Science.gov

Sample records for 10-12 cm3 molecule-1

  1. Adaptation of California Measure of Mental Motivation-CM3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Özdemir, Hasan Fehmi; Demirtasli, Nükhet Çikrikçi

    2015-01-01

    Education without doubt, plays a vital role for individuals to gain the essential personal traits of the 21st century, also known as "knowledge age". One of the most important skills among these fundamental qualities which the individuals should be equipped with is critical thinking. California Measure of Mental Motivation-CM3 was…

  2. 15 CFR 10.12 - Editorial changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Editorial changes. 10.12 Section 10.12... PRODUCT STANDARDS § 10.12 Editorial changes. The Department may, without prior notice, make such editorial or other minor changes as it deems necessary to reduce ambiguity or to improve clarity in...

  3. 15 CFR 10.12 - Editorial changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Editorial changes. 10.12 Section 10.12... PRODUCT STANDARDS § 10.12 Editorial changes. The Department may, without prior notice, make such editorial or other minor changes as it deems necessary to reduce ambiguity or to improve clarity in...

  4. Home Economics. Grades 10-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Instructional Objectives Exchange, Los Angeles, CA.

    This collection contains 41 cognitive objectives and related test items for home economics, grades 10-12. It is organized into the following categories: child development (home discipline); clothing and textiles, consumer practices; design principals; health services, home management and family economics; housing; and pregnancy. Each objective is…

  5. Downscaling of South America present climate driven by 4-member HadCM3 runs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, Sin Chan; Marengo, José A.; Lyra, André A.; Sueiro, Gustavo; Pesquero, José F.; Alves, Lincoln M.; Kay, Gillian; Betts, Richard; Chagas, Diego J.; Gomes, Jorge L.; Bustamante, Josiane F.; Tavares, Priscila

    2012-02-01

    The objective of this work is to evaluate climate simulations over South America using the regional Eta Model driven by four members of an ensemble of the UK Met Office Hadley Centre HadCM3 global model. The Eta Model has been modified with the purpose of performing long-term decadal integrations and has shown to reproduce "present climate"—the period 1961-1990—reasonably well when forced by HadCM3. The global model lateral conditions with a resolution of 2.5° latitude × 3.75° longitude were provided at a frequency of 6 h. Each member of the global model ensemble has a different climate sensitivity, and the four members were selected to span the range of uncertainty encompassed by the ensemble. The Eta Model nested in the HadCM3 global model was configured with 40-km horizontal resolution and 38 layers in the vertical. No large-scale internal nudging was applied. Results are shown for austral summer and winter at present climate defined as 1961-90. The upper and low-level circulation patterns produced by the Eta-CPTEC/HadCM3 experiment set-up show good agreement with reanalysis data and the mean precipitation and temperature with CRU observation data. The spread in the downscaled mean precipitation and temperature is small when compared against model errors. On the other hand, the benefits in using an ensemble is clear in the improved representation of the seasonal cycle by the ensemble mean over any one realization. El Niño and La Niña years were identified in the HadCM3 member runs based on the NOAA Climate Prediction Center criterion of sea surface temperature anomalies in the Niño 3.4 area. The frequency of the El Niño and La Niña events in the studied period is underestimated by HadCM3. The precipitation and temperature anomalies typical of these events are reproduced by most of the Eta-CPTEC/HadCM3 ensemble, although small displacements of the positions of the anomalies occur. This experiment configuration is the first step on the implementation

  6. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 in the heart.

    PubMed

    Niessen, Hans W M; Krijnen, Paul A J; Visser, Cees A; Meijer, Chris J L M; Hack, C Erik

    2002-11-01

    Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) belongs to the superfamily of immunoglobulin-like adhesion molecules. Up-regulation of ICAM-1 occurs in many different pathophysiological processes. Also, cardiomyocytes can express ICAM-1-for example, in acute myocardial infarction. Moreover, inhibition of ICAM-1 expression in the heart dramatically reduces infarct size. Hence, inhibitors of ICAM-1 may provide a novel therapeutic option for acute myocardial infarction.

  7. Variations in temperature and precipitation during Indian summer monsoon simulated by RegCM3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dash, S. K.; Mamgain, A.; Pattnayak, K. C.; Giorgi, F.

    2012-04-01

    Variations in temperature and precipitation due to global changes have large societal impact in sectors such as agriculture and health. It is therefore very important to examine their temporal and spatial variations at the regional level in order to access the impact of climate change. In India, the most important quasi-periodic system to affect the weather and climate is the Indian summer monsoon. The local changes in the temperature and precipitation can be well examined by a regional model. RegCM3 is one such model best suited for the Indian region. This model has been integrated in the ensemble mode at 55km resolution over India for the summer monsoon season during the years 1982-2009. The model simulations are compared with observed values in detail. Comparison with observations shows that RegCM3 has slightly underestimated summer monsoon precipitation over the Central and Northeast India. Nevertheless, over these regions, RegCM3 simulated rainfall is closer to the observations when compared to other regions where rainfall is highly overestimated. The model simulated mid-tropospheric temperature shows a warm bias over the Himalayan and Tibetan regions that gives leads to the low pressure in the region. Thus the position of the monsoon trough as simulated by the model lies to the north of its original position. This is similar to the usual monsoon break condition leading to less rainfall over Central India. RegCM3 simulated surface maximum temperature shows large negative bias over the country while the surface minimum temperature is close to the observation. Nevertheless, there is a strong correlation between the all India weighted average surface temperature simulated by RegCM3 and IMD observations. At the regional level, in the Central India, both rainfall and temperature show the best correlation with the respective observed values. While examining the extreme condition in Central India, it is found that RegCM3 simulated frequencies of very wet and

  8. 24 CFR 10.12 - Additional rulemaking proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional rulemaking proceedings. 10.12 Section 10.12 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development RULEMAKING: POLICY AND PROCEDURES Procedures § 10.12 Additional rulemaking proceedings. The Secretary may invite interested...

  9. 46 CFR 90.10-12 - Gas free.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Gas free. 90.10-12 Section 90.10-12 Shipping COAST GUARD... Terms Used in This Subchapter § 90.10-12 Gas free. This term means free from dangerous concentrations of flammable or toxic gases....

  10. 46 CFR 90.10-12 - Gas free.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gas free. 90.10-12 Section 90.10-12 Shipping COAST GUARD... Terms Used in This Subchapter § 90.10-12 Gas free. This term means free from dangerous concentrations of flammable or toxic gases....

  11. 46 CFR 90.10-12 - Gas free.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Gas free. 90.10-12 Section 90.10-12 Shipping COAST GUARD... Terms Used in This Subchapter § 90.10-12 Gas free. This term means free from dangerous concentrations of flammable or toxic gases....

  12. 46 CFR 90.10-12 - Gas free.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Gas free. 90.10-12 Section 90.10-12 Shipping COAST GUARD... Terms Used in This Subchapter § 90.10-12 Gas free. This term means free from dangerous concentrations of flammable or toxic gases....

  13. 46 CFR 90.10-12 - Gas free.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Gas free. 90.10-12 Section 90.10-12 Shipping COAST GUARD... Terms Used in This Subchapter § 90.10-12 Gas free. This term means free from dangerous concentrations of flammable or toxic gases....

  14. 1 CFR 10.12 - Format, indexes, and ancillaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true Format, indexes, and ancillaries. 10.12 Section 10.12 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER SPECIAL EDITIONS OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER PRESIDENTIAL PAPERS Annual Publication § 10.12 Format, indexes, and ancillaries. (a)...

  15. 1 CFR 10.12 - Format, indexes, and ancillaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Format, indexes, and ancillaries. 10.12 Section 10.12 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER SPECIAL EDITIONS OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER PRESIDENTIAL PAPERS Annual Publication § 10.12 Format, indexes, and ancillaries. (a)...

  16. 1 CFR 10.12 - Format, indexes, and ancillaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Format, indexes, and ancillaries. 10.12 Section 10.12 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER SPECIAL EDITIONS OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER PRESIDENTIAL PAPERS Annual Publication § 10.12 Format, indexes, and ancillaries. (a)...

  17. 1 CFR 10.12 - Format, indexes, and ancillaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Format, indexes, and ancillaries. 10.12 Section 10.12 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER SPECIAL EDITIONS OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER PRESIDENTIAL PAPERS Annual Publication § 10.12 Format, indexes, and ancillaries. (a)...

  18. 1 CFR 10.12 - Format, indexes, and ancillaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Format, indexes, and ancillaries. 10.12 Section 10.12 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER SPECIAL EDITIONS OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER PRESIDENTIAL PAPERS Annual Publication § 10.12 Format, indexes, and ancillaries. (a)...

  19. 44 CFR 10.12 - Pre-implementation actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pre-implementation actions. 10.12 Section 10.12 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY... integrated into the decision-making process. Because of the diversity of FEMA, it is not feasible to...

  20. 44 CFR 10.12 - Pre-implementation actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pre-implementation actions. 10.12 Section 10.12 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY... integrated into the decision-making process. Because of the diversity of FEMA, it is not feasible to...

  1. 44 CFR 10.12 - Pre-implementation actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Pre-implementation actions. 10.12 Section 10.12 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT... decision-making process. Because of the diversity of FEMA, it is not feasible to describe in this part...

  2. Relationship between tropospheric temperature and Indian summer monsoon rainfall as simulated by RegCM3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pattnayak, K. C.; Panda, S. K.; Saraswat, Vaishali; Dash, S. K.

    2016-05-01

    Relationship between rainfall and tropospheric temperature (TT) has been examined over the Indian subcontinent during four seasons of the year using Regional Climate Model Version 3.0 (RegCM3). The model has been integrated at 55 km horizontal resolution over India during the years 1980-2000 with prescribed lateral boundary forcing from the 40 years re-analysis (ERA40) of the European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts. Results of this study show that RegCM3 in general is able to capture the spatial distributions of rainfall in all the seasons as compared to the corresponding IMD0.5 gridded rainfall. The model has simulated warmer TT over the Himalayan region in all the seasons as compared to ERA40. However, it is well captured over the peninsular India and the oceanic regions. In the model, larger warming by about 0.5 °C over the northwest and Central India in the summer monsoon months might have lead to lower surface pressure there. Also, the vertical extent of the monsoon trough is found to be up to 500 hPa in the model as compared to that in NCEP/NCAR reanalysis. As a consequence, the simulated monsoon circulation and rainfall are stronger than those observed. The two most important rainfall seasons, the summer monsoon and winter are reasonably well simulated with correlation coefficients (CC) of 0.60 and 0.59 respectively significant at 99 % confidence level with the corresponding observed values of IMD0.5. Further, Indian summer monsoon rainfall (ISMR) and TT during the contrasting monsoon years are also close to their respective observed values. Temporal CCs between the TT over Tibet, Pakistan and Central India during the summer monsoon season and gridded ISMR values reveals that the TT over Pakistan has been better correlated with the ISMR than those over Tibet and Central India. This relationship has been well supported by the model simulations.

  3. Unravelling the Drivers of the Recent Drought over Sao Paulo (Brazil) using HadCM3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pattnayak, K. C.; Tindall, J. C.; Brienen, R.; Baker, J.; Spracklen, D. V.; Gloor, E. U.

    2015-12-01

    Since ca. 2010, Sao Paulo has struggled with a multi-year drought. Reservoir levels of Sao Paulo, south-America's largest city, are at a record low level, and as a result the city has implemented water-controlling measures. Usually, the rainy season runs from October through March, bringing important rain for this city. However, over the last 5 years, Sao Paulo has experienced multiple years of below average rainfall. In this study, we try to explain the climatic drivers and mechanisms behind the observed drought over Sao Paulo using a combination of observations and model simulations. We analyse observed precipitation, air temperature and sea surface temperature (SST) datasets over the recent past to characterise the climate anomalies and visualize the extent of the drought. We then use the Hadley Centre Climate model (HadCM3) with prescribed observed SST anomalies to probe the possible causes behind the drought. This analysis will show us possible climatic drivers behind the drought in the most densely populated region of South America.

  4. Improvement of surface albedo parameterization within a regional climate model (RegCM3)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Y.; Lü, S.

    2009-03-01

    A parameterization for calculating surface albedo of Solar Zenith Angel (SZA) dependence with coefficient for each vegetation type determined on the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectro-radiometer (MODIS) reformed by the Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) is incorporated within the latest Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) Regional Climate Model (RegCM3), and evaluated with a high resolution one-way nesting simulation in China using the Climate Research Unit (CRU) data and the observations from the Field Experiment on Interaction between Land and Atmosphere in Arid Region of Northwest China (NWC-ALIEX). The performance of the SZA method modeling surface characteristic is investigated.Results indicate, RegCM with SZA method (RCM_SZA) considerably improve the cold bias of original RegCM (RCM_ORI) in air surface temperature in East Asia with 1.2 degree increased in summer due to the lower albedo produced by SZA method which makes more solar radiation absorbed by the surface and used for heating the atmosphere near to the surface. The simulated diurnal cycle of ground temperature conforms fairly well to the observation in the nesting simulation in Northwest China, especially during the noon time when the SZA has the lowest value. However, the modification can not obviously affect the East Asia summer monsoon precipitation simulation although RCM_SZA produce more evapo-transpiration in surface with more than 2 Wm-2 increases in simulated latent heat fluxes both in East Asia and in Northwest China compared to RCM_ORI.

  5. Evaluation and analysis of RegCM3 simulated summer rainfall over the Huaihe River Basin of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zong, Peishu; Wang, Huijun

    2011-06-01

    This study evaluates the ability of the Abdus Salam International Center for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) version 3 Regional Climate Model (RegCM3) in simulating the summer rainfall amount and distribution and large-scale circulation over the Huaihe River basin of China. We conducted the simulation for the period of 1982-2001 and the wet year of 2003 to test the ensemble simulation capacity of RegCM3. First, by comparing the simulated rainfall amount and distribution against the observations, it is found that RegCM3 can reproduce the rainfall pattern and its annual variations. In addition, the simulated spatial patterns of 850-hPa wind and specific humidity fields are close to the observations, although the wind speed and humidity values are larger. Finally, the ensemble simulation of RegCM3 for summer 2003 failed to capture the spatial distribution and underestimated the magnitude of the precipitation anomalies, and the reasons are analyzed.

  6. Music, Grades 10-12. Secondary Schools Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cranston School Dept., RI.

    Nine courses are included in this music guide for grades 10-12: Music Theory; Humanities: Renaissance, Baroque, and Classical; Humanities: Idealism vs. Realism; Humanities: 20th Century Man and His World; A Capella Choir; Chorale; Band; and Basic Keyboard Study. Major objectives, numbered objectives, and activities indicate level of learning,…

  7. Career Education Resource Guide. Volume III: 10-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treacy, Thomas D., Ed.

    This third of a three-volume career education resource guide consists of 146 teacher-developed and -tested learning activities for use in grades 10-12. Included in this volume are activities that can be incorporated into existing curricula in the following subject areas: art, biology, business, chemistry, English, foreign languages, counseling,…

  8. Social Studies, Grades 10-12. Secondary Schools Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cranston School Dept., RI.

    This curriculum guide provides a one-year course in social studies for grades 10-12. The guide is intended to serve as a resource to teachers, students, department chairmen, guidance personnel, curriculum planners, and anyone else involved in present or future curriculum planning. The course is divided into 22 section areas covering the topics of…

  9. Newspapers and Law-Related Education. Grades 10-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, Sandra; Riekes, Linda

    Designed to assist teachers of students in grades 10-12 who wish to use the newspaper as a supplemental tool in law-related education, this guide provides model lessons demonstrating ways in which the daily newspaper can enhance textbook material. Although the guide is based on ongoing law-related education programs in St. Louis Public Schools, it…

  10. High resolution climate change simulation of the 21st century over East Asia by RegCM3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xuejie

    2010-05-01

    To meet the increasing demands from the climate change impact assessment studies, a high resolution climate change simulation over East Asia region has being performed in the National Climate Center of the China Meteorological Administration. The model employed in the study is the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) Regional Climate Model (RegCM3). A global model of the CCSR/NIES/FRCGC MIROC3.2_hires is selected to drive RegCM3 because of its high resolution (T106) and its good performances in simulating the present day climate over the region. The simulation is conducted at 25-km grid spacing for the period of 1951-2100. Observed CO2 concentration are used for the present day simulation of 1951-2000 and the emission scenario of IPCC SRES A1B is used as the GHG (greenhouse gases) forcing. Simulations of present day climate over China by RegCM3 and MIROC3.2_hires are compared against observation to valid the model performances. Results show that both models reproduced the general pattern of surface air temperature and precipitation well over the region. Compared to the driving MIROC3.2_hires, RegCM3 provides with more spatial details of the surface fields. Differed from previous GCM-RegCM3 simulations, the RegCM3 did not improves the general pattern of the precipitation due to the good performances of MIROC3.2_hires. Preliminary analysis of the future changes simulated by the two models' show difference, in particular during June-July-August. For example while the MIROC3.2_hires projected a prevailing increase of precipitation in JJA over China, the RegCM3 projected extended areas of decreased precipitation. The data are available for those interested from the community of climate change impacts studies.

  11. Sensitivity of the GCM driven summer monsoon simulations to cumulus parameterization schemes in nested RegCM3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, P.; Mohanty, U. C.; Kar, S. C.; Dash, S. K.; Kumari, S.

    2013-04-01

    The regional climate model (RegCM3) from the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics has been used to simulate the Indian summer monsoon for three different monsoon seasons such as deficit (1987), excess (1988) and normal (1989). Sensitivity to various cumulus parameterization and closure schemes of RegCM3 driven by the National Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasting global spectral model products has been tested. The model integration of the nested RegCM3 is conducted using 90 and 30-km horizontal resolutions for outer and inner domains, respectively. The India Meteorological Department gridded rainfall (1° × 1°) and National Centre for Environment Prediction (NCEP)-Department of Energy (DOE) reanalysis-2 of 2.5° × 2.5° horizontal resolution data has been used for verification. The RegCM3 forced by NCEP-DOE reanalysis-2 data simulates monsoon seasons of 1987 and 1988 reasonably well, but the monsoon season of 1989 is not represented well in the model simulations. The RegCM3 runs driven by the global model are able to bring out seasonal mean rainfall and circulations well with the use of the Grell and Anthes-Kuo cumulus scheme at 90-km resolution. While the rainfall intensity and distribution is brought out well with the Anthes-Kuo scheme, upper air circulation features are brought out better by the Grell scheme. The simulated rainfall distribution is better with RegCM3 using the MIT-Emanuel cumulus scheme for 30-km resolution. Several statistical analyses, such as correlation coefficient, root mean square error, equitable threat score, confirm that the performance of MIT-Emanuel scheme at 30-km resolution is better in simulating all-India summer monsoon rainfall. The RegCM3 simulated rainfall amount is more and closer to observations than that from the global model. The RegCM3 has corrected its driven GCM in terms of rainfall distribution and magnitude over some parts of India during extreme years. This study brings out several

  12. New α-adrenergic property for synthetic MTβ and CM-3 three-finger fold toxins from black mamba.

    PubMed

    Blanchet, Guillaume; Upert, Gregory; Mourier, Gilles; Gilquin, Bernard; Gilles, Nicolas; Servent, Denis

    2013-12-01

    Despite their isolation more than fifteen years ago from the venom of the African mamba Dendroaspis polylepis, very few data are known on the functional activity of MTβ and CM-3 toxins. MTβ was initially classified as a muscarinic toxin interacting non-selectively and with low affinity with the five muscarinic receptor subtypes while no biological function was determined for CM-3. Recent results highlight the multifunctional activity of three-finger fold toxins for muscarinic and adrenergic receptors and reveal some discrepancies in the pharmacological profiles of their venom-purified and synthetic forms. Here, we report the pharmacological characterization of chemically-synthesized MTβ and CM-3 toxins on nine subtypes of muscarinic and adrenergic receptors and demonstrate their high potency for α-adrenoceptors and in particular a sub-nanomolar affinity for the α1A-subtype. Strikingly, no or very weak affinity were found for muscarinic receptors, highlighting that pharmacological characterizations of venom-purified peptides may be risky due to possible contaminations. The biological profile of these two homologous toxins looks like that one previously reported for the Dendroaspis angusticeps ρ-Da1a toxin. Nevertheless, MTβ and CM-3 interact more potently than ρ-Da1a with α1B- and α1D-AR subtypes. A computational analysis of the stability of the MTβ structure suggests that mutation S38I, could be involved in this gain in function.

  13. Spatial and Temporal Variations in Indian Summer Monsoon Rainfall and Temperature: An Analysis Based on RegCM3 Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dash, S. K.; Mamgain, Ashu; Pattnayak, K. C.; Giorgi, F.

    2013-04-01

    Regional climate models are important tools to examine the spatial and temporal characteristics of rainfall and temperature at high resolutions. Such information has potential applications in sectors like agriculture and health. In this study, the Regional Climate Model Version 3 (RegCM3) has been integrated in the ensemble mode at 55 km resolution over India for the summer monsoon season during the years 1982-2009. Emphasis has been given on the validation of the model simulation at the regional level. In Central India, both rainfall and temperature show the best correlations with respective observed values. The model gives rise to large wet biases over Northwest and Peninsular India. RegCM3 slightly underestimates the summer monsoon precipitation over the Central and Northeast India. Nevertheless, over these regions, RegCM3 simulated rainfall is closer to the observations when compared to the other regions where rainfall is overestimated. The position of the monsoon trough simulated by the model lies to the north of its original observed position. This is similar to the usual monsoon break conditions leading to less rainfall over Central India. RegCM3 simulated surface maximum temperature shows a large negative bias over the country while the surface minimum temperature is close to the observation. Nevertheless, there is a strong correlation between the all India weighted average surface temperature simulated by RegCM3 and IMD observed values. While examining the extreme weather conditions in Central India, it is found that RegCM3 simulated frequencies of occurrence of very wet days, extremely wet days, warm days and warm nights more often as compared to those in IMD observed values. However, these are systematic biases. The model biases in the frequencies of distribution of rainfall extremes explain the wet and dry biases in different regions in the country. Overall, the inter-annual characteristics of both the rainfall and temperature extremes simulated by RegCM

  14. Tellurite-, tellurate-, and selenite-based anaerobic respiration by strain CM-3 isolated from gold mine tailings.

    PubMed

    Maltman, Chris; Piercey-Normore, Michele D; Yurkov, Vladimir

    2015-09-01

    The newly discovered strain CM-3, a Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium from gold mine tailings of the Central Mine in Nopiming Provincial Park, Canada, is capable of dissimilatory anaerobic reduction of tellurite, tellurate, and selenite. CM-3 possesses very high level resistance to these oxides, both aerobically and anaerobically. During aerobic growth, tellurite and tellurate resistance was up to 1500 and 1000 µg/ml, respectively. In the presence of selenite, growth occurred at the highest concentration tested, 7000 µg/ml. Under anaerobic conditions, resistance was decreased to 800 µg/ml for the Te oxides; however, much like under aerobic conditions, growth with selenite still took place at 7000 µg/ml. In the absence of oxygen, CM-3 couples oxide reduction to an increase in biomass. Following an initial drop in viable cells, due to switching from aerobic to anaerobic conditions, there was an increase in CFU/ml greater than one order of magnitude in the presence of tellurite (6.6 × 10(3)-8.6 × 10(4) CFU/ml), tellurate (4.6 × 10(3)-1.4 × 10(5) CFU/ml), and selenite (2.7 × 10(5)-5.6 × 10(6) CFU/ml). A control culture without metalloid oxides showed a steady decrease in CFU/ml with no recovery. ATP production was also increased in the presence of each oxide, further indicating anaerobic respiration. Partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed a 99.0 % similarity of CM-3 to Pseudomonas reactans.

  15. Tellurite-, tellurate-, and selenite-based anaerobic respiration by strain CM-3 isolated from gold mine tailings.

    PubMed

    Maltman, Chris; Piercey-Normore, Michele D; Yurkov, Vladimir

    2015-09-01

    The newly discovered strain CM-3, a Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium from gold mine tailings of the Central Mine in Nopiming Provincial Park, Canada, is capable of dissimilatory anaerobic reduction of tellurite, tellurate, and selenite. CM-3 possesses very high level resistance to these oxides, both aerobically and anaerobically. During aerobic growth, tellurite and tellurate resistance was up to 1500 and 1000 µg/ml, respectively. In the presence of selenite, growth occurred at the highest concentration tested, 7000 µg/ml. Under anaerobic conditions, resistance was decreased to 800 µg/ml for the Te oxides; however, much like under aerobic conditions, growth with selenite still took place at 7000 µg/ml. In the absence of oxygen, CM-3 couples oxide reduction to an increase in biomass. Following an initial drop in viable cells, due to switching from aerobic to anaerobic conditions, there was an increase in CFU/ml greater than one order of magnitude in the presence of tellurite (6.6 × 10(3)-8.6 × 10(4) CFU/ml), tellurate (4.6 × 10(3)-1.4 × 10(5) CFU/ml), and selenite (2.7 × 10(5)-5.6 × 10(6) CFU/ml). A control culture without metalloid oxides showed a steady decrease in CFU/ml with no recovery. ATP production was also increased in the presence of each oxide, further indicating anaerobic respiration. Partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed a 99.0 % similarity of CM-3 to Pseudomonas reactans. PMID:26254805

  16. Assessing HadCM3 simulations from NCEP reanalyses over Europe: diagnostics of block-seasonal extreme temperature's regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucio, P. S.

    2004-12-01

    The debate on the enhanced greenhouse effect continues, confusing the climate change impact analysis and the decision makers. Hence, this paper is addressed to the extreme regional-scale evaluation of global climate model (GCM). Given that assessment of models is crucial to consider future scenarios in climate change impact analyses, the exploratory work is essential, as it identifies the strengths and weaknesses of GCM to regional-scale differences in model performance, providing insights on regional-scale climate interactions and processes. That is why this manuscript attempts to compare the spatial pattern of a longer temporal aggregation period (1960/61-1989/90) for extreme temperatures simulated by a particular GCM (HadCM3) to that of NCEP Reanalyses, which are considered as "truth". Climatic risk analyses and forecasting, concern among other topics, assess an interpretation in intensity and frequency of recurrence of long duration extreme values (heat/cold waves). One study assesses the impact of extreme events analysing the temporal dependence of extreme events. The present study leads to the conclusion that the HadCM3 Simulations do not reproduce reasonably the NCEP Reanalyses over the Modelling the Impact of Climate Extremes (MICE—EU Project) domain, even despite the fact that the climatology of extremes has demonstrated very similar spatial patterns. Consequently, all diagnostics of extremes led support to the fitted Generalised Extreme Value (GEV) model for extrapolation, suggesting that the HadCM3 is not adequate for forecasting, simulating future scenarios of extremes based on the analysis of risk or probability maps for spatial uncertainties. The greatest difference between the two models is in terms of the precision of estimation.

  17. Alpha-amylase production by Bacillus subtilis CM3 in solid state fermentation using cassava fibrous residue.

    PubMed

    Swain, M R; Ray, R C

    2007-10-01

    In extraction of starch from cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz), one of the major solid waste released is fibrous residues which constitute 15-20% by weight of the cassava chips/tuber processed. Production of alpha -amylase under solid state fermentation by Bacillus subtilis CM3 has been investigated using cassava fibrous residue. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to evaluate the effect of the main variables, i.e. incubation period, initial medium pH, moisture holding capacity and temperature on enzyme production. A full factorial Central Composite Design (CCD) was applied to study these main factors that affected alpha -amylase production. The experimental results showed that the optimum incubation period, initial medium pH, moisture holding capacity and temperature were 6 days, 8.0, 70% and 50 degrees C, respectively.

  18. Investigating Tectonic Drivers of Miocene - Pliocene Polar Climate Evolution using the HadCM3 Climate Model.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunter, S. J.; Knies, J.; Haywood, A. M.; Dolan, A. M.; Pound, M. J.

    2015-12-01

    We model the climate of the Miocene (Tortonian and the Messinian) and the Pliocene (Piacenzian) using the HadCM3 Atmosphere-Ocean GCM. We use baseline Miocene and Pliocene geographies that have different reconstruction lineages so we describe methods to create a set of self-consistent paleogeographies that represent the main features of the three stages. We present large-scale features of the evolving climate and examine model fidelity by comparing modelled climatology against palaeoenvironmental proxy data. We focus on the climate of the Arctic region and investigate tectonic drivers of sea ice expansion by comparing and interpreting model predictions against borehole data from the North Atlantic and Arctic Ocean. In particular how Late Miocene/ early Pliocene tectonic uplift in the Svalbard/Barents Sea and Greenland region, the opening of the Bering Strait, and the onset of deep water Atlantic-Arctic exchange influenced the development of modern sea ice cover.

  19. Sensitivity of the simulated African monsoon of summers 1993 and 1999 to convective parameterization schemes in RegCM3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tchotchou, L. A. Djiotang; Kamga, F. Mkankam

    2010-03-01

    In this study, the International Center for Theoretical Physics Regional Climate Model version 3 (RegCM3) was used to investigate the sensitivity of the simulation of the West African monsoon using four different cumulus and closures parameterization schemes of Anthes Kuo (AK), Grell and Fristish Chappell (GFC), Grell and Arakawa Schubert (GAS), and MIT-Emmanuel (EM) while maintaining other physical packages unchanged. The contrasting monsoon years of 1993 and 1999, which were dry and wet years, respectively, were simulated. The model was integrated from a period of 5 months, starting from May 1 to September 30 of each year using the European Centre for Medium-Range-Weather Forecast (ECMWF) Reanalysis data (ERA40) as input boundary conditions. The 6-hourly reanalysis data were used to provide the lateral boundary conditions, and the observed weekly Reynolds Sea Surface Temperature interpolated to 6 h was used as the lower boundary forcing. The results show that in West Africa, monsoon precipitations are sensitive to the choice of cumulus parameterization and closure schemes. None of the schemes is able to simulate the monsoon rainfall accurately, and furthermore, there is little difference in behavior among schemes between dry and wet years. The spatial features of precipitation are not identical among schemes, although they all show a northward shift of the rain bands, giving a very wet Sahel and dry Guinean Coast. The GFC and EM schemes are able to capture the diurnal cycle of precipitation and the zonal averages of stratiform rain fractions as observed in the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), although they overestimated rainfall amounts. The most important deficiencies, however, cannot be attributed to the schemes. In particular, the northward shift of both the rain band and the AEJ in RegCM3 is the result of unrealistic soil moisture resulting from the way albedo is parameterized, leading to an excessive northward penetration of monsoon flow. A

  20. Regional Climate Responses To Planetary-Scale Geoengineering Activities, as Modeled Using climateprediction.net/HadCM3L

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricke, K.

    2009-12-01

    Concerns that climate mitigation is occurring too slowly, or that there may be a rapid "climate surprise," have lead to renewed dialogue within the scientific community about cooling the planet through geoengineering, specifically stratospheric albedo modification (SAM). There is little consensus about regional hydrological effects of such activities despite a recent spate of climate modeling studies looking at its potential impacts. Here we present the results from one large-ensemble experiment that used Hadley Centre Coupled Model, version 3 with reduced resolution over the ocean (HadCM3L), implemented through climateprediction.net. The analysis examines 54 globally-uniform stratospheric optical depth modification scenarios designed to stabilize global temperatures under SRES A1B. We present normalized regional temperature anomalies versus normalized regional precipitation and subsurface runoff anomalies (for example, see Figure 1) and the results of regression analyses to quantify the relationships between level of stratospheric optical property modification (i.e., geoengineering) and regional hydrology. Results show that while such shortwave compensations for longwave anthropogenic forcings does generally return regional climates to closer to their baseline climate states than the no-geoengineering, business-as-usual scenarios, the magnitudes and sensitivities of regional responses to this type of activity, as modeled in HadCM3L, are highly variable. Regions, such as Eastern China and India, migrate away from their baseline climate states in different ways, illustrating the impossibility of simultaneous stabilization of regional climates. The linearity of the effect of incrementally increasing stratospheric optical depth also varies regionally. Figure 1: Normalized regional temperature and precipitation anomalies (<2020s>-<1990s> and <2070s>-<1990s>) in units of baseline standard deviations for each region). Each grayscale point in-series near the origin

  1. Discriminating factors affecting incorporation: comparison of the fate of Eu3+-Cm3+ in the Sr carbonate-sulfate system.

    PubMed

    Holliday, Kiel; Chagneau, Aurélie; Schmidt, Moritz; Claret, Francis; Schäfer, Thorsten; Stumpf, Thorsten

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this work is to assess the effect of ligand strength, symmetry, and coordination number on solid solution formation of trivalent actinides and lanthanides in carbonate and sulfate minerals. This is of particular importance in radionuclide migration where trivalent actinides such as Pu, Am, and Cm are responsible for the majority of radiotoxicity after 1000 years. Time-resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopy was used to study trace concentrations of the dopant ion after interaction with the mineral phase. This study expands on previous work with aragonite and gypsum where it was found that aragonite incorporates Eu(3+) and Cm(3+) while only surface sorption is observed in gypsum. This study uses isostructural minerals strontianite (SrCO(3)) and celestite (SrSO(4)) to decouple the effect of structure from that due to the anion. It is demonstrated that while distribution coefficients can predict the amount of dopant ion associated with the mineral phase, they do not have any correlation with solid solution formation. This substitution mechanism is most likely dictated by the symmetry of the site being substituted and the electronic structure of the dopant atom.

  2. Particle- and gas-phase emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from two-stroke, 50-cm 3 mopeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spezzano, Pasquale; Picini, Paolo; Cataldi, Dario; Messale, Fabrizio; Manni, Claudio

    2008-06-01

    The emissions of gas- and particle-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were evaluated in the exhaust of 10 mopeds (4 EURO-0, 4 EURO-1 and 2 EURO-2) equipped with two-stroke engines with displacement of 50 cm3. Sampling was performed on a dynamometer bench both during the "cold-start" and the "hot" phases of the ECE-47 driving cycle. Eighteen PAHs were quantified and total PAH emission factors (∑PAH) ranged from 1790 to 15,059 μg km-1. Expressed in benzo(a)pyrene equivalent (BaPeq), emission factors ranged 4.7-86.3 μg km-1. PAH emissions are reduced according to the legislation class: EURO-0>EURO-1>EURO-2. PAH emission factors were greater during the cold-start phase than the hot phase of the ECE-47 cycle. Results show that despite their small engine size, two-stroke mopeds can emit amounts of particulate PAHs comparable or even higher than PAH emissions reported elsewhere from gasoline- and diesel-powered passenger cars and light- and heavy-duty vehicles.

  3. The eastern Tropical Pacific hydroclimate over the last 120kyr: a perspective from HadCM3.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, W. H. G.; Valdes, P. J.

    2014-12-01

    The focus of the majority of studies looking into the evolving tropical pacific climate on glacial/interglacial timescales has been the role of the changing orbital forcing. While this is of course the fundamental forcing that drives changes in the climate on these time scales, without a fully interactive Earth System Model the effects that the evolving ice sheets/sea level and green house gases have on the climate will be missed. In the absence of such models these other forcings must be imposed. While the impact on the temperature in both the high latitudes, and to some extent in the tropics, of all of the forcings is reasonably clear, their impact on the hydroclimate is less obvious. In this study we shall investigate what role all of the different forcings that vary over a glacial/interglacial cycle play on the hydroclimate in the eastern Tropical Pacific. We use as the basis of our study a set of three climate model experiments using the model HadCM3. Each of these simulates the last 120 thousand years as a series of time slices in one of three configurations: varying the orbital forcing; varying the orbital and greenhouse gas forcing; varying the orbital, greenhouse and ice sheet/sea level forcing. With these experiments we can deconvolve the role that each forcing plays. We will show that, in addition to the orbital forcing, both the greenhouse gas forcing and the ice sheet configuration have a large impact on the eastern Tropical Pacific's hydroclimate. Using a set of more idealised model simulations we shall elucidate the mechanisms by which each of these different forcing mechanism causes the simulated changes.

  4. Coupling of a regional atmospheric model (RegCM3) and a regional oceanic model (FVCOM) over the maritime continent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Jun; Malanotte-Rizzoli, Paola; Eltahir, Elfatih A. B.; Xue, Pengfei; Xu, Danya

    2014-09-01

    Climatological high resolution coupled climate model simulations for the maritime continent have been carried out using the regional climate model (RegCM) version 3 and the finite volume coastal ocean model (FVCOM) specifically designed to resolve regions characterized by complex geometry and bathymetry. The RegCM3 boundary forcing is provided by the EMCWF-ERA40 re-analysis. FVCOM is embedded in the Global MITgcm which provides boundary forcing. The domain of the coupled regional model covers the entire South China Sea with its through-flow, the entire Indonesian archipelago with the Indonesian through-flow (ITF) and includes a large region in the western Pacific and eastern Indian oceans. The coupled model is able to provide stable and realistic climatological simulations for a specific decade of atmospheric-oceanic variables without flux correction. The major focus of this work is on oceanic properties. First, the coupled simulation is assessed against ocean-only simulations carried out under two different sets of air-sea heat fluxes. The first set, provided by the MITgcm, is proved to be grossly deficient as the heat fluxes are evaluated by a two-dimensional, zonally averaged atmosphere and the simulated SST have anomalous cold biases. Hence the MITgcm fluxes are discarded. The second set, the NCEP re-analysis heat fluxes, produces a climatological evolution of the SST with an average cold bias of ~-0.8 °C. The coupling eliminates the cold bias and the coupled SST evolution is in excellent agreement with the analogous evolution in the SODA re-analysis data. The detailed comparison of oceanic circulation properties with the International Nusantara Stratification and Transport observations shows that the coupled simulation produces the best estimate of the total ITF transport through the Makassar strait while the transports of three ocean-only simulations are all underestimated. The annual cycle of the transport is also very well reproduced. The coupling also

  5. Carbohydrate ligands for endothelial - Leukocyte adhesion molecule 1

    SciTech Connect

    Tiemeyer, M.; Swiedler, S.J.; Ishihara, Masayuki; Moreland, M.; Schweingruber, H.; Hirtzer, P.; Brandley, B.K. )

    1991-02-15

    The acute inflammatory response requires that circulating leukocytes bind to and penetrate the vascular wall to access the site of injury. Several receptors have been implicated in this interaction, including a family of putative carbohydrate-binding proteins. The authors report here the identification of an endogenous carbohydrate ligand for one of these receptors, endothelial-leukocyte adhesion molecule 1 (ELAM-1). Radiolabeled COS cells transfected with a plasmid containing the cDNA for ELAM-1 were used as probes to screen glycolipids extracted from human leukocytes. COS cells transfected with this plasmid adhered to a subset of sialylated glycolipids resolved on TLC plates or adsorbed on polyvinyl chloride microtiter wells. Adhesion to these glycolipids required calcium but was not inhibited by heparin, chondroitin sulfate, keratan sulfate, or yeast phosphomannan. Monosaccharide composition, linkage analysis, and fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry of the glycolipids indicate that the ligands for ELAM-1 are terminally sialylated lactosylceramides with a variable number of N-acetyllactosamine repeats and at least one fucosylated N-acetylglucosamine residue.

  6. Analysis of the present and future winter Pacific-North American teleconnection in the ECHAM5 global and RegCM3 regional climate models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allan, Andrea M.; Hostetler, Steven W.; Alder, Jay R.

    2014-01-01

    We use the NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis (NCEP) and the MPI/ECHAM5 general circulation model to drive the RegCM3 regional climate model to assess the ability of the models to reproduce the spatiotemporal aspects of the Pacific-North American teleconnection (PNA) pattern. Composite anomalies of the NCEP-driven RegCM3 simulations for 1982–2000 indicate that the regional model is capable of accurately simulating the key features (500-hPa heights, surface temperature, and precipitation) of the positive and negative phases of the PNA with little loss of information in the downscaling process. The basic structure of the PNA is captured in both the ECHAM5 global and ECHAM5-driven RegCM3 simulations. The 1950–2000 ECHAM5 simulation displays similar temporal and spatial variability in the PNA index as that of NCEP; however, the magnitudes of the positive and negative phases are weaker than those of NCEP. The RegCM3 simulations clearly differentiate the climatology and associated anomalies of snow water equivalent and soil moisture of the positive and negative PNA phases. In the RegCM3 simulations of the future (2050–2100), changes in the location and extent of the Aleutian low and the continental high over North America alter the dominant flow patterns associated with positive and negative PNA modes. The future projections display a shift in the patterns of the relationship between the PNA and surface climate variables, which suggest the potential for changes in the PNA-related surface hydrology of North America.

  7. Systematic errors in the simulation of european climate (1961-2000) with RegCM3 driven by NCEP/NCAR reanalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergant, Klemen; Belda, Michal; Halenka, Tomá

    2007-03-01

    Systematic errors of a European climate simulation (1961-2000) with RegCM3 were analyzed. Model results were compared to Climate Research Unit (CRU) observations. Average (AveB) and annual cycle biases (CycB) were evaluated for three surface variables: air temperature (TMP), water vapor pressure (VAP), and precipitation (PRE). The model shows a cold AveB over Europe with the exception of the northern part. It also shows a prevailing wet AveB. Annual PRE is underestimated only in regions with high average values, while VAP is overestimated over the entire European continent. The AveB is between - 1.2 °C and + 1.0 °C for TMP, 0.4 mb and 1.4 mb for VAP and - 15% and + 33% for PRC on annual/subcontinental scale. Most of the TMP and VAP CycB is related to the amplitude of annual cycle (CycA). The CycA of the TMP is underestimated over most of Europe. The CycA of the VAP is underestimated in some coastal regions and overestimated over the continental regions. The distinction between coastal and inland regions can also be seen in the CycB of the PRE. In coastal regions, with a PRE maximum in late autumn/early winter and minimum in summer, the CycA is underestimated. In some continental regions, with a precipitation maximum in summer and minimum in late autumn/early winter, the CycA is overestimated. The annual cycle pattern is not captured well by RegCM3 over the Alps and European Russia. Most of systematic errors in the RegCM3 simulation can be related to boundary conditions. Although the bias in NCEP/NCAR reanalysis is reflected in RegCM3 simulation, the RegCM3 enriches large-scale information with regional details and with the more realistic description of annual cycles, especially for PRE. Because of these advantages and the overall relatively good performance of RegCM3, the model is seen as a valuable tool in regional projections of future climate change.

  8. Band gap renormalization and Burstein-Moss effect in silicon- and germanium-doped wurtzite GaN up to 1020 cm-3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feneberg, Martin; Osterburg, Sarah; Lange, Karsten; Lidig, Christian; Garke, Bernd; Goldhahn, Rüdiger; Richter, Eberhard; Netzel, Carsten; Neumann, Maciej D.; Esser, Norbert; Fritze, Stephanie; Witte, Hartmut; Bläsing, Jürgen; Dadgar, Armin; Krost, Alois

    2014-08-01

    The interplay between band gap renormalization and band filling (Burstein-Moss effect) in n-type wurtzite GaN is investigated. For a wide range of electron concentrations up to 1.6×1020cm-3 spectroscopic ellipsometry and photoluminescence were used to determine the dependence of the band gap energy and the Fermi edge on electron density. The band gap renormalization is the dominating effect up to an electron density of about 9×1018cm-3; at higher values the Burstein-Moss effect is stronger. Exciton screening, the Mott transition, and formation of Mahan excitons are discussed. A quantitative understanding of the near gap transition energies on electron density is obtained. Higher energy features in the dielectric functions up to 10eV are not influenced by band gap renormalization.

  9. Impact of resolution on regional climate modeling in the source region of Yellow River with complex terrain using RegCM3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hui, Pinhong; Tang, Jianping; Wang, Shuyu; Wu, Jian; Niu, Xiaorui; Kang, Yue

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents results from a 20-year (1990-2009) simulation by RegCM3 with both 45- and 15-km horizontal resolutions. The research focuses on the source region of Yellow River and its surrounding area, which is located on the northeast edge of the Tibetan Plateau with its very complex topography. Driven by the ECMWF ERA-interim reanalysis data, RegCM3 displays reasonable ability to reproduce the spatial patterns, annual cycles, and the interannual variabilities of regional surface climate, though the model shows wet and cold bias. The model's performance is more close to observation for the source region of Yellow River than the other part of the analysis region, and the application of high resolution of 15 km demonstrates better skill with less bias for mean climate and larger correlation coefficients for interannual variability at most stations. However, the high-resolution simulation shows little advantage for reproducing the variations of precipitation and surface air temperature with altitude. The RegCM3 model also generally reproduces the probability distribution functions (PDFs) of surface climate and, consequently, the occurrence of climatic extremes and extreme indices. The simulation with high resolution again proves to be more reliable to generate climatic extremes over complex terrain of the source region of the Yellow River, related to its better representation of complex terrain and local processes.

  10. Eyewitness identification accuracy and response latency: the unruly 10-12-second rule.

    PubMed

    Weber, Nathan; Brewer, Neil; Wells, Gary L; Semmler, Carolyn; Keast, Amber

    2004-09-01

    Data are reported from 3,213 research eyewitnesses confirming that accurate eyewitness identifications from lineups are made faster than are inaccurate identifications. However, consistent with predictions from the recognition and search literatures, the authors did not find support for the "10-12-s rule" in which lineup identifications faster than 10-12 s maximally discriminate between accurate and inaccurate identifications (D. Dunning & S. Perretta, 2002). Instead, the time frame that proved most discriminating was highly variable across experiments, ranging from 5 s to 29 s, and the maximally discriminating time was often unimpressive in its ability to sort accurate from inaccurate identifications. The authors suggest several factors that are likely to moderate the 10-12-s rule. PMID:15462616

  11. The dynamical core, physical parameterizations, and basic simulation characteristics of the atmospheric component AM3 of the GFDL global coupled model CM3

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Donner, L.J.; Wyman, B.L.; Hemler, R.S.; Horowitz, L.W.; Ming, Y.; Zhao, M.; Golaz, J.-C.; Ginoux, P.; Lin, S.-J.; Schwarzkopf, M.D.; Austin, J.; Alaka, G.; Cooke, W.F.; Delworth, T.L.; Freidenreich, S.M.; Gordon, C.T.; Griffies, S.M.; Held, I.M.; Hurlin, W.J.; Klein, S.A.; Knutson, T.R.; Langenhorst, A.R.; Lee, H.-C.; Lin, Y.; Magi, B.I.; Malyshev, S.L.; Milly, P.C.D.; Naik, V.; Nath, M.J.; Pincus, R.; Ploshay, J.J.; Ramaswamy, V.; Seman, C.J.; Shevliakova, E.; Sirutis, J.J.; Stern, W.F.; Stouffer, R.J.; Wilson, R.J.; Winton, M.; Wittenberg, A.T.; Zeng, F.

    2011-01-01

    The Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) has developed a coupled general circulation model (CM3) for the atmosphere, oceans, land, and sea ice. The goal of CM3 is to address emerging issues in climate change, including aerosol-cloud interactions, chemistry-climate interactions, and coupling between the troposphere and stratosphere. The model is also designed to serve as the physical system component of earth system models and models for decadal prediction in the near-term future-for example, through improved simulations in tropical land precipitation relative to earlier-generation GFDL models. This paper describes the dynamical core, physical parameterizations, and basic simulation characteristics of the atmospheric component (AM3) of this model. Relative to GFDL AM2, AM3 includes new treatments of deep and shallow cumulus convection, cloud droplet activation by aerosols, subgrid variability of stratiform vertical velocities for droplet activation, and atmospheric chemistry driven by emissions with advective, convective, and turbulent transport. AM3 employs a cubed-sphere implementation of a finite-volume dynamical core and is coupled to LM3, a new land model with ecosystem dynamics and hydrology. Its horizontal resolution is approximately 200 km, and its vertical resolution ranges approximately from 70 m near the earth's surface to 1 to 1.5 km near the tropopause and 3 to 4 km in much of the stratosphere. Most basic circulation features in AM3 are simulated as realistically, or more so, as in AM2. In particular, dry biases have been reduced over South America. In coupled mode, the simulation of Arctic sea ice concentration has improved. AM3 aerosol optical depths, scattering properties, and surface clear-sky downward shortwave radiation are more realistic than in AM2. The simulation of marine stratocumulus decks remains problematic, as in AM2. The most intense 0.2% of precipitation rates occur less frequently in AM3 than observed. The last two decades of

  12. A Supplementary Program for Environmental Education, Art, Grade 10-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warpinski, Robert

    Presented in this teacher's guide for grades 10-12 are lesson plans and ideas for integrating art (drawing, painting, graphics, photography, and commercial art) and environmental education. Each lesson originates with a fundamental concept pertaining to the environment and states, in addition, its discipline area, subject area, and problem…

  13. A Supplementary Program for Environmental Education, Mathematics, Grade 10-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warpinski, Robert

    Presented in this teacher's guide for grades 10-12 are lesson plans and ideas for integrating mathematics and environmental education. Each lesson originates with a fundamental concept pertaining to the environment and states, in addition, its discipline area, subject area, and problem orientation. Following this, behavioral objectives and…

  14. Secondary School Curriculum Guide. Music. Grades 10-12. Draft Copy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Arnold R., Ed.; And Others

    This draft curriculum guide provides curriculum materials that are organized into behavioral objectives with a scope and sequence. Divided by grade and levels, each section includes level objectives and suggested activities. To be covered in grades 10-12 are 5 levels of musical content. They are: 1) why man creates and how he perceives; 2) the…

  15. Eyewitness Identification Accuracy and Response Latency: The Unruly 10-12-Second Rule

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Nathan; Brewer, Neil; Wells, Gary L.; Semmler, Carolyn; Keast, Amber

    2004-01-01

    Data are reported from 3,213 research eyewitnesses confirming that accurate eyewitness identifications from lineups are made faster than are inaccurate identifications. However, consistent with predictions from the recognition and search literatures, the authors did not find support for the "10-12-s rule" in which lineup identifications faster…

  16. Biotransformation of 2,4,6,8,10,12-hexanitro-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexaazaisowurtzitane (CL-20) by denitrifying Pseudomonas sp. strain FA1.

    PubMed

    Bhushan, Bharat; Paquet, Louise; Spain, Jim C; Hawari, Jalal

    2003-09-01

    The microbial and enzymatic degradation of a new energetic compound, 2,4,6,8,10,12-hexanitro-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexaazaisowurtzitane (CL-20), is not well understood. Fundamental knowledge about the mechanism of microbial degradation of CL-20 is essential to allow the prediction of its fate in the environment. In the present study, a CL-20-degrading denitrifying strain capable of utilizing CL-20 as the sole nitrogen source, Pseudomonas sp. strain FA1, was isolated from a garden soil. Studies with intact cells showed that aerobic conditions were required for bacterial growth and that anaerobic conditions enhanced CL-20 biotransformation. An enzyme(s) involved in the initial biotransformation of CL-20 was shown to be membrane associated and NADH dependent, and its expression was up-regulated about 2.2-fold in CL-20-induced cells. The rates of CL-20 biotransformation by the resting cells and the membrane-enzyme preparation were 3.2 +/- 0.1 nmol h(-1) mg of cell biomass(-1) and 11.5 +/- 0.4 nmol h(-1) mg of protein(-1), respectively, under anaerobic conditions. In the membrane-enzyme-catalyzed reactions, 2.3 nitrite ions (NO(2)(-)), 1.5 molecules of nitrous oxide (N(2)O), and 1.7 molecules of formic acid (HCOOH) were produced per reacted CL-20 molecule. The membrane-enzyme preparation reduced nitrite to nitrous oxide under anaerobic conditions. A comparative study of native enzymes, deflavoenzymes, and a reconstituted enzyme(s) and their subsequent inhibition by diphenyliodonium revealed that biotransformation of CL-20 is catalyzed by a membrane-associated flavoenzyme. The latter catalyzed an oxygen-sensitive one-electron transfer reaction that caused initial N denitration of CL-20. PMID:12957905

  17. Biotransformation of 2,4,6,8,10,12-Hexanitro-2,4,6,8,10,12-Hexaazaisowurtzitane (CL-20) by Denitrifying Pseudomonas sp. Strain FA1

    PubMed Central

    Bhushan, Bharat; Paquet, Louise; Spain, Jim C.; Hawari, Jalal

    2003-01-01

    The microbial and enzymatic degradation of a new energetic compound, 2,4,6,8,10,12-hexanitro-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexaazaisowurtzitane (CL-20), is not well understood. Fundamental knowledge about the mechanism of microbial degradation of CL-20 is essential to allow the prediction of its fate in the environment. In the present study, a CL-20-degrading denitrifying strain capable of utilizing CL-20 as the sole nitrogen source, Pseudomonas sp. strain FA1, was isolated from a garden soil. Studies with intact cells showed that aerobic conditions were required for bacterial growth and that anaerobic conditions enhanced CL-20 biotransformation. An enzyme(s) involved in the initial biotransformation of CL-20 was shown to be membrane associated and NADH dependent, and its expression was up-regulated about 2.2-fold in CL-20-induced cells. The rates of CL-20 biotransformation by the resting cells and the membrane-enzyme preparation were 3.2 ± 0.1 nmol h−1 mg of cell biomass−1 and 11.5 ± 0.4 nmol h−1 mg of protein−1, respectively, under anaerobic conditions. In the membrane-enzyme-catalyzed reactions, 2.3 nitrite ions (NO2−), 1.5 molecules of nitrous oxide (N2O), and 1.7 molecules of formic acid (HCOOH) were produced per reacted CL-20 molecule. The membrane-enzyme preparation reduced nitrite to nitrous oxide under anaerobic conditions. A comparative study of native enzymes, deflavoenzymes, and a reconstituted enzyme(s) and their subsequent inhibition by diphenyliodonium revealed that biotransformation of CL-20 is catalyzed by a membrane-associated flavoenzyme. The latter catalyzed an oxygen-sensitive one-electron transfer reaction that caused initial N denitration of CL-20. PMID:12957905

  18. Climate Impact on South America due to Land Use Degradation of Amazon Rainforest during Winter and Summer Periods by RegCM3 Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, M. E. S.; Da Rocha, R.; Pereira, G.

    2015-12-01

    In this study we investigated the climatic impact over South America region due to the increasing of deforestation at the eastern and southern regions of Amazon through the use of the climate model RegCM3 with 50 km of spatial resolution. Many studies, among global and regional models have been used to simulate climatic impact due to deforestation. Most of them used relatively coarse resolution, small domains over South America, besides do not consider deforestation as usually observed. In order to verify the RegCM3 ability to simulate climate impacts due to Amazon deforestation including relatively higher horizontal resolutions, 50 km, a larger domain, the whole South America, deforested areas more similar to the route-shaped commonly seen, and a landuse updating, the model was run for the 2001-2006 period. As the major part of the previous studies focusing Amazon deforestation, RegCM3-50km simulated over degraded areas air temperature increase, ranging from 1.0 to 2.5oC, and precipitation decreasing, ~10%. These aspects are mainly resulting from soil water depletion and roughness vegetation decreasing, both inhibiting evapotranspiration processes. Apart from these results, the model with 50 km simulated precipitation increasing, ~10%, over the eastern South America and adjacent South Atlantic ocean, after Amazon deforestation. Seeking for physical related reasons able to provide the precipitation increasing during rainy seasons, over eastern South America, we found out that upper levels high pressure system (the Bolivian High) intensification, coupled to the southeastward trough, what follows the low troposphere warming, seems to contribute to the precipitation increasing. The climatic impact simulated for winter seasons presents strongest values for areas with altered landuse, over the north region of South America.

  19. Tuning The Sea-Ice Seasonal Cycle Of HadCM3: Can It Reproduce Observed Trends In Sea-Ice?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tett, S. F.; Roach, L.; Rae, C.; Cartis, C.; Mineter, M.; Steig, E. J.; Yamazaki, K.; Schurer, A. P.

    2015-12-01

    Since high quality satellite observations of sea-ice begin in 1979 Artic sea-ice extent has declined . Observed losses in Arctic sea-ice during September are greater than the majority of models in the CMIP5 archive and the multi-model average. In contrast Antarctic sea-ice has increased in contrast to an expected decline. We have carried out a set of perturbations to the HadCM3 model in which we changed the maximum ice area (a proxy for ice leads), albedo parameterizations, ice thermal conductivity and ocean diffusion. Changes in these parameters affected ice extent in both the Arctic and Antarctic. We used these simulations to identify four parameters that had most impact on minimum and maximum sea-ice extent in both hemispheres. To tune the model we used a Gauss-Newton algorithm to adjust those four parameters to minimize differences between simulated and observed sea-ice extents. With this new parameter set we then simulated the period 1940 to 2015 and compared with the default configuration of HadCM3. Compared to the default configuration the perturbed model had greater summer sea-loss in the Arctic and is consistent with observed loss estimates. However, in the Antarctic neither the perturbed or default simulations show an increase in sea-ice extent. This is in contrast to the observations which do show an increase in sea-ice extent.

  20. Accurate quantum chemical modelling of the separation of Eu(3+) from Am(3+)/Cm(3+) by liquid-liquid extraction with Cyanex272.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Jun; Weissmann, Daniel; Dolg, Michael; Chen, Xuebo

    2015-08-28

    The experimentally observed extraction complexes of trivalent lanthanide Eu(3+) and actinide Am(3+)/Cm(3+) cations with Cyanex272 [bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl) phosphinic acid, denoted as HC272] and Cyanex301 [bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl) dithiophosphinic acid, denoted as HC301] have been studied by using relativistic energy-consistent 4f- and 5f-in-core pseudopotentials for trivalent f elements, combined with density functional theory and a continuum solvation model. It has been found that, as a result of hydrogen bonding, HC272 exists primarily as a self-associated species, whereas HC301 is preferably a monomer. The calculations show that in case of all three M(3+) (M = Eu, Am, Cm) ions for HC272 the extraction complexes M[H(C272)2]3 are formed prior to M(C272)3, whereas for HC301 the extraction complexes M(C301)3 have priority over M[H(C301)2]3. The calculated M-O and M-S bond lengths and the M-P distances of these preferred extraction complexes agree very well with the available experimental data. The obtained changes of the Gibbs free energies in the liquid-liquid extraction reactions (1): Maqu(3+) + 3(HC272)2,org→ M[H(C272)2]3,org + 3Haqu(+) and (2): Maqu(3+) + 3HC301org→ M(C301)3,org + 3Haqu(+) agree with the experimentally observed thermodynamical priorities of HC272 and HC301, i.e., HC272 prefers Eu(3+) over Am(3+)/Cm(3+) and HC301 prefers Am(3+)/Cm(3+) over Eu(3+). The obtained changes of the Gibbs free energies in reaction (2) (Eu, 68.1 kJ mol(-1); Am, 46.5 kJ mol(-1)) agree quite well with the experimental findings (Eu, 63.3 kJ mol(-1); Am, 44.1 kJ mol(-1)). PMID:26203895

  1. Coffee Beverage Quality Assessment Based on ETA/CPTEC-HadCM3 Model (A1B-IPCC/SRES Scenario), Southeastern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giarolla, A.; Resende, N.; Chou, S. C.; Tavares, P. S.; Rodrigues, D. C.

    2012-04-01

    Environmental factors influence the coffee beverage quality and air temperature has a significant importance in this process. The grain maturation occurs very quickly in regions that present high temperatures and sometimes there is not enough time to complete all this phase adequately. In the other hand, with mild temperatures, the grain maturation occurs more slowly and it promotes a better quality beverage. The aim of this study was to assess the coffee beverage quality in the southeastern Brazil, based on climate projections using the Eta-CPTEC regional model driven by four members of an ensemble of the Met Office Hadley Centre Global Coupled climate model (HadCM3). The global model ensemble was run over the 21st century according to IPCC SRES, A1B emissions scenario. Each ensemble member presented different climate sensitivity in the analysis. The Eta-CPTEC-HadCM3 model was configured with a 40-km grid size and was run over the period of 1961-90 to represent a baseline climate, and over the period of 2011-2100 to simulate possible future changes and the effects on the coffee beverage quality. A coffee beverage quality classification, which depends on the annual air temperature proposed by Bressani (2007) and also, a quality coffee beverage sensory classification, based on Camargo and Cortez (1998) were considered in this study. An evaluation of the systematic errors (BIAS) for each member for the period from 1961 to 1990 was made. The results presented by Eta/CPTEC-HadCM3 model indicated that in the case of an occurrence of A1B emission scenario, the coffee beverage quality could be affected in this region due to the fact that the flavor may become stronger and unpleasant caused by rising air temperatures. The BIAS evaluation and subsequent errors removal demonstrated improvement in the scenarios simulations. A short review concerning agronomic techniques to mitigate extreme meteorological events or global warming on coffee crop based on Camargo (2010) also is

  2. CO 2 measurements on 1-cm 3 ice samples with an IR laserspectrometer (IRLS) combined with a new dry extraction device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zumbrunn, R.; Neftel, A.; Oeschger, H.

    1982-09-01

    A new dry gas extraction and analysis method for small (1 cm 3) ice samples is presented. The extraction device, cooled to -20°C, contains two movable steel needle matrices for crushing the ice. During the crushing process the gas escaping from the ice sample is continuously analyzed for CO 2 with an infrared laserspectrometer. This method enables a fast measurement (few minutes) of the CO 2 concentration in the air bubbles with high spatial resolution in the ice core and a minimum potential contamination. An important CO 2 contamination source due to an interaction of water vapour with surfaces is shortly discussed. The reproducibility of extraction and analysis is ±2%. We analyzed CO 2 concentrations in the trapped air from different ice cores originating from the Greenland ice sheet and from Antarctica.

  3. Tropical Cyclone Paka's Initial Explosive Development (10-12 December, 1997)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodgers, Edward B.; Halverson, Jeff; Simpson, Joanne; Olson, William; Pierce, Harold

    1999-01-01

    Convection associated with an equatorial westerly wind burst was first observed late November during the strong El Nino of 1997 at approximately 2000 km southwest of the Hawaiian Islands. This region of convection lead to the formation of twin tropical cyclones, one in the southern hemisphere named Pam and the other in the northern hemisphere named Paka. During the first week in December, tropical cyclone Paka, the system of concern, reached tropical storm stage as it moved rapidly westward at relatively low latitudes. During the 10-12 of December, Paka rapidly developed into a typhoon.

  4. Serum levels of thrombomodulin, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, and E-selectin in the acute phase of Plasmodium vivax malaria.

    PubMed

    Ohnishi, K

    1999-02-01

    Elevated plasma or serum levels of thrombomodulin (TM), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), and E-selectin have been reported in several diseases. However, plasma or serum levels of TM, ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and E-selectin have not been investigated in the acute phase of Plasmodium vivax malaria. Serum TM, ICAM-1, VCAM-1, E-selectin, and creatinine levels were determined in six Japanese patients in the acute phase of vivax malaria and in seven healthy Japanese controls. Parasitemias of the peripheral blood were < 0.1% in five patients and 0.8% in one patient. The patients' mean +/- SD serum levels of TM, ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and E-selectin were 5.7 +/- 1.3 Fujirebio units/ml, 709 +/- 397 ng/ml, 2,112 +/- 782 ng/ml, and 99 +/- 28 ng/ml, respectively, and all were significantly greater than those in the controls (TM; P < 0.005, ICAM-1; P < 0.025, VCAM-1; P < 0.005, E-selectin; P < 0.025). However, no significant difference was identified between patients and controls for serum creatinine values. The serum levels of TM and VCAM-1 were not related to parasitemia. The elevation of serum TM levels suggests that endothelial cell damage occurs in the acute phase of vivax malaria.

  5. Perovskite CH3NH3PbI3(Cl) Single Crystals: Rapid Solution Growth, Unparalleled Crystalline Quality, and Low Trap Density toward 10(8) cm(-3).

    PubMed

    Lian, Zhipeng; Yan, Qingfeng; Gao, Taotao; Ding, Jie; Lv, Qianrui; Ning, Chuangang; Li, Qiang; Sun, Jia-Lin

    2016-08-01

    Single crystal reflects the intrinsic physical properties of a material, and single crystals with high-crystalline quality are highly desired for the acquisition of high-performance devices. We found that large single crystals of perovskite CH3NH3PbI3(Cl) could be grown rapidly from chlorine-containing solutions. Within 5 days, CH3NH3PbI3(Cl) single crystal as large as 20 mm × 18 mm × 6 mm was harvested. As a most important index to evaluate the crystalline quality, the full width at half-maximum (fwhm) in the high-resolution X-ray rocking curve (HR-XRC) of as-grown CH3NH3PbI3(Cl) single crystal was measured as 20 arcsec, which is far superior to so far reported CH3NH3PbI3 single crystals (∼1338 arcsec). The unparalleled crystalline quality delivered a low trap-state density of down to 7.6 × 10(8) cm(-3), high carrier mobility of 167 ± 35 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1), and long transient photovoltaic carrier lifetime of 449 ± 76 μs. The improvement in the crystalline quality, together with the rapid growth rate and excellent carrier transport property, provides state-of-the-art single crystalline hybrid perovskite materials for high-performance optoelectronic devices. PMID:27458057

  6. Silicon photomultiplier readout of a monolithic 270×5×5 cm3 plastic scintillator bar for time of flight applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinhardt, Tobias P.; Gohl, Stefan; Reinicke, Stefan; Bemmerer, Daniel; Cowan, Thomas E.; Heidel, Klaus; Röder, Marko; Stach, Daniel; Wagner, Andreas; Weinberger, David; Zuber, Kai

    2016-04-01

    The detection of 200-1000 MeV neutrons requires large amounts, ~ 100 cm, of detector material because of the long nuclear interaction length of these particles. In the example of the NeuLAND neutron time-of-flight detector at FAIR, this is accomplished by using 3000 monolithic scintillator bars of 270 × 5 × 5cm3 size made of a fast plastic. Each bar is read out on the two long ends, and the needed time resolution of σt < 150 ps is reached with fast timing photomultipliers. In the present work, it is investigated whether silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) photosensors can be used instead. Experiments with a picosecond laser system were conducted to determine the timing response of the assembly made up of SiPM and preamplifier. The response of the full system including also the scintillator was studied using 30 MeV single electrons provided by the ELBE superconducting electron linac. The ELBE data were matched by a simple Monte Carlo simulation, and they were found to obey an inverse-square-root scaling law. In the electron beam tests, a time resolution of σt = 136 ps was reached with a pure SiPM readout, well within the design parameters for NeuLAND.

  7. Analyzing the Pacific-North American teleconnection pattern and its relationship to climate using RegCM3, a high-resolution regional climate model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allan, A.; Hostetler, S.; Alder, J. R.

    2011-12-01

    The Pacific-North American (PNA) teleconnection pattern has long been recognized as a robust feature of Northern Hemisphere atmospheric circulation, and more specifically represents the structure of the quasi-stationary wave field over the North Pacific and North America. The general circulation model (GCM), MPI/ECHAM5, and the high-resolution regional climate model, RegCM3, have been used to assess and analyze the influence of the PNA on past, present, and future climate and surface hydrology in North America. The model output used for analysis covers 240 years at both T63 grid scale and 50-km resolution following both present climate (20C) and the IPCC A2 SRES run. The present study will examine the spatial and temporal changes in the PNA pattern and index over the length of the model runs. The PNA index and spatial pattern will be based on the linear pointwise method from Wallace and Gutzler (1981) and a rotated principle component analysis (RPCA) (Barnston and Livezey, 1987). Composite maps of both the 500-mb geopotential heights and height anomalies for "extreme" high and low PNA indices will show the height fields for "textbook" positive and negative PNA patterns. Strong correlations exist between the PNA monthly index and both surface temperature and precipitation in North America (Leathers et al., 1991). Studies have found a shift of the PNA index toward more positive values in recent years, which has resulted in warmer temperatures in the Western half of the United States, contributing to more of the precipitation falling as rain rather than snow, as well as increased snow melt and an earlier spring onset (Wallace and Gutzler, 1981; Abatzoglou, 2010; Fauria and Johnson, 2008). Changes in the PNA spatial pattern greatly influence the climate in many Midwestern states since the location of the troughs and ridges associated with the 500-mb planetary wave are not consistent. For those regions in the path of variability, it could mean the difference between an

  8. Electrophysiological signatures of intentional social coordination in the 10-12 Hz range.

    PubMed

    Naeem, Muhammad; Prasad, Girijesh; Watson, David R; Kelso, J A Scott

    2012-01-16

    This study sought to investigate the effects of manipulating social coordination on brain synchronization/de-synchronization in the mu band. Mu activation is associated with understanding and coordinating motor acts and may play a key role in mediating social interaction. Members of a dyad were required to interact with one another in a rhythmic finger movement coordination task under various instructions: intrinsic where each member of the dyad was instructed to maintain their own and ignore their partner's movement; in-phase where they were asked to synchronize with their partner's movement; and anti-phase where they were instructed to syncopate with their partner's movement. EEG and movement data were recorded simultaneously from both subjects during all three tasks and a control condition. Log power ratios of EEG activity in the active conditions versus control were used to assess the effect of task context on synchronization/de-synchronization in the mu spectral domain. Results showed clear and systematic modulation of mu band activity in the 10-12 Hz range as a function of coordination context. In the left hemisphere general levels of alpha-mu suppression increased progressively as one moved from intrinsic through in-phase to anti-phase contexts but with no specific central-parietal focus. In contrast the right hemisphere displayed context-specific changes in the central-parietal region. The intrinsic condition showed a right synchronization which disappeared with the in-phase context even as de-synchronization remained greater in the left hemisphere. Anti-phase was associated with larger mu suppression in the right in comparison with left at central-parietal region. Such asymmetrical changes were highly correlated with changing behavioral dynamics. These specific patterns of activation and deactivation of mu activity suggest that localized neural circuitry in right central-parietal regions mediates how individuals interpret the movements of others in the

  9. Markedly diminished epidermal keratinocyte expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in Sezary syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Nickoloff, B.J.; Griffiths, E.M.; Baadsgaard, O.; Voorhees, J.J.; Hanson, C.A.; Cooper, K.D. )

    1989-04-21

    In mucosis fungoides the malignant T cells express lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1, which allows them to bind to epidermal keratinocytes expressing the gamma interferon-inducible intercellular adhesion molecule-1. In this report, a patient with leukemic-stage mucosis fungoides (Sezary syndrome) had widespread erythematous dermal infiltrates containing malignant T cells, but without any epidermotropism. The authors discovered that the T cells expressed normal amounts of functional lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1, but the keratinocytes did not express significant levels of intercellular adhesion molecule-1, which was probably due to the inability of the malignant T cells to produce gamma interferon. These results support the concept that the inability of malignant T cells to enter the epidermis may contribute to emergence of more clinically aggressive T-cell clones that are no longer confined to the skin, but infiltrate the blood, lymph nodes, and viscera, as is seen in Sezary syndrome.

  10. Sodium chloride in supercritical water as a function of density: potentials of mean force and an equation for the dissociation constant from 723 to 1073 K and from 0 to 0.9 g/cm(3).

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenbin; Wood, Robert H; Doren, Douglas J

    2008-06-19

    The potential of mean force (PMF) of sodium chloride in water has been calculated by using the ab initio classical free-energy perturbation method at five state points: at 973 K with densities of 0.2796, 0.0935, and 0.0101 g/cm (3) and at 723 K with densities of 0.0897 and 0.0098 g/cm (3). The method is based on a QM-MM model in which Na-H 2O, Cl-H 2O, and Na-Cl interactions are calculated by ab initio methods. The water-water interactions are from the polarizable TIP4P-FQ model. The logarithm of the dissociation constant (log K c) has been calculated from the PMF. These predictions, together with experimental measurements, were used to derive an equation for log K c at densities from 0 to 0.9 g/cm (3) and temperatures from 723 to 1073 K, as well as from 600 to 1073 K for densities from 0.29 g/cm (3) to 0.9 g/cm (3). Extrapolation of the present equation below 723 K for densities less than 0.29 g/cm (3) does not fit the experimental results. This is attributed to long-range changes in the local dielectric constant due to the high compressibility. Comparisons with previous predictions and simulations are presented.

  11. Sodium chloride in supercritical water as a function of density: potentials of mean force and an equation for the dissociation constant from 723 to 1073 K and from 0 to 0.9 g/cm(3).

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenbin; Wood, Robert H; Doren, Douglas J

    2008-06-19

    The potential of mean force (PMF) of sodium chloride in water has been calculated by using the ab initio classical free-energy perturbation method at five state points: at 973 K with densities of 0.2796, 0.0935, and 0.0101 g/cm (3) and at 723 K with densities of 0.0897 and 0.0098 g/cm (3). The method is based on a QM-MM model in which Na-H 2O, Cl-H 2O, and Na-Cl interactions are calculated by ab initio methods. The water-water interactions are from the polarizable TIP4P-FQ model. The logarithm of the dissociation constant (log K c) has been calculated from the PMF. These predictions, together with experimental measurements, were used to derive an equation for log K c at densities from 0 to 0.9 g/cm (3) and temperatures from 723 to 1073 K, as well as from 600 to 1073 K for densities from 0.29 g/cm (3) to 0.9 g/cm (3). Extrapolation of the present equation below 723 K for densities less than 0.29 g/cm (3) does not fit the experimental results. This is attributed to long-range changes in the local dielectric constant due to the high compressibility. Comparisons with previous predictions and simulations are presented. PMID:18491938

  12. Synoptic Analysis of the GUFMEX Return-Flow Event of 10-12 March 1988.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merrill, Robert T.

    1992-08-01

    Return flow is the moist southerly wind that develops over the Gulf of Mexico after an outbreak of polar air. Surface, aircraft, and special rawinsonde data collected during the Gulf of Mexico Experiment (GUFMEX) are used to describe the return-flow event of 10-12 March 1988. The return flow at the surface contained both modified polar air and prefrontal air. The surface moist layer was capped by a stable subsident layer except over its western extremity, where an elevated mixed layer was observed. At later stages, a moist layer aloft was present as well.These complex airmass structures arose because both advective and diabatic processes are significant in a return flow. The roles of each are inferred qualitatively by comparing the observed mixing-ratio distribution to the equilibrium conditions expected for the observed sea surface temperatures. The surface moisture distribution can be explained by rapid modification of offshore flow to near equilibrium, followed by onshore (return) flow of the modified air with little additional change. The structure above the surface moist layer is explained by differential advection that juxtaposed three different airstreams. Though no significant severe weather followed this particular case, the processes that typically lead to a favorable severe-weather environment are evident.

  13. 41Ca ultratrace determination with isotopic selectivity > 10(12) by diode-laser-based RIMS.

    PubMed

    Müller, P; Bushaw, B A; Blaum, K; Diel, S; Geppert, C; Nähler, A; Trautmann, N; Nörtershäuser, W; Wendt, K

    2001-07-01

    41Ca ultratrace determination by diode-laser-based resonance ionization mass spectrometry with extremely high isotopic selectivity is presented. Application to environmental dosimetry of nuclear reactor components, to cosmochemical investigations of production cross sections, and biomedical isotope-tracer studies of human calcium kinetics are discussed. Future investigations are possible use in 41Ca-radiodating. Depending on the application, 41Ca isotopic abundances in the range of 10(-9) to 10(-15) relative to the dominant stable isotope 40Ca must be determined. Either double- or triple-resonance optical excitation with narrow-band extended cavity diode lasers and subsequent non-resonant photoionization of calcium in a collimated atomic beam were used. The resulting photoions are detected with a quadrupole mass spectrometer optimized for background reduction and neighboring mass suppression. Applying the full triple-resonance scheme provides a selectivity of approximately 5 x 10(12) in the suppression of neighboring isotopes and > 10(8) for isobars, together with an overall detection efficiency of approximately 5 x 10(-5). Measurements on a variety of sample types are discussed; the accuracy and reproducibility of the resulting 41Ca/40Ca isotope ratios was better than 5%.

  14. Kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) mediates renal epithelial cell repair via ERK MAPK signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhiwei; Cai, Cindy X

    2016-01-01

    The expression of kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), a very promising sensitive and specific urinary biomarker for acute renal injury, is markedly upregulated in injured and regenerating renal proximal tubular epithelial cells following ischemic or toxic insults, suggesting a possible role for this molecule in renal repair process. In the present study we report that expression of KIM-1 facilitates renal tubular epithelial cell repair by promoting cell migration and proliferation. KIM-1 expression also enhances ERK MAPK activation, and the modulatory effect of KIM-1 on cellular repair process is likely mediated via ERK MAPK signaling pathway. PMID:27084535

  15. Regulation of platelet biology by platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1.

    PubMed

    Jones, Chris I; Moraes, Leonardo A; Gibbins, Jonathan M

    2012-01-01

    Platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1), an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif containing receptor, plays diverse and apparently contradictory roles in regulating the response of platelets to stimuli; inhibiting platelet response to immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif and G protein-coupled receptor signalling following stimulation with collagen, adenosine diphosphate, and thrombin, as well as enhancing integrin outside-in signalling. These dual, and opposing, roles suggest an important and complex role for PECAM-1 in orchestrating platelet response to vascular damage. Indeed, during thrombus formation, the influence of PECAM-1 on the multiple signalling pathways combines leading to a relatively large inhibitory effect on thrombus formation. PMID:22035359

  16. Intercellular adhesion molecule 1 is the major adhesion molecule expressed during schistosome granuloma formation.

    PubMed Central

    Ritter, D M; McKerrow, J H

    1996-01-01

    Endothelial cell adhesion molecules play a key role in inflammation by initiating leukocyte trafficking. One of the most complex inflammatory responses is the formation of a cellular granuloma. Expression of adhesion molecules during granuloma formation was investigated by using the murine host reaction to schistosome parasite eggs deposited in the liver as a model. By both immunohistochemistry and lymphocyte adhesion assays, the predominant interaction identified was between intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and its cognate integrin, leukocyte functional antigen 1 (LFA-1). ICAM-1 expression on sinusoidal endothelium was induced when eggs were first deposited in the liver, peaked in parallel with granuloma size, and was downregulated with modulation of the granuloma. Polyacrylamide beads coated with soluble parasite egg antigens could induce ICAM-1 expression on endothelial cells in vitro only in the presence of tumor necrosis factor alpha, a cytokine previously shown to be key to granuloma formation. A role for ICAM-1 in recruiting lymphocytes to the hepatic granuloma was also supported by the observation that lymphocytes preincubated with anti-LFA-1 antibody did not bind to granulomas in tissue sections. While ICAM-1 is the predominant adhesion molecule in schistosome egg granuloma formation in wild-type mice, when the ICAM-1 gene is knocked out, vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 is upregulated and granuloma formation is preserved. PMID:8890229

  17. Elevated vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 in AIDS encephalitis induced by simian immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed Central

    Sasseville, V. G.; Newman, W. A.; Lackner, A. A.; Smith, M. O.; Lausen, N. C.; Beall, D.; Ringler, D. J.

    1992-01-01

    AIDS encephalitis is a common sequela to HIV-1 infection in humans and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVmac) infection in macaques. Although lentiviral-infected macrophages comprise parenchymal inflammatory infiltrates in affected brain tissue, the mechanisms responsible for leukocyte trafficking to the central nervous system in AIDS are unknown. In this study, we investigated the expression of various endothelial-derived leukocyte adhesion proteins in SIVmac-induced AIDS encephalitis. Encephalitic brains from SIVmac-infected macaques, but not uninflamed brains from other SIVmac-infected animals, were found to express abundant vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) protein on the majority of arteriolar, venular, and capillary endothelial cells. Soluble VCAM-1 concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from encephalitic animals were increased approximately 20-fold above those from animals without AIDS encephalitis. Expression of other endothelial-related adhesion molecules, including E-selectin, P-selectin, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), was not uniformly associated with AIDS encephalitis. Thus, the presence of VCAM-1 in both brain and CSF was uniformly associated with SIVmac-induced disease of the central nervous system, and this expression may, at least in part, influence monocyte and lymphocyte recruitment to the central nervous system during the development of AIDS encephalitis. Moreover, measurement of soluble VCAM-1 in CSF may assist in the clinical assessment of animals or people with AIDS. Images Figure 1 PMID:1279978

  18. Strand V: Education for Survival. First Aid and Survival Education. Health Curriculum Materials Grades 10-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Secondary Curriculum Development.

    GRADES OR AGES: Grades 10-12. SUBJECT MATTER: First aid and survival education. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The guide is divided into six sections: transportation of the injured, automobile accidents, conditions resulting from nuclear explosion, chemical warfare, natural catastrophes, and psychological first aid. The publication format…

  19. Dynamics of Clothing II. Curriculum Guide. A Family and Consumer Sciences Education Course of Study for Grades 10-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunger, Dean-Ellen, Ed.; Hancey, Helen-Louise; Hendrickson, Diane; Hicks, Camille; Munns, Barbara; Price, Barbara

    This document is a nine-unit curriculum guide for a high school (grades 10-12) course in clothing instruction. The units contain one or two lessons on the following topics: (1) psychological aspects of clothing (behavior, image, and dress; self-concept and self-image); (2) wardrobe selections (wardrobe consumerism, wardrobe evaluation and…

  20. Inflammatory and immune responses are impaired in mice deficient in intercellular adhesion molecule 1.

    PubMed Central

    Sligh, J E; Ballantyne, C M; Rich, S S; Hawkins, H K; Smith, C W; Bradley, A; Beaudet, A L

    1993-01-01

    Gene targeting was used to produce mice deficient in intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) or CD54, an immunoglobulin-like cell adhesion molecule that binds beta 2 integrins. Homozygous deficient animals develop normally, are fertile, and have a moderate granulocytosis. The nature of the mutation, RNA analysis, and immunostaining are consistent with complete loss of surface expression of ICAM-1. Deficient mice exhibit prominent abnormalities of inflammatory responses including impaired neutrophil emigration in response to chemical peritonitis and decreased contact hypersensitivity to 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene. Mutant cells provided negligible stimulation in the mixed lymphocyte reaction, although they proliferated normally as responder cells. These mutant animals will be extremely valuable for examining the role of ICAM-1 and its counterreceptors in inflammatory disease processes and atherosclerosis. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:8104338

  1. Critical roles of co-activation receptor DNAX accessory molecule-1 in natural killer cell immunity

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Peng; Sang, Hai-Wei; Zhu, Min

    2015-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells, which can exert early and powerful anti-tumour and anti-viral responses, are important components of the innate immune system. DNAX accessory molecule-1 (DNAM-1) is an activating receptor molecule expressed on the surface of NK cells. Recent findings suggest that DNAM-1 is a critical regulator of NK cell biology. DNAM-1 is involved in NK cell education and differentiation, and also plays a pivotal role in the development of cancer, viral infections and immune-related diseases. However, tumours and viruses have developed multiple mechanisms to evade the immune system. They are able to impair DNAM-1 activity by targeting the DNAM-1 receptor–ligand system. We have reviewed the roles of DNAM-1, and its biological functions, with respect to NK cell biology and DNAM-1 chimeric antigen receptor-based immunotherapy. PMID:26235210

  2. Platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 and mechanotransduction in vascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, K

    2006-04-01

    Endothelial cells are known to respond to mechanical forces such as fluid shear stress and cyclic stretch, but elucidating the mechanism for mechanosensing has been difficult. Experimental data indicate that there are probably several sensing mechanisms. We have recently proposed a novel mechanoresponse mechanism that involves platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1). When endothelial cells are stimulated by fluid shear stress, PECAM-1 is tyrosine phosphorylated and activates the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) signalling cascade. The same signalling events occurred when we applied pulling force directly on PECAM-1 on the endothelial cell surface using magnetic beads coated with antibodies against the external domain of PECAM-1. These results appear to indicate that PECAM-1 is a mechanotransduction molecule. To our knowledge, this is the first mammalian molecule that is shown to respond to mechanical force directly exerted to it. PMID:16594905

  3. Amphiregulin enhances intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression and promotes tumor metastasis in human osteosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ju-Fang; Tsao, Ya-Ting; Hou, Chun-Han

    2015-01-01

    Osteosarcoma is a common, high malignant, and metastatic bone cancer. Amphiregulin (AREG) has been associated with cancer cellular activities. However, the effect of AREG on metastasis activity in human osteosarcoma cells has yet to be determined. We determined that AREG increases the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) through PI3K/Akt signaling pathway via its interaction with the epidermal growth factor receptor, thus resulting in the enhanced cell migration of osteosarcoma. Furthermore, AREG stimulation increased the association of NF-κB to ICAM-1 promoter which then up-regulated ICAM-1 expression. Finally, we observed that shRNA silencing of AREG decreased osteosarcoma metastasis in vivo. Our findings revealed a relationship between osteosarcoma metastatic potential and AREG expression and the modulating effect of AREG on ICAM-1 expression. PMID:26503469

  4. Adsorption of 2,4,6,8,10,12-hexanitro-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexaazaisowurtzitane (CL-20) on a soil organic matter. A DFT M05 computational study.

    PubMed

    Sviatenko, Liudmyla K; Gorb, Leonid; Shukla, Manoj K; Seiter, Jennifer M; Leszczynska, Danuta; Leszczynski, Jerzy

    2016-04-01

    Adsorption of 2,4,6,8,10,12-hexanitro-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexaazaisowurtzitane (CL-20) by soil organic matter considering the Leonardite Humic Acid (LHA) model at the M05/tzvp level of Density Functional Theory (DFT) applying cluster approximation has been investigated. Different orientations of CL-20 toward LHA surface were examined. It was found that deprotonation of LHA is required to obtain stable complexes with CL-20. Hydrogen bonds between CL-20 and deprotonated LHA were analyzed applying the atoms in molecules (AIM) theory. An attachment or removal of an electron with respect to the complex does not have significant effect on mutual orientation of the adsorbent in complexes. It was shown that adsorbed CL-20 does not undergo redox transformation and, therefore, adsorption on soil organic matter may be responsible for decrease of the degradation rate of CL-20 in soil.

  5. Adsorption of 2,4,6,8,10,12-hexanitro-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexaazaisowurtzitane (CL-20) on a soil organic matter. A DFT M05 computational study.

    PubMed

    Sviatenko, Liudmyla K; Gorb, Leonid; Shukla, Manoj K; Seiter, Jennifer M; Leszczynska, Danuta; Leszczynski, Jerzy

    2016-04-01

    Adsorption of 2,4,6,8,10,12-hexanitro-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexaazaisowurtzitane (CL-20) by soil organic matter considering the Leonardite Humic Acid (LHA) model at the M05/tzvp level of Density Functional Theory (DFT) applying cluster approximation has been investigated. Different orientations of CL-20 toward LHA surface were examined. It was found that deprotonation of LHA is required to obtain stable complexes with CL-20. Hydrogen bonds between CL-20 and deprotonated LHA were analyzed applying the atoms in molecules (AIM) theory. An attachment or removal of an electron with respect to the complex does not have significant effect on mutual orientation of the adsorbent in complexes. It was shown that adsorbed CL-20 does not undergo redox transformation and, therefore, adsorption on soil organic matter may be responsible for decrease of the degradation rate of CL-20 in soil. PMID:26814703

  6. R-Ras Regulates Murine T Cell Migration and Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 Binding.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xiaocai; Yan, Mingfei; Guo, Yihe; Singh, Gobind; Chen, Yuhong; Yu, Mei; Wang, Demin; Hillery, Cheryl A; Chan, Andrew M

    2015-01-01

    The trafficking of T-lymphocytes to peripheral draining lymph nodes is crucial for mounting an adaptive immune response. The role of chemokines in the activation of integrins via Ras-related small GTPases has been well established. R-Ras is a member of the Ras-subfamily of small guanosine-5'-triphosphate-binding proteins and its role in T cell trafficking has been investigated in R-Ras null mice (Rras-/-). An examination of the lymphoid organs of Rras-/- mice revealed a 40% reduction in the cellularity of the peripheral lymph nodes. Morphologically, the high endothelial venules of Rras-/- mice were more disorganized and less mature than those of wild-type mice. Furthermore, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells from Rras-/- mice had approximately 42% lower surface expression of L-selectin/CD62L. These aberrant peripheral lymph node phenotypes were associated with proliferative and trafficking defects in Rras-/- T cells. Furthermore, R-Ras could be activated by the chemokine, CCL21. Indeed, Rras-/- T cells had approximately 14.5% attenuation in binding to intercellular adhesion molecule 1 upon CCL21 stimulation. Finally, in a graft-versus host disease model, recipient mice that were transfused with Rras-/- T cells showed a significant reduction in disease severity when compared with mice transplanted with wild-type T cells. These findings implicate a role for R-Ras in T cell trafficking in the high endothelial venules during an effective immune response. PMID:26710069

  7. Effect of Cell Adhesion Molecule 1 Expression on Intracellular Granule Movement in Pancreatic α Cells.

    PubMed

    Yokawa, Satoru; Furuno, Tadahide; Suzuki, Takahiro; Inoh, Yoshikazu; Suzuki, Ryo; Hirashima, Naohide

    2016-09-01

    Although glucagon secreted from pancreatic α cells plays a role in increasing glucose concentrations in serum, the mechanism regulating glucagon secretion from α cells remains unclear. Cell adhesion molecule 1 (CADM1), identified as an adhesion molecule in α cells, has been reported not only to communicate among α cells and between nerve fibers, but also to prevent excessive glucagon secretion from α cells. Here, we investigated the effect of CADM1 expression on the movement of intracellular secretory granules in α cells because the granule transport is an important step in secretion. Spinning disk microscopic analysis showed that granules moved at a mean velocity of 0.236 ± 0.010 μm/s in the mouse α cell line αTC6 that expressed CADM1 endogenously. The mean velocity was significantly decreased in CADM1-knockdown (KD) cells (mean velocity: 0.190 ± 0.016 μm/s). The velocity of granule movement decreased greatly in αTC6 cells treated with the microtubule-depolymerizing reagent nocodazole, but not in αTC6 cells treated with the actin-depolymerizing reagent cytochalasin D. No difference in the mean velocity was observed between αTC6 and CADM1-KD cells treated with nocodazole. These results suggest that intracellular granules in pancreatic α cells move along the microtubule network, and that CADM1 influences their velocity. PMID:27262873

  8. Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule 1: testing for a role in insect immunity, behaviour and reproduction.

    PubMed

    Peuß, Robert; Wensing, Kristina U; Woestmann, Luisa; Eggert, Hendrik; Milutinović, Barbara; Sroka, Marlene G U; Scharsack, Jörn P; Kurtz, Joachim; Armitage, Sophie A O

    2016-04-01

    Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule 1 (Dscam1) has wide-reaching and vital neuronal functions although the role it plays in insect and crustacean immunity is less well understood. In this study, we combine different approaches to understand the roles that Dscam1 plays in fitness-related contexts in two model insect species. Contrary to our expectations, we found no short-term modulation of Dscam1 gene expression after haemocoelic or oral bacterial exposure in Tribolium castaneum, or after haemocoelic bacterial exposure in Drosophila melanogaster. Furthermore, RNAi-mediated Dscam1 knockdown and subsequent bacterial exposure did not reduce T. castaneum survival. However, Dscam1 knockdown in larvae resulted in adult locomotion defects, as well as dramatically reduced fecundity in males and females. We suggest that Dscam1 does not always play a straightforward role in immunity, but strongly influences behaviour and fecundity. This study takes a step towards understanding more about the role of this intriguing gene from different phenotypic perspectives. PMID:27152227

  9. Differing roles for B7 and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 in negative selection of thymocytes

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    To ensure self tolerance, immature thymocytes with high binding affinity for self peptides linked to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules are eliminated in situ via apoptosis (negative selection). The roles of two costimulatory molecules, B7-1 and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), in negative selection was examined by studying apoptosis of T cell receptor transgenic CD4+8+ thymocytes cultured with specific peptides presented by MHC class I- transfected Drosophila cells. When coexpressed on these cells, B7-1 and ICAM-1 act synergistically and cause strong class 1-restricted negative selection of thymocytes. When expressed separately, however, B7-1 and ICAM-1 display opposite functions: negative selection is augmented by B7-1, but is inhibited by ICAM-1. It is notable that B7-1 is expressed selectively in the thymic medulla, whereas ICAM-1 is expressed throughout the thymus. Because of this distribution, the differing functions of B7-1 and ICAM-1 may dictate the sites of positive and negative selection. Thus, in the cortex, the presence of ICAM-1, but not B7-1, on the cortical epithelium may preclude or reduce negative selection and thereby promote positive selection. Conversely, the combined expression of B7-1 and ICAM-1 may define the medulla as the principal site of negative selection. PMID:8760806

  10. RNA released from necrotic keratinocytes upregulates intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression in melanocytes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shujie; Liu, Shuangchun; Yu, Ning; Xiang, Leihong

    2011-12-01

    Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression has been detected in melanocytes around active vitiligo patches as well as in surgically transplanted melanocytes. However, it is unclear whether and how skin injury induces the inappropriate expression of ICAM-1 and other proinflammatory genes in melanocytes. We previously reported that human melanocytes expressed TLR3. We hypothesized that the TLR3 expressed in melanocytes may recognize skin injury by binding to the endogenous ligands secreted by the damaged keratinocytes. Here we showed that RNA released from necrotic keratinocytes induced the upregulation of ICAM-1 protein and mRNA, as shown by FACS and real-time RT-PCR. Use of NF-κB inhibitor prevents upregulation of ICAM-1 in melanocytes indicating a direct role of NF-κB in necrotic keratinocyte-mediated upregulation of ICAM-1. Using a shRNA-expressing lentivirus, we demonstrated that in human melanocytes, TLR3 seems to be necessary for the upregulation of ICAM-1. Using oligonucleotide microarray, we demonstrated a dramatic increase in proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine transcripts (CXCL10, CXCL11, TNFSF10, CCL5, CCL4, CCL2, IFNB1, CCL20, IL-8, and CCL11). These observations suggested that RNA released from necrotic keratinocytes might act as an endogenous TLR3 ligand for the stimulation of ICAM-1 and other proinflammatory gene expression in human melanocytes, which might be involved in the pathogenesis of vitiligo following skin physical trauma.

  11. Kidney Injury Molecule-1 and Cardiovascular Diseases: From Basic Science to Clinical Practice

    PubMed Central

    Medić, Branislava; Rovčanin, Branislav; Basta Jovanović, Gordana; Radojević-Škodrić, Sanja; Prostran, Milica

    2015-01-01

    Despite the recent findings concerning pathogenesis and novel therapeutic strategies, cardiovascular disease (CVD) still stays the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with renal dysfunction, especially acute kidney injury (AKI). Early detection of patients with impaired renal function with cardiovascular risk may help ensure more aggressive treatment and improve clinical outcome. Kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) is a new, promising marker of kidney damage which is currently the focus of countless studies worldwide. Some recent animal and human studies established KIM-1 as an important marker of acute tubular necrosis (ATN) and reliable predictor of development and prognosis of AKI. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in USA acclaimed KIM-1 as an AKI biomarker for preclinical drug development. Recent data suggest the importance of monitoring of KIM-1 for early diagnosis and clinical course not only in patients with various forms of AKI and other renal diseases but also in patients with cardiorenal syndrome, heart failure, cardiopulmonary bypass, cardiothoracic surgical interventions in the pediatric emergency setting, and so forth. The aim of this review article is to summarize the literature data concerning KIM-1 as a potential novel marker in the early diagnosis and prediction of clinical outcome of certain cardiovascular diseases. PMID:26697493

  12. Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule 1: testing for a role in insect immunity, behaviour and reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Wensing, Kristina U.; Eggert, Hendrik; Scharsack, Jörn P.

    2016-01-01

    Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule 1 (Dscam1) has wide-reaching and vital neuronal functions although the role it plays in insect and crustacean immunity is less well understood. In this study, we combine different approaches to understand the roles that Dscam1 plays in fitness-related contexts in two model insect species. Contrary to our expectations, we found no short-term modulation of Dscam1 gene expression after haemocoelic or oral bacterial exposure in Tribolium castaneum, or after haemocoelic bacterial exposure in Drosophila melanogaster. Furthermore, RNAi-mediated Dscam1 knockdown and subsequent bacterial exposure did not reduce T. castaneum survival. However, Dscam1 knockdown in larvae resulted in adult locomotion defects, as well as dramatically reduced fecundity in males and females. We suggest that Dscam1 does not always play a straightforward role in immunity, but strongly influences behaviour and fecundity. This study takes a step towards understanding more about the role of this intriguing gene from different phenotypic perspectives. PMID:27152227

  13. Kidney injury molecule-1 expression is closely associated with renal allograft damage.

    PubMed

    Song, Lianlian; Xue, Lijuan; Yu, Jinyu; Zhao, Jun; Zhang, Wenlan; Fu, Yaowen

    2013-08-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate the expression of kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) in renal allograft biopsy samples and assess the clinical significance of its use as a biomarker for tissue damage. A total of 69 renal allograft biopsy samples from 17 patients with normal serum creatinine and 52 cases of increased serum creatinine were collected. They were divided into different groups according to the Banff 2007 diagnostic criteria. KIM-1 expression was detected by immunohistochemical methods and the association of KIM-1 and blood biochemical indexes was analyzed. KIM-1 expression increased as Banff 2007 classification grade increased and was positively correlated with tubular inflammation severity in the acute T-cell rejection group. Moreover, KIM-1 expression was strongly positive in the chronic active antibody-mediated rejection group. Interestingly, KIM-1 was weakly positive in the normal group without obvious acute rejection and injury of immunosuppressant toxicity. In this group, 27.3% (3/11) of the cases with normal serum creatinine level showed weakly positive KIM-1 expression in their renal tissues. KIM-1 expression level is positively correlated with renal allograft damage and tubular cell injury. KIM-1 is expressed in tubular epithelial cells before blood biochemical indexes become elevated and morphological changes occur. KIM-1 expression is an early, sensitive, and specific biomarker to determine renal tubular epithelial cell injury in renal allograft tissue.

  14. The Prion Protein Controls Polysialylation of Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule 1 during Cellular Morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Mehrabian, Mohadeseh; Brethour, Dylan; Wang, Hansen; Xi, Zhengrui; Rogaeva, Ekaterina; Schmitt-Ulms, Gerold

    2015-01-01

    Despite its multi-faceted role in neurodegenerative diseases, the physiological function of the prion protein (PrP) has remained elusive. On the basis of its evolutionary relationship to ZIP metal ion transporters, we considered that PrP may contribute to the morphogenetic reprogramming of cells underlying epithelial-to-mesenchymal transitions (EMT). Consistent with this hypothesis, PrP transcription increased more than tenfold during EMT, and stable PrP-deficient cells failed to complete EMT in a mammalian cell model. A global comparative proteomics analysis identified the neural cell adhesion molecule 1 (NCAM1) as a candidate mediator of this impairment, which led to the observation that PrP-deficient cells fail to undergo NCAM1 polysialylation during EMT. Surprisingly, this defect was caused by a perturbed transcription of the polysialyltransferase ST8SIA2 gene. Proteomics data pointed toward β-catenin as a transcriptional regulator affected in PrP-deficient cells. Indeed, pharmacological blockade or siRNA-based knockdown of β-catenin mimicked PrP-deficiency in regards to NCAM1 polysialylation. Our data established the existence of a PrP-ST8SIA2-NCAM signaling loop, merged two mature fields of investigation and offer a simple model for explaining phenotypes linked to PrP. PMID:26288071

  15. The Prion Protein Controls Polysialylation of Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule 1 during Cellular Morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Mehrabian, Mohadeseh; Brethour, Dylan; Wang, Hansen; Xi, Zhengrui; Rogaeva, Ekaterina; Schmitt-Ulms, Gerold

    2015-01-01

    Despite its multi-faceted role in neurodegenerative diseases, the physiological function of the prion protein (PrP) has remained elusive. On the basis of its evolutionary relationship to ZIP metal ion transporters, we considered that PrP may contribute to the morphogenetic reprogramming of cells underlying epithelial-to-mesenchymal transitions (EMT). Consistent with this hypothesis, PrP transcription increased more than tenfold during EMT, and stable PrP-deficient cells failed to complete EMT in a mammalian cell model. A global comparative proteomics analysis identified the neural cell adhesion molecule 1 (NCAM1) as a candidate mediator of this impairment, which led to the observation that PrP-deficient cells fail to undergo NCAM1 polysialylation during EMT. Surprisingly, this defect was caused by a perturbed transcription of the polysialyltransferase ST8SIA2 gene. Proteomics data pointed toward β-catenin as a transcriptional regulator affected in PrP-deficient cells. Indeed, pharmacological blockade or siRNA-based knockdown of β-catenin mimicked PrP-deficiency in regards to NCAM1 polysialylation. Our data established the existence of a PrP-ST8SIA2-NCAM signaling loop, merged two mature fields of investigation and offer a simple model for explaining phenotypes linked to PrP. PMID:26288071

  16. Functional studies of truncated soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 expressed in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Martin, S; Martin, A; Staunton, D E; Springer, T A

    1993-01-01

    We have expressed in Escherichia coli the two N-terminal immunoglobulin (Ig)-like domains of the intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1). The first 188 residues of ICAM-1 were expressed with an N-terminal methionine (MP188) or as a maltose-binding fusion protein which was cleaved with factor Xa (XP188). After refolding, both MP188 and XP188 were active in binding to the leukocyte integrin lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1, which has previously been shown to bind to the N-terminal Ig domain of ICAM-1. The major group of rhinoviruses and malaria-infected erythrocytes bind to distinct sites within the first Ig-like domain of ICAM-1. Both MP188 and XP188 bound to malaria-infected erythrocytes; however, only XP188 inhibited human rhinovirus plaque formation. A product (MdQ1P188) with the initiation methionine fused to residue 2, i.e., with glutamine 1 deleted, inhibited plaque formation. MdQ1P188 was able to induce a conformational change of the virus capsid as shown by conversion of 149S particles to 85S particles, whereas MP188 had no effect. These results show that functionally active fragments of ICAM-1 can be produced in E. coli, that glycosylation is not required for ligand binding, and that the N-terminal residue of ICAM-1 is proximal to or part of the human rhinovirus-binding site. Images PMID:8101071

  17. Role of Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 in Radiation-Induced Brain Injury

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, K.-L.; Tu Ba; Li Yuqing; Wong, C. Shun

    2010-01-15

    Purpose: To determine the role of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in the pathogenesis of brain injury after irradiation (IR). Methods and Materials: We assessed the expression of ICAM-1 in mouse brain after cranial IR and determined the histopathologic and behavioral changes in mice that were either wildtype (+/+) or knockout (-/-) of the ICAM-1 gene after IR. Results: There was an early dose-dependent increase in ICAM-1 mRNA and protein expression after IR. Increased ICAM-1 immunoreactivity was observed in endothelia and glia of ICAM-1+/+ mice up to 8 months after IR. ICAM-1-/- mice showed no expression. ICAM-1+/+ and ICAM-1-/- mice showed similar vascular abnormalities at 2 months after 10-17 Gy, and there was evidence for demyelination and inhibition of hippocampal neurogenesis at 8 months after 10 Gy. After 10 Gy, irradiated ICAM-1+/+ and ICAM-1-/- mice showed similar behavioral changes at 2-6 months in open field, light-dark chamber, and T-maze compared with age-matched genotype controls. Conclusion: There is early and late upregulation of ICAM-1 in the vasculature and glia of mouse brain after IR. ICAM-1, however, does not have a causative role in the histopathologic injury and behavioral dysfunction after moderate single doses of cranial IR.

  18. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression by skeletal muscle cells augments myogenesis.

    PubMed

    Goh, Qingnian; Dearth, Christopher L; Corbett, Jacob T; Pierre, Philippe; Chadee, Deborah N; Pizza, Francis X

    2015-02-15

    We previously demonstrated that the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) by skeletal muscle cells after muscle overload contributes to ensuing regenerative and hypertrophic processes in skeletal muscle. The objective of the present study is to reveal mechanisms through which skeletal muscle cell expression of ICAM-1 augments regenerative and hypertrophic processes of myogenesis. This was accomplished by genetically engineering C2C12 myoblasts to stably express ICAM-1, and by inhibiting the adhesive and signaling functions of ICAM-1 through the use of a neutralizing antibody or cell penetrating peptide, respectively. Expression of ICAM-1 by cultured skeletal muscle cells augmented myoblast-myoblast adhesion, myotube formation, myonuclear number, myotube alignment, myotube-myotube fusion, and myotube size without influencing the ability of myoblasts to proliferate or differentiate. ICAM-1 augmented myotube formation, myonuclear accretion, and myotube alignment through a mechanism involving adhesion-induced activation of ICAM-1 signaling, as these dependent measures were reduced via antibody and peptide inhibition of ICAM-1. The adhesive and signaling functions of ICAM-1 also facilitated myotube hypertrophy through a mechanism involving myotube-myotube fusion, protein synthesis, and Akt/p70s6k signaling. Our findings demonstrate that ICAM-1 expression by skeletal muscle cells augments myogenesis, and establish a novel mechanism through which the inflammatory response facilitates growth processes in skeletal muscle.

  19. Polymorphisms in the intercellular adhesion molecule 1 gene and cancer risk: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Weifeng; Wang, Yafeng; Chen, Yuanmei; Gu, Haiyong; Chen, Shuchen; Kang, Mingqiang

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The correlation between intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) common polymorphisms (rs5498 A>G and rs3093030 C>T) and cancer susceptibility has been explored in various ethnic groups and different cancer types; however, these investigations have yielded contradictory results. To address the relationship more precisely, we performed this meta-analysis. Design and methods: EmBase, PubMed and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) databases were searched by two authors independently for eligible publications before April 8, 2015. Random-effects or fixed-effects model was harnessed to calculate the pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) when appropriate. Results: The result suggested that the ICAM-1 rs5498 A>G polymorphism is not associated with cancer susceptibility in overall cancer. In a stratified analysis by ethnicity, a significant increased cancer risk was identified among Asians, but the inverse association was found among Caucasians. In a stratified analysis by cancer type, ICAM-1 rs5498 A>G polymorphism was associated with a significantly increased risk of oral cancer, but with protection from colorectal cancer and melanoma. ICAM-1 rs3093030 C>T polymorphism is not correlated with cancer susceptibility. Conclusions: In summary, this meta-analysis highlights that the ICAM-1 rs5498 A>G polymorphism probably contributes to decreased susceptibility to cancer, especially in Caucasians, in melanoma and colorectal cancer subgroup, but it may be a risk factor for oral cancer and Asians. PMID:26550112

  20. Solubility of chlorargyrite (AgCl(cr./l.)) in water: New experimental data and a predictive model valid for a wide range of temperatures (273-873 K) and water densities (0.01-1 g·cm-3)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akinfiev, Nikolay N.; Zotov, Alexander V.

    2016-04-01

    The solubility of chlorargyrite, AgCl(cr./l.), in pure water at 623, 673 and 753 (±2) K as a function of pressure in a wide range aqueous densities (0.01-0.7 g·cm-3) was determined using various experimental approaches. Combined theoretical quantum chemistry simulations of Ag speciation and structure with a recently developed equation of state (EoS) for aqueous neutral species (Akinfiev and Diamond, 2003) were applied to describe published and newly made AgCl(cr./l.) solubility measurements in water. The use of the employed EoS for AgCl(H2O)(aq) cluster is found out to provide a good description of the whole set of experimental measurements in a wide range of temperatures (273-753 K), water densities (0.01-0.7 g·cm-3), and pressures of 0.1-100 MPa. Also, the proposed AgCl(H2O)(aq) thermodynamic description is proved to be valid for a dense aqueous fluid (0.7-1 g·cm-3) at 273-623 K and saturation water pressure. Although silver obviously shows greater affinity to dense aqueous fluid, AgCl hydration in the vapour phase is demonstrated to be also significant. A model extrapolation to magmatic conditions predicts an appreciable silver content even in low density fluids, thus supporting the hypothesis of metal transport with vapour.

  1. Differential up-regulation of circulating soluble and endothelial cell intercellular adhesion molecule-1 in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Komatsu, S.; Flores, S.; Gerritsen, M. E.; Anderson, D. C.; Granger, D. N.

    1997-01-01

    Although circulating levels of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) are frequently used as an indicator of the severity of different immune, inflammatory, or neoplastic diseases, little is known about the factors that govern plasma sICAM-1 concentration and its relationship to the membranous form of ICAM-1 (mICAM-1) expressed on vascular endothelial cells. Plasma sICAM-1 concentration (measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) and mICAM-1 expression (measured using the dual radiolabeled monoclonal antibody technique) in different vascular beds (eg, lung, small intestine, and spleen) were monitored in wild-type (C57BL) and ICAM-1-deficient mice, before and after administration of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha. In wild-type mice, TNF-alpha elicited time-dependent increases in lung and intestine mICAM-1 (plateau achieved at 12 hours), with a corresponding increase in plasma sICAM-1 (peaked at 5 hours and then declined). The initial increases in mICAM-1 and pulmonary leukocyte sequestration (measured as lung myeloperoxidase activity) induced by TNF-alpha preceded any detectable elevation in sICAM-1. In ICAM-1-deficient mice, plasma sICAM-1 was reduced by approximately 70%, with > 95% reductions of mICAM-1 in lung and intestine, and > 75% reduction in splenic accumulation of anti-ICAM-1 antibody. Although TNF-alpha doubled plasma sICAM-1 in ICAM-1-deficient mice, mICAM-1 was unaffected in all tissues. Either splenectomy or pretreatment with cycloheximide resulted in an attenuated TNF-induced increase in sICAM-1, without affecting mICAM-1 expression. These findings indicate that plasma sICAM-1 concentration does not accurately reflect the level of ICAM-1 expression on endothelial cells in different vascular beds. PMID:9212746

  2. R-Ras Regulates Murine T Cell Migration and Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 Binding

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Xiaocai; Yan, Mingfei; Guo, Yihe; Singh, Gobind; Chen, Yuhong; Yu, Mei; Wang, Demin; Hillery, Cheryl A.; Chan, Andrew M.

    2015-01-01

    The trafficking of T-lymphocytes to peripheral draining lymph nodes is crucial for mounting an adaptive immune response. The role of chemokines in the activation of integrins via Ras-related small GTPases has been well established. R-Ras is a member of the Ras-subfamily of small guanosine-5’-triphosphate-binding proteins and its role in T cell trafficking has been investigated in R-Ras null mice (Rras−/−). An examination of the lymphoid organs of Rras−/− mice revealed a 40% reduction in the cellularity of the peripheral lymph nodes. Morphologically, the high endothelial venules of Rras−/− mice were more disorganized and less mature than those of wild-type mice. Furthermore, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells from Rras−/− mice had approximately 42% lower surface expression of L-selectin/CD62L. These aberrant peripheral lymph node phenotypes were associated with proliferative and trafficking defects in Rras−/− T cells. Furthermore, R-Ras could be activated by the chemokine, CCL21. Indeed, Rras−/− T cells had approximately 14.5% attenuation in binding to intercellular adhesion molecule 1 upon CCL21 stimulation. Finally, in a graft-versus host disease model, recipient mice that were transfused with Rras−/− T cells showed a significant reduction in disease severity when compared with mice transplanted with wild-type T cells. These findings implicate a role for R-Ras in T cell trafficking in the high endothelial venules during an effective immune response. PMID:26710069

  3. Carcinoembryonic Antigen Cell Adhesion Molecule 1 long isoform modulates malignancy of poorly differentiated colon cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Arabzadeh, Azadeh; Dupaul-Chicoine, Jeremy; Breton, Valérie; Haftchenary, Sina; Yumeen, Sara; Turbide, Claire; Saleh, Maya; McGregor, Kevin; Greenwood, Celia M T; Akavia, Uri David; Blumberg, Richard S; Gunning, Patrick T; Beauchemin, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Objective Nearly 20%–29% of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) succumb to liver or lung metastasis and there is a dire need for novel targets to improve the survival of patients with metastasis. The long isoform of the Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1-L or CC1-L) is a key regulator of immune surveillance in primary CRC, but its role in metastasis remains largely unexplored. We have examined how CC1-L expression impacts on colon cancer liver metastasis. Design Murine MC38 transfected with CC1-L were evaluated in vitro for proliferation, migration and invasion, and for in vivo experimental liver metastasis. Using shRNA silencing or pharmacological inhibition, we delineated the role in liver metastasis of Chemokine (C-C motif) Ligand 2 (CCL2) and Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3) downstream of CC1-L. We further assessed the clinical relevance of these findings in a cohort of patients with CRC. Results MC38-CC1-L-expressing cells exhibited significantly reduced in vivo liver metastasis and displayed decreased CCL2 chemokine secretion and reduced STAT3 activity. Down-modulation of CCL2 expression and pharmacological inhibition of STAT3 activity in MC38 cells led to reduced cell invasion capacity and decreased liver metastasis. The clinical relevance of our findings is illustrated by the fact that high CC1 expression in patients with CRC combined with some inflammation-regulated and STAT3-regulated genes correlate with improved 10-year survival. Conclusions CC1-L regulates inflammation and STAT3 signalling and contributes to the maintenance of a less-invasive CRC metastatic phenotype of poorly differentiated carcinomas. PMID:25666195

  4. Environmental exposure to arsenic and chromium in children is associated with kidney injury molecule-1.

    PubMed

    Cárdenas-González, M; Osorio-Yáñez, C; Gaspar-Ramírez, O; Pavković, M; Ochoa-Martínez, A; López-Ventura, D; Medeiros, M; Barbier, O C; Pérez-Maldonado, I N; Sabbisetti, V S; Bonventre, J V; Vaidya, V S

    2016-10-01

    Environmental hazards from natural or anthropological sources are widespread, especially in the north-central region of Mexico. Children represent a susceptible population due to their unique routes of exposure and special vulnerabilities. In this study we evaluated the association of exposure to environmental kidney toxicants with kidney injury biomarkers in children living in San Luis Potosi (SLP), Mexico. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 83 children (5-12 years of age) residents of Villa de Reyes, SLP. Exposure to arsenic, cadmium, chromium, fluoride and lead was assessed in urine, blood and drinking water samples. Almost all tap and well water samples had levels of arsenic (81.5%) and fluoride (100%) above the permissible levels recommended by the World Health Organization. Mean urine arsenic (45.6ppb) and chromium (61.7ppb) were higher than the biological exposure index, a reference value in occupational settings. Using multivariate adjusted models, we found a dose-dependent association between kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) across chromium exposure tertiles [(T1: reference, T2: 467pg/mL; T3: 615pg/mL) (p-trend=0.001)]. Chromium upper tertile was also associated with higher urinary miR-200c (500 copies/μl) and miR-423 (189 copies/μL). Arsenic upper tertile was also associated with higher urinary KIM-1 (372pg/mL). Other kidney injury/functional biomarkers such as serum creatinine, glomerular filtration rate, albuminuria, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin and miR-21 did not show any association with arsenic, chromium or any of the other toxicants evaluated. We conclude that KIM-1 might serve as a sensitive biomarker to screen children for kidney damage induced by environmental toxic agents. PMID:27431456

  5. Anti-interleukin-33 Reduces Ovalbumin-Induced Nephrotoxicity and Expression of Kidney Injury Molecule-1

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of anti-interleukin-33 (anti-IL-33) on a mouse model of ovalbumin (OVA)-induced acute kidney injury (AKI). Methods: Twenty-four female BALB/c mice were assigned to 4 groups: group A (control, n=6) was administered sterile saline intraperitoneally (i.p.) and intranasally (i.n.); group B (allergic, n=6) was administered i.p./i.n. OVA challenge; group C (null treatment, n=6) was administered control IgG i.p. before OVA challenge; and group D (anti-IL-33, n=6) was pretreated with 3.6 µg of anti-IL-33 i.p. before every OVA challenge. The following were evaluated after sacrifice: serum blood urea nitrogen and creatinine levels, Kidney injury molecule-1 gene (Kim-1) and protein (KIM-1) expression in renal parenchyma, and expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), phosphorylated endothelial NOS (p-eNOS), and phosphorylated AMP kinase (p-AMPK) proteins in renal parenchyma. Results: After OVA injection and intranasal challenge, mice in groups B and C showed significant increases in the expression of Kim-1 at both the mRNA and protein levels. After anti-IL-33 treatment, mice in group D showed significant Kim-1 down-regulation at the mRNA and protein levels. Group D also showed significantly lower COX-2 protein expression, marginally lesser iNOS expression than groups B and C, and p-eNOS and p-AMPK expression at baseline levels. Conclusions: Kim-1 could be a useful marker for detecting early-stage renal injury in mouse models of OVA-induced AKI. Further, anti-IL-33 might have beneficial effects on these mouse models. PMID:27377943

  6. Vascular endothelial platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1 (PECAM-1) regulates advanced metastatic progression

    PubMed Central

    DeLisser, Horace; Liu, Yong; Desprez, Pierre-Yves; Thor, Ann; Briasouli, Paraskevei; Handumrongkul, Chakrapong; Wilfong, Jonathon; Yount, Garret; Nosrati, Mehdi; Fong, Sylvia; Shtivelman, Emma; Fehrenbach, Melane; Cao, Gaoyuan; Moore, Dan H.; Nayak, Shruti; Liggitt, Denny; Kashani-Sabet, Mohammed; Debs, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Most patients who die from cancer succumb to treatment-refractory advanced metastatic progression. Although the early stages of tumor metastasis result in the formation of clinically silent micrometastatic foci, its later stages primarily reflect the progressive, organ-destructive growth of already advanced metastases. Early-stage metastasis is regulated by multiple factors within tumor cells as well as by the tumor microenvironment (TME). In contrast, the molecular determinants that control advanced metastatic progression remain essentially uncharacterized, precluding the development of therapies targeted against it. Here we show that the TME, functioning in part through platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1 (PECAM-1), drives advanced metastatic progression and is essential for progression through its preterminal end stage. PECAM-1–KO and chimeric mice revealed that its metastasis-promoting effects are mediated specifically through vascular endothelial cell (VEC) PECAM-1. Anti–PECAM-1 mAb therapy suppresses both end-stage metastatic progression and tumor-induced cachexia in tumor-bearing mice. It reduces proliferation, but not angiogenesis or apoptosis, within advanced tumor metastases. Because its antimetastatic effects are mediated by binding to VEC rather than to tumor cells, anti–PECAM-1 mAb appears to act independently of tumor type. A modified 3D coculture assay showed that anti–PECAM-1 mAb inhibits the proliferation of PECAM-1–negative tumor cells by altering the concentrations of secreted factors. Our studies indicate that a complex interplay between elements of the TME and advanced tumor metastases directs end-stage metastatic progression. They also suggest that some therapeutic interventions may target late-stage metastases specifically. mAb-based targeting of PECAM-1 represents a TME-targeted therapeutic approach that suppresses the end stages of metastatic progression, until now a refractory clinical entity. PMID:20926749

  7. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression by skeletal muscle cells augments myogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Goh, Qingnian; Dearth, Christopher L.; Corbett, Jacob T.; Pierre, Philippe; Chadee, Deborah N.; Pizza, Francis X.

    2015-02-15

    We previously demonstrated that the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) by skeletal muscle cells after muscle overload contributes to ensuing regenerative and hypertrophic processes in skeletal muscle. The objective of the present study is to reveal mechanisms through which skeletal muscle cell expression of ICAM-1 augments regenerative and hypertrophic processes of myogenesis. This was accomplished by genetically engineering C2C12 myoblasts to stably express ICAM-1, and by inhibiting the adhesive and signaling functions of ICAM-1 through the use of a neutralizing antibody or cell penetrating peptide, respectively. Expression of ICAM-1 by cultured skeletal muscle cells augmented myoblast–myoblast adhesion, myotube formation, myonuclear number, myotube alignment, myotube–myotube fusion, and myotube size without influencing the ability of myoblasts to proliferate or differentiate. ICAM-1 augmented myotube formation, myonuclear accretion, and myotube alignment through a mechanism involving adhesion-induced activation of ICAM-1 signaling, as these dependent measures were reduced via antibody and peptide inhibition of ICAM-1. The adhesive and signaling functions of ICAM-1 also facilitated myotube hypertrophy through a mechanism involving myotube–myotube fusion, protein synthesis, and Akt/p70s6k signaling. Our findings demonstrate that ICAM-1 expression by skeletal muscle cells augments myogenesis, and establish a novel mechanism through which the inflammatory response facilitates growth processes in skeletal muscle. - Highlights: • We examined mechanisms through which skeletal muscle cell expression of ICAM-1 facilitates events of in vitro myogenesis. • Expression of ICAM-1 by cultured myoblasts did not influence their ability to proliferate or differentiate. • Skeletal muscle cell expression of ICAM-1 augmented myoblast fusion, myotube alignment, myotube–myotube fusion, and myotube size. • ICAM-1 augmented myogenic processes through

  8. Environmental exposure to arsenic and chromium in children is associated with kidney injury molecule-1.

    PubMed

    Cárdenas-González, M; Osorio-Yáñez, C; Gaspar-Ramírez, O; Pavković, M; Ochoa-Martínez, A; López-Ventura, D; Medeiros, M; Barbier, O C; Pérez-Maldonado, I N; Sabbisetti, V S; Bonventre, J V; Vaidya, V S

    2016-10-01

    Environmental hazards from natural or anthropological sources are widespread, especially in the north-central region of Mexico. Children represent a susceptible population due to their unique routes of exposure and special vulnerabilities. In this study we evaluated the association of exposure to environmental kidney toxicants with kidney injury biomarkers in children living in San Luis Potosi (SLP), Mexico. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 83 children (5-12 years of age) residents of Villa de Reyes, SLP. Exposure to arsenic, cadmium, chromium, fluoride and lead was assessed in urine, blood and drinking water samples. Almost all tap and well water samples had levels of arsenic (81.5%) and fluoride (100%) above the permissible levels recommended by the World Health Organization. Mean urine arsenic (45.6ppb) and chromium (61.7ppb) were higher than the biological exposure index, a reference value in occupational settings. Using multivariate adjusted models, we found a dose-dependent association between kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) across chromium exposure tertiles [(T1: reference, T2: 467pg/mL; T3: 615pg/mL) (p-trend=0.001)]. Chromium upper tertile was also associated with higher urinary miR-200c (500 copies/μl) and miR-423 (189 copies/μL). Arsenic upper tertile was also associated with higher urinary KIM-1 (372pg/mL). Other kidney injury/functional biomarkers such as serum creatinine, glomerular filtration rate, albuminuria, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin and miR-21 did not show any association with arsenic, chromium or any of the other toxicants evaluated. We conclude that KIM-1 might serve as a sensitive biomarker to screen children for kidney damage induced by environmental toxic agents.

  9. Expression of intercellular adhesive molecule-1 in liver cancer tissues andliver cancer metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jing-Jing; Zhou, Xin-Da; Zhou, Ge; Liu, Yin-Kun

    1998-01-01

    AIM: To study the relationship between intercellular adhesive molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and liver cancer metastasis and to search for factors to predict metastasis of liver cancer. METHODS: ICAM-1 expression in fresh tissues of normal liver and hepatocellular cancer (HCC) was examined by immunoperoxidase staining. The expression of ICAM-1 in human hepatoma, tumor surrounding tissues and normal livers were semiquantitatively analyzed by Dot immuno blot. Tissue ICAM-1 expression at mRNA level was detected by Northern blot. RESULTS: All 6 cases of normal liver samples were negative in anti-ICAM-1 immunohistochemical staining, 80.0% (36/45) of HCC presented various ICAM-1 expression. The number of positive cells was a little higher in large tumors, tumors with intact capsule and metastasis, but there was no significant difference. Two cases with cancer embolus also had high ICAM-1 expression. ICAM-1 concentration in HCC (13.43 ± 0.09) was higher than that in tumor surrounding tissues (5.89 ± 0.17, P < 0.01) and normal livers (4.27 ± 0.21, P < 0.01). It was also higher in metastasis group (20.24 ± 0.30) than in nonmetastasis group (10.23 ± 0.12, P < 0.05). Northern blot analysis revealed that ICAM-1 expression at mRNA level was also higher in HCC and cancer embolus than that in tumor surrounding tissues and normal livers. CONCLUSION: Tissue ICAM-1 could indicate the growth and metastasis of HCC, and may be an index that can predict liver cancer metastasis. PMID:11819275

  10. The crystal structure and morphology of 2,4,6,8,10,12-hexanitro-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexaazaisowurtzitane (CL-20) p-xylene solvate: a joint experimental and simulation study.

    PubMed

    Shen, Fanfan; Lv, Penghao; Sun, Chenghui; Zhang, Rubo; Pang, Siping

    2014-01-01

    The crystal structure of 2,4,6,8,10,12-hexanitro-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexaazaiso-wurtzitane (CL-20) p-xylene solvate, and the solvent effects on the crystal faces of CL-20 were studied through a combined experimental and theoretical method. The properties were analyzed by thermogravimetry-differential scanning calorimetry (TG-DSC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD).The growth morphology of CL-20p-xylene solvate crystal was predicted with a modified attachment energy model. The crystal structure of CL-20p-xylene solvate belonged to the Pbca space group with the unit cell parameters, a=8.0704(12) Å, b=13.4095(20) Å, c=33.0817(49) Å, and Z=4, which indicated that the p-xylene solvent molecules could enter the crystal lattice of CL-20 and thus the CL-20 p-xylene solvate is formed. According to the solvent-effected attachment energy calculations, (002) and (11-1) faces should not be visible at all, while the percentage area of the (011) face could be increased from 7.81% in vacuum to 12.51% in p-xylene solution. The predicted results from the modified attachment energy model agreed very well with the observed morphology of crystals grown from p-xylene solution. PMID:25401400

  11. Prevalence of Malocclusion among 10-12-year-old Schoolchildren in Kozhikode District, Kerala: An Epidemiological Study

    PubMed Central

    Jeseem, MT; Kumar, TV Anupam

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: A malocclusion is an irregularity of the teeth or a malrelationship of the dental arches beyond the range of what is accepted as normal. Objectives: To determine the prevalence of malocclusion in children aged 10-12 years in Kozhikode district of Kerala, South India. Materials and methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among schoolchildren aged 10-12 years in six schools in Kozhikode district of Kerala, South India. A total of 2,366 children satisfied the inclusion criteria. Occlusal characteristics like crossbite, open bite, deep bite, protrusion of teeth, midline deviations, midline diastema and tooth rotation were recorded. The data were tabulated and analyzed using Chi-square test. Results: The results revealed that the overall prevalence of malocclusion was 83.3%. Of this, 69.8% of the children had Angle’s class I malocclusion, 9.3% had class II malocclusion (division 1 = 8.85%, division 2 = 0.5%) and 4.1% had class III malocclusion; 23.2% showed an increased overjet (>3 mm), 0.4% reverse overjet, 35.6% increased overbite (>3 mm), 0.29% open bite, 7.2% crossbite with 4.6% crossbite of complete anterior teeth, 63.3% deviation of midline, 0.76% midline diastema and 3.25% rotated tooth. No significant differences in gender distributions of malocclusions were noted except for increased overjet and overbite. Conclusion: There is high prevalence of malocclusion among schoolchildren in Kozhikode district of Kerala. Early interception and early correction of these malocclusions will eliminate the potential irregularities and malpositions in the developing dentofacial complex. How to cite this article: Narayanan RK, Jeseem MT, Kumar TVA. Prevalence of Malocclusion among 10-12-year-old Schoolchildren in Kozhikode District, Kerala: An Epidemiological Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(1):50-55. PMID:27274156

  12. Unstable Isomer of C90 Fullerene Isolated as Chloro Derivatives, C90 (1)Cl10/12.

    PubMed

    Chilingarov, Norbert S; Troyanov, Sergey I

    2016-07-01

    High-temperature chlorination of C90 -containing fullerene fraction resulted in the isolation and X-ray structural characterization of C90 (1)Cl10/12 , the first derivatives of a relatively unstable isomer D5h -C90 (1) with a nanotubular shape. In the crystal structure, three isomers of both C90 (1)Cl10 and C90 (1)Cl12 with similar chlorination patterns co-crystallize in the same crystallographic site. Thus, in contrast to the previous reports, D5h -C90 (1) is present, though with a low abundance, in the fullerene soot produced by arc-discharge method with undoped graphite rods. PMID:27311795

  13. Expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 on macrophages in vitro as a marker of activation.

    PubMed

    Bernatchez, S F; Atkinson, M R; Parks, P J

    1997-10-01

    Macrophage activation is a major component of wound healing. It also determines the extent of inflammatory reactions and the response of the body to implanted materials. We have previously shown, using an in vitro model, that the extent of spreading of macrophages on different materials is a marker of activation, and that a soluble inducer has a dose-response effect on the secretion of cytokines in the culture medium. This work investigates the expression of three different cell surface markers [macrophages MAC-1, MAC-3 and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1)] on macrophages in vitro using confocal microscopy and shows that ICAM-1 is also a marker of macrophage activation in this model. We observed increased amounts of ICAM-1 on activated macrophages compared to unactivated macrophages, whereas MAC-1 and MAC-3 were either expressed constitutively or demonstrated no quantitative change in expression after activation under the same experimental conditions. We also tested the expression of ICAM-1 with various concentrations of soluble inducers (lipopolysaccharide, 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1 and 10 micrograms ml-1. S-27609, 0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2 and 3 micrograms ml-1 and on a sheet of polylactic acid alone or in combination with soluble inducers. All doses of soluble inducers induced the expression of ICAM-1 on cells grown in glass chamber slides. The induction was not dose related but seemed to work rather in an on-off manner. There was no effect of material on ICAM-1 expression on the cell surface when no soluble inducer was added. This was similar to cytokine secretion, which was not induced by our material alone. When either lipopolysaccharide or S-27609 was used in combination with the material, there was an increase in the average measured intensity of ICAM-1. In this in vitro model, ICAM-1 staining as measured by confocal microscopy is a marker for macrophage activation. Our results suggest that the extent of macrophage activation as measured by ICAM-1 and by

  14. Medullary carcinoma is associated with expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1. Implication to its morphology and its clinical behavior.

    PubMed Central

    Bacus, S. S.; Zelnick, C. R.; Chin, D. M.; Yarden, Y.; Kaminsky, D. B.; Bennington, J.; Wen, D.; Marcus, J. N.; Page, D. L.

    1994-01-01

    The histological hallmarks for the diagnosis of medullary breast cancer are circumscription, syncytial architecture, diffuse inflammatory infiltrate, and highly atypical nuclei. The biological and prognostic implication is a lower propensity to metastasize. We studied 19 medullary carcinomas for expression of the intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and lymphocyte-function-associated antigen-1, Neu differentiation factor, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and the expression of HER-2/neu, HER-4, and HER-3 receptors. Our study revealed that all of the 19 medullary carcinomas expressed the intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and lymphocyte function associated antigen. Eighteen of 19 cancers expressed Neu differentiation factor and tumor necrosis factor-alpha. All medullary cancers expressed the HER-2/neu receptor, however, in the majority of the cases, the staining was confined to the cytoplasm. Only 4 of 12 cancers expressed HER-4 and none of the eight medullary cancers tested expressed HER-3. By comparison, in a control group of infiltrating ductal carcinomas, expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1, lymphocyte function associated antigen-1, and Neu differentiation factor was positive in about 25 to 30% of the cases, HER-4 was expressed in 75% and HER-3 in 95% of the cases. Taken together, our observations suggest that the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1, lymphocyte function associated antigen, Neu differentiation factor, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha as factors that may affect the special morphology and the biological behavior that characterizes medullary carcinomas. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:7992839

  15. Endothelial activation by hydrogen peroxide. Selective increases of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and major histocompatibility complex class I.

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, J. R.; Johnson, D. R.; Pober, J. S.

    1993-01-01

    Products of activated leukocytes may alter vascular endothelial cell (EC) function. For example, ECs respond to leukocyte-derived cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF) or interleukin-1, by reversibly altering levels of expression of specific gene products that promote inflammation. In contrast, hydrogen peroxide, a product of TNF-activated neutrophils, can produce irreversible EC injury and death. In this study, we have investigated the effects of subinjurious concentrations of hydrogen peroxide on EC inflammatory functions. Treatment with 50 to 100 mumol/L hydrogen peroxide selectively increases surface expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and major histocompatibility complex class I, but not endothelial leukocyte adhesion molecule-1 (also known as E-selectin), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, or gp96, a constitutively expressed EC surface protein. Increased major histocompatibility complex class I and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 surface expression is associated with specifically increased messenger RNA levels, suggesting selective endothelial gene activation. Hydrogen peroxide does not activate the transcription factor Nuclear Factor kappa B, an important mediator of TNF-induced gene expression. Co-treatment with hydrogen peroxide inhibits TNF-induced gene expression at 4 hours, an effect which can be attributed to reversible inhibition of TNF binding to EC surface receptors. Hydrogen peroxide also antagonizes the actions of interleukin-1. At 24 hours, TNF and hydrogen peroxide produce, at most, additive increases in intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and major histocompatibility complex class I. These results suggest that subinjurious concentrations of hydrogen peroxide can activate endothelium and that the effects of hydrogen peroxide on ECs differ from those of inflammatory cytokines. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:8098585

  16. DFT studies on a high-energy density cage compound 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11-hexo(N(CH3)NO2)-2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12-hexaazatetracyclo[5, 5, 0, 0, 0] dodecane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiao-Hong; Yong, Yong-Liang; Zhang, Xian-Zhou

    2014-04-01

    The infrared and Raman spectra, heat of formation (HOF) and thermodynamic properties were investigated by B3LYP/6-31G** method for a new designed polynitro cage compound 1,3,5,7,9,11-hexo(N(CH3)NO2)-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexaazatetracyclo[5,5,0,0,0]dodecane. The detonation velocity (D) and pressure (P) were predicted by the Kamlet-Jacobs equations based on the theoretical density and condensed HOF. The bond dissociation energies and bond orders for the weakest bonds were analysed to investigate the thermal stability of the title compound. The computational result shows that the detonation velocity and pressure of the title compound are superior to those of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), but inferior to those of 1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetraazacyclooctane (HMX) and hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane (HNIW). And the analysis of thermal stability shows that the first step of pyrolysis is the rupture of the N7-NO2 bond. The crystal structure obtained by molecular mechanics belongs to the P21 space group, with the lattice parameters Z = 2, a = 11.8246 Å, b = 10.4632 Å, c = 15.9713 Å, ρ = 1.98 g cm-3.

  17. Colorimetric Detection of Some Highly Hydrophobic Flavonoids Using Polydiacetylene Liposomes Containing Pentacosa-10,12-diynoyl Succinoglycan Monomers

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Deokgyu; Jeong, Daham; Cho, Eunae; Jung, Seunho

    2015-01-01

    Flavonoids are a group of plant secondary metabolites including polyphenolic molecules, and they are well known for antioxidant, anti-allergic, anti-inflammatory and anti-viral propertied. In general, flavonoids are detected with various non-colorimetric detection methods such as column liquid chromatography, thin-layer chromatography, and electrochemical analysis. For the first time, we developed a straightforward colorimetric detection system allowing recognition of some highly hydrophobic flavonoids such as alpha-naphthoflavone and beta-naphthoflavone, visually using 10,12-pentacosadiynoic acid (PCDA) derivatized with succinoglycan monomers isolated from Sinorhizobium meliloti. Besides changes in visible spectrum, we also demonstrate fluorescence changes using our detection system in the presence of those flavonoids. The succinoglycan monomers attached to PCDA molecules may function as an unstructured molecular capturer for some highly hydrophobic flavonoids by hydrophobic interactions, and transmit their molecular interactions as a color change throughout the PCDA liposome. PMID:26600071

  18. Surface complexation studied via combined grazing-incidence EXAFS and surface diffraction: Arsenate on hematite (0001) and (10-12)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waychunas, G.; Trainor, T.; Eng, P.; Catalano, J.; Brown, G.; Davis, J.; Rogers, J.; Bargar, J.

    2005-01-01

    X-ray diffraction [crystal-truncation-rod (CTR)] studies of the surface structure of moisture-equilibrated hematite reveal sites for complexation not present on the bulk oxygen-terminated surface, and impose constraints on the types of inner-sphere sorption topologies. We have used this improved model of the hematite surface to analyze grazing-incidence EXAFS results for arsenate sorption on the c(0001) and r(10-12) surfaces measured in two electric vector polarizations. This work shows that the reconfiguration of the surface under moist conditions is responsible for an increased adsorption density of arsenate complexes on the (0001) surface relative to predicted ideal termination, and an abundance of "edge-sharing" bidentate complexes on both studied surfaces. We consider possible limitations on combining the methods due to differing surface sensitivities, and discuss further analysis possibilities using both methods. ?? Springer-Verlag 2005.

  19. The effect of climatic conditions on exercise-induced bronchoconstriction in 10-12 year old students.

    PubMed

    Marefati, Hamid; Vizvari, Exir; Esmaeilizadeh, Mahdi; Boskabady, Mohammad Hossein

    2016-07-01

    Exercise-induced asthma is seen following vigorous or prolonged exercise or physical exertion. It has been suggested that climatic conditions have an influence on exercise-induced asthma. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine the effect of two climatic conditions on exercise-induced deterioration of pulmonary function tests in 10-12 year old students. Two hundred and fifty six students were randomly chosen from two cities namely Kerman and Gorgan (128 subjects in each who were equally from both cities) including 62 girls and 66 boys of 10-12 years old. A questionnaire was used to obtain demographic information and to identify the prevalence of asthma symptoms. Each subject performed a seven-minute free run exercise with maximum effort and sufficient motivation until they reached 70-75% heart rate. Pulmonary function tests (PFT) including, forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), peak expiratory flow (PEF), and maximum expiratory flow at 50% of vital capacity (MEF50) were measured before, at the beginning, and 7 and 20 min after physical activity. The prevalence of both asthma (28.12%) and exercise-induced asthma (20.31%) in Kerman students was higher than those of Gorgan students (21.09% and 17%, respectively). All PFT values declined 7 and 20 min post-exercise in both groups. Although all baselines PFT in Kerman students were higher than those of Gorgan students, the decline in PFT values in Kerman students was greater than those of Gorgan students. At 20 min post exercise, the decline in FEV1, PEF and MEF50 in Kerman students was significantly higher than those of Gorgan students (p < 0.05 to p < 0.01). The results of the present study showed that prevalence of both asthma and exercise-induced asthma in a city with dry and cool climate such as Kerman was higher than in a city with humid climate such as Gorgan. In addition, the results showed that in a humid climate, post-exercise decline in PFT values was

  20. PROCEEDINGS OF RIKEN BNL RESEARCH CENTER WORKSHOP, VOLUME 77, RBRC SCIENTIFIC REVIEW COMMITTEE MEETING, OCTOBER 10-12, 2005

    SciTech Connect

    SAMIOS, N.P.

    2005-10-10

    The eighth evaluation of the RIKEN BNL Research Center (RBRC) took place on October 10-12, 2005, at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The members of the Scientific Review Committee (SRC) were Dr. Jean-Paul Blaizot, Professor Makoto Kobayashi, Dr. Akira Masaike, Professor Charles Young Prescott (Chair), Professor Stephen Sharpe (absent), and Professor Jack Sandweiss. We are grateful to Professor Akira Ukawa who was appointed to the SRC to cover Professor Sharpe's area of expertise. In addition to reviewing this year's program, the committee, augmented by Professor Kozi Nakai, evaluated the RBRC proposal for a five-year extension of the RIKEN BNL Collaboration MOU beyond 2007. Dr. Koji Kaya, Director of the Discovery Research Institute, RIKEN, Japan, presided over the session on the extension proposal. In order to illustrate the breadth and scope of the RBRC program, each member of the Center made a presentation on higher research efforts. In addition, a special session was held in connection with the RBRC QCDSP and QCDOC supercomputers. Professor Norman H. Christ, a collaborator from Columbia University, gave a presentation on the progress and status of the project, and Professor Frithjof Karsch of BNL presented the first physics results from QCDOC. Although the main purpose of this review is a report to RIKEN Management (Dr. Ryoji Noyori, RIKEN President) on the health, scientific value, management and future prospects of the Center, the RBRC management felt that a compendium of the scientific presentations are of sufficient quality and interest that they warrant a wider distribution. Therefore we have made this compilation and present it to the community for its information and enlightenment.

  1. An AFM-based surface oxidation process for heavily carbon-doped p-type GaAs with a hole concentration of 1.5×1021 cm-3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirakashi, J.-I.; Matsumoto, K.; Konagai, M.

    Under appropriate bias conditions in ambient humidity, AFM can be used to selectively oxidize the surface of electronic materials such as metals and semiconductors. Therefore, an AFM-based surface modification technique would be a powerful tool for fabricating nanometer-sized metal (M)/insulator (I) or semiconductor (S)/insulator (I) junction structures. Heavily carbon-doped p-type GaAs with a hole concentration of 1.5×1021 cm-3 is also of great interest for application to novel device structures, because the carrier concentration is comparable to that of normal metals. Selective surface oxidation of carbon-doped p-type GaAs was achieved using a negatively biased conductive tip. The oxidation shown here was carried out under 20-25% ambient humidity. By changing the applied bias voltage and the scanning speed of the cantilever, the size of the modified structure wires was precisely controlled, with a feature size of 10 nm. These results suggest that GaAs-based devices with ultra-small SIS junction systems could be realized using the AFM-based surface oxidation process.

  2. Electrical detection of kidney injury molecule-1 with AlGaN /GaN high electron mobility transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H. T.; Kang, B. S.; Ren, F.; Pearton, S. J.; Johnson, J. W.; Rajagopal, P.; Roberts, J. C.; Piner, E. L.; Linthicum, K. J.

    2007-11-01

    AlGaN /GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) were used to detect kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), an important biomarker for early kidney injury detection. The gate region consisted of 5nm gold deposited onto the AlGaN surface. The gold was conjugated to highly specific KIM-1 antibodies through a self-assembled monolayer of thioglycolic acid. The HEMT source-drain current showed a clear dependence on the KIM-1 concentration in phosphate-buffered saline solution. The limit of detection was 1ng/ml using a 20×50μm2 gate sensing area. This approach shows potential for both preclinical and clinical kidney injury diagnosis with accurate, rapid, noninvasive, and high throughput capabilities.

  3. Electrical detection of kidney injury molecule-1 with AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, H. T.; Kang, B. S.; Ren, F.; Pearton, S. J.; Johnson, J. W.; Rajagopal, P.; Roberts, J. C.; Piner, E. L.; Linthicum, K. J.

    2007-11-26

    AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) were used to detect kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), an important biomarker for early kidney injury detection. The gate region consisted of 5 nm gold deposited onto the AlGaN surface. The gold was conjugated to highly specific KIM-1 antibodies through a self-assembled monolayer of thioglycolic acid. The HEMT source-drain current showed a clear dependence on the KIM-1 concentration in phosphate-buffered saline solution. The limit of detection was 1 ng/ml using a 20x50 {mu}m{sup 2} gate sensing area. This approach shows potential for both preclinical and clinical kidney injury diagnosis with accurate, rapid, noninvasive, and high throughput capabilities.

  4. Carboxylated, heteroaryl-substituted chalcones as inhibitors of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression for use in chronic inflammatory diseases.

    PubMed

    Meng, Charles Q; Ni, Liming; Worsencroft, Kimberly J; Ye, Zhihong; Weingarten, M David; Simpson, Jacob E; Skudlarek, Jason W; Marino, Elaine M; Suen, Ki-Ling; Kunsch, Charles; Souder, Amy; Howard, Randy B; Sundell, Cynthia L; Wasserman, Martin A; Sikorski, James A

    2007-03-22

    Starting from a simple chalcone template, structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies led to a series of carboxylated, heteroaryl-substituted chalcone derivatives as novel, potent inhibitors of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) expression. Correlations between lipophilicity determined by calculated logP values and inhibitory efficacy were observed among structurally similar compounds of the series. Various substituents were found to be tolerated at several positions of the chalcone backbone as long as the compounds fell into the right range of lipophilicity. The chalcone alpha,beta-unsaturated ketone moiety seemed to be the pharmacophore required for inhibition of VCAM-1 expression. Compound 19 showed significant antiinflammatory effects in a mouse model of allergic inflammation, indicating that this series of compounds might have therapeutic value for human asthma and other inflammatory disorders. PMID:17323940

  5. Nitric oxide pretreatment enhances atheroma component highlighting in vivo with intercellular adhesion molecule-1-targeted echogenic liposomes.

    PubMed

    Kee, Patrick H; Kim, Hyunggun; Huang, Shaoling; Laing, Susan T; Moody, Melanie R; Vela, Deborah; Klegerman, Melvin E; McPherson, David D

    2014-06-01

    We present an ultrasound technique for the detection of inflammatory changes in developing atheromas. We used contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging with (i) microbubbles targeted to intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), a molecule of adhesion involved in inflammatory processes in lesions of atheromas in New Zealand White rabbits, and (ii) pretreatment with nitric oxide-loaded microbubbles and ultrasound activation at the site of the endothelium to enhance the permeability of the arterial wall and the penetration of ICAM-1-targeted microbubbles. This procedure increases acoustic enhancement 1.2-fold. Pretreatment with nitric oxide-loaded echogenic liposomes and ultrasound activation can potentially facilitate the subsequent penetration of targeted echogenic liposomes into the arterial wall, thus allowing improved detection of inflammatory changes in developing atheromas.

  6. S fimbriae of uropathogenic Escherichia coli bind to primary human renal proximal tubular epithelial cells but do not induce expression of intercellular adhesion molecule 1.

    PubMed Central

    Kreft, B; Placzek, M; Doehn, C; Hacker, J; Schmidt, G; Wasenauer, G; Daha, M R; van der Woude, F J; Sack, K

    1995-01-01

    We have recently reported an increase of expression of the intercellular adhesion molecule 1 by renal carcinoma cells in response to S fimbriae of Escherichia coli. Now we demonstrate that E. coli expressing S and P fimbriae strongly binds to human proximal tubular epithelial cells. However, in primary and simian virus 40-transfected renal tubular epithelial cells S fimbriae do not enhance the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule 1. PMID:7622256

  7. Development of regional future climate change scenarios in South America using the Eta CPTEC/HadCM3 climate change projections: climatology and regional analyses for the Amazon, São Francisco and the Paraná River basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marengo, Jose A.; Chou, Sin Chan; Kay, Gillian; Alves, Lincoln M.; Pesquero, José F.; Soares, Wagner R.; Santos, Daniel C.; Lyra, André A.; Sueiro, Gustavo; Betts, Richard; Chagas, Diego J.; Gomes, Jorge L.; Bustamante, Josiane F.; Tavares, Priscila

    2012-05-01

    The objective of this study is to assess the climate projections over South America using the Eta-CPTEC regional model driven by four members of an ensemble of the Met Office Hadley Centre Global Coupled climate model HadCM3. The global model ensemble was run over the twenty-first century according to the SRES A1B emissions scenario, but with each member having a different climate sensitivity. The four members selected to drive the Eta-CPTEC model span the sensitivity range in the global model ensemble. The Eta-CPTEC model nested in these lateral boundary conditions was configured with a 40-km grid size and was run over 1961-1990 to represent baseline climate, and 2011-2100 to simulate possible future changes. Results presented here focus on austral summer and winter climate of 2011-2040, 2041-2070 and 2071-2100 periods, for South America and for three major river basins in Brazil. Projections of changes in upper and low-level circulation and the mean sea level pressure (SLP) fields simulate a pattern of weakening of the tropical circulation and strengthening of the subtropical circulation, marked by intensification at the surface of the Chaco Low and the subtropical highs. Strong warming (4-6°C) of continental South America increases the temperature gradient between continental South America and the South Atlantic. This leads to stronger SLP gradients between continent and oceans, and to changes in moisture transport and rainfall. Large rainfall reductions are simulated in Amazonia and Northeast Brazil (reaching up to 40%), and rainfall increases around the northern coast of Peru and Ecuador and in southeastern South America, reaching up to 30% in northern Argentina. All changes are more intense after 2040. The Precipitation-Evaporation (P-E) difference in the A1B downscaled scenario suggest water deficits and river runoff reductions in the eastern Amazon and São Francisco Basin, making these regions susceptible to drier conditions and droughts in the future.

  8. Projections of Future Changes in Extreme Precipitation Events in the Korean Peninsula based on Downscaling by RegCM3 of ECHO-G/S A2 Scenario data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, J.; Lee, H.; Cho, C.

    2010-12-01

    ECHO-G A2 climate scenario is transformed into fine resolution 60km data for East Asia and 20 km data for the Korean peninsula using the RegCM3 having a one-way double-nested system. Comparison between the downscaled and local observed precipitation explains that seasonal spatial patterns of downscaled precipitation show good agreements with those of observed data. In terms of magnitude, however, the data simulated by the ECHO-G/S demonstrate dry biases in the summer and fall precipitation amounts, even though regionally-averaged seasonal downscaled precipitation into 20-km nested grids show also good agreement with those observations. Analyses of future climate change scenarios as well as extreme event trends suggest the following projections: the air temperature which is projected to rise by 1.6 Celcius in the early 21st century and by 4.6 Celcius in the late century would increase water vapor content in the air and result in more heavy rainfalls in summer monsoon. Therefore, precipitation is projected to increase by 6.7 % in the early 21st century, and by 31.9% in the late. Extreme precipitation events would happen more frequently in the warmer climate change environments. To examine changes in extreme events, the generalized extreme value analysis methods for daily maximum rainfall in each year is employed. The results show that over the past 30 years (1971-2000), the peaks of the mean value (location) of the maximum rainfall and 20 year occurrence frequency (20-year return value) are found in the southern coast and Central inland provincial regions of the Korean peninsula, while in the 21st century, the location and 20-year return value over the Korean peninsula would increase in the southern coast, central inland, and northern regions above 39 ° N. Key words: downscaling, one-way double-nested system, generalized extreme value analysis, extreme climatic events Acknowledgement This research was supported by a grant (code#1-9-3) from Sustainable Water

  9. Suggestions for Curriculum Development [And] Handbook High School Grades, Part D, 10-12. Environmental Education Interdependence: A Concept Approach. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, David C.; Wood, Jayne Millar

    Two booklets comprise the grades 10-12 component of a series of guides for incorporating environmental education into the existing curriculum. The guide and handbook emphasize a multidisciplinary approach, use the concept of interdependence as an organizing theme, and offer suggestions for using the local community as a resource. The guide…

  10. Soluble Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 (VCAM-1) as a Biomarker in the Mouse Model of Experimental Autoimmune Myocarditis (EAM)

    PubMed Central

    Grabmaier, U.; Kania, G.; Kreiner, J.; Grabmeier, J.; Uhl, A.; Huber, B. C.; Lackermair, K.; Herbach, N.; Todica, A.; Eriksson, U.; Weckbach, L. T.; Brunner, S.

    2016-01-01

    Vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) is strongly upregulated in hearts of mice with coxsackie virus-induced as well as in patients with viral infection-triggered dilated cardiomyopathy. Nevertheless, the role of its soluble form as a biomarker in inflammatory heart diseases remains unclear. Therefore, we investigated whether plasma levels of soluble VCAM-1 (sVCAM-1) directly correlated with disease activity and progression of cardiac dysfunction in the mouse model of experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM). EAM was induced by immunization of BALB/c mice with heart-specific myosin-alpha heavy chain peptide together with complete Freund`s adjuvant. ELISA revealed strong expression of cardiac VCAM-1 (cVCAM-1) throughout the course of EAM in immunized mice compared to control animals. Furthermore, sVCAM-1 was elevated in the plasma of immunized compared to control mice at acute and chronic stages of the disease. sVCAM-1 did not correlate with the degree of acute cardiac inflammation analyzed by histology or cardiac cytokine expression investigated by ELISA. Nevertheless, heart to body weight ratio correlated significantly with sVCAM-1 at chronic stages of EAM. Cardiac systolic dysfunction studied with positron emission tomography indicated a weak relationship with sVCAM-1 at the chronic stage of the disease. Our data provide evidence that plasma levels of sVCAM-1 are elevated throughout all stages of the disease but showed no strong correlation with the severity of EAM. PMID:27501319

  11. Tissue Kidney Injury Molecule-1 Expression in the Prediction of Renal Function for Several Years after Kidney Biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Simic Ogrizovic, Sanja; Basta-Jovanovic, Gordana; Radojevic, Sanja; Pavlovic, Jelena; Kotur Stevuljevic, Jelena; Dopsaj, Violeta; Naumovic, Radomir

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. Retrospective study was designed to examine the importance of tissue kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) expression in predicting kidney function in sixty patients (27 males) aged 34.15 ± 12.23 years with different kidney diseases over three years after kidney biopsy. Materials and Methods. Tissue KIM-1 expression was determined immunohistochemically and KIM-1 staining was scored semiquantitatively, as well as tubulointerstitialis (TIN), inflammation, atrophy, and fibrosis. Kidney function (MDRD formula) and proteinuria/day were evaluated at the time of biopsy (GFR0) and 6, 12, 24, and 36 months later. Results. Significantly positive correlations between tissue KIM-1 expression and age (r = 0.313), TIN inflammation (r = 0.456), fibrosis (r = 0.317), and proteinuria at 6 months (r = 0.394) as well as negative correlations with GFR0 (r = −0.572), GFR6 (r = −0.442), GFR24 (r = −0.398), and GFR36 (r = −0.412) were found. Meanwhile, TIN inflammation was the best predictor of all measured kidney functions during three years, while tissue KIM-1 expression (P = 0.016) was a predictor only at 6 months after biopsy. Conclusion. Tissue KIM-1 expression significantly predicts kidney function solely at 6 months after biopsy, when the effects of immune and nonimmune treatments are the strongest. PMID:24282337

  12. Molecular Architecture of a Complex between an Adhesion Protein from the Malaria Parasite and Intracellular Adhesion Molecule 1*

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Alan; Turner, Louise; Christoffersen, Stig; Andrews, Katrina A.; Szestak, Tadge; Zhao, Yuguang; Larsen, Sine; Craig, Alister G.; Higgins, Matthew K.

    2013-01-01

    The adhesion of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes to human tissues or endothelium is central to the pathology caused by the parasite during malaria. It contributes to the avoidance of parasite clearance by the spleen and to the specific pathologies of cerebral and placental malaria. The PfEMP1 family of adhesive proteins is responsible for this sequestration by mediating interactions with diverse human ligands. In addition, as the primary targets of acquired, protective immunity, the PfEMP1s are potential vaccine candidates. PfEMP1s contain large extracellular ectodomains made from CIDR (cysteine-rich interdomain regions) and DBL (Duffy-binding-like) domains and show extensive variation in sequence, size, and domain organization. Here we use biophysical methods to characterize the entire ∼300-kDa ectodomain from IT4VAR13, a protein that interacts with the host receptor, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). We show through small angle x-ray scattering that IT4VAR13 is rigid, elongated, and monomeric. We also show that it interacts with ICAM-1 through the DBLβ domain alone, forming a 1:1 complex. These studies provide a first low resolution structural view of a PfEMP1 ectodomain in complex with its ligand. They show that it combines a modular domain arrangement consisting of individual ligand binding domains, with a defined higher order architecture that exposes the ICAM-1 binding surface to allow adhesion. PMID:23297413

  13. Intercellular adhesion molecule 1 serves as a primary cognate receptor for the Type IV pilus of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae.

    PubMed

    Novotny, Laura A; Bakaletz, Lauren O

    2016-08-01

    Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHI) utilizes the Type IV pilus (Tfp) to adhere to respiratory tract epithelial cells thus colonizing its human host; however, the host cell receptor to which this adhesive protein binds is unknown. From a panel of receptors engaged by Tfp expressed by other bacterial species, we showed that the majority subunit of NTHI Tfp, PilA, bound to intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM1) and that this interaction was both specific and of high affinity. Further, Tfp-expressing NTHI inoculated on to polarized respiratory tract epithelial cells that expressed ICAM1 were significantly more adherent compared to Tfp-deficient NTHI or NTHI inoculated on to epithelial cells to which ICAM1 gene expression was silenced. Moreover, pre-incubation of epithelial cells with recombinant soluble PilA (rsPilA) blocked adherence of NTHI, an outcome that was abrogated by admixing rsPilA with ICAM1 prior to application on to the target cells. Epithelial cells infected with adenovirus or respiratory syncytial virus showed increased expression of ICAM1; this outcome supported augmented adherence of Tfp-expressing NTHI. Collectively, these data revealed the cognate receptor for NTHI Tfp as ICAM1 and promote continued development of a Tfp-targeted vaccine for NTHI-induced diseases of the airway wherein upper respiratory tract viruses play a key predisposing role.

  14. Silencing stromal interaction molecule 1 by RNA interference inhibits the proliferation and migration of endothelial progenitor cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kuang, Chun-yan; Yu, Yang; Guo, Rui-wei; Qian, De-hui; Wang, Kui; Den, Meng-yang; Shi, Yan-kun; Huang, Lan

    2010-07-23

    Research highlights: {yields} STIM1 and TRPC1 are expressed in EPCs. {yields} Knockdown of STIM1 inhibits the proliferation, migration and SOCE of EPCs. {yields} TRPC1-SOC cooperates with STIM1 to mediate the SOCE of EPCs. -- Abstract: Knockdown of stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1) significantly suppresses neointima hyperplasia after vascular injury. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are the major source of cells that respond to endothelium repair and contribute to re-endothelialization by reducing neointima formation after vascular injury. We hypothesized that the effect of STIM1 on neointima hyperplasia inhibition is mediated through its effect on the biological properties of EPCs. In this study, we investigated the effects of STIM1 on the proliferation and migration of EPCs and examined the effect of STIM1 knockdown using cultured rat bone marrow-derived EPCs. STIM1 was expressed in EPCs, and knockdown of STIM1 by adenoviral delivery of small interfering RNA (siRNA) significantly suppressed the proliferation and migration of EPCs. Furthermore, STIM1 knockdown decreased store-operated channel entry 48 h after transfection. Replenishment with recombinant human STIM1 reversed the effects of STIM1 knockdown. Our data suggest that the store-operated transient receptor potential canonical 1 channel is involved in regulating the biological properties of EPCs through STIM1. STIM1 is a potent regulator of cell proliferation and migration in rat EPCs and may play an important role in the biological properties of EPCs.

  15. Regulation of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression by IL-4 and TNF-alpha in cultured endothelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Iademarco, M F; Barks, J L; Dean, D C

    1995-01-01

    Interaction between vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) on endothelial cells and alpha 4 integrins on leukocytes is thought to mediate the selective recruitment of eosinophils and lymphocytes that occurs in allergic diseases. IL-4 is associated with allergic conditions, and it has been shown to selectively increase expression of VCAM-1 on endothelial cells in vivo, suggesting that it could be responsible for VCAM-1 expression in allergic disease. Using a combination of immunofluorescence, flow cytometry, and Northern analysis, we compared the effect of TNF-alpha and IL-4 on VCAM-1 expression. TNF-alpha is also associated with allergic diseases, and it rapidly increases transcription of the VCAM-1 gene. The effect of IL-4 was relatively modest with prolonged kinetics: VCAM-1 was not detected until 72 h after treatment with IL-4. However, when TNF-alpha and IL-4 were combined, there was a synergistic increase in VCAM-1 expression and a dramatic prolongation of the appearance of VCAM-1 on the cell surface. This synergy results from a combination of transcriptional activation by TNF-alpha and the stabilization of resulting transcripts by IL-4. We propose that IL-4 allows subthreshold concentrations of TNF-alpha (concentrations that would not normally activate expression of adhesion molecules on the endothelium) to selectively increase VCAM-1 expression and to prolong its appearance on the surface of cells in allergic disease. Images PMID:7529260

  16. Interleukin 3 stimulates proliferation and triggers endothelial-leukocyte adhesion molecule 1 gene activation of human endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Brizzi, M F; Garbarino, G; Rossi, P R; Pagliardi, G L; Arduino, C; Avanzi, G C; Pegoraro, L

    1993-06-01

    Proliferation and functional activation of endothelial cells within a tissue site of inflammation are regulated by humoral factors released by cells, such as T lymphocytes and monocytes, infiltrating the perivascular space. In the present study we investigated the effects of interleukin 3 (IL-3), an activated T lymphocyte-derived cytokine, on cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). Proliferative activity, evaluated both by estimation of the fraction of cells in the S phase and by direct cell count demonstrated that IL-3, at the dose of 25 ng/ml, enhances more than threefold both DNA synthesis and cell proliferation above baseline control conditions. Binding studies with radioiodinated ligand demonstrated that HUVEC constitutively express a smaller number of IL-3 binding sites (approximately 99 binding sites per cell, with an apparent Kd of 149 pM). Accordingly, molecular analysis showed the presence of transcripts for both alpha and beta subunits of the IL-3 receptor. Functional activation of endothelial cells was evaluated by the expression of the endothelial-leukocyte adhesion molecule 1 (ELAM-1) transcript and by leukocyte adhesion. The ELAM-1 gene transcript was clearly detectable 4 h after IL-3 addition and started to decrease after 12 h. Moreover, IL-3-induced ELAM-1 transcription was followed by enhanced adhesion of neutrophils and CD4+ T cells to HUVEC. The findings that IL-3 can stimulate both proliferation and functional activation of endothelial cells suggest that this cytokine can be involved in sustaining the process of chronic inflammation.

  17. Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule-1 regulates granulopoiesis by inhibition of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor receptor.

    PubMed

    Pan, Hao; Shively, John E

    2010-10-29

    Although carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule-1 (CEACAM1) is an activation marker for neutrophils and delays neutrophil apoptosis, the role of CEACAM1 in granulopoiesis and neutrophil-dependent host immune responses has not been investigated. CEACAM1 expression correlated with granulocytic differentiation, and Ceacam1(-/-) mice developed neutrophilia because of loss of the Src-homology-phosphatase-1 (SHP-1)-dependent inhibition of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor receptor (G-CSFR) signal transducer and activator of transcription (Stat3) pathway provided by CEACAM1. Moreover, Ceacam1(-/-) mice were hypersensitive to Listeria Monocytogenes (LM) infection with an accelerated mortality. Reintroduction of CEACAM1 into Ceacam1(-/-) bone marrow restored normal granulopoiesis and host sensitivity to LM infection, while mutation of its immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motifs (ITIMs) abrogated this restoration. shRNA-mediated reduction of Stat3 amounts rescued normal granulopoiesis, attenuating host sensitivity to LM infection in Ceacam1(-/-) mice. Thus, CEACAM1 acted as a coinhibitory receptor for G-CSFR regulating granulopoiesis and host innate immune response to bacterial infections.

  18. Blocking of lung endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (Lu-ECAM-1) inhibits murine melanoma lung metastasis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, D; Cheng, C F; Pauli, B U

    1992-06-01

    The 90-kD lung endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (Lu-ECAM-1) selectively promotes Ca(2+)-dependent adhesion of lung-metastatic B16 melanoma cells. Corresponding with their metastatic performance, high lung-metastatic B16-F10 melanoma cells bind in significantly higher numbers to Lu-ECAM-1 than their intermediate and low lung-metastatic counterparts B16-L8-F10 and B16-F0, respectively. Maximum attachment is observed at a density of approximately 2.4 x 10(2) Lu-ECAM-1 sites/microns2 of plastic surface. B16 melanoma cell binding to Lu-ECAM-1 is blocked by mAb 6D3 and is competitively inhibited by soluble Lu-ECAM-1. C57B1/6 mice passively immunized with anti-Lu-ECAM-1 mAb 6D3 or actively immunized with purified Lu-ECAM-1 exhibit an anti-Lu-ECAM-1 antibody titer-dependent reduction in the number of B16 experimental metastases. Lu-ECAM-1 promotes neither binding nor metastasis of other lung-metastatic tumor cells (e.g., KLN205). Our data indicate that an "antiadhesion" therapy directed at interfering with the adherence of blood-borne tumor cells to organ-specific vascular endothelium is efficient in the control of metastasis formation in selective organ sites.

  19. Blocking of lung endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (Lu-ECAM-1) inhibits murine melanoma lung metastasis.

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, D; Cheng, C F; Pauli, B U

    1992-01-01

    The 90-kD lung endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (Lu-ECAM-1) selectively promotes Ca(2+)-dependent adhesion of lung-metastatic B16 melanoma cells. Corresponding with their metastatic performance, high lung-metastatic B16-F10 melanoma cells bind in significantly higher numbers to Lu-ECAM-1 than their intermediate and low lung-metastatic counterparts B16-L8-F10 and B16-F0, respectively. Maximum attachment is observed at a density of approximately 2.4 x 10(2) Lu-ECAM-1 sites/microns2 of plastic surface. B16 melanoma cell binding to Lu-ECAM-1 is blocked by mAb 6D3 and is competitively inhibited by soluble Lu-ECAM-1. C57B1/6 mice passively immunized with anti-Lu-ECAM-1 mAb 6D3 or actively immunized with purified Lu-ECAM-1 exhibit an anti-Lu-ECAM-1 antibody titer-dependent reduction in the number of B16 experimental metastases. Lu-ECAM-1 promotes neither binding nor metastasis of other lung-metastatic tumor cells (e.g., KLN205). Our data indicate that an "antiadhesion" therapy directed at interfering with the adherence of blood-borne tumor cells to organ-specific vascular endothelium is efficient in the control of metastasis formation in selective organ sites. Images PMID:1601982

  20. Coxsackievirus A21 binds to decay-accelerating factor but requires intercellular adhesion molecule 1 for cell entry.

    PubMed Central

    Shafren, D R; Dorahy, D J; Ingham, R A; Burns, G F; Barry, R D

    1997-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly apparent that many viruses employ multiple receptor molecules in their cell entry mechanisms. The human enterovirus coxsackievirus A21 (CAV21) has been reported to bind to the N-terminal domain of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and undergo limited replication in ICAM-1-expressing murine L cells. In this study, we show that in addition to binding to ICAM-1, CAV21 binds to the first short consensus repeat (SCR) of decay-accelerating factor (DAF). Dual antibody blockade using both anti-ICAM-1 (domain 1) and anti-DAF (SCR1) monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) is required to completely abolish binding and replication of high-titered CAV21. However, the binding of CAV21 to DAF, unlike that to ICAM-1, does not initiate a productive cell infection. The capacity of an anti-DAF (SCR3) MAb to block CAV21 infection but not binding, coupled with immunoprecipitation data from chemical cross-linking studies, indicates that DAF and ICAM-1 are closely associated on the cell surface. It is therefore suggested that DAF may function as a low-affinity attachment receptor either enhancing viral presentation or providing a viral sequestration site for subsequent high-affinity binding to ICAM-1. PMID:9151867

  1. Neutrophils lacking platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 exhibit loss of directionality and motility in CXCR2-mediated chemotaxis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yue; Stabach, Paul; Michaud, Michael; Madri, Joseph A

    2005-09-15

    Time-lapsed videomicroscopy was used to study the migration of platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1-deficient (PECAM-1(-/-)) murine neutrophils undergoing chemotaxis in Zigmond chambers containing IL-8, KC, or fMLP gradients. PECAM-1(-/-) neutrophils failed to translocate up the IL-8, KC, and fMLP gradients. Significant reductions in cell motility and cell spreading were also observed in IL-8 or KC gradients. In wild-type neutrophils, PECAM-1 and F-actin were colocalized at the leading fronts of polarized cells toward the gradient. In contrast, in PECAM-1(-/-) neutrophils, although F-actin also localized to the leading front of migrating cells, F-actin polymerization was unstable, and cycling was remarkably increased compared with that of wild-type neutrophils. This may be due to the decreased cytokine-induced mobilization of the actin-binding protein, moesin, into the cytoskeleton of PECAM-1(-/-) neutrophils. PECAM-1(-/-) neutrophils also exhibited intracellularly dislocalized Src homology 2 domain containing phosphatase 1 (SHP-1) and had less IL-8-induced SHP-1 phosphatase activity. These results suggest that PECAM-1 regulates neutrophil chemotaxis by modulating cell motility and directionality, in part through its effects on SHP-1 localization and activation. PMID:16148090

  2. CCN4 induces vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression in human synovial fibroblasts and promotes monocyte adhesion.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ju-Fang; Hou, Sheng-Mou; Tsai, Chun-Hao; Huang, Chun-Yin; Hsu, Chin-Jung; Tang, Chih-Hsin

    2013-05-01

    CCN4 is a cysteine-rich protein that belongs to the Cyr61, CTGF, Nov family of matricellular proteins. Here, we investigated the intracellular signaling pathways involved in CCN4-induced vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression in human osteoarthritis synovial fibroblasts. Stimulation of OASFs with CCN4 induced VCAM-1 expression. CCN4-induced VCAM-1 expression was attenuated by αvβ5 or α6β1 integrin antibody, Syk inhibitor, PKCδ inhibitor (rottlerin), JNK inhibitor (SP600125), and AP-1 inhibitors (curcumin and tanshinone). Stimulation of cells with CCN4 increased Syk, PKCδ, and JNK activation. Treatment of OASFs with CCN4 also increased c-Jun phosphorylation, AP-1-luciferase activity, and c-Jun binding to the AP-1 element in the VCAM-1 promoter. Moreover, up-regulation of VCAM-1 increased the adhesion of monocytes to OASF monolayers, and this adhesion was attenuated by transfection with a VCAM-1 siRNA. Our results suggest that CCN4 increases VCAM-1 expression in human OASFs via the Syk, PKCδ, JNK, c-Jun, and AP-1 signaling pathways. The CCN4-induced VCAM-1 expression promoted monocyte adhesion to human OASFs. PMID:23313051

  3. Discovery of novel phenolic antioxidants as inhibitors of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression for use in chronic inflammatory diseases.

    PubMed

    Meng, Charles Q; Somers, Patricia K; Hoong, Lee K; Zheng, X Sharon; Ye, Zhihong; Worsencroft, Kimberly J; Simpson, Jacob E; Hotema, Martha R; Weingarten, M David; MacDOnald, Mathew L; Hill, Russell R; Marino, Elaine M; Suen, Ki-Ling; Luchoomun, Jayraz; Kunsch, Charles; Landers, Laura K; Stefanopoulos, Dimitria; Howard, Randy B; Sundell, Cynthia L; Saxena, Uday; Wasserman, Martin A; Sikorski, James A

    2004-12-01

    Vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) mediates recruitment of leukocytes to endothelial cells and is implicated in many inflammatory conditions. Since part of the signal transduction pathway that regulates the activation of VCAM-1 expression is redox-sensitive, compounds with antioxidant properties may have inhibitory effects on VCAM-1 expression. Novel phenolic compounds have been designed and synthesized starting from probucol (1). Many of these compounds demonstrated potent inhibitory effects on cytokine-induced VCAM-1 expression and displayed potent antioxidant effects in vitro. Some of these derivatives (4o, 4p, 4w, and 4x) inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta), and IL-6 from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (hPBMCs) in a concentration-dependent manner in vitro and showed antiinflammatory effects in an animal model. Compounds 4ad and 4ae are currently in clinical trials for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and prevention of chronic organ transplant rejection, respectively. PMID:15566311

  4. Epidermal Expression of Intercellular Adhesion Molecule 1 is Not a Primary Inducer of Cutaneous Inflammation in Transgenic Mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Ifor R.; Kupper, Thomas S.

    1994-10-01

    Keratinocytes at sites of cutaneous inflammation have increased expression of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), a cytokine-inducible adhesion molecule which binds the leukocyte integrins LFA-1 and Mac-1. Transgenic mice were prepared in which the expression of mouse ICAM-1 was targeted to basal keratinocytes by using the human K14 keratin promoter. The level of constitutive expression attained in the transgenic mice exceeded the peak level of ICAM-1 expression induced on nontransgenic mouse keratinocytes in vitro by optimal combinations of interferon γ and tumor necrosis factor α or in vivo by proinflammatory stimuli such as phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate. In vitro adhesion assays demonstrated that cultured transgenic keratinocytes were superior to normal keratinocytes as a substrate for the LFA-1-dependent binding of mouse T cells, confirming that the transgene-encoded ICAM-1 was expressed in a functional form. However, the high level of constitutive ICAM-1 expression achieved on keratinocytes in vivo in these transgenic mice did not result in additional recruitment of CD45^+ leukocytes into transgenic epidermis, nor did it elicit dermal inflammation. Keratinocyte ICAM-1 expression also did not potentiate contact-hypersensitivity reactions to epicutaneous application of haptens. The absence of a spontaneous phenotype in these transgenic mice was not the result of increased levels of soluble ICAM-1, since serum levels of soluble ICAM-1 were equal in transgenic mice and controls. We conclude that elevated ICAM-1 expression on keratinocytes cannot act independently to influence leukocyte trafficking and elicit cutaneous inflammation.

  5. A stromal interaction molecule 1 variant up-regulates matrix metalloproteinase-2 expression by strengthening nucleoplasmic Ca2+ signaling.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fengrong; Zhu, Liping; Cai, Lei; Zhang, Jiwei; Zeng, Xianqin; Li, Jiansha; Su, Yuan; Hu, Qinghua

    2016-04-01

    Very recent studies hold promise to reveal the role of stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1) in non-store-operated Ca2+ entry. Here we showed that in contrast to cytoplasmic membrane redistribution as previously noted, human umbilical vein endothelial STIM1 with a T-to-C nucleotide transition resulting in an amino acid substitution of leucine by proline in the signal peptide sequence translocated to perinuclear membrane upon intracellular Ca2+ depletion, amplified nucleoplasmic Ca2+ signaling through ryanodine receptor-dependent pathway, and enhanced the subsequent cAMP responsive element binding protein activity, matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) gene expression, and endothelial tube forming. The abundance of mutated STIM1 and the MMP-2 expression were higher in native human umbilical vein endothelial cells of patients with gestational hypertension than controls and were significantly correlated with blood pressure. These findings broaden our understanding about structure-function bias of STIM1 and offer unique insights into its application in nucleoplasmic Ca2+, MMP-2 expression, endothelial dysfunction, and pathophysiological mechanism(s) of gestational hypertension. PMID:26775216

  6. Kidney Injury Molecule-1 Protects against Gα12 Activation and Tissue Damage in Renal Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, Ola Z.; Zhang, Xizhong; Wei, Junjun; Haig, Aaron; Denker, Bradley M.; Suri, Rita S.; Sener, Alp; Gunaratnam, Lakshman

    2016-01-01

    Ischemic acute kidney injury is a serious untreatable condition. Activation of the G protein α12 (Gα12) subunit by reactive oxygen species is a major cause of tissue damage during renal ischemia-reperfusion injury. Kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) is a transmembrane glycoprotein that is highly up-regulated during acute kidney injury, but the physiologic significance of this up-regulation is unclear. Here, we report for the first time that Kim-1 inhibits Gα12 activation and protects mice against renal ischemia-reperfusion injury. We reveal that Kim-1 physically interacts with and inhibits cellular Gα12 activation after inflammatory stimuli, including reactive oxygen species, by blocking GTP binding to Gα12. Compared with Kim-1+/+ mice, Kim-1−/− mice exhibited greater Gα12 and downstream Src activation both in primary tubular epithelial cells after in vitro stimulation with H2O2 and in whole kidneys after unilateral renal artery clamping. Finally, we show that Kim-1–deficient mice had more severe kidney dysfunction and tissue damage after bilateral renal artery clamping, compared with wild-type mice. Our results suggest that KIM-1 is an endogenous protective mechanism against renal ischemia-reperfusion injury through inhibition of Gα12. PMID:25759266

  7. Training to improve manual control in 7-8 and 10-12 year old children: Training eliminates performance differences between ages.

    PubMed

    Snapp-Childs, Winona; Fath, Aaron J; Watson, Carol A; Flatters, Ian; Mon-Williams, Mark; Bingham, Geoffrey P

    2015-10-01

    Many children have difficulty producing movements well enough to improve in perceptuo-motor learning. We have developed a training method that supports active movement generation to allow improvement in a 3D tracing task requiring good compliance control. We previously tested 7-8 year old children who exhibited poor performance and performance differences before training. After training, performance was significantly improved and performance differences were eliminated. According to the Dynamic Systems Theory of development, appropriate support can enable younger children to acquire the ability to perform like older children. In the present study, we compared 7-8 and 10-12 year old school children and predicted that younger children would show reduced performance that was nonetheless amenable to training. Indeed, the pre-training performance of the 7-8 year olds was worse than that of the 10-12 year olds, but post-training performance was equally good for both groups. This was similar to previous results found using this training method for children with DCD and age-matched typically developing children. We also found in a previous study of 7-8 year old school children that training in the 3D tracing task transferred to a 2D drawing task. We now found similar transfer for the 10-12 year olds.

  8. New insights into the structure, assembly and biological roles of 10-12 nm connective tissue microfibrils from fibrillin-1 studies.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Sacha A; Handford, Penny A

    2016-04-01

    The 10-12 nm diameter microfibrils of the extracellular matrix (ECM) impart both structural and regulatory properties to load-bearing connective tissues. The main protein component is the calcium-dependent glycoprotein fibrillin, which assembles into microfibrils at the cell surface in a highly regulated process involving specific proteolysis, multimerization and glycosaminoglycan interactions. In higher metazoans, microfibrils act as a framework for elastin deposition and modification, resulting in the formation of elastic fibres, but they can also occur in elastin-free tissues where they perform structural roles. Fibrillin microfibrils are further engaged in a number of cell matrix interactions such as with integrins, bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) and the large latent complex of transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ). Fibrillin-1 (FBN1) mutations are associated with a range of heritable connective disorders, including Marfan syndrome (MFS) and the acromelic dysplasias, suggesting that the roles of 10-12 nm diameter microfibrils are pleiotropic. In recent years the use of molecular, cellular and whole-organism studies has revealed that the microfibril is not just a structural component of the ECM, but through its network of cell and matrix interactions it can exert profound regulatory effects on cell function. In this review we assess what is known about the molecular properties of fibrillin that enable it to assemble into the 10-12 nm diameter microfibril and perform such diverse roles. PMID:27026396

  9. New insights into the structure, assembly and biological roles of 10-12 nm connective tissue microfibrils from fibrillin-1 studies.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Sacha A; Handford, Penny A

    2016-04-01

    The 10-12 nm diameter microfibrils of the extracellular matrix (ECM) impart both structural and regulatory properties to load-bearing connective tissues. The main protein component is the calcium-dependent glycoprotein fibrillin, which assembles into microfibrils at the cell surface in a highly regulated process involving specific proteolysis, multimerization and glycosaminoglycan interactions. In higher metazoans, microfibrils act as a framework for elastin deposition and modification, resulting in the formation of elastic fibres, but they can also occur in elastin-free tissues where they perform structural roles. Fibrillin microfibrils are further engaged in a number of cell matrix interactions such as with integrins, bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) and the large latent complex of transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ). Fibrillin-1 (FBN1) mutations are associated with a range of heritable connective disorders, including Marfan syndrome (MFS) and the acromelic dysplasias, suggesting that the roles of 10-12 nm diameter microfibrils are pleiotropic. In recent years the use of molecular, cellular and whole-organism studies has revealed that the microfibril is not just a structural component of the ECM, but through its network of cell and matrix interactions it can exert profound regulatory effects on cell function. In this review we assess what is known about the molecular properties of fibrillin that enable it to assemble into the 10-12 nm diameter microfibril and perform such diverse roles.

  10. Plasma zinc levels inversely correlate with vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 concentration in children with sickle cell disease.

    PubMed Central

    Kuvibidila, Solo R.; Sandoval, Manuel; Lao, Juan; Velez, Maria; Yu, Lolie; Ode, David; Gardner, Renée; Lane, Gerald; Warrier, Raj P.

    2006-01-01

    Zinc deficiency has been implicated in impaired cell-mediated immunity of children with sickle cell disease (SCD). However, its influence on the expression of vascular cell-adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) on endothelial cells, a protein involved in vasoocclusion, has not been previously investigated. We therefore measured (soluble) sVCAM-1 and zinc in 76 SCD children and 96 non-SCD children, mean age 7.73 years and 11.24 years, respectively. Although mean zinc levels of both groups were within the normal range (approximately 14.5 micromol/l), 14.5 % of SCD and 11% of non-SCD children (without inflammation) had levels below normal (10.7 micromol/L). Mean sVCAM-1 concentrations of SCD children (837 microg/l) were significantly higher than those of controls (627 microg/l) (p < 0.001). Differences persisted after taking into account age, hemoglobin phenotype, and inflammation (alpha-l acid glycoprotein >l g/l and C-reactive protein >10 mg/I). sVCAM-1 negatively correlated with serum (r = -0.444) and red blood cells zinc (r = -0.242, p < 0.05) but not with acute-phase proteins. Mean sVCAM-1 tended to be higher in SCD children with than in those without a history of a health problem (infection, pain crisis or were transfused; not significant). Data suggest that zinc may modulate the clinical status of SCD children through VCAM-1 expression, and zinc supplementation may be beneficial in these patients. PMID:16916123

  11. Prognostic prediction and diagnostic role of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM1) expression in clear cell renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xuebing; Jiang, Jifa; Ye, Xiaobing; Liu, Yanyan; Wu, Qiong; Wang, Lu

    2014-08-01

    The intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM1) has been reported to function in multiple malignancies, but its effect on clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) hasn't been discussed yet. This study aimed to identify the potential role of ICAM1 in prognostic prediction and early diagnosis of ccRCC. ICAM1 expression was inspected by immunohistochemistry and correlated with clinicopathologic variables. Association between protein expression and cancer-specific survival (CSS) of ccRCC patients was evaluated and the value of area under the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve (AUC) was calculated to measure the protein's diagnostic accuracy. ICAM1 was positively immunostained in 83.2% of 173 ccRCC tissues, but negatively immunostained in all the para-cancerous normal epitheliums of renal tubules. High ICAM1 expression was significantly related to male sex (P = 0.00241), T3/T4 stage (P = 0.02249), non-N0M0 stage (P = 0.03797) and positive renal pelvis invasion (P = 0.04227). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis illustrated that high ICAM1 expression was significantly correlated to a decreased CSS (P = 0.00006). Multivariate Cox analysis indicated that ICAM1 was an independent predictor for CSS of patients (P = 0.00451). Furthermore, the AUC value of ICAM1 in diagnosing ccRCC was 0.916 (P < 0.00001). In conclusion, high ICAM1 expression on tumor cells indicates a poor outcome of patients and ICAM1 is likely to be an independent predictor for the prognosis of ccRCC. Moreover, ICAM1 has a high AUC value and may be a potential and useful diagnostic marker. PMID:24535541

  12. Benzo[a]pyrene induces intercellular adhesion molecule-1 through a caveolae and aryl hydrocarbon receptor mediated pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Oesterling, Elizabeth; Toborek, Michal; Hennig, Bernhard

    2008-10-15

    Toxicologic and epidemiologic studies have linked benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) exposure with cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis. The mechanisms of action leading to these diseases have not been fully understood. One key step in the development of atherosclerosis is vascular endothelial dysfunction, which is characterized by increased adhesiveness. To determine if B[a]P could lead to increased endothelial adhesiveness, the effects of B[a]P on human endothelial cell intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression was investigated. B[a]P was able to increase ICAM-1 protein only after pretreatment with the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonist {beta}-naphthoflavone ({beta}-NF). Knockdown of AhR by siRNA or treatment with AhR antagonist {alpha}-naphthoflavone ({alpha}-NF) eliminated the induction of ICAM-1 from B[a]P, confirming the necessity of AhR in this process. Likewise, B[a]P only increased monocyte adhesion to the vascular endothelium when cells were pretreated with {beta}-NF. Experiments were done to define a signaling mechanism. B[a]P increased phosphorylation of MEK and p38-MAPK, and inhibitors to these proteins blunted the ICAM-1 induction. B[a]P was also able to increase AP-1 DNA binding and phosphorylation of cJun. Phosphorylation of cJun was disrupted by MEK and p38-MAPK inhibitors linking the signaling cascade. Finally, the importance of membrane microdomains, caveolae, was demonstrated by knockdown of the structural protein caveolin-1. Disruption of caveolae eliminated the B[a]P-induced ICAM-1 expression. These data suggest a possible pro-inflammatory mechanism of action of B[a]P involving caveolae, leading to increased vascular endothelial adhesiveness, and this inflammation may be a critical step in the development of B[a]P-induced atherosclerosis.

  13. IL-18 regulates IL-1β-dependent hepatic melanoma metastasis via vascular cell adhesion molecule-1

    PubMed Central

    Vidal-Vanaclocha, Fernando; Fantuzzi, Giamila; Mendoza, Lorea; Fuentes, Angela M.; Anasagasti, Miren J.; Martín, Javier; Carrascal, Teresa; Walsh, Patrick; Reznikov, Leonid L.; Kim, Soo-Hyun; Novick, Daniela; Rubinstein, Menachem; Dinarello, Charles A.

    2000-01-01

    Proinflammatory cytokines, including IL-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), promote cancer cell adhesion and liver metastases by up-regulating the expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) on hepatic sinusoidal endothelium (HSE). In this study, hepatic metastasis after intrasplenically injected mouse B16 melanoma (B16M) cells was reduced 84–95% in mice with null mutations for either IL-1β or the IL-1β-converting enzyme (ICE, caspase-1) compared with wild-type mice. On day 12, 47% of wild-type mice were dead compared with 19% of either IL-1β or ICE-deficient mice. In vitro, conditioned medium from B16M cells (B16M-CM) induced the release of TNF-α and IL-1β from cultures of primary murine HSE. The effect of B16M-CM on HSE resulted in increased numbers of B16M cells adhering to HSE, which was completely abrogated by a specific inhibitor of ICE, anti-IL-18 or IL-18-binding protein. Exogenous IL-18 added to HSE also increased the number of adhering melanoma cells; however, this was not affected by IL-1 receptor blockade or TNF neutralization but rather by anti-VCAM-1. These results demonstrate a role for IL-1β and IL-18 in the development of hepatic metastases of B16M in vivo. In vitro, soluble products from B16M cells stimulate HSE to sequentially release TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-18. The IL-18 cytokine increases expression of VCAM-1 and the adherence of melanoma cells. PMID:10639148

  14. Induction of human macrophage vascular endothelial growth factor and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 by Ureaplasma urealyticum and downregulation by steroids.

    PubMed

    Li, Ying-Hua; Brauner, Annelie; Jensen, Jørgen Skov; Tullus, Kjell

    2002-01-01

    Chronic lung disease (CLD) remains a major cause of morbidity for the prematurely born infant. The pathogenesis of CLD is complex and has not been defined entirely. Infection and lung inflammatory events have been thought to play a key role in the development of CLD. However, the contribution of Ureaplasma urealyticum to the development of CLD is debated and steroids produce some improvement in neonates with this disease. The aim of this study was to investigate if U. urealyticum could stimulate macrophages to produce vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in vitro, which are potentially associated with both early and later pathological changes in the lung during the development of CLD. In addition, the impact of dexamethasone and budesonide on these processes was examined. We found that U. urealyticum antigen (>/=4 x 10(7) color-changing units/ml) stimulated human macrophages (phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-differentiated THP-1 cell line) to produce VEGF and soluble ICAM-1 in a dose-dependent manner (p < 0.05) measured by ELISA. Likewise, cell surface ICAM-1 (CD54) measured by flow cytometry was increased after stimulation with U. urealyticum. This effect was attenuated by budesonide and dexamethasone (p < 0.05). The mRNA expressions of VEGF and ICAM-1 detected by a semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction were also induced in response to U. urealyticum and inhibited by the steroids (p < 0.05). The expression of ICAM-1 was reduced by 85.5% when the TNF-alpha production was neutralized with an anti-TNF-alpha antibody. Our findings imply that U. urealyticum might be involved in the development of CLD of prematurity.

  15. Expression of E-Selectin, P-Selectin, and Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 during Experimental Murine Listeriosis

    PubMed Central

    López, Santiago; Prats, Neus; Marco, Alberto Jesús

    1999-01-01

    The expression of adhesion molecules E-selectin, P-selectin, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) was immunohistochemically investigated during the course of experimental murine listeriosis. Infection was monitored by microbiological count of blood, liver, and spleen. After an early generalized expression of P-selectin and ICAM-1, a later regulation occurred specifically to areas of inflammation. Expression of E-selectin was faint and inconstantly detected in all of the studied organs. In the liver, typical lesions of murine listeriosis were related to the expression of ICAM-1 on sinusoidal endothelial cells and the biliary system and to the de novo expression of P-selectin in hepatic portal vessels. Inflammation in the spleen was related to the expression of ICAM-1 on red pulp sinusoidal cells, especially in the marginal sinus. High endothelial venules of inflamed lymph nodes also expressed P-selectin and ICAM-1. Lesions in the central nervous system appeared on day 3 after infection as a pyogranulomatous leptomeningitis associated with an intense expression of P-selectin and ICAM-1 in meningeal vessels, especially those in the hippocampal sulcus, suggesting a way through which inflammation initially reach the central nervous system during experimental murine listeriosis. Leptomeningitis was followed by the presence of ventriculitis, which was related to the up-regulation of ICAM-1 on choroid plexus epithelial cells, periventricular vessels and ependymal cells. Up-regulation of P-selectin and ICAM-1 during experimental murine listeriosis could play an important role in the recruitment of leukocytes, especially to the liver, lymphoid organs, and central nervous system. PMID:10514421

  16. Collaborative Enhancement of Endothelial Targeting of Nanocarriers by Modulating Platelet-Endothelial Cell Adhesion Molecule-1/CD31 Epitope Engagement.

    PubMed

    Chacko, Ann-Marie; Han, Jingyan; Greineder, Colin F; Zern, Blaine J; Mikitsh, John L; Nayak, Madhura; Menon, Divya; Johnston, Ian H; Poncz, Mortimer; Eckmann, David M; Davies, Peter F; Muzykantov, Vladimir R

    2015-07-28

    Nanocarriers (NCs) coated with antibodies (Abs) to extracellular epitopes of the transmembrane glycoprotein PECAM (platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1/CD31) enable targeted drug delivery to vascular endothelial cells. Recent studies revealed that paired Abs directed to adjacent, yet distinct epitopes of PECAM stimulate each other's binding to endothelial cells in vitro and in vivo ("collaborative enhancement"). This phenomenon improves targeting of therapeutic fusion proteins, yet its potential role in targeting multivalent NCs has not been addressed. Herein, we studied the effects of Ab-mediated collaborative enhancement on multivalent NC spheres coated with PECAM Abs (Ab/NC, ∼180 nm diameter). We found that PECAM Abs do mutually enhance endothelial cell binding of Ab/NC coated by paired, but not "self" Ab. In vitro, collaborative enhancement of endothelial binding of Ab/NC by paired Abs is modulated by Ab/NC avidity, epitope selection, and flow. Cell fixation, but not blocking of endocytosis, obliterated collaborative enhancement of Ab/NC binding, indicating that the effect is mediated by molecular reorganization of PECAM molecules in the endothelial plasmalemma. The collaborative enhancement of Ab/NC binding was affirmed in vivo. Intravascular injection of paired Abs enhanced targeting of Ab/NC to pulmonary vasculature in mice by an order of magnitude. This stimulatory effect greatly exceeded enhancement of Ab targeting by paired Abs, indicating that '"collaborative enhancement"' effect is even more pronounced for relatively large multivalent carriers versus free Abs, likely due to more profound consequences of positive alteration of epitope accessibility. This phenomenon provides a potential paradigm for optimizing the endothelial-targeted nanocarrier delivery of therapeutic agents. PMID:26153796

  17. Platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1) inhibits low density lipoprotein-induced signaling in platelets.

    PubMed

    Relou, Ingrid A M; Gorter, Gertie; Ferreira, Irlando Andrade; van Rijn, Herman J M; Akkerman, Jan-Willem N

    2003-08-29

    At physiological concentrations, low density lipoprotein (LDL) increases the sensitivity of platelets to aggregation- and secretion-inducing agents without acting as an independent activator of platelet functions. LDL sensitizes platelets by inducing a transient activation of p38MAPK, a Ser/Thr kinase that is activated by the simultaneous phosphorylation of Thr180 and Tyr182 and is an upstream regulator of cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2). A similar transient phosphorylation of p38MAPK is induced by a peptide mimicking amino acids 3359-3369 in apoB100 called the B-site. Here we report that the transient nature of p38MAPK activation is caused by platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1 (PECAM-1), a receptor with an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif. PECAM-1 activation by cross-linking induces tyrosine phosphorylation of PECAM-1 and a fall in phosphorylated p38MAPK and cPLA2. Interestingly, LDL and the B-site peptide also induce tyrosine phosphorylation of PECAM-1, and studies with immunoprecipitates indicate the involvement of c-Src. Inhibition of the Ser/Thr phosphatases PP1/PP2A (okadaic acid) makes the transient p38MAPK activation by LDL and the B-site peptide persistent. Inhibition of Tyr-phosphatases (vanadate) increases Tyr-phosphorylated PECAM-1 and blocks the activation of p38MAPK. Together, these findings suggest that, following a first phase in which LDL, through its B-site, phosphorylates and thereby activates p38MAPK, a second phase is initiated in which LDL activates PECAM-1 and induces dephosphorylation of p38MAPK via activation of the Ser/Thr phosphatases PP1/PP2A. PMID:12775720

  18. Platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 modulates endothelial cell motility through the small G-protein Rho.

    PubMed

    Gratzinger, Dita; Canosa, Sandra; Engelhardt, Britta; Madri, Joseph A

    2003-08-01

    Platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1), an immunoglobulin family vascular adhesion molecule, is involved in endothelial cell migration and angiogenesis (1, 2). We found that endothelial cells lacking PECAM-1 exhibit increased single cell motility and extension formation but poor wound healing migration, reminiscent of cells in which Rho activity has been suppressed by overexpressing a GTPase-activating protein (3). The ability of PECAM-1 to restore wound healing migration to PECAM-1-deficient cells was independent of its extracellular domain or signaling via its immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif. PECAM-1-deficient endothelial cells had a selective defect in RhoGTP loading, and inhibition of Rho activity mimicked the PECAM-1-deficient phenotype of increased chemokinetic single cell motility at the expense of coordinated wound healing migration. The wound healing advantage of PECAM-1-positive endothelial cells was not only Rho mediated but pertussis toxin inhibitable, characteristic of migration mediated by heterotrimeric G-protein-linked seven-transmembrane receptor signaling such as signaling in response to the serum sphingolipid sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) (4, 5). Indeed, we found that the wound healing defect of PECAM-1 null endothelial cells is minimized in sphingolipid-depleted media; moreover, PECAM-1 null endothelial cells fail to increase their migration in response to S1P. We have also found that PECAM-1 localizes to rafts and that in its absence heterotrimeric G-protein components are differentially recruited to rafts, providing a potential mechanism for PECAM-1-mediated coordination of S1P signaling. PECAM-1 may thus support the effective S1P/RhoGTP signaling required for wound healing endothelial migration by allowing for the spatially directed, coordinated activation of Galpha signaling pathways. PMID:12890700

  19. SNPs in the neural cell adhesion molecule 1 gene (NCAM1) may be associated with human neural tube defects

    PubMed Central

    Deak, Kristen L.; Boyles, Abee L.; Etchevers, Heather C.; Melvin, Elizabeth C.; Siegel, Deborah G.; Graham, Felicia L.; Slifer, Susan H.; Enterline, David S.; George, Timothy M.; Vekemans, Michel; McClay, David; Bassuk, Alexander G.; Kessler, John A.; Linney, Elwood; Gilbert, John R.

    2011-01-01

    Neural tube defects (NTDs) are common birth defects, occurring in approximately 1/1,000 births; both genetic and environmental factors are implicated. To date, no major genetic risk factors have been identified. Throughout development, cell adhesion molecules are strongly implicated in cell–cell interactions, and may play a role in the formation and closure of the neural tube. To evaluate the role of neural cell adhesion molecule 1 (NCAM1) in risk of human NTDs, we screened for novel single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the gene. Eleven SNPs across NCAM1 were genotyped using TaqMan. We utilized a family-based approach to evaluate evidence for association and/or linkage disequilibrium. We evaluated American Caucasian simplex lumbosacral myelomeningocele families (n=132 families) using the family based association test (FBAT) and the pedigree disequilibrium test (PDT). Association analysis revealed a significant association between risk for NTDs and intronic SNP rs2298526 using both the FBAT test (P=0.0018) and the PDT (P=0.0025). Using the HBAT version of the FBAT to look for haplotype association, all pairwise comparisons with SNP rs2298526 were also significant. A replication study set, consisting of 72 additional families showed no significant association; however, the overall trend for overtransmission of the less common allele of SNP rs2298526 remained significant in the combined sample set. In addition, we analyzed the expression pattern of the NCAM1 protein in human embryos, and while NCAM1 is not expressed within the neural tube at the time of closure, it is expressed in the surrounding and later in differentiated neurons of the CNS. These results suggest variations in NCAM1 may influence risk for human NTDs. PMID:15883837

  20. Increased plasma Kidney Injury Molecule-1 suggests early progressive renal decline in non-proteinuric patients with Type 1 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Nowak, Natalia; Skupien, Jan; Niewczas, Monika A.; Yamanouchi, Masayuki; Major, Melissa; Croall, Stephanie; Smiles, Adam; Warram, James H.; Bonventre, Joseph V.; Krolewski, Andrzej S.

    2015-01-01

    Progressively decreasing glomerular filtration rate (GFR), or renal decline, is seen in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and normoalbuminuria or microalbuminuria. Here we examined the associations of kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) in plasma and urine with the risk of renal decline and determine whether those associations are independent of markers of glomerular damage. The study group comprised patients with T1D from the 2nd Joslin Kidney Study of which 259 had normoalbuminuria and 203 had microalbuminuria. Serial measurements over 4 to 10 years of follow-up (median 8 years) of serum creatinine and cystatin C were used jointly to estimate eGFRcr-cys slopes and time of onset of CKD stage 3 or higher. Baseline urinary excretion of IgG2 and albumin were used as markers of glomerular damage, and urinary excretion of KIM-1 and its plasma concentration were used as markers of proximal tubular damage. All patients had normal renal function at baseline. During follow-up, renal decline (eGFRcr-cys loss 3.3% or more per year) developed in 96 patients and 62 progressed to CKD stage 3. For both outcomes, the risk rose with increasing baseline levels of plasma KIM-1. In multivariable models, elevated baseline plasma KIM-1 was strongly associated with risk of early progressive renal decline, regardless of baseline clinical characteristics, serum TNFR1 or markers of glomerular damage. Thus, damage to proximal tubules may play an independent role in the development of early progressive renal decline in non-proteinuric patients with T1D. PMID:26509588

  1. In situ expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) mRNA in calves with acute Pasteurella haemolytica pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Radi, Z A; Register, K B; Lee, E K; Kehrli, M E; Brogden, K A; Gallup, J M; Ackermann, M R

    1999-09-01

    The in situ expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) mRNA in normal and pneumonic lung tissues of Holstein calves with bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency (BLAD) was compared with that of age-matched non-BLAD Holstein calves by in situ hybridization. Twenty-four Holstein calves (both BLAD and non-BLAD) were randomly assigned to one of two experimental groups and inoculated intrabronchially with Pasteurella haemolytica or pyrogen-free saline. Lung tissues were collected and fixed in 10% neutral formalin at 2 or 4 hours postinoculation (PI). The expression and distribution of ICAM-1 mRNA in the different cell types of the lung tissue was detected by in situ hybridization with a 307-base-pair bovine ICAM-1 riboprobe. In lungs of both non-BLAD and BLAD saline-inoculated calves, ICAM-1 expression was present in epithelial cells but occurred in <30% of cells in bronchi, bronchioles, and alveoli. ICAM-1 expression in vascular endothelial cells was present in <30% of cells in pulmonary arteries and veins. The expression of ICAM-1 was significantly greater (>60% of cells) in bronchiolar and alveolar epithelial cells and pulmonary endothelial cells of arteries and veins in both BLAD and non-BLAD calves inoculated with P. haemolytica. Bronchiolar epithelium had the highest intensity of mRNA expression and highest percentage of cells that were stained, whereas bronchial epithelium had the lowest intensity and percentage of cells stained. Most alveolar macrophages and neutrophils in infected lungs also expressed ICAM-1. ICAM-1 expression was generally increased in infected BLAD calves at 2 hours PI as compared with non-BLAD calves but not at 4 hours PI. The increased expression of ICAM-1 during acute P. haemolytica pneumonia in calves suggests that ICAM-1 is upregulated and may play a role in leukocyte infiltration. The extent of ICAM-1 expression in P. haemolytica-inoculated calves with BLAD was initially enhanced but otherwise similar to that in non

  2. Platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 gene 125C/G polymorphism is associated with deep vein thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Li, Gang; Han, Zong-Lin; Dong, He-Gui; Zhang, Xia; Kong, Xiang-Qian; Jin, Xing

    2015-08-01

    Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a common disorder that is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Genetic factors have been suggested to influence the predisposition towards thrombosis and the incidence of DVT. Platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1) is a key adhesion molecule that is involved in platelet function and maintenance of endothelial cell junctions. To date, no studies have examined the association between polymorphisms in PECAM-1 and DVT. The present study analyzed the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of PECAM-1, namely Leu125Val (C373G), Asn563Ser (T1688C) and Gly670Arg (C2008T), in Chinese patients with DVT and age-and gender-matched controls, using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Furthermore, plasma soluble PECAM-1 (sPECAM-1) levels were quantified by ELISA. The results of the present study demonstrated significantly higher genotype and allele frequencies of the Leu125Val polymorphism in PECAM-1 in the DVT group as compared with those in the control group (P<0.05). The plasma levels of sPECAM-1 in the DVT group (83.4 ± 23.5 ng/ml) were also significantly higher as compared with those in the control group (60.4 ± 19.4 ng/ml, P<0.01). In the patients with DVT, plasma levels of sPECAM-1 were significantly higher in those with the Leu/Val and Val/Val genotypes as compared with those possessing the Leu/Leu genotype (P<0.05). The PECAM-1 Leu125Val polymorphism was shown to be associated with an increased risk of DVT and PECAM-1 protein expression levels in venous vessels. In patients with DVT, the PECAM-1 Leu/Val and Val/Val genotypes were associated with delayed thrombus resolution, as determined by thrombus scoring, as compared with that in patients possessing the Leu/Val genotype. In conclusion, the present study indicated that PECAM-1 Leu125Val polymorphism and sPECAM-1 levels may be associated with DVT.

  3. Effects of cytokines and periodontopathic bacteria on the leukocyte function-associated antigen 1/intercellular adhesion molecule 1 pathway in gingival fibroblasts in adult periodontitis.

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, J; Saito, I; Ishikawa, I; Miyasaka, N

    1994-01-01

    We investigated the effects of inflammatory cytokines and periodontopathic bacteria on expression of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule 1, and E-selectin (endothelial leukocyte adhesion molecule 1) in cultured human gingival fibroblasts (HGF). Cell surface ICAM-1 was upregulated on HGF under transcriptional control by exposure not only to interleukin-1 beta, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and gamma interferon but also to sonic extracts prepared from Porphyromonas gingivalis and Prevotella intermedia (nigrescens) and lipopolysaccharides from Escherichia coli. However, these stimuli induced only minimal expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 and E-selectin on HGF. Binding assays using HGF and Molt 4, the human T-cell leukemia cell line, showed induced ICAM-1 to be functional, and the increased binding was blocked by a combination of monoclonal antibodies against ICAM-1 and leukocyte function-associated antigen 1. Furthermore, gingival tissues from adult periodontitis patients showed increased mRNA expression of ICAM-1 compared with that in tissues from normal healthy donors. In immunohistological analysis, we also observed in vivo that the expression of ICAM-1 on fibroblasts in adult periodontitis tissues was greater than that in normal gingiva. Thus, the overexpression of ICAM-1 on gingival fibroblasts induced by cytokines and periodontopathic bacteria is speculated to be deeply involved in the accumulation and retention of leukocyte function-associated antigen 1-bearing leukocytes in adult periodontitis lesions. Images PMID:7525481

  4. Effects of cytokines and periodontopathic bacteria on the leukocyte function-associated antigen 1/intercellular adhesion molecule 1 pathway in gingival fibroblasts in adult periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, J; Saito, I; Ishikawa, I; Miyasaka, N

    1994-12-01

    We investigated the effects of inflammatory cytokines and periodontopathic bacteria on expression of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule 1, and E-selectin (endothelial leukocyte adhesion molecule 1) in cultured human gingival fibroblasts (HGF). Cell surface ICAM-1 was upregulated on HGF under transcriptional control by exposure not only to interleukin-1 beta, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and gamma interferon but also to sonic extracts prepared from Porphyromonas gingivalis and Prevotella intermedia (nigrescens) and lipopolysaccharides from Escherichia coli. However, these stimuli induced only minimal expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 and E-selectin on HGF. Binding assays using HGF and Molt 4, the human T-cell leukemia cell line, showed induced ICAM-1 to be functional, and the increased binding was blocked by a combination of monoclonal antibodies against ICAM-1 and leukocyte function-associated antigen 1. Furthermore, gingival tissues from adult periodontitis patients showed increased mRNA expression of ICAM-1 compared with that in tissues from normal healthy donors. In immunohistological analysis, we also observed in vivo that the expression of ICAM-1 on fibroblasts in adult periodontitis tissues was greater than that in normal gingiva. Thus, the overexpression of ICAM-1 on gingival fibroblasts induced by cytokines and periodontopathic bacteria is speculated to be deeply involved in the accumulation and retention of leukocyte function-associated antigen 1-bearing leukocytes in adult periodontitis lesions. PMID:7525481

  5. Study of the 20,22Ne+20,22Ne and 10,12,13,14,15C+12C Fusion Reactions with MUSIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avila, M. L.; Rehm, K. E.; Almaraz-Calderon, S.; Carnelli, P. F. F.; DiGiovine, B.; Esbensen, H.; Hoffman, C. R.; Jiang, C. L.; Kay, B. P.; Lai, J.; Nusair, O.; Pardo, R. C.; Santiago-Gonzalez, D.; Talwar, R.; Ugalde, C.

    2016-05-01

    A highly efficient MUlti-Sampling Ionization Chamber (MUSIC) detector has been developed for measurements of fusion reactions. A study of fusion cross sections in the 10,12,13,14,15C+12C and 20,22Ne+20,22Ne systems has been performed at ATLAS. Experimental results and comparison with theoretical predictions are presented. Furthermore, results of direct measurements of the 17O(α, n)20Ne, 23Ne(α, p)26Mg and 23Ne(α, n)26Al reactions will be discussed.

  6. Synthesis of novel 12-aryl-8,9,10,12-tetrahydrobenzo[a]xanthene-11-thiones and evaluation of their biocidal effects.

    PubMed

    Khurana, Jitender M; Magoo, Devanshi; Aggarwal, Komal; Aggarwal, Nisha; Kumar, Rajesh; Srivastava, Chitra

    2012-12-01

    Novel 12-aryl-8,9,10,12-tetrahydrobenzo[a]xanthene-11-thiones have been synthesized in high yields by treatment of the corresponding oxo analogs with Lawesson's reagent. The structure has been confirmed by X-ray analysis. The compounds were tested for in vitro antifungal activity against Rhizoctonia bataticola, Sclerotium rolfsii, Fusarium oxysporum and Alternaria porii. The compounds exhibited moderate to good activity against all pathogens. Insecticidal activity of these compounds against Spodoptera litura was observed to be comparable to commercial pyrethroid insecticide, cypermethrin. The urease inhibitory activity has also been studied. PMID:23153816

  7. Physics: Grades 10-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Instructional Objectives Exchange, Los Angeles, CA.

    The physics objectives are geared to use in college preparatory, high school physics courses and are based on the three most common physics curricula: (1) Physical Science Study Committee (PSSC); (2) The Project Physics Course; and (3) Modern Physics by Dull, Metcalf, and Williams. Since many of the sample items can be answered in various ways,…

  8. The relationship between platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 and paraquat-induced lung injury in rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Jing; Hu, Chun-lin; Gao, Yu-feng; Liao, Xiao-xing; Xu, Hope

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1), also known as CD31, is mainly distributed in vascular endothelial cells. Studies have shown that PECAM-1 is a very significant indicator of angiogenesis, and has been used as an indicator for vascular endothelial cells. The present study aimed to explore the relationship between the expression of PECAM-1 and the degree of acute lung injury (ALI) and fibrosis in paraquat (PQ) induced lung injury in rabbits. METHODS: Thirty-six adult New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into three groups (12 rabbits in each group) according to PQ dosage: 8 mg/kg (group A), 16 mg/kg (group B), and 32 mg/kg (group C). After PQ infusion, the rabbits were monitored for 7 days and then euthanized. The lungs were removed for histological evaluation. Masson staining was used to determine the degree of lung fibrosis (LF), and semi-quantitative immune-histochemistry analysis to determine the expression of PECAM-1. Pearson’s product-moment correlation analysis was performed to evaluate the relationship between the expression of PECAM-1 and the extent of lung injuries expressed by ALI score and degree of LF. RESULTS: Rabbits in the three groups showed apparent poisoning. The rabbits survived longer in group A than in groups B and C (6.47±0.99 days vs. 6.09±1.04 days vs. 4.77±2.04 days) (P<0.05). ALI score was lower in group A than in groups B and C (8.33±1.03 vs. 9.83±1.17 vs. 11.50±1.38) (P<0.05), and there was statistically significant difference between group B and group C (P=0.03). LF was slighter in group A than in groups B and C (31.09%±2.05 % vs. 34.37%±1.62 % vs. 36.54%±0.44%) (P<0.05), and there was statistically significant difference between group B and group C (P=0.026). The PEACAM-1 expression was higher in group A than in groups B and C (20.31%±0.70% vs. 19.34%±0.68% vs. 18.37%±0.46%) (P<0.05), and there was statistically significant difference between group B and group C (P=0.017). Pearson

  9. Expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 in rat heart with ischemia/reperfusion and limitation of infarct size by treatment with antibodies against cell adhesion molecules.

    PubMed Central

    Yamazaki, T.; Seko, Y.; Tamatani, T.; Miyasaka, M.; Yagita, H.; Okumura, K.; Nagai, R.; Yazaki, Y.

    1993-01-01

    To elucidate the mechanism(s) of myocardial reperfusion injury, we investigated the roles of cell adhesion molecules on both leukocytes and vascular endothelial cells in the reperfused myocardia. We found that within 2 hours after reperfusion leukocytes began to infiltrate into the rat myocardia subjected to 30 minutes of ischemia and clarified, for the first time, that the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 was enhanced on the capillary and venous endothelial cells from 8 to 96 hours after the start of reperfusion. Furthermore, pretreatment with individual monoclonal antibodies against cell adhesion molecules (CD11a, CD11bc, CD18, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1) reduced not only the infiltration of leukocytes but also the area of infarction in the reperfused hearts. These observations suggest that cell adhesion molecules play a critical role in the pathogenesis of myocardial reperfusion injury. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:8102030

  10. Are 1,5- and 1,7-dihydrodiimidazo[4,5-b:4‧,5‧-e]pyrazine the main products of 2,4,6,8,10,12-hexanitro-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexaazaisowurtzitane (CL-20) alkaline hydrolysis? A DFT study of vibrational spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kholod, Yana; Okovytyy, Sergiy; Kuramshina, Gulnara; Qasim, Mohammad; Gorb, Leonid; Furey, John; Honea, Patricia; Fredrickson, Herbert; Leszczynski, Jerzy

    2006-08-01

    The fully optimized geometries and force fields of the most stable conformation of 2,4,6,8,10,12-hexanitro-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexaazaisowurtzitane and two tautomers 1,5- and 1,7-dihydrodiimidazo[4,5- b:4',5'- e]pyrazine were obtained at the B3LYP level of hybrid density functional theory with the 6-31G(d) basis set. The vibrational frequencies were calculated by scaling of force fields, and the vibrational spectra were interpreted taking into account potential energy distributions. DFT calculations provide good agreement between calculated and experimental vibrational frequencies, obtained for CL-20. The theoretical vibrational spectra of 1,5- and 1,7-dihydrodiimidazo[4,5- b:4',5'- e]pyrazine correspond to the experimental FTIR spectrum obtained for the CL-20 alkaline hydrolysis products.

  11. Thermal Nondestructive Evaluation Report: Inspection of the Refurbished Manipulator Arm System in the Manipulator Development Facility at Johnson Space Center 10-12 January 2001

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cramer, K. Elliott

    2002-01-01

    On 4 December 2002, a failure of the Refurbished Manipulator Arm System (RMAS) occurred in the Manipulator Development Facility (MDF) at Johnson Space Center. When the Test Director commanded a should pitch maneuver to lift the arm from its payload bay pedestal, the yaw controls failed. This, coupled with a gravitational forces (due to the angle of the shoulder joint with respect to vertical), resulted in uncontrolled arm motion. The shoulder yaw joint moved approximately 20 degrees, causing the extended arm to strike and severely damage the port side MDF catwalk handrails. The arm motion stopped after impact with the handrails. On 10-12 January 2001, inspections were performed on the port face of the lower and upper arms of the RMAS using a infrared thermography developed at Langley Research Center. This paper presents the results of those nondestructive inspections and provides a complete description of the anomalies found and their locations.

  12. Evidence for a High-Pressure Phase Transition of ε-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane (CL-20) Using Vibrational Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Ciezak, J.; Jenkins, T; Liu, Z

    2007-01-01

    The high-pressure response of {epsilon}-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexanitrohexaazaisowurtizane (CL-20) has been examined to 27 GPa in diamond anvil cells using vibrational spectroscopy. The results reveal evidence of an {epsilon}{yields}{Upsilon} pressure-induced phase transition between 4.1 and 6.4 GPa and suggest the existence of a {Upsilon}{yields}{zeta} transition near 18.7 GPa. Several Raman and infrared frequencies were found to decrease in intensity as the phase boundaries are approached. An anomalous intensity increase was noted in the C-N-C infrared mode that is believed to result from an increase in the Raman cross-section due to a stronger interlayer coupling under pressure.

  13. The role of endothelial cell adhesion molecules P-selectin, E-selectin and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 in leucocyte recruitment induced by exogenous methylglyoxal.

    PubMed

    Su, Yang; Lei, Xi; Wu, Lingyun; Liu, Lixin

    2012-09-01

    Methylglyoxal (MG) is a reactive dicarbonyl metabolite formed during glucose, protein and fatty acid metabolism. In hyperglycaemic conditions, increased MG level has been linked to the development of diabetes and its vascular complications at the macrovascular and microvascular levels where inflammation plays a role. To study the mechanism of MG-induced inflammation in vivo, we applied MG locally to healthy mice and used intravital microscopy to investigate the role of endothelial cell adhesion molecules in MG-induced leucocyte recruitment in cremasteric microvasculature. Administration of MG (25 and 50 mg/kg) to the tissue dose-dependently induced leucocyte recruitment at 4.0-5.5 hr, with 84-92% recruited cells being neutrophils. Such MG treatment up-regulated the expression of endothelial cell adhesion molecules P-selectin, E-selectin, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, but not vascular cell adhesion molecule-1. Activation of the nuclear factor-κB signalling pathway contributed to MG-induced up-regulation of these adhesion molecules and leucocyte recruitment. The role of the up-regulated endothelial cell adhesion molecules in MG-induced leucocyte recruitment was determined by applying specific functional blocking antibodies to MG-treated animals and observing changes in leucocyte recruitment parameters. Our data demonstrate that the up-regulation of P-selectin, E-selectin and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 contributes to the increased leucocyte rolling flux, reduced leucocyte rolling velocity, and increased leucocyte adhesion, respectively. Our results reveal the role of endothelial cell adhesion molecules in MG-induced leucocyte recruitment in microvasculature, an inflammatory condition related to diabetic vascular complications.

  14. The role of endothelial cell adhesion molecules P-selectin, E-selectin and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 in leucocyte recruitment induced by exogenous methylglyoxal

    PubMed Central

    Su, Yang; Lei, Xi; Wu, Lingyun; Liu, Lixin

    2012-01-01

    Methylglyoxal (MG) is a reactive dicarbonyl metabolite formed during glucose, protein and fatty acid metabolism. In hyperglycaemic conditions, increased MG level has been linked to the development of diabetes and its vascular complications at the macrovascular and microvascular levels where inflammation plays a role. To study the mechanism of MG-induced inflammation in vivo, we applied MG locally to healthy mice and used intravital microscopy to investigate the role of endothelial cell adhesion molecules in MG-induced leucocyte recruitment in cremasteric microvasculature. Administration of MG (25 and 50 mg/kg) to the tissue dose-dependently induced leucocyte recruitment at 4·0–5·5 hr, with 84–92% recruited cells being neutrophils. Such MG treatment up-regulated the expression of endothelial cell adhesion molecules P-selectin, E-selectin, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, but not vascular cell adhesion molecule-1. Activation of the nuclear factor-κB signalling pathway contributed to MG-induced up-regulation of these adhesion molecules and leucocyte recruitment. The role of the up-regulated endothelial cell adhesion molecules in MG-induced leucocyte recruitment was determined by applying specific functional blocking antibodies to MG-treated animals and observing changes in leucocyte recruitment parameters. Our data demonstrate that the up-regulation of P-selectin, E-selectin and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 contributes to the increased leucocyte rolling flux, reduced leucocyte rolling velocity, and increased leucocyte adhesion, respectively. Our results reveal the role of endothelial cell adhesion molecules in MG-induced leucocyte recruitment in microvasculature, an inflammatory condition related to diabetic vascular complications. PMID:22681228

  15. Characterization of 10,12-pentacosadiynoic acid Langmuir-Blodgett monolayers and their use in metal-insulator-metal tunnel devices.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Saumya; Khawaja, Mohamad; Ram, Manoj K; Goswami, D Yogi; Stefanakos, Elias

    2014-01-01

    The characterization of Langmuir-Blodgett thin films of 10,12-pentacosadiynoic acid (PDA) and their use in metal-insulator-metal (MIM) devices were studied. The Langmuir monolayer behavior of the PDA film was studied at the air/water interface using surface tension-area isotherms of polymeric and monomeric PDA. Langmuir-Blodgett (LB, vertical deposition) and Langmuir-Schaefer (LS, horizontal deposition) techniques were used to deposit the PDA film on various substrates (glass, quartz, silicon, and nickel-coated film on glass). The electrochemical, electrical and optical properties of the LB and LS PDA films were studied using cyclic voltammetry, current-voltage characteristics (I-V), and UV-vis and FTIR spectroscopies. Atomic force microscopy measurements were performed in order to analyze the surface morphology and roughness of the films. A MIM tunnel diode was fabricated using a PDA monolayer assembly as the insulating barrier, which was sandwiched between two nickel layers. The precise control of the thickness of the insulating monolayers proved critical for electron tunneling to take place in the MIM structure. The current-voltage characteristics of the MIM diode revealed tunneling behavior in the fabricated Ni-PDA LB film-Ni structures.

  16. The Prevalence of Spine Deformities and Flat Feet among 10-12 Year Old Children Who Train Basketball--Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Puzovic, Vladimir; Rotim, Kresimir; Jurisic, Vladimir; Samardzic, Miroslav; Zivkovic, Bojana; Savic, Andrija; Rasulic, Lukas

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study is to estimate the prevalence of spine and feet deformities among children who are regularly involved in basketball trainings, as well as finding differences in the prevalence of those deformities between children of different gender and age. The study included a total of 64 children, of which 43 were boys and 21 were girls, ages 10-12. All subjects have been regularly participating in basketball trainings for at least one year. Postural disorder is defined as an irregularity in posture of the spine and feet, and it is assessed by visual methods from the front, side and rear side of the body. The prevalence of spinal deformities in our group was 53.13%. The boys had a significantly higher prevalence than girls, 65.1% compared to 28.57% (p=0.006). There was no significant difference in prevalence of spine deformities between children of different ages. The prevalence of feet deformities was 64.06%. There was a statistically significant difference between the sexes, where boys had a significantly greater prevalence of the feet deformities than girls, 83.7% compared to 23.81% (p=0.001). Flat feet were the most common in 10 year old children (85.71%). In conclusion, it can be said that despite regular participation in basketball training, subjects in this study have high prevalence of deformities; especially boys who stand out with the high prevalence of flat feet. PMID:26898058

  17. A convenient approach to 10-12 g/ g ICP-MS limits for Th and U in aurubis electrolytic NA-ESN brand copper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonard, Douglas S.

    2014-06-01

    Inductively-coupled-plasma mass spectroscopy is a powerful technique for measuring trace levels of radioactive contaminants, specifically Th and U, in materials for use in construction of low-background rare-event detectors such as double beta decay and dark matter detectors. I describe here a technique for measuring Th and U contamination in copper by using direct acid digestion and dilution without further chemical processing, achieving results comparable to those achieved in previous work [1, 2] which utilized more complex chemical pre-concentration techniques. A convenient research-oriented analysis environment is described as well. Results are presented for measurements of three samples from the production line of electrolytically-purified, LME (London Metal Exchange) grade A, NA-ESN Aurubis copper. Purified samples showed levels consistent with zero contamination for both elements, while weak, but inconclusive, indications of contamination were present for the unpurified anode copper. The best limits achieved are near 1•10-12 g/ g (95% CL) for both Th and U measured for copper from the cathode of the purification process.

  18. Correlations of skinfold thicknesses and circumferences at exactly defined body sites with leptin in 10-12-year-old boys with different BMIs.

    PubMed

    Cicchella, Antonio; Jürimäe, Toivo; Stefanelli, Claudio; Purge, Priit; Lätt, Evelin; Saar, Meeli

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the correlations of leptin with values of skinfold thicknesses and circumferences in 10-12-year-old boys (N = 248) and these correlations were additionally studied in boys with different BMI subgroups (normal N = 190, overweight N = 34 and obese N = 24). In total, 9 skinfolds and 13 circumferences were measured using the recommendations of ISAK. Fasting leptin concentrations were also determined. No significant differences emerged between the three subgroups in age and Tanner stage. Skinfold thicknesses, circumferences and leptin concentrations were significantly higher in overweight and obese groups. In the total group, the correlation (partial correlation, eliminating age and Tanner stage) between separate skinfold thicknesses and leptin was higher than r = 0.70. The sum of 9 skinfold thicknesses correlated significantly to leptin in all groups (r = 0.558-0.779). In the obese group, triceps, biceps and front thigh skinfold thicknesses did not correlate (p > 0.05) with leptin. In the total group, all measured circumferences correlated significantly to leptin concentration (r = 0.328-0.724). However, in the obese group, the measured circumferences did not correlate to leptin (p > 0.05). Waist-to-hip ratio correlated with leptin only in the total group of boys. It was concluded that as a rule, close correlations emerged between leptin and skinfold thicknesses and circumferences. The strongest correlation with leptin was found with the sum of 9 skinfolds and waist-to-hip ratio.

  19. The Prevalence of Spine Deformities and Flat Feet among 10-12 Year Old Children Who Train Basketball--Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Puzovic, Vladimir; Rotim, Kresimir; Jurisic, Vladimir; Samardzic, Miroslav; Zivkovic, Bojana; Savic, Andrija; Rasulic, Lukas

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study is to estimate the prevalence of spine and feet deformities among children who are regularly involved in basketball trainings, as well as finding differences in the prevalence of those deformities between children of different gender and age. The study included a total of 64 children, of which 43 were boys and 21 were girls, ages 10-12. All subjects have been regularly participating in basketball trainings for at least one year. Postural disorder is defined as an irregularity in posture of the spine and feet, and it is assessed by visual methods from the front, side and rear side of the body. The prevalence of spinal deformities in our group was 53.13%. The boys had a significantly higher prevalence than girls, 65.1% compared to 28.57% (p=0.006). There was no significant difference in prevalence of spine deformities between children of different ages. The prevalence of feet deformities was 64.06%. There was a statistically significant difference between the sexes, where boys had a significantly greater prevalence of the feet deformities than girls, 83.7% compared to 23.81% (p=0.001). Flat feet were the most common in 10 year old children (85.71%). In conclusion, it can be said that despite regular participation in basketball training, subjects in this study have high prevalence of deformities; especially boys who stand out with the high prevalence of flat feet.

  20. Influence of crystal characteristics on the shock sensitivities of cyclotrimethylene trinitramine, cyclotetramethylene tetranitramine, and 2,4,6,8,10,12-hexanitro-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexaazatetra-cyclo[5,5,0,03,1105,9]dodecane immersed in liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hongzhen; Xu, Rong; Kang, Bing; Li, Jinshan; Zhou, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Chaoyang; Nie, Fude

    2013-05-01

    The shock sensitivities of differently qualified cyclotrimethylene trinitramine (RDX), cyclotetramethylene tetranitramine(HMX), and 2,4,6,8,10,12-hexanitro-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexaazatetra-cyclo[5,5,0,03,1105,9]dodecane (CL-20) immersed in liquid were determined by the large-scale gap tests, for systemic discussion on the influences of crystal characteristics on them. As a result, it shows that (1) the immersion of crystals in liquid leads to an obvious sensitivity decrease; (2) for all three explosives, their shock sensitivities are lowered with increasing their crystal apparent densities or decreasing their particle sizes, and almost not affected by particle morphologies; (3) the crystal twins are readily formed for HMX and the most distinct factor influencing its shock sensitivities; (4) it is found that the crystal apparent density affects most obviously the shock sensitivities for RDX and CL-20; and (5) CL-20, HMX, and RDX are less and less sensitive to shock, suggesting chemical components are also a determining factor.

  1. Kinin B1 receptor regulates interactions between neutrophils and endothelial cells by modulating the levels of Mac-1, LFA-1 and intercellular adhesion molecule-1.

    PubMed

    Figueroa, Carlos D; Matus, Carola E; Pavicic, Francisca; Sarmiento, Jose; Hidalgo, Maria A; Burgos, Rafael A; Gonzalez, Carlos B; Bhoola, Kanti D; Ehrenfeld, Pamela

    2015-04-01

    Kinins are pro-inflammatory peptides that mimic the cardinal features of inflammation. We examined the concept that expression levels of endothelial intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and neutrophil integrins Mac-1 and LFA-1 are modulated by the kinin B1 receptor (B1R) agonist, Lys-des[Arg(9)]bradykinin (LDBK). Stimulation of endothelial cells with LDBK increased the levels of ICAM-1 mRNA transcripts/protein, and also of E-selectin and platelet endothelial adhesion molecule-1. ICAM-1 levels increased in a magnitude comparable with that produced by TNF-α. This stimulatory effect was reduced when endothelial cells, which had been previously transfected with a B1R small interfering RNA, were stimulated with LDBK, under comparable conditions. Similarly, LDBK produced a significant increase in protein levels of LFA-1 and Mac-1 integrins in human neutrophils, an effect that was reversed by pretreatment of cells with 10 µg/ml cycloheximide or a B1R antagonist. Functional experiments performed with post-confluent monolayers of endothelial cells stimulated with LDBK and neutrophils primed with TNF-α, and vice versa, resulted in enhanced adhesiveness between both cells. Neutralizing Abs to ICAM-1 and Mac-1 reduced the adhesion between them. Our results indicate that kinin B1R is a novel modulator that promotes adhesion of leukocytes to endothelial cells, critically enhancing the movement of neutrophils from the circulation to sites of inflammation.

  2. Increased plasma levels of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) and soluble vascular cell molecule-1 (sVCAM-1) associated with disease severity in a primate model for severe human malaria: Plasmodium coatneyi-Infected Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata).

    PubMed

    Kawai, Satoru; Matsumoto, Jun; Aikawa, Masamichi; Matsuda, Hajime

    2003-05-01

    In the present study, we investigated plasma levels of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1) in seven Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) infected with Plasmodium coatneyi. Concentrations of sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 were significantly elevated in the severe phase; the levels were maximally increased up to six times and three times those before infection, respectively. We subsequently examined kinetic profiles of sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 concentration in plasma obtained from two infected monkeys. Both infected monkeys had markedly increased levels of these adhesion molecules when they exhibited severe clinical signs correlated with rapid increase in parasitemia. These results suggest that the elevation of levels of sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 is a critical step in the pathogenesis of severe malaria in vivo.

  3. Platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1/CD31) tyrosine phosphorylation state changes during vasculogenesis in the murine conceptus.

    PubMed Central

    Pinter, E.; Barreuther, M.; Lu, T.; Imhof, B. A.; Madri, J. A.

    1997-01-01

    Vasculogenesis, the differentiation of mesodermal cells to angioblasts and the subsequent formation of blood islands and blood vessels by angioblasts in the conceptus, is a dynamic process modulated, in part, by cell-extracellular matrix and cell-cell interactions in the presence of a variety of growth factors and morphogens. In this report we demonstrate differential tyrosine phosphorylation of platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1) during the formation of blood islands and vessels from clusters of extraembryonic and embryonic angioblasts in the murine conceptus. In addition, we identify the phosphorylation of a particular tyrosine residue in the PECAM-1 cytoplasmic domain, Tyr686, which has the potential of mediating binding to Src homology 2 domain-containing proteins, affecting PECAM-1 cellular localization and endothelial cell migration. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:9137078

  4. Discovery of a novel small molecule, 1-ethoxy-3-(3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl)-2-propanol, that induces apoptosis in A549 human lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Du, Ai-Ying; Zhao, Bao-Xiang; Yin, De-Ling; Zhang, Shang-Li; Miao, Jun-Ying

    2005-07-01

    A novel small molecule, 1-ethoxy-3-(3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl)-2-propanol (EOD), was synthesized in our laboratory. Previously, we reported pharmacological properties of EOD, triggering apoptosis in Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Here, we further investigated the effects of EOD on the growth of A549 human lung cancer cells. EOD treatment induced apoptosis in A549 cells via up-regulating the expression of P53 protein, blocking cell cycle partly at G1 phase, and ultimately activating caspase-3. In contrast, caspase-8 might be irrelevant to EOD-triggered apoptosis. This study indicated that EOD might be a potential chemopreventive agent for lung cancer. The work would encourage us to add more novel compounds to our 'library' of small molecules derived through modern synthetic organic chemistry, and would drive us to determine the proteins that the compounds target.

  5. Fluorescence in situ hybridization mapping of the mouse platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM1) to mouse chromosome 6, region F3-G1

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Yong; Muller, W.A.

    1996-10-15

    Human platelet/endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM1), an important member of the immunoglobulin gene superfamily, is widely distributed on cells of the vascular system and mediates cellular interactions through both homophilic and heterophilic adhesive mechanisms. The function of PECAM1 in vitro has begun to be understood, but its function in vivo is yet to be established. To study the function of PECAM1 in vivo, its mouse counterpart was identified and its cDNA gene isolated and characterized. In this study, the mouse chromosomal localization was determined for the mouse gene encoding Pecam. Fluorescence in situ hybridization was used to map the Pecam gene on mouse chromosome 6, region F3-G1. 12 refs., 2 figs.

  6. Sphingosine 1-phosphate induces platelet/endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 phosphorylation in human endothelial cells through cSrc and Fyn.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu-Ting; Chen, Shee-Uan; Chou, Chia-Hong; Lee, Hsinyu

    2008-08-01

    Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) is a multifunctional phospholipid which acts through a specific family of G protein-coupled receptors. Platelet/endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1) form trans-homophilic binding at lateral cell border. Upon stimulation, its cytoplasmic tyrosine residues could be phosphorylated and interact with various downstream signaling molecules. In this study, we demonstrated that S1P induced PECAM-1 tyrosine phosphorylation in human umbilical cord vein cells (HUVECs). By pharmacological inhibitors, it was suggested that G(i) and Src family kinases were involved in PECAM-1 phosphorylation. Moreover, cSrc and Fyn siRNA significantly suppressed S1P-induced PECAM-1 phosphorylation. These results suggested that S1P-induced PECAM-1 phosphorylation through G(i) and subsequent cSrc and Fyn. Our findings provide further understanding of S1P and PECAM-1 signaling as well as their functions in endothelial cells. PMID:18502612

  7. Short-term high-fat diet alters postprandial glucose metabolism and circulating vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 in healthy males.

    PubMed

    Numao, Shigeharu; Kawano, Hiroshi; Endo, Naoya; Yamada, Yuka; Takahashi, Masaki; Konishi, Masayuki; Sakamoto, Shizuo

    2016-08-01

    Short-term intake of a high-fat diet aggravates postprandial glucose metabolism; however, the dose-response relationship has not been investigated. We hypothesized that short-term intake of a eucaloric low-carbohydrate/high-fat diet (LCHF) would aggravate postprandial glucose metabolism and circulating adhesion molecules in healthy males. Seven healthy young males (mean ± SE; age: 26 ± 1 years) consumed either a eucaloric control diet (C, approximately 25% fats), a eucaloric intermediate-carbohydrate/intermediate-fat diet (ICIF, approximately 50% fats), or an LCHF (approximately 70% fats) for 3 days. An oral meal tolerance test (MTT) was performed after the 3-day dietary intervention. The concentrations of plasma glucose, insulin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), intercellular adhesion molecule-1, and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) were determined at rest and during MTT. The incremental area under the curve (iAUC) of plasma glucose concentration during MTT was significantly higher in LCHF than in C (P = 0.009). The first-phase insulin secretion indexes were significantly lower in LCHF than in C (P = 0.04). Moreover, the iAUC of GLP-1 and VCAM-1 concentrations was significantly higher in LCHF than in C (P = 0.014 and P = 0.04, respectively). The metabolites from ICIF and C were not significantly different. In conclusion, short-term intake of eucaloric diet containing a high percentage of fats in healthy males excessively increased postprandial glucose and VCAM-1 concentrations and attenuated first-phase insulin release.

  8. Micromanipulation of adhesion of phorbol 12-myristate-13-acetate-stimulated T lymphocytes to planar membranes containing intercellular adhesion molecule-1.

    PubMed Central

    Tözeren, A; Mackie, L H; Lawrence, M B; Chan, P Y; Dustin, M L; Springer, T A

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents an analytical and experimental methodology to determine the physical strength of cell adhesion to a planar membrane containing one set of adhesion molecules. In particular, the T lymphocyte adhesion due to the interaction of the lymphocyte function associated molecule 1 on the surface of the cell, with its counter-receptor, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), on the planar membrane, was investigated. A micromanipulation method and mathematical analysis of cell deformation were used to determine (a) the area of conjugation between the cell and the substrate and (b) the energy that must be supplied to detach a unit area of the cell membrane from its substrate. T lymphocytes stimulated with phorbol 12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) conjugated strongly with the planar membrane containing purified ICAM-1. The T lymphocytes attached to the planar membrane deviated occasionally from their round configuration by extending pseudopods but without changing the size of the contact area. These adherent cells were dramatically deformed and then detached when pulled away from the planar membrane by a micropipette. Detachment occurred by a gradual decrease in the radius of the contact area. The physical strength of adhesion between a PMA-stimulated T lymphocyte and a planar membrane containing 1,000 ICAM-1 molecules/micron 2 was comparable to the strength of adhesion between a cytotoxic T cell and its target cell. The comparison of the adhesive energy density, measured at constant cell shape, with the model predictions suggests that the physical strength of cell adhesion may increase significantly when the adhesion bonds in the contact area are immobilized by the actin cytoskeleton. Images FIGURE 2 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 PMID:1358239

  9. Education For All: A Committment and an Opportunity. National EFA Coordinators Meeting under the Sub-Regional EFA Forum for East and Southeast Asia Final Report (2nd, Bangkok, Thailand, December 10-12, 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and the Pacific.

    The working group of Sub-Regional Forum (SRF) and the Thematic Working Group (TWG) on Education for All (EFA) organized the second meeting of the SRF for East and Southeast Asia and the National EFA Coordinators in Bangkok, Thailand December 10-12, 2001. The meeting offered an opportunity for EFA coordinators to reflect on the outcomes of the EFA…

  10. Circulating soluble adhesion molecules in patients with giant cell arteritis. Correlation between soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) concentrations and disease activity

    PubMed Central

    Coll-Vinent, B.; Vilardell, C.; Font, C.; Oristrell, J.; Hernandez-Rodrigu..., J.; Yague, J.; Urbano-Marquez, A.; Grau, J.; Cid, M.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To evaluate whether changes in concentrations of circulating adhesion molecules are related to disease activity in patients with giant cell arteritis (GCA).
METHODS—A sandwich ELISA was used to measure soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), sICAM-3, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1), E-selectin (sE-selectin), and L-selectin (sL-selectin) in serum and plasma samples from patients with GCA. A cross sectional study was performed on 64 GCA patients at different activity stages and on 35 age and sex matched healthy donors. Thirteen of these patients were evaluated at the time of diagnosis and serially during follow up.
RESULTS—At the time of diagnosis, sICAM-1 concentrations were significantly higher in active GCA patients than in controls (mean (SD) 360.55 (129.78) ng/ml versus 243.25 (47.43) ng/ml, p<0.001). In contrast, sICAM-3, sVCAM-1, sE-selectin, and sL-selectin values did not differ from those obtained in normal donors. With corticosteroid administration, a decrease in sICAM-1 concentrations was observed, reaching normal values when clinical remission was achieved (263.18 (92.7) ng/ml globally, 293.59 (108.39) ng/ml in the group of patients in recent remission, and 236.83 (70.02) ng/ml in those in long term remission). In the 13 patients followed up longitudinally, sICAM-1 values also normalised with clinical remission (225.87 (64.25) ng/ml in patients in recent remission, and 256.29 (75.15) ng/ml in those in long term remission).
CONCLUSIONS—Circulating sICAM-1 concentrations clearly correlate with clinically apparent disease activity in GCA patients. Differences with results previously found in patients with other vasculitides may indicate that different pathogenic mechanisms contribute to vascular inflammation in different disorders.

 Keywords: adhesion molecules; giant cell arteritis; inflammation PMID:10364919

  11. Artemether Combined with shRNA Interference of Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 Significantly Inhibited the Malignant Biological Behavior of Human Glioma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ping; Xue, Yi-Xue; Yao, Yi-Long; Yu, Bo; Liu, Yun-Hui

    2013-01-01

    Artemether is the derivative extracted from Chinese traditional herb and originally used for malaria. Artemether also has potential therapeutic effects against tumors. Vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) is an important cell surface adhesion molecule associated with malignancy of gliomas. In this work, we investigated the role and mechanism of artemether combined with shRNA interference of VCAM-1 (shRNA-VCAM-1) on the migration, invasion and apoptosis of glioma cells. U87 human glioma cells were treated with artemether at various concentrations and shRNA interfering technology was employed to silence the expression of VCAM-1. Cell viability, migration, invasiveness and apoptosis were assessed with MTT, wound healing, Transwell and Annexin V-FITC/PI staining. The expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and phosphorylated Akt (p-Akt) was checked by Western blot assay. Results showed that artemether and shRNA-VCAM-1 not only significantly inhibited the migration, invasiveness and expression of MMP-2/9 and p-Akt, but also promoted the apoptosis of U87 cells. Combined treatment of both displayed the maximum inhibitory effects on the malignant biological behavior of glioma cells. Our work revealed the potential therapeutic effects of artemether and antiVCAM-1 in the treatments of gliomas. PMID:23593320

  12. EOLA1 Inhibits Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 Expression by Association with MT2A in ECV304 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Leng, Weiling; Lei, Xiaotian; Meng, Hao; Ouyang, Xinshou; Liang, Ziwen

    2015-01-01

    Our research group firstly discovered endothelial-overexpressed lipopolysaccharide-associated factor 1 (EOLA1, GenBank number AY074889) as a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) responsive gene in ECV304 cells. The previous studies have further demonstrated the association of EOLA1 with metallothionein 2A (MT2A), while the role of EOLA1 during LPS-induced inflammatory response in ECV304 cells is unknown. In this report, we determined the subcellular localization of EOLA1 and the regulatory capacity of EOLA1 on vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) in response to LPS in ECV304 cells. Our results show that EOLA1 is broadly diffuse in the cells, and EOLA1 expression is dramatically induced by LPS. EOLA1 knockdown results in significant enhancement of LPS-induced VCAM-1 production. Consistent with this, overexpression of EOLA1 leads to the reduction of LPS-induced VCAM-1 production. Furthermore, MT2A knockdown reduces LPS-induced VCAM-1 production. Collectively, our results demonstrate a negative regulatory role of EOLA1 on LPS-induced VCAM-1 expression involving its association with MT2A in ECV304 cells. PMID:26881174

  13. Modulation of tight junction barrier function by outer membrane proteins of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli: role of F-actin and junctional adhesion molecule-1.

    PubMed

    Puthenedam, Manjula; Williams, Peter H; Lakshmi, B S; Balakrishnan, Arun

    2007-08-01

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is a major cause of infantile diarrhea. In this work we investigated the effect of outer membrane proteins (OMP) of EPEC on barrier integrity and the role of actin, junctional adhesion molecule (JAM) and signaling pathways contributing to these changes. Barrier function was assessed by transepithelial electrical resistance (TER). OMP of wild type EPEC, eaeA and maltoporin mutants decreased TER levels of Caco-2 cells. The OMP of espB mutant was deficient in decreasing TER of Caco-2 cells. The proteinase K-digested wild type OMP and EAF mutant OMP did not cause any change in barrier function. Our previous studies have demonstrated that EPEC OMP induced changes in cadherin junctions of Caco-2 cells. Immunofluorescence revealed disruption in actin cytoskeleton by EPEC OMP. However, no change in expression of junctional adhesion molecule-1 was observed. NF-kappaB inhibitor slightly blocked the decrease in TER and protected against actin disruption while ERK1/2 inhibitor had no effect in blocking these changes. In conclusion, our data suggest that the OMP of EPEC alter intestinal barrier function by disrupting actin cytoskeleton and signaling pathways like NF-kappaB may have a role in regulating barrier changes.

  14. Quantitative Proteomics Reveals the Essential Roles of Stromal Interaction Molecule 1 (STIM1) in the Testicular Cord Formation in Mouse Testis*

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Bo; Zhao, Dan; Zhang, Pan; Shen, Cong; Guo, Yueshuai; Zhou, Tao; Guo, Xuejiang; Zhou, Zuomin; Sha, Jiahao

    2015-01-01

    Testicular cord formation in male gonadogenesis involves assembly of several cell types, the precise molecular mechanism is still not well known. With the high-throughput quantitative proteomics technology, a comparative proteomic profile of mouse embryonic male gonads were analyzed at three time points (11.5, 12.5, and 13.5 days post coitum), corresponding to critical stages of testicular cord formation in gonadal development. 4070 proteins were identified, and 338 were differentially expressed, of which the Sertoli cell specific genes were significant enrichment, with mainly increased expression across testis cord development. Additionally, we found overrepresentation of proteins related to oxidative stress in these Sertoli cell specific genes. Of these differentially expressed oxidative stress-associated Sertoli cell specific protein, stromal interaction molecule 1, was found to have discrepant mRNA and protein regulations, with increased protein expression but decreased mRNA levels during testis cord development. Knockdown of Stim1 in Sertoli cells caused extensive defects in gonadal development, including testicular cord disruption, loss of interstitium, and failed angiogenesis, together with increased levels of reactive oxygen species. And suppressing the aberrant elevation of reactive oxygen species could partly rescue the defects of testicular cord development. Taken together, our results suggest that reactive oxygen species regulation in Sertoli cells is important for gonadogenesis, and the quantitative proteomic data could be a rich resource to the elucidation of regulation of testicular cord development. PMID:26199344

  15. TNF-α enhances vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression in human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells via the NF-κB, ERK and JNK signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    LU, ZI-YUAN; CHEN, WAN-CHENG; LI, YONG-HUA; LI, LI; ZHANG, HANG; PANG, YAN; XIAO, ZHI-FANG; XIAO, HAO-WEN; XIAO, YANG

    2016-01-01

    The migration of circulating mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to injured tissue is an important step in tissue regeneration and requires adhesion to the microvascular endothelium. The current study investigated the underlying mechanism of MSC adhesion to endothelial cells during inflammation. In in vitro MSC culture, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) increased the level of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) expression in a dose-dependent manner. The nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway inhibitors, pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC), U0126 and SP600125, respectively, suppressed VCAM-1 expression induced by TNF-α at the mRNA and protein levels (P<0.05). TNF-α augmented the activation of NF-κB, ERK and JNK, and promoted MSC adhesion to human umbilical vein endothelial cells; however, the inhibitors of NF-κB, ERK and JNK did not affect this process in these cells. The results of the current study indicate that adhesion of circulating MSCs to the endothelium is regulated by TNF-α-induced VCAM-1 expression, which is potentially mediated by the NF-κB, ERK and JNK signaling pathways. PMID:27221006

  16. Stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1) regulates sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca²⁺-ATPase 1a (SERCA1a) in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Lee, Keon Jin; Hyun, Changdo; Woo, Jin Seok; Park, Chang Sik; Kim, Do Han; Lee, Eun Hui

    2014-05-01

    Stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1) mediates Ca2+ movements from the extracellular space to the cytosol through a store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) mechanism in various cells including skeletal muscle cells. In the present study, to reveal the unidentified functional role of the STIM1 C terminus from 449 to 671 amino acids in skeletal muscle, binding assays and quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry were used to identify proteins binding in this region along with proteins that mediate skeletal muscle contraction and relaxation. STIM1 binds to sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase 1a (SERCA1a) via this region (called STIM1-SBR). The binding was confirmed in endogenous full-length STIM1 in rabbit skeletal muscle and mouse primary skeletal myotubes via co-immunoprecipitation assay and immunocytochemistry. STIM1 knockdown in mouse primary skeletal myotubes decreased Ca2+ uptake from the cytosol to the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) through SERCA1a only at micromolar cytosolic Ca2+ concentrations, suggesting that STIM1 could be required for the full activity of SERCA1a possibly during the relaxation of skeletal muscle. Various Ca2+ imaging experiments using myotubes expressing STIM1-SBR suggest that STIM1 is involved in intracellular Ca2+ distributions between the SR and the cytosol via regulating SERCA1a activity without affecting SOCE. Therefore, in skeletal muscle, STIM1 could play an important role in regulating Ca2+ movements between the SR and the cytosol. PMID:24077737

  17. Acquired and congenital cholesteatoma: determination of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, interleukin-1-alpha and lymphocyte functional antigen-1 in the inflammatory process.

    PubMed

    Akimoto, R; Pawankar, R; Yagi, T; Baba, S

    2000-01-01

    The molecular and cellular factors resulting in the pathologic features of acquired and congenital cholesteatomas are not completely known. Recently, proinflammatory cytokines like interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1 alpha) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) have been shown to induce bone resorption, in vitro. To elucidate the key molecules involved in bone resorption and cell infiltration associated with cholesteatoma, we examined the in vivo levels of IL-1 alpha and TNF-alpha, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and lymphocyte functional antigen-1 (LFA-1) in acquired and congenital cholesteatomas, by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry, and ELISA. Increased levels of IL-1 and TNF-alpha were detected in both types of cholesteatomas as compared to normal skin. Increased ICAM-1 expression and LFA-1+ cells were detected in acquired but not congenital cholesteatoma. Strong correlation was detected between TNF-alpha and bone resorption in both types of cholesteatoma, and between TNF-alpha and ICAM, TNF-alpha and severity of infection, or cell infiltration in acquired cholesteatoma. No correlation existed between various parameters and IL-1 alpha. These results suggest that TNF-alpha may play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of both acquired and congenital cholesteatomas by regulating bone resorption and cell infiltration.

  18. Kidney Injury Molecule-1 Is Specifically Expressed in Cystically-Transformed Proximal Tubules of the PKD/Mhm (cy/+) Rat Model of Polycystic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Gauer, Stefan; Urbschat, Anja; Gretz, Norbert; Hoffmann, Sigrid C.; Kränzlin, Bettina; Geiger, Helmut; Obermüller, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Expression of kidney injury molecule-1 (Kim-1) is rapidly upregulated following tubular injury, constituting a biomarker for acute kidney damage. We examined the renal localization of Kim-1 expression in PKD/Mhm (polycystic kidney disease, Mannheim) (cy/+) rats (cy: mutated allel, +: wild type allel), an established model for autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, with chronic, mainly proximal tubulointerstitial alterations. For immunohistochemistry or Western blot analysis, kidneys of male adult heterozygously-affected (cy/+) and unaffected (+/+) littermates were perfusion-fixed or directly removed. Kim-1 expression was determined using peroxidase- or fluorescence-linked immunohistochemistry (alone or in combination with markers for tubule segments or differentiation). Compared to (+/+), only in (cy/+) kidneys, a chronic expression of Kim-1 could be detected by Western blot analysis, which was histologically confined to an apical cellular localization in areas of cystically-transformed proximal tubules with varying size and morphology, but not in distal tubular segments. Kim-1 was expressed by cystic epithelia exhibiting varying extents of dedifferentiation, as shown by double labeling with aquaporin-1, vimentin or osteopontin, yielding partial cellular coexpression. In this model, in contrast to other known molecules indicating renal injury and/or repair mechanisms, the chronic renal expression of Kim-1 is strictly confined to proximal cysts. Its exact role in interfering with tubulo-interstitial alterations in polycystic kidney disease warrants future investigations. PMID:27231899

  19. Kidney Injury Molecule-1 Is Specifically Expressed in Cystically-Transformed Proximal Tubules of the PKD/Mhm (cy/+) Rat Model of Polycystic Kidney Disease.

    PubMed

    Gauer, Stefan; Urbschat, Anja; Gretz, Norbert; Hoffmann, Sigrid C; Kränzlin, Bettina; Geiger, Helmut; Obermüller, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Expression of kidney injury molecule-1 (Kim-1) is rapidly upregulated following tubular injury, constituting a biomarker for acute kidney damage. We examined the renal localization of Kim-1 expression in PKD/Mhm (polycystic kidney disease, Mannheim) (cy/+) rats (cy: mutated allel, +: wild type allel), an established model for autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, with chronic, mainly proximal tubulointerstitial alterations. For immunohistochemistry or Western blot analysis, kidneys of male adult heterozygously-affected (cy/+) and unaffected (+/+) littermates were perfusion-fixed or directly removed. Kim-1 expression was determined using peroxidase- or fluorescence-linked immunohistochemistry (alone or in combination with markers for tubule segments or differentiation). Compared to (+/+), only in (cy/+) kidneys, a chronic expression of Kim-1 could be detected by Western blot analysis, which was histologically confined to an apical cellular localization in areas of cystically-transformed proximal tubules with varying size and morphology, but not in distal tubular segments. Kim-1 was expressed by cystic epithelia exhibiting varying extents of dedifferentiation, as shown by double labeling with aquaporin-1, vimentin or osteopontin, yielding partial cellular coexpression. In this model, in contrast to other known molecules indicating renal injury and/or repair mechanisms, the chronic renal expression of Kim-1 is strictly confined to proximal cysts. Its exact role in interfering with tubulo-interstitial alterations in polycystic kidney disease warrants future investigations. PMID:27231899

  20. Immunohistochemical expression of ionized calcium binding adapter molecule 1 in cutaneous histiocytic proliferative, neoplastic and inflammatory disorders of dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Pierezan, F; Mansell, J; Ambrus, A; Rodrigues Hoffmann, A

    2014-11-01

    Ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1 (Iba1) has been used widely as a marker for microglial cells and, recently, was also recognized as a 'pan-macrophage marker', as it is expressed by all subpopulations of cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage. To determine the specificity of Iba1 as an immunohistochemical marker for canine and feline histiocytic proliferative, neoplastic and inflammatory disorders of the skin, we evaluated its expression in two types of histiocytic tumours, two non-neoplastic histiocytic proliferative conditions, one case of granulomatous dermatitis and four non-histiocytic tumours. Cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage in all cases of canine cutaneous histiocytoma (9/9), reactive histiocytosis (9/9), histiocytic sarcomas (5/5), feline progressive dendritic cell histiocytosis (3/3) and macrophages in cutaneous mycobacteriosis (7/7) showed strong cytoplasmic expression of Iba1. Neoplastic cells of melanomas (10/10), lymphomas (7/7), mast cell tumours (7/7) and plasmacytomas (4/4) did not express Iba1. Iba1 is therefore a useful marker of cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage in canine and feline inflammatory, proliferative and neoplastic conditions and can be used to identify these cells in formalin-fixed, paraffin wax-embedded tissues. Iba1 is not able to differentiate between macrophages and dendritic antigen presenting cells and expression does not allow classification of these histiocytic disorders. PMID:25172051

  1. FRET Based Quantification and Screening Technology Platform for the Interactions of Leukocyte Function-Associated Antigen-1 (LFA-1) with InterCellular Adhesion Molecule-1 (ICAM-1)

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Sandeep; Núñez, David; Hu, Shih-Yang; Domingo, María Pilar; Pardo, Julian; Karmenyan, Artashes; Chiou, Arthur

    2014-01-01

    The interaction between leukocyte function-associated antigen-1(LFA-1) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) plays a pivotal role in cellular adhesion including the extravasation and inflammatory response of leukocytes, and also in the formation of immunological synapse. However, irregular expressions of LFA-1 or ICAM-1 or both may lead to autoimmune diseases, metastasis cancer, etc. Thus, the LFA-1/ICAM-1 interaction may serve as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of these diseases. Here, we developed one simple ‘in solution’ steady state fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) technique to obtain the dissociation constant (Kd) of the interaction between LFA-1 and ICAM-1. Moreover, we developed the assay into a screening platform to identify peptides and small molecules that inhibit the LFA-1/ICAM-1 interaction. For the FRET pair, we used Alexa Fluor 488-LFA-1 conjugate as donor and Alexa Fluor 555-human recombinant ICAM-1 (D1-D2-Fc) as acceptor. From our quantitative FRET analysis, the Kd between LFA-1 and D1-D2-Fc was determined to be 17.93±1.34 nM. Both the Kd determination and screening assay were performed in a 96-well plate platform, providing the opportunity to develop it into a high-throughput assay. This is the first reported work which applies FRET based technique to determine Kd as well as classifying inhibitors of the LFA-1/ICAM-1 interaction. PMID:25032811

  2. Identification of Fer tyrosine kinase localized on microtubules as a platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 phosphorylating kinase in vascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Kogata, Naoko; Masuda, Michitaka; Kamioka, Yuji; Yamagishi, Akiko; Endo, Akira; Okada, Masato; Mochizuki, Naoki

    2003-09-01

    Platelet endothelial adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1) is a part of intercellular junctions and triggers intracellular signaling cascades upon homophilic binding. The intracellular domain of PECAM-1 is tyrosine phosphorylated upon homophilic engagement. However, it remains unclear which tyrosine kinase phosphorylates PECAM-1. We sought to isolate tyrosine kinases responsible for PECAM-1 phosphorylation and identified Fer as a candidate, based on expression cloning. Fer kinase specifically phosphorylated PECAM-1 at the immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif. Notably, Fer induced tyrosine phosphorylation of SHP-2, which is known to bind to the immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif of PECAM-1, and Fer also induced tyrosine phosphorylation of Gab1 (Grb2-associated binder-1). Engagement-dependent PECAM-1 phosphorylation was inhibited by the overexpression of a kinase-inactive mutant of Fer, suggesting that Fer is responsible for the tyrosine phosphorylation upon PECAM-1 engagement. Furthermore, by using green fluorescent protein-tagged Fer and a time-lapse fluorescent microscope, we found that Fer localized at microtubules in polarized and motile vascular endothelial cells. Fer was dynamically associated with growing microtubules in the direction of cell-cell contacts, where p120catenin, which is known to associate with Fer, colocalized with PECAM-1. These results suggest that Fer localized on microtubules may play an important role in phosphorylation of PECAM-1, possibly through its association with p120catenin at nascent cell-cell contacts. PMID:12972546

  3. Coupling factor 6 downregulates platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 via c-Src activation and acts as a proatherogenic molecule.

    PubMed

    Kumagai, Akiko; Osanai, Tomohiro; Katoh, Chisato; Tanaka, Makoto; Tomita, Hirofumi; Morimoto, Takeshi; Murakami, Reiichi; Magota, Koji; Okumura, Ken

    2008-09-01

    Coupling factor 6 (CF6), a component of ATP synthase, suppresses the generation of prostacyclin and nitric oxide (NO). Platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1) is involved in shear-induced NO production. To investigate the linkage between the actions of CF6 and PECAM-1, we examined the effects of CF6 on PECAM-1 expression and shear-mediated NO release, comparatively with those of angiotensin II (AngII). Treatment of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and aortic endothelial cells (HAEC) with CF6 at 10(-7)M or AngII at 10(-7)M for 24h suppressed PECAM-1 gene and protein expression. CF6 or AngII activated c-Src at 15 min in HUVEC, and blockade of c-Src with PP1, its specific inhibitor, restored them. Efrapeptin, an inhibitor of ATPase, attenuated CF6-induced suppression of PECAM-1 gene expression by blockade of acidification, whereas superoxide dismutase or apocinin, an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase, blocked AngII-induced suppression of PECAM-1. Exposure of the cells to shear stress at 25 dynes/cm(2) for 30 min enhanced phosphorylation of eNOS at Ser(1177) and NO release. Pretreatment with CF6 or AngII for 24h attenuated them in HUVEC and HAEC. These suggest that CF6 downregulates PECAM-1 expression via c-Src activation and attenuates shear-induced NO release presumably by suppressing eNOS phosphorylation. PMID:18243211

  4. Breakdown of paraendothelial barrier function during Marburg virus infection is associated with early tyrosine phosphorylation of platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1.

    PubMed

    Böckeler, Michael; Ströher, Ute; Seebach, Jochen; Afanasieva, Tatiana; Suttorp, Norbert; Feldmann, Heinz; Schnittler, Hans-Joachim

    2007-11-15

    Marburg virus (MARV) infection often causes fulminant shock due to pathologic immune responses and alterations of the vascular system. Cytokines released from virus-infected monocytes/macrophages provoke endothelial activation and vascular hyperpermeability and contribute to the development of shock. Tyrosine phosphorylation of cell-junction proteins is important for the regulation of paraendothelial barrier function. We showed that mediators released from MARV-infected monocytes/macrophages, as well as recombinant tumor necrosis factor (TNF)- alpha /H2O2 and interferon (IFN)- gamma , caused tyrosine phosphorylation of platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1) but not of the vascular endothelial (VE) cadherin/catenin complex proteins. Tyrosine phosphorylation of PECAM-1 was associated with delayed opening of interendothelial junctions. Interestingly, we observed an early increase in water permeability in response to TNF- alpha /H2O2 that was not due to an opening of the interendothelial junctions. These data indicate 2 distinct mechanisms for the TNF- alpha /H2O2-mediated decrease in endothelial barrier function involving tyrosine phosphorylation of PECAM-1 but not requiring tyrosine phosphorylation of VE-cadherin or catenin proteins. PMID:17940969

  5. Tie2 Signaling Enhances Mast Cell Progenitor Adhesion to Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 (VCAM-1) through α4β1 Integrin

    PubMed Central

    Kanemaru, Kazumasa; Noguchi, Emiko; Tokunaga, Takahiro; Nagai, Kei; Hiroyama, Takashi; Nakamura, Yukio; Tahara-Hanaoka, Satoko; Shibuya, Akira

    2015-01-01

    Mast cell (MC) activation contributes considerably to immune responses, such as host protection and allergy. Cell surface immunoreceptors expressed on MCs play an important role in MC activation. Although various immunoreceptors on MCs have been identified, the regulatory mechanism of MC activation is not fully understood. To understand the regulatory mechanisms of MC activation, we used gene expression analyses of human and mouse MCs to identify a novel immunoreceptor expressed on MCs. We found that Tek, which encodes Tie2, was preferentially expressed in the MCs of both humans and mice. However, Tie2 was not detected on the cell surface of the mouse MCs of the peritoneal cavity, ear skin, or colon lamina propria. In contrast, it was expressed on mouse bone marrow–derived MCs and bone marrow MC progenitors (BM-MCps). Stimulation of Tie2 by its ligand angiopoietin-1 induced tyrosine phosphorylation of Tie2 in MEDMC-BRC6, a mouse embryonic stem cell-derived mast cell line, and enhanced MEDMC-BRC6 and mouse BM-MCp adhesion to vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) through α4β1 integrin. These results suggest that Tie2 signaling induces α4β1 integrin activation on BM-MCps for adhesion to VCAM-1. PMID:26659448

  6. Change in platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 immunoreactivity in the dentate gyrus in gerbils fed a folate-deficient diet.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Ki-Yeon; Hwang, In Koo; Kim, Young Sup; Kwon, Dae Young; Won, Moo Ho

    2008-02-01

    Folate deficiency increases stroke risk. We examined whether folate deficiency affects platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1), which is an immunoglobulin-associated cell adhesion molecule and mediates the final common pathway of neutrophil transendothelial migration, in blood vessels in the gerbil dentate gyrus after transient forebrain ischemia. Gerbils were exposed to a folic acid-deficient diet (FAD) for 3 months and then subjected to common carotid artery occlusion for 5 min. In the control diet (CD)- and FAD-treated sham-operated groups, weak PECAM-1 immunoreactivity was detected in the blood vessels located in the dentate gyrus. PECAM-1 immunoreactivity in both groups was increased by 4 days after ischemic insult. PECAM-1 immunoreactivity in the FAD-treated group was twice as high that in the CD-treated-sham-operated group 4 days after ischemic insult. Western blot analyses showed that the change patterns in PECAM-1 protein levels in the dentate gyrus in both groups after ischemic insult were similar to changes in PECAM-1 immunohistochemistry in the ischemic dentate gyrus. Our results suggest that folate deficiency enhances PECAM-1 in the dentate gyrus induced by transient ischemia.

  7. The Br+HO 2 reaction revisited: Absolute determination of the rate constant at 298 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laverdet, G.; Le Bras, G.; Mellouki, A.; Poulet, G.

    1990-09-01

    The absolute determination of the rate constant for the reaction Br+HO 2→HBr+O 2 has been done at 298 K using the discharge-flor EPR method. The value k1 = (1.5±0.2) × 10 -12 cm 3 molecule -1 s -1 was obtained. Previous indirect measurements of k1 from a discharge-flow, LIF/mass spectrometric study of the Br/H 2CO/O 2 system have been reinterpreted, leading to values for k1 ranging from 1.0 × 10 -12 to 2.2 × 10 -12 cm 3 molecule -1 s -1 at 298 K. These results are discussed and compared with other literature values.

  8. Cyclic stretching of mesangial cells up-regulates intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and leukocyte adherence: a possible new mechanism for glomerulosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Riser, B L; Varani, J; Cortes, P; Yee, J; Dame, M; Sharba, A K

    2001-01-01

    Intraglomerular hypertension is a primary causal factor in the progressive glomerulosclerosis that characterizes diabetic nephropathy or severe renal ablation. However, inflammation of the glomerular mesangium also participates in at least the early phase of these diseases. In glomerulonephritis, where inflammation is thought to be the predominant causal factor, intraglomerular hypertension is also often present. Mesangial cells (MCs) are critical in orchestrating key functions of the glomerulus including extracellular matrix metabolism, cytokine production, and interaction with leukocytes. Because MCs are subject to increased stretching when intraglomerular hypertension is present, and in glomerulonephritis MC/leukocyte interactions seem to be mediated primarily via the up-regulation of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), we examine the possibility that cyclic stretching is a stimulus for increased MC ICAM-1 activity. We demonstrate that the normal low levels of MC ICAM-1 mRNA and protein are dramatically up-regulated by even short intervals of cyclic stretch. This effect is dose- and time-dependent, and requires little amplitude and a brief period of elongation for significant induction. Stretch-induced MC ICAM-1 also leads to a marked elevation in phagocytic leukocyte adherence. This stimulated adherence is equal or greater than that induced by the inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha, whereas an additive effect occurs when both are applied in combination. Our results indicate that stretch-induced ICAM-1 may provide a direct link between hypertension and inflammation in the progression of injury and glomerulosclerosis in diabetes, renal ablation, and other forms of glomerulonephritis. PMID:11141473

  9. A Bioinformatics Approach Identifies Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription-3 and Checkpoint Kinase 1 as Upstream Regulators of Kidney Injury Molecule-1 after Kidney Injury

    PubMed Central

    Ajay, Amrendra Kumar; Kim, Tae-Min; Ramirez-Gonzalez, Victoria; Park, Peter J.; Frank, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1)/T cell Ig and mucin domain-containing protein-1 (TIM-1) is upregulated more than other proteins after AKI, and it is highly expressed in renal damage of various etiologies. In this capacity, KIM-1/TIM-1 acts as a phosphatidylserine receptor on the surface of injured proximal tubular epithelial cells, mediating phagocytosis of apoptotic cells, and it may also act as a costimulatory molecule for immune cells. Despite recognition of KIM-1 as an important therapeutic target for kidney disease, the regulators of KIM-1 transcription in the kidney remain unknown. Using a bioinformatics approach, we identified upstream regulators of KIM-1 after AKI. In response to tubular injury in rat and human kidneys or oxidant stress in human proximal tubular epithelial cells (HPTECs), KIM-1 expression increased significantly in a manner that corresponded temporally and regionally with increased phosphorylation of checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1) and STAT3. Both ischemic and oxidant stress resulted in a dramatic increase in reactive oxygen species that phosphorylated and activated Chk1, which subsequently bound to STAT3, phosphorylating it at S727. Furthermore, STAT3 bound to the KIM-1 promoter after ischemic and oxidant stress, and pharmacological or genetic induction of STAT3 in HPTECs increased KIM-1 mRNA and protein levels. Conversely, inhibition of STAT3 using siRNAs or dominant negative mutants reduced KIM-1 expression in a kidney cancer cell line (769-P) that expresses high basal levels of KIM-1. These observations highlight Chk1 and STAT3 as critical upstream regulators of KIM-1 expression after AKI and may suggest novel approaches for therapeutic intervention. PMID:24158981

  10. Interleukin-1 alpha produced by human T-cell leukaemia virus type I-infected T cells induces intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression on lung epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Yuko; Ishikawa, Chie; Tamaki, Kazumi; Senba, Masachika; Fujita, Jiro; Mori, Naoki

    2011-12-01

    The pathogenic mechanism of human T-cell leukaemia virus type I (HTLV-I)-related pulmonary disease, which involves overexpression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in lung epithelial cells, was investigated. The supernatant of HTLV-I-infected Tax(+) MT-2 and C5/MJ cells induced ICAM-1 expression on A549 cells, a human tumour cell line with the properties of alveolar epithelial cells. Neutralization of ICAM-1 partially inhibited HTLV-I-infected T-cell adhesion to A549 cells. Analysis of the ICAM-1 promoter showed that the nuclear factor-kappa B-binding site was important for supernatant-induced ICAM-1 expression. Induction of interleukin (IL)-1 alpha (IL-1α) expression in MT-2 and C5/MJ cells was observed compared with uninfected controls and HTLV-I-infected Tax-negative cell lines. The significance of IL-1α as a soluble messenger was supported by blocking the biological activities of MT-2 supernatant with an IL-1α-neutralizing mAb. Moreover, Tax and IL-1α expression was demonstrated in the bronchoalveolar lavage cells of patients with HTLV-I-related pulmonary disease. Immunohistochemistry confirmed ICAM-1 and IL-1α expression in lung epithelial cells and lymphocytes of patients with HTLV-I-related pulmonary diseases, and in a transgenic mouse model of Tax expression. These results suggest that IL-1α produced by HTLV-I-infected Tax(+) T cells is crucial for ICAM-1 expression in lung epithelial cells and subsequent adhesion of lymphocytes in HTLV-I-related pulmonary diseases.

  11. Induction of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 on human brain endothelial cells by HIV-1 gp120: role of CD4 and chemokine coreceptors.

    PubMed

    Stins, Monique F; Pearce, Donna; Di Cello, Francescopaolo; Erdreich-Epstein, Anat; Pardo, Carlos A; Sik Kim, Kwang

    2003-12-01

    Central nervous system dysfunction is commonly observed in children with HIV-1 infection, but the mechanisms whereby HIV-1 causes encephalopathy are not completely understood. We have previously shown that human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC) from children are responsive to gp120 derived from X4 HIV-1 by increasing expression of intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1. However, the mechanisms involved in gp120-mediated up-regulation of cell adhesion molecule expression is unclear. In the present study, we found that gp120 derived from both X4 and R5 HIV-1 induced increased expression of ICAM-1 on HBMEC, but the degree of this up-regulation differed among the various HBMEC isolates. The up-regulation of ICAM-1 was inhibited by anti-CD4 antibodies as well as by specific antibodies directed against chemokine receptors and small-molecule coreceptor inhibitors. Anti-CD4 antibodies inhibited the increase in ICAM-1 expression mediated by gp120 derived from X4 and R5 HIV-1, whereas antibodies against chemokine receptors displayed a differential inhibition depending on the source of gp120. Both X4 and R5 gp120-induced ICAM-1 expression was sensitive to pertussis toxin and involved the nuclear factor-kB pathway. These findings indicate a direct involvement of CD4 and a differential involvement of chemokine receptors in the activation of pediatric HBMEC by X4 and R5 gp120. The activation of brain endothelium of children by HIV-1 protein gp120 by way of CD4 and chemokine receptors may have implications for the pathogenesis of HIV-1 encephalopathy in the pediatric population.

  12. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 inhibits osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells and impairs bio-scaffold-mediated bone regeneration in vivo.

    PubMed

    Xu, Fen-Fen; Zhu, Heng; Li, Xi-Mei; Yang, Fei; Chen, Ji-De; Tang, Bo; Sun, Hong-Guang; Chu, Ya-Nan; Zheng, Rong-Xiu; Liu, Yuan-Lin; Wang, Li-Sheng; Zhang, Yi

    2014-10-01

    Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) loaded bio-scaffold transplantation is a promising therapeutic approach for bone regeneration and repair. However, growing evidence shows that pro-inflammatory mediators from injured tissues suppress osteogenic differentiation and impair bone formation. To improve MSC-based bone regeneration, it is important to understand the mechanism of inflammation mediated osteogenic suppression. In the present study, we found that synovial fluid from rheumatoid arthritis patients and pro-inflammatory cytokines including interleukin-1α, interleukin-1β, and tumor necrosis factor α, stimulated intercellular adhesion molecule-1(ICAM-1) expression and impaired osteogenic differentiation of MSCs. Interestingly, overexpression of ICAM-1 in MSCs using a genetic approach also inhibited osteogenesis. In contrast, ICAM-1 knockdown significantly reversed the osteogenic suppression. In addition, after transplanting a traceable MSC-poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) construct in rat calvarial defects, we found that ICAM-1 suppressed MSC osteogenic differentiation and matrix mineralization in vivo. Mechanistically, we found that ICAM-1 enhances MSC proliferation but causes stem cell marker loss. Furthermore, overexpression of ICAM-1 stably activated the MAPK and NF-κB pathways but suppressed the PI3K/AKT pathway in MSCs. More importantly, specific inhibition of the ERK/MAPK and NF-κB pathways or activation of the PI3K/AKT pathway partially rescued osteogenic differentiation, while inhibition of the p38/MAPK and PI3K/AKT pathway caused more serious osteogenic suppression. In summary, our findings reveal a novel function of ICAM-1 in osteogenesis and suggest a new molecular target to improve bone regeneration and repair in inflammatory microenvironments.

  13. Simple modifications to Methimazole that enhance its inhibitory effect on Tumor Necrosis Factor-α-induced Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 expression by human endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Alapati, Anuja; Deosarkar, Sudhir P.; Lanier, Olivia L.; Qi, Chunyan; Carlson, Grady E.; Burdick, Monica M.; Schwartz, Frank L.; McCall, Kelly D.; Bergmeier, Stephen C.; Goetz, Douglas J.

    2015-01-01

    The expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) on the vascular endothelium can be increased by pro-inflammatory cytokines [e.g. tumor necrosis factor – α (TNF-α)]. VCAM-1 contributes to leukocyte adhesion to, and emigration from, the vasculature which is a key aspect of pathological inflammation. As such, a promising therapeutic approach for pathological inflammation is to inhibit the expression of VCAM-1. Methimazole [3-methyl-1, 3 imidazole-2 thione (MMI)] is routinely used for the treatment of Graves’ disease and patients treated with MMI have decreased levels of circulating VCAM-1. In this study we used cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) to investigate the effect of MMI structural modifications on TNF-α induced VCAM-1 expression. We found that addition of a phenyl ring at the 4-nitrogen of MMI yields a compound that is significantly more potent than MMI at inhibiting 24 h TNF-α-induced VCAM-1 protein expression. Addition of a para methoxy to the appended phenyl group increases the inhibition while substitution of a thiazole ring for an imidazole ring in the phenyl derivatives yields no clear difference in inhibition. Addition of the phenyl ring to MMI appears to increase toxicity as does substitution of a thiazole ring for an imidazole ring in the phenyl MMI derivatives. Each of the compounds reduced TNF-α-induced VCAM-1 mRNA expression and had a functional inhibitory effect, i.e. each inhibited monocytic cell adhesion to 24 h TNF-α-activated HUVEC under fluid flow conditions. Combined, these studies provide important insights into the design of MMI-related anti-inflammatory compounds. PMID:25641748

  14. Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 is a parasitized erythrocyte receptor for adherence to CD36, thrombospondin, and intercellular adhesion molecule 1.

    PubMed Central

    Baruch, D I; Gormely, J A; Ma, C; Howard, R J; Pasloske, B L

    1996-01-01

    Adherence of mature Plasmodium falciparum parasitized erythrocytes (PRBCs) to microvascular endothelium contributes directly to acute malaria pathology. We affinity purified molecules from detergent extracts of surface-radioiodinated PRBCs using several endothelial cell receptors known to support PRBC adherence, including CD36, thrombospondin (TSP), and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1). All three host receptors affinity purified P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1), a very large malarial protein expressed on the surface of adherent PRBCs. Binding of PfEMP1 to particular host cell receptors correlated with the binding phenotype of the PRBCs from which PfEMP1 was extracted. Preadsorption of PRBC extracts with anti-PfEMP1 antibodies, CD36, or TSP markedly reduced PfEMP1 binding to CD36 or TSP. Mild trypsinization of intact PRBCs of P. falciparum strains shown to express antigenically different PfEMP1 released different (125)I-labeled tryptic fragments of PfEMP1 that bound specifically to CD36 and TSP. In clone C5 and strain MC, these activities resided on different tryptic fragments, but a single tryptic fragment from clone ItG-ICAM bound to both CD36 and TSP. Hence, the CD36- and TSP-binding domains are distinct entities located on a single PfEMP1 molecule. PfEMP1, the malarial variant antigen on infected erythrocytes, is therefore a receptor for CD36, TSP, and ICAM-1. A therapeutic approach to block or reverse adherence of PRBCs to host cell receptors can now be pursued with the identification of PfEMP1 as a malarial receptor for PRBC adherence to host proteins. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:8622965

  15. Implication of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and serum N(G)-hydroxy-L-arginine (L-NHA) in the pathogenesis of systemic sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Zamzam, Mona Lotfy; Yassin, Manal Mohamed; Sallam, Maha Mohamed

    2003-01-01

    In a trial to throw light on the implication of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and N(G)-hydroxy-L-arginine (L-NHA) in the pathogenesis of systemic sclerosis or Scleroderma, (SSc), their serum levels were estimated in twenty SSc patients using ELISA and high performance liquid chromatography respectively. In situ "local" expression of ICAM-1 in lesional skin of these patients was also assessed using biotinstreptavidin amplified detection system. Patients were divided into 3 groups according to the cutaneous extension of sclerosis (Grades I; II & III). A significant (P < 0.001) difference was found between patients (n = 20) and controls (n = 10) regarding soluble ICAM-1 (s ICAM-1) and L-NHA levels. Among patients, a significant difference (P < 0.001, 0.05 respectively) in sICAM-1 & L-NHA serum levels was found between patients who had musculoskeletal manifestations and those who had not. A significant (P < 0.001) difference in L-NHA level was found between patients with grade I, II, III. Among patients, there was a negative correlation (r = -0.413) between serum sICAM-1 and the duration of the disease, and a positive correlation (r = +0.514) between sICAM-1 and L-NHA serum levels. 4 patients (23.6%) showed mild immunostaining, 8 patients (47%) showed moderate staining, and 5 patients (29.4%) showed intense staining, while control specimens showed negative immunostaining. In conclusion, ICAM-1 and serum L-NHA are probably implicated in the pathogenesis of SSc. Elevated sICAM-1 and L-NHA serum could be used as a quantitative marker of tissue sclerosis, allowing better follow up of patients.

  16. Modulation of human leukocyte antigen and intracellular adhesion molecule-1 surface expression in malignant and nonmalignant human thyroid cells by cytokines in the context of extracellular matrix.

    PubMed

    Miller, A; Kraiem, Z; Sobel, E; Lider, O; Lahat, N

    2000-11-01

    Interactions between malignant cells and their environment are achieved via cell-surface receptors and adhesion molecules. The extracellular matrix (ECM) and ECM-bound cytokines modulate the expression of cell-surface molecules on target malignant cells, which may lead to changes in their susceptibility to cytolysis, in their ability to present antigens, and in the induction of local immune-cell activation and patrol. Eventually, these alterations may culminate in either the destruction, or escape and proliferation, of the tumor. We studied the effects of the ECM and its components in a "naive" form or following binding of the inflammatory cytokines interferon gamma (IFNgamma) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) on the surface expression of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class-I, HLA class-II (HLA-DR), and intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), on nonmalignant and malignant thyroid cells. The basal expression of HLA class-I molecules was not significantly changed either by naive ECM and its components or by ECM-bound cytokines. ECM synergized with IFNgamma and TNFalpha in inducing HLA-DR molecules on nonmalignant and malignant thyrocytes, with higher HLA-DR levels on the malignant cells. The laminin component, in particular, synergized with IFNgamma. Basal ICAM-1 expression on nonneoplastic cells was not significantly affected by the cytokines when grown in the absence of ECM, but was significantly upregulated when cells were cultured on ECM. In contrast, in malignant thyrocyte cultures, ECM significantly attenuated IFNgamma- and TNFalpha-mediated enhancement of ICAM-1 expression. We concluded that signals derived from ECM-embedded cytokines participate in the regulation of key thyroid cell surface molecules and, thus, may affect the final outcome of human thyroid malignancies. PMID:11128721

  17. The Interaction Affinity between Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and Very Late Antigen-4 (VLA-4) Analyzed by Quantitative FRET

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Shu-Han; Karmenyan, Artashes; Chiou, Arthur

    2015-01-01

    Very late antigen-4 (VLA-4), a member of integrin superfamily, interacts with its major counter ligand vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and plays an important role in leukocyte adhesion to vascular endothelium and immunological synapse formation. However, irregular expressions of these proteins may also lead to several autoimmune diseases and metastasis cancer. Thus, quantifying the interaction affinity of the VCAM-1/VLA-4 interaction is of fundamental importance in further understanding the nature of this interaction and drug discovery. In this study, we report an ‘in solution’ steady state organic fluorophore based quantitative fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) assay to quantify this interaction in terms of the dissociation constant (Kd). We have used, in our FRET assay, the Alexa Fluor 488-VLA-4 conjugate as the donor, and Alexa Fluor 546-VCAM-1 as the acceptor. From the FRET signal analysis, Kd of this interaction was determined to be 41.82 ± 2.36 nM. To further confirm our estimation, we have employed surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technique to obtain Kd = 39.60 ± 1.78 nM, which is in good agreement with the result obtained by FRET. This is the first reported work which applies organic fluorophore based ‘in solution’ simple quantitative FRET assay to obtain the dissociation constant of the VCAM-1/VLA-4 interaction, and is also the first quantification of this interaction. Moreover, the value of Kd can serve as an indicator of abnormal protein-protein interactions; hence, this assay can potentially be further developed into a drug screening platform of VLA-4/VCAM-1 as well as other protein-ligand interactions. PMID:25793408

  18. Serum Interleukin-18, Fetuin-A, Soluble Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1, and Endothelin-1 in Ankylosing Spondylitis, Psoriatic Arthritis, and SAPHO Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Przepiera-Będzak, Hanna; Fischer, Katarzyna; Brzosko, Marek

    2016-01-01

    To examine serum interleukin 18 (IL-18), fetuin-A, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), and endothelin-1 (ET-1) levels in ankylosing spondylitis (AS), psoriatic arthritis (PsA), and Synovitis Acne Pustulosis Hyperostosis Osteitis syndrome (SAPHO). We studied 81 AS, 76 PsA, and 34 SAPHO patients. We measured serum IL-18, fetuin-A, sICAM-1, ET-1, IL-6, IL-23, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and epidermal growth factor (EGF). IL-18 levels were higher in AS (p = 0.001), PsA (p = 0.0003), and SAPHO (p = 0.01) than in controls, and were positively correlated with CRP (p = 0.03), VEGF (p = 0.03), and total cholesterol (TC, p = 0.006) in AS and with IL-6 (p = 0.03) in PsA. Serum fetuin-A levels were lower in AS (p = 0.001) and PsA (p = 0.001) than in controls, and negatively correlated with C-reactive protein (CRP) in AS (p = 0.04) and SAPHO (p = 0.03). sICAM-1 positively correlated with CRP (p = 0.01), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR, p = 0.01), and IL-6 (p = 0.008) in AS, and with IL-6 (p = 0.001) in SAPHO. Serum ET-1 levels were lower in AS (p = 0.0005) than in controls. ET-1 positively correlated with ESR (p = 0.04) and Disease Activity Score 28 (DAS28, p = 0.003) in PsA. In spondyloarthritis, markers of endothelial function correlated with disease activity and TC. PMID:27527149

  19. Novel association of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 and soluble P-selectin with the ABO blood group in a Chinese population

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wenjing; Xu, Qun; Zhuang, Yunlong; Chen, Yuanfeng

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have reported that the ABO gene can affect circulating expression levels of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (sICAM-1) and soluble P-selectin (sP-selectin) in Caucasians. However, several factors may affect the association, including the distribution and variations of the ABO gene, ethnic diversity and the inflammatory response status. The aim of the present study was to investigate this issue in Asian subjects of various blood groups. A total of 800 blood samples were randomly selected from healthy blood donors. The ABO blood groups were examined using standard serological tests, and ABO genotypes of group A and group AB specimens were analyzed. Plasma concentrations of sICAM-1 and sP-selectin were detected by standard enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. In healthy Chinese individuals, blood group A was detected to be significantly associated with lower circulating expression levels of sICAM-1 and sP-selectin, compared with group O. Individuals with ≥1 A1 allele had significantly lower expression levels of sICAM-1 and sP-selectin compared with all other ABO groups. The data indicate the significant association of ABO blood group antigens with sICAM-1 and sP-selectin expression levels in a healthy Chinese population, independent of the specific variations and distributions of ABO blood groups among ethnic populations. This result provides evidence for the previously unidentified role of ABO blood group antigens in the regulation of the inflammatory adhesion process. Accordingly, it can be proposed that ABO blood groups may require consideration when soluble adhesion molecules are identified as predictors for cardiovascular disease. PMID:27446295

  20. Calcium store sensor stromal-interaction molecule 1-dependent signaling plays an important role in cervical cancer growth, migration, and angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yih-Fung; Chiu, Wen-Tai; Chen, Ying-Ting; Lin, Pey-Yun; Huang, Huey-Jy; Chou, Cheng-Yang; Chang, Hsien-Chang; Tang, Ming-Jer; Shen, Meng-Ru

    2011-09-13

    Store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE) is the principal Ca(2+) entry mechanism in nonexcitable cells. Stromal-interaction molecule 1 (STIM1) is an endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) sensor that triggers SOCE activation. However, the role of STIM1 in regulating cancer progression remains controversial and its clinical relevance is unclear. Here we show that STIM1-dependent signaling is important for cervical cancer cell proliferation, migration, and angiogenesis. STIM1 overexpression in tumor tissue is noted in 71% cases of early-stage cervical cancer. In tumor tissues, the level of STIM1 expression is significantly associated with the risk of metastasis and survival. EGF-stimulated cancer cell migration requires STIM1 expression and EGF increases the interaction between STIM1 and Orai1 in juxta-membrane areas, and thus induces Ca(2+) influx. STIM1 involves the activation of Ca(2+)-regulated protease calpain, as well as Ca(2+)-regulated cytoplasmic kinase Pyk2, which regulate the focal-adhesion dynamics of migratory cervical cancer cells. Because of an increase of p21 protein levels and a decrease of Cdc25C protein levels, STIM1-silencing in cervical cancer cells significantly inhibits cell proliferation by arresting the cell cycle at the S and G2/M phases. STIM1 also regulates the production of VEGF in cervical cancer cells. Interference with STIM1 expression or blockade of SOCE activity inhibits tumor angiogenesis and growth in animal models, confirming the crucial role of STIM1-mediated Ca(2+) influx in aggravating tumor development in vivo. These results make STIM1-dependent signaling an attractive target for therapeutic intervention. PMID:21876174

  1. Tumour-derived interleukin 1alpha (IL-1alpha) up-regulates the release of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) by endothelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Fonsatti, E.; Altomonte, M.; Coral, S.; Cattarossi, I.; Nicotra, M. R.; Gasparollo, A.; Natali, P. G.; Maio, M.

    1997-01-01

    Levels of circulating soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) are elevated in patients affected by solid malignancies; however, the cellular sources generating high levels of sICAM-1 remain to be characterized. Using conditioned media (CM) from seven ICAM-1-positive or -negative neoplastic cells, we demonstrate that tumour-derived interleukin 1alpha (IL-1alpha) significantly (P < 0.05) up-regulates the release of sICAM-1 by human umbilical vein endothelial cells. The intensity of the effect correlated with the amounts of IL-1alpha detectable in CM. Levels of ICAM-1 mRNA were also up-regulated by tumour-secreted IL-1alpha. The up-regulation of the shedding of sICAM-1 and of its expression at protein and mRNA level were completely reversed by the addition of anti-IL-1alpha neutralizing antibodies. Consistent with the in vitro data, tumour endothelia were strongly stained for ICAM-1 compared with autologous normal tissue endothelia. Taken altogether, our observations reveal an IL-1alpha-mediated tumour-endothelium relationship sustaining the shedding of sICAM-1 by endothelial cells. This is a general phenomenon in solid malignancies that correlates with the ability of neoplastic cells to secrete IL-1alpha rather than with their expression of ICAM-1 and/or histological origin. sICAM-1 has been previously shown to inhibit LFA-1/ICAM-1-mediated cell-cell interactions; therefore, the ability of neoplastic cells to secrete IL-1alpha is likely to represent a mechanism for their escape from immune interaction. Images Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:9374368

  2. Interaction of actin with carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1) receptor in liposomes is Ca2+- and phospholipid-dependent.

    PubMed

    Lu, Rongze; Niesen, Michiel J M; Hu, Weidong; Vaidehi, Nagarajan; Shively, John E

    2011-08-01

    The regulation of binding of G-actin to cytoplasmic domains of cell surface receptors is a common mechanism to control diverse biological processes. To model the regulation of G-actin binding to a cell surface receptor we used the cell-cell adhesion molecule carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1-S) in which G-actin binds to its short cytoplasmic domain (12 amino acids; Chen, C. J., Kirshner, J., Sherman, M. A., Hu, W., Nguyen, T., and Shively, J. E. (2007) J. Biol. Chem. 282, 5749-5760). A liposome model system demonstrates that G-actin binds to the cytosolic domain peptide of CEACAM1-S in the presence of negatively charged palmitoyl-oleoyl phosphatidylserine (POPS) liposomes and Ca(2+). In contrast, no binding of G-actin was observed in palmitoyl-oleoyl phosphatidylcholine (POPC) liposomes or when a key residue in the peptide, Phe-454, is replaced with Ala. Molecular Dynamics simulations on CEACAM1-S in an asymmetric phospholipid bilayer show migration of Ca(2+) ions to the lipid leaflet containing POPS and reveal two conformations for Phe-454 explaining the reversible availability of this residue for G-actin binding. NMR transverse relaxation optimized spectroscopic analysis of (13)C-labeled Phe-454 CEACAM1-S peptide in liposomes plus actin further confirmed the existence of two peptide conformers and the Ca(2+) dependence of actin binding. These findings explain how a receptor with a short cytoplasmic domain can recruit a cytosolic protein in a phospholipid and Ca(2+)-specific manner. In addition, this model system provides a powerful approach that can be applied to study other membrane protein interactions with their cytosolic targets.

  3. Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 negatively regulates granulocyte colony-stimulating factor production by breast tumor-associated macrophages that mediate tumor angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Samineni, Sridhar; Zhang, Zhifang; Shively, John E

    2013-07-15

    Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1), a cell adhesion molecule expressed on epithelial cells and activated immune cells, is downregulated in many cancers and plays a role in inhibition of inflammation in part by inhibition of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) production by myeloid cells. As macrophages are associated with a poor prognosis in breast cancer, but play important roles in normal breast, we hypothesized that CEACAM1 downregulation would lead to tumor promotion under inflammatory conditions. Cocultures of proinflammatory M1 macrophages with CEACAM1 negative MCF7 breast cells produced high levels of G-CSF (10 ng/mL) compared to CEACAM1-transfected MCF7/4S cells (1 ng/mL) or anti-inflammatory M2 macrophage cocultures (0.5 or 0.1 ng/mL, MCF7 or MCF7/4S, respectively). The expression of CEACAM1 on M1s was much greater than for M2s and was observed only in cocultures with either MCF7 or MCF7/4S cells. When M1 macrophages were mixed with MCF7 cells and implanted in murine mammary fat pads of nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficient mice, tumor size and blood vessel density were significantly greater than MCF7 or MCF7/4S only tumors which were hardly detected after 8 weeks of growth. In contrast, M1 cells had a much reduced effect on MCF7/4S tumor growth and blood vessel density, indicating that the tumor inhibitory effect of CEACAM1 is most likely related to its anti-inflammatory action on inflammatory macrophages. These results support our previous finding that CEACAM1 inhibits both G-CSF production by myeloid cells and G-CSF-stimulated tumor angiogenesis.

  4. Differential regulation of leukocyte function-associated antigen-1/ intercellular adhesion molecules-1-dependent adhesion and aggregation in HL-60 cells.

    PubMed

    Katagiri, K; Kinashi, T; Irie, S; Katagiri, T

    1996-05-15

    Activation of integrin and organization of cytoskeletal proteins are highly regulated in cell adhesion and aggregation. The interaction of leukocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1) and intercellular adhesion molecules-1 (ICAM-1) mediates cell adhesion and aggregation, which facilitate leukocyte trafficking to inflamed tissues and augment effector functions. We investigated how LFA-1/ICAM-1-mediated adhesion and aggregation are regulated in HL-60 cells induced to differentiate into neutrophils by retinoic acid (RA). Uninduced HL-60 cells did not bind to ICAM-1 even with stimulation by 12-0-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate, although they express LFA-1 on the cell surface. When cultured with RA for 24 hours, HL-60 cells were able to adhere to ICAM-1 constitutively. The induction of adhesion did not accompany any change in surface density of LFA-1, indicating that the avidity of LFA-1 was increased. The change in its avidity required de novo synthesis of proteins. Although ICAM-1 was intensely expressed on RA-induced HL-60 cells, these cells did not show any cellular aggregation. The HL-60 cells transfected with the active form of Ras (Val12) exhibited LFA-1/ICAM-1-dependent aggregation by RA stimulation without change in the avidity of LFA-1. In these Ras-transfectants, a cytoskeletal protein, paxillin, was tyrosine-phosphorylated, and the level of F-actin increased. Transforming growth factor (TGF) beta, as well as cytochalasin D, prevented both the tyrosine phosphorylation of paxillin and the aggregation without any effects on the avidity of LFA-1. Thus, an increase in the avidity of LFA-1 was not sufficient for the induction of aggregation, which required activation of Ras and reorganization of cytoskeletal proteins. These results suggest that distinct regulatory mechanisms control LFA-1/ICAM-1-dependent adhesion and aggregation in HL-60 cells differentiating into neutrophils.

  5. P2Y2 nucleotide receptor activation up-regulates vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 [corrected] expression and enhances lymphocyte adherence to a human submandibular gland cell line.

    PubMed

    Baker, Olga J; Camden, Jean M; Rome, Danny E; Seye, Cheikh I; Weisman, Gary A

    2008-01-01

    Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease that causes salivary and lacrimal gland tissue destruction resulting in impaired secretory function. Although lymphocytic infiltration of salivary epithelium is associated with SS, the mechanisms involved have not been adequately elucidated. Our previous studies have shown that the G protein-coupled P2Y2 nucleotide receptor (P2Y2R) is up-regulated in response to damage or stress of salivary gland epithelium, and in salivary glands of the NOD.B10 mouse model of SS-like autoimmune exocrinopathy. Additionally, we have shown that P2Y2R activation up-regulates vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) expression in endothelial cells leading to the binding of monocytes. The present study demonstrates that activation of the P2Y2R in dispersed cell aggregates from rat submandibular gland (SMG) and in human submandibular gland ductal cells (HSG) up-regulates the expression of VCAM-1. Furthermore, P2Y2R activation mediated the up-regulation of VCAM-1 expression in HSG cells leading to increased adherence of lymphocytic cells. Inhibitors of EGFR phosphorylation and metalloprotease activity abolished P2Y2R-mediated VCAM-1 expression and decreased lymphocyte binding to HSG cells. Moreover, silencing of EGFR expression abolished UTP-induced VCAM-1 up-regulation in HSG cells. These results suggest that P2Y2R activation in salivary gland cells increases the EGFR-dependent expression of VCAM-1 and the binding of lymphocytes, a pathway relevant to inflammation associated with SS.

  6. The P2Y2 nucleotide receptor mediates vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression through interaction with VEGF receptor-2 (KDR/Flk-1).

    PubMed

    Seye, Cheikh I; Yu, Ningpu; González, Fernando A; Erb, Laurie; Weisman, Gary A

    2004-08-20

    UTP stimulates the expression of pro-inflammatory vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) in endothelial cells through activation of the P2Y(2) nucleotide receptor P2Y(2)R. Here, we demonstrated that activation of the P2Y(2)R induced rapid tyrosine phosphorylation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR)-2 in human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAEC). RNA interference targeting VEGFR-2 or inhibition of VEGFR-2 tyrosine kinase activity abolishes P2Y(2)R-mediated VCAM-1 expression. Furthermore, VEGFR-2 and the P2Y(2)R co-localize upon UTP stimulation. Deletion or mutation of two Src homology-3-binding sites in the C-terminal tail of the P2Y(2)R or inhibition of Src kinase activity abolished the P2Y(2)R-mediated transactivation of VEGFR-2 and subsequently inhibited UTP-induced VCAM-1 expression. Moreover, activation of VEGFR-2 by UTP leads to the phosphorylation of Vav2, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Rho family GTPases. Using a binding assay to measure the activity of the small GTPases Rho, we found that stimulation of HCAEC by UTP increased the activity of RhoA and Rac1 (but not Cdc42). Significantly, a dominant negative form of RhoA inhibited P2Y(2)R-mediated VCAM-1 expression, whereas expression of dominant negative forms of Cdc42 and Rac1 had no effect. These data indicate a novel mechanism whereby a nucleotide receptor transactivates a receptor tyrosine kinase to generate an inflammatory response associated with atherosclerosis.

  7. The P2Y2 nucleotide receptor mediates UTP-induced vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression in coronary artery endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Seye, Cheikh I; Yu, Ningpu; Jain, Renu; Kong, Qiongman; Minor, Tess; Newton, Jessica; Erb, Laurie; González, Fernando A; Weisman, Gary A

    2003-07-01

    P2Y2 receptor up-regulation and activation induces intimal hyperplasia and monocyte/macrophage infiltration in the collared rabbit carotid artery model of vascular injury, suggesting a potential role for P2Y2 receptors in monocyte recruitment by vascular endothelium. In this study, we addressed the hypothesis that activation of P2Y2 receptors by extracellular nucleotides modulates the expression of adhesion molecules on vascular endothelial cells that are important for monocyte recruitment. Results indicated that the equipotent P2Y2 receptor agonists UTP or ATP (1-100 microm) stimulated the expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) in human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAEC) in a time- and dose-dependent manner. P2Y2 antisense oligonucleotides inhibited VCAM-1 expression induced by UTP but not by tumor necrosis factor-alpha. Furthermore, UTP induced VCAM-1 expression in human 1321N1 astrocytoma cell transfectants expressing the recombinant P2Y2 receptor, whereas vector-transfected control cells did not respond to UTP. The effect of UTP on VCAM-1 expression in HCAEC was prevented by depletion of intracellular calcium stores with thapsigargin or by inhibition of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase or Rho kinase, but was not affected by inhibitors of the mitogen-activated protein/extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway (i.e. MEK1/2). Consistent with a role for VCAM-1 in the recruitment of monocytes, UTP or ATP increased the adherence of monocytic U937 cells to HCAEC, an effect that was inhibited by anti-VCAM-1 antibodies. These findings suggest a novel role for the P2Y2 receptor in the p38- and Rho kinase-dependent expression of VCAM-1 that mediates the recruitment of monocytes by vascular endothelium associated with the development of atherosclerosis.

  8. Blood kidney injury molecule-1 is a biomarker of acute and chronic kidney injury and predicts progression to ESRD in type I diabetes.

    PubMed

    Sabbisetti, Venkata S; Waikar, Sushrut S; Antoine, Daniel J; Smiles, Adam; Wang, Chang; Ravisankar, Abinaya; Ito, Kazumi; Sharma, Sahil; Ramadesikan, Swetha; Lee, Michelle; Briskin, Rebeccah; De Jager, Philip L; Ngo, Thanh Thu; Radlinski, Mark; Dear, James W; Park, Kevin B; Betensky, Rebecca; Krolewski, Andrzej S; Bonventre, Joseph V

    2014-10-01

    Currently, no blood biomarker that specifically indicates injury to the proximal tubule of the kidney has been identified. Kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) is highly upregulated in proximal tubular cells following kidney injury. The ectodomain of KIM-1 is shed into the lumen, and serves as a urinary biomarker of kidney injury. We report that shed KIM-1 also serves as a blood biomarker of kidney injury. Sensitive assays to measure plasma and serum KIM-1 in mice, rats, and humans were developed and validated in the current study. Plasma KIM-1 levels increased with increasing periods of ischemia (10, 20, or 30 minutes) in mice, as early as 3 hours after reperfusion; after unilateral ureteral obstruction (day 7) in mice; and after gentamicin treatment (50 or 200 mg/kg for 10 days) in rats. In humans, plasma KIM-1 levels were higher in patients with AKI than in healthy controls or post-cardiac surgery patients without AKI (area under the curve, 0.96). In patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass, plasma KIM-1 levels increased within 2 days after surgery only in patients who developed AKI (P<0.01). Blood KIM-1 levels were also elevated in patients with CKD of varous etiologies. In a cohort of patients with type 1 diabetes and proteinuria, serum KIM-1 level at baseline strongly predicted rate of eGFR loss and risk of ESRD during 5-15 years of follow-up, after adjustment for baseline urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio, eGFR, and Hb1Ac. These results identify KIM-1 as a blood biomarker that specifically reflects acute and chronic kidney injury.

  9. Serum Interleukin-18, Fetuin-A, Soluble Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1, and Endothelin-1 in Ankylosing Spondylitis, Psoriatic Arthritis, and SAPHO Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Przepiera-Będzak, Hanna; Fischer, Katarzyna; Brzosko, Marek

    2016-01-01

    To examine serum interleukin 18 (IL-18), fetuin-A, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), and endothelin-1 (ET-1) levels in ankylosing spondylitis (AS), psoriatic arthritis (PsA), and Synovitis Acne Pustulosis Hyperostosis Osteitis syndrome (SAPHO). We studied 81 AS, 76 PsA, and 34 SAPHO patients. We measured serum IL-18, fetuin-A, sICAM-1, ET-1, IL-6, IL-23, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and epidermal growth factor (EGF). IL-18 levels were higher in AS (p = 0.001), PsA (p = 0.0003), and SAPHO (p = 0.01) than in controls, and were positively correlated with CRP (p = 0.03), VEGF (p = 0.03), and total cholesterol (TC, p = 0.006) in AS and with IL-6 (p = 0.03) in PsA. Serum fetuin-A levels were lower in AS (p = 0.001) and PsA (p = 0.001) than in controls, and negatively correlated with C-reactive protein (CRP) in AS (p = 0.04) and SAPHO (p = 0.03). sICAM-1 positively correlated with CRP (p = 0.01), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR, p = 0.01), and IL-6 (p = 0.008) in AS, and with IL-6 (p = 0.001) in SAPHO. Serum ET-1 levels were lower in AS (p = 0.0005) than in controls. ET-1 positively correlated with ESR (p = 0.04) and Disease Activity Score 28 (DAS28, p = 0.003) in PsA. In spondyloarthritis, markers of endothelial function correlated with disease activity and TC. PMID:27527149

  10. Interaction between Endothelial Protein C Receptor and Intercellular Adhesion Molecule 1 to Mediate Binding of Plasmodium falciparum-Infected Erythrocytes to Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Avril, Marion; Bernabeu, Maria; Benjamin, Maxwell; Brazier, Andrew Jay

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and the endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR) are candidate receptors for the deadly complication cerebral malaria. However, it remains unclear if Plasmodium falciparum parasites with dual binding specificity are involved in cytoadhesion or different parasite subpopulations bind in brain microvessels. Here, we investigated this issue by studying different subtypes of ICAM-1-binding parasite lines. We show that two parasite lines expressing domain cassette 13 (DC13) of the P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) family have dual binding specificity for EPCR and ICAM-1 and further mapped ICAM-1 binding to the first DBLβ domain following the PfEMP1 head structure in both proteins. As PfEMP1 head structures have diverged between group A (EPCR binders) and groups B and C (CD36 binders), we also investigated how ICAM-1-binding parasites with different coreceptor binding traits influence P. falciparum-infected erythrocyte binding to endothelial cells. Whereas levels of binding to tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)-stimulated endothelial cells from the lung and brain by all ICAM-1-binding parasite lines increased, group A (EPCR and ICAM-1) was less dependent than group B (CD36 and ICAM-1) on ICAM-1 upregulation. Furthermore, both group A DC13 parasite lines had higher binding levels to brain endothelial cells (a microvascular niche with limited CD36 expression). This study shows that ICAM-1 is a coreceptor for a subset of EPCR-binding parasites and provides the first evidence of how EPCR and ICAM-1 interact to mediate parasite binding to both resting and TNF-α-activated primary brain and lung endothelial cells. PMID:27406562

  11. The Serum Changes of Neuron-Specific Enolase and Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 in Patients With Diffuse Axonal Injury Following Progesterone Administration: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Shahrokhi, Nader; Soltani, Zahra; Khaksari, Mohammad; Karamouzian, Saeid; Mofid, Behshad; Asadikaram, Gholamreza

    2016-01-01

    Background Improvement of neurologic outcome in progesterone-administered patients with diffuse axonal injury (DAI) has been found in a recent study. Also, there has been interest in the importance of serum parameters as predictors of outcome in traumatic brain injury. Objectives The aim of this study was to examine the effect of progesterone administration on serum levels of neuron-specific enolase (NSE), and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in clinical DAI. Patients and Methods In this study, the serum levels of ICAM-1 and NSE of 32 male DAI patients (18 - 60 years of age, a Glasgow coma scale of 12 or less, and admitted within 4 hours after injury) who were randomized for a controlled phase II trial of progesterone were analyzed. The analysis was performed between the control and progesterone groups at admission time, and 24 hours and six days after DAI, respectively. Results A reduction in the serum level of ICAM-1 was noticed in the progesterone group 24 hours after the injury (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in the serum level of NSE between the study groups during evaluation. At 24 hours after the injury, the level of ICAM-1 in the control group was higher than that at admission time (P < 0.05). The lowest level of NSE in the two groups was seen six days after DAI (P < 0.01). Conclusions In summary, progesterone administration reduced serum ICAM-1, and whereby may attenuate blood brain barrier disruption, the latter needs further investigation for confirmation. PMID:27800469

  12. Breast cancer cells compete with hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells for intercellular adhesion molecule 1-mediated binding to the bone marrow microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Dhawan, Abhishek; Friedrichs, Jens; Bonin, Malte von; Bejestani, Elham Peshali; Werner, Carsten; Wobus, Manja; Chavakis, Triantafyllos; Bornhäuser, Martin

    2016-08-01

    Adhesion-based cellular interactions involved in breast cancer metastasis to the bone marrow remain elusive. We identified that breast cancer cells directly compete with hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) for retention in the bone marrow microenvironment. To this end, we established two models of competitive cell adhesion-simultaneous and sequential-to study a potential competition for homing to the niche and displacement of the endogenous HSPCs upon invasion by tumor cells. In both models, breast cancer cells but not non-tumorigenic cells competitively reduced adhesion of HSPCs to bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) in a tumor cell number-dependent manner. Higher adhesive force between breast cancer cells and MSCs, as compared with HSPCs, assessed by quantitative atomic force microscopy-based single-cell force spectroscopy could partially account for tumor cell mediated reduction in HSPC adhesion to MSCs. Genetic inactivation and blockade studies revealed that homophilic interactions between intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) expressed on tumor cells and MSCs, respectively, regulate the competition between tumor cells and HSPCs for binding to MSCs. Moreover, tumor cell-secreted soluble ICAM-1(sICAM-1) also impaired HSPC adhesion via blocking CD18-ICAM-1 binding between HSPCs and MSCs. Xenotransplantation studies in NOD.Cg-Prkdc(scid) Il2rg(tm1Wjl)/SzJ mice revealed reduction of human HSPCs in the bone marrow via metastatic breast cancer cells. These findings point to a direct competitive interaction between disseminated breast cancer cells and HSPCs within the bone marrow micro environment. This interaction might also have implications on niche-based tumor support. Therefore, targeting this cross talk may represent a novel therapeutic strategy. PMID:27207667

  13. Folic acid deficiency increases delayed neuronal death, DNA damage, platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 immunoreactivity, and gliosis in the hippocampus after transient cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Hwang, In Koo; Yoo, Ki-Yeon; Suh, Hong-Won; Kim, Young Sup; Kwon, Dae Young; Kwon, Young-Guen; Yoo, Jun-Hyun; Won, Moo-Ho

    2008-07-01

    Folic acid deficiency increases stroke risk. In the present study, we examined whether folic acid deficiency enhances neuronal damage and gliosis via oxidative stress in the gerbil hippocampus after transient forebrain ischemia. Animals were exposed to a folic acid-deficient diet (FAD) for 3 months and then subjected to occlusion of both common carotid arteries for 5 min. Exposure to an FAD increased plasma homocysteine levels by five- to eightfold compared with those of animals fed with a control diet (CD). In CD-treated animals, most neurons were dead in the hippocampal CA1 region 4 days after ischemia/reperfusion, whereas, in FAD-treated animals, this occurred 3 days after ischemia/reperfusion. Immunostaining for 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) was performed to examine DNA damage in CA1 neurons in both groups after ischemia, and it was found that 8-OHdG immunoreactivity in both FAD and CD groups peaked at 12 hr after reperfusion, although the immunoreactivity in the FAD group was much greater than that in the CD group. Platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1; a final mediator of neutrophil transendothelial migration) immunoreactivity in both groups increased with time after ischemia/reperfusion: Its immunoreactivity in the FAD group was much higher than that in the CD group 3 days after ischemia/reperfusion. In addition, reactive gliosis in the ischemic CA1 region increased with time after ischemia in both groups, but astrocytosis and microgliosis in the FAD group were more severe than in the CD group at all times after ischemia. Our results suggest that folic acid deficiency enhances neuronal damage induced by ischemia.

  14. Hydrogen peroxide mediates vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression from interleukin-18-activated hepatic sinusoidal endothelium: implications for circulating cancer cell arrest in the murine liver.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, L; Carrascal, T; De Luca, M; Fuentes, A M; Salado, C; Blanco, J; Vidal-Vanaclocha, F

    2001-08-01

    The mechanism of intrasinusoidal arrest of circulating cancer cells, which is a critical step in liver metastasis, appears to be facilitated by tumor-derived proinflammatory factors that increase sinusoidal cell adhesion receptors for cancer cells. However, how this prometastatic microenvironment is up-regulated remains unknown. Using intrasplenically injected B16 melanoma (B16M) cells, we show that the expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) significantly increased in hepatic sinusoidal endothelium (HSE) cells over physiologic baseline within the first 24 hours of metastatic cancer cell infiltration in the liver. This correlated with increased in vitro adhesion of B16M cells to HSE cells isolated from B16M cell-injected mice. In vivo VCAM-1 blockade with specific antibodies before B16M cell injection decreased sinusoidal retention of luciferase-transfected B16M cells by 85%, and metastasis development by 75%, indicating that VCAM-1 expression on tumor-activated HSE cells had a prometastatic contribution. Because VCAM-1 expression is oxidative stress-inducible, recombinant catalase was in vivo administered, resulting in a complete abrogation of both VCAM-1 expression and B16M cell adhesion increases in HSE cells isolated from B16M cell-injected mice. Catalase also abrogated the proadhesive response of HSE cells to B16M-conditioned medium (B16M-CM) in vitro, although this did not affect the concomitant release of major proinflammatory cytokines by HSE cells. HSE cells treated with B16M-CM released interleukin (IL)-18 via tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha)-dependent IL-1beta in vitro. In turn, H(2)O(2) production from B16M-CM-treated HSE cells was regulated by IL-18. Thus, liver-infiltrating B16M cells activated their adhesion to HSE through a sequential process involving TNF-alpha-dependent IL-1beta, which induced IL-18 to up-regulate VCAM-1 via H(2)O(2). The pivotal position of H(2)O(2) was further supported by the fact that incubation of HSE

  15. Characterization of the oligodeoxynucleotide-mediated inhibition of interferon-gamma-induced major histocompatibility complex class I and intercellular adhesion molecule-1.

    PubMed

    Ramanathan, M; Lantz, M; MacGregor, R D; Garovoy, M R; Hunt, C A

    1994-10-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) Class I and II genes and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) are regulated by interferon-gamma in a variety of cell types. We have previously shown that the oligodeoxynucleotide 5'-GGG GTT GGT TGT GTT GGG TGT TGT GT-RNH2 (oligo I) inhibits the interferon-gamma-mediated enhancement of MHC Class I and ICAM-1 proteins in the K562 cell line. We have now investigated the mechanism of action of oligo I and report that it acts by inhibiting the binding of interferon-gamma to cells. We also show that the dose-response curves, the selectivity profile, and the kinetics of oligo I are consistent with this novel mechanism of action. The dose-response curves for oligo I, obtained using antibodies against the MHC Class I heavy chain, beta 2-microglobulin, or ICAM-1, are almost superimposable at each observation time. MHC Class I induction by 6400 units/ml interferon-alpha or interferon-beta or ICAM-1 enhancement by 800 units/ml tumor necrosis factor-alpha is not inhibited by oligo I. However, the synergistic induction of MHC Class I by mixtures of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interferon-gamma is inhibited. Oligo I belongs to a class of active oligodeoxynucleotides that inhibits interferon-gamma-induced MHC Class I and ICAM-1 in K562 cells. The activity and potency is sequence-dependent, but remarkably different sequences can have comparable effects. The activity of oligo I in the HeLa S3 cell line inhibits the interferon-gamma-mediated enhancement of both ICAM-1 and MHC Class II DR and the interferon-gamma-mediated reduction in transferrin receptor expression. Thus, oligo I appears to specifically inhibit interferon-gamma-induced changes in protein expression, which is consistent with oligo I acting at an early step(s) in the induction process. Taken together, our results show that oligo I exerts its effects by inhibiting the association of interferon-gamma with the cell surface, which is a novel mechanism of action for

  16. Interleukin-8 and Intercellular Adhesion Molecule 1 Regulation in Oral Epithelial Cells by Selected Periodontal Bacteria: Multiple Effects of Porphyromonas gingivalis via Antagonistic Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Huang, George T.-J.; Kim, Daniel; Lee, Jonathan K.-H.; Kuramitsu, Howard K.; Haake, Susan Kinder

    2001-01-01

    Interaction of bacteria with mucosal surfaces can modulate the production of proinflammatory cytokines and adhesion molecules produced by epithelial cells. Previously, we showed that expression of interleukin-8 (IL-8) and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) by gingival epithelial cells increases following interaction with several putative periodontal pathogens. In contrast, expression of IL-8 and ICAM-1 is reduced after Porphyromonas gingivalis ATCC 33277 challenge. In the present study, we investigated the mechanisms that govern the regulation of these two molecules in bacterially infected gingival epithelial cells. Experimental approaches included bacterial stimulation of gingival epithelial cells by either a brief challenge (1.5 to 2 h) or a continuous coculture throughout the incubation period. The kinetics of IL-8 and ICAM-1 expression following brief challenge were such that (i) secretion of IL-8 by gingival epithelial cells reached its peak 2 h following Fusobacterium nucleatum infection whereas it rapidly decreased within 2 h after P. gingivalis infection and remained decreased up to 30 h and (ii) IL-8 and ICAM-1 mRNA levels were up-regulated rapidly 2 to 4 h postinfection and then decreased to basal levels 8 to 20 h after infection with either Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, F. nucleatum, or P. gingivalis. Attenuation of IL-8 secretion was facilitated by adherent P. gingivalis strains. The IL-8 secreted from epithelial cells after F. nucleatum stimulation could be down-regulated by subsequent infection with P. gingivalis or its culture supernatant. Although these results suggested that IL-8 attenuation at the protein level might be associated with P. gingivalis proteases, the Arg- and Lys-gingipain proteases did not appear to be solely responsible for IL-8 attenuation. In addition, while P. gingivalis up-regulated IL-8 mRNA expression, this effect was overridden when the bacteria were continuously cocultured with the epithelial cells. The IL-8

  17. Ultraviolet radiation can either suppress or induce expression of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) on the surface of cultured human keratinocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Norris, D.A.; Lyons, M.B.; Middleton, M.H.; Yohn, J.J.; Kashihara-Sawami, M. )

    1990-08-01

    Interactions of the ligand/receptor pair LFA-1(CD11a/CD18) and ICAM-1(CD54) initiate and control the cell-cell interactions of leukocytes and interactions of leukocytes with parenchymal cells in all phases of the immune response. Induction of the intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) on the surface of epidermal keratinocytes has been proposed as an important regulator of contact-dependent aspects of cutaneous inflammation. Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) also modifies cutaneous inflammation, producing both up- and down-regulation of contact hypersensitivity. We have found that UVR has a biphasic effect on the induction of keratinocyte CD54. Using immunofluorescence and FACS techniques to quantitate cell-surface CD54 staining, we have shown that UVR significantly (p less than 0.01) inhibits keratinocyte CD54 induction by gamma interferon 24 h after irradiation. However, at 48, 72, and 96 h after UVR, CD54 expression is significantly induced to levels even greater than are induced by gamma interferon (20 U/ml). In addition, at 48, 72, or 96 h following UVR (30-100 mJ/cm2), the gamma-interferon-induced CD54 expression on human keratinocytes is also strongly (p less than 0.05 to p less than 0.001) enhanced. In this cell-culture system, gamma interferon and TNF-alpha are both strong CD54 inducers and are synergistic, but GM-CSF, TFG-beta, and IL-1 have no direct CD54-inducing effects. Thus the effects of UVR on CD54 induction are biphasic, producing inhibition at 24 h and induction at 48, 72, and 96 h. This effect on CD54 may contribute to the biphasic effects of UVR on delayed hypersensitivity in vivo. The early inhibition of ICAM-1 by UVR may also contribute to the therapeutic effects of UVR. We also speculate that the late induction of ICAM-1 by UVR might be an important step in the induction of photosensitive diseases such as lupus erythematosus.

  18. Expression profile of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (CD106) in inflammatory foci using rhenium-188 labelled monoclonal antibody in mice.

    PubMed

    Kairemo, K J; Strömberg, S; Nikula, T K; Karonen, S L

    1998-06-01

    Rhenium (Re)-188 is a generator (W-188/Re-188) produced high energy beta-emitter suitable for radionuclide therapy (T1/2 is 16.9 hrs and Emax 2.1 MeV (range 11 mm)). We have labelled monoclonal antibody (MAb) raised against vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) with Re-188 using glucoheptonate chelation technique and SnCl2 as reducing agent. The labelling efficiency, free perrhenate and reduced Re were controlled with thin layer chromatography and the purification of Re-188-MoAbs was performed using gel filtration. Our results indicate that Re-188-labelled antibodies remain in vitro stable and the labelling purity is > 90%. We also have applied these Re-188-MoAbs for detection of inflammatory disease in a mouse. The effective half-lives of organs of interest after an injection of Re-188-anti-VCAM1 were as follows: blood 5.2 hr, kidney 4.7 hr, and liver 9.6 hr. Re-188-anti-VCAM-1 was found to accumulate mainly in kidney and liver. One hour after the injection, the kidney contained in average as high as 12.5% and the liver 2.8 ID/g tissue. After 6 hr, the kidney contained 5.5% ID/g and the liver 2.6% ID/g. At 24 hr, the kidney uptake was 0.5% ID/g and the liver uptake 0.8% ID/g, respectively. The inflamed foci, subcutaneous lesions in the footpad skin, were visualized using gamma camera. From the distribution data the uptakes in the inflamed foci as follows: at 1 hr 2.18 (inflammation) and 1.72% ID/g (control), at 6 hr 1.42 (inflammation) and 0.85% ID/g (control), and at 24 hr 0.17 (inflammation) and 0.084% ID/g (control), respectively. Anti-VCAM-1 MAb showed better targeting as compared to control MoAbs in inflammation (caused by E.coli lipoplysaccaride). In conclusion, Re-188 is suitable for MAb labelling, and MAb against VCAM-1 may be used for detection of local inflammatory disease. PMID:9762472

  19. Association of susceptibility to septic shock with platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 gene Leu125Val polymorphism and serum sPECAM-1 levels in sepsis patients.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wei; Li, Fang-Shun; Zhang, Yuan-Huai; Wang, Xiao-Ping; Wang, Chao-Rong

    2015-01-01

    Sepsis is a systemic inflammatory response to infection and includes severe sepsis, septic shock and death. Platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1) is one cell adhesion molecule expressed on platelets and leukocytes. It regulates platelet activation and mediates transendothelial migration of leukocytes, thus maintaining the integrity of the vasculature. There are some animal experiments associated with the protective role of PECAM-1 against septic shock. However few host genetic risk factors have been identified for sepsis severity and susceptibility to septic shock. A case-control study was conducted, which included 217 patients with sepsis and 90 control subjects recruited from our hospital. One single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) of PECAM-1 gene Leu125Val (C373G) was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis. Serum soluble PECAM-1 (sPECAM-1) levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Our results showed that the CG and GG genotypes of SNP in Leu125Val of PECAM-1 (rs668: C>G) was significantly associated with increased susceptibility to septic shock compared with CC genotype in sepsis patients (CG genotype, OR: 2.493, 95% CI: 1.175~5.287, P = 0.016; GG genotype: OR: 3.328, 95% CI: 1.445~7.666, P = 0.004). The serum levels of sPECAM-1 in the sepsis patients (47.1 ± 17.5 ng/ml) were significantly higher than those in the healthy controls (61.3 ± 20.9 ng/ml, P<0.01). Among sepsis patients, the serum levels of sPECAM-1 were significantly higher in CG and GG genotype than in CC genotype. In septic shock patients, nonsurvivors (83.7 ± 12.6 ng/ml, n = 69) had a significantly higher serum sPECAM-1 level than the survivors (76.9 ± 12.7 ng/ml, n = 53) (P<0.01). In conclusion, PECAM-1 Leu125Val polymorphism and its sPECAM-1 levels are associated with sepsis severity and susceptibility to septic shock. PMID:26884965

  20. Association of susceptibility to septic shock with platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 gene Leu125Val polymorphism and serum sPECAM-1 levels in sepsis patients

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Wei; Li, Fang-Shun; Zhang, Yuan-Huai; Wang, Xiao-Ping; Wang, Chao-Rong

    2015-01-01

    Sepsis is a systemic inflammatory response to infection and includes severe sepsis, septic shock and death. Platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1) is one cell adhesion molecule expressed on platelets and leukocytes. It regulates platelet activation and mediates transendothelial migration of leukocytes, thus maintaining the integrity of the vasculature. There are some animal experiments associated with the protective role of PECAM-1 against septic shock. However few host genetic risk factors have been identified for sepsis severity and susceptibility to septic shock. A case-control study was conducted, which included 217 patients with sepsis and 90 control subjects recruited from our hospital. One single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) of PECAM-1 gene Leu125Val (C373G) was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis. Serum soluble PECAM-1 (sPECAM-1) levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Our results showed that the CG and GG genotypes of SNP in Leu125Val of PECAM-1 (rs668: C>G) was significantly associated with increased susceptibility to septic shock compared with CC genotype in sepsis patients (CG genotype, OR: 2.493, 95% CI: 1.175~5.287, P = 0.016; GG genotype: OR: 3.328, 95% CI: 1.445~7.666, P = 0.004). The serum levels of sPECAM-1 in the sepsis patients (47.1 ± 17.5 ng/ml) were significantly higher than those in the healthy controls (61.3 ± 20.9 ng/ml, P<0.01). Among sepsis patients, the serum levels of sPECAM-1 were significantly higher in CG and GG genotype than in CC genotype. In septic shock patients, nonsurvivors (83.7 ± 12.6 ng/ml, n = 69) had a significantly higher serum sPECAM-1 level than the survivors (76.9 ± 12.7 ng/ml, n = 53) (P<0.01). In conclusion, PECAM-1 Leu125Val polymorphism and its sPECAM-1 levels are associated with sepsis severity and susceptibility to septic shock. PMID:26884965

  1. Effects of the inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-13 on stromal interaction molecule-1 aggregation in human airway smooth muscle intracellular Ca(2+) regulation.

    PubMed

    Jia, Li; Delmotte, Philippe; Aravamudan, Bharathi; Pabelick, Christina M; Prakash, Y S; Sieck, Gary C

    2013-10-01

    Inflammation elevates intracellular Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]i) concentrations in airway smooth muscle (ASM). Store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE) is an important source of [Ca(2+)]i mediated by stromal interaction molecule-1 (STIM1), a sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) protein. In transducing SR Ca(2+) depletion, STIM1 aggregates to form puncta, thereby activating SOCE via interactions with a Ca(2+) release-activated Ca(2+) channel protein (Orai1) in the plasma membrane. We hypothesized that STIM1 aggregation is enhanced by inflammatory cytokines, thereby augmenting SOCE in human ASM cells. We used real-time fluorescence microscopic imaging to assess the dynamics of STIM1 aggregation and SOCE after exposure to TNF-α or IL-13 in ASM cells overexpressing yellow fluorescent protein-tagged wild-type STIM1 (WT-STIM1) and STIM1 mutants lacking the Ca(2+)-sensing EF-hand (STIM1-D76A), or lacking the cytoplasmic membrane binding site (STIM1ΔK). STIM1 aggregation was analyzed by monitoring puncta size during the SR Ca(2+) depletion induced by cyclopiazonic acid (CPA). We found that puncta size was increased in cells expressing WT-STIM1 after CPA. However, STIM1-D76A constitutively formed puncta, whereas STIM1ΔK failed to form puncta. Furthermore, cytokines increased basal WT-STIM1 puncta size, and the SOCE triggered by SR Ca(2+) depletion was increased in cells expressing WT-STIM1 or STIM1-D76A. Meanwhile, SOCE in cells expressing STIM1ΔK and STIM1 short, interfering RNA (siRNA) was decreased. Similarly, in cells overexpressing STIM1, the siRNA knockdown of Orai1 blunted SOCE. However, exposure to cytokines increased SOCE in all cells, increased basal [Ca(2+)]i, and decreased SR Ca(2+) content. These data suggest that cytokines induce a constitutive increase in STIM1 aggregation that contributes to enhanced SOCE in human ASM after inflammation. Such effects of inflammation on STIM1 aggregations may contribute to airway hyperresponsiveness. PMID:23713409

  2. Laser induced fluorescence studies of iodine oxide chemistry. Part II. The reactions of IO with CH3O2, CF3O2 and O3.

    PubMed

    Dillon, Terry J; Tucceri, María E; Crowley, John N

    2006-11-28

    The technique of pulsed laser photolysis was coupled to laser induced fluorescence detection of iodine oxide (IO) to measure rate coefficients, k for the reactions IO + CH(3)O(2)--> products (R1, 30-318 Torr N(2)), IO + CF(3)O(2)--> products (R2, 70-80 Torr N(2)), and IO + O(3)--> OIO + O(2) (R3a). Values of k(1) = (2 +/- 1) x 10(-12) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1), k(2) = (3.6 +/- 0.8) x 10(-11) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1), and k(3a) <5 x 10(-16) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) were obtained at T = 298 K. In the course of this work, the product yield of IO from the reaction of CH(3)O(2) with I was determined to be close to zero, whereas CH(3)OOI was formed efficiently at 70 Torr N(2). Similarly, no evidence was found for IO formation in the CF(3)O(2) + I reaction. An estimate of the rate coefficients k(CH(3)O(2) + I) = 2 x 10(-11) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) and k(CH(3)OOI + I) = 1.5 x 10(-10) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) was also obtained. The results on k(1)-k(3) are compared to the limited number of previous investigations and the implications for the chemistry of the marine boundary layer are briefly discussed.

  3. Preface: Proceedings of the ESF Exploratory Workshop on Glassy Liquids under Pressure: Fundamentals and Applications (Ustroń, Poland, 10-12 October 2007) Proceedings of the ESF Exploratory Workshop on Glassy Liquids under Pressure: Fundamentals and Applications (Ustroń, Poland, 10-12 October 2007)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drozd-Rzoska, Aleksandra; Rzoska, Sylwester J.; Tamarit, Josep Ll

    2008-06-01

    This preface focuses on the importance of pressure studies for explaining the glass transitions puzzle. Subsequently, some issues related to the European Science Foundation Exploratory Workshop (ESF EW) Glassy Liquids under Pressure: Fundamentals and Applications (Ustroń, Poland, 10-12 October 2007) are recalled. Most liquids crystallize on 'normal' cooling at the melting temperature Tm. However, some liquids can skip crystallization and undergo supercooling down to glass temperature Tg. Turnbull 1 proposed an empirical link between these temperatures indicating good glass forming ability (GFA) for Tg/Tm « 2/3. Values of the GFA factor Tg/Tm → 1/2 were suggested for 'poor' glass formers, where crystallization is difficult to avoid. Recently, the significance of the pressure dependence of the GFA factor was also noted 2. Reaching the glass transition is associated with a series of phenomena, namely 3: (i) the thermal expansion coefficient at constant pressure changes smoothly from values common for a liquid to those of a crystal, showing anomalous behaviour near Tg, (ii) viscosity reaches a value of η = 1013 P and the structural relaxation time τ ≈ 100 s, (iii) the specific heat drop occurs, giving rise to the famous Kauzmann paradox. On cooling towards glass transition, the 'pretransitional' behaviour can be observed for dynamic properties even well above Tg + 100 K 3. This includes the non-Arrhenius evolution of such magnitudes as viscosity, primary (structural-, α-) relaxation time, electric conductivity or diffusion coefficient associated with increasingly non-Debye distribution of relaxation times 3. Such behaviour is associated with short-time scale relaxation processes. The most characteristic is the secondary (β-) relaxation 4, 5 which merges with the 'structural' dynamics near τ(TB) = 10-7+/-1s, the hypothetically universal (magic) time-scale 6. Below TB the split in the evolution of the translation and orientation related properties occurs 4, 5

  4. A Serendipitous Synthesis of 11a-Hydroxy-11,11a-dihydrobenzo[e]indeno[2,1-b][1,4]diazepine-10,12-dione Derivatives by Condensation of 2-Aminobenzamides with Ninhydrin in Water.

    PubMed

    Devi, Rajkumari Vijilata; Garande, Ashok M; Maity, Dilip K; Bhate, Prakash M

    2016-02-19

    Ninhydrin undergoes an unprecedented condensation reaction with various 2-aminobenzamide derivatives in boiling water to afford 11a-hydroxy-11,11a-dihydrobenzo[e]indeno[2,1-b][1,4]diazepine-10,12-dione derivatives. These hitherto unreported products are easily isolated in high yield by a simple filtration step. An interesting "ortho effect" was observed in the condensation reaction of ninhydrin with 2-amino-N-phenylbenzamide derivatives having an ortho- substituent in the N-phenyl moiety wherein the corresponding expected 3'-phenyl-1'H-spiro[indene-2,2'-quinazoline]-1,3,4'(3'H)-triones were obtained. PMID:26784368

  5. General Business: Grades 10-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Instructional Objectives Exchange, Los Angeles, CA.

    Thirty-five objectives and related test items assessing general business skills taught in grades 10 through 12 are included in this collection. Each objective is stated in operational terms and identified by a subject area within the hood category of general business. Objectives include the desired behavior and subject content so that students are…

  6. Food and Nutrition 10-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg.

    This curriculum guide for food and nutrition is part of the senior high home economics curriculum for the province of Manitoba. An overview presents a rationale for the curriculum, program goals and objectives, and implementation strategies. The topic of food and nutrition is divided into eight major concepts or topics: significance of food,…

  7. 50 CFR 10.12 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., arthropod, coelenterate, or other invertebrate, whether or not bred, hatched, or born in captivity, and... Interior. Shellfish means an aquatic invertebrate animal having a shell, including, but not limited to,...

  8. 50 CFR 10.12 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., arthropod, coelenterate, or other invertebrate, whether or not bred, hatched, or born in captivity, and... Interior. Shellfish means an aquatic invertebrate animal having a shell, including, but not limited to,...

  9. 50 CFR 10.12 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., arthropod, coelenterate, or other invertebrate, whether or not bred, hatched, or born in captivity, and... Interior. Shellfish means an aquatic invertebrate animal having a shell, including, but not limited to,...

  10. 50 CFR 10.12 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., arthropod, coelenterate, or other invertebrate, whether or not bred, hatched, or born in captivity, and... Interior. Shellfish means an aquatic invertebrate animal having a shell, including, but not limited to,...

  11. 50 CFR 10.12 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., arthropod, coelenterate, or other invertebrate, whether or not bred, hatched, or born in captivity, and... Interior. Shellfish means an aquatic invertebrate animal having a shell, including, but not limited to,...

  12. 43 CFR 10.12 - Civil penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., funerary objects, or sacred objects are in question; and (ii) Any Indian tribes or Native Hawaiian... Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NATIVE AMERICAN GRAVES PROTECTION AND REPATRIATION REGULATIONS Human Remains, Funerary Objects, Sacred Objects, or Objects of Cultural Patrimony...

  13. 43 CFR 10.12 - Civil penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., funerary objects, or sacred objects are in question; and (ii) Any Indian tribes or Native Hawaiian... Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NATIVE AMERICAN GRAVES PROTECTION AND REPATRIATION REGULATIONS Human Remains, Funerary Objects, Sacred Objects, or Objects of Cultural Patrimony...

  14. 19 CFR 10.12 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... component” means a manufactured article ready for assembly in the condition as exported except for... an article manufactured within the Customs territory of the United States and may consist wholly of United States components or materials, of United States and foreign components or materials, or wholly...

  15. 43 CFR 10.12 - Civil penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... procedures set forth in 43 CFR part 4, subparts A and B. (2) Your failure to file a written request for a... judge, with copies served on the opposing party. (4) Subject to the provisions of 43 CFR 1.3, you may..., the provisions of the Department of the Interior Hearings and Appeals Procedures in 43 CFR part...

  16. Preface: Proceedings of the ESF Exploratory Workshop on Glassy Liquids under Pressure: Fundamentals and Applications (Ustroń, Poland, 10-12 October 2007) Proceedings of the ESF Exploratory Workshop on Glassy Liquids under Pressure: Fundamentals and Applications (Ustroń, Poland, 10-12 October 2007)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drozd-Rzoska, Aleksandra; Rzoska, Sylwester J.; Tamarit, Josep Ll

    2008-06-01

    This preface focuses on the importance of pressure studies for explaining the glass transitions puzzle. Subsequently, some issues related to the European Science Foundation Exploratory Workshop (ESF EW) Glassy Liquids under Pressure: Fundamentals and Applications (Ustroń, Poland, 10-12 October 2007) are recalled. Most liquids crystallize on 'normal' cooling at the melting temperature Tm. However, some liquids can skip crystallization and undergo supercooling down to glass temperature Tg. Turnbull 1 proposed an empirical link between these temperatures indicating good glass forming ability (GFA) for Tg/Tm « 2/3. Values of the GFA factor Tg/Tm → 1/2 were suggested for 'poor' glass formers, where crystallization is difficult to avoid. Recently, the significance of the pressure dependence of the GFA factor was also noted 2. Reaching the glass transition is associated with a series of phenomena, namely 3: (i) the thermal expansion coefficient at constant pressure changes smoothly from values common for a liquid to those of a crystal, showing anomalous behaviour near Tg, (ii) viscosity reaches a value of η = 1013 P and the structural relaxation time τ ≈ 100 s, (iii) the specific heat drop occurs, giving rise to the famous Kauzmann paradox. On cooling towards glass transition, the 'pretransitional' behaviour can be observed for dynamic properties even well above Tg + 100 K 3. This includes the non-Arrhenius evolution of such magnitudes as viscosity, primary (structural-, α-) relaxation time, electric conductivity or diffusion coefficient associated with increasingly non-Debye distribution of relaxation times 3. Such behaviour is associated with short-time scale relaxation processes. The most characteristic is the secondary (β-) relaxation 4, 5 which merges with the 'structural' dynamics near τ(TB) = 10-7+/-1s, the hypothetically universal (magic) time-scale 6. Below TB the split in the evolution of the translation and orientation related properties occurs 4, 5

  17. A calculation of all possible oligosaccharide isomers both branched and linear yields 1.05 x 10(12) structures for a reducing hexasaccharide: the Isomer Barrier to development of single-method saccharide sequencing or synthesis systems.

    PubMed

    Laine, R A

    1994-12-01

    The number of all possible linear and branched isomers of a hexasaccharide was calculated and found to be > 1.05 x 10(12). This large number defines the Isomer Barrier, a persistent technological barrier to the development of a single analytical method for the absolute characterization of carbohydrates, regardless of sample quantity. Because of this isomer barrier, no single method can be employed to determine complete oligosaccharide structure in 100 nmol amounts with the same assurance that can be achieved for 100 pmol amounts with single-procedure Edman peptide or Sanger DNA sequencing methods. Difficulties in the development of facile synthetic schemes for oligosaccharides are also explained by this large number. No current method of chemical or physical analysis has the resolution necessary to distinguish among 10(12) structures having the same mass. Therefore the 'characterization' of a middle-weight oligosaccharide solely by NMR or mass spectrometry necessarily contains a very large margin of error. Greater uncertainty accompanies results performed solely by sequential enzyme degradation followed by gel-permeation chromatography or electrophoresis, as touted by some commercial advertisements. Much of the literature which uses these single methods to 'characterize' complex carbohydrates is, therefore, in question, and journals should beware of publishing structural characterizations unless the authors reveal all alternate possible structures which could result from their analysis.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. TEL gene is involved in myelodysplastic syndromes with either the typical t(5;12)(q33;p13) translocation or its variant t(10;12)(q24;p13).

    PubMed

    Wlodarska, I; Mecucci, C; Marynen, P; Guo, C; Franckx, D; La Starza, R; Aventin, A; Bosly, A; Martelli, M F; Cassiman, J J

    1995-05-15

    A t(5;12)(q33;p13) translocation is a recurrent chromosome abnormality in a subgroup of myeloid malignancies with features of both myeloproliferative disorders and myelodysplastic syndromes (MDSs). The molecular consequence of a t(5;12) is a fusion between the platelet-derived growth factor receptor-B gene on chromosome 5 and a novel ETS-like gene, TEL, on chromosome 12. We report on three patients with a t(5;12)(q33;p13) diagnosed as chronic myelomonocytic leukemia, and one case of a t(10;12)(q24;p13) in a progressive MDS, with eosinophilia and monocytosis. Involvement of the TEL gene in these chromosome translocations was investigated by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with cosmid probes containing selectively the 5' end or 3' end of TEL. Hybridization of these cosmids to the der(5)/der(10) or a der(12), respectively, demonstrated a rearrangement of TEL in both translocations, showing that the t(10;12) is a variant translocation of the t(5;12). Cloning of the fusion cDNA of one case of t(5;12) showed that the breakpoint occurred at the RNA level at exactly the same position as reported by Golub et al (Cell 77:307, 1994). In addition, the TEL gene on chromosome 12 could be localized between two probes previously mapped to 12p13, namely PRB1 and D12S178, leading to a better definition of the position of TEL in this chromosome region. Moreover, in the case involving chromosome 10, the breakpoint occurred between cKTN206 and cKTN312/LYT-10 at 10q24. Clinicohematological data in these studies as well as the restriction mapping of chromosomal breakpoints strongly suggest that (1) common features in MDSs involving the TEL gene are monocytosis and eosinophilia, (2) chromosomes other than no. 5 may be involved and at least a t(10;12)(q24;p13) variant chromosome translocation does exist in these MDSs, and (3) both standard and variant 12p/TEL translocations may be identified by FISH with appropriate probes.

  19. Infrared spectroscopy and Density Functional Theory of crystalline β-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexanitrohexaaziosowurtzitane (β CL-20) in the region of its C-H stretching vibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behler, K. D.; Pesce-Rodriguez, R.; Cabalo, J.; Sausa, R.

    2013-10-01

    Molecular vibrational spectroscopy provides a useful tool for material characterization and model verification. We examine the CH stretching fundamental and overtones of energetic material β-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexanitrohexaaziosowurtzitane (β-CL-20) by Raman spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, and Laser Photoacoustic Overtone Spectroscopy, and utilize Density Functional Theory to calculate the C-H bond energy of β-CL-20 in a crystal. The spectra reveal four intense and distinct features, whose analysis yields C-H stretching fundamental frequencies and anharmonicity values that range from 3137 to 3170 cm-1 and 53.8 to 58.8 cm-1, respectively. From these data, we estimate an average value of 42,700 cm-1 (5.29 eV) for the C-H bond energy, a value that agrees with our quantum mechanical calculations.

  20. Infrared spectroscopy and Density Functional Theory of crystalline β-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexanitrohexaaziosowurtzitane (β CL-20) in the region of its C-H stretching vibrations.

    PubMed

    Behler, K D; Pesce-Rodriguez, R; Cabalo, J; Sausa, R

    2013-10-01

    Molecular vibrational spectroscopy provides a useful tool for material characterization and model verification. We examine the CH stretching fundamental and overtones of energetic material β-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexanitrohexaaziosowurtzitane (β-CL-20) by Raman spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, and Laser Photoacoustic Overtone Spectroscopy, and utilize Density Functional Theory to calculate the C-H bond energy of β-CL-20 in a crystal. The spectra reveal four intense and distinct features, whose analysis yields C-H stretching fundamental frequencies and anharmonicity values that range from 3137 to 3170 cm(-1) and 53.8 to 58.8 cm(-1), respectively. From these data, we estimate an average value of 42,700 cm(-1) (5.29 eV) for the C-H bond energy, a value that agrees with our quantum mechanical calculations. PMID:23832164

  1. Direct High-Precision Measurements of the (87)Sr/(86)Sr Isotope Ratio in Natural Water without Chemical Separation Using Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry Equipped with 10(12) Ω Resistors.

    PubMed

    Li, Chao-Feng; Guo, Jing-Hui; Chu, Zhu-Yin; Feng, Lian-Jun; Wang, Xuan-Ce

    2015-07-21

    Thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) allows excellent precision for determining Sr isotope ratios in natural water samples. Traditionally, a chemical separation procedure using cation exchange resin has been employed to obtain a high purity Sr fraction from natural water, which makes sample preparation time-consuming. In this study, we present a rapid and precise method for the direct determination of the Sr isotope ratio of natural water using TIMS equipped with amplifiers with two 10(12) Ω resistors. To eliminate the (87)Rb isobaric interference, Re ribbons are used as filaments, providing a significant advantage over W ribbons in the inhibition of Rb(+) emission, based on systematically examining a series of NIST SRM987 standard doping with various amounts of Rb using Re and W ribbons. To validate the applicability of our method, twenty-two natural water samples, including different water types (rain, snow, river, lake and drinking water), that show a large range in Sr content variations (2.54-922.8 ppb), were collected and analyzed from North and South China. Analytical results show good precision (0.003-0.005%, 2 RSE) and the method was further validated by comparative analysis of the same water with and without chemical separation. The method is simple and rapid, eliminates sample preparation time, and prevents potential contamination during complicated sample-preparation procedures. Therefore, a high sample throughput inherent to the TIMS can be fully utilized.

  2. [The Influence of the Functioning of Brain Regulatory Systems onto the Voluntary Regulation of Cognitive Performance in Children. Report 2. Neuropsychological and Electrophysiological Assessment of Brain Regulatory Functions in Children Aged 10-12 with Learning Difficulties].

    PubMed

    Semenova, O A; Machinskaya, R I

    2015-01-01

    A total number of 172 children aged 10-12 were electrophysiologically and neuropsychologically assessed in order to analyze the influence of the functioning of brain regulatory systems onto the voluntary regulation of cognitive performance during the preteen years. EEG patterns associated with the nonoptimal functioning of brain regulatory systems, particularly fronto-thalamic, limbic and fronto-striatal structures were significantly more often observed in children with learning and behavioral difficulties, as compared to the control group. Neuropsychological assessment showed that the nonoptimal functioning of different brain regulatory systems specifically affect the voluntary regulation of cognitive performance. Children with EEG patterns of fronto-thalamic nonoptimal functioning demonstrated poor voluntary regulation such as impulsiveness and difficulties in continuing the same algorithms. Children with EEG patterns of limbic nonoptimal functioning showed a less pronounced executive dysfunction manifested only in poor switching between program units within a task. Children with EEG patterns of fronto-striatal nonoptimal functioning struggled with such executive dysfunctions as motor and tactile perseverations and emotional-motivational deviations such as poor motivation and communicative skills. PMID:26601407

  3. [The Influence of the Functioning of Brain Regulatory Systems onto the Voluntary Regulation of Cognitive Performance in Children. Report 2. Neuropsychological and Electrophysiological Assessment of Brain Regulatory Functions in Children Aged 10-12 with Learning Difficulties].

    PubMed

    Semenova, O A; Machinskaya, R I

    2015-01-01

    A total number of 172 children aged 10-12 were electrophysiologically and neuropsychologically assessed in order to analyze the influence of the functioning of brain regulatory systems onto the voluntary regulation of cognitive performance during the preteen years. EEG patterns associated with the nonoptimal functioning of brain regulatory systems, particularly fronto-thalamic, limbic and fronto-striatal structures were significantly more often observed in children with learning and behavioral difficulties, as compared to the control group. Neuropsychological assessment showed that the nonoptimal functioning of different brain regulatory systems specifically affect the voluntary regulation of cognitive performance. Children with EEG patterns of fronto-thalamic nonoptimal functioning demonstrated poor voluntary regulation such as impulsiveness and difficulties in continuing the same algorithms. Children with EEG patterns of limbic nonoptimal functioning showed a less pronounced executive dysfunction manifested only in poor switching between program units within a task. Children with EEG patterns of fronto-striatal nonoptimal functioning struggled with such executive dysfunctions as motor and tactile perseverations and emotional-motivational deviations such as poor motivation and communicative skills.

  4. Synthesis of C-linked carbo-β2-amino acids and β2-peptides: design of new motifs for left-handed 12/10- and 10/12-mixed helices.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Gangavaram V M; Reddy, Nelli Yella; Ravi, Rapolu; Sreenivas, Bommagani; Sridhar, Gattu; Chatterjee, Deepak; Kunwar, Ajit C; Hofmann, Hans-Jörg

    2012-12-14

    C-linked carbo-β(2)-amino acids (β(2)-Caa), a new class of β-amino acid with a carbohydrate side chain having d-xylo configuration, were prepared from d-glucose. The main idea behind the design of the new β-amino acids was to move the steric strain of the bulky carbohydrate side chain from the Cβ- to the Cα-carbon atom and to explore its influence on the folding propensities in peptides with alternating (R)- and (S)-β(2)-Caas. The tetra- and hexapeptides derived were studied employing NMR (in CDCl(3)), CD, and molecular dynamics simulations. The β(2)-peptides of the present study form left-handed 12/10- and 10/12-mixed helices independent of the order of the alternating chiral amino acids in the sequence and result in a new motif. These results differ from earlier findings on β(3)-peptides of the same design, containing a carbohydrate side chain with d-xylo configuration, which form exclusively right-handed 12/10-mixed helices. Quantum chemical calculations employing ab initio MO theory suggest the side chain chirality as an important factor for the observed definite left- or right-handedness of the helices in the β(2)- and β(3)-peptides.

  5. Crystal structures, lattice potential energies, and thermochemical properties of crystalline compounds (1-C(n)H(2n+1)NH3)2ZnCl4(s) (n = 8, 10, 12, and 13).

    PubMed

    Liu, Yupu; Di, Youying; He, Donghua; Zhou, Qian; Dou, Jianmin

    2011-11-01

    As part of our ongoing project involving the study of (1-C(n)H(2n+1)NH(3))(2)MCl(4)(s) (where M is a divalent metal ion and n = 8-18), we have synthesized the compounds (1-C(n)H(2n+1)NH(3))(2)ZnCl(4)(s) (n = 8, 10, 12, and 13), and the details of the structures are reported herein. All of the compounds were crystallized in the monoclinic form with the space group P2(1)/n for (1-C(8)H(17)NH(3))(2)ZnCl(4)(s), P21/c for (1-C(10)H(21)NH(3))(2)ZnCl(4)(s), P2(1)/c for (1-C(12)H(25)NH(3))(2)ZnCl(4)(s), and P2(1)/m for (1-C(13)H(27)NH(3))(2)ZnCl(4)(s). The lattice potential energies and ionic volumes of the cations and the common anion of the title compounds were obtained from crystallographic data. Molar enthalpies of dissolution of the four compounds at various molalities were measured at 298.15 K in the double-distilled water. According to Pitzer's theory, molar enthalpies of dissolution of the title compounds at infinite dilution were obtained. Finally, using the values of molar enthalpies of dissolution at infinite dilution (Δ(s)H(m)(∞)) and other auxiliary thermodynamic data, the enthalpy change of the dissociation of [ZnCl(4)](2-)(g) for the reaction [ZnCl(4)](2-)(g)→ Zn(2+)(g) + 4Cl(-)(g) was obtained, and then the hydration enthalpies of cations were calculated by designing a thermochemical cycle.

  6. Adhesion molecule expression in Graves' thyroid glands; potential relevance of granule membrane protein (GMP-140) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in the homing and antigen presentation processes.

    PubMed Central

    Miyazaki, A; Mirakian, R; Bottazzo, G F

    1992-01-01

    To assess the potential role of adhesion molecules in the pathogenesis of Graves' disease, we examined the expression of several of these adhesion molecules, including intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1) and granule membrane protein-140 (GMP-140), in sections of Graves' thyroid glands and control thyroids, using immunohistochemical techniques. Up-regulated expression of GMP-140 was frequently observed on endothelial cells (EC) of post-capilliary venules in all Graves' thyroids examined, compared with an occasional weak staining on EC control glands. Some capillary EC around thyroid follicles (perifollicular EC) were strongly positive for GMP-140 in the Graves' thyroids in contrast to a negative staining on the same structures in the control glands. In addition, there was a correlation between the reactivity and frequency of GMP-140 expression on EC and the severity of mononuclear cell (MNC) infiltration in the Graves' thyroids. The expression of ICAM-1 was up-regulated on perifollicular EC and EC of small venules in some thyroids of both Graves' and control groups. Conversely, no significant expression was observed on any type of EC for both endothelial-leucocyte adhesion molecule-1 (ELAM-1) and VCAM-1. However, dendritic-like cells, present within lymphocytic infiltrates, were positive for VCAM-1 in most of the Graves' thyroids examined, especially in those with a severe lymphocytic infiltration. Thyrocytes were constantly negative for the expression of all four adhesion molecules investigated. These data suggest that GMP-140, as well as ICAM-1, could play an important role in the initiation of MNC infiltration in Graves' disease. ELAM-1 and VCAM-1 appear not to be relevant for the migration of MNC from the blood vessels into the target gland, although VCAM-1 expression on dendritic-like cells might play an additively tissue-selective role in autoantigen presentation and subsequent elicitation of autoimmune

  7. α4-Integrin Antibody Treatment Blocks Monocyte/Macrophage Traffic to, Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 Expression in, and Pathology of the Dorsal Root Ganglia in an SIV Macaque Model of HIV-Peripheral Neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Lakritz, Jessica R; Thibault, Derek M; Robinson, Jake A; Campbell, Jennifer H; Miller, Andrew D; Williams, Kenneth C; Burdo, Tricia H

    2016-07-01

    Traffic of activated monocytes into the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) is critical for pathology in HIV peripheral neuropathy. We have shown that accumulation of recently recruited (bromodeoxyuridine(+) MAC387(+)) monocytes is associated with severe DRG pathology and loss of intraepidermal nerve fibers in SIV-infected macaques. Herein, we blocked leukocyte traffic by treating animals with natalizumab, which binds to α4-integrins. SIV-infected CD8-depleted macaques treated with natalizumab either early (the day of infection) or late (28 days after infection) were compared with untreated SIV-infected animals sacrificed at similar times. Histopathology showed diminished DRG pathology with natalizumab treatment, including decreased inflammation, neuronophagia, and Nageotte nodules. Natalizumab treatment resulted in a decrease in the number of bromodeoxyuridine(+) (early), MAC387(+) (late), CD68(+) (early and late), and SIVp28(+) (late) macrophages in DRG tissues. The number of CD3(+) T lymphocytes in DRGs was not affected by natalizumab treatment. Vascular cell adhesion molecule 1, an adhesion molecule that mediates leukocyte traffic, was diminished in DRGs of all natalizumab-treated animals. These data show that blocking monocyte, but not T lymphocyte, traffic to the DRG results in decreased inflammation and pathology, supporting a role for monocyte traffic and activation in HIV peripheral neuropathy. PMID:27157989

  8. Urinary biomarkers in hexachloro-1:3-butadiene-induced acute kidney injury in the female Hanover Wistar rat; correlation of α-glutathione S-transferase, albumin and kidney injury molecule-1 with histopathology and gene expression.

    PubMed

    Swain, Aubrey; Turton, John; Scudamore, Cheryl L; Pereira, Ines; Viswanathan, Neeti; Smyth, Rosemary; Munday, Michael; McClure, Fiona; Gandhi, Mitul; Sondh, Surjit; York, Malcolm

    2011-05-01

    Hexachloro-1:3-butadiene (HCBD) causes kidney injury specific to the pars recta of the proximal tubule. In the present studies, injury to the nephron was characterized at 24 h following a single dose of HCBD, using a range of quantitative urinary measurements, renal histopathology and gene expression. Multiplexed renal biomarker measurements were performed using both the Meso Scale Discovery (MSD) and Rules Based Medicine platforms. In a second study, rats were treated with a single nephrotoxic dose of HCBD and the time course release of a range of traditional and newer urinary biomarkers was followed over a 25 day period. Urinary albumin (a marker of both proximal tubular function and glomerular integrity) and α-glutathione S-transferase (α-GST, a proximal tubular cell marker of cytoplasmic leakage) showed the largest fold change at 24 h (day 1) after dosing. Most other markers measured on either the MSD or RBM platforms peaked on day 1 or 2 post-dosing, whereas levels of kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), a marker of tubular regeneration, peaked on day 3/4. Therefore, in rat proximal tubular nephrotoxicity, the measurement of urinary albumin, α-GST and KIM-1 is recommended as they potentially provide useful information about the function, degree of damage and repair of the proximal tubule. Gene expression data provided useful confirmatory information regarding exposure of the kidney and liver to HCBD, and the response of these tissues to HCBD in terms of metabolism, oxidative stress, inflammation, and regeneration and repair.

  9. Small GTPase Rho signaling is involved in {beta}1 integrin-mediated up-regulation of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 and receptor activator of nuclear factor {kappa}B ligand on osteoblasts and osteoclast maturation

    SciTech Connect

    Hirai, Fumihiko; Nakayamada, Shingo; Okada, Yosuke; Saito, Kazuyoshi; Kurose, Hitoshi; Mogami, Akira; Tanaka, Yoshiya . E-mail: tanaka@med.uoeh-u.ac.jp

    2007-04-27

    We assessed the characteristics of human osteoblasts, focusing on small GTPase Rho signaling. {beta}1 Integrin were highly expressed on osteoblasts. Engagement of {beta}1 integrins by type I collagen augmented expression of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and receptor activator of nuclear factor {kappa}B ligand (RANKL) on osteoblasts. Rho was activated by {beta}1 stimulation in osteoblasts. {beta}1 Integrin-induced up-regulation of ICAM-1 and RANKL was inhibited by transfection with adenoviruses encoding C3 transferase or pretreated with Y-27632, specific Rho and Rho-kinase inhibitors. Engagement of {beta}1 integrin on osteoblasts induced formation of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive multinuclear cells (MNC) in a coculture system of osteoblasts and peripheral monocytes, but this action was completely abrogated by transfection of C3 transferase. Our results indicate the direct involvement of Rho-mediated signaling in {beta}1 integrin-induced up-regulation of ICAM-1 and RANKL and RANKL-dependent osteoclast maturation. Thus, Rho-mediated signaling in osteoblasts seems to introduce major biases to bone resorption.

  10. Re-evaluation of the reaction rate coefficient of CH3Br + OH with implications for the atmospheric budget of methyl bromide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsson, E. J. K.; Joelsson, L. M. T.; Heimdal, J.; Johnson, M. S.; Nielsen, O. J.

    2013-12-01

    The reaction rate coefficient k(CH3Br + OH) has been determined in the temperature range 298-373 K, using pulse radiolysis/UV kinetic spectroscopy, and at 298 K using a relative rate method. The Arrhenius expression obtained from a fit to the experimental results is (2.9 ± 0.9) × 10-12 exp(-(1230 ± 125)/T) cm3 molecule-1 s-1, which is greater than the expression currently recommended. The relative rate experiments give k(298 K) = (4.13 ± 0.63) × 10-14 cm3 molecule-1 s-1. The results of the absolute and relative rate experiments indicate that the source budget of atmospheric CH3Br should be reinvestigated, as was recently done for CH3Cl.

  11. Mechanistic Control of Carcinoembryonic Antigen-related Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 (CEACAM1) Splice Isoforms by the Heterogeneous Nuclear Ribonuclear Proteins hnRNP L, hnRNP A1, and hnRNP M*

    PubMed Central

    Dery, Kenneth J.; Gaur, Shikha; Gencheva, Marieta; Yen, Yun; Shively, John E.; Gaur, Rajesh K.

    2011-01-01

    Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule-1 (CEACAM1) is expressed in a variety of cell types and is implicated in carcinogenesis. Alternative splicing of CEACAM1 pre-mRNA generates two cytoplasmic domain splice variants characterized by the inclusion (L-isoform) or exclusion (S-isoform) of exon 7. Here we show that the alternative splicing of CEACAM1 pre-mRNA is regulated by novel cis elements residing in exon 7. We report the presence of three exon regulatory elements that lead to the inclusion or exclusion of exon 7 CEACAM1 mRNA in ZR75 breast cancer cells. Heterologous splicing reporter assays demonstrated that the maintenance of authentic alternative splicing mechanisms were independent of the CEACAM1 intron sequence context. We show that forced expression of these exon regulatory elements could alter CEACAM1 splicing in HEK-293 cells. Using RNA affinity chromatography, three members of the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein family (hnRNP L, hnRNP A1, and hnRNP M) were identified. RNA immunoprecipitation of hnRNP L and hnRNP A1 revealed a binding motif located central and 3′ to exon 7, respectively. Depletion of hnRNP A1 or L by RNAi in HEK-293 cells promoted exon 7 inclusion, whereas overexpression led to exclusion of the variable exon. By contrast, overexpression of hnRNP M showed exon 7 inclusion and production of CEACAM1-L mRNA. Finally, stress-induced cytoplasmic accumulation of hnRNP A1 in MDA-MB-468 cells dynamically alters the CEACAM1-S:CEACAM1:L ratio in favor of the l-isoform. Thus, we have elucidated the molecular factors that control the mechanism of splice-site recognition in the alternative splicing regulation of CEACAM1. PMID:21398516

  12. Fer and Fps/Fes participate in a Lyn-dependent pathway from FcepsilonRI to platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1 to limit mast cell activation.

    PubMed

    Udell, Christian M; Samayawardhena, Lionel A; Kawakami, Yuko; Kawakami, Toshiaki; Craig, Andrew W B

    2006-07-28

    Mast cells express the high affinity IgE receptor FcepsilonRI, which upon aggregation by multivalent antigens elicits signals that cause rapid changes within the mast cell and in the surrounding tissue. We previously showed that FcepsilonRI aggregation caused a rapid increase in phosphorylation of both Fer and Fps/Fes kinases in bone marrow-derived mast cells. In this study, we report that FcepsilonRI aggregation leads to increased Fer/Fps kinase activities and that Fer phosphorylation downstream of FcepsilonRI is independent of Syk, Fyn, and Gab2 but requires Lyn. Activated Fer/Fps readily phosphorylate the C terminus of platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1 (Pecam-1) on immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motifs (ITIMs) and a non-ITIM residue (Tyr(700)) in vitro and in transfected cells. Mast cells devoid of Fer/Fps kinase activities display a reduction in FcepsilonRI aggregation-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of Pecam-1, with no defects in recruitment of Shp1/Shp2 phosphatases observed. Lyn-deficient mast cells display a dramatic reduction in Pecam-1 phosphorylation at Tyr(685) and a complete loss of Shp2 recruitment, suggesting a role as an initiator kinase for Pecam-1. Consistent with previous studies of Pecam-1-deficient mast cells, we observe an exaggerated degranulation response in mast cells lacking Fer/Fps kinases at low antigen dosages. Thus, Lyn and Fer/Fps kinases cooperate to phosphorylate Pecam-1 and activate Shp1/Shp2 phosphatases that function in part to limit mast cell activation. PMID:16731527

  13. Zinc oxide nanoparticles-induced intercellular adhesion molecule 1 expression requires Rac1/Cdc42, mixed lineage kinase 3, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase activation in endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Ching-Hao; Liao, Po-Lin; Shyu, Ming-Kwang; Liu, Chen-Wei; Kao, Chen-Chieh; Huang, Shih-Hsuan; Cheng, Yu-Wen; Kang, Jaw-Jou

    2012-03-01

    The explosive development of nanotechnology has caused an increase in unintended biohazards in humans and in the ecosystem. Similar to particulate matter, nanoparticles (NPs) are strongly correlated with the increase in incidences of cardiovascular diseases, yet the mechanisms behind this correlation remain unclear. Within the testing concentrations of 0.1-10 μg/ml, which did not cause a marked drop in cell viability, zinc oxide NPs (ZnO-NPs) induced intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) messenger RNA, and protein expression in both concentration- and time-dependent manner in treated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). ZnO-NPs treatment cause the activation of Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (Rac1)/cell division control protein 42 homolog (Cdc42) and protein accumulation of mixed lineage kinase 3 (MLK3), followed by c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and transcription factor c-Jun activation. Induction of ICAM-1 and phosphorylation of JNK and c-Jun could be inhibited by either JNK inhibitor SP600125 or Rac guanosine triphosphatase inhibitor NSC23766 pretreatment. In addition, pretreatment with NSC23766 significantly reduced MLK3 accumulation, suggesting the involvement of Rac1/Cdc42-MLK3-JNK-c-Jun signaling in the regulation of ZnO-NPs-induced ICAM-1 expression, whereas these signaling factors were not activated in zinc oxide microparticles (ZnO-MPs)-treated HUVECs. The increase of ICAM-1 expression on ZnO-NPs-treated HUVECs enables leukocytes to adhere and has been identified as an indicator of vascular inflammation. Our data are essential for safety evaluation of the clinical usage of ZnO-NPs in daily supplements, cosmetics, and biomedicines.

  14. Beneficial Effects of Coenzyme Q10 Supplementation on Lipid Profile and Intereukin-6 and Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 Reduction, Preliminary Results of a Double-blind Trial in Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Mohseni, Mona; Vafa, Mohammadreza; Zarrati, Mitra; Shidfar, Farzad; Hajimiresmail, Seyed Javad; Rahimi Forushani, Abbas

    2015-01-01

    Background: The present investigation was aimed to improve the inflammatory factors and lipoproteins concentration in patients with myocardial infarction (MI) by supplementation with coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10). Methods: In a double-blind, placebo-controlled study, we measured serum concentrations of one soluble cell adhesion molecules (intercellular adhesion molecule-1 [ICAM-1]), serum concentration of intereukin-6 (IL-6) and lipid profiles (high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol [HDL-C], low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol [LDL-C], total cholesterol and triglyceride [TG]) in CoQ10 supplementation group (n = 26) compared with placebo group (n = 26) in hyperlipidemic patients with MI. Fifty-two patients were randomized to receive 200 mg/day of CoQ10 or placebo for 12 weeks. Results: There were no significant differences for serum LDL-C, total cholesterol, and TG between two mentioned groups after the intervention. A significant enhancement in serum HDL-C level was observed between groups after the intervention (55.46 ± 6.87 and 44.07 ± 6.99 mg/dl in CoQ10 and placebo groups, respectively P < 0.001). Concentrations of ICAM-1 (415.03 ± 96.89 and 453.38 ± 0.7 ng/dl CoQ10 and placebo groups, respectively, P = 0.001) and IL-6 (11 ± 9.57 and 12.55 ± 8.76 pg/ml CoQ10 and placebo groups, respectively P = 0.001) in serum were significantly decreased in CoQ10 group. Conclusions: Supplementation with CoQ10 in hyperlipidemic patients with MI that have statin therapy has beneficial effects on their aspects of health. PMID:26330989

  15. Aldosterone stimulates nuclear factor-kappa B activity and transcription of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and connective tissue growth factor in rat mesangial cells via serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible protein kinase-1.

    PubMed

    Terada, Yoshio; Ueda, Satoko; Hamada, Kazu; Shimamura, Yoshiko; Ogata, Koji; Inoue, Kosuke; Taniguchi, Yoshinori; Kagawa, Toru; Horino, Taro; Takao, Toshihiro

    2012-02-01

    Several clinical and experimental data support the hypothesis that aldosterone contributes to the progression of renal injury. To determine the signaling pathway of aldosterone in relation to fibrosis and inflammation in mesangial cells, we investigated the effects of aldosterone on expression and activation of serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible protein kinase-1 (SGK1), the activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB activation, and the expressions of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF). Aldosterone stimulated SGK1 expression, phosphorylation (Ser-256), and kinase activity. The increments of phosphorylation and expression of SGK1 induced by aldosterone were inhibited by mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) inhibitor (eplerenone). Aldosterone stimulated NF-κB activity measured by NF-κB responsive elements, luciferase assay, and the levels of inhibitor of kappa B (IκB) phosphorylation. This aldosterone-induced activation of NF-κB was inhibited by the transfection of dominant-negative SGK1. Furthermore, aldosterone augmented the promoter activities and protein expressions of ICAM-1 and CTGF. The effects of aldosterone on ICAM-1 and CTGF promoter activities and protein expressions were inhibited by the transfection of dominant-negative SGK1 and dominant-negative IκBα. We also found that the MR antagonist significantly ameliorated the glomerular injury and enhancements in SGK1, ICAM-1, and CTGF expressions induced by 1% sodium chloride and aldosterone in vivo. In conclusion, our findings suggest that aldosterone stimulates ICAM-1 and CTGF transcription via activation of SGK1 and NF-κB, which may be involved in the progression of aldosterone-induced mesangial fibrosis and inflammation. MR antagonists may serve as useful therapeutic targets for the treatment of glomerular inflammatory disease.

  16. Laboratory study on OH-initiated degradation kinetics of dehydroabietic acid.

    PubMed

    Lai, Chengyue; Liu, Yongchun; Ma, Jinzhu; Ma, Qingxin; He, Hong

    2015-04-28

    Dehydroabietic acid (DHAA) is a specific organic tracer for the pyrolysis of conifer resin. To understand its atmospheric stability, the degradation behavior of particulate DHAA in the presence of hydroxyl radicals (OH) was investigated under different environmental conditions using a stainless steel reactor with volume of 30 cm(3), in the dark. At 25 °C and 40% relative humidity (RH), the second-order rate constant (k2) of pure DHAA with OH was measured to be 5.72 ± 0.87 × 10(-12) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1). The influence of temperature, RH and mixing state on the degradation kinetics of DHAA were also investigated. At 40% RH, k2 of pure DHAA increases with increasing temperature and follows the Arrhenius equation k2 = (8.9 ± 1.9) × 10(-10) exp[-(1508.2 ± 64.2)/T], while RH does not have significant impact on k2 at 25 °C. At 25 °C and 40% RH, compared with pure DHAA, the corresponding k2 for DHAA mixed with (NH4)2SO4 decreased to 4.58 ± 0.95 × 10(-12) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1), while the value was 3.30 ± 0.79 × 10(-12) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) when mixed with soot. The atmospheric lifetime of DHAA varied from 2.3 ± 0.2 to 4.4 ± 0.8 days under different environmental conditions. This study indicates that degradation of DHAA by OH radicals is appreciable, and a significant error in source apportionment should be introduced if the contribution of degradation to DHAA concentration is not considered during air mass aging. PMID:25824374

  17. High-accuracy measurements of OH(•) reaction rate constants and IR and UV absorption spectra: ethanol and partially fluorinated ethyl alcohols.

    PubMed

    Orkin, Vladimir L; Khamaganov, Victor G; Martynova, Larissa E; Kurylo, Michael J

    2011-08-11

    Rate constants for the gas phase reactions of OH(•) radicals with ethanol and three fluorinated ethyl alcohols, CH(3)CH(2)OH (k(0)), CH(2)FCH(2)OH (k(1)), CHF(2)CH(2)OH (k(2)), and CF(3)CH(2)OH (k(3)) were measured using a flash photolysis resonance-fluorescence technique over the temperature range 220 to 370 K. The Arrhenius plots were found to exhibit noticeable curvature for all four reactions. The temperature dependences of the rate constants can be represented by the following expressions over the indicated temperature intervals: k(0)(220-370 K) = 5.98 × 10(-13)(T/298)(1.99) exp(+515/T) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1), k(0)(220-298 K) = (3.35 ± 0.06) × 10(-12) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) [for atmospheric modeling purposes, k(0)(T) is essentially temperature-independent below room temperature, k(0)(220-298 K) = (3.35 ± 0.06) × 10(-12) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1)], k(1)(230-370 K) = 3.47 × 10(-14)(T/298)(4.49) exp(+977/T) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1), k(2)(220-370 K) = 3.87 × 10(-14)(T/298)(4.25) exp(+578/T) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1), and k(3)(220-370 K) = 2.48 × 10(-14)(T/298)(4.03) exp(+418/T) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1). The atmospheric lifetimes due to reactions with tropospheric OH(•) were estimated to be 4, 16, 62, and 171 days, respectively, under the assumption of a well-mixed atmosphere. UV absorption cross sections of all four ethanols were measured between 160 and 215 nm. The IR absorption cross sections of the three fluorinated ethanols were measured between 400 and 1900 cm(-1), and their global warming potentials were estimated.

  18. Upregulation of Intercellular Adhesion Molecule 1 and Proinflammatory Cytokines by the Major Surface Proteins of Treponema maltophilum and Treponema lecithinolyticum, the Phylogenetic Group IV Oral Spirochetes Associated with Periodontitis and Endodontic Infections

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sung-Hoon; Kim, Kack-Kyun; Choi, Bong-Kyu

    2005-01-01

    Treponema maltophilum and Treponema lecithinolyticum belong to the group IV oral spirochetes and are associated with endodontic infections, as well as periodontitis. Recently, the genes encoding the major surface proteins (Msps) of these bacteria (MspA and MspTL, respectively) were cloned and sequenced. The amino acid sequences of these proteins showed significant similarity. In this study we analyzed the functional role of these homologous proteins in human monocytic THP-1 cells and primary cultured periodontal ligament (PDL) cells using recombinant proteins. The complete genes encoding MspA and MspTL without the signal sequence were cloned into Escherichia coli by using the expression vector pQE-30. Fusion proteins tagged with N-terminal hexahistidine (recombinant MspA [rMspA] and rMspTL) were obtained, and any possible contamination of the recombinant proteins with E. coli endotoxin was removed by using polymyxin B-agarose. Flow cytometry showed that rMspA and rMspTL upregulated the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) in both THP-1 and PDL cells. Expression of proinflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-8, was also induced significantly in both cell types by the Msps, as determined by reverse transcription-PCR and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, whereas IL-1β synthesis could be detected only in the THP-1 cells. The upregulation of ICAM-1, IL-6, and IL-8 was completely inhibited by pretreating the cells with an NF-κB activation inhibitor, l-1-tosylamido-2-phenylethyl chloromethyl ketone. This suggests involvement of NF-κB activation. The increased ICAM-1 and IL-8 expression in the THP-1 cells obtained with rMsps was not inhibited in the presence of the IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra), a natural inhibitor of IL-1. Our results show that the Msps of the group IV oral spirochetes may play an important role in amplifying the local immune response by continuous inflammatory cell recruitment and retention at an

  19. Human Peripheral Blood Eosinophils Express a Functional c-kit Receptor for Stem Cell Factor that Stimulates Very Late Antigen 4 (VLA-4)–mediated Cell Adhesion to Fibronectin and Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule 1 (VCAM-1)

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Qian; Austen, K. Frank; Friend, Daniel S.; Heidtman, Matthew; Boyce, Joshua A.

    1997-01-01

    We evaluated mature peripheral blood eosinophils for their expression of the surface tyrosine kinase, c-kit, the receptor for the stromal cell–derived cytokine, stem cell factor (SCF). Cytofluorographic analysis revealed that c-kit was expressed on the purified peripheral blood eosinophils from 8 of 8 donors (4 nonatopic and 4 atopic) (mean channel fluorescence intensity 2.0– 3.6-fold, average 2.8 ± 0.6-fold, greater than the negative control). The uniform and selective expression of c-kit by eosinophils was confirmed by immunohistochemical analysis of peripheral blood buffy coats. The functional integrity of c-kit was demonstrated by the capacity of 100 ng/ml (5 nM) of recombinant human (rh) SCF to increase eosinophil adhesion to 3, 10, and 30 μg/ml of immobilized FN40, a 40-kD chymotryptic fragment of plasma fibronectin, in 15 min by 7.7 ± 1.4-, 5.3 ± 3.3-, and 5.4 ± 0.2-fold, respectively, and their adhesion to 0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 μg/ml vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), by 12.7 ± 9.2-, 3.8 ± 2.5-, and 1.7 ± 0.6-fold, respectively. The SCF-stimulated adhesion occurred without concomitant changes in surface integrin expression, thereby indicating an avidity-based mechanism. rhSCF (100 ng/ml, 5 nM) was comparable to rh eotaxin (200 ng/ml, 24 nM) in stimulating adhesion. Cell adhesion to FN40 was completely inhibited with antibodies against the α4 and β1 integrin subunits, revealing that the SCF/c-kit adhesion effect was mediated by a single integrin heterodimer, very late antigen 4 (VLA-4). Thus, SCF represents a newly recognized stromal ligand for the activation of eosinophils for VLA-4–mediated adhesion, which could contribute to the exit of these cells from the blood, their tissue localization, and their prominence in inflammatory lesions. PMID:9221761

  20. Effect of Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System Inhibition, Dietary Sodium Restriction, and/or Diuretics on Urinary Kidney Injury Molecule 1 Excretion in Nondiabetic Proteinuric Kidney Disease: A Post Hoc Analysis of a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Waanders, Femke; Vaidya, Vishal S.; van Goor, Harry; Leuvenink, Henri; Damman, Kevin; Hamming, Inge; Bonventre, Joseph V.; Vogt, Liffert; Navis, Gerjan

    2012-01-01

    Background Tubulointerstitial damage plays an important role in chronic kidney disease (CKD) with proteinuria. Urinary kidney injury molecule 1 (KIM-1) reflects tubular KIM-1 and is considered a sensitive biomarker for early tubular damage. We hypothesized that a decrease in proteinuria by using therapeutic interventions is associated with decreased urinary KIM-1 levels. Study Design Post hoc analysis of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial. Setting & Participants 34 proteinuric patients without diabetes from our outpatient renal clinic. Intervention Stepwise 6-week interventions of losartan, sodium restriction (low-sodium [LS] diet), their combination, losartan plus hydrochlorothiazide (HCT), and the latter plus an LS diet. Outcomes & Measurements Urinary excretion of KIM-1, total protein, and N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) as a positive control for tubular injury. Results Mean baseline urine protein level was 3.8 ± 0.4 (SE) g/d, and KIM-1 level was 1,706 ± 498 ng/d (increased compared with healthy controls; 74 ng/d). KIM-1 level was decreased by using placebo/LS (1,201 ± 388 ng/d; P = 0.04), losartan/high sodium (1,184 ± 296 ng/d; P = 0.09), losartan/LS (921 ± 176 ng/d; P = 0.008), losartan/high sodium plus HCT (862 ± 151 ng/d; P = 0.008) and losartan/LS plus HCT (743 ± 170 ng/d; P = 0.001). The decrease in urinary KIM-1 levels paralleled the decrease in proteinuria (R = 0.523; P < 0.001), but not blood pressure or creatinine clearance. 16 patients reached target proteinuria with protein less than 1 g/d, whereas KIM-1 levels normalized in only 2 patients. Urinary NAG level was increased at baseline and significantly decreased during the treatment periods of combined losartan plus HCT only. The decrease in urinary NAG levels was not closely related to proteinuria. Limitations Post hoc analysis. Conclusions Urinary KIM-1 level was increased in patients with nondiabetic CKD with proteinuria and decreased in parallel with

  1. Revised Guidelines for Comprehensive Health Education, Grades 10-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nebraska State Dept. of Education, Lincoln. Div. of Instructional Services.

    These health curriculum guidelines were designed for teachers of secondary students. Four major topic areas are covered: 1) anatomy, physiology, tissues, systems, heredity, physical activity, and nutriition; 2) family structures, functions, and responsibilities; 3) values, stress, and drug abuse; and 4) the environment, disease control, cancer,…

  2. 24 CFR 10.12 - Additional rulemaking proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... The Secretary may invite interested persons to present oral arguments, appear at informal hearings, or participate in any other procedure affording opportunity for oral presentation of views. The transcript...

  3. 44 CFR 10.12 - Pre-implementation actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... decision and describes the alternatives and relevant factors considered as specified in 40 CFR 1505.2. The... shall provide monitoring information, upon request, as specified in 40 CFR 1505.3. This does not... integrated into the decision-making process. Because of the diversity of FEMA, it is not feasible to...

  4. 44 CFR 10.12 - Pre-implementation actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... decision. In those cases requiring environmental impact statements, the Regional Administrator at the time... decision and describes the alternatives and relevant factors considered as specified in 40 CFR 1505.2. The... will be identified in the environmental impact statement and made available to...

  5. Rate constant for the termolecular reaction of OH+toluene+helium in the fall-off range below 10 Torr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourmada, N.; Devolder, P.; Sochet, L.-R.

    1988-08-01

    We have measured the title rate constant by the discharge flow technique associated with detection of OH by resonance fluorescence and photon counting. The experimental conditions are as follows: pressure range 0.4 to 9.8 Tort; temperature range 297 to 353 K. From room temperature results, the Troe parameters k0 (low-pressure limiting rate constant) and k∞ (high-pressure limiting rate constant) are derived: k0 = (4.0 ± 0.5 ) × 10 -28 cm 6 molecule -2 s -1 ; k∞ = (6.0±0.7) × 10 -12 cm 3 molecule -1 s -1.

  6. Kinetics of the reaction of Cl atoms with CHCl 3 over the temperature range 253-313 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsson, Elna J. K.; Hoff, Janus; Nielsen, Ole John; Johnson, Matthew S.

    2010-07-01

    The reaction CHCl 3 + Cl → CCl 3 + HCl was studied in the atmospherically relevant temperature range from 253 to 313 K and in 930 mbar of N 2 diluent using the relative rate method. A temperature dependent reaction rate constant, valid in the temperature range 220-330 K, was determined by a fit to the result of the present study and that of Orlando (1999); k = (3.77 ± 0.32) × 10 -12 exp((-1011 ± 24)/T) cm 3 molecule -1 s -1.

  7. An investigation into linearity with cumulative emissions of the climate and carbon cycle response in HadCM3LC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liddicoat, S. K.; Booth, B. B. B.; Joshi, M. M.

    2016-06-01

    We investigate the extent to which global mean temperature, precipitation, and the carbon cycle are constrained by cumulative carbon emissions throughout four experiments with a fully coupled climate–carbon cycle model. The paired experiments adopt contrasting, idealised approaches to climate change mitigation at different action points this century, with total emissions rising to more than two trillion tonnes of carbon (TtC). For each pair, the contrasting mitigation approaches—capping emissions early versus reducing them to zero a few decades later—cause their cumulative emissions trajectories to diverge initially, then converge, cross, and diverge again. We find that global mean temperature is linear with cumulative emissions across all experiments, although differences of up to 1.5 K exist regionally when the trajectories of total carbon emitted during the course of the two scenarios coincide, for both pairs of experiments. Interestingly, although the oceanic precipitation response scales with cumulative emissions, the global precipitation response does not, due to a decrease in precipitation over land above emissions of around one TtC. Most carbon fluxes are less well constrained by cumulative emissions as they reach two trillion tonnes. The opposing mitigation approaches have different consequences for the Amazon rainforest, which affects the linearity with which the carbon cycle responds to cumulative emissions. The average Transient Climate Response to cumulative carbon Emissions (TCRE) is 1.95 K TtC‑1, at the upper end of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s range of 0.8–2.5 K TtC‑1.

  8. Sea surface temperatures of the mid-Piacenzian Warm Period: A comparison of PRISM3 and HadCM3

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dowsett, H.J.; Haywood, A.M.; Valdes, P.J.; Robinson, M.M.; Lunt, D.J.; Hill, D.J.; Stoll, D.K.; Foley, K.M.

    2011-01-01

    It is essential to document how well the current generation of climate models performs in simulating past climates to have confidence in their ability to project future conditions. We present the first global, in-depth comparison of Pliocene sea surface temperature (SST) estimates from a coupled ocean-atmosphere climate model experiment and a SST reconstruction based on proxy data. This enables the identification of areas in which both the climate model and the proxy dataset require improvement. In general, the fit between model-produced SST anomalies and those formed from the available data is very good. We focus our discussion on three regions where the data-model anomaly exceeds 2 ??C 1) In the high latitude North Pacific, a systematic model error may result in anomalies that are too cold. Also, the deeper Pliocene thermocline may cause disagreement along the California margin; either the upwelling in the model is too strong or the modeled thermocline is not deep enough. 2) In the North Atlantic, the model predicts cooling in the center of a data-based warming trend that steadily increases with latitude from +. 1.5 ??C to >+ 6 ??C. The discrepancy may arise because the modeled North Atlantic Current is too zonal compared to reality, which is reinforced by the lowering of the altitude of the Pliocene Western Cordillera Mountains. In addition, the model's use of modern bathymetry in the higher latitudes may have led the model to underestimate the northward penetration of warmer surface water into the Arctic. 3) Finally, though the data and model show good general agreement across most of the Southern Ocean, a few locations show offsets due to the modern land-sea mask used in the model. Additional considerations could account for many of the modest data-model anomalies, such as differences between calibration climatologies, the oversimplification of the seasonal cycle, and differences between SST proxies (i.e. seasonality and water depth). New SST estimates from data-sparse and regionally important areas will greatly enhance our ability to judge model performance. ?? 2011.

  9. Comparison of Grell and Emanuel schemes in the simulations of South America climate using RegCM3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Da Rocha, Rosmeri P.; Krüger, Luiz Fernando; Reboita, Michelle S.; Ambrizzi, Tércio; Cuadra, Santiago V.

    2010-05-01

    Climate simulations were carried out with the Regional Climate Model (RegCM) over South America (SA) in the frame of FP7 EU (2008-2012) CLARIS-LPB project (A Europe-South America Network for Climate Change Assessment and Impact Studies in La Plata Basin). Two 20 years (from 1989 to 2008) simulations using Grell (SG) and Emanuel (SE) convective parameterizations were compared. Both simulations were forced by ERA-Interim reanalysis in a domain that includes SA with 50 km of horizontal resolution. Some parameters were tuning in both SG and SE experiments. The simulated precipitation and temperature were compared to CMAP (and GPCP) and CRU datasets, respectively. The spatial distribution of the simulated precipitation and temperature are similar to the analyses in both experiments, though with some differences in the intensity. In summer, SE is wetter than SG and than the analyses over the continental branch of the South Atlantic Convergence Zone (SACZ). During the summer and winter, SG and SE underestimate the precipitation over the northern of Argentina and in the south extreme of Brazil, while they overestimate the precipitation in the southern of Chile. In comparison to the SG, SE presents two main improvements: it simulates the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) and it has more precipitation in the oceanic branch of the SACZ. Although the rainfall is better simulated by the SE than the SG, it is less skillful for the temperature. The SE simulates higher temperatures than CRU in large part of the SA in the summer. In winter, the temperature is well reproduced from center to the south of SA in both simulations. However, in the center-north (subtropics and tropics) of SA the SG (SE) underestimates (overestimates) the temperature. In summary, compared with previous results both simulations show some improvement in the annual cycle of temperature and precipitation over SA.

  10. An investigation into linearity with cumulative emissions of the climate and carbon cycle response in HadCM3LC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liddicoat, S. K.; Booth, B. B. B.; Joshi, M. M.

    2016-06-01

    We investigate the extent to which global mean temperature, precipitation, and the carbon cycle are constrained by cumulative carbon emissions throughout four experiments with a fully coupled climate-carbon cycle model. The paired experiments adopt contrasting, idealised approaches to climate change mitigation at different action points this century, with total emissions rising to more than two trillion tonnes of carbon (TtC). For each pair, the contrasting mitigation approaches—capping emissions early versus reducing them to zero a few decades later—cause their cumulative emissions trajectories to diverge initially, then converge, cross, and diverge again. We find that global mean temperature is linear with cumulative emissions across all experiments, although differences of up to 1.5 K exist regionally when the trajectories of total carbon emitted during the course of the two scenarios coincide, for both pairs of experiments. Interestingly, although the oceanic precipitation response scales with cumulative emissions, the global precipitation response does not, due to a decrease in precipitation over land above emissions of around one TtC. Most carbon fluxes are less well constrained by cumulative emissions as they reach two trillion tonnes. The opposing mitigation approaches have different consequences for the Amazon rainforest, which affects the linearity with which the carbon cycle responds to cumulative emissions. The average Transient Climate Response to cumulative carbon Emissions (TCRE) is 1.95 K TtC-1, at the upper end of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s range of 0.8-2.5 K TtC-1.

  11. Photochemical properties of some Cl-containing halogenated alkanes.

    PubMed

    Orkin, V L; Khamaganov, V G; Kasimovskaya, E E; Guschin, A G

    2013-07-01

    Rate constants for the gas-phase reactions of OH radicals with three partially halogenated alkanes, CH3Cl (kMC), CHFClCFCl2 (k122a), and CH2FCFCl2 (k132c), were measured using a discharge flow-electron paramagnetic resonance technique over the temperature range from 298 to 460 K. The temperature dependences of the rate constants can be represented by the expressions kMC(298-460 K) = (3.09 ± 0.94) × 10(-12) exp[-(1411 ± 85)/T] cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1), k122a(298-460 K) = (1.26 ± 0.24) × 10(-12) exp[-(1298 ± 66)/T] cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1), and k132c(298-370 K) = (8.1 ± 2.2) × 10(-13) exp[-(1247 ± 89)/T] cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1). The atmospheric lifetimes of CH3Cl, CHFClCFCl2, and CH2FCFCl2 due to their reaction with OH were estimated to be 1.6, 3.5, and 4.5 years, respectively. The UV absorption cross sections of halogenated ethanes, CHFClCFCl2, and CH2FCFCl2, were measured at T = 295 K between 190 and 240 nm, as were those for CHCl2CF2Cl (HCFC-122), CHCl2CF3 (HCFC-123), CHFClCF2Cl (HCFC-123a), and CH3CFCl2 (HCFC-141b). The atmospheric lifetimes due to stratospheric photolysis were also estimated. PMID:23725515

  12. Kinetic studies on the temperature dependence of the BrO + BrO reaction using laser flash photolysis.

    PubMed

    Ferracci, Valerio; Hino, Kaori; Rowley, David M

    2011-05-01

    The BrO self-reaction, BrO + BrO → products (1), has been studied using laser flash photolysis coupled with UV absorption spectroscopy over the temperature range T = 266.5-321.6 K, under atmospheric pressure. BrO radicals were generated via laser photolysis of Br(2) in the presence of excess ozone. Both BrO and O(3) were monitored via UV absorption spectroscopy using charge-coupled device (CCD) detection. Simultaneous fitting to both temporal concentration traces allowed determination of the rate constant of the two channels of , BrO + BrO → 2Br + O(2) (1a); BrO + BrO → Br(2) + O(2) (1b), hence the calculation of the overall rate of and the branching ratio, α: k(1a)/cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) = (1.92 ± 1.54) × 10(-12) exp[(126 ± 214)/T], k(1b)/cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) = (3.4 ± 0.8) × 10(-13) exp[(181 ± 70)/T], k(1)/cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) = (2.3 ± 1.5) × 10(-12) exp(134 ± 185 /T) and α = k(1a)/k(1) = (0.84 ± 0.09) exp[(-7 ± 32)/T]. Errors are 1σ, statistical only. Results from this work show a weaker temperature dependence of the branching ratio for channel (1a) than that found in previous work, leading to values of α at temperatures typical of the Polar Boundary Layer higher than those reported by previous studies. This implies a shift of the partitioning between the two channels of the BrO self-reaction towards the bromine atom and hence directly ozone-depleting channel (1a).

  13. Gas-phase reaction of methyl isothiocyanate and methyl isocyanate with hydroxyl radicals under static relative rate conditions.

    PubMed

    Lu, Zhou; Hebert, Vincent R; Miller, Glenn C

    2014-02-26

    Gaseous methyl isothiocyanate (MITC), the principal breakdown product of the soil fumigant metam sodium (sodium N-methyldithiocarbamate), is an inhalation exposure concern to persons living near treated areas. Inhalation exposure also involves gaseous methyl isocyanate (MIC), a highly reactive and toxic transformation product of MITC. In this work, gas-phase hydroxyl (OH) radical reaction rate constants of MITC and MIC have been determined using a static relative rate technique under controlled laboratory conditions. The rate constants obtained are 15.36 × 10(-12) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) for MITC and 3.62 × 10(-12) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) for MIC. The average half-lives of MITC and MIC in the atmosphere are estimated to be 15.7 and 66.5 h, respectively. The molar conversion of MITC to MIC for OH radical reactions is 67% ± 8%, which indicates that MIC is the primary product of the MITC-OH reaction in the gas phase.

  14. Time-resolved detection of the CF3 photofragment using chirped QCL radiation.

    PubMed

    Hancock, G; Horrocks, S J; Ritchie, G A D; Helden, J H van; Walker, R J

    2008-10-01

    This paper demonstrates how a quantum cascade laser (QCL) in its intrapulse mode can provide a simple method for probing the products of a photolysis event. The system studied is the 266 nm photodissociation of CF3I with the CF3 fragments subsequently detected using radiation at approximately 1253 cm(-1) generated by a pulsed QCL. The tuning range provided by the frequency down-chirp of the QCL operated in its intrapulse mode allows a approximately 1 cm(-1) segment of the CF3 nu3 band to be measured following each photolysis laser pulse. Identification of features within this spectral region allows the CF3 ( v = 0) number density to be calculated as a function of pump-probe delay, and consequently the processes which populate and deplete this quantum state may be examined. Rate constants for the population cascade from higher vibrational levels into the v = 0 state, k 1, and for the recombination of the CF3 radicals to form C2F6, k2, are measured. The returned values of k1 = (2.3 +/- 0.34) x 10(-12) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) and k2 = (3.9 +/- 0.34) x 10(-12) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) are found to be in good agreement with reported literature values.

  15. Structure of Replicating Simian Virus 40 Deoxyribonucleic Acid Molecules 1

    PubMed Central

    Sebring, E. D.; Kelly, T. J.; Thoren, M. M.; Salzman, N. P.

    1971-01-01

    Properties of replicating simian virus 40 (SV40) deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) have been examined by sedimentation analysis and by direct observation during a lytic cycle of infection of African green monkey kidney cells. Two types of replicating DNA molecules were observed in the electron microscope. One was an open structure containing two branch points, three branches, and no free ends whose length measurements were consistent with those expected for replicating SV40 DNA molecules. A second species had the same features as the open structure, but in addition it contained a superhelix in the unreplicated portion of the molecule. Eighty to ninety per cent of the replicative intermediates (RI) were in this latter configuration, and length measurements of these molecules also were consistent with replicating SV40 DNA. Replicating DNA molecules with this configuration have not been described previously. RI, when examined in ethidium bromide-cesium chloride (EB-CsCl) isopycnic gradients, banded in a heterogeneous manner. A fraction of the RI banded at the same density as circular SV40 DNA containing one or more single-strand nicks (component II). The remaining radioactive RI banded at densities higher than that of component II, and material was present at all densities between that of supercoiled double-stranded DNA (component I) and component II. When RI that banded at different densities in EB-CsCl were examined in alkaline gradients, cosedimentation of parental DNA and newly replicated DNA did not occur. All newly replicated DNA sedimented more slowly than did intact single-stranded SV40 DNA, a finding that is inconsistent with the rolling circle model of DNA replication. An inverse correlation exists between the extent of replication of the SV40 DNA and the banding density in EB-CsCl. Under alkaline conditions, the parental DNA strands that were contained in the RI sedimented as covalently closed structures. The sedimentation rates in alkali of the covalently closed parental DNA decreased as replication progressed. Based on these observations, some possible models for replication of SV40 DNA are proposed. Images PMID:4331651

  16. Toxicological and pharmacological evaluation, antioxidant, ADMET and molecular modeling of selected racemic chromenotacrines {11-amino-12-aryl-8,9,10,12-tetrahydro-7H-chromeno[2,3-b]quinolin-3-ols} for the potential prevention and treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Oset-Gasque, María Jesús; González, María Pilar; Pérez-Peña, Javier; García-Font, Nuria; Romero, Alejandro; del Pino, Javier; Ramos, Eva; Hadjipavlou-Litina, Dimitra; Soriano, Elena; Chioua, Mourad; Samadi, Abdelouahid; Raghuvanshi, Dushyant S; Singh, Krishna N; Marco-Contelles, José

    2014-03-01

    The pharmacological analysis of racemic chromenotacrines (CT) 1-7, bearing the 11-amino-12-aryl-8,9,10,12-tetrahydro-7H-chromeno[2,3-b]quinolin-3-ol ring skeleton, in a series of experiments targeted to explore their potential use for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD), is reported. The toxicological evaluation showed that among all these chromenotacrines, CT6 is much less hepatotoxic than tacrine in a range of concentrations from 1 to 300 μM, measured as cell viability in HepG2 cells. Moreover, CT6 did not significantly increase lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate transaminase, and alanine transaminase release in HepG2 cells. Besides, CT6 treatment exerts a high protective effect against the lipid peroxidation induced after H₂O₂-treated SH-SY5Y cells, in a concentration-dependent manner. CT6 showed an excellent antioxidant profile in the AAPH test, and protects against the decrease in cell viability induced by respiratory chain inhibitors (Oligomicyn A/Rotenone) and NO donors in neuronal cultures. This effect could be due to a mixed antiapoptotic and antinecrotic neuroprotective effect at low and intermediate CT6 concentrations, respectively. CT1-7 are potent and selective inhibitors of EeAChE in the submicromolar range. CT3 [IC₅₀ (EeAChE) = 0.007 ± 0.003 μM], and CT6 [IC₅₀ (EeAChE) = 0.041 ± 0.001 μM] are the most potent AChE inhibitors. Kinetic studies on the non-toxic chromenotacrine CT6 showed that this compound behaves as a non-competitive inhibitor (Ki = 0.047 ± 0.003 μM), indicating that CT6 binds at the peripheral anionic site, a fact confirmed by molecular modeling analysis. In silico ADMET analysis showed also that CT6 should have a moderate BBB permeability. Consequently, non-toxic chromenotacrine CT6 can be considered as an attractive multipotent molecule for the potential treatment of AD.

  17. Brucella abortus as a potential vaccine candidate: induction of interleukin-12 secretion and enhanced B7.1 and B7.2 and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 surface expression in elutriated human monocytes stimulated by heat-inactivated B. abortus.

    PubMed Central

    Zaitseva, M; Golding, H; Manischewitz, J; Webb, D; Golding, B

    1996-01-01

    Development of a vaccine which is capable of generating a strong cellular immune response associated with gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) production and cytotoxic T-cell development requires that the immunogen be capable of inducing the secretion of interleukin-12 (IL-12), which is a pivotal factor for the differentiation of Th1 or Tc1 cells. We have previously shown that the heat-inactivated gram-negative bacterium Brucella abortus can induce IFN-gamma secretion by T cells. In the present study, we demonstrate that B. abortus and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from B. abortus can induce IL-12 p40 mRNA expression and protein secretion by human elutriated monocytes (99% pure). p40 mRNA was detected within 4 h, and p40 protein could be measured at 24 h. This induction was abrogated by anti-CD14 monoclonal antibody, suggesting that monocytes recognize B. abortus via their receptor for LPS. The biological activity of IL-12 secreted by B. abortus-stimulated monocytes was demonstrated by its ability to upregulate IFN-gamma mRNA expression in T cells separated from monocytes and B. abortus by a transwell membrane. The B. abortus-induced IL-12 also enhanced NK cytolytic activity against K562 target cells. B. abortus was shown to rapidly increase the expression of the costimulatory molecules B7.1 and B7.2 and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 on human monocytes. Together, these data indicate that B. abortus can directly activate human monocytes and provide the cytokine milieu which would direct the immune response towards Th1-Tc1 differentiation. PMID:8757841

  18. The assessment of the energetic compound 2,4,6,8,10,12-hexanitro-2,4,6,8,10,12-Hexaazaisowurtzitane (CL-20) degradability in soil.

    PubMed

    Strigul, Nikolay; Braida, Washington; Christodoulatos, Christos; Balas, Wendy; Nicolich, Steven

    2006-01-01

    CL-20 is a relatively new energetic compound with applications in explosive and propellant formulations. Currently, information about the fate of CL-20 in ecological systems is scarce. The aim of this study is to evaluate the biodegradability of CL-20 in soil environments. Four soils were used where initial CL-20 concentrations (above water solubility) ranged from 125 to 1500 mg of CL-20 per kg dry soil (corresponding to the concentrations derived from unexploded ordnance, low order detonation, or manufacturing spills). CL-20 appears to be biodegradable in soil under anaerobic conditions, and additions of organic substrates can substantially accelerate this process. However, CL-20 is not degraded in soil under aerobic conditions kept in the dark at temperatures up to 30 degrees C without organic amendments. Additions of starch or cellulose promote the biodegradation of CL-20 under aerobic conditions. Soil microbial community mediated biodegradation and plant uptake appears to enhance CL-20 biodegradation, the latter suggesting a possible route for CL-20 to entry in the food chain. PMID:16024150

  19. Atmospheric fate of nitramines: an experimental and theoretical study of the OH reactions with CH3NHNO2 and (CH3)2NNO2.

    PubMed

    Maguta, Mihayo Musabila; Aursnes, Marius; Bunkan, Arne Joakim Coldevin; Edelen, Katie; Mikoviny, Tomáš; Nielsen, Claus Jørgen; Stenstrøm, Yngve; Tang, Yizhen; Wisthaler, Armin

    2014-05-15

    The rates of CH3NHNO2 and (CH3)2NNO2 reaction with OH radicals were determined relative to CH3OCH3 and CH3OH at 298 ± 2 K and 1013 ± 10 hPa in purified air by long path FTIR spectroscopy, and the rate coefficients were determined to be k(OH+CH3NHNO2) = (9.5 ± 1.9) × 10(-13) and k(OH+(CH3)2NNO2) = (3.5 ± 0.7) × 10(-12) (2σ) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1). Ozone was found to react very slowly with the two nitramines, k(O3+nitramine) < 10(-21) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1). Product formation in the photo-oxidation of CH3NHNO2 and (CH3)2NNO2 was studied by FTIR, PTR-ToF-MS, and quantum chemistry calculations; the major products in the OH-initiated degradation are the corresponding imines, CH2═NH and CH3N═CH2, and N-nitro amides, CHONHNO2 and CHON(CH3)NO2. Atmospheric degradation mechanisms are presented. PMID:24766577

  20. LIF studies of iodine oxide chemistry. Part 3. Reactions IO + NO3 --> OIO + NO2, I + NO3 --> IO + NO2, and CH2I + O2 --> (products): implications for the chemistry of the marine atmosphere at night.

    PubMed

    Dillon, Terry J; Tucceri, María E; Sander, Rolf; Crowley, John N

    2008-03-21

    The technique of pulsed laser photolysis coupled to LIF detection of IO was used to study IO + NO(3) --> OIO + NO(2); I + NO(3) --> (products); CH(2)I + O(2) --> (products); and O((3)P) + CH(2)I(2) --> IO + CH(2)I, at ambient temperature. was observed for the first time in the laboratory and a rate coefficient of k(1 a) = (9 +/- 4) x 10(-12) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) obtained. For , a value of k(2) (298 K) = (1.0 +/- 0.3) x 10(-10) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) was obtained, and a IO product yield close to unity determined. IO was also formed in a close-to-unity yield in , whereas in an upper limit of alpha(3)(IO) < 0.12 was derived. The implications of these results for the nighttime chemistry of the atmosphere were discussed. Box model calculations showed that efficient OIO formation in was necessary to explain field observations of large OIO/IO ratios.

  1. Citronellal reactions with ozone and OH radical: Rate constants and gas-phase products detected using PFBHA derivatization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, J. C.; Ham, J. E.; Wells, J. R.

    The bimolecular rate constants, kOH+citronellal, (150±40)×10 -12 cm 3 molecule -1 s -1 and, k+citronellal, (3.5±1.2)×10 -16 cm 3 molecule -1 s -1, were measured using the relative rate technique for the reactions of the hydroxyl radical (OH) and ozone (O 3) with 3,7-dimethyl-6-octen-1-al ((R)-(+)-citronellal) at (297±3) K and 1 atm total pressure. To more clearly define part of citronellal's indoor environment degradation mechanism, the products of the citronellal+OH and citronellal+O 3 reactions were also investigated. The positively identified citronellal/OH and citronellal/O 3 reaction products were: 3-methylhexanedial HC( dbnd O)CH 2CH 2CH(CH 3)CH 2C( dbnd O)H and 2-oxopropanal (methylglyoxal, CH 3C( dbnd O)C( dbnd O)H). The use of derivatizing agent O-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl)hydroxylamine (PFBHA) was used to propose 3-methylhexanedial as a major citronellal/OH and citronellal/O 3 reaction product. The elucidation of this reaction product was facilitated by mass spectrometry of the derivatized reaction products coupled with plausible citronellal/OH and citronellal/O 3 reaction mechanisms based on previously published volatile organic compound/OH and volatile organic compound/O 3 gas-phase reaction mechanisms.

  2. An experimental and computational study of the reaction of ground-state sulfur atoms with carbon disulfide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yide; Marshall, Paul

    2011-10-01

    The pulsed laser photolysis/resonance fluorescence technique was used to study the reaction of S(3PJ) with CS2 in an Ar bath gas. Over 290-770 K pressure-dependent kinetics were observed and low- and high-pressure limiting rate constants were derived as k0 = (11.5-0.0133 T/K) × 10-31 cm6 molecule-2 s-1 (error limits ± 20%) and k∞ = (2.2 ± 0.6) × 10-12 cm3 molecule-1 s-1. Equilibration observed at 690-770 K yields a CS2-S bond dissociation enthalpy of 131.7 ± 4.0 kJ mol-1 at 298 K. This agrees with computed thermochemistry for a spin-forbidden C2V adduct, estimated at the coupled-cluster single double triple level extrapolated to the infinite basis set limit. A pressure-independent pathway, assigned to abstraction, was observed from 690 to 1040 K and can be summarized as 1.14 × 10-10 exp(-37.0 kJ mol-1/RT) cm3 molecule-1 s-1 with error limits of ± 40%. The results are rationalized in terms of a computed potential energy surface and transition state theory and Troe's unimolecular formalism.

  3. Kinetics of the heterogeneous photo oxidation of the pesticide bupirimate by OH-radicals and ozone under atmospheric conditions.

    PubMed

    Bouya, H; Errami, M; Chakir, A; Roth, E

    2015-09-01

    This article is concerned with the study of the photochemical degradation of bupirimate adsorbed on a quartz surface by atmospheric oxidants, namely ozone and OH radicals. OH oxidation experiments were conducted relative to two reference compounds, terbuthylazine and (4-chlorophenyl)(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl) methanone. Meanwhile, ozone oxidation experiments were performed in the absolute mode and were interpreted by both, the Surface Layer Reaction and the Gas Surface Reaction models of heterogeneous reactions. The obtained results show that the rate constants for the reactions between bupirimate and OH radicals and ozone are (cm(3)molecule(-1)s(-1)): (1.06 ± 0.87) × 10(-12) and (5.4 ± 0.3) × 10(-20), respectively. As a consequence, for the experimental conditions used in this study, the lifetime of bupirimate at quartz like surface/atmosphere interfaces is several months against ozone and a tenth of days against OH-radical. PMID:25966935

  4. Reaction kinetics of the CN radical with methyl bromide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodny, Michael; Hershberger, John F.

    2016-02-01

    The kinetics of the CN + CH3Br reaction were studied using transient infrared laser absorption spectroscopy to detect CN reactants and HCN products. This reaction has a rate constant of k = (2.20 ± 0.6) × 10-12 exp (453 ± 98/T) cm3 molecule-1 s-1 over the range 298-523 K. Hydrogen abstraction to produce HCN + CH2Br is only a minor reaction product, with a branching fraction of 0.12 ± 0.02. Other product channels, including BrCN + CH3, CH2CN + HBr, CH3CN + Br are likely. An upper limit of 0.01 was established for the HBr yield. These results are in qualitative agreement with recent ab initio calculations.

  5. Kinetics of the heterogeneous photo oxidation of the pesticide bupirimate by OH-radicals and ozone under atmospheric conditions.

    PubMed

    Bouya, H; Errami, M; Chakir, A; Roth, E

    2015-09-01

    This article is concerned with the study of the photochemical degradation of bupirimate adsorbed on a quartz surface by atmospheric oxidants, namely ozone and OH radicals. OH oxidation experiments were conducted relative to two reference compounds, terbuthylazine and (4-chlorophenyl)(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl) methanone. Meanwhile, ozone oxidation experiments were performed in the absolute mode and were interpreted by both, the Surface Layer Reaction and the Gas Surface Reaction models of heterogeneous reactions. The obtained results show that the rate constants for the reactions between bupirimate and OH radicals and ozone are (cm(3)molecule(-1)s(-1)): (1.06 ± 0.87) × 10(-12) and (5.4 ± 0.3) × 10(-20), respectively. As a consequence, for the experimental conditions used in this study, the lifetime of bupirimate at quartz like surface/atmosphere interfaces is several months against ozone and a tenth of days against OH-radical.

  6. Gas-phase rate constants for the reaction of NO 3 radicals with selected oxiranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kind, I.; Berndt, T.; Böge, O.; Rolle, W.

    1996-01-01

    The gas-phase reaction of NO 3 radicals with selected oxiranes has been studied in a flow system at T = 295 ± 2 K in the pressure range 3.4-50 mbar musing N 2 as carrier gas. The analysis of the organics was performed by means of on-line connected GC-FID. Rate constantswere obtained with the relative rate method: 3,4-epoxy-cyclohexene: (2.70 ± 0.18) × 10 -3; 2,2-dimethyl-vinyl)-oxirane; (4.74 ± 0.54) × 10 -12; 2-methyl-2-1(1-methyl-vinyl)-oxirane : (1.55 ± 0.12) × 10 -13; 2-methyl-2-vinyloxirane; (9.40 ± 2.62) × 10 -15; tetramethyloxirane: <5 × 10 -15; and cis-2,3-dimethyloxirane: <5 × 10 -15 cm -3 molecule -1 s -1.

  7. Macro-molecular data storage with petabyte/cm3 density, highly parallel read/write operations, and genuine 3D storage capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansuripur, Masud; Khulbe, Pramod K.

    2004-09-01

    Digital information can be encoded in the building-block sequence of macromolecules, such as RNA and single-stranded DNA. Methods of "writing" and "reading" macromolecular strands are currently available, but they are slow and expensive. In an ideal molecular data storage system, routine operations such as write, read, erase, store, and transfer must be done reliably and at high speed within an integrated chip. As a first step toward demonstrating the feasibility of this concept, we report preliminary results of DNA readout experiments conducted in miniaturized chambers that are scalable to even smaller dimensions. We show that translocation of a single-stranded DNA molecule (consisting of 50 adenosine bases followed by 100 cytosine bases) through an ion-channel yields a characteristic signal that is attributable to the 2-segment structure of the molecule. We also examine the dependence of the rate and speed of molecular translocation on the adjustable parameters of the experiment.

  8. FAMOUS, faster: using parallel computing techniques to accelerate the FAMOUS/HadCM3 climate model with a focus on the radiative transfer algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanappe, P.; Beurivé, A.; Laguzet, F.; Steels, L.; Bellouin, N.; Boucher, O.; Yamazaki, Y. H.; Aina, T.; Allen, M.

    2011-09-01

    We have optimised the atmospheric radiation algorithm of the FAMOUS climate model on several hardware platforms. The optimisation involved translating the Fortran code to C and restructuring the algorithm around the computation of a single air column. Instead of the existing MPI-based domain decomposition, we used a task queue and a thread pool to schedule the computation of individual columns on the available processors. Finally, four air columns are packed together in a single data structure and computed simultaneously using Single Instruction Multiple Data operations. The modified algorithm runs more than 50 times faster on the CELL's Synergistic Processing Element than on its main PowerPC processing element. On Intel-compatible processors, the new radiation code runs 4 times faster. On the tested graphics processor, using OpenCL, we find a speed-up of more than 2.5 times as compared to the original code on the main CPU. Because the radiation code takes more than 60 % of the total CPU time, FAMOUS executes more than twice as fast. Our version of the algorithm returns bit-wise identical results, which demonstrates the robustness of our approach. We estimate that this project required around two and a half man-years of work.

  9. FAMOUS, faster: using parallel computing techniques to accelerate the FAMOUS/HadCM3 climate model with a focus on the radiative transfer algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanappe, P.; Beurivé, A.; Laguzet, F.; Steels, L.; Bellouin, N.; Boucher, O.; Yamazaki, Y. H.; Aina, T.; Allen, M.

    2011-06-01

    We have optimised the atmospheric radiation algorithm of the FAMOUS climate model on several hardware platforms. The optimisation involved translating the Fortran code to C and restructuring the algorithm around the computation of a single air column. A task queue and a thread pool are used to distribute the computation to several processors. Finally, four air columns are packed together in a single data structure and computed simultaneously using Single Instruction Multiple Data operations. The modified algorithm runs more than 50 times faster on the CELL's Synergistic Processing Elements than on its main PowerPC processing element. On Intel-compatible processors, the new radiation code runs 4 times faster and on graphics processors, using OpenCL, more than 2.5 times faster, as compared to the original code. Because the radiation code takes more than 60 % of the total CPU time, FAMOUS executes more than twice as fast. Our version of the algorithm returns bit-wise identical results, which demonstrates the robustness of our approach.

  10. A 0.5 cm(3) four-channel 1.1 mW wireless biosignal interface with 20 m range.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Tim; Nagaraju, Manohar; Winslow, Brent; Bernard, Amy; Otis, Brian P

    2014-02-01

    This paper presents a self-contained, single-chip biosignal monitoring system with wireless programmability and telemetry interface suitable for mainstream healthcare applications. The system consists of low-noise front end amplifiers, ADC, MICS/ISM transmitter and infrared programming capability to configure the state of the chip. An on-chip packetizer ensures easy pairing with standard off-the-shelf receivers. The chip is realized in the IBM 130 nm CMOS process with an area of 2×2 mm(2). The entire system consumes 1.07 mW from a 1.2 V supply. It weighs 0.6 g including a zinc-air battery. The system has been extensively tested in in vivo biological experiments and requires minimal human interaction or calibration. PMID:24681927

  11. Comparison of spherical double probe electric field measurements with plasma bulk flows in plasmas having densities less than 1 cm-3. [magnetosphere parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mozer, F. S.; Hones, E. W., Jr.; Birn, J.

    1983-01-01

    For a three-hour period in the magnetotail over which plasma density varied from less than 0.1 to about 1/cu cm, comparisons of ISEE-1 spherical double probe (dawn to dusk) electric field measurements and ISEE-2 plasma flows (converted to electric fields) show the zero lag cross correlation coefficient between 768 second averages of the two data sets to have been 0.93. A statistical relative uncertainty between pairs of points in the two data sets, estimated by only including counting statistics in the plasma measurement and time variations of the observed electric field over the measurement interval, is able to account for at least 75 percent of the deviations between the two data sets. In agreement with simple Langmuir probe theory, it has been found that the spacecraft potential measured over the three-hour interval by the double probe instrument varied as the log of the product of the plasma density and the square root of the electron temperature.

  12. Reactions of NO 3 with the man-made emissions 2-methylpent-2-ene, ( Z)-3-methylpent-2-ene, ethyl vinyl ether, and the stress-induced plant emission ethyl vinyl ketone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfrang, Christian; Tooze, Christopher; Nalty, Andrew; Canosa-Mas, Carlos E.; Wayne, Richard P.

    Rate coefficients for reactions of nitrate radicals (NO 3) with the anthropogenic emissions 2-methylpent-2-ene, ( Z)-3-methylpent-2-ene, ethyl vinyl ether, and the stress-induced plant emission ethyl vinyl ketone (pent-1-en-3-one) were determined to be (9.3±1.1)×10 -12, (9.3±3.2)×10 -12, (1.7±1.3)×10 -12 and (9.4±2.7)×10 -17 cm 3 molecule -1 s -1. We performed kinetic experiments at room temperature and atmospheric pressure using a relative-rate technique with GC-FID analysis. Experiments with ethyl vinyl ether required a modification of our established procedure that might introduce additional uncertainties, and the errors suggested reflect these difficulties. Rate coefficients are discussed in terms of electronic and steric influences. Atmospheric lifetimes with respect to important oxidants in the troposphere were calculated. NO 3-initiated oxidation is found to be the strongly dominating degradation route for 2-methylpent-2-ene, ( Z)-3-methylpent-2-ene and ethyl vinyl ether. Atmospheric concentrations of the alkenes and their relative contribution to the total NMHC emissions from trucks can be expected to increase if plans for the introduction of particle filters for diesel engines are implemented on a global scale. Thus more kinetic data are required to better evaluate the impact of these emissions.

  13. Report and Recommendations of the Southern Rural Health Conference (Nashville, Tennessee, October 10-12, 1976).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Rural Center, Washington, DC.

    Included in this report on the Southern Rural Health Conference (held in Nashville, Tennessee in 1976) are: (1) an introduction (details the conference goals); (2) a program agenda; (3) "Summation: Southern Rural Health Conference" (a speech); (4) "Health Care and Rural Development" (a speech); (5) "Innovative Approaches to the Delivery of Primary…

  14. Alcohol and Drug Prevention Curriculum Resource Guide Grades 10-12: Science--Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Alcohol and Drug Defense Program.

    This curriculum resource guide on alcohol and drug prevention provides suggested activities for teachers of grades 10 through 12. Three integrated learning activities for science/biology and healthful living are presented. The science/biology goal is understanding the biology of humans. Healthful living goals include analyzing drug and alcohol use…

  15. Alcohol and Drug Prevention Curriculum Resource Guide Grades 10-12: Communication Skills--English IV.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Alcohol and Drug Defense Program.

    This curriculum resource guide on alcohol and drug prevention provides suggested activities for teachers of grades 10 through 12. Four integrated learning activities for communication skills/ English IV and healthful living are presented. Communication skills/literature goals include experiencing young adult literature, using effective techniques…

  16. Radar Symposium, 7th, Universitaet Ulm, Federal Republic of Germany, Oct. 10-12, 1989, Reports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baur, K.

    Various papers on radar are presented. Individual topics addressed include: aspects of long-wave radiation, future NATO identification systems, experimental X-band SAR, results of first tests of the ROSAR method, concept and results of the azimuth Quick-Look Processor for the SAR aircraft, specification of an inertial navigation system for experimental SAR, detection of slowly moving targets with airborne radar, fast method for disturbance-free two-dimensional ISAR imaging, development and optimization of a coastal radar system, determination of orientation accuracy in curving trajectories, radome structures for high-frequency applications. Also discussed are: monolithically integrated GaAs switching circuits for the millimeter wave range, new pulse compression methods for periodically phase-coded signal transmission, architectures of programmable radar signal processors, evaluation of the period length of periodic signals, interactive simulation system for multisensor systems, intelligent radar data processing, knowledge-based components of a tracking system, radar signatures of highly resolving millimeter wave sensors.

  17. Collaborative Philosophical Enquiry for School Children: Cognitive Effects at 10-12 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topping, K. J.; Trickey, S.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Debates about the modifiability of cognitive ability have been largely resolved by reports of successful "thinking skills" interventions. However, such interventions are very diverse and generalization of effects relatively little explored. Aims: This study investigated whether a thinking skills intervention involving collaborative…

  18. The Role of Women in Medieval Europe: A Unit of Study for Grades 10-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Himmell, Rhoda

    This unit is one of a series that represents specific moments in history from which students focus on the meanings of landmark events. This unit consists of lessons focused on selected topics in medieval history that define and describe the roles of women. The lessons examine the roles of women in the Early Middle Ages with particular emphasis on…

  19. Proceedings of National Conference on Housing and the Handicapped (September 10-12, 1974, Houston, Texas).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavine, Eileen M., Ed.

    Presented are proceedings from the first National Conference on Housing and the Handicapped (Houston, 1974) sponsored by Goodwill Industries to develop methods for improving housing facilities for the handicapped. E. Noakes's paper deals with such basic housing needs as homes planned for independent living to which services can be delivered and…

  20. [Symposium on Public Policy and Educating Handicapped Persons (Racine, Wisconsin, September 10-12, 1981).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Policy Studies Review, 1983

    1983-01-01

    This volume contains papers presented at a symposium on public policy and educating handicapped persons. Included are: (1) "Public Policy and the Special Education Task for the 1980s: Report of the Wingspread Conference" (M. C. Reynolds et al.); (2) "The Emerging System for Educating Handicapped Children" (L. E. Lynn, Jr.); (3) "Effectiveness of…

  1. German Curriculum Guide, Levels I-III, Grades 10-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monke, Esther; And Others

    The Prince George's County, Maryland Board of Education developed this curriculum guide for teaching German to high school students in a 3-level culturally-based audiolingual program. A brief introduction consists of teacher recommendations, guided study period suggestions, and an article reflecting a teaching philosophy. Following are three…

  2. The Basic Study Skills Curriculum Guide for Grades 10-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prince George's County Public Schools, Upper Marlboro, MD.

    This guide has been designed for use in teaching study skills to high school students, grades ten through twelve. It contains lessons developed and refined over a three-year period in the skills areas of listening, scheduling and task analysis, memory, notetaking, and using a textbook. Each skills area is developed in the context of a kindergarten…

  3. Delta Pi Epsilon National Research Conference Proceedings (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, November 10-12, 1994).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delta Pi Epsilon Society, Little Rock, AR.

    Selected papers are as follows: "Are Office Support Personnel Aware of the Ergonomical Issues Associated with Computer Keyboarding?" (Evans); "Background and Characteristics of Japanese Students Who Enroll in an American Two-Year Information Processing Program Taught in Japan" (Morgan, Wiggs); "Business Education's (BE) Role in North Carolina Tech…

  4. De-Islamizing Sikhaphobia: Deconstructing Structural Racism in Wisconsin Gurdwara Shooting 10/12

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birk, Manjeet; Gill, Hartej; Heer, Kal

    2015-01-01

    On Sunday, 5 August 2012, at approximately 10:00 a.m., an armed Wade Michael Page walked into the Oak Creek, Wisconsin Sikh gurdwara, a place of worship. Page killed six worshippers and injured four others. Although the murderer had links to several white supremacist organizations, authorities would not speculate on the motive of this incident. In…

  5. Course Syllabus for Grades 10-12, Art. Art 2 + 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray State Univ., KY.

    This course syllabus is one of over 80 developed and written by the Henry County School System (Tennessee) as part of a Teacher Corps demonstration project. These syllabi provide specific descriptions of what is to be learned and at what level the student is expected to perform. The art course described here is available for students who have…

  6. Periodic gamma-ray emissions from Geminga at or = 10(12) eV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaul, R. K.; Rawat, H. S.; Sanecha, V. K.; Rannot, R. C.; Sapru, M.; Tickoo, A. K.; Qazi, R. A.; Bhat, C. L.; Razdan, H.; Tonwar, S. C.

    1985-01-01

    Analysis of data from an atmospheric Cerenkov telescope indicated the periodic emission of gamma rays of energy 10 to the 12th power eV, at 60.25 second period, from 2CG 195+4. The gamma ray flux at 99% confidence level is estimated to be 9.5 x 10 to 12 photons/sq cm/s.

  7. Three-Year Spanish Program Curriculum Guide, Grades 10-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Language Services Branch.

    The three-year Spanish program curriculum guide for Alberta public high schools outlines: (1) program objectives reflecting the basic education goals as well as a rationale for including Spanish in a school program; (2) specific minumum expectations for each language skill (listening, speaking, reading, and writing) and for cultural understanding…

  8. National Online Meeting Proceedings (15th, New York, New York, May 10-12, 1994).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1994

    This proceedings contains 58 papers that were reviewed and selected for presentation at the 1994 National Online Meeting. The introduction, "Highlights of the Online/CD-ROM Database Industry: Implications of the Internet for Database Producers" by Martha E. Williams, provides statistics regarding databases, database records, database producers,…

  9. A Resource File for Social Studies in Utah. Level 10-12: Model United Nations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utah State Office of Education, Salt Lake City.

    This resource file contains information for Utah high school teachers to help their students meet the state's instructional objectives in the elective course, Model United Nations. Each activity includes an instructional objective along with a title, topic, time segment, procedures, materials, evaluation, and adaptation. Sample objectives include…

  10. Academic Internship Program: Curriculum Guide. The Great Exchange. Grades 10-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charlotte-Mecklenburg Public Schools, Charlotte, NC.

    This curriculum guide provides the framework for the Academic Internship Program (AIP) that is available to Charlotte-Mecklenburg (North Carolina) Public Schools' high school students. In each career area, information is provided to describe the purpose of the internship, the qualifications for the intern, the content/scope and competency goals…

  11. Health Education. Physical Dimensions of Health. Nutrition Education. Grades 10-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Univ. System, Albany.

    This guide to nutrition education can be used as a basis for curriculum development at the school district level, as well as a basis for daily lesson planning by teachers. Designed to involve high school students in gathering information from school and community resources, the guide covers the following topics: (1) meal planning; (2) food…

  12. Remote sensing-arid lands workshop, Page, Arizona, June 10-12, 1986: Workshop summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Hawkins, R.H.; Wobber, F.J.; Springer, E.P.

    1987-05-01

    This report describes research sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Research to evaluate advanced remote sensing technologies for environmental research. The program denoted as REFLEX (REmote FLuvial EXperiments) stresses new applications of remote sensing systems and advanced digital analysis to the solution of environmental problems from energy development. REFLEX experiments are being conducted at sites within the continental United States and Alaska. The experiments described here are being done on arid and semiarid sites in the western United States. Currently, two REFLEX experiments are being conducted in arid/semiarid ecosystems. At the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in Richland, Washington, the REFLEX experiment will test hypotheses on the prediction of evapotranspiration (ET) over arid landscapes. The heterogeneity of arid and semiarid landscapes makes estimation of ET over an area quite difficult, and remote sensing, both aerial and ground based, offers tremendous potential in solving this sampling problem. The second REFLEX experiment in arid/semiarid ecosystems is being conducted on surface hydrology and soil erosion in arid watersheds. Two study sites, the Plutonium Valley Watershed at the Nevada Test Site and Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed at Tombstone, Arizona, have been selected for the experiment. Remote sensing will be used to initialize and parameterize hydrologic models that can predict watershed responses to change on two spatial and temporal scales.

  13. General Aviation Technology Conference, Hampton, VA, July 10-12, 1984, Technical Papers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The present conference on general aviation aircraft design considers the performance tradeoffs involved in two- and three-control surface aerodynamic configurations, wing design criteria for increased resistance to spins, the performance levels obtained by flight and wind tunnel tests of an 'electroimpulse' deicing system, and the chracteristics of lightning strikes experienced by the NASA F-106B research aircraft. Also considered are the application of speech recognition and synthesis systems to general aviation cockpits, control and display requirements for single-pilot Instrument Flight Rules, pilot interfacing with advanced avionics and automated cockpit systems, the feasibility of sidestick controllers for general aviation aircraft, the acoustic prediction methods incorporated by the NASA Generalized Advanced Propeller Analysis System, and the adhesively bonded structure of the Citation II business jet aircraft.

  14. GOES Video of the Nov. 10-12 2014 Wintry Storm

    NASA Video Gallery

    Visible and infrared imagery from NOAA's GOES-West satellite from Nov. 10 to Nov. 12 show the progression of the wintry storm through the Northern Rockies and Mid-western U.S. Credit: NASA/NOAA's G...

  15. Engineering Outcomes of Grades 10-12 Using Different Pre-Engineering Curriculums: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilhelmsen, Cheryl A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify the important constructs and their key indicators that are to be included on an instrument developed to measure the engineering design process and outcome of students in high schools that use the Project Lead the Way and Engineering by Design curriculums. Several pre-engineering curriculums are used in high…

  16. Are Grades 10-12 Physical Sciences Teachers Equipped to Teach Physics?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basson, Ilsa; Kriek, Jeanne

    2012-01-01

    South African schools have been confronted with educational reform since the mid-nineties and the process is still continuing. The concomitant changes put a very high demand on physical sciences teachers and also have an impact on teacher behaviour. The purpose of this study was to probe whether teachers could be considered equipped to teach the…

  17. Costs at Public Universities: How Does California Compare with Other States? Report 10-12

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Ryan

    2010-01-01

    The cost of attending the University of California (UC) and California State University (CSU) has increased in recent years as UC and CSU have raised fees in response to reduced state funding. Fees are generally lower than fees at public universities in other states, but with California's higher living costs, the overall cost of attendance at UC…

  18. Predicting Physical Activity in 10-12 Year Old Children: A Social Ecological Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Tao; Thomas, Katherine; Weiller, Karen H.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the associations among predisposing (perceived competence and enjoyment), reinforcing (social environments), enabling factors (motor skills, fitness, physical environments) and physical activity among 288 children, and to identify the age and gender differences among participants. The children completed…

  19. Marketing Education National Research Conference Report (Houston, Texas, April 10-12, 1987).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McComas, Marcella, Ed.

    Eight presentations are included in these proceedings: "Concerns of Secondary, Marketing Education Teachers in Illinois: Implications for the Profession" (Ralph Wray); "Differences in Self-Concept and Achievement of Vocational, Academic, and Academic-Vocational Students" (Margie Crocker, Jack Crocker); "The Identification of Critical Areas…

  20. 17 CFR 10.12 - Service and filing of documents; form and execution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... commercial package delivery service; (iii) Transmitting the documents via facsimile machine (“fax”); or (iv... for which all postage or delivery service fees have been paid; or upon transmission by fax or e-mail. Where a party effects service by mail or similar package delivery service (but not by fax or...

  1. 17 CFR 10.12 - Service and filing of documents; form and execution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... commercial package delivery service; (iii) Transmitting the documents via facsimile machine (“fax”); or (iv... for which all postage or delivery service fees have been paid; or upon transmission by fax or e-mail. Where a party effects service by mail or similar package delivery service (but not by fax or...

  2. 17 CFR 10.12 - Service and filing of documents; form and execution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... commercial package delivery service; (iii) Transmitting the documents via facsimile machine (“fax”); or (iv... for which all postage or delivery service fees have been paid; or upon transmission by fax or e-mail. Where a party effects service by mail or similar package delivery service (but not by fax or...

  3. ISS Update: Bill Gerstenmaier – 10.10.12

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Dan Huot interviews Bill Gerstenmaier, Associate Administrator for Human Exploration and Operations, about the SpaceX CRS-1 mission and the arrival of the Dragon capsule...

  4. 17 CFR 10.12 - Service and filing of documents; form and execution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... similar commercial delivery service; (iii) Facsimile (“fax”); or (iv) Electronic mail (“email”). (3) Service by email or fax shall be permitted at the discretion of the Presiding Officer, with the parties' consent. The consent of a party must specify the email address or fax number to be used. Signed...

  5. Synchronous elevation of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) correlates with gastric cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Yoo, N C; Chung, H C; Chung, H C; Park, J O; Rha, S Y; Kim, J H; Roh, J K; Min, J S; Kim, B S; Noh, S H

    1998-02-01

    Soluble forms of ICAM-1 (sICAM-1) and VCAM-1 (sVCAM-1) have been reported from the supernatant of cytokine-activated endothelial cells, cancer cells and from sera of cancer patients. We measured sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 from the serum of 20 healthy volunteers and 142 gastric cancer patients by ELISA assay. Ninety-five patients were operable and 47 patients were in-operable at the time of this study. Particularly in the 28 operable patients, we sampled both portal and peripheral blood simultaneously and measured the levels of the soluble forms of cell adhesion molecules (sCAMs). The sCAMs level and sero-positivity rate increased with cancer progression in order of the healthy controls, operable patients, and inoperable patients. In in-operable cancer, the sICAM-1 level increased more with liver metastasis. sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 did not correlate with each other in either portal or peripheral blood. A total of 58.3% of patients with liver metastasis and 22.9% of patients without liver metastasis showed synchronous expression of both sCAMs (p = 0.03). Synchronous sero-positivity of sCAMs and alpha FP was higher with liver metastasis (p = 0.01). The median overall survival duration which co-expressed both sCAMs was 9 months. This showed a significant difference compared with the sICAMs non-expressing group, where the median survival was not reached until 24 months follow-up (p = 0.002). The synchronous expression of sCAMs was an independent risk factor in gastric cancer patients. We raise the possibility that synchronous sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 elevation may be a useful monitor to determine tumor burden in gastric cancer.

  6. Experimental and theoretical studies on gas-phase reactions of NO3 radicals with three methoxyphenols: Guaiacol, creosol, and syringol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Bo; Zhang, Haixu; Wang, Youfeng; Zhang, Peng; Shu, Jinian; Sun, Wanqi; Ma, Pengkun

    2016-01-01

    Methoxyphenols, lignin pyrolysis products, are major biomass combustion components and are considered potential tracers for wood smoke emissions. Their atmospheric reactivity, however, has not been well characterized. Guaiacol, creosol, and syringol are three typical methoxyphenols generated in relatively high concentrations in fresh wood smoke. In this study, the gas-phase reactions of NO3 radicals with these methoxyphenols were investigated using a laboratory-built vacuum ultraviolet photoionization gas time-of-flight mass spectrometer (VUV-GTOFMS) and off-line GC-MS. By combining experimental and theoretical methods, 4-nitroguaiacol, 6-nitroguaiacol, and 4,6-dinitroguaiacol were determined as the primary degradation products for guaiacol; similarly, 6-nitrocreosol and 3-nitrosyringol were identified for creosol and syringol, respectively. Using the relative rate method, rate constants at 298 K and 1 atm for the gas-phase reactions of guaiacol, creosol, and syringol with NO3 radicals were measured to be 3.2 × 10-12, 2.4 × 10-13, and 4.0 × 10-13 cm3 molecule-1 s-1, respectively. At a typical tropospheric concentration of NO3 radicals (5 × 108 molecule cm-3), atmospheric lifetimes for guaiacol, creosol, and syringol toward NO3 radicals were 0.2, 2.3, and 1.4 h, respectively. These results indicate that the reaction with NO3 radicals can be a major sink for methoxyphenols at night.

  7. Kinetics and Thermodynamics of the Reaction between the (•)OH Radical and Adenine: A Theoretical Investigation.

    PubMed

    Milhøj, Birgitte O; Sauer, Stephan P A

    2015-06-18

    The accessibility of all possible reaction paths for the reaction between the nucleobase adenine and the (•)OH radical is investigated through quantum chemical calculations of barrier heights and rate constants at the ωB97X-D/6-311++G(2df,2pd) level with Eckart tunneling corrections. First the computational method is validated by considering the hydrogen abstraction from the heterocyclic N9 nitrogen in adenine as a test system. Geometries for all molecules in the reaction are optimized with four different DFT exchange-correlation functionals (B3LYP, BHandHLYP, M06-2X, and ωB97X-D), in combination with Pople and Dunning basis sets, all of which have been employed in similar investigations in the literature. Improved energies are obtained through single point calculations with CCSD(T) and the same basis sets, and reaction rate constants are calculated for all methods both without tunneling corrections and with the Wigner, Bell, and Eckart corrections. In comparison to CCSD(T)//BHandHLYP/aug-cc-pVTZ reference results, the ωB97X-D/6-311++G(2df,2pd) method combined with Eckart tunneling corrections provides a sensible compromise between accuracy and time. Using this method, all subreactions of the reaction between adenine and the (•)OH radical are investigated. The total rate constants for hydrogen abstraction and addition for adenine are predicted with this method to be 1.06 × 10(-12) and 1.10 × 10(-12) cm(3) molecules(-1) s(-1), respectively. Abstractions of H61 and H62 contribute the most, while only addition to the C8 carbon is found to be of any significance, in contrast to previous claims that addition is the dominant reaction pathway. The overall rate constant for the complete reaction is found to be 2.17 × 10(-12) cm(3) molecules(-1) s(-1), which agrees exceptionally well with experimental results.

  8. Photochemical ozone creation potentials for oxygenated volatile organic compounds: sensitivity to variations in kinetic and mechanistic parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkin, Michael E.; Hayman, Garry D.

    The sensitivity of Photochemical Ozone Creation Potentials (POCP) to a series of systematic variations in the rates and products of reactions of radical intermediates and oxygenated products is investigated for the C 4 alcohols, 1-butanol ( n-butanol) and 2-methyl-1-propanol ( i-butanol), using the recently developed Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM) as the base case. The POCP values are determined from the calculated formation of ozone in the boundary layer over a period of approximately five days along an idealised straight line trajectory, using a photochemical trajectory model and methodology described in detail previously. The results allow the relative impacts on calculated ozone formation of various classes of chemical reaction within the degradation chemistry to be assessed. The calculated POCP is found to be very insensitive to many of the changes investigated. However, it is found to be sensitive to variations in the rate coefficient for the initiating reaction with OH ( kOH), although the sensitivity decreases with increasing kOH. The POCP appears to vary approximately linearly with kOH at low values (i.e. kOH less than ca. 4×10 -13 cm 3 molecule -1 s -1), whereas at high reactivities (i.e. kOH greater than ca. 4×10 -11 cm 3 molecule -1 s -1), the calculated POCP value is comparatively insensitive to the precise value of kOH. The POCP is also very sensitive to mechanistic changes which influence the yields of unreactive oxygenated products (i.e. those with OH reactivities below ca. 10 -12 cm 3 molecule -1 s -1), for example acetone. The propensity of the organic compound to produce organic nitrates (which act as comparatively unreactive reservoirs for free radicals and NO x) also appears to have a notable influence on the calculated POCP. Recently reported information relevant to the degradation of oxygenated VOCs is then used to update the chemical schemes for the 17 alcohols and glycols, 10 ethers and glycol ethers, and 8 esters included in the MCM

  9. Reaction Kinetics of Meteoric Sodium Reservoirs in the Upper Atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Gómez Martín, J C; Garraway, S A; Plane, J M C

    2016-03-10

    The gas-phase reactions of a selection of sodium-containing species with atmospheric constituents, relevant to the chemistry of meteor-ablated Na in the upper atmosphere, were studied in a fast flow tube using multiphoton ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. For the first time, unambiguous observations of NaO and NaOH in the gas phase under atmospheric conditions have been achieved. This enabled the direct measurement of the rate constants for the reactions of NaO with H2, H2O, and CO, and of NaOH with CO2, which at 300-310 K were found to be (at 2σ confidence level): k(NaO + H2O) = (2.4 ± 0.6) × 10(-10) cm(3) molecule (-1) s(-1), k(NaO + H2) = (4.9 ± 1.2) × 10(-12) cm(3) molecule (-1) s(-1), k(NaO + CO) = (9 ± 4) × 10(-11) cm(3) molecule (-1) s(-1), and k(NaOH + CO2 + M) = (7.6 ± 1.6) × 10(-29) cm(6) molecule (-2) s(-1) (P = 1-4 Torr). The NaO + H2 reaction was found to make NaOH with a branching ratio ≥ 99%. A combination of quantum chemistry and statistical rate theory calculations are used to interpret the reaction kinetics and extrapolate the atmospherically relevant experimental results to mesospheric temperatures and pressures. The NaO + H2O and NaOH + CO2 reactions act sequentially to provide the major atmospheric sink of meteoric Na and therefore have a significant impact on the underside of the Na layer in the terrestrial mesosphere: the newly determined rate constants shift the modeled peak to about 93 km, i.e., 2 km higher than observed by ground-based lidars. This highlights further uncertainties in the Na chemistry cycle such as the unknown rate constant of the NaOH + H reaction. The fast Na-recycling reaction between NaO and CO and a re-evaluated rate constant of the NaO + CO2 sink should be now considered in chemical models of the Martian Na layer. PMID:25723735

  10. Kinetic Study of OH Reactions With n-Octane and n-Decane Using Relative Rate Combining with Discharge Fast Flow and Mass Spectrometer Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Zhuangjie

    2004-03-31

    The combination of the relative rate method with the discharge fast flow/mass spectrometer technique (RR/DF/MS) has been developed to measure the rate constants for gas phase reactions involving OH radicals. The RR/DF/MS technique was used to measure the rate constant for reactions of the OH radical with n-octane (k3) and cyclohexane (k5) using 1,4-dioxane as a reference compound and with n-decane (k6) using n-octane and 1,4-dioxane as reference compounds. At 298 K, these rate constants were determined to be k3=(8.88 {+-} 0.31) x 10-12, k5=(6.95 {+-} 0.20) x 10-12 and k6=(1.38 {+-} 0.08) x 10-11 cm3 molecule-1 s-1, respectively, which are in very good agreement with those measured using different techniques. The features of the RR/DF/MS technique are discussed.

  11. Kinetic study of OH radical reactions with volatile organic compounds using relative rate/discharge fast flow/mass spectrometer technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhuangjie

    2004-01-01

    The combination of the relative rate method with the discharge fast flow/mass spectrometer technique (RR/DF/MS) has been developed to measure the rate constants for gas phase reactions involving OH radicals. The RR/DF/MS technique was used to measure the rate constant for reactions of the OH radical with n-octane ( k3) and cyclohexane ( k5) using 1,4-dioxane as a reference compound, and with n-decane ( k12) using n-octane and 1,4-dioxane as reference compounds. At 298 K, these rate constants were determined to be k3=(8.88±0.31) × 10 -12, k5=(6.95±0.20) × 10 -12, and k12=(1.38±0.08) × 10 -11 cm 3 molecule -1 s -1, respectively, which are in very good agreement with those measured using different techniques. The features of the RR/DF/MS technique are discussed.

  12. Theoretical study on the water-assisted reaction of NCO with HCHO.

    PubMed

    Du, Benni; Zhang, Weichao

    2013-08-01

    In this study, the reaction mechanism and kinetics of the hydrogen abstraction and addition reactions of NCO with HCHO in the absence and presence of water have been investigated theoretically for the first time. Our theoretical results indicate that direct hydrogen abstraction is favored in the formation of HNCO instead of HOCN and the addition pathways are negligible with and without water. The rate constants calculated at the CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVTZ//BH&HLYP/6-311++G(3df,3pd) level with zero-point energy correction range from 1.60 × 10(-12) to 4.99 × 10(-12) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) between 220 and 769 K without water and are in good agreement with the available experimental values. However, with the inclusion of water, the rate constants are slower by 2-8 orders of magnitude than those of the reaction without water. Accordingly, the effect of water on the reaction of NCO with HCHO is negligible in the atmosphere. PMID:23844584

  13. The kinetics of the gas-phase reactions of selected monoterpenes and cyclo-alkenes with ozone and the NO3 radical

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, D. J.; Almabrok, S. H.; Lockhart, J. P.; Mohamed, O. M.; Nutt, D. R.; Pfrang, C.; Marston, G.

    2013-05-01

    The relative rate method has been used to measure the room-temperature rate constants for the gas-phase reactions of ozone and NO3 with selected monoterpenes and cyclo-alkenes with structural similarities to monoterpenes. Measurements were carried out at 298 ± 2 K and 760 ± 10 Torr. The following rate constants (in units of 10-18 cm3 molecule-1 s-1) were obtained for the reaction with ozone: methyl cyclohexene (132 ± 17), terpinolene (1290 ± 360), ethylidene cyclohexane (223 ± 57), norbornene (860 ± 240), t-butyl isopropylidene cyclohexane (1500 ± 460), cyclopentene (543 ± 94), cyclohexene (81 ± 18), cyclooctene (451 ± 66), dicyclopentadiene (1460 ± 170) and α-pinene (107 ± 13). For the reaction with NO3 the rate constants obtained (in units of 10-12 cm3 molecule-1 s-1) were: methyl cyclohexene (7.92 ± 0.95), terpinolene (47.9 ± 4.0), ethylidene cyclohexane (4.30 ± 0.24), norbornene (0.266 ± 0.029), cyclohexene (0.540 ± 0.017), cyclooctene (0.513 ± 0.029), dicyclopentadiene (1.20 ± 0.10) and α-pinene (5.17 ± 0.62). Errors are quoted as the root mean square of the statistical error (95% confidence) and the quoted error in the rate constant for the reference compound. Combining these results with previous studies, new recommendations for the rate constants are presented. Molecular orbital energies were calculated for each alkene and the kinetic data are discussed in terms of the deviation from the structure-activity relationship obtained from the rate constants for a series of simple alkenes. Lifetimes with respect to key initiators of atmospheric oxidation have been calculated suggesting that the studied reactions play dominant roles in the night-time removal of these compounds from the atmosphere.

  14. Kinetics and mechanism of (CF3)2CHOCH3 reaction with OH radicals in an environmental reaction chamber.

    PubMed

    Chen, L; Kutsuna, S; Tokuhashi, K; Sekiya, A; Tamai, R; Hibino, Y

    2005-06-01

    The atmospheric chemistry of (CF3)2CHOCH3, a possible HCFC/HFC alternative, was studied using a smog chamber/FT-IR technique. OH radicals were prepared by the photolysis of ozone in a 200-Torr H2O/O3/O2 gas mixture held in an 11.5-dm3 temperature-controlled chamber. The rate constant, k1, for the reaction of (CF3)2CHOCH3 with OH radicals was determined to be (1.40 +/- 0.28) x 10(-12) exp[(-550 +/- 60)/T] cm3 molecule(-1) s(-1) by means of a relative rate method at 253-328 K. The value of k1 at 298 K was (2.25 +/- 0.04) x 10(-13) cm3 molecule(-1) s(-1). The random errors are reported with +/-2 standard deviations, and potential systematic errors of 15% could increase k(1). In considering OH-radical reactions, we estimated the tropospheric lifetime of (CF3)2CHOCH3 to be 2.0 months using the rate constant at 288 K. The degradation mechanism of (CF3)2CHOCH3 initiated by OH radicals was also investigated using FT-IR spectroscopy at 298 K. Products (CF3)2CHOC(O)H, CF3C(OH)2CF3, CF3C(O)OCH3, and COF(2) were identified and quantified. The branching ratio, k1a/k1b, was estimated to be 2.1:1 for reactions (CF3)2CHOCH3 + OH --> (CF3)2CHOCH2*+ H2O (k1a) and (CF3)2CHOCH3 + OH --> (CF3)2C*OCH3 + H2O (k1b). PMID:16833819

  15. An experimentally determined set of V-T and V-V rate constants involving the OH radical. Implications for atmospheric chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teitelbaum, H.; Aker, P.; Sloan, J. J.

    1988-01-01

    This is the first application of an analytical technique verifying a generalized rate law for vibrational relaxation based on a complete solution of the master equation. Experimental V-T and V-V energy transfer rate constants for the collisional deactivation of OH( v = 1-4) at 300 K by O 3 and OH are reported. It is found that the rate constant for 2OH( v = 1) → OH( v = 0) + OH( v = 2) is 1.8 × 10 -10 cm 3 molecule -1 s -1 and that for OH( v = 1) + O 3 → OH( v = 0) + O 3 is 1.0 × 10 -12 cm 3 molecule -1 s -1, both ±30%. Altogether 40 V-T and V-V rate constants involving vibrationally excited OH are extracted from the time evolution of the OH( v) distribution produced by the chemical reaction O( 1D) + H 2 → OH( v) + H. The rate constants obey a combined Landau-Teller-exponential gap law, with the gap constants being very similar in magnitude to the Polanyi-Woodall or Lambert-Salter constants. It is also shown that measurements of OH quenching by O 3 as reported by others are correct in magnitude but might be falsely attributed to chemical reaction, throwing doubts on atmospheric models of OH chemistry. Furthermore, using the energy transfer rate constants just determined, the time-evolution of the population distribution is extrapolated backwards in time. The resulting initial distribution is found to be yet more sharply peaked than reported heretofore for the reaction O( 1D) + H 2 → OH( v) + H. Finally it is shown that commonly used rate laws for vibrational relaxation, such as the Bethe-Teller law and quasi-first-order decay laws of initially excited levels, should be abandoned.

  16. Rate coefficient for the reaction SiO + Si2O2 at T = 10-1000 K.

    PubMed

    Pimentel, André S; Lima, Francisco das C A; da Silva, Albérico B F

    2006-12-14

    The reaction paths for the formation of Si3O3 molecules have been investigated at high level ab initio quantum chemical calculations by using the QCISD method with the 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. The cis-Si2O2 isomer does not participate in the chemical mechanism for the formation of Si3O3 molecules. Although the SiO + cis-Si2O2 reaction is exothermic and spontaneous, it is not expected to explain the growth mechanism of Si3O3 in the interstellar silicate grains of circumstellar envelopes surrounding M-type giants. The reaction of SiO with cyclic Si2O2 molecules is exothermic, is spontaneous, and has a nonplanar transition state. The Gibbs free energy for the transition state formation, (DeltaG0#), is around 5.5 kcal mol-1 at 298 K. The bimolecular rate coefficient for this reaction, kT, is about 1 x 10-12 cm3 molecule-1 s-1 at 298 K and in the collision limit, 1.5 x 10-10 cm3 molecule-1 s-1, at 500 K. The activation energy, Ea, is about 8 kcal mol-1. The enthalpy of Si3O3 fragmentation is 53.9 kcal mol-1 at 298 K. The SiO + cyclic Si2O2 reaction is expected to be the most prominent reaction path for the Si3O3 formation in interstellar environment and fabrication of silicon nanowires. PMID:17149837

  17. Functional role of stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1) in vascular smooth muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Yoichiro; Watanabe, Hiroyuki; Murakami, Manabu; Ono, Kyoichi; Munehisa, Yoshiko; Koyama, Takashi; Nobori, Kiyoshi; Iijima, Toshihiko; Ito, Hiroshi

    2007-10-05

    We investigated the functional role of STIM1, a Ca{sup 2+} sensor in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) that regulates store-operated Ca{sup 2+} entry (SOCE), in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). STIM1 was mainly localized at the ER and plasma membrane. The knockdown of STIM1 expression by small interfering (si) RNA drastically decreased SOCE. In contrast, an EF-hand mutant of STIM1, STIM1{sup E87A}, produced a marked increase in SOCE, which was abolished by co-transfection with siRNA to transient receptor potential canonical 1 (TRPC1). In addition, transfection with siRNA against STIM1 suppressed phosphorylation of cAMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB) and cell growth. These results suggest that STIM1 is an essential component of SOCE and that it is involved in VSMC proliferation.

  18. Decreased pulmonary inflammation after ethanol exposure and burn injury in intercellular adhesion molecule-1 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Bird, Melanie D; Morgan, Michelle O; Ramirez, Luis; Yong, Sherri; Kovacs, Elizabeth J

    2010-01-01

    Clinical and laboratory evidence suggests that alcohol consumption dysregulates immune function. Burn patients who consume alcohol before their injuries demonstrate higher rates of morbidity and mortality, including acute respiratory distress syndrome, than patients without alcohol at the time of injury. Our laboratory observed higher levels of proinflammatory cytokines and leukocyte infiltration in the lungs of mice after ethanol exposure and burn injury than with either insult alone. To understand the mechanism of the increased pulmonary inflammatory response in mice treated with ethanol and burn injury, we investigated the role of intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1. Wild-type and ICAM-1 knockout (KO) mice were treated with vehicle or ethanol and subsequently given a sham or burn injury. Twenty-four hours postinjury, lungs were harvested and analyzed for indices of inflammation. Higher numbers of neutrophils were observed in the lungs of wild-type mice after burn and burn with ethanol treatment. This increase in pulmonary inflammatory cell accumulation was significantly lower in the KO mice. In addition, levels of KC, interleukin-1beta, and interleukin-6 in the lung were decreased in the ICAM-1 KO mice after ethanol exposure and burn injury. Interestingly, no differences were observed in serum or lung tissue content of soluble ICAM-1 24 hours postinjury. These data suggest that upregulation of adhesion molecules such as ICAM-1 on the vascular endothelium may play a critical role in the excessive inflammation seen after ethanol exposure and burn injury.

  19. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 concentration, in utero, decreases after antibiotic treatment.

    PubMed

    Hadar, Amnon; Shani-Shrem, Noa; Horowitz, Shulamith

    2005-03-01

    A parturient suffering from preterm premature rupture of membranes at 29-weeks of gestation was hospitalized and staphylococcus was detected in her amniotic fluid. After treatment with antibiotics she delivered a healthy neonate three weeks later. ICAM-1 levels decreased by 20 fold correlating with elimination of the bacteria and prolongation of the pregnancy. PMID:16147830

  20. Novel Vein Patterns in Arabidopsis Induced by Small Molecules1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Cutler, Sean

    2016-01-01

    The critical role of veins in transporting water, nutrients, and signals suggests that some key regulators of vein formation may be genetically redundant and, thus, undetectable by forward genetic screens. To identify such regulators, we screened more than 5000 structurally diverse small molecules for compounds that alter Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) leaf vein patterns. Many compound-induced phenotypes were observed, including vein networks with an open reticulum; decreased or increased vein number and thickness; and misaligned, misshapen, or nonpolar vascular cells. Further characterization of several individual active compounds suggests that their targets include hormone cross talk, hormone-dependent transcription, and PIN-FORMED trafficking. PMID:26574596

  1. Xyloglucan Octasaccharide XXLGol Derived from the Seeds of Hymenaea courbaril Acts as a Signaling Molecule1

    PubMed Central

    Vargas-Rechia, Carem; Reicher, Fany; Rita Sierakowski, Maria; Heyraud, Alain; Driguez, Hugues; Liénart, Yvette

    1998-01-01

    Treatment of the xyloglucan isolated from the seeds of Hymenaea courbaril with Humicola insolens endo-1,4-β-d-glucanase I produced xyloglucan oligosaccharides, which were then isolated and characterized. The two most abundant compounds were the heptasaccharide (XXXG) and the octasaccharide (XXLG), which were examined by reference to the biological activity of other structurally related xyloglucan compounds. The reduced oligomer (XXLGol) was shown to promote growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum) coleoptiles independently of the presence of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). In the presence of 2,4-D, XXLGol at nanomolar concentrations increased the auxin-induced response. It was found that XXLGol is a signaling molecule, since it has the ability to induce, at nanomolar concentrations, a rapid increase in an α-l-fucosidase response in suspended cells or protoplasts of Rubus fruticosus L. and to modulate 2,4-D or gibberellic acid-induced α-l-fucosidase. PMID:9501133

  2. Intercellular Adhesion Molecule 1 and Progression of Percent Emphysema: The MESA Lung Study

    PubMed Central

    Aaron, Carrie P.; Schwartz, Joseph E.; Bielinski, Suzette J.; Hoffman, Eric A.; Austin, John H. M.; Oelsner, Elizabeth C.; Donohue, Kathleen M.; Kalhan, Ravi; Berardi, Cecilia; Kaufman, Joel D.; Jacobs, David R.; Tracy, Russell P.; Barr, R.Graham

    2014-01-01

    Endothelial intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM) 1 binds neutrophils and facilitates their transmigration into the lung; E-selectin facilitates leukocyte rolling. As neutrophils contribute to tissue destruction in emphysema and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, we hypothesized that soluble ICAM-1 (sICAM-1) and E-selectin (sE-selectin) would be associated with longitudinal progression of emphysema and lung function decline. The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) enrolled participants 45-84 years old without clinical cardiovascular disease in 2000-02. The MESA Lung Study assessed percent emphysema (<-950 Hounsfield units) on cardiac (2000-07) and full-lung CT scans (2010-12), and spirometry was assessed twice over five years. sICAM-1 and sE-selectin were measured at baseline. Mixed-effect models adjusted for demographics, anthropometry, smoking, C-reactive protein, sphingomyelin and scanner factors. Among 1,865 MESA Lung participants with measurement of sICAM-1 and percent emphysema the mean log-sICAM-1 was 5.5±0.3 ng/mL and percent emphysema increased 0.73 percentage points (95% CI: 0.34, 1.12; P<0.001) over ten years. A one SD increase in sICAM-1 was associated with an accelerated increase in percent emphysema of 0.23 percentage points over ten years (95% CI: 0.06, 0.39; P=0.007). No significant association was found for sE-selectin, or between any adhesion molecule and lung function. Higher levels of sICAM-1 were independently associated with progression of percent emphysema in a general population sample. PMID:25457724

  3. Joint Conference on Sensing of Environmental Pollutants, 2nd, Washington, D.C., December 10-12, 1973, Proceedings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Subjects considered are related to the remote passive sensing of atmosphere pollutants, the extension of laboratory measurement techniques for field use, instrument quality and measurement standardization, the remote active sensing of atmospheric pollutants, stationary source sensing, and air quality standards and measurement accuracy. Aspects of radiological, electromagnetic, and acoustic pollution monitoring are discussed together with new methods in particulate analysis, the measurement of meteorological variables that impact on atmospheric pollutants, and the impact of meteorological parameters on pollution analysis. The in-situ sensing of acoustic chemical and biological pollutants is reported along with global scale pollution monitoring and the remote sensing of water pollutants. Individual items are announced in this issue.

  4. Alcohol and Drug Prevention Curriculum Resource Guide Grades 10-12: Social Studies--United States History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Alcohol and Drug Defense Program.

    This curriculum resource guide on alcohol and drug prevention provides suggested activities for teachers of grades 10 through 12. Three integrated learning activities for United States history and healthful living are presented. The history goals are understanding that the years since 1945 have been years of great changes, and learning to organize…

  5. Preserving a Quality Environment for Learning. International Symposium Proceedings (2nd, Columbus, Ohio, October 10-12, 1988).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerber, Carole, Ed.

    Designing campus environments integrates the efforts of architects, planners, landscape personnel, and administrators. At a symposium on preserving a quality environment, the concepts of planning, building, managing, preserving and questions such as: How can we plan buildings that can be readily adapted to future needs? What is the value of campus…

  6. Optical system contamination: Effects, measurement, control II; Proceedings of the Meeting, San Diego, CA, July 10-12, 1990

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glassford, A. P.

    1990-11-01

    The present conference on the effects, measurement, and control of optical system contamination encompasses contamination effects on spaceborne optical instruments, noncontact techniques for cleaning optical surfaces, contamination measurement techniques, the characterization of contaminants, and contamination transport and interactions with space systems. Specific issues addressed include contamination requirements for the Cosmic Background Explorer, contamination removal by CO2 jet spray, ultraviolet laser cleaning of mirrored surfaces, laser-mirror cleaning in a simulated space environment, a nonoptical real-time particle-fallout monitor, and a 200-MHz surface acoustic wave-mass microbalance. Also addressed are the optical effects of photochemically deposited contaminant films, a spacecraft contamination database, a BGK method to determine thruster-plume backscatter, the surface accommodation of molecular contaminants, and the role of low-energy neutral N2 beam-surface interaction leading to spacecraft glow.

  7. National Conference on Professional and Personal Renewal for Faculty. Proceedings (Atlanta, Georgia, April 10-12, 1986).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, William K., Ed.; Chandler, Judith B., Ed.

    Strategies for promoting faculty renewal are discussed in proceedings of the 1986 National Conference on Professional and Personal Renewal for Faculty. Included is an introduction by Ronald D. Simpson, a keynote speech by John W. Gardner and an address on academic culture by Peter Seldin. Summaries of 47 papers are provided, including the…

  8. Physical Development and Health, Grades 3, 6, 8, 10, 12. State Goals for Learning and Sample Learning Objectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Board of Education, Springfield.

    This document sets forth the state goals for learning in the area of physical development and health for elementary and secondary students in Illinois. The final objective of this schooling is to provide students with the knowledge and attitudes to achieve healthful living throughout their lives and to acquire physical fitness, coordination, and…

  9. A review of strategies to address the shortage of science and mathematics educators in grades 10-12

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magano, Florence Lesedi

    For an education system to function effectively it is important that its planning functions are executed effectively and efficiently. Among others this implies that the system must know what the teacher supply and demand is and how it will change in time. If the teacher supply and demand is known it could result in sound intervention strategies being developed and implemented. Education planners will be able to plan for the number of bursaries to be awarded and in which subject fields; it will be known how many foreign teachers to employ and for which subjects. This is the basic rationale that underpins this study. This study explored the problem of teacher demand and supply in the Further Education and Training (FET) phase (Grades 10 to 12) in South Africa and offers a critical analysis of strategies adopted by Provincial Education Departments in an endeavour to diminish the demand for teachers, specifically for Mathematics and Science, in rural and poor schools. Initially the study involved a secondary data analysis to extrapolate the demand and supply of teachers in Mathematics and Science over the next ten years. The first key finding of the study was that the data needed for such an analysis does not exist in any reliable form that would facilitate the development of such a projection. What the study had to rely on was anecdotal evidence that suggests that a shortage of Mathematics and Science teachers does exist and that posts are often filled by unqualified and under-qualified staff. In the second phase of the research in which the study explored the effectiveness of strategies developed to address the shortage of Mathematics and Science teachers, a qualitative research approach was adopted within a descriptive interpretive design. The views and opinions of human resource managers responsible for post provisioning in schools were explored through in-depth interviews to understand the types of strategy adopted by the provinces, their potential to alleviate the problem of Mathematics and Science teacher shortage in Grades 10 to 12, their success, challenges and factors internal to the Department of Education that may deter Provincial Education Departments from achieving their objectives. The findings revealed that Provincial Education Departments (PEDs) do take heed of strategies developed by the national Department of Basic Education (DBE). However implementation is far removed from the original intention and no significant impact results. Although the reasons are not always obvious from this study, a few important aspects did emerge. First, the strategy developed may not be popular with a particular province - employing foreign teachers is a case in point. Secondly, focusing on just a number of schools to improve their results (e.g. as with the Dinaledi schools) may meet with resistance from educators and teachers unions. Thirdly, creating bursaries for initial teacher education in certain key areas can only be successful if the number of teachers in need is known. Finally, even the best strategies are doomed if post provisioning and appointment of staff are dealt with by different stakeholders. Based on the findings, it is recommended that both the DBE and PEDs ensure that quality education management information is collected and maintained. Information that is reliable and accurate will inform planning and key decisions to ensure that the supply of teachers is based on a specific need. As such, deficiencies in skills that are in short supply such as Science and Mathematics can be averted and better opportunities can be created for new teacher graduates. While an improved performance of learners in these subjects is requisite for related study fields at universities, the Dinaledi schools must be adequately supported and such a model applied to other schools. The employment of foreign teachers on short-term contracts does not create stability in schools, therefore, their employment must be standardised. (Abstract shortened by UMI.).

  10. Proceedings of the National Conference on the Use of Microcomputers in Special Education (Hartford, Connecticut, March 10-12, 1983).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behrmann, Michael M., Ed.; Lahm, Liz, Ed.

    Thirty-four papers from a 1983 conference on the use of microcomputers in special education focus on specific applications of the new technology. An overview section, section 1, includes papers on computer literacy and daily living skills, considerations for marketing software, and the role of special educators in the information age. Section 2…

  11. Educating Engineers for World Development. Proceedings of a World Congress (Estes Park, Colorado, June 10-12, 1975).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, J. Morley, Ed.; Collins, W. Leighton, Ed.

    This report comprises papers commissioned for the World Congress on Educating Engineers for World Development, sponsored by the International Division of the American Society for Engineering Education, and held in Colorado in June 1975. The purpose of the Congress was to bring about significant changes in the education of engineers and in the…

  12. PREFACE: The IARU International Scientific Congress on Climate Change: Global Risks, Challenges and Decisions (10-12 March, Copenhagen, Denmark)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-01-01

    In an attempt to make the main results from the Congress on Climate Change: Global Risk, Challenges and Decisions available to the public as early as possible, the steering committee decided to publish all talks and posters presented at the Congress in this unique collection of abstracts, in time for the conference Further to the abstract collection the Congress will publish two more products in the near future as described in the following; a synthesis report with the main conclusions, and a book aimed at an academic audience 1 Two Products from the Congress Two products are being produced based on the presentations and discussions at the Congress The first product will be a synthesis report of the main conclusions from the Congress The synthesis report will be ready in June 2009 The synthesis has the purpose of explaining the current state of understanding man-made climate change and what we can do about it to the non-scientist, ie politicians, media and interested citizens The synthesis will build on the messages presented to the Danish Prime Minister, Mr Anders Fogh Rasmussen, host of the COP15, at the closing session of the Congress These six messages were drafted by the Writing Team (see below) based on input from the session chairs and a reading of the 1600+ abstracts submitted to the Congress The second product is a book aimed at an academic audience The book will include more detailed scientific results from all of the sessions and will be published by Cambridge University Press in 2010 It will be an extension and elaboration of the synthesis report Who's writing the Synthesis Report and the Book? A Writing Team consisting of 12 internationally respected scientists from all continents is responsible for developing both products When the synthesis report has been drafted by the Writing Team, it will be discussed in the Scientific Steering Committee of the Congress and reviewed by the Earth System Science Partnership (ESSP) and a group of experts identified by the IARU universities In keeping with normal scientific practice, a procedure for producing the synthesis report that has been adopted optimises the chances of arriving at a product that will receive a broad backing from the scientific community as being a message that can be sent to the non-scientific community and that explains current understanding in climate change science The Writing Team will also be responsible for writing the book Members of the Writing Team (in alphabetical order) Professor Joe Alcamo, University of Stellenbosch Dr Terry Barker, Cambridge University Professor Daniel Kammen, University of California - Berkeley Professor Rik Leemans, Environmental Systems Analysis Group, Wageningen University Professor Diana Liverman, Oxford University Professor Mohan Munasinghe, Chairman, Munasinghe Institute for Development (MIND) Dr Balgis Osman-Elasha, Higher Council for Environment and Natural Resources (HCENR), Sudan Professor Katherine Richardson, University of Copenhagen Professor John Schellnhuber, Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research and visiting professor at the University of Oxford Professor Will Steffen, Australian National University Professor Lord Nicholas Stern, London School of Economics and Political Science (LSE) Professor Ole Wæver, University of Copenhagen 2 Key Messages from the Congress Key Message 1: Climatic Trends Recent observations confirm that, given high rates of observed emissions, the worst-case IPCC scenario trajectories (or even worse) are being realized For many key parameters, the climate system is already moving beyond the patterns of natural variability within which our society and economy have developed and thrived These parameters include global mean surface temperature, sea-level rise, ocean and ice sheet dynamics, ocean acidification, and extreme climatic events There is a significant risk that many of the trends will accelerate, leading to an increasing risk of abrupt or irreversible climatic shifts Key Message 2: Social disruption The research community is providing much more information to support

  13. The kinetics of the polymorphic transition of the α-form of 2,4,6,8,10,12-hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chukanov, N. V.; Zakharov, V. V.; Korsunskii, B. L.; Raevskii, A. V.; Nedel'Ko, V. V.; Vozchikova, S. A.; Larikova, T. S.; Golovina, N. I.; Aldoshin, S. M.

    2009-01-01

    The α → γ polymorphic transition in hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane was studied by optical microscopy, calorimetry, IR spectroscopy, thermogravimetry, and X-ray diffraction. The thermal effect of the transition was determined. The kinetics of the process is complex because of the relation between structural rearrangement and transition with the removal of water stabilizing the structure of the α polymorph. Depending on the morphological characteristics of the initial sample, the polymorphic transition can follow a frontal-heterogeneous mechanism (single crystal → polycrystalline aggregate) or a quasi-homogeneous mechanism (single crystal → single crystal).

  14. Using Chemistry and Color To Analyze Household Products: A 10-12-Hour Laboratory Project at the General Chemistry Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosma, Wayne B.

    1998-01-01

    Describes a set of experiments using a UV-VIS spectrometer to identify food colorings and to measure the pH of soft drinks. The first laboratory component uses locations and shapes of visible absorption peaks as a means of identifying dyes while the second portion uses the spectrometer for determining pH. (PVD)

  15. AIAA Atmospheric Flight Mechanics Conference, Hilton Head Island, SC, Aug. 10-12, 1992, Technical Papers. Pts. 1-2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Consideration is given to aircraft dynamics and aerodynamics in atmospheric disturbances, vehicle trajectory optimization, projectile and missile flight dynamics, high alpha prediction codes for flow phenomenon, aircraft handling qualities, high alpha CFD and control, aircraft agility, unsteady flow phenomenon, parameter estimation, hypersonic technology, CFD for store separation, aeroassist technology, and unsteady and high alpha numerical studies. Particular attention is given to optimal recovery from microburst wind shear, optimal trajectories for an unmanned air-vehicle in the horizontal plane, numerical simulation of missile flow fields, pulsating spanwise blowing on a fighter aircraft, pilot control identification using minimum model error estimation, Navier-Stokes computations for oscillating control surfaces, aircraft agility maneuvers, fin motion after projectile exit from gun tube, the vortical structure in the wake during dynamic stall, nonlinear aerodynamic parameter estimation, missile and spacecraft coning instabilities, 3D Euler solutions on wing-pylon-store configuration with unstructured tetrahedral meshes, and a simulation model for tail rotor failure.

  16. Training and Technology for the Disabled. Discovery III Conference Papers (Milwaukee, Wisconsin, March 10-12, 1986).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Christopher, Ed.

    Thirty-three papers are presented from a conference on the application of technology for use in the rehabilitation field. Presentations include "Technology--Opening Doors for Disabled People" (Rochlin, Bowe); "Management Information Systems Development for Rehabilitation Facilities: Critical Factors in Development and Implementation" (Robbins, et…

  17. PREFACE: The IARU International Scientific Congress on Climate Change: Global Risks, Challenges and Decisions (10-12 March, Copenhagen, Denmark)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-01-01

    In an attempt to make the main results from the Congress on Climate Change: Global Risk, Challenges and Decisions available to the public as early as possible, the steering committee decided to publish all talks and posters presented at the Congress in this unique collection of abstracts, in time for the conference Further to the abstract collection the Congress will publish two more products in the near future as described in the following; a synthesis report with the main conclusions, and a book aimed at an academic audience 1 Two Products from the Congress Two products are being produced based on the presentations and discussions at the Congress The first product will be a synthesis report of the main conclusions from the Congress The synthesis report will be ready in June 2009 The synthesis has the purpose of explaining the current state of understanding man-made climate change and what we can do about it to the non-scientist, ie politicians, media and interested citizens The synthesis will build on the messages presented to the Danish Prime Minister, Mr Anders Fogh Rasmussen, host of the COP15, at the closing session of the Congress These six messages were drafted by the Writing Team (see below) based on input from the session chairs and a reading of the 1600+ abstracts submitted to the Congress The second product is a book aimed at an academic audience The book will include more detailed scientific results from all of the sessions and will be published by Cambridge University Press in 2010 It will be an extension and elaboration of the synthesis report Who's writing the Synthesis Report and the Book? A Writing Team consisting of 12 internationally respected scientists from all continents is responsible for developing both products When the synthesis report has been drafted by the Writing Team, it will be discussed in the Scientific Steering Committee of the Congress and reviewed by the Earth System Science Partnership (ESSP) and a group of experts identified by the IARU universities In keeping with normal scientific practice, a procedure for producing the synthesis report that has been adopted optimises the chances of arriving at a product that will receive a broad backing from the scientific community as being a message that can be sent to the non-scientific community and that explains current understanding in climate change science The Writing Team will also be responsible for writing the book Members of the Writing Team (in alphabetical order) Professor Joe Alcamo, University of Stellenbosch Dr Terry Barker, Cambridge University Professor Daniel Kammen, University of California - Berkeley Professor Rik Leemans, Environmental Systems Analysis Group, Wageningen University Professor Diana Liverman, Oxford University Professor Mohan Munasinghe, Chairman, Munasinghe Institute for Development (MIND) Dr Balgis Osman-Elasha, Higher Council for Environment and Natural Resources (HCENR), Sudan Professor Katherine Richardson, University of Copenhagen Professor John Schellnhuber, Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research and visiting professor at the University of Oxford Professor Will Steffen, Australian National University Professor Lord Nicholas Stern, London School of Economics and Political Science (LSE) Professor Ole Wæver, University of Copenhagen 2 Key Messages from the Congress Key Message 1: Climatic Trends Recent observations confirm that, given high rates of observed emissions, the worst-case IPCC scenario trajectories (or even worse) are being realized For many key parameters, the climate system is already moving beyond the patterns of natural variability within which our society and economy have developed and thrived These parameters include global mean surface temperature, sea-level rise, ocean and ice sheet dynamics, ocean acidification, and extreme climatic events There is a significant risk that many of the trends will accelerate, leading to an increasing risk of abrupt or irreversible climatic shifts Key Message 2: Social disruption The research community is providing much more information to support discussions on 'dangerous climate change' Recent observations show that societies are highly vulnerable to even modest levels of climate change, with poor nations and communities particularly at risk Temperature rises above 2°C will be very difficult for contemporary societies to cope with, and will increase the level of climate disruption through the rest of the century Key Message 3: Long-Term Strategy Rapid, sustained, and effective mitigation based on coordinated global and regional action is required to avoid 'dangerous climate change' regardless of how it is defined Weaker targets for 2020 increase the risk of crossing tipping points and make the task of meeting 2050 targets more difficult Delay in initiating effective mitigation actions increases significantly the long-term social and economic costs of both adaptation and mitigation Key Message 4: Equity Dimensions Climate change is having, and will have, strongly differential effects on people within and between countries and regions, on this generation and future generations, and on human societies and the natural world An effective, well-funded adaptation safety net is required for those people least capable of coping with climate change impacts, and a common but differentiated mitigation strategy is needed to protect the poor and most vulnerable Key Message 5: Inaction is Inexcusable There is no excuse for inaction We already have many tools and approaches - economic, technological, behavioral, management - to deal effectively with the climate change challenge But they must be vigorously and widely implemented to achieve the societal transformation required to decarbonize economies A wide range of benefits will flow from a concerted effort to alter our energy economy now, including sustainable energy job growth, reductions in the health and economic costs of climate change, and the restoration of ecosystems and revitalization of ecosystem services Key Message 6: Meeting the Challenge To achieve the societal transformation required to meet the climate change challenge, we must overcome a number of significant constraints and seize critical opportunities These include reducing inertia in social and economic systems; building on a growing public desire for governments to act on climate change; removing implicit and explicit subsidies; reducing the influence of vested interests that increase emissions and reduce resilience; enabling the shifts from ineffective governance and weak institutions to innovative leadership in government, the private sector and civil society; and engaging society in the transition to norms and practices that foster sustainability The editors of the volume are all the session chairs: Professor Agus Sari Dr Aled Jones Science Manager Anders Viksø-Nielsen Dr Andreas Barkman Professor Anette Reenberg Professor Ann Henderson-Sellers Professor Anthony J McMichael Dr Anthony Patt Dr Bette Otto-Bliesner Dr Cameron Hepburn Dr Carlos Nobre Dr Carol Turley Dr Chris Hope Professor Chris Turney Professor Claus Felby Professor Coleen Vogel Professor Dale Jamieson Professor Daniel M Kammen Senior Scientist Detlef F Sprinz Professor Diana Ürge-Vorsatz Professor Dorthe Dahl-Jensen PhD Fatima Denton Director Generel Frances Seymour Dr Frank Jotzo Professor Harold Mooney Director Henrik Bindslev Mr Jamie Pittock Professor Jacquie Burgess Dr James E Hansen Professor Jiahua Pan Dr Jill Jäger Professor Jim Skea Professor Johan Rockström Dr John Christensen Professor John Mitchell Professor John R Porter Professor Joyeeta Gupta Professor Jørgen E Olesen Professor Karen O'Brien Dr Kazuhiko Takeuchi Dr Katrine Krogh Andersen Professor Keith Paustian Professor Ken Caldeira Professor Kevin Anderson Dr Koko Warner Professor Konrad Steffen Professor Liping Zhou Professor Louise Fresco Professor Maria Carmen Lemos Professor Mark Ashton Dr Mark Stafford-Smith Dr Martin Claussen Dr Martin Visbeck Professor Mary Scholes Professor Masahide Kimoto Professor Matthew England Dr Maxwell Boykoff Dr Michael Raupach Professor Nathan Bindoff Professor Nicolas Gruber Professor Niels Elers Koch Professor Ole John Nielsen Professor Ole Wæver Professor Oran Young Dr Pamela Matson Dr Paul Baer Professor Paul Leadley Dr Pep Canadell Professor Pete Smith Professor Peter Gregory Professor Pier Vellinga Dr Rik Leemans Dr Roberto Bertollini Professor Roberto S Rodriguez Professor Scott Denning Dr Sivan Kartha Dr Thomas Downing Dr Tariq Banuri Professor Thomas Heyd Professor Tim Lenton Professor Timmons Roberts Professor Torkil Jønch Clausen Professor Warwick McKibbin Professor Wim C Turkenburg

  18. Outreach: Proceedings of the 1980 HCEEP Outreach Project Directors' Conference (Reston, Virginia, September 10-12, 1980).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Lynn, Ed.

    This collection of conference proceedings focuses on the outreach projects of the Handicapped Children's Early Education Program (HCEEP). The goals of these projects are (1) to stimulate quality services to preschool handicapped children, their families and teachers, and (2) to develop effective outreach models. Each of the five key objectives of…

  19. Empirical Research in Chemistry and Physics Education. Proceedings of the International Seminar (Dortmund, Germany, June 10-12, 1992).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Hans-Jurgen, Ed.

    In the course of the last decade the Dortmund Summer Symposium has developed into an internationally acknowledged conference, with English as the language of communication every other year. This book presents the following papers given at the 1992 conference: (1) Learning Science: Insights from Research on Teaching and Assessment (D. R. Baker);…

  20. Atmospheric chemistry of the Z and E isomers of CF3CF=CHF; kinetics, mechanisms, and products of gas-phase reactions with Cl atoms, OH radicals, and O3.

    PubMed

    Hurley, M D; Ball, J C; Wallington, T J

    2007-10-01

    Smog chamber/FTIR techniques were used to study the atmospheric chemistry of the Z and E isomers of CF3CF=CHF, which we refer to as CF3CF=CHF(Z) and CF3CF=CHF(E). The rate constants k(Cl + CF3CF=CHF(Z)) = (4.36 +/- 0.48) x 10-11, k(OH + CF3CF=CHF(Z)) = (1.22 +/- 0.14) x 10-12, and k(O3 + CF3CF=CHF(Z)) = (1.45 +/- 0.15) x 10-21 cm3 molecule-1 s-1 were determined for the Z isomer of CF3CF=CHF in 700 Torr air diluent at 296 +/- 2 K. The rate constants k(Cl + CF3CF=CHF(E)) = (5.00 +/- 0.56) x 10-11, k(OH + CF3CF=CHF(E)) = (2.15 +/- 0.23) x 10-12, and k(O3 + CF3CF=CHF(E)) = (1.98 +/- 0.15) x 10-20 cm3 molecule-1 s-1 were determined for the E isomer of CF3CF=CHF in 700 Torr air diluent at 296 +/- 2 K. Both the Cl-atom and OH-radical-initiated atmospheric oxidation of CF3CF=CHF give CF3C(O)F and HC(O)F in molar yields indistinguishable from 100% for both the Z and E isomer. CF3CF=CHF(Z) has an atmospheric lifetime of approximately 18 days and a global warming potential (100 year time horizon) of approximately 6. CF3CF=CHF(E) has an atmospheric lifetime of approximately 10 days and a global warming potential (100 year time horizon) of approximately 3. CF3CF=CHF has a negligible global warming potential and will not make any significant contribution to radiative forcing of climate change. PMID:17850124

  1. Effects of a single water molecule on the OH + H2O2 reaction.

    PubMed

    Buszek, Robert J; Torrent-Sucarrat, Miquel; Anglada, Josep M; Francisco, Joseph S

    2012-06-21

    The effect of a single water molecule on the reaction between H(2)O(2) and HO has been investigated by employing MP2 and CCSD(T) theoretical approaches in connection with the aug-cc-PVDZ, aug-cc-PVTZ, and aug-cc-PVQZ basis sets and extrapolation to an ∞ basis set. The reaction without water has two elementary reaction paths that differ from each other in the orientation of the hydrogen atom of the hydroxyl radical moiety. Our computed rate constant, at 298 K, is 1.56 × 10(-12) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1), in excellent agreement with the suggested value by the NASA/JPL evaluation. The influence of water vapor has been investigated by considering either that H(2)O(2) first forms a complex with water that reacts with hydroxyl radical or that H(2)O(2) reacts with a previously formed H(2)O·OH complex. With the addition of water, the reaction mechanism becomes much more complex, yielding four different reaction paths. Two pathways do not undergo the oxidation reaction but an exchange reaction where there is an interchange between H(2)O(2)·H(2)O and H(2)O·OH complexes. The other two pathways oxidize H(2)O(2), with a computed total rate constant of 4.09 × 10(-12) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) at 298 K, 2.6 times the value of the rate constant of the unassisted reaction. However, the true effect of water vapor requires taking into account the concentration of the prereactive bimolecular complex, namely, H(2)O(2)·H(2)O. With this consideration, water can actually slow down the oxidation of H(2)O(2) by OH between 1840 and 20.5 times in the 240-425 K temperature range. This is an example that demonstrates how water could be a catalyst in an atmospheric reaction in the laboratory but is slow under atmospheric conditions. PMID:22455374

  2. Kinetic studies of the BrO + ClO cross-reaction over the range T = 246-314 K.

    PubMed

    Ferracci, Valerio; Rowley, David M

    2014-01-21

    The kinetics of the atmospherically important gas phase radical reaction between BrO and ClO have been studied over the temperature range T = 246-314 K by means of laser flash photolysis coupled with UV absorption spectroscopy. Charge-coupled-device (CCD) detection allowed simultaneous monitoring of both free radicals and the OClO product using 'differential' spectroscopy, which minimised interference from underlying UV absorbing species. In this way, the total rate coefficient for BrO + ClO → products (1) was measured, along with that for the OClO producing channel of this process BrO + ClO → OClO + Br (1c). These reaction rate coefficients are described by the Arrhenius expressions: k1/cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) = (2.5 ± 2.2) × 10(-12) exp[(630 ± 240)/T] and k(1c)/cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) = (4.6 ± 3.0) × 10(-12) exp[(280 ± 180)/T], where errors are 2σ, statistical only. An extensive sensitivity analysis was performed to quantify the potential additional systematic uncertainties in this work arising from uncertainties in secondary chemistry, absorption cross-sections and precursor concentrations. This analysis identified the reactions of initial and secondarily generated bromine atoms (specifically Br + O3 and Br + Cl2O) as particularly important, along with the reversible combination of ClO with OClO forming Cl2O3. Potential uncertainty in this latter process was used to define the lowest temperature of the present study. Results from this work indicate larger absolute values for k1 and k(1c) than those reported in previous studies, but a weaker negative temperature dependence for k(1c) than previously observed, resulting in a branching ratio for with a positive temperature dependence, in disagreement with previous studies. is the principal source of OClO in the polar stratosphere and is commonly used in atmospheric models as an indicator of stratospheric bromine chemistry. Thus these measurements might lead to a reinterpretation of modelled

  3. Effects of a single water molecule on the OH + H2O2 reaction.

    PubMed

    Buszek, Robert J; Torrent-Sucarrat, Miquel; Anglada, Josep M; Francisco, Joseph S

    2012-06-21

    The effect of a single water molecule on the reaction between H(2)O(2) and HO has been investigated by employing MP2 and CCSD(T) theoretical approaches in connection with the aug-cc-PVDZ, aug-cc-PVTZ, and aug-cc-PVQZ basis sets and extrapolation to an ∞ basis set. The reaction without water has two elementary reaction paths that differ from each other in the orientation of the hydrogen atom of the hydroxyl radical moiety. Our computed rate constant, at 298 K, is 1.56 × 10(-12) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1), in excellent agreement with the suggested value by the NASA/JPL evaluation. The influence of water vapor has been investigated by considering either that H(2)O(2) first forms a complex with water that reacts with hydroxyl radical or that H(2)O(2) reacts with a previously formed H(2)O·OH complex. With the addition of water, the reaction mechanism becomes much more complex, yielding four different reaction paths. Two pathways do not undergo the oxidation reaction but an exchange reaction where there is an interchange between H(2)O(2)·H(2)O and H(2)O·OH complexes. The other two pathways oxidize H(2)O(2), with a computed total rate constant of 4.09 × 10(-12) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) at 298 K, 2.6 times the value of the rate constant of the unassisted reaction. However, the true effect of water vapor requires taking into account the concentration of the prereactive bimolecular complex, namely, H(2)O(2)·H(2)O. With this consideration, water can actually slow down the oxidation of H(2)O(2) by OH between 1840 and 20.5 times in the 240-425 K temperature range. This is an example that demonstrates how water could be a catalyst in an atmospheric reaction in the laboratory but is slow under atmospheric conditions.

  4. Kinetics of the unimolecular reaction of CH2OO and the bimolecular reactions with the water monomer, acetaldehyde and acetone under atmospheric conditions.

    PubMed

    Berndt, Torsten; Kaethner, Ralf; Voigtländer, Jens; Stratmann, Frank; Pfeifle, Mark; Reichle, Patrick; Sipilä, Mikko; Kulmala, Markku; Olzmann, Matthias

    2015-08-14

    Stabilized Criegee Intermediates (sCIs) have been identified as oxidants of atmospheric trace gases such as SO2, NO2, carboxylic acids or carbonyls. The atmospheric sCI concentrations, and accordingly their importance for trace gas oxidation, are controlled by the rate of the most important loss processes, very likely the unimolecular reactions and the reaction with water vapour (monomer and dimer) ubiquitously present at high concentrations in the troposphere. In this study, the rate coefficients of the unimolecular reaction of the simplest sCI, formaldehyde oxide, CH2OO, and its bimolecular reaction with the water monomer have been experimentally determined at T = (297 ± 1) K and at atmospheric pressure by using a free-jet flow system. CH2OO was produced by the reaction of ozone with C2H4, and CH2OO concentrations were probed indirectly by detecting H2SO4 after titration with SO2. Time-resolved experiments yield a rate coefficient of the unimolecular reaction of k(uni) = (0.19 ± 0.07) s(-1), a value that is supported by quantum-chemical and statistical rate theory calculations as well as by additional measurements performed under CH2OO steady-state conditions. A rate coefficient of k(CH2OO+H2O) = (3.2 ± 1.2) × 10(-16) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) has been determined for sufficiently low H2O concentrations (<10(15) molecule cm(-3)) that allow separation from the CH2OO reaction with the water dimer. In order to evaluate the accuracy of the experimental approach, the rate coefficients of the reactions with acetaldehyde and acetone were reinvestigated. The obtained rate coefficients k(CH2OO+acetald) = (1.7 ± 0.5) × 10(-12) and k(CH2OO+acetone) = (3.4 ± 0.9) × 10(-13) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) are in good agreement with literature data.

  5. Temperature dependence of the Cl atom reaction with deuterated methanes.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Frank; Portmann, Robert W; Ravishankara, A R; Burkholder, James B

    2015-05-14

    Kinetic isotope effect (KIE) and reaction rate coefficients, k1-k4, for the gas-phase reaction of Cl atoms with (12)CH3D (k1), (12)CH2D2 (k2), (12)CHD3 (k3), and (12)CD4 (k4) over the temperature range 223-343 K in 630 Torr of synthetic air are reported. Rate coefficients were measured using a relative rate technique with (12)CH4 as the primary reference compound. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to monitor the methane isotopologue loss. The obtained KIE values were (12)CH3D: KIE1(T) = (1.227 ± 0.004) exp((43 ± 5)/T); (12)CH2D2: KIE2(T) = (1.14 ± 0.20) exp((191 ± 60)/T); (12)CHD3: KIE3(T) = (1.73 ± 0.34) exp((229 ± 60)/T); and (12)CD4: KIE4(T) = (1.01 ± 0.3) exp((724 ± 19)/T), where KIEx(T) = kCl+(12)CH4(T)/kx(T). The quoted uncertainties are at the 2σ (95% confidence) level and represent the precision of our data. The following Arrhenius expressions and 295 K rate coefficient values (in units of cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1)) were derived from the above KIE using a rate coefficient of 7.3 × 10(-12) exp(-1280/T) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) for the reaction of Cl with (12)CH4: k1(T) = (5.95 ± 0.70) × 10(-12) exp(-(1323 ± 50)/T), k1(295 K) = (6.7 ± 0.8) × 10(-14); k2(T) = (6.4 ± 1.3) × 10(-12) exp(-(1471 ± 60)/T), k2(295 K) = (4.4 ± 0.9) × 10(-14); k3(T) = (4.2 ± 1.0) × 10(-12) exp(-(1509 ± 60)/T), k3(295 K) = (2.53 ± 0.6) × 10(-14); and k4(T) = (7.13 ± 2.3) × 10(-12) exp(-(2000 ± 120)/T), k4(295 K) = (0.81 ± 0.26) × 10(-14). The reported uncertainties in the pre-exponential factors are 2σ and include estimated systematic errors in our measurements and the uncertainty in the reference reaction rate coefficient. The results from this study are compared with previously reported room-temperature rate coefficients for each of the deuterated methanes as well as the available temperature dependent data for the Cl atom reactions with CH3D and CD4. A two-dimensional atmospheric chemistry model was used to examine the implications of the

  6. Temperature dependence of the Cl atom reaction with deuterated methanes.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Frank; Portmann, Robert W; Ravishankara, A R; Burkholder, James B

    2015-05-14

    Kinetic isotope effect (KIE) and reaction rate coefficients, k1-k4, for the gas-phase reaction of Cl atoms with (12)CH3D (k1), (12)CH2D2 (k2), (12)CHD3 (k3), and (12)CD4 (k4) over the temperature range 223-343 K in 630 Torr of synthetic air are reported. Rate coefficients were measured using a relative rate technique with (12)CH4 as the primary reference compound. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to monitor the methane isotopologue loss. The obtained KIE values were (12)CH3D: KIE1(T) = (1.227 ± 0.004) exp((43 ± 5)/T); (12)CH2D2: KIE2(T) = (1.14 ± 0.20) exp((191 ± 60)/T); (12)CHD3: KIE3(T) = (1.73 ± 0.34) exp((229 ± 60)/T); and (12)CD4: KIE4(T) = (1.01 ± 0.3) exp((724 ± 19)/T), where KIEx(T) = kCl+(12)CH4(T)/kx(T). The quoted uncertainties are at the 2σ (95% confidence) level and represent the precision of our data. The following Arrhenius expressions and 295 K rate coefficient values (in units of cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1)) were derived from the above KIE using a rate coefficient of 7.3 × 10(-12) exp(-1280/T) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) for the reaction of Cl with (12)CH4: k1(T) = (5.95 ± 0.70) × 10(-12) exp(-(1323 ± 50)/T), k1(295 K) = (6.7 ± 0.8) × 10(-14); k2(T) = (6.4 ± 1.3) × 10(-12) exp(-(1471 ± 60)/T), k2(295 K) = (4.4 ± 0.9) × 10(-14); k3(T) = (4.2 ± 1.0) × 10(-12) exp(-(1509 ± 60)/T), k3(295 K) = (2.53 ± 0.6) × 10(-14); and k4(T) = (7.13 ± 2.3) × 10(-12) exp(-(2000 ± 120)/T), k4(295 K) = (0.81 ± 0.26) × 10(-14). The reported uncertainties in the pre-exponential factors are 2σ and include estimated systematic errors in our measurements and the uncertainty in the reference reaction rate coefficient. The results from this study are compared with previously reported room-temperature rate coefficients for each of the deuterated methanes as well as the available temperature dependent data for the Cl atom reactions with CH3D and CD4. A two-dimensional atmospheric chemistry model was used to examine the implications of the

  7. Methyl-perfluoroheptene-ethers (CH3OC7F13): measured OH radical reaction rate coefficients for several isomers and enantiomers and their atmospheric lifetimes and global warming potentials.

    PubMed

    Jubb, Aaron M; Gierczak, Tomasz; Baasandorj, Munkhbayar; Waterland, Robert L; Burkholder, James B

    2014-05-01

    Mixtures of methyl-perfluoroheptene-ethers (CH3OC7F13, MPHEs) are currently in use as replacements for perfluorinated alkanes (PFCs) and poly-ether heat transfer fluids, which are persistent greenhouse gases with lifetimes >1000 years. At present, the atmospheric processing and environmental impact from the use of MPHEs is unknown. In this work, rate coefficients at 296 K for the gas-phase reaction of the OH radical with six key isomers (including stereoisomers and enantiomers) of MPHEs used commercially were measured using a relative rate method. Rate coefficients for the six MPHE isomers ranged from ∼ 0.1 to 2.9 × 10(-12) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) with a strong stereoisomer and -OCH3 group position dependence; the (E)-stereoisomers with the -OCH3 group in an α- position relative to the double bond had the greatest reactivity. Rate coefficients measured for the d3-MPHE isomer analogues showed decreased reactivity consistent with a minor contribution of H atom abstraction from the -OCH3 group to the overall reactivity. Estimated atmospheric lifetimes for the MPHE isomers range from days to months. Atmospheric lifetimes, radiative efficiencies, and global warming potentials for these short-lived MPHE isomers were estimated based on the measured OH rate coefficients along with measured and theoretically calculated MPHE infrared absorption spectra. Our results highlight the importance of quantifying the atmospheric impact of individual components in an isomeric mixture.

  8. Atmospheric chemical reactions of alternatives of polybrominated diphenyl ethers initiated by OH: A case study on triphenyl phosphate.

    PubMed

    Yu, Qi; Xie, Hong-Bin; Chen, Jingwen

    2016-11-15

    Many studies have been performed to evaluate the environmental risk caused by alternative flame retardants (AFRs) of polybrominated diphenyl ethers due to their ubiquitous occurrence in the environment. However, as an indispensable component of the environmental risk assessment, the information on atmospheric fate of AFRs is limited although some AFRs have been frequently and highly detected in the atmosphere. Here, a combined quantum chemical method and kinetics modeling were used to investigate atmospheric transformation mechanism and kinetics of AFRs initiated by OH in the presence of O2, taking triphenyl phosphate (TPhP) as a case. Results show that the pathway involving initial OH addition to phenyl of TPhP to form TPhP-OH adduct, and subsequent reaction of the TPhP-OH adduct with O2 to finally form phenol phosphate, is the most favorable for the titled reaction. The calculated overall reaction rate constant is 1.6×10(-12)cm(3) molecule(-1)s(-1), translating 7.6days atmospheric lifetime of TPhP. This clarifies that gaseous TPhP has atmospheric persistence. In addition, it was found that ice surface, as a case of ubiquitous water in the atmosphere, has little effect on the kinetics of the rate-determining step in the OH-initiated TPhP reaction.

  9. Chemical stability of levoglucosan: An isotopic perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sang, X. F.; Gensch, I.; Kammer, B.; Khan, A.; Kleist, E.; Laumer, W.; Schlag, P.; Schmitt, S. H.; Wildt, J.; Zhao, R.; Mungall, E. L.; Abbatt, J. P. D.; Kiendler-Scharr, A.

    2016-05-01

    The chemical stability of levoglucosan was studied by exploring its isotopic fractionation during the oxidation by hydroxyl radicals. Aqueous solutions as well as mixed (NH4)2SO4-levoglucosan particles were exposed to OH. In both cases, samples experiencing different extents of processing were isotopically analyzed by Thermal Desorption-Gas Chromatography-Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (TD-GC-IRMS). From the dependence of levoglucosan δ13C and concentration on the reaction extent, the kinetic isotope effect (KIE) of the OH oxidation reactions was determined to be 1.00187±0.00027 and 1.00229±0.00018, respectively. Both show good agreement within the uncertainty range. For the heterogeneous oxidation of particulate levoglucosan by gas-phase OH, a reaction rate constant of (2.67±0.03)·10-12 cm3 molecule-1S-1 was derived. The laboratory kinetic data, together with isotopic source and ambient observations, give information on the extent of aerosol chemical processing in the atmosphere.

  10. The atmospheric chemistry of methyl salicylate—reactions with atomic chlorine and with ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canosa-Mas, Carlos E.; Duffy, Justin M.; King, Martin D.; Thompson, Katherine C.; Wayne, Richard P.

    Methyl salicylate is one of a number of semiochemicals, signal molecules, emitted by herbivore-infested plants. These signal molecules attract predators of the herbivore, and the chemicals thus act indirectly as part of the defence mechanism of the plant. Previous studies have shown that ozone damage to plants can also elicit the emission of signal molecules. The fate of these signal molecules in the atmosphere is not known. Preliminary studies have been undertaken to examine the atmospheric chemistry of methyl salicylate for the first time. Rate coefficients for the reaction of methyl salicylate with atomic chlorine and with ozone have been determined; the values are (2.8±0.3)×10 -12 and ˜4×10 -21 cm 3 molecule -1 s -1. These results suggest that neither reaction with atomic chlorine nor reaction with ozone will provide important loss routes for methyl salicylate in the atmosphere. The possible importance of photolysis of methyl salicylate in the atmosphere is considered.

  11. N(4S) formation following the 193.3-nm ArF laser irradiation of NO and NO2 and its application to kinetic studies of N(4S) reactions with NO and NO2.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Tomoki; Takahashi, Kenshi; Matsumi, Yutaka; Shibuya, Kazuhiko

    2005-12-01

    Formation of the ground-state nitrogen atom, N((4)S), following 193.3-nm ArF laser irradiation of NO and NO(2) was detected directly by a technique of laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) spectroscopy at 120.07 nm. Tunable vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) laser radiation around 120.07 nm was generated by two-photon resonance four-wave sum frequency mixing in Hg vapor. Photoexcitation processes of NO and NO(2) giving rise to the N((4)S) formation are discussed on the basis of the Doppler profiles of the nascent N((4)S) atoms produced from the photolysis of NO and NO(2) and the photolysis laser-power dependence of the N((4)S) signal intensities. Using laser flash photolysis and vacuum ultraviolet laser-induced fluorescence detection, the kinetics of the reactions of N((4)S) with NO and NO(2) have been investigated at 295 +/- 2 K. The rate constants for the reactions of N((4)S) with NO and NO(2) were determined to be (3.8 +/- 0.2) x 10(-11) and (7.3 +/- 0.9) x 10(-12) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1), respectively, where the quoted uncertainties are 2sigma statistical uncertainty including estimated systematic error.

  12. Investigation of the Gas-Phase Photolysis and Temperature-Dependent OH Reaction Kinetics of 4-Hydroxy-2-butanone.

    PubMed

    Bouzidi, Hichem; Aslan, Lina; El Dib, Gisèle; Coddeville, Patrice; Fittschen, Christa; Tomas, Alexandre

    2015-10-20

    Hydroxyketones are key secondary reaction products in the atmospheric oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The fate of these oxygenated VOCs is however poorly understood and scarcely taken into account in atmospheric chemistry modeling. In this work, a combined investigation of the photolysis and temperature-dependent OH radical reaction of 4-hydroxy-2-butanone (4H2B) is presented. The objective was to evaluate the importance of the photolysis process relative to OH oxidation in the atmospheric degradation of 4H2B. A photolysis lifetime of about 26 days was estimated with an effective quantum yield of 0.08. For the first time, the occurrence of a Norrish II mechanism was hypothesized following the observation of acetone among photolysis products. The OH reaction rate coefficient follows the Arrhenius trend (280-358 K) and could be modeled through the following expression: k4H2B(T) = (1.26 ± 0.40) × 10(-12) × exp((398 ± 87)/T) in cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1). An atmospheric lifetime of 2.4 days regarding the OH + 4H2B reaction was evaluated, indicating that OH oxidation is by far the major degradation channel. The present work underlines the need for further studies on the atmospheric fate of oxygenated VOCs.

  13. First experimental determination of the absolute gas-phase rate coefficient for the reaction of OH with 4-hydroxy-2-butanone (4H2B) at 294 K by vapor pressure measurements of 4H2B.

    PubMed

    El Dib, Gisèle; Sleiman, Chantal; Canosa, André; Travers, Daniel; Courbe, Jonathan; Sawaya, Terufat; Mokbel, Ilham; Chakir, Abdelkhaleq

    2013-01-10

    The reaction of the OH radicals with 4-hydroxy-2-butanone was investigated in the gas phase using an absolute rate method at room temperature and over the pressure range 10-330 Torr in He and air as diluent gases. The rate coefficients were measured using pulsed laser photolysis (PLP) of H(2)O(2) to produce OH and laser induced fluorescence (LIF) to measure the OH temporal profile. An average value of (4.8 ± 1.2) × 10(-12) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) was obtained. The OH quantum yield following the 266 nm pulsed laser photolysis of 4-hydroxy-2-butanone was measured for the first time and found to be about 0.3%. The investigated kinetic study required accurate measurements of the vapor pressure of 4-hydroxy-2-butanone, which was measured using a static apparatus. The vapor pressure was found to range from 0.056 to 7.11 Torr between 254 and 323 K. This work provides the first absolute rate coefficients for the reaction of 4-hydroxy-2-butanone with OH and the first experimental saturated vapor pressures of the studied compound below 311 K. The obtained results are compared to those of the literature and the effects of the experimental conditions on the reactivity are examined. The calculated tropospheric lifetime obtained in this work suggests that once emitted into the atmosphere, 4H2B may contribute to the photochemical pollution in a local or regional scale.

  14. Effect of various metals on intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression and tumour necrosis factor alpha production by normal human keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Guéniche, A; Viac, J; Lizard, G; Charveron, M; Schmitt, D

    1994-01-01

    Nickel, cobalt and chromium are metals very often implicated in allergic contact dermatitis. In vivo, keratinocytes, which are the first target cells, can be directly activated to participate in the local reaction, especially through the expression of the membrane antigen ICAM-1, a ligand of the leucocyte antigen LFA-1, and the production of cytokines. Our aim was to assess the effects of sensitizing metal haptens (nickel, cobalt and chromium) compared with the toxic metal cadmium on the induction of ICAM-1 and the production of TNF alpha by epidermal cells. For this purpose, normal human keratinocytes obtained during plastic skin surgery were cultured in low-calcium defined medium (MCDB153) and the metals were used in non-toxic concentrations. Using FACS analysis, ICAM-1 expression was found to be induced only by nickel. This stimulation appeared as early as 24 h after stimulation. All the metals induced a low expression of TNF alpha detectable by immunocytochemistry correlating with the induction of the nuclear stress protein Hsp72 which is closely linked genetically with the TNF alpha locus. However, only Ni2+, Co2+ and Cr2+ induced a significant release of TNF alpha detectable by ELISA after 48 h stimulation. This secretion was lower than that observed with known stimulants such as lipopolysaccharide. These results indicate that the metals studied are able to induce an aggressive cellular effect, and that nickel, by its ICAM-1 induction, may play a major role in the keratinocyte activation state during allergic contact dermatitis. PMID:7864660

  15. Bile acid signaling through FXR induces intracellular adhesion molecule-1 expression in mouse liver and human hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Qin, Pu; Borges-Marcucci, Lisa A; Evans, Mark J; Harnish, Douglas C

    2005-08-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated a dramatic induction of inflammatory gene expression in livers from mice fed a high-fat, high-cholesterol diet containing cholate after 3-5 wk. To determine the contribution of cholate in mediating these inductions, C57BL/6 mice were fed a chow diet supplemented with increasing concentrations of cholic acid (CA) for 5 days. A dose-dependent induction in the hepatic levels of TNF-alpha, VCAM-1, ICAM-1, and SAA-2 mRNA were observed. As positive controls, a dose-dependent repression of cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase and a dose-dependent induction of small heterodimer partner (SHP) expression were also observed, suggesting that farnesoid X receptor (FXR) was activated. In addition, ICAM-1 and SHP mRNA levels were also induced in primary human hepatocytes when treated with chenodeoxycholic acid or GW4064, a FXR-selective agonist. The involvement of FXR in CA-induced inflammatory gene expression was further investigated in the human hepatic cell line HepG2. Both ICAM-1 and SHP expression were induced in a dose- and time-dependent manner by treatment with the FXR-selective agonist GW4064. Moreover, the induction of ICAM-1 by GW4064 was inhibited by the FXR antagonist guggulsterone or with transfection of FXR siRNA. Finally, the activity of FXR was mapped to a retinoic acid response element (RARE) site containing an imbedded farnesoid X response element (FXRE) on the human ICAM-1 promoter and FXR and retinoid X receptor were demonstrated to bind to this site. Finally, FXR-mediated activation of ICAM-1 could be further enhanced by TNF-alpha cotreatment in hepatocytes, suggesting a potential cooperation between cytokine and bile acid-signaling pathways during hepatic inflammatory events.

  16. Suppression of complement regulatory protein C1 inhibitor in vascular endothelial activation by inhibiting vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 action

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Haimou; Qin, Gangjian; Liang, Gang; Li, Jinan; Chiu, Isaac; Barrington, Robert A.; Liu, Dongxu . E-mail: dxliu001@yahoo.com

    2007-07-13

    Increased expression of adhesion molecules by activated endothelium is a critical feature of vascular inflammation associated with the several diseases such as endotoxin shock and sepsis/septic shock. Our data demonstrated complement regulatory protein C1 inhibitor (C1INH) prevents endothelial cell injury. We hypothesized that C1INH has the ability of an anti-endothelial activation associated with suppression of expression of adhesion molecule(s). C1INH blocked leukocyte adhesion to endothelial cell monolayer in both static assay and flow conditions. In inflammatory condition, C1INH reduced vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1) expression associated with its cytoplasmic mRNA destabilization and nuclear transcription level. Studies exploring the underlying mechanism of C1INH-mediated suppression in VCAM-1 expression were related to reduction of NF-{kappa}B activation and nuclear translocation in an I{kappa}B{alpha}-dependent manner. The inhibitory effects were associated with reduction of inhibitor I{kappa}B kinase activity and stabilization of the NF-{kappa}B inhibitor I{kappa}B. These findings indicate a novel role for C1INH in inhibition of vascular endothelial activation. These observations could provide the basis for new therapeutic application of C1INH to target inflammatory processes in different pathologic situations.

  17. Interleukin-6 and intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression remains elevated in revived live endothelial cells following spaceflight.

    PubMed

    Muid, S; Froemming, G R A; Ali, A M; Nawawi, H

    2013-12-01

    The effects of spaceflight on cardiovascular health are not necessarily seen immediately after astronauts have returned but can be delayed. It is important to investigate the long term effects of spaceflight on protein and gene expression of inflammation and endothelial activation as a predictor for the development of atherosclerosis and potential cardiovascular problems. The objectives of this study were to investigate the (a) protein and gene expression of inflammation and endothelial activation, (b) expression of nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB), signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT-3) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) 3 months post-space flight travel compared to ground controls. HUVEC cultured on microcarriers in fluid processing apparatus were flown to the International Space Station (ISS) by the Soyuz TMA-11 rocket. After landing, the cells were detached from microcarriers and recultured in T-25 cm(2) culture flasks (Revived HUVEC). Soluble protein expression of IL-6, TNF-α, ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and e-selectin were measured by ELISA. Gene expression of these markers and in addition NFκB, STAT-3 and eNOS were measured. Spaceflight induced IL-6 and ICAM-1 remain elevated even after 3 months post spaceflight travel and this is mediated via STAT-3 pathway. The downregulation of eNOS expression in revived HUVEC cells suggests a reduced protection of the cells and the surrounding vessels against future insults that may lead to atherosclerosis. It would be crucial to explore preventive measures, in relation to atherosclerosis and its related complications.

  18. A novel and critical role for tyrosine 663 in platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 trafficking and transendothelial migration.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Bidisha; Dufour, Eric; Mamdouh, Zahra; Muller, William A

    2009-04-15

    PECAM-1/CD31 is required for leukocyte transendothelial migration (TEM) under most inflammatory conditions. A critical pool of PECAM-1 resides in the lateral border recycling compartment (LBRC). During TEM, membrane from the LBRC is redirected to surround the leukocyte, and this targeted recycling per se is required for TEM. The cytoplasmic domain of PECAM-1 contains two tyrosine residues that have been implicated in PECAM-1 signaling in other cells but never examined in the context of TEM. We found that expression of PECAM-1 imparts on cells the ability to support TEM and that tyrosine 663 (but not tyrosine 686) is required. Furthermore, tyrosine 663 is required for PECAM-1 to efficiently enter and exit the LBRC. Most important, mutation of tyrosine 663 abolishes the ability of the endothelial cells to support targeted recycling of the LBRC. These data define a novel role for tyrosine 663 and suggest that it is part of a recognition motif for trafficking to and/or from the LBRC. PMID:19342684

  19. Tyrosine phosphorylation of platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1, CD31) in mechanically stimulated vascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Osawa, M; Masuda, M; Harada, N; Lopes, R B; Fujiwara, K

    1997-03-01

    Fluid flow triggers signal transducing events, modulates gene expression, and remodels cytoskeletal structures in vascular endothelial cells (ECs). However, the primary steps of mechanoreception are still unknown. We have recently reported that a glycoprotein is rapidly tyrosine-phosphorylated in bovine ECs exposed to fluid flow or osmotic shock. Here were cloned a 3.4 kb cDNA encoding this protein and found that this was bovine PECAM-1. The tyrosine-phosphorylation level of PECAM-1 immunoprecipitated from mechanically stimulated bovine or human ECs increased. The PECAM-1 phosphorylation was not induced by reagents that triggered Ca2+ mobilization in ECs. An autophosphorylatable band comigrating with c-Src was co-immunoprecipitated with anti-PECAM-1, and c-Src phosphorylated and bound to a GST fusion protein containing the PECAM-1 cytoplasmic domain. A spliced mRNA form lacking amino acid residues 703-721 in the cytoplasmic domain was also expressed in bovine ECs, c-Src neither phosphorylated nor bound to the fusion protein containing the spliced PECAM-1 cytoplasmic domain which lacked one (Tyr 713) of the six tyrosine residues in the PECAM-1 cytoplasmic domain. These results suggest that the YSEI motif containing Tyr 713 is the Src phosphorylation/binding site. Our study is the first demonstration of inducible tyrosine phosphorylation of PECAM-1 and suggests involvement of PECAM-1 and Src family kinases in the sensing/signal transduction of mechanical stimuli in ECs. PMID:9084985

  20. Small molecule 1'-acetoxychavicol acetate suppresses breast tumor metastasis by regulating the SHP-1/STAT3/MMPs signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jieqiong; Zhang, Li; Chen, Guoliang; Zhang, Jing; Li, Zhenxi; Lu, Weiqiang; Liu, Mingyao; Pang, Xiufeng

    2014-11-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is implicated breast cancer metastasis and represents a potential target for developing new anti-tumor metastasis drugs. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether the natural agent 1'-acetoxychavicol acetate (ACA), derived from the rhizomes and seeds of Languas galanga, could suppress breast cancer metastasis by targeting STAT3 signaling pathway. ACA was examined for its effects on breast cancer migration/invasion and metastasis using Transwell assays in vitro and breast cancer skeletal metastasis mouse model in vivo (n = 10 mice per group). The inhibitory effect of ACA on cellular STAT3 signaling pathway was investigated by series of biochemistry analysis. The chavicol preferentially suppressed cancer cell migration and invasion, and this activity was superior to its cytotoxic effects. ACA suppressed both constitutive and interleukin-6-inducible STAT3 activation and diminished the accumulation of STAT3 in the nucleus and its DNA-binding activity. More importantly, ACA treatment led to significant up-regulation of Src homology region 2 domain-containing phosphatase 1 (SHP-1), and the ACA-induced depression of cancer cell migration and STAT3 signaling could be apparently reversed by blockade of SHP-1. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and -9, gene products of STAT3 that regulate cell invasion, were specifically suppressed by ACA. In tumor metastasis model, ACA potently inhibited the human breast cancer cell-induced osteolysis, and had little apparent in vivo toxicity at the test concentrations. ACA is a novel drug candidate for the inhibition of tumor metastasis through interference with the SHP-1/STAT3/MMPs signaling pathway.

  1. Vibrational relaxation of H2O(|04> ) in collisions with H2O, Ar, H2, N2 and O2: dynamical and atmospheric implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, P. W.; Sims, I. R.; Smith, I. W.

    2003-04-01

    It has been suggested that sequential two-photon dissociation of water might provide a mechanism for the atmospheric production of OH radical. ^1 This mechanism requires that photodissociation of vibrationally excited molecules must occur at a rate competitive with their relaxation by collisions with atmospheric gases. In this paper, we shall describe new experiments on the collisional relaxation of H_2O molecules from the highly excited mid04>± vibrational state in collisions with H_2O, Ar, H_2, N_2 and O_2. In our experiments, the mid04>^- state is populated by direct absorption of radiation from a pulsed dye laser tuned to ca. 719 nm. Evolution of the population in the (mid04>±) levels is observed using the combination of a frequency-quadrupled Nd:YAG laser, which selectively photolyses H_2O(mid04>±), and a frequency-doubled dye laser, which observes the OH(v = 0) produced via laser-induced fluorescence (LIF). The delay between the pulse from the pump laser and those from the photolysis and probe lasers was systematically varied to generate kinetic decays. The rate coefficients for relaxation obtained from these experiments, in units of cm^3 molecule-1 s-1, are: k(H_2O) = (4.1 ± 1.2) x 10-10, k(Ar) = (4.9 ± 1.1) x 10-12, k(H_2) = (6.8 ± 1.1) x 10-12, k(N_2) = (7.7 ± 1.5) x 10-12, k(O_2) = (6.7 ± 1.4) x 10-12. The results will be discussed in two contexts. First, we shall consider the implications of our new results for the interpretation of our previous experiments on the reactions of vibrationally excited H_2O with H atoms.^2 Second, we shall consider the proposal of Goss et al.1 in the light of our finding that the collisional relaxation of H_2O(mid04>±) by N_2 and O_2 is rather rapid. ^1 L. M Goss, V. Vaida, J. W. Brault and R. T. Skodje, J. Phys. Chem. A, 05, 70 (2001). ^2 (a) G. Hawthorne, P. Sharkey and I. W. M. Smith, J. Chem. Phys., 108, 4693(1998); (b) P. W. Barnes, P. Sharkey, I. R. Sims and I. W. M. Smith, Faraday Discuss. Chem. Soc., 13, 167

  2. Modeling anthropogenically-controled secondary organic aerosols in a megacity: a simplified framework for global and climate models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodzic, A.; Jimenez, J. L.

    2011-04-01

    A simplified parameterization for secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation in polluted air and biomass burning smoke is tested and optimized in this work, towards the goal of a computationally inexpensive method to calculate pollution and biomass burning SOA in global and climate models. A regional chemistry-transport model is used as the testbed for the parameterization, which is compared against observations from the Mexico City metropolitan area during the MILAGRO 2006 field experiment. The empirical parameterization is based on the observed proportionality of SOA concentrations to excess CO and photochemical age of the airmass. The approach consists in emitting an organic gas as lumped SOA precursor surrogate proportional to anthropogenic or biomass burning CO emissions according to the observed ratio between SOA and CO in aged air, and reacting this surrogate with OH into a single non-volatile species that condenses to form SOA. An emission factor of 0.08 g of the lumped SOA precursor per g of CO and a rate constant with OH of 1.25 × 10-11 cm3 molecule-1 s-1 reproduce the observed average SOA mass within 30% in the urban area and downwind. When a 2.5 times slower rate is used (5 × 10-12 cm3 molecule-1 s-1) the predicted SOA amount and temporal evolution is nearly identical to the results obtained with SOA formation from semi-volatile and intermediate volatility primary organic vapors according to the Robinson et al. (2007) formulation. Our simplified method has the advantage of being much less computationally expensive than Robinson-type methods, and can be used in regions where the emissions of SOA precursors are not yet available. As the aged pollution SOA/ΔCO ratios are rather consistent globally, this parameterization could be reasonably tested in and applied to other regions. The potential enhancement of biogenic SOA by anthropogenic pollution, which has been suggested to play a major role in global SOA formation, is also tested using two simple

  3. Modeling anthropogenically controlled secondary organic aerosols in a megacity: a simplified framework for global and climate models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodzic, A.; Jimenez, J. L.

    2011-10-01

    A simplified parameterization for secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation in polluted air and biomass burning smoke is tested and optimized in this work, towards the goal of a computationally inexpensive method to calculate pollution and biomass burning SOA mass and hygroscopicity in global and climate models. A regional chemistry-transport model is used as the testbed for the parameterization, which is compared against observations from the Mexico City metropolitan area during the MILAGRO 2006 field experiment. The empirical parameterization is based on the observed proportionality of SOA concentrations to excess CO and photochemical age of the airmass. The approach consists in emitting an organic gas as lumped SOA precursor surrogate proportional to anthropogenic or biomass burning CO emissions according to the observed ratio between SOA and CO in aged air, and reacting this surrogate with OH into a single non-volatile species that condenses to form SOA. An emission factor of 0.08 g of the lumped SOA precursor per g of CO and a rate constant with OH of 1.25 × 10-11 cm3 molecule-1 s-1 reproduce the observed average SOA mass within 30 % in the urban area and downwind. When a 2.5 times slower rate is used (5 × 10-12 cm3 molecule-1 s-1) the predicted SOA amount and temporal evolution is nearly identical to the results obtained with SOA formation from semi-volatile and intermediate volatility primary organic vapors according to the Robinson et al. (2007) formulation. Our simplified method has the advantage of being much less computationally expensive than Robinson-type methods, and can be used in regions where the emissions of SOA precursors are not yet available. As the aged SOA/ΔCO ratios are rather consistent globally for anthropogenic pollution, this parameterization could be reasonably tested in and applied to other regions. The evolution of oxygen-to-carbon ratio was also empirically modeled and the predicted levels were found to be in reasonable agreement

  4. Kinetics and Products of Vinyl + 1,3-Butadiene, a Potential Route to Benzene.

    PubMed

    Buras, Zachary J; Dames, Enoch E; Merchant, Shamel S; Liu, Guozhu; Elsamra, Rehab M I; Green, William H

    2015-07-16

    The reaction between vinyl radical, C2H3, and 1,3-butadiene, 1,3-C4H6, has long been recognized as a potential route to benzene, particularly in 1,3-butadiene flames, but the lack of reliable rate coefficients has hindered assessments of its true contribution. Using laser flash photolysis and visible laser absorbance (λ = 423.2 nm), we measured the overall rate coefficient for C2H3 + 1,3-C4H6, k1, at 297 K ≤ T ≤ 494 K and 4 ≤ P ≤ 100 Torr. k1 was in the high-pressure limit in this range and could be fit by the simple Arrhenius expression k1 = (1.1 ± 0.2) × 10(-12) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) exp(-9.9 ± 0.6 kJ mol(-1)/RT). Using photoionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, we also investigated the products formed. At T ≤ 494 K and P = 25 Torr, we found only C6H9 adduct species, while at 494 K ≤ T ≤ 700 K and P = 4 Torr, we observed ≤∼10% branching to cyclohexadiene in addition to C6H9. Quantum chemistry master-equation calculations using the modified strong collision model indicate that n-C6H9 is the dominant product at low temperature, consistent with our experimental results, and predict the rate coefficient and branching ratios at higher T where chemically activated channels become important. Predictions of k1 are in close agreement with our experimental results, allowing us to recommend the following modified Arrhenius expression in the high-pressure limit from 300 to 2000 K: k1 = 6.5 × 10(-20) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) T(2.40) exp(-1.76 kJ mol(-1)/RT).

  5. Determination of the rate coefficients for the reactions IO + NO2 + M (air) --> IONO2 + M and O(3P) + NO2 --> O2 + NO using laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Dillon, Terry J; Blitz, Mark A; Heard, Dwayne E

    2006-06-01

    Laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy via excitation of the A2pi(3/2) <-- X2pi(3/2) (2,0) band at 445 nm was used to monitor IO in the presence of NO2 following its generation in the reactions O(3P) + CF3I and O(3P) + I2. Both photolysis of O3 (248 nm) and NO2 (351 nm) were used to initiate the production of IO. The rate coefficients for the thermolecular reaction IO + NO2 + M --> IONO2 + M were measured in air, N2, and O2 over the range P = 18-760 Torr, covering typical tropospheric conditions, and were found to be in the falloff region. No dependence of k1 upon bath gas identity was observed, and in general, the results are in good agreement with recent determinations. Using a Troe broadening factor of F(B) = 0.4, the falloff parameters k0(1) = (9.5 +/- 1.6) x 10(-31) cm6 molecule(-2) s(-1) and k(infinity)(1) = (1.7 +/- 0.3) x 10(-11) cm3 molecule(-1) s(-1) were determined at 294 K. The temporal profile of IO at elevated temperatures was used to investigate the thermal stability of the product, IONO2, but no evidence was observed for the regeneration of IO, consistent with recent calculations for the IO-NO2 bond strength being approximately 100 kJ mol(-1). Previous modeling studies of iodine chemistry in the marine boundary layer that utilize values of k1 measured in N2 are hence validated by these results conducted in air. The rate coefficient for the reaction O(3P) + NO2 --> O2 + NO at 294 K and in 100 Torr of air was determined to be k2 = (9.3 +/- 0.9) x 10(-12) cm3 molecule(-1) s(-1), in good agreement with recommended values. All uncertainties are quoted at the 95% confidence limit.

  6. Kinetics and Products of Vinyl + 1,3-Butadiene, a Potential Route to Benzene.

    PubMed

    Buras, Zachary J; Dames, Enoch E; Merchant, Shamel S; Liu, Guozhu; Elsamra, Rehab M I; Green, William H

    2015-07-16

    The reaction between vinyl radical, C2H3, and 1,3-butadiene, 1,3-C4H6, has long been recognized as a potential route to benzene, particularly in 1,3-butadiene flames, but the lack of reliable rate coefficients has hindered assessments of its true contribution. Using laser flash photolysis and visible laser absorbance (λ = 423.2 nm), we measured the overall rate coefficient for C2H3 + 1,3-C4H6, k1, at 297 K ≤ T ≤ 494 K and 4 ≤ P ≤ 100 Torr. k1 was in the high-pressure limit in this range and could be fit by the simple Arrhenius expression k1 = (1.1 ± 0.2) × 10(-12) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) exp(-9.9 ± 0.6 kJ mol(-1)/RT). Using photoionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, we also investigated the products formed. At T ≤ 494 K and P = 25 Torr, we found only C6H9 adduct species, while at 494 K ≤ T ≤ 700 K and P = 4 Torr, we observed ≤∼10% branching to cyclohexadiene in addition to C6H9. Quantum chemistry master-equation calculations using the modified strong collision model indicate that n-C6H9 is the dominant product at low temperature, consistent with our experimental results, and predict the rate coefficient and branching ratios at higher T where chemically activated channels become important. Predictions of k1 are in close agreement with our experimental results, allowing us to recommend the following modified Arrhenius expression in the high-pressure limit from 300 to 2000 K: k1 = 6.5 × 10(-20) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) T(2.40) exp(-1.76 kJ mol(-1)/RT). PMID:25919855

  7. CH3CO + O2 + M (M = He, N2) Reaction Rate Coefficient Measurements and Implications for the OH Radical Product Yield.

    PubMed

    Papadimitriou, Vassileios C; Karafas, Emmanuel S; Gierczak, Tomasz; Burkholder, James B

    2015-07-16

    The gas-phase CH3CO + O2 reaction is known to proceed via a chemical activation mechanism leading to the formation of OH and CH3C(O)OO radicals via bimolecular and termolecular reactive channels, respectively. In this work, rate coefficients, k, for the CH3CO + O2 reaction were measured over a range of temperature (241-373 K) and pressure (0.009-600 Torr) with He and N2 as the bath gas and used to characterize the bi- and ter-molecular reaction channels. Three independent experimental methods (pulsed laser photolysis-laser-induced fluorescence (PLP-LIF), pulsed laser photolysis-cavity ring-down spectroscopy (PLP-CRDS), and a very low-pressure reactor (VLPR)) were used to characterize k(T,M). PLP-LIF was the primary method used to measure k(T,M) in the high-pressure regime under pseudo-first-order conditions. CH3CO was produced by PLP, and LIF was used to monitor the OH radical bimolecular channel reaction product. CRDS, a complementary high-pressure method, measured k(295 K,M) over the pressure range 25-600 Torr (He) by monitoring the temporal CH3CO radical absorption following its production via PLP in the presence of excess O2. The VLPR technique was used in a relative rate mode to measure k(296 K,M) in the low-pressure regime (9-32 mTorr) with CH3CO + Cl2 used as the reference reaction. A kinetic mechanism analysis of the combined kinetic data set yielded a zero pressure limit rate coefficient, kint(T), of (6.4 ± 4) × 10(-14) exp((820 ± 150)/T) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) (with kint(296 K) measured to be (9.94 ± 1.3) × 10(-13) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1)), k0(T) = (7.39 ± 0.3) × 10(-30) (T/300)(-2.2±0.3) cm(6) molecule(-2) s(-1), and k∞(T) = (4.88 ± 0.05) × 10(-12) (T/300)(-0.85±0.07) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) with Fc = 0.8 and M = N2. A He/N2 collision efficiency ratio of 0.60 ± 0.05 was determined. The phenomenological kinetic results were used to define the pressure and temperature dependence of the OH radical yield in the CH3CO + O2 reaction. The

  8. Effects of Peer-Assessed Feedback, Goal Setting and a Group Contingency on Performance and Learning by 10-12-Year-Old Academy Soccer Players

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Josh E.; Kinchin, Gary; Clarke, Gill

    2012-01-01

    Background: Coaches developing young talent in team sports must maximise practice and learning of essential game skills and accurately and continuously assess the performance and potential of each player. Relative age effects highlight an erroneous process of initial and on-going player assessment, based largely on subjective opinions of game…

  9. Technology and the Future of Scholarly Exchange. Minutes of the Annual Meeting of the Association of Research Libraries (114th, Providence, Rhode Island, May 10-12, 1989).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Diane, Ed.

    This membership meeting of the Association of Research Libraries (ARL) focused on the impact of the new information technologies on scholarly exchange. The program was organized into two sessions comprising 11 papers in all. In the first session, three influential leaders presented papers exploring different aspects of the conference topic. In the…

  10. Automation in Libraries; Papers Presented at the C.A.C.U.L. Workshop on Library Automation (University of British Columbia, Vancouver, April 10-12, 1967).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canadian Association of College and University Libraries, Ottawa (Ontario).

    Contents: (1) Session on Acquisitions, "Acquisitions--Policies, Procedures, and Problems" by Louis Vagianos, with a supplement "Brown University Library Fund Accounting System" by Robert Wedgeworth, "Simon Fraser's Automated Acquisitions System" by T.C. Dobb, and "Automated Acquisition at University of Western Ontario" by John F. Macpherson, (2)…

  11. Healing, Mental Energy in the Physics Classroom: Energy Conceptions and Trust in Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Grade 10-12 Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svedholm, Annika M.; Lindeman, Marjaana

    2013-01-01

    Lay conceptions of energy often conflict with scientific knowledge, hinder science learning and scientific literacy, and provide a basis for ungrounded beliefs. In a sample of Finnish upper secondary school students, energy was attributed with features of living and animate beings and thought of as a mental property. These ontologically confused…

  12. Strategies for the Legal Implementation of the International Code of Marketing of Breast-Milk Substitutes: Report on a WHO Meeting (Copenhagen, Denmark, November 10-12, 1982).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Health Organization, Copenhagen (Denmark). Regional Office for Europe.

    For various reasons, several countries have had difficulty implementing the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes. To address those problems, a meeting was convened under the auspices of the World Health Organization. Specific purposes of the meeting were to inform member states about the Code and to develop national…

  13. Teaching Career Education in Social Studies, Grades 10-12. World Culture, Ancient and Medieval History, Modern History. Resource Manual No. 314.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strain, Mary Pat; Berninger, Roger

    Activities and teaching strategies proposed in this resource manual are intended to help social studies teachers at the high school level in adapting the career education philosophy to the classroom. The manual consists of two parts. Part 1 identifies goals and objectives of career education and various social studies subjects (world culture,…

  14. Proceedings of the Annual Eastern Michigan University Conference on Languages for Business and the Professions (5th, Ann Arbor, Michigan, April 10-12, 1986).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voght, Geoffrey M., Comp.

    Forty-five conference papers are presented in six sections: getting started in languages for special purposes (concerning teaching, curriculum development, finding, and resources); Spanish for business and the professions; French for business and the professions; other languages (English as a second language, German, Arabic, Mandarin Chinese, and…

  15. Geographic Information Systems and Libraries: Patrons, Maps, and Spatial Information. Papers presented at the Clinic on Library Applications of Data Processing (Champaign, Illinois, April 10-12, 1995).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Linda C., Ed.; Gluck, Myke, Ed.

    This document assembles conference papers which focus on how electronic technologies are creating new ways of meeting user needs for spatial and cartographic information. Contents include: (1) "Mapping Technology in Transition" (Mark Monmonier); (2) "Cataloging Planetospatial Data in Digital Form: Old Wine, New Bottles--New Wine, Old Bottles"…

  16. Proceedings of the International Conferences on Education Technologies (ICEduTech) and Sustainability, Technology and Education (STE) (New Tapei City, Taiwan, December 10-12, 2014)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kommers, Piet, Ed.; Issa, Tomayess, Ed.; Issa, Theodora, Ed.; Chang, Dian-Fu, Ed.; Isias, Pedro, Ed.

    2014-01-01

    These proceedings contain the papers of the International Conferences on Educational Technologies (ICEduTech 2014), and Sustainability, Technology and Education (STE 2014). The International Conference on Educational Technologies (ICEduTech 2014) is the scientific conference addressing the real topics as seen by teachers, students, parents and…

  17. School-Aged Children with Disabilities in U.S. Metropolitan Statistical Areas: 2010. American Community Survey Briefs. ACSBR/10-12

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brault, Matthew W.

    2011-01-01

    The American Community Survey (ACS) captures core concepts of disability that may be useful for understanding the population of children for whom special education services may be necessary. While this measure of disability covers elements of physical and mental impairment, the ACS does not identify children who have been evaluated for or qualify…

  18. Results of U-xMo (x=7, 10, 12 wt.%) Alloy versus Al-6061 Cladding Diffusion Couple Experiments Performed at 500, 550 and 600 Degrees C

    SciTech Connect

    Emmanuel Perez; Dennis D. Keiser, Jr.; Yongho Sohn

    2013-04-01

    The Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) program has been developing low enrichment fuel systems encased in Al 6061 for use in research and test reactors. U–Mo alloys in contact with Al and Al alloys can undergo diffusional interactions that can result in the development of interdiffusion zones with complex fine-grained microstructures composed of multiple phases. A monolithic fuel currently being developed by the RERTR program has local regions where the U–Mo fuel plate is in contact with the Al 6061 cladding and, as a result, the program finds information about interdiffusion zone development at high temperatures of interest. In this study, the microstructural development of diffusion couples consisting of U-7wt.%Mo, U-10wt.%Mo, and U-12wt.%Mo vs. Al 6061 (or 6061 aluminum) cladding, annealed at 500, 550, 600 degrees C for 1, 5, 20, 24, or 132 hours, was analyzed by backscatter electron microscopy and x-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy on a scanning electron microscope. Concentration profiles were determined by standardized wavelength dispersive spectroscopy and standardless x-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy. The results of this work shows that the presence of surface layers at the U–Mo/Al 6061 interface can dramatically impact the overall interdiffusion behavior in terms of rate of interaction and uniformity of the developed interdiffusion zones. It further reveals that relatively uniform interaction layers with higher Si concentrations can develop in U–Mo/Al 6061 couples annealed at shorter times and that longer times at temperature result in the development of more non-uniform interaction layers with more areas that are enriched in Al. At longer annealing times and relatively high temperatures, U–Mo/Al 6061 couples can exhibit more interaction compared to U–Mo/pure Al couples. The minor alloying constituents in Al 6061 cladding can result in the development of many complex phases in the interaction layer of U–Mo/Al–6061 cladding couples, and some phases in the interdiffusion zones of U–Mo/Al–6061 cladding couples are likely similar to those observed for U–Mo/pure Al couples.

  19. Cardiovascular imaging and image processing: Theory and practice - 1975; Proceedings of the Conference, Stanford University, Stanford, Calif., July 10-12, 1975

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, D. C.; Sandler, H.; Miller, H. A.

    1975-01-01

    The present collection of papers outlines advances in ultrasonography, scintigraphy, and commercialization of medical technology as applied to cardiovascular diagnosis in research and clinical practice. Particular attention is given to instrumentation, image processing and display. As necessary concomitants to mathematical analysis, recently improved magnetic recording methods using tape or disks and high-speed computers of large capacity are coming into use. Major topics include Doppler ultrasonic techniques, high-speed cineradiography, three-dimensional imaging of the myocardium with isotopes, sector-scanning echocardiography, and commercialization of the echocardioscope. Individual items are announced in this issue.

  20. Experiments investigating the generation and transport of 10--12 MeV, 30-kA, mm-size electron beams with linear inductive voltage adders

    SciTech Connect

    Mazarakis, M.G.; Poukey, J.W.; Maenchen, J.E.

    1997-06-01

    The authors present the design, analysis, and results of the high-brightness electron beam experiments currently under investigation at Sandia National Laboratories. The anticipated beam parameters are the following: 8--12 MeV, 35--50 kA, 30--60 ns FWHM, and 0.5-mm rms beam radius. The accelerators utilized are SABRE and HERMES III. Both are linear inductive voltage adders modified to higher impedance and fitted with magnetically immersed foil less electron diodes. In the strong 20--50 Tesla solenoidal magnetic field of the diode, mm-size electron beams are generated and propagated to a beam stop. The electron beam is field emitted from mm-diameter needle-shaped cathode electrode and is contained in a similar size envelop by the strong magnetic field. These extremely space charge dominated beams provide the opportunity to study beam dynamics and possible instabilities in a unique parameter space. The SABRE experiments are already completed and have produced 30-kA, 1.5-mm FWHM electron beams, while the HERMES-III experiments are on-going.

  1. Proceedings of the Annual Sloan Consortium International Conference on Online Learning (18th, Lake Buena Vista, Florida, October 10-12, 2012)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloan Consortium (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the Sloan Consortium (Sloan-C) is to help learning organizations continually improve the quality, scale, and breadth of online programs according to their own distinctive missions, so that education will become a part of everyday life, accessible and affordable for anyone, anywhere, at any time, in a wide variety of disciplines.…

  2. Computer Networking in the University: Success and Potential. Proceedings of the EDUCOM Fall Conference (Boston, Massachusetts, November 10-12, 1976).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Interuniversity Communications Council (EDUCOM), Princeton, NJ.

    This book presents the proceedings of a 1976 Interuniversity Communications Council (EDUCOM) conference focusing on the successful application of computer networking to education and research in North American universities. Thirty-two papers share the common theme of the need for management and planning, user services and support, and facilitating…

  3. Compromise, Collaboration or Competition in Higher Education. Proceedings of the Pacific Northwest Conference on Higher Education (45th, Vancouver, British Columbia, October 10-12, 1979).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leskiw, Russell J., Ed.; Moir, Philip E., Ed.

    The focus of the conference was on interinstitutional collaboration as a means of advancing higher education, particularly international education and faculty development. Contents are as follows: Introductory Comments (Russell J. Leskiw and Philip E. Moir); "Institutional Collaboration for Professional Development and International Education"…

  4. Evaluation of the UP4FUN Intervention: A Cluster Randomized Trial to Reduce and Break Up Sitting Time in European 10-12-Year-Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Vik, Frøydis N.; Lien, Nanna; Berntsen, Sveinung; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Grillenberger, Monika; Manios, Yannis; Kovacs, Eva; Chinapaw, Mai J. M.; Brug, Johannes; Bere, Elling

    2015-01-01

    Background The UP4FUN intervention is a family-involved school-based intervention aiming at reducing and breaking up sitting time at home (with special emphasis on screen time), and breaking up sitting time in school among 10–12 year olds in Europe. The purpose of the present paper was to evaluate its short term effects. Methodology/Principal Findings A total of 3147 pupils from Belgium, Germany, Greece, Hungary and Norway participated in a school-randomized controlled trial. The intervention included 1–2 school lessons per week for a period of six weeks, along with assignments for the children and their parents. Screen time and breaking up sitting time were registered by self-report and total sedentary time and breaking up sitting time by accelerometry. The effect of the intervention on these behaviors was evaluated by multilevel regression analyses. All analyses were adjusted for baseline values and gender. Significance level was p≤0.01. No significant intervention effects were observed, neither for self-reported TV/DVD or computer/game console time, nor for accelerometer-assessed total sedentary time and number of breaks in sitting time. The intervention group, however, reported more positive attitudes towards (β = 0.25 (95% CI 0.11, 0.38)) and preferences/liking for (β = 0.20 (95% CI 0.08, 0.32)) breaking up sitting time than the control group. Conclusions/Significance No significant intervention effect on self-reported screen time or accelerometer-assessed sedentary time or breaks in sitting time was observed, but positive effects on beliefs regarding breaking up sitting time were found in favor of the intervention group. Overall, these results do not warrant wider dissemination of the present UP4FUN intervention. Trial Registration International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial Number Registry ISRCTN34562078 PMID:25826704

  5. Chemical weathering on Mars. Collection of papers. LPI-MSATT Workshop on Chemical Weathering on Mars, Cocoa Beach, FL (USA), 10 - 12 Sep 1992.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, R. G.; Banin, A.

    1993-10-01

    The Workshop on Chemical Weathering on Mars consisted of thirty papers, extended abstracts of which were published in the LPI Technical Report, No. 92-04. The collection of seven papers in this issue report new data and interpretations about the chemical evolution of the Martian surface.

  6. Family food involvement and frequency of family dinner meals among Australian children aged 10-12years. Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations with dietary patterns.

    PubMed

    Leech, Rebecca M; McNaughton, Sarah A; Crawford, David A; Campbell, Karen J; Pearson, Natalie; Timperio, Anna

    2014-04-01

    Involvement in meal preparation and eating meals with the family are associated with better dietary patterns in adolescents, however little research has included older children or longitudinal study designs. This 3-year longitudinal study examines cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between family food involvement, family dinner meal frequency and dietary patterns during late childhood. Questionnaires were completed by parents of 188 children from Greater Melbourne, Australia at baseline in 2002 (mean age=11.25years) and at follow-up in 2006 (mean age=14.16years). Principal components analysis (PCA) was used to identify dietary patterns. Factor analysis (FA) was used to determine the principal factors from six indicators of family food involvement. Multiple linear regression models were used to predict the dietary patterns of children and adolescents at baseline and at follow-up, 3years later, from baseline indicators of family food involvement and frequency of family dinner meals. PCA revealed two dietary patterns, labeled a healthful pattern and an energy-dense pattern. FA revealed one factor for family food involvement. Cross-sectionally among boys, family food involvement score (β=0.55, 95% CI: 0.02, 1.07) and eating family dinner meals daily (β=1.11, 95% CI: 0.27, 1.96) during late childhood were positively associated with the healthful pattern. Eating family dinner meals daily was inversely associated with the energy-dense pattern, cross-sectionally among boys (β=-0.56, 95% CI: -1.06, -0.06). No significant cross-sectional associations were found among girls and no significant longitudinal associations were found for either gender. Involvement in family food and eating dinner with the family during late childhood may have a positive influence on dietary patterns of boys. No evidence was found to suggest the effects on dietary patterns persist into adolescence.

  7. Proceedings of the Conference: Communicative Problems in Cleft Palate (Washington, D.C., July 10-12, 1963). American Speech and Hearing Association Reports, Number 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Diane, Ed.

    Introductory material by Jack Matthews points out common interests between the fields of dentistry and communication disorders. Physical aspects of cleft palate are explored in papers concerning anatomy and growth, by Robert F. Hagerty; infant respiratory actions, by James F. Bosma, H.M. Truby, and John Lind; contemporary dental research, by…

  8. Making It Work in Rural Communities. Proceedings of the Annual HCEEP Rural Workshop (2nd, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, June 10-12, 1981).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutinger, Patricia, Ed.; Smith-Dickson, Bonnie, Ed.

    Texts of two keynote addresses, synopses of workshop proceedings, and a detailed conference evaluation comprise this report of a conference planned to foster information exchange and collaboration--networking--among rural early intervention professionals. The address by Barbara Zang discusses specific skills and techniques for influencing state…

  9. Intracameral Interleukin 1β, 6, 8, 10, 12p, Tumor Necrosis Factor α and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor and Axial Length in Patients with Cataract

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Dan; Yang, Da-Yong; Guo, Yuan-Yuan; Zheng, Yan-Fei; Li, Jun-Lian; Wang, Bin; Tao, Yong; Jonas, Jost B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess associations between the aqueous humour concentration of interleukin IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and IL-12p, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and axial length in eyes with cataract. Methods The hospital-based investigation included patients who underwent cataract surgery between March 2014 and April 2014. Using aqueous humour collected at the start of cataract surgery, the interleukins IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and IL-12p, TNF-α and VEGF were examined using a cytometric bead array. Axial length was determined by partial coherence laser interferometry (IOL Master). Results The study included 33 patients with cataract (33 eyes) with a mean age of 69.2±10.8 years (range:50–87 years) and a mean axial length of 24.7±1.9 mm (range:22.6–31.5 mm). Lower aqueous concentration of VEGF was significantly associated with longer axial length (VEGF concentration (pg/mL) = -5.12 x Axial Length (mm) + 163; correlation coefficient r = -0.41; P<0.001) and more myopic refractive error (VEGF concentration (pg/mL) = 1.27xspherical equivalent (diopters)+44.8; r = 0.383; P = 0.002). The aqueous concentrations of all other substances were not significantly (all P>0.10) associated with axial length or refractive error. Conclusions Higher intravitreal concentrations of VEGF were measured in eyes with a longer axial length, while the intraocular concentrations of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p and TNF-α were not correlated with axial length. The lower concentration of VEGF in axially elongated eyes may be one of the reasons for the lower prevalence of age-related macular degeneration and diabetic retinopathy in myopic eyes. PMID:25679504

  10. Single- versus Double-Scoring of Trend Responses in Trend Score Equating with Constructed-Response Tests. Research Report. ETS RR-10-12

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Xuan; Ricker, Kathryn L.; Puhan, Gautam

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the differences in equating outcomes between two trend score equating designs resulting from two different scoring strategies for trend scoring when operational constructed-response (CR) items are double-scored--the single group (SG) design, where each trend CR item is double-scored, and the nonequivalent groups with anchor…

  11. Novel Silicon-Carbon Nanostructures: A DFT Study on the Stability of Si60C2n (n= 3, 10, 12) Clusters.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasan, A.; Huda, M. N.; Ray, A. K.

    2006-03-01

    In this work, we extend our previous work on Si60C2n (n=1, 2) clusters by the addition of six, twenty and twenty-four carbon atoms on the surfaces of the Si60 cages by substitution and inside the cage at various symmetry orientations [1]. The theoretical formalism used is the generalized gradient approximation to density functional theory and full geometry and spin optimizations have been performed using the Gaussian 03 software. For the silicon atom, the Hay-Wadt pseudo-potential with the associated basis set is used for the core and the valence electrons, respectively. For the carbon atom, the Dunning/Huzinaga double zeta basis set is employed. Different electronic properties of these nanostructures will be discussed in detail. The binding energy per atom for these nanostructures increases with the number of carbon atoms, with the structures having carbon atoms on the surface being more stable. The stability of the nanostructures depends on the orientation of the carbon atoms, as well as on the natures of Si-C and C-C bondings. [1] A. Srinivasan, M. N. Huda and A. K. Ray, Phys. Rev. A, in press; A. Srinivasan and A. K. Ray, J. Nanosci. and Nanotech., in press.

  12. Patterns for Teaching Conflict; Part C, 7-9 [And] Part D, 10-12. Global Perspectives: A Humanistic Influence on the Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, David C., Ed.; Long, Cathryn J., Ed.

    Ten lessons provide techniques for teaching about conflict in grades 7 through 12. These lessons, developed to accompany the teaching guidelines outlined in SO 009 796, illustrate how the guidelines might be used in secondary level courses such as social studies, history, and literature. Five sample lessons are described for each of two grade…

  13. Proceedings of the Adult Student Personnel Association Conference. (12th, New York City, April 10-12, 1975). "Mid-Life Career Changes".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Dorothy, Ed.

    Texts of speeches given at the Adult Student Personnel Association conference regarding career change in mid-life are presented. They include: Socio-Political Implications of Career Changes (Vinia R. Quinones), discussing educational needs, relocation, psychological, political, and social implications regarding women and career changes; Continuous…

  14. Symposium on Research and Utilization of Educational Media for Teaching the Deaf: The Educational Media Complex (Nebraska Center for Continuing Education, Lincoln, Nebraska, April 10-12, 1967).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nebraska Univ., Lincoln. Dept. of Educational Administration.

    Papers consider the problems of combining library science and audiovisual education into educational media complexes, or instructional materials centers (IMC's), in schools for the deaf. Areas covered include the concept of such centers, their relationship with the school library, and the personnel, equipment, materials, and production facilities…

  15. P-23 Highlights 6/10/12: Cygnus Dual Beam Radiographic Facility Refurbishment completed at U1A tunnel in Nevada NNSS meeting Level 2 milestone

    SciTech Connect

    Deyoung, Anemarie; Smith, John R.

    2012-05-03

    A moratorium was placed on U.S. underground nuclear testing in 1992. In response, the Stockpile Stewardship Program was created to maintain readiness of the existing nuclear inventory through several efforts such as computer modeling, material analysis, and subcritical nuclear experiments (SCEs). As in the underground test era, the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), formerly the Nevada Test Site, provides a safe and secure environment for SCEs by the nature of its isolated and secure facilities. A major tool for SCE diagnosis installed in the 05 drift laboratory is a high energy x-ray source used for time resolved imaging. This tool consists of two identical sources (Cygnus 1 and Cygnus 2) and is called the Cygnus Dual Beam Radiographic Facility (Figs. 2-6). Each Cygnus machine has 5 major elements: Marx Generator, Pulse Forming Line (PFL), Coaxial Transmission Line (CTL), 3-cell Inductive Voltage Adder (IVA), and Rod Pinch Diode. Each machine is independently triggered and may be fired in separate tests (staggered mode), or in a single test where there is submicrosecond separation between the pulses (dual mode). Cygnus must operate as a single shot machine since on each pulse the diode electrodes are destroyed. The diode is vented to atmosphere, cleaned, and new electrodes are inserted for each shot. There is normally two shots per day on each machine. Since its installation in 2003, Cygnus has participated in: 4 Subcritical Experiments (Armando, Bacchus, Barolo A, and Barolo B), a 12 shot plutonium physics series (Thermos), and 2 plutonium step wedge calibration series (2005, 2011), resulting in well over 1000 shots. Currently the Facility is in preparation for 2 SCEs scheduled for this calendar year - Castor and Pollux. Cygnus has performed well during 8 years of operations at NNSS. Many improvements in operations and performance have been implemented during this time. Throughout its service at U1a, major maintenance and replacement of many hardware items were delayed due to programmatic requirements. It is anticipated that Cygnus will be in service at U1a for another 5 years. With this assumption, it was realized that significant resources and effort should be allotted to bring the hardware back to its original condition, or even to improve elements when appropriate. The Cygnus Refurbishment and Enhancement Project started in April, 2011 with the intent to encompass a major overhaul of Cygnus.

  16. Securing Our Future: The Report of the National Forum for Youth At Risk (Washington, D.C., December 10-12, 1987).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Commission of the States, Denver, CO.

    This report is a summary of deliberations and strategy development at a forum focussed on the problems of youth at risk of not making a successful transition from school to adulthood. Twenty work groups came up with three priorities in dealing with the problems of at-risk youth: (1) address a child's education, social, health, and other needs…

  17. Blueprint for Action: Dialogues from Wingspread II. Proceedings of the Conference on Adolescent Pregnancy: State Action on Adolescent Pregnancy (2nd, Racine, Wisconsin, August 10-12, 1986).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Interstate Conference of Employment Security Agencies, Inc., Washington, DC.

    The purpose of the conference reported in this document was to improve and coordinate state-level efforts to ameliorate the crisis of adolescent pregnancy. The document includes summaries of addresses by Edgar May, vice-president of the American Public Welfare Association's board of directors; Ann Rosewater, staff director of the Select Committee…

  18. The effect of beverages varying in glycaemic load on postprandial glucose responses, appetite and cognition in 10-12-year-old school children.

    PubMed

    Brindal, Emily; Baird, Danielle; Slater, Amy; Danthiir, Vanessa; Wilson, Carlene; Bowen, Jane; Noakes, Manny

    2013-08-28

    Reducing glycaemic index (GI) and glycaemic load (GL) inconsistently improves aspects of cognitive function and appetite in children. Whether altering the GL by lowering carbohydrate relative to protein and fat has a role in these effects is unknown. Therefore, we assessed the differential effects of beverages varying in GL and dairy composition on appetite, energy intake and cognitive function in children. A total of forty children (10–12 years) completed a double-blind, randomised, crossover trial, receiving three isoenergetic drinks (approximately 1100 kJ): a glucose beverage (GI 100, GL 65), a full milk beverage (GI 27, GL 5) and a half milk/glucose beverage (GI 84, GL 35). For 3 h post-consumption, subjective appetite and cognitive performance (speed of processing, memory, attention and perceptual speed) were measured hourly. At completion, each child was provided a buffet-style lunch and energy intake was calculated. Blood glucose was objectively measured using the Continuous Glucose Monitoring System. Blood glucose AUC values were significantly different between the drinks (P,0·001), but did not sustain above the baseline for 3 h for any drink. Mixed modelling revealed no effect of beverage on subjective appetite or energy intake. Participant sex and drink GL significantly interacted for short-term memory (P,0·001). When girls consumed either milk-containing beverage, they recalled 0·7–0·8 more words compared with 0·5 less words after the glucose drink (P#0·014). Altering GL of drinks by reducing carbohydrate and increasing protein did not affect appetite or cognition in children. Girls may demonstrate improved short-term memory after consuming beverages with higher protein and lower GL. PMID:23244339

  19. Touch the Future: Discovering Abilities through Technology for Living, Learning, Working and Playing. Southeast Regional Conference (3rd, Atlanta, Georgia, April 10-12, 1991).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia State Dept. of Human Resources, Atlanta. Div. of Rehabilitation Services.

    This packet of materials was originally intended for participants in a 1991 conference on assistive technology for the disabled. After a detailed listing of the conference schedule, individual sections provide abstracts, biographical sketches, and summaries concerning the following conference topics: blending, computer labs, family, grants and…

  20. Aerial radiological survey of Areas 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12, 15 and 17, Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site, 8 August-2 September 1978

    SciTech Connect

    Fritzsche, A E

    1982-06-01

    An aerial gamma survey was conducted over Yucca Flat during August 1978. A limited quantity of soil samples was obtained and evaluated in support of the aerial survey. Results are presented in the form of exposure rate isopleths from man-made isotopes and estimates of concentrations and inventories of /sup 152/Eu, /sup 137/Cs and /sup 60/Co.

  1. Healing, Mental Energy in the Physics Classroom: Energy Conceptions and Trust in Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Grade 10-12 Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svedholm, Annika M.; Lindeman, Marjaana

    2013-03-01

    Lay conceptions of energy often conflict with scientific knowledge, hinder science learning and scientific literacy, and provide a basis for ungrounded beliefs. In a sample of Finnish upper secondary school students, energy was attributed with features of living and animate beings and thought of as a mental property. These ontologically confused conceptions (OCC) were associated with trust in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), and independent of scientifically valid conceptions. Substance-based energy conceptions followed the correlational pattern of OCC, rather than scientific conceptions. OCC and CAM decreased both during the regular school physics curriculum and after a lesson targeted at the ontological confusions. OCC and CAM were slightly less common among students with high actively open-minded thinking, low trust in intuition and high need for cognition. The findings are discussed in relation to the goals of scientific education.

  2. Selected Conference Proceedings from the 1985 Videodisc, Optical Disk, and CD-ROM Conference and Exposition (Philadelphia, PA, December 10-12, 1985).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cerva, John R.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Eight papers cover: optical storage technology; cross-cultural videodisc design; optical disk technology use at the Library of Congress Research Service and National Library of Medicine; Internal Revenue Service image storage and retrieval system; solving business problems with CD-ROM; a laser disk operating system; and an optical disk for…

  3. Hg+Br-->HgBr recombination and collision-induced dissociation dynamics.

    PubMed

    Shepler, Benjamin C; Balabanov, Nikolai B; Peterson, Kirk A

    2007-10-28

    A global potential energy surface has been constructed for the system HgBr+Ar-->Hg+Br+Ar to determine temperature dependent rate constants for the collision-induced dissociation (CID) and recombination of Hg and Br atoms. The surface was decomposed using a many-body expansion. Accurate two-body potentials for HgBr, HgAr, and ArBr were calculated using coupled cluster theory with single and double excitations and a perturbative treatment of triple excitations [CCSD(T)], as well as the multireference averaged coupled pair functional method. Correlation consistent basis sets were used to extrapolate to the complete basis set limit and corrections were included to account for scalar and spin-orbit relativistic effects, core-valence correlation, and the Lamb shift. The three-body potential was computed with the CCSD(T) method and triple-zeta quality basis sets. Quasiclassical trajectories using the final analytical potential surface were directly carried out on the CID of HgBr by Ar for a large sampling of initial rotational, vibrational, and collision energies. The recombination rate of Hg and Br atoms is a likely first step in mercury depletion events that have been observed in the Arctic troposphere during polar sunrise. The effective second order rate constant for this process was determined in this work from the calculated CID rate as a function of temperature using the principle of detailed balance, which resulted in k(T) = 1.2 x 10(-12) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) at 260 K and 1 bar pressure. PMID:17979335

  4. Studies of reactions of importance in the stratosphere. III. Rate constant and products of the reaction between ClO and HO2 radicals at 298 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leck, Thomas J.; Cook, Jac-E. L.; Birks, John W.

    1980-02-01

    The rate constant for the radical-radical reaction ClO+HO2→HOCl+O2 was measured at 298 K by the discharge flow technique using mass spectrometry for detection of the HOCl product at m/e=52. The ClO radical was generated by reacting ozone with chlorine atoms produced in a microwave discharge, and the concentration of ClO determined by measuring the decrease in ion current due to Cl2+ at m/e=70 upon activation of the discharge. This method was found to be in agreement with a nitric oxide titration of ClO and with the stochiometric conversion of ClO to NO2 by reaction with a large excess of NO followed by absolute calibration for NO2 at m/e=46. Two reactions were used to generate the hydroperoxyl radical: (1) H+O2+M→HO2+M, and (2) Cl+H2O2→HCl +HO2. The rate constant k1 was found to be independent of pressure over the range 2-6 Torr, the result being k1= (4.5±0.9) ×10-12 cm3 molecule-1 s-1, where the error includes our estimate of the maximum possible systematic error. An upper limit of 2% for the branching ratio to the alternative products of this reaction, HCl+O3, was established by attempting to detect ozone as a reaction product. For these measurements the reactions Cl+ClOCl→Cl2+ClO and Cl+OClO →2ClO were used to generate the ClO radical in the absence of ozone. No other reaction products could be identified in the mass spectrum.

  5. Reactivity of OH and CH3OH between 22 and 64 K: Modeling the Gas Phase Production of CH3O in Barnard 1b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antiñolo, M.; Agúndez, M.; Jiménez, E.; Ballesteros, B.; Canosa, A.; El Dib, G.; Albaladejo, J.; Cernicharo, J.

    2016-05-01

    In recent years, ultra-low temperature chemical kinetic experiments have demonstrated that some gas-phase reactions are much faster than was previously thought. One example is the reaction between OH and CH3OH, which has recently been found to be accelerated at low temperatures yielding CH3O as its main product. This finding raised the question of whether or not the CH3O observed in the dense core Barnard 1b could be formed by the gas-phase reaction of CH3OH and OH. Several chemical models including this reaction and grain-surface processes have been developed to explain the observed abundance of CH3O, but they have met with little success. Here, we report for the first time the rate coefficients for the gas-phase reaction of OH and CH3OH down to a temperature of 22 K, which is very close to the temperature in cold interstellar clouds. Two independent experimental set-ups based on the supersonic gas expansion technique coupled to the pulsed laser photolysis laser-induced fluorescence technique were used to determine the rate coefficients in the temperature range 22-64 K. The temperature dependence obtained in this work can be expressed as k(22-64 K) = {(3.6+/- 0.1)× {10}-12(T/300{{K}})}-(1.0+/- 0.2) cm3 molecule-1 s-1. Implementing this expression in a chemical model of a cold, dense cloud results in CH3O/CH3OH abundance ratios similar to or slightly lower than the value of ˜3 × 10-3 observed in Barnard 1b. This finding confirms that the gas-phase reaction between OH and CH3OH is an important contributor to the formation of interstellar CH3O. The role of grain-surface processes in the formation of CH3O, although it cannot be fully neglected, remains controversial.

  6. Atmospheric gas phase chemistry of CH2═NH and HNC. A first-principles approach.

    PubMed

    Bunkan, Arne Joakim C; Tang, Yizhen; Sellevåg, Stig R; Nielsen, Claus J

    2014-07-17

    Quantum chemical methods were used to investigate the OH initiated atmospheric degradation of methanimine, CH2═NH, the major primary product in the atmospheric photo-oxidation of methylamine, CH3NH2. Energies of stationary points on potential energy surfaces of reaction were calculated using multireference perturbation theory and coupled cluster theory. The results show that hydrogen abstraction dominates over the addition route in the CH2═NH + OH reaction, and that the major primary product is HCN, while HNC and CHONH2 are minor primary products. HNC is found to react with OH exclusively via addition to the carbon atom followed by O-H scission leading to HNCO; N2O is not a product in the atmospheric photo-oxidation of HNC. Additional G4 calculations of the CH2═NH + O3 reaction show that this is too slow to be of importance at atmospheric conditions. Rate coefficients for the CH2═NH + OH and HNC + OH reactions were calculated as a function of temperature and pressure using a master equation model based on the coupled cluster theory results. The rate coefficients for OH reaction with CH2═NH and HNC at 1000 mbar and room temperature are calculated to be 3.0 × 10(-12) and 1.3 × 10(-11) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1), respectively. The atmospheric fate of CH2═NH is discussed and a gas phase photo-oxidation mechanism is presented. PMID:24949666

  7. Mass-Dependent and -Independent Fractionation of Mercury Isotope during Gas-Phase Oxidation of Elemental Mercury Vapor by Atomic Cl and Br.

    PubMed

    Sun, Guangyi; Sommar, Jonas; Feng, Xinbin; Lin, Che-Jen; Ge, Maofa; Wang, Weigang; Yin, Runsheng; Fu, Xuewu; Shang, Lihai

    2016-09-01

    This study presents the first measurement of Hg stable isotope fractionation during gas-phase oxidation of Hg(0) vapor by halogen atoms (Cl(•), Br(•)) in the laboratory at 750 ± 1 Torr and 298 ± 3 K. Using a relative rate technique, the rate coefficients for Hg(0)+Cl(•) and Hg(0)+Br(•) reactions are determined to be (1.8 ± 0.5) × 10(-11) and (1.6 ± 0.8) × 10(-12) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1), respectively. Results show that heavier isotopes are preferentially enriched in the remaining Hg(0) during Cl(•) initiated oxidation, whereas being enriched in the product during oxidation by Br(•). The fractionation factors for (202)Hg/(198)Hg during the Cl(•) and Br(•) initiated oxidations are α(202/198) = 0.99941 ± 0.00006 (2σ) and 1.00074 ± 0.00014 (2σ), respectively. A Δ(199)Hg/Δ(201)Hg ratio of 1.64 ± 0.30 (2σ) during oxidation of Hg(0) by Br atoms suggests that Hg-MIF is introduced by the nuclear volume effect (NVE). In contrast, the Hg(0) + Cl(•) reaction produces a Δ(199)Hg/Δ(201)Hg-slope of 1.89 ± 0.18 (2σ), which in addition to a high degree of odd-mass-number isotope MIF suggests impacts from MIF effects other than NVE. This reaction also exhibits significant MIF of (200)Hg (Δ(200)Hg, up to -0.17‰ in the reactant) and is the first physicochemical process identified to trigger (200)Hg anomalies that are frequently detected in atmospheric samples. PMID:27501307

  8. Low temperature rate coefficients for reactions of the butadiynyl radical, C4H, with various hydrocarbons. Part II: reactions with alkenes (ethylene, propene, 1-butene), dienes (allene, 1,3-butadiene) and alkynes (acetylene, propyne and 1-butyne).

    PubMed

    Berteloite, Coralie; Le Picard, Sébastien D; Balucani, Nadia; Canosa, André; Sims, Ian R

    2010-04-21

    The kinetics of the reactions of the linear butadiynyl radical, C4H (CCCCH), with a variety of unsaturated hydrocarbons have been studied over the temperature range of 39-300 K using a CRESU (Cinétique de Réaction en Ecoulement Supersonique Uniforme, or reaction kinetics in uniform supersonic flow) apparatus combined with the pulsed laser photolysis-laser induced fluorescence technique. The rate coefficients for all the reactions studied are found to all be in excess of 10(-10) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) over the entire temperature range. They can be fitted with the following expressions (valid from 39 K to 300 K, with RMS deviations of the experimental points from the predicted values shown, to which should be added 10% possible systematic error) for reaction of C4H with alkenes: k(C2H4) = (1.95 +/- 0.17) x 10(-10) (T/298 K)(-0.40) exp(9.4 K/T) cm3 molecule(-1) s(-1); k(C3H6) = (3.25 +/- 0.12) x 10(-10) (T/298 K)(-0.84) exp(-48.9 K/T) cm3 molecule(-1) s(-1); k(1-C4H8) = (6.30 +/- 0.35) x 10(-10) (T/298 K)(-0.61) exp(-65.0 K/T) cm3 molecule(-1) s(-1), for reaction of C4H with dienes: k(C3H4) = (3.70 +/- 0.34) x 10(-10) (T/298 K)(-1.18) exp(-91.1 K/T) cm3 molecule(-1) s(-1); k(1,3-C4H6) = (5.37 +/- 0.30) x 10(-10) (T/298 K)(-1.25) exp(-116.8 K/T) cm3 molecule(-1) s(-1), and for reaction of C4H with alkynes: k(C2H2) = (1.82 +/- 0.19) x 10(-10) (T/298 K)(-1.06) exp(-65.9 K/T) cm3 molecule(-1) s(-1); k(C3H4) = (3.20 +/- 0.08) x 10(-10) (T/298 K)(-0.82) exp(-47.5 K/T) cm3 molecule(-1) s(-1); k(1-C4H6) = (3.48 +/- 0.14) x 10(-10) (T/298 K)(-0.65) exp(-58.4 K/T) cm3 molecule(-1) s(-1). Possible reaction mechanisms and product channels are discussed in detail for each of these reactions. Potential implications of these results for models of low temperature chemical environments, in particular cold interstellar clouds and star-forming regions, are considered.

  9. OH initiated heterogeneous degradation of organophosphorus compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liggio, J.; Liu, Y.; Harner, T.; Jantunen, L.; Shoeib, M.; Li, S.

    2013-12-01

    Organophosphorus compounds (OPs) have been extensively used worldwide as flame retardants, plasticizers, antifoaming agents, and additives because of their favorable physicochemical characteristics. The global consumption of OPs is likely to greatly increase due to the phasing out of bromine-containing flame retardants (BFRs) with OPs identified as possible substitutes. In most applications, OPs easily leach out of the material into the environment via volatilization, abrasion, and dissolution and have been observed widely in atmospheric particles even in polar regions. However, little is known about their atmospheric fate. The Canadian Chemicals Management Plan (CMP) has targeted OP FRs for risk assessment, including assessing stability and atmospheric transport potential of OP FRs and other priority chemicals that are associated primarily with particles. In the current study, OH initiated heterogeneous reaction kinetics of tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP), tris-2-ethylhexyl-phosphate (TEHP), tris-2-butoxyethyl-phosphate (TBEP), and tri-phenyl phosphate (TPhP) coated on (NH4)2SO4 were investigated using a photo-chemical flow tube which was coupled to an Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) and Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometer (PTR-MS). second-order rate constants (k2) for the heterogeneous loss of TPhP, TEHP and TDCPP were (2.07×0.19)×10-12, (2.69×0.63)×10-12 and (9.22×0.92)×10-13 cm3 molecule-1 s-1, respectively, from which approximate atmospheric lifetimes were estimated to be 5.6 (5.2-6.0), 4.3 (3.5-5.6), and 12.6 (11.4-14.0) days. These results represent the first reported estimates of heterogeneous rate constants for these species, and suggest that particle bound OPEs will be highly persistent in the atmosphere, supporting the assumption that OPEs can undergo medium or long-range transport, as proposed on the basis of field measurements.

  10. Atmospheric chemistry of a model biodiesel fuel, CH3C(O)O(CH2)2OC(O)CH3: kinetics, mechanisms, and products of Cl atom and OH radical initiated oxidation in the presence and absence of NOx.

    PubMed

    Hurley, M D; Ball, J C; Wallington, T J; Toft, A; Nielsen, O J; Bertman, S; Perkovic, M

    2007-04-01

    Relative rate techniques were used to study the kinetics of the reactions of Cl atoms and OH radicals with ethylene glycol diacetate, CH3C(O)O(CH2)2OC(O)CH3, in 700 Torr of N2/O2 diluent at 296 K. The rate constants measured were k(Cl + CH3C(O)O(CH2)2OC(O)CH3) = (5.7 +/- 1.1) x 10(-12) and k(OH + CH3C(O)O(CH2)2OC(O)CH3) = (2.36 +/- 0.34) x 10(-12) cm3 molecule-1 s-1. Product studies of the Cl atom initiated oxidation of ethylene glycol diacetate in the absence of NO in 700 Torr of O2/N2 diluent at 296 K show the primary products to be CH3C(O)OC(O)CH2OC(O)CH3, CH3C(O)OC(O)H, and CH3C(O)OH. Product studies of the Cl atom initiated oxidation of ethylene glycol diacetate in the presence of NO in 700 Torr of O2/N2 diluent at 296 K show the primary products to be CH3C(O)OC(O)H and CH3C(O)OH. The CH3C(O)OCH2O* radical is formed during the Cl atom initiated oxidation of ethylene glycol diacetate, and two loss mechanisms were identified: reaction with O2 to give CH3C(O)OC(O)H and alpha-ester rearrangement to give CH3C(O)OH and HC(O) radicals. The reaction of CH3C(O)OCH2O2* with NO gives chemically activated CH3C(O)OCH2O* radicals which are more likely to undergo decomposition via the alpha-ester rearrangement than CH3C(O)OCH2O* radicals produced in the peroxy radical self-reaction.

  11. Kinetic study of the gas-phase reactions of chlorine atoms with 2-chlorophenol, 2-nitrophenol, and four methyl-2-nitrophenol isomers.

    PubMed

    Bejan, Iustinian; Duncianu, Marius; Olariu, Romeo; Barnes, Ian; Seakins, Paul W; Wiesen, Peter

    2015-05-21

    Anthropogenic activities are the main source of nitrophenols and chlorophenols in the atmosphere. Nitro and chlorophenols have a high potential to form ozone and secondary organic aerosol, thus investigations on the major photo oxidation pathways of these compounds are important to assess their contribution to urban air pollution and human health. Presented here are rate coefficients determined at atmospheric pressure and (298 ± 2) K using a relative kinetic method for the reactions of chlorine atoms with 2-chlorophenol (2ClP), 2-nitrophenol (2NP) and four methyl-2-nitrophenol (2-nitrocresol, nM2NP (n = 3,4,5,6)) isomers. The following rate coefficients (in units of cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1)) have been obtained: (5.9 ± 1.5) × 10(-12) for 2ClP, (6.8 ± 2.3) × 10(-12) for 2NP, and (14.0 ± 4.9) × 10(-11), (4.3 ± 1.5) × 10(-11), (1.94 ± 0.67) × 10(-11) and (2.68 ± 0.75) × 10(-11) for the four methyl-2-nitrophenol isomers 3M2NP, 4M2NP, 5M2NP, and 6M2NP, respectively. This study represents the first kinetic investigation for the reaction of chlorine atoms with all the nitrophenols. In addition, to assist in the interpretation of the results, rate coefficients for the reactions of Cl atoms with the cresol ortho, meta, and para isomers have been determined for the first time. The rate coefficient for the reaction with 2ClP is in good agreement with previous data and the relative reactivity of 2NP, 4M2NP, 5M2NP, and 6M2NP can be rationalized based on known substituent effects. The rate coefficient for 3M2NP is anomalously large; the observation of significant NO2 production in only this reaction suggests that an ipso substitution mechanism is the cause of the enhanced reactivity.

  12. BLOOD LEUKOCYTE EXPRESSION OF LFA-1 AND INTRACELLULAR ADHESION MOLECULE-1 (ICAM-1) AFTER INHALATION OF ULTRAFINE CARBON PARTICLES. (R827354C003)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  13. Expression of kidney injury molecule-1 (Kim-1) in relation to necrosis and apoptosis during the early stages of Cd-induced proximal tubule injury

    SciTech Connect

    Prozialeck, Walter C. Edwards, Joshua R.; Lamar, Peter C.; Liu, Jie; Vaidya, Vishal S.; Bonventre, Joseph V.

    2009-08-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a nephrotoxic industrial and environmental pollutant that causes a generalized dysfunction of the proximal tubule. Kim-1 is a transmembrane glycoprotein that is normally not detectable in non-injured kidney, but is up-regulated and shed into the urine during the early stages of Cd-induced proximal tubule injury. The objective of the present study was to examine the relationship between the Cd-induced increase in Kim-1 expression and the onset of necrotic and apoptotic cell death in the proximal tubule. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with 0.6 mg (5.36 {mu}mol) Cd/kg, subcutaneously, 5 days per week for up to 12 weeks. Urine samples were analyzed for levels of Kim-1 and the enzymatic markers of cell death, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and alpha-glutathione-S-transferase ({alpha}-GST). In addition, necrotic cells were specifically labeled by perfusing the kidneys in situ with ethidium homodimer using a procedure that has been recently developed and validated in the Prozialeck laboratory. Cryosections of the kidneys were also processed for the immunofluorescent visualization of Kim-1 and the identification of apoptotic cells by TUNEL labeling. Results showed that significant levels of Kim-1 began to appear in the urine after 6 weeks of Cd treatment, whereas the levels of total protein, {alpha}-GST and LDH were not increased until 8-12 weeks. Results of immunofluorescence labeling studies showed that after 6 weeks and 12 weeks, Kim-1 was expressed in the epithelial cells of the proximal tubule, but that there was no increase in the number of necrotic cells, and only a modest increase in the number of apoptotic cells at 12 weeks. These results indicate that the Cd-induced increase in Kim-1 expression occurs before the onset of necrosis and at a point where there is only a modest level of apoptosis in the proximal tubule.

  14. [Significance of the determination of urinary excretion of kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) in the assessment of the activity and prognosis of chronic glomerulonephritis].

    PubMed

    Brovko, M Yu; Pulin, A A; Kustova, T Yu; Sholomova, V I; Loshkareva, O A; Taranova, M V; Kozlovskaya, L V

    2016-01-01

    Резюме Цель исследования. Оценить экскрецию молекулы повреждения почек 1-го типа (KIM-1) с мочой в группах больных хроническим гломерулонефритом (ХГН), различающихся по степени клинической активности, определить возможность использования концентрации KIM-1 в моче как критерия прогноза течения ХГН. Материалы и методы. Обследовали 47 больных ХГН: в 1-ю группу вошли 10 больных с нефротическим синдромом (НС) и сниженной скоростью клубочковой фильтрации (СКФ), во 2-ю группу — 16 больных с НС и нормальной СКФ, в 3-ю группу — 10 пациентов с частичной ремиссией НС, в 4-ю группу включены 11 пациентов ХГН, с гематурией и умеренной протеинурией при нормальной СКФ. Контроль составили 9 здоровых лиц. В обследованных группах определяли экскрецию с мочой KIM-1 методом непрямого иммуноферментного анализа. Результаты. У больных ХГН экскреция молекулы KIM-1 с мочой выше, чем у здоровых людей (р<0,0001), при этом у пациентов с протеинурическими формами уровень экскреции KIM-1 в среднем статистически значимо выше, чем у больных ХГН c ГУ (р=0,01). Самые высокие уровни получены в 1-й группе, больные 2-й группы занимали промежуточное положение по уровню экскреции KIM-1, а различия между 3-й и 4-й группами оказались статистически незначимыми. Наименьшие уровни отмечены у больных 4-й группы и в контроле, различия между группами статистически незначимы. У больных ХГН установлена корреляция уровня экскреции KIM-1 со всеми показателями тяжести НС. Оценено значение определения KIM-1 как фактора риска персистирования/рефрактерности НС. По результатам построения ROC-кривой уровень KIM-1 больше 2,34 нг/мл с высокой чувствительностью и специфичностью позволил прогнозировать персистенцию НС у больных ХГН. Заключение. Уровень экскреции молекулы KIM-1 с мочой может быть использован для оценки активности ХГН с НС и эффективности лечения. Результаты исследования обосновывают поиск путей фармакологической блокады выработки KIM-1 в почке для оптимизации методов патогенетического воздействия на прогрессирование ХГН.

  15. Ligand-induced adhesion to activated endothelium and to vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 in lymphocytes transfected with the N-formyl peptide receptor.

    PubMed

    Honda, S; Campbell, J J; Andrew, D P; Engelhardt, B; Butcher, B A; Warnock, R A; Ye, R D; Butcher, E C

    1994-04-15

    Binding of FMLP to the neutrophil N-formyl peptide receptor (FPR) transmits signals through pertussis toxin-sensitive G proteins triggering Ca2+ flux, superoxide production, granule exocytosis, and neutrophil aggregation and adhesion involving the beta 2 (CD18) integrins. Expression of the FPR in mouse fibroblasts or human kidney cells has been shown to confer an N-formyl peptide-inducible Ca2+ flux in transfectants. Here we demonstrate that the transfected receptor can also support ligand-induced alterations in cellular adhesion. We established stable transfectants of mouse L1-2 pre-B cells with cDNA for human FPR (L1-2 FPR cells). The transfectants bind N-formyl-Nle-Leu-Phe-Nle-Tyr-Lys-fluorescein with 1.4 x 10(5) sites per cell and a dissociation constant of 3.3 nM. Stimulation with FMLP induces a transient Ca2+ flux. FMLP also triggers adhesion of L1-2 FPR cells to TNF-alpha- or LPS-activated bEnd3 cells (mouse brain-derived endothelial cells) and to purified mouse VCAM-1. Binding is inhibited by Abs to VCAM-1 and to the alpha-chain of its lymphocyte receptor (the alpha 4 beta 1 integrin, VLA-4). Stimulation with FMLP does not induce a change in cell surface expression of alpha 4. Induced adhesion to VCAM-1 is rapid, detectable at the earliest times measurable (30 to 60 s after FMLP addition), and is inhibited by pertussis toxin. We conclude that FPR can mediate integrin activation not only in neutrophils but also in lymphocytes, and can trigger rapid adhesion via lymphocyte alpha 4 beta 1. The adhesion of lymphocytes is critical to their migration and targeting; our results suggest the possibility of manipulating adhesive responses through expression of chemoattractant receptors in lymphoid cells engineered for cellular therapy, allowing targeted adhesion and potentially migration in response to locally administered ligands.

  16. Combined Treatment with Amlodipine and Atorvastatin Calcium Reduces Circulating Levels of Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 and Tumor Necrosis Factor-α in Hypertensive Patients with Prediabetes

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Zhouqing; Chen, Chen; Li, Sheng; Kong, Fanqi; Shan, Peiren; Huang, Weijian

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effect of amlodipine and atorvastatin on intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α expression, as endothelial function and inflammation indicators, respectively, in hypertensive patients with and without prediabetes. Methods: Forty-five consecutive patients with hypertension, diagnosed according to JNC7, were divided into two groups based on the presence (HD group, n = 23) or absence (H group, n = 22) of prediabetes, diagnosed according to 2010 ADA criteria, including impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and fasting glucose tests. All patients simultaneously underwent 12-week treatment with daily single-pill amlodipine besylate/atorvastatin calcium combination (5/10 mg; Hisun-Pfizer Pharmaceuticals Co. Ltd). Serum isolated before and after treatment from overnight fasting blood samples was analyzed by ELISA. Results: In the HD and H groups after vs. before 12-week amlodipine/atorvastatin treatment, there were significantly (all P < 0.01) lower levels of ICAM-1 (3.06 ± 0.34 vs. 4.07 ± 0.70 pg/ml; 3.26 ± 0.32 vs. 3.81 ± 0.60 pg/ml, respectively) and TNF-α (78.71 ± 9.19 vs. 110.94 ± 10.71 pg/ml; 80.95 ± 9.33 vs. 101.79 ± 11.72 pg/ml, respectively), with more pronounced reductions in HD vs. H group (ICAM-1Δ: 1.01 ± 0.80 vs. 0.55 ± 0.64 pg/ml, respectively, P = 0.037; TNF-αΔ: 32.23 ± 14.33 vs. 20.84 ± 14.89 pg/ml, respectively, P = 0.011), independent of the blood pressure (BP) and cholesterol level reduction. Conclusions: Amlodipine/atorvastatin improved endothelial function and inflammation, as reflected by lower circulating levels of ICAM-1 and TNF-α, more prominently in hypertensives with than without prediabetes. Starting statin treatment before overt diabetes in hypertensives might thus improve cardiovascular outcomes. PMID:27610083

  17. Ligand-induced adhesion to activated endothelium and to vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 in lymphocytes transfected with the N-formyl peptide receptor.

    PubMed

    Honda, S; Campbell, J J; Andrew, D P; Engelhardt, B; Butcher, B A; Warnock, R A; Ye, R D; Butcher, E C

    1994-04-15

    Binding of FMLP to the neutrophil N-formyl peptide receptor (FPR) transmits signals through pertussis toxin-sensitive G proteins triggering Ca2+ flux, superoxide production, granule exocytosis, and neutrophil aggregation and adhesion involving the beta 2 (CD18) integrins. Expression of the FPR in mouse fibroblasts or human kidney cells has been shown to confer an N-formyl peptide-inducible Ca2+ flux in transfectants. Here we demonstrate that the transfected receptor can also support ligand-induced alterations in cellular adhesion. We established stable transfectants of mouse L1-2 pre-B cells with cDNA for human FPR (L1-2 FPR cells). The transfectants bind N-formyl-Nle-Leu-Phe-Nle-Tyr-Lys-fluorescein with 1.4 x 10(5) sites per cell and a dissociation constant of 3.3 nM. Stimulation with FMLP induces a transient Ca2+ flux. FMLP also triggers adhesion of L1-2 FPR cells to TNF-alpha- or LPS-activated bEnd3 cells (mouse brain-derived endothelial cells) and to purified mouse VCAM-1. Binding is inhibited by Abs to VCAM-1 and to the alpha-chain of its lymphocyte receptor (the alpha 4 beta 1 integrin, VLA-4). Stimulation with FMLP does not induce a change in cell surface expression of alpha 4. Induced adhesion to VCAM-1 is rapid, detectable at the earliest times measurable (30 to 60 s after FMLP addition), and is inhibited by pertussis toxin. We conclude that FPR can mediate integrin activation not only in neutrophils but also in lymphocytes, and can trigger rapid adhesion via lymphocyte alpha 4 beta 1. The adhesion of lymphocytes is critical to their migration and targeting; our results suggest the possibility of manipulating adhesive responses through expression of chemoattractant receptors in lymphoid cells engineered for cellular therapy, allowing targeted adhesion and potentially migration in response to locally administered ligands. PMID:7511663

  18. Amyloid Precursor-like Protein 2 Increases the Endocytosis, Instability, and Turnover of the H2-Kd MHC Class I Molecule1

    PubMed Central

    Tuli, Amit; Sharma, Mahak; McIlhaney, Mary M.; Talmadge, James E.; Naslavsky, Naava; Caplan, Steve; Solheim, Joyce C.

    2008-01-01

    The defense against the invasion of viruses and tumors relies on the presentation of viral and tumor-derived peptides to cytotoxic T lymphocytes by cell surface major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules. Previously, we showed that the ubiquitously expressed protein amyloid precursor-like protein 2 (APLP2) associates with the folded form of the MHC class I molecule Kd. In the current study, APLP2 was found to associate with folded Kd molecules following their endocytosis and to increase the amount of endocytosed Kd. In addition, increased expression of APLP2 was shown to decrease Kd surface expression and thermostability. Correspondingly, Kd thermostability and surface expression were increased by down-regulation of APLP2 expression. Overall, these data suggest that APLP2 modulates the stability and endocytosis of Kd molecules. PMID:18641335

  19. Nuclear factor-kappa B directs carcinoembryonic antigen-related cellular adhesion molecule 1 receptor expression in Neisseria gonorrhoeae-infected epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Muenzner, Petra; Billker, Oliver; Meyer, Thomas F; Naumann, Michael

    2002-03-01

    The human-specific pathogen Neisseria gonorrhoeae expresses opacity-associated (Opa) protein adhesins that bind to various members of the carcinoembryonic antigen-related cellular adhesion molecule (CEACAM) family. In this study, we have analyzed the mechanism underlying N. gonorrhoeae-induced CEACAM up-regulation in epithelial cells. Epithelial cells represent the first barrier for the microbial pathogen. We therefore characterized CEACAM expression in primary human ovarian surface epithelial (HOSE) cells and found that CEACAM1-3 (L, S) and CEACAM1-4 (L, S) splice variants mediate an increased Opa(52)-dependent gonoccocal binding to HOSE cells. Up-regulation of these CEACAM molecules in HOSE cells is a direct process that takes place within 2 h postinfection and depends on close contact between microbial pathogen and HOSE cells. N. gonorrhoeae-triggered CEACAM1 up-regulation involves activation of the transcription factor nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB), which translocates as a p50/p65 heterodimer into the nucleus, and an NF-kappaB-specific inhibitory peptide inhibited CEACAM1-receptor up-regulation in N. gonorrhoeae-infected HOSE cells. Bacterial lipopolysaccharides did not induce NF-kappaB and CEACAM up-regulation, which corresponds to our findings that HOSE cells do not express toll-like receptor 4. The ability of N. gonorrhoeae to up-regulate its epithelial receptor CEACAM1 through NF-kappaB suggests an important mechanism allowing efficient bacterial colonization during the initial infection process. PMID:11751883

  20. P2Y2 Receptor-mediated Lymphotoxin-α Secretion Regulates Intercellular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 Expression in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Seye, Cheikh I.; Agca, Yuksel; Agca, Cansu; Derbigny, Wilbert

    2012-01-01

    The proinflammatory cytokine lymphotoxin-α (LTA) is thought to contribute to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. However, the mechanisms that regulate its expression in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) are poorly understood. The ability of exogenous nucleotides to stimulate LTA production was evaluated in VSMC by ELISA. The P2Y2 nucleotide receptor (P2Y2R) agonist UTP stimulates a strong and sustained release of LTA from WT but not P2Y2R−/− SMC. Assessment of LTA gene transcription by LTA promoter-luciferase construct indicated that LTA levels are controlled at the level of transcription. We show using RNAi techniques that knockdown of the actin-binding protein filamin-A (FLNa) severely impaired nucleotide-induced Rho activation and consequent Rho-mediated LTA secretion. Reintroduction of FLNa in FLNa RNAi SMC rescued UTP-induced LTA expression. In addition, we found that UTP-stimulated LTA secretion is not sensitive to brefeldin A, which blocks the formation of vesicles involved in protein transport from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi apparatus, suggesting that P2Y2R/filamin-mediated secretion of LTA is independent of the endoplasmic reticulum/Golgi secretory vesicle route. Furthermore, UTP selectively induces ICAM-1 expression in WT but not SMC expressing a truncated P2Y2R deficient in LTA secretion. These data suggest that P2Y2R recruits FLNa to provide a cytoskeletal scaffold necessary for Rho signaling pathway upstream of LTA release and subsequent stimulation of ICAM-1 expression on vascular smooth muscle cells. PMID:22298782

  1. A Distinctive Cytoplasmic Tail Contributes to Low Surface Expression and Intracellular Retention of the Patr-AL MHC class I molecule1

    PubMed Central

    Goyos, Ana; Guethlein, Lisbeth A.; Horowitz, Amir; Hilton, Hugo G.; Gleimer, Michael; Brodsky, Frances M.; Parham, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Chimpanzees have orthologs of the six, fixed, functional human MHC class I genes. But in addition, the chimpanzee has a seventh functional gene, Patr-AL, which is not polymorphic but contributes substantially to population diversity by its presence on only 50% of MHC haplotypes. The ancestral AL gene emerged long before the separation of human and chimpanzee ancestors and then subsequently and specifically lost function during human evolution, but was maintained in chimpanzees. Patr-AL is an alloantigen that participates in negative and positive selection of the T-cell repertoire. The three-dimensional structure and the peptide-binding repertoire of Patr-AL and HLA-A*02 are surprisingly similar. In contrast, the expression of these two molecules is very different as shown using specific monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies made against Patr-AL. Peripheral blood cells and B cell lines express low levels of Patr-AL at the cell surface. Higher levels are seen for 221-cell transfectants expressing Patr-AL, but in these cells a large majority of Patr-AL molecules are retained in the early compartments of the secretory pathway: mainly the endoplasmic reticulum but also cis-Golgi. Replacing the cytoplasmic tail of Patr-AL with that of HLA-A*02 increased the cell-surface expression of Patr-AL substantially. Four substitutions distinguish the Patr-AL and HLA-A*02 cytoplasmic tails. Systematic mutagenesis showed that each substitution contributes changes in cell-surface expression. The combination of residues present in Patr-AL appears unique, but each individual residue is present in other primate MHC class I molecules, notably MHC-E, the most ancient of the functional human MHC class I molecules. PMID:26371256

  2. Pentosan polysulfate treatment ameliorates motor function with increased serum soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 in HTLV-1-associated neurologic disease.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Tatsufumi; Satoh, Katsuya; Fukuda, Taku; Kinoshita, Ikuo; Nishiura, Yoshihiro; Nagasato, Kunihiko; Yamauchi, Atsushi; Kataoka, Yasufumi; Nakamura, Tadahiro; Sasaki, Hitoshi; Kumagai, Kenji; Niwa, Masami; Noguchi, Mitsuru; Nakamura, Hideki; Nishida, Noriyuki; Kawakami, Atsushi

    2014-06-01

    The main therapeutic strategy against human T lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I)-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) characterized by lower extremity motor dysfunction is immunomodulatory treatment, with drugs such as corticosteroid hormone and interferon-α, at present. However, there are many issues in long-term treatment with these drugs, such as insufficient effects and various side effects. We now urgently need to develop other therapeutic strategies. The heparinoid, pentosan polysulfate sodium (PPS), has been safely used in Europe for the past 50 years as a thrombosis prophylaxis and for the treatment of phlebitis. We conducted a clinical trial to test the effect of subcutaneous administration of PPS in 12 patients with HAM/TSP in an open-labeled design. There was a marked improvement in lower extremity motor function, based on reduced spasticity, such as a reduced time required for walking 10 m and descending a flight of stairs. There were no significant changes in HTLV-I proviral copy numbers in peripheral blood contrary to the inhibitory effect of PPS in vitro for intercellular spread of HTLV-I. However, serum soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule (sVCAM)-1 was significantly increased without significant changes of serum level of chemokines (CXCL10 and CCL2). There was a positive correlation between increased sVCAM-1and reduced time required for walking 10 m. PPS might induce neurological improvement by inhibition of chronic inflammation in the spinal cord, through blocking the adhesion cascade by increasing serum sVCAM-1, in addition to rheological improvement of the microcirculation. PPS has the potential to be a new therapeutic tool for HAM/TSP.

  3. CKIP-1 ameliorates high glucose-induced expression of fibronectin and intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 by activating the Nrf2/ARE pathway in glomerular mesangial cells.

    PubMed

    Gong, Wenyan; Chen, Cheng; Xiong, Fengxiao; Yang, Zhiying; Wang, Yu; Huang, Junying; Liu, Peiqing; Huang, Heqing

    2016-09-15

    Glucose and lipid metabolism disorders as well as oxidative stress (OSS) play important roles in diabetic nephropathy (DN). Glucose and lipid metabolic dysfunctions are the basic pathological changes of chronic microvascular complications of diabetes mellitus, such as DN. OSS can lead to the accumulation of extracellular matrix and inflammatory factors which will accelerate the progress of DN. Casein kinase 2 interacting protein-1 (CKIP-1) mediates adipogenesis, cell proliferation and inflammation under many circumstances. However, whether CKIP-1 is involved in the development of DN remains unknown. Here, we show that CKIP-1 is a novel regulator of resisting the development of DN and the underlying molecular mechanism is related to activating the nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)/antioxidant response element (ARE) antioxidative stress pathway. The following findings were obtained: (1) The treatment of glomerular mesangial cells (GMCs) with high glucose (HG) decreased CKIP-1 levels in a time-dependent manner; (2) CKIP-1 overexpression dramatically reduced fibronectin (FN) and intercellular adhesionmolecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression. Depletion of CKIP-1 further induced the production of FN and ICAM-1; (3) CKIP-1 promoted the nuclear accumulation, DNA binding, and transcriptional activity of Nrf2. Moreover, CKIP-1 upregulated the expression of Nrf2 downstream genes, heme oxygenase (HO-1) and superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1); and ultimately decreased the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The molecular mechanisms clarify that the advantageous effect of CKIP-1 on DN are well connected with the activation of the Nrf2/ARE antioxidative stress pathway. PMID:27481061

  4. Neutrophil transmigration mediated by the neutrophil-specific antigen CD177 is influenced by the endothelial S536N dimorphism of platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1.

    PubMed

    Bayat, Behnaz; Werth, Silke; Sachs, Ulrich J H; Newman, Debra K; Newman, Peter J; Santoso, Sentot

    2010-04-01

    The human neutrophil-specific adhesion molecule CD177 (also known as the NB1 alloantigen) becomes upregulated on the cell surface in a number of inflammatory settings. We recently showed that CD177 functions as a novel heterophilic counterreceptor for the endothelial junctional protein PECAM-1 (CD31), an interaction that is mediated by membrane-proximal PECAM-1 IgD 6, which is known to harbor an S(536)N single nucleotide polymorphism of two major isoforms V(98)N(536)G(643) and L(98)S(536)R(643) and a yet-to-be-determined region on CD177. In vitro transendothelial migration experiments revealed that CD177(+) neutrophils migrated significantly faster through HUVECs expressing the LSR, compared with the VNG, allelic variant of PECAM-1 and that this correlated with the decreased ability of anti-PECAM-1 Ab of ITIM tyrosine phosphorylation in HUVECs expressing the LSR allelic variant relative to the VNG allelic variant. Moreover, engagement of PECAM-1 with rCD177-Fc (to mimic heterophilic CD177 binding) suppressed Ab-induced tyrosine phosphorylation to a greater extent in cells expressing the LSR isoform compared with the VNG isoform, with a corresponding increased higher level of beta-catenin phosphorylation. These data suggest that heterophilic PECAM-1/CD177 interactions affect the phosphorylation state of PECAM-1 and endothelial cell junctional integrity in such a way as to facilitate neutrophil transmigration in a previously unrecognized allele-specific manner. PMID:20194726

  5. Changes in urinary cytokines and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in bladder cancer patients after bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) immunotherapy.

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, A M; Alexandroff, A B; Kelly, R W; Skibinska, A; Esuvaranathan, K; Prescott, S; Chisholm, G D; James, K

    1995-01-01

    Intravesical immunotherapy for carcinoma in situ of the bladder is arguably the most effective form of tumour immunotherapy described to date. Following repeated instillations of BCG organisms into the bladder, large quantities of cytokines are detected in patients' urine. This study concerns the production of IL-1 beta, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and soluble ICAM-1 (sICAM-1) throughout the six weekly instillations which comprise a therapeutic course. Sequential instillations of BCG induced secretion of IL-1 beta, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma and sICAM-1 into urine. The responses were heterogeneous between patients and cytokines, but some general trends were evident. Although cytokine levels were initially low, their concentration increased with repeated instillation of BCG. Certain cytokines (e.g. IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10) could be detected after the first instillation, whilst others (e.g. IL-2 and IFN-gamma) were not detected until after the third or fourth instillation. Interestingly, IL-4 was not detected, perhaps suggesting a differential effect on Th2-like responses. Some patients produced particularly elevated or non-detectable levels of cytokines, and a positive correlation was found between the production of various cytokines. The production of a particular cytokine did not correspond with lack of production of another species. Whether monitoring the production of cytokines following therapy may be of prognostic value will be determined in a larger series of patients. However, as these potent immunomodulators are thought to be important for the 75% complete clinical response observed with BCG therapy, there remains the possibility that detection of the products of an activated immune system may correlate with eventual clinical outcome. This study is a necessary forerunner to full prognostic evaluation of such immunological data. PMID:7882559

  6. Combined Treatment with Amlodipine and Atorvastatin Calcium Reduces Circulating Levels of Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 and Tumor Necrosis Factor-α in Hypertensive Patients with Prediabetes

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Zhouqing; Chen, Chen; Li, Sheng; Kong, Fanqi; Shan, Peiren; Huang, Weijian

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effect of amlodipine and atorvastatin on intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α expression, as endothelial function and inflammation indicators, respectively, in hypertensive patients with and without prediabetes. Methods: Forty-five consecutive patients with hypertension, diagnosed according to JNC7, were divided into two groups based on the presence (HD group, n = 23) or absence (H group, n = 22) of prediabetes, diagnosed according to 2010 ADA criteria, including impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and fasting glucose tests. All patients simultaneously underwent 12-week treatment with daily single-pill amlodipine besylate/atorvastatin calcium combination (5/10 mg; Hisun-Pfizer Pharmaceuticals Co. Ltd). Serum isolated before and after treatment from overnight fasting blood samples was analyzed by ELISA. Results: In the HD and H groups after vs. before 12-week amlodipine/atorvastatin treatment, there were significantly (all P < 0.01) lower levels of ICAM-1 (3.06 ± 0.34 vs. 4.07 ± 0.70 pg/ml; 3.26 ± 0.32 vs. 3.81 ± 0.60 pg/ml, respectively) and TNF-α (78.71 ± 9.19 vs. 110.94 ± 10.71 pg/ml; 80.95 ± 9.33 vs. 101.79 ± 11.72 pg/ml, respectively), with more pronounced reductions in HD vs. H group (ICAM-1Δ: 1.01 ± 0.80 vs. 0.55 ± 0.64 pg/ml, respectively, P = 0.037; TNF-αΔ: 32.23 ± 14.33 vs. 20.84 ± 14.89 pg/ml, respectively, P = 0.011), independent of the blood pressure (BP) and cholesterol level reduction. Conclusions: Amlodipine/atorvastatin improved endothelial function and inflammation, as reflected by lower circulating levels of ICAM-1 and TNF-α, more prominently in hypertensives with than without prediabetes. Starting statin treatment before overt diabetes in hypertensives might thus improve cardiovascular outcomes.

  7. Expression and polarization of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 on human intestinal epithelia: consequences for CD11b/CD18-mediated interactions with neutrophils.

    PubMed Central

    Parkos, C. A.; Colgan, S. P.; Diamond, M. S.; Nusrat, A.; Liang, T. W.; Springer, T. A.; Madara, J. L.

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Epithelial dysfunction and patient symptoms in inflammatory intestinal diseases such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease correlate with migration of neutrophils (PMN) across the intestinal epithelium. In vitro modeling of PMN transepithelial migration has revealed distinct differences from transendothelial migration. By using polarized monolayers of human intestinal epithelia (T84), PMN transepithelial migration has been shown to be dependent on the leukocyte integrin CD11b/CD18 (Mac-1), but not on CD11a/CD18 (LFA-1). Since intercellular adhesion molecule-I (ICAM-1) is an important endothelial counterreceptor for these integrins, its expression in intestinal epithelia and role in PMN-intestinal epithelial interactions was investigated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A panel of antibodies against different domains of ICAM-1, polarized monolayers of human intestinal epithelia (T84), and natural human colonic epithelia were used to examine the polarity of epithelial ICAM-1 surface expression and the functional role of ICAM-1 in neutrophil-intestinal epithelial adhesive interactions. RESULTS: While no surface expression of ICAM-1 was detected on unstimulated T84 cells, interferon-gamma (IFN gamma) elicited a marked expression of ICAM-1 that selectively polarized to the apical epithelial membrane. Similarly, apically restricted surface expression of ICAM-1 was detected in natural human colonic epithelium only in association with active inflammation. With or without IFN gamma pre-exposure, physiologically directed (basolateral-to-apical) transepithelial migration of PMN was unaffected by blocking monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to ICAM-1. In contrast, PMN migration across IFN gamma-stimulated monolayers in the reverse (apical-to-basolateral) direction was inhibited by anti-ICAM-1 antibodies. Adhesion studies revealed that T84 cells adhered selectively to purified CD11b/CD18 and such adherence, with or without IFN gamma pre-exposure, was unaffected by ICAM-1 mAb. Similarly, freshly isolated epithelial cells from inflamed human intestine bound to CD11b/CD18 in an ICAM-1-independent fashion. CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that ICAM-1 is strictly polarized in intestinal epithelia and does not represent a counterreceptor for neutrophil CD11b/CD18 during physiologically directed transmigration, but may facilitate apical membrane-PMN interactions after the arrival of PMN in the intestinal lumen. Images FIG. 3 FIG. 4 PMID:8827719

  8. Testing a new analytical approach for determination of vibrational transition moment directions in low symmetry planar molecules: 1-D- and 2-D-naphthalene.

    PubMed

    Rogojerov, Marin; Keresztury, Gábor; Kamenova-Nacheva, Mariana; Sundius, Tom

    2012-12-01

    A new analytical approach for improving the precision in determination of vibrational transition moment directions of low symmetry molecules (lacking orthogonal axes) is discussed in this paper. The target molecules are partially uniaxially oriented in nematic liquid crystalline solvent and are studied by IR absorption spectroscopy using polarized light. The fundamental problem addressed is that IR linear dichroism measurements of low symmetry molecules alone cannot provide sufficient information on molecular orientation and transition moment directions. It is shown that computational prediction of these quantities can supply relevant complementary data, helping to reveal the hidden information content and achieve a more meaningful and more precise interpretation of the measured dichroic ratios. The combined experimental and theoretical/computational method proposed by us recently for determination of the average orientation of molecules with C(s) symmetry has now been replaced by a more precise analytical approach. The new method introduced and discussed in full detail here uses a mathematically evaluated angle between two vibrational transition moment vectors as a reference. The discussion also deals with error analysis and estimation of uncertainties of the orientational parameters. The proposed procedure has been tested in an analysis of the infrared linear dichroism (IR-LD) spectra of 1-D- and 2-D-naphthalene complemented with DFT calculations using the scaled quantum mechanical force field (SQM FF) method. PMID:22981590

  9. Absence of Platelet Endothelial Cell Adhesion Molecule 1, PECAM-1/CD31, In Vivo Increases Resistance to Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lovelace, Michael D.; Yap, May Lin; Yip, Jana; Muller, William; Wijburg, Odilia

    2013-01-01

    PECAM-1/CD31 is known to regulate inflammatory responses and exhibit pro- and anti-inflammatory functions. This study was designed to determine the functional role of PECAM-1 in susceptibility to murine primary in vivo infection with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and in in vitro inflammatory responses of peritoneal macrophages. Lectin profiling showed that cellular PECAM-1 and recombinant human PECAM-1-Ig chimera contain high levels of mannose sugars and N-acetylglucosamine. Consistent with this carbohydrate pattern, both recombinant human and murine PECAM-1-Ig chimeras were shown to bind S. Typhimurium in a dose-dependent manner in vitro. Using oral and fecal-oral transmission models of S. Typhimurium SL1344 infection, PECAM-1−/− mice were found to be more resistant to S. Typhimurium infection than wild-type (WT) C57BL/6 mice. While fecal shedding of S. Typhimurium was comparable in wild-type and PECAM-1−/− mice, the PECAM-1-deficient mice had lower bacterial loads in systemic organs such as liver, spleen, and mesenteric lymph nodes than WT mice, suggesting that extraintestinal dissemination was reduced in the absence of PECAM-1. This reduced bacterial load correlated with reduced tumor necrosis factor (TNF), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP) levels in sera of PECAM-1−/− mice. Following in vitro stimulation of macrophages with either whole S. Typhimurium, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (Toll-like receptor 4 [TLR4] ligand), or poly(I·C) (TLR3 ligand), production of TNF and IL-6 by PECAM-1−/− macrophages was reduced. Together, these results suggest that PECAM-1 may have multiple functions in resistance to infection with S. Typhimurium, including binding to host cells, extraintestinal spread to deeper tissues, and regulation of inflammatory cytokine production by infected macrophages. PMID:23509149

  10. Atmospheric chemistry of cyclohexanone: UV spectrum and kinetics of reaction with chlorine atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Wallington, T.J.; Iwasaki, E.; Matsumi, Y.; Kaiser, E. W.; Calvert, Jack G

    2008-05-01

    Absolute and relative rate techniques were used to study the reactivity of Cl atoms with cyclohexanone in 6 Torr of argon or 800 950 Torr of N2 at 295 2 K. The absolute rate experiments gave k(Cl + cyclohexanone) = (1.88 0.38) 10 10, whereas the relative rate experiments gave k(Cl + cyclohexanone) = (1.66 0.26) 10 10 cm3 molecule 1 s 1. Cyclohexanone has a broad UV absorption band with a maximum cross section of (4.0 0.3) 10 20 cm2 molecule 1 near 285 nm. The results are discussed with respect to the literature data.

  11. Atmospheric lifetimes, infrared spectra and degradation products of a series of hydrofluoroethers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavalli, F.; Glasius, M.; Hjorth, J.; Rindone, B.; Jensen, N. R.

    The rate constants of the reactions between the OH radical and a series of hydrofluoroethers (HFE) have been measured. The reaction of OH with CHF 2OCF 2OCHF 2 (1), CHF 2OCF 2CF 2OCHF 2 (2), CHF 2OCF 2CF 2OCF 2OCHF 2 (3) and CH 3OC 4F 9 (4) were investigated at 295±3 K and 740±5 Torr total pressure. The following values of the rate constants were determined for the reaction with the OH radical: k1=(2.4±0.7)×10 -15 cm 3 molecule -1 s -1, k2=(4.7±1.6)×10 -15 cm 3 molecule -1 s -1, k3=(4.6±1.6)×10 -15 cm 3 molecule -1 s -1 and k4=(7.2±1.6)×10 -15 cm 3 molecule -1 s -1. (All values are given with 2 σ uncertainties). Infrared spectra were obtained for all four HFEs in the range from 600 to 4000 cm -1 (3 to 17 μm), with the following IBI-values (integrated band intensities): IBI 1= (5.19±0.23)×10 -16 cm molecule -1 for the 978-1584 cm -1 band, IBI 2=(6.04±0.13)×10 -16 cm molecule -1 for the 930-1501 cm -1 band, IBI 3=(8.49±0.34)×10 -16 cm molecule -1 from the 963-1587 cm -1 band and IBI 4=(4.23±0.14)×10 -16 cm molecule -1 for the 845-1428 cm -1 band. Carbonyl fluoride, CF 2O, was the only fluorine-containing degradation product that was found from the Cl atom-initiated reactions of both CHF 2OCF 2OCF 2CF 2OCHF 2 and CH 3OC 4F 9, with measured product yields of 60-97% and 20-40% (based on carbon atoms), respectively. Due to the high uptake parameter of CF 2O to liquid water, its lifetime in the atmosphere is very short (with an upper limit between 15 and 30 d). It is rapidly incorporated into raindrops/aerosols, where it eventually degrades to HF and CO 2. The GWP of CF 2O is therefore negligible compared to those of CFC-11 and CFC-12.

  12. Kinetics and thermodynamics of limonene ozonolysis.

    PubMed

    Baptista, Leonardo; Pfeifer, Rene; da Silva, Edilson Clement; Arbilla, Graciela

    2011-10-13

    Using density functional methods, the initial reaction steps of limonene ozonolysis have been investigated with a focus on primary ozonide formation and its decomposition to Criegee intermediates and carbonyl compounds. The ozonide formation is highly exothermic, and the decomposition channels have similar free energies of activation, ΔG(‡), indicating that there is no primary pathway for ozonide decomposition. Assuming that ozonide formation is the rate limiting step, the theoretical rate coefficient, k = 1.6 × 10(-16) molecule(-1) cm(3) s(-1), evaluated at the CCSD(T)/6-31G(d,p)//BHandHLYP/cc-pvdz level and 298.15 K for d-limonene is in good agreement with the experimental value, k(exp) = 3.3 × 10(-16) molecule(-1) cm(3) s(-1). The theoretical Arrhenius expression is also in good agreement with experimental results.

  13. Low temperature rate coefficients for reactions of the butadiynyl radical, C4H, with various hydrocarbons. Part I: reactions with alkanes (CH4, C2H6, C3H8, C4H10).

    PubMed

    Berteloite, Coralie; Le Picard, Sébastien D; Balucani, Nadia; Canosa, André; Sims, Ian R

    2010-04-21

    The kinetics of the reactions of the linear butadiynyl radical, C4H (CCCCH), with methane, ethane, propane and butane have been studied over the temperature range of 39-300 K using a CRESU (Cinétique de Réaction en Ecoulement Supersonique Uniforme or Reaction Kinetics in Uniform Supersonic Flow) apparatus combined with the pulsed laser photolysis-laser induced fluorescence technique. The rate coefficients, except for the reaction with methane, show a negative temperature dependence and can be fitted with the following expressions over the temperature range of this study: k(C2H6) = 0.289 x 10(-10) (T/298 K)(-1.23) exp(-24.8 K/T) cm3 molecule(-1) s(-1); k(C3H8) = 1.06 x 10(-10) (T/298 K)(-1.36) exp(-56.9 K/T) cm3 molecule(-1) s(-1); k(C4H10) = 2.93 x 10(-10) (T/298 K)(-1.30) exp(-90.1 K/T) cm3 molecule(-1) s(-1). The rate coefficients for the reaction with methane were measured only at 200 K and 300 K yielding a positive temperature dependence: k(CH4) = 1.63 x 10(-11) exp(-610 K/T) cm3 molecule(-1) s(-1). Possible reaction mechanisms and product channels are discussed in detail for each of these reactions. Potential implications of these results for models of low temperature chemical environments, in particular cold interstellar clouds and planetary atmospheres such as that of Titan, are considered.

  14. Reactivity of first-row transition metal monocations (Sc+, Ti+, V+, Zn+) with methyl fluoride: a computational study.

    PubMed

    Redondo, Pilar; Varela-Álvarez, Adrián; Rayón, Víctor Manuel; Largo, Antonio; Sordo, José Ángel; Barrientos, Carmen

    2013-04-11

    The gas-phase reactivity of methyl fluoride with selected first-row transition metal monocations (Sc(+), Ti(+), V(+), and Zn(+)) has been theoretically investigated. Our thermochemical and kinetics study shows that early transition-metal cations exhibit a much more active chemistry than the latest transition metal monocation Zn(+). The strong C-F bond in methyl fluorine can be activated by scandium, titanium, and vanadium monocations yielding the metal fluorine cation, MF(+). However, the rate efficiencies vary dramatically along the period 0.73 (Sc), 0.91 (Ti), and 0.028 (V) in agreement with the experimental observation. The kinetics results show the relative importance of the entrance and exit channels, apart from the "inner" bottleneck, to control the global rate constant of these reactions. At the mPW1K/QZVPP level our computed kglobal (at 295 K), 1.99 × 10(-9) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) (Sc(+)), 1.29 × 10(-9) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) (Ti(+)), and 3.46 × 10(-10) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) (V(+)) are in good agreement with the experimental data at the same temperature. For the reaction of Zn(+) and CH3F our predicted value for kouter, at 295 K, 3.79 × 10(-9) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1), is in accordance with the capture rate constant. Our study suggests that consideration of the lowest excited states for Ti(+) and V(+) is mandatory to reach agreement between calculations and experimental measurements.

  15. On rates and mechanisms of OH and O3 reactions with isoprene-derived hydroxy nitrates.

    PubMed

    Lee, Lance; Teng, Alex P; Wennberg, Paul O; Crounse, John D; Cohen, Ronald C

    2014-03-01

    Eight distinct hydroxy nitrates are stable products of the first step in the atmospheric oxidation of isoprene by OH. The subsequent chemical fate of these molecules affects global and regional production of ozone and aerosol as well as the location of nitrogen deposition. We synthesized and purified 3 of the 8 isoprene hydroxy nitrate isomers: (E/Z)-2-methyl-4-nitrooxybut-2-ene-1-ol and 3-methyl-2-nitrooxybut-3-ene-1-ol. Oxidation of these molecules by OH and ozone was studied using both chemical ionization mass spectrometry and thermo-dissociation laser induced fluorescence. The OH reaction rate constants at 300 K measured relative to propene at 745 Torr are (1.1 ± 0.2) × 10(-10) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) for both the E and Z isomers and (4.2 ± 0.7) × 10(-11) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) for the third isomer. The ozone reaction rate constants for (E/Z)-2-methyl-4-nitrooxybut-2-ene-1-ol are (2.7 ± 0.5) × 10(-17) and (2.9 ± 0.5) × 10(-17) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1), respectively. 3-Methyl-2-nitrooxybut-3-ene-1-ol reacts with ozone very slowly, within the range of (2.5-5) × 10(-19) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1). Reaction pathways, product yields, and implications for atmospheric chemistry are discussed. A condensed mechanism suitable for use in atmospheric chemistry models is presented.

  16. Sterilization of Surfaces with a Handheld Atmospheric Pressure Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hicks, Robert; Habib, Sara; Chan, Wai; Gonzalez, Eleazar; Tijerina, A.; Sloan, Mark

    2009-10-01

    Low temperature, atmospheric pressure plasmas have shown great promise for decontaminating the surfaces of materials and equipment. In this study, an atmospheric pressure, oxygen and argon plasma was investigated for the destruction of viruses, bacteria, and spores. The plasma was operated at an argon flow rate of 30 L/min, an oxygen flow rate of 20 mL/min, a power density of 101.0 W/cm^3 (beam area = 5.1 cm^2), and at a distance from the surface of 7.1 mm. An average 6log10 reduction of viable spores was obtained after only 45 seconds of exposure to the reactive gas. By contrast, it takes more than 35 minutes at 121^oC to sterilize anthrax in an autoclave. The plasma properties were investigated by numerical modeling and chemical titration with nitric oxide. The numerical model included a detailed reaction mechanism for the discharge as well as for the afterglow. It was predicted that at a delivered power density of 29.3 W/cm^3, 30 L/min argon, and 0.01 volume% O2, the plasma generated 1.9 x 10^14 cm-3 O atoms, 1.6 x 10^12 cm-3 ozone, 9.3 x 10^13 cm-3 O2(^1δg), and 2.9 x 10^12 cm-3 O2(^1σ^+g) at 1 cm downstream of the source. The O atom density measured by chemical titration with NO was 6.0 x 10^14 cm-3 at the same conditions. It is believe that the oxygen atoms and the O2(^1δg) metastables were responsible for killing the anthrax and other microorganisms.

  17. Ion-ion recombination of H3O+ with I- and PO3-/PO2- in flames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chow, Christine C. Y.; Goodings, John M.

    1996-03-01

    Ion-ion recombination coefficients ki have been measured in a fuel-rich CH4---O2---Ar flame at 2582 K and atmospheric pressure for the H3O+ cation recombining with anions of iodine and phosphorus, relative to the electron-ion recombination of H3O+, assuming a rate coefficient ke of 4.1 × 10-7 cm3 molecule-1 s-1. Positive and negative ions were observed by sampling the flame through a nozzle into a mass spectrometer. Recombination coefficients were determined from the slopes of plots of the sampled inverse total positive ion current versus distance along the flame axis. For the H3O+/I- recombination, ki = (3.0 ± 1.0) × 10-8 cm3 molecule-1 s-1, considerably higher than the value of (1.2 ± 0.7) × 10-8 determined previously by other workers. A possible reason for the discrepancy involves the cooling which results from flame inhibition by iodine. With phosphorus additive, two major anions PO3- and PO2- jointly recombine with H3O+ to give a "global" rate coefficient ki = (3.7 ± 1.4) × 10-8 cm3 molecule-1 s-1.

  18. Kinetic study of IO radical with RO2 (R = CH(3), C2H5, and CF3) using cavity ring-down spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Enami, Shinichi; Yamanaka, Takashi; Hashimoto, Satoshi; Kawasaki, Masahiro; Nakano, Yukio; Ishiwata, Takashi

    2006-08-17

    The reactions of iodine monoxide radical, IO, with alkyl peroxide radicals, RO(2) (R = CH(3), C(2)H(5), and CF(3)), have been studied using cavity ring-down spectroscopy. The rate constant of the reaction of IO with CH(3)O(2) was determined to be (7.0 +/- 3.0) x 10(-11) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) at 298 K and 100 Torr of N(2) diluent. The quoted uncertainty is two standard deviations. No significant pressure dependence of the rate constant was observed at 30-130 Torr total pressure of N(2) diluent. The temperature dependence of the rate constants was also studied at 213-298 K. The upper limit of the branching ratio of OIO radical formation from IO + CH(3)O(2) was estimated to be <0.1. The reaction rate constants of IO + C(2)H(5)O(2) and IO + CF(3)O(2) were determined to be (14 +/- 6) x 10(-11) and (6.3 +/- 2.7) x 10(-11) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) at 298 K, 100 Torr of N(2) diluent, respectively. The upper limit of the reaction rate constant of IO with CH(3)I was <4 x 10(-14) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1).

  19. Conical slow wave antenna as a plasma source.

    PubMed

    Grubb, D P; Lovell, T

    1978-01-01

    A simple conical helix has been successfully employed as a slow wave structure to generate plasmas by electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH). The plasma is typical of plasmas created by ''Lisitano coil'' sources, n approximately 10(10)-10(12) cm(-3) with T(e) approximately 2-20 eV. This source, however, is much simpler to fabricate. The ease of fabrication allows the user some flexibility in designing the source to fit a specific plasma physics experiment.

  20. Reactive and nonreactive quenching of O(1D) by the potent greenhouse gases SO2F2, NF3, and SF5CF3.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhijun; Laine, Patrick L; Nicovich, J Michael; Wine, Paul H

    2010-04-13

    A laser flash photolysis-resonance fluorescence technique has been employed to measure rate coefficients and physical vs. reactive quenching branching ratios for O((1)D) deactivation by three potent greenhouse gases, SO(2)F(2)(k(1)), NF(3)(k(2)), and SF(5)CF(3)(k(3)). In excellent agreement with one published study, we find that k(1)(T) = 9.0 x 10(-11) exp(+98/T) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) and that the reactive quenching rate coefficient is k(1b) = (5.8 +/- 2.3) x 10(-11) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) independent of temperature. We find that k(2)(T) = 2.0 x 10(-11) exp(+52/T) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) with reaction proceeding almost entirely (approximately 99%) by reactive quenching. Reactive quenching of O((1)D) by NF(3) is more than a factor of two faster than reported in one published study, a result that will significantly lower the model-derived atmospheric lifetime and global warming potential of NF(3). Deactivation of O((1)D) by SF(5)CF(3) is slow enough (k(3) < 2.0 x 10(-13) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) at 298 K) that reaction with O((1)D) is unimportant as an atmospheric removal mechanism for SF(5)CF(3). The kinetics of O((1)D) reactions with SO(2) (k(4)) and CS(2) (k(5)) have also been investigated at 298 K. We find that k(4) = (2.2 +/- 0.3) x 10(-10) and k(5) = (4.6 +/- 0.6) x 10(-10) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1); branching ratios for reactive quenching are 0.76 +/- 0.12 and 0.94 +/- 0.06 for the SO(2) and CS(2) reactions, respectively. All uncertainties reported above are estimates of accuracy (2sigma) and rate coefficients k(i)(T) (i = 1,2) calculated from the above Arrhenius expressions have estimated accuracies of +/- 15% (2sigma).

  1. Experimental and theoretical understanding of the gas phase oxidation of atmospheric amides with OH radicals: kinetics, products, and mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Borduas, Nadine; da Silva, Gabriel; Murphy, Jennifer G; Abbatt, Jonathan P D

    2015-05-14

    Atmospheric amides have primary and secondary sources and are present in ambient air at low pptv levels. To better assess the fate of amides in the atmosphere, the room temperature (298 ± 3 K) rate coefficients of five different amides with OH radicals were determined in a 1 m(3) smog chamber using online proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS). Formamide, the simplest amide, has a rate coefficient of (4.44 ± 0.46) × 10(-12) cm(3) molec(-1) s(-1) against OH, translating to an atmospheric lifetime of ∼1 day. N-methylformamide, N-methylacetamide and propanamide, alkyl versions of formamide, have rate coefficients of (10.1 ± 0.6) × 10(-12), (5.42 ± 0.19) × 10(-12), and (1.78 ± 0.43) × 10(-12) cm(3) molec(-1) s(-1), respectively. Acetamide was also investigated, but due to its slow oxidation kinetics, we report a range of (0.4-1.1) × 10(-12) cm(3) molec(-1) s(-1) for its rate coefficient with OH radicals. Oxidation products were monitored and quantified and their time traces were fitted using a simple kinetic box model. To further probe the mechanism, ab initio calculations are used to identify the initial radical products of the amide reactions with OH. Our results indicate that N-H abstractions are negligible in all cases, in contrast to what is predicted by structure-activity relationships. Instead, the reactions proceed via C-H abstraction from alkyl groups and from formyl C(O)-H bonds when available. The latter process leads to radicals that can readily react with O2 to form isocyanates, explaining the detection of toxic compounds such as isocyanic acid (HNCO) and methyl isocyanate (CH3NCO). These contaminants of significant interest are primary oxidation products in the photochemical oxidation of formamide and N-methylformamide, respectively.

  2. Why no children? Report on a meeting of a Regional Working Group on Psychosocial Aspects of Voluntary and Involuntary Childlessness, held in London (UK) on 10-12 December 1979.

    PubMed

    1982-09-01

    The problem of childlessness has been largely overlooked in favor of research and promotion of family planning. The meeting on psychosocial aspects of voluntary and involuntary childlessness whose findings are presented distinguished between the 2 conditions and argued that the voluntary childless should be protected against moral pressures, often mediated by parents, to conform to societal norms like the 2-child family. Governments should confine themselves to ensuring availability of services to enable people to become parents should they so desire. The Working Group affirmed the need for studies of why people have children, and of the incidence of childlessness, and advised caution in deriving inferences about popular motives for childbearing. The parenthood aspect of family life education should be evaluated for bias, and should be used to encourage communication between couples contemplating marriage. Although current research on the voluntary childless is imperfect, they have been found to be urban, highly educated and well paid, to marry and remarry late, and to be irreligious. Childless couples tend to exhibit more egalitarian gender roles and to interact more intensely than parents do. It is not evident that voluntary childlessness prejudices mental health or personal happiness. Childless people have somewhat lower morbidity rates but higher mortality rates than parents. Parenthood is not a requirement of sexuality, but more of an expression of "ambition to survive" and transcend mortality. The impairment of personal freedom generates ambivalence about childbearing. Women for various reasons are usually more enthusiastic about childraising than men, and women usually also bear the main psychological burden of fertility regulation. Although the tools for doing so are not available, the Working Group argued that fitness for parenthood should be evaluated objectively before couples reproduce and not just in the case of adoptive parents. The Working Group similarly urged reflection by couples before they embark on parenthood.

  3. Single photon double ionization of familyseries Hfamilyseriesfontsize{10{12selectfont 2}} by circularly polarized photons at a photon energy of 160 eV. Interference, decoherence and its dependence on the internuclear distance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreidi, K.; Akoury, D.; Jahnke, T.; Weber, Th.; Staudte, A.; Schöffler, M.; Neumann, N.; Titze, J.; Schmidt, L. Ph. H.; Czasch, A.; Jagutzki, O.; Costa Fraga, R. A.; Grisenti, R. E.; Díez Muiño, R.; Cherepkov, N. A.; Semenov, S. K.; Ranitovic, P.; Cocke, C. L.; Osipov, T.; Adaniya, H.; Thompson, J. C.; Prior, M. H.; Belkacem, A.; Landers, A.; Schmidt-Böcking, H.; Dörner, R.

    2009-03-01

    We report on fully differential cross sections for double ionization of H2 by a single circularly polarized photon of 160 eV energy. For an unequal sharing of the energy between the two electrons and a particular geometry where the influence of electron/electron interaction is constant, we find a four-lobe structure in the molecular frame angular distribution of the faster electron. This structure is interpreted to be due to a coherent emission of the electron from the two atomic centers of the molecule. This Young-type interference pattern is lost for other geometries, where electron-electron interaction plays a major role. Furthermore, we show that the interference structure depends strongly on the internuclear distance.

  4. WNN 92; Proceedings of the 3rd Workshop on Neural Networks: Academic/Industrial/NASA/Defense, Auburn Univ., AL, Feb. 10-12, 1992 and South Shore Harbour, TX, Nov. 4-6, 1992

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Padgett, Mary L. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    The present conference discusses such neural networks (NN) related topics as their current development status, NN architectures, NN learning rules, NN optimization methods, NN temporal models, NN control methods, NN pattern recognition systems and applications, biological and biomedical applications of NNs, VLSI design techniques for NNs, NN systems simulation, fuzzy logic, and genetic algorithms. Attention is given to missileborne integrated NNs, adaptive-mixture NNs, implementable learning rules, an NN simulator for travelling salesman problem solutions, similarity-based forecasting, NN control of hypersonic aircraft takeoff, NN control of the Space Shuttle Arm, an adaptive NN robot manipulator controller, a synthetic approach to digital filtering, NNs for speech analysis, adaptive spline networks, an anticipatory fuzzy logic controller, and encoding operations for fuzzy associative memories.

  5. The flood event of 10-12 November 2013 on the Tiber River basin (central Italy): real-time flood forecasting with uncertainty supporting risk management and decision-making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berni, Nicola; Brocca, Luca; Barbetta, Silvia; Pandolfo, Claudia; Stelluti, Marco; Moramarco, Tommaso

    2014-05-01

    The Italian national hydro-meteorological early warning system is composed by 21 regional offices (Functional Centres, CF). Umbria Region (central Italy) CF provides early warning for floods and landslides, real-time monitoring and decision support systems (DSS) for the Civil Defence Authorities when significant events occur. The alert system is based on hydrometric and rainfall thresholds with detailed procedures for the management of critical events in which different roles of authorities and institutions involved are defined. The real-time flood forecasting system is based also on different hydrological and hydraulic forecasting models. Among these, the MISDc rainfall-runoff model ("Modello Idrologico SemiDistribuito in continuo"; Brocca et al., 2011) and the flood routing model named STAFOM-RCM (STAge Forecasting Model-Rating Curve Model; Barbetta et al., 2014) are continuously operative in real-time providing discharge and stage forecasts, respectively, with lead-times up to 24 hours (when quantitative precipitation forecasts are used) in several gauged river sections in the Upper-Middle Tiber River basin. Models results are published in real-time in the open source CF web platform: www.cfumbria.it. MISDc provides discharge and soil moisture forecasts for different sub-basins while STAFOM-RCM provides stage forecasts at hydrometric sections. Moreover, through STAFOM-RCM the uncertainty of the forecast stage hydrograph is provided in terms of 95% Confidence Interval (CI) assessed by analyzing the statistical properties of model output in terms of lateral. In the period 10th-12th November 2013, a severe flood event occurred in Umbria mainly affecting the north-eastern area and causing significant economic damages, but fortunately no casualties. The territory was interested by intense and persistent rainfall; the hydro-meteorological monitoring network recorded locally rainfall depth over 400 mm in 72 hours. In the most affected area, the recorded rainfall depths correspond approximately to a return period of 200 years. Most rivers in Umbria have been involved, exceeding hydrometric thresholds and causing flooding (e.g. Chiascio river). The flood event was continuously monitored at the Umbria Region CF and the possible evolution predicted and assessed on the basis of the model forecasts. The predictions provided by MISDc and STAFOM-RCM were found useful to support real-time decision-making addressed to flood risk management. Moreover, the quantification of the uncertainty affecting the deterministic forecast stages was found consistent with the level of confidence selected and had practical utility corroborating the need of coupling deterministic forecast and 'uncertainty' when the model output is used to support decisions about flood management. REFERENCES Barbetta, S., Moramarco, T., Brocca, L., Franchini, M., Melone, F. (2014). Confidence interval of real-time forecast stages provided by the STAFOM-RCM model: the case study of the Tiber River (Italy). Hydrological Processes, 28(3), 729-743. Brocca, L., Melone, F., Moramarco, T. (2011). Distributed rainfall-runoff modelling for flood frequency estimation and flood forecasting. Hydrological Processes, 25 (18), 2801-2813

  6. 10-Formyl-2,4,6,8,12-penta­nitro-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexa­azatetra­cyclo­[5.5.0.03,11.05,9]dodeca­ne

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Shaohua; Chen, Shusen; Chen, Huaxiong; Li, Lijie; Shi, Yanshan

    2009-01-01

    The title compound, C7H7N11O11 (PNMFIW), is a caged heterocycle substituted with five nitro and one formyl groups. It is related to the hexa­azaisowurtzitane family of high-density high-energy polycyclic cage compounds. Four nitro groups are appended to the four N atoms of the two five-membered rings, while a nitro group and a formyl are attached to the two N atoms of the six-membered ring. PMID:21578838

  7. State-of-the-art on basic and applied stem cell therapy; Stem Cell Research Italy-International Society for Cellular Therapy Europe, Joint Meeting, Montesilvano (PE)-Italy, June 10-12, 2011.

    PubMed

    Siniscalco, Dario; Pandolfi, Assunta; Galderisi, Umberto

    2012-03-20

    Over 160 stem cell-based therapeutic products are undergoing development for the treatment of several diseases, ranging from cardiac and artery diseases to immune and neurodegenerative pathologies, including diabetes, spinal cord injury. Therefore, stem cell therapy plays a key role for developing new cell-based drugs for the future molecular and regenerative medicine. The second meeting organized by Stem Cell Research Italy (SCR Italy) and by the International Society for Cellular Therapy-Europe (ISCT) in Montesilvano/Città S. Angelo (Pescara)-Italy, on June 10th-12th, 2011, focused on the state-of-the-art of stem cell therapy and associated novel findings on stem cell research ( www.stemcellitaly.org ).

  8. Research in Science Education...1992. Selected Refereed Papers from the Annual Conference of the Australasian Science Education Research Association (23rd, Hamilton, New Zealand, July 10-12, 1992).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Paul L., Ed.

    1992-01-01

    This volume contains 48 papers and 9 abstracts/research notes. Titles include: "Alternative constructs and cognitive development: commonalities, divergences and possibilities for evidence"; "Discipline knowledge and confidence to teach science: self-perceptions of primary teacher education students"; "Teacher beliefs about learning and teaching in…

  9. Health Management Workshop. A Three-Phased Training Program for CHR (Community Health Representative) Supervisors, February 4-6, 1975; April 8-10, 1975; June 10-12, 1975).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Public Health Service (DHEW), Washington, DC. Div. of Indian Health.

    A series of mini courses in the basics of management, information systems, and personnel, the workshop was developed for tribal health program managers. The workshop aimed to provide: supervisory management training which was relevant to the need of tribal health supervisors; demonstrable evidence of understanding and application of new skills;…

  10. Applications of Phase Diagrams in Metallurgy and Ceramics: Proceedings of a Workshop Held at the National Bureau of Standards, Gaithersburg, Maryland, January 10-12, 1977. Volumes 1 [and] 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, G. C., Ed.

    This document is a special National Bureau of Standards publication on a Workshop on Applications of Phase Diagrams in Metallurgy and Ceramics. The purposes of the Workshop were: (1) to assess the current national and international status of phase diagram determinations and evaluations for alloys, ceramics and semiconductors; (2) to determine the…

  11. Interdisciplinary Curricula, General Education, and Liberal Learning. Selected Papers from the Annual Conference of the Institute for the Study of Postsecondary Pedagogy (3rd, Lake Mohonk, New York, November 10-12, 1993).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelder, Richard, Ed.

    This collection of 26 papers focuses on interdisciplinarity and its impact on the core or general education curriculum at postsecondary institutions. The papers include: "Professing or Instructing: Outstanding Challenges in the Task of Facilitating Student Reflection on Identity as Individual, as Family Member, and as Citizen" (Steve R. Gordy and…

  12. Linking Science Education to Real Life: Curriculum Design, Development and Implementation. Report of a Sub-Regional Workshop on Designing and Developing Innovative Science Curriculum and Instructional Materials (Colombo, Sri Lanka, December 10-12, 1979).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and Oceania.

    The purposes of this Unesco workshop were to: (1) share experience gathered during national level workshops and identify problems, growth points, and methodologies of innovative projects, particularly those with focus on the use of locally available resources and environment as an alternative to and complement of laboratories; (2) based on the…

  13. The density dependence of neutral hydrogen density and neutral hydrogen emission from PLT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruzic, D. N.; Heifetz, D. B.; Cohen, S. A.

    1987-02-01

    The efflux of atoms with energies greater than 10 eV from tokamaks results primarily from charge exchange. This flux is useful as a diagnostic of plasma properties such as particle transport, particle confinement, power balance, neutral density, and ion temperature. This flux also contributes to plasma contamination by sputtering of impurities from walls and limiters. We have measured the efflux of neutral hydrogen in the energy range from 10 to 2000 eV as a function of plasma parameters in the steady-state portion of ohmically heated discharges in PLT. Results have been obtained both near the main plasma limiter and far away from it. These data serve as a benchmark for comparing atomic emission during auxiliary heating and current drive. We find that the main parameter which affects the efflux is the plasma density. The total energy-integrated efflux, Γ, rises rapidly with overlinene to Γ = 4 × 10 15cm-2s-1 at overlinene = 1 × 10 13cm -3, and then falls a factor of 2-4. The total efflux is then relatively constant with overlinene up to overlinene ≈ 6 × 10 13cm -3. The average energy of the efflux rises from 180 eV at overlinene = 10 12 cm -3 to 500 eV at overlinene = 10 13 cm -3. It then decreases to approximately 150 eV at overlinene = 2 × 10 13cm -3, and drops slightly more to 100 eV at overlinene ≈ 6 × 10 13cm -3. Using the measured dΓ/dEdΩ spectra, electron temperature, and electron density as inputs and consistency checks, the ion temperature profiles and 3-dimensional neutral density profiles are calculated using the DEGAS code. From these calculations the particle confinement time, impurity generation by sputtering, and contribution of ions and charge-exchange neutrals to the power balance are evaluated as a function of electron density. The importance of the limiter to recycling at high densities is clearly demonstrated. The ratio of the ion flux onto the limiter versus the ion flux onto the wall goes from 4.8 at overlinene = 1.8 × 10 12cm -3

  14. Passion and Politics: 99 Years of Adult Education. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Canadian Association for the Study of Adult Education (18th, Montreal, Canada, June 10-12, 1999) = Passion et Politique: 99 Ans d'Education des Adultes. Actes Annuel de L'Association Canadienne pour L'Etude de L'Education des Adultes (18e, Montreal, Canada, 10-12 Juin, 1999).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hrimech, Mohamed, Ed.

    This document contains 35 papers and 4 symposia/poster sessions presented at a Canadian conference on the study of adult education. The following papers are among those included: "Adult Education on the Internet: New Dawn Breaking or Sky Falling?" (Archer); "'Shapeshifting': Negotiating Identity in First Nations Adult Education" (Atleo, Atleo);…

  15. Gas-phase rate coefficients for the OH + n-, i-, s-, and t-butanol reactions measured between 220 and 380 K: non-Arrhenius behavior and site-specific reactivity.

    PubMed

    McGillen, Max R; Baasandorj, Munkhbayar; Burkholder, James B

    2013-06-01

    Butanol (C4H9OH) is a potential biofuel alternative in fossil fuel gasoline and diesel formulations. The usage of butanol would necessarily lead to direct emissions into the atmosphere; thus, an understanding of its atmospheric processing and environmental impact is desired. Reaction with the OH radical is expected to be the predominant atmospheric removal process for the four aliphatic isomers of butanol. In this work, rate coefficients, k, for the gas-phase reaction of the n-, i-, s-, and t-butanol isomers with the OH radical were measured under pseudo-first-order conditions in OH using pulsed laser photolysis to produce OH radicals and laser induced fluorescence to monitor its temporal profile. Rate coefficients were measured over the temperature range 221-381 K at total pressures between 50 and 200 Torr (He). The reactions exhibited non-Arrhenius behavior over this temperature range and no dependence on total pressure with k(296 K) values of (9.68 ± 0.75), (9.72 ± 0.72), (8.88 ± 0.69), and (1.04 ± 0.08) (in units of 10(-12) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1)) for n-, i-, s-, and t-butanol, respectively. The quoted uncertainties are at the 2σ level and include estimated systematic errors. The observed non-Arrhenius behavior is interpreted here to result from a competition between the available H-atom abstraction reactive sites, which have different activation energies and pre-exponential factors. The present results are compared with results from previous kinetic studies, structure-activity relationships (SARs), and theoretical calculations and the discrepancies are discussed. Results from this work were combined with available high temperature (1200-1800 K) rate coefficient data and room temperature reaction end-product yields, where available, to derive a self-consistent site-specific set of reaction rate coefficients of the form AT(n) exp(-E/RT) for use in atmospheric and combustion chemistry modeling.

  16. Absolute rate coefficients over extended temperature ranges and mechanisms of the CF(X(2)Pi) reactions with F(2), Cl(2) and O(2).

    PubMed

    Vetters, B; Dils, B; Nguyen, T L; Vereecken, L; Carl, S A; Peeters, J

    2009-06-01

    The absolute rate coefficients of the reactions of the carbyne-radical CF(X(2)Pi, nu = 0) with O(2), F(2) and Cl(2) have been measured over extended temperature ranges, using pulsed-laser photodissociation-laser-induced fluorescence (PLP-LIF) techniques. The CF(X(2)Pi) radicals were generated by KrF excimer laser 2-photon photolysis of CF(2)Br(2) at 248 nm and the real-time exponential decays of CF(X(2)Pi, nu = 0) at varying coreactant concentrations, in large excess, were monitored by LIF (A(2)Sigma(+), nu' = 1 <-- X(2)Pi, nu'' = 0 transition). The experimental bimolecular rate coefficients of the CF(X(2)Pi) reactions with F(2) and Cl(2) can be described by simple Arrhenius expressions: k(F2)(295-408 K) = (1.5 +/- 0.2) x 10(-11) exp[-(370 +/- 40)K/T] cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1); and k(Cl2)(295-392 K) = (6.1 +/- 2.1) x 10(-12) exp[+(280 +/- 120)K/T]. The k(F2)(T) and k(Cl2)(T) results can be rationalized in terms of direct halogen-atom abstraction reactions in which the radical character of CF dominates; a quantum chemical CBS-Q//BHandHLYP/6-311G(d,p) study confirms that the ground state reactants CF(X(2)Pi) + F(2)(X(1)Sigma) connect directly with the ground-state products CF(2)(X(1)A(1)) + F((2)P) via a nearly barrierless F-atom abstraction route. The rate coefficient of CF(X(2)Pi) + O(2) can be represented by a two-term Arrhenius expression: k(O2)(258-780 K) = 1.1 x 10(-11) exp(-850 K/T) + 2.3 x 10(-13) exp(500 K/T), with a standard deviation of 5%. The first term dominates at higher temperatures T and the second at lower T where a negative temperature dependence is observed (<290 K). Quantum chemical computations at the CBS-QB3 and CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVDZ levels of theory show that the k(O2)(T) behaviour is consistent with a change of the dominant rate-determining mechanism from a carbyne-type insertion into the O-O bond at high T to a radical-radical combination at low T.

  17. Vibrational and rotational energy transfers involving the CH B 2Σ- v=1 vibrational level in collisions with Ar, CO, and N2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Hong-Yi; Tsai, Ming-Tsang; Lin, King-Chuen

    2006-04-01

    With photolysis-probe technique, we have studied vibrational and rotational energy transfers of CH involving the B Σ-2 (v =1, 0⩽N⩽6, F) state by collisions with Ar, CO, and N2O. For the vibrational energy transfer (VET) measurements, the time-resolved fluorescence of the B-X(0,0) band is monitored following the (1,0) band excitation. For the rotational energy transfer (RET) measurements, the laser-induced fluorescence of the initially populated state is dispersed using a step-scan Fourier transform spectrometer. The time-resolved spectra obtained in the nanosecond regime may yield the RET information under a single pressure of the collider. The rate constants of intramolecular energy transfers are evaluated with simulation of kinetic models. The VET lies in the range of 4×10-12to4×10-11cm3molecule-1s-1, with efficiency following the order of Ar

  18. Kinetics of the ClO + HO2 reaction over the temperature range T = 210-298 K.

    PubMed

    Ward, Michael K M; Rowley, David M

    2016-02-17

    The rate coefficient for the atmospherically important radical reaction: which leads to ozone depletion, has been studied over the temperature range T = 210-298 K and at ambient pressure p = 760 ± 20 Torr. The reaction was studied using laser flash photolysis radical generation coupled with broadband charge coupled device absorption spectroscopy employing a two-dimensional charge-coupled-device (CCD) detection system. ClO radicals were generated following the photolysis of Cl2 and Cl2O gas mixtures diluted in nitrogen and oxygen. ClO radicals were monitored using broadband fingerprinting of their characteristic vibronic (A(2)Π ← X(2)Π) spectral structure, representing a definitive monitoring of this radical. Addition of hydroperoxy radical precursors to the gas mixture (methanol and oxygen) subsequently led to a competition for photolytically generated Cl atoms and a simultaneous prompt formation of both ClO and HO2 radicals. Detailed analysis and modelling of the radical production routes provided a degree of constraint into numerical integration simulations which were then used to interrogate and fit to ClO temporal profiles to extract the rate coefficient k1. The ambient temperature (T = 298 K) rate coefficient reported is k1 = (8.5 ± 1.5) × 10(-12) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1). The rate coefficient, k1, is described by the Arrhenius expression:where errors are 1σ statistical only. This significant rate coefficient is greater than previously reported, with a stronger negative temperature dependence than previously observed. Consequently this suggests that the contribution of to ozone loss, in particular at mid-latitudes might be currently underestimated in models. This work reports atmospheric pressure kinetic parameters for this reaction which are greater than those reported from low pressure studies, perhaps supporting ClO and HO2 association as predicted by previous theoretical studies of this process and highlighting the need for further pressure

  19. Gas-Phase Ozonolysis of Cycloalkenes: Formation of Highly Oxidized RO2 Radicals and Their Reactions with NO, NO2, SO2, and Other RO2 Radicals.

    PubMed

    Berndt, Torsten; Richters, Stefanie; Kaethner, Ralf; Voigtländer, Jens; Stratmann, Frank; Sipilä, Mikko; Kulmala, Markku; Herrmann, Hartmut

    2015-10-15

    The gas-phase reaction of ozone with C5-C8 cycloalkenes has been investigated in a free-jet flow system at atmospheric pressure and a temperature of 297 ± 1 K. Highly oxidized RO2 radicals bearing at least 5 O atoms in the molecule and their subsequent reaction products were detected in most cases by means of nitrate-CI-APi-TOF mass spectrometry. Starting from a Criegee intermediate after splitting-off an OH-radical, the formation of these RO2 radicals can be explained via an autoxidation mechanism, meaning RO2 isomerization (ROO → QOOH) and subsequently O2 addition (QOOH + O2 → R'OO). Time-dependent RO2 radical measurements concerning the ozonolysis of cyclohexene indicate rate coefficients of the intramolecular H-shifts, ROO → QOOH, higher than 1 s(-1). The total molar yield of highly oxidized products (predominantly RO2 radicals) from C5-C8 cycloalkenes in air is 4.8-6.0% affected with a calibration uncertainty by a factor of about two. For the most abundant RO2 radical from cyclohexene ozonolysis, O,O-C6H7(OOH)2O2 ("O,O" stands for two O atoms arising from the ozone attack), the determination of the rate coefficients of the reaction with NO2, NO, and SO2 yielded (1.6 ± 0.5) × 10(-12), (3.4 ± 0.9) × 10(-11), and <10(-14) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1), respectively. The reaction of highly oxidized RO2 radicals with other peroxy radicals (R'O2) leads to detectable accretion products, RO2 + R'O2 → ROOR' + O2, which allows to acquire information on peroxy radicals not directly measurable with the nitrate ionization technique applied here. Additional experiments using acetate as the charger ion confirm conclusively the existence of highly oxidized RO2 radicals and closed-shell products. Other reaction products, detectable with this ionization technique, give a deeper insight in the reaction mechanism of cyclohexene ozonolysis. PMID:26392132

  20. Laboratory studies of potentially important atmospheric processes involving oxides of nitrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estupinan, Edgar Garcia

    2001-12-01

    The work presented in this dissertation comprises two major objectives. The first objective has been to carry out an investigation of the production of N2O from reactions of electronically and vibrationally excited atmospheric trace species with N2 (using tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy as the N2O detection method). The second objective of this study has been to accurately investigate the kinetics of the important stratospheric reaction O(3P) + NO2 --> O2 + NO (k1) (using the technique of laser flash photolysis-resonance fluorescence). Investigation of N2O production from the collisional deactivation of electronically excited NO 2 and OH by N2 and from the interaction of nascent O 3 with N2 have resulted in upper limit quantum yields which render all three processes as insignificant sources of atmospheric N 2O. The following expression adequately describes the observed temperature dependence of the rate coefficient for the reaction O(1D) + N2 + M --> N2O + M (k2) in its third order low-pressure limit over the temperature range 220-324 K: k2,0(T) = (2.72 +/- 0.08) × 10-36 (T/300)-(0.92 +/- 0.37) cm6 molecule-2 s-1, where the uncertainties represent precision at the 2σ level. The accuracy of the reported rate coefficients is estimated to range from 30 to 40%. Preliminary calculations indicate that reaction 2 represents a source of about 0.2 Tg N2O per year to the atmosphere (i.e., about 1% of the currently estimated global source budget of N 2O). This is the first suggested mechanism that generates N2O photochemically in the atmosphere that is capable of explaining the altitude dependence of the N2O isotopic signature. The following Arrhenius expression adequately describes the observed temperature dependence of the rate coefficient for reaction 1: k1(T ) = (4.21 +/- 0.25) × 10-12 exp[(273 +/- 18)/T] cm3 molecule-1 s-1, where the uncertainties represent precision at the 2σ level. The accuracy of the reported values for k 1(T) is estimated to be +/-6