression in vitro in TNF-alpha-treated human aortic endothelial cells and in vivo in apolipoprotein-E-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wen-Huey; Wang, Shu-Huei; Kuan, I-I; Kao, Ya-Shi; Wu, Pei-Jhen; Liang, Chan-Jung; Chien, Hsiung-Fei; Kao, Chiu-Hua; Huang, Ching-Jang; Chen, Yuh-Lien

    2010-09-01

    Sesame lignans have antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties. We focused on the effects of the lignans sesamin and sesamol on the expression of endothelial-leukocyte adhesion molecules in tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha)-treated human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs). When HAECs were pretreated with sesamin (10 or 100 microM), the TNF-alpha-induced expression of intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) was significantly reduced (35 or 70% decrease, respectively) by Western blotting. Sesamol was less effective at inhibiting ICAM-1 expression (30% decrease at 100 microM). Sesamin and sesamol reduced the marked TNF-alpha-induced increase in human antigen R (HuR) translocation and the interaction between HuR and the 3'UTR of ICAM-1 mRNA. Both significantly reduced the binding of monocytes to TNF-alpha-stimulated HAECs. Sesamin significantly attenuated TNF-alpha-induced ICAM-1 expression and cell adhesion by downregulation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and p38. Furthermore, in vivo, sesamin attenuated intimal thickening and ICAM-1 expression seen in aortas of apolipoprotein-E-deficient mice. Taken together, these data suggest that sesamin inhibits TNF-alpha-induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase/p38 phosphorylation, nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB p65, cytoplasmic translocalization of HuR and thereby suppresses ICAM-1 expression, resulting in reduced adhesion of leukocytes. These results also suggest that sesamin may prevent the development of atherosclerosis and inflammatory responses.

  6. Epstein-Barr Virus–induced Molecule 1 Ligand Chemokine Is Expressed by Dendritic Cells in Lymphoid Tissues and Strongly Attracts Naive T Cells and Activated B Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ngo, Vu N.; Lucy Tang, H.; Cyster, Jason G.

    1998-01-01

    Movement of T and B lymphocytes through secondary lymphoid tissues is likely to involve multiple cues that help the cells navigate to appropriate compartments. Epstein-Barr virus– induced molecule 1 (EBI-1) ligand chemokine (ELC/MIP3β) is expressed constitutively within lymphoid tissues and may act as such a guidance cue. Here, we have isolated mouse ELC and characterized its expression pattern and chemotactic properties. ELC is expressed constitutively in dendritic cells within the T cell zone of secondary lymphoid tissues. Recombinant ELC was strongly chemotactic for naive (L-selectinhi) CD4 T cells and for CD8 T cells and weakly attractive for resting B cells and memory (L-selectinlo) CD4 T cells. After activation through the B cell receptor, the chemotactic response of B cells was enhanced. Like its human counterpart, murine ELC stimulated cells transfected with EBI-1/CC chemokine receptor 7 (CCR7). Our findings suggest a central role for ELC in promoting encounters between recirculating T cells and dendritic cells and in the migration of activated B cells into the T zone of secondary lymphoid tissues. PMID:9653094

  7. αdβ2 Integrin Is Expressed on Human Eosinophils and Functions as an Alternative Ligand for Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule 1 (VCAM-1)

    PubMed Central

    Grayson, Mitchell H.; Van der Vieren, Monica; Sterbinsky, Sherry A.; Michael Gallatin, W.; Hoffman, Patricia A.; Staunton, Donald E.; Bochner, Bruce S.

    1998-01-01

    The β2 family of integrins, CD11a, CD11b, CD11c, and αd, are expressed on most leukocytes. We show that the newest member of this family, αd, is expressed on human eosinophils in peripheral blood, and surface expression can be upregulated within minutes by phorbol ester or calcium ionophore A23187. Culture of eosinophils with interleukin 5 (IL-5) leads to a two- to fourfold increase in αd levels by 3–7 d without a change in α4 integrin expression. Eosinophils isolated from late phase bronchoalveolar lavage fluids express αd at levels similar to that seen after 3 d of IL-5 culture. Regarding αdβ2 ligands, in both freshly isolated and IL-5–cultured eosinophils, as well as αdβ2-transfected Chinese hamster ovary cells, αdβ2 can function as a ligand for vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1). This conclusion is based on the ability of monoclonal antibodies to αd, β2, or VCAM-1 to block cell attachment in static adhesion assays. In experiments with eosinophils, the relative contribution of αdβ2 integrin– mediated adhesion is enhanced after IL-5 culture. These experiments demonstrate that αdβ2 is an alternative ligand for VCAM-1, and this integrin may play a role in eosinophil adhesion to VCAM-1 in states of chronic inflammation. PMID:9841932

  8. Magnolol reduced TNF-α-induced vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression in endothelial cells via JNK/p38 and NF-κB signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Liang, Chan-Jung; Lee, Chiang-Wen; Sung, Hsin-Ching; Chen, Yung-Hsiang; Wang, Shu-Huei; Wu, Pei-Jhen; Chiang, Yao-Chang; Tsai, Jaw-Shiun; Wu, Chau-Chung; Li, Chi-Yuan; Chen, Yuh-Lien

    2014-01-01

    Expression of cell adhesion molecules by the endothelium and the attachment of leukocytes to these cells play major roles in inflammation and cardiovascular disorders. Magnolol, a major active component of Magnolia officinalis, has antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties. In the present study, the effects of magnolol on the expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) in human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) and the related mechanisms were investigated. TNF-α induced VCAM-1 protein expression and mRNA stability were significantly decreased in HAECs pre-treated with magnolol. Magnolol significantly reduced the phosphorylation of ERK, JNK, and p38 in TNF-α-treated HAECs. The decrease in VCAM-1 expression in response to TNF-α treatment was affected by JNK and p38 inhibitors, not by an ERK inhibitor. Magnolol also attenuates NF-κB activation and the translocation of HuR (an RNA binding protein) in TNF-α-stimulated HAECs. The VCAM-1 expression was weaker in the aortas of TNF-α-treated apo-E deficient mice with magnolol treatment. These data demonstrate that magnolol inhibits TNF-α-induced JNK/p38 phosphorylation, HuR translocation, NF-κB activation, and thereby suppresses VCAM-1 expression resulting in reduced leukocyte adhesion. Taken together, these results suggest that magnolol has an anti-inflammatory property and may play an important role in the prevention of atherosclerosis and inflammatory responses.

  9. Transfected HEK293 Cells Expressing Functional Recombinant Intercellular Adhesion Molecule 1 (ICAM-1) – A Receptor Associated with Severe Plasmodium falciparum Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Bengtsson, Anja; Joergensen, Louise; Barbati, Zachary R.; Craig, Alister; Hviid, Lars; Jensen, Anja T. R.

    2013-01-01

    Intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) is a membrane-bound glycoprotein expressed on endothelial cells and cells of the immune system. Human ICAM-1 mediates adhesion and migration of leucocytes, and is implicated in inflammatory pathologies, autoimmune diseases and in many cancer processes. Additionally, ICAM-1 acts as receptor for pathogens like human rhinovirus and Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasites. A group of related P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) domains, the DBLβ, mediates ICAM-1 binding of P. falciparum-infected erythrocytes. This ICAM‑1-binding phenotype has been suggested to be involved in the development of cerebral malaria. However, more studies identifying cross-reactive antibody and ICAM-1-binding epitopes and the establishment of a clinical link between DBLβ expression and e.g. cerebral malaria are needed before the DBLβ domains can be put forward as vaccine candidates and go into clinical trials. Such studies require availability of functional recombinant ICAM-1 in large quantities. In this study, we compared recombinant ICAM-1 expressed in HEK293 and COS-7 cells with mouse myeloma NS0 ICAM-1 purchased from a commercial vendor in terms of protein purity, yield, fold, ability to bind DBLβ, and relative cost. We present a HEK293 cell-based, high-yield expression and purification scheme for producing inexpensive, functional ICAM‑1. ICAM-1 expressed in HEK293 is applicable to malaria research and can also be useful in other research fields. PMID:23936131

  10. Stromal Interaction Molecule 1 (STIM1) Regulates ATP-sensitive Potassium (KATP) and Store-operated Ca(2+) Channels in MIN6 β-Cells.

    PubMed

    Leech, Colin A; Kopp, Richard F; Nelson, Heather A; Nandi, Jyotirmoy; Roe, Michael W

    2017-02-10

    Stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1) regulates store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE) and other ion channels either as an endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-sensing protein or when present in the plasma membrane. However, the role of STIM1 in insulin-secreting β-cells is unresolved. We report that lowering expression of STIM1, the gene that encodes STIM1, in insulin-secreting MIN6 β-cells with RNA interference inhibits SOCE and ATP-sensitive K(+) (KATP) channel activation. The effects of STIM1 knockdown were reversed by transduction of MIN6 cells with an adenovirus gene shuttle vector that expressed human STIM1 Immunoprecipitation studies revealed that STIM1 binds to nucleotide binding fold-1 (NBF1) of the sulfonylurea receptor 1 (SUR1) subunit of the KATP channel. Binding of STIM1 to SUR1 was enhanced by poly-lysine. Our data indicate that SOCE and KATP channel activity are regulated by STIM1. This suggests that STIM1 is a multifunctional signaling effector that participates in the control of membrane excitability and Ca(2+) signaling events in β-cells.

  11. Artemether Combined with shRNA Interference of Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 Significantly Inhibited the Malignant Biological Behavior of Human Glioma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ping; Xue, Yi-Xue; Yao, Yi-Long; Yu, Bo; Liu, Yun-Hui

    2013-01-01

    Artemether is the derivative extracted from Chinese traditional herb and originally used for malaria. Artemether also has potential therapeutic effects against tumors. Vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) is an important cell surface adhesion molecule associated with malignancy of gliomas. In this work, we investigated the role and mechanism of artemether combined with shRNA interference of VCAM-1 (shRNA-VCAM-1) on the migration, invasion and apoptosis of glioma cells. U87 human glioma cells were treated with artemether at various concentrations and shRNA interfering technology was employed to silence the expression of VCAM-1. Cell viability, migration, invasiveness and apoptosis were assessed with MTT, wound healing, Transwell and Annexin V-FITC/PI staining. The expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and phosphorylated Akt (p-Akt) was checked by Western blot assay. Results showed that artemether and shRNA-VCAM-1 not only significantly inhibited the migration, invasiveness and expression of MMP-2/9 and p-Akt, but also promoted the apoptosis of U87 cells. Combined treatment of both displayed the maximum inhibitory effects on the malignant biological behavior of glioma cells. Our work revealed the potential therapeutic effects of artemether and antiVCAM-1 in the treatments of gliomas. PMID:23593320

  12. Urinary calprotectin, kidney injury molecule-1, and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin for the prediction of adverse outcome in pediatric acute kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Westhoff, Jens H; Seibert, Felix S; Waldherr, Sina; Bauer, Frederic; Tönshoff, Burkhard; Fichtner, Alexander; Westhoff, Timm H

    2017-04-14

    Early identification of patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) being at high risk for adverse outcome can influence medical treatment. This study compares urinary calprotectin, kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) for their performance in predicting mortality and need for renal replacement therapy (RRT) in pediatric AKI patients. Urinary biomarker concentrations were assessed prospectively in 141 subjects aged 0-18 years including 55 patients with established AKI according to pediatric Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss, and End-stage kidney disease (pRIFLE) criteria, 27 patients without AKI, and 59 healthy children. Within the AKI group, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis revealed moderate to poor performance of calprotectin and KIM-1 in the prediction of 30-day mortality (calprotectin area under the curve (AUC) 0.55; KIM-1 AUC 0.55) and 3-month mortality (calprotectin AUC 0.61; KIM-1 AUC 0.60) and fair performance in the prediction of RRT requirement (calprotectin AUC 0.72; KIM-1 AUC 0.71). Urinary NGAL showed good performance in predicting 30-day (AUC 0.79) and 3-month (AUC 0.81) mortality and moderate performance in predicting RRT (AUC 0.61).

  13. Characterization and functional analysis of the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 in human papillomavirus-related disease of cervical keratinocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Coleman, N.; Greenfield, I. M.; Hare, J.; Kruger-Gray, H.; Chain, B. M.; Stanley, M. A.

    1993-01-01

    We have investigated the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in squamous neoplasia of the cervix and have noted a significant induction of the molecule in high-grade intra-epithelial lesions. Using monolayer and organotypic in vitro tissue culture systems, we have shown that there is no constitutive ICAM-1 expression on cervical keratinocytes immortalized but not transformed by human papillomavirus type 16, whereas two human papillomaviruses type 16 containing and fully transformed cervical keratinocyte lines do constitutively express the molecule. All cell types, including human papillomavirus-negative normal cervical keratinocytes, can be induced to up-regulate their expression of ICAM-1 by pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interferon-gamma. In addition, we have used an in vitro adhesion assay to show that ICAM-1:lymphocyte function antigen-1 interaction is functionally important in lymphocyte binding to cervical keratinocytes, suggesting a role for ICAM-1 in retaining and enabling functional activity of lymphocytes in the cervix in intraepithelial neoplasia. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 5 Figure 9 PMID:8102029

  14. Inside-out Signaling Promotes Dynamic Changes in the Carcinoembryonic Antigen-related Cellular Adhesion Molecule 1 (CEACAM1) Oligomeric State to Control Its Cell Adhesion Properties*

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Prerna C.; Lee, Hannah S. W.; Ming, Aaron Y. K.; Rath, Arianna; Deber, Charles M.; Yip, Christopher M.; Rocheleau, Jonathan V.; Gray-Owen, Scott D.

    2013-01-01

    Cell-cell contacts are fundamental to multicellular organisms and are subject to exquisite levels of control. The carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1) can engage in both cis-homophilic (parallel) oligomerization and trans-homophilic (anti-parallel) binding. In this study, we establish that the CEACAM1 transmembrane domain has a propensity to form cis-dimers via the transmembrane-embedded 432GXXXG436 motif and that this basal state is overcome when activated calmodulin binds to the CEACAM1 cytoplasmic domain. Although mutation of the 432GXXXG436 motif reduced CEACAM1 oligomerization, it did not affect surface localization of the receptor or influence CEACAM1-dependent cellular invasion by the pathogenic Neisseria. The mutation did, however, have a striking effect on CEACAM1-dependent cellular aggregation, increasing both the kinetics of cell-cell association and the size of cellular aggregates formed. CEACAM1 association with tyrosine kinase c-Src and tyrosine phosphatases SHP-1 and SHP-2 was not affected by the 432GXXXG436 mutation, consistent with their association with the monomeric form of wild type CEACAM1. Collectively, our results establish that a dynamic oligomer-to-monomer shift in surface-expressed CEACAM1 facilitates trans-homophilic binding and downstream effector signaling. PMID:24005674

  15. Elevation of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 levels, but not angiopoietin 2, in the plasma of human immunodeficiency virus-infected African women with clinical Kaposi sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Graham, Susan M; Rajwans, Nimerta; Richardson, Barbra A; Jaoko, Walter; McClelland, R Scott; Overbaugh, Julie; Liles, W Conrad

    2014-10-01

    Circulating levels of endothelial activation biomarkers are elevated in during infection with human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) and may also be increased in Kaposi sarcoma (KS). We compared 23 HIV-1-seropositive women with clinically diagnosed KS with 46 randomly selected controls matched for visit year, CD4 count, and antiretroviral therapy status. Conditional logistic regression was used to identify differences between cases and controls. The odds of clinical KS increased with increasing plasma viral load and with intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) levels above or equal to the median. There was a borderline association between increasing plasma angiopoietin 2 levels and KS. In multivariable modeling including plasma viral load, angiopoietin 2, and ICAM-1, plasma ICAM-1 levels above or equal to the median remained associated with clinical KS (odds ratio = 14.2, 95% confidence interval = 2.3-87.7). Circulating ICAM-1 levels should be evaluated as a potential biomarker for disease progression and treatment response among HIV-infected KS patients.

  16. Live-cell imaging reveals sequential oligomerization and local plasma membrane targeting of stromal interaction molecule 1 after Ca2+ store depletion

    PubMed Central

    Liou, Jen; Fivaz, Marc; Inoue, Takanari; Meyer, Tobias

    2007-01-01

    Stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1) has recently been identified by our group and others as an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca2+ sensor that responds to ER Ca2+ store depletion and activates Ca2+ channels in the plasma membrane (PM). The molecular mechanism by which STIM1 transduces signals from the ER lumen to the PM is not yet understood. Here we developed a live-cell FRET approach and show that STIM1 forms oligomers within 5 s after Ca2+ store depletion. These oligomers rapidly dissociated when ER Ca2+ stores were refilled. We further show that STIM1 formed oligomers before its translocation within the ER network to ER–PM junctions. A mutant STIM1 lacking the C-terminal polybasic PM-targeting motif oligomerized after Ca2+ store depletion but failed to form puncta at ER–PM junctions. Using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching measurements to monitor STIM1 mobility, we show that STIM1 oligomers translocate on average only 2 μm to reach ER–PM junctions, arguing that STIM1 ER-to-PM signaling is a local process that is suitable for generating cytosolic Ca2+ gradients. Together, our live-cell measurements dissect the STIM1 ER-to-PM signaling relay into four sequential steps: (i) dissociation of Ca2+, (ii) rapid oligomerization, (iii) spatially restricted translocation to nearby ER–PM junctions, and (iv) activation of PM Ca2+ channels. PMID:17517596

  17. Expression, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the CMM2 region of the Arabidopsis thaliana Morpheus' molecule 1 protein.

    PubMed

    Petty, Tom J; Nishimura, Taisuke; Emamzadah, Soheila; Gabus, Caroline; Paszkowski, Jerzy; Halazonetis, Thanos D; Thore, Stéphane

    2010-08-01

    Of the known epigenetic control regulators found in plants, the Morpheus' molecule 1 (MOM1) protein is atypical in that the deletion of MOM1 does not affect the level of epigenetic marks controlling the transcriptional status of the genome. A short 197-amino-acid fragment of the MOM1 protein sequence can complement MOM1 deletion when coupled to a nuclear localization signal, suggesting that this region contains a functional domain that compensates for the loss of the full-length protein. Numerous constructs centred on the highly conserved MOM1 motif 2 (CMM2) present in these 197 residues have been generated and expressed in Escherichia coli. Following purification and crystallization screening, diamond-shaped single crystals were obtained that diffracted to approximately 3.2 A resolution. They belonged to the trigonal space group P3(1)21 (or P3(2)21), with unit-cell parameters a=85.64, c=292.74 A. Structure determination is ongoing.

  18. C-type lectin-like molecule-1 (CLL1)-targeted TRAIL augments the tumoricidal activity of granulocytes and potentiates therapeutic antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Wiersma, Valerie R; de Bruyn, Marco; Shi, Ce; Gooden, Marloes J M; Wouters, Maartje C A; Samplonius, Douwe F; Hendriks, Djoke; Nijman, Hans W; Wei, Yunwei; Zhou, Jin; Helfrich, Wijnand; Bremer, Edwin

    2015-01-01

    The therapeutic effect of anti-cancer monoclonal antibodies stems from their capacity to opsonize targeted cancer cells with subsequent phagocytic removal, induction of antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) or induction of complement-mediated cytotoxicity (CDC). The major immune effector cells involved in these processes are natural killer (NK) cells and granulocytes. The latter and most prevalent blood cell population contributes to phagocytosis, but is not effective in inducing ADCC. Here, we report that targeted delivery of the tumoricidal protein tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) to granulocyte marker C-type lectin-like molecule-1 (CLL1), using fusion protein CLL1:TRAIL, equips granulocytes with high levels of TRAIL. Upon CLL1-selective binding of this fusion protein, granulocytes acquire additional TRAIL-mediated cytotoxic activity that, importantly, potentiates antibody-mediated cytotoxicity of clinically used therapeutic antibodies (e.g., rituximab, cetuximab). Thus, CLL1:TRAIL could be used as an adjuvant to optimize the clinical potential of anticancer antibody therapy by augmenting tumoricidal activity of granulocytes.

  19. Proceedings of REMR (Repair, Evaluation, Maintenance, and Rehabilitation Research Program) Workshop on Assessment of the Stability of Concrete Structures on Rock Held in Vicksburg, Mississippi on 10-12 September 1985.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-01

    art methods of stobilitv aralysis of concrete hydraul ic ;tructures or, rock fouinctions. .2 Scope. The scope ,i this report includes a review of...FOLLOWING COVPILATION REPORT : TITLE: Proceedings of REMR (Repair, Evaluation, Maintenance, and Rehabilitation Research Program) Workshop Assessment of...the Stability of Concrete Structures on Roc)( Held in Vicksburg, Mississippi on 10-12 September 1985. To ORDER THE COMPLETE COMPILATION REPORT , USE AD

  20. A bioinformatics approach identifies signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 and checkpoint kinase 1 as upstream regulators of kidney injury molecule-1 after kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Ajay, Amrendra Kumar; Kim, Tae-Min; Ramirez-Gonzalez, Victoria; Park, Peter J; Frank, David A; Vaidya, Vishal S

    2014-01-01

    Kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1)/T cell Ig and mucin domain-containing protein-1 (TIM-1) is upregulated more than other proteins after AKI, and it is highly expressed in renal damage of various etiologies. In this capacity, KIM-1/TIM-1 acts as a phosphatidylserine receptor on the surface of injured proximal tubular epithelial cells, mediating phagocytosis of apoptotic cells, and it may also act as a costimulatory molecule for immune cells. Despite recognition of KIM-1 as an important therapeutic target for kidney disease, the regulators of KIM-1 transcription in the kidney remain unknown. Using a bioinformatics approach, we identified upstream regulators of KIM-1 after AKI. In response to tubular injury in rat and human kidneys or oxidant stress in human proximal tubular epithelial cells (HPTECs), KIM-1 expression increased significantly in a manner that corresponded temporally and regionally with increased phosphorylation of checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1) and STAT3. Both ischemic and oxidant stress resulted in a dramatic increase in reactive oxygen species that phosphorylated and activated Chk1, which subsequently bound to STAT3, phosphorylating it at S727. Furthermore, STAT3 bound to the KIM-1 promoter after ischemic and oxidant stress, and pharmacological or genetic induction of STAT3 in HPTECs increased KIM-1 mRNA and protein levels. Conversely, inhibition of STAT3 using siRNAs or dominant negative mutants reduced KIM-1 expression in a kidney cancer cell line (769-P) that expresses high basal levels of KIM-1. These observations highlight Chk1 and STAT3 as critical upstream regulators of KIM-1 expression after AKI and may suggest novel approaches for therapeutic intervention.

  1. Serum Interleukin-18, Fetuin-A, Soluble Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1, and Endothelin-1 in Ankylosing Spondylitis, Psoriatic Arthritis, and SAPHO Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Przepiera-Będzak, Hanna; Fischer, Katarzyna; Brzosko, Marek

    2016-01-01

    To examine serum interleukin 18 (IL-18), fetuin-A, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), and endothelin-1 (ET-1) levels in ankylosing spondylitis (AS), psoriatic arthritis (PsA), and Synovitis Acne Pustulosis Hyperostosis Osteitis syndrome (SAPHO). We studied 81 AS, 76 PsA, and 34 SAPHO patients. We measured serum IL-18, fetuin-A, sICAM-1, ET-1, IL-6, IL-23, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and epidermal growth factor (EGF). IL-18 levels were higher in AS (p = 0.001), PsA (p = 0.0003), and SAPHO (p = 0.01) than in controls, and were positively correlated with CRP (p = 0.03), VEGF (p = 0.03), and total cholesterol (TC, p = 0.006) in AS and with IL-6 (p = 0.03) in PsA. Serum fetuin-A levels were lower in AS (p = 0.001) and PsA (p = 0.001) than in controls, and negatively correlated with C-reactive protein (CRP) in AS (p = 0.04) and SAPHO (p = 0.03). sICAM-1 positively correlated with CRP (p = 0.01), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR, p = 0.01), and IL-6 (p = 0.008) in AS, and with IL-6 (p = 0.001) in SAPHO. Serum ET-1 levels were lower in AS (p = 0.0005) than in controls. ET-1 positively correlated with ESR (p = 0.04) and Disease Activity Score 28 (DAS28, p = 0.003) in PsA. In spondyloarthritis, markers of endothelial function correlated with disease activity and TC. PMID:27527149

  2. Serum Interleukin-18, Fetuin-A, Soluble Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1, and Endothelin-1 in Ankylosing Spondylitis, Psoriatic Arthritis, and SAPHO Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Przepiera-Będzak, Hanna; Fischer, Katarzyna; Brzosko, Marek

    2016-08-03

    To examine serum interleukin 18 (IL-18), fetuin-A, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), and endothelin-1 (ET-1) levels in ankylosing spondylitis (AS), psoriatic arthritis (PsA), and Synovitis Acne Pustulosis Hyperostosis Osteitis syndrome (SAPHO). We studied 81 AS, 76 PsA, and 34 SAPHO patients. We measured serum IL-18, fetuin-A, sICAM-1, ET-1, IL-6, IL-23, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and epidermal growth factor (EGF). IL-18 levels were higher in AS (p = 0.001), PsA (p = 0.0003), and SAPHO (p = 0.01) than in controls, and were positively correlated with CRP (p = 0.03), VEGF (p = 0.03), and total cholesterol (TC, p = 0.006) in AS and with IL-6 (p = 0.03) in PsA. Serum fetuin-A levels were lower in AS (p = 0.001) and PsA (p = 0.001) than in controls, and negatively correlated with C-reactive protein (CRP) in AS (p = 0.04) and SAPHO (p = 0.03). sICAM-1 positively correlated with CRP (p = 0.01), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR, p = 0.01), and IL-6 (p = 0.008) in AS, and with IL-6 (p = 0.001) in SAPHO. Serum ET-1 levels were lower in AS (p = 0.0005) than in controls. ET-1 positively correlated with ESR (p = 0.04) and Disease Activity Score 28 (DAS28, p = 0.003) in PsA. In spondyloarthritis, markers of endothelial function correlated with disease activity and TC.

  3. Maternal serum uric acid concentration is associated with the expression of tumour necrosis factor-α and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 in patients with preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Zhao, J; Zheng, D-Y; Yang, J-M; Wang, M; Zhang, X-T; Sun, L; Yun, X-G

    2016-07-01

    We aimed to investigate whether there is a correlation between elevated serum uric acid (SUA) concentration and endothelial inflammatory response in women with preeclampsia (PE). On the basis of clinical and laboratory findings, patients were assigned to three groups: normal blood pressure (Control (Con)), gestational hypertension (GH) and PE (n=50 in each group). SUA concentration was measured by spectrophotometry, and serum tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Western blotting and immunohistochemical staining were also used to detect the changes in TNF-α and ICAM-1 expression in subcutaneous fat tissue. PE patients showed significantly higher systolic and diastolic blood pressures compared with Con and GH pregnant women (P=0.02 and P=0.02, respectively). The changes of body mass index (ΔBMI) before and after pregnancy and 24-h urine protein were significantly different among the three groups (P<0.001). Maternal SUA, TNF-α and soluble ICAM-1 (sICAM-1) levels were significantly increased in the patients with PE (P<0.05) compared with the other two groups. Scatterplot analysis revealed that elevated SUA concentration positively correlated with TNF-α and sICAM-1 in pregnant women. Moreover, vessels in subcutaneous fat tissues of preeclamptic patients showed intense TNF-α and ICAM-1 staining compared with Con and GH patients. The results support that, to a certain extent, elevated SUA concentration is significantly associated with inflammation of maternal systemic vasculature as indicated by increased TNF-α and ICAM-1 expression in women with PE.

  4. Simple modifications to Methimazole that enhance its inhibitory effect on Tumor Necrosis Factor-α-induced Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 expression by human endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Alapati, Anuja; Deosarkar, Sudhir P.; Lanier, Olivia L.; Qi, Chunyan; Carlson, Grady E.; Burdick, Monica M.; Schwartz, Frank L.; McCall, Kelly D.; Bergmeier, Stephen C.; Goetz, Douglas J.

    2015-01-01

    The expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) on the vascular endothelium can be increased by pro-inflammatory cytokines [e.g. tumor necrosis factor – α (TNF-α)]. VCAM-1 contributes to leukocyte adhesion to, and emigration from, the vasculature which is a key aspect of pathological inflammation. As such, a promising therapeutic approach for pathological inflammation is to inhibit the expression of VCAM-1. Methimazole [3-methyl-1, 3 imidazole-2 thione (MMI)] is routinely used for the treatment of Graves’ disease and patients treated with MMI have decreased levels of circulating VCAM-1. In this study we used cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) to investigate the effect of MMI structural modifications on TNF-α induced VCAM-1 expression. We found that addition of a phenyl ring at the 4-nitrogen of MMI yields a compound that is significantly more potent than MMI at inhibiting 24 h TNF-α-induced VCAM-1 protein expression. Addition of a para methoxy to the appended phenyl group increases the inhibition while substitution of a thiazole ring for an imidazole ring in the phenyl derivatives yields no clear difference in inhibition. Addition of the phenyl ring to MMI appears to increase toxicity as does substitution of a thiazole ring for an imidazole ring in the phenyl MMI derivatives. Each of the compounds reduced TNF-α-induced VCAM-1 mRNA expression and had a functional inhibitory effect, i.e. each inhibited monocytic cell adhesion to 24 h TNF-α-activated HUVEC under fluid flow conditions. Combined, these studies provide important insights into the design of MMI-related anti-inflammatory compounds. PMID:25641748

  5. Kidney injury molecule-1 is up-regulated in renal epithelial cells in response to oxalate in vitro and in renal tissues in response to hyperoxaluria in vivo.

    PubMed

    Khandrika, Lakshmipathi; Koul, Sweaty; Meacham, Randall B; Koul, Hari K

    2012-01-01

    Oxalate is a metabolic end product excreted by the kidney. Mild increases in urinary oxalate are most commonly associated with Nephrolithiasis. Chronically high levels of urinary oxalate, as seen in patients with primary hyperoxaluria, are driving factor for recurrent renal stones, and ultimately lead to renal failure, calcification of soft tissue and premature death. In previous studies others and we have demonstrated that high levels of oxalate promote injury of renal epithelial cells. However, methods to monitor oxalate induced renal injury are limited. In the present study we evaluated changes in expression of Kidney Injury Molecule-1 (KIM-1) in response to oxalate in human renal cells (HK2 cells) in culture and in renal tissue and urine samples in hyperoxaluric animals which mimic in vitro and in vivo models of hyper-oxaluria. Results presented, herein demonstrate that oxalate exposure resulted in increased expression of KIM-1 m RNA as well as protein in HK2 cells. These effects were rapid and concentration dependent. Using in vivo models of hyperoxaluria we observed elevated expression of KIM-1 in renal tissues of hyperoxaluric rats as compared to normal controls. The increase in KIM-1 was both at protein and mRNA level, suggesting transcriptional activation of KIM-1 in response to oxalate exposure. Interestingly, in addition to increased KIM-1 expression, we observed increased levels of the ectodomain of KIM-1 in urine collected from hyperoxaluric rats. To the best of our knowledge our studies are the first direct demonstration of regulation of KIM-1 in response to oxalate exposure in renal epithelial cells in vitro and in vivo. Our results suggest that detection of KIM-1 over-expression and measurement of the ectodomain of KIM-1 in urine may hold promise as a marker to monitor oxalate nephrotoxicity in hyperoxaluria.

  6. Interaction between Endothelial Protein C Receptor and Intercellular Adhesion Molecule 1 to Mediate Binding of Plasmodium falciparum-Infected Erythrocytes to Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Avril, Marion; Bernabeu, Maria; Benjamin, Maxwell; Brazier, Andrew Jay

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and the endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR) are candidate receptors for the deadly complication cerebral malaria. However, it remains unclear if Plasmodium falciparum parasites with dual binding specificity are involved in cytoadhesion or different parasite subpopulations bind in brain microvessels. Here, we investigated this issue by studying different subtypes of ICAM-1-binding parasite lines. We show that two parasite lines expressing domain cassette 13 (DC13) of the P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) family have dual binding specificity for EPCR and ICAM-1 and further mapped ICAM-1 binding to the first DBLβ domain following the PfEMP1 head structure in both proteins. As PfEMP1 head structures have diverged between group A (EPCR binders) and groups B and C (CD36 binders), we also investigated how ICAM-1-binding parasites with different coreceptor binding traits influence P. falciparum-infected erythrocyte binding to endothelial cells. Whereas levels of binding to tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)-stimulated endothelial cells from the lung and brain by all ICAM-1-binding parasite lines increased, group A (EPCR and ICAM-1) was less dependent than group B (CD36 and ICAM-1) on ICAM-1 upregulation. Furthermore, both group A DC13 parasite lines had higher binding levels to brain endothelial cells (a microvascular niche with limited CD36 expression). This study shows that ICAM-1 is a coreceptor for a subset of EPCR-binding parasites and provides the first evidence of how EPCR and ICAM-1 interact to mediate parasite binding to both resting and TNF-α-activated primary brain and lung endothelial cells. PMID:27406562

  7. Role of nuclear factor-kappa B in the regulation of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 after infection of human bronchial epithelial cells by Bordetella pertussis.

    PubMed

    Ishibashi, Yoshio; Nishikawa, Akemi

    2003-10-01

    Previous work has demonstrated that infection of human bronchial epithelial cells by Bordetella pertussis up-regulates intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) gene and protein expression. It has also been shown that interaction of the Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) site of filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA) with host cell very late antigen (VLA)-5 (alpha 5 beta 1 integrin) is required for the up-regulation of epithelial ICAM-1 expression, and that pertussis toxin (PT) impairs this response. We therefore examined the molecular mechanisms leading to B. pertussis-induced ICAM-1 up-regulation in BEAS-2B human bronchial epithelial cells. A colorimetric nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappa B) activation assay demonstrated that NF-kappa B was activated in response to infection of these cells with B. pertussis. This activation occurred in an FHA(RGD)-dependent manner, and was blocked by an antibody against VLA-5, implying that binding of the RGD to VLA-5 integrin is involved in NF-kappa B activation. Western blot analysis revealed that the activation of NF-kappa B by B. pertussis was preceded by degradation of I kappa B alpha, a major cytoplasmic inhibitor of NF-kappa B. Pretreatment of the BEAS-2B cells with the NF-kappa B inhibitors pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC), MG-132, and SN50 resulted in a marked decrease in B. pertussis-induced ICAM-1 expression, implying the involvement of NF-kappa B in ICAM-1 expression. Purified PT abrogated both NF-kappa B activation and I kappa B alpha degradation. These results suggest that ligation of VLA-5 integrin by FHA induces RGD-dependent NF-kappa B activation, thus leading to the up-regulation of epithelial ICAM-1 expression, and that a PT-sensitive G protein may be involved in this signaling pathway.

  8. Bordetella pertussis infection of human respiratory epithelial cells up-regulates intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression: role of filamentous hemagglutinin and pertussis toxin.

    PubMed

    Ishibashi, Yoshio; Nishikawa, Akemi

    2002-09-01

    Adhesion molecules on respiratory epithelial cells play a critical role in inflammatory cell recruitment and accumulation at sites of inflammation. Bordetella pertussis colonizes the human respiratory tract by infecting epithelial cells, leading to an inflammatory response. In this study, the role of bacterial factors in the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) on human respiratory epithelial cells was investigated in response to B. pertussis. Flow cytometry and real time RT-PCR analysis showed that BEAS-2B human bronchial epithelial cells expressed increased levels of ICAM-1 mRNA and surface protein in response to B. pertussis infection. Filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA) played a role in this response because of the impaired capability of a FHA-deficient isogenic strain. A mutant strain in which an Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) site of FHA had been changed to Arg-Ala-Asp had diminished ability to up-regulate ICAM-1 expression. RGD sequence-associated up-regulation of ICAM-1 expression was also observed in primary normal human bronchial epithelial cells. Pretreatment of cells with integrin antagonists such as RGD-containing peptide and antibody against very late antigen-5 (VLA-5) inhibited the up-regulation of ICAM-1 expression, suggesting the participation of VLA-5 integrin in this response. Pertussis toxin (PT) prevented the up-regulation of ICAM-1 expression because a PT-deficient mutant strain induced higher levels of ICAM-1 mRNA and surface protein than the parental strain. Consistent with this, purified PT suppressed the up-regulation of epithelial ICAM-1 expression. These findings demonstrate that B. pertussis FHA up-regulates ICAM-1 expression on respiratory epithelial cells through interaction of its RGD site with host cell VLA-5 integrin, and that PT impairs this response.

  9. Effect of Hyperketonemia (Acetoacetate) on Nuclear Factor-κB and p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Activation Mediated Intercellular Adhesion Molecule 1 Upregulation in Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Rains, Justin L.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Hyperketonemia is a pathological condition observed in patients with type 1 diabetes and ketosis-prone diabetes (KPD), which results in increased blood levels of acetoacetate (AA) and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB). Frequent episodes of hyperketonemia are associated with a higher incidence of vascular disease. We examined the hypothesis that hyperketonemia activates the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways that regulate intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) expression in endothelial cells. Methods: Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were cultured with AA (0–8 mM) or BHB (0–10 mM) for 0–24 hr. Western blotting was used to determine NF-κB activation in whole-cell lysates. ICAM-1 expression was measured using flow cytometry. Results: Results show a 2.4-fold increase in NF-κB activation in cells treated with 8 mM AA compared to the control. BHB had little or no effect on NF-κB activation. Pretreatment with a reactive oxygen species (ROS) inhibitor [N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC)] reduced NF-κB to near-control levels. The expression of AA-induced ICAM-1 was significantly reduced when cells were pretreated with either NAC or p38 MAPK inhibitor. Conclusions: These results suggest that NF-κB and p38 MAPK mediate upregulation of ICAM-1 expression in endothelial cells exposed to elevated levels of AA, which may contribute to the development of vascular disease in diabetes. PMID:25489974

  10. Effects of 17 β-estradiol on lipopolysacharride-induced intracellular adhesion molecule-1 mRNA expression and Ca2+ homeostasis alteration in human endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Thor, Der; Zhang, Rui; Anderson, Leigh; Bose, Diptiman; Dubé, Gregory P.; Rahimian, Roshanak

    2010-01-01

    Recent evidence showed that 17 β-estradiol (E2) decreased cytokine-induced expression of cell adhesion molecules (CAM). Changes in intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) has been shown to be associated with CAM expression in endothelial cells. Here, the effects of E2 (1 μM, 24 h) on the expression of intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and [Ca2+]i were investigated in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (100 ng/mL, 18 h)-stimulated human endothelial cell line, EA.hy926, using real-time PCR and spectrofluorometry, respectively. PCR analysis revealed a significant increase in ICAM-1 expression in calcium ionophore A23187 (1 nM)- or LPS-stimulated cells. Pretreatment of cells with E2 significantly inhibited LPS-induced ICAM-1 mRNA expression. [Ca2+]i was monitored in Fura-2 AM-loaded cells in the presence and absence of extracellular Ca2+ with thapsigargin (TG, 1 μM), a sarco/endoplasmic reticulum ATPase inhibitor or ATP (100 μM). The extent of TG- or ATP-induced [Ca2+]i increase was significantly higher in LPS-stimulated cells than in control cells. Pre-treatment of LPS-stimulated cells with E2 limited the Ca2+ response to the same level as in control cells. Furthermore, ICI 182,780, an estrogen receptor antagonist, attenuated the inhibitory actions of E2 on ICAM-1 mRNA expression and Ca2+ responses, suggesting that estrogen receptors mediate, at least in part, the effects of estrogen. These data suggest a potential underlying mechanism for the protective effect of E2 against atherosclerosis. PMID:20843480

  11. Intercellular adhesion molecule 1 is a sensitive and diagnostically useful immunohistochemical marker of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) and of PTC-like nuclear alterations in Hashimoto's thyroiditis

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, KE; GE, SHU-JIAN; LIN, XIAO-YAN; LV, BEI-BEI; CAO, ZHI-XIN; LI, JIA-MEI; XU, JIA-WEN; WANG, QIANG-XIU

    2016-01-01

    Intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) is important in the progression of inflammatory responses. Recently, increased levels of ICAM-1 have been reported in a number of types of malignancy. The present study aimed to investigate ICAM-1 expression in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) and in Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) with PTC-like nuclear alterations, and to assess the predictive value of ICAM-1 in thyroid lesions. ICAM-1 expression was retrospectively investigated in 132 consecutive cases of PTC, 72 cases of HT, 10 of follicular cancer, 15 of follicular adenoma, 16 of nodular goiter and 8 samples of normal thyroid tissue using immunohistochemical analyses, and in 42 PTC patients using western blotting. ICAM-1 expression was not detected in normal follicular cells, follicular lesions (adenoma and cancer) and benign nodular hyperplasia, but was frequently overexpressed in PTC cells. ICAM-1 overexpression was associated with extra-thyroidal invasion and lymph node metastasis; no association was found with age, gender, tumor size, multifocality, pathological stage, recurrence or distant metastasis. ICAM-1 expression in HT patients with PTC-like nuclear alterations was significantly higher than that in HT cases with non-PTC-like features. Compared with antibodies against cytokeratin 19, galectin-3 and Hector Battifora mesothelial-1, ICAM-1 was the most sensitive marker for the detection of PTC-like features in HT. These findings demonstrate that ICAM-1 expression is upregulated in PTC and in HT with PTC-like nuclear alterations. This feature may be an important factor in the progression of cancer of the thyroid gland. PMID:26998068

  12. Cyclic stretching of mesangial cells up-regulates intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and leukocyte adherence: a possible new mechanism for glomerulosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Riser, B L; Varani, J; Cortes, P; Yee, J; Dame, M; Sharba, A K

    2001-01-01

    Intraglomerular hypertension is a primary causal factor in the progressive glomerulosclerosis that characterizes diabetic nephropathy or severe renal ablation. However, inflammation of the glomerular mesangium also participates in at least the early phase of these diseases. In glomerulonephritis, where inflammation is thought to be the predominant causal factor, intraglomerular hypertension is also often present. Mesangial cells (MCs) are critical in orchestrating key functions of the glomerulus including extracellular matrix metabolism, cytokine production, and interaction with leukocytes. Because MCs are subject to increased stretching when intraglomerular hypertension is present, and in glomerulonephritis MC/leukocyte interactions seem to be mediated primarily via the up-regulation of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), we examine the possibility that cyclic stretching is a stimulus for increased MC ICAM-1 activity. We demonstrate that the normal low levels of MC ICAM-1 mRNA and protein are dramatically up-regulated by even short intervals of cyclic stretch. This effect is dose- and time-dependent, and requires little amplitude and a brief period of elongation for significant induction. Stretch-induced MC ICAM-1 also leads to a marked elevation in phagocytic leukocyte adherence. This stimulated adherence is equal or greater than that induced by the inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha, whereas an additive effect occurs when both are applied in combination. Our results indicate that stretch-induced ICAM-1 may provide a direct link between hypertension and inflammation in the progression of injury and glomerulosclerosis in diabetes, renal ablation, and other forms of glomerulonephritis.

  13. Testosterone attenuates expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 by conversion to estradiol by aromatase in endothelial cells: implications in atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Tapan K; Dinh, Hillary; Chaudhuri, Gautam; Nathan, Lauren

    2002-03-19

    We previously reported that testosterone attenuated atherogenesis in LDLR(-/-) male mice, and that this effect of testosterone was most likely caused by its conversion to estradiol. Estradiol inhibits vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) expression, and expression of VCAM-1 is one of the early events in atherogenesis. We assessed the cellular mechanism(s) involved by which testosterone attenuates atherogenesis. We evaluated whether testosterone inhibited TNFalpha-induced VCAM-1 expression via its conversion to estradiol by the enzyme aromatase in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). Aromatase mRNA was dedected by reverse transcription-PCR in these cells. Testosterone (30 nM-1 microM) attenuated VCAM-1 mRNA expression in a concentration-dependent manner. The non aromatizable androgen, dihydrotestosterone, had no effect on VCAM-1 mRNA expression. Testosterone was less effective in attenuating VCAM-1 expression in the presence of anastrozole, an inhibitor of aromatase, indicating that testosterone inhibited VCAM-1 via conversion to estradiol. Estradiol also attenuated VCAM-1 mRNA expression, but this action was not abolished in the presence of anastrozole, indicating that anastrozole itself did not modulate VCAM-1 mRNA expression. The effect of testosterone on VCAM-1 mRNA expression was inhibited in the presence of the estrogen receptor antagonist, ICI-182780. Testosterone also attenuated TNFalpha-induced VCAM-1 protein expression, and this attenuation was abolished in the presence of anastrozole. In conclusion, testosterone inhibited VCAM-1 mRNA and protein expression in HUVEC by its conversion to estradiol via the enzyme aromatase present in the endothelial cells. Results from our study may help explain the mechanism by which testosterone may have beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system.

  14. Vitamin E supplementation reduces plasma vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and von Willebrand factor levels and increases nitric oxide concentrations in hypercholesterolemic patients.

    PubMed

    Desideri, Giovambattista; Marinucci, Maria Contina; Tomassoni, Gianluca; Masci, Pier Giorgio; Santucci, Anna; Ferri, Claudio

    2002-06-01

    Up-regulation of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and reduced nitric oxide (NO) availability represent early characteristics of atherosclerosis. To evaluate whether the antioxidant vitamin E affected the circulating levels of soluble VCAM-1 (sVCAM-1) and the plasma metabolite of NO (nitrite+nitrate) in hypercholesterolemic patients, either vitamin E (either 400 IU or 800 IU/d for 8 wk) or placebo were randomly, double-blindly given to 36 hypercholesterolemic patients and 22 age- and sex-matched controls. At baseline hypercholesterolemic patients showed higher plasma sVCAM-1 (microg.liter(-1)) (591.2 +/- 132.5 vs. 505.0 +/- 65.6, P < 0.007) and lower NO metabolite (microM) levels (15.9 +/- 3.4 vs. 29.2 +/- 5.1, P < 0.0001) than controls. In hypercholesterolemic patients, 8 wk vitamin E (but not placebo) treatment significantly decreased circulating sVCAM-1 levels (400 IU: -148.9 +/- 84.6, P < 0.009; 800 IU: -204.0 +/- 75.7, P < 0.0001; placebo: -4.7 +/- 22.6, NS), whereas it increased NO metabolite concentrations (400 IU: +4.0 +/- 1.7, P < 0.02; 800 IU: +5.5 +/- 0.8, P < 0.0001; placebo: +0.1 +/- 1.1, NS) without affecting circulating low- density lipoprotein levels. Changes in both plasma sVCAM-1 and NO metabolite levels showed a trend to significantly correlate (r = -0.515, P = 0.010; and r = 0.435, P = 0.034, respectively) with changes in vitamin E concentrations induced by vitamin E supplementation. In conclusion, isolated hypercholesterolemia both increased circulating sVCAM-1 and reduced NO metabolite concentrations. Vitamin E supplementation counteracts these alterations, thus representing a potential tool for endothelial protection in hypercholesterolemic patients.

  15. An anti-platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 antibody inhibits leukocyte extravasation from mesenteric microvessels in vivo by blocking the passage through the basement membrane

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    Platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1, CD31) plays an active role in the process of leukocyte migration through cultured endothelial cells in vitro and anti-PECAM-1 antibodies (Abs) inhibit accumulation of leukocytes into sites of inflammation in vivo. Despite the latter, it is still not clear at which stage of leukocyte emigration in vivo PECAM-1 is involved. To address this point directly, we studied the effect of an anti-PECAM-1 Ab, recognizing rat PECAM-1, on leukocyte responses within rat mesenteric microvessels using intravital microscopy. In mesenteric preparations activated by interleukin (IL)-1 beta, the anti-PECAM-1 Ab had no significant effect on the rolling or adhesion of leukocytes, but inhibited their migration into the surrounding extravascular tissue in a dose-dependent manner. Although in some vessel segments these leukocytes had come to a halt within the vascular lumen, often the leukocytes appeared to be trapped within the vessel wall. Analysis of these sections by electron microscopy revealed that the leukocytes had passed through endothelial cell junctions but not the basement membrane. In contrast to the effect of the Ab in mesenteric preparations treated with IL-1 beta, leukocyte extravasation induced by topical or intraperitoneal administration of the chemotactic peptide formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine was not inhibited by the anti-PECAM-1 Ab. These results directly demonstrate a role for PECAM-1 in leukocyte extravasation in vivo and indicate that this involvement is selective for leukocyte extravasation elicited by certain inflammatory mediators. Further, our findings provide the first in vivo indication that PECAM-1 may have an important role in triggering the passage of leukocytes through the perivascular basement membrane. PMID:8691137

  16. Simple modifications to methimazole that enhance its inhibitory effect on tumor necrosis factor-α-induced vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression by human endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Alapati, Anuja; Deosarkar, Sudhir P; Lanier, Olivia L; Qi, Chunyan; Carlson, Grady E; Burdick, Monica M; Schwartz, Frank L; McCall, Kelly D; Bergmeier, Stephen C; Goetz, Douglas J

    2015-03-15

    The expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) on the vascular endothelium can be increased by pro-inflammatory cytokines [e.g. tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)]. VCAM-1 contributes to leukocyte adhesion to, and emigration from, the vasculature which is a key aspect of pathological inflammation. As such, a promising therapeutic approach for pathological inflammation is to inhibit the expression of VCAM-1. Methimazole [3-methyl-1, 3 imidazole-2 thione (MMI)] is routinely used for the treatment of Graves׳ disease and patients treated with MMI have decreased levels of circulating VCAM-1. In this study we used cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) to investigate the effect of MMI structural modifications on TNF-α induced VCAM-1 expression. We found that addition of a phenyl ring at the 4-nitrogen of MMI yields a compound that is significantly more potent than MMI at inhibiting 24h TNF-α-induced VCAM-1 protein expression. Addition of a para methoxy to the appended phenyl group increases the inhibition while substitution of a thiazole ring for an imidazole ring in the phenyl derivatives yields no clear difference in inhibition. Addition of the phenyl ring to MMI appears to increase toxicity as does substitution of a thiazole ring for an imidazole ring in the phenyl MMI derivatives. Each of the compounds reduced TNF-α-induced VCAM-1 mRNA expression and had a functional inhibitory effect, i.e. each inhibited monocytic cell adhesion to 24h TNF-α-activated HUVEC under fluid flow conditions. Combined, these studies provide important insights into the design of MMI-related anti-inflammatory compounds.

  17. Soluble intracellular adhesion molecule-1 secreted by human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cell reduces amyloid-β plaques.

    PubMed

    Kim, J-Y; Kim, D H; Kim, J H; Lee, D; Jeon, H B; Kwon, S-J; Kim, S M; Yoo, Y J; Lee, E H; Choi, S J; Seo, S W; Lee, J I; Na, D L; Yang, Y S; Oh, W; Chang, J W

    2012-04-01

    Presently, co-culture of human umbilical cord blood mesenchymal stem cells (hUCB-MSCs) with BV2 microglia under amyloid-β42 (Aβ42) exposure induced a reduction of Aβ42 in the medium as well as an overexpression of the Aβ-degrading enzyme neprilysin (NEP) in microglia. Cytokine array examinations of co-cultured media revealed elevated release of soluble intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) from hUCB-MSCs. Administration of human recombinant ICAM-1 in BV2 cells and wild-type mice brains induced NEP expression in time- and dose-dependent manners. In co-culturing with BV2 cells under Aβ42 exposure, knockdown of ICAM-1 expression on hUCB-MSCs by small interfering RNA (siRNA) abolished the induction of NEP in BV2 cells as well as reduction of added Aβ42 in the co-cultured media. By contrast, siRNA-mediated inhibition of the sICAM-1 receptor, lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1), on BV2 cells reduced NEP expression by ICAM-1 exposure. When hUCB-MSCs were transplanted into the hippocampus of a 10-month-old transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease for 10, 20, or 40 days, NEP expression was increased in the mice brains. Moreover, Aβ42 plaques in the hippocampus and other regions were decreased by active migration of hUCB-MSCs toward Aβ deposits. These data suggest that hUCB-MSC-derived sICAM-1 decreases Aβ plaques by inducing NEP expression in microglia through the sICAM-1/LFA-1 signaling pathway.

  18. Vascular and extravascular immunoreactivity for Intercellular Adhesion Molecule 1 in the orbitofrontal cortex of subjects with major depression: age-dependent changes

    PubMed Central

    Miguel-Hidalgo, Jose Javier; Overholser, James C.; Jurjus, George J.; Meltzer, Herbert Y.; Dieter, Lesa; Konick, Lisa; Stockmeier, Craig A.; Rajkowska, Grazyna

    2011-01-01

    Background Vascular and immune alterations in the prefrontal cortex may contribute to major depression in elderly subjects. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), major inflammatory mediator in vessels and astrocytes, could be altered in geriatric depression, but little is known about its age-dependent expression in subjects with depression and its relationship to astrocytes identified by the marker glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), found to be reduced in depression. Methods We measured the percentage of gray matter area fraction covered by ICAM-1 immunoreactivity in blood vessels and in extravascular accumulations of ICAM-1 immunoreactivity in 19 non-psychiatric comparison subjects and 18 subjects with major depression, all characterized by postmortem psychological diagnosis. Association of extravascular ICAM-1 to GFAP-positive astrocytes was investigated by double-labeling immunofluorescence. Results Vascular and extravascular fractions of ICAM-1 immunoreactivity were lower in subjects with MDD than in non-psychiatric comparison subjects. Non-psychiatric comparison subjects older than 60 experienced dramatic increase in extravascular ICAM-1 immunoreactivity, but this increase was attenuated in elderly subjects with MDD, particularly in those dying by suicide. Most extracellular ICAM-1 immunoreactivity was coextensive with GFAP-immunoreactive astrocytes in both groups. Limitations Heterogeneity in type and dosage of antidepressant medication. Difficulty in determining the exact onset of depression in subjects older than 60 at the time of death. Routine cerebrovascular pathological screening may miss subtle subcellular and molecular changes. Conclusions There is significant attenuation of extravascular and vascular ICAM-1 immunoreactivity in elderly subjects with major depression suggesting an astrocyte-associated alteration in immune function in the aging orbitofrontal cortex of subjects with MDD. PMID:21536333

  19. The Serum Changes of Neuron-Specific Enolase and Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 in Patients With Diffuse Axonal Injury Following Progesterone Administration: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Shahrokhi, Nader; Soltani, Zahra; Khaksari, Mohammad; Karamouzian, Saeid; Mofid, Behshad; Asadikaram, Gholamreza

    2016-01-01

    Background Improvement of neurologic outcome in progesterone-administered patients with diffuse axonal injury (DAI) has been found in a recent study. Also, there has been interest in the importance of serum parameters as predictors of outcome in traumatic brain injury. Objectives The aim of this study was to examine the effect of progesterone administration on serum levels of neuron-specific enolase (NSE), and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in clinical DAI. Patients and Methods In this study, the serum levels of ICAM-1 and NSE of 32 male DAI patients (18 - 60 years of age, a Glasgow coma scale of 12 or less, and admitted within 4 hours after injury) who were randomized for a controlled phase II trial of progesterone were analyzed. The analysis was performed between the control and progesterone groups at admission time, and 24 hours and six days after DAI, respectively. Results A reduction in the serum level of ICAM-1 was noticed in the progesterone group 24 hours after the injury (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in the serum level of NSE between the study groups during evaluation. At 24 hours after the injury, the level of ICAM-1 in the control group was higher than that at admission time (P < 0.05). The lowest level of NSE in the two groups was seen six days after DAI (P < 0.01). Conclusions In summary, progesterone administration reduced serum ICAM-1, and whereby may attenuate blood brain barrier disruption, the latter needs further investigation for confirmation. PMID:27800469

  20. Urinary kidney injury molecule-1 as an early diagnostic biomarker of obstructive acute kidney injury and development of a rapid detection method

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Yingli; Shao, Xiaona; Sun, Bo; Miao, Chunsheng; Li, Zhengqiang; Shi, Yan

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether urinary kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) presents a suitable early diagnostic biomarker of obstructive nephropathy-induced acute kidney injury (AKI), and to develop a rapid detection method for urinary KIM-1. Obstructive AKI was induced in an experimental rat model by a unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) operation. Macro- and micromorphological kidney alterations were determined by visual observation and hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining, respectively. Kidney functions were evaluated by detecting urea nitrogen and creatinine levels in rat urine and blood. Urinary KIM-1 levels were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and the protein expression levels of KIM-1, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and vimentin in kidney tissues were detected using immunohistochemical assays. In order to measure KIM-1 levels, colloidal gold immunochromatographic strips were developed based on the colloidal gold immunochromatographic assay. The results indicated that KIM-1 levels were significantly higher in the UUO group when compared with the Sham group. KIM-1 levels in the urine and kidney tissues exhibited a time-dependent increase, together with increasing obstructive AKI in the UUO group. In addition, KIM-1 levels were demonstrated to be a more sensitive biomarker of early obstructive AKI, when compared with α-SMA and vimentin. A colloidal gold-based immunochromatographic strip was developed, whereby the detection of urinary KIM-1 could be completed within 5–10 min. In conclusion, results of the present study demonstrated that urinary KIM-1 may be a valuable biomarker for the early diagnosis of obstructive AKI, and the use of a colloidal gold immunochromatographic strip may be a promising method for the rapid detection of urinary KIM-1. PMID:28075469

  1. The Br+HO 2 reaction revisited: Absolute determination of the rate constant at 298 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laverdet, G.; Le Bras, G.; Mellouki, A.; Poulet, G.

    1990-09-01

    The absolute determination of the rate constant for the reaction Br+HO 2→HBr+O 2 has been done at 298 K using the discharge-flor EPR method. The value k1 = (1.5±0.2) × 10 -12 cm 3 molecule -1 s -1 was obtained. Previous indirect measurements of k1 from a discharge-flow, LIF/mass spectrometric study of the Br/H 2CO/O 2 system have been reinterpreted, leading to values for k1 ranging from 1.0 × 10 -12 to 2.2 × 10 -12 cm 3 molecule -1 s -1 at 298 K. These results are discussed and compared with other literature values.

  2. 5,7-Dihydroxy-3,4,6-trimethoxyflavone inhibits intercellular adhesion molecule 1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 via the Akt and nuclear factor-κB-dependent pathway, leading to suppression of adhesion of monocytes and eosinophils to bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jireh; Ko, Su H; Yoo, Do Y; Lee, Jin Y; Kim, Yeong-Jeon; Choi, Seul M; Kang, Kyung K; Yoon, Ho J; Kim, Hyeyoung; Youn, Jeehee; Kim, Jung M

    2012-09-01

    5,7-Dihydroxy-3',4',6'-trimethoxyflavone (eupatilin), the active pharmacological ingredient from Artemisia asiatica Nakai (Asteraceae), is reported to have a variety of anti-inflammatory properties in intestinal epithelial cells. However, little information is known about the molecular mechanism of eupatilin-induced attenuation of bronchial epithelial inflammation. This study investigates the role of eupatilin in the adhesion of inflammatory cells such as monocytes and eosinophils to bronchial epithelial cells. Stimulation of a human bronchial epithelial cell line (BEAS-2B) with tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) increased the expression of surface adhesion molecules, including intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1), in which eupatilin significantly inhibited the expression of those adhesion molecules in a dose-dependent manner. Eupatilin suppressed the TNF-α-induced activation of IκBα and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signals in BEAS-2B cells. The IκB kinase (IKK) activation was also significantly reduced in eupatilin-pre-treated BEAS-2B and primary normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells. However, eupatilin did not influence AP-1 activity in TNF-α-stimulated cells. Suppression of NF-κB signalling induced by eupatilin resulted in the inhibition of the expression of adhesion molecules and the adhesion of monocytes and eosinophils to BEAS-2B cells. Furthermore, eupatilin suppressed the phosphorylation of Akt in TNF-α-stimulated BEAS-2B and NHBE cells, leading to down-regulation of NF-κB activation and adhesion molecule expression and finally to suppression of the inflammatory cell adhesion to epithelial cells. These results suggest that eupatilin can inhibit the adhesion of inflammatory cells to bronchial epithelial cells via a signalling pathway, including activation of Akt and NF-κB, as well as expression of adhesion molecules.

  3. 5,7-Dihydroxy-3,4,6-trimethoxyflavone inhibits intercellular adhesion molecule 1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 via the Akt and nuclear factor-κB-dependent pathway, leading to suppression of adhesion of monocytes and eosinophils to bronchial epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Jireh; Ko, Su H; Yoo, Do Y; Lee, Jin Y; Kim, Yeong-Jeon; Choi, Seul M; Kang, Kyung K; Yoon, Ho J; Kim, Hyeyoung; Youn, Jeehee; Kim, Jung M

    2012-01-01

    5,7-Dihydroxy-3′,4′,6′-trimethoxyflavone (eupatilin), the active pharmacological ingredient from Artemisia asiatica Nakai (Asteraceae), is reported to have a variety of anti-inflammatory properties in intestinal epithelial cells. However, little information is known about the molecular mechanism of eupatilin-induced attenuation of bronchial epithelial inflammation. This study investigates the role of eupatilin in the adhesion of inflammatory cells such as monocytes and eosinophils to bronchial epithelial cells. Stimulation of a human bronchial epithelial cell line (BEAS-2B) with tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) increased the expression of surface adhesion molecules, including intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1), in which eupatilin significantly inhibited the expression of those adhesion molecules in a dose-dependent manner. Eupatilin suppressed the TNF-α-induced activation of IκBα and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signals in BEAS-2B cells. The IκB kinase (IKK) activation was also significantly reduced in eupatilin-pre-treated BEAS-2B and primary normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells. However, eupatilin did not influence AP-1 activity in TNF-α-stimulated cells. Suppression of NF-κB signalling induced by eupatilin resulted in the inhibition of the expression of adhesion molecules and the adhesion of monocytes and eosinophils to BEAS-2B cells. Furthermore, eupatilin suppressed the phosphorylation of Akt in TNF-α-stimulated BEAS-2B and NHBE cells, leading to down-regulation of NF-κB activation and adhesion molecule expression and finally to suppression of the inflammatory cell adhesion to epithelial cells. These results suggest that eupatilin can inhibit the adhesion of inflammatory cells to bronchial epithelial cells via a signalling pathway, including activation of Akt and NF-κB, as well as expression of adhesion molecules. PMID:22862554

  4. Molecule 1,5-C10H6(SO2Cl)2 as prototype of conformational properties of naphthalene sulfonyl derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, Vjacheslav M.; Giricheva, Nina I.; Ivanov, Sergey N.; Petrova, Valentina N.; Girichev, Georgiy V.

    2017-03-01

    Conformational composition of the vapor (T = 413(5) K) and the conformer structures of 1,5-naphthalenedisulfonylchloride (1,5-NaphDSC) have been studied by a combined gas-phase electron diffraction and mass spectrometry (GED/MS) method complemented by quantum chemical calculations. According to quantum chemical calculations at DFT/B3LYP/cc-pVTZ and MP2/cc-pVTZ theory levels, the molecule 1,5-NaphDSC possesses four conformers differing mutual orientation of the two SO2Cl groups. GED data clearly indicate that only two conformers, whose structures are characterized by deviation of two Ssbnd Cl bonds from perpendicular position relative to the plane of the naphthalene skeleton (syn-symmetry C2 and anti-symmetry Ci), are present in vapor at 413 K. The following geometrical parameters of these conformers were obtained from the experiment (Å and degrees; uncertainties are in parentheses): rh1(Csbnd H) = 1.098(9), rh1(Csbnd C) = 1.405(3), rh1(Csbnd S) = 1.781(4), rh1(Ssbnd O) = 1.426(3), rh1(Ssbnd Cl) = 2.056(4), ∠Csbnd CSsbnd C = 122.9(1), ∠CSsbnd Ssbnd Cl = 101.8(6); C9sbnd C1sbnd Ssbnd Cl = 71.2(12), C10sbnd C5sbnd Ssbnd Cl = 71.2(12)-syn conformer; C9sbnd C1sbnd Ssbnd Cl = 71.2(12), C10sbnd C5sbnd Ssbnd Cl = -71.2(12) -anti-conformer. The presence of C9Hn+ ions in the mass spectra of naphthalenesulfonyl chlorides, which are absent in the mass spectrum of naphthalene, may be attributed to the weakening of two Csbnd C bonds adjacent to the substituent of the naphthalene skeleton. This reflects in the geometric parameters of 1,5-NaphDSC. The barriers to internal rotation of sulfonyl chloride groups were calculated. It is shown that the low-energy syn- and anti-conformers are structurally rigid, in contrast to high-energy conformers with one or two Ssbnd Cl bonds, lying in the plane of the naphthalene skeleton. The dependence of C1sbnd C2, Csbnd S, Ssbnd Cl bond lengths from SO2Cl groups orientation relative to naphthalene skeleton is discussed in terms of NBO

  5. Effects of nitrogen dioxide on the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1, neutrophil adhesion, and cytotoxicity: studies in human bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Ayyagari, Vijayalakshmi N; Januszkiewicz, Adolph; Nath, Jayasree

    2007-02-01

    Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) is a product of high-temperature combustion and an environmental oxidant of concern. We have recently reported that early changes in NO2-exposed human bronchial epithelial cells are causally linked to increased generation of proinflammatory mediators, such as nitric oxide/nitrite and cytokines like interleukin (IL)-1beta, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and IL-8. The objective of the present in vitro study was to further delineate the cellular mechanisms of NO2-mediated toxicity, and to define the nature of cell death that ensues upon exposure of normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells to a brief high dose of NO2. Our results demonstrate that the NHBE cells undergo apoptotic cell death during the early post-NO2 period, but this is independent of any significant increase in caspase-3 activity. However, necrotic cell death was more prevalent at later time intervals. Interestingly, an increased expression of HO-1, a redox-sensitive stress protein, was observed in NO2-exposed NHBE cells at 24 h. Since neutrophils (PMNs) play an active role in acute lung inflammation and resultant oxidative injury, we also investigated changes in human PMN-NHBE cell interactions. As compared to normal cells, increased adhesion of PMNs to NO2-exposed cells was observed, which resulted in an increased NHBE cell death. The latter was also increased in the presence of IL-8 and TNF-alpha + interferon (IFN)-gamma, which correlated with upregulation of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). Our results confirmed an involvement of nitric oxide (NO) in NO2-induced cytotoxicity. By using NO synthase inhibitors such as L-NAME and 3-aminoguanidine (AG), a significant decrease in cell death, PMN adhesion, and ICAM-1 expression was observed. These findings indicate a role for the L-arginine/NO synthase pathway in the observed NO2-mediated toxicity in NHBE cells. Therapeutic strategies aimed at controlling excess generation of NO and/or inflammatory cytokines may

  6. Exosomes from iPSCs Delivering siRNA Attenuate Intracellular Adhesion Molecule-1 Expression and Neutrophils Adhesion in Pulmonary Microvascular Endothelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Ju, Zhihai; Ma, Jinhui; Wang, Chen; Yu, Jie; Qiao, Yeru; Hei, Feilong

    2017-04-01

    The pro-inflammatory activation of pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells resulting in continuous expression of cellular adhesion molecules, and subsequently recruiting primed neutrophils to form a firm neutrophils-endothelium (PMN-EC) adhesion, has been examined and found to play a vital role in acute lung injury (ALI). RNA interference (RNAi) is a cellular process through harnessing a natural pathway silencing target gene based on recognition and subsequent degradation of specific mRNA sequences. It opens a promising approach for precision medicine. However, this application was hampered by many obstacles, such as immunogenicity, instability, toxicity problems, and difficulty in across the biological membrane. In this study, we reprogrammed urine exfoliated renal epithelial cells into human induced pluripotent stem cells (huiPSCs) and purified the exosomes (Exo) from huiPSCs as RNAi delivery system. Through choosing the episomal system to deliver transcription factors, we obtained a non-integrating huiPSCs. Experiments in both vitro and vivo demonstrated that these huiPSCs possess the pluripotent properties. The exosomes of huiPSCs isolated by differential centrifugation were visualized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showing a typical exosomal appearance with an average diameter of 122 nm. Immunoblotting confirmed the presence of the typical exosomal markers, including CD63, TSG 101, and Alix. Co-cultured PKH26-labeled exosomes with human primary pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (HMVECs) confirmed that they could be internalized by recipient cells at a time-dependent manner. Then, electroporation was used to introduce siRNA against intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) into exosomes to form an Exo/siRNA compound. The Exo/siRNA compound efficiently delivered the target siRNA into HMVECs causing selective gene silencing, inhibiting the ICAM-1 protein expression, and PMN-EC adhesion induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). These data suggest

  7. Ultraviolet radiation can either suppress or induce expression of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) on the surface of cultured human keratinocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Norris, D.A.; Lyons, M.B.; Middleton, M.H.; Yohn, J.J.; Kashihara-Sawami, M. )

    1990-08-01

    Interactions of the ligand/receptor pair LFA-1(CD11a/CD18) and ICAM-1(CD54) initiate and control the cell-cell interactions of leukocytes and interactions of leukocytes with parenchymal cells in all phases of the immune response. Induction of the intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) on the surface of epidermal keratinocytes has been proposed as an important regulator of contact-dependent aspects of cutaneous inflammation. Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) also modifies cutaneous inflammation, producing both up- and down-regulation of contact hypersensitivity. We have found that UVR has a biphasic effect on the induction of keratinocyte CD54. Using immunofluorescence and FACS techniques to quantitate cell-surface CD54 staining, we have shown that UVR significantly (p less than 0.01) inhibits keratinocyte CD54 induction by gamma interferon 24 h after irradiation. However, at 48, 72, and 96 h after UVR, CD54 expression is significantly induced to levels even greater than are induced by gamma interferon (20 U/ml). In addition, at 48, 72, or 96 h following UVR (30-100 mJ/cm2), the gamma-interferon-induced CD54 expression on human keratinocytes is also strongly (p less than 0.05 to p less than 0.001) enhanced. In this cell-culture system, gamma interferon and TNF-alpha are both strong CD54 inducers and are synergistic, but GM-CSF, TFG-beta, and IL-1 have no direct CD54-inducing effects. Thus the effects of UVR on CD54 induction are biphasic, producing inhibition at 24 h and induction at 48, 72, and 96 h. This effect on CD54 may contribute to the biphasic effects of UVR on delayed hypersensitivity in vivo. The early inhibition of ICAM-1 by UVR may also contribute to the therapeutic effects of UVR. We also speculate that the late induction of ICAM-1 by UVR might be an important step in the induction of photosensitive diseases such as lupus erythematosus.

  8. Laser induced fluorescence studies of iodine oxide chemistry. Part II. The reactions of IO with CH3O2, CF3O2 and O3.

    PubMed

    Dillon, Terry J; Tucceri, María E; Crowley, John N

    2006-11-28

    The technique of pulsed laser photolysis was coupled to laser induced fluorescence detection of iodine oxide (IO) to measure rate coefficients, k for the reactions IO + CH(3)O(2)--> products (R1, 30-318 Torr N(2)), IO + CF(3)O(2)--> products (R2, 70-80 Torr N(2)), and IO + O(3)--> OIO + O(2) (R3a). Values of k(1) = (2 +/- 1) x 10(-12) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1), k(2) = (3.6 +/- 0.8) x 10(-11) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1), and k(3a) <5 x 10(-16) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) were obtained at T = 298 K. In the course of this work, the product yield of IO from the reaction of CH(3)O(2) with I was determined to be close to zero, whereas CH(3)OOI was formed efficiently at 70 Torr N(2). Similarly, no evidence was found for IO formation in the CF(3)O(2) + I reaction. An estimate of the rate coefficients k(CH(3)O(2) + I) = 2 x 10(-11) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) and k(CH(3)OOI + I) = 1.5 x 10(-10) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) was also obtained. The results on k(1)-k(3) are compared to the limited number of previous investigations and the implications for the chemistry of the marine boundary layer are briefly discussed.

  9. Optical Memory Stores 10 12sup. Bits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Optical Mass Memory has separate recorder (write) and reproducer (read) modules. Data are recorded on fiches and stored in a carrousel. Fische is retrieved from carrousel by transporter in under 10 seconds. Input to optical memory is standard TV camera. TV monitor at memory output displays stored video images when they are retrieved from fisches. Input to the optical memory can also be taken from pseudorandom sequence generator.

  10. General Business: Grades 10-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Instructional Objectives Exchange, Los Angeles, CA.

    Thirty-five objectives and related test items assessing general business skills taught in grades 10 through 12 are included in this collection. Each objective is stated in operational terms and identified by a subject area within the hood category of general business. Objectives include the desired behavior and subject content so that students are…

  11. Field Ecology, Grades 10-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, David C.; Powell, Nancy A.

    Presented are activities which provide a program of first-hand experiences in field ecology for groups of three to five students under the leadership of a teacher or adult volunteer. Concentration is centered upon study of the effects of environment on living plants and animals and the interdependence of members of ecosystems. Each investigation…

  12. Preface: Proceedings of the ESF Exploratory Workshop on Glassy Liquids under Pressure: Fundamentals and Applications (Ustroń, Poland, 10-12 October 2007) Proceedings of the ESF Exploratory Workshop on Glassy Liquids under Pressure: Fundamentals and Applications (Ustroń, Poland, 10-12 October 2007)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drozd-Rzoska, Aleksandra; Rzoska, Sylwester J.; Tamarit, Josep Ll

    2008-06-01

    This preface focuses on the importance of pressure studies for explaining the glass transitions puzzle. Subsequently, some issues related to the European Science Foundation Exploratory Workshop (ESF EW) Glassy Liquids under Pressure: Fundamentals and Applications (Ustroń, Poland, 10-12 October 2007) are recalled. Most liquids crystallize on 'normal' cooling at the melting temperature Tm. However, some liquids can skip crystallization and undergo supercooling down to glass temperature Tg. Turnbull 1 proposed an empirical link between these temperatures indicating good glass forming ability (GFA) for Tg/Tm « 2/3. Values of the GFA factor Tg/Tm → 1/2 were suggested for 'poor' glass formers, where crystallization is difficult to avoid. Recently, the significance of the pressure dependence of the GFA factor was also noted 2. Reaching the glass transition is associated with a series of phenomena, namely 3: (i) the thermal expansion coefficient at constant pressure changes smoothly from values common for a liquid to those of a crystal, showing anomalous behaviour near Tg, (ii) viscosity reaches a value of η = 1013 P and the structural relaxation time τ ≈ 100 s, (iii) the specific heat drop occurs, giving rise to the famous Kauzmann paradox. On cooling towards glass transition, the 'pretransitional' behaviour can be observed for dynamic properties even well above Tg + 100 K 3. This includes the non-Arrhenius evolution of such magnitudes as viscosity, primary (structural-, α-) relaxation time, electric conductivity or diffusion coefficient associated with increasingly non-Debye distribution of relaxation times 3. Such behaviour is associated with short-time scale relaxation processes. The most characteristic is the secondary (β-) relaxation 4, 5 which merges with the 'structural' dynamics near τ(TB) = 10-7+/-1s, the hypothetically universal (magic) time-scale 6. Below TB the split in the evolution of the translation and orientation related properties occurs 4, 5

  13. Strain distribution in Zr64.13Cu15.75Ni10.12Al10 bulk metallic glass investigated by in situ tensile tests under synchrotron radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoica, M.; Das, J.; Bednarcik, J.; Franz, H.; Mattern, N.; Wang, W. H.; Eckert, J.

    2008-07-01

    We report on the evolution of the atomic-scale strain tensor of ductile Zr64.13Cu15.75Ni10.12Al10 bulk metallic glass under tensile loading by using x-ray synchrotron radiation. The same kind of samples was previously investigated under compressive loading and revealed yielding at 1690 MPa together with large deformability of up to 160% strain. In tension the samples fracture at a lower stress, 1500 MPa, with no sign of yielding or plastic deformation. With no macroplasticity observed under tension, large differences in the elastic constants obtained from the strain tensor and from ultrasonic sound velocity measurements are revealed. This paper presents in detail the measuring procedure as well as the calculation of the tensile tensor and pair distribution functions of Zr64.13Cu15.75Ni10.12Al10 at different stages of deformation. The results are discussed in comparison with other reported data obtained from x-ray diffraction measurements using synchrotron radiation.

  14. Direct evidence for a substantive reaction between the Criegee intermediate, CH2OO, and the water vapour dimer.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Tom R; Blitz, Mark A; Heard, Dwayne E; Seakins, Paul W

    2015-02-21

    The C1 Criegee intermediate, CH2OO, reaction with water vapour has been studied. The removal rate constant shows a quadratic dependence on [H2O], implying reaction with the water dimer, (H2O)2. The rate constant, kCH2OO+(H2O)2 = (4.0 ± 1.2) × 10(-12) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1), is such that this is the major atmospheric sink for CH2OO.

  15. [The Influence of the Functioning of Brain Regulatory Systems onto the Voluntary Regulation of Cognitive Performance in Children. Report 2. Neuropsychological and Electrophysiological Assessment of Brain Regulatory Functions in Children Aged 10-12 with Learning Difficulties].

    PubMed

    Semenova, O A; Machinskaya, R I

    2015-01-01

    A total number of 172 children aged 10-12 were electrophysiologically and neuropsychologically assessed in order to analyze the influence of the functioning of brain regulatory systems onto the voluntary regulation of cognitive performance during the preteen years. EEG patterns associated with the nonoptimal functioning of brain regulatory systems, particularly fronto-thalamic, limbic and fronto-striatal structures were significantly more often observed in children with learning and behavioral difficulties, as compared to the control group. Neuropsychological assessment showed that the nonoptimal functioning of different brain regulatory systems specifically affect the voluntary regulation of cognitive performance. Children with EEG patterns of fronto-thalamic nonoptimal functioning demonstrated poor voluntary regulation such as impulsiveness and difficulties in continuing the same algorithms. Children with EEG patterns of limbic nonoptimal functioning showed a less pronounced executive dysfunction manifested only in poor switching between program units within a task. Children with EEG patterns of fronto-striatal nonoptimal functioning struggled with such executive dysfunctions as motor and tactile perseverations and emotional-motivational deviations such as poor motivation and communicative skills.

  16. Circulating Concentrations of Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1, Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1, and Soluble Leukocyte Adhesion Molecule-1 in Overweight/Obese Men and Women Consuming Fructose- or Glucose-Sweetened Beverages for 10 Weeks

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Chad L.; Stanhope, Kimber L.; Schwarz, Jean Marc; Graham, James L.; Hatcher, Bonnie; Griffen, Steven C.; Bremer, Andrew A.; Berglund, Lars; McGahan, John P.; Keim, Nancy L.

    2011-01-01

    Context: Results from animal studies suggest that consumption of large amounts of fructose can promote inflammation and impair fibrinolysis. Data describing the effects of fructose consumption on circulating levels of proinflammatory and prothrombotic markers in humans are unavailable. Objective: Our objective was to determine the effects of 10 wk of dietary fructose or glucose consumption on plasma concentrations of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), E-selectin, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, C-reactive protein, and IL-6. Design and Setting: This was a parallel-arm study with two inpatient phases (2 wk baseline, final 2 wk intervention), conducted in a clinical research facility, and an outpatient phase (8 wk) during which subjects resided at home. Participants: Participants were older (40–72 yr), overweight/obese (body mass index = 25–35 kg/m2) men (n = 16) and women (n = 15). Interventions: Participants consumed glucose- or fructose-sweetened beverages providing 25% of energy requirements for 10 wk. Blood samples were collected at baseline and during the 10th week of intervention. Main Outcome Measures: Fasting concentrations of MCP-1 (P = 0.009), PAI-1 (P = 0.002), and E-selectin (P = 0.048) as well as postprandial concentrations of PAI-1 (P < 0.0001) increased in subjects consuming fructose but not in those consuming glucose. Fasting levels of C-reactive protein, IL-6, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 were not changed in either group. Conclusions: Consumption of fructose for 10 wk leads to increases of MCP-1, PAI-1, and E-selectin. These findings suggest the possibility that fructose may contribute to the development of the metabolic syndrome via effects on proinflammatory and prothrombotic mediators. PMID:21956423

  17. Low-visibility light-intensity laser-triggered release of entrapped calcein from 1,2-bis (tricosa-10,12-diynoyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine liposomes is mediated through a type I photoactivation pathway.

    PubMed

    Yavlovich, Amichai; Viard, Mathias; Gupta, Kshitij; Sine, Jessica; Vu, Mylinh; Blumenthal, Robert; Tata, Darrell B; Puri, Anu

    2013-01-01

    We recently reported on the physical characteristics of photo-triggerable liposomes containing dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC), and 1,2-bis (tricosa-10,12-diynoyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DC(8,9)PC) carrying a photo agent as their payload. When exposed to a low-intensity 514 nm wavelength (continuous-wave) laser light, these liposomes were observed to release entrapped calcein green (Cal-G; Ex/Em 490/517 nm) but not calcein blue (Cal-B; Ex/Em 360/460 nm). In this study, we have investigated the mechanism for the 514 nm laser-triggered release of the Cal-G payload using several scavengers that are known specifically to inhibit either type I or type II photoreaction pathways. Liposomes containing DPPC:DC(8,9)PC: distearoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DSPE)-polyethylene glycol (PEG)-2000 (86:10:04 mole ratio) were loaded either with fluorescent (calcein) or nonfluorescent ((3)H-inulin) aqueous markers. In addition, a non-photo-triggerable formulation (1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl phosphatidylcholine [POPC]:DC(8,9)PC:DSPE-PEG2000) was also studied with the same payloads. The 514 nm wavelength laser exposure on photo-triggerable liposomes resulted in the release of Cal-G but not that of Cal-B or (3)H-inulin, suggesting an involvement of a photoactivated state of Cal-G due to the 514 nm laser exposure. Upon 514 nm laser exposures, substantial hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, ≈100 μM) levels were detected from only the Cal-G loaded photo-triggerable liposomes but not from Cal-B-loaded liposomes (≤10 μM H2O2). The Cal-G release from photo-triggerable liposomes was found to be significantly inhibited by ascorbic acid (AA), resulting in a 70%-80% reduction in Cal-G release. The extent of AA-mediated inhibition of Cal-G release from the liposomes also correlated with the consumption of AA. No AA consumption was detected in the 514 nm laser-exposed Cal B-loaded liposomes, thus confirming a role of photoactivation of Cal-G in liposome destabilization. Inclusion of 100 mM K3Fe

  18. Small GTPase Rho signaling is involved in {beta}1 integrin-mediated up-regulation of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 and receptor activator of nuclear factor {kappa}B ligand on osteoblasts and osteoclast maturation

    SciTech Connect

    Hirai, Fumihiko; Nakayamada, Shingo; Okada, Yosuke; Saito, Kazuyoshi; Kurose, Hitoshi; Mogami, Akira; Tanaka, Yoshiya . E-mail: tanaka@med.uoeh-u.ac.jp

    2007-04-27

    We assessed the characteristics of human osteoblasts, focusing on small GTPase Rho signaling. {beta}1 Integrin were highly expressed on osteoblasts. Engagement of {beta}1 integrins by type I collagen augmented expression of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and receptor activator of nuclear factor {kappa}B ligand (RANKL) on osteoblasts. Rho was activated by {beta}1 stimulation in osteoblasts. {beta}1 Integrin-induced up-regulation of ICAM-1 and RANKL was inhibited by transfection with adenoviruses encoding C3 transferase or pretreated with Y-27632, specific Rho and Rho-kinase inhibitors. Engagement of {beta}1 integrin on osteoblasts induced formation of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive multinuclear cells (MNC) in a coculture system of osteoblasts and peripheral monocytes, but this action was completely abrogated by transfection of C3 transferase. Our results indicate the direct involvement of Rho-mediated signaling in {beta}1 integrin-induced up-regulation of ICAM-1 and RANKL and RANKL-dependent osteoclast maturation. Thus, Rho-mediated signaling in osteoblasts seems to introduce major biases to bone resorption.

  19. Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1)-induced syncytium formation mediated by vascular cell adhesion molecule-1: evidence for involvement of cell adhesion molecules in HTLV-1 biology.

    PubMed Central

    Hildreth, J E; Subramanium, A; Hampton, R A

    1997-01-01

    While studying the potential role of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) in infection of endothelial cells by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), we found that VCAM-1 can mediate human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1)-induced syncytium formation. Both expression-vector-encoded and endogenously expressed VCAM-1 supported fusion of uninfected cells with HTLV-1-infected cells. Fusion was obtained with cell lines carrying the HTLV-1 genome and expressing viral proteins but not with an HTLV-1-transformed cell line that does not express viral proteins. In clones of VCAM-1-transfected cells, the degree of syncytium formation observed directly reflected the level of VCAM-1 expression. Syncytium formation between HTLV-1-expressing cells and VCAM-1+ cells could be blocked with antiserum against HTLV-1 gp46 and with a monoclonal antibody (MAb) against VCAM-1. Fusion was not blocked by antiserum against HIV or a MAb against VLA-4, the physiological counter-receptor for VCAM-1. The results indicate that VCAM-1 can serve as an accessory molecule or potential coreceptor for HTLV-1-induced cell fusion and provide direct evidence of a role for cell adhesion molecules in the biology of HTLV-1. PMID:8995639

  20. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 induces cellular polarization, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 redistribution, and multinucleated giant cell generation in human primary monocytes but not in monocyte-derived macrophages.

    PubMed

    Fais, S; Borghi, P; Gherardi, G; Logozzi, M; Belardelli, F; Gessani, S

    1996-12-01

    In this study, we evaluated the effects of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) on some morphologic and functional changes in cultured human monocytes/macrophages at different stages of differentiation. Freshly isolated monocytes infected with HIV-1 24 hours after seeding exhibited marked morphologic changes such as uropod formation, polarization of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) on the cytoplasmic projection, the redistribution of alpha-actinin on cell-membrane dots, and an increased release of soluble ICAM-1. These changes preceded the increase in monocyte-monocyte fusion and the formation of multinucleated giant cells. In contrast, HIV-1 infection did not affect monocyte-derived macrophages in terms of either cellular polarization or multinucleated giant cell formation. Immunocytochemistry showed that HIV-1 matrix protein was present mostly in bi- and trinucleated cells, which suggests that multinucleated giant cells may represent a long-lived and highly productive cellular source of HIV. The treatment of the HIV-1-infected monocytes with azidodeoxythymidine virtually abolished all viral-induced morphofunctional changes. On the whole, these results indicate that blood monocytes and differentiated macrophages may be affected differently by HIV infection, as monocytes seem to be much more prone to polarize, undergo homotypic fusion, and form multinucleated giant cells. These changes may confer to HIV-infected monocytes an increased ability to transmigrate through endothelia into tissues, whereas differentiated macrophages may have a predominant role as a widespread reservoir of HIV.

  1. A single-arm, open-label, phase 2 clinical trial evaluating disease response following treatment with BI-505, a human anti-intercellular adhesion molecule-1 monoclonal antibody, in patients with smoldering multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Wichert, Stina; Juliusson, Gunnar; Johansson, Åsa; Sonesson, Elisabeth; Teige, Ingrid; Wickenberg, Anna Teige; Frendeus, Björn; Korsgren, Magnus; Hansson, Markus

    2017-01-01

    Background Smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM) is an indolent disease stage, considered to represent the transition phase from the premalignant MGUS (Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance) state towards symptomatic multiple myeloma (MM). Even though this diagnosis provides an opportunity for early intervention, few treatment studies have been done and the current standard of care is observation until progression. BI-505, a monoclonal antibody directed against intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) with promising anti-myeloma activity in preclinical trials, is a possible treatment approach for this patient category with potential to eliminate tumor cells with minimal long-term side effects. BI-505 was well tolerated in an earlier phase 1 trial. Methods and findings In this phase 2 trial the effects of BI-505 in patients with SMM were studied. Four patients were enrolled and three of them completed the first cycle of treatment defined as 5 doses of BI-505, a total of 43 mg/kg BW, over a 7-week period. In the three evaluable patients, BI-505 showed a benign safety profile. None of the patients achieved a response as defined per protocol. EudraCT number: 2012-004884-29. Conclusions The study was conducted to assess the efficacy, safety and pharmacodynamics of BI-505 in patients with SMM. BI-505 showed no clinically relevant efficacy on disease activity in these patients with SMM, even if well tolerated. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01838369. PMID:28158311

  2. Fer and Fps/Fes participate in a Lyn-dependent pathway from FcepsilonRI to platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1 to limit mast cell activation.

    PubMed

    Udell, Christian M; Samayawardhena, Lionel A; Kawakami, Yuko; Kawakami, Toshiaki; Craig, Andrew W B

    2006-07-28

    Mast cells express the high affinity IgE receptor FcepsilonRI, which upon aggregation by multivalent antigens elicits signals that cause rapid changes within the mast cell and in the surrounding tissue. We previously showed that FcepsilonRI aggregation caused a rapid increase in phosphorylation of both Fer and Fps/Fes kinases in bone marrow-derived mast cells. In this study, we report that FcepsilonRI aggregation leads to increased Fer/Fps kinase activities and that Fer phosphorylation downstream of FcepsilonRI is independent of Syk, Fyn, and Gab2 but requires Lyn. Activated Fer/Fps readily phosphorylate the C terminus of platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1 (Pecam-1) on immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motifs (ITIMs) and a non-ITIM residue (Tyr(700)) in vitro and in transfected cells. Mast cells devoid of Fer/Fps kinase activities display a reduction in FcepsilonRI aggregation-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of Pecam-1, with no defects in recruitment of Shp1/Shp2 phosphatases observed. Lyn-deficient mast cells display a dramatic reduction in Pecam-1 phosphorylation at Tyr(685) and a complete loss of Shp2 recruitment, suggesting a role as an initiator kinase for Pecam-1. Consistent with previous studies of Pecam-1-deficient mast cells, we observe an exaggerated degranulation response in mast cells lacking Fer/Fps kinases at low antigen dosages. Thus, Lyn and Fer/Fps kinases cooperate to phosphorylate Pecam-1 and activate Shp1/Shp2 phosphatases that function in part to limit mast cell activation.

  3. The Effect of Dexmedetomidine on Oxidative Stress Response Following Cerebral Ischemia-Reperfusion in Rats and the Expression of Intracellular Adhesion Molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and S100B

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yanwen; Liu, Shikun

    2017-01-01

    Background Ischemia-reperfusion injury of whole brain involves a complicated pathophysiology mechanism. Dexmedetomidine (Dex) has been shown to have neuro protective functions. This study observed the effect of Dex on serum S100B and cerebral intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in a rat model of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion. Material/Methods Healthy Sprague Dawley (SD) rats (males, 7 weeks old) were randomly divided into sham, model, and Dex groups (n=20 each). A cerebral ischemia-reperfusion model was prepared by clipping of the bilateral common carotid artery combined with hypotension. Dex (9 μg/kg) was infused intravenously immediately after reperfusion in the Dex group, while the other two groups received an equal volume of saline. Neural defect score (NDS) was measured at 6 hours, 24 hours, and 72 hours after surgery, with pathological observation of brain tissues. ELISA was then used to test serum S100B protein level. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were assayed by spectrometry. Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and ICAM-1 levels were determined by real-time (RT)-PCR. Results Model rats had significant injury in the hippocampal CA1 region as shown by elevated NDS, S100B, and MDA levels, higher NF-κB and ICAM-1 mRNA expression, and lower SOD levels (p<0.05). Dex treatment improved pathological injury, decreased NDS, S100B, and MDA levels, decreased expression of mRNA of NF-κB and ICAM-1, and increased SOD levels. Conclusions Dex alleviated ischemia-reperfusion damage to rat brains, and inhibited NF-κB and ICAM-1 expression in brain tissues, possibly via inhibiting oxidative stress and inflammatory response. PMID:28212354

  4. T-lymphocyte responsiveness in murine schistosomiasis mansoni is dependent upon the adhesion molecules intercellular adhesion molecule-1, lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1, and very late antigen-4.

    PubMed Central

    Langley, J G; Boros, D L

    1995-01-01

    Granuloma formation in murine schistosomiasis is dependent on CD4+ Th lymphocytes and requires recruitment and accumulation of inflammatory cells at the site of egg deposition. The present study examined the role of three adhesion molecules, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1), and very late antigen-4 (VLA-4), that participate in cellular recruitment, interaction, and lymphocyte activation during in vitro activation of acutely and chronically infected spleen and liver granuloma lymphocytes. Blockade of ICAM-1, LFA-1, or VLA-4 by rat monoclonal antibody inhibited spleen and granuloma lymphocyte interleukin-2 (IL-2) and IL-4 production as well as lymphoproliferative responses at similar levels (66 to 87%). The down-modulated cytokine and proliferative responses of chronically infected lymphocytes were inhibited to the same extent as their acutely infected counterparts. Cell sorting analysis demonstrated that acutely and chronically infected splenic and granuloma lymphocytes expressed similar levels of LFA-1, ICAM-1, and VLA-4 and that more ICAM-1 was expressed on infected than on uninfected mouse lymphocytes. By exposure of cells to paired monoclonal antibodies at suboptimal doses, it was determined that whereas all three adhesion molecules may participate, only ICAM-1 and LFA-1 showed synergistic interactions in determining lymphocyte responsiveness. These data suggest that spleen and liver granuloma lymphocytes are equally well armed with functional adhesion receptors. Thus, ICAM-1, LFA-1, and VLA-4 play an important accessory role in inflammatory cytokine production and lymphocyte proliferation, and therefore these adhesion molecules may participate in the initiation and maintenance of the granulomatous inflammation. PMID:7558308

  5. The Effect of Dexmedetomidine on Oxidative Stress Response Following Cerebral Ischemia-Reperfusion in Rats and the Expression of Intracellular Adhesion Molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and S100B.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanwen; Liu, Shikun

    2017-02-17

    BACKGROUND Ischemia-reperfusion injury of whole brain involves a complicated pathophysiology mechanism. Dexmedetomidine (Dex) has been shown to have neuro protective functions. This study observed the effect of Dex on serum S100B and cerebral intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in a rat model of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion. MATERIAL AND METHODS Healthy Sprague Dawley (SD) rats (males, 7 weeks old) were randomly divided into sham, model, and Dex groups (n=20 each). A cerebral ischemia-reperfusion model was prepared by clipping of the bilateral common carotid artery combined with hypotension. Dex (9 μg/kg) was infused intravenously immediately after reperfusion in the Dex group, while the other two groups received an equal volume of saline. Neural defect score (NDS) was measured at 6 hours, 24 hours, and 72 hours after surgery, with pathological observation of brain tissues. ELISA was then used to test serum S100B protein level. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were assayed by spectrometry. Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kB) and ICAM-1 levels were determined by real-time (RT)-PCR. RESULTS Model rats had significant injury in the hippocampal CA1 region as shown by elevated NDS, S100B, and MDA levels, higher NF-κB and ICAM-1 mRNA expression, and lower SOD levels (p<0.05). Dex treatment improved pathological injury, decreased NDS, S100B, and MDA levels, decreased expression of mRNA of NF-κB and ICAM-1, and increased SOD levels. CONCLUSIONS Dex alleviated ischemia-reperfusion damage to rat brains, and inhibited NF-κB and ICAM-1 expression in brain tissues, possibly via inhibiting oxidative stress and inflammatory response.

  6. Mechanistic Control of Carcinoembryonic Antigen-related Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 (CEACAM1) Splice Isoforms by the Heterogeneous Nuclear Ribonuclear Proteins hnRNP L, hnRNP A1, and hnRNP M*

    PubMed Central

    Dery, Kenneth J.; Gaur, Shikha; Gencheva, Marieta; Yen, Yun; Shively, John E.; Gaur, Rajesh K.

    2011-01-01

    Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule-1 (CEACAM1) is expressed in a variety of cell types and is implicated in carcinogenesis. Alternative splicing of CEACAM1 pre-mRNA generates two cytoplasmic domain splice variants characterized by the inclusion (L-isoform) or exclusion (S-isoform) of exon 7. Here we show that the alternative splicing of CEACAM1 pre-mRNA is regulated by novel cis elements residing in exon 7. We report the presence of three exon regulatory elements that lead to the inclusion or exclusion of exon 7 CEACAM1 mRNA in ZR75 breast cancer cells. Heterologous splicing reporter assays demonstrated that the maintenance of authentic alternative splicing mechanisms were independent of the CEACAM1 intron sequence context. We show that forced expression of these exon regulatory elements could alter CEACAM1 splicing in HEK-293 cells. Using RNA affinity chromatography, three members of the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein family (hnRNP L, hnRNP A1, and hnRNP M) were identified. RNA immunoprecipitation of hnRNP L and hnRNP A1 revealed a binding motif located central and 3′ to exon 7, respectively. Depletion of hnRNP A1 or L by RNAi in HEK-293 cells promoted exon 7 inclusion, whereas overexpression led to exclusion of the variable exon. By contrast, overexpression of hnRNP M showed exon 7 inclusion and production of CEACAM1-L mRNA. Finally, stress-induced cytoplasmic accumulation of hnRNP A1 in MDA-MB-468 cells dynamically alters the CEACAM1-S:CEACAM1:L ratio in favor of the l-isoform. Thus, we have elucidated the molecular factors that control the mechanism of splice-site recognition in the alternative splicing regulation of CEACAM1. PMID:21398516

  7. Laboratory study on OH-initiated degradation kinetics of dehydroabietic acid.

    PubMed

    Lai, Chengyue; Liu, Yongchun; Ma, Jinzhu; Ma, Qingxin; He, Hong

    2015-04-28

    Dehydroabietic acid (DHAA) is a specific organic tracer for the pyrolysis of conifer resin. To understand its atmospheric stability, the degradation behavior of particulate DHAA in the presence of hydroxyl radicals (OH) was investigated under different environmental conditions using a stainless steel reactor with volume of 30 cm(3), in the dark. At 25 °C and 40% relative humidity (RH), the second-order rate constant (k2) of pure DHAA with OH was measured to be 5.72 ± 0.87 × 10(-12) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1). The influence of temperature, RH and mixing state on the degradation kinetics of DHAA were also investigated. At 40% RH, k2 of pure DHAA increases with increasing temperature and follows the Arrhenius equation k2 = (8.9 ± 1.9) × 10(-10) exp[-(1508.2 ± 64.2)/T], while RH does not have significant impact on k2 at 25 °C. At 25 °C and 40% RH, compared with pure DHAA, the corresponding k2 for DHAA mixed with (NH4)2SO4 decreased to 4.58 ± 0.95 × 10(-12) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1), while the value was 3.30 ± 0.79 × 10(-12) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) when mixed with soot. The atmospheric lifetime of DHAA varied from 2.3 ± 0.2 to 4.4 ± 0.8 days under different environmental conditions. This study indicates that degradation of DHAA by OH radicals is appreciable, and a significant error in source apportionment should be introduced if the contribution of degradation to DHAA concentration is not considered during air mass aging.

  8. Human peripheral blood eosinophils express a functional c-kit receptor for stem cell factor that stimulates very late antigen 4 (VLA-4)-mediated cell adhesion to fibronectin and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1).

    PubMed

    Yuan, Q; Austen, K F; Friend, D S; Heidtman, M; Boyce, J A

    1997-07-21

    We evaluated mature peripheral blood eosinophils for their expression of the surface tyrosine kinase, c-kit, the receptor for the stromal cell-derived cytokine, stem cell factor (SCF). Cytofluorographic analysis revealed that c-kit was expressed on the purified peripheral blood eosinophils from 8 of 8 donors (4 nonatopic and 4 atopic) (mean channel fluorescence intensity 2.0- 3. 6-fold, average 2.8 +/- 0.6-fold, greater than the negative control). The uniform and selective expression of c-kit by eosinophils was confirmed by immunohistochemical analysis of peripheral blood buffy coats. The functional integrity of c-kit was demonstrated by the capacity of 100 ng/ml (5 nM) of recombinant human (rh) SCF to increase eosinophil adhesion to 3, 10, and 30 microg/ml of immobilized FN40, a 40-kD chymotryptic fragment of plasma fibronectin, in 15 min by 7.7 +/- 1.4-, 5.3 +/- 3.3-, and 5.4 +/- 0. 2-fold, respectively, and their adhesion to 0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 microg/ml vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), by 12.7 +/- 9. 2-, 3.8 +/- 2.5-, and 1.7 +/- 0.6-fold, respectively. The SCF-stimulated adhesion occurred without concomitant changes in surface integrin expression, thereby indicating an avidity-based mechanism. rhSCF (100 ng/ml, 5 nM) was comparable to rh eotaxin (200 ng/ml, 24 nM) in stimulating adhesion. Cell adhesion to FN40 was completely inhibited with antibodies against the alpha4 and beta1 integrin subunits, revealing that the SCF/c-kit adhesion effect was mediated by a single integrin heterodimer, very late antigen 4 (VLA-4). Thus, SCF represents a newly recognized stromal ligand for the activation of eosinophils for VLA-4-mediated adhesion, which could contribute to the exit of these cells from the blood, their tissue localization, and their prominence in inflammatory lesions.

  9. Human Peripheral Blood Eosinophils Express a Functional c-kit Receptor for Stem Cell Factor that Stimulates Very Late Antigen 4 (VLA-4)–mediated Cell Adhesion to Fibronectin and Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule 1 (VCAM-1)

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Qian; Austen, K. Frank; Friend, Daniel S.; Heidtman, Matthew; Boyce, Joshua A.

    1997-01-01

    We evaluated mature peripheral blood eosinophils for their expression of the surface tyrosine kinase, c-kit, the receptor for the stromal cell–derived cytokine, stem cell factor (SCF). Cytofluorographic analysis revealed that c-kit was expressed on the purified peripheral blood eosinophils from 8 of 8 donors (4 nonatopic and 4 atopic) (mean channel fluorescence intensity 2.0– 3.6-fold, average 2.8 ± 0.6-fold, greater than the negative control). The uniform and selective expression of c-kit by eosinophils was confirmed by immunohistochemical analysis of peripheral blood buffy coats. The functional integrity of c-kit was demonstrated by the capacity of 100 ng/ml (5 nM) of recombinant human (rh) SCF to increase eosinophil adhesion to 3, 10, and 30 μg/ml of immobilized FN40, a 40-kD chymotryptic fragment of plasma fibronectin, in 15 min by 7.7 ± 1.4-, 5.3 ± 3.3-, and 5.4 ± 0.2-fold, respectively, and their adhesion to 0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 μg/ml vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), by 12.7 ± 9.2-, 3.8 ± 2.5-, and 1.7 ± 0.6-fold, respectively. The SCF-stimulated adhesion occurred without concomitant changes in surface integrin expression, thereby indicating an avidity-based mechanism. rhSCF (100 ng/ml, 5 nM) was comparable to rh eotaxin (200 ng/ml, 24 nM) in stimulating adhesion. Cell adhesion to FN40 was completely inhibited with antibodies against the α4 and β1 integrin subunits, revealing that the SCF/c-kit adhesion effect was mediated by a single integrin heterodimer, very late antigen 4 (VLA-4). Thus, SCF represents a newly recognized stromal ligand for the activation of eosinophils for VLA-4–mediated adhesion, which could contribute to the exit of these cells from the blood, their tissue localization, and their prominence in inflammatory lesions. PMID:9221761

  10. Negative Association of Circulating MicroRNA-126 with High-sensitive C-reactive Protein and Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease Following Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jun-Nan; Yan, You-You; Guo, Zi-Yuan; Jiang, Ya-Juan; Liu, Lu-Lu; Liu, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) causes endothelial damage, resulting in an inflammatory response with elevation of markers such as high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), which are associated with restenosis after PCI. Evidence suggests that microRNA-126 (miR-126) plays an important role in vascular inflammation, but its correlation with PCI-mediated inflammation has not been investigated. In this study, we investigated the effect of PCI on circulating miR-126 and inflammation markers such as hs-CRP and VCAM-1. Methods: We enrolled 130 patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) in the Second Hospital of Jilin University from October 2015 to December 2015. Among them, 82 patients with CAD, defined as at least one major epicardial vessel with >70% stenosis who planned to undergo PCI, were divided into acute coronary syndrome (ACS) group (46 patients) and stable angina (SA) group (36 patients). Forty-eight patients confirmed by coronary angiography without PCI were used as controls. The plasmas of all patients were collected prior to PCI and at 30 min, 24 h, and 72 h after PCI. The plasma VCAM-1 and hs-CRP were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and the miR-126 was evaluated by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Results: Plasma concentrations of hs-CRP and VCAM-1 in patients with either ACS (n = 46) or SA (n = 36) were significantly higher than in controls (n = 48) (P < 0.01) prior to PCI, and increased further at 24 h and 72 h after PCI, compared with prior PCI. Moreover, VCAM-1 was positively correlated with balloon time and pressure. In contrast, the plasma concentration of miR-126 was significantly lower in patients with CAD than in controls, and further decreased with time post-PCI. A negative correlation was observed between miR-126 and hs-CRP and VCAM-1 at 72 h after PCI. Conclusion: There was a negative correlation of miR-126 with the PCI

  11. CF3CF=CH2 and (Z)-CF3CF=CHF: temperature dependent OH rate coefficients and global warming potentials.

    PubMed

    Papadimitriou, Vassileios C; Talukdar, Ranajit K; Portmann, R W; Ravishankara, A R; Burkholder, James B

    2008-02-14

    Rate coefficients over the temperature range 206-380 K are reported for the gas-phase reaction of OH radicals with 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropene (CF(3)CF=CH(2)), k(1)(T), and 1,2,3,3,3-pentafluoropropene ((Z)-CF(3)CF=CHF), k(2)(T), which are major components in proposed substitutes for HFC-134a (CF(3)CFH(2)) in mobile air-conditioning units. Rate coefficients were measured under pseudo-first-order conditions in OH using pulsed-laser photolysis to produce OH and laser-induced fluorescence to detect it. Rate coefficients were found to be independent of pressure between 25 and 600 Torr (He, N(2)). For CF(3)CF=CH(2), the rate coefficients, within the measurement uncertainty, are given by the Arrhenius expression k(1)(T)=(1.26+/-0.11) x 10(-12) exp[(-35+/-10)/T] cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) where k(1)(296 K)=(1.12+/-0.09) x 10(-12) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1). For (Z)-CF(3)CF=CHF, the rate coefficients are given by the non-Arrhenius expression k(2)(T)=(1.6+/-0.2) x 10(-18)T(2) exp[(655+/-50)/T] cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) where k(2)(296 K)=(1.29+/-0.06) x 10(-12) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1). Over the temperature range most relevant to the atmosphere, 200-300 K, the Arrhenius expression k(2)(T)=(7.30+/-0.7) x 10(-13) exp[(165+/-20)/T] cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) reproduces the measured rate coefficients very well and can be used in atmospheric model calculations. The quoted uncertainties in the rate coefficients are 2sigma (95% confidence interval) and include estimated systematic errors. The global warming potentials for CF(3)CF=CH(2) and (Z)-CF(3)CF=CHF were calculated to be <4.4 and <3.6, respectively, for the 100 year time horizon using infrared absorption cross sections measured in this work, and atmospheric lifetimes of 12 and 10 days that are based solely on OH reactive loss.

  12. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha enhances neutrophil adhesiveness: induction of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 via activation of Akt and CaM kinase II and modifications of histone acetyltransferase and histone deacetylase 4 in human tracheal smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chiang-Wen; Lin, Chih-Chung; Luo, Shue-Fen; Lee, Hui-Chun; Lee, I-Ta; Aird, William C; Hwang, Tsong-Long; Yang, Chuen-Mao

    2008-05-01

    Up-regulation of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) involves adhesions between both circulating and resident leukocytes and the human tracheal smooth muscle cells (HTSMCs) during airway inflammatory reaction. We have demonstrated previously that tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha-induced VCAM-1 expression is regulated by mitogen-activated protein kinases, nuclear factor-kappaB, and p300 activation in HTSMCs. In addition to this pathway, phosphorylation of Akt and CaM kinase II has been implicated in histone acetyltransferase and histone deacetylase 4 (HDAC4) activation. Here, we investigated whether these different mechanisms participated in TNF-alpha-induced VCAM-1 expression and enhanced neutrophil adhesion. TNF-alpha significantly increased HTSMC-neutrophil adhesions, and this effect was associated with increased expression of VCAM-1 on the HTSMCs and was blocked by the selective inhibitors of Src [4-amino-5-(4-methylphenyl)-7-(t-butyl)pyrazolo[3,4-d]-pyrimidine (PP1)], epidermal growth factor receptor [EGFR; 4-(3'-chloroanilino)-6,7-dimethoxy-quinazoline, (AG1478)], phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) [2-(4-morpholinyl)-8-phenyl-1(4H)-benzopyran-4-one hydrochloride(LY294002) and wortmannin],calcium[1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy) ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid-acetoxymethyl ester; BAPTA-AM], phosphatidylinositol-phospholipase C (PLC) [1-[6-[[17beta-methoxyestra-1,3,5(10)-trien-17-yl]amino]hexyl]-1H-pyrrole-2,5-dione (U73122)], protein kinase C (PKC) [12-(2-cyanoethyl)-6,7,12, 13-tetrahydro-13-methyl-5-oxo-5H-indolo(2,3-a)pyrrolo(3,4-c)-carbazole (Gö6976), rottlerin, and 3-1-[3-(amidinothio)propyl-1H-indol-3-yl]-3-(1-methyl-1H-indol-3-yl) maleimide (bisindolylmaleimide IX) (Ro 31-8220)], CaM (calmidazolium chloride), CaM kinase II [(8R(*),9S(*),11S(*))-(-)-9-hydroxy-9-methoxycarbonyl-8-methyl-14-n-propoxy-2,3,9, 10-tetrahydro-8,11-epoxy, 1H,8H, 11H-2,7b,11a-triazadibenzo[a,g]cycloocta[cde]trinden-1-one (KT5926) and 1-[N,O-bis(5-isoquinolinesulfonyl

  13. 44 CFR 10.12 - Pre-implementation actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... shall provide further guidance, commensurate with their programs and organization, for integration of... information, upon request, as specified in 40 CFR 1505.3. This does not, however, include standing or...

  14. 44 CFR 10.12 - Pre-implementation actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Pre-implementation actions. (a) Decision-making. The Regional Administrator shall ensure that... integrated into the decision-making process. Because of the diversity of FEMA, it is not feasible to describe in this part the decision-making process for each of the various FEMA programs. Proposals and...

  15. 44 CFR 10.12 - Pre-implementation actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Pre-implementation actions. (a) Decision-making. The Regional Administrator shall ensure that... integrated into the decision-making process. Because of the diversity of FEMA, it is not feasible to describe in this part the decision-making process for each of the various FEMA programs. Proposals and...

  16. 44 CFR 10.12 - Pre-implementation actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Pre-implementation actions. (a) Decision-making. The Regional Administrator shall ensure that... integrated into the decision-making process. Because of the diversity of FEMA, it is not feasible to describe in this part the decision-making process for each of the various FEMA programs. Proposals and...

  17. Modern Europe: An Instructional Guide, Grades 10-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Los Angeles City Schools, CA. Div. of Instructional Planning and Services.

    Emphasizing Europe's role in the growth of Western institutions and ideals, this guide stresses the development of skills necessary for active participation in democratic processes. An introductory unit on the Renaissance and the Reformation is followed by units on (1) the political events fostering the growth of the modern national state and the…

  18. Business Education--Secretarial Skills. Grades 10-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Instructional Objectives Exchange, Los Angeles, CA.

    The secretarial skills collection is composed of 47 objectives and related test items designed for business education courses in grades 10 through 12. Objectives are organized into the following categories: (1) typing; (2) shorthand; (3) office machines; (4) office practice; and (5) business English and communication. Each objective contains three…

  19. Revised Guidelines for Comprehensive Health Education, Grades 10-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nebraska State Dept. of Education, Lincoln. Div. of Instructional Services.

    These health curriculum guidelines were designed for teachers of secondary students. Four major topic areas are covered: 1) anatomy, physiology, tissues, systems, heredity, physical activity, and nutriition; 2) family structures, functions, and responsibilities; 3) values, stress, and drug abuse; and 4) the environment, disease control, cancer,…

  20. The Project Physics Course (Modularized) for Grades 10-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flint, William

    This report was produced by the Sedro-Woolley Project which has the goal of infusing environmental education into the whole curriculum of a school district. Included are assumptions which the author believes are appropriate to environmental education; a relating of these assumptions to some topics of chemistry and physics; an outline of specific…

  1. General Math 10-12 [Instructional Objectives Exchange].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Univ., Los Angeles. Center for the Study of Evaluation.

    This collection of 123 objectives and related evaluation items is for general mathematics in grades 10 through 12. The content has been organized into nine major categories: sets; numbers, numerals, and numeration systems; operations and their properties; measurements; per cents; geometry; probability and statistics; logic; and applications and…

  2. Business Education--Bookkeeping. Grades 10-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Instructional Objectives Exchange, Los Angeles, CA.

    This collection contains 17 objectives and related test items for bookkeeping, grades ten through twelve. The first ten objectives represent the bookkeeping cycle: journalizing, posting, preparing a trial balance, preparing a financial statement from the worksheet, making closing entries, balancing and ruling accounts, and preparing and…

  3. 44 CFR 10.12 - Pre-implementation actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... decision. In those cases requiring environmental impact statements, the Regional Administrator at the time... decision and describes the alternatives and relevant factors considered as specified in 40 CFR 1505.2. The... will be identified in the environmental impact statement and made available to...

  4. Microwave differential dilatometer measures 10 - 12 m, at 1 Hz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aschero, G.; Mango, F.; Gizdulich, P.

    1996-12-01

    To check and measure the converse piezoelectric effect in bone samples, we had to detect displacements in the range of 1-100 pm with three kinds of restrictions: (1) the biological nature of the samples imposes severe limits in selecting a suitable device and method; (2) such a method has to take into account some clinical applications to which the experiment is devoted; (3) the piezoelectric behavior of bone samples is particularly interesting at low frequencies, around 1 Hz. For such reasons we modified an existing dilatometer based on a microwave differential spectrometer. A 14 GHz klystron, linearly modulated in frequency by a triangular 50 Hz voltage applied to the repeller, is connected, via magic T, to two identical cavities tunable around 14 GHz and whose resonance curves are recorded by crystal detectors. When one of the two cavities changes its height according to the length variations of the sample, its resonance frequency varies resulting in a shift of the resonant curve with respect to the resonance curve of the other cavity acting as reference. The comparison between the cavities' responses is performed by a pulse technique transforming the frequency shifts into time intervals, that are then converted into dc voltages. The differential character of this measurement avoids the need for the microwave source stabilization. The relative shift in frequency is measured with an accuracy better than 500 Hz. This accuracy allows us to measure displacements smaller than 7 nm in the cavity's height. After 2 h of warmup, thanks to the differential arrangement of the system, thermal or other drifts are not detectable within a lapse of time of 12 h. This feature allows coherent signal averaging over long periods. With a piezoelectric ceramic stack moving 100 pm in square wave fashion at 50 mHz we found that the signal to noise ratio was 20 dB after 1000 cycles of signal averaging, when our bandpass filter was tuned at 1 Hz. In conclusion, this system can detect periodic displacements as small as 1 pm in a short time and reliably. Due to the operational simplicity and stability, at room temperature and humidity, the device is suitable for dilatometric measurements on biological samples.

  5. Influence of temperature on the chemical removal of 3-methylbutanal, trans-2-methyl-2-butenal, and 3-methyl-2-butenal by OH radicals in the troposphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez, Elena; Lanza, Beatriz; Antiñolo, María; Albaladejo, José

    Absolute rate coefficients for the gas-phase reactions of OH radical with 3-methylbutanal ( k1), trans-2-methyl-2-butenal ( k2), and 3-methyl-2-butenal ( k3) have been obtained with the pulsed laser photolysis/laser-induced fluorescence technique. Gas-phase concentration of aldehydes was measured by UV absorption spectroscopy at 185 nm. Experiments were performed over the temperature range of 263-353 K at total pressures of helium between 46.2 and 100 Torr. No pressure dependence of all ki ( i = 1-3) was observed at all temperatures. In contrast, a negative temperature dependence of ki ( i.e., ki increases when temperature decreases) was observed in that T range. The resulting Arrhenius expressions (±2 σ) are: k1( T) = (5.8 ± 1.7)×10 -12 exp{(499 ± 94)/ T} cm 3 molecule -1 s -1, k2( T)=(6.9 ± 0.9)×10 -12 exp{(526 ± 42)/ T} cm 3 molecule -1 s -1, k3( T)=(5.6 ± 1.2)×10 -12 exp{(666 ± 54)/ T} cm 3 molecule -1 s -1. The tropospheric lifetimes derived from the above OH-reactivity trend are estimated to be higher for 3-methylbutanal than those for the unsaturated aldehydes. A comparison of the tropospheric removal of these aldehydes by OH radicals with other homogeneous degradation routes leads to the conclusion that this reaction can be the main homogeneous removal pathway. However, photolysis of these aldehydes in the actinic region ( λ > 290 nm) could play an important role along the troposphere, particularly for 3-methyl-2-butenal. This process could compete with the OH reaction for 3-methylbutanal or be negligible for trans-2-methyl-2-butenal in the troposphere.

  6. Pressure and temperature dependence of the reaction of vinyl radical with alkenes III: measured rates and predicted product distributions for vinyl + butene.

    PubMed

    Goldsmith, C Franklin; Ismail, Huzeifa; Green, William H

    2009-11-26

    This work reports experimental and theoretical first-order rate constants for the reaction of vinyl radical with C(4)H(8) alkenes: 1-butene, 2-butene, and isobutene. The experiments are performed over a temperature range of 300 to 700 K at 100 Torr. Vinyl radicals (H(2)C horizontal lineCH) were generated by laser photolysis of vinyl iodide (C(2)H(3)I) at 266 nm, and time-resolved absorption spectroscopy was used to probe vinyl radicals at 423.2 and 475 nm. Weighted Arrhenius fits to the experimental rate coefficients for 1-butene (k(1)), 2-butene (k(2)), and isobutene (k(3)) yield k(1) = (1.3 +/- 0.3) x 10(-12) cm(3) molecules(-1) s(-1) exp[-(2200 +/- 120) K/T]; k(2) = (1.7 +/- 0.3) x 10(-12) cm(3) molecules(-1) s(-1) exp[-(2610 +/- 120) K/T]; and k(3) = (1.0 +/- 0.1) x 10(-12) cm(3) molecules(-1) s(-1) exp[-(2130 +/- 50) K/T], respectively. C(6)H(11) potential energy surfaces (PESs) for each system were calculated using the G3 method. RRKM/ME simulations were performed for each system to predict pressure-dependent rate coefficients and branching fractions for the major channels. A generic rate rule for vinyl addition to various alkenes is recommended; a similar rate rule for the abstraction of H atoms by vinyl from alkenes is also provided. Some of the vinyl addition reactions exhibit anomalous Evans-Polanyi plots similar to those reported for previous methyl addition reactions.

  7. Rate coefficients for the OH + CFH2CH2OH reaction between 238 and 355 K.

    PubMed

    Rajakumar, B; Burkholder, James B; Portmann, R W; Ravishankara, A R

    2005-06-21

    The rate coefficient for the reaction OH + CFH2CH2OH --> products (k1) between 238 and 355 K was measured using the pulsed laser photolysis-laser induced fluorescence (PLP-LIF) technique to be (5.15 +/- 0.88)x 10(-12) exp[-(330 +/- 45)/T] cm3 molecule(-1) s(-1); k1(298 K)= 1.70 x 10(-12) cm3 molecule(-1) s(-1). The quoted uncertainties are 2sigma(95% confidence level) and include estimated systematic errors. The present results are discussed in relation to the measured rate coefficients for the reaction of OH with other fluorinated alcohols and those calculated using recently reported structure additivity relationships for fluorinated compounds (K. Tokuhashi, H. Nagai, A. Takahashi, M. Kaise, S. Kondo, A. Sekiya, M. Takahashi, Y. Gotoh and A. Suga, J. Phys. Chem. A, 1999, 103, 2664-2672, ). Infrared absorption cross sections for CFH2CH2OH are reported and they are used to calculate the global warming potentials (GWP) for CFH2CH2OH of approximately 8, approximately 2, and approximately 1, respectively, for the 20, 100 and 500 year horizons. A brief discussion of the atmospheric degradation of CFH2CH2OH is provided. It is concluded that CFH2CH2OH is an acceptable substitute for CFCs in terms of its impact on Earth's climate and the composition of the atmosphere. The room temperature rate coefficient for the reaction OH + CFH2CH2OH --> products (k10) was measured to be 3.26 x 10(-12) cm3 molecule(-1) s(-1), in good agreement with recent measurements from this laboratory.

  8. Rate Constants and Activation Energies for Gas-Phase Reactions of Three Cyclic Volatile Methyl Siloxanes with the Hydroxyl Radical.

    PubMed

    Safron, Andreas; Strandell, Michael; Kierkegaard, Amelie; Macleod, Matthew

    2015-07-01

    Reaction with hydroxyl radicals (OH) is the major pathway for removal of cyclic volatile methyl siloxanes (cVMS) from air. We present new measurements of second-order rate constants for reactions of the cVMS octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4), decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5), and dodecamethylcyclohexasiloxane (D6) with OH determined at temperatures between 313 and 353 K. Our measurements were made using the method of relative rates with cyclohexane as a reference substance and were conducted in a 140-mL gas-phase reaction chamber with online mass spectrometry analysis. When extrapolated to 298 K, our measured reaction rate constants of D4 and D5 with the OH radical are 1.9 × 10(-12) (95% confidence interval (CI): (1.7-2.2) × 10(-12)) and 2.6 × 10(-12) (CI: (2.3-2.9) × 10(-12)) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1), respectively, which are 1.9× and 1.7× faster than previous measurements. Our measured rate constant for D6 is 2.8 × 10(-12) (CI: (2.5-3.2) × 10(-12)) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) and to our knowledge there are no comparable laboratory measurements in the literature. Reaction rates for D5 were 33% higher than for D4 (CI: 30-37%), whereas the rates for D6 were only 8% higher than for D5 (CI: 5-10%). The activation energies of the reactions of D4, D5, and D6 with OH were not statistically different and had a value of 4300 ± 2800 J/mol.

  9. Atmospheric chemistry of hydrazoic acid (HN3): UV absorption spectrum, HO reaction rate, and reactions of the N3 radical.

    PubMed

    Orlando, John J; Tyndall, Geoffrey S; Betterton, Eric A; Lowry, Joe; Stegall, Steve T

    2005-03-15

    Processes related to the tropospheric lifetime and fate of hydrazoic acid, HN3, have been studied. The ultraviolet absorption spectrum of HN3 is shown to possess a maximum near 262 nm with a tail extending to at least 360 nm. The photolysis quantum yield for HN3 is shown to be approximately 1 at 351 nm. Using the measured spectrum and assuming unity quantum yield throughout the actinic region, a diurnally averaged photolysis lifetime near the earth's surface of 2-3 days is estimated. Using a relative rate method, the rate coefficient for reaction of HO with HN3 was found to be (3.9 +/-0.8) x 10(-12) cm3 molecule(-1) s(-1), substantially larger than the only previous measurement. The atmospheric HN3 lifetime with respect to HO oxidation is thus about 2-3 days, assuming a diurnally averaged [HO] of 10(6) molecule cm(-3). Reactions of N3, the product of the reaction of HO with HN3, were studied in an environmental chamber using an FTIR spectrometer for end-product analysis. The N3 radical reacts efficiently with NO, producing N2O with 100% yield. Reaction of N3 with NO2 appears to generate both NO and N2O, although the rate coefficient for this reaction is slower than that for reaction with NO. No evidence for reaction of N3 with CO was observed, in contrast to previous literature data. Reaction of N3 with O2 was found to be extremely slow, k < 6 x 10(-20) cm3 molecule(-1) s(-1), although this upper limit does not necessarily rule out its occurrence in the atmosphere. Finally, the rate coefficient for reaction of Cl with HN3 was measured using a relative rate method, k = (1.0+/-0.2) x 10(-12) cm3 molecule(-1) s(-1).

  10. Kinetics of the reaction of Cl atoms with CHCl 3 over the temperature range 253-313 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsson, Elna J. K.; Hoff, Janus; Nielsen, Ole John; Johnson, Matthew S.

    2010-07-01

    The reaction CHCl 3 + Cl → CCl 3 + HCl was studied in the atmospherically relevant temperature range from 253 to 313 K and in 930 mbar of N 2 diluent using the relative rate method. A temperature dependent reaction rate constant, valid in the temperature range 220-330 K, was determined by a fit to the result of the present study and that of Orlando (1999); k = (3.77 ± 0.32) × 10 -12 exp((-1011 ± 24)/T) cm 3 molecule -1 s -1.

  11. A comparison of the updated very high resolution model RegCM3_10km with the previous version RegCM3_25km over the complex terrain of Greece: present and future projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolika, Konstantia; Anagnostopoulou, Christina; Velikou, Kondylia; Vagenas, Christos

    2016-11-01

    The ability of a fine resolution regional climate model (10 × 10 km) in simulating efficiently the climate characteristics (temperature, precipitation, and wind) over Greece, in comparison to the previous version of the model with a 25 × 25 km resolution, is examined and analyzed in the present study. Overall, the results showed that the finer resolution model presented a better skill in generating low winter temperatures at high altitudinal areas, the temperature difference between the islands and the surrounding sea, high rainfall totals over the mountainous areas, the thermal storms during summer, and the wind maxima over the Aegean Sea. Regarding the future projections, even though the two models agree on the climatic signal, differences are found mainly to the magnitude of change of the selected parameters. Finally, it was found that at higher pressure levels, the present day projections of the two models do not show significant differences since the topography and terrain does not play such an important role as the general atmospheric circulation.

  12. Regional Climate System Feedbacks from Land Use Changes in Southeast Asia: A sensitivity study using RegCM3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stauffer, H. L.; Sloan, L. C.

    2008-12-01

    Many observational and modeling studies have demonstrated the strong links between changes in land use and climate, and anthropogenic alterations of the land surface are now recognized to have consequences at the local, regional, and global scales. However, the effects of such changes on the local and regional climate system are not well understood, and yet, are critical to understanding future regional climate change. In Southeast Asia, a region which has experienced rapid and dramatic anthropogenic land use change in the 20th Century, shifts in precipitation patterns in response to these changes have been documented from observational data. While most climate modeling studies of the Southeast Asian region have employed low- resolution general circulation models, previous regional modeling studies for Southeast Asia have focused on land use change feedbacks on timescales from days to months and only for portions of the region. This study employs a high-resolution regional climate model centered on the Southeast Asian region, including Indochina, the Malay Peninsula, the Indonesian archipelago, the Philippines, and parts of Papua New Guinea and northern Australia, to conduct two simulations over the 30-year period between 1975 and 2005. Specifically, the simulations are used to compare climates with natural potential vegetation to those with modern land use as land cover, including differences in seasonal and annual temperature and precipitation distributions.

  13. Application of ICTP RegCM3's New Dust Model to Modern N. America: Challenges and Questions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, T. A.; Hutchison, K. A.; Sloan, L. C.; Solmon, F.

    2008-12-01

    Comparison of results from the new ICTP Regional Climate Model (RCM) dust module to observational data from the IMPROVE network shows that the RCM correctly predicts emission sources and the spatial distribution of dust, but it overestimates the concentration of dust by a factor of one hundred. We show that this overestimation of dust emission is essentially independent of the soil-moisture-effect scheme, threshold velocity scheme, and model resolution (vertical and horizontal). We find that modification of soil properties in the RCM's saltation/sandblasting parametrization can reduce emissions and put dust concentrations in the right order of magnitude. Lack of size resolved dust data for North America make it difficult to asses whether this modification affects the validity of the model in terms of size distributions and indirectly in terms of dust optical effects.

  14. An investigation into linearity with cumulative emissions of the climate and carbon cycle response in HadCM3LC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liddicoat, S. K.; Booth, B. B. B.; Joshi, M. M.

    2016-06-01

    We investigate the extent to which global mean temperature, precipitation, and the carbon cycle are constrained by cumulative carbon emissions throughout four experiments with a fully coupled climate-carbon cycle model. The paired experiments adopt contrasting, idealised approaches to climate change mitigation at different action points this century, with total emissions rising to more than two trillion tonnes of carbon (TtC). For each pair, the contrasting mitigation approaches—capping emissions early versus reducing them to zero a few decades later—cause their cumulative emissions trajectories to diverge initially, then converge, cross, and diverge again. We find that global mean temperature is linear with cumulative emissions across all experiments, although differences of up to 1.5 K exist regionally when the trajectories of total carbon emitted during the course of the two scenarios coincide, for both pairs of experiments. Interestingly, although the oceanic precipitation response scales with cumulative emissions, the global precipitation response does not, due to a decrease in precipitation over land above emissions of around one TtC. Most carbon fluxes are less well constrained by cumulative emissions as they reach two trillion tonnes. The opposing mitigation approaches have different consequences for the Amazon rainforest, which affects the linearity with which the carbon cycle responds to cumulative emissions. The average Transient Climate Response to cumulative carbon Emissions (TCRE) is 1.95 K TtC-1, at the upper end of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s range of 0.8-2.5 K TtC-1.

  15. Sea surface temperatures of the mid-Piacenzian Warm Period: A comparison of PRISM3 and HadCM3

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dowsett, H.J.; Haywood, A.M.; Valdes, P.J.; Robinson, M.M.; Lunt, D.J.; Hill, D.J.; Stoll, D.K.; Foley, K.M.

    2011-01-01

    It is essential to document how well the current generation of climate models performs in simulating past climates to have confidence in their ability to project future conditions. We present the first global, in-depth comparison of Pliocene sea surface temperature (SST) estimates from a coupled ocean–atmosphere climate model experiment and a SST reconstruction based on proxy data. This enables the identification of areas in which both the climate model and the proxy dataset require improvement.In general, the fit between model-produced SST anomalies and those formed from the available data is very good. We focus our discussion on three regions where the data–model anomaly exceeds 2 °C. 1) In the high latitude North Pacific, a systematic model error may result in anomalies that are too cold. Also, the deeper Pliocene thermocline may cause disagreement along the California margin; either the upwelling in the model is too strong or the modeled thermocline is not deep enough. 2) In the North Atlantic, the model predicts cooling in the center of a data-based warming trend that steadily increases with latitude from + 1.5 °C to >+ 6 °C. The discrepancy may arise because the modeled North Atlantic Current is too zonal compared to reality, which is reinforced by the lowering of the altitude of the Pliocene Western Cordillera Mountains. In addition, the model's use of modern bathymetry in the higher latitudes may have led the model to underestimate the northward penetration of warmer surface water into the Arctic. 3) Finally, though the data and model show good general agreement across most of the Southern Ocean, a few locations show offsets due to the modern land–sea mask used in the model.Additional considerations could account for many of the modest data–model anomalies, such as differences between calibration climatologies, the oversimplification of the seasonal cycle, and differences between SST proxies (i.e. seasonality and water depth). New SST estimates from data-sparse and regionally important areas will greatly enhance our ability to judge model performance.

  16. Gas-phase reaction of methyl isothiocyanate and methyl isocyanate with hydroxyl radicals under static relative rate conditions.

    PubMed

    Lu, Zhou; Hebert, Vincent R; Miller, Glenn C

    2014-02-26

    Gaseous methyl isothiocyanate (MITC), the principal breakdown product of the soil fumigant metam sodium (sodium N-methyldithiocarbamate), is an inhalation exposure concern to persons living near treated areas. Inhalation exposure also involves gaseous methyl isocyanate (MIC), a highly reactive and toxic transformation product of MITC. In this work, gas-phase hydroxyl (OH) radical reaction rate constants of MITC and MIC have been determined using a static relative rate technique under controlled laboratory conditions. The rate constants obtained are 15.36 × 10(-12) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) for MITC and 3.62 × 10(-12) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) for MIC. The average half-lives of MITC and MIC in the atmosphere are estimated to be 15.7 and 66.5 h, respectively. The molar conversion of MITC to MIC for OH radical reactions is 67% ± 8%, which indicates that MIC is the primary product of the MITC-OH reaction in the gas phase.

  17. Formation, thermal decomposition and atmospheric implications of the CF2(OH)CF2OONO2 and CF3CF2OONO2 peroxynitrates. A theoretical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badenes, María Paula

    2017-04-01

    A SACM/CT study of the CF2(OH)CF2OO + NO2 → CF2(OH)CF2OONO2 and CF3CF2OO + NO2 → CF3CF2OONO2 recombination reactions and their reverse unimolecular decomposition process was performed. The electronic energy along the reaction pathways was calculated at the G4(MP2) level. High-pressure rate coefficients of 1.53 × 10-12 (T/300)0.37 cm3 molecule-1 s-1 and 1.79 × 1016 (T/300)0.40 exp(-24.4 kcal mol-1/RT) s-1 were derived at 200-300 K for the direct and backward reactions of CF2(OH)CF2OONO2, while for CF3CF2OONO2, the expressions 1.01 × 10-12 (T/300)0.39 cm3 molecule-1 s-1 and 1.05 × 1016 (T/300)0.44 exp(-23.0 kcal mol-1/RT) s-1 were obtained. A decomposition lifetime profile was derived for CF2(OH)CF2OONO2, indicating that it could act as transport and reservoir of CF2(OH)CF2OO and NO2 in the stratosphere.

  18. Influence of temperature in the kinetics of the gas-phase reactions of a series of acetates with Cl atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuevas, Carlos A.; Notario, Alberto; Martínez, Ernesto; Albaladejo, José

    Absolute rate coefficients have been measured for the first time as a function of temperature for the gas phase reactions of chlorine atoms with a series of aliphatic acetates: methyl acetate ( k1), ethyl acetate ( k2), n-propyl acetate ( k3) and n-butyl acetate ( k4). The experiments were carried out using the pulsed laser photolysis-resonance fluorescence technique (PLP-RF), over the temperature range 265-383 K. The obtained kinetic data were used to derive the Arrhenius expressions: k1=(9.31±1.02)×10-12exp[-(359±70)/T]; k2=(4.35±0.65)×10-12exp[(342±92)/T]; k3=(2.22±0.20)×10-11exp[(217±58)/T] and k4=(5.41±1.51)×10-11exp[(245±168)/T] (in units of cm 3 molecule -1 s -1). The rate constants obtained at room temperature were as follows: methyl acetate, 0.279±0.031; ethyl acetate, 1.37±0.20; n-propyl acetate, 4.60±0.41 and n-butyl acetate, 12.3±3.4 (in units 10 -11 cm 3 molecule -1 s -1). The results are discussed in terms of structure-reactivity relationships and the atmospherics implications are also analyzed.

  19. Angiogenesis in Platelet Endothelial Cell Adhesion Molecule-1-Null Mice

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Gaoyuan; Fehrenbach, Melane L.; Williams, James T.; Finklestein, Jeffrey M.; Zhu, Jing-Xu; DeLisser, Horace M.

    2009-01-01

    Platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM)-1 has been previously implicated in endothelial cell migration; additionally, anti-PECAM-1 antibodies have been shown to inhibit in vivo angiogenesis. Studies were therefore performed with PECAM-1-null mice to further define the involvement of PECAM-1 in blood vessel formation. Vascularization of subcutaneous Matrigel implants as well as tumor angiogenesis were both inhibited in PECAM-1-null mice. Reciprocal bone marrow transplants that involved both wild-type and PECAM-1-deficient mice revealed that the impaired angiogenic response resulted from a loss of endothelial, but not leukocyte, PECAM-1. In vitro wound migration and single-cell motility by PECAM-1-null endothelial cells were also compromised. In addition, filopodia formation, a feature of motile cells, was inhibited in PECAM-1-null endothelial cells as well as in human endothelial cells treated with either anti-PECAM-1 antibody or PECAM-1 siRNA. Furthermore, the expression of PECAM-1 promoted filopodia formation and increased the protein expression levels of Cdc42, a Rho GTPase that is known to promote the formation of filopodia. In the developing retinal vasculature, numerous, long filamentous filopodia, emanating from endothelial cells at the tips of angiogenic sprouts, were observed in wild-type animals, but to a lesser extent in the PECAM-1-null mice. Together, these data further establish the involvement of endothelial PECAM-1 in angiogenesis and suggest that, in vivo, PECAM-1 may stimulate endothelial cell motility by promoting the formation of filopodia. PMID:19574426

  20. Kinetics of the gas phase reactions of chlorine atoms with a series of formates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallington, T. J.; Hurley, M. D.; Haryanto, A.

    2006-12-01

    Relative rate techniques were used to study the reactivity of Cl atoms with a series of formates in 700 Torr of N 2 diluent at 296 K. Rate constants were determined for the following compounds: methyl formate, (1.30 ± 0.13) × 10 -12; ethyl formate, (9.57 ± 1.27) × 10 -12; n-propyl formate, (4.65 ± 0.47) × 10 -11; and n-butyl formate, (1.12 ± 0.14) × 10 -10 cm 3 molecule -1 s -1. These results are consistent with previous relative rate studies but are approximately 20-30% lower than the results from an absolute rate study of the reactivity of chlorine atoms towards esters. Likely explanations for the discrepancy are discussed.

  1. Brucella abortus as a potential vaccine candidate: induction of interleukin-12 secretion and enhanced B7.1 and B7.2 and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 surface expression in elutriated human monocytes stimulated by heat-inactivated B. abortus.

    PubMed Central

    Zaitseva, M; Golding, H; Manischewitz, J; Webb, D; Golding, B

    1996-01-01

    Development of a vaccine which is capable of generating a strong cellular immune response associated with gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) production and cytotoxic T-cell development requires that the immunogen be capable of inducing the secretion of interleukin-12 (IL-12), which is a pivotal factor for the differentiation of Th1 or Tc1 cells. We have previously shown that the heat-inactivated gram-negative bacterium Brucella abortus can induce IFN-gamma secretion by T cells. In the present study, we demonstrate that B. abortus and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from B. abortus can induce IL-12 p40 mRNA expression and protein secretion by human elutriated monocytes (99% pure). p40 mRNA was detected within 4 h, and p40 protein could be measured at 24 h. This induction was abrogated by anti-CD14 monoclonal antibody, suggesting that monocytes recognize B. abortus via their receptor for LPS. The biological activity of IL-12 secreted by B. abortus-stimulated monocytes was demonstrated by its ability to upregulate IFN-gamma mRNA expression in T cells separated from monocytes and B. abortus by a transwell membrane. The B. abortus-induced IL-12 also enhanced NK cytolytic activity against K562 target cells. B. abortus was shown to rapidly increase the expression of the costimulatory molecules B7.1 and B7.2 and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 on human monocytes. Together, these data indicate that B. abortus can directly activate human monocytes and provide the cytokine milieu which would direct the immune response towards Th1-Tc1 differentiation. PMID:8757841

  2. Atmospheric degradation and global warming potentials of three perfluoroalkenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acerboni, G.; Beukes, J. A.; Jensen, N. R.; Hjorth, J.; Myhre, G.; Nielsen, C. J.; Sundet, J. K.

    The vapour phase reactions of perfluoropropene, CF 3CFCF 2, and perfluorobuta-1,3-diene, CF 2CFCFCF 2, with OH, NO 3 and O 3 were studied at 298±4 K and 740±5 Torr using long-path FT-IR detection. The reactions with ozone are very slow, kCF 3CFCF 2+O 3=(6.2±1.5)×10 -22 and kCF 2CFCFCF 2+O 3=(6.5±0.2)×10 -21 cm 3 molecules -1 s -1, and upper limits of 3×10 -15 cm 3 molecules -1 s -1 are reported for the NO 3 reaction rate coefficients. The OH reaction rate coefficients were determined as kCF 3CFCF 2+OH =(2.6±0.7)×10 -12 and kCF 2CFCFCF 2+OH =(1.1±0.3)×10 -11 cm 3 molecules -1 s -1; perfluoropropene gave a nearly quantitative yield of CF 3CFO and CF 2O as organic products, while perfluorobuta-1,3-diene gave from 130% to 170% of CF 2O. A chemistry transport model was applied to calculate the atmospheric distributions and lifetimes of the perfluoroalkenes; the global and yearly averaged lifetimes were calculated as 1.9 day for C 2F 4 and C 4F 6 and 6 days for C 3F 6. Quantitative infrared cross-sections of perfluoroethene, perfluoropropene, and perfluorobuta-1,3-diene have been obtained at 298 K in the region 100-2600 cm -1. Radiative forcing calculations have been performed for these gases assuming either constant vertical profiles or the distribution derived from the chemistry transport model. The results show that the Global Warming Potentials are totally negligible for these compounds.

  3. Francais: Programme d'etudes du secondaire deuxieme cycle (10-12). Francais langue premiere (French: High School Curriculum [10-12]. French as a Native Language).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Language Services Branch.

    The report, entirely in French, describes Alberta's curriculum for high school French native language instruction, as revised in 1998. An introductory section offers background information on the curriculum's design, links between the core curriculum and French native language instruction, underlying principles of language instruction, the…

  4. Biotransformation of 2,4,6,8,10,12-Hexanitro-2,4,6,8,10,12-Hexaazaisowurtzitane (CL-20) by Denitrifying Pseudomonas sp. Strain FA1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-09-01

    CoCl26H2O, 0.15 g of ZnCl2, 0.01 g of CuSO4 5H2O, 0.10 g of FeSO47H2O, 0.05 g of Na2MoO4, 0.05 g of NiCl26H2O, and 0.05 g of Na2WO4 2H2O . A...solution was used as the trace element solution and was composed of (per liter of deionized water) 0.20 g of MnSO4H2O, 0.10 g of CaCl2 2H2O , 0.10 g of

  5. LIF studies of iodine oxide chemistry. Part 3. Reactions IO + NO3 --> OIO + NO2, I + NO3 --> IO + NO2, and CH2I + O2 --> (products): implications for the chemistry of the marine atmosphere at night.

    PubMed

    Dillon, Terry J; Tucceri, María E; Sander, Rolf; Crowley, John N

    2008-03-21

    The technique of pulsed laser photolysis coupled to LIF detection of IO was used to study IO + NO(3) --> OIO + NO(2); I + NO(3) --> (products); CH(2)I + O(2) --> (products); and O((3)P) + CH(2)I(2) --> IO + CH(2)I, at ambient temperature. was observed for the first time in the laboratory and a rate coefficient of k(1 a) = (9 +/- 4) x 10(-12) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) obtained. For , a value of k(2) (298 K) = (1.0 +/- 0.3) x 10(-10) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) was obtained, and a IO product yield close to unity determined. IO was also formed in a close-to-unity yield in , whereas in an upper limit of alpha(3)(IO) < 0.12 was derived. The implications of these results for the nighttime chemistry of the atmosphere were discussed. Box model calculations showed that efficient OIO formation in was necessary to explain field observations of large OIO/IO ratios.

  6. Rate coefficients for the OH + pinonaldehyde (C10H16O2) reaction between 297 and 374 K.

    PubMed

    Davis, Maxine E; Talukdar, Ranajit K; Notte, Gregory; Ellison, G Barney; Burkholder, James B

    2007-06-01

    The rate coefficientforthe reaction of OH with pinonaldehyde (C10H16O2, 3-acetyl-2,2-dimethyl-cyclobutyl-ethanal), a product of the atmospheric oxidation of alpha-pinene, was measured under pseudo-first-order conditions in OH at temperatures between 297 and 374 K at 55 and 96 Torr (He). Laser induced fluorescence (LIF) was used to monitor OH in the presence of pinonaldehyde following its production by 248 nm pulsed laser photolysis of H2O2. The reaction exhibits a negative temperature dependence with an Arrhenius expression of k1(T) = (4.5 +/- 1.3) x 10(-12) exp((600 +/- 100)/ 7) cm3 molecule(-1) s(-1); k1(297 K) = (3.46 +/- 0.4) x 10(-11) cm3 molecule(-1) s(-1). There was no observed dependence of the rate coefficient on pressure. Our results are compared with previous relative rate determinations of k1 near 297 K and the discrepancies are discussed. The state of knowledge for the atmospheric processing of pinonaldehyde is reviewed, and its role as a marker for alpha-pinene (monoterpene) chemistry in the atmosphere is discussed.

  7. Rate parameters for the reaction of atomic hydrogen with dimethyl ether and dimethyl sulfide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J. H.; Machen, R. C.; Nava, D. F.; Stief, L. J.

    1981-03-01

    Absolute rate constants for the reaction of atomic hydrogen with dimethyl ether (DME) and dimethyl sulfide (DMS) were obtained using the flash photolysis-resonance fluorescence technique. Under conditions where secondary reactions are avoided, rate constants for the H+DME reaction over the temperature range 273-426 K are well represented by the Arrhenius expression k1=(4.38±0.59)×10-12 exp(-1956±43/T) cm3 molecule-1 s-1. The corresponding Arrhenius expression for the H+DMS reaction over the temperature range 212-500 K is k2=(1.30±0.43)×10-11exp(-1118±81/T) cm3 molecule-1 s-1. The Arrhenius plot for k2 shows signs of curvature, however, and separate Arrhenius expressions are derived for the data above and below room temperature. These results are discussed and comparisons are made with previous determinations which employed flow discharge and product analysis techniques.

  8. Rate coefficients for the reaction of O(1D) with the atmospherically long-lived greenhouse gases NF3, SF3CF3, CHF3, C2F6, c-C3F8, n-C5F12, and n-C6F14

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baasandorj, M.; Hall, B. D.; Burkholder, J. B.

    2012-09-01

    The contribution of atmospherically persistent (long-lived) greenhouse gases to the radiative forcing of Earth has increased over the past several decades. The impact of highly fluorinated saturated compounds, in particular perfluorinated compounds, on climate change is a concern because of their long atmospheric lifetimes, which are primarily determined by stratospheric loss processes, as well as their strong absorption in the infrared "window" region. A potentially key stratospheric loss process for these compounds is their gas-phase reaction with electronically excited oxygen atoms, O(1D). Therefore, accurate reaction rate coefficient data is desired for input to climate change models. In this work, rate coefficients, k, were measured for the reaction of O(1D) with several key long-lived greenhouse gases, namely NF3, SF5CF3, CHF3 (HFC-23), C2F6, c-C4F8, n-C5F12, and n-C6F14. Room temperature rate coefficients for the total reaction, kTot, corresponding to loss of O(1D), and reactive channel, kR, corresponding to the loss of the reactant compound, were measured for NF3 and SF5CF3 using competitive reaction and relative rate methods, respectively. kR was measured for the CHF3 reaction and improved upper-limits were determined for the perfluorinated compounds included in this study. For NF3, kTot was determined to be (2.55 ± 0.38) × 10-11 cm3 molecule-1 s-1 and kR, which was measured using CF3Cl, N2O, CF2ClCF2Cl (CFC-114), and CF3CFCl2 (CFC-114a) as reference compounds, was determined to be (2.21 ± 0.33) × 10-11 cm3 molecule-1 s-1 corresponding to a reactive branching ratio of 0.87 ± 0.13. For SF5CF3, kTot = (3.24 ± 0.50) × 10-13 cm3 molecule-1 s-1 and kR < 5.8 × 10-14 cm3 molecule-1 s-1 were measured, where kR is a factor of three lower than the current recommendation of kTot for use in atmospheric modeling. For CHF3, kR was determined to be (2.35 ± 0.35) × 10-12 cm3 molecule-1 s-1, which corresponds to a reactive channel yield of 0.26 ± 0.04, and

  9. Reaction kinetics of the CN radical with methyl bromide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodny, Michael; Hershberger, John F.

    2016-02-01

    The kinetics of the CN + CH3Br reaction were studied using transient infrared laser absorption spectroscopy to detect CN reactants and HCN products. This reaction has a rate constant of k = (2.20 ± 0.6) × 10-12 exp (453 ± 98/T) cm3 molecule-1 s-1 over the range 298-523 K. Hydrogen abstraction to produce HCN + CH2Br is only a minor reaction product, with a branching fraction of 0.12 ± 0.02. Other product channels, including BrCN + CH3, CH2CN + HBr, CH3CN + Br are likely. An upper limit of 0.01 was established for the HBr yield. These results are in qualitative agreement with recent ab initio calculations.

  10. Rate constants for the reactions of benzyl and methyl-substituted benzyl radicals with O 2 and NO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebata, Takayuki; Obi, Kin-ichi; Tanaka, Ikuzo

    1981-02-01

    Rate constants for reactions of benzyl, o-niethylbenzyl and p-meihylbenzyl radicals with O 2 and NO have been measured at room temperature. The radicals were generated by UV flash photolysis and the time decay measured by absorption at ≈ 300 nm. The rate constants are: benzyl (0.99 ± 0.07 and 9.5 ± 1.2), o-methylbenzyl (1.2 ± 0.07 and 8.6 ± 0.8) and p-mithyl-benzyl (1.1= 0.10 and 8.9 = 0.9) for O 2 and NO respectively in units of 10 -12 cm 3 molecule -1 s -1.

  11. Heterogeneous kinetics, products, and mechanisms of ferulic acid particles in the reaction with NO3 radicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Changgeng; Zhang, Peng; Wen, Xiaoying; Wu, Bin

    2017-03-01

    Methoxyphenols, as an important component of wood burning, are produced by lignin pyrolysis and considered to be the potential tracers for wood smoke emissions. In this work, the heterogeneous reaction between ferulic acid particles and NO3 radicals was investigated. Six products including oxalic acid, 4-vinylguaiacol, vanillin, 5-nitrovanillin, 5-nitroferulic acid, and caffeic acid were confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In addition, the reaction mechanisms were proposed and the main pathways were NO3 electrophilic addition to olefin and the meta-position to the hydroxyl group. The uptake coefficient of NO3 radicals on ferulic acid particles was 0.17 ± 0.02 and the effective rate constant under experimental conditions was (1.71 ± 0.08) × 10-12 cm3 molecule-1 s-1. The results indicate that ferulic acid degradation by NO3 can be an important sink at night.

  12. Heterogeneous reaction of particulate chlorpyrifos with NO3 radicals: Products, pathways, and kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Nana; Zhang, Peng; Yang, Bo; Shu, Jinian; Wang, Youfeng; Sun, Wanqi

    2014-08-01

    Chlorpyrifos is a typical chlorinated organophosphorus pesticide. The heterogeneous reaction of chlorpyrifos particles with NO3 radicals was investigated using a vacuum ultraviolet photoionization aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer (VUV-ATOFMS) and a real-time atmospheric gas analysis mass spectrometer. Chlorpyrifos oxon, 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol, O,O-diethyl O-hydrogen phosphorothioate, O,O-diethyl ester thiophosphoric acid, diethyl hydrogen phosphate and a phosphinyl disulfide compound were identified as the main degradation products. The heterogeneous reaction pathways were proposed and their kinetic processes were investigated via a mixed-phase relative rate method. The observed effective rate constant is 3.4 ± 0.2 × 10-12 cm3 molecule-1 s-1.

  13. Kinetics of the heterogeneous photo oxidation of the pesticide bupirimate by OH-radicals and ozone under atmospheric conditions.

    PubMed

    Bouya, H; Errami, M; Chakir, A; Roth, E

    2015-09-01

    This article is concerned with the study of the photochemical degradation of bupirimate adsorbed on a quartz surface by atmospheric oxidants, namely ozone and OH radicals. OH oxidation experiments were conducted relative to two reference compounds, terbuthylazine and (4-chlorophenyl)(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl) methanone. Meanwhile, ozone oxidation experiments were performed in the absolute mode and were interpreted by both, the Surface Layer Reaction and the Gas Surface Reaction models of heterogeneous reactions. The obtained results show that the rate constants for the reactions between bupirimate and OH radicals and ozone are (cm(3)molecule(-1)s(-1)): (1.06 ± 0.87) × 10(-12) and (5.4 ± 0.3) × 10(-20), respectively. As a consequence, for the experimental conditions used in this study, the lifetime of bupirimate at quartz like surface/atmosphere interfaces is several months against ozone and a tenth of days against OH-radical.

  14. Efficiency calibration and coincidence summing correction for a large volume (946cm(3)) LaBr3(Ce) detector: GEANT4 simulations and experimental measurements.

    PubMed

    Dhibar, M; Mankad, D; Mazumdar, I; Kumar, G Anil

    2016-12-01

    The paper describes the studies on efficiency calibration and coincidence summing correction for a 3.5″×6″ cylindrical LaBr3(Ce)detector. GEANT4 simulations were made with point sources, namely, (60)Co, (94)Nb, (24)Na, (46)Sc and (22)Na. The simulated efficiencies, extracted using (60)Co, (94)Nb, (24)Na and (46)Sc that emit coincident gamma rays with same decay intensities, were corrected for coincidence summing by applying the method proposed by Vidmar et al. (2003). The method was applied, for the first time, for correcting the simulated efficiencies extracted using (22)Na that emits coincident gamma rays with different decay intensities. The measured results obtained using (60)Co and (22)Na were found to be in good agreement with simulated results.

  15. FAMOUS, faster: using parallel computing techniques to accelerate the FAMOUS/HadCM3 climate model with a focus on the radiative transfer algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanappe, P.; Beurivé, A.; Laguzet, F.; Steels, L.; Bellouin, N.; Boucher, O.; Yamazaki, Y. H.; Aina, T.; Allen, M.

    2011-06-01

    We have optimised the atmospheric radiation algorithm of the FAMOUS climate model on several hardware platforms. The optimisation involved translating the Fortran code to C and restructuring the algorithm around the computation of a single air column. A task queue and a thread pool are used to distribute the computation to several processors. Finally, four air columns are packed together in a single data structure and computed simultaneously using Single Instruction Multiple Data operations. The modified algorithm runs more than 50 times faster on the CELL's Synergistic Processing Elements than on its main PowerPC processing element. On Intel-compatible processors, the new radiation code runs 4 times faster and on graphics processors, using OpenCL, more than 2.5 times faster, as compared to the original code. Because the radiation code takes more than 60 % of the total CPU time, FAMOUS executes more than twice as fast. Our version of the algorithm returns bit-wise identical results, which demonstrates the robustness of our approach.

  16. FAMOUS, faster: using parallel computing techniques to accelerate the FAMOUS/HadCM3 climate model with a focus on the radiative transfer algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanappe, P.; Beurivé, A.; Laguzet, F.; Steels, L.; Bellouin, N.; Boucher, O.; Yamazaki, Y. H.; Aina, T.; Allen, M.

    2011-09-01

    We have optimised the atmospheric radiation algorithm of the FAMOUS climate model on several hardware platforms. The optimisation involved translating the Fortran code to C and restructuring the algorithm around the computation of a single air column. Instead of the existing MPI-based domain decomposition, we used a task queue and a thread pool to schedule the computation of individual columns on the available processors. Finally, four air columns are packed together in a single data structure and computed simultaneously using Single Instruction Multiple Data operations. The modified algorithm runs more than 50 times faster on the CELL's Synergistic Processing Element than on its main PowerPC processing element. On Intel-compatible processors, the new radiation code runs 4 times faster. On the tested graphics processor, using OpenCL, we find a speed-up of more than 2.5 times as compared to the original code on the main CPU. Because the radiation code takes more than 60 % of the total CPU time, FAMOUS executes more than twice as fast. Our version of the algorithm returns bit-wise identical results, which demonstrates the robustness of our approach. We estimate that this project required around two and a half man-years of work.

  17. A 0.5 cm(3) four-channel 1.1 mW wireless biosignal interface with 20 m range.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Tim; Nagaraju, Manohar; Winslow, Brent; Bernard, Amy; Otis, Brian P

    2014-02-01

    This paper presents a self-contained, single-chip biosignal monitoring system with wireless programmability and telemetry interface suitable for mainstream healthcare applications. The system consists of low-noise front end amplifiers, ADC, MICS/ISM transmitter and infrared programming capability to configure the state of the chip. An on-chip packetizer ensures easy pairing with standard off-the-shelf receivers. The chip is realized in the IBM 130 nm CMOS process with an area of 2×2 mm(2). The entire system consumes 1.07 mW from a 1.2 V supply. It weighs 0.6 g including a zinc-air battery. The system has been extensively tested in in vivo biological experiments and requires minimal human interaction or calibration.

  18. Effect of fluoridated water on intelligence in 10-12-year-old school children

    PubMed Central

    Aravind, A.; Dhanya, R. S.; Narayan, Ajay; Sam, George; Adarsh, V. J.; Kiran, M.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship of drinking water fluoride levels with children's intelligence quotient (IQ). Materials and Methods: Water was collected from initially identified endemic fluoride regions according to the geological research of Government of India. Fluoride concentration of the water was assessed by utilizing fluoride ion selective electrode, Orion 9609BN, and categorized on the basis of fluoride concentration into low, medium, and high-fluoride regions, i.e., Virajpet (low fluoride level < 1.2 ppm), Banavara (Medium fluoride level 1.2–2 ppm), and Mastihalli (High fluoride levels > 3 ppm). Government school from all three villages were selected randomly and IQ levels were assessed by using Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices. This test was conducted on each child in the study sample. Results: A significant inverse relationship was found between the fluoride concentration in drinking water and IQ (r value = −0.204; P < 0.000). It was observed that IQ level was negatively correlated with fluoride concentration in drinking water. Conclusion: It is concluded that IQ level was negatively correlated with fluoride level in drinking water. Factors that might affect children's IQ need to be considered, and it is necessary to devise solutions for preventing the harmful effects of excessive intake of fluoride ion to the body. PMID:28217543

  19. Non Urban Troposphere Composition Symposium, Hollywood, Fla., November 10-12, 1976, Proceedings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Papers are presented which originate from a conference on 'The Non-Urban Troposphere Composition', held in 1976. Attention is given to distributions of nitrous oxide in the atmosphere, and to tropospheric and stratospheric compositions which are perturbed by NO(x) emissions from high-altitude aircraft. Ozone is studied in terms of in situ measurements; various meteorological analyses of tropopause folding, ozone measurements in the Boston area, and ozone measurements in rural areas are presented. A one-dimensional model used to study tropospheric photochemistry numerically is presented as are vertical profiles of tropospheric and stratospheric molecular hydrogen. The oxidation of ammonia, methane, and hydrogen sulfide is assessed in nonurban tropospheres along with nonurban measurements of ethane and methane for various atmospheric conditions. With reference to the particle size distribution of chloride in the marine aerosol, organic and inorganic chlorine concentrations are evaluated, and measurements of sea-air CO2 flux by eddy correlation are investigated.

  20. Teaching Economics Conference (5th, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, February 10-12, 1994).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dudley, Bobby G., Ed.

    This collection of 21 papers delivered by university professors and other representatives from throughout the United States focuses on economics teaching in the classroom from a variety of perspectives. The papers include: (1) "Internationalizing the Curriculum: The United States in a Global Economy: International Issues for the Beginning Student"…

  1. Engineering Outcomes of Grades 10-12 Using Different Pre-Engineering Curriculums: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilhelmsen, Cheryl A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify the important constructs and their key indicators that are to be included on an instrument developed to measure the engineering design process and outcome of students in high schools that use the Project Lead the Way and Engineering by Design curriculums. Several pre-engineering curriculums are used in high…

  2. 17 CFR 10.12 - Service and filing of documents; form and execution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... quotations and footnotes. (4) Signatures. The original copy of all papers must be signed in ink by the person... in the complaint with an appropriate indication of other parties. (3) Paper, spacing, type. All... paper no less than 8 or more than 81/2 inches wide and no less than 101/2 or more than 14 inches...

  3. European Conference on Organized Thin Films (4th) Held in Bangor on September 10 - 12, 1992

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-09-12

    applied to soluble and insoluble polyelec.rolyte systems. As soluble po- lyelectrolytes poly-allylamine hydrochloride (PAAH) and poly-4-vinylpyridinium...Lipid A consists of j3-6 linked N acetyl glucosamine monosacc:ioaride with between 4 and 8, but usually 6 alkyl chains. There is also a large degree of

  4. De-Islamizing Sikhaphobia: Deconstructing Structural Racism in Wisconsin Gurdwara Shooting 10/12

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birk, Manjeet; Gill, Hartej; Heer, Kal

    2015-01-01

    On Sunday, 5 August 2012, at approximately 10:00 a.m., an armed Wade Michael Page walked into the Oak Creek, Wisconsin Sikh gurdwara, a place of worship. Page killed six worshippers and injured four others. Although the murderer had links to several white supremacist organizations, authorities would not speculate on the motive of this incident. In…

  5. Delta Pi Epsilon National Research Conference Proceedings (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, November 10-12, 1994).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delta Pi Epsilon Society, Little Rock, AR.

    Selected papers are as follows: "Are Office Support Personnel Aware of the Ergonomical Issues Associated with Computer Keyboarding?" (Evans); "Background and Characteristics of Japanese Students Who Enroll in an American Two-Year Information Processing Program Taught in Japan" (Morgan, Wiggs); "Business Education's (BE)…

  6. Marketing Education National Research Conference Report (Houston, Texas, April 10-12, 1987).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McComas, Marcella, Ed.

    Eight presentations are included in these proceedings: "Concerns of Secondary, Marketing Education Teachers in Illinois: Implications for the Profession" (Ralph Wray); "Differences in Self-Concept and Achievement of Vocational, Academic, and Academic-Vocational Students" (Margie Crocker, Jack Crocker); "The Identification of Critical Areas…

  7. 17 CFR 10.12 - Service and filing of documents; form and execution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... that are served by email must be in PDF or other non-alterable form. (4) Service will be complete at... least one-inch margins on all sides; all text must be double-spaced, except for headings, text in footnotes, or block quotations, which may be single-spaced. Emailed documents must be in PDF or other...

  8. 17 CFR 10.12 - Service and filing of documents; form and execution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... that are served by email must be in PDF or other non-alterable form. (4) Service will be complete at... least one-inch margins on all sides; all text must be double-spaced, except for headings, text in footnotes, or block quotations, which may be single-spaced. Emailed documents must be in PDF or other...

  9. Indo-US Workshop on Nanotechnology: Applications and Implications, November 10-12, 2009

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-11-12

    Thanks Dr.Paramjit Grover Organizing Secretary 11.00am High Tea November 10, 2009 Venue: IICT, Auditorium INVITED LECTURES (11.30 AM to 1.30 PM...Cancer Cells OP-6: N. Sharma. Photonics India, Bangalore. New Frontiers in Surface Characterization with Imaging Ellipsometry. TEA 4.00 PM OP-7: D...Nanostructured oxides. TEA 11.00 AM Chairperson: Dr. I. Ahmad IL-12: Dr. B. Dinesh Kumar. Food & Drug Toxicology Research Centre, NIN, Hyderabad. Pre

  10. Report and Recommendations of the Southern Rural Health Conference (Nashville, Tennessee, October 10-12, 1976).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Rural Center, Washington, DC.

    Included in this report on the Southern Rural Health Conference (held in Nashville, Tennessee in 1976) are: (1) an introduction (details the conference goals); (2) a program agenda; (3) "Summation: Southern Rural Health Conference" (a speech); (4) "Health Care and Rural Development" (a speech); (5) "Innovative Approaches…

  11. Academic Internship Program: Curriculum Guide. The Great Exchange. Grades 10-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charlotte-Mecklenburg Public Schools, Charlotte, NC.

    This curriculum guide provides the framework for the Academic Internship Program (AIP) that is available to Charlotte-Mecklenburg (North Carolina) Public Schools' high school students. In each career area, information is provided to describe the purpose of the internship, the qualifications for the intern, the content/scope and competency goals…

  12. DCERP Workshop Proceedings held in Atlantic Beach, North Carolina on February 10-12, 2004

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-02-01

    colonial shorebird (also piping plover) ghost crabs sea turtle false crawls/nest achievement amaranth 4.3.2 Issues to Consider in Coastal...8 3.1 AQUATIC HABITAT .............................................................................................9...17 3.3.4 Coastal Habitats .......................................................................................17 3.3.5 Other Habitats

  13. Proceedings of the 20th Annual Conference on Atmospheric Transmission Models, 10-12 June 1997

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    PLH Ü l-l o •I—> o ■s (Z) 0* 5 w Pu < CD •i-H X> a u C fa <S z * a c ’■*: CD c o J-l > c W T3 C...pq S ü P < co < > P PQ co co U (N (N O >n i o 00 oo i ON ON pq S P P* H hH u pq PlH CO O CO ON © m ö pq N...s- H •p* o .a si ’S s W CO fi O < U X u bX) S3 *N »mm 0) 0> PLH c • p"-1

  14. Institute of Navigation, Annual Meeting, 47th, Williamsburg, VA, June 10-12, 1991, Proceedings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1991-11-01

    The present volume of navigation and exploration discusses space exploration, mapping and geodesy, aircraft navigation, undersea navigation, land and vehicular location, international and legal aspects of navigation, the history of navigation technology and applications, Loran development and implementation, GPS and GLONASS developments, and search and rescue. Topics addressed include stabilization of low orbiting spacecraft using GPS, the employment of laser navigation for automatic rendezvous and docking systems, enhanced pseudostatic processing, and the expanding role of sensor fusion. Attention is given to a gravity-aided inertial navigation system, recent developments in aviation products liability and navigation, the ICAO future air navigation system, and Loran's implementation in NAS. Also discussed are Inmarsat integrated navigation/communication activities, the GPS program status, the evolution of military GPS technology into the Navcore V receiver engine, and Sarsat location algorithms.

  15. 17 CFR 10.12 - Service and filing of documents; form and execution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... commercial package delivery service; (iii) Transmitting the documents via facsimile machine (“fax”); or (iv) Via electronic mail (“e-mail”). (v) Service shall be complete at the time of personal service; upon...), the time within which the party being served may respond shall be extended by five (5) days....

  16. Solid Freeform Fabrication Proceedings (9th) Held in Austin, Texas on August 10-12 1998

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-08-01

    photopolymer through multiple beams of light simultaneously. Unlike Laser Stereolithography (SL), MPC uses light-emitting diodes (LED) as light sources...increased dramatically in recent years from the early 20mW He/Cd laser used on the SLA-1 to the 216mW Solid State Diode Pumped laser used on the new...the integrity, material characteristics and mechanical properties of the parts prepared by a desk-top SFF device using diode lasers . Fe - Bronze (Cu

  17. GOES Video of the Nov. 10-12 2014 Wintry Storm

    NASA Video Gallery

    Visible and infrared imagery from NOAA's GOES-West satellite from Nov. 10 to Nov. 12 show the progression of the wintry storm through the Northern Rockies and Mid-western U.S. Credit: NASA/NOAA's G...

  18. Predicting Physical Activity in 10-12 Year Old Children: A Social Ecological Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Tao; Thomas, Katherine; Weiller, Karen H.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the associations among predisposing (perceived competence and enjoyment), reinforcing (social environments), enabling factors (motor skills, fitness, physical environments) and physical activity among 288 children, and to identify the age and gender differences among participants. The children completed…

  19. Psychiatry Ward Specialist, 10-12. Military Curriculum Materials for Vocational and Technical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    This course, adapted from military curriculum materials for use in vocational and technical education, is designed to train students to perform as assistants to professional personnel in the care and treatment of patients in mental health units. It includes basic concepts of human behavior, the aspects of atypical adjustive reactions, the…

  20. Costs at Public Universities: How Does California Compare with Other States? Report 10-12

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Ryan

    2010-01-01

    The cost of attending the University of California (UC) and California State University (CSU) has increased in recent years as UC and CSU have raised fees in response to reduced state funding. Fees are generally lower than fees at public universities in other states, but with California's higher living costs, the overall cost of attendance at UC…

  1. Alcohol and Drug Prevention Curriculum Resource Guide Grades 10-12: Science--Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Alcohol and Drug Defense Program.

    This curriculum resource guide on alcohol and drug prevention provides suggested activities for teachers of grades 10 through 12. Three integrated learning activities for science/biology and healthful living are presented. The science/biology goal is understanding the biology of humans. Healthful living goals include analyzing drug and alcohol use…

  2. Alcohol and Drug Prevention Curriculum Resource Guide Grades 10-12: Communication Skills--English IV.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Alcohol and Drug Defense Program.

    This curriculum resource guide on alcohol and drug prevention provides suggested activities for teachers of grades 10 through 12. Four integrated learning activities for communication skills/ English IV and healthful living are presented. Communication skills/literature goals include experiencing young adult literature, using effective techniques…

  3. International Conference on Manufacturing Automation; Hong Kong, Aug. 10-12, 1992, Proceedings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asundi, Anand; Tan, S. T.

    Various aspects of manufacturing automation including automated visual inspection and pattern recognition; 3D methods and artificial vision; and motion analysis are discussed. Particular attention is given to automatic visual inspection of complex printed patterns; a real-time algorithm for surface inspection using proximity data; automatic machine vision for the punching of corks; and real-time pattern recognition by joint-Fourier transform correlation. Also discussed are a structured-light-assisted CAD/CAM, artificial vision and industrial control, computer gratings for vibration analysis, and 3D location and attitude evaluation for rendezvous and docking operation using a single camera.

  4. Remote sensing-arid lands workshop, Page, Arizona, June 10-12, 1986: Workshop summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Hawkins, R.H.; Wobber, F.J.; Springer, E.P.

    1987-05-01

    This report describes research sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Research to evaluate advanced remote sensing technologies for environmental research. The program denoted as REFLEX (REmote FLuvial EXperiments) stresses new applications of remote sensing systems and advanced digital analysis to the solution of environmental problems from energy development. REFLEX experiments are being conducted at sites within the continental United States and Alaska. The experiments described here are being done on arid and semiarid sites in the western United States. Currently, two REFLEX experiments are being conducted in arid/semiarid ecosystems. At the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in Richland, Washington, the REFLEX experiment will test hypotheses on the prediction of evapotranspiration (ET) over arid landscapes. The heterogeneity of arid and semiarid landscapes makes estimation of ET over an area quite difficult, and remote sensing, both aerial and ground based, offers tremendous potential in solving this sampling problem. The second REFLEX experiment in arid/semiarid ecosystems is being conducted on surface hydrology and soil erosion in arid watersheds. Two study sites, the Plutonium Valley Watershed at the Nevada Test Site and Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed at Tombstone, Arizona, have been selected for the experiment. Remote sensing will be used to initialize and parameterize hydrologic models that can predict watershed responses to change on two spatial and temporal scales.

  5. [Assessments of dietary patterns of children aged 10-12 in the city of Olsztyn].

    PubMed

    Hałacz, Joanna; Warechowska, Małgorzata

    2015-12-15

    Zaniedbania dotyczące sposobu żywienia w dzieciństwie mogą powodować utrwalenie nieprawidłowych nawyków żywieniowych, mieć wpływ na funkcjonowanie i zdrowie organizmu oraz przyczynić się do wielu przewlekłych schorzeń i problemów zdrowotnych. Celem badań była ocena odżywiania dzieci w wieku 10–12 lat mieszkających w Olsztynie. Materiał i metody. Badaniami objęto grupę 288 dzieci (144 chłopców i 144 dziewcząt) w wieku 10–12 lat, zamieszkałych na terenie Olsztyna. Ocenę sposobu żywienia przeprowadzono w oparciu o indywidualny wywiad żywieniowy odnoszący się do spożycia pokarmu w ciągu ostatnich 24 h, po czym określono wartości energetyczne oraz odżywcze całodziennej racji pokarmowej oraz zawartość podstawowych składników pokarmowych, takich jak: białko, tłuszcz, węglowodany, mikroelementy i witaminy. Wyniki. Badania wykazały, że przy prawidłowej ilości spożywanych posiłków nie pokrywały one zapotrzebowania energetycznego badanych dzieci (w przypadku chłopców średnia wartość energetyczna dziennej racji pokarmowej wynosiła 1960,92 kcal, dla dziewcząt 1627,7 kcal), były także dość ubogie w białko i węglowodany, a zawierały nadmiar tłuszczu. Ponadto stwierdzono, że normy spożycia wapnia były realizowane na poziomie ok. 50% średniego zapotrzebowania, wykazano także zbyt niską zawartość błonnika w diecie. Wnioski. Wyniki badań wskazały na błędy w sposobie żywienia badanej grupy populacji zarówno co do ilości w sensie niedoborów energetycznych całodziennej racji pokarmowej, ich struktury, jak i jakości spożywanych posiłków.

  6. Disparity between dietary iron intake and iron status of children aged 10-12 years.

    PubMed

    Spodaryk, K

    1999-12-01

    Iron status was assessed in a representative sample of 188 adolescents living in a medium-sized city in Poland. Dietary intakes were evaluated using records of diet over a period of seven consecutive days. Subjects were considered to be iron deficient when two or more of the following parameters were abnormal: serum ferritin, transferrin saturation or mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration. Based on this definition, the prevalence of iron deficiency in the investigated sample of children aged from ten to twelve years was 12.7%. Iron deficiency anaemia was defined using the following criteria: haemoglobin values less than 12.0 g. dl (-1) in girls or less than 12.2 g. dl(-1) in boys, combined with an iron deficiency. With such a definition, the prevalence of iron deficiency anaemia in all subjects was 6.3%. Four boys (3.9%) and six girls (6.8%) were diagnosed as anaemic. The values for Hb in the anaemic boys ranged from 10.9 to 12.2 g. dl (-1) and in anaemic girls from 8.7 to 12.0 g. (-1). It was found that the majority of the individuals studied had a dietary haem-iron intake lower than that recommended. No relationship was found between the level of serum ferritin and total iron and vitamin C dietary intake, but there was positive correlation between serum ferritin and intake of haem iron. A seven-day dietary history questionnaire correctly identified children at risk of iron deficiency anaemia.

  7. Health Education. Physical Dimensions of Health. Nutrition Education. Grades 10-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Univ. System, Albany.

    This guide to nutrition education can be used as a basis for curriculum development at the school district level, as well as a basis for daily lesson planning by teachers. Designed to involve high school students in gathering information from school and community resources, the guide covers the following topics: (1) meal planning; (2) food…

  8. Course Syllabus for Grades 10-12, Art. Art 2 + 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray State Univ., KY.

    This course syllabus is one of over 80 developed and written by the Henry County School System (Tennessee) as part of a Teacher Corps demonstration project. These syllabi provide specific descriptions of what is to be learned and at what level the student is expected to perform. The art course described here is available for students who have…

  9. ISS Update: Bill Gerstenmaier – 10.10.12

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Dan Huot interviews Bill Gerstenmaier, Associate Administrator for Human Exploration and Operations, about the SpaceX CRS-1 mission and the arrival of the Dragon capsule...

  10. The Role of Women in Medieval Europe: A Unit of Study for Grades 10-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Himmell, Rhoda

    This unit is one of a series that represents specific moments in history from which students focus on the meanings of landmark events. This unit consists of lessons focused on selected topics in medieval history that define and describe the roles of women. The lessons examine the roles of women in the Early Middle Ages with particular emphasis on…

  11. Strand I: Physical Health Nutrition. Health Curriculum Materials. Grades 10-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Secondary Curriculum Development.

    GRADES OR AGES: Grades 10, 11, and 12. SUBJECT MATTER: Physical health and nutrition. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The guide is divided into four sections: prenatal and infant nutrition, nutrition in an ecological context, new frontiers in nutrition research, and the responsibility of nutrition. The publication format of four columns…

  12. National Online Meeting Proceedings (15th, New York, New York, May 10-12, 1994).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1994

    This proceedings contains 58 papers that were reviewed and selected for presentation at the 1994 National Online Meeting. The introduction, "Highlights of the Online/CD-ROM Database Industry: Implications of the Internet for Database Producers" by Martha E. Williams, provides statistics regarding databases, database records, database…

  13. OH-initiated photooxidations of 1-pentene and 2-methyl-2-propen-1-ol: mechanism and yields of the primary carbonyl products.

    PubMed

    Peirone, Silvina A; Cometto, Pablo M; Lane, Silvia I

    2014-12-01

    The products of the gas-phase reactions of OH radicals with 1-pentene and 2-methyl-2-propen-1-ol (221MPO) at T=298±2 K and atmospheric pressure were investigated by using a 4500 L atmospheric simulation chamber that was built especially for this work. The molar yield of butyraldehyde was 0.74±0.12 mol for the reaction of 1-pentene. This work provides the first product molar yield determination of formaldehyde (0.82±0.12 mol), 1-hydroxypropan-2-one (0.84±0.13 mol), and methacrolein (0.078±0.012 mol) from the reaction of 221MPO with OH radicals. The mechanism of this reaction is discussed in relation to the experimental results. Additionally, taking into consideration the complex mechanism, the rate coefficients of the reactions of OH with formaldehyde, 1-hydroxypropan-2-one, and methacrolein were derived at atmospheric pressure and T=298±2 K.; the obtained values were (8.9±1.6)×10(-12) , (2.4±1.4)×10(-12) , and (22.9±2.3)×10(-12) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) , respectively.

  14. Atmospheric chemistry of propionaldehyde: kinetics and mechanisms of reactions with OH radicals and Cl atoms, UV spectrum, and self-reaction kinetics of CH3CH2C(O)O2 radicals at 298 K.

    PubMed

    Le Crâne, Jean-Paul; Villenave, Eric; Hurley, Michael D; Wallington, Timothy J; Ball, James C

    2005-12-29

    The kinetics and mechanism of the reactions of Cl atoms and OH radicals with CH3CH2CHO were investigated at room temperature using two complementary techniques: flash photolysis/UV absorption and continuous photolysis/FTIR smog chamber. Reaction with Cl atoms proceeds predominantly by abstraction of the aldehydic hydrogen atom to form acyl radicals. FTIR measurements indicated that the acyl forming channel accounts for (88 +/- 5)%, while UV measurements indicated that the acyl forming channel accounts for (88 +/- 3)%. Relative rate methods were used to measure: k(Cl + CH3CH2CHO) = (1.20 +/- 0.23) x 10(-10); k(OH + CH3CH2CHO) = (1.82 +/- 0.23) x 10(-11); and k(Cl + CH3CH2C(O)Cl) = (1.64 +/- 0.22) x 10(-12) cm3 molecule(-1) s(-1). The UV spectrum of CH3CH2C(O)O2, rate constant for self-reaction, and rate constant for cross-reaction with CH3CH2O2 were determined: sigma(207 nm) = (6.71 +/- 0.19) x 10(-18) cm2 molecule(-1), k(CH3CH2C(O)O2 + CH3CH2C(O)O2) = (1.68 +/- 0.08) x 10(-11), and k(CH3CH2C(O)O2 + CH3CH2O2) = (1.20 +/- 0.06) x 10(-11) cm3 molecule(-1) s(-1), where quoted uncertainties only represent 2sigma statistical errors. The infrared spectrum of C2H5C(O)O2NO2 was recorded, and products of the Cl-initiated oxidation of CH3CH2CHO in the presence of O2 with, and without, NO(x) were identified. Results are discussed with respect to the atmospheric chemistry of propionaldehyde.

  15. Relaxation of H2O from its |04>- vibrational state in collisions with H2O, Ar, H2, N2, and O2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Peter W.; Sims, Ian R.; Smith, Ian W. M.

    2004-03-01

    We report rate coefficients at 293 K for the collisional relaxation of H2O molecules from the highly excited |04>± vibrational states in collisions with H2O, Ar, H2, N2, and O2. In our experiments, the |04>- state is populated by direct absorption of radiation from a pulsed dye laser tuned to ˜719 nm. Evolution of the population in the (|04>±) levels is observed using the combination of a frequency-quadrupled Nd:YAG laser, which selectively photolyses H2O(|04>±), and a frequency-doubled dye laser, which observes the OH(v=0) produced by photodissociation via laser-induced fluorescence. The delay between the pulse from the pump laser and those from the photolysis and probe lasers was systematically varied to generate kinetic decays. The rate coefficients for relaxation of H2O(|04>±) obtained from these experiments, in units of cm3 molecule-1 s-1, are: k(H2O)=(4.1±1.2)×10-10, k(Ar)=(4.9±1.1)×10-12, k(H2)=(6.8±1.1)×10-12, k(N2)=(7.7±1.5)×10-12, k(O2)=(6.7±1.4)×10-12. The implications of these results for our previous reports of rate constants for the removal of H2O molecules in selected vibrational states by collisions with H atoms (P. W. Barnes et al., Faraday Discuss. Chem. Soc. 113, 167 (1999) and P. W. Barnes et al., J. Chem. Phys. 115, 4586 (2001).) are fully discussed.

  16. Relaxation of H2O from its /04>- vibrational state in collisions with H2O, Ar, H2, N2, and O2.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Peter W; Sims, Ian R; Smith, Ian W M

    2004-03-22

    We report rate coefficients at 293 K for the collisional relaxation of H2O molecules from the highly excited /04>(+/-) vibrational states in collisions with H2O, Ar, H2, N2, and O2. In our experiments, the mid R:04(-) state is populated by direct absorption of radiation from a pulsed dye laser tuned to approximately 719 nm. Evolution of the population in the (/04>(+/-)) levels is observed using the combination of a frequency-quadrupled Nd:YAG laser, which selectively photolyses H2O(/04>(+/-)), and a frequency-doubled dye laser, which observes the OH(v=0) produced by photodissociation via laser-induced fluorescence. The delay between the pulse from the pump laser and those from the photolysis and probe lasers was systematically varied to generate kinetic decays. The rate coefficients for relaxation of H2O(/04>(+/-)) obtained from these experiments, in units of cm3 molecule(-1) s(-1), are: k(H2O)=(4.1+/-1.2) x 10(-10), k(Ar)=(4.9+/-1.1) x 10(-12), k(H2)=(6.8+/-1.1) x 10(-12), k(N2)=(7.7+/-1.5) x 10(-12), k(O2)=(6.7+/-1.4) x 10(-12). The implications of these results for our previous reports of rate constants for the removal of H2O molecules in selected vibrational states by collisions with H atoms (P. W. Barnes et al., Faraday Discuss. Chem. Soc. 113, 167 (1999) and P. W. Barnes et al., J. Chem. Phys. 115, 4586 (2001).) are fully discussed.

  17. Atmospheric Chemistry: Laboratory Studies of Kinetics of Important Reactions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, S. J.

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Requires signed TDF. This thesis describes the experiments to measure the rate constants for some reactions of the atmospherically important nitrate radical (NO_3) using the discharge-flow technique. The nitrate radical was monitored by optical absorption at lambda = 662 nm. The reactions of NO_3 with some stable organic and inorganic substrates are reported. The temperature dependences of some of the rate constants have also been determined (298 < T < 523 K). In most cases, computer simulation was used to extract the rate constant for the primary process because the time-dependent behaviour of (NO_3) was affected by secondary reactions of NO_3 with products of the primary interaction. The Arrhenius parameter in parentheses (E _{rm a}/kJ mol^ {-1}, A/cm^3 molecule ^{-1}s^ {-1} respectively) for the following reactions have been determined: ethane (37, 6.7 times 10^{-12}), ethylene (25.8, 6.3 times 10^ {-12}), CH_3OH (21.3, 1.2 times 10^ {-12}), CHCiota_3 (23.4, 8.6 times 10 ^{-13}) and HCl (27.7, 4 times 10^{-12}). The activation energies for the reactions studied between NO_3 and some alkynes are represented well by the value 25 +/- 3 kJ mol^{-1} and the corresponding pre-exponential factors (expressed as ln(10 ^{13}A/cm^3 molecule^{-1}s ^{-1}) are as follows: C_2H_2 (1.6 +/- 1.4), C_3H _4 (5.0 +/- 1.4), 1-C_4H_6 (5.8 +/- 1.0), 1-C_5 H_8 (5.7 +/- 0.6) and 1-C_6H _{10} (4.5 +/- 0.4). Some reactions were studied at room temperature _3(298 +/- 2 K) only and the rate constants found (in units of cm ^3 molecule^{ -1}s^{-1}) are: buta-1,3-diene (1.8 times 10 ^{-13}), isobutene (2.8 times 10^{-13 }), HBr (1.3 times 10 ^{-15}) and hex-2-yne (3.0 times 10^{-14 }). Non-Arrhenius behaviour was found in the reactions of NO_3 with n-butane, isobutane and propene. The empirical variation of these rate constants with temperature is well represented by the three parameter expressions:. k(T) = 1.2 times 10 ^{-46}T^{11

  18. Kinetics and Thermodynamics of the Reaction between the (•)OH Radical and Adenine: A Theoretical Investigation.

    PubMed

    Milhøj, Birgitte O; Sauer, Stephan P A

    2015-06-18

    The accessibility of all possible reaction paths for the reaction between the nucleobase adenine and the (•)OH radical is investigated through quantum chemical calculations of barrier heights and rate constants at the ωB97X-D/6-311++G(2df,2pd) level with Eckart tunneling corrections. First the computational method is validated by considering the hydrogen abstraction from the heterocyclic N9 nitrogen in adenine as a test system. Geometries for all molecules in the reaction are optimized with four different DFT exchange-correlation functionals (B3LYP, BHandHLYP, M06-2X, and ωB97X-D), in combination with Pople and Dunning basis sets, all of which have been employed in similar investigations in the literature. Improved energies are obtained through single point calculations with CCSD(T) and the same basis sets, and reaction rate constants are calculated for all methods both without tunneling corrections and with the Wigner, Bell, and Eckart corrections. In comparison to CCSD(T)//BHandHLYP/aug-cc-pVTZ reference results, the ωB97X-D/6-311++G(2df,2pd) method combined with Eckart tunneling corrections provides a sensible compromise between accuracy and time. Using this method, all subreactions of the reaction between adenine and the (•)OH radical are investigated. The total rate constants for hydrogen abstraction and addition for adenine are predicted with this method to be 1.06 × 10(-12) and 1.10 × 10(-12) cm(3) molecules(-1) s(-1), respectively. Abstractions of H61 and H62 contribute the most, while only addition to the C8 carbon is found to be of any significance, in contrast to previous claims that addition is the dominant reaction pathway. The overall rate constant for the complete reaction is found to be 2.17 × 10(-12) cm(3) molecules(-1) s(-1), which agrees exceptionally well with experimental results.

  19. Structural and mechanistic insights into the activation of Stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1).

    PubMed

    Yang, Xue; Jin, Hao; Cai, Xiangyu; Li, Siwei; Shen, Yuequan

    2012-04-10

    Calcium influx through the Ca(2+) release-activated Ca(2+) (CRAC) channel is an essential process in many types of cells. Upon store depletion, the calcium sensor in the endoplasmic reticulum, STIM1, activates Orai1, a CRAC channel in the plasma membrane. We have determined the structures of SOAR from Homo sapiens (hSOAR), which is part of STIM1 and is capable of constitutively activating Orai1, and the entire coiled coil region of STIM1 from Caenorhabditis elegans (ceSTIM1-CCR) in an inactive state. Our studies reveal that the formation of a SOAR dimer is necessary to activate the Orai1 channel. Mutations that disrupt SOAR dimerization or remove the cluster of positive residues abolish STIM1 activation of Orai1. We identified a possible inhibitory helix within the structure of ceSTIM1-CCR that tightly interacts with SOAR. Functional studies suggest that the inhibitory helix may keep the C-terminus of STIM1 in an inactive state. Our data allowed us to propose a model for STIM1 activation.

  20. Hyperhyaluronanemia in alcoholic hepatitis is associated with increased levels of circulating soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1.

    PubMed

    Hill, D B; Deaciuc, I V; McClain, C J

    1998-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of the sinusoidal endothelial cell (SEC) during the clinical course of alcoholic hepatitis. Twenty consenting patients (mean age: 49.4 +/- 11.0 years) with moderate or severe hepatitis were studied. The patients were selected and characterized according to their history of drinking and laboratory profile, including serum aminotransferases, bilirubin, total white blood cell and neutrophil count, and prothrombin times. C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 were also measured as markers of the hepatic acute phase response. A marker of the SEC functional state, the circulating level of hyaluronan, was measured in parallel with the circulating levels of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule (sICAM)-1 over a 6-month observation period. All patients were hospitalized for the first month and encouraged to abstain from drinking for the duration of the study. The initial increased levels of both hyaluronan (542 +/- 32 ng x ml(-1) serum) and sICAM-1 (488 +/- 70 ng x ml(-1) serum), gradually fell during the 6-month observation period, eventually reaching values close to those seen in healthy subjects. A positive correlation was obtained between changes in these two markers of SEC function/activation on the one hand, and between these two tests and bilirubin, on the other hand. These data indicate that abnormalities of SEC function/activation, as reflected by serum hyaluronan and siCAM-1, are prominent in alcoholic hepatitis, and these alterations improve within relatively short periods of time after cessation of alcohol consumption.

  1. Nonperturbative quantum and classical calculations of multiphoton vibrational excitation and dissociation of Morse molecules^1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitriou, K. I.; Mercouris, Th.; Constantoudis, V.; Komninos, Y.; Nicolaides, C. A.

    2006-05-01

    The multiphoton vibrational excitation and dissociation of Morse molecules have been computed nonperturbatively using Hamilton's and Schrφdinger's time-dependent equations, for a range of laser pulse parameters. The time-dependent Schrφdinger equation is solved by the state-specific expansion approach [e.g.,1]. For its solution, emphasis has been given on the inclusion of the continuous spectrum, whose contribution to the multiphoton probabilities for resonance excitation to a number of excited discrete states as well as to dissociation has been examined as a function of laser intensity, frequency and pulse duration. An analysis of possible quantal-classical correspondences for this system is being carried out. We note that distinct features exist from previous classical calculations [2]. For example, the dependence on the laser frequency gives rise to an asymmetry around the red-shifted frequency corresponding to the maximum probability. [1] Th. Mercouris, I. D. Petsalakis and C. A. Nicolaides, J. Phys. B 27, L519 (1994). [2] V. Constantoudis and C. A. Nicolaides, Phys. Rev. E 64, 562112 (2001). ^1This work was supported by the program 'Pythagoras' which is co - funded by the European Social Fund (75%) and Natl. Resources (25%). ^2Physics Department, National Technical University, Athens, Greece.^3Theoretical and Physical Chemistry Institute, Hellenic Research Foundation, Athens, Greece.

  2. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) deficiency protects mice against severe forms of experimentally induced colitis

    PubMed Central

    Bendjelloul, F; Malý, P; Mandys, V; Jirkovská, M; Prokešová, L; Tučková, L; Tlaskalová-Hogenová, H

    2000-01-01

    ICAM-1 (CD54), the ligand for LFA-1 and Mac-1, is up-regulated during inflammatory reaction on the activated vascular endothelium. To determine its role in intestinal inflammation, we induced acute experimental colitis in mice with a deleted ICAM-1 gene, by feeding them with 3% dextran sodium sulphate (DSS) in drinking water for 7 days. Chronic colitis was elicited by DSS similarly, followed by 2 weeks with water. In the acute phase of inflammation, ICAM-1-deficient mice exhibited a significantly lower mortality rate (5%) than control C57Bl/6J mice (35%). Control animals, but not the ICAM-1-deficient mice, exhibited diarrhoea and rectal bleeding. Histological examination of large-bowel samples evaluated the intensity of inflammatory changes, and type and extent of mucosal lesions. In the acute phase, 33.3% of samples from ICAM-1-deficient mice exhibited mucosal defects (flat and fissural ulcers), predominantly mild to moderate inflammatory infiltrate within the lamina propria mucosae and lower grades of mucosal lesions. Much stronger inflammatory changes were present in control animals, flat ulcers (sometimes multiple) and fissural ulcers being observed in 62.5% of samples. Mucosal inflammatory infiltrate was moderate to severe, typically with higher grades of mucosal lesions. In chronic colitis, smaller inflammatory changes were found in the large bowel. The two mouse strains differed, the chronic colitis being accompanied by an increased serum level of anti-epithelial IgA autoantibodies in C57Bl/6 control mice but not in ICAM-1-deficient mice. These findings provide direct evidence of the participation of ICAM-1 molecule in the development of experimentally induced intestinal inflammation. PMID:10606964

  3. Functional role of stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1) in vascular smooth muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Yoichiro; Watanabe, Hiroyuki; Murakami, Manabu; Ono, Kyoichi; Munehisa, Yoshiko; Koyama, Takashi; Nobori, Kiyoshi; Iijima, Toshihiko; Ito, Hiroshi

    2007-10-05

    We investigated the functional role of STIM1, a Ca{sup 2+} sensor in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) that regulates store-operated Ca{sup 2+} entry (SOCE), in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). STIM1 was mainly localized at the ER and plasma membrane. The knockdown of STIM1 expression by small interfering (si) RNA drastically decreased SOCE. In contrast, an EF-hand mutant of STIM1, STIM1{sup E87A}, produced a marked increase in SOCE, which was abolished by co-transfection with siRNA to transient receptor potential canonical 1 (TRPC1). In addition, transfection with siRNA against STIM1 suppressed phosphorylation of cAMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB) and cell growth. These results suggest that STIM1 is an essential component of SOCE and that it is involved in VSMC proliferation.

  4. PRIMING EFFECT OF HOMOCYSTEINE ON INDUCIBLE VASCULAR CELL ADHESION MOLECULE-1 EXPRESSION IN ENDOTHELIAL CELLS

    PubMed Central

    Séguin, Chantal; Abid, Md. Ruhul; Spokes, Katherine C.; Schoots, Ivo G; Brkovic, Alexandre; Sirois, Martin G.; Aird, William C.

    2017-01-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia is an independent risk factor for the development of atherosclerosis, as well as for arterial and venous thrombosis. However, the mechanisms through which elevated circulating levels of homocysteine cause vascular injury and promote thrombosis remain unclear. Here, we tested the hypothesis that homocysteine (Hcy) sensitizes endothelial cells to the effect of inflammatory mediators. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were incubated with Hcy 1.0 mM for varying time points, and then treated in the absence or presence of 1.5 U/ml thrombin or 10 ng/ml lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Hcy alone had no effect on the expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1. However, Hcy enhanced thrombin- and LPS-mediated induction of VCAM-1 mRNA and protein levels. Consistent with these results, pretreatment of HUVEC with Hcy resulted in a two-fold increase in LSP-mediated induction of leukocyte adhesion. The latter effect was significantly inhibited by anti-VCAM-1 antibodies. Together, these findings suggest that Hcy sensitizes HUVEC to the effect of inflammatory mediators thrombin and LPS, at least in part through VCAM-1 expression and function. PMID:18406566

  5. De novo expression of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1, CD54) in pancreas cancer.

    PubMed

    Schwaeble, W; Kerlin, M; Meyer zum Büschenfelde, K H; Dippold, W

    1993-01-21

    We examined the expression of intercellular--adhesion molecule-I (ICAM-I, CD54) in 6 surgically removed pancreatic tumors and 8 pancreatic tumor cell lines. Immunohistochemistry revealed a varying percentage of ICAM-I-positive pancreas tumor cells, while normal pancreatic tissue (except for slight reactivity of endothelial cells) was not stained. The presence of the ICAM-I molecule on the cell surface and the expression of ICAM-I mRNA were investigated for 8 different pancreatic tumor cell lines. Three of these (Capan-I, Capan-2, QGP-I) expressed ICAM-I constitutively. In 4 of the ICAM-I-negative pancreas cancer cell lines, it was possible to induce a remarkable expression of ICAM-I by incubating the cells in the presence of inflammatory cytokines, whereas one cell line, 818-4, remained ICAM-I-negative. The responsiveness to either IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, or IL-I beta treatment was shown to vary from cell line to cell line, indicating complex mechanisms that regulate the expression of ICAM-I at both, the transcriptional and the post-transcriptional level. Interestingly, ICAM-I is shed by pancreatic tumor cells, since soluble sICAM-I was detected in the cell-culture supernatants. In comparison with normal sera, the mean level of sICAM-I in sera of patients with pancreas carcinoma is elevated 2-fold.

  6. Expression of HLA-ABC, HLA-DR and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 in oesophageal carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Rockett, J C; Darnton, S J; Crocker, J; Matthews, H R; Morris, A G

    1995-01-01

    AIM--To examine the expression of HLA-ABC and HLA-DR major histocompatibility (MHC) antigens and intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 in normal, inflamed, metaplastic, and neoplastic oesophageal tissue and in freshly disaggregated tumours. METHODS--Sequential sections of frozen tissue and cytospins of freshly disaggregated tumour were stained using the ABC peroxidase system and monoclonal antibodies specific for HLA-ABC, HLA-DR and ICAM-1. RESULTS--Normal oesophageal tissue showed positive staining for HLA-ABC in the basal layers of the oesophageal squamous epithelium and on the epithelial cells of the submucosal oesophageal glands. HLA-DR and ICAM-1 were not detected in either of these cell types. In 20 of 37 (54%) carcinomas HLA-ABC was expressed weakly, with heterogeneous expression in nine (24%). Two tumours showed strong expression of HLA-ABC, but 15 of 37 (41%) were negative. HLA-DR and ICAM-1 were expressed weakly in six of 37 (16%) carcinomas without correlation with each other or with the expression of HLA-ABC. CONCLUSIONS--HLA-ABC is absent from a high proportion of oesophageal carcinomas (41%) and is otherwise variably and weakly expressed with strong expression in only a small fraction (3%). In other carcinomas there is a higher level of HLA-ABC expression. This discrepancy may partly explain the aggressive nature of oesophageal carcinomas. HLA-DR and ICAM-1 are not normally expressed on those cells from which oesophageal carcinomas are thought to arise. The limited expression found here could suggest a partial or inhibited immune response against oesophageal carcinoma. In vivo repressive factors may be involved. Images PMID:7665697

  7. Novel Vein Patterns in Arabidopsis Induced by Small Molecules1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Cutler, Sean

    2016-01-01

    The critical role of veins in transporting water, nutrients, and signals suggests that some key regulators of vein formation may be genetically redundant and, thus, undetectable by forward genetic screens. To identify such regulators, we screened more than 5000 structurally diverse small molecules for compounds that alter Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) leaf vein patterns. Many compound-induced phenotypes were observed, including vein networks with an open reticulum; decreased or increased vein number and thickness; and misaligned, misshapen, or nonpolar vascular cells. Further characterization of several individual active compounds suggests that their targets include hormone cross talk, hormone-dependent transcription, and PIN-FORMED trafficking. PMID:26574596

  8. An essential approach to the architecture of diatomic molecules: 1. Basic theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yarman, T.

    2004-11-01

    We consider the quantum-mechanical description of a diatomic molecule of electronic mass m 0 e , internuclear distance R 0, and total electronic energy E 0 e . We apply to it the Born-Oppenheimer approximation, together with the relation E 0 e m 0 e R {0/2} ˜ h 2 (which we established previously), written for the electronic description (with fixed nuclei). Our approach yields an essential relationship for T 0, the classical vibration period, at the total electronic energy E 0 e ; i.e., T_0 = [4π ^2 /(sqrt {n_1 n_2 } h)]sqrt {gmathcal{M}_0 m_e } R_0^2. Here, ℳ0 is the reduced mass of the nuclei; m e is the mass of the electron; g is a dimensionless and relativistically invariant coefficient, roughly around unity (this quantity is associated with the particular electronic structure under consideration; thus, it remains practically the same for bonds bearing similar electronic configurations); and n 1 and n 2 are the principal quantum numbers of electrons making up the bond(s) of the diatomic molecule in hand; because of quantum defects, they are not integer numbers. The above relationship holds generally, although the quantum numbers n 1 and n 2 need to be refined. This task is undertaken in our next article, yielding a whole new systematization regarding all diatomic molecules.

  9. Experimental Cerebral Malaria Develops Independently of Endothelial Expression of Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 (ICAM-1)*

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Theresa N.; Bullard, Daniel C.; Darley, Meghan M.; McDonald, Kristin; Crawford, David F.; Barnum, Scott R.

    2013-01-01

    Cerebral malaria (CM) is a severe clinical complication of Plasmodium falciparum malaria infection and is characterized by a high fatality rate and neurological damage. Sequestration of parasite-infected red blood cells in brain microvasculature utilizes host- and parasite-derived adhesion molecules and is an important factor in the development of CM. ICAM-1, an alternatively spliced adhesion molecule, is believed to be critical on endothelial cells for infected red blood cell sequestration in CM. Using ICAM-1 mutant mice, we found that the full-length ICAM-1 isoform is not required for development of murine experimental CM (ECM) and that ECM phenotype varies with the combination of ICAM-1 isoforms expressed. Furthermore, we observed development of ECM in transgenic mice expressing ICAM-1 only on leukocytes, indicating that endothelial cell expression of this adhesion molecule is not required for disease pathogenesis. We propose that ICAM-1-dependent cellular aggregation, independent of ICAM-1 expression on the cerebral microvasculature, contributes to ECM. PMID:23493396

  10. Experimental cerebral malaria develops independently of endothelial expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (icam-1).

    PubMed

    Ramos, Theresa N; Bullard, Daniel C; Darley, Meghan M; McDonald, Kristin; Crawford, David F; Barnum, Scott R

    2013-04-19

    Cerebral malaria (CM) is a severe clinical complication of Plasmodium falciparum malaria infection and is characterized by a high fatality rate and neurological damage. Sequestration of parasite-infected red blood cells in brain microvasculature utilizes host- and parasite-derived adhesion molecules and is an important factor in the development of CM. ICAM-1, an alternatively spliced adhesion molecule, is believed to be critical on endothelial cells for infected red blood cell sequestration in CM. Using ICAM-1 mutant mice, we found that the full-length ICAM-1 isoform is not required for development of murine experimental CM (ECM) and that ECM phenotype varies with the combination of ICAM-1 isoforms expressed. Furthermore, we observed development of ECM in transgenic mice expressing ICAM-1 only on leukocytes, indicating that endothelial cell expression of this adhesion molecule is not required for disease pathogenesis. We propose that ICAM-1-dependent cellular aggregation, independent of ICAM-1 expression on the cerebral microvasculature, contributes to ECM.

  11. Kinetic Study of OH Reactions With n-Octane and n-Decane Using Relative Rate Combining with Discharge Fast Flow and Mass Spectrometer Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Zhuangjie

    2004-03-31

    The combination of the relative rate method with the discharge fast flow/mass spectrometer technique (RR/DF/MS) has been developed to measure the rate constants for gas phase reactions involving OH radicals. The RR/DF/MS technique was used to measure the rate constant for reactions of the OH radical with n-octane (k3) and cyclohexane (k5) using 1,4-dioxane as a reference compound and with n-decane (k6) using n-octane and 1,4-dioxane as reference compounds. At 298 K, these rate constants were determined to be k3=(8.88 {+-} 0.31) x 10-12, k5=(6.95 {+-} 0.20) x 10-12 and k6=(1.38 {+-} 0.08) x 10-11 cm3 molecule-1 s-1, respectively, which are in very good agreement with those measured using different techniques. The features of the RR/DF/MS technique are discussed.

  12. Photooxidation of leaf-wound oxygenated compounds, 1-penten-3-ol, (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol, and 1-penten-3-one, initiated by OH radicals and sunlight.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Elena; Lanza, Beatriz; Antiñolo, María; Albaladejo, José

    2009-03-15

    An evaluation of the environmental impact of stressed-induced compounds, 1-penten-3-ol,(Z)-3-hexen-1-ol, and 1-penten-3-one (ethyl vinyl ketone, EVK), is presented in this paper. The removal processes considered here are the gas-phase reactions with hydroxyl (OH) radicals and photolysis in the actinic region (above 290 nm). The wavelength dependence of the gas-phase absorption cross-sections (sigma(lamda)) was measured by UV-visible spectroscopy (lamda = 200-390 nm). The kinetic study of the OH-reaction with pentenyl compounds has been performed as a function of temperature (T = 263-353 K) for the first time. The resulting Arrhenius expressions for the T-dependence of the OH-rate coefficient, k(OH) (in cm3 molecule(-1) s(-1) and uncertainties of +/-sigma), were (7.7 +/- 0.8) x 10(-12) exp{(606 +/- 30)/7} for 1-penten-3-ol and (4.4 +/- 1.4) x 10(-12) exp{(507 +/- 90)/7} for EVK, respectively. k(OH) for (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol is reported at 298 K. The experimental evidence shows that the major tropospheric removal of pentenyl compounds is the gas-phase reaction with OH radicals. However, O3 and NO3 radicals may compete with OH radicals as tropospheric sinks of (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol. Photolysis of these compounds is expected to be of minor importance in the troposphere.

  13. Atmospheric Chemistry of 1-Methoxy 2-Propyl Acetate: UV Absorption Cross Sections, Rate Coefficients, and Products of Its Reactions with OH Radicals and Cl Atoms.

    PubMed

    Zogka, Antonia G; Mellouki, Abdelwahid; Romanias, Manolis N; Bedjanian, Yuri; Idir, Mahmoud; Grosselin, Benoit; Daële, Véronique

    2016-11-17

    The rate coefficients for the reactions of OH and Cl with 1-methoxy 2-propyl acetate (MPA) in the gas phase were measured using absolute and relative methods. The kinetic study on the OH reaction was conducted in the temperature (263-373) K and pressure (1-760) Torr ranges using the pulsed laser photolysis-laser-induced fluorescence technique, a low pressure fast flow tube reactor-quadrupole mass spectrometer, and an atmospheric simulation chamber/GC-FID. The derived Arrhenius expression is kMPA+OH(T) = (2.01 ± 0.02) × 10(-12) exp[(588 ± 123/T)] cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1). The absolute and relative rate coefficients for the reaction of Cl with MPA were measured at room temperature in the flow reactor and the atmospheric simulation chamber, which led to k(Cl+MPA) = (1.98 ± 0.31) × 10(-10) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1). GC-FID, GC-MS, and FT-IR techniques were used to investigate the reaction mechanism in the presence of NO. The products formed from the reaction of MPA with OH and their yields were methyl formate (80 ± 7.3%), acetic acid (50 ± 4.8%), and acetic anhydride (22 ± 2.4%), while for Cl reaction, the obtained yields were 60 ± 5.4, 41 ± 3.8, and 11 ± 1.2%, respectively, for the same products. The UV absorption cross section spectrum of MPA was determined in the wavelength range 210-370 nm. The study has shown no photolysis of MPA under atmospheric conditions. The obtained results are used to derive the atmospheric implication.

  14. An experimentally determined set of V-T and V-V rate constants involving the OH radical. Implications for atmospheric chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teitelbaum, H.; Aker, P.; Sloan, J. J.

    1988-01-01

    This is the first application of an analytical technique verifying a generalized rate law for vibrational relaxation based on a complete solution of the master equation. Experimental V-T and V-V energy transfer rate constants for the collisional deactivation of OH( v = 1-4) at 300 K by O 3 and OH are reported. It is found that the rate constant for 2OH( v = 1) → OH( v = 0) + OH( v = 2) is 1.8 × 10 -10 cm 3 molecule -1 s -1 and that for OH( v = 1) + O 3 → OH( v = 0) + O 3 is 1.0 × 10 -12 cm 3 molecule -1 s -1, both ±30%. Altogether 40 V-T and V-V rate constants involving vibrationally excited OH are extracted from the time evolution of the OH( v) distribution produced by the chemical reaction O( 1D) + H 2 → OH( v) + H. The rate constants obey a combined Landau-Teller-exponential gap law, with the gap constants being very similar in magnitude to the Polanyi-Woodall or Lambert-Salter constants. It is also shown that measurements of OH quenching by O 3 as reported by others are correct in magnitude but might be falsely attributed to chemical reaction, throwing doubts on atmospheric models of OH chemistry. Furthermore, using the energy transfer rate constants just determined, the time-evolution of the population distribution is extrapolated backwards in time. The resulting initial distribution is found to be yet more sharply peaked than reported heretofore for the reaction O( 1D) + H 2 → OH( v) + H. Finally it is shown that commonly used rate laws for vibrational relaxation, such as the Bethe-Teller law and quasi-first-order decay laws of initially excited levels, should be abandoned.

  15. Rate constants for the reaction of OH radicals with n-propyl, n-butyl, iso-butyl and tert-butyl vinyl ethers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiault, G.; Mellouki, A.

    Rate constants for the reaction of OH radicals with n-propyl vinyl ether (PVE, CH 3CH 2CH 2OCH dbnd CH 2), n-butyl vinyl ether (BVE, CH 3CH 2CH 2CH 2OCH dbnd CH 2), iso-butyl vinyl ether (IBVE, (CH 3) 2CHCH 2OCH dbnd CH 2) and tert-butyl vinyl ether (TBVE, (CH 3) 3COCH dbnd CH 2), have been measured in the temperature and pressure ranges 232-373 K and 30-300 Torr using the pulsed laser photolysis-laser-induced fluorescence method, and at 298 K and 760 Torr using the relative method. The obtained results are k1=(9.3±0.6)×10 -12 exp[(708±20)/ T], k2=(1.5±0.2)×10 -11 exp[(572±42)/ T], k3=(1.6±0.1)×10 -11 exp[(567±20)/ T], k4=(1.7±0.2)×10 -11 exp[(549±25)/ T] cm 3 molecule -1 s -1. The values at 298 K are k1=(1.0±0.1)×10 -10, k2=(1.0±0.1)×10 -10, k3=(1.1±0.1)×10 -10, k4=(1.1±0.1)×10 -10 cm 3 molecule -1 s -1. The deduced tropospheric lifetimes of these ethers for reaction with OH are of the order of 1 h and they are comparable to those for reaction with ozone.

  16. Direct measurement and theoretical calculation of the rate coefficient for Cl+CH3 in the range from T=202-298 K.

    PubMed

    Parker, James K; Payne, Walter A; Cody, Regina J; Nesbitt, Fred L; Stief, Louis J; Klippenstein, Stephen J; Harding, Lawrence B

    2007-02-15

    The rate coefficient has been measured under pseudo-first-order conditions for the Cl+CH3 association reaction at T=202, 250, and 298 K and P=0.3-2.0 Torr helium using the technique of discharge-flow mass spectrometry with low-energy (12-eV) electron-impact ionization and collision-free sampling. Cl and CH3 were generated rapidly and simultaneously by reaction of F with HCl and CH4, respectively. Fluorine atoms were produced by microwave discharge in an approximately 1% mixture of F2 in He. The decay of CH3 was monitored under pseudo-first-order conditions with the Cl-atom concentration in large excess over the CH3 concentration ([Cl]0/[CH3]0=9-67). Small corrections were made for both axial and radial diffusion and minor secondary chemistry. The rate coefficient was found to be in the falloff regime over the range of pressures studied. For example, at T=202 K, the rate coefficient increases from 8.4x10(-12) at P=0.30 Torr He to 1.8x10(-11) at P=2.00 Torr He, both in units of cm3 molecule-1 s-1. A combination of ab initio quantum chemistry, variational transition-state theory, and master-equation simulations was employed in developing a theoretical model for the temperature and pressure dependence of the rate coefficient. Reasonable empirical representations of energy transfer and of the effect of spin-orbit interactions yield a temperature- and pressure-dependent rate coefficient that is in excellent agreement with the present experimental results. The high-pressure limiting rate coefficient from the RRKM calculations is k2=6.0x10(-11) cm3 molecule-1 s-1, independent of temperature in the range from 200 to 300 K.

  17. French Language Arts: Programme d'etudes du secondaire deuxieme cycle (10-12). Francais langue seconde--immersion (French Language Arts: High School Curriculum [10-12]. French as a Second Language--Immersion).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Language Services Branch.

    The report, entirely in French, describes Alberta's curriculum for high school French immersion, as revised in 1998. An introductory section offers background information on the curriculum revision, links between the core curriculum and French immersion, underlying principles of second language instruction, the revised curriculum's objectives and…

  18. Management and monitoring of the endangered Shenandoah salamander under climate change: Workshop report 10-12 April 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grant, Evan H. Campbell; Wofford, John E.B.; Smith, D.R.; Dennis, J.; Hawkins-Hoffman, C.; Schaberl, J.; Foley, M.; Bogle, M.

    2014-01-01

    Here we report on a structured decision making (SDM) process to identify management strategies to ensure persistence of the federally endangered Shenandoah salamander (Plethodon shenandoah), given that it may be at increased extinction risk under projected climate change. The focus of this report is the second of two SDM workshops; in the first workshop, participants developed a prototype of the decision, including problem frame, management objectives and a suite of potential management strategies, predictive models to inform the decision and link alternatives with the objectives to identify potential solutions, and identified data needs to reduce key uncertainties in the decision. Participants in this second workshop included experts in National Park Service policy at multiple administrative levels, who refined objectives, further evaluated the initial management alternatives, and discussed policy constraints on implementing active management for the species and its high-elevation habitat. The conclusion of the second workshop was similar to that of the first: the current state of information and objectives suggest that there is some value in considering active management to reduce the long-term extinction risk for the species, though there are institutional conservative policies to implementing active management at range-wide scales. The workshop participants also emphasized a conservative NPS management philosophy, including caution in implementing management actions that may ultimately harm the system, a stated assumption that ecosystem changes were “natural” unless demonstrated otherwise (therefore not warranting active management to mitigate), and a need to demonstrate that extinction risk is tied to anthropogenic influence prior to taking active management to mitigate specific anthropogenic influences. Even within a protected area having minimal human disturbance, intertwined environmental variables and interspecific relationships that drive population trends challenge our ability to demonstrate direct links with (anthropogenically influenced) climate change and the decline of a species. Thus while this policy may reduce the potential for injurious management, it may also necessitate extraordinary resources to reduce uncertainty regarding fundamental drivers of species decline prior to taking action.

  19. Physical Development and Health, Grades 3, 6, 8, 10, 12. State Goals for Learning and Sample Learning Objectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Board of Education, Springfield.

    This document sets forth the state goals for learning in the area of physical development and health for elementary and secondary students in Illinois. The final objective of this schooling is to provide students with the knowledge and attitudes to achieve healthful living throughout their lives and to acquire physical fitness, coordination, and…

  20. (10E,12E,14E)-9,16-Dioxoocta-deca-10,12,14-trienoic acid.

    PubMed

    Bréant, Lise; Vonthron-Sénécheau, Catherine; Brelot, Lydia; Lobstein, Annelise

    2012-09-01

    The title octa-deca-trienoic acid derivative, C(18)H(26)O(4), was isolated from Silene maritima With. (Caryophyllaceae), the first time this natural compound has been found in the Caryophyllales order. This fatty acid has an 18-carbon backbone with three double bonds on trans (E) conformation and two carbonyl. In the crystal, molecules are linked via pairs of O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming inversion dimers.

  1. Using Chemistry and Color To Analyze Household Products: A 10-12 Hour Laboratory Project at the General Chemistry Level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosma, Wayne B.

    1998-02-01

    A general chemistry experiment is described in which the students use UV/Visible spectrometry as an analytical tool, for both compound identification and pH measurement. In the first portion of the experiment, the students compare spectra to determine which FD and C dyes are contained in household products. They furthermore use chromatography to separate the dyes in grape Kool-Aid, and analyze the products with the spectrometer. In the second portion of the experiment, the students use Beer's Law to determine the pH of solutions containing an acid/base indicator. The experiments are visually stimulating and provide a solid introduction to spectroscopy and perceived color.

  2. Empirical Research in Chemistry and Physics Education. Proceedings of the International Seminar (Dortmund, Germany, June 10-12, 1992).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Hans-Jurgen, Ed.

    In the course of the last decade the Dortmund Summer Symposium has developed into an internationally acknowledged conference, with English as the language of communication every other year. This book presents the following papers given at the 1992 conference: (1) Learning Science: Insights from Research on Teaching and Assessment (D. R. Baker);…

  3. A Cultural Resources Survey Testing, and Geomorphic Examination of Ditches 10, 12 and 29, Mississippi County, Arkansas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-04-01

    1968: 23). Steamboats floated crops, furs, bear oil and timber down to Marked Tree for shipment to Memphis and New Or- leans (Edrington 19621: 49...vegetation transitions in the surrounding region (King and Allen 1977). More data in the future will allcw refinement of these estimates. Additional...Lafferty and Solis 1979; Peebles 1978; Roper 1974, 1975, 1979; P. Morse 1981). These studies, both successes and failures, have lead to a refinement

  4. Workshop on the Effects of Anthropogenic Noise in the Marine Environment, 10-12 February 1998. Proceedings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-02-12

    limits for human workplace exposures for broad spectrum signals over an 8 hour period is 80-90 dB re 20 pPa (Lehnhardt, 1986; NIOSH, IO 1999...established for sound levels and durations of exposure that have a high probability of causing PTS for repeated exposures to workplace sounds. While DRC has...been a useful tool for decreasing hearing loss in the workplace , and they are based on a set of relationships between level, duration exposure, and

  5. Transactions of the Conference of Army Mathematicians (26th) Held at Hanover, New Hampshire on 10 - 12 June 1980.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-01

    loll Ot thet laitt i, e wiicl contained- one. cr ra)re of these 1 aricil:IIir tYpes, of ose 1 loat iris WithOwi. belaboring the! .etai Ius, we tos11l...defining "logical spring- dampers " that account for certain aspects of inter- mittent motion [7]. In this paper, the method of computer generated equations...incorporating provisions for nonstandard elements that are supplied by the user. In addition to standard constraints, standard spring- damper -actuator

  6. Proceedings of the Military Librarians’ Workshop (18th) Held at Fort Hauchuca, Arizona on 10-12 September 1974

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-09-12

    in the proceedings. 4R6 OR~ CONTENTS Page Foreword ii Program iv Welcome I Special Command Briefing 3 Workshop Sessions 11 "Some Unwritten History of...Ms. Cathryn Lyon 34 NEW OEVELOPMENTS AT DDC . . . . Mr. Paul Klinefelter 35 Reminiscing . . . . Mr. Ernest DeWald 37 Participants 49 Sponsors of...Talk by Dr. Bruno Rolak, USACC Historian "Some Unwritten History of I Fort Huachuca" 0900-1100 Working Groups Ramada Inn Academic Earl SchwasG General

  7. Using Chemistry and Color To Analyze Household Products: A 10-12-Hour Laboratory Project at the General Chemistry Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosma, Wayne B.

    1998-01-01

    Describes a set of experiments using a UV-VIS spectrometer to identify food colorings and to measure the pH of soft drinks. The first laboratory component uses locations and shapes of visible absorption peaks as a means of identifying dyes while the second portion uses the spectrometer for determining pH. (PVD)

  8. Stepwise evolution of protein native structure with electrospray into the gas phase, 10(-12) to 10(2) s.

    PubMed

    Breuker, Kathrin; McLafferty, Fred W

    2008-11-25

    Mass spectrometry (MS) has been revolutionized by electrospray ionization (ESI), which is sufficiently "gentle" to introduce nonvolatile biomolecules such as proteins and nucleic acids (RNA or DNA) into the gas phase without breaking covalent bonds. Although in some cases noncovalent bonding can be maintained sufficiently for ESI/MS characterization of the solution structure of large protein complexes and native enzyme/substrate binding, the new gaseous environment can ultimately cause dramatic structural alterations. The temporal (picoseconds to minutes) evolution of native protein structure during and after transfer into the gas phase, as proposed here based on a variety of studies, can involve side-chain collapse, unfolding, and refolding into new, non-native structures. Control of individual experimental factors allows optimization for specific research objectives.

  9. Proceedings from Mainstreaming Activities for Youth (Project MAY). Congresses and Conferences (New York, New York, September 10-12, 1981).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Grace D., Ed.

    The document contains 1981 proceedings from Project MAY (Mainstreaming Activities for Youth), a collaborative inservice training project involving 11 national agencies serving youth and invited resource organizations. Three project goals are listed--to develop cooperation and share hearings in meeting the needs of handicapped persons, to provide…

  10. PREFACE: The IARU International Scientific Congress on Climate Change: Global Risks, Challenges and Decisions (10-12 March, Copenhagen, Denmark)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-01-01

    In an attempt to make the main results from the Congress on Climate Change: Global Risk, Challenges and Decisions available to the public as early as possible, the steering committee decided to publish all talks and posters presented at the Congress in this unique collection of abstracts, in time for the conference Further to the abstract collection the Congress will publish two more products in the near future as described in the following; a synthesis report with the main conclusions, and a book aimed at an academic audience 1 Two Products from the Congress Two products are being produced based on the presentations and discussions at the Congress The first product will be a synthesis report of the main conclusions from the Congress The synthesis report will be ready in June 2009 The synthesis has the purpose of explaining the current state of understanding man-made climate change and what we can do about it to the non-scientist, ie politicians, media and interested citizens The synthesis will build on the messages presented to the Danish Prime Minister, Mr Anders Fogh Rasmussen, host of the COP15, at the closing session of the Congress These six messages were drafted by the Writing Team (see below) based on input from the session chairs and a reading of the 1600+ abstracts submitted to the Congress The second product is a book aimed at an academic audience The book will include more detailed scientific results from all of the sessions and will be published by Cambridge University Press in 2010 It will be an extension and elaboration of the synthesis report Who's writing the Synthesis Report and the Book? A Writing Team consisting of 12 internationally respected scientists from all continents is responsible for developing both products When the synthesis report has been drafted by the Writing Team, it will be discussed in the Scientific Steering Committee of the Congress and reviewed by the Earth System Science Partnership (ESSP) and a group of experts identified by the IARU universities In keeping with normal scientific practice, a procedure for producing the synthesis report that has been adopted optimises the chances of arriving at a product that will receive a broad backing from the scientific community as being a message that can be sent to the non-scientific community and that explains current understanding in climate change science The Writing Team will also be responsible for writing the book Members of the Writing Team (in alphabetical order) Professor Joe Alcamo, University of Stellenbosch Dr Terry Barker, Cambridge University Professor Daniel Kammen, University of California - Berkeley Professor Rik Leemans, Environmental Systems Analysis Group, Wageningen University Professor Diana Liverman, Oxford University Professor Mohan Munasinghe, Chairman, Munasinghe Institute for Development (MIND) Dr Balgis Osman-Elasha, Higher Council for Environment and Natural Resources (HCENR), Sudan Professor Katherine Richardson, University of Copenhagen Professor John Schellnhuber, Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research and visiting professor at the University of Oxford Professor Will Steffen, Australian National University Professor Lord Nicholas Stern, London School of Economics and Political Science (LSE) Professor Ole Wæver, University of Copenhagen 2 Key Messages from the Congress Key Message 1: Climatic Trends Recent observations confirm that, given high rates of observed emissions, the worst-case IPCC scenario trajectories (or even worse) are being realized For many key parameters, the climate system is already moving beyond the patterns of natural variability within which our society and economy have developed and thrived These parameters include global mean surface temperature, sea-level rise, ocean and ice sheet dynamics, ocean acidification, and extreme climatic events There is a significant risk that many of the trends will accelerate, leading to an increasing risk of abrupt or irreversible climatic shifts Key Message 2: Social disruption The research community is providing much more information to support discussions on 'dangerous climate change' Recent observations show that societies are highly vulnerable to even modest levels of climate change, with poor nations and communities particularly at risk Temperature rises above 2°C will be very difficult for contemporary societies to cope with, and will increase the level of climate disruption through the rest of the century Key Message 3: Long-Term Strategy Rapid, sustained, and effective mitigation based on coordinated global and regional action is required to avoid 'dangerous climate change' regardless of how it is defined Weaker targets for 2020 increase the risk of crossing tipping points and make the task of meeting 2050 targets more difficult Delay in initiating effective mitigation actions increases significantly the long-term social and economic costs of both adaptation and mitigation Key Message 4: Equity Dimensions Climate change is having, and will have, strongly differential effects on people within and between countries and regions, on this generation and future generations, and on human societies and the natural world An effective, well-funded adaptation safety net is required for those people least capable of coping with climate change impacts, and a common but differentiated mitigation strategy is needed to protect the poor and most vulnerable Key Message 5: Inaction is Inexcusable There is no excuse for inaction We already have many tools and approaches - economic, technological, behavioral, management - to deal effectively with the climate change challenge But they must be vigorously and widely implemented to achieve the societal transformation required to decarbonize economies A wide range of benefits will flow from a concerted effort to alter our energy economy now, including sustainable energy job growth, reductions in the health and economic costs of climate change, and the restoration of ecosystems and revitalization of ecosystem services Key Message 6: Meeting the Challenge To achieve the societal transformation required to meet the climate change challenge, we must overcome a number of significant constraints and seize critical opportunities These include reducing inertia in social and economic systems; building on a growing public desire for governments to act on climate change; removing implicit and explicit subsidies; reducing the influence of vested interests that increase emissions and reduce resilience; enabling the shifts from ineffective governance and weak institutions to innovative leadership in government, the private sector and civil society; and engaging society in the transition to norms and practices that foster sustainability The editors of the volume are all the session chairs: Professor Agus Sari Dr Aled Jones Science Manager Anders Viksø-Nielsen Dr Andreas Barkman Professor Anette Reenberg Professor Ann Henderson-Sellers Professor Anthony J McMichael Dr Anthony Patt Dr Bette Otto-Bliesner Dr Cameron Hepburn Dr Carlos Nobre Dr Carol Turley Dr Chris Hope Professor Chris Turney Professor Claus Felby Professor Coleen Vogel Professor Dale Jamieson Professor Daniel M Kammen Senior Scientist Detlef F Sprinz Professor Diana Ürge-Vorsatz Professor Dorthe Dahl-Jensen PhD Fatima Denton Director Generel Frances Seymour Dr Frank Jotzo Professor Harold Mooney Director Henrik Bindslev Mr Jamie Pittock Professor Jacquie Burgess Dr James E Hansen Professor Jiahua Pan Dr Jill Jäger Professor Jim Skea Professor Johan Rockström Dr John Christensen Professor John Mitchell Professor John R Porter Professor Joyeeta Gupta Professor Jørgen E Olesen Professor Karen O'Brien Dr Kazuhiko Takeuchi Dr Katrine Krogh Andersen Professor Keith Paustian Professor Ken Caldeira Professor Kevin Anderson Dr Koko Warner Professor Konrad Steffen Professor Liping Zhou Professor Louise Fresco Professor Maria Carmen Lemos Professor Mark Ashton Dr Mark Stafford-Smith Dr Martin Claussen Dr Martin Visbeck Professor Mary Scholes Professor Masahide Kimoto Professor Matthew England Dr Maxwell Boykoff Dr Michael Raupach Professor Nathan Bindoff Professor Nicolas Gruber Professor Niels Elers Koch Professor Ole John Nielsen Professor Ole Wæver Professor Oran Young Dr Pamela Matson Dr Paul Baer Professor Paul Leadley Dr Pep Canadell Professor Pete Smith Professor Peter Gregory Professor Pier Vellinga Dr Rik Leemans Dr Roberto Bertollini Professor Roberto S Rodriguez Professor Scott Denning Dr Sivan Kartha Dr Thomas Downing Dr Tariq Banuri Professor Thomas Heyd Professor Tim Lenton Professor Timmons Roberts Professor Torkil Jønch Clausen Professor Warwick McKibbin Professor Wim C Turkenburg

  11. Cryogenic optical systems and instruments IV; Proceedings of the Meeting, San Diego, CA, July 10-12, 1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melugin, Ramsey K. (Editor); Pruitt, Gerald R. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    Consideration is given to cryogenic system design and optical technology; cryogenic instruments, sensors, and detectors; space cryogenic dewars and coolers; and cryogenic mechanisms, testing, and structures. Particular attention is given to mission optimization of the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF), alternative aperture stop position designs for SIRTF, scaling laws for lightweight optics, evaluation of a far-infrared Ge:Ga multiplexed detector array, cryogenic limb array etalon spectrometer calibration, reliability growth of coolers for advanced optical systems and instruments, flight-qualified solid argon cooler for the BBXRT instrument, precision mechanisms for optical alignments at cryogenic temperatures, versatile cryogenic rotary-positioning systems, and optical alignments of the Cosmic Background Explorer observatory.

  12. Sequence-specific high mobility group box factors recognize 10-12-base pair minor groove motifs.

    PubMed

    van Beest, M; Dooijes, D; van De Wetering, M; Kjaerulff, S; Bonvin, A; Nielsen, O; Clevers, H

    2000-09-01

    Sequence-specific high mobility group (HMG) box factors bind and bend DNA via interactions in the minor groove. Three-dimensional NMR analyses have provided the structural basis for this interaction. The cognate HMG domain DNA motif is generally believed to span 6-8 bases. However, alignment of promoter elements controlled by the yeast genes ste11 and Rox1 has indicated strict conservation of a larger DNA motif. By site selection, we identify a highly specific 12-base pair motif for Ste11, AGAACAAAGAAA. Similarly, we show that Tcf1, MatMc, and Sox4 bind unique, highly specific DNA motifs of 12, 12, and 10 base pairs, respectively. Footprinting with a deletion mutant of Ste11 reveals a novel interaction between the 3' base pairs of the extended DNA motif and amino acids C-terminal to the HMG domain. The sequence-specific interaction of Ste11 with these 3' base pairs contributes significantly to binding and bending of the DNA motif.

  13. Phytoplankton-Environmental Interactions in Reservoirs. Volume I. Papers Presented at Workshop, 10-12 April 1979, Monterey, California.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-01

    sample occurrences, were Sconedesmus, Synedra, Cyclotella, Oscil- latoria, Euglena , Cryptomonas, Navicula, Nitzschia, Anabaena, and Microcystis. All...Ldgerheimia 126 *Oscillatoria 48 **Anabaenopsis 28 *Schroederia 15- Euglena 408 *Schroederia 227 **Anabaenopsis 114A Cryptomonas 393 **Raphidiopsis 212...Pediastrum 80 *Lyngbya 286 *Oactylococcopsis 164 Phacus 79 Stephanodiscus 275 ClosteriLfzii 156 Closterium 71 Staurastrum 271 Euglena 153 Pandorina 70

  14. Training and Technology for the Disabled. Discovery III Conference Papers (Milwaukee, Wisconsin, March 10-12, 1986).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Christopher, Ed.

    Thirty-three papers are presented from a conference on the application of technology for use in the rehabilitation field. Presentations include "Technology--Opening Doors for Disabled People" (Rochlin, Bowe); "Management Information Systems Development for Rehabilitation Facilities: Critical Factors in Development and Implementation" (Robbins, et…

  15. Alcohol and Drug Prevention Curriculum Resource Guide Grades 10-12: Social Studies--United States History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Alcohol and Drug Defense Program.

    This curriculum resource guide on alcohol and drug prevention provides suggested activities for teachers of grades 10 through 12. Three integrated learning activities for United States history and healthful living are presented. The history goals are understanding that the years since 1945 have been years of great changes, and learning to organize…

  16. National Conference on Professional and Personal Renewal for Faculty. Proceedings (Atlanta, Georgia, April 10-12, 1986).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, William K., Ed.; Chandler, Judith B., Ed.

    Strategies for promoting faculty renewal are discussed in proceedings of the 1986 National Conference on Professional and Personal Renewal for Faculty. Included is an introduction by Ronald D. Simpson, a keynote speech by John W. Gardner and an address on academic culture by Peter Seldin. Summaries of 47 papers are provided, including the…

  17. Proceedings of a Symposium on Perspectives in Fluid Mechanics Held in Pasadena, California on 10-12 January 1985

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-07-29

    about avoid- ing ingesting them into jet engines or cleaning their signatures off wings than consider- ing them as creatures offering useful insights to...weight ratio is compatible with flight with a low wing loading and hence low speed. Attention to low-speed flight stimulates attention to the effects...limitations in turbulence. Birds have the brain and muscle to articulate their wings as dictated by the local airflow, and hence can fly without problems in

  18. AIAA Atmospheric Flight Mechanics Conference, Hilton Head Island, SC, Aug. 10-12, 1992, Technical Papers. Pts. 1-2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Consideration is given to aircraft dynamics and aerodynamics in atmospheric disturbances, vehicle trajectory optimization, projectile and missile flight dynamics, high alpha prediction codes for flow phenomenon, aircraft handling qualities, high alpha CFD and control, aircraft agility, unsteady flow phenomenon, parameter estimation, hypersonic technology, CFD for store separation, aeroassist technology, and unsteady and high alpha numerical studies. Particular attention is given to optimal recovery from microburst wind shear, optimal trajectories for an unmanned air-vehicle in the horizontal plane, numerical simulation of missile flow fields, pulsating spanwise blowing on a fighter aircraft, pilot control identification using minimum model error estimation, Navier-Stokes computations for oscillating control surfaces, aircraft agility maneuvers, fin motion after projectile exit from gun tube, the vortical structure in the wake during dynamic stall, nonlinear aerodynamic parameter estimation, missile and spacecraft coning instabilities, 3D Euler solutions on wing-pylon-store configuration with unstructured tetrahedral meshes, and a simulation model for tail rotor failure.

  19. Preserving a Quality Environment for Learning. International Symposium Proceedings (2nd, Columbus, Ohio, October 10-12, 1988).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerber, Carole, Ed.

    Designing campus environments integrates the efforts of architects, planners, landscape personnel, and administrators. At a symposium on preserving a quality environment, the concepts of planning, building, managing, preserving and questions such as: How can we plan buildings that can be readily adapted to future needs? What is the value of campus…

  20. A review of strategies to address the shortage of science and mathematics educators in grades 10-12

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magano, Florence Lesedi

    For an education system to function effectively it is important that its planning functions are executed effectively and efficiently. Among others this implies that the system must know what the teacher supply and demand is and how it will change in time. If the teacher supply and demand is known it could result in sound intervention strategies being developed and implemented. Education planners will be able to plan for the number of bursaries to be awarded and in which subject fields; it will be known how many foreign teachers to employ and for which subjects. This is the basic rationale that underpins this study. This study explored the problem of teacher demand and supply in the Further Education and Training (FET) phase (Grades 10 to 12) in South Africa and offers a critical analysis of strategies adopted by Provincial Education Departments in an endeavour to diminish the demand for teachers, specifically for Mathematics and Science, in rural and poor schools. Initially the study involved a secondary data analysis to extrapolate the demand and supply of teachers in Mathematics and Science over the next ten years. The first key finding of the study was that the data needed for such an analysis does not exist in any reliable form that would facilitate the development of such a projection. What the study had to rely on was anecdotal evidence that suggests that a shortage of Mathematics and Science teachers does exist and that posts are often filled by unqualified and under-qualified staff. In the second phase of the research in which the study explored the effectiveness of strategies developed to address the shortage of Mathematics and Science teachers, a qualitative research approach was adopted within a descriptive interpretive design. The views and opinions of human resource managers responsible for post provisioning in schools were explored through in-depth interviews to understand the types of strategy adopted by the provinces, their potential to alleviate the problem of Mathematics and Science teacher shortage in Grades 10 to 12, their success, challenges and factors internal to the Department of Education that may deter Provincial Education Departments from achieving their objectives. The findings revealed that Provincial Education Departments (PEDs) do take heed of strategies developed by the national Department of Basic Education (DBE). However implementation is far removed from the original intention and no significant impact results. Although the reasons are not always obvious from this study, a few important aspects did emerge. First, the strategy developed may not be popular with a particular province - employing foreign teachers is a case in point. Secondly, focusing on just a number of schools to improve their results (e.g. as with the Dinaledi schools) may meet with resistance from educators and teachers unions. Thirdly, creating bursaries for initial teacher education in certain key areas can only be successful if the number of teachers in need is known. Finally, even the best strategies are doomed if post provisioning and appointment of staff are dealt with by different stakeholders. Based on the findings, it is recommended that both the DBE and PEDs ensure that quality education management information is collected and maintained. Information that is reliable and accurate will inform planning and key decisions to ensure that the supply of teachers is based on a specific need. As such, deficiencies in skills that are in short supply such as Science and Mathematics can be averted and better opportunities can be created for new teacher graduates. While an improved performance of learners in these subjects is requisite for related study fields at universities, the Dinaledi schools must be adequately supported and such a model applied to other schools. The employment of foreign teachers on short-term contracts does not create stability in schools, therefore, their employment must be standardised. (Abstract shortened by UMI.).

  1. Educating Engineers for World Development. Proceedings of a World Congress (Estes Park, Colorado, June 10-12, 1975).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, J. Morley, Ed.; Collins, W. Leighton, Ed.

    This report comprises papers commissioned for the World Congress on Educating Engineers for World Development, sponsored by the International Division of the American Society for Engineering Education, and held in Colorado in June 1975. The purpose of the Congress was to bring about significant changes in the education of engineers and in the…

  2. Effects of a single water molecule on the OH + H2O2 reaction.

    PubMed

    Buszek, Robert J; Torrent-Sucarrat, Miquel; Anglada, Josep M; Francisco, Joseph S

    2012-06-21

    The effect of a single water molecule on the reaction between H(2)O(2) and HO has been investigated by employing MP2 and CCSD(T) theoretical approaches in connection with the aug-cc-PVDZ, aug-cc-PVTZ, and aug-cc-PVQZ basis sets and extrapolation to an ∞ basis set. The reaction without water has two elementary reaction paths that differ from each other in the orientation of the hydrogen atom of the hydroxyl radical moiety. Our computed rate constant, at 298 K, is 1.56 × 10(-12) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1), in excellent agreement with the suggested value by the NASA/JPL evaluation. The influence of water vapor has been investigated by considering either that H(2)O(2) first forms a complex with water that reacts with hydroxyl radical or that H(2)O(2) reacts with a previously formed H(2)O·OH complex. With the addition of water, the reaction mechanism becomes much more complex, yielding four different reaction paths. Two pathways do not undergo the oxidation reaction but an exchange reaction where there is an interchange between H(2)O(2)·H(2)O and H(2)O·OH complexes. The other two pathways oxidize H(2)O(2), with a computed total rate constant of 4.09 × 10(-12) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) at 298 K, 2.6 times the value of the rate constant of the unassisted reaction. However, the true effect of water vapor requires taking into account the concentration of the prereactive bimolecular complex, namely, H(2)O(2)·H(2)O. With this consideration, water can actually slow down the oxidation of H(2)O(2) by OH between 1840 and 20.5 times in the 240-425 K temperature range. This is an example that demonstrates how water could be a catalyst in an atmospheric reaction in the laboratory but is slow under atmospheric conditions.

  3. Reaction of SO2 with OH in the atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Long, Bo; Bao, Junwei Lucas; Truhlar, Donald G

    2017-03-15

    The OH + SO2 reaction plays a critical role in understanding the oxidation of SO2 in the atmosphere, and its rate constant is critical for clarifying the fate of SO2 in the atmosphere. The rate constant of the OH + SO2 reaction is calculated here by using beyond-CCSDT correlation energy calculations for a benchmark, validated density functional methods for direct dynamics, canonical variational transition state theory with anharmonicity and multidimensional tunneling for the high-pressure rate constant, and system-specific quantum RRK theory for pressure effects; the combination of these methods can compete in accuracy with experiments. There has been a long-term debate in the literature about whether the OH + SO2 reaction is barrierless, but our calculations indicate a positive barrier with an transition structure that has an enthalpy of activation of 0.27 kcal mol(-1) at 0 K. Our results show that the high-pressure limiting rate constant of the OH + SO2 reaction has a positive temperature dependence, but the rate constant at low pressures has a negative temperature dependence. The computed high-pressure limiting rate constant at 298 K is 1.25 × 10(-12) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1), which agrees excellently with the value (1.3 × 10(-12) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1)) recommended in the most recent comprehensive evaluation for atmospheric chemistry. We show that the atmospheric lifetime of SO2 with respect to oxidation by OH depends strongly on altitude (in the range 0-50 km) due to the falloff effect. We introduce a new interpolation procedure for fitting the combined temperature and pressure dependence of the rate constant, and it fits the calculated rate constants over the whole range with a mean unsigned error of only 7%. The present results provide reliable kinetics data for this specific reaction, and also they demonstrate convenient theoretical methods that can be reliable for predicting rate constants of other gas-phase reactions.

  4. Key environmental processes affecting the fate of the insecticide chloropyrifos applied to leaves.

    PubMed

    Lester, Yaal; Sabach, Sara; Zivan, Ohad; Dubowski, Yael

    2017-03-01

    Chlorpyrifos (CP) is still a commonly employed organophosphorus insecticide worldwide. In semi-arid and Mediterranean climates, applied CP is expected to remain on leaves surfaces for relatively long time due to the lack of summer rains and common use of drip irrigation. The present work examines the loss rate of CP from leaves via different surface processes: evaporation, direct photolysis and reactions with ozone and OH radicals. Laboratory experiments showed that evaporation rate constant of CP increased from 0.109 to 0.492 h(-1) with the increase in wind speed up to 4 m/s. First-order rate constant of direct photolysis, measured using a solar simulator, was k'UV = 1.15 (±0.01) x 10(-20) cm(2) photon(-1). Second-order rate constants for the reaction of CP with ozone and OH were measured as 6 × 10(-20) and 6 × 10(-12cm(3molecule(-1) s(-1), respectively. The above rate constants were applied successfully in an outdoor experiment to predict the disappearance of chloropyrifos under specific environmental conditions. Further modeling showed that the insecticide half-life time on exposed surfaces under typical Mediterranean environment will be in the range of 0.9-6.9 h. Evaporation is expected to be the dominant removal path under most environmental conditions, followed by direct photolysis and reaction with OH.

  5. Heterogeneous oxidation of folpet and dimethomorph by OH radicals: A kinetic and mechanistic study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al Rashidi, M.; Chakir, A.; Roth, E.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the heterogeneous OH oxidation of folpet and dimethomorph, two fungicides identified in the atmosphere of the Champagne-Ardenne region. Kinetic experiments were conducted in the relative mode, using terbuthylazine as a reference compound. The experimental method employed makes use of a simulation chamber coupled to a GC/MS analytical system. Meanwhile, the identification of (4-chlorophenyl)(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)methanone (CPMPM), a degradation product of the OH oxidation of dimethomorph, is achieved using SPME/GC/MS. Moreover, a degradation mechanism of dimethomorph is proposed, and the heterogeneous OH reactivity of CPMPM is evaluated. The obtained OH reaction rate constants (cm3 molecule-1 s-1) are: kZ-dimethomorph = (2.0 ± 1.2) 10-14, kE-dimethomorph = (1.7 ± 1.2) 10-14, kFolpet = (1.6 ± 0.9) 10-13 and kCPMPM = (1.9 ± 1.0) 10-12. The implicated tropospheric life-times are up to 2 months, which shows that the investigated pesticides are relatively persistent towards oxidation removal processes. CPMPM, the identified product of OH oxidation of dimethomorph, is less persistent with a life time of only 6 days relative to heterogeneous oxidation by OH radicals.

  6. Kinetics of HO2 + HO2 -> H2O2 + O2: Implications for Stratospheric H2O2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, L. E.; Okumura, M.; Sander, S. P.; Salawitch, R. J.; Toon, G. C.; Sen, B.; Blavier, J.-F.; Jucks, K. W.

    2002-05-01

    The reaction HO2 + HO2 -> H2O2 + O2(1) has been studied at 100 Torr and 222 K to 295 K. Experiments employing photolysis of Cl2/CH3OH/O2/N2 and F2/H2/O2/N2 gas mixtures to produce HO2 confirmed that methanol enhanced the observed reaction rate. At 100 Torr, zero methanol, k1 = (8.8 +/- 0.9) 10-13 × exp[(210 +/- 26)/T] cm3 molecule-1 s-1 (2σ uncertainties), which agrees with current recommendations at 295 K but is nearly 2 times slower at 231 K. The general expression for k1, which includes the dependence on bath gas density, is k1 = (1.5 +/- 0.2) × 10-12 × exp[(19 +/- 31)/T] + 1.7 × 10-33 × [M] × exp[1000/T], where the second term is taken from the JPL00-3 recommendation. The revised rate largely accounts for a discrepancy between modeled and measured [H2O2] in the lower to middle stratosphere.

  7. Pulsed laser photolysis vacuum UV laser-induced fluorescence kinetic study of the reactions of Cl( 2P 3/2) atoms with ethyl formate, n-propyl formate, and n-butyl formate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ide, Tomoyuki; Iwasaki, Erika; Matsumi, Yutaka; Xing, Jia-Hua; Takahashi, Kenshi; Wallington, Timothy J.

    2008-12-01

    Cl( 2P 3/2) atoms were produced by photolysis of Cl 2 at 351 nm in the presence of alkyl formates and monitored by LIF spectroscopy at 134.72 nm. Rate coefficients of k(Cl + C 2H 5OC(O)H) = (9.5 ± 0.3)×10 -12, k(Cl + n-C 3H 7OC(O)H) = (4.5 ± 0.3) × 10 -11 and k(Cl + n-C 4H 9OC(O)H) = (1.2 ± 0.1) × 10 -10 cm 3 molecule -1 s -1 were determined at 295 ± 2 K in 6-7 Torr of Ar diluent. These values are 15-30% lower than reported in a previous pulsed laser photolysis resonance fluorescence study. The discrepancy may reflect complications arising from the fact that the time scales for chlorine atom loss and regeneration were not sufficiently decoupled in the previous study.

  8. Computational study on the mechanisms and rate constants of the OH-initiated oxidation of ethyl vinyl ether in atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Han, Dandan; Cao, Haijie; Li, Jing; Li, Mingyue; He, Maoxia; Hu, Jingtian

    2014-09-01

    The hydroxylation reactions of ethyl vinyl ether (EVE) in the present of O2 and NO are analyzed by using MPWB1K/6-311++G(3df,2p)//MPWB1K/6-31+G(d,p) level of theory. According to the calculated thermodynamic data, the detailed reaction mechanisms of EVE and OH are proposed. All of the ten possible reaction pathways are discussed. The major products of the title reaction are ethyl formate and formaldehyde, which is in accordance with experimental detection. The rate constants of the primary reactions over the temperature of 250-400K and the pressure range of 100-2000Torr are computed by employing MESMER program. At 298K and 760Torr, OH-addition channels are predominate and the total rate constant is ktot=4.53×10(-11)cm(3)molecule(-1)s(-1). The Arrhenius equation is obtained as ktot=6.27×10(-12)exp(611.5/T), according to the rate constants given at different temperatures. Finally, the atmospheric half life of EVE with respect to OH is estimated to be 2.13h.

  9. First experimental determination of the absolute gas-phase rate coefficient for the reaction of OH with 4-hydroxy-2-butanone (4H2B) at 294 K by vapor pressure measurements of 4H2B.

    PubMed

    El Dib, Gisèle; Sleiman, Chantal; Canosa, André; Travers, Daniel; Courbe, Jonathan; Sawaya, Terufat; Mokbel, Ilham; Chakir, Abdelkhaleq

    2013-01-10

    The reaction of the OH radicals with 4-hydroxy-2-butanone was investigated in the gas phase using an absolute rate method at room temperature and over the pressure range 10-330 Torr in He and air as diluent gases. The rate coefficients were measured using pulsed laser photolysis (PLP) of H(2)O(2) to produce OH and laser induced fluorescence (LIF) to measure the OH temporal profile. An average value of (4.8 ± 1.2) × 10(-12) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) was obtained. The OH quantum yield following the 266 nm pulsed laser photolysis of 4-hydroxy-2-butanone was measured for the first time and found to be about 0.3%. The investigated kinetic study required accurate measurements of the vapor pressure of 4-hydroxy-2-butanone, which was measured using a static apparatus. The vapor pressure was found to range from 0.056 to 7.11 Torr between 254 and 323 K. This work provides the first absolute rate coefficients for the reaction of 4-hydroxy-2-butanone with OH and the first experimental saturated vapor pressures of the studied compound below 311 K. The obtained results are compared to those of the literature and the effects of the experimental conditions on the reactivity are examined. The calculated tropospheric lifetime obtained in this work suggests that once emitted into the atmosphere, 4H2B may contribute to the photochemical pollution in a local or regional scale.

  10. Methyl-perfluoroheptene-ethers (CH3OC7F13): measured OH radical reaction rate coefficients for several isomers and enantiomers and their atmospheric lifetimes and global warming potentials.

    PubMed

    Jubb, Aaron M; Gierczak, Tomasz; Baasandorj, Munkhbayar; Waterland, Robert L; Burkholder, James B

    2014-05-06

    Mixtures of methyl-perfluoroheptene-ethers (CH3OC7F13, MPHEs) are currently in use as replacements for perfluorinated alkanes (PFCs) and poly-ether heat transfer fluids, which are persistent greenhouse gases with lifetimes >1000 years. At present, the atmospheric processing and environmental impact from the use of MPHEs is unknown. In this work, rate coefficients at 296 K for the gas-phase reaction of the OH radical with six key isomers (including stereoisomers and enantiomers) of MPHEs used commercially were measured using a relative rate method. Rate coefficients for the six MPHE isomers ranged from ∼ 0.1 to 2.9 × 10(-12) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) with a strong stereoisomer and -OCH3 group position dependence; the (E)-stereoisomers with the -OCH3 group in an α- position relative to the double bond had the greatest reactivity. Rate coefficients measured for the d3-MPHE isomer analogues showed decreased reactivity consistent with a minor contribution of H atom abstraction from the -OCH3 group to the overall reactivity. Estimated atmospheric lifetimes for the MPHE isomers range from days to months. Atmospheric lifetimes, radiative efficiencies, and global warming potentials for these short-lived MPHE isomers were estimated based on the measured OH rate coefficients along with measured and theoretically calculated MPHE infrared absorption spectra. Our results highlight the importance of quantifying the atmospheric impact of individual components in an isomeric mixture.

  11. The Effect of Vitamin D Administration on Intracellular Adhesion Molecule-1 and Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 Levels in Hemodialysis Patients: A Placebo-controlled, Double-blinded Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Naeini, Afsoon Emami; Moeinzadeh, Firouzeh; Vahdat, Sahar; Ahmadi, Akbar; Hedayati, Zahra Parin; Shahzeidi, Safoora

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Vitamin D deficiency is quite common among end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients, and Vitamin D administration could reduce morbidity and mortality in these patients through different mechanisms. Cardiovascular diseases are the most common cause of mortality in these patients that are caused by vascular injuries. Intracellular adhesion molecule (ICAM) and vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM) are vascular inflammation indicators. The goal of this study is to find the effect of Vitamin D administration on ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 serum levels in ESRD patients on hemodialysis. Methods: The current study is a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial on 64 patients in two groups of control and treatment. Serum levels of Vitamin D, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1 were measured before and after the study. Treatment group was treated with Vitamin D pearls while control group underwent treatment with placebo pearls. Average serum levels of Vitamin D, ICAM, and VCAM were measured in both groups before and after the study and were analyzed by ANOVA, paired t-test, and Chi-square test using SPSS software. Findings: Sixty-four ESRD patients were recruited for this study consisting of 32 male and 32 female subjects within the ages of 18 and 76 years. The change in serum level of Vitamin D was significant in treatment group (P = 0.001) but not in control group (P > 0.05). Serum levels of ICAM and VCAM also changed significantly in treatment group (P = 0.001) but not in control group (P > 0.05) Conclusion: Based on the findings of this study, it could be said that Vitamin D administration in ESRD patients may increase serum level of Vitamin D up to four times. It also reduces serum levels of ICAM and VCAM which might improve the vascular condition of these patients.

  12. Interleukin-6 and intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression remains elevated in revived live endothelial cells following spaceflight.

    PubMed

    Muid, S; Froemming, G R A; Ali, A M; Nawawi, H

    2013-12-01

    The effects of spaceflight on cardiovascular health are not necessarily seen immediately after astronauts have returned but can be delayed. It is important to investigate the long term effects of spaceflight on protein and gene expression of inflammation and endothelial activation as a predictor for the development of atherosclerosis and potential cardiovascular problems. The objectives of this study were to investigate the (a) protein and gene expression of inflammation and endothelial activation, (b) expression of nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB), signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT-3) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) 3 months post-space flight travel compared to ground controls. HUVEC cultured on microcarriers in fluid processing apparatus were flown to the International Space Station (ISS) by the Soyuz TMA-11 rocket. After landing, the cells were detached from microcarriers and recultured in T-25 cm(2) culture flasks (Revived HUVEC). Soluble protein expression of IL-6, TNF-α, ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and e-selectin were measured by ELISA. Gene expression of these markers and in addition NFκB, STAT-3 and eNOS were measured. Spaceflight induced IL-6 and ICAM-1 remain elevated even after 3 months post spaceflight travel and this is mediated via STAT-3 pathway. The downregulation of eNOS expression in revived HUVEC cells suggests a reduced protection of the cells and the surrounding vessels against future insults that may lead to atherosclerosis. It would be crucial to explore preventive measures, in relation to atherosclerosis and its related complications.

  13. Vibration-translation energy transfer in anharmonic diatomic molecules. 1: A critical evaluation of the semiclassical approximation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckenzie, R. L.

    1974-01-01

    The semiclassical approximation is applied to anharmonic diatomic oscillators in excited initial states. Multistate numerical solutions giving the vibrational transition probabilities for collinear collisions with an inert atom are compared with equivalent, exact quantum-mechanical calculations. Several symmetrization methods are shown to correlate accurately the predictions of both theories for all initial states, transitions, and molecular types tested, but only if coupling of the oscillator motion and the classical trajectory of the incident particle is considered. In anharmonic heteronuclear molecules, the customary semiclassical method of computing the classical trajectory independently leads to transition probabilities with anomalous low-energy resonances. Proper accounting of the effects of oscillator compression and recoil on the incident particle trajectory removes the anomalies and restores the applicability of the semiclassical approximation.

  14. Endothelial cells proactively form microvilli-like membrane projections upon intercellular adhesion molecule 1 engagement of leukocyte LFA-1.

    PubMed

    Carman, Christopher V; Jun, Chang-Duk; Salas, Azucena; Springer, Timothy A

    2003-12-01

    Specific leukocyte/endothelial interactions are critical for immunity and inflammation, yet the molecular details of this interaction interface remain poorly understood. Thus, we investigated, with confocal microscopy, the distribution dynamics of the central adhesion molecules ICAM-1 and LFA-1 in this context. Monolayers of activated HUVECs stained with fluorescent anti-ICAM-1 Fabs or Chinese hamster ovary-K1 cells expressing ICAM-1-green fluorescent protein were allowed to bind LFA-1-bearing monocytes, neutrophils, or K562 LFA-1 transfectants. ICAM-1 was rapidly relocalized to newly formed microvilli-like membrane projections in response to binding LFA-1 on leukocytes. These ICAM-1-enriched projections encircled the leukocytes extending up their sides and clustered LFA-1 underneath into linear tracks. Projections formed independently of VCAM-1/very late Ag 4 interactions, shear, and proactive contributions from the LFA-1-bearing cells. In the ICAM-1-bearing endothelial cells, projections were enriched in actin but not microtubules, required intracellular calcium, and intact microfilament and microtubule cytoskeletons and were independent of Rho/Rho kinase signaling. Disruption of these projections with cytochalasin D, colchicine, or BAPTA-AM had no affect on firm adhesion. These data show that in response to LFA-1 engagement the endothelium proactively forms an ICAM-1-enriched cup-like structure that surrounds adherent leukocytes but is not important for firm adhesion. This finding leaves open a possible role in leukocyte transendothelial migration, which would be consistent with the geometry and kinetics of formation of the cup-like structure.

  15. Soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) as a marker of disease relapse in idiopathic uveoretinitis.

    PubMed Central

    Zaman, A G; Edelsten, C; Stanford, M R; Graham, E M; Ellis, B A; Direskeneli, H; D'Cruz, D P; Hughes, G R; Dumonde, D C; Wallace, G R

    1994-01-01

    This study reports the results of a point prevalence study of markers of endothelial dysfunction in the serum of patients with idiopathic uveoretinitis. sICAM-1, soluble endothelial leucocyte adhesion molecule (sELAM), anti-endothelial cell antibodies (AECA) and von Willebrand factor (vWF) levels were measured in 32 patients with isolated idiopathic uveoretinitis and seven with uveitis in association with systemic disease, using commercial and in-house ELISAs. Raised levels of AECA were found in 31% of patients with isolated uveitis, vWF in 28%, sELAM in 15.6% and sICAM-1 in 31%. Further analysis revealed that raised sICAM-1 levels were closely associated with recent relapse of disease (P = 0.00003). Patients with accompanying systemic disease were found to have a similar prevalence of these serum abnormalities to those with isolated ocular disease. In conclusion, vascular endothelial dysfunction may contribute to pathogenesis in uveoretinitis, and in particular sICAM-1 may prove a marker of disease relapse in this condition. PMID:7507016

  16. Interferon gamma regulates platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1 expression and neutrophil infiltration into herpes simplex virus- infected mouse corneas

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    In a mouse model of herpes simplex virus (HSV) 1 corneal infection, tissue destruction results from a CD4+ T cell-mediated chronic inflammation, in which interleukin 2 and interferon (IFN) gamma are requisite inflammatory mediators and polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) are the predominant infiltrating cells. In vivo neutralization of IFN- gamma relieved inflammation at least in part through a specific block of PMN extravasation into HSV-1-infected corneas. Intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM) 1 and platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM) 1 were upregulated on the vascular endothelium of inflamed corneas. Reduced PMN extravasation in anti-IFN-gamma-treated mice was associated with a dramatic reduction of PECAM-1 but not ICAM-1 expression on vascular endothelium. PMN accumulated in the lumen of corneal vessels after in vivo IFN-gamma neutralization. PECAM-1 was readily detectable on PMN inside the vessels but was not detectable on PMN that extravasated into the infected cornea. Moreover, flow cytometric analysis revealed reduced PECAM-1 expression but elevated major histocompatibility complex class I expression on PMN that recently extravasated into the peritoneal cavity when compared with PMN in the peripheral blood. We conclude that IFN-gamma contributes to HSV- 1-induced corneal inflammation by facilitating PMN infiltration; this appears to be accomplished through upregulation of PECAM-1 expression on the vascular endothelium; and PMN downregulate PECAM-1 expression during the process of extravasation. PMID:8879215

  17. Suppression of complement regulatory protein C1 inhibitor in vascular endothelial activation by inhibiting vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 action

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Haimou; Qin, Gangjian; Liang, Gang; Li, Jinan; Chiu, Isaac; Barrington, Robert A.; Liu, Dongxu . E-mail: dxliu001@yahoo.com

    2007-07-13

    Increased expression of adhesion molecules by activated endothelium is a critical feature of vascular inflammation associated with the several diseases such as endotoxin shock and sepsis/septic shock. Our data demonstrated complement regulatory protein C1 inhibitor (C1INH) prevents endothelial cell injury. We hypothesized that C1INH has the ability of an anti-endothelial activation associated with suppression of expression of adhesion molecule(s). C1INH blocked leukocyte adhesion to endothelial cell monolayer in both static assay and flow conditions. In inflammatory condition, C1INH reduced vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1) expression associated with its cytoplasmic mRNA destabilization and nuclear transcription level. Studies exploring the underlying mechanism of C1INH-mediated suppression in VCAM-1 expression were related to reduction of NF-{kappa}B activation and nuclear translocation in an I{kappa}B{alpha}-dependent manner. The inhibitory effects were associated with reduction of inhibitor I{kappa}B kinase activity and stabilization of the NF-{kappa}B inhibitor I{kappa}B. These findings indicate a novel role for C1INH in inhibition of vascular endothelial activation. These observations could provide the basis for new therapeutic application of C1INH to target inflammatory processes in different pathologic situations.

  18. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in Graves' disease: contrast between in vivo and in vitro results.

    PubMed Central

    Ciampolillo, A; Napolitano, G; Mirakian, R; Miyasaki, A; Giorgino, R; Bottazzo, G F

    1993-01-01

    We have reassessed the possible role of the adhesion molecule ICAM-1 in the pathogenesis of thyroid autoimmunity. In order to do that, we have investigated its expression in eight Graves' thyroids both in vivo (i.e. on cryostat sections and on cell suspensions), and in vitro (i.e. on cells cultured in monolayers for 3 days), and the results were compared with those obtained with similar preparations from four normal glands. On cryostat sections, the expression of ICAM-1, and for comparison that of HLA Class I and Class II molecules, was studied by immunofluorescence (IFL), but the former were also assessed by a distinct immunohistochemical technique. ICAM-1 was not detected in thyrocytes in vivo of both normal and Graves' glands, but solely in endothelial cells and antigen-presenting cells (APC). This selective reaction was confirmed by a four-layer technique using specific markers which identify endothelial cells and thyrocytes. HLA Class II molecules were confirmed to be inappropriately expressed in thyrocytes of Graves' glands, but there was no co-expression of these products and ICAM-1 in the same cells. In contrast, ICAM-1 appeared de novo in a proportion of Graves' and normal thyrocytes soon after the attachment and spreading of these cells in monolayer cultures (36-48 h). Graves' thyrocytes showed a quantitatively higher degree of expression compared with that detected on normal thyroid cells (40-70% versus 12-20%). Under these experimental conditions, the four-layer staining with thyroid microsomal antibodies confirmed that thyrocytes were indeed the positive cells which expressed ICAM-1. Blocking experiments with cultured thyrocytes from two Graves' glands and MoAbs to tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) did not prevent the occurrence of ICAM-1 expression. As a result of our study, we failed to demonstrate that Graves' thyrocytes express ICAM-1 in vivo. The unexpected case of inducing ICAM-1 on thyroid cells under certain in vitro conditions remains intriguing. The phenomenon could be the simple consequence of a mechanical effect rather than exerted by specific biological processes. Further investigations are, therefore, needed to establish whether ICAM-1 is really involved in the pathogenesis of Graves' disease. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:7902787

  19. Hematopoietic Progenitor Cell Rolling in Bone Marrow Microvessels: Parallel Contributions by Endothelial Selectins and Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule 1

    PubMed Central

    Mazo, Irina B.; Gutierrez-Ramos, Jose-Carlos; Frenette, Paul S.; Hynes, Richard O.; Wagner, Denisa D.; von Andrian, Ulrich H.

    1998-01-01

    We have used intravital microscopy to study physiologically perfused microvessels in murine bone marrow (BM). BM sinusoids and venules, but not adjacent bone vessels, supported rolling interactions of hematopoietic progenitor cells. Rolling did not involve L-selectin, but was partially reduced in wild-type mice treated with antibodies to P- or E-selectin and in mice that were deficient in these two selectins. Selectin-independent rolling was mediated by α4 integrins, which interacted with endothelial vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1. Parallel contribution of the endothelial selectins and VCAM-1 is not known to direct blood cell trafficking to other noninflamed tissues. This combination of constitutively expressed adhesion molecules may thus constitute a BM-specific recruitment pathway for progenitor cells analogous to the vascular addressins that direct selective lymphocyte homing to lymphoid organs. PMID:9687524

  20. Atmospheric chemistry of HFE-7300 and HFE-7500: Temperature dependent kinetics, atmospheric lifetimes, infrared spectra and global warming potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez, Ana; Rodríguez, Diana; Moraleda, Araceli; Bravo, Iván; Moreno, Elena; Notario, Alberto

    2014-10-01

    The atmospheric degradation of two hydrofluoroethers, HFE-7300 [n-C2F5CF(OCH3)CF(CF3)2] and HFE-7500 [n-C3F7CF(OC2H5)CF(CF3)2] used in industrial applications has been studied. The kinetics and reaction products were determined at atmospheric pressure as a function of temperature in a reaction chamber using GC/FID and GC/MS techniques for the analysis. The following Arrhenius expressions were obtained (in units of cm3 molecule-1 s-1): kHFE-7300 + OH = (5.6 ± 2.0) × 10-13 exp(-(1186 ± 111)/T); kHFE-7300 + Cl = (3.8 ± 1.3) × 10-12 exp(-(968 ± 101)/T); and kHFE-7500 + OH = (7.6 ± 6.0) × 10-12 exp(-(1163 ± 385)/T) (temperature range 271-333 K). The atmospheric lifetimes calculated from kinetic data for HFE-7300 and HFE-7500 were 5.24 and 0.30 years, respectively. In the oxidation of HFE-7300 with OH and Cl radicals, the only detected product was CF3CF2CF(OCHO)CF(CF3)2, whereas in the oxidation of HFE-7500 by OH radicals the detected products were: C3F7CF(OC(O)CH3)CF(CF3)2 and C3F7CF(OC(O)H)CF(CF3)2. Infrared spectra of the studied HFEs have also been measured and radiative forcing efficiencies were determined. Combining these results with the kinetic data, we estimated 100-year time horizon global warming potentials of 440 and 12 for HFE-7300 and HFE-7500, respectively.

  1. Vibrational relaxation of H2O(|04> ) in collisions with H2O, Ar, H2, N2 and O2: dynamical and atmospheric implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, P. W.; Sims, I. R.; Smith, I. W.

    2003-04-01

    It has been suggested that sequential two-photon dissociation of water might provide a mechanism for the atmospheric production of OH radical. ^1 This mechanism requires that photodissociation of vibrationally excited molecules must occur at a rate competitive with their relaxation by collisions with atmospheric gases. In this paper, we shall describe new experiments on the collisional relaxation of H_2O molecules from the highly excited mid04>± vibrational state in collisions with H_2O, Ar, H_2, N_2 and O_2. In our experiments, the mid04>^- state is populated by direct absorption of radiation from a pulsed dye laser tuned to ca. 719 nm. Evolution of the population in the (mid04>±) levels is observed using the combination of a frequency-quadrupled Nd:YAG laser, which selectively photolyses H_2O(mid04>±), and a frequency-doubled dye laser, which observes the OH(v = 0) produced via laser-induced fluorescence (LIF). The delay between the pulse from the pump laser and those from the photolysis and probe lasers was systematically varied to generate kinetic decays. The rate coefficients for relaxation obtained from these experiments, in units of cm^3 molecule-1 s-1, are: k(H_2O) = (4.1 ± 1.2) x 10-10, k(Ar) = (4.9 ± 1.1) x 10-12, k(H_2) = (6.8 ± 1.1) x 10-12, k(N_2) = (7.7 ± 1.5) x 10-12, k(O_2) = (6.7 ± 1.4) x 10-12. The results will be discussed in two contexts. First, we shall consider the implications of our new results for the interpretation of our previous experiments on the reactions of vibrationally excited H_2O with H atoms.^2 Second, we shall consider the proposal of Goss et al.1 in the light of our finding that the collisional relaxation of H_2O(mid04>±) by N_2 and O_2 is rather rapid. ^1 L. M Goss, V. Vaida, J. W. Brault and R. T. Skodje, J. Phys. Chem. A, 05, 70 (2001). ^2 (a) G. Hawthorne, P. Sharkey and I. W. M. Smith, J. Chem. Phys., 108, 4693(1998); (b) P. W. Barnes, P. Sharkey, I. R. Sims and I. W. M. Smith, Faraday Discuss. Chem. Soc., 13, 167

  2. Determination of the rate coefficients for the reactions IO + NO2 + M (air) --> IONO2 + M and O(3P) + NO2 --> O2 + NO using laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Dillon, Terry J; Blitz, Mark A; Heard, Dwayne E

    2006-06-01

    Laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy via excitation of the A2pi(3/2) <-- X2pi(3/2) (2,0) band at 445 nm was used to monitor IO in the presence of NO2 following its generation in the reactions O(3P) + CF3I and O(3P) + I2. Both photolysis of O3 (248 nm) and NO2 (351 nm) were used to initiate the production of IO. The rate coefficients for the thermolecular reaction IO + NO2 + M --> IONO2 + M were measured in air, N2, and O2 over the range P = 18-760 Torr, covering typical tropospheric conditions, and were found to be in the falloff region. No dependence of k1 upon bath gas identity was observed, and in general, the results are in good agreement with recent determinations. Using a Troe broadening factor of F(B) = 0.4, the falloff parameters k0(1) = (9.5 +/- 1.6) x 10(-31) cm6 molecule(-2) s(-1) and k(infinity)(1) = (1.7 +/- 0.3) x 10(-11) cm3 molecule(-1) s(-1) were determined at 294 K. The temporal profile of IO at elevated temperatures was used to investigate the thermal stability of the product, IONO2, but no evidence was observed for the regeneration of IO, consistent with recent calculations for the IO-NO2 bond strength being approximately 100 kJ mol(-1). Previous modeling studies of iodine chemistry in the marine boundary layer that utilize values of k1 measured in N2 are hence validated by these results conducted in air. The rate coefficient for the reaction O(3P) + NO2 --> O2 + NO at 294 K and in 100 Torr of air was determined to be k2 = (9.3 +/- 0.9) x 10(-12) cm3 molecule(-1) s(-1), in good agreement with recommended values. All uncertainties are quoted at the 95% confidence limit.

  3. Modeling anthropogenically-controled secondary organic aerosols in a megacity: a simplified framework for global and climate models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodzic, A.; Jimenez, J. L.

    2011-04-01

    A simplified parameterization for secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation in polluted air and biomass burning smoke is tested and optimized in this work, towards the goal of a computationally inexpensive method to calculate pollution and biomass burning SOA in global and climate models. A regional chemistry-transport model is used as the testbed for the parameterization, which is compared against observations from the Mexico City metropolitan area during the MILAGRO 2006 field experiment. The empirical parameterization is based on the observed proportionality of SOA concentrations to excess CO and photochemical age of the airmass. The approach consists in emitting an organic gas as lumped SOA precursor surrogate proportional to anthropogenic or biomass burning CO emissions according to the observed ratio between SOA and CO in aged air, and reacting this surrogate with OH into a single non-volatile species that condenses to form SOA. An emission factor of 0.08 g of the lumped SOA precursor per g of CO and a rate constant with OH of 1.25 × 10-11 cm3 molecule-1 s-1 reproduce the observed average SOA mass within 30% in the urban area and downwind. When a 2.5 times slower rate is used (5 × 10-12 cm3 molecule-1 s-1) the predicted SOA amount and temporal evolution is nearly identical to the results obtained with SOA formation from semi-volatile and intermediate volatility primary organic vapors according to the Robinson et al. (2007) formulation. Our simplified method has the advantage of being much less computationally expensive than Robinson-type methods, and can be used in regions where the emissions of SOA precursors are not yet available. As the aged pollution SOA/ΔCO ratios are rather consistent globally, this parameterization could be reasonably tested in and applied to other regions. The potential enhancement of biogenic SOA by anthropogenic pollution, which has been suggested to play a major role in global SOA formation, is also tested using two simple

  4. Modeling anthropogenically controlled secondary organic aerosols in a megacity: a simplified framework for global and climate models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodzic, A.; Jimenez, J. L.

    2011-10-01

    A simplified parameterization for secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation in polluted air and biomass burning smoke is tested and optimized in this work, towards the goal of a computationally inexpensive method to calculate pollution and biomass burning SOA mass and hygroscopicity in global and climate models. A regional chemistry-transport model is used as the testbed for the parameterization, which is compared against observations from the Mexico City metropolitan area during the MILAGRO 2006 field experiment. The empirical parameterization is based on the observed proportionality of SOA concentrations to excess CO and photochemical age of the airmass. The approach consists in emitting an organic gas as lumped SOA precursor surrogate proportional to anthropogenic or biomass burning CO emissions according to the observed ratio between SOA and CO in aged air, and reacting this surrogate with OH into a single non-volatile species that condenses to form SOA. An emission factor of 0.08 g of the lumped SOA precursor per g of CO and a rate constant with OH of 1.25 × 10-11 cm3 molecule-1 s-1 reproduce the observed average SOA mass within 30 % in the urban area and downwind. When a 2.5 times slower rate is used (5 × 10-12 cm3 molecule-1 s-1) the predicted SOA amount and temporal evolution is nearly identical to the results obtained with SOA formation from semi-volatile and intermediate volatility primary organic vapors according to the Robinson et al. (2007) formulation. Our simplified method has the advantage of being much less computationally expensive than Robinson-type methods, and can be used in regions where the emissions of SOA precursors are not yet available. As the aged SOA/ΔCO ratios are rather consistent globally for anthropogenic pollution, this parameterization could be reasonably tested in and applied to other regions. The evolution of oxygen-to-carbon ratio was also empirically modeled and the predicted levels were found to be in reasonable agreement

  5. Identifying Criegee Intermediates As Potential Oxidants In The Troposphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novelli, A.; Hens, K.; Tatum Ernest, C.; Martinez, M.; Nölscher, A. C.; Sinha, V.; Paasonen, P.; Petäjä, T.; Sipilä, M.; Elste, T.; Plass-Duelmer, C.; Kubistin, D.; Phillips, G. J.; Williams, J.; Vereecken, L.; Lelieveld, J.; Harder, H.

    2015-12-01

    Criegee intermediates (CI) are formed during the ozonolysis of unsaturated compounds and have been intensively studied in the last few years due to their possible role as oxidants in the troposphere. Stabilised CI (SCI) are now known to react very rapidly, k(298 K) = 10-12 to 10-10 cm3 molecule-1 s-1, with a large number of trace gases (SO2, NO2, organic acids, water dimers). An assessment of their effective oxidative capacity remain challenging as, CI chemistry is complex, it spans a large range of rate coefficients for different SCI conformers reacting with water dimers and trace gases, and in addition, no reliable measurement technique able to detect ambient SCI concentrations is currently available. In this study, we examine the extensive dataset from the HUMPPA-COPEC 2010 and the HOPE 2012 field campaigns, aided by literature data, to estimate the abundance of SCI in the lower troposphere. The budget of SCI is analyzed using four different approaches: 1) based on an observed yet unexplained H2SO4 production; 2) from the measured concentrations of unsaturated volatile organic compounds (VOC); 3) from OH reactivity measurements; 4) from the unexplained production rate of OH. A SCI concentration range between 5 x 103 and 2 x 106 molecule cm-3 is calculated for the two environments. The weighted mean estimate of the SCI concentration over the boreal forest of ~ 5 x 104 molecules cm-3 implies a significant impact on the conversion of SO2 into H2SO4. In addition, we present measurements obtained using our inlet pre-injector laser-induced fluorescence assay by gas expansion technique (IPI-LIF-FAGE) for the above-mentioned campaigns. A recent laboratory study performed with the same instrumental setup showed that the IPI-LIF-FAGE system is sensitive to the detection of the OH formed from unimolecular decomposition of SCI. In order to investigate the applicability of the laboratory findings to the ambient data, measurement of the background OH (OHbg), the signal

  6. Study of the OH and Cl-initiated oxidation, IR absorption cross-section, radiative forcing, and global warming potential of four C4-hydrofluoroethers.

    PubMed

    Oyaro, Nathan; Sellevåg, Stig R; Nielsen, Claus J

    2004-11-01

    Infrared absorption cross-sections and OH and Cl reaction rate coefficients for four C4-hydrofluoroethers (CF3)2CHOCH3, CF3CH2OCH2CF3, CF3CF2CH2OCH3, and CHF2CF2CH2OCH3 are reported. Relative rate measurements at 298 K and 1013 hPa of OH and Cl reaction rate coefficients give k(OH+(CF3)2CHOCH3) = (1.27+/-0.13) x 10(-13), k(OH+CF3CH2OCH2CF3) = (1.51+/-0.24) x 10(-13), k(OH+CF3CF2CH2OCH3) = (6.42+/-0.33) x 10(-13), k(OH+CHF2CF2CH2OCH3) = (8.7 +/-0.5) x 10(-13), k(Cl+(CF3)2CHOCH3) = (8.4+/-1.3) x 10(-12), k(Cl+CF3CH2OCH2CF3) = (6.5+/-1.7) x 10(-13), k(Cl+CF3CF2CH2OCH3) = (4.0+/-0.8) x 10(-11), and k(Cl+CHF2CF2CH2OCH3) = (2.65+/-0.17) x 10(-11) cm3 molecule(-1) s(-1). The primary products of the OH and Cl reactions with the fluorinated ethers have been identified as esters, and OH and Cl reaction rate coefficients for one of these, CF3CH2OCHO, are reported: k(OH+CF3CH2OCHO) = (7.7+/-0.9) x 10(-14) and kCl+CF3CH2OCHO) = (6.3+/-1.9) x 10(-14) cm3 molecule(-1) s(-1) The rate coefficient for the Cl-atom reaction with CHF2CH2F is derived as k(Cl+CHF2CH2F) = (3.0+/-0.9) x 10(-14) cm3 molecule(-1) s(-1) at 298 K. The error limits include 3sigma from the statistical data analyses as well as the errors in the rate coefficients of the reference compounds employed. The tropospheric lifetimes of the hydrofluoroethers are estimated to be short tauOH((CF3)2CHOCH3) approximately 100 days, tauOH(CF3CH2OCH2CF3) approximately 80 days, tauOH(CF3CF2CH2OCH3) approximately 20 days, and tauOH(CHF2CF2CH2OCH3) approximately 14 days, and their global warming potentials are small compared to CFC-11.

  7. A kinetic study of Mg+ and Mg-containing ions reacting with O3, O2, N2, CO2, N2O and H2O: implications for magnesium ion chemistry in the upper atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Whalley, Charlotte L; Martín, Juan C Gómez; Wright, Timothy G; Plane, John M C

    2011-04-07

    Reactions between Mg(+) and O(3), O(2), N(2), CO(2) and N(2)O were studied using the pulsed laser photo-dissociation at 193 nm of Mg(C(5)H(7)O(2))(2) vapour, followed by time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence of Mg(+) at 279.6 nm (Mg(+)(3(2)P(3/2)-3(2)S(1/2))). The rate coefficient for the reaction Mg(+) + O(3) is at the Langevin capture rate coefficient and independent of temperature, k(190-340 K) = (1.17 ± 0.19) × 10(-9) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) (1σ error). The reaction MgO(+) + O(3) is also fast, k(295 K) = (8.5 ± 1.5) × 10(-10) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1), and produces Mg(+) + 2O(2) with a branching ratio of (0.35 ± 0.21), the major channel forming MgO(2)(+) + O(2). Rate data for Mg(+) recombination reactions yielded the following low-pressure limiting rate coefficients: k(Mg(+) + N(2)) = 2.7 × 10(-31) (T/300 K)(-1.88); k(Mg(+) + O(2)) = 4.1 × 10(-31) (T/300 K)(-1.65); k(Mg(+) + CO(2)) = 7.3 × 10(-30) (T/300 K)(-1.59); k(Mg(+) + N(2)O) = 1.9 × 10(-30) (T/300 K)(-2.51) cm(6) molecule(-2) s(-1), with 1σ errors of ±15%. Reactions involving molecular Mg-containing ions were then studied at 295 K by the pulsed laser ablation of a magnesite target in a fast flow tube, with mass spectrometric detection. Rate coefficients for the following ligand-switching reactions were measured: k(Mg(+)·CO(2) + H(2)O → Mg(+)·H(2)O + CO(2)) = (5.1 ± 0.9) × 10(-11); k(MgO(2)(+) + H(2)O → Mg(+)·H(2)O + O(2)) = (1.9 ± 0.6) × 10(-11); k(Mg(+)·N(2) + O(2)→ Mg(+)·O(2) + N(2)) = (3.5 ± 1.5) × 10(-12) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1). Low-pressure limiting rate coefficients were obtained for the following recombination reactions in He: k(MgO(2)(+) + O(2)) = 9.0 × 10(-30) (T/300 K)(-3.80); k(Mg(+)·CO(2) + CO(2)) = 2.3 × 10(-29) (T/300 K)(-5.08); k(Mg(+)·H(2)O + H(2)O) = 3.0 × 10(-28) (T/300 K)(-3.96); k(MgO(2)(+) + N(2)) = 4.7 × 10(-30) (T/300 K)(-3.75); k(MgO(2)(+) + CO(2)) = 6.6 × 10(-29) (T/300 K)(-4.18); k(Mg(+)·H(2)O + O(2)) = 1.2 × 10(-27) (T/300 K)(-4.13) cm

  8. Proceedings of the Adult Student Personnel Association Conference. (12th, New York City, April 10-12, 1975). "Mid-Life Career Changes".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Dorothy, Ed.

    Texts of speeches given at the Adult Student Personnel Association conference regarding career change in mid-life are presented. They include: Socio-Political Implications of Career Changes (Vinia R. Quinones), discussing educational needs, relocation, psychological, political, and social implications regarding women and career changes; Continuous…

  9. Aerial radiological survey of Areas 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12, 15 and 17, Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site, 8 August-2 September 1978

    SciTech Connect

    Fritzsche, A E

    1982-06-01

    An aerial gamma survey was conducted over Yucca Flat during August 1978. A limited quantity of soil samples was obtained and evaluated in support of the aerial survey. Results are presented in the form of exposure rate isopleths from man-made isotopes and estimates of concentrations and inventories of /sup 152/Eu, /sup 137/Cs and /sup 60/Co.

  10. Quantum Coherence and Reality: International Conference on Fundamental Aspects of Quantum Theory Held in Columbia, South Carolina on December 10-12, 1992

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-12-01

    abundantly clear that he was a mathematical prodigy. The res- idents of Kiryat Haim soon became ac- customed to the apparition of the boy Aharonov...tsU of this tyj )e thdCatl 6-u lp erfornmetd on the two aLtoms - 1 by myself here oil earth and 1by lxily enileagium Aliv St11-Uri , ’il (v- Cellimt i...here on earth , then we can quickly deduce three things concerning the results of measurensents on toy own dodecahedron alone: (a) Each vertex of msy

  11. OSA Proceedings of the Topical Meeting on Soft-X-Ray Projection Lithography Held in Monterey, California on 10-12 April 1991. Volume 12

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-05-22

    Carbide because of its high thermal the mirror on its backside or edge. Shott Zerodur conductivity. Edge cooling causes a larger exceeded the limit by about...Characterization Angstrom-level noncontact profiling of mirrors for soft x-ray lithography............ 134 Paul Glenn Nonspecular Scattering from X-Ray...structed by patterning a Mo/Si Tropel Division of GCA Corporation. multilayer coated silicon wafer. The mirrors were coated at AT&T Bell The multilayer

  12. Soft X-Ray Projection Lithography. Organization of the Photonics Science Topical Meetings Held in Monterey, California on May 10-12, 1993

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-05-10

    00 pm MA3 Two aspheric mirror system design development MB2 Condenser optics for SXPL, Steve Vernon. Vernon Ap- for SXPL, T. E Jewell. Optical Design...Consultant A generalized plied Physics, Gary Sommargren. Lynn Seppala. David Gaines, procedure for an optical design of a two aspheric mirror system...necessary to develop high-rollectance, tionat Laboratories: J. E, B3jorkhotm. R. R. Freeman, M. 0. Himet, normaltýincidence x-ray mirrors tar projection

  13. Proceedings of the Annual ACM Symposium (11th) on Principles of Distributed Computing Held in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada on 10-12 Aug 1992

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-08-10

    1. AGENCY USE ONLY (Leave blank) 2. REPORT DATE 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED i0 AUGUST 1992 FINAL 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS ...PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA REPORT NUMBER DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE 6356...MONITORING OFFICE OF THE CHIEF OF NAVAL RESEARCH AGENCY REPORT NUMBER CODE 1133 BALLSTON TOWER ONE 800 NORTH QUINCY STREET ARLINGTON, VA 22217-5660 11

  14. Risk Analysis of Antibiotic Resistance, Berlin, BfR, 10-12 November 2003: activities of the Codex Alimentarius Commission related to antibiotic resistance.

    PubMed

    Doyran, S H

    2004-01-01

    The FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius Commission develops recommendations concerning risk management related to regulatory issues, on the basis of scientific advice provided by FAO and WHO. The complex question of anti-microbial resistance that requires a multidisciplinary approach, has been considered from different point of views in the framework of Codex, especially food hygiene and veterinary drugs and to a lesser extent, plant protection. Antibiotic resistance was considered from the perspective of the food chain and a risk profile was developed. Risk management options were also considered and may be grouped in two main categories: prevention of contamination through the food chain; and prudent use of anti-microbials. It is recognized that further scientific advice is necessary before developing specific risk management options in the framework of Codex. It is expected that the results of the FAO/OIE/WHO Expert Consultations on anti-microbial resistance will provide the necessary guidance for further action.

  15. Proceedings of the Annual Sloan Consortium International Conference on Online Learning (18th, Lake Buena Vista, Florida, October 10-12, 2012)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloan Consortium (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the Sloan Consortium (Sloan-C) is to help learning organizations continually improve the quality, scale, and breadth of online programs according to their own distinctive missions, so that education will become a part of everyday life, accessible and affordable for anyone, anywhere, at any time, in a wide variety of disciplines.…

  16. Healing, Mental Energy in the Physics Classroom: Energy Conceptions and Trust in Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Grade 10-12 Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svedholm, Annika M.; Lindeman, Marjaana

    2013-03-01

    Lay conceptions of energy often conflict with scientific knowledge, hinder science learning and scientific literacy, and provide a basis for ungrounded beliefs. In a sample of Finnish upper secondary school students, energy was attributed with features of living and animate beings and thought of as a mental property. These ontologically confused conceptions (OCC) were associated with trust in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), and independent of scientifically valid conceptions. Substance-based energy conceptions followed the correlational pattern of OCC, rather than scientific conceptions. OCC and CAM decreased both during the regular school physics curriculum and after a lesson targeted at the ontological confusions. OCC and CAM were slightly less common among students with high actively open-minded thinking, low trust in intuition and high need for cognition. The findings are discussed in relation to the goals of scientific education.

  17. Proceedings of the Annual US Army Operations Research Symposium (AORS) (28th) Held in Fort Lee, Virginia on 10-12 October 1989. Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-07

    words if the former DCINC USAREUR. Lieutenant General Stotser, in reference to the WINTEX/ CIMEX evening brief, *I am presented with series of data...Exercise WINTEX- CIMEX 89". (b) "WARGAME THRACE", prepared by the Strategy and Plans Directorate, US Army Concepts Analysis Agenc.y (CAA), 1987. (c

  18. Chemical weathering on Mars. Collection of papers. LPI-MSATT Workshop on Chemical Weathering on Mars, Cocoa Beach, FL (USA), 10 - 12 Sep 1992.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, R. G.; Banin, A.

    1993-10-01

    The Workshop on Chemical Weathering on Mars consisted of thirty papers, extended abstracts of which were published in the LPI Technical Report, No. 92-04. The collection of seven papers in this issue report new data and interpretations about the chemical evolution of the Martian surface.

  19. Selected Conference Proceedings from the 1985 Videodisc, Optical Disk, and CD-ROM Conference and Exposition (Philadelphia, PA, December 10-12, 1985).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cerva, John R.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Eight papers cover: optical storage technology; cross-cultural videodisc design; optical disk technology use at the Library of Congress Research Service and National Library of Medicine; Internal Revenue Service image storage and retrieval system; solving business problems with CD-ROM; a laser disk operating system; and an optical disk for…

  20. Military Planning in the Twentieth Century, Proceedings of the Military History Symposium (11th) Held on 10-12 October 1984,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-01-01

    In the case of Germany, Schlieffen inclined to one during the First Morocco Crisis and Moltke had similar thoughts in the spring of 1914.9 It follows...34 Gamelin asked at the CPDN, 24 February 1939. Attacking aircraft would have to fly low. "That," he remembered, "is how our planes in Morocco and the Levant...SIANDARADS-1963-A MILITARY PLANNING IN THE <TWENTIETH CENTURY Z- %6 10 23 c.5.%L Proceedings of the Eleventh Military History Symposium USAF Academy 1984

  1. Emerging Problems in School Law. National Organization on Legal Problems of Education, Annual Meeting (17th, Las Vegas, Nevada, November 10-12, 1971).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Organization on Legal Problems of Education, Topeka, KS.

    This book, the official meeting transcript, contains papers that analyze current problems and suggest future trends. Two education professors and an attorney discuss and analyze the Swann vs Mecklenburg school desegregation case. Another attorney, through a discussion of Serrano vs Priest, takes a look into the future of equal protection cases in…

  2. Compromise, Collaboration or Competition in Higher Education. Proceedings of the Pacific Northwest Conference on Higher Education (45th, Vancouver, British Columbia, October 10-12, 1979).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leskiw, Russell J., Ed.; Moir, Philip E., Ed.

    The focus of the conference was on interinstitutional collaboration as a means of advancing higher education, particularly international education and faculty development. Contents are as follows: Introductory Comments (Russell J. Leskiw and Philip E. Moir); "Institutional Collaboration for Professional Development and International Education"…

  3. Automation in Libraries; Papers Presented at the C.A.C.U.L. Workshop on Library Automation (University of British Columbia, Vancouver, April 10-12, 1967).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canadian Association of College and University Libraries, Ottawa (Ontario).

    Contents: (1) Session on Acquisitions, "Acquisitions--Policies, Procedures, and Problems" by Louis Vagianos, with a supplement "Brown University Library Fund Accounting System" by Robert Wedgeworth, "Simon Fraser's Automated Acquisitions System" by T.C. Dobb, and "Automated Acquisition at University of Western…

  4. Strategies for the Legal Implementation of the International Code of Marketing of Breast-Milk Substitutes: Report on a WHO Meeting (Copenhagen, Denmark, November 10-12, 1982).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Health Organization, Copenhagen (Denmark). Regional Office for Europe.

    For various reasons, several countries have had difficulty implementing the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes. To address those problems, a meeting was convened under the auspices of the World Health Organization. Specific purposes of the meeting were to inform member states about the Code and to develop national…

  5. Proceedings of the International Workshop on Current Challenges in Liquid and Glass Science, (The Cosener's House, Abingdon 10-12 January 2007).

    PubMed

    Hannon, Alex C; Salmon, Philip S; Soper, Alan K

    2007-10-17

    The workshop was held to discuss current experimental and theoretical challenges in liquid and glass science and to honour the contribution made by Spencer Howells (ISIS, UK) to the field of neutron scattering from liquids and glasses. The meeting was attended by 70 experimentalists, theorists and computer simulators from Europe, Japan and North America and comprised 34 oral presentations together with two lively poster sessions. Three major themes were discussed, namely (i) the glass transition and properties of liquids and glasses under extreme conditions; (ii) the complementarity of neutron and x-ray scattering techniques with other experimental methods; and (iii) the modelling of liquid and glass structure. These themes served to highlight (a) recent advances in neutron and x-ray instrumentation used to investigate liquid and glassy materials under extreme conditions; (b) the relationship between the results obtained from different experimental and theoretical/computational methods; and (c) the modern methods used to interpret experimental results. The presentations ranged from polyamorphism in liquids and glasses to protein folding in aqueous solution and included the dynamics of fresh and freeze-dried strawberries and red onions. The properties of liquid phosphorus were also memorably demonstrated! The formal highlight was the 'Spencerfest' dinner where Neil Cowlam (Sheffield, UK) gave an excellent after dinner speech. The organisation of the workshop benefited tremendously from the secretarial skills of Carole Denning (ISIS, UK). The financial support of the Council for the Central Laboratory of the Research Councils (CCLRC), the Liquids and Complex Fluids Group of the Institute of Physics, The ISIS Disordered Materials Group, the CCLRC Centre for Materials Physics and Chemistry and the CCLRC Centre for Molecular Structure and Dynamics is gratefully acknowledged. Finally, it is a pleasure to thank all the workshop participants whose lively contributions led to the success of the meeting. The present special issue stems from the interest of many of those present to collect their work into a single volume. [Formula: see text] The workshop participants. Spencer Howells is in the centre of the front row. DEDICATION William Spencer Howells It is a great pleasure to dedicate this Special Issue on Current Challenges in Liquid and Glass Science to the many contributions Spencer Howells has made to the structure and dynamics of liquids and glasses over some 40 years of work with the neutron scattering technique. After completing a first degree in Physics at Cambridge in 1966, Spencer started a postgraduate program with Gordon Squires at Cambridge, exploiting the early neutron scattering instrumentation that was available in those days at the Harwell reactors. This resulted in a Ph D thesis in 1970 on the twin topics of 'Neutron scattering of phonons in single-crystal molybdenum, using a time-of-flight chopper spectrometer (Part I)' and 'Neutron studies of the metal-insulator transition (Part II)'. The thesis was split into two parts because the hydrogen moderator blew-up on the chopper instrument used for the first part! From Cambridge, he moved to Leicester University as a post-doctoral Fellow with John Enderby, who was setting up a programme of study on the liquid state of matter. Here Spencer continued to use the Harwell Dido reactor, now to measure the structure of liquid metal alloys and molten salts - a topic that has kept his interest right through into retirement. He also initiated the first structural studies of aqueous solutions using neutron scattering, eventually pursuing this work as one of the first UK users of the Institut Laue-Langevin, Grenoble, France (ILL). In 1973 Spencer moved to the ILL, which was then and has remained the world's leading steady-state neutron source, as instrument scientist on IN10, the quasi-elastic neutron scattering beam line. Here he led the field in developing the quasi-elastic technique and new quasi-elastic scattering experiments were begun on the dynamics of aqueous solutions. At the same time he was local contact for most of the UK users of the liquids diffractometer D4, often providing excellent hospitality to hungry and thirsty Ph D students, in addition to his scientific support! After the ILL he moved, in 1978, to the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS), later called ISIS, where he was responsible for building the Liquids and Amorphous Diffractometer, LAD. This was a tricky undertaking as there were no neutrons at the SNS until 1984, so initial testing of LAD was done on the Harwell Linac. He also worked on the design and specification of the SNS moderators and collimation, and his design for the neutron collimator is still in use at ISIS today. The initial design and build of the Small Angle Neutron Diffractometer for Amorphous and Liquid Samples (SANDALS) was undertaken in this period, and Spencer had a major impact on the development of the ATLAS software used to analyse diffraction data from disordered materials. He was also involved in the design of IRIS, the first quasi-elastic spectrometer at ISIS. As more people joined in liquids and amorphous materials research at ISIS, Spencer was able to diversify, and he took an increasing interest in the application of IRIS to liquid materials. Here he brought his expertise in data analysis from the ILL and LAD and applied it to the time-of-flight quasi-elastic technique. The suite of data analysis programs that evolved, called IDA, was enlarged to encompass quasi-elastic neutron scattering data taken on a number of ISIS and non-ISIS instruments, including OSIRIS, HET, and MARI (at ISIS), IN5, IN6, IN10, IN13 and IN16 (at ILL) and NEAT (at HMI, Berlin). At the same time, Spencer's penchant for working on computers meant he took an increasingly important role in setting up and running the ISIS user database and proposal system, which continued for many years until his retirement in 2004. He also became full-time instrument scientist on IRIS and even after retirement he continues to work on developing data analysis software for this instrument. In the course of his career Spencer Howells has so far produced more than 200 scientific publications, covering a broad spectrum of topics. Recent examples include 'Dynamics of fresh and freeze-dried strawberry and red onion: quasielastic neutron scattering.' and 'The structure and dynamics of 2-dimensional fluids in swelling clays', to illustrate some of the range of his science. This work has gone hand in hand with comprehensive support for users at the ILL, ISIS and elsewhere, and he has been a consultant at foreign institutions such as the Intense Pulsed Neutron Source (IPNS) at Argonne National Laboratory, Illinois. Arriving as he did at a time when large-scale central user facilities were first becoming established, Spencer has played a significant role in shaping the way these facilities operate and produce science. The Current Challenges Workshop was a fitting tribute to his work in disordered materials science and demonstrates how vibrant the field has become as a result.

  6. Proceedings of the Annual Eastern Michigan University Conference on Languages for Business and the Professions (5th, Ann Arbor, Michigan, April 10-12, 1986).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voght, Geoffrey M., Comp.

    Forty-five conference papers are presented in six sections: getting started in languages for special purposes (concerning teaching, curriculum development, finding, and resources); Spanish for business and the professions; French for business and the professions; other languages (English as a second language, German, Arabic, Mandarin Chinese, and…

  7. Teaching Career Education in Social Studies, Grades 10-12. World Culture, Ancient and Medieval History, Modern History. Resource Manual No. 314.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strain, Mary Pat; Berninger, Roger

    Activities and teaching strategies proposed in this resource manual are intended to help social studies teachers at the high school level in adapting the career education philosophy to the classroom. The manual consists of two parts. Part 1 identifies goals and objectives of career education and various social studies subjects (world culture,…

  8. Family food involvement and frequency of family dinner meals among Australian children aged 10-12years. Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations with dietary patterns.

    PubMed

    Leech, Rebecca M; McNaughton, Sarah A; Crawford, David A; Campbell, Karen J; Pearson, Natalie; Timperio, Anna

    2014-04-01

    Involvement in meal preparation and eating meals with the family are associated with better dietary patterns in adolescents, however little research has included older children or longitudinal study designs. This 3-year longitudinal study examines cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between family food involvement, family dinner meal frequency and dietary patterns during late childhood. Questionnaires were completed by parents of 188 children from Greater Melbourne, Australia at baseline in 2002 (mean age=11.25years) and at follow-up in 2006 (mean age=14.16years). Principal components analysis (PCA) was used to identify dietary patterns. Factor analysis (FA) was used to determine the principal factors from six indicators of family food involvement. Multiple linear regression models were used to predict the dietary patterns of children and adolescents at baseline and at follow-up, 3years later, from baseline indicators of family food involvement and frequency of family dinner meals. PCA revealed two dietary patterns, labeled a healthful pattern and an energy-dense pattern. FA revealed one factor for family food involvement. Cross-sectionally among boys, family food involvement score (β=0.55, 95% CI: 0.02, 1.07) and eating family dinner meals daily (β=1.11, 95% CI: 0.27, 1.96) during late childhood were positively associated with the healthful pattern. Eating family dinner meals daily was inversely associated with the energy-dense pattern, cross-sectionally among boys (β=-0.56, 95% CI: -1.06, -0.06). No significant cross-sectional associations were found among girls and no significant longitudinal associations were found for either gender. Involvement in family food and eating dinner with the family during late childhood may have a positive influence on dietary patterns of boys. No evidence was found to suggest the effects on dietary patterns persist into adolescence.

  9. P-23 Highlights 6/10/12: Cygnus Dual Beam Radiographic Facility Refurbishment completed at U1A tunnel in Nevada NNSS meeting Level 2 milestone

    SciTech Connect

    Deyoung, Anemarie; Smith, John R.

    2012-05-03

    A moratorium was placed on U.S. underground nuclear testing in 1992. In response, the Stockpile Stewardship Program was created to maintain readiness of the existing nuclear inventory through several efforts such as computer modeling, material analysis, and subcritical nuclear experiments (SCEs). As in the underground test era, the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), formerly the Nevada Test Site, provides a safe and secure environment for SCEs by the nature of its isolated and secure facilities. A major tool for SCE diagnosis installed in the 05 drift laboratory is a high energy x-ray source used for time resolved imaging. This tool consists of two identical sources (Cygnus 1 and Cygnus 2) and is called the Cygnus Dual Beam Radiographic Facility (Figs. 2-6). Each Cygnus machine has 5 major elements: Marx Generator, Pulse Forming Line (PFL), Coaxial Transmission Line (CTL), 3-cell Inductive Voltage Adder (IVA), and Rod Pinch Diode. Each machine is independently triggered and may be fired in separate tests (staggered mode), or in a single test where there is submicrosecond separation between the pulses (dual mode). Cygnus must operate as a single shot machine since on each pulse the diode electrodes are destroyed. The diode is vented to atmosphere, cleaned, and new electrodes are inserted for each shot. There is normally two shots per day on each machine. Since its installation in 2003, Cygnus has participated in: 4 Subcritical Experiments (Armando, Bacchus, Barolo A, and Barolo B), a 12 shot plutonium physics series (Thermos), and 2 plutonium step wedge calibration series (2005, 2011), resulting in well over 1000 shots. Currently the Facility is in preparation for 2 SCEs scheduled for this calendar year - Castor and Pollux. Cygnus has performed well during 8 years of operations at NNSS. Many improvements in operations and performance have been implemented during this time. Throughout its service at U1a, major maintenance and replacement of many hardware items were delayed due to programmatic requirements. It is anticipated that Cygnus will be in service at U1a for another 5 years. With this assumption, it was realized that significant resources and effort should be allotted to bring the hardware back to its original condition, or even to improve elements when appropriate. The Cygnus Refurbishment and Enhancement Project started in April, 2011 with the intent to encompass a major overhaul of Cygnus.

  10. The Structure of Knowledge. A Feminist Perspective. Proceedings of the Annual GLCA Women's Studies Conference (4th, November 10-12, 1978).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Beth, Ed.; And Others

    A keynote address, five selected conference papers, and two panel discussions are presented in these conference proceedings. The keynote address, "Breaking the Disciplines" (Florence Howe), examines the development of traditional disciplines as the mainstream of higher education's curriculum and the omission of women from these…

  11. Blueprint for Action: Dialogues from Wingspread II. Proceedings of the Conference on Adolescent Pregnancy: State Action on Adolescent Pregnancy (2nd, Racine, Wisconsin, August 10-12, 1986).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Interstate Conference of Employment Security Agencies, Inc., Washington, DC.

    The purpose of the conference reported in this document was to improve and coordinate state-level efforts to ameliorate the crisis of adolescent pregnancy. The document includes summaries of addresses by Edgar May, vice-president of the American Public Welfare Association's board of directors; Ann Rosewater, staff director of the Select Committee…

  12. Healing, Mental Energy in the Physics Classroom: Energy Conceptions and Trust in Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Grade 10-12 Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svedholm, Annika M.; Lindeman, Marjaana

    2013-01-01

    Lay conceptions of energy often conflict with scientific knowledge, hinder science learning and scientific literacy, and provide a basis for ungrounded beliefs. In a sample of Finnish upper secondary school students, energy was attributed with features of living and animate beings and thought of as a mental property. These ontologically confused…

  13. Touch the Future: Discovering Abilities through Technology for Living, Learning, Working and Playing. Southeast Regional Conference (3rd, Atlanta, Georgia, April 10-12, 1991).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia State Dept. of Human Resources, Atlanta. Div. of Rehabilitation Services.

    This packet of materials was originally intended for participants in a 1991 conference on assistive technology for the disabled. After a detailed listing of the conference schedule, individual sections provide abstracts, biographical sketches, and summaries concerning the following conference topics: blending, computer labs, family, grants and…

  14. PREFACE: Proceedings of the International Workshop on Current Challenges in Liquid and Glass Science, (The Cosener's House, Abingdon 10 12 January 2007)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannon, Alex C.; Salmon, Philip S.; Soper, Alan K.

    2007-10-01

    The workshop was held to discuss current experimental and theoretical challenges in liquid and glass science and to honour the contribution made by Spencer Howells (ISIS, UK) to the field of neutron scattering from liquids and glasses. The meeting was attended by 70 experimentalists, theorists and computer simulators from Europe, Japan and North America and comprised 34 oral presentations together with two lively poster sessions. Three major themes were discussed, namely (i) the glass transition and properties of liquids and glasses under extreme conditions; (ii) the complementarity of neutron and x-ray scattering techniques with other experimental methods; and (iii) the modelling of liquid and glass structure. These themes served to highlight (a) recent advances in neutron and x-ray instrumentation used to investigate liquid and glassy materials under extreme conditions; (b) the relationship between the results obtained from different experimental and theoretical/computational methods; and (c) the modern methods used to interpret experimental results. The presentations ranged from polyamorphism in liquids and glasses to protein folding in aqueous solution and included the dynamics of fresh and freeze-dried strawberries and red onions. The properties of liquid phosphorus were also memorably demonstrated! The formal highlight was the 'Spencerfest' dinner where Neil Cowlam (Sheffield, UK) gave an excellent after dinner speech. The organisation of the workshop benefited tremendously from the secretarial skills of Carole Denning (ISIS, UK). The financial support of the Council for the Central Laboratory of the Research Councils (CCLRC), the Liquids and Complex Fluids Group of the Institute of Physics, The ISIS Disordered Materials Group, the CCLRC Centre for Materials Physics and Chemistry and the CCLRC Centre for Molecular Structure and Dynamics is gratefully acknowledged. Finally, it is a pleasure to thank all the workshop participants whose lively contributions led to the success of the meeting. The present special issue stems from the interest of many of those present to collect their work into a single volume.

  15. Reflecting on Practice in Adult Higher Education. National Conference on Alternative and External Degree Programs for Adults (11th, Mobile, Alabama, October 10-12, 1991).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance, an Association for Alternative Degree Programs.

    Workshops and presentations in this volume are as follows: "Learning the Language of Learning" (Firestone); "Self-Study Examination Program of Higher Education for Adults in China" (Wang, Smith); "Using the Principles and Process of Adult Learning to Develop an Award Level Program for the Education of Adult Educators: An…

  16. Rotordynamic Instability Problems in High-Performance Turbomachinery - 1982, Proceedings of a Workshop (2nd) Held at College Station, Texas on 10-12 May 1982.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-01

    Total 1X IX Total W IX Total 10: 451s - 0.5 0.6 - 0.35 0.4 - 0.8 0.95 - 0.6 0.75 ll:43am 0.5 0.6 1.7 0.8 0.2 1.3 4.3 2.3 75 4.3 3.6 75 12:021m 2.5 3.8 5.8...phase lag of 451 behind shaft motion and amplitudes slightly less than the shaft amplitude (See Figure 10.) The vibration spectra show the seal motion...film. is evaluated as follows [15]: Q/0.77 = (1700 - lOT) [w -X(T)w [N/m, -3 A(T) = 0.48 (1.1 - 1.8-10 T), where T is temperature in Farenheit

  17. Economics in Social Studies Textbooks. An Evaluation of the Economics and the Teaching Strategies in Social Studies Textbooks, High School (Grades 10-12).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weidenaar, Dennis J.; And Others

    The report is an evaluation of the economic content and teaching strategies in social studies textbooks that are used in grades 10, 11, and 12. The study, conducted by the Center for Economic Education, Purdue University, was part of a kindergarten through grade twelve assessment of the treatment of economics in social studies textual materials…

  18. Results of U-xMo (x=7, 10, 12 wt.%) Alloy versus Al-6061 Cladding Diffusion Couple Experiments Performed at 500, 550 and 600 Degrees C

    SciTech Connect

    Emmanuel Perez; Dennis D. Keiser, Jr.; Yongho Sohn

    2013-04-01

    The Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) program has been developing low enrichment fuel systems encased in Al 6061 for use in research and test reactors. U–Mo alloys in contact with Al and Al alloys can undergo diffusional interactions that can result in the development of interdiffusion zones with complex fine-grained microstructures composed of multiple phases. A monolithic fuel currently being developed by the RERTR program has local regions where the U–Mo fuel plate is in contact with the Al 6061 cladding and, as a result, the program finds information about interdiffusion zone development at high temperatures of interest. In this study, the microstructural development of diffusion couples consisting of U-7wt.%Mo, U-10wt.%Mo, and U-12wt.%Mo vs. Al 6061 (or 6061 aluminum) cladding, annealed at 500, 550, 600 degrees C for 1, 5, 20, 24, or 132 hours, was analyzed by backscatter electron microscopy and x-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy on a scanning electron microscope. Concentration profiles were determined by standardized wavelength dispersive spectroscopy and standardless x-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy. The results of this work shows that the presence of surface layers at the U–Mo/Al 6061 interface can dramatically impact the overall interdiffusion behavior in terms of rate of interaction and uniformity of the developed interdiffusion zones. It further reveals that relatively uniform interaction layers with higher Si concentrations can develop in U–Mo/Al 6061 couples annealed at shorter times and that longer times at temperature result in the development of more non-uniform interaction layers with more areas that are enriched in Al. At longer annealing times and relatively high temperatures, U–Mo/Al 6061 couples can exhibit more interaction compared to U–Mo/pure Al couples. The minor alloying constituents in Al 6061 cladding can result in the development of many complex phases in the interaction layer of U–Mo/Al–6061 cladding couples, and some phases in the interdiffusion zones of U–Mo/Al–6061 cladding couples are likely similar to those observed for U–Mo/pure Al couples.

  19. Structure and vibrational spectra of carbon clusters C n ( n = 2-10, 12, 14, 16, 18) using density functional theory including exact exchange contributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Jan M. L.; El-Yazal, Jamal; François, Jean-Pierre

    1995-09-01

    Geometries and harmonic frequencies of linear C n and cyclic C 2 n ( n = 2-9) clusters have been studied using the B3LYP (Becke 3-parameter-Lee-Yang-Parr) density functional method and compared with ab initio coupled cluster calculations. For C 2 through C 10, results are of nearly the same quality as those obtained at the CCSD(T)/[3s2pld] (coupled cluster with all single, double, and quasiperturbative triple substitutions) level, except for relative energies. C 4 nn clusters ( n = 2-4) are polyacetylenic rings with C 2 nh symmetry, and C 4 n+2 ( n = 1-4) clusters are cumulenic rings with C (2 n+1)h symmetry. They have intense infrared absorptions in the 1800-2000 cm -1 region, in addition to intense vibrations around 500 cm -1. Tentative assignments of some bands in the 1900-1950 cm -1 region to cyclic C 14 and C 18 are proposed.

  20. Cimetidine enhances delayed-type hypersensitivity responses and serum interleukin (IL)-2, -10, -12, and IL-17 levels after burn injury in an animal model.

    PubMed

    Jafarzadeh, A; Nemati, M; Rezayati, M T; Ebrahimi, M; Hassan, Z M

    2013-01-01

    The immunosuppression that occurs after burn injury causes an increase in susceptibility to infection. The aim was to investigate time-related alterations in various cytokines following thermal injury and to modulate cytokines by use of an immunomodulant, cimetidine. Male Balb/c mice were anesthetized and given a 10% total body surface area full-thickness burn by submerging in 90°C water for 9 s. Time-dependent changes in delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) and serum levels of the cytokines IL-2, IL-10, IL-12, IL-17 and TGFβ were then assessed at various post-burn day (PBD) timepoints. Effects of 10 mg cimetidine/kg on DTH responses and cytokine levels were evaluated up to PBD 14. In comparison to healthy non-burned control mice, levels of IL-2 and IL-17 significantly decreased at PBD 3, 5, 10, and 14, those of IL-10 at PBD 1, 3, 5, and 10, and those of IL-12 at PBD 1, 3, 5, 10, and 14. Administration of cimetidine significantly augmented the levels of IL-2 (at PBD 3, 5, and 10), IL-10 (at PBD 1 and 5), IL-12 (at PBD 3, 5, 10, and 14), and IL-17 (at PBD 3 and 14) as compared to those in burned counterparts who did not receive drug. In comparison to healthy mice, biphasic alterations were observed regarding TGFβ levels; values were significant decreased and increased at PBD 3 and PBD 14, respectively. Cimetidine significantly diminished the elevated TGFβ levels at PBD 14. Cimetidine also significantly augmented DTH responses at PBD 5, 10, and 14 as compared to responses in non-drug-treated burned hosts. Taken together, the results here showed significant time-dependent changes in serum cytokines levels after burn injury and that cimetidine was able to significantly augment IL-2, IL-10, IL-12, and IL-17 levels as well as DTH responses that are normally suppressed following thermal trauma.

  1. Effects of Peer-Assessed Feedback, Goal Setting and a Group Contingency on Performance and Learning by 10-12-Year-Old Academy Soccer Players

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Josh E.; Kinchin, Gary; Clarke, Gill

    2012-01-01

    Background: Coaches developing young talent in team sports must maximise practice and learning of essential game skills and accurately and continuously assess the performance and potential of each player. Relative age effects highlight an erroneous process of initial and on-going player assessment, based largely on subjective opinions of game…

  2. Patterns for Teaching Conflict; Part C, 7-9 [And] Part D, 10-12. Global Perspectives: A Humanistic Influence on the Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, David C., Ed.; Long, Cathryn J., Ed.

    Ten lessons provide techniques for teaching about conflict in grades 7 through 12. These lessons, developed to accompany the teaching guidelines outlined in SO 009 796, illustrate how the guidelines might be used in secondary level courses such as social studies, history, and literature. Five sample lessons are described for each of two grade…

  3. International Project on Technical and Vocational Education (UNEVOC). International Advisory Committee, Fourth Session (Paris, France, March 10-12, 1997). Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Berlin (Germany). International Project on Technical and Vocational Education (UNEVOC).

    The fourth session of the UNEVOC International Advisory Committee was opened by Colin N. Power, whose welcoming address emphasized the importance of technical and vocational education (TVE) for socioeconomic development of UNESCO's member states. He pointed out that this sector of education is facing serious challenges posed by the recent trends…

  4. Proceedings of the Workshop on Compound Semiconductor Devices and Integrated Circuits (13th) Held in Cabourg, France on 10-12 May 1989

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-05-12

    SM3, SIDS WALLS C h I P Siz: .0 mm x 0. 45mm ~~~~C It*SICA.,I t/t m* A. ?’-G.A. 2-1- GJ *A. -40" , ’, -4 100khz oti clarner U -60 mmc 0 \\0 RCE a) -0...fully understood. MOVPE grown Heterostructures for Monolithic Integration G. Laube, P. Speier, A. Nowitzki, P. Wiedemann , F. Grotjahn, H. Gro~kopf

  5. Proceedings of the International Conferences on Education Technologies (ICEduTech) and Sustainability, Technology and Education (STE) (New Tapei City, Taiwan, December 10-12, 2014)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kommers, Piet, Ed.; Issa, Tomayess, Ed.; Issa, Theodora, Ed.; Chang, Dian-Fu, Ed.; Isias, Pedro, Ed.

    2014-01-01

    These proceedings contain the papers of the International Conferences on Educational Technologies (ICEduTech 2014), and Sustainability, Technology and Education (STE 2014). The International Conference on Educational Technologies (ICEduTech 2014) is the scientific conference addressing the real topics as seen by teachers, students, parents and…

  6. Proceedings of the Conference: Communicative Problems in Cleft Palate (Washington, D.C., July 10-12, 1963). American Speech and Hearing Association Reports, Number 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Diane, Ed.

    Introductory material by Jack Matthews points out common interests between the fields of dentistry and communication disorders. Physical aspects of cleft palate are explored in papers concerning anatomy and growth, by Robert F. Hagerty; infant respiratory actions, by James F. Bosma, H.M. Truby, and John Lind; contemporary dental research, by…

  7. Long-term Stability of Soft Tissue Esthetic Outcomes Following Conventional Single Implant Treatment in the Anterior Maxilla: 10-12 Year Results

    PubMed Central

    Rokn, A; Bassir, SH; Rasouli Ghahroudi, AA; Kharazifard, MJ; Manesheof, R

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The present study aimed to evaluate the long-term stability of esthetic outcomes of soft tissue around maxillary anterior single-tooth implants after 10-to-12 years of loading. Methods: Patients who had been treated for single-tooth implants in the anterior maxilla between February 2000 and July 2002 were invited to participate in the study. All implants had been placed according to delayed implant placement and conventional loading protocols without any connective tissue graft or papilla preservation flaps. Pink Esthetic Score (PES) was rated using standardized clinical photographs to assess the esthetic outcomes of the implant treatment at the time of crown placement and at time of follow-up examination which was at least 10 years after the crown placement. Results: A total of 19 patients were included. The mean score of PES was 11.63 (SD 1.61; range 7-14) at baseline. After 10-to-12 years of function, a mean PES score of 11.05 (SD 2.09; range 6–14) was recorded. No significant differences were found in the esthetic outcomes, categorized based on clinically relevant levels, between the baseline and follow-up session (p>0.05). Conclusion: Within limitation of the present study, it can be concluded that the esthetic outcomes of soft tissue around the maxillary anterior single-tooth implants placed using conventional implant placement technique remained stable in the long-term. PMID:27990185

  8. School-Aged Children with Disabilities in U.S. Metropolitan Statistical Areas: 2010. American Community Survey Briefs. ACSBR/10-12

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brault, Matthew W.

    2011-01-01

    The American Community Survey (ACS) captures core concepts of disability that may be useful for understanding the population of children for whom special education services may be necessary. While this measure of disability covers elements of physical and mental impairment, the ACS does not identify children who have been evaluated for or qualify…

  9. Walk-through survey report of the C. F. Hathaway Company, Waterville, Maine, Dover-Foxcroft, Maine, February 10-12, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, L.

    1981-01-01

    An on site visit was made to the C. F. Hathaway Company located in Waterville and Dover-Foxcroft, Maine, for the purpose of determining employee exposure to formaldehyde (50000) during the manufacture of dress shirts. The Waterville facility had about 800 workers, of which about 470 operated sewing machines apparel presses, automated fusing machines, fabric spreaders or cutters. The Dover-Foxcroft facility had about 160 workers who operated sewing machines and apparel presses. Precured finished fabric was received from a textile finishing facility, and cut at the Waterville facility; the Dover-Foxcroft facility received shirt parts from the Waterville facility. Concentrations of formaldehyde at each facility were well below the levels recommended by all agencies for employee safety. The 8 hour time weighted average exposures were equal to or less than 0.21 parts per million. Levels could vary due to changes in temperature, humidity, type of fabric, and volume of work. The potential for low level exposures did exist at each site. Because the apparel press hoods were exhausted through a window of the Waterville site, the formaldehyde concentration could vary widely depending on the number of windows open in the summertime and the prevailing winds. The author recommends that this workforce be considered for possible inclusion in the NIOSH formaldehyde carcinogenesis study.

  10. Adult Education and the Labour Market. European Society for Research on the Education of Adults Seminar Proceedings (Ljubljana, Slovenia, October 10-12, 1993). First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klenovsek, Tanja Vilic, Ed.; Olesen, Henning Salling, Ed.

    This book contains papers, reports, and welcoming speeches from a seminar for European adult education researchers. The following are included: "Background and Thematic Outline for the ESREA (European Society for Research on the Education of Adults) Seminar on Research into Adult Education and the Labor Market" (Olesen); "Welcoming…

  11. Proceedings of the Seminar on the DOD Computer Security Initiative (4th) Held at the National Bureau of Standards, Gaithersburg, Maryland on August 10-12, 1981.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-01

    34 Asbjfrn Smitt, Christian-Rovsing A/S, Ballerup, Denmark E-1 "Computer Security and Control Data’," Terry A. Cureton, Control Data Corporation F-I "SAC...Digital Network Security Methodology" , i.uro Ferdman, The MITRE Corporation q-1 "COS/NFE Overview," Gary Grossman, Digital Technology, I ncorporateL___...H- "WIS Security Strategy," Larry Bernosky, Defense Communications Agency I-I Trusted Computing Tsearch at )ata General Corporation ," Leslie

  12. Experiments investigating the generation and transport of 10--12 MeV, 30-kA, mm-size electron beams with linear inductive voltage adders

    SciTech Connect

    Mazarakis, M.G.; Poukey, J.W.; Maenchen, J.E.

    1997-06-01

    The authors present the design, analysis, and results of the high-brightness electron beam experiments currently under investigation at Sandia National Laboratories. The anticipated beam parameters are the following: 8--12 MeV, 35--50 kA, 30--60 ns FWHM, and 0.5-mm rms beam radius. The accelerators utilized are SABRE and HERMES III. Both are linear inductive voltage adders modified to higher impedance and fitted with magnetically immersed foil less electron diodes. In the strong 20--50 Tesla solenoidal magnetic field of the diode, mm-size electron beams are generated and propagated to a beam stop. The electron beam is field emitted from mm-diameter needle-shaped cathode electrode and is contained in a similar size envelop by the strong magnetic field. These extremely space charge dominated beams provide the opportunity to study beam dynamics and possible instabilities in a unique parameter space. The SABRE experiments are already completed and have produced 30-kA, 1.5-mm FWHM electron beams, while the HERMES-III experiments are on-going.

  13. Proceedings of US-Latin American Workshop on Molecular and Materials Sciences: Theoretical and Computational Aspects Held in Gainesville, Florida on 10-12 March 1993

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-08-09

    Quantum Theory Project Laiv. de Buenos Aires 362 Williamson Hall Dpt. Quimica Inorganica Gainesville, FL 32611-2085 Pabellon 2 - C. Universitaria 1428...Vmnezolano de Invetigaciones Cientificas (MC), Apartado 21827, Caracas 1020-A, Venmeuela and Escuela do Quimica , Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad...density. (*) Qn leave fram Escuela de Quimica , Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Central de Venezuela, Apartado 47102, Caracas 1020-A. Referecets E1] M

  14. The effect of beverages varying in glycaemic load on postprandial glucose responses, appetite and cognition in 10-12-year-old school children.

    PubMed

    Brindal, Emily; Baird, Danielle; Slater, Amy; Danthiir, Vanessa; Wilson, Carlene; Bowen, Jane; Noakes, Manny

    2013-08-28

    Reducing glycaemic index (GI) and glycaemic load (GL) inconsistently improves aspects of cognitive function and appetite in children. Whether altering the GL by lowering carbohydrate relative to protein and fat has a role in these effects is unknown. Therefore, we assessed the differential effects of beverages varying in GL and dairy composition on appetite, energy intake and cognitive function in children. A total of forty children (10–12 years) completed a double-blind, randomised, crossover trial, receiving three isoenergetic drinks (approximately 1100 kJ): a glucose beverage (GI 100, GL 65), a full milk beverage (GI 27, GL 5) and a half milk/glucose beverage (GI 84, GL 35). For 3 h post-consumption, subjective appetite and cognitive performance (speed of processing, memory, attention and perceptual speed) were measured hourly. At completion, each child was provided a buffet-style lunch and energy intake was calculated. Blood glucose was objectively measured using the Continuous Glucose Monitoring System. Blood glucose AUC values were significantly different between the drinks (P,0·001), but did not sustain above the baseline for 3 h for any drink. Mixed modelling revealed no effect of beverage on subjective appetite or energy intake. Participant sex and drink GL significantly interacted for short-term memory (P,0·001). When girls consumed either milk-containing beverage, they recalled 0·7–0·8 more words compared with 0·5 less words after the glucose drink (P#0·014). Altering GL of drinks by reducing carbohydrate and increasing protein did not affect appetite or cognition in children. Girls may demonstrate improved short-term memory after consuming beverages with higher protein and lower GL.

  15. Thermal electron attachment to chlorinated alkenes in the gas phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wnorowski, K.; Wnorowska, J.; Michalczuk, B.; Jówko, A.; Barszczewska, W.

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports the measurements of the rate coefficients and the activation energies of the electron capture processes with various chlorinated alkenes. The electron attachment processes in the mixtures of chlorinated alkenes with carbon dioxide have been investigated using a Pulsed Townsend technique. This study has been performed in the temperature range (298-378) K. The obtained rate coefficients more or less depended on temperature in accordance to Arrhenius equation. The activation energies (Ea's) were determined from the fit to the experimental data points with function ln(k) = ln(A) - Ea/kBT. The rate coefficients at 298 K were equal to 1.0 × 10-10 cm3 s-1, 2.2 × 10-11 cm3 s-1, 1.6 × 10-9 cm3 s-1, 4.4 × 10-8 cm3 s-1, 2.9 × 10-12 cm3 s-1 and 7.3 × 10-12 cm3 s-1 and activation energies were: 0.27 eV, 0.26 eV, 0.25 eV, 0.21 eV, 0.55 eV and 0.42 eV, for trans-1,2-dichloroethylene, cis-1,2-dichloroethylene, trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, 2-chloropropene, 3-chloropropene respectively.

  16. OH-initiated heterogeneous oxidation of tris-2-butoxyethyl phosphate: implications for its fate in the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.; Huang, L.; Li, S.-M.; Harner, T.; Liggio, J.

    2014-11-01

    A particle-phase relative rates technique is used to investigate the heterogeneous reaction between OH radicals and tris-2-butoxyethyl phosphate (TBEP) at 298 K by combining aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometry (C-ToF-MS) data and positive matrix factor (PMF) analysis. The derived second-order rate constants (k2) for the heterogeneous loss of TBEP is (4.44 ± 0.45) × 10-12 cm3 molecule-1 s-1, from which an approximate particle-phase lifetime was estimated to be 2.6 (2.3-2.9) days. However, large differences in the rate constants for TBEP relative to a reference compound were observed when comparing internally and externally mixed TBEP/organic particles, and upon changes in the RH. The heterogeneous degradation of TBEP was found to be depressed or enhanced depending upon the particle mixing state and phase, highlighting the complexity of heterogeneous oxidation in the atmosphere. The effect of gas-particle partitioning on the estimated overall lifetime (gas + particle) for several organophosphate esters (OPEs) was also examined through the explicit modeling of this process. The overall atmospheric lifetimes of TBEP, tris-2-ethylhexyl phosphate (TEHP) and tris-1,3-dichloro-2-propyl phosphate (TDCPP) were estimated to be 1.9, 1.9 and 2.4 days respectively, and are highly dependent upon particle size. These results demonstrate that modeling the atmospheric fate of particle-phase toxic compounds for the purpose of risk assessment must include the gas-particle partitioning process, and in the future include the effect of other particulate components on the evaporation kinetics and/or the heterogeneous loss rates.

  17. OH initiated heterogeneous oxidation of tris-2-butoxyethyl phosphate: implications for its fate in the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.; Huang, L.; Li, S.-M.; Harner, T.; Liggio, J.

    2014-07-01

    A particle-phase relative rates technique is used to investigate the heterogeneous reaction between OH radicals and tris-2-butoxyethyl phosphate (TBEP) at 298 K by combining Aerosol Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (C-ToF-MS) data and Positive Matrix Factor (PMF) analysis. The derived second-order rate constants (k2) for the heterogeneous loss of TBEP is (4.44 ± 0.45) × 10-12 cm3 molecule-1 s-1, from which an approximate particle-phase lifetime was estimated to be 2.6 (2.2-2.9) days. However, large differences in the relative rate constants for TBEP to a reference compound were observed when comparing internally and externally mixed TBEP/organic particles, and upon changes in the RH. The heterogeneous degradation of TBEP was found to be depressed or enhanced depending upon the particle mixing state and phase, highlighting the complexity of heterogeneous oxidation in the atmosphere. The effect of gas-particle partitioning on the estimated overall lifetime (gas + particle) for several organophosphate esters (OPEs) was also examined through the explicit modeling of this process. The overall atmospheric lifetimes of TBEP, tris-2-ethylhexyl phosphate (TEHP) and tris-1,3-dichloro-2-propyl phosphate (TDCPP) were estimated to be 1.9, 1.9 and 2.4 days respectively, and are highly dependent upon particle size. These results demonstrate that modeling the atmospheric fate of particle phase toxic compounds for the purpose of risk assessment must include the gas-particle partitioning process, and in future include the effect of other PM components on the evaporation kinetics and/or the heterogeneous loss rates.

  18. Nighttime atmospheric chemistry of iodine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saiz-Lopez, Alfonso; Plane, John M. C.; Cuevas, Carlos A.; Mahajan, Anoop S.; Lamarque, Jean-François; Kinnison, Douglas E.

    2016-12-01

    Little attention has so far been paid to the nighttime atmospheric chemistry of iodine species. Current atmospheric models predict a buildup of HOI and I2 during the night that leads to a spike of IO at sunrise, which is not observed by measurements. In this work, electronic structure calculations are used to survey possible reactions that HOI and I2 could undergo at night in the lower troposphere, and hence reduce their nighttime accumulation. The new reaction NO3+ HOI → IO + HNO3 is proposed, with a rate coefficient calculated from statistical rate theory over the temperature range 260-300 K and at a pressure of 1000 hPa to be k(T) = 2.7 × 10-12 (300 K/T)2.66 cm3 molecule-1 s-1. This reaction is included in two atmospheric models, along with the known reaction between I2 and NO3, to explore a new nocturnal iodine radical activation mechanism. The results show that this iodine scheme leads to a considerable reduction of nighttime HOI and I2, which results in the enhancement of more than 25 % of nighttime ocean emissions of HOI + I2 and the removal of the anomalous spike of IO at sunrise. We suggest that active nighttime iodine can also have a considerable, so far unrecognized, impact on the reduction of the NO3 radical levels in the marine boundary layer (MBL) and hence upon the nocturnal oxidizing capacity of the marine atmosphere. The effect of this is exemplified by the indirect effect on dimethyl sulfide (DMS) oxidation.

  19. Does acetone react with HO2 in the upper-troposphere?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dillon, T. J.; Pozzer, A.; Crowley, J. N.; Lelieveld, J.

    2010-07-01

    Recent theoretical calculations showed that reaction of HO2 with acetone (CH3C(O)CH3) could be a potentially important sink for acetone and source for acetic acid in cold parts of the atmosphere (e.g. the tropopause region). The reaction HO2+CH3C(O)CH3⇌(CH3)2C(OH)OO (R1, R-1) was therefore studied experimentally at low-temperatures for the first time. HO2 was generated by pulsed laser photolysis, and converted by reaction with NO to OH for detection by laser induced fluorescence. Reduced yields of OH at T<220 K provided evidence for stabilisation of (CH3)2C(OH)OO at such temperatures. In contrast, no evidence for (R1) was observed at T>230 K, probably due to rapid thermal dissociation of the peroxy radical product back to reactants (R-1). The experimental data indicate that the rate coefficient for the forward reaction, k1(207 K), is larger than 1.6×10-12 cm3 molecule-1 s-1, in line with recent quantum mechanical calculations. In contrast, an upper limit for the equilibrium constant K1(T)=k1(T)/k-1(T) of 7.8×1028exp(50.6 kJ mol-1/RT) was obtained, considerably smaller than calculated from theory. Incorporation of these results into a global 3-D chemical model demonstrated that (R1) is neither a significant loss process for CH3C(O)CH3 nor a significant source of acetic acid in the atmosphere.

  20. Kinetics of the photolysis and OH reaction of 4-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-pentanone: Atmospheric implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aslan, L.; Laversin, H.; Coddeville, P.; Fittschen, C.; Roth, E.; Tomas, A.; Chakir, A.

    2017-02-01

    This study provides the first kinetic and mechanistic study of the photolysis of 4-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-pentanone (4H4M2P) and the determination of the temperature dependence of the relative rate coefficient for the reaction of OH radicals with 4H4M2P. The UV absorption spectrum of 4H4M2P was determined in the spectral range 200-360 nm. The photolysis frequency of this compound in the atmosphere was evaluated relative to actinometers and found to be J4 H 4M 2 P atm = 4.2 ×10-3h-1 , corresponding to a lifetime of about 10 days. Using 4H4M2P cross section measurements, an atmospheric effective quantum yield of 0.15 was calculated. The main primary photolysis products were acetone (121 ± 4) % and formaldehyde (20 ± 1) %. A low methanol yield of (3.0 ± 0.3) % was also determined. These results enabled us to propose a mechanistic scheme for the photolysis. Rate coefficients for the reaction of 4H4M2P with OH radicals were determined over the temperature range 298-354 K and the following Arrhenius expression was obtained: kOH+4M4H2P = (1.12 ± 0.40) × 10-12exp(461.5 ± 60/T) cm3 molecule-1 s-1. The lifetimes of 4H4M2P due to reaction with OH radicals has been estimated to ∼2.5 days and indicates that the gas-phase reaction with the OH could be the main loss process for this compound.

  1. Reactivity of OH and CH3OH Between 22 and 64 K: Modelling the Gas Phase Production of CH3O in Barnard 1B.

    PubMed

    Antiñolo, M; Agúndez, M; Jiménez, E; Ballesteros, B; Canosa, A; Dib, G El; Albaladejo, J; Cernicharo, J

    2016-05-20

    In the last years, ultra-low temperature chemical kinetic experiments have demonstrated that some gas-phase reactions are much faster than previously thought. One example is the reaction between OH and CH3OH, which has been recently found to be accelerated at low temperatures yielding CH3O as main product. This finding opened the question of whether the CH3O observed in the dense core Barnard 1b could be formed by the gas-phase reaction of CH3OH and OH. Several chemical models including this reaction and grain-surface processes have been developed to explain the observed abundance of CH3O with little success. Here we report for the first time rate coefficients for the gas-phase reaction of OH and CH3OH down to a temperature of 22 K, very close to those in cold interstellar clouds. Two independent experimental set-ups based on the supersonic gas expansion technique coupled to the pulsed laser photolysis-laser induced fluorescence technique were used to determine rate coefficients in the temperature range 22-64 K. The temperature dependence obtained in this work can be expressed as k(22-64 K) = (3.6 ± 0.1) × 10(-12)(T/300 K)(-(1.0±0.2)) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1). Implementing this expression in a chemical model of a cold dense cloud results in CH3O/CH3OH abundance ratios similar or slightly lower than the value of ∼ 3 × 10(-3) observed in Barnard 1b. This finding confirms that the gas-phase reaction between OH and CH3OH is an important contributor to the formation of interstellar CH3O. The role of grain-surface processes in the formation of CH3O, although it cannot be fully neglected, remains controversial.

  2. The reaction OH + C2H4: an example of rotational channel switching.

    PubMed

    Golden, David M

    2012-05-03

    The low-temperature data for the reaction between OH and C(2)H(4) is treated canonically as either a two-well or one-well problem using the "Multiwell" suite of codes, in which a "well" refers to a minimum in the potential energy surface. The former is analogous to the two transition state model of Greenwald et al. [Greenwald, E. E.; North, S. W.; Georgievskii, Y.; Klippenstein, S. J. J. Phys. Chem. A2005, 109, 6031], while the latter reflects the dominance of the so-called "inner transition state". External rotations are treated adiabatically, causing changes in the magnitude of effective barriers as a function of temperature. Extant data are well-described with either model using only the average energy transferred in a downward direction, upon collision, ΔE(d)(T), as a fitting parameter. The best value for the parameters describing the rate coefficient as a function of temperature (200 < T/K < 400) (Data at lower temperature is too sparse to yield a recommendation.) and pressure in the form used in the NASA/JPL format [Sander, S. P.; Abbatt, J.; Barker, J. R.; Burkholder, J. B.; Friedl, R. R.; Golden, D. M.; Huie, R. E.; Kolb, C. E.; Kurylo, M. J.; Moortgat, G. K et al., Chemical Kinetics and Photochemical Data for Use in Atmospheric Studies, Evaluation Number 17, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 2011] are k(0) = 1.0 × 10(-28)(T/300)(-3.5) cm(6) molecule(-2) s(-1) and k(∞) to 8.0 × 10(-12)(T/300)(-2.3) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1).

  3. Atmospheric reactions of (H)- and (D)-fluoroalcohols with chlorine atoms.

    PubMed

    Garzón, Andrés; Moral, Mónica; Notario, Alberto; Ceacero-Vega, Antonio A; Fernández-Gómez, Manuel; Albaladejo, José

    2010-02-01

    The reactions of Cl with a series of fluoroalcohols and deuterated fluoroalcohols, CF(3)CH(2)OH (k(4)), CF(3)CH(OH)CH(3) (k(5)), CF(3)CH(OH)CF(3) (k(6)), CF(3)CH(OD)CF(3) (k(7)) and CF(3)CD(OD)CF(3) (k(8)), are investigated as a function of temperature in the range of 268-378 K by laser photolysis-resonance fluorescence. To our knowledge, only the CF(3)CH(2)OH + Cl reaction has been previously studied from a kinetic point of view. The derived Arrhenius expressions obtained using our kinetic data are: k(4) = (1.79+/-0.17) x 10(-13) exp[(410+/-26)/T], k(5) = (1.20+/-0.11) x 10(-12) exp[(394+/-14)/T], k(6) = (2.32+/-0.18) x 10(-13) exp[-(740+/-12)/T], k(7) = (6.45+/-1.87) x 10(-13) exp[-(1136+/-94)/T] and k(8) = (4.19+/-1.09) x 10(-13) exp[-(1378+/-81)/T] (in units of cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) and where errors are +/-sigma). Moreover, a theoretical insight into the mechanisms of these reactions is pursued through ab initio Möller-Plesset second-order perturbation treatment calculations with the 6-311G** basis set. Optimized geometries are obtained for reagents, transition states and molecular complexes appearing along the different reaction pathways. Furthermore, molecular energies are calculated at the quadratic configuration interaction with single, double and triple excitations [QCISD(T)] level to obtain an estimation of the activation energies. Finally, the rate constants are calculated through transition-state theory using Wigner's transmission coefficient in order to include the tunnelling-effect corrections.

  4. Kinetics of the reactions of OH radicals with n-butyl, isobutyl, n-pentyl and 3-methyl-1-butyl nitrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedjanian, Yuri; Morin, Julien; Romanias, Manolis N.

    2017-04-01

    The kinetics of the reactions of n-butyl (BTN), isobutyl (IBN), n-pentyl (PTN) and 3-methyl-1-butyl (3M1BN) nitrates with OH radicals has been studied using a low pressure flow tube reactor combined with a quadrupole mass spectrometer. The rate constants of the title reactions were determined under pseudo-first order conditions from kinetics of OH consumption in high excess of the nitrates. The overall rate coefficients, kBTN = 1.0 × 10-13 (T/298)3.36 exp(838/T) (T = 288-500 K), kIBN = 2.8 × 10-14 (T/298)4.09 exp(1127/T) (T = 283-500 K), kPTN = 1.26 × 10-12 (T/298)4.56 exp(45/T) (T = 298-496 K) and k3M1BN = 8.47×10-14 (T/298)3.52 exp(1069/T) cm3molecule-1s-1 (T = 288-538 K) (with conservative 15% uncertainty), were determined at a total pressure of 1 Torr of helium. The yields of the carbonyl compounds, n-butanal (n-C3H7CHO) and isobutanal ((CH3)2CHCHO), resulting from the abstraction by OH of an α-hydrogen atom in n-butyl and isobutyl nitrates, followed by α-substituted alkyl radical decomposition, were determined at T = 300 K to be 0.10 ± 0.02 and 0.15 ± 0.03, respectively. The calculated tropospheric lifetimes of BTN, IBN, PTN and 3M1BN indicate that reaction of these nitrates with OH represents an important sink of these compounds in the atmosphere.

  5. α-Terpineol reactions with the nitrate radical: Rate constant and gas-phase products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Brian T.; Ham, Jason E.

    The bimolecular rate constant of k rad +α-terpineol (16 ± 4) × 10 -12 cm 3 molecule -1 s -1 was measured using the relative rate technique for the reaction of the nitrate radical (NO 3rad ) with α-terpineol (2-(4-methyl-1-cyclohex-3-enyl)propan-2-ol) at 297 ± 3 K and 1 atmosphere total pressure. To more clearly define part of α-terpineol's indoor environment degradation mechanism, the products of α-terpineol + NO 3rad reaction were investigated. The identified reaction products were: acetone, glyoxal (HC( dbnd O)C( dbnd O)H), and methylglyoxal (CH 3C( dbnd O)C( dbnd O)H). The use of derivatizing agents O-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl)hydroxylamine (PFBHA) and N, O-bis(trimethylsilyl) trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA) were used to propose the other major reaction products: 6-hydroxyhept-5-en-2-one, 4-(1-hydroxy-1-methylethyl)-1-methyl-2-oxocyclohexyl nitrate, 5-(1-hydroxy-1-methylethyl)-2-oxocyclohexyl nitrate, 1-formyl-5-hydroxy-4-(hydroxymethyl)-1,5-dimethylhexyl nitrate, and 1,4-diformyl-5-hydroxy-1,5-dimethylhexyl nitrate. The elucidation of these products was facilitated by mass spectrometry of the derivatized reaction products coupled with plausible α-terpineol + NO 3rad reaction mechanisms based on previously published volatile organic compound + NO 3rad gas-phase mechanisms. The additional gas-phase products (2,6,6-trimethyltetrahydro-2 H-pyran-2,5-dicarbaldehyde and 2,2-dimethylcyclohexane-1,4-dicarbaldehyde) are proposed to be the result of cyclization through a reaction intermediate.

  6. Kinetic studies of the reactions of O2(b 1sigma(g)+) with several atmospheric molecules.

    PubMed

    Dunlea, Edward J; Talukdar, Ranajit K; Ravishankara, A R

    2005-05-05

    Thermal rate coefficients for the removal (reaction + quenching) of O2(1sigma(g)+) by collision with several atmospheric molecules were determined to be as follows: O3, k3(210-370 K) = (3.63 +/- 0.86) x 10(-11) exp((-115 +/- 66)/T); H2O, k4(250-370 K) = (4.52 +/- 2.14) x 10(-12) exp((89 +/- 210)/T); N2, k5(210-370 K) = (2.03 +/- 0.30) x 10(-15) exp((37 +/- 40)/T); CO2, k6(298 K) = (3.39 +/- 0.36) x 10(-13); CH4, k7(298 K) = (1.08 +/- 0.11) x 10(-13); CO, k8(298 K) = (3.74 +/- 0.87) x 10(-15); all units in cm3 molecule(-1) s(-1). O2(1sigma(g)+) was produced by directly exciting ground-state O2(3sigma(g)-) with a 762 nm pulsed dye laser. The reaction of O2(1sigma(g)+) with O3 was used to produce O(3P), and temporal profiles of O(3P) were measured using VUV atomic resonance fluorescence in the presence of the reactant to determine the rate coefficients for removal of O2(1sigma(g)+). Our results are compared with previous values, where available, and the overall trend in the O2(1sigma(g)+) removal rate coefficients and the atmospheric implications of these rate coefficients are discussed. Additionally, an upper limit for the branching ratio of O2(1sigma(g)+) + CO to give O(3P) + CO2 was determined to be < or = 0.2% and this reaction channel is shown to be of negligible importance in the atmosphere.

  7. Temperature dependence and kinetic isotope effects for the OH + HBr reaction and H/D isotopic variants at low temperatures (53-135 K) measured using a pulsed supersonic Laval nozzle flow reactor.

    PubMed

    Mullen, Christopher; Smith, Mark A

    2005-05-05

    The reactions of OH + HBr and all isotopic variants have been measured in a pulsed supersonic Laval nozzle flow reactor between 53 and 135 K, using a pulsed DC discharge to create the radical species and laser induced fluorescence on the A 2sigma <-- X 2pi (v' = 1 <-- v'' = 0) transition. All reactions are found to possess an inverse temperature dependence, in accord with previous work, and are fit to the form k = A(T/298)(-n), with k1 (OH + HBr) = (10.84 +/- 0.31) x 10(-12) (T/298)(-0.67+/-0.02) cm3/s, k2 (OD + HBr) = (6.43 +/- 2.60) x 10(-12) (T/298)(-1.19+/-0.26) cm3/s, k3 (OH + DBr) = (5.89 +/- 1.93) x 10(-12) (T/298)(-0.76+/-0.22) cm3/s, and k4 (OD + DBr) = (4.71 +/- 1.56) x 10(-12) (T/298)(-1.09+/-0.21) cm3/s. A global fit of k vs T over the temperature range 23-360 K, including the new OH + HBr data, yields kT = (1.06 +/- 0.02) x 10(-11) (T/298)(-0.90+/-0.11) cm3/s, and (0.96 +/- 0.02) x 10(-11) (T/298)(-0.90+/-0.03) exp((-2.88+/-1.82 K)/T) cm3/s, in accord with previous fits. In addition, the primary and secondary kinetic isotope effects are found to be independent of temperature within experimental error over the range investigated and take on the value of (kH/kD)(AVG) = 1.64 for the primary effect and (kH/kD)(AVG) = 0.87 for the secondary effect. These results are discussed within the context of current experimental and theoretical work.

  8. Expression and polarization of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 on human intestinal epithelia: consequences for CD11b/CD18-mediated interactions with neutrophils.

    PubMed Central

    Parkos, C. A.; Colgan, S. P.; Diamond, M. S.; Nusrat, A.; Liang, T. W.; Springer, T. A.; Madara, J. L.

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Epithelial dysfunction and patient symptoms in inflammatory intestinal diseases such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease correlate with migration of neutrophils (PMN) across the intestinal epithelium. In vitro modeling of PMN transepithelial migration has revealed distinct differences from transendothelial migration. By using polarized monolayers of human intestinal epithelia (T84), PMN transepithelial migration has been shown to be dependent on the leukocyte integrin CD11b/CD18 (Mac-1), but not on CD11a/CD18 (LFA-1). Since intercellular adhesion molecule-I (ICAM-1) is an important endothelial counterreceptor for these integrins, its expression in intestinal epithelia and role in PMN-intestinal epithelial interactions was investigated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A panel of antibodies against different domains of ICAM-1, polarized monolayers of human intestinal epithelia (T84), and natural human colonic epithelia were used to examine the polarity of epithelial ICAM-1 surface expression and the functional role of ICAM-1 in neutrophil-intestinal epithelial adhesive interactions. RESULTS: While no surface expression of ICAM-1 was detected on unstimulated T84 cells, interferon-gamma (IFN gamma) elicited a marked expression of ICAM-1 that selectively polarized to the apical epithelial membrane. Similarly, apically restricted surface expression of ICAM-1 was detected in natural human colonic epithelium only in association with active inflammation. With or without IFN gamma pre-exposure, physiologically directed (basolateral-to-apical) transepithelial migration of PMN was unaffected by blocking monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to ICAM-1. In contrast, PMN migration across IFN gamma-stimulated monolayers in the reverse (apical-to-basolateral) direction was inhibited by anti-ICAM-1 antibodies. Adhesion studies revealed that T84 cells adhered selectively to purified CD11b/CD18 and such adherence, with or without IFN gamma pre-exposure, was unaffected by ICAM-1 mAb. Similarly, freshly isolated epithelial cells from inflamed human intestine bound to CD11b/CD18 in an ICAM-1-independent fashion. CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that ICAM-1 is strictly polarized in intestinal epithelia and does not represent a counterreceptor for neutrophil CD11b/CD18 during physiologically directed transmigration, but may facilitate apical membrane-PMN interactions after the arrival of PMN in the intestinal lumen. Images FIG. 3 FIG. 4 PMID:8827719

  9. Absence of Platelet Endothelial Cell Adhesion Molecule 1, PECAM-1/CD31, In Vivo Increases Resistance to Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lovelace, Michael D.; Yap, May Lin; Yip, Jana; Muller, William; Wijburg, Odilia

    2013-01-01

    PECAM-1/CD31 is known to regulate inflammatory responses and exhibit pro- and anti-inflammatory functions. This study was designed to determine the functional role of PECAM-1 in susceptibility to murine primary in vivo infection with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and in in vitro inflammatory responses of peritoneal macrophages. Lectin profiling showed that cellular PECAM-1 and recombinant human PECAM-1-Ig chimera contain high levels of mannose sugars and N-acetylglucosamine. Consistent with this carbohydrate pattern, both recombinant human and murine PECAM-1-Ig chimeras were shown to bind S. Typhimurium in a dose-dependent manner in vitro. Using oral and fecal-oral transmission models of S. Typhimurium SL1344 infection, PECAM-1−/− mice were found to be more resistant to S. Typhimurium infection than wild-type (WT) C57BL/6 mice. While fecal shedding of S. Typhimurium was comparable in wild-type and PECAM-1−/− mice, the PECAM-1-deficient mice had lower bacterial loads in systemic organs such as liver, spleen, and mesenteric lymph nodes than WT mice, suggesting that extraintestinal dissemination was reduced in the absence of PECAM-1. This reduced bacterial load correlated with reduced tumor necrosis factor (TNF), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP) levels in sera of PECAM-1−/− mice. Following in vitro stimulation of macrophages with either whole S. Typhimurium, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (Toll-like receptor 4 [TLR4] ligand), or poly(I·C) (TLR3 ligand), production of TNF and IL-6 by PECAM-1−/− macrophages was reduced. Together, these results suggest that PECAM-1 may have multiple functions in resistance to infection with S. Typhimurium, including binding to host cells, extraintestinal spread to deeper tissues, and regulation of inflammatory cytokine production by infected macrophages. PMID:23509149

  10. Expression of kidney injury molecule-1 (Kim-1) in relation to necrosis and apoptosis during the early stages of Cd-induced proximal tubule injury

    PubMed Central

    Prozialeck, Walter C.; Edwards, Joshua R.; Lamar, Peter C.; Liu, Jie; Vaidya, Vishal S.; Bonventre, Joseph V.

    2009-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a nephrotoxic industrial and environmental pollutant that causes a generalized dysfunction of the proximal tubule. Kim-1 is a transmembrane glycoprotein that is normally not detectable in non-injured kidney, but is up-regulated and shed into the urine during the early stages of Cd-induced proximal tubule injury. The objective of the present study was to examine the relationship between the Cd-induced increase in Kim-1 expression and the onset of necrotic and apoptotic cell death in the proximal tubule. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with 0.6 mg (5.36 μmoles) Cd/kg, subcutaneously, 5 days per week for up to 12 weeks. Urine samples were analyzed for levels of Kim-1 and the enzymatic markers of cell death, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and alpha-glutathione-S-transferase (α-GST). In addition, necrotic cells were specifically labeled by perfusing the kidneys in situ with ethidium homodimer using a procedure that has been recently developed and validated in the Prozialeck laboratory. Cryosections of the kidneys were also processed for the immunofluorescent visualization of Kim-1 and the identification of apoptotic cells by TUNEL labeling. Results showed that significant levels of Kim-1 began to appear in the urine after 6 weeks of Cd treatment, whereas the levels of total protein, α-GST and LDH were not increased until 8–12 weeks. Results of immunofluorescence labeling studies showed that after 6 weeks and 12 weeks, Kim-1 was expressed in the epithelial cells of the proximal tubule, but that there was no increase in the number of necrotic cells, and only a modest increase in the number of apoptotic cells at 12 weeks. These results indicate that the Cd-induced increase in Kim-1 expression occurs before the onset of necrosis and at a point where there is only a modest level of apoptosis in the proximal tubule. PMID:19371613

  11. Combined Treatment with Amlodipine and Atorvastatin Calcium Reduces Circulating Levels of Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 and Tumor Necrosis Factor-α in Hypertensive Patients with Prediabetes

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Zhouqing; Chen, Chen; Li, Sheng; Kong, Fanqi; Shan, Peiren; Huang, Weijian

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effect of amlodipine and atorvastatin on intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α expression, as endothelial function and inflammation indicators, respectively, in hypertensive patients with and without prediabetes. Methods: Forty-five consecutive patients with hypertension, diagnosed according to JNC7, were divided into two groups based on the presence (HD group, n = 23) or absence (H group, n = 22) of prediabetes, diagnosed according to 2010 ADA criteria, including impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and fasting glucose tests. All patients simultaneously underwent 12-week treatment with daily single-pill amlodipine besylate/atorvastatin calcium combination (5/10 mg; Hisun-Pfizer Pharmaceuticals Co. Ltd). Serum isolated before and after treatment from overnight fasting blood samples was analyzed by ELISA. Results: In the HD and H groups after vs. before 12-week amlodipine/atorvastatin treatment, there were significantly (all P < 0.01) lower levels of ICAM-1 (3.06 ± 0.34 vs. 4.07 ± 0.70 pg/ml; 3.26 ± 0.32 vs. 3.81 ± 0.60 pg/ml, respectively) and TNF-α (78.71 ± 9.19 vs. 110.94 ± 10.71 pg/ml; 80.95 ± 9.33 vs. 101.79 ± 11.72 pg/ml, respectively), with more pronounced reductions in HD vs. H group (ICAM-1Δ: 1.01 ± 0.80 vs. 0.55 ± 0.64 pg/ml, respectively, P = 0.037; TNF-αΔ: 32.23 ± 14.33 vs. 20.84 ± 14.89 pg/ml, respectively, P = 0.011), independent of the blood pressure (BP) and cholesterol level reduction. Conclusions: Amlodipine/atorvastatin improved endothelial function and inflammation, as reflected by lower circulating levels of ICAM-1 and TNF-α, more prominently in hypertensives with than without prediabetes. Starting statin treatment before overt diabetes in hypertensives might thus improve cardiovascular outcomes. PMID:27610083

  12. Triamcinolone acetonide modulates permeability and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression of the ECV304 cell line: implications for macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Penfold, P L; Wen, L; Madigan, M C; Gillies, M C; King, N J; Provis, J M

    2000-09-01

    Whilst animal studies and a pilot clinical trial suggest that intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide (TA) may be useful in the treatment of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), its mode of action remains to be fully elucidated. The present study has investigated the capacity of TA to modulate the expression of adhesion molecules and permeability using a human epithelial cell line (ECV304) as a model of the outer blood-retinal barrier (BRB). The influence of TA on the expression of ICAM-1 and MHC-I was studied on resting and phorbol myristate acetate (PMA)- or interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma)- and/or tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha)-activated cells using flow cytometry and immunocytochemistry. Additionally, ECV304 cells were grown to confluence in uncoated Transwell chambers; transepithelial resistance (TER) across resting and PMA-activated cells was monitored. TA significantly decreased the paracellular permeability of ECV304 cells and down-regulated ICAM-1 expression, consistent with immunocytochemical observations. PMA-induced permeability changes were dose-dependent and TA decreased permeability of both resting and PMA-activated monolayers. MHC-I expression by ECV304 cells however, was not significantly affected by TA treatment. The modulation of TER and ICAM-1 expression in vitro correlate with clinical observations, suggesting re-establishment of the BRB and down-regulation of inflammatory markers are the principal effects of intravitreal TA in vivo. The results further indicate that TA has the potential to influence cellular permeability, including the barrier function of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) in AMD-affected retinae.

  13. Effects of anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha and anti-intercellular adhesion molecule-1 antibodies on ischemia/reperfusion lung injury.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Chi-Huei

    2006-10-31

    Inhibition of neutrophil activation and adherence to endothelium by antibodies to tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and intercellular adhesion molecules (ICAM-1), respectively, might attenuate ischemia-reperfusion injury (I/R). I/R was conducted in an isolated rat lung model. Anti-TNF-alpha antibody and/or anti-ICAM-1 antibody were added before ischemia or after reperfusion. Hemodynamic changes, lung weight gain (LWG), capillary filtration coefficients (Kfc), and pathologic changes were assessed to evaluate the severity of I/R. The LWG, Kfc, pathological changes and lung injury score of treatment groups with anti-TNF-alpha antibody treatment, either pre-ischemia or during reperfusion, were less than those observed in control groups. Similar findings were found in group treated with anti-ICAM-1 antibody or combination therapy during reperfusion. In contrast, pre-I/R treatment with anti-ICAM-1 antibody induced severe lung edema and failure to complete the experimental procedure. No additional therapeutic effect was found in combination therapy. We conclude that TNF-alpha and ICAM-1 play important roles in I/R. Anti-TNF-alpha antibody has therapeutic and preventive effects on I/R. However, combined therapy with anti-TNF-alpha antibody and anti-ICAM-1 antibody may have no additive effect and need further investigation.

  14. Ligand-induced adhesion to activated endothelium and to vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 in lymphocytes transfected with the N-formyl peptide receptor.

    PubMed

    Honda, S; Campbell, J J; Andrew, D P; Engelhardt, B; Butcher, B A; Warnock, R A; Ye, R D; Butcher, E C

    1994-04-15

    Binding of FMLP to the neutrophil N-formyl peptide receptor (FPR) transmits signals through pertussis toxin-sensitive G proteins triggering Ca2+ flux, superoxide production, granule exocytosis, and neutrophil aggregation and adhesion involving the beta 2 (CD18) integrins. Expression of the FPR in mouse fibroblasts or human kidney cells has been shown to confer an N-formyl peptide-inducible Ca2+ flux in transfectants. Here we demonstrate that the transfected receptor can also support ligand-induced alterations in cellular adhesion. We established stable transfectants of mouse L1-2 pre-B cells with cDNA for human FPR (L1-2 FPR cells). The transfectants bind N-formyl-Nle-Leu-Phe-Nle-Tyr-Lys-fluorescein with 1.4 x 10(5) sites per cell and a dissociation constant of 3.3 nM. Stimulation with FMLP induces a transient Ca2+ flux. FMLP also triggers adhesion of L1-2 FPR cells to TNF-alpha- or LPS-activated bEnd3 cells (mouse brain-derived endothelial cells) and to purified mouse VCAM-1. Binding is inhibited by Abs to VCAM-1 and to the alpha-chain of its lymphocyte receptor (the alpha 4 beta 1 integrin, VLA-4). Stimulation with FMLP does not induce a change in cell surface expression of alpha 4. Induced adhesion to VCAM-1 is rapid, detectable at the earliest times measurable (30 to 60 s after FMLP addition), and is inhibited by pertussis toxin. We conclude that FPR can mediate integrin activation not only in neutrophils but also in lymphocytes, and can trigger rapid adhesion via lymphocyte alpha 4 beta 1. The adhesion of lymphocytes is critical to their migration and targeting; our results suggest the possibility of manipulating adhesive responses through expression of chemoattractant receptors in lymphoid cells engineered for cellular therapy, allowing targeted adhesion and potentially migration in response to locally administered ligands.

  15. Leu125Val polymorphism of platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 is associated with atherosclerotic cerebral infarction in Chinese Han population.

    PubMed

    Song, Yanmin; Zhao, Ranran; Long, Lili; Zhang, Ning; Liu, Yunhai

    2014-01-01

    A total of 142 Atherosclerotic cerebral infarction (ACI) patients and 116 controls were enrolled in our study. The Leu125Val polymorphism of PECAM-1 was genotyped using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method. The plasma sPECAM-1 level was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. We found a statistically significant difference in Leu125Val genotypic distribution between cases and controls (P < 0.05). The frequencies of the Val allele between ACI group and controls were significantly different (P < 0.05). Logistic regression analysis showed that the genotype Val/Val was associated with increased ACI risk (OR = 2.355, 95% CI = 1.153-4.809, P = 0.019). In both the ACI group and the control group, the plasma PECAM-1 levels of carriers of the Val/Val genotype were higher than those carrying Leu/Leu and Leu/Val genotypes. The plasma sPECAM-1 level is associated with ACI. Our study showed that Leu125Val polymorphism of PECAM-1 may be associated with ACI risk. Carrying the Val/Val genotype showed increased risk for ACI. The Leu125Val polymorphism of PECAM-1 may be associated with the plasma sPECAM-1 level, which is associated with Chinese ACI also. In conclusions, The Leu125Val polymorphism of the PECAM-1 gene is likely to be related to ACI, and the Val/Val genotype may be an independent risk factor for ACI. The plasma sPECAM-1 level may be associated with ACI risk.

  16. Neisserial outer membrane vesicles bind the coinhibitory receptor carcinoembryonic antigen-related cellular adhesion molecule 1 and suppress CD4+ T lymphocyte function.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hannah S W; Boulton, Ian C; Reddin, Karen; Wong, Henry; Halliwell, Denise; Mandelboim, Ofer; Gorringe, Andrew R; Gray-Owen, Scott D

    2007-09-01

    Pathogenic Neisseria bacteria naturally liberate outer membrane "blebs," which are presumed to contribute to pathology, and the detergent-extracted outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) from Neisseria meningitidis are currently employed as meningococcal vaccines in humans. While the composition of these vesicles reflects the bacteria from which they are derived, the functions of many of their constituent proteins remain unexplored. The neisserial colony opacity-associated Opa proteins function as adhesins, the majority of which mediate bacterial attachment to human carcinoembryonic antigen-related cellular adhesion molecules (CEACAMs). Herein, we demonstrate that the Opa proteins within OMV preparations retain the capacity to bind the immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif-containing coinhibitory receptor CEACAM1. When CD4(+) T lymphocytes were exposed to OMVs from Opa-expressing bacteria, their activation and proliferation in response to a variety of stimuli were effectively halted. This potent immunosuppressive effect suggests that localized infection will generate a "zone of inhibition" resulting from the diffusion of membrane blebs into the surrounding tissues. Moreover, it demonstrates that OMV-based vaccines must be developed from strains that lack CEACAM1-binding Opa variants.

  17. BLOOD LEUKOCYTE EXPRESSION OF LFA-1 AND INTRACELLULAR ADHESION MOLECULE-1 (ICAM-1) AFTER INHALATION OF ULTRAFINE CARBON PARTICLES. (R827354C003)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  18. Expression of kidney injury molecule-1 (Kim-1) in relation to necrosis and apoptosis during the early stages of Cd-induced proximal tubule injury

    SciTech Connect

    Prozialeck, Walter C. Edwards, Joshua R.; Lamar, Peter C.; Liu, Jie; Vaidya, Vishal S.; Bonventre, Joseph V.

    2009-08-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a nephrotoxic industrial and environmental pollutant that causes a generalized dysfunction of the proximal tubule. Kim-1 is a transmembrane glycoprotein that is normally not detectable in non-injured kidney, but is up-regulated and shed into the urine during the early stages of Cd-induced proximal tubule injury. The objective of the present study was to examine the relationship between the Cd-induced increase in Kim-1 expression and the onset of necrotic and apoptotic cell death in the proximal tubule. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with 0.6 mg (5.36 {mu}mol) Cd/kg, subcutaneously, 5 days per week for up to 12 weeks. Urine samples were analyzed for levels of Kim-1 and the enzymatic markers of cell death, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and alpha-glutathione-S-transferase ({alpha}-GST). In addition, necrotic cells were specifically labeled by perfusing the kidneys in situ with ethidium homodimer using a procedure that has been recently developed and validated in the Prozialeck laboratory. Cryosections of the kidneys were also processed for the immunofluorescent visualization of Kim-1 and the identification of apoptotic cells by TUNEL labeling. Results showed that significant levels of Kim-1 began to appear in the urine after 6 weeks of Cd treatment, whereas the levels of total protein, {alpha}-GST and LDH were not increased until 8-12 weeks. Results of immunofluorescence labeling studies showed that after 6 weeks and 12 weeks, Kim-1 was expressed in the epithelial cells of the proximal tubule, but that there was no increase in the number of necrotic cells, and only a modest increase in the number of apoptotic cells at 12 weeks. These results indicate that the Cd-induced increase in Kim-1 expression occurs before the onset of necrosis and at a point where there is only a modest level of apoptosis in the proximal tubule.

  19. Green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate attenuates TNF-α-induced intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression and monocyte adhesion to retinal pigment epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Thichanpiang, Peeradech; Wongprasert, Kanokpan

    2015-01-01

    Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is a major polyphenol component of green tea (Camellia sinensis) and demonstrates anti-oxidant, anticancer and anti-inflammatory properties. EGCG has been shown to protect retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) against oxidative stress-induced cell death. The pathogenesis of diseases in the retina is usually initiated by local inflammation at the RPE cell layer, and inflammation is mostly associated with leukocyte migration and the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Whether EGCG can modulate the cytokine-induced inflammatory response of RPE, particularly leukocyte migration, has not been clearly elucidated, and was therefore the objective of this study. ARPE-19 cells were cultured with different concentrations of TNF-α in the presence or absence of EGCG to different time points. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels were determined. Intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 and phosphor-NF-κB and IκB expression were determined by Western blot analysis. Phosphor-NF-κB nuclear translocation and monocyte-RPE adhesion were investigated using immunofluorescence confocal laser scanning microscopy. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was carried out to further determine the ultrastructure of monocyte-RPE adhesion. The results demonstrated that TNF-α modulated inflammatory effects in ARPE-19 by induction of ROS and up-regulation of ICAM-1 expression. Moreover, TNF-α-induced phosphor-NF-κB nuclear translocation, increased phosphor-NF-κB expression and IκB degradation, and increased the degree of monocyte-RPE adhesion. Pretreating the cells with EGCG ameliorated the inflammatory effects of TNF-α. The results indicated that EGCG significantly exerts anti-inflammatory effects in ARPE-19 cells, partly as a suppressor of TNF-α signaling and that the inhibition was mediated via the NF-κB pathway.

  20. Association of Polymorphisms in Intercellular Adhesion Molecule 1 (ICAM-1) Gene with Cancer Susceptibility: A Meta-Analysis of 14 Case-Control Studies.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaolong; Huang, Junjie; Bai, Jian; Lu, Wei; Zhang, Meng; Mei, Hongbing

    2016-02-21

    BACKGROUND Many epidemiology studies have indicated that polymorphisms in ICAM-1 are associated with a variety of cancers, but published data are contradictory and inconclusive. Therefore, we conducted the current meta-analysis to elaborate the effects of ICAM-1 polymorphisms (rs5491, rs3093030, rs281432, and rs1799969) on cancer susceptibility. MATERIAL AND METHODS We conducted a comprehensive literature search in PubMed, Web of Science, and Google Scholar. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated to assess the association between ICAM-1 polymorphisms and cancer susceptibility. RESULTS We enrolled 14 published case-control studies including 4608 cancer cases and 4913 controls. We found an increased susceptibility of cancer in polymorphism rs1799969 (C vs. T: OR=1.662, 95%CI=1.288-2.143, p=0141; CT vs. TT: OR=1.860, 95%CI=1.398-2.474, p=0.507; CC+CT vs. TT: OR=1.812, 95%CI=1.373-2.391, p=0.284) of ICAM-1 among the overall population. However, no association between polymorphisms rs5491, rs3093030, or rs281432 of ICAM-1 and cancer susceptibility was identified. In the stratification analysis by ethnicity, we identified an increased susceptibility for Asians in rs3093030 polymorphism (CC vs. TC+TT: OR=1.728, 95% CI=1.234-2.421, p=0.787). CONCLUSIONS Our results suggest that the ICAM-1 polymorphism rs1799969 is significantly associated with increased susceptibility to overall cancer. Further studies (preferably prospective) are warranted to validate these relationships.

  1. Kinetic study of the gas-phase reactions of chlorine atoms with 2-chlorophenol, 2-nitrophenol, and four methyl-2-nitrophenol isomers.

    PubMed

    Bejan, Iustinian; Duncianu, Marius; Olariu, Romeo; Barnes, Ian; Seakins, Paul W; Wiesen, Peter

    2015-05-21

    Anthropogenic activities are the main source of nitrophenols and chlorophenols in the atmosphere. Nitro and chlorophenols have a high potential to form ozone and secondary organic aerosol, thus investigations on the major photo oxidation pathways of these compounds are important to assess their contribution to urban air pollution and human health. Presented here are rate coefficients determined at atmospheric pressure and (298 ± 2) K using a relative kinetic method for the reactions of chlorine atoms with 2-chlorophenol (2ClP), 2-nitrophenol (2NP) and four methyl-2-nitrophenol (2-nitrocresol, nM2NP (n = 3,4,5,6)) isomers. The following rate coefficients (in units of cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1)) have been obtained: (5.9 ± 1.5) × 10(-12) for 2ClP, (6.8 ± 2.3) × 10(-12) for 2NP, and (14.0 ± 4.9) × 10(-11), (4.3 ± 1.5) × 10(-11), (1.94 ± 0.67) × 10(-11) and (2.68 ± 0.75) × 10(-11) for the four methyl-2-nitrophenol isomers 3M2NP, 4M2NP, 5M2NP, and 6M2NP, respectively. This study represents the first kinetic investigation for the reaction of chlorine atoms with all the nitrophenols. In addition, to assist in the interpretation of the results, rate coefficients for the reactions of Cl atoms with the cresol ortho, meta, and para isomers have been determined for the first time. The rate coefficient for the reaction with 2ClP is in good agreement with previous data and the relative reactivity of 2NP, 4M2NP, 5M2NP, and 6M2NP can be rationalized based on known substituent effects. The rate coefficient for 3M2NP is anomalously large; the observation of significant NO2 production in only this reaction suggests that an ipso substitution mechanism is the cause of the enhanced reactivity.

  2. OH initiated heterogeneous degradation of organophosphorus compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liggio, J.; Liu, Y.; Harner, T.; Jantunen, L.; Shoeib, M.; Li, S.

    2013-12-01

    Organophosphorus compounds (OPs) have been extensively used worldwide as flame retardants, plasticizers, antifoaming agents, and additives because of their favorable physicochemical characteristics. The global consumption of OPs is likely to greatly increase due to the phasing out of bromine-containing flame retardants (BFRs) with OPs identified as possible substitutes. In most applications, OPs easily leach out of the material into the environment via volatilization, abrasion, and dissolution and have been observed widely in atmospheric particles even in polar regions. However, little is known about their atmospheric fate. The Canadian Chemicals Management Plan (CMP) has targeted OP FRs for risk assessment, including assessing stability and atmospheric transport potential of OP FRs and other priority chemicals that are associated primarily with particles. In the current study, OH initiated heterogeneous reaction kinetics of tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP), tris-2-ethylhexyl-phosphate (TEHP), tris-2-butoxyethyl-phosphate (TBEP), and tri-phenyl phosphate (TPhP) coated on (NH4)2SO4 were investigated using a photo-chemical flow tube which was coupled to an Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) and Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometer (PTR-MS). second-order rate constants (k2) for the heterogeneous loss of TPhP, TEHP and TDCPP were (2.07×0.19)×10-12, (2.69×0.63)×10-12 and (9.22×0.92)×10-13 cm3 molecule-1 s-1, respectively, from which approximate atmospheric lifetimes were estimated to be 5.6 (5.2-6.0), 4.3 (3.5-5.6), and 12.6 (11.4-14.0) days. These results represent the first reported estimates of heterogeneous rate constants for these species, and suggest that particle bound OPEs will be highly persistent in the atmosphere, supporting the assumption that OPEs can undergo medium or long-range transport, as proposed on the basis of field measurements.

  3. Atmospheric lifetimes, infrared spectra and degradation products of a series of hydrofluoroethers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavalli, F.; Glasius, M.; Hjorth, J.; Rindone, B.; Jensen, N. R.

    The rate constants of the reactions between the OH radical and a series of hydrofluoroethers (HFE) have been measured. The reaction of OH with CHF 2OCF 2OCHF 2 (1), CHF 2OCF 2CF 2OCHF 2 (2), CHF 2OCF 2CF 2OCF 2OCHF 2 (3) and CH 3OC 4F 9 (4) were investigated at 295±3 K and 740±5 Torr total pressure. The following values of the rate constants were determined for the reaction with the OH radical: k1=(2.4±0.7)×10 -15 cm 3 molecule -1 s -1, k2=(4.7±1.6)×10 -15 cm 3 molecule -1 s -1, k3=(4.6±1.6)×10 -15 cm 3 molecule -1 s -1 and k4=(7.2±1.6)×10 -15 cm 3 molecule -1 s -1. (All values are given with 2 σ uncertainties). Infrared spectra were obtained for all four HFEs in the range from 600 to 4000 cm -1 (3 to 17 μm), with the following IBI-values (integrated band intensities): IBI 1= (5.19±0.23)×10 -16 cm molecule -1 for the 978-1584 cm -1 band, IBI 2=(6.04±0.13)×10 -16 cm molecule -1 for the 930-1501 cm -1 band, IBI 3=(8.49±0.34)×10 -16 cm molecule -1 from the 963-1587 cm -1 band and IBI 4=(4.23±0.14)×10 -16 cm molecule -1 for the 845-1428 cm -1 band. Carbonyl fluoride, CF 2O, was the only fluorine-containing degradation product that was found from the Cl atom-initiated reactions of both CHF 2OCF 2OCF 2CF 2OCHF 2 and CH 3OC 4F 9, with measured product yields of 60-97% and 20-40% (based on carbon atoms), respectively. Due to the high uptake parameter of CF 2O to liquid water, its lifetime in the atmosphere is very short (with an upper limit between 15 and 30 d). It is rapidly incorporated into raindrops/aerosols, where it eventually degrades to HF and CO 2. The GWP of CF 2O is therefore negligible compared to those of CFC-11 and CFC-12.

  4. Direct Determination of the Rate Coefficient for the Reaction of OH Radicals with Monoethanol Amine (MEA) from 296 to 510 K.

    PubMed

    Onel, L; Blitz, M A; Seakins, P W

    2012-04-05

    Monoethanol amine (H2NCH2CH2OH, MEA) has been proposed for large-scale use in carbon capture and storage. We present the first absolute, temperature-dependent determination of the rate coefficient for the reaction of OH with MEA using laser flash photolysis for OH generation, monitoring OH removal by laser-induced fluorescence. The room-temperature rate coefficient is determined to be (7.61 ± 0.76) × 10(-11) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1), and the rate coefficient decreases by about 40% by 510 K. The temperature dependence of the rate coefficient is given by k1= (7.73 ± 0.24) × 10(-11)(T/295)(-(0.79±0.11)) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1). The high rate coefficient shows that gas-phase processing in the atmosphere will be competitive with uptake onto aerosols.

  5. On rates and mechanisms of OH and O3 reactions with isoprene-derived hydroxy nitrates.

    PubMed

    Lee, Lance; Teng, Alex P; Wennberg, Paul O; Crounse, John D; Cohen, Ronald C

    2014-03-06

    Eight distinct hydroxy nitrates are stable products of the first step in the atmospheric oxidation of isoprene by OH. The subsequent chemical fate of these molecules affects global and regional production of ozone and aerosol as well as the location of nitrogen deposition. We synthesized and purified 3 of the 8 isoprene hydroxy nitrate isomers: (E/Z)-2-methyl-4-nitrooxybut-2-ene-1-ol and 3-methyl-2-nitrooxybut-3-ene-1-ol. Oxidation of these molecules by OH and ozone was studied using both chemical ionization mass spectrometry and thermo-dissociation laser induced fluorescence. The OH reaction rate constants at 300 K measured relative to propene at 745 Torr are (1.1 ± 0.2) × 10(-10) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) for both the E and Z isomers and (4.2 ± 0.7) × 10(-11) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) for the third isomer. The ozone reaction rate constants for (E/Z)-2-methyl-4-nitrooxybut-2-ene-1-ol are (2.7 ± 0.5) × 10(-17) and (2.9 ± 0.5) × 10(-17) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1), respectively. 3-Methyl-2-nitrooxybut-3-ene-1-ol reacts with ozone very slowly, within the range of (2.5-5) × 10(-19) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1). Reaction pathways, product yields, and implications for atmospheric chemistry are discussed. A condensed mechanism suitable for use in atmospheric chemistry models is presented.

  6. Sterilization of Surfaces with a Handheld Atmospheric Pressure Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hicks, Robert; Habib, Sara; Chan, Wai; Gonzalez, Eleazar; Tijerina, A.; Sloan, Mark

    2009-10-01

    Low temperature, atmospheric pressure plasmas have shown great promise for decontaminating the surfaces of materials and equipment. In this study, an atmospheric pressure, oxygen and argon plasma was investigated for the destruction of viruses, bacteria, and spores. The plasma was operated at an argon flow rate of 30 L/min, an oxygen flow rate of 20 mL/min, a power density of 101.0 W/cm^3 (beam area = 5.1 cm^2), and at a distance from the surface of 7.1 mm. An average 6log10 reduction of viable spores was obtained after only 45 seconds of exposure to the reactive gas. By contrast, it takes more than 35 minutes at 121^oC to sterilize anthrax in an autoclave. The plasma properties were investigated by numerical modeling and chemical titration with nitric oxide. The numerical model included a detailed reaction mechanism for the discharge as well as for the afterglow. It was predicted that at a delivered power density of 29.3 W/cm^3, 30 L/min argon, and 0.01 volume% O2, the plasma generated 1.9 x 10^14 cm-3 O atoms, 1.6 x 10^12 cm-3 ozone, 9.3 x 10^13 cm-3 O2(^1δg), and 2.9 x 10^12 cm-3 O2(^1σ^+g) at 1 cm downstream of the source. The O atom density measured by chemical titration with NO was 6.0 x 10^14 cm-3 at the same conditions. It is believe that the oxygen atoms and the O2(^1δg) metastables were responsible for killing the anthrax and other microorganisms.

  7. Gas-Phase Reactions of Halogen Species of Atmospheric Importance.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heard, Anne C.

    reaction, the rate constant of which was found to be (1.5 +/- 0.5) times 10 ^{-12}cm^{ -3}molecule^{-1}s ^{-1}. The reaction between I and NO_3 was found to occur at a rate of about 60% of the hard-sphere collision frequency for the two species. The rate constant for reaction between I and NO_3 was found to be (4.5 +/- 1.9) times 10^{-10}cm^3 molecule^{-1}s ^{-1}. An upper limit for the heat of formation of IONO_2 of (21 +/- 3) kJmol^ {-1} was also derived. (Abstract shortened by UMI.).

  8. O2(a1Δg) + Mg, Fe, and Ca: Experimental kinetics and formulation of a weak collision, multiwell master equation with spin-hopping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plane, J. M. C.; Whalley, C. L.; Frances-Soriano, L.; Goddard, A.; Harvey, J. N.; Glowacki, D. R.; Viggiano, A. A.

    2012-07-01

    The first excited electronic state of molecular oxygen, O2(a1Δg), is formed in the upper atmosphere by the photolysis of O3. Its lifetime is over 70 min above 75 km, so that during the day its concentration is about 30 times greater than that of O3. In order to explore its potential reactivity with atmospheric constituents produced by meteoric ablation, the reactions of Mg, Fe, and Ca with O2(a) were studied in a fast flow tube, where the metal atoms were produced either by thermal evaporation (Ca and Mg) or by pulsed laser ablation of a metal target (Fe), and detected by laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy. O2(a) was produced by bubbling a flow of Cl2 through chilled alkaline H2O2, and its absolute concentration determined from its optical emission at 1270 nm (O2(a1Δg - X3Σg-). The following results were obtained at 296 K: k(Mg + O2(a) + N2 → MgO2 + N2) = (1.8 ± 0.2) × 10-30 cm6 molecule-2 s-1; k(Fe + O2(a) → FeO + O) = (1.1 ± 0.1) × 10-13 cm3 molecule-1 s-1; k(Ca + O2(a) + N2 → CaO2 + N2) = (2.9 ± 0.2) × 10-28 cm6 molecule-2 s-1; and k(Ca + O2(a) → CaO + O) = (2.7 ± 1.0) × 10-12 cm3 molecule-1 s-1. The total uncertainty in these rate coefficients, which mostly arises from the systematic uncertainty in the O2(a) concentration, is estimated to be ±40%. Mg + O2(a) occurs exclusively by association on the singlet surface, producing MgO2(1A1), with a pressure dependent rate coefficient. Fe + O2(a), on the other hand, shows pressure independent kinetics. FeO + O is produced with a probability of only ˜0.1%. There is no evidence for an association complex, suggesting that this reaction proceeds mostly by near-resonant electronic energy transfer to Fe(a5F) + O2(X). The reaction of Ca + O2(a) occurs in an intermediate regime with two competing pressure dependent channels: (1) a recombination to produce CaO2(1A1), and (2) a singlet/triplet non-adiabatic hopping channel leading to CaO + O(3P). In order to interpret the Ca + O2(a) results, we

  9. Kinetic study of IO radical with RO2 (R = CH(3), C2H5, and CF3) using cavity ring-down spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Enami, Shinichi; Yamanaka, Takashi; Hashimoto, Satoshi; Kawasaki, Masahiro; Nakano, Yukio; Ishiwata, Takashi

    2006-08-17

    The reactions of iodine monoxide radical, IO, with alkyl peroxide radicals, RO(2) (R = CH(3), C(2)H(5), and CF(3)), have been studied using cavity ring-down spectroscopy. The rate constant of the reaction of IO with CH(3)O(2) was determined to be (7.0 +/- 3.0) x 10(-11) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) at 298 K and 100 Torr of N(2) diluent. The quoted uncertainty is two standard deviations. No significant pressure dependence of the rate constant was observed at 30-130 Torr total pressure of N(2) diluent. The temperature dependence of the rate constants was also studied at 213-298 K. The upper limit of the branching ratio of OIO radical formation from IO + CH(3)O(2) was estimated to be <0.1. The reaction rate constants of IO + C(2)H(5)O(2) and IO + CF(3)O(2) were determined to be (14 +/- 6) x 10(-11) and (6.3 +/- 2.7) x 10(-11) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) at 298 K, 100 Torr of N(2) diluent, respectively. The upper limit of the reaction rate constant of IO with CH(3)I was <4 x 10(-14) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1).

  10. A kinetic study of the CH2OO Criegee intermediate self-reaction, reaction with SO2 and unimolecular reaction using cavity ring-down spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Chhantyal-Pun, Rabi; Davey, Anthony; Shallcross, Dudley E; Percival, Carl J; Orr-Ewing, Andrew J

    2015-02-07

    Criegee intermediates are important species formed during the ozonolysis of alkenes. Reaction of stabilized Criegee intermediates with various species like SO2 and NO2 may contribute significantly to tropospheric chemistry. In the laboratory, self-reaction can be an important loss pathway for Criegee intermediates and thus needs to be characterized to obtain accurate bimolecular reaction rate coefficients. Cavity ring-down spectroscopy was used to perform kinetic measurements for various reactions of CH2OO at 293 K and under low pressure (7 to 30 Torr) conditions. For the reaction CH2OO + CH2OO (8), a rate coefficient k8 = (7.35 ± 0.63) × 10(-11) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) was derived from the measured CH2OO decay rates, using an absorption cross section value reported previously. A rate coefficient of k4 = (3.80 ± 0.04) × 10(-11) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) was obtained for the CH2OO + SO2 (4) reaction. An upper limit for the unimolecular CH2OO loss rate coefficient of 11.6 ± 8.0 s(-1) was deduced from studies of reaction (4). SO2 catalysed CH2OO isomerization or intersystem crossing is proposed to occur with a rate coefficient of (3.53 ± 0.32) × 10(-11) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1).

  11. Heavy water reactions with alkaline-earth metal dications in the gas phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feil, Stefan; Koyanagi, Greg K.; Bohme, Diethard K.

    2009-02-01

    Room temperature rate coefficients and product distributions are reported for the reactions initiated in D2O with dications of the alkaline-earth metals Mg, Ca, Sr and Ba. The measurements were performed with a selected-ion flow tube (SIFT) tandem mass spectrometer and electrospray ionization (ESI). Mg2+ reacts with water by a fast electron transfer leading to charge separation with a rate coefficient of 1.4 × 10-9 cm3 molecule-1 s-1. Ca2+ reacts with D2O in a first step to form the adduct Ca2+(D2O), with an effective bimolecular rate coefficient of 2.3 × 10-11 cm3 molecule-1 s-1, which then undergoes rapid charge separation by deuteron transfer to form CaOD+ and D3O+ in a second step with k = 7.9 × 10-10 cm3 molecule-1 s-1. The CaOD+ ion reacts further by clustering up to five more D2O molecules. Sr2+ clusters up to eight D2O molecules and Ba2+ up to seven D2O molecules, with the first addition of D2O being rate determining in each case and the last addition being distinctly slower, as might be expected from a transition in the occupation of the added water molecules from an inner to an outer hydration shell.

  12. Compte rendu de la table ronde du 35ème congrès de la sfetb à metz (10-12 juin 2015) concernant les brûlures péribuccales

    PubMed Central

    Perrot, P.

    2016-01-01

    Summary La table ronde de chirurgie portant sur les brûlures péribuccales était divisée en deux parties: «prise en charge en aigu des brûlures péribuccales» et «séquelles de brûlures péribuccales / session de cas cliniques adulte et enfant». Ceci en est le résumé, construit en revoyant les prises vidéo en direct de la session, à laquelle assistait l’auteur PMID:28149241

  13. 10-Formyl-2,4,6,8,12-penta­nitro-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexa­azatetra­cyclo­[5.5.0.03,11.05,9]dodeca­ne

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Shaohua; Chen, Shusen; Chen, Huaxiong; Li, Lijie; Shi, Yanshan

    2009-01-01

    The title compound, C7H7N11O11 (PNMFIW), is a caged heterocycle substituted with five nitro and one formyl groups. It is related to the hexa­azaisowurtzitane family of high-density high-energy polycyclic cage compounds. Four nitro groups are appended to the four N atoms of the two five-membered rings, while a nitro group and a formyl are attached to the two N atoms of the six-membered ring. PMID:21578838

  14. Transonic and Supersonic Phenomena in Turbomachines: Proceedings of the Propulsion and Energetics (68th)(B) Specialists’ Meeting Held in Munich, Germany on 10-12 September 1986

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-03-01

    soot notesmont main# &iforucs, 1. plan paeasnt pria du bord axtiriour du V tourbillon contr# Sur F2. Si pour Y - 45 at 30m, on n’obsorve pas do roflux...recoepreesion seook is assaued to be straight and Inclined at the Hach angle (sin i/Nre1 ) to the direction of Nre1, with a virtual origin two diametur...socks we simaly reflected reom as origin aid-,W between the two intersecCilo points. -ompari•uc With the ohbliere• pMhto s ’a encourUain, the poSition

  15. Research in Science Education...1992. Selected Refereed Papers from the Annual Conference of the Australasian Science Education Research Association (23rd, Hamilton, New Zealand, July 10-12, 1992).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Paul L., Ed.

    1992-01-01

    This volume contains 48 papers and 9 abstracts/research notes. Titles include: "Alternative constructs and cognitive development: commonalities, divergences and possibilities for evidence"; "Discipline knowledge and confidence to teach science: self-perceptions of primary teacher education students"; "Teacher beliefs about…

  16. Evaluation of screen time activities and their relationship with physical activity, overweight and socioeconomic status in children 10-12 years of age in Sanandaj, Iran: A cross-sectional study in 2015.

    PubMed

    Moradi, Ghobad; Mostafavi, Farideh; Azadi, Namamali; Esmaeilnasab, Nader; Nouri, Bijan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Screen time (ST), including watching television and playing electronic games are the leading cause of a growing obesity epidemic. This study aimed to evaluate ST and its association with physical activity, overweight and socioeconomic status (SES) in children 10 to 12 years of age in Sanandaj. Methods: This study was designed as a cross-sectional study, which was conducted in Sanandaj in 2015. ST and physical activity data were collected using the Modifiable Activity Questionnaire (MAQ). Overweight indices are defined based on BMI age- and gender-specific percentiles, as proposed by WHO criteria. Considering household assets data, SES was calculated using principal component analysis (PCA). The relationship between ST and different determinants was assessed using logistic regression analysis. Results: Based on the results obtained in our study, 47.28% (95% CI: 45.33-49.24) of the participants spent more than two hours a day on television and video watching and electronic games playing. People who spend greater time on ST activities, independent of their physical activities, are more susceptible to overweight and obesity (p=0.002). People in higher socioeconomic groups spent more time on watching TV and video and playing electronic games (p=0.001). There was a direct relationship between the residential area and ST (P=0.052). ST in male was found to be greater (p=0.033). In addition, ST was also lower in school-aged children whose mothers had a greater education (p=0.56). Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, it is recommended to increase the education level and knowledge of mothers and design interventions consistent with children gender and residential location so that to reduce ST and its associated outcomes in children.

  17. Serving the Rural Adult: Proceedings of Four 1985 Regional Conferences (Lexington, Kentucky, February 17-19; Logan, Utah, March 10-12; Sioux Falls, South Dakota, April 22-24; Skytop, Pennsylvania, May 5-7).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kansas State Univ., Manhattan. University for Man.

    Based on four regional conferences organized by the Action Agenda Project on the theme of "Serving the Rural Adult," these proceedings examine the similarities and differences the diverse participants contributed to the discussion of rural adult education; the successes and concerns expressed in finances and funding, policy, models, and…

  18. The flood event of 10-12 November 2013 on the Tiber River basin (central Italy): real-time flood forecasting with uncertainty supporting risk management and decision-making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berni, Nicola; Brocca, Luca; Barbetta, Silvia; Pandolfo, Claudia; Stelluti, Marco; Moramarco, Tommaso

    2014-05-01

    The Italian national hydro-meteorological early warning system is composed by 21 regional offices (Functional Centres, CF). Umbria Region (central Italy) CF provides early warning for floods and landslides, real-time monitoring and decision support systems (DSS) for the Civil Defence Authorities when significant events occur. The alert system is based on hydrometric and rainfall thresholds with detailed procedures for the management of critical events in which different roles of authorities and institutions involved are defined. The real-time flood forecasting system is based also on different hydrological and hydraulic forecasting models. Among these, the MISDc rainfall-runoff model ("Modello Idrologico SemiDistribuito in continuo"; Brocca et al., 2011) and the flood routing model named STAFOM-RCM (STAge Forecasting Model-Rating Curve Model; Barbetta et al., 2014) are continuously operative in real-time providing discharge and stage forecasts, respectively, with lead-times up to 24 hours (when quantitative precipitation forecasts are used) in several gauged river sections in the Upper-Middle Tiber River basin. Models results are published in real-time in the open source CF web platform: www.cfumbria.it. MISDc provides discharge and soil moisture forecasts for different sub-basins while STAFOM-RCM provides stage forecasts at hydrometric sections. Moreover, through STAFOM-RCM the uncertainty of the forecast stage hydrograph is provided in terms of 95% Confidence Interval (CI) assessed by analyzing the statistical properties of model output in terms of lateral. In the period 10th-12th November 2013, a severe flood event occurred in Umbria mainly affecting the north-eastern area and causing significant economic damages, but fortunately no casualties. The territory was interested by intense and persistent rainfall; the hydro-meteorological monitoring network recorded locally rainfall depth over 400 mm in 72 hours. In the most affected area, the recorded rainfall depths correspond approximately to a return period of 200 years. Most rivers in Umbria have been involved, exceeding hydrometric thresholds and causing flooding (e.g. Chiascio river). The flood event was continuously monitored at the Umbria Region CF and the possible evolution predicted and assessed on the basis of the model forecasts. The predictions provided by MISDc and STAFOM-RCM were found useful to support real-time decision-making addressed to flood risk management. Moreover, the quantification of the uncertainty affecting the deterministic forecast stages was found consistent with the level of confidence selected and had practical utility corroborating the need of coupling deterministic forecast and 'uncertainty' when the model output is used to support decisions about flood management. REFERENCES Barbetta, S., Moramarco, T., Brocca, L., Franchini, M., Melone, F. (2014). Confidence interval of real-time forecast stages provided by the STAFOM-RCM model: the case study of the Tiber River (Italy). Hydrological Processes, 28(3), 729-743. Brocca, L., Melone, F., Moramarco, T. (2011). Distributed rainfall-runoff modelling for flood frequency estimation and flood forecasting. Hydrological Processes, 25 (18), 2801-2813

  19. Applications of Phase Diagrams in Metallurgy and Ceramics: Proceedings of a Workshop Held at the National Bureau of Standards, Gaithersburg, Maryland, January 10-12, 1977. Volumes 1 [and] 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, G. C., Ed.

    This document is a special National Bureau of Standards publication on a Workshop on Applications of Phase Diagrams in Metallurgy and Ceramics. The purposes of the Workshop were: (1) to assess the current national and international status of phase diagram determinations and evaluations for alloys, ceramics and semiconductors; (2) to determine the…

  20. New Demands, Enduring Values: The Challenge of Human Resources. Highlights of a Transatlantic Seminar on Higher Education (College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, Virginia, February 10-12, 1993).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Standing Conference of Rectors, Presidents, and Vice-Chancellors of the European Universities.

    A 1993 meeting of academic leaders from the United States and European universities, one of a series on the future of higher education, is summarized. The central issues were the preparation of higher education for the future in the midst of massive global change, the collaborative roles of the American Council on Education and the Standing…