Science.gov

Sample records for 10-13 mol cm-2

  1. AMR on the CM-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berger, Marsha J.; Saltzman, Jeff S.

    1992-01-01

    We describe the development of a structured adaptive mesh algorithm (AMR) for the Connection Machine-2 (CM-2). We develop a data layout scheme that preserves locality even for communication between fine and coarse grids. On 8K of a 32K machine we achieve performance slightly less than 1 CPU of the Cray Y-MP. We apply our algorithm to an inviscid compressible flow problem.

  2. 49 CFR 10.13 - Privacy Officer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Privacy Officer. 10.13 Section 10.13... INDIVIDUALS General § 10.13 Privacy Officer. (a) To assist with implementation, evaluation, and administration issues, the Chief Information Officer appoints a principal coordinating official with the title...

  3. 49 CFR 10.13 - Privacy Officer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Privacy Officer. 10.13 Section 10.13... INDIVIDUALS General § 10.13 Privacy Officer. (a) To assist with implementation, evaluation, and administration issues, the Chief Information Officer appoints a principal coordinating official with the title...

  4. 49 CFR 10.13 - Privacy Officer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Privacy Officer. 10.13 Section 10.13... INDIVIDUALS General § 10.13 Privacy Officer. (a) To assist with implementation, evaluation, and administration issues, the Chief Information Officer appoints a principal coordinating official with the title...

  5. 49 CFR 10.13 - Privacy Officer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Privacy Officer. 10.13 Section 10.13... INDIVIDUALS General § 10.13 Privacy Officer. (a) To assist with implementation, evaluation, and administration issues, the Chief Information Officer appoints a principal coordinating official with the title...

  6. 49 CFR 10.13 - Privacy Officer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Privacy Officer. 10.13 Section 10.13... INDIVIDUALS General § 10.13 Privacy Officer. (a) To assist with implementation, evaluation, and administration issues, the Chief Information Officer appoints a principal coordinating official with the title...

  7. 43 CFR 10.13 - Future applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Future applicability. 10.13 Section 10.13... Museums and Federal Collections § 10.13 Future applicability. (a) General. This section sets forth the... sections of 43 CFR 10....

  8. 43 CFR 10.13 - Future applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Future applicability. 10.13 Section 10.13... Museums and Federal Collections § 10.13 Future applicability. (a) General. This section sets forth the... sections of 43 CFR 10....

  9. 43 CFR 10.13 - Future applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Future applicability. 10.13 Section 10.13... Museums and Federal Collections § 10.13 Future applicability. (a) General. This section sets forth the... this section must also comply with all other relevant sections of 43 CFR 10....

  10. 44 CFR 10.13 - Emergencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Emergencies. 10.13 Section 10.13 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS Agency Implementing Procedures § 10.13 Emergencies. In...

  11. 43 CFR 10.13 - Future applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... this section must also comply with all other relevant sections of 43 CFR 10. ... Museums and Federal Collections § 10.13 Future applicability. (a) General. This section sets forth the applicability of the Act to museums and Federal agencies after expiration of the statutory deadlines...

  12. Lessons Learned From CM-2 Modal Testing and Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McNelis, Mark E.; Goodnight, Thomas W.; Carney, Kelly S.; Otten, Kim D.

    2002-01-01

    The Combustion Module-2 (CM-2) is a space experiment that launches on Shuttle mission STS-107 in the SPACEHAB Double Research Module. The CM-2 flight hardware is installed into SPACEHAB single and double racks. The CM-2 flight hardware was vibration tested in the launch configuration to characterize the structure's modal response. Cross-orthogonality between test and analysis mode shapes were used to assess model correlation. Lessons learned for pre-test planning and model verification are discussed.

  13. Characterization of Luminescent Minerals in CM2 Chondrite (Jbilet Winselwan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiku, Y. K.; Ohgo, S. O.; Nishido, H. N.

    2014-09-01

    We have characterized luminescent minerals of forsterite, diopside and spinel in the CM2 chondrite (Jbilet Winselwan) using SEM-CL and to discuss the formation of the luminescent minerals under aqueous conditions.

  14. CM-2 Environmental / Modal Testing of Spacehab Racks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McNelis, Mark E.; Goodnight, Thomas W.; Farkas, Michael A.

    2001-01-01

    Combined environmental/modal vibration testing has been implemented at the NASA Glenn Research Center's Structural Dynamics Laboratory. The benefits of combined vibration testing are that it facilitates test article modal characterization and vibration qualification testing. The Combustion Module-2 (CM-2) is a space experiment that launches on Shuttle mission STS 107 in the SPACEHAB Research Double Module. The CM-2 flight hardware is integrated into a SPACEHAB single and double rack. CM-2 rack level combined vibration testing was recently completed on a shaker table to characterize the structure's modal response and verify the random vibration response. Control accelerometers and limit force gauges, located between the fixture and rack interface, were used to verify the input excitation. Results of the testing were used to verify the loads and environments for flight on the Shuttle.

  15. CM-2 Environmental/Modal Testing of SPACEHAB Racks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McNelis, Mark E.; Goodnight, Thomas W.

    2001-01-01

    Combined environmental/modal vibration testing has been implemented at the NASA Glenn Research Center's Structural Dynamics Laboratory. The benefits of combined vibration testing are that it facilitates test article modal characterization and vibration qualification testing. The Combustion Module-2 (CM-2) is a space experiment that will launch on shuttle mission STS-107 in the SPACEHAB Research Double Module. The CM-2 flight hardware is integrated into a SPACEHAB single and double rack. CM-2 rack-level combined vibration testing was recently completed on a shaker table to characterize the structure's modal response and verify the random vibration response. Control accelerometers and limit force gauges, located between the fixture and rack interface, were used to verify the input excitation. Results of the testing were used to verify the loads and environments for flight on the shuttles.

  16. Benchmarking and performance analysis of the CM-2. [SIMD computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, David W.; Adams, George B., II

    1988-01-01

    A suite of benchmarking routines testing communication, basic arithmetic operations, and selected kernel algorithms written in LISP and PARIS was developed for the CM-2. Experiment runs are automated via a software framework that sequences individual tests, allowing for unattended overnight operation. Multiple measurements are made and treated statistically to generate well-characterized results from the noisy values given by cm:time. The results obtained provide a comparison with similar, but less extensive, testing done on a CM-1. Tests were chosen to aid the algorithmist in constructing fast, efficient, and correct code on the CM-2, as well as gain insight into what performance criteria are needed when evaluating parallel processing machines.

  17. 46 CFR 188.10-13 - Coast Guard District Commander.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Coast Guard District Commander. 188.10-13 Section 188.10-13 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 188.10-13 Coast Guard District...

  18. 46 CFR 188.10-13 - Coast Guard District Commander.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Coast Guard District Commander. 188.10-13 Section 188.10-13 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 188.10-13 Coast Guard District...

  19. 46 CFR 188.10-13 - Coast Guard District Commander.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Coast Guard District Commander. 188.10-13 Section 188.10-13 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 188.10-13 Coast Guard District Commander. This term means an officer of the...

  20. 46 CFR 188.10-13 - Coast Guard District Commander.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Coast Guard District Commander. 188.10-13 Section 188.10-13 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 188.10-13 Coast Guard District Commander. This term means an officer of the...

  1. 46 CFR 188.10-13 - Coast Guard District Commander.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Coast Guard District Commander. 188.10-13 Section 188.10-13 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 188.10-13 Coast Guard District...

  2. 46 CFR 90.10-13 - Great Lakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Great Lakes. 90.10-13 Section 90.10-13 Shipping COAST... Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 90.10-13 Great Lakes. Under this designation shall be included all vessels navigating the Great Lakes....

  3. 46 CFR 90.10-13 - Great Lakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Great Lakes. 90.10-13 Section 90.10-13 Shipping COAST... Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 90.10-13 Great Lakes. Under this designation shall be included all vessels navigating the Great Lakes....

  4. 46 CFR 30.10-13 - Cofferdam-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cofferdam-TB/ALL. 30.10-13 Section 30.10-13 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-13 Cofferdam—TB/ALL. The term cofferdam means a void or empty space separating two or more compartments for...

  5. 46 CFR 30.10-13 - Cofferdam-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cofferdam-TB/ALL. 30.10-13 Section 30.10-13 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-13 Cofferdam—TB/ALL. The term cofferdam means a void or empty space separating two or more compartments for...

  6. 1 CFR 10.13 - Coverage of prior years.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Coverage of prior years. 10.13 Section 10.13 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER SPECIAL EDITIONS OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER PRESIDENTIAL PAPERS Annual Publication § 10.13 Coverage of prior years. The...

  7. 1 CFR 10.13 - Coverage of prior years.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true Coverage of prior years. 10.13 Section 10.13 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER SPECIAL EDITIONS OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER PRESIDENTIAL PAPERS Annual Publication § 10.13 Coverage of prior years. The...

  8. 1 CFR 10.13 - Coverage of prior years.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Coverage of prior years. 10.13 Section 10.13 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER SPECIAL EDITIONS OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER PRESIDENTIAL PAPERS Annual Publication § 10.13 Coverage of prior years. The...

  9. 1 CFR 10.13 - Coverage of prior years.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Coverage of prior years. 10.13 Section 10.13 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER SPECIAL EDITIONS OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER PRESIDENTIAL PAPERS Annual Publication § 10.13 Coverage of prior years. The...

  10. 1 CFR 10.13 - Coverage of prior years.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Coverage of prior years. 10.13 Section 10.13 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER SPECIAL EDITIONS OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER PRESIDENTIAL PAPERS Annual Publication § 10.13 Coverage of prior years. The...

  11. Microbiological study of the Murchison CM2 meteorite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pikuta, Elena V.; Hoover, Richard B.

    2012-10-01

    In 1864, Louis Pasteur attempted to cultivate living microorganisms from pristine samples of the Orgueil CI1 carbonaceous meteorite. His results were negative and never published, but recorded it in his laboratory notebooks. At that time, only aerobic liquid or agar-based organic reach media were used, as his research on anaerobes had just started. In our laboratory the Murchison CM2 carbonaceous meteorite was selected to expand on these studies for microbiological study by cultivation on anaerobic mineral media. Since the surface could have been more easily contaminated, interior fragments of a sample of the Murchison meteorite were extracted and crushed under sterile conditions. The resulting powder was then mixed in anoxic medium and injected into Hungate tubes containing anaerobic media with various growth substrates at different pH and salinity and incubated at different temperatures. The goal of the experiments was to determine if living cells would grow from the material of freshly fractured interior fragments of the stone. If any growth occurred, work could then be carried out to assess the nature of the environmental contamination by observations of the culture growth (rates of speed and biodiversity); live/dead fluorescent staining to determine contamination level and DNA analysis to establish the microbial species present. In this paper we report the results of that study.

  12. Presolar grains in the CM2 chondrite Sutter's Mill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xuchao; Lin, Yangting; Yin, Qing-Zhu; Zhang, Jianchao; Hao, Jialong; Zolensky, Michael; Jenniskens, Peter

    2014-11-01

    The Sutter's Mill (SM) carbonaceous chondrite is a regolith breccia, composed predominantly of CM2 clasts with varying degrees of aqueous alteration and thermal metamorphism. An investigation of presolar grains in four Sutter's Mill sections, SM43, SM51, SM2-4, and SM18, was carried out using NanoSIMS ion mapping technique. A total of 37 C-anomalous grains and one O-anomalous grain have been identified, indicating an abundance of 63 ppm for presolar C-anomalous grains and 2 ppm for presolar oxides. Thirty-one silicon carbide (SiC), five carbonaceous grains, and one Al-oxide (Al2O3) were confirmed based on their elemental compositions determined by C-N-Si and O-Si-Mg-Al isotopic measurements. The overall abundance of SiC grains in Sutter's Mill (55 ppm) is consistent with those in other CM chondrites. The absence of presolar silicates in Sutter's Mill suggests that they were destroyed by aqueous alteration on the parent asteroid. Furthermore, SM2-4 shows heterogeneous distributions of presolar SiC grains (12-54 ppm) in different matrix areas, indicating that the fine-grained matrix clasts come from different sources, with various thermal histories, in the solar nebula.

  13. 15 CFR 10.13 - Withdrawal of a published standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT OF VOLUNTARY PRODUCT STANDARDS § 10.13 Withdrawal of a published standard. (a) Standards published... organization, or that lack of government sponsorship would result in significant public disadvantage for legal... advantages and disadvantages of amendment, revision, development of a new standard, or withdrawal with...

  14. Gas-Phase Oxidation of Cm+ and Cm2+ -- Thermodynamics of neutral and ionized CmO

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, John K; Haire, Richard G.; Santos, Marta; Pires de Matos, Antonio; Marcalo, Joaquim

    2008-12-08

    Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry was employed to study the products and kinetics of gas-phase reactions of Cm+ and Cm2+; parallel studies were carried out with La+/2+, Gd+/2+ and Lu+/2+. Reactions with oxygen-donor molecules provided estimates for the bond dissociation energies, D[M+-O](M = Cm, Gd, Lu). The first ionization energy, IE[CmO], was obtained from the reactivity of CmO+ with dienes, and the second ionization energies, IE[MO+](M = Cm, La, Gd, Lu), from the rates of electron-transfer reactions from neutrals to the MO2+ ions. The following thermodynamic quantities for curium oxide molecules were obtained: IE[CmO]= 6.4+-0.2 eV; IE[CmO+]= 15.8+-0.4 eV; D[Cm-O]= 710+-45 kJ mol-1; D[Cm+-O]= 670+-40 kJ mol-1; and D[Cm2+-O]= 342+-55 kJ mol-1. Estimates for the M2+-O bond energies for M = Cm, La, Gd and Lu are all intermediate between D[N2-O]and D[OC-O]--i.e., 167 kJ mol-1< D[M2+-O]< 532 kJ mol-1 -- such that the four MO2+ ions fulfill the thermodynamic requirement for catalytic O-atom transport from N2O to CO. It was demonstrated that the kinetics are also favorable and that the CmO2+, LaO2+, GdO2+ and LuO2+ dipositive ions each catalyze the gas-phase oxidation of CO to CO2 by N2O. The CmO2+ ion appeared during the reaction of Cm+ with O2 when the intermediate, CmO+, was not collisionally cooled -- although its formation is kinetically and/or thermodynamically unfavorable, CmO2+ is a stable species.

  15. MolView users guide

    SciTech Connect

    Walenz, B.P.

    1996-06-01

    A system for viewing molecular data in a CAVE virtual reality environment is presented. The system, called MolView, consists of a frontend driver program that prepares the data and a backend CAVE program that displays the data. Both are written so that modifications and extensions are relatively easy to accomplish.

  16. Development of carbon foils with a thickness of up to 600 μg/cm 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kindler, Birgit; Hartmann, Willi; Hübner, Annett; Lommel, Bettina; Steiner, Jutta

    2010-02-01

    Carbon foils are applied as stripper for the heavy-ion accelerator as well as targets in different experiments at GSI. Carbon foils in a thickness range 5-100 μg/cm 2 are routinely produced with good homogeneity and excellent durability. Foils thicker than 100 μg/cm 2 used to be purchased. To overcome problems that emerged and intensified in some applications we started to advance our own carbon production towards higher thickness. We describe the production of carbon foils up to a thickness of 600 μg/cm 2, report on first tests as stripper foils and as targets, and discuss our future plans.

  17. Development and characterization of a 280 cm2 vanadium/oxygen fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noack, Jens; Cremers, Carsten; Bayer, Domnik; Tübke, Jens; Pinkwart, Karsten

    2014-05-01

    A vanadium/oxygen fuel cell with an active area of 280 cm2 has been developed. The cell consisted of two membranes with two half-cells and an intermediate chamber. The maximum achieved power density was 23 mW cm-2 at 0.56 V with lambda air = 3 and a 1.6 M V2+ solution at room temperature. The average discharge power density was 19.6 mW cm-2 at a constant current density of 40 mA cm-2 with an average voltage efficiency of 33%. The fuel based energy density was 18.2% of the theoretical value with 11.8 Wh L-1. In comparison with a similarly constructed 50 cm2 cell, both achieved similar performance levels. An analysis using the half-cell potential profiles and by means of impedance spectroscopy revealed that, as for the 50 cm2 cell, the low rate of oxygen reduction reaction significantly affected the performance of the cell. Thus gives potential for the optimization of the cathode reaction and a reduction in the ohmic resistances potential for higher power densities.

  18. GFDL's CM2 global coupled climate models. Part I: Formulation and simulation characteristics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Delworth, T.L.; Broccoli, A.J.; Rosati, A.; Stouffer, R.J.; Balaji, V.; Beesley, J.A.; Cooke, W.F.; Dixon, K.W.; Dunne, J.; Dunne, K.A.; Durachta, J.W.; Findell, K.L.; Ginoux, P.; Gnanadesikan, A.; Gordon, C.T.; Griffies, S.M.; Gudgel, R.; Harrison, M.J.; Held, I.M.; Hemler, R.S.; Horowitz, L.W.; Klein, S.A.; Knutson, T.R.; Kushner, P.J.; Langenhorst, A.R.; Lee, H.-C.; Lin, S.-J.; Lu, J.; Malyshev, S.L.; Milly, P.C.D.; Ramaswamy, V.; Russell, J.; Schwarzkopf, M.D.; Shevliakova, E.; Sirutis, J.J.; Spelman, M.J.; Stern, W.F.; Winton, M.; Wittenberg, A.T.; Wyman, B.; Zeng, F.; Zhang, R.

    2006-01-01

    The formulation and simulation characteristics of two new global coupled climate models developed at NOAA's Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) are described. The models were designed to simulate atmospheric and oceanic climate and variability from the diurnal time scale through multicentury climate change, given our computational constraints. In particular, an important goal was to use the same model for both experimental seasonal to interannual forecasting and the study of multicentury global climate change, and this goal has been achieved. Tw o versions of the coupled model are described, called CM2.0 and CM2.1. The versions differ primarily in the dynamical core used in the atmospheric component, along with the cloud tuning and some details of the land and ocean components. For both coupled models, the resolution of the land and atmospheric components is 2?? latitude ?? 2.5?? longitude; the atmospheric model has 24 vertical levels. The ocean resolution is 1?? in latitude and longitude, with meridional resolution equatorward of 30?? becoming progressively finer, such that the meridional resolution is 1/3?? at the equator. There are 50 vertical levels in the ocean, with 22 evenly spaced levels within the top 220 m. The ocean component has poles over North America and Eurasia to avoid polar filtering. Neither coupled model employs flux adjustments. The co ntrol simulations have stable, realistic climates when integrated over multiple centuries. Both models have simulations of ENSO that are substantially improved relative to previous GFDL coupled models. The CM2.0 model has been further evaluated as an ENSO forecast model and has good skill (CM2.1 has not been evaluated as an ENSO forecast model). Generally reduced temperature and salinity biases exist in CM2.1 relative to CM2.0. These reductions are associated with 1) improved simulations of surface wind stress in CM2.1 and associated changes in oceanic gyre circulations; 2) changes in cloud tuning and

  19. 40 CFR 721.9965 - Fatty acids, C10-13 - branched, vinyl esters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fatty acids, C10-13 - branched, vinyl... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9965 Fatty acids, C10-13 - branched, vinyl esters. (a) Chemical... acids, C10-13 - branched, vinyl esters (PMN P-97-482; CAS No. 184785-38-4) is subject to reporting...

  20. 40 CFR 721.9965 - Fatty acids, C10-13 - branched, vinyl esters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fatty acids, C10-13 - branched, vinyl... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9965 Fatty acids, C10-13 - branched, vinyl esters. (a) Chemical... acids, C10-13 - branched, vinyl esters (PMN P-97-482; CAS No. 184785-38-4) is subject to reporting...

  1. 40 CFR 721.9965 - Fatty acids, C10-13 - branched, vinyl esters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fatty acids, C10-13 - branched, vinyl... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9965 Fatty acids, C10-13 - branched, vinyl esters. (a) Chemical... acids, C10-13 - branched, vinyl esters (PMN P-97-482; CAS No. 184785-38-4) is subject to reporting...

  2. Aliphatic amines in Antarctic CR2, CM2, and CM1/2 carbonaceous chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aponte, José C.; McLain, Hannah L.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Elsila, Jamie E.

    2016-09-01

    Meteoritic water-soluble organic compounds provide a unique record of the processes that occurred during the formation of the solar system and the chemistry preceding the origins of life on Earth. We have investigated the molecular distribution, compound-specific δ13C isotopic ratios and enantiomeric compositions of aliphatic monoamines present in the hot acid-water extracts of the carbonaceous chondrites LAP 02342 (CR2), GRA 95229 (CR2), LON 94101 (CM2), LEW 90500 (CM2), and ALH 83100 (CM1/2). Analyses of the concentration of monoamines in these meteorites revealed: (a) the CR2 chondrites studied here contain higher concentrations of monoamines relative to the analyzed CM2 chondrites; (b) the concentration of monoamines decreases with increasing carbon number; and (c) isopropylamine is the most abundant monoamine in these CR2 chondrites, while methylamine is the most abundant amine species in these CM2 and CM1/2 chondrites. The δ13C values of monoamines in CR2 chondrite do not correlate with the number of carbon atoms; however, in CM2 and CM1/2 chondrites, the 13C enrichment decreases with increasing monoamine carbon number. The δ13C values of methylamine in CR2 chondrites ranged from -1 to +10‰, while in CM2 and CM1/2 chondrites the δ13C values of methylamine ranged from +41 to +59‰. We also observed racemic compositions of sec-butylamine, 3-methyl-2-butylamine, and sec-pentylamine in the studied carbonaceous chondrites. Additionally, we compared the abundance and δ13C isotopic composition of monoamines to those of their structurally related amino acids. We found that monoamines are less abundant than amino acids in CR2 chondrites, with the opposite being true in CM2 and CM1/2 chondrites. We used these collective data to evaluate different primordial synthetic pathways for monoamines in carbonaceous chondrites and to understand the potential common origins these molecules may share with meteoritic amino acids.

  3. Searching for HI at NHI~1017 cm-2 around nearby galaxies.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisano, Daniel J.; Lockman, Felix J.; Wolfe, Spencer A.

    2015-01-01

    One of the outstanding questions in astronomy today is how galaxies obtain the gas that they need to continue forming stars for more than a few billion years. Simulations suggest that for low mass galaxies in low density environments, gas should remain cool while it is accreted along filaments from the intergalactic medium. Unfortunately, to date, observations have identified only about 10% of the needed accretion to sustain star formation. Most of these searches have been limited to searching for neutral hydrogen (HI) at column densities above 1019 cm-2. We have used the Green Bank Telescope (GBT) to search for cold accretion being traced by HI in emission down to NHI~1017 cm-2 around three local galaxies. I will report on the results of our search and the implications for the accretion rate in the local universe.

  4. Molecular Composition of Carbonaceous Globules in the Bells (CM2) Chondrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clemett, S. J.; Nakamura-Messenger, K.; Thomas-Keprta, K. L.; Robinson, G.-A.; Mckay, D. S.

    2009-01-01

    Some meteorites and IDPs contain micron-size carbonaceous globules that are associated with significant H and/or N isotopic anomalies. This has been interpreted as indicating that such globules may contain at least partial preserved organic species formed in the outer reaches of the proto-solar disk or the presolar cold molecular cloud. Owing to their small sizes, relatively little is known about their chemical compositions. Here we present in situ measurements of aromatic molecular species in organic globules from the Bells (CM2) chondrite by microprobe two-step laser mass spectrometry. This meteorite was chosen for study because we have previously found this meteorite to contain high abundances of globules that often occur in clusters. The Bells (CM2) globules are also noteworthy for having particularly high enrichments in H-2. and N-15. In this study, we identified individual globules and clusters of globules using native UV fluorescence.

  5. The EET87513 clast N: A CM2 fragment in an HED polymict breccia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchanan, P. C.; Zolensky, M. E.; Reid, A. M.; Barrett, R. A.

    1993-01-01

    Xenoliths of material resembling carbonaceous chondrites have been found in several HED polymict breccias. Most workers concluded that these clasts are related to CM2 meteorites on the basis of texture, bulk composition, and mineralogy. Data on clast N, a carbonaceous chondrite fragment from the howardite EET87513 large enough (approximately 4x5mm on the surface of the slab from which it was separated) to extract bulk samples for INAA and oxygen isotope analysis and to provide a thin section for electron microprobe, SEM, and TEM analysis is reported. Preliminary data for this clast were previously reported. INAA was performed at Oregon State University and bulk oxygen isotopic composition was determined at the University of Chicago. These data confirm that EET87513 clast N is a fragment of CM2 material.

  6. Investigation of Pyridine Carboxylic Acids in CM2 Carbonaceous Chondrites: Potential Precursor Molecules for Ancient Coenzymes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Karen E.; Callahan, Michael P.; Gerakines, Perry A.; Dworkin, Jason P.; House, Christopher H.

    2014-01-01

    The distribution and abundances of pyridine carboxylic acids (including nicotinic acid) in eight CM2 carbonaceous chondrites (ALH 85013, DOM 03183, DOM 08003, EET 96016, LAP 02333, LAP 02336, LEW 85311, and WIS 91600) were investigated by liquid chromatography coupled to UV detection and high resolution Orbitrap mass spectrometry. We find that pyridine monocarboxylic acids are prevalent in CM2-type chondrites and their abundance negatively correlates with the degree of pre-terrestrial aqueous alteration that the meteorite parent body experienced. We lso report the first detection of pyridine dicarboxylic acids in carbonaceous chondrites. Additionally, we carried out laboratory studies of proton-irradiated pyridine in carbon dioxide-rich ices (a 1:1 mixture) to serve as a model of the interstellar ice chemistry that may have led to the synthesis of pyridine carboxylic acids. Analysis of the irradiated ice residue shows that a comparable suite of pyridine mono- and dicarboxylic acids was produced, although aqueous alteration may still play a role in the synthesis (and ultimate yield) of these compounds in carbonaceous meteorites. Nicotinic acid is a precursor to nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, a likely ancient molecule used in cellular metabolism in all of life, and its common occurrence in CM2 chondrites may indicate that meteorites may have been a source of molecules for the emergence of more complex coenzymes on the early Earth.

  7. Investigation of Pyridine Carboxylic Acids in CM2 Carbonaceous Chondrites: Potential Precursor Molecules for Ancient Coenzymes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Karen E.; Callahan, Michael P.; Gerakines, Perry A.; Dworkin, Jason P.; House, Christopher H.

    2014-01-01

    The distribution and abundances of pyridine carboxylic acids (including nicotinic acid) in eight CM2 carbonaceous chondrites (ALH 85013, DOM 03183, DOM 08003, EET 96016, LAP 02333, LAP 02336, LEW 85311, and WIS 91600) were investigated by liquid chromatography coupled to UV detection and high resolution Orbitrap mass spectrometry. We find that pyridine monocarboxylic acids are prevalent in CM2-type chondrites and their abundance negatively correlates with the degree of pre-terrestrial aqueous alteration that the meteorite parent body experienced. We also report the first detection of pyridine dicarboxylic acids in carbonaceous chondrites. Additionally, we carried out laboratory studies of proton-irradiated pyridine in carbon dioxide-rich ices (a 1:1 mixture) to serve as a model of the interstellar ice chemistry that may have led to the synthesis of pyridine carboxylic acids. Analysis of the irradiated ice residue shows that a comparable suite of pyridine mono- and dicarboxylic acids was produced, although aqueous alteration may still play a role in the synthesis (and ultimate yield) of these compounds in carbonaceous meteorites. Nicotinic acid is a precursor to nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, a likely ancient molecule used in cellular metabolism in all of life, and its common occurrence in CM2 chondrites may indicate that meteorites may have been a source of molecules for the emergence of more complex coenzymes on the early Earth.

  8. Investigation of pyridine carboxylic acids in CM2 carbonaceous chondrites: Potential precursor molecules for ancient coenzymes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Karen E.; Callahan, Michael P.; Gerakines, Perry A.; Dworkin, Jason P.; House, Christopher H.

    2014-07-01

    The distribution and abundances of pyridine carboxylic acids (including nicotinic acid) in eight CM2 carbonaceous chondrites (ALH 85013, DOM 03183, DOM 08003, EET 96016, LAP 02333, LAP 02336, LEW 85311, and WIS 91600) were investigated by liquid chromatography coupled to UV detection and high resolution Orbitrap mass spectrometry. We find that pyridine monocarboxylic acids are prevalent in CM2-type chondrites and their abundance negatively correlates with the degree of pre-terrestrial aqueous alteration that the meteorite parent body experienced. We also report the first detection of pyridine dicarboxylic acids in carbonaceous chondrites. Additionally, we carried out laboratory studies of proton-irradiated pyridine in carbon dioxide-rich ices (a 1:1 mixture) to serve as a model of the interstellar ice chemistry that may have led to the synthesis of pyridine carboxylic acids. Analysis of the irradiated ice residue shows that a comparable suite of pyridine mono- and dicarboxylic acids was produced, although aqueous alteration may still play a role in the synthesis (and ultimate yield) of these compounds in carbonaceous meteorites. Nicotinic acid is a precursor to nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, a likely ancient molecule used in cellular metabolism in all of life, and its common occurrence in CM2 chondrites may indicate that meteorites may have been a source of molecules for the emergence of more complex coenzymes on the early Earth.

  9. 40 CFR 721.9965 - Fatty acids, C10-13 - branched, vinyl esters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... esters. 721.9965 Section 721.9965 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9965 Fatty acids, C10-13 - branched, vinyl esters. (a) Chemical... acids, C10-13 - branched, vinyl esters (PMN P-97-482; CAS No. 184785-38-4) is subject to reporting...

  10. 40 CFR 721.9965 - Fatty acids, C10-13 - branched, vinyl esters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... esters. 721.9965 Section 721.9965 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9965 Fatty acids, C10-13 - branched, vinyl esters. (a) Chemical... acids, C10-13 - branched, vinyl esters (PMN P-97-482; CAS No. 184785-38-4) is subject to reporting...

  11. Experimental investigation of a 1 kA/cm2 sheet beam plasma cathode electron gun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Niraj; Narayan Pal, Udit; Kumar Pal, Dharmendra; Prajesh, Rahul; Prakash, Ram

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a cold cathode based sheet-beam plasma cathode electron gun is reported with achieved sheet-beam current density ˜1 kA/cm2 from pseudospark based argon plasma for pulse length of ˜200 ns in a single shot experiment. For the qualitative assessment of the sheet-beam, an arrangement of three isolated metallic-sheets is proposed. The actual shape and size of the sheet-electron-beam are obtained through a non-conventional method by proposing a dielectric charging technique and scanning electron microscope based imaging. As distinct from the earlier developed sheet beam sources, the generated sheet-beam has been propagated more than 190 mm distance in a drift space region maintaining sheet structure without assistance of any external magnetic field.

  12. YBCO film deposition on very large areas up to 20 × 20 cm2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinder, H.; Berberich, P.; Prusseit, W.; Rieder-Zecha, S.; Semerad, R.; Utz, B.

    1997-08-01

    In the last decade we have developed thermal reactive co-evaporation as a technique to produce high quality YBCO and other oxide films of very large size up to 9 inches in diameter. This was achieved by intermittent deposition and reaction with oxygen using a heater which rotates the substrate in and out of an oxygen pocket. Even larger substrates, e. g. coated conductors, cannot be rotated. Therefore we have recently developed a new setup where the substrate is held fixed, and the oxygen pocket is set in linear reciprocation. This technique allows simultaneous deposition on a square of 20×20 cm 2. Moreover, we have developed an instant refill mechanism for the thermal boats, and stable rate control by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), in order to obtain a continuous process suitable for small scale mass production.

  13. Krylov methods preconditioned with incompletely factored matrices on the CM-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berryman, Harry; Saltz, Joel; Gropp, William; Mirchandaney, Ravi

    1989-01-01

    The performance is measured of the components of the key interative kernel of a preconditioned Krylov space interative linear system solver. In some sense, these numbers can be regarded as best case timings for these kernels. Sweeps were timed over meshes, sparse triangular solves, and inner products on a large 3-D model problem over a cube shaped domain discretized with a seven point template. The performance of the CM-2 is highly dependent on the use of very specialized programs. These programs mapped a regular problem domain onto the processor topology in a careful manner and used the optimized local NEWS communications network. The rather dramatic deterioration in performance was documented when these ideal conditions no longer apply. A synthetic workload generator was developed to produce and solve a parameterized family of increasingly irregular problems.

  14. Actinic defect counting statistics over 1 cm2 area of EUVL mask blank

    SciTech Connect

    Jeong, Seongtae; Lai, Chih-Wei; Rekawa, Seno; Walton, Chris W.; Bokor, Jeffrey

    2000-02-18

    As a continuation of comparison experiments between EUV inspection and visible inspection of defects on EUVL mask blanks, we report on the result of an experiment where the EUV defect inspection tool is used to perform at-wavelength defect counting over 1 cm{sup 2} of EUVL mask blank. Initial EUV inspection found five defects over the scanned area and the subsequent optical scattering inspection was able to detect all of the five defects. Therefore, if there are any defects that are only detectable by EUV inspection, the density is lower than the order of unity per cm2. An upgrade path to substantially increase the overall throughput of the EUV inspection system is also identified in the manuscript.

  15. Compositions of Partly Altered Olivine and Replacement Serpentine in the CM2 Chondrite QUE93005

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Velbel, M. A.; Tonui, E. K.; Zolensky, M. E.

    2005-01-01

    Some phyllosilicates in CM carbonaceous chondrites formed by aqueous alteration of anhydrous precursor phases. Although broad trends in the compositions of hydrous phyllosilicates are recognized and believed to be related to trends in degree of aqueous alteration, details of the reactions that formed specific secondary minerals remain obscure. This paper reports compositional relationships between remnants of partially pseudomorphically (or alteromorphically) replaced silicates and their alteration products (serpentine) in the CM2 chondrite QUE93005 and compares it with previously published results for ALH81002. Reactants and products were characterized by optical petrography, backscattered scanning electron microscopy (BSEM), and electron microprobe. By focusing on serpentine formed from known reactants (olivines), and on only those instances in which some of the reactant silicate remains, direct compositional relationships between reactants and products, and the elemental mobility required by the reactions, can be established. Additional information is included in the original extended abstract.

  16. Organic blend semiconductors and transistors with hole mobility exceeding 10 cm2/Vs (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paterson, Alexandra F.; Anthopoulos, Thomas D.

    2015-10-01

    Plastic electronics that can be manufactured using solution-based methods are the subject of great research interest due to their potential for low-cost, large-area electronic applications. The interest in this field has led to considerable research and subsequent advances in device performance. To this end solution-processed organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) have shown impressive improvements in recent years through the increasing values of charge carrier mobility. Here we report the development of next generation organic blend materials for OTFTs with hole mobilities of 10 cm2/Vs. These high performance devices have been achieved using a novel semiconducting blend system comprising of an amorphous-like conjugated polymer and a high mobility small molecule. The combination of a highly crystalline small molecule with the polymer binder aids the formation of uniform films as well as enables an element of control over the nucleation and growth of the small molecule. The polymer binders investigated belongs to the family of indacenodithiophene-based copolymers which are renowned for their high carrier mobilities regardless of their apparent structural disorder. The addition of the polymer with carefully chosen small molecules is found to further increase the hole mobility of the resulting blend OTFT to over 10 cm2/Vs. These organic devices provide an interesting insight into this rather complex blend system, highlighting the correlation between the morphology developed following solution processing and device performance, as well as exploring the role of each of the two components in the blend in terms of their contribution to charge transport.

  17. Spectral content of buried Ag foils at 10(16) W/cm(2) laser illumination.

    PubMed

    Huntington, C M; Maddox, B R; Park, H-S; Prisbrey, S; Remington, B A

    2014-11-01

    Sources of 5-12 keV thermal Heα x-rays are readily generated by laser irradiation of mid-Z foils at intensities >10(14) W/cm(2), and are widely used as probes for inertial confinement fusion and high-energy-density experiments. Higher energy 17-50 keV x-ray sources are efficiently produced from "cold" Kα emission using short pulse, petawatt lasers at intensities >10(18) W/cm(2) [H.-S. Park, B. R. Maddox et al., "High-resolution 17-75 keV backlighters for high energy density experiments," Phys. Plasmas 15(7), 072705 (2008); B. R. Maddox, H. S. Park, B. A. Remington et al., "Absolute measurements of x-ray backlighter sources at energies above 10 keV," Phys. Plasmas 18(5), 056709 (2011)]. However, when long pulse (>1 ns) lasers are used with Z > 30 elements, the spectrum contains contributions from both K shell transitions and from ionized atomic states. Here we show that by sandwiching a silver foil between layers of high-density carbon, the ratio of Kα:Heα in the x-ray spectrum is significant increased over directly illuminated Ag foils, with narrower lines from K-shell transitions. Additionally, the emission volume is more localized for the sandwiched target, producing a more planar x-ray sheet. This technique may be useful for generating probes requiring spectral purity and a limited spatial extent, for example, in incoherent x-ray Thomson scattering experiments. PMID:25430207

  18. Spectral content of buried Ag foils at 1016 W/cm2 laser illuminationa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huntington, C. M.; Maddox, B. R.; Park, H.-S.; Prisbrey, S.; Remington, B. A.

    2014-11-01

    Sources of 5-12 keV thermal Heα x-rays are readily generated by laser irradiation of mid-Z foils at intensities >1014 W/cm2, and are widely used as probes for inertial confinement fusion and high-energy-density experiments. Higher energy 17-50 keV x-ray sources are efficiently produced from "cold" Kα emission using short pulse, petawatt lasers at intensities >1018 W/cm2 [H.-S. Park, B. R. Maddox et al., "High-resolution 17-75 keV backlighters for high energy density experiments," Phys. Plasmas 15(7), 072705 (2008); B. R. Maddox, H. S. Park, B. A. Remington et al., "Absolute measurements of x-ray backlighter sources at energies above 10 keV," Phys. Plasmas 18(5), 056709 (2011)]. However, when long pulse (>1 ns) lasers are used with Z > 30 elements, the spectrum contains contributions from both K shell transitions and from ionized atomic states. Here we show that by sandwiching a silver foil between layers of high-density carbon, the ratio of Kα:Heα in the x-ray spectrum is significant increased over directly illuminated Ag foils, with narrower lines from K-shell transitions. Additionally, the emission volume is more localized for the sandwiched target, producing a more planar x-ray sheet. This technique may be useful for generating probes requiring spectral purity and a limited spatial extent, for example, in incoherent x-ray Thomson scattering experiments.

  19. The amino acid composition of the Sutter's Mill CM2 carbonaceous chondrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burton, Aaron S.; Glavin, Daniel P.; Elsila, Jamie E.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Jenniskens, Peter; Yin, Qing-Zhu

    2014-11-01

    We determined the abundances and enantiomeric compositions of amino acids in Sutter's Mill fragment #2 (designated SM2) recovered prior to heavy rains that fell April 25-26, 2012, and two other meteorite fragments, SM12 and SM51, that were recovered postrain. We also determined the abundance, enantiomeric, and isotopic compositions of amino acids in soil from the recovery site of fragment SM51. The three meteorite stones experienced terrestrial amino acid contamination, as evidenced by the low D/L ratios of several proteinogenic amino acids. The D/L ratios were higher in SM2 than in SM12 and SM51, consistent with rain introducing additional L-amino acid contaminants to SM12 and SM51. Higher percentages of glycine, β-alanine, and γ-amino-n-butyric acid were observed in free form in SM2 and SM51 compared with the soil, suggesting that these free amino acids may be indigenous. Trace levels of D+L-β-aminoisobutyric acid (β-AIB) observed in all three meteorites are not easily explained as terrestrial contamination, as β-AIB is rare on Earth and was not detected in the soil. Bulk carbon and nitrogen and isotopic ratios of the SM samples and the soil also indicate terrestrial contamination, as does compound-specific isotopic analysis of the amino acids in the soil. The amino acid abundances in SM2, the most pristine SM meteorite analyzed here, are approximately 20-fold lower than in the Murchison CM2 carbonaceous chondrite. This may be due to thermal metamorphism in the Sutter's Mill parent body at temperatures greater than observed for other aqueously altered CM2 meteorites.

  20. Intensity increasing up to 4 MW/cm2 with BALB's via wavelengths coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timmermann, Andre; Bartoschewski, Daniel; Schlüter, Stephan; Burke, Colin; Meinschien, Jens

    2009-02-01

    An increase in the performance of micro-optic beam shaping resulted in diode laser modules with more than 400W out of 200 μm fibre based on Broad Area Laser Bars (BALB). The brightness of a 400 W laser module opened the door for new applications in material processing such as temper marking of stainless steel and metal sheet cutting. Further improvements of the light sources and the beam shaping for BALB's have increased the efficiency of the laser modules. Therefore we present an output power of 1200 W out of a 200 μm fibre (0.22 NA). This is achieved by further sophistication of the coupling technique and four wavelength coupling. The beam parameter product is still 22 mm*mrad with a power density of 3800 kW/cm2 if focussed to a 200 μm spot. Furthermore, each of the four wavelength modules are separately exchangeable and checkable. The availability of a top-hat profile out of the fibre proves itself to be advantageous compared to the traditional Gaussian beam profiles of fibre, solid-state and gas lasers. This leads to excellent laser cutting results with extremely small cutting kerfs down to 200 μm and very plane cutting edges. Process speeds rise up to more than 10 m/min i.e. for thin sheet stainless steel or titanium. In the near future, 600 W out of 200 μm based on BALB's with a beam compressor is possible. With wavelength coupling, power levels with up to 2 kW out of 200 μm fibre will be reached. This will result in a power density of more than 6 MW/cm2.

  1. On the Behavior of Phosphorus During the Aqueous Alteration of CM2 Carbonaceous Chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brearley, Adrian J.; Chizmadia, Lysa J.

    2005-01-01

    During the earliest period of solar system formation, water played an important role in the evolution of primitive dust, both after accretion of planetesimals and possible before accretion within the protoplanetary disk. Many chondrites show evidence of variable degrees of aqueous alteration, the CM2 chondrites being among the most studied [1]. This group of chondrites is characterized by mineral assemblages of both primary and secondary alteration phases. Hence, these meteorites retain a particularly important record of the reactions that occurred between primary high temperature nebular phases and water. Studies of these chondrites can provide information on the conditions and environments of aqueous alteration and the mobility of elements during alteration. This latter question is at the core of a debate concerning the location of aqueous alteration, i.e. whether alteration occurred predominantly within a closed system after accretion (parent body alteration) or whether some degree of alteration occurred within the solar nebula or on ephemeral protoplanetary bodies prior to accretion. At the core of the parent body alteration model is the hypothesis that elemental exchange between different components, principally chondrules and matrix, must have occurred. chondrules and matrix, must have occurred. In this study, we focus on the behavior of the minor element, phosphorus. This study was stimulated by observations of the behavior of P during the earliest stages of alteration in glassy mesostasis in type II chondrules in CR chondrites and extends the preliminary observations of on Y791198 to other CM chondrites.

  2. Efficient Monolithic Perovskite/Silicon Tandem Solar Cell with Cell Area >1 cm(2).

    PubMed

    Werner, Jérémie; Weng, Ching-Hsun; Walter, Arnaud; Fesquet, Luc; Seif, Johannes Peter; De Wolf, Stefaan; Niesen, Bjoern; Ballif, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Monolithic perovskite/crystalline silicon tandem solar cells hold great promise for further performance improvement of well-established silicon photovoltaics; however, monolithic tandem integration is challenging, evidenced by the modest performances and small-area devices reported so far. Here we present first a low-temperature process for semitransparent perovskite solar cells, yielding efficiencies of up to 14.5%. Then, we implement this process to fabricate monolithic perovskite/silicon heterojunction tandem solar cells yielding efficiencies of up to 21.2 and 19.2% for cell areas of 0.17 and 1.22 cm(2), respectively. Both efficiencies are well above those of the involved subcells. These single-junction perovskite and tandem solar cells are hysteresis-free and demonstrate steady performance under maximum power point tracking for several minutes. Finally, we present the effects of varying the intermediate recombination layer and hole transport layer thicknesses on tandem cell photocurrent generation, experimentally and by transfer matrix simulations. PMID:26687850

  3. N-15-Rich Organic Globules in a Cluster IDP and the Bells CM2 Chondrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Messenger, S.; Nakamura-Messenger, K.; Keller, Lindsay P.

    2008-01-01

    Organic matter in primitive meteorites and chondritic porous interplanetary dust particles (CP IDPs) is commonly enriched in D/H and 15N/14N relative to terrestrial values [1-3]. These anomalies are ascribed to the partial preservation of presolar cold molecular cloud material [1]. Some meteorites and IDPs contain m-size inclusions with extreme H and N isotopic anomalies [2-4], possibly due to preserved pristine primordial organic grains. We recently showed that the in the Tagish Lake meteorite, the principle carriers of these anomalies are sub- m, hollow organic globules [5]. The globules likely formed by photochemical processing of organic ices in a cold molecular cloud or the outermost regions of the protosolar disk [5]. We proposed that similar materials should be common among primitive meteorites, IDPs, and comets. Similar objects have been observed in organic extracts of carbonaceous chondrites [6-8], however their N and H isotopic compositions are generally unknown. Bulk H and N isotopic compositions may indicate which meteorites best preserve interstellar organic compounds. Thus, we selected the Bells CM2 carbonaceous chondrites for study based on its large bulk 15N (+335 %) and D (+990 %) [9].

  4. Predictability of El Niño Flavors in GFDL CM2.1 Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, C.; Cane, M. A.; Chen, D.; Henderson, N.; Wittenberg, A. T.

    2013-12-01

    This work explores the predictability of El Niño flavors in a 2000-year pre-industrial run of the GFDL CM2.1 coupled GCM, which has a reasonably realistic ENSO simulation. Central Pacific (CP) and Eastern Pacific (EP) flavors are defined in the phase space of the two leading principal components (PCs) of tropical Pacific sea surface temperature anomalies. The predictability of the different El Niño flavors is quite limited due to the intrinsic chaotic property of the climate system. The interference of two leading transient growing modes is shown to contribute to El Niño diversity. The precursors (i.e. optimal initial patterns) of these modes in the simulation are diagnosed using linear inverse modeling and singular vector analysis, which are then applied in a statistical model to forecast the probability, given any initial state, of evolution into each El Niño type. We find that the horizon to distinguish the precursors of flavors in the PC space is ~3 months before a CP El Niño peak or 6 months before an EP El Niño peak. The approach in this work is potentially useful for evaluating coupled GCMs, both as a dynamical diagnostic and as a better baseline for forecast skill than persistence.

  5. Fast-Electron Temperature Measurements in Laser Irradiation at 1014 W/cm2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solodov, A. A.; Yaakobi, B.; Myatt, J. F.; Stoeckl, C.; Froula, D. H.

    2014-10-01

    The temperature T of the fast electrons in planar-target irradiation using 2-ns UV pulses at 1014 W/cm2 was measured on the OMEGA EP laser using the bremsstrahlung radiation [hard x-ray (HXR)] and the Kα radiation from high- Z signature layers. The HXR was measured by a nine-channel filter spectrometer [hard x-ray image plate (HXIP)]. Two types of experiments used the Kα radiation. The first used a thick Mo (or Ag) target and the ratio of Kα emitted toward the front and the back of the target, measured and simulated by a Monte Carlo (MC) code. The ratio decreases with increasing T (since Kα is emitted deeper in the foil and therefore absorbed less on the way back out). The second type used a target composed of five consecutive- Z layers (Nb, Mo, Rh, Pd, Ag) and Kα lines emitted from the back (highest- Z) , measured and simulated by the MC code. For higher temperatures, the Kα energy decreases more slowly with Z. All of these measurements agree with each other. However, a three-channel scintillation photomultiplier system systematically yields higher temperatures. This indicates a higher-energy radiation component that is not detected by the HXIP because of the sharp drop in image plate (IP) sensitivity. Extending the HXIP detection to higher energies (using Kα fluorescence, for which the IP sensitivity is high) is planned. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944.

  6. A Comparison Between Silicon Carbide from Indarch (EH4) and CM2 Meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, S. S.; Alexander, C. M. O'd.; Ott, U.; Zinner, E. K.; Arden, J. W.; Pillinger, C. T.

    1993-07-01

    A light-element stepped-combustion, noble-gas, ion-probe, and SEM study of interstellar SiC from Indarch has been undertaken in order to compare SiC isolated from enstatite chondrites with SiC from the more extensively studied CM2 carbonaceous chondrites. Eighty-five grams of Indarch were etched in HF/HCl, crushed and treated with 9MHF/1MHCl + 1M HCl, Cr(sub)2O(sub)7^2- in H(sub)2SO(sub)4, and then HClO(sub)4, leaving an acid-resistant residue equivalent to 42 ppm of the whole rock. Carbon, nitrogen, and noble-gas data were acquired by stepped combustion and pyrolysis after precombusting the samples to 600 degrees C to oxidize nanometer-sized diamond. The presence of isotopically anomalous SiC in the Indarch residue is indicated by the isotopically heavy CO2 released at high temperature during stepped combustion, with a maximum delta ^13C value of +1420 per mil (^12C/^13C = 36.2), identical to results obtained for typical CM2 samples [1]. In contrast to CM meteorites, however, the peak release of heavy carbon occurs at 1200 degrees C, some 200 degrees C higher than the peak release temperatures of Murchison and Cold Bokkeveld. A similarly high release temperature was seen in the stepped-combustion analysis of the noble gas in the Indarch residue. This suggests a morphological and/or size difference between the SiC present in the two types of meteorites. The nitrogen stepped-combustion profile of the Indarch residue is dominated by the presence of Si(sub)3N(sub)4 of unremarkable isotopic composition (delta ^15N = -56 per mil) that could not be resolved from nitrogen released from SiC. The abundance of SiC in Indarch is estimated, from the stepped combustion data, to be about 1.4 ppm (or 14 ppm SiC in the matrix, not dissimilar to values obtained for CM2 meteorites). A comparison of the noble-gas data from grain-size fractions of Murchison [2] and the bulk Indarch residue data, particularly the Ne-E/Xe-s ratio, suggests that Indarch is enriched in fine-grained Si

  7. Formation of spinel-, hibonite-rich inclusions found in CM2 carbonaceous chrondrites

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, S B; Grossman, L; Hutcheon, I D; Phinney, D L; Weber, P K; Fallon, S J

    2005-11-03

    We report petrography, mineral chemistry, bulk chemistry, and bulk isotopic compositions of a suite of 40 spinel-rich inclusions from the Murchison (CM2) carbonaceous chondrite. Seven types of inclusions are identified based on mineralogy: spinel-hibonite-perovskite; spinel-perovskite-pyroxene; spinel-perovskite-melilite; spinel-hibonite-perovskite-melilite; spinel-hibonite; spinel-pyroxene; and spinel-melilite-anorthite. Hibonite-bearing inclusions have Ti-poor spinel compared to the hibonite-free ones, and spinel-hibonite-perovskite inclusions have the highest average bulk TiO{sub 2} contents (7.8 wt%). The bulk CaO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ratios of the inclusions range from 0.005-0.21, well below the solar value of 0.79. Hibonite-, spinel-rich inclusions consist of phases that are not predicted by condensation calculations to coexist; in the equilibrium sequence, hibonite is followed by melilite, which is followed by spinel. Therefore, hibonite-melilite or melilite-spinel inclusions should be dominant instead. One explanation for the 'missing melilite' is that it condensed as expected but was lost due to evaporation of Mg and Ca during heating and melting of spherule precursors. If this theory were correct, melilite-poor spherules would have isotopically heavy Mg and Ca. Except for one inclusion with F{sub Mg} = 4.3 {+-} 2.6{per_thousand}/amu and another with isotopically light Ca (F{sub Ca} = 3.4 {+-} 2.0{per_thousand}/amu), however, all the inclusions we analyzed have normal isotopic compositions within their 2{sigma} uncertainties. Thus, we found no evidence for significant mass-dependent fractionation. Our preferred explanation for the general lack of melilite among hibonite-, spinel-bearing inclusions is kinetic inhibition of melilite condensation relative to spinel. Because of similarities between the crystal structures of hibonite and spinel, it should be easier for spinel to form from hibonite than for melilite to do so.

  8. Fe and O EELS Studies of Ion Irradiated Murchison CM2 Carbonaceous Chondrite Matrix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, L. P.; Christofferson, R.; Dukes, C. A.; Baragiola, R. A.; Rahman, Z.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The physical and chemical response of hydrated carbonaceous chondrite materials to space weathering processes is poorly understood. Improving this understanding is a key part of establishing how regoliths on primitive carbonaceous asteroids respond to space weathering processes, knowledge that supports future sample return missions (Hayabusa 2 and OSIRISREx) that are targeting objects of this type. We previously reported on He+ irradiation of Murchison matrix and showed that the irradiation resulted in amorphization of the matrix phyllosilicates, loss of OH, and surface vesiculation. Here, we report electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) measurements of the irradiated material with emphasis on the Fe and O speciation. Sample and Methods: A polished thin section of the Murchison CM2 carbonaceous chondrite was irradiated with 4 kilovolts He(+) (normal incidence) to a total dose of 1 x 10(exp 18) He(+) per square centimeter. We extracted thin sections from both irradiated and unirradiated regions in matrix using focused ion beam (FIB) techniques with electron beam deposition for the protective carbon strap to minimize surface damage artifacts from the FIB milling. The FIB sections were analyzed using a JEOL 2500SE scanning and transmission electron microscope (STEM) equipped with a Gatan Tridiem imaging filter. EELS spectra were collected from 50 nanometer diameter regions with an energy resolution of 0.7 electronvolts FWHM at the zero loss. EELS spectra were collected at low electron doses to minimize possible artifacts from electron-beam irradiation damage. Results and Discussion: Fe L (sub 2,3) EELS spectra from matrix phyllosilicates in CM chondrites show mixed Fe(2+)/Fe(3+) oxidation states with Fe(3+)/Sigma Fe approximately 0.5. Fe L(sub 2,3) spectra from the irradiated/ amorphized matrix phyllosilicates show higher Fe(2+)/Fe(3+) ratios compared to spectra obtained from pristine material at depths beyond the implantation/amorphization layer. We

  9. Impact-Induced Chondrule Deformation and Aqueous Alteration of CM2 Murchison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanna, R. D.; Zolensky, M.; Ketcham, R. A.; Behr, W. M.; Martinez, J. E.

    2014-01-01

    Deformed chondrules in CM2 Murchison have been found to define a prominent foliation [1,2] and lineation [3] in 3D using X-ray computed tomography (XCT). It has been hypothesized that chondrules in foliated chondrites deform by "squeezing" into surrounding pore space [4,5], a process that also likely removes primary porosity [6]. However, shock stage classification based on olivine extinction in Murchison is consistently low (S1-S2) [4-5,7] implying that significant intracrystalline plastic deformation of olivine has not occurred. One objective of our study is therefore to determine the microstructural mechanisms and phases that are accommodating the impact stress and resulting in relative displacements within the chondrules. Another question regarding impact deformation in Murchison is whether it facilitated aqueous alteration as has been proposed for the CMs which generally show a positive correlation between degree of alteration and petrofabric strength [7,2]. As pointed out by [2], CM Murchison represents a unique counterpoint to this correlation: it has a strong petrofabric but a relatively low degree of aqueous alteration. However, Murchison may not represent an inconsistency to the proposed causal relationship between impact and alteration, if it can be established that the incipient aqueous alteration post-dated chondrule deformation. Methods: Two thin sections from Murchison sample USNM 5487 were cut approximately perpendicular to the foliation and parallel to lineation determined by XCT [1,3] and one section was additionally polished for EBSD. Using a combination of optical petrography, SEM, EDS, and EBSD several chondrules were characterized in detail to: determine phases, find microstructures indicative of strain, document the geometric relationships between grain-scale microstructures and the foliation and lineation direction, and look for textural relationships of alteration minerals (tochilinite and Mg-Fe serpentine) that indicate timing of their

  10. 21 CFR 176.250 - Poly-1,4,7,10,13-pentaaza-15-hydroxyhexadecane.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Poly-1,4,7,10,13-pentaaza-15-hydroxyhexadecane. 176.250 Section 176.250 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: PAPER AND PAPERBOARD COMPONENTS Substances for Use Only...

  11. 21 CFR 176.250 - Poly-1,4,7,10,13-pentaaza-15-hydroxyhexadecane.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Poly-1,4,7,10,13-pentaaza-15-hydroxyhexadecane. 176.250 Section 176.250 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: PAPER AND...

  12. Successful Capture, Extraction and Identification of Hypervelocity CM2 Meteorite Fragments Shot by Light-Gas Gun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snead, C.; Westphal, A. J.; Dominguez, G.; Zolensky, M. E.

    2003-01-01

    Here we report the successful capture, extraction and identification of two fragments of a CM2 meteorite (ALH83100) into lowdensity aerogel. The shot was carried out at the AVGR at NASAARC. A mixture of powdered ALH83100 and borosilicate glass microspheres was shot at 4.55.0 km/sec into 50 mg cm silicate aerogel.

  13. Charge collection studies on custom silicon detectors irradiated up to 1.6·1017 neq/cm-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramberger, G.; Cindro, V.; Mandić, I.; Mikuž, M.; Zavrtanik, M.

    2013-08-01

    Silicon n+-p diodes with special design of the implant — so called ``spaghetti diodes'' — were used to study the impact of implantation process on charge multiplication after irradiations to extremely large 1 MeV neutron equivalent fluences of reactor neutrons up to 1.6·1017 cm-2. Silicon remains functional even at these unprecedented levels of irradiation. Above 1015 cm-2 collected charge (Q) grows linearly with bias voltage, with the Q-V slope exhibiting a power law dependence on fluence. Different implantation processes were implemented on samples to study the impact of implantation on charge multiplication. ``Spaghetti'' diodes of different thicknesses were also compared to conventional strip and pad detectors in order to determine the impact of different electric and weighting field on the collected charge.

  14. 20 CFR 10.13 - What process is used by a person who wants to correct FECA-related documents?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true What process is used by a person who wants to correct FECA-related documents? 10.13 Section 10.13 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' COMPENSATION ACT CLAIMS FOR COMPENSATION UNDER THE...

  15. 20 CFR 10.13 - What process is used by a person who wants to correct FECA-related documents?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What process is used by a person who wants to correct FECA-related documents? 10.13 Section 10.13 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' COMPENSATION ACT CLAIMS FOR COMPENSATION UNDER THE...

  16. International key comparison CCQM-K94: 10 μmol/mol dimethyl sulfide in nitrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S.; Heo, G. S.; Kim, Y.; Oh, S.; Han, Q.; Wu, H.; Konopelko, L. A.; Kustikov, Y. A.; Kolobova, A. V.; Efremova, O. V.; Pankratov, V. V.; Pavlov, M. V.; Culleton, L. P.; Brown, A. S.; Brookes, C.; Li, J.; Ziel, P. R.; van der Veen, A. M. H.

    2016-01-01

    Dimethyl sulfide (DMS) is an important compound in monitoring climate change and is monitored by the World Meteorological Organization Global Atmospheric Watch Volatile Organic Compounds (WMO-GAW VOC) program at several monitoring sites. It is essential that measurement results are accurate and consistent among the assigned values for primary gas mixtures to meet the WMO requirement. The purpose of this comparison is to compare the measurement capability of DMS at approximately 10 μ­mol/mol and expectation to contribute the establishment of traceability to single measurement scale for DMS between NMIs. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCQM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  17. Generation and diagnostics of pulsed intense ion beams with an energy density of 10 J/cm2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isakova, Yu.; Pushkarev, A.; Khailov, I.; Zhong, H.

    2015-07-01

    The paper presents the results of a study on transportation and focusing of a pulsed ion beam at gigawatt power level, generated by a diode with explosive-emission cathode. The experiments were carried out with the TEMP-4M accelerator operating in double-pulse mode: the first pulse is of negative polarity (500 ns, 100-150 kV), and this is followed by a second pulse of positive polarity (120 ns, 200-250 kV). To reduce the beam divergence, we modified the construction of the diode. The width of the anode was increased compared to that of the cathode. We studied different configurations of planar and focusing strip diodes. It was found that the divergence of the ion beam formed by a planar strip diode, after construction modification, does not exceed 3° (half-angle). Modification to the construction of a focusing diode made it possible to reduce the beam divergence from 8° to 4°-5°, as well as to increase the energy density at the focus up to 10-12 J/cm2, and decrease the shot to shot variation in the energy density from 10%-15% to 5%-6%. When measuring the ion beam energy density above the ablation threshold of the target material (3.5-4 J/cm2), we used a metal mesh with 50% transparency to lower the energy density. The influence of the metal mesh on beam transport has been studied.

  18. Coulomb-Boltzmann-Shifted distribution in laser-generated plasmas from 1010 up to 1019 W/cm2 intensities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torrisi, L.

    2016-02-01

    The charge production from laser-generated plasmas generates not isotropically ion acceleration in vacuum and with mean kinetic energy proportional to the ion charge state. The ion velocity depends on many factors of which the most important are the plasma temperature, the adiabatic gas expansion in vacuum and the Coulomb acceleration. The ion energy distributions of the emitted ions from the plasma can be well explained by the Coulomb-Boltzmann-Shifted function, with a cut-off limitation at high energy for a wide range of laser intensities. It can be applied for intensities of 1010 W/cm2, when plasma is produced only in the backward direction from thick targets (backward plasma acceleration regime), as well as at intensities of the order of 1019 W/cm2, when plasma is produced in the forward direction from thin targets in target-normal sheath acceleration regime. It loses of validity in radiation pressure acceleration regime, at which ions are emitted near mono-energetically.

  19. Nondispersive hole transport in a polyfluorene copolymer with a mobility of 0.01 cm2 V-1 s-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fong, H. H.; Papadimitratos, Alexios; Malliaras, George G.

    2006-10-01

    The hole mobility in the fluorene copolymer poly[(9,9-dioctylfluorenyl-2,7-diyl)-co-(4,4'-(N-(4-sec-butylphenyl)) diphenylamine)] (TFB) was measured using the time-of-flight technique. Transport was found to be nondispersive throughout the temperature range between 220 and 350K, indicating the absence of intrinsic traps in this material. At room temperature, TFB shows a hole mobility of 0.01cm2V-1s-1, with a weak field dependence. The hole mobility is independent of sample thickness in the range between 0.9 and 6.4μm. These results are in agreement with a narrow transport manifold, with a width of 65.9±0.5meV.

  20. Chondrules in the Murray CM2 meteorite and compositional differences between CM-CO and ordinary chondrite chondrules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubin, A. E.; Wasson, J. T.

    1986-02-01

    Thirteen of the least aqueously altered chondrules in Murray (CM2) were analyzed for bulk compositions, by means of a broad beam electron microprobe, to explore the compositional differences between the CM-CO, and the ordinary chondrite OC chondrules. The CO chondrules are richer in refractory lithophiles and poorer in Cr, Mn, and volatile lithophiles than the OC chondrules; much lower refractory lithophile abundances in CM chondrules resulted from aqueous alteration. Evidence is found for two important lithophile precursor components of CM-CO chondrite chondrules: (1) pyroxene- and refractory-rich, FeO-poor, and (2) olivine-rich, refractoryand FeO-poor. It is suggested that the pyroxene- and refractory-rich, FeO-poor lithophile precursor component has formed by an incomplete evaporation of presolar silicates that brought these materials into the enstatite stability field.

  1. Design and fabrication of prototype 6×6 cm2 microchannel plate photodetector with bialkali photocathode for fast timing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Junqi; Byrum, Karen; Demarteau, Marcel; Gregar, Joseph; May, Edward; Virgo, Mathew; Wagner, Robert; Walters, Dean; Wang, Jingbo; Xia, Lei; Zhao, Huyue

    2015-06-01

    Planar microchannel plate-based photodetectors with a bialkali photocathode are able to achieve photon detection with very good time and position resolution. A 6×6 cm2 photodetector production facility was designed and built at Argonne National Laboratory. Small form-factor MCP-based photodetectors completely constructed out of glass were designed and prototypes were successfully fabricated. Knudsen effusion cells were incorporated in the photocathode growth chamber to achieve uniform and high quantum efficiency photocathodes. The thin film uniformity was simulated and measured for an antimony film deposition, showing uniformity of better than 10%. Several prototype devices with bialkali photocathodes have been fabricated with the described system and their characteristics were evaluated in the large signal (multi-PE) limit. A typical prototype device exhibits time-of-flight resolution of ~27 psec and differential time resolution of ~9 psec, corresponding to spatial resolution of ~0.65 mm.

  2. Backward-going MeV electrons and gamma rays from 1018 W/cm2 laser interactions with water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feister, Scott; Morrison, John T.; Frische, Kyle D.; Orban, Chris; Ovchinnikov, Vladimir M.; Nees, John A.; Austin, Drake R.; Chowdhury, Enam A.; Freeman, Richard R.; Roquemore, W. Melvyn

    2015-05-01

    Gamma rays with ~1 MeV energy are measured following the relativistic interaction of a 3 mJ, 1018 W/cm2 short pulse laser with a 30 μm diameter flowing water column. Contrary to expectations, radiation emission is peaked in the direction opposite to the normally-incident laser propagation (specular direction). Experimental measurements and particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations of laser-plasma interaction show a pre-formed-plasma-dependent, backward-going, beam-like primary electron source. The MeV component of the electron and gamma ray spectrum, which is more than five times the ponderomotive energy scale of the laser, is highly sensitive to the presence of a nanosecond-timescale laser pre-pulse. This research was sponsored by the Quantum and Non-Equilibrium Processes Division of the Air Force Office of Scientific Research, under the management of Dr. Enrique Parra, Program Manager.

  3. Xenoliths in the CM2 Carbonaceous Chondrite LON 94101: Implications for Complex Mixing on the Asteroidal Parent Body

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindgren, P.; Lee, M. R.; Sofe, M.; Zolensky, M. E.

    2011-01-01

    Xenoliths are foreign clasts that oc-cur in various classes of meteorites, e.g. [1,2,3]. A re-cent study reveals the presence of several distinct classes of xenoliths in regolith-bearing meteorites, in-cluding in over 20 different carbonaceous chondrites [4]. The most common types of xenoliths are fine-grained hydrous clasts, often referred to as C1 or CI clasts in the literature, although their mineralogy is actually more similar to hydrous micrometeorites [5,6]. Xenoliths in meteorites present an opportunity to study material not yet classified or available as separate meteorites, and can provide additional information on processes in the dynamic early history of the Solar Sys-tem. Here we have performed chemical and mineralogi-cal analyses of xenoliths in the CM2 carbonaceous chondrite LON 94101, using scanning electron micro-scopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM).

  4. Volumetric cone-beam CT system based on a 41x41 cm2 flat-panel imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaffray, David A.; Siewerdsen, Jeffrey H.

    2001-06-01

    Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) based upon large-area flat-panel imager (FPI) technology is a flexible and adaptable technology that offers large field-of-view (FOV), high spatial resolution, and soft-tissue imaging. The imaging performance of FPI-based cone-beam CT has been evaluated on a computer-controlled bench-top system using an early prototype FPI with a small FOV (20.5 X 20.5 cm2). These investigations demonstrate the potential of this exciting technology. In this report, imaging performance is evaluated using a production grade large-area FPI (41 X 41 cm2) for which the manufacturer has achieved a significant reduction in additive noise. This reduction in additive noise results in a substantial improvement in detective quantum efficiency (DQE) at low exposures. The spatial resolution over the increased FOV of the cone-beam CT system is evaluated by imaging a fine steel wire placed at various locations within the volume of reconstruction. The measured modulation transfer function (MTF) of the system demonstrates spatial frequency pass beyond 1 mm-1 (10% modulation) with a slight degradation at points off the source plane. In addition to investigations of imaging performance, progress has also been made in the integration of this technology with a medical linear accelerator for on-line image-guided radiation therapy. Unlike the bench-top system, this implementation must contend with significant geometric non-idealities caused by gravity-induced flex of the x-ray tube and FPI support assemblies. A method of characterizing and correcting these non-idealities has been developed. Images of an anthropomorphic head phantom qualitatively demonstrate the excellent spatial resolution and large FOV achievable with the cone-beam approach in the clinical implementation.

  5. Large Variations of Atmospheric 14C Associated With Dansgaard-Oeschger Cycles 10- 13

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weyhenmeyer, C. E.; Burns, S. J.; Fleitmann, D.; Mangini, A.; Matter, A.; Guilderson, T.; Reimer, P. J.

    2006-12-01

    A 1.7 m long stalagmite from Moomi Cave, Socotra Island in the Indian Ocean provides a continuous, high- resolution record of climate change between 53 and 41 kyr BP. In the northern high-latitude regions, this time period is characterized by several rapid climate change events, corresponding to Dansgaard-Oeschger (D/O) cycles 10-13. It has been suggested that these D/O cycles may be global events but high-resolution data from the low-latitude regions are scarce. As a result, the driving and feedback mechanisms of these rapid changes remain poorly understood. The presented stalagmite data of U/Th, stable isotopes (del 18O, del 13C) and radiocarbon (14C) provide unique information regarding the nature and timing of rapid climate changes in the tropics. A depth-age model for the Moomi Cave stalagmite was developed from 25 high-precision U/Th measurements, providing a solid chronology for this record. Oxygen isotope measurements of the stalagmite calcite reveal several large variations that are believed to reflect changes in the amount of precipitation, rather than temperature. A comparison to the Greenland Ice Core records shows a remarkable similarity to D/O cycles 10- 13 with warmer periods in the high-latitude regions being associated with increased precipitation in the tropics and vice versa. The stalagmite radiocarbon (14C) values from over 100 individual measurements reveal an almost identical cyclic pattern, tracing all four D/O cycles. Assuming no changes in the carbonate chemistry of the precipitating fluid, the radiocarbon values of the stalagmite calcite directly reflect changes in global atmospheric 14C concentrations. There are three possible explanations for these cyclic variations of 14C values: 1) changes in the carbonate chemistry of the drip water resulting in changes of the dead carbon fraction (DCF); 2) changes in the solar activity and/or Earth's magnetic field resulting in direct variations of atmospheric 14C concentrations; and 3) changes in

  6. Backward-propagating MeV electrons from 1018 W/cm2 laser interactions with water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, J. T.; Chowdhury, E. A.; Frische, K. D.; Feister, S.; Ovchinnikov, V. M.; Nees, J. A.; Orban, C.; Freeman, R. R.; Roquemore, W. M.

    2015-04-01

    We present an experimental study of the generation of ˜MeV electrons opposite to the direction of laser propagation following the relativistic interaction at normal incidence of a ˜3 mJ, 1018 W/cm2 short pulse laser with a flowing 30 μm diameter water column target. Faraday cup measurements record hundreds of pC charge accelerated to energies exceeding 120 keV, and energy-resolved measurements of secondary x-ray emissions reveal an x-ray spectrum peaking above 800 keV, which is significantly higher energy than previous studies with similar experimental conditions and more than five times the ˜110 keV ponderomotive energy scale for the laser. We show that the energetic x-rays generated in the experiment result from backward-going, high-energy electrons interacting with the focusing optic, and vacuum chamber walls with only a small component of x-ray emission emerging from the target itself. We also demonstrate that the high energy radiation can be suppressed through the attenuation of the nanosecond-scale pre-pulse. These results are supported by 2D particle-in-cell simulations of the laser-plasma interaction, which exhibit beam-like backward-propagating MeV electrons.

  7. Spin-Hall-Effect-Assisted Electroresistance in Antiferromagnets via 105 A/cm2 dc Current

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jiahao; Wang, Yuyan; Pan, Feng; Song, Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Antiferromagnet (AFM) spintronics with reduced electrical current is greatly expected to process information with high integration and low power consumption. In Pt/FeMn and Ta/FeMn hybrids, we observe significant resistance variation (up to 7% of the total resistance) manipulated by 105 A/cm2 dc current. We have excluded the contribution of isotropic structural effects, and confirmed the critical role of the spin Hall injection from Pt (or Ta) to FeMn. This electrical current-manipulated resistance (i.e. electroresistance) is proposed to be attributed to the spin-Hall-effect-induced spin-orbit torque in FeMn. Similar results have also been detected in plain IrMn films, where the charge current generates spin current via the spin Hall effect with the existence of Ir atoms. All the measurements are free from external magnetic fields and ferromagnets. Our findings present an interesting step towards high-efficiency spintronic devices. PMID:27546199

  8. Clasts in the CM2 carbonaceous chondrite Lonewolf Nunataks 94101: Evidence for aqueous alteration prior to complex mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindgren, Paula; Lee, Martin R.; Sofe, Mahmood R.; Zolensky, Michael E.

    2013-06-01

    Clasts in the CM2 carbonaceous chondrite Lonewolf Nunataks (LON) 94101 have been characterized using scanning and transmission electron microscopy and electron microprobe analysis to determine their degrees of aqueous alteration, and the timing of alteration relative to incorporation of clasts into the host. The provenance of the clasts, and the mechanism by which they were incorporated and mixed with their host material are also considered. Results show that at least five distinct types of clasts occur in LON 94101, of which four have been aqueously altered to various degrees and one is largely anhydrous. The fact that they have had different alteration histories implies that the main part of aqueous activity occurred prior to the mixing and assimilation of the clasts with their host. Further, the presence of such a variety of clasts suggests complex mixing in a dynamic environment involving material from various sources. Two of the clasts, one containing approximately 46 vol% carbonate and the other featuring crystals of pyrrhotite up to approximately 1 mm in size, are examples of unusual lithologies and indicate concentration of chemical elements in discrete areas of the parent body(ies), possibly by flow of aqueous solutions.

  9. Pulse-laser irradiation experiments of Murchison CM2 chondrite for reproducing space weathering on C-type asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuoka, Moe; Nakamura, Tomoki; Kimura, Yuki; Hiroi, Takahiro; Nakamura, Ryosuke; Okumura, Satoshi; Sasaki, Sho

    2015-07-01

    We performed pulse-laser irradiation experiments of a primitive meteorite to simulate space weathering by micrometeorite bombardments on C-type asteroids. Pellets of powdered Murchison CM2 chondrite were set in vacuum and exposed to pulse laser with a diameter of 0.5 mm and delivered energies of 5, 10, and 15 mJ. We measured reflectance spectra of unirradiated and irradiated surfaces of the pellets. During analysis the pellet was heated to approximately 100 °C and purged in N2 gas in order to reduce absorption of ambient water. The spectra become darker and bluer with increasing laser energies. Their UV reflectance increases and 0.7- and 3-μm band depths decrease from 0 to 15 mJ. The spectral bluing observed in our experiments reproduces the bluing occurred during space weathering of C-type asteroids. High-resolution observation by a transmission electron microscope showed that the laser heating causes preferential melting and evaporation in FeS-rich fine-grained portions, which results in dispersion and deposition of numerous FeS-rich amorphous silicate particles 20-1000 nm in size on the surface of the pellet. In addition, at the laser-irradiated but unmelted areas, heat-induced amorphization and decomposition of serpentine occur. These mineralogical changes make the reflectance spectra of the Murchison CM chondrite darker and bluer.

  10. Spin-Hall-Effect-Assisted Electroresistance in Antiferromagnets via 10(5) A/cm(2) dc Current.

    PubMed

    Han, Jiahao; Wang, Yuyan; Pan, Feng; Song, Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Antiferromagnet (AFM) spintronics with reduced electrical current is greatly expected to process information with high integration and low power consumption. In Pt/FeMn and Ta/FeMn hybrids, we observe significant resistance variation (up to 7% of the total resistance) manipulated by 10(5) A/cm(2) dc current. We have excluded the contribution of isotropic structural effects, and confirmed the critical role of the spin Hall injection from Pt (or Ta) to FeMn. This electrical current-manipulated resistance (i.e. electroresistance) is proposed to be attributed to the spin-Hall-effect-induced spin-orbit torque in FeMn. Similar results have also been detected in plain IrMn films, where the charge current generates spin current via the spin Hall effect with the existence of Ir atoms. All the measurements are free from external magnetic fields and ferromagnets. Our findings present an interesting step towards high-efficiency spintronic devices. PMID:27546199

  11. Thorny devil nanotextured fibers: the way to cooling rates on the order of 1 kW/cm2.

    PubMed

    Sinha-Ray, S; Zhang, Y; Yarin, A L

    2011-01-01

    In the present work high-heat-flux surfaces, which should serve at temperatures of up to 200 °C, were covered by electrospun polymer nanofiber mats with thicknesses of about 30 μm. Then, four different metals were electroplated on separate polymer mats, namely, copper, silver, nickel, and gold. As a result, copper-plated nanofiber mats took on an appearance resembling that of a small Australian thorny devil lizard (i.e., they became very rough on the nanoscale) and acquired a high thermal diffusivity. Silver-plated nanofiber mats also became very rough because of the dendritelike and cactuslike nanostructures on their surfaces. However, nickel-plated nanofibers were only partially rough and their mats incorporated large domains of smooth nickel-plated fibers, and gold-plated nanofibers were practically smooth. Drop impacts on the hot surfaces coated with copper-plated and silver-plated nanofibers revealed tremendously high values of heat removal rates of up to 0.6 kW/cm(2). Such high values of heat flux are more than an order of magnitude higher that the currently available ones and probably can be increased even more using the same technique. They open some intriguing perspectives for the cooling of high-heat-flux microelectronics and optoelectronics and for further miniaturization of such devices, especially for such applications as UAVs and UGVs. PMID:21126096

  12. 40 CFR 721.10178 - Distillates (Fischer-Tropsch), hydroisomerized middle, C10-13-branched alkane fraction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... middle, C10-13-branched alkane fraction (PMN P-04-319; CAS No. 642928-30-1) is subject to reporting under...)(i), (a)(3), (a)(4), (a)(5), (b) (concentration set at 0.1 percent), and (c). Respirators...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10178 - Distillates (Fischer-Tropsch), hydroisomerized middle, C10-13-branched alkane fraction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... middle, C10-13-branched alkane fraction (PMN P-04-319; CAS No. 642928-30-1) is subject to reporting under...)(i), (a)(3), (a)(4), (a)(5), (b) (concentration set at 0.1 percent), and (c). Respirators...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10178 - Distillates (Fischer-Tropsch), hydroisomerized middle, C10-13-branched alkane fraction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... middle, C10-13-branched alkane fraction (PMN P-04-319; CAS No. 642928-30-1) is subject to reporting under...)(i), (a)(3), (a)(4), (a)(5), (b) (concentration set at 0.1 percent), and (c). Respirators...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10178 - Distillates (Fischer-Tropsch), hydroisomerized middle, C10-13-branched alkane fraction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... middle, C10-13-branched alkane fraction (PMN P-04-319; CAS No. 642928-30-1) is subject to reporting under...)(i), (a)(3), (a)(4), (a)(5), (b) (concentration set at 0.1 percent), and (c). Respirators...

  16. Optimized MOL-PCR for Characterization of Microbial Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Wuyts, Véronique; Roosens, Nancy H C; Bertrand, Sophie; Marchal, Kathleen; De Keersmaecker, Sigrid C J

    2016-01-01

    Characterization of microbial pathogens is necessary for surveillance, outbreak detection, and tracing of outbreak sources. This unit describes a multiplex oligonucleotide ligation-PCR (MOL-PCR) optimized for characterization of microbial pathogens. With MOL-PCR, different types of markers, like unique sequences, single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and indels, can be simultaneously analyzed in one assay. This assay consists of a multiplex ligation for detection of the markers, a singleplex PCR for signal amplification, and hybridization to MagPlex-TAG beads for readout on a Luminex platform after fluorescent staining. The current protocol describes the MOL-PCR, as well as methods for DNA isolation, probe design, and data interpretation and it is based on an optimized MOL-PCR assay for subtyping of Salmonella Typhimurium. PMID:26742655

  17. MOL1 is required for cambium homeostasis in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Gursanscky, Nial Rau; Jouannet, Virginie; Grünwald, Karin; Sanchez, Pablo; Laaber-Schwarz, Martina; Greb, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    Plants maintain pools of pluripotent stem cells which allow them to constantly produce new tissues and organs. Stem cell homeostasis in shoot and root tips depends on negative regulation by ligand-receptor pairs of the CLE peptide and leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase (LRR-RLK) families. However, regulation of the cambium, the stem cell niche required for lateral growth of shoots and roots, is poorly characterized. Here we show that the LRR-RLK MOL1 is necessary for cambium homeostasis in Arabidopsis thaliana. By employing promoter reporter lines, we reveal that MOL1 is active in a domain that is distinct from the domain of the positively acting CLE41/PXY signaling module. In particular, we show that MOL1 acts in an opposing manner to the CLE41/PXY module and that changing the domain or level of MOL1 expression both result in disturbed cambium organization. Underlining discrete roles of MOL1 and PXY, both LRR-RLKs are not able to replace each other when their expression domains are interchanged. Furthermore, MOL1 but not PXY is able to rescue CLV1 deficiency in the shoot apical meristem. By identifying genes mis-expressed in mol1 mutants, we demonstrate that MOL1 represses genes associated with stress-related ethylene and jasmonic acid hormone signaling pathways which have known roles in coordinating lateral growth of the Arabidopsis stem. Our findings provide evidence that common regulatory mechanisms in different plant stem cell niches are adapted to specific niche anatomies and emphasize the importance of a complex spatial organization of intercellular signaling cascades for a strictly bidirectional tissue production. PMID:26991973

  18. Novel charge transfer complexes of the donor 1,4,7,10,13,16-hexamethyl-1,4,7,10,13,16-hexaazacyclooctadecane and the acceptors iodine, TCNE, and TCNQ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AlQaradawi, Siham Y.; Bazzi, Hassan S.; Mostafa, Adel; Nour, El-Metwally

    2011-07-01

    Novel charge transfer complexes have been formed in the reaction of the interesting powerful electron donor 1,4,7,10,13,16-hexamethyl-1,4,7,10,13,16-hexaazacyclooctadecane (HMHACOD) with σ-electron acceptor iodine and π-acceptors tetracynoethylene (TCNE) and 7,7,8,8,-tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ). The reactions have been studied spectrophotometrically in chloroform and the formed solid complexes have been isolated and characterized through infrared spectra as well as thermal and elemental analysis. Due to the expected powerful electron donation of the donor (HMHACOD), the reaction stoichiometries, donor:acceptor molar ratio values, are found to be exceptionally high equal to 1:6, 1:16 and 1:3 for iodine, TCNE and TCNQ complexes, respectively. Accordingly the formed charge transfer complexes could be formulated as [(HMHACOD)I] +· I11-, [(HMHACOD)(TCNE) 16] and [(HMHACOD)(TCNQ) 3].

  19. Comparison of primary standard gas mixtures: gravimetric production of carbon monoxide in nitrogen (3 μmol/mol)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konopelko, L. A.; Kustikov, Y. A.; Kolobova, A. V.; Pankratov, V. V.; Pankov, A. A.; Efremova, O. V.; Augusto, Cristiane R.; Fioravante, Andreia L.; Ribeiro, Claudia C.; Teixeira, Denise C. G. S.; Elias, Elizandra C. S.; Oudwater, Rutger J.; Fagundes, Fátima A.; Silva, Marceli C.

    2016-01-01

    COOMET.QM-S3 is a supplementary comparison of primary standard gas mixtures—'Carbon monoxide in Nitrogen (3 μmol/mol)'. This is a bilateral comparison between VNIIM and INMETRO and it was conducted in 2013. Carbon monoxide is a toxic gas and in concentrations higher than 3-5 μmol/mol it is hazardous to human health. Therefore, it is important for NMIs to have the capability of an accurate carbon monoxide measurements. This comparison has shown that primary standard gas mixtures of carbon monoxide in nitrogen on the level of 3 μmol/mol, prepared in VNIIM and Inmetro, do not agree—the pair-wise degree of equivalence D (0.77%) is higher than the appropriate expanded uncertainty U(D) (0.29%). Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCQM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  20. A 100-kV, 100-A/cm2 Electron Optical System for the EB-X3 X-Ray Mask Writer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Kenichi; Kato, Junichi; Matsuda, Tadahito; Nakayama, Yoshinori

    2000-12-01

    In order to increase the throughput of the EB-X3 variably shaped electron beam writing system, a method of increasing the current density with a zoom lens was introduced into the electron optical system. The electron optical characteristics were measured at current densities of 50 and 100 A/cm2 under various zoom-lens conditions, and the results show that this method can increase the current density to 100 A/cm2 without any change in the major electron optical characteristics. At this current density, the patterning resolution was estimated to be 55 nm, and no melting of the first shaping aperture and no microdischarges in the 100-kV electron gun were observed. This confirms that the current density of the EB-X3 can in fact be extended to 100 A/cm2 for the fabrication of X-ray masks with a minimum feature size of 100 nm and below.

  1. Extremely high current density over 1000 A/cm2 operation in M-GaN LEDs on bulk GaN substrates with low-efficiency droop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokogawa, Toshiya; Inoue, Akira

    2014-02-01

    A high current density over 1000 A/cm2 operation in small chip size m-plane GaN-LED has been successfully demonstrated. The LED with chip size 450 × 450 μm2 has emitted 1353 mW in light output power and 39.2% in external quantum efficiency (EQE) at 1000 A/cm2 (1134 mA). The m-plane GaN-LED has showed asymmetric radiation characteristics. The radiation patterns are controlled by the surface of LED package, the height of LED chip, and striped texture on top m-plane surface.

  2. Innovative approaches to exoplanet detection and characterization: Notes from the Nov 10-13 Keck Institute for Space Studies workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Eliot; Traub, Wesley; Unwin, Stephen; Stapelfeldt, Karl

    2010-05-01

    A four-day workshop was convened on November 10-13, 2009 by the Keck Institute for Space Studies and JPL to consider innovative approaches to detecting and characterizing exoplanets and planetary systems. The program and many of the presentations can be found online: . We present some of the observational strategies discussed in this workshop and summarize some of the issues associated with them. In particular, we will highlight some of the advantages and shortcomings of suborbital and orbital (e.g., ESPA rings) observing platforms in the context of exoplanet detection and characterization.

  3. Schottky barrier diodes of corundum-structured gallium oxide showing on-resistance of 0.1 mΩ·cm2 grown by MIST EPITAXY®

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oda, Masaya; Tokuda, Rie; Kambara, Hitoshi; Tanikawa, Tomochika; Sasaki, Takahiro; Hitora, Toshimi

    2016-02-01

    Thin-film corundum-structured gallium oxide (α-Ga2O3) Schottky barrier diodes (SBDs) were fabricated by growing α-Ga2O3 layers on sapphire substrates by the safe, low-cost, and energy-saving MIST EPITAXY® technique, followed by lifting off the α-Ga2O3 layers from the substrates. The SBDs exhibited on-resistance and breakdown voltage of 0.1 mΩ·cm2 and 531 V (SBD1) or 0.4 mΩ·cm2 and 855 V (SBD2), respectively. These results will encourage the future evolution of low-cost and high-performance SBDs with α-Ga2O3.

  4. Is H2O present on Io? The detection of a new strong band near 3590/cm (2.79 microns)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salama, F.; Allamandola, L. J.; Sandford, S. A.; Bregman, J. D.; Witteborn, F. C.; Cruikshank, D. P.

    1994-02-01

    A strong absorption band at 3590 +/- 20/cm (2.790 +/- 0.015 microns) has been discovered in the spectrum of Io using the Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO). The 2nu1 + nu3 combination mode of solid SO2 falls at this position. Since SO2 is abundant on Io it must contribute to the new band. However, a band due to H2O was predicted near this frequency in Io's spectrum based on laboratory experiments of H2O:SO2 mixed Io ice analogs which were used to assign the two weak, variable features at 3370 and 3170/cm (2.97 and 3.15 microns) to trace amounts of H2O frozen in solid SO2 on Io. The new band probably originates from both SO2 and H2O. Unfortunately, the spectral resolution of the data is insufficient to settle the issue of whether there are two resolvable components.

  5. New narrow infrared absorption features in the spectrum of Io between 3600 and 3100 cm (2.8-3.2 micrometers)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandford, Scott A.; Geballe, Thomas R.; Salama, Farid; Goorvitch, David

    1994-01-01

    We report the discovery of a series of infrared absorption bands between 3600 and 3100/cm (2.8-3.2 micrometers) in the spectrum of Io. Individual narrow bands are detected at 3553, 3514.5, 3438, 3423, 3411.5, and 3401/cm (2.815, 2.845, 2.909, 2.921, 2.931, and 2.940 micrometers, respectively). The positions and relative strengths of these bands, and the difference of their absolute strengths between the leading and trailing faces of Io, indicate that they are due to SO2. The band at 3438/cm (2.909 micrometers) could potentially have a contribution from an additional molecular species. The existence of these bands in the spectrum of Io indicates that a substantial fraction of the SO2 on Io must reside in transparent ices having relatively large crystal sizes. The decrease in the continuum observed at the high frequency ends of the spectra is probably due to the low frequency side of the recently detected, strong 3590/cm (2.79 micrometer) feature. This band is likely due to the combination of a moderately strong SO2 band and an additional absorption from another molecular species, perhaps H2O isolated in SO2 at low concentrations. A broad (FWHM approximately = 40-60/cm), weak band is seen near 3160/cm (3.16 micrometers) and is consistent with the presence of small quantities of H2O isolated in SO2-rich ices. There is no evidence in the spectra for the presence of H2O vapor on Io. Thus, the spectra presented here neither provide unequivocal evidence for the presence of H2O on Io nor preclude it at the low concentrations suggested by past studies.

  6. Electron Mobility Exceeding 10 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) and Band-Like Charge Transport in Solution-Processed n-Channel Organic Thin-Film Transistors.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaomin; Yao, Yifan; Shan, Bowen; Gu, Xiao; Liu, Danqing; Liu, Jinyu; Xu, Jianbin; Zhao, Ni; Hu, Wenping; Miao, Qian

    2016-07-01

    Solution-processed n-channel organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) that exhibit a field-effect mobility as high as 11 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) at room temperature and a band-like temperature dependence of electron mobility are reported. By comparison of solution-processed OTFTs with vacuum-deposited OTFTs of the same organic semiconductor, it is found that grain boundaries are a key factor inhibiting band-like charge transport. PMID:27151777

  7. Crystal and mol-ecular structure of aflatrem.

    PubMed

    Lenta, Bruno N; Ngatchou, Jules; Kenfack, Patrice T; Neumann, Beate; Stammler, Hans-Georg; Sewald, Norbert

    2015-11-01

    The crystal structure of the title compound, C32H39NO4, confirms the absolute configuration of the seven chiral centres in the mol-ecule. The molecule has a 1,1-dimethylprop-2-enyl substituent on the indole nucleus and this nucleus shares one edge with the five-membered ring which is, in turn, connected to a sequence of three edge-shared fused rings. The skeleton is completed by the 7,7-trimethyl-6,8-dioxabi-cyclo-[3.2.1]oct-3-en-2-one group connected to the terminal cyclohexene ring. The two cyclohexane rings adopt chair and half-chair conformations, while in the dioxabi-cyclo-[3.2.1]oct-3-en-2-one unit, the six-membered ring has a half-chair conformation. The indole system of the mol-ecule exhibits a tilt of 2.02 (1)° between its two rings. In the crystal, O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds connect mol-ecules into chains along [010]. Weak N-H⋯π inter-actions connect these chains, forming sheets parallel to (10-1). PMID:26594569

  8. Crystal and mol­ecular structure of aflatrem

    PubMed Central

    Lenta, Bruno N.; Ngatchou, Jules; Kenfack, Patrice T.; Neumann, Beate; Stammler, Hans-Georg; Sewald, Norbert

    2015-01-01

    The crystal structure of the title compound, C32H39NO4, confirms the absolute configuration of the seven chiral centres in the mol­ecule. The molecule has a 1,1-dimethylprop-2-enyl substituent on the indole nucleus and this nucleus shares one edge with the five-membered ring which is, in turn, connected to a sequence of three edge-shared fused rings. The skeleton is completed by the 7,7-trimethyl-6,8-dioxabi­cyclo­[3.2.1]oct-3-en-2-one group connected to the terminal cyclohexene ring. The two cyclohexane rings adopt chair and half-chair conformations, while in the dioxabi­cyclo­[3.2.1]oct-3-en-2-one unit, the six-membered ring has a half-chair conformation. The indole system of the mol­ecule exhibits a tilt of 2.02 (1)° between its two rings. In the crystal, O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds connect mol­ecules into chains along [010]. Weak N—H⋯π inter­actions connect these chains, forming sheets parallel to (10-1). PMID:26594569

  9. Luminescence of microcrystals and solutions of 8-azagona-1,3,5(10),13-tetraene-12,17-dione

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagnich, S. A.; Khropik, N. N.; Knyukshto, V. N.; Bässler, H.; Mikhalchuk, A. L.

    2002-08-01

    We present the results of the investigation of delayed luminescence of 2,3-methoxy-8-azagona-1,3,5(10),13-tetraene-12,17-dione (8,9-dimethoxy-1,2,3,5,6,10b,11,12-octahydrocyclopentane[5,6]pyrido[2,1-a]isoquinoline-1,12dione) in solid solutions. Dual delayed luminescence with maxima in the region of 400 and 500 nm depending on the excitation wavelength has been revealed. It is shown that the observed delayed luminescence is a phosphorescence of individual molecules of the substance (short-wavelength luminescence) and molecular pairs (long-wavelength luminescence) resulting from the dipole-dipole (Coulomb) interaction of strongly polarized molecules. The conclusion has been drawn that the spectral features observed for the solutions of 8-azasteroids are due to both individual molecules and their aggregates.

  10. Critical currents up to 71 000 A cm -2 at 77 K in melt textured YBCO doped with BaSnO 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lepropre, M.; Monot, I.; Delamare, M. P.; Hervieu, M.; Simon, Ch; Provost, J.; Desgardin, G.; Raveau, B.; Barbur, J. M.; Bourgault, D.; Braithwaite, D.

    We have performed crtical current density measurements on melt textured YBa 2Cu 3O 7 doped with BaSnO 3, which exhibits transport values at 77 K as high as 7.1 × 10 4 A cm -2 in zero field and 1.1 × 10 4 A cm -2 at 20 T. A systematic study of this ceramic has been carried out using SEM and HREM observations in correlation with Jc measurements. A textured microstructure is observed, characterized by rather regular striation corresponding to platelet-like 123 grain. Large 211 (green phase) inclusions of ≈ 10 μm diameter are also observed, as well as smaller inclusions which correspond to BaSnO 3 (< 10 μm) at the grain boundaries of the platelets or wrapped in the matrix. It has been found that transport Jc data are distributed over a very wide range (2.5 × 10 3-7.1 × 10 4 A cm -2). Nevertheless, magnetic Jc measurements suggest that cracks of the order of micrometres may appear in some regions of the material leading to a drramatic decrease in c for the corresponding sample. On the other hand, HREM observations demonstrate that extended defects such as intergrowth or disordering, as well as twin boundaries, cannot be considered to be the major factors for vortex pinning in the textured 123 material. The presence or obsence of inhomogeneity on the nanoscale does not seem to influence the critical current density. Finally, it has been determined that pinning is more probably due to microstructure.

  11. Dynamics of cell and tissue growth acquired by means of 25 mm2 to 10 cm2 lens-free imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Momey, F.; Coutard, J.-G.; Bordy, T.; Navarro, F.; Menneteau, M.; Dinten, J.-M.; Allier, C.

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we discuss a new methodology based on lens-free imaging to perform wound healing assay with unprecedented statistics. Our video lens-free microscopy setup is a simple optical system featuring only a CMOS sensor and a semi coherent illumination system. Yet it is a powerful means for the real-time monitoring of cultivated cells. It presents several key advantages, e.g., integration into standard incubator, compatibility with standard cell culture protocol, simplicity and ease of use. It can perform the follow-up in a large field of view (25 mm2) of several crucial parameters during the culture of cells i.e. their motility, their proliferation rate or their death. Consequently the setup can gather large statistics both in space and time. But in the case of tissue growth experiments, the field of view of 25 mm2 remains not sufficient and results can be biased depending on the position of the device with respect to the recipient of the cell culture. Hence, to conduct exhaustive wound healing assay, here we propose to enlarge the field of view up to 10 cm2 through two different approaches. The first method consists in performing a scan of the cell culture by moving the source/sensor couple and then stitch the stack of images. The second is to make an acquisition by scanning with a line scan camera. The two approaches are compared in term of resolution, complexity and acquisition time. Next we have performed acquisitions of wound healing assay (keratinocytes HaCaT) both in real-time (25 mm2) and in final point (10 cm2) to assess the combination of these two complementary modalities. In the future, we aim at combining directly super wide field of view acquisitions (>10 cm2) with real time ability inside the incubator.

  12. MgZnO/ZnO heterostructures with electron mobility exceeding 1 × 106 cm2/Vs

    PubMed Central

    Falson, Joseph; Kozuka, Yusuke; Uchida, Masaki; Smet, Jurgen H.; Arima, Taka-hisa; Tsukazaki, Atsushi; Kawasaki, Masashi

    2016-01-01

    The inherently complex chemical and crystallographic nature of oxide materials has suppressed the purities achievable in laboratory environments, obscuring the rich physical degrees of freedom these systems host. In this manuscript we provide a systematic approach to defect identification and management in oxide molecular beam epitaxy grown MgZnO/ZnO heterostructures which host two-dimensional electron systems. We achieve samples displaying electron mobilities in excess of 1 × 106 cm2/Vs. This data set for the MgZnO/ZnO system firmly establishes that the crystalline quality has become comparable to traditional semiconductor materials. PMID:27229479

  13. In Situ Location and Characterization of Carbon-bearing Phases in Carbonaceous Chondrites: Insights from Yamato 791198, a Weakly-altered CM2 Chondrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brearley, Adrian J.

    2004-01-01

    Intense studies of carbonaceous chondrites have provided remarkable insights into the behavior of carbon during the earliest stages of our solar system. This research has demonstrated that carbonaceous meteorites contain a diverse array of organic compounds, whose origins are probably the result of multiple processes that occurred in different locations including interstellar space, the solar nebula and asteroidal parent bodies [1-3]. The most abundant organic carbon component in CI1 and CM2 carbonaceous chondrites is so-called macromolecular carbon, a high molecular weight material that has some affinities to terrestrial kerogen and constitutes approximately 60-70% of the organic material in these meteorites. Although recent studies e.g. [3] have radically improved our understanding of the structural and compositional characteristics of this material, a number of key questions remain to be addressed. In particular, our knowledge of where this macromolecular material is distributed at the fine-scale within carbonaceous chondrites is scant. [4] have shown that organic material is associated with phyllosilicate-rich matrix in CM chondrites, but the detailed mineralogical associations are not well-known. Over the past 2 years, we have begun to address this question by using energy filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM) to locate carbon-bearing materials in situ, focusing specifically on the CM2s. To date we have reported data on the Murchison CM2 chondrite [5], a meteorite that has experienced a modest degree of aqueous alteration. To extend our observations to other CM2 chondrites, we have examined the occurrence of carbon-bearing phases in Yamato 791198. Our recent studies [5] have shown that Y-791198 is among the most weakly-altered CM chondrite currently known and hence is likely to preserve a quite primitive distribution of carbonaceous material. In this study, we present initial observations on the distribution of these materials in one fine

  14. CONTROL OF LASER RADIATION PARAMETERS: Direct amplification of picosecond pulses in neodymium glass with a power density above 100 GW cm-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Vladimir V.; Kutsenko, A. V.; Matsveiko, A. A.; Mikhailov, Yu A.; Popov, A. I.; Sklizkov, G. V.; Starodub, Aleksandr N.; Chekmarev, Alexander M.

    2003-09-01

    A scheme for amplification of ultrashort laser pulses is studied, which is used in experiments on symmetrisation of ablation pressure with the help of a prepulse upon acceleration of foils by laser radiation of high brightness. The possibility of direct amplification of short pulses before their expansion in order to increase the energy contrast is considered. In experiments performed on the PICO facility, the amplification of a 10-ps pulse with a power density exceeding 100 GW cm-2 is demonstrated with the gain equal to 1.2 and the inversion drop above 30 %.

  15. MgZnO/ZnO heterostructures with electron mobility exceeding 1 × 10(6) cm(2)/Vs.

    PubMed

    Falson, Joseph; Kozuka, Yusuke; Uchida, Masaki; Smet, Jurgen H; Arima, Taka-Hisa; Tsukazaki, Atsushi; Kawasaki, Masashi

    2016-01-01

    The inherently complex chemical and crystallographic nature of oxide materials has suppressed the purities achievable in laboratory environments, obscuring the rich physical degrees of freedom these systems host. In this manuscript we provide a systematic approach to defect identification and management in oxide molecular beam epitaxy grown MgZnO/ZnO heterostructures which host two-dimensional electron systems. We achieve samples displaying electron mobilities in excess of 1 × 10(6) cm(2)/Vs. This data set for the MgZnO/ZnO system firmly establishes that the crystalline quality has become comparable to traditional semiconductor materials. PMID:27229479

  16. Reflectance Spectra of CM2 Chondrite Mighei Irradiated with Pulsed Laser and Implications for Low-Albedo Asteroids and Martian Moons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moroz, L. V.; Hiroi, T.; Shingareva, T. V.; Basilevsky, A. T.; Fisenko, A. V.; Semjonova, L. F.; Pieters, C. M.

    2004-01-01

    Micrometeoritic bombardment is an important space weathering process modifying surface optical properties of airless solar system bodies. We have used irradiation with a microsecond pulsed laser as an experimental method to simulate such a process on various targets. The experiment discussed here was performed on a powdered sample of CM2 carbonaceous chondrite Mighei. Shingareva et al. report the details of experimental procedure as well as the results of mineralogical and chemical studies of the irradiated material. Here we present reflectance spectra of irradiated Mighei samples and discuss their spectral properties compared to those of non-irradiated meteorite and low-albedo small solar system bodies.

  17. MgZnO/ZnO heterostructures with electron mobility exceeding 1 × 106 cm2/Vs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falson, Joseph; Kozuka, Yusuke; Uchida, Masaki; Smet, Jurgen H.; Arima, Taka-Hisa; Tsukazaki, Atsushi; Kawasaki, Masashi

    2016-05-01

    The inherently complex chemical and crystallographic nature of oxide materials has suppressed the purities achievable in laboratory environments, obscuring the rich physical degrees of freedom these systems host. In this manuscript we provide a systematic approach to defect identification and management in oxide molecular beam epitaxy grown MgZnO/ZnO heterostructures which host two-dimensional electron systems. We achieve samples displaying electron mobilities in excess of 1 × 106 cm2/Vs. This data set for the MgZnO/ZnO system firmly establishes that the crystalline quality has become comparable to traditional semiconductor materials.

  18. Measurement of small ion beams by thermal ionisation mass spectrometry using new 10(13) Ohm resistors.

    PubMed

    Koornneef, J M; Bouman, C; Schwieters, J B; Davies, G R

    2014-03-28

    We tested 5 newly manufactured - prototype - 10(13)Ohm resistors in the feedback loop of Faraday cup amplifiers to measure small ion beams by Thermal Ionisation Mass Spectrometry (TIMS). The high Ohmic resistors installed in the TRITON Plus at the VU University Amsterdam theoretically have 10 times lower noise levels relative to the default 10(11)Ohm resistors. To investigate the precision and accuracy of analyses using these new amplifiers we measured Sr and Nd isotopes of reference standards at a range of ion currents (3.2×10(-16) to 1×10(-12) A, corresponding to intensities of 32 μV to 100 mV on a default 10(11)Ohm amplifier) and on small amounts of material (100 and 10 pg). Internal precision and external reproducibility for Sr and Nd isotope ratios are both better when collected on 10(13) compared 10(12)Ohm resistors and to the default 10(11)Ohm resistors. At an (87)Sr ion current of 3×10(-14) A (3 mV on a 10(11)Ohm amplifier) the internal precision (2 SE) of (87)Sr/(86)Sr is 5 times better for 10(13)Ohm resistors compared to 10(11)Ohm resistors. The external reproducibility (2 SD) at this beam intensity is 9 times better. Multiple 100 and 10 pg Sr standards, ran to exhaustion, yielded low (87)Sr/(86)Sr compared to the long term average (e.g. 10 pg average=0.710083±164 (n=11) instead of 0.710244±12, n=73). The average off-set for 10 pg standards can be explained by a loading blank contribution of 1.3 pg. In contrast, Nd data on 100 pg and 10 pg samples are accurate suggesting that Nd loading blanks do not compromise the data. The external reproducibility of (143)Nd/(144)Nd on 100 pg samples is 125 ppm and 3.3‰ on 10 pg samples (2 RSD=relative standard deviation, n=10). Thus, variability in Nd and Sr isotope ratios in the 4th decimal place, e.g. (143)Nd/(144)Nd 0.5110-0.5119 or (87)Sr/(86)Sr 0.7100-0.7109, can be resolved in 10 to 100 pg samples provided that the procedural blanks and chemical separation are optimal. For measurements in the beam

  19. 19 CFR 10.13 - Statutory provision: Subheading 9802.00.80, Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States (19 U...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Statutory provision: Subheading 9802.00.80, Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States (19 U.S.C. 1202). 10.13 Section 10.13 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE,...

  20. Current density and catalyst-coated membrane resistance distribution of hydro-formed metallic bipolar plate fuel cell short stack with 250 cm2 active area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haase, S.; Moser, M.; Hirschfeld, J. A.; Jozwiak, K.

    2016-01-01

    An automotive fuel cell with an active area of 250 cm2 is investigated in a 4-cell short stack with a current and temperature distribution device next to the bipolar plate with 560 current and 140 temperature segments. The electrical conductivities of the bipolar plate and gas diffusion layer assembly are determined ex-situ with this current scan shunt module. The applied fuel cell consists of bipolar plates constructed of 75-μm-thick, welded stainless-steel foils and a graphitic coating. The electrical conductivities of the bipolar plate and gas diffusion layer assembly are determined ex-situ with this module with a 6% deviation in in-plane conductivity. The current density distribution is evaluated up to 2.4 A cm-2. The entire cell's investigated volumetric power density is 4.7 kW l-1, and its gravimetric power density is 4.3 kW kg-1 at an average cell voltage of 0.5 V. The current density distribution is determined without influencing the operating cell. In addition, the current density distribution in the catalyst-coated membrane and its effective resistivity distribution with a finite volume discretisation of Ohm's law are evaluated. The deviation between the current density distributions in the catalyst-coated membrane and the bipolar plate is determined.

  1. Low-frequency (<100 kHz), low-intensity (<100 mW/cm(2)) ultrasound to treat venous ulcers: a human study and in vitro experiments.

    PubMed

    Samuels, Joshua A; Weingarten, Michael S; Margolis, David J; Zubkov, Leonid; Sunny, Youhan; Bawiec, Christopher R; Conover, Dolores; Lewin, Peter A

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether low frequency (<100 kHz), low intensity (<100 mW/cm(2), spatial peak temporal peak) ultrasound can be an effective treatment of venous stasis ulcers, which affect 500 000 patients annually costing over $1 billion per year. Twenty subjects were treated with either 20 or 100 kHz ultrasound for between 15 and 45 min per session for a maximum of four treatments. Healing was monitored by changes in wound area. Additionally, two in vitro studies were conducted using fibroblasts exposed to 20 kHz ultrasound to confirm the ultrasound's effects on proliferation and cellular metabolism. Subjects receiving 20 kHz ultrasound for 15 min showed statistically faster (p < 0.03) rate of wound closure. All five of these subjects fully healed by the fourth treatment session. The in vitro results indicated that 20 kHz ultrasound at 100 mW/cm(2) caused an average of 32% increased metabolism (p < 0.05) and 40% increased cell proliferation (p < 0.01) after 24 h when compared to the control, non-treated cells. Although statistically limited, this work supports the notion that low-intensity, low-frequency ultrasound is beneficial for treating venous ulcers. PMID:23927194

  2. A thienoisoindigo-naphthalene polymer with ultrahigh mobility of 14.4 cm(2)/V·s that substantially exceeds benchmark values for amorphous silicon semiconductors.

    PubMed

    Kim, Gyoungsik; Kang, Seok-Ju; Dutta, Gitish K; Han, Young-Kyu; Shin, Tae Joo; Noh, Yong-Young; Yang, Changduk

    2014-07-01

    By considering the qualitative benefits associated with solution rheology and mechanical properties of polymer semiconductors, it is expected that polymer-based electronic devices will soon enter our daily lives as indispensable elements in a myriad of flexible and ultra low-cost flat panel displays. Despite more than a decade of research focused on designing and synthesizing state-of-the-art polymer semiconductors for improving charge transport characteristics, the current mobility values are still not sufficient for many practical applications. The confident mobility in excess of ∼10 cm(2)/V·s is the most important requirement for enabling the realization of the aforementioned near-future products. We report on an easily attainable donor-acceptor (D-A) polymer semiconductor: poly(thienoisoindigo-alt-naphthalene) (PTIIG-Np). An unprecedented mobility of 14.4 cm(2)/V·s, by using PTIIG-Np with a high-k gate dielectric poly(vinylidenefluoride-trifluoroethylene) (P(VDF-TrFE)), is achieved from a simple coating processing, which is of a magnitude that is very difficult to obtain with conventional TFTs by means of molecular engineering. This work, therefore, represents a major step toward truly viable plastic electronics. PMID:24915140

  3. 5 × 5 cm2 silicon photonic crystal slabs on glass and plastic foil exhibiting broadband absorption and high-intensity near-fields

    PubMed Central

    Becker, C.; Wyss, P.; Eisenhauer, D.; Probst, J.; Preidel, V.; Hammerschmidt, M.; Burger, S.

    2014-01-01

    Crystalline silicon photonic crystal slabs are widely used in various photonics applications. So far, the commercial success of such structures is still limited owing to the lack of cost-effective fabrication processes enabling large nanopatterned areas (≫ 1 cm2). We present a simple method for producing crystalline silicon nanohole arrays of up to 5 × 5 cm2 size with lattice pitches between 600 and 1000 nm on glass and flexible plastic substrates. Exclusively up-scalable, fast fabrication processes are applied such as nanoimprint-lithography and silicon evaporation. The broadband light trapping efficiency of the arrays is among the best values reported for large-area experimental crystalline silicon nanostructures. Further, measured photonic crystal resonance modes are in good accordance with light scattering simulations predicting strong near-field intensity enhancements greater than 500. Hence, the large-area silicon nanohole arrays might become a promising platform for ultrathin solar cells on lightweight substrates, high-sensitive optical biosensors, and nonlinear optics. PMID:25073935

  4. AMINO ACID ANALYSES OF THE ANTARCTIC CM2 METEORITES ALH 83100 AND LEW 90500 USING LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY-TIME OF FLIGHT-MASS SPECTROMETRY

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glavin, D. P.; Dworkin, J. P.; Aubrey, A.; Botta, O.; Doty, J. H., III; Bada, J. L.

    2001-01-01

    The investigation of organic compounds in primitive carbonaceous meteorites provides a record of the chemical processes that occurred in the early solar system. In particular, amino acids have been shown to be potential indicators in tracing the nature of carbonaceous chondrite parent bodies [ 13. The delivery of amino acids by carbonaceous chondrites to the early Earth could have been any important source of the Earth's prebiotic organic inventory [2]. Over 80 different amino acids have been detected in the Murchison CM2 meteorite, most of them completely non-existent in the terrestrial biosphere [3]. We have optimized a new liquid chromatography-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (LC-ToF-MS) technique coupled with OPAMAC derivatization in order to detect amino acids in meteorite extracts by UV fluorescence and exact mass simultaneously. The detection limit of the LC-ToF-MS instrument for amino acids is at least 3 orders of magnitude lower than traditional GC-MS techniques. Here we report on the first analyses of amino acids and their enantiomeric abundances in the CM2 carbonaceous meteorites ALH 83100, LEW 90500, and Murchison using this new LC-ToF-MS instrument configuration. Amino acid analyses of any kind for the CM meteorite ALH 83100 have not previously been reported.

  5. Anthocyanins in berries of Maqui (Aristotelia chilensis (Mol.) Stuntz).

    PubMed

    Escribano-Bailón, María Teresa; Alcalde-Eon, Cristina; Muñoz, Orlando; Rivas-Gonzalo, Julián C; Santos-Buelga, Celestino

    2006-01-01

    The anthocyanin composition of berries of Maqui [Aristotelia chilensis (Mol.) Stuntz] was determined by HPLC with photodiode array and MS detection. Eight pigments corresponding to the 3-glucosides, 3,5-diglucosides, 3-sambubiosides and 3-sambubioside-5-glucosides of delphinidin and cyanidin were identified, the principal anthocyanin being delphinidin 3-sambubioside-5-glucoside (34% of total anthocyanins). The average total anthocyanin content was 137.6 +/- 0.4mg/100g of fresh fruit (211.9 +/- 0.6 mg/100g of dry fruit). The relative high anthocyanin content and the important presence of polar polyglycosylated derivatives makes the fruits of A. chilensis an interesting source of anthocyanin extracts for food and pharmaceutical uses. PMID:16454470

  6. The oxygen isotope evolution of parent body aqueous solutions as recorded by multiple carbonate generations in the Lonewolf Nunataks 94101 CM2 carbonaceous chondrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, M. R.; Sofe, M. R.; Lindgren, P.; Starkey, N. A.; Franchi, I. A.

    2013-11-01

    The CM2 carbonaceous chondrite LON 94101 contains aragonite and two generations of calcite that provide snapshots of the chemical and isotopic evolution of aqueous solutions during parent body alteration. Aragonite was the first carbonate to crystallize. It is rare, heterogeneously distributed within the meteorite matrix, and its mean oxygen isotope values are δ18O 39.9 ± 0.6‰, Δ17O -0.3 ± 1.0‰ (1σ). Calcite precipitated soon afterwards, and following a fall in solution Mg/Ca ratios, to produce small equant grains with a mean oxygen isotope value of δ18O 37.5 ± 0.7‰, Δ17O 1.4 ± 1.1‰ (1σ). These grains were partially or completely replaced by serpentine and tochilinite prior to precipitation of the second generation of calcite, which occluded an open fracture to form a millimetre-sized vein, and replaced anhydrous silicates within chondrules and the matrix. The vein calcite has a mean composition of δ18O 18.4 ± 0.3‰, Δ17O -0.5 ± 0.5‰ (1σ). Petrographic and isotopic results therefore reveal two discrete episodes of mineralisation that produced calcite generations with contrasting δ18O, and mean Δ17O values. The aragonite and equant calcite crystallized over a relatively brief period early in the aqueous alteration history of the parent body, and from static fluids that were evolving chemically in response to mineral dissolution and precipitation. The second calcite generation crystallized from solutions of a lower Δ17O, and a lower δ18O and/or higher temperature. As two generations of calcite whose petrographic characteristics and oxygen isotopic compositions are similar to those in LON 94101 occur in at least one other CM2, multiphase carbonate mineralisation could be the typical outcome of the sequence of chemical reactions during parent body aqueous alteration. It is equally possible however that the second generation of calcite formed in response to an event such as impact fracturing and concomitant fluid mobilisation that affected

  7. Three-dimensional nanostructured bilayer solid oxide fuel cell with 1.3 W/cm(2) at 450 °C.

    PubMed

    An, Jihwan; Kim, Young-Beom; Park, Joonsuk; Gür, Turgut M; Prinz, Fritz B

    2013-09-11

    Obtaining high power density at low operating temperatures has been an ongoing challenge in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), which are efficient engines to generate electrical energy from fuels. Here we report successful demonstration of a thin-film three-dimensional (3-D) SOFC architecture achieving a peak power density of 1.3 W/cm(2) obtained at 450 °C. This is made possible by nanostructuring of the ultrathin (60 nm) electrolyte interposed with a nanogranular catalytic interlayer at the cathode/electrolyte interface. We attribute the superior cell performance to significant reduction in both the ohmic and the polarization losses due to the combined effects of employing an ultrathin film electrolyte, enhancement of effective area by 3-D architecture, and superior catalytic activity by the ceria-based interlayer at the cathode. These insights will help design high-efficiency SOFCs that operate at low temperatures with power densities that are of practical significance. PMID:23977845

  8. Compositions of Partly Altered Olivine and Replacement Serpentine in the CM2 Chondrites QUE93005 and Nogoya: Implications for Scales of Elemental Redistribution During Aqueous Alteration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Velbel, M. A.; Tonui, E. K.; Zolensky, M. E.

    2003-01-01

    Some phyllosilicates in CM carbonaceous chondrites formed by aqueous alteration of anhydrous precursor phases. Although broad trends in the compositions of hydrous phyllosilicates are recognized and believed to be related to trends in degree of aqueous alteration, details of the reactions that formed specific secondary minerals remain obscure. This paper reports compositional relationships between remnants of partially pseudomorphically replaced silicates and their alteration products (serpentine) in the CM2 chondrites QUE93005 and Nogoya and compares both with previously published results for Allan Hills 81002. By focusing on serpentine formed from known reactants (olivines), and on only those instances in which some of the reactant silicate remains, direct compositional relationships between reactants and products, and the elemental mobility required by the reactions, can be established.

  9. Modified MBE hardware and techniques and role of gallium purity for attainment of two dimensional electron gas mobility >35×106 cm2/V s in AlGaAs/GaAs quantum wells grown by MBE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, Geoffrey C.; Fallahi, Saeed; Watson, John D.; Manfra, Michael J.

    2016-05-01

    We provide evidence that gallium purity is the primary impediment to attainment of ultra-high mobility in a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in AlGaAs/GaAs heterostructures grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). The purity of gallium can be enhanced dramatically by in-situ high temperature outgassing within an operating MBE. Based on analysis of data from an initial growth campaign in a new MBE system and modifications employed for a 2nd growth campaign, we have produced 2DEGs with low temperature mobility μ in excess of 35×106 cm2/V s at density n=3.0×1011/cm2 and μ=18×106 cm2/V s at n=1.1×1011/cm2. Our 2nd campaign data indicate that gallium purity remains the factor currently limiting μ<40×106 cm2/V s. We describe strategies to overcome this limitation.

  10. Effects of viewing geometry, aggregation state, and particle size on reflectance spectra of the Murchison CM2 chondrite deconvolved to Dawn FC band passes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izawa, Matthew R. M.; Schäfer, Tanja; Pietrasz, Valerie B.; Cloutis, Edward A.; Mann, Paul; Nathues, Andreas; Mengel, Kurt; Schäfer, Michael; Thangjam, Guneshwar; Hoffmann, Martin; Tait, Kimberly T.; Applin, Daniel M.

    2016-03-01

    Several current and soon-to-launch missions will investigate 'dark' asteroids, whose spectra have few weak or no distinct spectral features. Some carbonaceous chondrites, particularly the CI and CM groups, are reasonable material analogues for many dark asteroid surfaces. In addition to compositional variations, many non-compositional effects, including viewing geometry, surface particle size and particle sorting, can influence reflectance spectra, potentially complicating mineralogical interpretation of such data from remote surfaces. We have carried out an investigation of the effects of phase angle, particle size, aggregation state, and intra-sample heterogeneity on the reflectance spectra (0.4-1.0 μm) of the Murchison CM2 carbonaceous chondrite, deconvolved to Dawn Framing Camera (FC) band passes. This study was motivated by the desire to derive information about the surface of Ceres from Dawn FC data. Key spectral parameters derived from the FC multispectral data include various two-band reflectance ratios as well as three-band ratios that have been derived for mineralogical analysis. Phase angle effects include increased visible slope with increasing phase angle, a trend that may reverse at very high phase angles. Fine-grained particles exert a strong influence on spectral properties relative to their volumetric proportion. Grain size variation effects include a decrease in spectral contrast and increased visible spectral slope with decreasing grain size. Intra-sample heterogeneity, while spectrally detectable, is of relatively limited magnitude.

  11. Heterostructure design and growth conditions necessary for electron mobility exceeding 30x106 cm2/Vs in GaAs quantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fallahi, Saeed; Gardner, Geoffrey; Watson, John; Manfra, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Ultra-high purity GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructures remain the preeminent semiconductor platform for the study of strong correlations in low dimensions. In particular, the study of fragile fractional quantum Hall states such as ν = 5/2 and ν = 12/5 in the 2nd Landau level requires low disorder samples. While low temperature mobility is often specified as a parameter quantifying sample quality, it does not encode all information necessary to quantify disorder relevant to the fractional quantum Hall effect. Here we describe the heterostructure design considerations and molecular-beam-epitaxy growth conditions needed to achieve an electron mobility >30x106cm2/Vs. In particular, we report on the impact of several modulation doping schemes on mobility and the quality of transport in the 2nd Landau level. We also detail constraints on starting source material purity for the achievement of high mobility. In our work high mobility has been achieved primarily through improvements in starting source materials and heterostructure design rather than improvements in vacuum quality.

  12. Performance of a 64-channel, 3.2×3.2 cm2 SiPM tile for TOF-PET application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferri, Alessandro; Acerbi, Fabio; Gola, Alberto; Piemonte, Claudio; Paternoster, Giovanni; Zorzi, Nicola

    2016-07-01

    In this work, we present a new 3.2×3.2 cm2 detector tile, composed of 8×8 single SiPMs, having a regular 4 mm pitch in both the X and Y directions. The tile fill factor is 85%. We produced two versions of the tile with different SiPM technologies: RGB-HD and NUV. The first one features square micro-cells with 25 μm pitch, a PDE peaked at 550 nm and a DCR of 300 kHz/mm2, at 20 °C and at maximum detection efficiency. The second one features micro-cells with 40 μm pitch and a PDE peaked in the blue part of the spectrum. The dark count rate at 20 °C and at maximum PDE is 100 kHz/mm2. In this work, we show the energy and timing resolution measurements at 511 keV obtained coupling the two tiles to an 8×8 LYSO array with a pixel size of 4×4×22 mm3, perfectly matching the photo-detector array.

  13. Extracting the distribution of laser damage precursors on fused silica surfaces for 351 nm, 3 ns laser pulses at high fluences (20-150 J/cm2).

    PubMed

    Laurence, Ted A; Bude, Jeff D; Ly, Sonny; Shen, Nan; Feit, Michael D

    2012-05-01

    Surface laser damage limits the lifetime of optics for systems guiding high fluence pulses, particularly damage in silica optics used for inertial confinement fusion-class lasers (nanosecond-scale high energy pulses at 355 nm/3.5 eV). The density of damage precursors at low fluence has been measured using large beams (1-3 cm); higher fluences cannot be measured easily since the high density of resulting damage initiation sites results in clustering. We developed automated experiments and analysis that allow us to damage test thousands of sites with small beams (10-30 µm), and automatically image the test sites to determine if laser damage occurred. We developed an analysis method that provides a rigorous connection between these small beam damage test results of damage probability versus laser pulse energy and the large beam damage results of damage precursor densities versus fluence. We find that for uncoated and coated fused silica samples, the distribution of precursors nearly flattens at very high fluences, up to 150 J/cm2, providing important constraints on the physical distribution and nature of these precursors. PMID:22565775

  14. Aging characteristics of blue InGaN micro-light emitting diodes at an extremely high current density of 3.5 kA cm-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Pengfei; Althumali, Ahmad; Gu, Erdan; Watson, Ian M.; Dawson, Martin D.; Liu, Ran

    2016-04-01

    The aging characteristics of blue InGaN micro-light emitting diodes (micro-LEDs) with different sizes have been studied at an extremely high current density 3.5 kA cm-2 for emerging micro-LED applications including visible light communication (VLC), micro-LED pumped organic lasers and optogenetics. The light output power of micro-LEDs first increases and then decreases due to the competition of Mg activation in p-GaN layer and defect generation in the active region. The smaller micro-LEDs show less light output power degradation compared with larger micro-LEDs, which is attributed to the lower junction temperature of smaller micro-LEDs. It is found that the high current density without additional junction temperature cannot induce significant micro-LED degradation at room temperature but the combination of the high current density and high junction temperature leads to strong degradation. Furthermore, the cluster LEDs, composed of a micro-LED array, have been developed with both high light output power and less light output degradation for micro-LED applications in solid state lighting and VLC.

  15. Reaching 5.0×10-13 τ -1/2 short term frequency stability of the integrating sphere cold atom clock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, P.; Meng, Y. L.; Wan, J. Y.; Wang, X. M.; Wang, Y. N.; Xiao, L.; Cheng, H. D.; Liu, L.

    2016-06-01

    We present an improvement of short term frequency stability of the integrating sphere cold atom clock after increasing the intensities of clock signals and optimizing the feedback loop of the clock. A short term frequency stability of 5.0×10-13 τ -1/2 has been achieved and the limiting factors have been analyzed.

  16. Proceedings of the Annual International Conference of the Association for the Education of Teachers in Science (Charlotte, North Carolina, January 10-13, 2002).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubba, Peter A., Ed.; Rye, James A., Ed.; DiBiase, Warren J., Ed.; Crawford, Barbara A., Ed.

    This document contains the proceedings of the 2002 Annual International Conference of the Association for the Education of Teachers in Science which was held in Charlotte, North Carolina, January 10-13, 2002. Papers include: (1) "Teaching Science Methods Courses with Web-Enhanced Activities" (Alec M. Bodzin); (2) "How Is Your Lawnmower Working?…

  17. Absence of Widespread Psychosocial and Cognitive Effects of School-Based Music Instruction in 10-13-Year-Old Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rickard, Nikki S.; Bambrick, Caroline J.; Gill, Anneliese

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies demonstrate that private music training has benefits which may transfer to other domains, including verbal memory, intelligence and self-esteem. The current paper reports on the impact of an increase in school-based music training on a range of cognitive and psychosocial measures for 10-13-year-olds in two independent studies. In…

  18. Plasmids pMOL28 and pMOL30 of Cupriavidus metallidurans Are Specialized in the Maximal Viable Response to Heavy Metals▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Monchy, Sébastien; Benotmane, Mohammed A.; Janssen, Paul; Vallaeys, Tatiana; Taghavi, Safiyh; van der Lelie, Daniel; Mergeay, Max

    2007-01-01

    We fully annotated two large plasmids, pMOL28 (164 open reading frames [ORFs]; 171,459 bp) and pMOL30 (247 ORFs; 233,720 bp), in the genome of Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34. pMOL28 contains a backbone of maintenance and transfer genes resembling those found in plasmid pSym of C. taiwanensis and plasmid pHG1 of C. eutrophus, suggesting that they belong to a new class of plasmids. Genes involved in resistance to the heavy metals Co(II), Cr(VI), Hg(II), and Ni(II) are concentrated in a 34-kb region on pMOL28, and genes involved in resistance to Ag(I), Cd(II), Co(II), Cu(II), Hg(II), Pb(II), and Zn(II) occur in a 132-kb region on pMOL30. We identified three putative genomic islands containing metal resistance operons flanked by mobile genetic elements, one on pMOL28 and two on pMOL30. Transcriptomic analysis using quantitative PCR and microarrays revealed metal-mediated up-regulation of 83 genes on pMOL28 and 143 genes on pMOL30 that coded for all known heavy metal resistance proteins, some new heavy metal resistance proteins (czcJ, mmrQ, and pbrU), membrane proteins, truncated transposases, conjugative transfer proteins, and many unknown proteins. Five genes on each plasmid were down-regulated; for one of them, chrI localized on pMOL28, the down-regulation occurred in the presence of five cations. We observed multiple cross-responses (induction of specific metal resistance by other metals), suggesting that the cellular defense of C. metallidurans against heavy metal stress involves various regulons and probably has multiple stages, including a more general response and a more metal-specific response. PMID:17675385

  19. Aqueous Alteration of Carbonaceous Chondrites: New Insights from Comparative Studies of Two Unbrecciated CM2 Chondrites, Y 791198 and ALH 81002

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chizmadia, L. J.; Brearley, A. J.

    2004-01-01

    Carbonaceous chondrites are an important resource for understanding the physical and chemical conditions in the early solar system. In particular, a long-standing question concerns the role of water in the cosmochemical evolution of carbonaceous chondrites. It is well established that extensive hydration of primary nebular phases occurred in the CM and CI chondrites, but the location where this alteration occurred remains controversial. In the CM2 chondrites, hydration formed secondary phases such as serpentine, tochilinite, pentlandite, carbonate and PCP. There are several textural observations which suggest that alteration occurred before the accretion of the final CM parent asteroid, i.e. preaccretionary alteration. Conversely, there is a significant body of evidence that supports parent-body alteration. In order to test these two competing hypotheses further, we studied two CM chondrites, Y-791198 and ALH81002, two meteorites that exhibit widely differing degrees of aqueous alteration. In addition, both meteorites have primary accretionary textures, i.e. experienced minimal asteroidal brecciation. Brecciation significantly complicates the task of unraveling alteration histories, mixing components that have been altered to different degrees from different locations on the same asteroidal parent body. Alteration in Y-791198 is mostly confined to chondrule mesostases, FeNi metal and fine-grained matrix and rims. In comparison, the primary chondrule silicates in ALH81002 have undergone extensive replacement by secondary hydrous phases. This study focuses on compositional and textural relationships between chondrule mesostasis and the associated rim materials. Our hypothesis is: both these components are highly susceptible to aqueous alteration and should be sensitive recorders of the alteration process. For parent body alteration, we expect systematic coupled mineralogical and compositional changes in rims and altered mesostasis, as elemental exchange between these

  20. Investigation of rat bone fracture healing using pulsed 1.5 MHz, 30 mW/cm(2) burst ultrasound--axial distance dependency.

    PubMed

    Fung, Chak-Hei; Cheung, Wing-Hoi; Pounder, Neill M; de Ana, F Javier; Harrison, Andrew; Leung, Kwok-Sui

    2014-03-01

    This study investigated the effect of LIPUS on fracture healing when fractures were exposed to ultrasound at three axial distances: z=0 mm, 60 mm, and 130 mm. We applied LIPUS to rat fracture at these three axial distances mimicking the exposure condition of human fractures at different depths under the soft tissue. Measurement of LIPUS shows pressure variations in near field (nearby transducer); uniform profile was found beyond it (far field). We asked whether different positions of the fracture within the ultrasound field cause inconsistent biological effect during the healing process. Closed femoral fractured Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into control, near-field (0mm), mid-near field (60 mm) or far-field (130 mm) groups. Daily LIPUS treatment (plane, but apodized source, see details in the text; 2.2 cm in diameter; 1.5 MHz sine waves repeating at 1 kHz PRF; spatial average temporal average intensity, ISATA=30 mW/cm(2)) was given to fracture site at the three axial distances. Weekly radiographs and endpoint microCT, histomorphometry, and mechanical tests were performed. The results showed that the 130 mm group had the highest tissue mineral density; and significantly higher mechanical properties than control at week 4. The 60 mm and 0 mm groups had significantly higher (i.e. p<0.05) woven bone percentage than control group in radiological, microCT and histomorphometry measurements. In general, LIPUS at far field augmented callus mineralization and mechanical properties; while near field and mid-near field enhanced woven bone formation. Our results indicated the therapeutic effect of LIPUS is dependent on the axial distance of the ultrasound beam. Therefore, the depth of fracture under the soft tissue affects the biological effect of LIPUS. Clinicians have to be aware of the fracture depth when LIPUS is applied transcutaneously. PMID:24239510

  1. One-year Outcomes of Pachymetry and Epithelium Thicknesses after Accelerated (45 mW/cm2) Transepithelial Corneal Collagen Cross-linking for Keratoconus Patients

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaoyu; Sun, Ling; Chen, Yingjun; Li, Meiyan; Tian, Mi; Zhou, Xingtao

    2016-01-01

    The thickness of corneal pachymetry and the epithelium after accelerated (45 mW/cm2) transepithelial corneal collagen cross-linking (CXL) for keratoconus were assessed in this prospective case series study. Twenty-eight patients were treated for keratoconus. The mean Kmax was 56.18 ± 7.90. The thinnest point, as assessed by optical coherence tomography (OCT), was 443.18 ± 39.75 μm. Accelerated transepithelial CXL was performed, and corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA), corneal topography, and OCT were recorded at 1 week postoperatively as well as at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months. The surgery was uneventful in all eyes. Postoperative epithelial edema was observed and faded in 3 days. The postoperative Kmax was 54.56 ± 8.81, 55.78 ± 8.11, 56.37 ± 8.71, 55.80 ± 7.92, and 55.47 ± 8.24 at 1 week, 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months, respectively (all, P > 0.05). The thinnest postoperative corneal point, 439.04 ± 44.99 μm, was observed at 12 months (P = 0.109). The epithelial thickness decreased during the first postoperative week then showed a gradual recovery. Postoperative pachymetry thickness showed no significant changes for up to 12 months. Postoperative epithelial thickness decreased temporarily, then stabilized at month 12. Accelerated transepithelial CXL was shown to be effective and safe for the treatment of keratoconus. PMID:27597655

  2. One-year Outcomes of Pachymetry and Epithelium Thicknesses after Accelerated (45 mW/cm(2)) Transepithelial Corneal Collagen Cross-linking for Keratoconus Patients.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoyu; Sun, Ling; Chen, Yingjun; Li, Meiyan; Tian, Mi; Zhou, Xingtao

    2016-01-01

    The thickness of corneal pachymetry and the epithelium after accelerated (45 mW/cm(2)) transepithelial corneal collagen cross-linking (CXL) for keratoconus were assessed in this prospective case series study. Twenty-eight patients were treated for keratoconus. The mean Kmax was 56.18 ± 7.90. The thinnest point, as assessed by optical coherence tomography (OCT), was 443.18 ± 39.75 μm. Accelerated transepithelial CXL was performed, and corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA), corneal topography, and OCT were recorded at 1 week postoperatively as well as at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months. The surgery was uneventful in all eyes. Postoperative epithelial edema was observed and faded in 3 days. The postoperative Kmax was 54.56 ± 8.81, 55.78 ± 8.11, 56.37 ± 8.71, 55.80 ± 7.92, and 55.47 ± 8.24 at 1 week, 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months, respectively (all, P > 0.05). The thinnest postoperative corneal point, 439.04 ± 44.99 μm, was observed at 12 months (P = 0.109). The epithelial thickness decreased during the first postoperative week then showed a gradual recovery. Postoperative pachymetry thickness showed no significant changes for up to 12 months. Postoperative epithelial thickness decreased temporarily, then stabilized at month 12. Accelerated transepithelial CXL was shown to be effective and safe for the treatment of keratoconus. PMID:27597655

  3. Hydrogen and carbon isotopic ratios of polycyclic aromatic compounds in two CM2 carbonaceous chondrites and implications for prebiotic organic synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yongsong; Aponte, José C.; Zhao, Jiaju; Tarozo, Rafael; Hallmann, Christian

    2015-09-01

    Study of meteoritic organic compounds offers a unique opportunity to understand the origins of the organic matter in the early Solar System. Meteoritic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heteropolycyclic aromatic compounds (HACs) have been studied for over fifty years, however; their hydrogen stable isotopic ratios (δD) have never been reported. Compound-specific δD measurements of PAHs and HACs are important, in part because the carbon isotopic ratios (δ13C) of various meteoritic PAHs cannot be readily distinguished from their terrestrial counterparts and it is difficult to rule out terrestrial contamination based on carbon isotopic ratios alone. In this study, we have extracted and identified more than sixty PAHs and HACs present in two CM2 carbonaceous chondrites Murchison and LON 94101. Their carbon and hydrogen stable isotopic ratios (δ13C and δD) were measured and used to discuss about their synthetic environments and formation mechanisms. The concentration of aromatic compounds is ∼30% higher in Murchison than in the Antarctic meteorite LON 94101, but both samples contained similar suites of PAHs and HACs. All PAHs and HACs found exhibited positive δD values (up to 1100‰) consistent with an extraterrestrial origin, indicating the relatively low δ13C values are indeed an inherent feature of the meteoritic aromatic compounds. The hydrogen isotopic data suggest aromatic compounds in carbonaceous chondrites were mainly formed in the cold interstellar environments. Molecular level variations in hydrogen and carbon isotopic values offer new insights to the formation pathways for the aromatic compounds in carbonaceous chondrites.

  4. Determining temperature distribution in tissue in the focal plane of the high (>100 W/cm(2)) intensity focused ultrasound beam using phase shift of ultrasound echoes.

    PubMed

    Karwat, Piotr; Kujawska, Tamara; Lewin, Peter A; Secomski, Wojciech; Gambin, Barbara; Litniewski, Jerzy

    2016-02-01

    In therapeutic applications of High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) the guidance of the HIFU beam and especially its focal plane is of crucial importance. This guidance is needed to appropriately target the focal plane and hence the whole focal volume inside the tumor tissue prior to thermo-ablative treatment and beginning of tissue necrosis. This is currently done using Magnetic Resonance Imaging that is relatively expensive. In this study an ultrasound method, which calculates the variations of speed of sound in the locally heated tissue volume by analyzing the phase shifts of echo-signals received by an ultrasound scanner from this very volume is presented. To improve spatial resolution of B-mode imaging and minimize the uncertainty of temperature estimation the acoustic signals were transmitted and received by 8 MHz linear phased array employing Synthetic Transmit Aperture (STA) technique. Initially, the validity of the algorithm developed was verified experimentally in a tissue-mimicking phantom heated from 20.6 to 48.6 °C. Subsequently, the method was tested using a pork loin sample heated locally by a 2 MHz pulsed HIFU beam with focal intensity ISATA of 129 W/cm(2). The temperature calibration of 2D maps of changes in the sound velocity induced by heating was performed by comparison of the algorithm-determined changes in the sound velocity with the temperatures measured by thermocouples located in the heated tissue volume. The method developed enabled ultrasound temperature imaging of the heated tissue volume from the very inception of heating with the contrast-to-noise ratio of 3.5-12 dB in the temperature range 21-56 °C. Concurrently performed, conventional B-mode imaging revealed CNR close to zero dB until the temperature reached 50 °C causing necrosis. The data presented suggest that the proposed method could offer an alternative to MRI-guided temperature imaging for prediction of the location and extent of the thermal lesion prior to applying the

  5. Micro-solid oxide fuel cells using free-standing 3 mol.% yttria-stabilised-tetragonal-zirconia-polycrystal electrolyte foils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Anna; Bieberle-Hütter, Anja; Bonderer, Lorenz J.; Stuckenholz, Stefanie; Gauckler, Ludwig J.

    Ultrathin 3 mol.% yttria-stabilised-tetragonal-zirconia-polycrystal (Y-TZP) foils with thicknesses of 1-10 μm are fabricated by a new wet-chemical processing route. The foils are free-standing, semi-transparent and flexible. The in-plane electrical conductivity of the Y-TZP foil is 0.03 S m -1 at 500 °C. Cross-plane impedance measurements with sputtered Pt electrodes yield two arcs, of which the high-frequency arc is attributed to the ohmic resistance of the electrolyte and the low-frequency arc to the electrode-electrolyte interface. A symmetrical micro-solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is designed using this ultrathin free-standing Y-TZP foil as the electrolyte and sputtered Pt electrodes. An open-circuit voltage of 0.98 V and a maximum power density of 12 mW cm -2 are measured at 500 °C. These results prove the feasibility of this approach to the fabrication of miniaturised planar SOFCs without the need for microfabrication.

  6. Deep Sub-micro mol{\\cdot }mol^{-1} Water-Vapor Measurement by Dual-Ball SAW Sensors for Temperature Compensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeda, N.; Oizumi, T.; Tsuji, T.; Akao, S.; Takayanagi, K.; Nakaso, N.; Yamanaka, K.

    2015-12-01

    A collimated surface acoustic wave (SAW) circles around the equator of a sphere hundreds of times. Because of the long distance travel of the collimated SAW, a small change in the SAW propagation caused by the environment of the sphere can be accumulated as a measurable range in amplitude and/or in delay time. So, a spherical SAW device enables highly sensitive water-vapor measurements. In this paper, deep sub \\upmu mol{\\cdot }mol^{-1} water-vapor detection by 1 mm diameter quartz crystal ball SAW sensors is described. To measure such a low water-vapor concentration in real time, it is necessary to compensate the temperature dependence of the ball SAW sensor, which is about 20 ppm{\\cdot }°C^{-1} in delay time change. A dual-frequency burst analog detector was developed for the temperature compensation in real time. By using a harmonic SAW sensor, which was excited by 80 MHz and 240 MHz at the same time, it was confirmed that the delay time drift for a temperature range of 21.0°C ± 1.0°C became less than 0.05 ppm in delay time change. By using dual-ball SAW sensors (which included a 150 MHz sensor with a water-vapor sensitive layer and a 240 MHz sensor as a reference), water-vapor concentrations from 0.1 \\upmu mol{\\cdot }mol^{-1} to 5 \\upmu mol{\\cdot }mol^{-1} were successfully measured. It appears that the delay time change is proportional to the square root of the water-vapor concentration. The detection limit determined by the electrical noise of the system was estimated at 0.01 \\upmu mol{\\cdot }mol^{-1}.

  7. GridMol: a grid application for molecular modeling and visualization.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yanhua; Shen, Bin; Lu, Zhonghua; Jin, Zhong; Chi, Xuebin

    2008-02-01

    In this paper we present GridMol, an extensible tool for building a high performance computational chemistry platform in the grid environment. GridMol provides computational chemists one-stop service for molecular modeling, scientific computing and molecular information visualization. GridMol is not only a visualization and modeling tool but also simplifies control of remote Grid software that can access high performance computing resources. GridMol has been successfully integrated into China National Grid, the most powerful Chinese Grid Computing platform. In Section "Grid computing" of this paper, a computing example is given to show the availability and efficiency of GridMol. GridMol is coded using Java and Java3D for portability and cross-platform compatibility (Windows, Linux, MacOS X and UNIX). GridMol can run not only as a stand-alone application, but also as an applet through web browsers. In this paper, we will present the techniques for molecular visualization, molecular modeling and grid computing. GridMol is available free of charge under the GNU Public License (GPL) from our website: http://www.sccas.cn/~syh/GridMol/index.html. PMID:18231861

  8. Growth of ˜5 cm2V-1s-1 mobility, p-type Copper(I) oxide (Cu2O) films by fast atmospheric atomic layer deposition (AALD) at 225°C and below

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz-Rojas, D.; Jordan, M.; Yeoh, C.; Marin, A. T.; Kursumovic, A.; Dunlop, L. A.; Iza, D. C.; Chen, A.; Wang, H.; MacManus Driscoll, J. L.

    2012-12-01

    Phase pure, dense Cu2O thin films were grown on glass and polymer substrates at 225°C by rapid atmospheric atomic layer deposition (AALD). Carrier mobilities of 5 cm2V-1s-1 and carrier concentrations of ˜1016 cm-3 were achieved in films of thickness 50 - 120 nm, over a >10 cm2 area. Growth rates were ˜1 nm.min-1 which is two orders of magnitude faster than conventional ALD.. The high mobilities achieved using the atmospheric, low temperature method represent a significant advance for flextronics and flexible solar cells which require growth on plastic substrates.

  9. HackaMol: An Object-Oriented Modern Perl Library for Molecular Hacking on Multiple Scales.

    PubMed

    Riccardi, Demian; Parks, Jerry M; Johs, Alexander; Smith, Jeremy C

    2015-04-27

    HackaMol is an open source, object-oriented toolkit written in Modern Perl that organizes atoms within molecules and provides chemically intuitive attributes and methods. The library consists of two components: HackaMol, the core that contains classes for storing and manipulating molecular information, and HackaMol::X, the extensions that use the core. The core is well-tested, well-documented, and easy to install across computational platforms. The goal of the extensions is to provide a more flexible space for researchers to develop and share new methods. In this application note, we provide a description of the core classes and two extensions: HackaMol::X::Calculator, an abstract calculator that uses code references to generalize interfaces with external programs, and HackaMol::X::Vina, a structured class that provides an interface with the AutoDock Vina docking program. PMID:25793330

  10. An Introduction to Using the Method of Levels (MOL) Therapy to Work with People Experiencing Psychosis.

    PubMed

    Tai, Sara J

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides a basic introduction to using method of levels (MOL) therapy with people experiencing psychosis. As MOL is a direct application of perceptual control theory (PCT), a brief overview of the three main theoretical principles of this theory--control, conflict, and reorganization will be outlined in relation to understanding psychosis. In particular, how these principles form the basis of problem conceptualisation and determine what an MOL therapist is required to do during therapy will be illustrated. A practical description of MOL will be given, using case examples and short excerpts of therapeutic interactions. Some direct contrasts will also be made with cognitive behaviour therapy for psychosis (CBTp) and psychodynamic approaches (PA) in order to help illustrate the theory and practice of MOL. PMID:27052610

  11. 1,4,10,13-Tetra­oxa-7,16-diazo­niacyclo­octadecane bis­[tetra­chloridoaurate(III)] dihydrate

    PubMed Central

    Hojjat Kashani, Leila; Yousefi, Mohammad; Amani, Vahid; Khavasi, Hamid Reza

    2008-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, (C12H28N2O4)[AuCl4]2·2H2O, contains one half-cation, one anion and one water mol­ecule; the cation is centrosymmetric. The Au ion has a square-planar coordination. In the crystal structure, intra­molecular N—H⋯O and O—H⋯O, and inter­molecular N—H⋯O, O—H⋯Cl and N—H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds link the ions and water mol­ecules, forming a supra­molecular structure. PMID:21202520

  12. Structural and electronic study of neutral, positive, and negative small rhodium clusters [Rh(n), Rh(n)(+), Rh(n)(-) ; n = 10-13].

    PubMed

    Mora, M A; Mora-Ramirez, M A

    2014-07-01

    We have carried out a systematic study for the determination of the structure and the fundamental state of neutral and ionic small rhodium clusters [Rhn, Rhn(+), Rhn(-); n = 10-13] using ab initio Hartree-Fock methods with a LANL2DZ basis set. A range of spin multiplicities is investigated for each cluster. We present the bond lengths, angles, and geometric configuration adopted by the clusters in its minimum energy conformation showing the differences when the clusters have different number of unpaired electrons. Also we report the vertical ionization potential and the adiabatic one calculated by the Koopmans' theorem. PMID:24944092

  13. Stress Analysis on Single Cobalt/Chrome Prosthesis With a 15-mm Cantilever Placed Over 10/13/15-mm-length Implants: A Simulated Photoelastic Model Study.

    PubMed

    Gastaldo, José Fábio Guastelli; Pimentel, Angélica Castro; Gomes, Maria Helena; Sendyk, Wilson Roberto; Laganá, Dalva Cruz

    2015-12-01

    The aim of study was to assess the stress around 10/13/15-mm implants in the mandibular area with a 15-mm cantilevered acrylic-resin-coated prostheses following the application force, using the photoelasticity method. Three photoelastic mandibular models were created containing 10-, 13-, and 15-mm implants in length and 3.75 mm in diameter. The implants had bore internal hex connections and were placed parallel to the intermental region. Abutments with 1-mm high cuffs were placed over the implants, and a single cobalt/chrome metallic prosthesis with a 15-mm cantilever, coated with thermoplastic acrylic resin, was placed on top. Loads of 1.0 and 3.0 bars were applied, and the images were photographed and assessed by photoelasticity method. The greatest stress levels were observed for the 10-mm implants. The stress pattern was the same regardless of implant length; only the magnitude of the stress along the implant body revealed changes. Increased implant length played a role in reducing stress on the investigated area of the model, and the 15-mm implants exhibited the best performance in regard to stress distribution. The highest stress levels were found in the implants closest to the cantilever and the central implant. The longest implants were more favorable in regard to the stress distribution on the peri-implant support structures in the 15-mm cantilevered prosthesis under loads. PMID:24914673

  14. Low-level laser therapy, at 60 J/cm2 associated with a Biosilicate® increase in bone deposition and indentation biomechanical properties of callus in osteopenic rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fangel, Renan; Sérgio Bossini, Paulo; Cláudia Renno, Ana; Araki Ribeiro, Daniel; Chenwei Wang, Charles; Luri Toma, Renata; Okino Nonaka, Keico; Driusso, Patrícia; Antonio Parizotto, Nivaldo; Oishi, Jorge

    2011-07-01

    We investigate the effects of a novel bioactive material (Biosilicate®) and low-level laser therapy (LLLT), at 60 J/cm2, on bone-fracture consolidation in osteoporotic rats. Forty female Wistar rats are submitted to the ovariectomy, to induce osteopenia. Eight weeks after the ovariectomy, the animals are randomly divided into four groups, with 10 animals each: bone defect control group; bone defect filled with Biosilicate group; bone defect irradiated with laser at 60 J/cm2 group; bone defect filled with Biosilicate and irradiated with LLLT, at 60 J/cm2 group. Laser irradiation is initiated immediately after surgery and performed every 48 h for 14 days. Histopathological analysis points out that bone defects are predominantly filled with the biomaterial in specimens treated with Biosilicate. In the 60-J/cm2 laser plus Biosilicate group, the biomaterial fills all bone defects, which also contained woven bone and granulation tissue. Also, the biomechanical properties are increased in the animals treated with Biosilicate associated to lasertherapy. Our results indicate that laser therapy improves bone repair process in contact with Biosilicate as a result of increasing bone formation as well as indentation biomechanical properties.

  15. High Charge-Carrier Mobility of 2.5 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) from a Water-Borne Colloid of a Polymeric Semiconductor via Smart Surfactant Engineering.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jangwhan; Cheon, Kwang Hee; Ahn, Hyungju; Park, Kwang Hun; Kwon, Soon-Ki; Kim, Yun-Hi; Chung, Dae Sung

    2015-10-01

    Semiconducting polymer nanoparticles dispersed in water are synthesized by a novel method utilizing non-ionic surfactants. By developing a smart surfactant engineering technique involving a selective post-removal process of surfactants, an unprecedentedly high mobility of 2.51 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) from a water-borne colloid is demonstrated for the first time. PMID:26288123

  16. Fotoexcitación de Moléculas Pequeñas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González Díaz, P. F.

    El modelo estocástico no puede justificar la excitación multi-fotónica de moléculas pequeñas o muy simétricas. Basándonos en un escenario de interacción radiación-molécula cooperativo para la absorción de N-1 fotones IR por un sistema de N niveles, se especula que un posible mecanismo para la excitación no estocástica de moléculas pudiera ser la generación de procesos caóticos intra-moleculares.

  17. A New CCD Camera at the Molėtai Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zdanavičius, J.; Zdanavičius, K.

    The results of the first testing of a new CCD camera of the Molėtai Observatory are given. The linearity and the flat field corrections of good accuracy are determined by using shifted star field exposures.

  18. A CPT-based Cs vapor cell atomic clock with a short-term fractional frequency stability of 3 x 10-13 τ-1/2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel Hafiz, Moustafa; Liu, Xiaochi; Guérandel, Stéphane; De Clercq, Emeric; Boudot, Rodolphe

    2016-06-01

    This article reports on the development and short-term fractional frequency stability of a continuous-regime (CW) Cs vapor cell atomic clock based on coherent population trapping (CPT). The push-pull optical pumping technique is used to increase the number of atoms that participate to the clock transition, yielding a typical CPT resonance contrast of 25% for a CPT linewidth of about 450 Hz. The clock short-term fractional frequency stability is measured to be 3 x 10-13 τ-1/2 up to 100 seconds averaging time, in correct agreement with the signal-to-noise ratio limit. The mid-term frequency stability results are currently mainly limited by laser power effects. The detection of high-contrast narrow Raman-Ramsey fringes is demonstrated with this setup by making the atoms interact with a light pulse sequence.

  19. Healthy eating among 10 - 13-year-old New Zealand children: understanding choice using the Theory of Planned Behaviour and the role of parental influence.

    PubMed

    Hewitt, Allison M; Stephens, Christine

    2007-10-01

    This study examined the roles of the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) and parental influence in predicting healthy eating intentions and behaviour among 10 - 13-year-old New Zealand children. Two hundred and sixty-one children completed questionnaires designed to measure the components of the TPB. In addition, their parents or caregivers completed a questionnaire examining their child-feeding practices. Subjective norm, behavioural belief, attitude and perceived behavioural control significantly predicted intentions, which, in turn, predicted self-reported dietary behaviour. Parental influence did not increase the model's explanatory power. Results support the application of the TPB to the prediction of food choice-related intention and behaviour among children; however, the role of parental influence requires further examination. PMID:17828673

  20. 2,2,3,3,11,11,12,12-Octamethyl-1,4,7,10,13-pentaoxacyclohexadecane: improved synthesis and crystal structure with NaSCN

    SciTech Connect

    Loustau-Chartez, Ms. Fanny; Robeson, Rachel M; Custelcean, Radu; Sachleben, Richard A.; Bonnesen, Peter V

    2009-01-01

    An efficient synthesis of 2,2,3,3,11,11,12,12-octamethyl-1,4,7,10,13-pentaoxacyclohexadecane (1, OM16C5) is described, which affords over an order of magnitude improvement in yield over the previously reported method. The first X-ray crystal structure of 1, as a complex with NaSCN, is also reported. There is much interest in sodium-selective ionophores [1,2] for use in electrodes [1,3] and optodes [4]. One such ionophore is 2,2,3,3,11,11,12,12-octamethyl-1,4,7,10,13-pentaoxacyclohexadecane (1, octamethyl-16-crown-5 or OM16C5), which was first prepared in 1996 by Suzuki and coworkers [1]. The synthetic procedure as reported and shown in Scheme 1 involved three steps starting from pinacol. The first two steps proceeded in excellent (95%) and good (ca. 81%) yields, respectively. However, the cyclization step, involving the addition of diethylene glycol dimesylate to 2,3,3,9,9,10-hexamethyl-4,8-dioxa-2,10-undecanediol (2) using NaH in THF, proceeded poorly with a low (3.7%) isolated yield, making the overall yield for the three steps starting from pinacol approximately 2.8%. We were interested in this crown ether for alkali-metal extraction studies, and sought to improve the yield so that larger (potentially gram) quantities of material could be readily prepared. We report here a modification of the synthetic procedure that boosts the conversion of 1 from 2 over 15-fold, by using three good- to high-yielding steps that allows 1 to be obtained from 2 in a combined yield of 59%. We also report for the first time a crystal structure of 1, as the NaSCN complex

  1. Effect of low-level laser therapy (685 nm, 3 J/cm(2)) on functional recovery of the sciatic nerve in rats following crushing lesion.

    PubMed

    Takhtfooladi, Mohammad Ashrafzadeh; Jahanbakhsh, Fatemeh; Takhtfooladi, Hamed Ashrafzadeh; Yousefi, Kambiz; Allahverdi, Amin

    2015-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that low-level laser therapy (LLLT) promotes posttraumatic nerve regeneration. The objective of the present study was to assess the efficacy of 685-nm LLLT at the dosage of 3 J/cm(2) in the functional recovery of the sciatic nerve in rats following crushing injury. The left sciatic nerves of 20 male Wistar rats were subjected to controlled crush injury by a hemostatic tweezers, and the rats were randomly allocated into two experimental groups as follows: control group and laser group. Laser irradiation (685 nm wavelength; 15 mW, CW, 3 J/cm(2), spot of 0.028 cm(2)) was started on the postsurgical first day, above the site of injury, and was continued for 21 consecutive days. Functional recovery was evaluated at 3 weeks postoperatively by measuring the sciatic functional index (SFI) and sciatic static index (SSI) at weekly intervals. The treated rats showed improvement in motion pattern. The SFI and SSI results were significant when comparing two groups on the 14th and 21st postoperative days (p < 0.05). There were intra-group differences detected in laser group in different periods (p < 0.05). Low-level laser irradiation, with the parameters used in the present study, accelerated and improved sciatic nerve function in rats after crushing injury. PMID:25595127

  2. Systematic Study of Rayleigh-Taylor Growth in Directly Driven Plastic Targets in a Laser-Intensity Range from ~2 x 10^14 to ~1.5 x 10^15 W/cm^2

    SciTech Connect

    Smalyuk, V.A.; Hu, S.X.; Goncharov, V.N.; Meyerhofer, D.D.; Sangster, T.C.; Stoeckl, C.; Yaakobi, B.

    2008-09-05

    Direct-drive, Rayleigh–Taylor (RT) growth experiments were performed using planar plastic targets on the OMEGA Laser Facility [T. R. Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)] at laser intensities between ~2 x 10^14 and ~1.5 x 10^15 W/cm^2. The primary purpose of the experiments was to test fundamental physics in hydrocodes at the range of drive intensities relevant to ignition designs. The target acceleration was measured with a streak camera using side-on, x-ray radiography, while RT growth was measured with a framing camera using face-on radiography. In a laser-intensity range from 2 to 5 x 10^14 W/cm^2, the measured RT growth agrees well with two-dimensional simulations, based on a local model of thermal-electron transport. The RT growth at drive intensities above ~1.0 x 10^15 W/cm^2 was strongly stabilized compared to the local model predictions. The experiments demonstrate that standard simulations, based on a local model of electron thermal transport, break down at peak intensities of ignition designs, although they work well at lower intensities. These results also imply that direct-drive ignition targets are significantly more stable than previously calculated using local electron-transport models at peak intensities of ignition designs. The preheating effects by nonlocal electron transport and hot electrons were identified as some of the stabilizing mechanisms.

  3. SCWRL and MolIDE: Computer programs for side-chain conformation prediction and homology modeling

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qiang; Canutescu, Adrian A.; Dunbrack, Roland L.

    2009-01-01

    SCWRL and MolIDE are software applications for prediction of protein structures. SCWRL is designed specifically for the task of prediction of side-chain conformations given a fixed backbone usually obtained from an experimental structure determined by X-ray crystallography or NMR. SCWRL is a command-line program that typically runs in a few seconds. MolIDE provides a graphical interface for basic comparative (homology) modeling using SCWRL and other programs. MolIDE takes an input target sequence, and uses PSI-BLAST to identify and align templates for comparative modeling of the target. The sequence alignment to any template can be manually modified within a graphical window of the target-template alignment and visualization of the alignment on the template structure. MolIDE builds the model of the target structure based on the template backbone, predicted side-chain conformations with SCWRL, and a loop-modeling program for insertion-deletion regions with user-selected sequence segments. SCWRL and MolIDE can be obtained at http://dunbrack.fccc.edu/Software.php. PMID:18989261

  4. Real-Time PyMOL Visualization for Rosetta and PyRosetta

    PubMed Central

    Baugh, Evan H.; Lyskov, Sergey; Weitzner, Brian D.; Gray, Jeffrey J.

    2011-01-01

    Computational structure prediction and design of proteins and protein-protein complexes have long been inaccessible to those not directly involved in the field. A key missing component has been the ability to visualize the progress of calculations to better understand them. Rosetta is one simulation suite that would benefit from a robust real-time visualization solution. Several tools exist for the sole purpose of visualizing biomolecules; one of the most popular tools, PyMOL (Schrödinger), is a powerful, highly extensible, user friendly, and attractive package. Integrating Rosetta and PyMOL directly has many technical and logistical obstacles inhibiting usage. To circumvent these issues, we developed a novel solution based on transmitting biomolecular structure and energy information via UDP sockets. Rosetta and PyMOL run as separate processes, thereby avoiding many technical obstacles while visualizing information on-demand in real-time. When Rosetta detects changes in the structure of a protein, new coordinates are sent over a UDP network socket to a PyMOL instance running a UDP socket listener. PyMOL then interprets and displays the molecule. This implementation also allows remote execution of Rosetta. When combined with PyRosetta, this visualization solution provides an interactive environment for protein structure prediction and design. PMID:21857909

  5. Microwave sintering of ZrO{sub 2}-12 mol% CeO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Janney, M.A.; Jackson, M.L.; Kimrey, H.D.

    1993-12-31

    Sintering of ZrO{sub 2}-12 mol% CeO{sub 2} was accelerated by microwave processing at 2.45 GHz as compared with conventional firing. However, the size of the ``microwave effect`` was significantly smaller than that which was previously observed for microwave sintering of ZrO{sub 2}-8 mol% Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The difference in the effect that the microwave field had on the two zirconia systems is interpreted in terms of their ionic conductivities.

  6. XmMol: an X11 and motif program for macromolecular visualization and modeling.

    PubMed

    Tufféry, P

    1995-02-01

    XmMol is a desktop tool designed to provide both interactive molecular graphics on X11 displays and easy interface with external applications. A kernel provides an interactive wire-frame display of macromolecules. It supports depth cueing, 3D clipping, and stereo. Various representations, coloring, and labeling modes are proposed. Docking and interactive backbone deformation tools are also supported. Communication protocols allow the user to develop new external features or to use XmMol as a visualization tool for external numerical programs. PMID:7794836

  7. COOMET.QM-K93 (COOMET 615/RU/13): key comparison in the field of measuring of the ethanol amount fraction in nitrogen (120 μmol/mol)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konopelko, L. A.; Efremova, O. V.; Fatina, O. V.; Orshanskaia, A. A.; Rozhnov, M. S.; Melnyk, D. M.; Petryshyn, P. V.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the COOMET.QM-K93 comparison is founded on paying particular attention to reliability of measurements which are performed during the medical examination of drivers of vehicles in order to assess the degree of alcoholic intoxication. Standard gas mixtures of ethanol in nitrogen in cylinders under pressure play a key role in providing metrological assurance of breath-alcohol analyzers. Participating laboratories: VNIIM and Ukrmetrteststandart. This comparison was carried out in 2014-2015. This supplementary comparison supports CMC claims for: ethanol in the range 50-500 μmol/mol in a matrix of either nitrogen or synthetic air. Results: The results are consistent with the reference values. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCQM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  8. Effects of Heating on Proportions of Azaspiracids 1-10 in Mussels (Mytilus edulis) and Identification of Carboxylated Precursors for Azaspiracids 5, 10, 13, and 15.

    PubMed

    Kilcoyne, Jane; McCarron, Pearse; Hess, Philipp; Miles, Christopher O

    2015-12-30

    Azaspiracids (AZAs) are marine biotoxins that induce human illness following the consumption of contaminated shellfish. European Union regulation stipulates that only raw shellfish are tested, yet shellfish are often cooked prior to consumption. Analysis of raw and heat-treated mussels (Mytilus edulis) naturally contaminated with AZAs revealed significant differences (up to 4.6-fold) in AZA1-3 (1-3) and 6 (6) values due to heat-induced chemical conversions. Consistent with previous studies, high levels of 3 and 6 were detected in some samples that were otherwise below the limit of quantitation before heating. Relative to 1, in heat-treated mussels the average (n = 40) levels of 3 (range, 11-502%) and 6 (range, 3-170%) were 62 and 31%, respectively. AZA4 (4) (range, <1-27%), AZA5 (5) (range, 1-21%), and AZA8 (8) (range, 1-27%) were each ∼5%, whereas AZA7 (7), AZA9 (9), and AZA10 (10) (range, <1-8%) were each under 1.5%. Levels of 5, 10, AZA13 (13), and AZA15 (15) increased after heating, leading to the identification of novel carboxylated AZA precursors in raw shellfish extracts, which were shown by deuterium labeling to be precursors for 5, 10, 13, and 15. PMID:26631586

  9. Synthesis and Characterization of Macrocyclic Polyether N,N'-Diallyl-7,16-diaza-1,4,10,13-tetraoxa-dibenzo-18-crown-6.

    PubMed

    Toeri, Julius; Laborie, Marie-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    In this study an efficient and direct production procedure for a macrocyclic polyether N,N'-diallyl-7,16-diaza-1,4,10,13-tetraoxa-dibenzo-18-crown-6 from the reaction of catechol and N,N-bis(2-chloroethyl)prop-2-en-1-amine in n-butanol in the presence of a strong base is reported. The synthesis involves a two-step addition of sodium hydroxide to enhance the cyclization process, and at the end of the reaction, the reaction mixture is neutralized and the solvent replaced with water in-situ through distillation to afford a relatively pure precipitate that is easily recrystallized from acetone. The yield of the macrocycle was 36%-45% and could be scaled-up to one-mole quantities. The structure and purity of this compound was verified on the basis of elemental analysis, IR, UV-Vis, ¹H-, (13)C-NMR, 2D-NMR, mass spectroscopy, and thermal analysis. The white crystalline compound has a sharp melting point of 124 °C and a crystallization temperature of 81.4 °C determined by differential scanning calorimetry. Our motivation behind the synthesis of the bibracchial lariat azacrown polyether ligand was to examine its possible applications in ion-selective polymer-supported materials. PMID:26840284

  10. Potential lanthanide ion selective reagents. 3. Metal complex formation with 1,7-diaza-4,10-13-trioxacyclopentadecane-N,N'-diacetic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, C.A.; Ochaya, V.O.

    1986-01-29

    Stability constants for the ligand 1,7-diaza-4,10,13-trioxacyclopentadecane-N,N'-diacetic acid (dapda or K21DA) with the lanthanides and several other metal ions have been determined at 25 /sup 0/C in aqueous 0.1 M (CH/sub 3/)/sub 4/NCl medium by a potentiometric method. The results obtained are compared to those obtained for a similar ligand of large cavity size, 1,20-diaza-4,7,13,16-tetraoxacyclooctadecane-N,N'-diacetic acid (dacda or K22DA), which has been previously studied and reported. The stability of dapda is found to reach a peak at Eu(III) with the lanthanide series and is rationalized in terms of the matching of the ligand properties with metal ion characteristics. The transition-metal ions Ni(II), Cu(II), and Zn(II) all form stronger dapda (as compared to dacda) complexes due to a better match of the ligand cavity size and metal ion radius. 18 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

  11. Fully Enzymatic Membraneless Glucose|Oxygen Fuel Cell That Provides 0.275 mA cm(-2) in 5 mM Glucose, Operates in Human Physiological Solutions, and Powers Transmission of Sensing Data.

    PubMed

    Ó Conghaile, Peter; Falk, Magnus; MacAodha, Domhnall; Yakovleva, Maria E; Gonaus, Christoph; Peterbauer, Clemens K; Gorton, Lo; Shleev, Sergey; Leech, Dónal

    2016-02-16

    Coimmobilization of pyranose dehydrogenase as an enzyme catalyst, osmium redox polymers [Os(4,4'-dimethoxy-2,2'-bipyridine)2(poly(vinylimidazole))10Cl](+) or [Os(4,4'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridine)2(poly(vinylimidazole))10Cl](+) as mediators, and carbon nanotube conductive scaffolds in films on graphite electrodes provides enzyme electrodes for glucose oxidation. The recombinant enzyme and a deglycosylated form, both expressed in Pichia pastoris, are investigated and compared as biocatalysts for glucose oxidation using flow injection amperometry and voltammetry. In the presence of 5 mM glucose in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) (50 mM phosphate buffer solution, pH 7.4, with 150 mM NaCl), higher glucose oxidation current densities, 0.41 mA cm(-2), are obtained from enzyme electrodes containing the deglycosylated form of the enzyme. The optimized glucose-oxidizing anode, prepared using deglycosylated enzyme coimmobilized with [Os(4,4'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridine)2(poly(vinylimidazole))10Cl](+) and carbon nanotubes, was coupled with an oxygen-reducing bilirubin oxidase on gold nanoparticle dispersed on gold electrode as a biocathode to provide a membraneless fully enzymatic fuel cell. A maximum power density of 275 μW cm(-2) is obtained in 5 mM glucose in PBS, the highest to date under these conditions, providing sufficient power to enable wireless transmission of a signal to a data logger. When tested in whole human blood and unstimulated human saliva maximum power densities of 73 and 6 μW cm(-2) are obtained for the same fuel cell configuration, respectively. PMID:26750758

  12. Integrated Assessment of Hadley Centre (HadCM2) Climate-Change Impacts on Agricultural Productivity and Irrigation Water Supply in the Conterminous United States. Part II. Regional Agricultural Production in 2030 and 2095.

    SciTech Connect

    Izaurralde, R Cesar C.; Rosenberg, Norman J.; Brown, Robert A.; Thomson, Allison M.

    2003-06-30

    This study used scenarios of the HadCM2 GCM and the EPIC agroecosystem model to evaluate climate change impacts on crop yields and ecosystem processes. Baseline climate data were obtained from records for 1961-1990. The scenario runs for 2025-2034 and 2090-2099 were extracted from a HadCM2 run. EPIC was run on 204 representative farms under current climate and two 10-y periods centered on 2030 and 2095, each at CO2 concentrations of 365 and 560 ppm. Texas, New Mexico, Colorado, Utah, Arizona, and California are projected to experience significant temperature increases by 2030. Slight cooling is expected by 2030 in Alabama, Florida, Maine, Montana, Idaho, and Utah. Larger areas are projected to experience increased warming by 2095. Uniform precipitation increases are expected by 2030 in the NE. These increases are predicted to expand to the eastern half of the country by 2095. EPIC simulated yield increases for the Great Lakes, Corn Belt and Northeast regions. Simulated yields of irrigated corn yields were predicted to increase in almost all regions. Soybean yields could decrease in the Northern and Southern Plains, the Corn Belt, Delta, Appalachian, and Southeast regions and increase in the Lakes and Northeast regions. Simulated wheat yields exhibited upward yield trends under scenarios of climate change. National corn production in 2030 and 2095 could be affected by changes in three major producing regions. In 2030, corn production could increase in the Corn Belt and Lakes regions but decrease in the Northern Plains leading to an overall decrease in national production. National wheat production is expected to increase during both future periods. A proxy indicator was developed to provide a sense of where in the country, and when water would be available to satisfy change in irrigation demand for corn and alfalfa production as these are influenced by the HadCM2 scenarios and CO2-fertilization.

  13. Automated protein motif generation in the structure-based protein function prediction tool ProMOL.

    PubMed

    Osipovitch, Mikhail; Lambrecht, Mitchell; Baker, Cameron; Madha, Shariq; Mills, Jeffrey L; Craig, Paul A; Bernstein, Herbert J

    2015-12-01

    ProMOL, a plugin for the PyMOL molecular graphics system, is a structure-based protein function prediction tool. ProMOL includes a set of routines for building motif templates that are used for screening query structures for enzyme active sites. Previously, each motif template was generated manually and required supervision in the optimization of parameters for sensitivity and selectivity. We developed an algorithm and workflow for the automation of motif building and testing routines in ProMOL. The algorithm uses a set of empirically derived parameters for optimization and requires little user intervention. The automated motif generation algorithm was first tested in a performance comparison with a set of manually generated motifs based on identical active sites from the same 112 PDB entries. The two sets of motifs were equally effective in identifying alignments with homologs and in rejecting alignments with unrelated structures. A second set of 296 active site motifs were generated automatically, based on Catalytic Site Atlas entries with literature citations, as an expansion of the library of existing manually generated motif templates. The new motif templates exhibited comparable performance to the existing ones in terms of hit rates against native structures, homologs with the same EC and Pfam designations, and randomly selected unrelated structures with a different EC designation at the first EC digit, as well as in terms of RMSD values obtained from local structural alignments of motifs and query structures. This research is supported by NIH grant GM078077. PMID:26573864

  14. An extensively modified version of MolScript that includes greatly enhanced coloring capabilities.

    PubMed

    Esnouf, R M

    1997-04-01

    Owing to its flexibility, MolScript has become one of the most widely used programs for generating publication-quality molecular graphics. Integration with the Raster3D package, to allow the production of photorealistic rendered images, has increased its popularity still further. However, this intensive use has shown the need for enhancement of some areas of the program, especially for controlling the coloring of atoms, bonds, and molecules. This work describes a heavily modified version of MolScript that has added syntax for describing complicated coloring schemes and also has new graphics commands. Enhancements include drawing split-bond ball-and-stick models, smoothly varying the color of molecules (color ramping), abrupt color changes within secondary structural units, and the creation of dashed bonds. Making use of these added features is simple because all MolScript syntax is still supported and one typically needs only to add a few control commands. The final section of this article suggests some uses for this modified MolScript and provides illustrative examples. PMID:9385560

  15. In situ synthesis, photometric and spectroscopic studies of chelating system during the 1,4,7,10,13,16-hexaoxacyclooctadecane charge transfer reaction with different acceptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossan, Aisha S. M.; Abou-Melha, Hanaa M.; Refat, Moamen S.

    2011-08-01

    Electron donor acceptor complexes (EDA) of the 1,4,7,10,13,16-hexaoxacyclooctadecane (18-crown-6) as a rich donor were spectrophotometrically discussed and synthesized in solid form according the interactions with different nine of usual π-acceptors like 2,3,5,6-tetrachlorocyclohexa-2,5-diene-1,4-dione (p-chloranil; p-CHL), tetrachloro-1,2-benzoquinone (o-chloranil; o-CHL), 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyano-1,4-benzoquinone (DDQ), tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ), 2,6-dichloroquinone-4-chloroimide (DCQ), 2,6-dibromoquinone-4-chloroimide (DBQ), 2,5-dichloro-3,6-dihydroxy-1,4-benzoquinone (chloranilic acid; CLA), N-bromosuccinimide (NBS), 2,4,6-trinitrophenol (picric acid; PA). Spectroscopic and physical data such as formation constant ( KCT), molar extinction coefficient ( ɛCT), standard free energy (Δ G°), oscillator strength ( f), transition dipole moment ( μ), resonance energy ( RN) and ionization potential ( Ip) were estimated in chloroform or methanol at 25 °C. Based on the elemental analysis and photometric titrations the CT-complexes were formed indicated the formation of 1:1 charge-transfer complexes for the o-CHL, TCNQ, DCQ, DBQ and NBS acceptors but 1:3 ratio for p-CHL, DDQ, CLA and PA, respectively. The charge-transfer interactions were interpretative according to the formation of dative ion pairs [18C6 rad +, A rad -], where A is acceptor. All of the resulting charge transfer complexes were isolated in amorphous form and the complexes formations on IR and 1H NMR spectra were discussed.

  16. In situ synthesis, photometric and spectroscopic studies of chelating system during the 1,4,7,10,13,16-hexaoxacyclooctadecane charge transfer reaction with different acceptors.

    PubMed

    Hossan, Aisha S M; Abou-Melha, Hanaa M; Refat, Moamen S

    2011-08-01

    Electron donor acceptor complexes (EDA) of the 1,4,7,10,13,16-hexaoxacyclooctadecane (18-crown-6) as a rich donor were spectrophotometrically discussed and synthesized in solid form according the interactions with different nine of usual π-acceptors like 2,3,5,6-tetrachlorocyclohexa-2,5-diene-1,4-dione (p-chloranil; p-CHL), tetrachloro-1,2-benzoquinone (o-chloranil; o-CHL), 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyano-1,4-benzoquinone (DDQ), tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ), 2,6-dichloroquinone-4-chloroimide (DCQ), 2,6-dibromoquinone-4-chloroimide (DBQ), 2,5-dichloro-3,6-dihydroxy-1,4-benzoquinone (chloranilic acid; CLA), N-bromosuccinimide (NBS), 2,4,6-trinitrophenol (picric acid; PA). Spectroscopic and physical data such as formation constant (K(CT)), molar extinction coefficient (ɛ(CT)), standard free energy (ΔG°), oscillator strength (f), transition dipole moment (μ), resonance energy (R(N)) and ionization potential (I(p)) were estimated in chloroform or methanol at 25°C. Based on the elemental analysis and photometric titrations the CT-complexes were formed indicated the formation of 1:1 charge-transfer complexes for the o-CHL, TCNQ, DCQ, DBQ and NBS acceptors but 1:3 ratio for p-CHL, DDQ, CLA and PA, respectively. The charge-transfer interactions were interpretative according to the formation of dative ion pairs [18C6(•+), A(•-)], where A is acceptor. All of the resulting charge transfer complexes were isolated in amorphous form and the complexes formations on IR and (1)H NMR spectra were discussed. PMID:21531613

  17. Development and validation of a quantitative LC-tandem MS assay for hexadeca-4,7,10,13-tetraenoic acid in human and mouse plasma.

    PubMed

    Stigter, Edwin C A; Letsiou, Sophia; vd Broek, Niels J F; Gerrits, Johan; Ishihara, Kenji; Voest, Emile E; Verhoeven-Duif, Nanda M; Brenkman, Arjan B

    2013-04-15

    Upon exposure to platinum analogs, mesenchymal stem cells were recently found to excrete minute amounts of specific lipid mediators that induce chemotherapy resistance. One of these lipids is hexadeca-4,7,10,13-tetraenoic acid (FA(16:4)n-3). Importantly, FA(16:4)n-3 is present in high concentrations in certain fish oils and algae and oral intake of these products also potently induced chemotherapy resistance. These findings suggested that certain foods could negatively affect clinical chemotherapy treatment. In order to allow further study of the relation between FA(16:4)n-3 and clinical chemotherapy resistance, a method for the detection and quantification of FA(16:4)n-3 in plasma is required. Therefore, a quantification method for FA(16:4)n-3 in human and mouse plasma was developed consisting of a liquid-liquid extraction, solid phase clean-up and LC-MS/MS (MRM) analysis. The method was fully validated over a period of three weeks according to the standard protocols and requirements. The linearity range of the method is 1-100 nmol/L (r(2)>0.99) using deuterated FA(16:3)n-3 as an internal standard. The limits of quantification and detection are 1.0 nmol/L and 0.8 nmol/L, respectively. Recoveries for spiked concentrations range from 103 to 108%. The intra-day and inter-day mean precision amounts to 98-106% and 100-108%, respectively. No significant loss of FA(16:4)n-3 is observed upon storage at -80 °C. The developed assay for the detection and quantification of FA(16:4)n-3 in human plasma is robust and reproducible. The validation parameters are within limits of acceptance. PMID:23502461

  18. Fabrication of a highly selective cadmium (II) sensor based on 1,13-bis(8-quinolyl)-1,4,7,10,13-pentaoxatridecane as a supramolecular ionophore.

    PubMed

    Ghaemi, Arezoo; Tavakkoli, Haman; Mombeni, Tayebeh

    2014-05-01

    A new cadmium (II) ion selective sensor based on 1,13-bis(8-quinolyl)-1,4,7,10,13-pentaoxatridecane (kryptofix5) as a supramolecular carrier has been developed. The membrane solutions containing polyvinyl chloride (PVC), plasticizer, sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) as a lipophilic ionic additive and kryptofix5 as an ionophore were directly coated on the surface of graphite rods. The best composition of the coated membrane (w/w%) was found to be: 30.0% PVC, 61.0% dioctyl sebacate (DOS), 6.0% NaTPB and 3.0% kryptofix5. The sensor indicates a good linear response for Cd(2+) cation over a wide concentration range from 1.0×10(-5) to 1.0×10(-1) M with a Nernstian slope of 29.8±0.1 mV/decade and the detection limit is 8.4×10(-6) M. The response time of the sensor is 15s and it can be used for 7 weeks without significant drift in potential. The sensor operates in the wide pH range of 1.0-6.0. This sensor reveals a very good selectivity toward Cd(2+) ion over a wide range of alkali, transition and heavy metal cations. The sensor was used as an indicator electrode for potentiometric titration of Cd(2+) using sodium fluoride and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) solutions with a sharp potential change that occurred at the end point. In addition, the proposed sensor was successfully used for determination of Cd(2+) cation in real water samples. PMID:24656367

  19. Mg dopant in Cu2SnSe3: An n-type former and a promoter of electrical mobility up to 387 cm2 V-1 s-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Dong-Hau; Wubet, Walelign

    2014-10-01

    Mg-doped Cu2SnSe3 bulk materials with the (Cu2-xMgx)SnSe3 (Mg-x-CTSe) formula at x=0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.15, and 0.2 were prepared at 550 °C for 2 h with soluble sintering aids of Sb2S3 and Te. Defect chemistry was studied by measuring structural and electrical properties of Mg-doped Cu2SnSe3 as a function of dopant concentration. Mg-x-CTSe pellets show p-type at x=0, 0.05 and 0.1 and n-type at x=0.15 and 0.2. The low hole concentration of 3.2×1017 cm-3 and high mobility of 387 cm2 V-1 s-1 were obtained for (Cu2-xMgx)SnSe3 bulks at x=0.1 (5% Mg) as compared to 2.2×1018 cm-3 and 91 cm2 V-1 s-1 for the undoped one. The explanation based upon the Mg-to-Cu antisite donor defect for the changes in electrical property was declared. A high Mg content for Mg-x-CTSe at x≥0.1 can lead to the formation of second phases. The study in bulk Mg-x-CTSe has been based upon defect states and is consistent and supported by the data of structural and electrical properties.

  20. Mg dopant in Cu2ZnSnSe4: An n-type former and a promoter of electrical mobility up to 120 cm2 V-1 s-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Dong-Hau; Wubet, Walelign

    2014-07-01

    Mg-doped Cu2ZnSnSe4 (CZTSe) bulk materials with the (Cu2-xMgx)ZnSnSe4 formula at x=0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, and 0.4 were prepared at 600 °C for 2 h with soluble sintering aids of Sb2S3 and Te. Defect chemistry was studied by measuring structural and electrical properties of Mg-doped CZTSe as a function of dopant concentration. Except at x=0, all Mg-doped CZTSe pellets showed an n-type behavior. The Mg-doped CZTSe pellets showed an n-type behavior. n-Type Mg-CZTSe pellets at x=0.1 showed the highest electrical conductivity of 24.6 S cm-1 and the net hole mobility of 120 cm2 V-1 s-1, while they were 11.8 S cm-1 and 36.5 cm2 V-1 s-1 for the undoped p-type CZTSe. Mg dopant is a strong promoter of electrical mobility. Mg dopant behaves as a donor defect in CZTSe at a 5% doping content, but is also used as an acceptor at a high content above 5%. Mg doping has further developed CZTSe into a promising semiconductor.

  1. Low level laser therapy (AlGaInP) applied at 5J/cm2 reduces the proliferation of Staphylococcus aureus MRSA in infected wounds and intact skin of rats*

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Daniela Conceição Gomes Gonçalves e; Plapler, Helio; da Costa, Mateus Matiuzzi; Silva, Silvio Romero Gonçalves e; de Sá, Maria da Conceição Aquino; Silva, Benedito Sávio Lima e

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Laser therapy is a low cost, non-invasive procedure with good healing results. Doubts exist as to whether laser therapy action on microorganisms can justify research aimed at investigating its possible effects on bacteria-infected wounds. OBJECTIVE To assess the effect of low intensity laser on the rate of bacterial contamination in infected wounds in the skin of rats. METHODS An experimental study using 56 male Wistar rats. The animals were randomly divided into eight groups of seven each. Those in the "infected" groups were infected by Staphylococcus aureus MRSA in the dorsal region. Red laser diode (AlGaInP) 658nm, 5J/cm2 was used to treat the animals in the "treated" groups in scan for 3 consecutive days. Samples were drawn before inoculating bacteria and following laser treatment. For statistical analysis we used the nonparametric Wilcoxon (paired data) method with a significance level of p <0.05. RESULTS The statistical analysis of median values showed that the groups submitted to laser treatment had low bacterial proliferation. CONCLUSION The laser (AlGaInP), with a dose of 5J/cm2 in both intact skin and in wounds of rats infected with Staphylococcus aureus MRSA, is shown to reduce bacterial proliferation. PMID:23539003

  2. A systematic framework for evaluating standard cell middle-of-line (MOL) robustness for multiple patterning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiaoqing; Cline, Brian; Yeric, Greg; Yu, Bei; Pan, David Z.

    2015-03-01

    Multiple patterning (triple and quadruple patterning) is being considered for use on the Middle-Of-Line (MOL) layers at the 10nm technology node and beyond.1 For robust standard cell design, designers need to improve the inter-cell compatibility for all combinations of cells and cell placements. Multiple patterning colorability checks break the locality of traditional rule checking and N-wise checks are strongly needed to verify the multiple patterning colorability for layout interaction across cell boundaries. In this work, a systematic framework is proposed to evaluate the library-level robustness over multiple patterning from two perpectives, including illegal cell combinations and full chip interactions. With efficient N-wise checks, the vertical and horizontal boundary checks are explored to predict illegal cell combinations. For full chip interactions, random benchmarks are generated by cell shifting and tested to evaluate the placement-level efforts needed to reduce the quadruple patterning to triple patterning for the MOL layer.

  3. Ligand-based virtual screening interface between PyMOL and LiSiCA.

    PubMed

    Dilip, Athira; Lešnik, Samo; Štular, Tanja; Janežič, Dušanka; Konc, Janez

    2016-01-01

    Ligand-based virtual screening of large small-molecule databases is an important step in the early stages of drug development. It is based on the similarity principle and is used to reduce the chemical space of large databases to a manageable size where chosen ligands can be experimentally tested. Ligand-based virtual screening can also be used to identify bioactive molecules with different basic scaffolds compared to already known bioactive molecules, thus having the potential to increase the structural variability of compounds. Here, we present an interface between the popular molecular graphics system PyMOL and the ligand-based virtual screening software LiSiCA available at http://insilab.org/lisica-plugin and demonstrate how this interface can be used in the early stages of drug discovery process.Graphical AbstractLigand-based virtual screening interface between PyMOL and LiSiCA. PMID:27606012

  4. SigMol: repertoire of quorum sensing signaling molecules in prokaryotes.

    PubMed

    Rajput, Akanksha; Kaur, Karambir; Kumar, Manoj

    2016-01-01

    Quorum sensing is a widespread phenomenon in prokaryotes that helps them to communicate among themselves and with eukaryotes. It is driven through quorum sensing signaling molecules (QSSMs) in a density dependent manner that assists in numerous biological functions like biofilm formation, virulence factors secretion, swarming motility, bioluminescence, etc. Despite immense implications, dedicated resources of QSSMs are lacking. Therefore, we have developed SigMol (http://bioinfo.imtech.res.in/manojk/sigmol), a specialized repository of these molecules in prokaryotes. SigMol harbors information on QSSMs pertaining to different quorum sensing signaling systems namely acylated homoserine lactones (AHLs), diketopiperazines (DKPs), 4-hydroxy-2-alkylquinolines (HAQs), diffusible signal factors (DSFs), autoinducer-2 (AI-2) and others. Database contains 1382: entries of 182: unique signaling molecules from 215: organisms. It encompasses biological as well as chemical aspects of signaling molecules. Biological information includes genes, preliminary bioassays, identification assays and applications, while chemical detail comprises of IUPAC name, SMILES and structure. We have provided user-friendly browsing and searching facilities for easy data retrieval and comparison. We have gleaned information of diverse QSSMs reported in literature at a single platform 'SigMol'. This comprehensive resource will assist the scientific community in understanding intraspecies, interspecies or interkingdom networking and further help to unfold different facets of quorum sensing and related therapeutics. PMID:26490957

  5. Phase-matched four-wave mixing of sub-100-TW/ cm2 femtosecond laser pulses in isolated air-guided modes of a hollow photonic-crystal fiber.

    PubMed

    Konorov, S O; Serebryannikov, E E; Akimov, D A; Ivanov, A A; Alfimov, M V; Zheltikov, A M

    2004-12-01

    Hollow-core photonic-crystal fibers are shown to allow propagation and nonlinear-optical frequency conversion of high-intensity ultrashort laser pulses in the regime of isolated guided modes confined in the hollow gas-filled fiber core. With a specially designed dispersion of such modes, the 3omega=2omega+2omega-omega four-wave mixing of fundamental (omega) and second-harmonic (2omega) sub-100- TW/ cm(2) femtosecond pulses of a Cr:forsterite laser can be phase matched in a hollow photonic-crystal fiber within a spectral band of more than 10 nm, resulting in the efficient generation of femtosecond pulses in a well-resolved higher-order air-guided mode of 417-nm radiation. PMID:15697544

  6. Determination of the type of stacking faults in single-crystal high-purity diamond with a low dislocation density of <50 cm-2 by synchrotron X-ray topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masuya, Satoshi; Hanada, Kenji; Uematsu, Takumi; Moribayashi, Tomoya; Sumiya, Hitoshi; Kasu, Makoto

    2016-04-01

    The properties of stacking faults in a single-crystal high-purity diamond with a very low dislocation density of <50 cm-2 and a very low impurity concentration of <0.1 ppm were investigated by synchrotron X-ray topography. We found stacking faults on the {111} plane and determined the fault vector f of the stacking faults to be \\textbf{f} = a/3< 111> on the basis of the f · g extinction criteria. Furthermore, we have found that the partial dislocations are of the Shockley type on the basis of the b · g extinction criteria. Consequently, we concluded that the stacking faults are of the Shockley type and formed because of the decomposition of dislocations with \\textbf{b} = a/2< 1\\bar{1}0> into dislocations with \\textbf{b} = a/6< 2\\bar{1}1> and a/6< 1\\bar{2}\\bar{1}> .

  7. Ability of NCAR RegCM2 in reproducing the dominant physical processes during the anomalous rainfall episodes in the summer of 1991 over the Yangtze-Huaihe valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Y.; Zhao, Y. C.; Ding, Y. H.

    2002-03-01

    The excessively torrential rainfall over the Yangtze-Huaihe valley during the summer of 1991 is simulated with an updated version of the second generation NCAR regional climate model (RegCM2) as a case study to evaluate the model's performance in reproducing the daily precipitation and the associated physical factors contributing to the generation of the anomalous rainfall. This simulation is driven by large-scale atmospheric lateral boundary conditions derived from the European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) analysis. The simulation period is May to August 1991. The model domain covers East Asia and its adjacent oceanic regions, The model resolution is 60 km x 60 km in the horizontal and 23 layers in the vertical. The model can reasonably reproduce the daily precipitation events over East Asia for the summer of 1991, especially in the Yangtze-Huaihe valley where the anomalous rainfall occurred. The spatial and temporal structure of some important physical variables and processes related to the generation of the anomalous rainfall are analyzed, The time evolution of simulated upward vertical motion and horizontal convergence agrees with the five rainfall episodes over this subregion. The water vapor feeding the rainfall is mostly transported by the horizontal atmospheric motions from outside of the region rather than from local sources. The subtropical high over the western Pacific Ocean controls the progress and retreat of the summer monsoon over East Asia, and the RegCM2 can simulate the northward migration and southward retreat of subtropical high over the western Pacific Ocean. Furthermore, the model can represent the daily variation of the low level jet, which is crucial in the water vapor transport to the Yangtze-Huaihe valley.

  8. VizieR Online Data Catalog: ExoMol line list for KCl (Barton+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barton, E. J.; Chui, C.; Golpayegani, S.; Yurchenko, S. N.; Tennyson, J.; Frohman, D. J.; Bernath, P. F.

    2014-03-01

    The files comprising this line list are in the standard ExoMol format, and are named sXXkYYcl.dat and tXXkYYcl.dat, where XX and YY are the mass numbers of the potassium and chlorine isotopes, respectively. The isotopologues covered are: (39K)(35Cl), (39K)(37Cl), (41K)(35Cl) and (41K)(37Cl). The partition functions from 1-3000K in 1K intervals for these isotopologues of KCl are also provided in files named pXXkYYcl.dat and consist of two columns (T/K followed by Q). (12 data files).

  9. Moléculas orgánicas obtenidas en simulaciones experimentales del medio interestelar.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz-Caro, Guillermo Manuel

    Las nubes moleculares son regiones de formación de estrellas, con temperaturas cinéticas entre 10-50 K y densidades de 103-106 átomos cm-3. Su materia está formada por gas y polvo interestelar. Estas partículas de polvo están cubiertas por una fina capa de hielo, de unos 0.01 μm, que contiene H2O y a menudo CO, CO2, CH3OH y NH3. El hielo es presumiblemente irradiado por fotones ultravioleta y rayos cósmicos en las zonas poco profundas de las nubes moleculares y las regiones circunestelares. En un sistema de vacío, P ˜ 10-7 mbar, simulamos la deposición de hielo a partir de 10 K y la irradiación ultravioleta por medio de una lámpara de descarga de hidrógeno activada con microondas. La evolución del hielo se observa por medio de un espectrómetro infrarrojo. De este modo es posible determinar la composición del hielo observado en el medio interestelar y predecir la presencia de moléculas aún no detectadas en el espacio, que han sido producto del procesamiento del hielo en nuestros experimentos. También es posible calentar el sistema hasta temperatura ambiente para sublimar el hielo depositado. Cuando el hielo ha sido previamente irradiado, se observa un residuo compuesto por moléculas orgánicas complejas, algunas prebióticas, como varios ácidos carboxílicos, aminas, amidas, ésteres y en menor proporción moléculas heterocíclicas y aminoácidos. Algunas de estas moléculas podrían detectarse en estado gaseoso por medio de observaciones milimétricas y de radio. También podrían estar presentes en el polvo cometario, cuyo análisis químico está planeado por las misiones Stardust y Rosetta. Mientras tanto, nuestro grupo está llevando a cabo el análisis de partículas de polvo interplanetario (IDPs), algunas de las cuales pueden ser de origen cometario. Al igual que ocurre con los productos obtenidos por irradiación del hielo en nuestros experimentos, algunas IDPs son ricas en material orgánico que contiene oxígeno.

  10. Classification moléculaire du cancer du sein au Maroc

    PubMed Central

    Fouad, Abbass; Yousra, Akasbi; Kaoutar, Znati; Omar, El Mesbahi; Afaf, Amarti; Sanae, Bennis

    2012-01-01

    Introduction La classification moléculaire des cancers du sein basée sur l'expression génique puis sur le profil protéique a permis de distinguer cinq groupes moléculaires: luminal A, luminal B, Her2/neu, basal-like et non-classées. L'objectif de cette étude réalisée au CHU Hassan II de Fès est de classer 335 cancers du sein infiltrant en groupes moléculaires, puis de les corréler avec les caractéristiques clinicopathologiques. Méthodes Etude rétrospective étalée sur 45 mois, comportant 335 patientes colligées au CHU pour le diagnostic et le suivi. Les tumeurs sont analysées histologiquement et classées après une étude immunohistochimique en groupes: luminal A, luminal B, Her2+, basal-like et non-classées. Résultats 54.3% des tumeurs sont du groupe luminal A, 16% luminal B, 11.3% Her2+, 11.3% basal-like et 7% non-classées. Le groupe luminal A renferme le plus faible taux de grade III, d'emboles vasculaires ainsi que de métastases; alors que le groupe des non-classées et basal-like représentent un taux élevé de grade III, une faible proportion d'emboles vasculaires et d'envahissement ganglionnaire. Ces facteurs sont significativement élevés dans les groupes luminal B et Her2+ avec un taux de survie globale de 78% et 76% respectivement. Dans le groupe luminal A, la survie globale des patientes est élevée (87%) alors qu'elle n'est que de 49% dans le groupe des triples négatifs (basal-like et non-classés). Conclusion Le groupe luminal B est différent du luminal A et il est de pronostic péjoratif vis à vis du groupe Her2+. Les caractéristiques clinicopathologiques concordent avec le profil moléculaire donc devraient être pris en considération comme facteurs pronostiques. PMID:23396646

  11. Microbes at their best: first Mol Micro Meeting Würzburg.

    PubMed

    Böhm, Alex; Papenfort, Kai; Lopez, Daniel; Vogel, Jörg

    2011-11-01

    Founded on ground-breaking discoveries such as the operon model by Jacob and Monod more than 50 years ago, molecular microbiology is now one of the most vibrant disciplines of the life sciences. The first Mol Micro Meeting Würzburg ('M3W') hosted more than 160 scientists from 14 countries to exchange their latest ideas in this field of research. Divided into the four main sessions Gene Regulation, Pathogenesis, Microbial Cell Biology and Signalling, the conference provided insight into current advances and future goals and challenges. PMID:21999404

  12. Replacement of olivine by serpentine in the Queen Alexandra Range 93005 carbonaceous chondrite (CM2): Reactant-product compositional relations, and isovolumetric constraints on reaction stoichiometry and elemental mobility during aqueous alteration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velbel, Michael A.; Tonui, Eric K.; Zolensky, Michael E.

    2015-01-01

    Isovolumetric replacement of euhedral and anhedral olivine by serpentine produced both centripetal and meshwork textures in the CM2 chondrites ALH 81002 and Nogoya. The compositions of these textural varieties of serpentine are uniform within narrow limits within each previously studied meteorite, independent of the composition of olivine being replaced, and different between the two meteorites. In QUE 93005 (CM2), coarse olivines of widely varying compositions (Fo<76-99) are replaced in a texturally similar manner by compositionally uniform serpentine (Mg0.73±0.05Fe0.27±0.05)3Si2O5(OH)4. The narrow compositional range of serpentine replacing coarse olivine indicates that the aqueous solution from which the serpentine formed was compositionally uniform on scales at least as large as the meteorite (∼2.5 cm in longest dimension). Isovolumetric textures and compositional observations constrain elemental redistribution from coarse olivine to serpentine and to surrounding phases during serpentinization. Regardless of olivine's composition, isovolumetric replacement of coarse olivines by serpentine of the observed composition released more Mg and Si from olivine than was required to form the serpentine. Excess Mg and Si released by olivine destruction and not retained in serpentine were exported from the replaced volume. Olivines with different Fa/Fo proportions contributed different amounts of Fe and Mg to the serpentine. Ferroan olivines released more Fe than required to form the serpentines replacing them, so some of the Fe released from ferroan olivine was exported from the replaced volumes. Forsteritic olivines released less Fe than required to form the serpentines replacing them, so some Fe was imported into the replaced volumes augmenting the small amount of Fe released from forsteritic olivine. In QUE 93005 Fo83.8 is the threshold composition between Fe-exporting and Fe-importing behavior in individual olivine-serpentine pairs, which released exactly the

  13. A new value for mol percent guanine + cytosine of DNA for the salmonid fish pathogen Renibacterium salmoninarum.

    PubMed

    Banner, C R; Rohovec, J S; Fryer, J L

    1991-03-15

    The mol% G + C of DNA extracted from seven different isolates of Renibacterium salmoninarum was determined. Organisms studied were from selected geographical areas (U.S.A., Canada, England and France) and were isolated from five different species of salmonid fish. The mol% G + C was determined to be 55.5, higher than the currently reported value of 53. PMID:2044940

  14. Data structures for ExoMol: Molecular line lists for exoplanet and other atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tennyson, Jonathan; Hill, Christian; Yurchenko, Sergei N.

    2013-07-01

    At elevated temperatures the spectra of polyatomic molecules become extremely complicated with millions, or even billions, of transitions potentially playing an important role. The atmospheres of cool stars and "hot Jupiter" extrasolar planets are rich with molecules in the temperature range 1000 to 3000 K and their properties are strongly influenced by the infrared and visible spectra of these molecules. Access to extensive lists of transitions is essential for interpreting even the rather simple spectra that can be obtained from exoplanets. So far there are extensive, reliable lists of spectral lines for a number species including some stable diatomics, water and ammonia. Data are almost completely lacking for many key species such as methane. The ExoMol project aims to construct line lists of molecular transitions suitable for spectroscopic and atmospheric modelling of cool stars and exoplanets. At high temperatures it is necessary to consider huge numbers of lines even for a single species. Examples of line lists are given; data protocols defined and data handling issues which arise from trying to distribute these huge datasets discussed. In particular, a uniform but flexible format is given for the representation of line lists and cross sections resulting from the ExoMol project.

  15. SigMol: repertoire of quorum sensing signaling molecules in prokaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Rajput, Akanksha; Kaur, Karambir; Kumar, Manoj

    2016-01-01

    Quorum sensing is a widespread phenomenon in prokaryotes that helps them to communicate among themselves and with eukaryotes. It is driven through quorum sensing signaling molecules (QSSMs) in a density dependent manner that assists in numerous biological functions like biofilm formation, virulence factors secretion, swarming motility, bioluminescence, etc. Despite immense implications, dedicated resources of QSSMs are lacking. Therefore, we have developed SigMol (http://bioinfo.imtech.res.in/manojk/sigmol), a specialized repository of these molecules in prokaryotes. SigMol harbors information on QSSMs pertaining to different quorum sensing signaling systems namely acylated homoserine lactones (AHLs), diketopiperazines (DKPs), 4-hydroxy-2-alkylquinolines (HAQs), diffusible signal factors (DSFs), autoinducer-2 (AI-2) and others. Database contains 1382 entries of 182 unique signaling molecules from 215 organisms. It encompasses biological as well as chemical aspects of signaling molecules. Biological information includes genes, preliminary bioassays, identification assays and applications, while chemical detail comprises of IUPAC name, SMILES and structure. We have provided user-friendly browsing and searching facilities for easy data retrieval and comparison. We have gleaned information of diverse QSSMs reported in literature at a single platform ‘SigMol’. This comprehensive resource will assist the scientific community in understanding intraspecies, interspecies or interkingdom networking and further help to unfold different facets of quorum sensing and related therapeutics. PMID:26490957

  16. MegaMol--A Prototyping Framework for Particle-Based Visualization.

    PubMed

    Grottel, Sebastian; Krone, Michael; Muller, Christoph; Reina, Guido; Ertl, Thomas

    2015-02-01

    Visualization applications nowadays not only face increasingly larger datasets, but have to solve increasingly complex research questions. They often require more than a single algorithm and consequently a software solution will exceed the possibilities of simple research prototypes. Well-established systems intended for such complex visual analysis purposes have usually been designed for classical, mesh-based graphics approaches. For particle-based data, however, existing visualization frameworks are too generic - e.g. lacking possibilities for consistent low-level GPU optimization for high-performance graphics - and at the same time are too limited - e.g. by enforcing the use of structures suboptimal for some computations. Thus, we developed the system softwareMegaMol for visualization research on particle-based data. On the one hand, flexible data structures and functional module design allow for easy adaption to changing research questions, e.g. studying vapors in thermodynamics, solid material in physics, or complex functional macromolecules like proteins in biochemistry. Therefore, MegaMol is designed as a development framework. On the other hand, common functionality for data handling and advanced rendering implementations are available and beneficial for all applications. We present several case studies of work implemented using our system as well as a comparison to other freely available or open source systems. PMID:26357030

  17. MolProbity’s Ultimate Rotamer-Library Distributions for Model Validation

    PubMed Central

    Hintze, Bradley J.; Lewis, Steven M.; Richardson, Jane S.; Richardson, David C.

    2016-01-01

    Here we describe the updated MolProbity rotamer-library distributions derived from an order-of-magnitude larger and more stringently quality-filtered dataset of about 8000 (vs. 500) protein chains, and we explain the resulting changes and improvements to model validation as seen by users. To include only sidechains with satisfactory justification for their given conformation, we added residue-specific filters for electron-density value and model-to-density fit. The combined new protocol retains a million residues of data, while cleaning up false-positive noise in the multi-χ datapoint distributions. It enables unambiguous characterization of conformational clusters nearly 1000-fold less frequent than the most common ones. We describe examples of local interactions that favor these rare conformations, including the role of authentic covalent bond-angle deviations in enabling presumably strained sidechain conformations. Further, along with favored and outlier, an allowed category (0.3% to 2.0% occurrence in reference data) has been added, analogous to Ramachandran validation categories. The new rotamer distributions are used for current rotamer validation in Mol-Probity and PHENIX, and for rotamer choice in PHENIX model-building and refinement. The multi-dimensional χ distributions and Top8000 reference dataset are freely available on GitHub. These rotamers are termed “ultimate” because data sampling and quality are now fully adequate for this task, and also because we believe the future of conformational validation should integrate sidechain with backbone criteria. PMID:27018641

  18. Characterization of micron-sized Fe,Ni metal grains in fine-grained rims in the Y-791198 CM2 carbonaceous chondrite: Implications for asteroidal and preaccretionary models for aqueous alteration.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chizmadia, L. J.; Xu, Y.; Schwappach, C.; Brearley, A. J.

    2008-11-01

    The presence of apparently unaltered, micron-sized Fe,Ni metal grains, juxtaposed against hydrated fine-grained rim materials in the CM2 chondrite Yamato (Y-) 791198 has been cited as unequivocal evidence of preaccretionary alteration. We have examined the occurrence, composition, and textural characteristics of 60 Fe,Ni metal grains located in fine-grained rims in Y-791198 using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electron microprobe analysis. In addition, three metal grains, prepared by focused ion beam (FIB) sample preparation techniques were studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The metal grains are heterogeneously distributed within the rims. Electron microprobe analyses show that all the metal grains are kamacite with minor element contents (P, Cr, and Co) that lie either within or close to the range for other CM2 metal grains. X-ray maps obtained by electron microprobe show S, P, and/or Ca enrichments on the outermost parts of many of the metal grains. Z-contrast STEM imaging of FIB-prepared Fe,Ni metal grains show the presence of a small amount of a lower Z secondary phase on the surface of the grains and within indentations on the grain surfaces. Energy-filtered TEM (EFTEM) compositional mapping shows that these pits are enriched in oxygen and depleted in Fe relative to the metal. These observations are consistent with pitting corrosion of the metal on the edges of the grains and we suggest may be the result of the formation of Fe(OH)2, a common oxidation product of Fe metal. The presence of such a layer could have inhibited further alteration of the metal grains. These findings are consistent with alteration by an alkaline fluid as suggested by Zolensky et al. (1989), but the location of this alteration remains unconstrained, because Y-791198 was recovered from Antarctica and therefore may have experienced incipient terrestrial alteration. However, we infer that the extremely low degree of oxidation of the metal is inconsistent with

  19. Integrated Assessment of Hadley Centre (HadCM2) Climate Change Projections on Agricultural Productivity and Irrigation Water Supply in the Conterminous United States.I. Climate change scenarios and impacts on irrigation water supply simulated with the HUMUS model.

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, Norman J.; Brown, Robert A.; Izaurralde, R Cesar C.; Thomson, Allison M.

    2003-06-30

    This paper describes methodology and results of a study by researchers at PNNL contributing to the water sector study of the U.S. National Assessment of Climate Change. The vulnerability of water resources in the conterminous U.S. to climate change in 10-y periods centered on 2030 and 2095--as projected by the HadCM2 general circulation model--was modeled with HUMUS (Hydrologic Unit Model of the U.S.). HUMUS consists of a GIS that provides data on soils, land use and climate to drive the hydrology model Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). The modeling was done at the scale of the 2101 8-digit USGS hydrologic unit areas (HUA). Results are aggregated to the 4-digit and 2-digit (Major Water Resource Region, MWRR) scales for various purposes. Daily records of temperature and precipitation for 1961-1990 provided the baseline climate. Water yields (WY)--sum of surface and subsurface runoff--increases from the baseline period over most of the U.S. in 2030 and 2095. In 2030, WY increases in the western US and decreases in the central and southeast regions. Notably, WY increases by 139 mm from baseline in the Pacific NW. Decreased WY is projected for the Lower Mississippi and Texas Gulf basins, driven by higher temperatures and reduced precipitation. The HadCM2 2095 scenario projects a climate significantly wetter than baseline, resulting in WY increases of 38%. WY increases are projected throughout the eastern U.S. WY also increases in the western U.S. Climate change also affects the seasonality of the hydrologic cycle. Early snowmelt is induced in western basins, leading to dramatically increased WYs in late winter and early spring. The simulations were run at current (365 ppm) and elevated (560 ppm) atmospheric CO2 concentrations to account for the potential impacts of the CO2-fertilization effect. The effects of climate change scenario were considerably greater than those due to elevated CO2 but the latter, overall, decreased losses and augmented increases in water yield.

  20. Proceedings of the U.S. Geological Survey Eighth Biennial Geographic Information Science Workshop and first The National Map Users Conference, Denver, Colorado, May 10-13, 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sieverling, Jennifer B.; Dietterle, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is sponsoring the first The National Map Users Conference in conjunction with the eighth biennial Geographic Information Science (GIS) Workshop on May 10-13, 2011, in Lakewood, Colorado. The GIS Workshop will be held at the USGS National Training Center, located on the Denver Federal Center, Lakewood, Colorado, May 10-11. The National Map Users Conference will be held directly after the GIS Workshop at the Denver Marriott West, a convention hotel in the Lakewood, Colorado area, May 12-13. The National Map is designed to serve the Nation by providing geographic data and knowledge for government, industry, and public uses. The goal of The National Map Users Conference is to enhance communications and collaboration among the communities of users of and contributors to The National Map, including USGS, Department of the Interior, and other government GIS specialists and scientists, as well as the broader geospatial community. The USGS National Geospatial Program intends the conference to serve as a forum to engage users and more fully discover and meet their needs for the products and services of The National Map. The goal of the GIS Workshop is to promote advancement of GIS and related technologies and concepts as well as the sharing of GIS knowledge within the USGS GIS community. This collaborative opportunity for multi-disciplinary GIS and associated professionals will allow attendees to present and discuss a wide variety of geospatial-related topics. The Users Conference and Workshop collaboration will bring together scientists, managers, and data users who, through presentations, posters, seminars, workshops, and informal gatherings, will share accomplishments and progress on a variety of geospatial topics. During this joint event, attendees will have the opportunity to present or demonstrate their work; to develop their knowledge by attending hands-on workshops, seminars, and presentations given by professionals from USGS and

  1. Key comparison BIPM.RI(I)-K6 of the standards for absorbed dose to water at 10 g cm-2 of the NPL, United Kingdom and the BIPM in accelerator photon beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picard, S.; Burns, D. T.; Roger, P.; Duane, S.; Bass, G. A.; Manning, J. W.; Shipley, D. R.

    2015-01-01

    A comparison of the dosimetry for accelerator photon beams was carried out between the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) and the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) from 23 September to 7 October 2014. The comparison was based on the determination of absorbed dose to water at 10 g cm-2 for three radiation qualities at the NPL. The results, reported as ratios of the NPL and the BIPM evaluations (and with the combined standard uncertainties given in parentheses), are 1.0000(62) at 6 MV, 0.9999(70) at 10 MV and 0.9993(80) at 25 MV. This result is the seventh in the on-going BIPM.RI(I)-K6 series of comparisons. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCRI, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  2. Key comparison BIPM.RI(I)-K6 of the standards for absorbed dose to water at 10 g cm-2 of the NMIJ, Japan and the BIPM in accelerator photon beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picard, S.; Burns, D. T.; Roger, P.; Shimizu, M.; Morishita, Y.; Kato, M.; Tanaka, T.; Kurosawa, T.; Saito, N.

    2016-01-01

    A comparison of the dosimetry for accelerator photon beams was carried out between the National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ) and the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) from 9 to 23 April 2015. The comparison was based on the determination of absorbed dose to water at 10 g cm-2 for three radiation qualities at the NMIJ. The results, reported as ratios of the NMIJ and the BIPM evaluations (and with the combined standard uncertainties given in parentheses), are 0.9966 (47) at 6 MV, 0.9965 (60) at 10 MV and 0.9953 (50) at 15 MV. This result is the eighth in the on-going BIPM.RI(I)-K6 series of comparisons. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCRI, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  3. Enhanced therapeutic anti-inflammatory effect of betamethasone on topical administration with low-frequency, low-intensity (20 kHz, 100 mW/cm(2)) ultrasound exposure on carrageenan-induced arthritis in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Gadi; Natsheh, Hiba; Sunny, Youhan; Bawiec, Christopher R; Touitou, Elka; Lerman, Melissa A; Lazarovici, Philip; Lewin, Peter A

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this work was to investigate whether low-frequency, low-intensity (20 kHz, <100 mW/cm(2), spatial-peak, temporal-peak intensity) ultrasound, delivered with a lightweight (<100 g), tether-free, fully wearable, battery-powered applicator, is capable of reducing inflammation in a mouse model of rheumatoid arthritis. The therapeutic, acute, anti-inflammatory effect was estimated from the relative swelling induced in mice hindlimb paws. In an independent, indirect approach, the inflammation was bio-imaged by measuring glycolytic activity with near-infrared labeled 2-deoxyglucose. The outcome of the experiments indicated that the combination of ultrasound exposure and topical application of 0.1% (w/w) betamethasone gel resulted in statistically significantly (p < 0.05) enhanced anti-inflammatory activity in comparison with drug or ultrasound treatment alone. The present study underscores the potential benefits of low-frequency, low-intensity ultrasound-assisted drug delivery. However, the proof of concept presented indicates the need for additional experiments to systematically evaluate and optimize the potential of, and the conditions for, tolerable low-frequency, low-intensity ultrasound-promoted non-invasive drug delivery. PMID:26003010

  4. Batch and Continuous Ultrasound Assisted Extraction of Boldo Leaves (Peumus boldus Mol.).

    PubMed

    Petigny, Loïc; Périno-Issartier, Sandrine; Wajsman, Joël; Chemat, Farid

    2013-01-01

    Vegetal extracts are widely used as primary ingredients for various products from creams to perfumes in the pharmaceutical, nutraceutic and cosmetic industries. Having concentrated and active extract is essential, as the process must extract as much soluble material as possible in a minimum time, using the least possible volume of solvent. The boldo leaves extract is of great interest for the industry as it holds a great anti-oxidant activity due to high levels of flavonoids and alkaloids such as boldine. Ultrasound Assisted Extraction (UAE) has been used to improve the efficiency of the plant extraction, reducing extraction time, increasing the concentration of the extract with the same amount of solvent and plant material. After a preliminary study, a response surface method has been used to optimize the extraction of soluble material from the plant. The results provided by the statistical analysis revealed that the optimized conditions were: sonication power 23 W/cm2 for 40 min and a temperature of 36 °C. The optimized parameters of the UAE provide a better extraction compared to a conventional maceration in terms of process time (30 min instead of 120 min), higher yield, more energy saving, cleanliness, safety and product quality. PMID:23481637

  5. Batch and Continuous Ultrasound Assisted Extraction of Boldo Leaves (Peumus boldus Mol.)

    PubMed Central

    Petigny, Loïc; Périno-Issartier, Sandrine; Wajsman, Joël; Chemat, Farid

    2013-01-01

    Vegetal extracts are widely used as primary ingredients for various products from creams to perfumes in the pharmaceutical, nutraceutic and cosmetic industries. Having concentrated and active extract is essential, as the process must extract as much soluble material as possible in a minimum time, using the least possible volume of solvent. The boldo leaves extract is of great interest for the industry as it holds a great anti-oxidant activity due to high levels of flavonoids and alkaloids such as boldine. Ultrasound Assisted Extraction (UAE) has been used to improve the efficiency of the plant extraction, reducing extraction time, increasing the concentration of the extract with the same amount of solvent and plant material. After a preliminary study, a response surface method has been used to optimize the extraction of soluble material from the plant. The results provided by the statistical analysis revealed that the optimized conditions were: sonication power 23 W/cm2 for 40 min and a temperature of 36 °C. The optimized parameters of the UAE provide a better extraction compared to a conventional maceration in terms of process time (30 min instead of 120 min), higher yield, more energy saving, cleanliness, safety and product quality. PMID:23481637

  6. GTKDynamo: a PyMOL plug-in for QC/MM hybrid potential simulations.

    PubMed

    Bachega, José Fernando R; Timmers, Luís Fernando S M; Assirati, Lucas; Bachega, Leonardo R; Field, Martin J; Wymore, Troy

    2013-09-30

    Hybrid quantum chemical/molecular mechanical (QCMM) potentials are very powerful tools for molecular simulation. They are especially useful for studying processes in condensed phase systems, such as chemical reactions that involve a relatively localized change in electronic structure and where the surrounding environment contributes to these changes but can be represented with more computationally efficient functional forms. Despite their utility, however, these potentials are not always straightforward to apply since the extent of significant electronic structure changes occurring in the condensed phase process may not be intuitively obvious. To facilitate their use, we have developed an open-source graphical plug-in, GTKDynamo that links the PyMOL visualization program and the pDynamo QC/MM simulation library. This article describes the implementation of GTKDynamo and its capabilities and illustrates its application to QC/MM simulations. PMID:24137667

  7. VizieR Online Data Catalog: ExoMol line lists for CS isotopologues (Paulose+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulose, G.; Barton, E. J.; Yurchenko, S. N.; Tennyson, J.

    2015-07-01

    The files comprising this line list are in the standard ExoMol format, and are named XXcYYsst.dat, XXcYYstr.dat, where XX and YY are the mass numbers of the Carbon and Sulphur isotopes, respectively. The isotopologues covered including their nuclear spin degeneracy factors g_ns are: (12C)(32S) g_ns = 1 (12C)(33S) g_ns = 4 (12C)(34S) g_ns = 1 (12C)(36S) g_ns = 1 (13C)(32S) g_ns = 2 (13C)(33S) g_ns = 8 (13C)(34S) g_ns = 2 (13C)(36S) g_ns = 2 The partition functions from 1-3000K in 1K intervals for these isotopologues of CS are also provided in files named XXcYYspf.dat. (24 data files).

  8. Kilogramm und Mol: SI-Basiseinheiten für Masse und Stoffmenge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Peter; Gläser, Michael

    2001-11-01

    Das Kilogramm ist eine SI-Basiseinheit, die bislang nicht hinreichend genau auf Naturkonstanten zurückgeführt werden kann. Gegenwärtig gibt es verschiedene Vorschläge, dieses Problem zu lösen. Ein Vorschlag ist die Neudefinition des Kilogramm auf Basis atomarer Massen. An der Physikalisch-Technischen Bundesanstalt (PTB) wird dazu an zwei verschiedenen Verfahren geforscht. Beim ersten Verfahren werden Goldionen zu einer Referenzmasse akkumuliert, beim zweiten die Avogadro-Konstante an einem Silizium-Einkristall bestimmt. Beide Verfahren könnten eine genau bestimmbare Zahl von Atomen liefern, mit der das Kilogramm neu definiert werden könnte. Dies könnte eine Zahl von 197 Au, von 28 Si oder auch von 12 C-Atomen sein, auf der bereits die SI-Einheit der Stoffmenge des Mol basiert.

  9. Moléculas orgánicas no-rígidas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senent Díez, M. L.

    Se destaca la importancia del estudio espectroscópico ab initio de una serie de moléculas no-rígidas detectadas en el medio interestelar (acetona, dimetil-eter, etanol, metanol, metilamina, ldots), así como los últimos avances del desarrollo de la metodología para el tratamiento teórico de estas especies. Se describe, a modo de ejemplo, el análisis del espectro roto-torsional de la molécula de glicoaldehido que ha sido recientemente detectada en el centro Galáctico Sagitario B2 (N) [1]. Esta especie presenta dos movimientos de gran amplitud que interaccionan, descansan en el Infrarrojo Lejano y le confiere propiedades no-rígidas. La molécula puede existir en posiciones cis y trans y presenta cinco confórmeros estables, tres de simetría Cs (I, II y IV) y un doble mínimo trans de simetría C1 (III) . La conformación favorita, I, presenta simetría Cs y se estabiliza por la formación de un puente de hidrógeno entre los grupos OH y C=O. Los mínimos secundarios II, III, y IV se han determinado a 1278.2 cm-1 (trans, Cs), 1298.8 cm-1 (trans, C1) y 1865.2 cm-1 (cis, Cs) con cálculos MP4/cc-pVQZ que incluyen sustituciones triples. Para determinar que vibraciones interaccionan con las torsiones, se ha realizado un análisis armónico en los mínimos. Las frecuencias fundamentales armónicas correspondientes al mínimo I se han calculado en 213.4 cm-1 (torsión C-C) y 425.7 cm-1 (torsión OH). Es de esperar que tan sólo dos vibraciones, la flexión del grupo C-C-O y el aleteo del hidrógeno del grupo aldehídico puedan desplazar el espectro torsional de la molécula aislada. Para determinar el espectro torsional, se ha determinado la superficie de potencial en dos dimensiones mediante el cálculo ab initio de las geometrías y energías de 74 conformaciones seleccionadas. Estas últimas se han ajustado a un doble serie de Fourier. A partir de la PES y de los parámetros cinéticos del Hamiltoniano vibracional se han obtenido frecuencias e intensidades

  10. W4 theory for computational thermochemistry : in pursuit of confident sub-kJ/mol predictions.

    SciTech Connect

    Karton, A.; Rabinovich, E.; Martin, J. M. L.; Ruscic, B.; Chemistry; Weizmann Institute of Science

    2006-01-01

    In an attempt to improve on our earlier W3 theory [A. D. Boese et al., J. Chem. Phys. 120, 4129 (2004)] we consider such refinements as more accurate estimates for the contribution of connected quadruple excitations ({cflx T}{sub 4}), inclusion of connected quintuple excitations ({cflx T}{sub 5}), diagonal Born-Oppenheimer corrections (DBOC), and improved basis set extrapolation procedures. Revised experimental data for validation purposes were obtained from the latest version of the Active Thermochemical Tables thermochemical network. The recent CCSDT(Q) method offers a cost-effective way of estimating {cflx T}{sub 4} but is insufficient by itself if the molecule exhibits some nondynamical correlation. The latter considerably slows down basis set convergence for {cflx T}{sub 4}, and anomalous basis set convergence in highly polar systems makes two-point extrapolation procedures unusable. However, we found that the CCSDTQ-CCSDT(Q) difference converges quite rapidly with the basis set, and that the formula 1.10[CCSDT(Q)/cc-pVTZ+CCSDTQ/cc-pVDZ-CCSDT(Q)/cc-pVDZ] offers a very reliable as well as fairly cost-effective estimate of the basis set limit {cflx T}{sub 4} contribution. The {cflx T}{sub 5} contribution converges very rapidly with the basis set, and even a simple double-zeta basis set appears to be adequate. The largest {cflx T}{sub 5} contribution found in the present work is on the order of 0.5 kcal/mol (for ozone). DBOCs are significant at the 0.1 kcal/mol level in hydride systems. Post-CCSD(T) contributions to the core-valence correlation energy are only significant at that level in systems with severe nondynamical correlation effects. Based on the accumulated experience, a new computational thermochemistry protocol for first- and second-row main-group systems, to be known as W4 theory, is proposed. Its computational cost is not insurmountably higher than that of the earlier W3 theory, while performance is markedly superior. Our W4 atomization energies for

  11. Improvements in GROMACS plugin for PyMOL including implicit solvent simulations and displaying results of PCA analysis.

    PubMed

    Makarewicz, Tomasz; Kaźmierkiewicz, Rajmund

    2016-05-01

    In order to get the dynamic molecule model from the static one, the molecular dynamics (MD) simulation needs to be performed. Some software sets such as GROMACS are used for that purpose. Unfortunately they lack GUI. The Dynamics PyMOL plugin allows researcher to perform MD simulations directly from the PyMOL software by GUI-based interface of GROMACS tools. This paper describes many improvements introduced into the Dynamics PyMOL plugin 2.0 including: an integration with ProDy library, possibility to use the implicit solvents, an ability to interpret the MD simulations, and implementation of some more GROMACS functionality. PMID:27107576

  12. fac-(2-Amido­ethyl-κ2 C 1,O)aqua­tri­chlorido­tin(IV) 1,4,7,10,13,16-hexa­oxacyclo­octa­decane (2/1)

    PubMed Central

    Wardell, Solange M. S. V.; Harrison, William T. A.; Tiekink, Edward R. T.; de Lima, Geraldo M.; Wardell, James L.

    2010-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, [Sn(C3H6NO)Cl3(H2O)]2·C12H24O6, comprises a six-coordinate tin complex and a 18-crown-6 mol­ecule, the latter disposed about a centre of inversion. The tin atom is coordinated by three Cl atoms, that define a facial arrangement, a chelating C-,O- ligand, and a water mol­ecule. The resulting CCl3O2 donor set defines a distorted octa­hedral geometry. The tin-bound aqua ligand forms O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds to the centrosymmetric 18-crown-6 mol­ecule, resulting in a tri-mol­ecular aggregate. These assemble into a supra­molecular chain along the a axis being connected by N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds. PMID:21580253

  13. Speculations on a relativistic strong focusing self-collider with very high luminosity (≥10 40 cm -2s -1): Macroproduction of antinuclei and other micro cross section events and formation of ambiplasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maglich, Bogdan C.

    1988-08-01

    The luminosity of the weak focusing self-collider (ESCOL) is intrinsically 10 8-10 10 times greater than that of conventional colliding beams, due to the product of the solid angle factor, ˜10 6, and the neutralization factor, ˜10 2 -10 4. We extrapolate to 10-GeV protons the parameters of a recent low energy experiment demonstrating that a 1-MeV deuteron beam, stored in ESCOL as migma, can be neutralized bo oscillating electrons and operate an order of magnitude above the space charge limit without instabilities. With the number density achieved in ESCOL, n = 3.2 × 10 9 ions cm -3, such a relativistic strong focusing self-collider (XYDER) would have a luminosity L ˜ 10 38 cm -2 s -1 for 10-GeV-on-10-GeV protons (equivalent to 250 GeV beam-on-target). At the diamagnetic "limit" density, which for 10 tesla is n = 10 12 ions cm -3, l ˜ 10 43 cm -2 s -1; this would produce 4 × 10 16 antiprotons/s (2 gram of overlinep/year). Other particles, rare nuclei, and rare effects produced with micro- (10 -16), nano- (10 -9 b), and picoscopic (10 -12 b) cross sections will be macro-produced in XYDER. A newly proposed annular magnet would provide a large volume of stored, V = 10 9 cm 3, as well as automatic ejection along the +z and -z axes of the overlinep's and other particles whose momentum is lower than that of the primary proton migma. Antiprotons, being produced with low rapidity, will have energies below 1 GeV in COM, and thus are suitable for beaming, extraction, cooling, abd slowing down to be either stored for space propulsion or used as a source for acceleration. If the magnetic field strength is adjusted for the antiprotons to be confined, an unusual plasma will be formed, consisting of the protons, antiprotons, electrons, and positrons (from pion-muon-electron decays), and similar to Alfvèns "ambiplasman". Its plasmic beta will be unity already at low densities (˜10 11 cm -3 where ωpi/ ωci ≤ 1); the ion-to-electron "temperature" ratio will never achieve

  14. Charge state and incident energy dependence of K X-ray emission as a function of target thickness for 50-165 MeV Cu ions incident on 11-250 μg/cm 2 Cu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Momoi, T.; Shima, K.; Umetani, K.; Moriyama, M.; Ishihara, T.; Mikumo, T.

    1986-05-01

    Thin self-supporting Cu targets in 11-250 μg/cm 2 thickness were bombarded with 50-165 MeV Cu qi+ ions (7 ⩽ qi⩽ 24) to investigate the target thickness dependence of inner shell vacancy production processes in the symmetric collision of Cu + Cu. Doppler-shifted projectile K X-rays were discriminated from the target K X-rays, and the projectile and target K X-ray yields were separately measured as a function of target thickness. The K X-ray yields emitted from the projectile and the target Cu atoms are strongly dependent on the projectile initial charge state and target thickness for all the investigated collision systems of Cu qi+ + Cu. From the observed K X-ray yields, K-shell vacancy production cross sections averaged over the target thickness t of projectile overlineσ KV and target overlineσ ∗KV were separately derived taking into account the fluorescence yield that can be estimated from the Kα X-ray energy shift. When the values of overlineσ KV and overlineσ ∗KV are extrapolated to zero foil thickness, the K shell vacancy formed in the collision has been found to be equally shared between projectile and target in a single collision. With the increase of penetration depth, however, the values of overlineσ ∗KV are greater than those of overlineσ KV presumably due to electron transfer of a target K electron to the projectile K vacancy. the evolution process of projectile excited states as a function of target thickness and the resulting variation of projectile and target K X-ray emissions are discussed.

  15. Low-voltage back-gated atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition based graphene-striped channel transistor with high-κ dielectric showing room-temperature mobility > 11,000 cm(2)/V·s.

    PubMed

    Smith, Casey; Qaisi, Ramy; Liu, Zhihong; Yu, Qingkai; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2013-07-23

    Utilization of graphene may help realize innovative low-power replacements for III-V materials based high electron mobility transistors while extending operational frequencies closer to the THz regime for superior wireless communications, imaging, and other novel applications. Device architectures explored to date suffer a fundamental performance roadblock due to lack of compatible deposition techniques for nanometer-scale dielectrics required to efficiently modulate graphene transconductance (gm) while maintaining low gate capacitance-voltage product (CgsVgs). Here we show integration of a scaled (10 nm) high-κ gate dielectric aluminum oxide (Al2O3) with an atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD)-derived graphene channel composed of multiple 0.25 μm stripes to repeatedly realize room-temperature mobility of 11,000 cm(2)/V·s or higher. This high performance is attributed to the APCVD graphene growth quality, excellent interfacial properties of the gate dielectric, conductivity enhancement in the graphene stripes due to low tox/Wgraphene ratio, and scaled high-κ dielectric gate modulation of carrier density allowing full actuation of the device with only ±1 V applied bias. The superior drive current and conductance at Vdd = 1 V compared to other top-gated devices requiring undesirable seed (such as aluminum and poly vinyl alcohol)-assisted dielectric deposition, bottom gate devices requiring excessive gate voltage for actuation, or monolithic (nonstriped) channels suggest that this facile transistor structure provides critical insight toward future device design and process integration to maximize CVD-based graphene transistor performance. PMID:23777434

  16. Antifungal and antibacterial activities of Araucaria araucana (Mol.) K. Koch heartwood lignans.

    PubMed

    Céspedes, Carlos L; Avila, J Guillermo; García, Ana M; Becerra, José; Flores, Cristian; Aqueveque, Pedro; Bittner, Magalis; Hoeneisen, Maritza; Martinez, Miguel; Silva, Mario

    2006-01-01

    Five lignans (secoisolariciresinol, pinoresinol, eudesmin, lariciresinol, and lariciresinol-4-methyl ether) were isolated from an MeOH extract from Araucaria araucana (Mol.) K. Koch wood for the first time in this species and their structures determined with spectroscopic methods. The antimicrobial activities of these compounds were determined for the bacteria Citrobacter sp., Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and for the white rooting and staining fungi Mucor miehei, Paecilomyces variotii, Ceratocystis pilifera, Trametes versicolor, and Penicillium notatum, and in addition, the MeOH extract was evaluated against Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans, Fusarium moniliforme, F. sporotrichum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. The most sensitive bacteria against pinoresinol were the Gram-positive. However, secoisolariciresinol exhibited a significant antifungal activity on fungi of white rooting and wood staining and this compound completely inhibited the mycelial growth of T. versicolor and C. pilifera at 300 and 400 microg per disc, respectively, whereas pinoresinol showed a moderate inhibitory activity. On the other hand, the MeOH extract had the highest activity against rooting and staining and pathogenic fungi as well as T. versicolor, Fusarium spp. and Trichophyton mentagrophytes, inhibiting completely the growth at 400 microg per disc. PMID:16610214

  17. Synthesis and Properties of La2O3-Doped 8 mol% Yttria-Stabilized Cubic Zirconia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aktas, Bulent; Tekeli, Suleyman; Salman, Serdar

    2014-01-01

    In this study, 8 mol% yttria-stabilized cubic zirconia (8YSZ) powder as a matrix material and 0-15 wt.% La2O3 powder as an additive were used to determine the effect of La2O3 addition and its amount on the phase stability, microstructure, sintering, and mechanical properties of 8YSZ. Colloidal processing was used to mix the powders uniformly and to obtain a homogenous microstructure. XRD results showed the existence of only a cubic crystal structure for 1 and 5 wt.% La2O3 addition amounts. However, La2Zr2O7 with a hexagonal and cubic crystal structure was observed in 8YSZ specimens doped with 10 and 15 wt.% La2O3. Further, up to 5 wt.% La2O3 was completely dissolved in the crystal structure of the specimens; however, above 5 wt.%, La2O3 reacted with 8YSZ at high temperatures and formed pyrochloric La2Zr2O7. Grain size measurements revealed that the grain size of 8YSZ increased up to 1 wt.% La2O3 addition, and then decreased beyond this amount. The hardness and fracture toughness of 8YSZ decreased and increased, respectively, with the increasing La2O3 amount.

  18. Detailed analyses of fresh and dried maqui (Aristotelia chilensis (Mol.) Stuntz) berries and juice.

    PubMed

    Brauch, J E; Buchweitz, M; Schweiggert, R M; Carle, R

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a detailed chemical characterization of nutritionally-relevant, quality-determining constituents in dried and fresh fruits as well as juices of maqui (Aristotelia chilensis (Mol.) Stuntz) is provided. A total of 8 glycosylated anthocyanins was characterized in maqui fruits, being composed of differently substituted cyanidin and delphinidin derivatives. During processing into juice, a substantial loss in total anthocyanin contents (TAC) was observed. TAC values were also reduced after drying of maqui berries. Likewise, the browning index (BI) of fresh fruits increased during processing. Being composed of flavonol glycosides and ellagic acids, 17 non-anthocyanin phenolics were characterized in all maqui samples. Besides characterizing phenolic compounds, antioxidant activities, total phenolics, major sugars, non-volatile organic acids, minerals and trace elements were quantitated. Moreover, total lipid contents and the fruits' mainly unsaturated fatty acid profiles are reported. The presented results indicate the high potential of maqui as so far under-utilized but extremely pigment-rich "superfruit". PMID:26212975

  19. molSimplify: A toolkit for automating discovery in inorganic chemistry.

    PubMed

    Ioannidis, Efthymios I; Gani, Terry Z H; Kulik, Heather J

    2016-08-15

    We present an automated, open source toolkit for the first-principles screening and discovery of new inorganic molecules and intermolecular complexes. Challenges remain in the automatic generation of candidate inorganic molecule structures due to the high variability in coordination and bonding, which we overcome through a divide-and-conquer tactic that flexibly combines force-field preoptimization of organic fragments with alignment to first-principles-trained metal-ligand distances. Exploration of chemical space is enabled through random generation of ligands and intermolecular complexes from large chemical databases. We validate the generated structures with the root mean squared (RMS) gradients evaluated from density functional theory (DFT), which are around 0.02 Ha/au across a large 150 molecule test set. Comparison of molSimplify results to full optimization with the universal force field reveals that RMS DFT gradients are improved by 40%. Seamless generation of input files, preparation and execution of electronic structure calculations, and post-processing for each generated structure aids interpretation of underlying chemical and energetic trends. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27364957

  20. Micropropagation of Prosopis chilensis (Mol.) Stuntz from young and mature plants.

    PubMed

    Caro, L A; Polci, P A; Lindström, L I; Echenique, C V; Hernández, L F

    2002-04-01

    Prosopis chilensis (Mol.) Stuntz (Algarrobo de Chile) is an important native tree species that can be grown in arid and semiarid regions for wood and forage production and environmental protection. Developing a simple and reliable in vitro protocol for cloning it would enable to improve it genetically. Explants of P. chilensis were taken from 4 months-old plants grown in the greenhouse or from adult trees grown in a natural environment. Nodal segments 1-2 cm long containing an axillary bud were selected from elongating shoots. These cuttings were aseptically cultured on two agar-solid basal media, MS or BTMm, and treated with 0.05 mg L-1 BA and 3 mg L-1 of either IAA, IBA or NAA. Sucrose (3% w/v) was used as carbon source. The percentage of sprouted cuttings and whole plant regeneration as well as its shoot and root length were recorded. Number, length and dry weight of shoots and roots were also measured. Rooting was successful with cuttings taken from young or adult plants, but explants from young plants showed a better response. Culturing in BTMm resulted in significantly greater shoot and root biomass than culturing in MS. Moreover, this response was higher in young explants when IBA was used as growth regulator. This paper reports a simple and effective method to micropropagate P. chilensis from young and adult plants. PMID:12058379

  1. ExoMol molecular line lists - XIII. The spectrum of CaO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yurchenko, Sergei N.; Blissett, Audra; Asari, Usama; Vasilios, Marcus; Hill, Christian; Tennyson, Jonathan

    2016-03-01

    An accurate line list for calcium oxide is presented covering transitions between all bound ro-vibronic levels from the five lowest electronic states X 1Σ+, A' 1Π, A 1Σ+, a 3Π, and b 3Σ+. The ro-vibronic energies and corresponding wavefunctions were obtained by solving the fully coupled Schrödinger equation. Ab initio potential energy, spin-orbit, and electronic angular momentum curves were refined by fitting to the experimental frequencies and experimentally derived energies available in the literature. Using our refined model we could (1) reassign the vibronic states for a large portion of the experimentally derived energies (van Groenendael A., Tudorie M., Focsa C., Pinchemel B., Bernath P. F., 2005, J. Mol. Spectrosc., 234, 255), (2) extended this list of energies to J = 61-118 and (3) suggest a new description of the resonances from the A 1Σ+-X 1Σ+ system. We used high level ab initio electric dipole moments reported previously (Khalil H., Brites V., Le Quere F., Leonard C., 2011, Chem. Phys., 386, 50) to compute the Einstein A coefficients. Our work is the first fully coupled description of this system. Our line list is the most complete catalogue of spectroscopic transitions available for 40Ca16O and is applicable for temperatures up to at least 5000 K. CaO has yet to be observed astronomically but its transitions are characterized by being particularly strong which should facilitate its detection. The CaO line list is made available in an electronic form as supplementary data to this article and at www.exomol.com.

  2. Dietary fibre concentrate from Chilean algarrobo (Prosopis chilensis (Mol.) Stuntz) pods: purification and characterization.

    PubMed

    Estévez, Ana María; Figuerola, Fernando; Bernuy, Enrique; Sáenz, Carmen

    2014-12-01

    Prosopis species are generally fast-growing, drought-resistant, nitrogen-fixing trees or shrubs. Fruits of Prosopis spp are indehiscent pods, where pericarp is formed by the epicarp, light brown in colour, and fibrous nature; the mesocarp known as pulp, which is rich in sugars; and the endocarp. The aim of this work was to obtain a fibre concentrate from the pods of Prosopis chilensis Mol. (Stuntz) and to determine the chemical, physical, and technological properties of the pod flour (PF) and of a fibre concentrate or pod purified flour (PPF). Acetone, ethanol, and water at different conditions of time and temperature were used in the purification process. PF showed 53.7 g/100 g of total sugar content, 4.2 g/100 g of reducing sugar content, 41.8 g/100 g of total dietary fibre, 35.8 g/100 g of insoluble fibre, and 6.0 g/100 g of soluble fibre content. The PPF has a total sugar content of 3.8 g/100 g, reducing sugar content of 2.2 g/100 g, total dietary fibre content of 80.8 g/100 g, insoluble fibre content of 75.1 g/100 g, and soluble fibre content of 5.7 g/100 g. The scanning electron microscopy analysis showed the existence of voids in the structure of PPF flour, which reveals the efficiency of the purification process with a high decrease in the total sugar content. PMID:24003035

  3. International comparison CCQM-K82: methane in air at ambient level (1800 to 2200) nmol/mol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, Edgar; Viallon, Joële; Choteau, Tiphaine; Moussay, Philippe; Wielgosz, Robert I.; Kang, Namgoo; Kim, Byung Moon; Zalewska, Ewelina; H van der Veen, Adriaan (A. M.; Konopelko, Leonid; Wu, Hai; Han, Qiao; Rhoderick, George; Guenther, Franklin R.; Watanabe, Takuro; Shimosaka, Takuya; Kato, Kenji; Hall, Brad; Brewer, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The CCQM-K82 comparison was designed to evaluate the degrees of equivalence of NMI capabilities for methane in air primary reference mixtures in the range (1800 to 2200) nmol/mol. The balance gas for the standards was either scrubbed dry real air or synthetic air. CH4 in air standards have been produced by a number of laboratories for many years, with more recent developments focused on standards at atmospheric measurement concentrations and aimed at obtaining agreement between independently produced standards. A comparison of the differences in primary gas standards for methane in air was previously performed in 2003 (CCQM-P41 Greenhouse gases. 1 and 2) with a standard deviation of results around the reference value of 30 nmol/mol and 10 nmol/mol for a more limited set of standards. This can be contrasted with the level of agreement required from field laboratories routinely measuring atmospheric methane levels, set by Data Quality Objectives (DQO) established by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) to reflect the scientifically desirable level of compatibility for CH4 measurements at the global scale, currently set at 2 nmol/mol (1 sigma). The measurements of this key comparison took place from May 2012 to June 2012. Eight laboratories took part in this comparison coordinated by the BIPM and NIST. Key comparison reference values were calculated based on Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy Measurements performed at the BIPM, combined with participant's gravimetric values to identify a consistent set of standards. Regression analysis allowed predicted values for each standard to be calculated which acted as the KCRVs. In this comparison reported standard uncertainties by participants ranged from 0.50 nmol/mol to 2.4 nmol/mol and the uncertainties of individual KCRVs ranged from 0.68 nmol/mol to 0.71 nmol/mol. The standard deviation of the ensemble of standards about the KCRV value was 1.70 nmol/mol. This represents a greater than tenfold improvement in the level

  4. Phase transformation and wear studies of plasma sprayed yttria stabilized zirconia coatings containing various mol% of yttria

    SciTech Connect

    Aruna, S.T. Balaji, N.; Rajam, K.S.

    2011-07-15

    Plasma sprayable grade zirconia powders doped with various mol% of yttria (0, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8 and 12 mol%) were synthesized by a chemical co-precipitation route. The coprecipitation conditions were adjusted such that the powders possessed good flowability in the as calcined condition and thus avoiding the agglomeration step like spray drying. Identical plasma spray parameters were used for plasma spraying all the powders on stainless steel plates. The powders and plasma sprayed coatings were characterized by X-ray diffractometry, Scanning Electron Microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Zirconia powders are susceptible to phase transformations when subjected to very high temperatures during plasma spraying and XRD is insensitive to the presence of some non crystalline phases and hence Raman spectroscopy was used as an important tool. The microstructure of the plasma sprayed coatings showed a bimodal distribution containing fully melted and unmelted zones. The microhardness and wear resistance of the plasma sprayed coatings were determined. Among the plasma sprayed coatings, 3 mol% yttria stabilized zirconia coating containing pure tetragonal zirconia showed the highest wear resistance. - Research Highlights: {yields} Preparation plasma sprayable YSZ powders without any agglomeration process and plasma spraying {yields} Phase transformation studies of plasma sprayed YSZ coatings by XRD and Raman spectroscopy {yields} Microstructure of the plasma sprayed coatings exhibited bimodal distribution {yields} Plasma sprayed 3 mol% YSZ coating exhibited the highest wear resistance {yields} Higher wear resistance is due to the higher fracture toughness of tetragonal 3 mol% YSZ phase.

  5. High temperature embrittlement caused by traces of calcium or strontium in an Al-5.5 mol% Mg alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Horikawa, Keitaro; Kuramoto, Shigeru; Kanno, Motohiro

    1998-09-04

    Al-5--10mol%Mg alloys are now being developed for automotive parts since they have good formability. However, an alloy containing magnesium of more than 5mol% has poor hot rolling characteristics. It has been reported that an Al-5.5mol%Mg alloy shows high temperature embrittlement (HTE) based on intergranular fracture at around 300 C depending on strain rate. This embrittlement is considered to be closely related to the unfavorable hot rolling characteristics of the Al-Mg alloy. One of the present authors reported recently that this embrittlement is caused by a trace amount of sodium of only of only 0.6mass ppm (0.7mol ppm) in a coarse-grained Al-5.5mol%Mg alloy produced using high purity ingots. Although numerous studies have been made on the effect of sodium, little is known about the effect of alkali and alkaline-earth elements other than sodium. However, unusual impurities may inevitably creep in the recycling process in future. For example, it is reported that the Al-Mg alloy is contaminated by calcium through the ceramic tube filter using during melting and casting, and strontium is used commercially as an additional element in Al-Si alloys. Hence, aluminum alloys made using recycled stock may be contaminated at least by calcium and strontium. The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of traces of calcium or strontium on hot ductility of an Al-5.5mol%Mg alloy.

  6. 43 CFR 10.13 - Future applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... REPATRIATION REGULATIONS Human Remains, Funerary Objects, Sacred Objects, or Objects of Cultural Patrimony in... human remains, funerary objects, sacred objects or objects of cultural patrimony, must: (i) Within 6...). (2) Additional pieces or fragments of previously repatriated human remains, funerary objects,...

  7. 44 CFR 10.13 - Emergencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Council on Environmental Quality. In no event shall any Regional Administrator delay an emergency action necessary to the preservation of human life for the purpose of complying with the provision of...

  8. New efficient ligand for sub-mol % copper-catalyzed C-N cross-coupling reactions running under air.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Per-Fredrik; Astvik, Peter; Norrby, Per-Ola

    2012-01-01

    A new efficient ligand, N,N''-dimethyldiethylene triamine (DMDETA), has been synthesized and evaluated for sub-mol % copper-catalyzed C-N cross-coupling reactions. The efficiency of the ligand was determined by kinetic methods. DMDETA proved to display efficiency similar to DMEDA and, in addition, the resulting catalyst was tolerant to air. PMID:23209530

  9. New efficient ligand for sub-mol % copper-catalyzed C–N cross-coupling reactions running under air

    PubMed Central

    Larsson, Per-Fredrik; Astvik, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Summary A new efficient ligand, N,N’’-dimethyldiethylene triamine (DMDETA), has been synthesized and evaluated for sub-mol % copper-catalyzed C–N cross-coupling reactions. The efficiency of the ligand was determined by kinetic methods. DMDETA proved to display efficiency similar to DMEDA and, in addition, the resulting catalyst was tolerant to air. PMID:23209530

  10. [The nuclear matrix proteins (mol. mass 38 and 50 kDa) are transported by chromosomes in mitosis].

    PubMed

    Murasheva, M I; Chentsov, Iu S

    2010-01-01

    It was shown by immunofluorescence method that serum M68 and serum K43 from patients with autoimmune disease stain interphase nuclei and periphery of mitotic chromosomes of pig kidney cells. Western blotting reveals the polypeptide with mol. mass of 50 kDa in serum M68, and the polypeptide with mol. mass of 38 kDa in serum K43. In the nuclear protein matrix, the antibodies to protein with mol. mass of 38 kDa stained only nucleolar periphery, while the antibodies to the protein with mol. mass of 50 kDa stained both the nucleolar periphery and all the interphase nucleus. It shows that among all components of nuclear protein matrix (lamina, internuclear network, residual nucleoli) only nucleolar periphery contains the 38 kDa protein, while the 50 kDa protein is a part of residual nucleolar periphery and takes part in nuclear protein network formation. In the interphase cells, both proteins were in situ localized in the nuclei, but one of them with mol. mass of 50 kDa was in the form of small clearly outlined granules, while the other (38 kDa) was in the form of small bright granules against the background of diffusely stained nuclei. Both proteins were also revealed as continuous ring around nucleolar periphery. During all mitotic stages, the 50 kDa protein was seen on the chromosomal periphery as a cover, and the 38 kDa protein formed separate fragments and granules around them. After nuclear and chromosome decondensation induced by hypotonic treatment, both antibodies stain interphase nuclei in diffuse manner, but in mitotic cells they stained the surface of the swollen chromosomes. The polypeptide with mol. mass of 50 kDa maintained strong connection with chromosome periphery both in norm and under condition of decondensation induced by hypotonic treatment and at subsequent recondensation in isotonic medium. In contrast, the protein with mol. mass of 38 kDa partially lost the contact with a chromosome during recondensation appearing also in the form of granules in

  11. mol2chemfig, a tool for rendering chemical structures from molfile or SMILES format to LATE X code

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Displaying chemical structures in LATE X documents currently requires either hand-coding of the structures using one of several LATE X packages, or the inclusion of finished graphics files produced with an external drawing program. There is currently no software tool available to render the large number of structures available in molfile or SMILES format to LATE X source code. We here present mol2chemfig, a Python program that provides this capability. Its output is written in the syntax defined by the chemfig TE X package, which allows for the flexible and concise description of chemical structures and reaction mechanisms. The program is freely available both through a web interface and for local installation on the user’s computer. The code and accompanying documentation can be found at http://chimpsky.uwaterloo.ca/mol2chemfig. PMID:23031664

  12. Using a PyMOL Activity to Reinforce the Connection between Genotype and Phenotype in an Undergraduate Genetics Laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Simmons, Alexandra D.; Nguyen, Thao K. T.; Follis, Jack L.; Ribes-Zamora, Albert

    2014-01-01

    With the purpose of developing an activity that would help clarify genetic concepts related to the connection between genotype and phenotype and the nature of mutations, we designed a three hour teaching module using the PyMol software. The activity starts with two pre-laboratory assignments, one to learn how to use PyMol and the other to read about a specific protein or protein family. During the laboratory students are given instructions where and how to find additional information on a specific disease and its causal mutations in order to prepare a 10-minute, in-class presentation. Using a post activity, anonymous quiz, we found a statistically significant different grade distribution in students that participated in the PyMol activity relative to a control group. We also found a significant improvement in the student’s comprehension when answering questions regarding the nature of mutations and protein structure. This demonstrates the utility of this simulation activity as a vehicle to improve student’s understanding of specific key genetic concepts. PMID:25461967

  13. Preparation of TiO2 Nanocrystallite Powders Coated with 9 mol% ZnO for Cosmetic Applications in Sunscreens

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Horng-Huey; Chen, Hui-Ting; Yen, Feng-Ling; Lu, Wan-Chen; Kuo, Chih-Wei; Wang, Moo-Chin

    2012-01-01

    The preparation of TiO2 nanocrystallite powders coated with and without 9 mol% ZnO has been studied for cosmetic applications in sunscreens by a co-precipitation process using TiCl4 and Zn(NO3)2·6H2O as starting materials. XRD results show that the phases of anatase TiO2 and rutile TiO2 coexist for precursor powders without added ZnO (T-0Z) and calcined at 523 to 973 K for 2 h. When the T-0Z precursor powders are calcined at 1273 K for 2 h, only the rutile TiO2 appears. In addition, when the TiO2 precursor powders contain 9 mol% ZnO (T-9Z) are calcined at 873 to 973 K for 2 h, the crystallized samples are composed of the major phase of rutile TiO2 and the minor phases of anatase TiO2 and Zn2Ti3O8. The analyses of UV/VIS/NIR spectra reveal that the absorption of the T-9Z precursor powders after being calcined has a red-shift effect in the UV range with increasing calcination temperature. Therefore, the TiO2 nanocrystallite powders coated with 9 mol% ZnO can be used as the attenuate agent in the UV-A region for cosmetic applications in sunscreens. PMID:22408415

  14. PyMod: sequence similarity searches, multiple sequence-structure alignments, and homology modeling within PyMOL

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In recent years, an exponential growing number of tools for protein sequence analysis, editing and modeling tasks have been put at the disposal of the scientific community. Despite the vast majority of these tools have been released as open source software, their deep learning curves often discourages even the most experienced users. Results A simple and intuitive interface, PyMod, between the popular molecular graphics system PyMOL and several other tools (i.e., [PSI-]BLAST, ClustalW, MUSCLE, CEalign and MODELLER) has been developed, to show how the integration of the individual steps required for homology modeling and sequence/structure analysis within the PyMOL framework can hugely simplify these tasks. Sequence similarity searches, multiple sequence and structural alignments generation and editing, and even the possibility to merge sequence and structure alignments have been implemented in PyMod, with the aim of creating a simple, yet powerful tool for sequence and structure analysis and building of homology models. Conclusions PyMod represents a new tool for the analysis and the manipulation of protein sequences and structures. The ease of use, integration with many sequence retrieving and alignment tools and PyMOL, one of the most used molecular visualization system, are the key features of this tool. Source code, installation instructions, video tutorials and a user's guide are freely available at the URL http://schubert.bio.uniroma1.it/pymod/index.html PMID:22536966

  15. Efectos de la irradiación iónica en hielos de moléculas carbonadas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satorre, M. A.

    En Astrofísica podemos encontrar numerosos contextos en los cuales se observan moléculas en estado sólido que, en condiciones estándar de presión y temperatura, se encontrarían como gases o líquidos. Dichas moléculas se denominan hielos y han sido observadas en nubes densas del medio interestelar, en envolturas circumestelares, en satélites del Sistema Solar, en cometas, etc. Los hielos pueden ser alterados en su composición química debido a diversos factores como por ejemplo variaciones de temperatura o aportes energéticos por parte de la irradiación, ya sea tanto de fotones ultravioleta como de iones. Dependiendo del escenario astrofísico que analicemos, unos factores cobran más importancia que otros. Los experimentos de laboratorio muestran el efecto que produce sobre la composición de los hielos la irradiación iónica, en particular sobre los que contenían alguna molécula con átomos de carbono. Dicha composición se analiza con espectroscopía IR en el rango de 2 a ˜ 25μ m. La aplicabilidad de los resultados de los experimentos es distinta dependiendo de la composición química inicial de los hielos, del tipo de ion utilizado y de la dosis total de irradiación. Existen efectos generales de la irradiación sobre la materia en los experimentos de relevancia astrofísica como son: - la formación de nuevas moléculas, que pueden incluir o no el ion incidente; - la progresiva pérdida de hidrógeno (carbonización) cuando irradiamos muestras que originalmente contienen una determinada relación carbono/hidrógeno; - la variación de la temperatura de sublimación que presentan algunos hielos. Esto puede suceder tanto en hielos que estaban presentes antes de la irradiación como en hielos formados por ésta. Se presentará el papel del ion en la formación de nuevas moléculas a partir de las que originalmente se encontraban en el hielo. Al penetrar en él, el ion provoca distintos procesos como rotura de enlaces y excitaciones electr

  16. 3d-modelling workflows for trans-nationally shared geological models - first approaches from the project GeoMol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rupf, Isabel

    2013-04-01

    To meet the EU's ambitious targets for carbon emission reduction, renewable energy production has to be strongly upgraded and made more efficient for grid energy storage. Alpine Foreland Basins feature a unique geological inventory which can contribute substantially to tackle these challenges. They offer a geothermal potential and storage capacity for compressed air, as well as space for underground storage of CO2. Exploiting these natural subsurface resources will strongly compete with existing oil and gas claims and groundwater issues. The project GeoMol will provide consistent 3-dimensional subsurface information about the Alpine Foreland Basins based on a holistic and transnational approach. Core of the project GeoMol is a geological framework model for the entire Northern Molasse Basin, complemented by five detailed models in pilot areas, also in the Po Basin, which are dedicated to specific questions of subsurface use. The models will consist of up to 13 litho-stratigraphic horizons ranging from the Cenozoic basin fill down to Mesozoic and late Paleozoic sedimentary rocks and the crystalline basement. More than 5000 wells and 28 000 km seismic lines serve as input data sets for the geological subsurface model. The data have multiple sources and various acquisition dates, and their interpretations have gone through several paradigm changes. Therefore, it is necessary to standardize the data with regards to technical parameters and content prior to further analysis (cf. Capar et al. 2013, EGU2013-5349). Each partner will build its own geological subsurface model with different software solutions for seismic interpretation and 3d-modelling. Therefore, 3d-modelling follows different software- and partner-specific workflows. One of the main challenges of the project is to ensure a seamlessly fitting framework model. It is necessary to define several milestones for cross border checks during the whole modelling process. Hence, the main input data set of the

  17. Classification of a Haemophilus influenzae ABC Transporter HI1470/71 through Its Cognate Molybdate Periplasmic Binding Protein, MolA

    SciTech Connect

    Tirado-Lee, Leidamarie; Lee, Allen; Rees, Douglas C.; Pinkett, Heather W.

    2014-10-02

    molA (HI1472) from H. influenzae encodes a periplasmic binding protein (PBP) that delivers substrate to the ABC transporter MolB{sub 2}C{sub 2} (formerly HI1470/71). The structures of MolA with molybdate and tungstate in the binding pocket were solved to 1.6 and 1.7 {angstrom} resolution, respectively. The MolA-binding protein binds molybdate and tungstate, but not other oxyanions such as sulfate and phosphate, making it the first class III molybdate-binding protein structurally solved. The {approx}100 {mu}M binding affinity for tungstate and molybdate is significantly lower than observed for the class II ModA molybdate-binding proteins that have nanomolar to low micromolar affinity for molybdate. The presence of two molybdate loci in H. influenzae suggests multiple transport systems for one substrate, with molABC constituting a low-affinity molybdate locus.

  18. Classification of a Haemophilus influenzae ABC transporter HI1470/71 through its cognate molybdate periplasmic binding protein, MolA.

    PubMed

    Tirado-Lee, Leidamarie; Lee, Allen; Rees, Douglas C; Pinkett, Heather W

    2011-11-01

    molA (HI1472) from H. influenzae encodes a periplasmic binding protein (PBP) that delivers substrate to the ABC transporter MolB(2)C(2) (formerly HI1470/71). The structures of MolA with molybdate and tungstate in the binding pocket were solved to 1.6 and 1.7 Å resolution, respectively. The MolA-binding protein binds molybdate and tungstate, but not other oxyanions such as sulfate and phosphate, making it the first class III molybdate-binding protein structurally solved. The ∼100 μM binding affinity for tungstate and molybdate is significantly lower than observed for the class II ModA molybdate-binding proteins that have nanomolar to low micromolar affinity for molybdate. The presence of two molybdate loci in H. influenzae suggests multiple transport systems for one substrate, with molABC constituting a low-affinity molybdate locus. PMID:22078568

  19. fac-Aqua­(2-carboxy­ethyl-κ2 C,O)trichlorido­tin(IV)–1,4,7,10,13-penta­oxacyclo­penta­deca­ne–water (1/1/2)

    PubMed Central

    Tiekink, Edward R. T.; Wardell, James L.; Wardell, Solange M. S. V.

    2010-01-01

    In the title compound, [Sn(C3H5O2)Cl3(H2O)]·C10H20O5·2H2O, the SnIV atom is octa­hedrally coordinated within a fac-CO2Cl3 donor set, arising from the C,O-bidentate carboxy­ethyl ligand, a water mol­ecule and three chloride ligands. In the crystal, supra­molecular chains linked by O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds propagate along the c axis These chains are connected into layers in the ac plane via C—H⋯O inter­actions. PMID:21578998

  20. Noise properties of an optical frequency comb from a SESAM-mode-locked 1.5-μm solid-state laser stabilized to the 10-13 level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schilt, S.; Dolgovskiy, V.; Bucalovic, N.; Schori, C.; Stumpf, M. C.; Di Domenico, G.; Pekarek, S.; Oehler, A. E. H.; Südmeyer, T.; Keller, U.; Thomann, P.

    2012-11-01

    We present a detailed investigation of the noise properties of an optical frequency comb generated from a femtosecond diode-pumped solid-state laser operating in the 1.5-μm spectral region. The stabilization of the passively mode-locked Er:Yb:glass laser oscillator, referred to as ERGO, is achieved using pump power modulation for the control of the carrier envelope offset (CEO) frequency and by adjusting the laser cavity length for the control of the repetition rate. The stability and the noise of the ERGO comb are characterized in free-running and in phase-locked operation by measuring the noise properties of the CEO, of the repetition rate, and of a comb line at 1558 nm. The comb line is analyzed from the heterodyne beat signal with a cavity-stabilized ultra-narrow-linewidth laser using a frequency discriminator. Two different schemes to stabilize the comb to a radio-frequency (RF) reference are compared. The comb properties (phase noise, frequency stability) are limited in both cases by the RF oscillator used to stabilize the repetition rate, while the contribution of the CEO is negligible at all Fourier frequencies, as a consequence of the low-noise characteristics of the CEO-beat. A linewidth of ≈150 kHz and a fractional frequency instability of 4.2×10-13 at 1 s are obtained for an optical comb line at 1558 nm. Improved performance is obtained by stabilizing the comb to an optical reference, which is a cavity-stabilized ultra-narrow linewidth laser at 1558 nm. The fractional frequency stability of 8×10-14 at 1 s, measured in preliminary experiments, is limited by the reference oscillator used in the frequency comparison.

  1. Synthesis, EPR and luminescent properties of YAlO3:Fe3+ (0.1-0.9 mol%) nanopowders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Premkumar, H. B.; Nagabhushana, H.; Sharma, S. C.; Daruka Prasad, B.; Nagabhushana, B. M.; Rao, J. L.; Chakradhar, R. P. S.

    A simple and inexpensive combustion method was used to prepare Fe3+ doped YAlO3 perovskite within few minutes at low temperature (400 ± 10 °C). This might be useful in lowering the cost of the material. The final products were well characterized by various spectroscopic techniques such as PXRD, SEM, TEM, FTIR and UV-Visible. The average crystallite size was estimated from the broadening of the PXRD peaks and found to be in the range 45-90 nm, the results were in good agreement with the W-H plots and TEM. The crystallites show dumbbell shape, agglomerated particles with different size. The TL glow curves of 1-5 kGy γ-irradiated YAlO3:Fe3+ (0.1 mol%) nanopowder warmed at a heating rate of 3 °C s-1 records a single glow peak at ∼260 °C. The kinetic parameters namely activation energy (E), order of kinetics (b) and frequency factor (s) were determined at different gamma doses using the Chens glow peak shape method and the results were discussed in detail. The photoluminescence spectra for Fe3+ (0.1-0.9 mol%) doped YAlO3 records the lower energy band at 720 nm (4T1 (4G) → 6A1 (6S)) and the intermediate band located at 620 nm (4T2 (4G) → 6A1 (6S)) with the excitation of 378 nm. The higher energy band located at 514 nm was associated to 4E + 4A1 (4G) → 6A1 (6S) transition. The resonance signals at g values 7.6, 4.97, 4.10, 2.94, 2.33 and 1.98 were observed in EPR spectra of Fe3+ (0.1-0.9 mol%) doped YAlO3 recorded at room temperature. The g values indicate that the iron ions were in trivalent state and distorted octahedral site symmetry was observed.

  2. Synthesis, EPR and luminescent properties of YAlO3:Fe3+ (0.1-0.9mol%) nanopowders.

    PubMed

    Premkumar, H B; Nagabhushana, H; Sharma, S C; Daruka Prasad, B; Nagabhushana, B M; Rao, J L; Chakradhar, R P S

    2014-05-21

    A simple and inexpensive combustion method was used to prepare Fe(3+) doped YAlO3 perovskite within few minutes at low temperature (400±10°C). This might be useful in lowering the cost of the material. The final products were well characterized by various spectroscopic techniques such as PXRD, SEM, TEM, FTIR and UV-Visible. The average crystallite size was estimated from the broadening of the PXRD peaks and found to be in the range 45-90nm, the results were in good agreement with the W-H plots and TEM. The crystallites show dumbbell shape, agglomerated particles with different size. The TL glow curves of 1-5kGy γ-irradiated YAlO3:Fe(3+) (0.1mol%) nanopowder warmed at a heating rate of 3°Cs(-1) records a single glow peak at ∼260°C. The kinetic parameters namely activation energy (E), order of kinetics (b) and frequency factor (s) were determined at different gamma doses using the Chens glow peak shape method and the results were discussed in detail. The photoluminescence spectra for Fe(3+) (0.1-0.9mol%) doped YAlO3 records the lower energy band at 720nm ((4)T1 (4G)→(6)A1 (6S)) and the intermediate band located at 620nm ((4)T2 ((4)G)→(6)A1 (6S)) with the excitation of 378nm. The higher energy band located at 514nm was associated to (4)E+(4)A1 ((4)G)→(6)A1 (6S) transition. The resonance signals at g values 7.6, 4.97, 4.10, 2.94, 2.33 and 1.98 were observed in EPR spectra of Fe(3+) (0.1-0.9mol%) doped YAlO3 recorded at room temperature. The g values indicate that the iron ions were in trivalent state and distorted octahedral site symmetry was observed. PMID:24607471

  3. Excitação e fotoabsorção de moléculas interestelares no ultra violeta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, A. M. F.; Boechat-Roberty, H. M.; Souza, G. B.; Turci, C. C.

    2003-08-01

    O estudo dos processos de excitação, fotoabsorção e ionização molecular nas nuvens interestelar, permite a análise dos processos químicos, como a formação e destruição de moléculas, até mesmo daquelas que dão origem à vida. Acredita-se que as moléculas como CS2, NH3, CO2 e N2O estão presentes nas nuvens onde são formadas as estrelas e seus sistemas planetários. Estas moléculas são congeladas na superfície de objetos densos, como aqueles encontrados na Nuvem de Oort do nosso Sistema Solar. Quando esses objetos (cometas) desprendem-se dessa região, aproximam-se do Sol, sofrem a interação da radição Ultra Violeta (UV), passam à fase gasosa e são bombardeados por íons e elétrons presentes nos ventos solares. Obtivemos os espectros de fotoabsorção do CS2, NH3 e N2O na faixa do UV, convertendo espectros de Perda de Energia de Elétrons, medidos no menor ângulo de espalhamento e na energia de impacto de 1000 eV. Destes espectros determinamos os valores de força de oscilador (f) e de seção de choque absolutas na faixa de 500 a 2000 Å. Para tal, estudamos e comparamos dois diferentes métodos de conversão. Neste trabalho também geramos muitos dados moleculares como, valores absolutos de seção de choque elástica em função do ângulo de espalhamento e a distribuição de força do oscilador generalizada (df/dE) em função da energia de excitação para diversos ângulos de espalhamento. Comparando nossos espectros de fotoabsorção com o espectro da atmosfera de Júpiter, obtido pelo Telescópio Espacial Hubble, logo após o impacto do cometa Shoemaker-Levy 9, confirmamos a presença do CS2 e da amônia.

  4. Spherically shaped active transducer based on proton-irradiated vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene 70/30 mol % copolymer

    SciTech Connect

    Lau, S.T.; Chan, H.L.W.; Choy, C.L.; Cheung, W.Y.; Wong, S.P.

    2006-05-15

    Spherically shaped active transducers using proton-irradiated vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene 70/30 mol % copolymer films as the active elements are described. The copolymer films prepared by hot compression molding were irradiated with a high energy proton over a broad dose range (20-250 Mrad). The electrostrictive and piezoelectric responses of the copolymer have been characterized before subsequent transducer fabrication. The performances of the focused transducers constructed with a 4 mm aperture size and epoxy backing were evaluated under dc bias voltages. The transducers with focal lengths of 17.4-19.0 mm and a center frequency of 19 MHz display a broad bandwidth up to 94%. Besides, the transmitting output of the transducers increases with the dc bias voltage. For the copolymer active element irradiated at a proton dose of 107 Mrad, the transducer shows the highest transmitting voltage response of 1.34 kPa/V.

  5. Adhesive evaluation of thin films of LARC-TPI and LARC-TPI with 5 mol % ODA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Progar, D. J.

    1986-01-01

    A commercially available LARC-TPI film and an experimentally prepared film of LARC-TPI with 5 mol % of 4,4'-oxydianiline (ODA), designated as LARC-TPI/ODA in the report, supplied by Mitsui Toatsu Chemicals, Incorporated (MTCI), Japan, were evaluated as thermoplastic adhesive films for bonding Ti-6Al-4V. The LARC-TPI/ODA had been shown by MTCI to possess more flow than thermoplastic LARC-TPI and was, therefore, evaluated and compared to the LARC-TPI. Lap shear strength was used to evaluate the materials as adhesives. They were characterized after fracture by determining the glass transition temperature, Tg. The mode of failure was also reported. Thermal exposure at 204C for 500 and 1000 hrs and a 72-hour water-boil were conducted on lap shear specimens prepared with the two adhesive films. Lap shear tests were conducted at RT, 177C, 204C, and 232C before and after exposures.

  6. Combustion synthesis of 5 and 10 mol% YO 1.5 doped ThO 2 powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purohit, R. D.; Saha, S.; Tyagi, A. K.

    2003-11-01

    Nanocrystalline 5 and 10 mol% YO 1.5 doped ThO 2 powders were prepared by the combustion technique using citric acid as a fuel and nitrates as oxidants. The auto-ignition of the fuel-deficient precursors (prepared by thermal dehydration of the aqueous solutions containing metal nitrates and citric acid in required molar ratio) directly resulted in the well crystalline powders of the desired solid solutions along with traces of carbonaceous material. The as-prepared and calcined powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), high-temperature XRD and by their sinterability. The YO 1.5 doped ThO 2 powders when cold-pressed and sintered at 1300 °C for 2 h resulted in ⩾95% of their theoretical densities with nanograin microstructure.

  7. Détection et exaltation de la luminescence de molécules biologiques individuelles en solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etienne, E.; Lenne, P. F.; Rigneault, H.

    2002-06-01

    La Spectroscopie de Corrélation de Fluorescence (FCS) est une technique d'analyse statistique des fluctuations de luminescence produites par des molécules fluorescentes diffusant librement dans un volume de collection de quelque μm^3. Une limitation fondamentale de la technique provient de l'ouverture numérique limitée des systèmes optiques conventionnels qui ne collectent qu'une faible partie des photons émis. Nous présentons des résultats relatifs à l'augmentation du nombre de photons collectés en utilisant le concept du contrôle de l'émission spontanée par des structures photoniques de type miroir diélectrique.

  8. MLP Tools: a PyMOL plugin for using the molecular lipophilicity potential in computer-aided drug design.

    PubMed

    Oberhauser, Nils; Nurisso, Alessandra; Carrupt, Pierre-Alain

    2014-05-01

    The molecular lipophilicity potential (MLP) is a well-established method to calculate and visualize lipophilicity on molecules. We are here introducing a new computational tool named MLP Tools, written in the programming language Python, and conceived as a free plugin for the popular open source molecular viewer PyMOL. The plugin is divided into several sub-programs which allow the visualization of the MLP on molecular surfaces, as well as in three-dimensional space in order to analyze lipophilic properties of binding pockets. The sub-program Log MLP also implements the virtual log P which allows the prediction of the octanol/water partition coefficients on multiple three-dimensional conformations of the same molecule. An implementation on the recently introduced MLP GOLD procedure, improving the GOLD docking performance in hydrophobic pockets, is also part of the plugin. In this article, all functions of the MLP Tools will be described through a few chosen examples. PMID:24777339

  9. Cristallisation, syncristallisation, et alliages moléculaires entre le lorazépam et l'oxazépam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mascherpa-Corral, D.; Mascherpa, G.; Chauvet, A.

    1993-04-01

    Le polymorphisme et pseudopolymorphisme du lorazépam et oxazépam ont été étudiés par analyse thermique, calorimétrie différentielle à balayage et diffraction de rayons X. Deux formes polymorphes du lorazépam et plusieurs mono et hemisolvates ont été isolés à partir de recristallisation dans divers soivants. Aucun polymorphisme ni solvate n'a été mis en évidence avec l'oxazépam. Les paramètres cristallographiques des phases isolées ont été déterminées. A 160 et 203°C, le lorazépam et l'oxazépam perdent respectivement une molécule d'eau pour donner après réarrangement la quinazolinecarboxaldéhyde correspondante. La syncristallisation des deux benzodiazépines dans le benzène conduit à des alliages moléculaires à miscibilité totale à l'état solide dans tout le domaine de concentration entre l'exazépam el la forme α du lorazépam, elle n'est que partielle avec la forme β. Thermal analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, and X-ray diffraction were carried out to study the polymorphism and pseudopolymorphism of lorazepam and oxazepam. Two polymorphic forms of lorazepam and several mono- or hemisolvates were obtained after recrystallization from various solvents. No polymorphic form or solvate has been found for oxazepam. The crystallographic parameters of these new phases were determined. Lorazepam and oxazepam can lose a molecule of water at 160 and 203°C, respectively, and rearrange to quinazolinecarboxaldehyde. Mixed crystals of the two benzodiazepines, after recrystallization from benzene, lead to molecular alloys with complete solid solubility between oxazepam and the α-form of lorazepam over the whole range of composition but only to partial solubility with the β-form of lorazepam.

  10. Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu{sup 3+} (5 mol%) with Ag nanoparticles prepared by citrate precursor

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrari, J.L.; Cebim, M.A.; Pires, A.M.; Couto dos Santos, M.A.

    2010-09-15

    Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu{sup 3+} (5 mol% Eu{sup 3+}) and Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu{sup 3+} (5 mol% Eu{sup 3+}) containing 1 mol% of Ag nanoparticles were prepared by heat treatment of a viscous resin obtained via citrate precursor. TEM and EDS analyses showed that Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu{sup 3+} (5 mol% Eu{sup 3+}) is formed by nanoparticles with an average size of 12 nm, which increases to 30 nm when Ag is present because the effect of metal induced crystallization occurs. Ag nanoparticles with a size of 9 nm dispersed in Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu{sup 3+} (5 mol% Eu{sup 3+}) were obtained and the surface plasmon effect on Ag nanoparticles was observed. The emission around 612 nm assigned to the Eu{sup 3+} ({sup 5}D{sub 0{yields}}{sup 7}F{sub 2}) transition enhanced when the Ag nanoparticles were present in the Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu{sup 3+} luminescent material. - Graphical abstract: The presence of Ag nanoparticles together Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu{sup 3+} 5 mol% phosphor showed to affect directly the optical and crystallinity of the material. Luminescence spectra show directly the effect observed.

  11. Transferability of cucumber microsatellite markers used for phylogenetic analysis and population structure study in bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria (Mol.) Standl.).

    PubMed

    Bhawna; Abdin, M Z; Arya, L; Verma, M

    2015-02-01

    Improved breeding for developing fruit quality in bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria (Mol.) Standl.) necessitates knowledge regarding its genetic diversity. To achieve this, a set of 108 locus-specific SSR markers has been developed in bottle gourd by cross-species transferability from 995 mapped Cucumis sativus SSR markers. During screening, 280 primer pairs amplified in the bottle gourd germplasm, which were further evaluated in a diverse set of 42 lines, resulting in 19 polymorphic, 89 monomorphic, 15 with multiple bands, and the rest 157 showed no or very non-specific amplification. The 19 polymorphic primer pairs produced a total of 54 alleles. Gene diversity, Shannon's information index, and Nei's coefficient of differentiation were calculated suggesting a moderate genetic variation at the species level. A model-based population structure analysis divided these germplasm into two subpopulations. This marker set will be applicable for evaluating the genetic structure for association mapping, DNA fingerprinting, and mounting linkage maps and will be a practical tool set for further genetics. This study provides one of the first quantitative views of population genetic variation in bottle gourd. PMID:25471016

  12. Characterization of Transcriptome Remodeling during Cambium Formation Identifies MOL1 and RUL1 As Opposing Regulators of Secondary Growth

    PubMed Central

    Agusti, Javier; Lichtenberger, Raffael; Schwarz, Martina; Nehlin, Lilian; Greb, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Cell-to-cell communication is crucial for the development of multicellular organisms, especially during the generation of new tissues and organs. Secondary growth—the lateral expansion of plant growth axes—is a highly dynamic process that depends on the activity of the cambium. The cambium is a stem cell–like tissue whose activity is responsible for wood production and, thus, for the establishment of extended shoot and root systems. Attempts to study cambium regulation at the molecular level have been hampered by the limitations of performing genetic analyses in trees and by the difficulty of accessing this tissue in model systems such as Arabidopsis thaliana. Here, we describe the roles of two receptor-like kinases, REDUCED IN LATERAL GROWTH1 (RUL1) and MORE LATERAL GROWTH1 (MOL1), as opposing regulators of cambium activity. Their identification was facilitated by a novel in vitro system in which cambium formation is induced in isolated Arabidopsis stem fragments. By combining this system with laser capture microdissection, we characterized transcriptome remodeling in a tissue- and stage-specific manner and identified series of genes induced during different phases of cambium formation. In summary, we provide a means for investigating cambium regulation in unprecedented depth and present two signaling components that control a process responsible for the accumulation of a large proportion of terrestrial biomass. PMID:21379334

  13. Mediterranean savanna of Acacia caven (Mol) is still a sink of CO2 in spite of severe hydrological drought conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bravo-Martínez, F.; Meza, F. J.

    2012-12-01

    An eddy covariance tower was set up to monitor net ecosystem exchange (NEE) on a mediterranean shrubland of Acacia caven (Mol) in October 2010. This ecosystem (commonly referred as "espinal") is one of the most abundant land covers of Chile's central valley (2.000.000 ha). The last two years (2010-2011) were characterized by the occurrence of a severe drought (rainfall deficit 56%) and a small increase in temperature evaluated using a climatic change index (Peterson, 2005). We also detected a strong reduction in vegetation index during this period (evaluated using MODIS imagery). The historical analysis of the enhanced vegetation index (EVI) and leaf area index (LAI) showed that water status of the acacia savanna were at a minimum during this period (record of 14 years of data). The annual balance of NEE of 2011 was -54gC m-2 y-1, which means that the espinal is a sink of atmospheric CO2 notwithstanding the many stressors on photosynthesis. Monthly analysis of NEE shows the strong dependence of ecosystem fluxes on phenological state. Maximum rates of assimilation are a consequence of grassland activity, whereas secondary picks during the year (late spring and early autumn) are attributed to the semideciduos leaf of A. caven. Climatic conditions during the study season, confirm the tremendous plasticity of Acacia caven and its role as a colonizer of degraded sclerophyll forest because it adaptation to water and thermal stress.

  14. Catechin-based procyanidins from Peumus boldus Mol. aqueous extract inhibit Helicobacter pylori urease and adherence to adenocarcinoma gastric cells.

    PubMed

    Pastene, Edgar; Parada, Víctor; Avello, Marcia; Ruiz, Antonieta; García, Apolinaria

    2014-11-01

    In this work, the anti-Helicobacter pylori effect of an aqueous extract from dried leaves of Peumus boldus Mol. (Monimiaceae) was evaluated. This extract displayed high inhibitory activity against H. pylori urease. Therefore, in order to clarify the type of substances responsible for such effect, a bioassay-guided fractionation strategy was carried out. The active compounds in the fractions were characterized through different chromatographic methods (RP-HPLC; HILIC-HPLC). The fraction named F5 (mDP = 7.8) from aqueous extract was the most active against H. pylori urease with an IC50  = 15.9 µg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/mL. HPLC analysis evidenced that F5 was composed mainly by catechin-derived proanthocyanidins (LC-MS and phloroglucinolysis). The anti-adherent effect of boldo was assessed by co-culture of H. pylori and AGS cells. Both the aqueous extract and F5 showed an anti-adherent effect in a concentration-dependent manner. An 89.3% of inhibition was reached at 2.0 mg GAE/mL of boldo extract. In conjunction, our results suggest that boldo extract has a potent anti-urease activity and anti-adherent effect against H. pylori, properties directly linked with the presence of catechin-derived proanthocyanidins. PMID:24853276

  15. Effect of heat treatment on deformation and mechanical properties of 8 mol% yttria-stabilized zirconia by Berkovich nanoindentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, W. G.; Luo, J. M.; Dai, C. Y.; Shen, Y. G.

    2015-05-01

    The effect of thermal treatment on the elasto-plastic transition and mechanical properties of air plasma-sprayed 8 mol% Y2O3-stabilized ZrO2 (8YSZ) thermal barrier coatings was studied by nanoindentation test at ultra-low loads with a Berkovich indenter. The area contact function of the indenter was calibrated repeatedly under nano-scales, and the indenter tip radius was estimated under different indentation depths, respectively. Owing to the heterogeneous and porous microstructure, the scatter of all collected experimental data was analyzed by Weibull statistic method. It is interesting to observe that the hardness exhibits an apparent reverse indentation size effect under very small depths. The Young's modulus of 8YSZ varies with ranging from 213 to 246 GPa due to the sintering effect. True hardness of 8YSZ increases from as-received 72.9 GPa to a top value 79.7 GPa under 100 thermal cycles, and then slightly decreases from this value to 75.5 GPa under 175 thermal cycles. The pure elastic and elasto-plastic indentation curves were obtained by adjusting the indentation load magnitude. The elasto-plastic transition and resolved shear stress fields were discussed carefully from the use of energetic models and Hertzian contact theory.

  16. MOL-D: A Collisional Database and Web Service within the Virtual Atomic and Molecular Data Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vujčič, V.; Jevremović, D.; Mihajlov, A. A.; Ignjatović, Lj. M.; Srećković, V. A.; Dimitrijević, M. S.; Malović, M.

    2015-12-01

    MOL-D database is a collection of cross-sections and rate coefficients for specific collisional processes and a web service within the Serbian Virtual Observatory (SerVO) and the Virtual Atomic and Molecular Data Center (VAMDC). This database contains photo-dissociation cross-sections for the individual ro-vibrational states of the diatomic molecular ions and rate coefficients for the atom-Rydberg atom chemi-ionization and inverse electron-ion-atom chemi-recombination processes. At the moment it contains data for photodissociation cross-sections of hydrogen H2+ and helium He2+ molecular ions and the corresponding averaged thermal photodissociation cross-sections. The ro-vibrational energy states and the corresponding dipole matrix elements are provided as well. Hydrogen and helium molecular ion data are important for calculation of solar and stellar atmosphere models and for radiative transport, as well as for kinetics of other astrophysical and laboratory plasma (i.e. early Universe).

  17. A 28,000 mol. wt toxin from Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis induces cation transport in rat muscle cultures.

    PubMed

    Cahan, R; Shainberg, A; Pechatnikov, I; Nitzan, Y

    1995-07-01

    The mechanism by which the Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti) 28,000 mol. wt toxin exerts its effect on mature muscle cultures was examined. The toxin inhibited Na+/K(+)-ATPase activity as revealed by 86Rb influx. A 50% inhibition of Na+/K(+)-ATPase activity was obtained with 0.2 microgram/ml of the toxin. The inhibition was time and dose dependent, and it was reversible with low doses of the toxin (up to 0.2 microgram/ml. A considerable release of 86Rb was obtained by doses greater than 0.2 microgram/ml. The 86Rb release was also time and dose dependent. This effect is probably non-specific, since 45Ca influx is also accelerated by toxin-treated cultures. Pre-incubation of the toxin with phosphotidylserine (PS) antagonized the toxin. It is concluded that the toxin is a hydrophobic protein which interacts with the membrane. In low doses this interaction reduces the activity of the sodium pump and in high doses it causes non-specific permeability of the sarcolemma. PMID:8588218

  18. Détermination assistée par ordinateur de la structure des molécules organiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuzillard, J.-M.

    1998-02-01

    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy offers the unique possibility of accessing proximity relationships between atoms by means of chemical shift correlation experiments. Structure determination of small molecules has become thus much simpler. Computer programs can use directly correlation information for structure analysis. The use and operation mechanism of such a program, LSD (Logic for Structure Determination) are presented. The example compound is gibberellic acid, a natural product. La spectroscopie de Résonance Magnétique Nucléaire offre un moyen unique de déterminer des relations de proximité entre atomes par le biais des expériences de corrélation. L'analyse structurale de petites molécules organiques s'en trouve extrêmement facilitée. Des programmes informatiques peuvent utiliser directement les informations de corrélation pour déduire des structures. Le fonctionnement et l'usage d'un tel programme, LSD (Logic for Structure Determination), sont détaillés sur un exemple, l'acide gibberellique.

  19. Capteur de CO{2} à fibres optiques par absorption moléculaire à 4,3 μm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bendamardji, S.; Alayli, Y.; Huard, S.

    1996-04-01

    This paper describes a remote optical fibre sensor for the carbon dioxide detection by molecular absorption in the near infrared (4.3 μm) corresponding to fundamental mode ν3. To overcome the problem of the strong attenuation signal of optical fibre in the near infrared, we have used the opto-suppling technique which changes the working wavelength from 4.3 μm to 860 nm and permits the use of standard optical fibre 50/125. The simulation of absorption has been obtained by original modelisation of the absorption spectrum and the establishment of the calibration curves takes to the sensor to detect a partial pressures greater than 100 μbar with a minimal error margin of 100 μbar, which is acceptable considering the future use of the device. The sensor has been designed to monitor the CO{2} rate in enriched greenhouses. Cet article décrit un capteur à fibres optiques de gaz carbonique par absorption moléculaire dans l'infrarouge moyen (4,3 μm) correspondant au mode fondamental ν3. La liaison entre le site de mesure et le site de contrôle est assurée par un fibre optique standard 50/125 après une transposition de longueur d'onde de 4,3 μm à 860 nm par opto-alimentation. La simulation de l'absorption a été obtenue par modélisation originale du spectre d'absorption et l'établissement des courbes d'étalonnage prévoit une marge d'erreur minimale de 100 μbar, ce qui est suffisant pour l'application du dispositif à la régulation de taux CO{2} dans les serres agricoles enrichies par de gaz.

  20. The role of 8 mol % yttria stabilized zirconia in the improvement of electrochemical performance of lanthanum manganite composite electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, S.; Jiang, Y.; Zhang, Y.; Yan, J.; Li, W.

    1998-06-01

    In this study, 8 mol % yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) + La{sub 0.8}Sr{sub 0.2}MnO{sub 3} (LSM) composite electrodes with addition of various amounts of YSZ were prepared on YSZ plates by a screen-printing method. The electrodes were then examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and studied by ac impedance, cyclic voltammetry, and potential step as well as a polarization technique. For the oxygen reduction reaction on the pure LSM electrode, the dissociative adsorption of oxygen on the LSM surface and the transfer of oxygen ions from the triple-phase boundary (TPB) to the YSZ electrolyte lattice were found to be two comparable rate-determining steps. The electrochemical resistance of the former step was proportional to the {minus}0.5 power of p{sub O{sub 2}}, with a high activation energy of {approximately}2.0 eV. The electrochemical resistance of the latter step was found to be independent of p{sub O{sub 2}} with a low activation energy of {approximately}1.0 eV. With addition of YSZ to the LSM electrode, the electrochemical activity was improved substantially with much lower electrochemical resistances for both steps. Furthermore, the dissociative adsorption of oxygen became less rate determining on the electrode with more YSZ addition. It was found that the transfer of oxygen ion was the only rate-determining step on the 40% YSZ + LSM electrode. The improvement in the electrochemical performance with addition of YSZ was found mainly due to the spatial enlargement of the TPB area, which increased the electrochemically active sites for the oxygen adsorption and charge-transfer reaction.

  1. ExoMol: Large-scale production of line lists for molecules important for modelling of planetary atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yurchenko, S.; Tennyson, J.

    2013-09-01

    The spectral characterization of astrophysical objects cool enough to form polyatomic molecules (the atmospheres of planets, brown dwarfs, planetary discs etc.) requires a huge amount of fundamental molecular data. With a few exceptions the existing molecular line lists are not sufficiently accurate and complete. The aim of ExoMol [1] is to generate comprehensive line lists for all molecules likely to be observable in exoplanet atmospheres in the foreseeable future (see www.exomol.com for more details). We identified the following 40 species that are important sources of opacity in (exo)planets and brown dwarfs and where there is currently a lack of fundamental data on wavelength and temperature-dependent absorption: • Diatomics: AlO, AlH, BeH, CaH, C2, CrH, FeH, HF, HCl, KCl, MgH, MgO, NaH, NaCl, NiH, O2,SiO, SiH, S2, SH, TiH, TiO, VO, YO • Triatomics: C3, H2S, SO2 • Tetratomics: H2CO, H2CS, HCCH, HOOH, PH3,SO3 • Pentatomics: CH4, HNO3 • Larger molecules: C2H4, C2H6, C3H8, P2H2, P2H4 The production of comprehensive and very large rotation-vibration and rotation-vibration-electronic line lists requires a mixture of first principles quantum mechanical methods and empirical tuning based on laboratory spectroscopic data and makes extensive use of state-of-the-art computing. These and other aspects of molecular line lists, their production and astrophysical applications will be discussed. The contribution will make specific reference to molecules for which line lists have recently been completed or are nearing completion: phosphine, hydrogen sulphide, hydrogen peroxide, methane, formaldehyde, nitric acid as well as to a number of diatomic molecules of astrophysical importance, see Fig. 1.

  2. MASSIVE STAR FORMATION, OUTFLOWS, AND ANOMALOUS H{sub 2} EMISSION IN Mol 121 (IRAS 20188+3928)

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf-Chase, Grace; Arvidsson, Kim; Smutko, Michael; Sherman, Reid

    2013-01-10

    We have discovered 12 new molecular hydrogen emission-line objects (MHOs) in the vicinity of the candidate massive young stellar object Mol 121, in addition to five that were previously known. H{sub 2} 2.12 {mu}m/H{sub 2} 2.25 {mu}m flux ratios indicate another region dominated by fluorescence from a photodissociation region, and one region that displays an anomalously low H{sub 2} 2.12 {mu}m/H{sub 2} 2.25 {mu}m flux ratio (<1) and coincides with a previously reported deeply embedded source (DES). Continuum observations at 3 mm reveal five dense cores; the brightest core is coincident with the DES. The next brightest cores are both associated with centimeter continuum emission. One of these is coincident with the IRAS source; the other lies at the centroid of a compact outflow defined by bipolar MHOs. The brighter of these bipolar MHOs exhibits [Fe II] emission and both MHOs are associated with CH{sub 3}OH maser emission observed at 95 GHz and 44 GHz. Masses and column densities of all five cores are consistent with theoretical predictions for massive star formation. Although it is impossible to associate all MHOs with driving sources in this region, it is evident that there are several outflows along different position angles, and some unambiguous associations can be made. We discuss implications of observed H{sub 2} 2.12 {mu}m/H{sub 2} 2.25 {mu}m and [Fe II] 1.64 {mu}m/H{sub 2} 2.12 {mu}m flux ratios and compare the estimated total H{sub 2} luminosity with the bolometric luminosity of the region. We conclude that the outflows are driven by massive young stellar objects embedded in cores that are likely to be in different evolutionary stages.

  3. EPR Spectroscopy of MolB2C2-A Reveals Mechanism of Transport for a Bacterial Type II Molybdate Importer*♦

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Austin J.; Alvarez, Frances J. D.; Schultz, Kathryn M.; Klug, Candice S.; Davidson, Amy L.; Pinkett, Heather W.

    2013-01-01

    In bacteria, ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are vital for the uptake of nutrients and cofactors. Based on differences in structure and activity, ABC importers are divided into two types. Type I transporters have been well studied and employ a tightly regulated alternating access mechanism. Less is known about Type II importers, but much of what we do know has been observed in studies of the vitamin B12 importer BtuC2D2. MolB2C2 (formally known as HI1470/71) is also a Type II importer, but its substrate, molybdate, is ∼10-fold smaller than vitamin B12. To understand mechanistic differences among Type II importers, we focused our studies on MolBC, for which alternative conformations may be required to transport its relatively small substrate. To investigate the mechanism of MolBC, we employed disulfide cross-linking and EPR spectroscopy. From these studies, we found that nucleotide binding is coupled to a conformational shift at the periplasmic gate. Unlike the larger conformational changes in BtuCD-F, this shift in MolBC-A is akin to unlocking a swinging door: allowing just enough space for molybdate to slip into the cell. The lower cytoplasmic gate, identified in BtuCD-F as “gate I,” remains open throughout the MolBC-A mechanism, and cytoplasmic gate II closes in the presence of nucleotide. Combining our results, we propose a peristaltic mechanism for MolBC-A, which gives new insight in the transport of small substrates by a Type II importer. PMID:23709218

  4. Crystal structure of 16-hy­droxy-4,4,10,13,14-penta­methyl-17-(6-methyl­hept-5-en-2-yl)-4,5,6,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17-dodeca­hydro-1H-cyclo­penta­[a]phenanthren-3(2H)-one

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Jun-Jun; Chen, Pian; Ye, Xiao-Xia

    2015-01-01

    The title compound, C30H48O2, contains a fused four-ring triterpenoid system. In the mol­ecule, the two cyclo­hexane rings adopt a chair conformation and a twist boat conformation, respectively, the central cyclo­hexene ring adopts a half-chair conformation whereas the five membered ring adopts an envelope conformation. In the crystal, O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds between the hy­droxy and carbonyl groups of adjacent mol­ecules link the mol­ecules into supra­molecular chains propagating along the b-axis direction. PMID:26279910

  5. RD-MolPack technology for the constitutive production of self-inactivating lentiviral vectors pseudotyped with the nontoxic RD114-TR envelope

    PubMed Central

    Marin, Virna; Stornaiuolo, Anna; Piovan, Claudia; Corna, Stefano; Bossi, Sergio; Pema, Monika; Giuliani, Erica; Scavullo, Cinzia; Zucchelli, Eleonora; Bordignon, Claudio; Rizzardi, Gian Paolo; Bovolenta, Chiara

    2016-01-01

    To date, gene therapy with transiently derived lentivectors has been very successful to cure rare infant genetic diseases. However, transient manufacturing is unfeasible to treat adult malignancies because large vector lots are required. By contrast, stable manufacturing is the best option for high-incidence diseases since it reduces the production cost, which is the major current limitation to scale up the transient methods. We have previously developed the proprietary RD2-MolPack technology for the stable production of second-generation lentivectors, based on the RD114-TR envelope. Of note, opposite to vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein (VSV-G) envelope, RD114-TR does not need inducible expression thanks to lack of toxicity. Here, we present the construction of RD2- and RD3-MolPack cells for the production of self-inactivating lentivectors expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) as a proof-of-concept of the feasibility and safety of this technology before its later therapeutic exploitation. We report that human T lymphocytes transduced with self-inactivating lentivectors derived from RD3-MolPack cells or with self-inactivating VSV-G pseudotyped lentivectors derived from transient transfection show identical T-cell memory differentiation phenotype and comparable transduction efficiency in all T-cell subsets. RD-MolPack technology represents, therefore, a straightforward tool to simplify and standardize lentivector manufacturing to engineer T-cells for frontline immunotherapy applications. PMID:27222840

  6. RD-MolPack technology for the constitutive production of self-inactivating lentiviral vectors pseudotyped with the nontoxic RD114-TR envelope.

    PubMed

    Marin, Virna; Stornaiuolo, Anna; Piovan, Claudia; Corna, Stefano; Bossi, Sergio; Pema, Monika; Giuliani, Erica; Scavullo, Cinzia; Zucchelli, Eleonora; Bordignon, Claudio; Rizzardi, Gian Paolo; Bovolenta, Chiara

    2016-01-01

    To date, gene therapy with transiently derived lentivectors has been very successful to cure rare infant genetic diseases. However, transient manufacturing is unfeasible to treat adult malignancies because large vector lots are required. By contrast, stable manufacturing is the best option for high-incidence diseases since it reduces the production cost, which is the major current limitation to scale up the transient methods. We have previously developed the proprietary RD2-MolPack technology for the stable production of second-generation lentivectors, based on the RD114-TR envelope. Of note, opposite to vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein (VSV-G) envelope, RD114-TR does not need inducible expression thanks to lack of toxicity. Here, we present the construction of RD2- and RD3-MolPack cells for the production of self-inactivating lentivectors expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) as a proof-of-concept of the feasibility and safety of this technology before its later therapeutic exploitation. We report that human T lymphocytes transduced with self-inactivating lentivectors derived from RD3-MolPack cells or with self-inactivating VSV-G pseudotyped lentivectors derived from transient transfection show identical T-cell memory differentiation phenotype and comparable transduction efficiency in all T-cell subsets. RD-MolPack technology represents, therefore, a straightforward tool to simplify and standardize lentivector manufacturing to engineer T-cells for frontline immunotherapy applications. PMID:27222840

  7. RD2-MolPack-Chim3, a Packaging Cell Line for Stable Production of Lentiviral Vectors for Anti-HIV Gene Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Stornaiuolo, Anna; Piovani, Bianca Maria; Bossi, Sergio; Zucchelli, Eleonora; Corna, Stefano; Salvatori, Francesca; Mavilio, Fulvio; Bordignon, Claudio; Rizzardi, Gian Paolo

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Over the last two decades, several attempts to generate packaging cells for lentiviral vectors (LV) have been made. Despite different technologies, no packaging clone is currently employed in clinical trials. We developed a new strategy for LV stable production based on the HEK-293T progenitor cells; the sequential insertion of the viral genes by integrating vectors; the constitutive expression of the viral components; and the RD114-TR envelope pseudotyping. We generated the intermediate clone PK-7 expressing constitutively gag/pol and rev genes and, by adding tat and rd114-tr genes, the stable packaging cell line RD2-MolPack, which can produce LV carrying any transfer vector (TV). Finally, we obtained the RD2-MolPack-Chim3 producer clone by transducing RD2-MolPack cells with the TV expressing the anti-HIV transgene Chim3. Remarkably, RD114-TR pseudovirions have much higher potency when produced by stable compared with transient technology. Most importantly, comparable transduction efficiency in hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) is obtained with 2-logs less physical particles respect to VSV-G pseudovirions produced by transient transfection. Altogether, RD2-MolPack technology should be considered a valid option for large-scale production of LV to be used in gene therapy protocols employing HSC, resulting in the possibility of downsizing the manufacturing scale by about 10-fold in respect to transient technology. PMID:23767932

  8. The influence of hydrogen sulfide-to-hydrogen partial pressure ratio on the sulfidization of Pd and 70 mol% Pd–Cu membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Iyoha, O.; Enick, R.M.; Killmeyer, R.P.; Morreale, B.

    2007-11-15

    The influence of H2S-to-H2 partial pressure ratio on the sulfidization of Pd and 70 mol% Pd–Cu membrane alloys was studied using various H2Scontaining gas mixtures. The Pd membranes exposed to various H2S mixtures were in very good agreement with the thermodynamic calculations used in this study, resisting sulfidization when exposed to H2S-to-H2 ratios below the equilibrium value predicted for Pd4S formation, and experiencing sulfidization when exposed to ratios above the equilibrium values. The 70 mol% Pd–Cu membranes, however, exhibited deviations from the predicted values, resisting sulfidization at some conditions close to the equilibrium values at which sulfidization was expected, and experiencing sulfidization at some conditions at which resistance was expected. This phenomenon was attributed to deviations of the Pd–Cu alloy from ideality, probably due to Cu segregation at the membrane surface.

  9. The influence of hydrogen sulfide-to-hydrogen partial pressure ratio on the sulfidization of Pd and 70 mol% Pd-Cu membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Iyoha, O.; Enick, R.M.; Killmeyer, R.P.; Morreale, B.D.

    2007-11-15

    The influence of H2S-to-H2 partial pressure ratio on the sulfidization of Pd and 70 mol% Pd–Cu membrane alloys was studied using various H2S-containing gas mixtures. The Pd membranes exposed to various H2S mixtures were in very good agreement with the thermodynamic calculations used in this study, resisting sulfidization when exposed to H2S-to-H2 ratios below the equilibrium value predicted for Pd4S formation, and experiencing sulfidization when exposed to ratios above the equilibrium values. The 70 mol% Pd–Cu membranes, however, exhibited deviations from the predicted values, resisting sulfidization at some conditions close to the equilibrium values at which sulfidization was expected, and experiencing sulfidization at some conditions at which resistance was expected. This phenomenon was attributed to deviations of the Pd–Cu alloy from ideality, probably due to Cu segregation at the membrane surface.

  10. Structural homogeneity of photorefractive LiNbO3 crystals doped with 0.03-4.5 mol % of ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidorov, N. V.; Palatnikov, M. N.; Teplyakova, N. A.; Gabain, A. A.; Efremov, I. N.

    2016-04-01

    Using the electronic spectroscopy method, the laser-conoscopy method, and the Raman light-scattering method, we have studied the structural homogeneity of LiNbO3 crystals doped with 0.03-4.5 mol % of ZnO. We have found that, as the laser radiation power is increased to 90 mW, the conoscopic patterns of crystals show additional distortions, which are attributed to the manifestation of the photorefractive effect. For the LiNbO3 crystal doped with 4.5 mol % of ZnO, in which the photorefractive effect is low, we have revealed a considerable shift (compared to the remaining crystals) of the optical absorption edge toward the shortwavelength range, which indicates a high structural homogeneity of this crystal. We have shown that, in the LiNbO3 crystal doped by 0.05 mol % ZnO, due to the displacement of NbLi and Li□ structural defects by Zn2+ cations, the crystal structure is ordered and, simultaneously, the number of defects with localized electrons decreases.

  11. Managing and delivering of 3D geo data across institutions has a web based solution - intermediate results of the project GeoMol.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gietzel, Jan; Schaeben, Helmut; Gabriel, Paul

    2014-05-01

    The increasing relevance of geological information for policy and economy at transnational level has recently been recognized by the European Commission, who has called for harmonized information related to reserves and resources in the EU Member States. GeoMol's transnational approach responds to that, providing consistent and seamless 3D geological information of the Alpine Foreland Basins based on harmonized data and agreed methodologies. However, until recently no adequate tool existed to ensure full interoperability among the involved GSOs and to distribute the multi-dimensional information of a transnational project facing diverse data policy, data base systems and software solutions. In recent years (open) standards describing 2D spatial data have been developed and implemented in different software systems including production environments for 2D spatial data (like regular 2D-GI-Systems). Easy yet secured access to the data is of upmost importance and thus priority for any spatial data infrastructure. To overcome limitations conditioned by highly sophisticated and platform dependent geo modeling software packages functionalities of a web portals can be utilized. Thus, combining a web portal with a "check-in-check-out" system allows distributed organized editing of data and models but requires standards for the exchange of 3D geological information to ensure interoperability. Another major concern is the management of large models and the ability of 3D tiling into spatially restricted models with refined resolution, especially when creating countrywide models . Using GST ("Geosciences in Space and Time") developed initially at TU Bergakademie Freiberg and continuously extended by the company GiGa infosystems, incorporating these key issues and based on an object-relational data model, it is possible to check out parts or whole models for edits and check in again after modification. GST is the core of GeoMol's web-based collaborative environment designed to

  12. Development of 11-Plex MOL-PCR Assay for the Rapid Screening of Samples for Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Travis A.; Mendez, Heather M.; Ortega, Sandy; Shi, Xiaorong; Marx, David; Bai, Jianfa; Moxley, Rodney A.; Nagaraja, T. G.; Graves, Steven W.; Deshpande, Alina

    2016-01-01

    Strains of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are a serious threat to the health, with approximately half of the STEC related food-borne illnesses attributable to contaminated beef. We developed an assay that was able to screen samples for several important STEC associated serogroups (O26, O45, O103, O104, O111, O121, O145, O157) and three major virulence factors (eae, stx1, stx2) in a rapid and multiplexed format using the Multiplex oligonucleotide ligation-PCR (MOL-PCR) assay chemistry. This assay detected unique STEC DNA signatures and is meant to be used on samples from various sources related to beef production, providing a multiplex and high-throughput complement to the multiplex PCR assays currently in use. Multiplex oligonucleotide ligation-PCR (MOL-PCR) is a nucleic acid-based assay chemistry that relies on flow cytometry/image cytometry and multiplex microsphere arrays for the detection of nucleic acid-based signatures present in target agents. The STEC MOL-PCR assay provided greater than 90% analytical specificity across all sequence markers designed when tested against panels of DNA samples that represent different STEC serogroups and toxin gene profiles. This paper describes the development of the 11-plex assay and the results of its validation. This highly multiplexed, but more importantly dynamic and adaptable screening assay allows inclusion of additional signatures as they are identified in relation to public health. As the impact of STEC associated illness on public health is explored additional information on classification will be needed on single samples; thus, this assay can serve as the backbone for a complex screening system.

  13. Fabrication of short-period poled structures and UV sum-frequency generation in 8 mol % MgO-doped congruent LiTaO3 crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oka, Toshiharu; Suhara, Toshiaki

    2016-04-01

    Heavily (8 mol %) MgO-doped congruent LiTaO3 (MgO:cLT) crystal has wider transparency range and is expected to have higher photorefractive damage resistance than LiNbO3 or non-doped LT crystal. We obtained uniform PP structures with periods of ∼7 and ∼2 µm in MgO:cLT crystal and demonstrated UV sum-frequency generation (SFG) experiments at 355 nm wavelength for the first time. The FWHM temperature acceptance bandwidths and the normalized SFG efficiencies were close to the calculated values.

  14. Legislative Update, June 2010. Report 10-13

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Julia

    2010-01-01

    This update contains analyses of legislation being tracked by California Postsecondary Education Commission (CPEC) staff. It has updated positions on bills as adopted in the Commission meeting on June 8. A matrix of bills tracked by CPEC staff is included.

  15. 50 CFR 10.13 - List of Migratory Birds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., American, Recurvirostra americana BEAN-GOOSE, Taiga, Anser fabalis Tundra, Anser serrirostris BEARDLESS..., Fulvous Whistling-Duck Subfamily ANSERINAE Anser fabalis, Taiga Bean-Goose Anser serrirostris, Tundra...

  16. 50 CFR 10.13 - List of Migratory Birds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., American, Recurvirostra americana BEAN-GOOSE, Taiga, Anser fabalis Tundra, Anser serrirostris BEARDLESS..., Fulvous Whistling-Duck Subfamily ANSERINAE Anser fabalis, Taiga Bean-Goose Anser serrirostris, Tundra...

  17. 50 CFR 10.13 - List of Migratory Birds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., Aethia pygmaea AVOCET, American, Recurvirostra americana BEAN-GOOSE, Taiga, Anser fabalis Tundra, Anser... Taiga, Ficedula albicilla Tufted, Mitrephanes phaeocercus Variegated, Empidonomus varius Vermilion... Subfamily ANSERINAE Anser fabalis, Taiga Bean-Goose Anser serrirostris, Tundra Bean-Goose Anser...

  18. 50 CFR 10.13 - List of Migratory Birds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., American, Recurvirostra americana BEAN-GOOSE, Taiga, Anser fabalis Tundra, Anser serrirostris BEARDLESS..., Fulvous Whistling-Duck Subfamily ANSERINAE Anser fabalis, Taiga Bean-Goose Anser serrirostris, Tundra...

  19. 50 CFR 10.13 - List of Migratory Birds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., American, Recurvirostra americana BEAN-GOOSE, Taiga, Anser fabalis Tundra, Anser serrirostris BEARDLESS..., Fulvous Whistling-Duck Subfamily ANSERINAE Anser fabalis, Taiga Bean-Goose Anser serrirostris, Tundra...

  20. Deformation of as-cast LiF-22 mol pct CaF2 hypereutectic salt between 500 and 1015 K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raj, S. V.; Whittenberger, J. D.

    1990-01-01

    Results are presented on compression tests conducted on as-cast LiF-22 mol pct CaF2 hypereutectic specimens at nominal strain rates between 1.8 x 10 to the -6th/sec and 0.25/sec over the temperature range 500-1015 K. In all instances, the stress-strain curves showed broad maxima, with negative strain-hardening rates after the peak stress sigma(max). It was found that, at low temperatures and high stresses, the CaF2 lamellae are rigid while the LiF matrix exhibits extensive transgranular cavitation, while at high temperatures and low stresses the CaF2 lamellae break down and spheroidize while the LiF matrix does not cavitate. It was concluded that the mechanical properties of the as-cast hypereutectic LiF-22 mol pct CaF2 are governed by the rate of deformation of the CaF2 phase. It is suggested that, for thermal energy storage applications, a spheroidal microstructure is more desirable than a lamellar structure.

  1. Transfer Partial Molar Isentropic Compressibilities of ( l-Alanine/ l-Glutamine/Glycylglycine) from Water to 0.512 {mol} \\cdot {kg}^{-1} Aqueous {KNO}3/0.512 {mol} \\cdot {kg}^{-1} Aqueous {K}2{SO}4 Solutions Between 298.15 K and 323.15 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riyazuddeen; Gazal, Umaima

    2013-03-01

    Speeds of sound of ( l-alanine/ l-glutamine/glycylglycine + 0.512 {mol}\\cdot {kg}^{-1} aqueous {KNO}3/0.512 {mol}\\cdot {kg}^{-1} aqueous {K}2{SO}4) systems have been measured for several molal concentrations of amino acid/peptide at different temperatures: T = (298.15 to 323.15) K. Using the speed-of-sound and density data, the parameters, partial molar isentropic compressibilities φ _{kappa }0 and transfer partial molar isentropic compressibilities Δ _{tr} φ _{kappa }0, have been computed. The trends of variation of φ _{kappa }0 and Δ _{tr} φ _{kappa }0 with changes in molal concentration of the solute and temperature have been discussed in terms of zwitterion-ion, zwitterion-water dipole, ion-water dipole, and ion-ion interactions operative in the systems.

  2. Contrôle de l'orientation et de l'alignement moléculaire par un train d'impulsions soudaines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugny, D.

    2006-10-01

    Les récents progrès technologiques dans le domaine des Lasers permettent d'envisager le contrôle de nombreux processus quantiques jouant un rôle dans une variété de problèmes s'étendant de la réactivité chimique à l'information quantique. Dans ce contexte, nous nous sommes intéressés au contrôle de l'orientation ou de l'alignement moléculaire en utilisant un train d'impulsions soudaines. Nous avons défini des états cibles qui maximisent à la fois l'orientation ou l'alignement et sa durée dans le temps et montré comment atteindre ces états à l'aide de stratégie systématique ou optimisée

  3. Effect of Feedstock Powders on the Microstructural and Electrical Characteristics of 8 mol% Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia Plasma-Sprayed Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, B. Shri; Balaji, N.; Grips, V. K. William; Siju; Aruna, S. T.

    2012-12-01

    Plasma-sprayed coatings of 8 mol% yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) were fabricated using the feedstock powders obtained from co-precipitation (PPT) and spray-drying (SD) processes. Particle size and the specific mass (SM) of the feedstock powder were found to be the critical parameters that influence the microstructural and electrical properties of the coatings. While dense and larger particle-sized PPT powder resulted in a porous microstructure, dense coatings were obtained for SD powders with relatively lower SM. Electrical conductivity values of SD-coatings were found to be 30% higher than that of PPT-coatings. Electrical conductivity values of plasma-sprayed PPT-coatings improved significantly on decreasing the particles size. However, the size effect was only subtle in the case of SD coatings. PPT-coatings fabricated from smaller particle-sized powders had the necessary electrical conductivities appropriate for solid oxide fuel cell electrolyte applications.

  4. Determination of inorganic ionic mercury down to 5x10(-14) mol l(-1) by differential-pulse anodic stripping voltammetry.

    PubMed

    Meyer, S; Scholz, F; Trittler, R

    1996-09-01

    A new method is described for the reliable and ultrasensitive determination of inorganic ionic mercury, using differential-pulse anodic stripping voltammetry on a glassy carbon electrode. It has been possible to determine mercury down to a concentration of 5x10(-14) mol l(-1) (the lowest detection limit ever reported for a voltammetric method). This success was achieved by using a thiocyanate electrolyte and relatively long deposition times. The mercury ions are stabilized in the solution by the formation of strong thiocyanate complexes. This leads to a highly reproducible cathodic plating and anodic dissolution of mercury. A speciation analysis allowing to distinguish between dissolved atomic and ionic mercury in water is possible. PMID:15048362

  5. Structure and optical homogeneity of LiNbO{sub 3}:Zn (0.03–4.5 mol.%) crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Sidorov, Nikolay E-mail: tepl-na@chemy.kolasc.net.ru E-mail: Jovial1985@yandex.ru Tepljakova, Natalja E-mail: tepl-na@chemy.kolasc.net.ru E-mail: Jovial1985@yandex.ru Gabain, Aleksei E-mail: tepl-na@chemy.kolasc.net.ru E-mail: Jovial1985@yandex.ru Yanichev, Aleksander E-mail: tepl-na@chemy.kolasc.net.ru E-mail: Jovial1985@yandex.ru Palatnikov, Mikhail E-mail: tepl-na@chemy.kolasc.net.ru E-mail: Jovial1985@yandex.ru

    2014-11-14

    Structure and optical homogeneity of LiNbO{sub 3}:Zn (0.03–4.5 mol.%) crystals were searched by photoinduced light scattering and by Raman spectroscopy. The photorefractive effect depends on Zn{sup 2+} concentration nonmonotonically. Decrease of photorefractive effect is explained by decrease of structure defects with localized electrons. The Zn{sup 2+} cations replace structure defects Nb{sub Li} and Li{sub Nb}, trapping levels appear near the bottom of the conduction band and photo electrons recombine with emission under laser radiation. By the Raman spectra the area of the high structure order is found. In this area the own alternation, the alternation of impurity cations and the vacancies along the polar axis is almost perfect.

  6. Crystal structure of (2R)-1-[(methyl­sulfon­yl)­oxy]propan-2-aminium chloride: a chiral mol­ecular salt

    PubMed Central

    Rajegowda, H. R.; Palakshamurthy, B. S.; Lokanath, N. K.; Naveen, S.; Raghavendra Kumar, P.

    2015-01-01

    In the title chiral mol­ecular salt, C4H12NO3S+·Cl−, the cation is protonated at the N atom, producing [RNH3]+, where R is CH3SO2OCH2C(H)CH3. The N atom in the cation is sp 3-hybridized. In the crystal, cations and anions are connected by strong N—H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds to generate edge-shared 12-membered rings of the form {⋯Cl⋯HNH}3. This pattern of hydrogen bonding gives rise to zigzag supra­molecular layers in the ab plane. The layers are connected into a three-dimensional architecture by C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds. The structure was refined as an inversion twin. PMID:26594448

  7. Permeation of mixtures of four phenols through a supported liquid membrane in NaCl 1.0 mol/dm{sup 3} medium

    SciTech Connect

    Arana, G.; Borge, G.; Etxebarria, N.; Fernandez, L.A.

    1999-02-01

    The permeation of four phenols (phenol, 2-chlorophenol, 2-nitrophenol, and 2,4-dichlorophenol) through a supported liquid membrane has been studied in NaCl 1.0 mol/dm{sup 3} medium. The flux of each phenol was determined by measuring in real time the change of their concentration in the strip phase by making use of a fiber optic spectrophotometer and a multivariate calibration. The model for the permeation of phenol alone was first developed by making permeation experiments of a phenol, and then permeation studies of the mixture were carried out and the model was extended to those phenols. It was found that the permeation of a phenol is interfered with by the presence of other phenols.

  8. XPS and ToF-SIMS analysis of natural rubies and sapphires heat-treated in a reducing (5 mol% H 2/Ar) atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achiwawanich, S.; James, B. D.; Liesegang, J.

    2008-12-01

    Surface effects on Mong Hsu rubies and Kanchanaburi sapphires after heat treatment in a controlled reducing atmosphere (5 mol% H 2/Ar) have been investigated using advanced surface science techniques including X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). Visual appearance of the gemstones is clearly affected by the heat treatment in a reducing atmosphere. Kanchanaburi sapphires, in particular, exhibit Fe-containing precipitates after the heat treatment which have not been observed in previous studies under an inert atmosphere. Significant correlation between changes in visual appearance of the gemstones and variations in surface concentration of trace elements, especially Ti and Fe are observed. The XPS and ToF-SIMS results suggest that; (1) a reducing atmosphere affects the oxidation state of Fe; (2) dissociation of Fe-Ti interaction may occur during heat treatment.

  9. Study of Li 2TiO 3 + 5 mol% TiO 2 lithium ceramics after long-term neutron irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chikhray, Y.; Shestakov, V.; Maksimkin, O.; Turubarova, L.; Osipov, I.; Kulsartov, T.; Kuykabayeba, A.; Tazhibayeva, I.; Kawamura, H.; Tsuchiya, K.

    2009-04-01

    Given work presents the results of complex material-science studies of 1 mm diameter ceramic pebbles manufactured of Li 2TiO 3 + 5 mol% TiO 2 ceramics before and after long-time neutron irradiation. Ceramic samples were placed in specially ampoules (six items) made of stainless steel Cr18Ni10Ti which were vacuumized and filled with helium. Irradiation of ampoules was carried out in the loop channel of WWRK reactor (Almaty, Kazakhstan) during 223 days at 6 MW power. After irradiation light-colored pebbles became grey-colored due to structure changes which generation of grey-colored inclusions (lithium oxide) with low density and microhardness. There is a radiation softening of lithium ceramic and that effect is higher for lower irradiation temperature 760 K than for 920 K. The value of maximum permissible load (pebble crash limit) at that is low and comprises ˜37.9 N. The content of residual tritium is higher for ceramic irradiated at 760 K (6.6 ± 0.6 × 10 11 Bq/kg) than for ceramic irradiated at 920 K (17 ± 3 × 10 10 Bq/kg). The size change indicates that pebble increase more after irradiation at 760 K than at 920 K where the bigger portion of tritium leaves the pebble. X-ray analysis shows radiation modification of Li 2TiO 3 + 5 mol% TiO 2 phase composition and generation of new phases: LiTi 2O 4, LiTiO 2 and Li 4Ti 5O 12.

  10. BioMOL: a computer-assisted biological modeling tool for complex chemical mixtures and biological processes at the molecular level.

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Michael T; Hou, Gang; Quann, Richard J; Wei, Wei; Liao, Kai H; Yang, Raymond S H; Campain, Julie A; Mazurek, Monica A; Broadbelt, Linda J

    2002-01-01

    A chemical engineering approach for the rigorous construction, solution, and optimization of detailed kinetic models for biological processes is described. This modeling capability addresses the required technical components of detailed kinetic modeling, namely, the modeling of reactant structure and composition, the building of the reaction network, the organization of model parameters, the solution of the kinetic model, and the optimization of the model. Even though this modeling approach has enjoyed successful application in the petroleum industry, its application to biomedical research has just begun. We propose to expand the horizons on classic pharmacokinetics and physiologically based pharmacokinetics (PBPK), where human or animal bodies were often described by a few compartments, by integrating PBPK with reaction network modeling described in this article. If one draws a parallel between an oil refinery, where the application of this modeling approach has been very successful, and a human body, the individual processing units in the oil refinery may be considered equivalent to the vital organs of the human body. Even though the cell or organ may be much more complicated, the complex biochemical reaction networks in each organ may be similarly modeled and linked in much the same way as the modeling of the entire oil refinery through linkage of the individual processing units. The integrated chemical engineering software package described in this article, BioMOL, denotes the biological application of molecular-oriented lumping. BioMOL can build a detailed model in 1-1,000 CPU sec using standard desktop hardware. The models solve and optimize using standard and widely available hardware and software and can be presented in the context of a user-friendly interface. We believe this is an engineering tool with great promise in its application to complex biological reaction networks. PMID:12634134

  11. Corrigendum to "Natural dye extract of lawsonia inermis seed as photo sensitizer for titanium dioxide based dye sensitized solar cells" [Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 128 (2014) 420-426

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ananth, S.; Vivek, P.; Arumanayagam, T.; Murugakoothan, P.

    2015-05-01

    The authors regret to inform that the following text in page No. 425, "The conventionally prepared TiO2 based DSSC exhibits the observed values of Isc = 1.6 mA cm-2, Voc = 0.48 V and the calculated value of FF is 64.32%. Similarly, for pre dye treated TiO2 based DSSC, the observed values of Isc = 2.99 mA cm-2, Voc = 0.50 V and the calculated value of FF is 66.9%" should be read as, "The conventionally prepared TiO2 based DSSC exhibits the observed values of Isc = 2.99 mA cm-2, Voc = 0.50 V and the calculated value of FF is 66.9%. Similarly, for pre dye treated TiO2 based DSSC, the observed values of Isc = 4.2 mA cm-2, Voc = 0.56 V and the calculated value of FF is 62.5%". Though the text is typed wrongly, the I-V graph, the discussions and our conclusions are as same as that of our published article.

  12. Grupos españoles de cálculos ab initio de moléculas de interés astrofísico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yáñez, M.

    Pocos campos de la química están tan bien adaptados a la modelización por medio de los métodos teóricos de la Química Cuántica como la Astroquímica y la Química de la Atmósfera, donde las interacciones moleculares son, generalmente, lo suficientemente pequeñas para que el modelo de molécula aislada funcione muy bien. En España son varios los grupos teóricos que dedican su esfuerzo de investigación, o parte de él, al estudio de moléculas o procesos de interés en Astrofísica o en atmósferas planetarias. Presentaremos diferentes ejemplos paradigmáticos de esta actividad en la que se exploran desde aspectos estructurales, hasta aspectos espectroscópicos y dinámicos. Entre los últimos, cabe destacar estudios en los que se demuestra la importancia de procesos a dos estados, prohibidos por espín, en la formación astrofísica de diversos derivados de interés. En el tratamiento espectroscópico se han hecho esfuerzos interesantes, que han aunado teoría y experimento, en el estudio de sistemas relevantes desde el punto de vista atmosférico, como los hidratos de ácido nítrico, o el tratamiento espectroscópico de moléculas no rígidas. No menos interesantes son los estudios de fotoabsorción de radicales o de procesos multifotónicos. Son particularmente abundantes los estudios dedicados a la reactividad específica de sistemas de interés astrofísico o atmosférico, con el objetivo de esclarecer vías de formación de determinados compuestos o de proporcionar mecanismos que permitan identificar las etapas reactivas limitantes de reacciones de interés en esos medios y sobre los que no existía información previa. Así, por ejemplo, se han publicado interesantes estudios sobre la formación o propiedades de compuestos de fósforo, de silico o de azufre o sobre mecanismos de reacción en los que intervienen el ozono, el radical nitrato, el radical OH u otras especies. Finalmente, son también particularmente relevantes los estudios que varios

  13. Crystal and mol­ecular structure of meso-2,6-di­bromo­hepta­nedioic acid (meso-2,6-di­bromo­pimelic acid)

    PubMed Central

    Dirda, Nathaniel D. A.; Zavalij, Peter Y.; Kao, Joseph P. Y.

    2016-01-01

    The mol­ecular structure of the title compound, C7H10Br2O4, confirms the meso (2R,6S) configuration. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked by pairs of O—H⋯O=C hydrogen bonds between their terminal carboxyl groups in an R 2 2(8) motif, forming extended chains that propagate parallel to the c axis. Adjacent chains are linked by C=O⋯Br halogen bonds. PMID:27006797

  14. 4,9,12,15-Tetra­oxa-3,5,8,10,14,16-hexa­aza­tetra­cyclo­[11.3.0.02,6.07,11]hexa­deca-1(16),2,5,7,10,13-hexaen-3-ium-3-olate monohydrate

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yan-Shui; Wang, Bo-Zhou; Xu, Kang-Zhen

    2012-01-01

    The organic mol­ecule in the title monohydrate, C6N6O5·H2O, presents an almost planar configuration, the greatest deviation from the least-squares plane through the atoms being 0.061 (1) Å for the O atom within the seven-membered ring. Each water H atom is bifurcated, one forming two O—H⋯N hydrogen bonds and the other forming O—H⋯N,O hydrogen bonds. The result of the hydrogen bonding is the formation of supra­molecular layers with a zigzag topology that stack along [001]. PMID:22412722

  15. Effect of cationic molecules on the oxygen reduction reaction on fuel cell grade Pt/C (20 wt%) catalyst in potassium hydroxide (aq, 1 mol dm(-3)).

    PubMed

    Ong, Ai Lien; Inglis, Kenneth K; Whelligan, Daniel K; Murphy, Sam; Varcoe, John R

    2015-05-14

    This study investigates the effect of 1 mmol dm(-3) concentrations of a selection of small cationic molecules on the performance of a fuel cell grade oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) catalyst (Johnson Matthey HiSPEC 3000, 20 mass% Pt/C) in aqueous KOH (1 mol dm(-3)). The cationic molecules studied include quaternary ammonium (including those based on bicyclic systems) and imidazolium types as well as a phosphonium example: these serve as fully solubilised models for the commonly encountered head-groups in alkaline anion-exchange membranes (AAEM) and anion-exchange ionomers (AEI) that are being developed for application in alkaline polymer electrolyte fuel cells (APEFCs), batteries and electrolysers. Both cyclic and hydrodynamic linear sweep rotating disk electrode voltammetry techniques were used. The resulting voltammograms and subsequently derived data (e.g. apparent electrochemical active surface areas, Tafel plots, and number of [reduction] electrons transferred per O2) were compared. The results show that the imidazolium examples produced the highest level of interference towards the ORR on the Pt/C catalyst under the experimental conditions used. PMID:25877304

  16. Direct identification of phenolic constituents in Boldo Folium (Peumus boldus Mol.) infusions by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection and electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Simirgiotis, M J; Schmeda-Hirschmann, G

    2010-01-22

    A very simple and direct method was developed for the qualitative analysis of polyphenols in boldo (Peumus boldus Mol., Monimiaceae) leaves infusions by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) and electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS(n)). The phenolic constituents identified in infusions of the crude drug Boldo Folium were mainly proanthocyanidins and flavonol glycosides. In the infusions, 41 compounds were detected in male and 43 compounds in female leaf samples, respectively. Nine quercetin glycosides, eight kaempferol derivatives, nine isorhamnetin glycosides, three phenolic acids, one caffeoylquinic acid glycoside and twenty one proanthocyanidins were identified by HPLC-DAD and ESI-MS for the first time in the crude drug. Isorhamnetin glucosyl-di-rhamnoside was the most abundant flavonol glycoside in the male boldo sample, whereas isorhamnetin di-glucosyl-di-rhamnoside was the main phenolic compound in female boldo leaves infusion. The results suggest that the medicinal properties reported for this popular infusion should be attributed not only to the presence of catechin and boldine but also to several phenolic compounds with known antioxidant activity. The HPLC fingerprint obtained can be useful in the authentication of the crude drug Boldo Folium as well as for qualitative analysis and differentiation of plant populations in the tree distribution range. PMID:20022332

  17. Biréfringence électrique et polarisabilités moléculaires de CF2Cl-CCl3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benoit-Denis, Anne-Marie

    Nous nous proposons de déterminer les valeurs des polarisabilités moléculaires relatives aux trois radiations principales de l'arc au mercure, ainsi que la direction des axes de l'ellipsoïde de polarisabilité optique de CF2Cl-CCl3, à partir des résultats de mesures d'effet Kerr de ce composé à l'état liquide. La biréfringence électrique de CF2Cl-CCl3 change de signe à la température T0=295 K. Ainsi nous obtenons une relation supplémentaire très utile entre les valeurs principales du tenseur de polarisabilité. Nous utilisons pour l'expression de la constante de Kerr la formule de Langevin-Born et faisons appel à la théorie des polarisabilités de liaisons pour calculer la valeur de la polarisabilité principale normale au plan de symétrie de CF2Cl-CCl3.

  18. Elasto-plastic characteristics and mechanical properties of as-sprayed 8 mol% yttria-stabilized zirconia coating under nano-scales measured by nanoindentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, J. M.; Dai, C. Y.; Shen, Y. G.; Mao, W. G.

    2014-08-01

    The elasto-plastic characteristics and mechanical properties of as-received 8 mol% Y2O3-ZrO2 (8YSZ) coatings were studied by nanoindentation at ultra-low loads with a Berkovich indenter at room temperature. All experimental data including hardness H and elastic modulus E were analyzed by the Weibull statistical method due to the porous and heterogeneous nature of the tested samples. It was found that the hardness firstly exhibits interesting reverse indentation size effect, and then shows normal indentation size effect within different indentation scales. The average elastic modulus of 8YSZ was estimated as 214.8 ± 13.2 GPa. In order to reveal the elasto-plastic characteristics of 8YSZ at nano-scales, the distribution of resolved shear stresses underneath the indenter tip region was evaluated by Hertzian contact theory when the deformation behavior of 8YSZ changed from fully elastic to elasto-plastic stages. The results shed light on understanding possible foreign object damage mechanisms of thermal barrier coating systems.

  19. Estudio teórico de moléculas de interés en Astrofísica: compuestos binarios policarbonados

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Largo-Cabrerizo, A.

    Se han detectado en el espacio distintos compuestos binarios policarbonados (que se pueden formular como CnX), algunos de ellos con elementos de la primera fila del sistema periódico, pero también existen otros que contienen elementos de la segunda fila, como azufre o silicio. La información experimental sobre estos últimos compuestos es escasa, por lo que los estudios teóricos son especialmente valiosos en este campo. En esta comunicación presentaremos los avances mas recientes que sobre el tema ha realizado nuestro grupo. Incidiremos particularmente en dos aspectos. En primer lugar resumiremos los estudios en los que hemos intentado proporcionar información estructural sobre carburos metálicos formados por sodio, magnesio, aluminio o calcio, que pueda ser de ayuda a la hora de caracterizar estas moléculas en laboratorio como paso previo a su eventual detección en el espacio. Un aspecto importante dentro de este primer apartado es el análisis de las propiedades moleculares en función del tamaño del sistema (cuantificado en el numero de átomos de carbono) con el objeto de intentar sistematizar su estudio. En segundo lugar comentaremos brevemente algunos de los estudios realizados sobre posibles reacciones que pueden ser vías de síntesis de este tipo de compuestos en el medio interestelar.

  20. New insights about the presence of celestite into fossil bones from Molí del Baró 1 site (Isona i Conca Dellá, Lleida, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piga, Giampaolo; Brunetti, Antonio; Lasio, Barbara; Malfatti, Luca; Galobart, Àngel; Dalla Vecchia, Fabio M.; Enzo, Stefano

    2015-02-01

    We have addressed an X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) on a collection of thirteen fossil bone belonging to the Molí del Baró 1 paleontological site located near Sant Romà d'Abella (Isona i Conca Dellà Municipality, Lleida Province, Spain, dated to about 66.5 Ma, to investigate the fossilization occurred in this site in terms of physico-chemical properties. As a general behaviour, the XRD patterns showed the bioapatite mineral at a varying level of percentage, and accordingly, the correspondent XRF spectra turned out to be mainly dominated by the presence of Ca, obviously accompanied by phosphorus. Simultaneously, other elements such as Sr, Fe, Ba and Zn were found at non-negligible concentration levels and helped to assign the phase components in the XRD spectra. In three specimens, it was observed by XRD the rather unusual case where the original bioapatite bone mineral was completely substituted for by other mineralogical phases. In addition to this, celestite was also found as an important phase in ten specimens out of the thirteen examined. The occurrence of celestite in the bone structure appears a rather unusual observation within the literature of bones diagenesis. Its provenance is generally ascribed to marine vertebrate organisms, but the presence in the fossil bones of this site, where no evidence of marine environment exists, can be reconciled with occurrence of refluxing processes involving diagenetically altered fluids which were discharged into beds containing strontium sulphate-rich waters.

  1. Final report on key comparison CCQM-K73: Amount content of H+ in hydrochloric acid (0.1 mol kg-1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratt, Kenneth W.; Ortiz-Aparicio, Jose Luis; Matehuala-Sanchez, Francisco Javier; Pawlina, Monika; Kozlowski, Wladyslaw; Borges, Paulo P.; da Silva Junior, Wiler B.; Borinsky, Mónica B.; Hernandez-Mabel Puelles, Ana; Hatamleh, Nadia; Acosta, Osvaldo; Nunes, João; Guiomar Lito, M. J.; Camões, M. Filomena; Filipe, Eduarda; Hwang, Euijin; Lim, Youngran; Bing, Wu; Qian, Wang; Chao, Wei; Hioki, Akiharu; Asakai, Toshiaki; Máriássy, Michal; Hanková, Zuzana; Nagibin, Sergey; Manska, Olexandra; Gavrilkin, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    This key comparison (KC), CCQM-K73, was performed to demonstrate the capability of the participating National Metrology Institutes (NMIs) to measure the amount content of H+, νH+, in an HCl solution with a nominal νH+ of 0.1 mol kg-1. The comparison was a joint activity of the Electrochemical Working Group (EAWG) and Inorganic Analysis Working Group (IAWG) of the CCQM and was coordinated by NIST (USA) and CENAM (Mexico). The agreement of the results was not commensurate with the claimed uncertainties of the subset of participants that claimed small uncertainties for this determination. A workshop on technical issues relating to the CCQM-K73 measurements was conducted at the joint IAWG-EAWG meeting at the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM), Paris (Sèvres) in April 2010. Several possible sources of bias were investigated, but none could explain the observed dispersion among the participants' results. In the absence of a specific cause for the dispersion, the IAWG and EAWG decided to assign a Key Comparison Reference Value, KCRV, and standard uncertainty of the KCRV, uKCRV, based on the DerSimonian-Laird statistical estimator. The uKCRV is dominated by the between-laboratory scatter of results in CCQM-K73. The uncertainty estimates from the participants with the lowest reported uncertainties remain unsupported by this KC. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCQM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  2. Influence of 2mol% Na/Bi excess on multiferroic properties of (Na0.5Bi0.5) 0.99La0.01Ti0.988 Fe0.012O3 lead free system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parmar, Kusum; Sharma, Hakikat; Kotnala, R. K.; Negi, N. S.

    2016-05-01

    Lead free (Na0.5Bi0.5) 0.99La0.01Ti0.988 Fe0.012O3 (NBLTF) system has been synthesized by sol gel method without and with 2 mol% excess of Na and Bi. X-ray diffraction patterns of NBLTF samples confirm perovskite structure having rhombohedral R3c phase symmetry. Metal oxide band observed at ~ 629 cm-1 wavnumber in FTIR spectra also confirm formation of perovskite phase in samples. Microstructural analysis exhibits dense crystal growth having better grains connectivity for NBLTF sample with 2 mol% excess Na/Bi which is supported by room temperature DC resistivity measurements. Dense crystal growth and low leakage current with 2 mol% excess Na/Bi is reported to improve multiferroic properties of NBLTF sample and provides new insight to explore single phase lead free multiferroic system.

  3. Diagnostic moléculaire du complexe Mycobacterium tuberculosis résistant à l'isoniazide et à la rifampicine au Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Désire, Ilboudo; Cyrille, Bisseye; Florencia, Djigma; Souba, Diande; Albert, Yonli; Valerie, Bazie Jean Telesphore; Rebecca, Compaore; Charlemagne, Gnoula; Tamboura, Djibril; Rémy, Moret; Virginio, Pietra; Simplice, Karou Damintoti; Martial, Ouedraogo; Jacques, Simpore

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Cette étude a eu pour objectifs de diagnostiquer la tuberculose pulmonaire par l'examen microscopique et par la PCR des crachats et de déterminer les bases moléculaires de la résistance à la rifampicine et à l'isoniazide. Méthodes Le diagnostic du Complexe Mycobacterium Tuberculosis (CMTB) a été effectué par microscopie après coloration au Ziehl Nielsen et par PCR en temps réel en utilisant le kit d'identification du complexe MTB (Sacace Biotechnologie, Italie). Les résistances à la Rifampicine et à l'Isoniazide ont été étudiées par la technique de la PCR en utilisant le kit MTB résistance 8 (Sacace, Biotechnologie). Résultats Sur les 59 patients diagnostiqués pour la tuberculose pulmonaire, 59,3% étaient positifs en microscopie optique et 44,1% étaient positifs par PCR en Temps réel. Les résistances à la rifampicine (rpoB) et à l'isoniazide (katG et inhA) ont été observées chez 9 patients. La résistance à la rifampicine était due aux mutations (Asp516Val, Ser531Trp, Leu533Pro) et celle à l'isoniazide par les substitutions Ser315Thr du gène katG et C209T du gène inhA. Les multi résistances à la rifampicine et à l'isoniazide ont été observées dans 55,5% des échantillons et concernaient les associations: ropBAsp513Val + inhAC209T et rpoBLeu533Pro + katGSer315Thr. Conclusion La PCR en temps réel qui permet l'identification des allèles mutants rpoB, katG et inhA de M. tuberculosis est un outil de diagnostic épidémiologique de grande importance car elle permet de déterminer le niveau de résistance à la rifampicine et à l'isoniazide. PMID:26491516

  4. 5-Nitro-N 4,N 6-diphenyl­pyrimidine-4,6-diamine: polarized mol­ecules linked into π-stacked chains via three-centre C—H⋯(O)2 hydrogen bonds

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, Ricaurte; Nogueras, Manuel; Cobo, Justo; Glidewell, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Mol­ecules of the title compound, C16H13N5O2, have no inter­nal symmetry despite the symmetric pattern of substitution in the pyrimidine ring. The intra­molecular distances indicate polarization of the electronic structure. There are two intra­molecular N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds and mol­ecules are linked into centrosymmetric dimers by pairs of three-centre C—H⋯(O)2 hydrogen bonds. These dimers are linked into chains by means of a π–π stacking inter­action. PMID:19726856

  5. Comment on "Synthesis, growth and characterization of a new metal-organic NLO material: Dibromo bis (L-proline) Cd(II)" [J. Mol. Struct. 1080 (2015) 37-43

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasan, Bikshandarkoil R.; Naik, Madhavi Z.; Narvekar, Kedar U.

    2015-11-01

    The title paper by Boopathi and Ramasamy reports a study on the crystal growth and characterization of dibromobis(L-proline)cadmium(II) 1. Many points of criticism, concerning the crystal structure of 1 and the magnetic properties of 1, dibromobis(L-proline)zinc(II) 2 (J. Mol. Struc. 1033 (2013) 121-126) and diiodobis(2-aminopyridine)cadmium(II) 3 (J. Mol. Struc. 1042 (2013) 25-31) are described to show that compounds 1 to 3 are not soft magnets but instead diamagnetic solids.

  6. Ion Irradiation Experiments on the Murchison CM2 Carbonaceous Chondrite: Simulating Space Weathering of Primitive Asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, L. P.; Christoffersen, R.; Dukes, C. A.; Baragiola, R. A.; Rahman, Z.

    2015-01-01

    Remote sensing observations show that space weathering processes affect all airless bodies in the Solar System to some degree. Sample analyses and lab experiments provide insights into the chemical, spectroscopic and mineralogic effects of space weathering and aid in the interpretation of remote- sensing data. For example, analyses of particles returned from the S-type asteroid Itokawa by the Hayabusa mission revealed that space-weathering on that body was dominated by interactions with the solar wind acting on LL ordinary chondrite-like materials [1, 2]. Understanding and predicting how the surface regoliths of primitive carbonaceous asteroids respond to space weathering processes is important for future sample return missions (Hayabusa 2 and OSIRIS-REx) that are targeting objects of this type. Here, we report the results of our preliminary ion irradiation experiments on a hydrated carbonaceous chondrite with emphasis on microstructural and infrared spectral changes.

  7. Laser guiding at>1018 W/cm2 in plasma channels formed by theignitor heater method

    SciTech Connect

    Geddes, C.G.R.; Toth, C.; vanTilborg, J.; Leemans, W.P.

    2004-05-01

    Experiments explore guiding of intense laser pulses, optimization using channel formation beams and gas jet targets, and the interplay of channel guiding and relativistic self guiding. Impact on laser wakefield particle acceleration is being assessed.

  8. W/Z production cross sections and asymmetries at E(CM) = 2-TeV

    SciTech Connect

    Bellavance, Angela M.; /Nebraska U.

    2005-06-01

    The most recent results for W and Z boson production cross sections and asymmetries are presented from the CDF and D0 collaborations using Run II data taken at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL) Tevatron. Data set sizes range from 72 pb{sup -1} to 226 pb{sup -1}, and results range from published to preliminary. Results presented agree with the Standard Model and world averages within errors.

  9. Design of a 10**36 CM-2 S-1 Super-B Factory

    SciTech Connect

    Biagini, M.E.; Boni, R.; Boscolo, M.; Demma, T.; Drago, A.; Guiducci, S.; Raimondi, P.; Tomassini, S.; Zobov, M.; Bertsche, Kirk J.; Novokhatski, A.; Seeman, J.; Sullivan, M.; Wienands, U.; Wittmer, W.; Bettoni, S.; Paoloni, E.; Marchiori, G.; Bogomyagkov, A.; Koop, I.; Levichev, E.; /Novosibirsk, IYF

    2011-10-24

    Parameters have been studied for a high luminosity e{sup +}e{sup -} collider operating at the Upsilon 4S that would deliver a luminosity of 1 to 4 x 10{sup 36}/cm{sup 2}/s. This collider, called a Super-B Factory, would use a combination of linear collider and storage ring techniques. In this scheme an electron beam and a positron beam are stored in low-emittance damping rings similar to those designed for a Linear Collider (LC) or the next generation light source. A LC style interaction region is included in the ring to produce sub-millimeter vertical beta functions at the collision point. A large crossing angle (+/- 24 mrad) is used at the collision point to allow beam separation. A crab-waist scheme is used to reduce the hourglass effect and restore peak luminosity. Beam currents of 1.8 A at 4 x 7 GeV in 1251 bunches can produce a luminosity of 10{sup 36}/cm{sup 2}/s with upgrade possibilities. Such a collider would produce an integrated luminosity of about 10,000 fb{sup -1} (10 ab{sup -1}) in a running year (10{sup 7} sec) at the {gamma}(4S) resonance. Further possibilities include having longitudinally polarized e- at the IR and operating at the J/Psi and Psi beam energies.

  10. Coordinated Chemical and Isotopic Imaging of Bells (CM2) Meteorite Matrix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clemett, S. J.; Messenger, S.; Naklamura-Messenger, K.; Thomas-Keprta, K. L.

    2014-01-01

    Meteoritic organic matter is a complex conglomeration of species formed in distinct environments and processes in circumstellar space, the interstellar medium, the Solar Nebula and asteroids. Consequently meteorites constitute a unique record of primordial organic chemical evolution. While bulk chemical analysis has provided a detailed description of the range and diversity of organic species present in carbonaceous chondrites, there is little information as to how these species are spatially distributed and their relationship to the host mineral matrix. The distribution of organic phases is nevertheless critical to understanding parent body processes. The CM and CI chondrites all display evidence of low temperature (< 350K) aqueous alteration that may have led to aqueous geochromatographic separation of organics and synthesis of new organics coupled to aqueous mineral alteration. Here we present the results of the first coordinated in situ isotopic and chemical mapping study of the Bells meteorite using a newly developed two-step laser mass spectrometer (mu-L(sup 2)MS) capable of measuring a broad range of organic compounds.

  11. 36-cm2 large monolythic pn-CCD detector for EPIC on XMM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holl, Peter; Braeuninger, Heinrich W.; Briel, Ulrich G.; Hartmann, R.; Hartner, Gisela D.; Hauff, D.; Kemmer, Josef; Kendziorra, Eckhard; Krause, N.; Lechner, Peter; Maier, B.; Meidinger, Norbert; Pfeffermann, Elmar; Pflueger, Bernhard; Popp, M.; Reppin, Claus; Richter, R. H.; Riedel, J.; Soltau, Heike; Stoetter, Diana; Strueder, Lothar; Truemper, Joachim; von Zanthier, Christoph

    1997-10-01

    Monolithic arrays of 12 CCDs, 3 by 1 cm(superscript 2) each, have been developed and produced for the focal plane instrumentation of the European photon imaging camera (EPIC) on XMM and the German ABRIXAS x-ray satellite mission. The design parameters have been optimized to match the properties of the x-ray imaging optics as well as the x-ray intensity, energy bandwidth and characteristic time constants of the objects to observe. The pixel size is 150 by 150 micrometer(superscript 2); readout is performed in parallel; low noise, spectroscopic performance is realized by on-chip integrated JFET electronics; highohmic, ultrapure bulk material allows full depletion and enhances the efficiency for higher energy x-ray detection. The fabrication process, the layout topology and the operating conditions guarantee for a ten year operation in space without performance degradation.

  12. Crystal structure of trans-(1,8-dibutyl-1,3,6,8,10,13-hexa­aza­cyclo­tetra­decane-κ4 N 3,N 6,N 10,N 13)bis­(isonicotinato-κO)nickel(II) determined from synchrotron data

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Jong Won; Kim, Dae-Woong; Moon, Dohyun

    2016-01-01

    The title compound, [Ni(C6H4NO2)2(C16H38N6)], was prepared through self-assembly of a nickel(II) aza­macrocyclic complex with isonicotinic acid. The NiII atom is located on an inversion center and exhibits a distorted octa­hedral N4O2 coordination environment, with the four secondary N atoms of the aza­macrocyclic ligand in the equatorial plane [average Ni—Neq = 2.064 (11) Å] and two O atoms of monodentate isonicotinate anions in axial positions [Ni—Oax = 2.137 (1) Å]. Intra­molecular N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds between one of the secondary amine N atoms of the aza­macrocyclic ligand and the non-coordinating carboxyl­ate O atom of the anion stabilize the mol­ecular structure. Inter­molecular N—H⋯N hydrogen bonds, as well as π–π inter­actions between neighbouring pyridine rings, give rise to the formations of supra­molecular ribbons extending parallel to [001]. PMID:26958393

  13. Crystal structure of trans-(1,8-dibutyl-1,3,6,8,10,13-hexa­aza­cyclo­tetra­decane-κ4 N 3,N 6,N 10,N 13)bis­(isonicotinato-κO)copper(II) from synchrotron data

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Jong Won; Kim, Dae-Woong; Kim, Jin Hong; Moon, Dohyun

    2015-01-01

    The title compound, [Cu(C6H4NO2)2(C16H38N6)] has been synthesized and characterized by structure analysis based on synchrotron data and by FT–IR spectroscopy. The asymmetric unit consists of half of the CuII complex, the other half being completed by inversion symmetry. The CuII ion has a tetra­gonally distorted octa­hedral coordination sphere with four secondary N atoms of the aza­macrocyclic ligand in the equatorial plane [Cu—Neq = 2.018 (12) Å] and two O atoms of the isonicotinate anions at the axial positions [Cu—Oax = 2.4100 (11) Å]. Intra­molecular N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds between one of the secondary amine N—H groups of the aza­macrocyclic ligand and the non-coordinating O atom of the isonicotinate ions stabilize the mol­ecular structure. Inter­molecular N—H⋯N hydrogen bonds between the other macrocyclic N—H group and the pyridine N atom of an adjacent isonicotinate anion as well as π–π inter­actions [centroid-to-centroid distance 3.711 (2) Å] lead to the formation of rods parallel to [001]. PMID:25878819

  14. Effect of boron oxide addition on fibre drawing, mechanical properties and dissolution behaviour of phosphate-based glass fibres with fixed 40, 45 and 50 mol% P2O5

    PubMed Central

    Sharmin, Nusrat; Parsons, Andrew J; Rudd, Chris D

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies investigating manufacture of phosphate-based glass fibres from glasses fixed with P2O5 content less than 50 mol% showed that continuous manufacture without breakage was very difficult. In this study, nine phosphate-based glass formulations from the system P2O5-CaO-Na2O-MgO-B2O3 were prepared with P2O5 contents fixed at 40, 45 and 50 mol%, where Na2O was replaced by 5 and 10 mol% B2O3 and MgO and CaO were fixed to 24 and 16 mol%, respectively. The effect of B2O3 addition on the fibre drawing, fibre mechanical properties and dissolution behaviour was investigated. It was found that addition of 5 and 10 mol% B2O3 enabled successful drawing of continuous fibres from glasses with phosphate (P2O5) contents fixed at 40, 45 and 50 mol%. The mechanical properties of the fibres were found to significantly increase with increasing B2O3 content. The highest tensile strength (1200 ± 130 MPa) was recorded for 45P2O5-16CaO-5Na2O-24MgO-10B2O3 glass fibres. The fibres were annealed, and a comparison of the mechanical properties and mode of degradation of annealed and non-annealed fibres were investigated. A decrease in tensile strength and an increase in tensile modulus were observed for the annealed fibres. An assessment of the change in mechanical properties of both the annealed and non-annealed fibres was performed in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) at 37℃ for 28 and 60 days, respectively. Initial loss of mechanical properties due to annealing was found to be recovered with degradation. The B2O3-containing glass fibres were found to degrade at a much slower rate as compared to the non-B2O3-containing fibres. Both annealed and non-annealed fibres exhibited a peeling effect of the fibre's outer layer during degradation. PMID:24939962

  15. New data on the presence of celestite into fossil bones from the uppermost Cretaceous Molí del Baró-1 site (Spain) and an alternative hypothesis on its origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piga, Giampaolo; Marmi, Josep; Galobart, Àngel; Brunetti, Antonio; Lasio, Barbara; Malfatti, Luca; Enzo, Stefano

    2016-05-01

    The Molí del Barò-1 site is located in south-central Pyrenees (Spain) and is dated to about 66.5 Ma (latest Cretaceous), just before the end Cretaceous mass extinction that wiped out most dinosaurs and many other groups of organisms. The site has yielded one of the richest fossil assemblages of the continental upper Maastrichtian from western Europe. A combined investigation by X-ray fluorescence (XRF), Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR) and powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), supplemented with the Rietveld analysis, was conducted on twenty-seven fossil bone samples from Molí del Baró-1 vertebrate-bearing fossil site to investigate taphonomy and diagenetic processes in terms of physico-chemical properties. The XRD analysis confirms the unusual presence of celestite and other rare sulphates in the bone structure. Previous explanations of the presence and sometimes abundance of celestite in the fossil bones from this site were based on the supposed total absence of marine water in the original depositionary environment. New geological information suggesting the possibility of marine influence allows formulating an alternative hypothesis focused on the peculiar environment of deposition of Molí del Baró-1 site.

  16. Estudio comparativo de las moléculas isovalentes de interés atmosférico CF3Cl y CF3Br y sus correspondientes halógenos aislados Cl y Br.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayor, E.; Velasco, A. M.; Martín, I.; Lavín, C.

    Los estados Rydberg moleculares han suscitado en los últimos años un creciente interés entre los espectroscopistas experimentales, motivado en parte por el desarrollo de nuevas técnicas espectroscópicas capaces de investigar estos estados altamente excitados electrónicamente. Los procesos de fotoabsorción que implican estados Rydberg en los derivados halogenados del metano son de gran importancia, debido a su abundancia en la atmósfera y a sus implicaciones medioambientales. Por ello, la obtención de datos relativos a sus fuerzas de oscilador es de gran interés. En este trabajo se aborda el estudio de dichas propiedades para las moléculas isovalentes CF3Cl y CF3Br. Ambas moléculas presentan idéntica estructura electrónica para el estado fundamental por lo que se espera que sus espectros Rydberg presenten grandes similitudes, en ausencia de perturbaciones. Por ello y dada la escasez de datos relativos a fuerzas de oscilador, hemos establecido la corrección de nuestros resultados en base a las analogías esperadas en las intensidades espectrales correspondientes a transiciones análogas. Por otro lado, Novak y col. [1] han encontrado experimentalmente un marcado carácter atómico en el espectro correspondiente a estas moléculas, siendo muy similar a los de los átomos de Cl y Br. Por ello en el presente trabajo, además de establecer la comparación entre ambas moléculas hemos buscado las similitudes con sus respectivos halógenos. Los cálculos relativos a las especies moleculares se han realizado utilizando la Metodología Molécular de Orbítales de Defecto Cuántico (MQDO) [2], mientras que para el estudio de los átomos de Cl y Br se empleó la versión relativista del método (RQDO) [3].

  17. Structural analysis of xSrO-(50 - x)CaO-50P2O5 glasses with x=0, 5, or 10 mol% for potential use in a local delivery system for osteomyelitis treatment.

    PubMed

    Comeau, P A; Filiaggi, M J

    2016-01-01

    The introduction of ions into a local delivery matrix is one method of managing degradation and subsequent release of the incorporated therapeutic agents. Of interest in this study was whether we could modify the structural nature of calcium polyphosphate (CPP) glass and the subsequent therapeutic potential of this local delivery matrix with inclusion of strontium (Sr). We found that adding 10 mol% Sr significantly increased the density and chain length of the glass. There was no significant impact of Sr doping on the subsequent loading of vancomycin into the matrix, or the matrix porosity. The noted differences in structural stability, ion release, and vancomycin release between the un-doped CPP matrices and 10 mol% Sr-doped CPP matrices in vitro are likely a result of a decrease in glass disorder upon Sr addition to the glass and preferential retention of Sr over Ca during matrix degradation. This study has provided further evidence that Sr incorporation may serve to both manipulate antibiotic release from the amorphous CPP matrix and provide a potential source of therapeutic ions for enhanced bone regeneration. PMID:26478355

  18. KEY COMPARISON: Final report on international key comparison CCQM-K65: Gas standards containing methyl and ethyl mercaptans (at the level of 20-30 µmol/mol) in methane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konopelko, L. A.; Kustikov, Y. A.; Vishnyakov, I. M.; Pavlov, M. V.; Efremova, O. V.; Woo, Jin-Chun; Kim, Yong-Doo; Wessel, Rob M.; Ziel, Paul R.; Milton, Martin J. T.; Vargha, G.; Brown, A.; Uprichard, Ian

    2010-01-01

    The key comparison CCQM-K65 was intended to compare the capabilities for the preparation and value assignment of gas standards for methyl and ethyl mercaptans in methane, maintained at the participating national metrological institutes: VNIIM (Russia), KRISS (Korea), VSL (Netherlands) and NPL (United Kingdom). The range of the nominal amount of substance fractions of the comparison gas mixtures was 20 µmol/mol to 30 µmol/mol, which is close to regulatory level (in several countries including Russia) for mercaptans in odorated natural gas. This comparison was proposed at the 12th GAWG meeting in October 2004 and was conducted in 2008. Conclusions are as follows: The results of all laboratories are consistent with the reference values. The observed differences between the reference and reported values are within +/-0.9% for methyl mercaptan and +/-0.75% for ethyl mercaptan relative to the gravimetric values, and do not exceed the appropriate assigned expanded uncertainties. The prepared mixtures were found to be stable during about a year within the uncertainty of the measurements. The gravimetric values were successfully validated with a dynamic method. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCQM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  19. Final report on COOMET.QM-S1 (COOMET project no 483/RU/09): Supplementary comparison of primary standard gas mixtures: Nitrogen monoxide in nitrogen (50 µmol/mol)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konopelko, L. A.; Kustikov, Y. A.; Kolobova, A. V.; Shor, N. B.; Efremova, O. V.; Rozhnov, M. S.; Melnyk, D. M.; Kozia, V. G.; Shpilnyi, S. A.; Petryshyn, P. V.; Iakubov, S. E.; Kluchits, A. S.; Ananyin, V. N.; Mironchik, A. M.; Mokhnach, M. V.; Valkova, M.; Stovcik, V.; Walden, J.; Augusto, C. R.; Fioravante, A. L.; Ribeiro, C. C.; Sobrinho, D. C. G.; Oudwater, R. J.; da Cunha, V. S.

    2014-01-01

    Nitrogen monoxide is one of the main contaminants present in the atmospheric air due to emissions of vehicles and power stations. Taking into account the positive experience of VNIIM in the pilot study CCQM-P73 (Nitrogen monoxide gas standards, 30 µmol/mol to 70 µmol/mol), a COOMET project (No 483/RU/09) on the subject was decided and registered in the KCDB as supplementary comparison COOMET.QM-S1. This involved six National Metrology Institutes, aiming to consolidate or support their Calibration and Measurement Capabilities in this field. It was found that most of the results were consistent with the reference (gravimetric) values, with observed differences not exceeding ±1.3% and not exceeding either the appropriate assigned expanded uncertainties. There was, however, one exception: the INMETRO difference from the reference value is slightly higher than the expended uncertainty. The mixtures prepared for this exercise were found to be stable during about one year within the uncertainty of the measurements. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by COOMET, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  20. Translational, vibrational, rotational enhancements and alignments of reactions H + ClF (v = 0-5, j = 0,3,6,9) → HCl + F and HF + Cl, at Erel = 0.5-20 kcal/mol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Victor Wei-Keh, Chao(Wu

    2013-10-01

    Quasi-classical trajectory calculations of the title reactions H + ClF (v = 0-5, j = 0,3,6,9) → HCl + F and H + ClF (v = 0-5, j = 0,3,6,9) → HF + Cl at Erel = 0.5 kcal/mol-20 kcal/mol on ground potential energy surface DHTSN of 1 2A' [M. P. Deskevich, M. Y. Hayes, K. Takahashi, R. T. Skodje and D. J. Nesbitt, J. Chem. Phys. 124, 224303 (2006)] are performed. Potential energy surfaces derived from DHTSN for the title reactions are obtained, and compared with that of DHTSN for the reaction F + HCl → HF + Cl. Both potential energy surfaces have an early barrier pattern. Integral cross sections and alignments of product molecules HCl and HF dependent on the internal energy states v and j of reactant molecule ClF are obtained and compared. Translational, vibrational, and rotational energy specific translational enhancements of the reactant molecule ClF of the title reactions are found. Reaction mechanisms of the title reactions according to the respective potential energy contours are further found and explained. Reasons of simultaneous translational and vibrational enhancements are clarified.

  1. Mol-Gastronomie Vinaigrettes und Benetzung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilgis, Thomas

    2005-03-01

    Dass wir Salatblätter mit einer Vinaigrette übergießen, hat natürlich einen kulinarischen Grund: Die Kombination von Essig und Öl verleiht Salat erheblich an Geschmack. Nicht nur durch deren Eigengeschmack, sondern auch durch die Lösungseigenschaften von Geschmacksstoffen. Allerdings liefern Salatsaucen auch einen physikalischen Grund für ihre Beliebtheit: die Benetzungsfähigkeit der Blätter.

  2. Study of the interactions of molten sodium nitrate-potassium nitrate 50 mol % mixture with water vapor and carbon dioxide in air. Final report, June 2, 1980-June 30, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    White, S.H.; Twardoch, U.M.

    1981-09-01

    The interactions of aerial components such as water, carbon dioxide, and oxygen with the binary 50 mol % mixture of sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate have been studied in the temperature range 300 to 600/sup 0/C using electrochemical methods. In addition, the behavior of nitrite ions in this melt was investigated electrochemically. By judicious choice of techniques, in situ electroanalysis was possible and the necessary relevant data to accomplish this is presented, as well as insight into the corresponding electrochemical mechanisms associated with the electroactive species. The influence of each atmospheric component was examined separately. At temperatures above 300/sup 0/C, nitrite ions are found to accumulate due to thermal decomposition of the nitrate. Water is highly soluble in the salt mixture, but no hydrolytic reactions were observed. Two methods of in situ analysis for water are described. Pure carbon dioxide is found to attack the melt at all temperatures above 250/sup 0/C producing carbonate. (LEW)

  3. Different cation-protonation patterns in mol­ecular salts of unsymmetrical dimethyhydrazine: C2H9N2·Br and C2H9N2·H2PO3

    PubMed Central

    Katinaitė, Judita; Harrison, William T. A.

    2016-01-01

    We describe the syntheses and crystal structures of two mol­ecular salts containing the 1,1-di­methyl­hydrazinium cation, namely 1,1-di­methyl­hydrazin-1-ium bromide, C2H9N2 +·Br−, (I), and 2,2-di­methyl­hydrazin-1-ium di­hydrogen phosphite, C2H9N2 +·H2PO3 −, (II). In (I), the cation is protonated at the methyl­ated N atom and N—H⋯Br hydrogen bonds generate [010] chains in the crystal. In (II), the cation is protonated at the terminal N atom and cation-to-anion N—H⋯O and anion-to-anion O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds generate (001) sheets. PMID:27536415

  4. Different cation-protonation patterns in mol-ecular salts of unsymmetrical dimethyhydrazine: C2H9N2·Br and C2H9N2·H2PO3.

    PubMed

    Katinaitė, Judita; Harrison, William T A

    2016-08-01

    We describe the syntheses and crystal structures of two mol-ecular salts containing the 1,1-di-methyl-hydrazinium cation, namely 1,1-di-methyl-hydrazin-1-ium bromide, C2H9N2 (+)·Br(-), (I), and 2,2-di-methyl-hydrazin-1-ium di-hydrogen phosphite, C2H9N2 (+)·H2PO3 (-), (II). In (I), the cation is protonated at the methyl-ated N atom and N-H⋯Br hydrogen bonds generate [010] chains in the crystal. In (II), the cation is protonated at the terminal N atom and cation-to-anion N-H⋯O and anion-to-anion O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds generate (001) sheets. PMID:27536415

  5. Thermo-optic dispersion formula for the ordinary wave in 5 mol% MgO doped LiNbO3 and its application to temperature insensitive second-harmonic generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umemura, Nobuhiro; Matsuda, Daisuke

    2016-05-01

    We report the high accuracy thermo-optic dispersion formula for the ordinary wave of 5 mol% MgO doped congruent LiNbO3 (MgO:LiNbO3), which reproduces well our experimental data for the temperature-dependent birefringent phase-matching (BPM) and quasi-phase-matching (QPM) conditions with the oo-e, oo-o, and oe-o interactions in the 0.41-3.7 μm range. In addition, we found the temperature insensitive quasi-phase-matched second-harmonic generation (QPM/SHG) points exist in periodically poled MgO:LiNbO3 (MgO:PPLN) with the oo-o and oe-o interactions for the first time.

  6. Oxygen isotope systematics in the aragonite-CO2-H2O-NaCl system up to 0.7 mol/kg ionic strength at 25 °C

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kim, Sang-Tae; Gebbinck, Christa Klein; Mucci, Alfonso; Coplen, Tyler B.

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the oxygen isotope systematics in the aragonite-CO2-H2O-NaCl system, witherite (BaCO3) was precipitated quasi-instantaneously and quantitatively from Na-Cl-Ba-CO2 solutions of seawater-like ionic strength (I = 0.7 mol/kg) at two pH values (~7.9 and ~10.6) at 25 °C. The oxygen isotope composition of the witherite and the dissolved inorganic carbon speciation in the starting solution were used to estimate the oxygen isotope fractionations between HCO3¯ and H2O as well as between CO3 2 and H2O. Given the analytical error on the oxygen isotope composition of the witherite and uncertainties of the parent solution pH and speciation, oxygen isotope fractionation between NaHCO3° and HCO3¯, as well as between NaCO3¯ and CO3 2, is negligible under the experimental conditions investigated. The influence of dissolved NaCl concentration on the oxygen isotope fractionation in the aragonite-CO2-H2O-NaCl system also was investigated at 25 °C. Aragonite was precipitated from Na-Cl-Ca-Mg-(B)-CO2 solutions of seawater-like ionic strength using passive CO2 degassing or constant addition methods. Based upon our new experimental observations and published experimental data from lower ionic strength solutions by Kim et al. (2007b), the equilibrium aragonite-water oxygen isotope fractionation factor is independent of the ionic strength of the parent solution up to 0.7 mol/kg. Hence, our study also suggests that the aragonite precipitation mechanism is not affected by the presence of sodium and chloride ions in the parent solution over the range of concentrations investigated.

  7. Localization of the genes for the two chlorophyll a-conjugated polypeptides (mol. wt. 51 and 44 kd) of the photosystem II reaction center on the spinach plastid chromosome.

    PubMed

    Westhoff, P; Alt, J; Herrmann, R G

    1983-01-01

    A core particle of the water-oxidizing photosystem II reaction center has been prepared from stacked spinach thylakoid membranes by a procedure involving extraction with the non-ionic detergent dodecyl-beta-D-maltoside and centrifugation in sucrose gradients. The protein-pigment complex consists of at least four polypeptide species: two components with mol. wts. of 51 and 44 kd which are conjugated with chlorophyll a and beta-carotene, the herbicide-binding protein of mol. wt. 32 kd and cytochrome b 559 (11 kd). The genes for the 51-and 44-kd polypeptides have been located on the circular 150-kbp spinach plastid chromosome. They were identified by hybrid-selection mapping, in vitro transcription-translation of recombinant DNAs and specific antisera which were used to characterize the translation products. The plastid chromosome carries one uninterrupted copy for each of these genes in its large single-copy region. The gene for the 51-kd protein (which probably bears the P(680) reaction center chlorophyll a) is located in close proximity to the gene for cytochrome b6, and some 70 kbp away from the gene for the ;32-kd' herbicide-binding protein of the reducing side of photosystem II. The gene for the 44-kd protein is situated halfway between these two genes adjacent to the gene for the P(700) chlorophyll a apoprotein of the photosystem I reaction center. Both photosystem II genes are transcribed into discrete RNA species in the same direction but from the opposite strand as the gene for the ;32-kd' protein. PMID:16453486

  8. Contribution of seismic processing to put up the scaffolding for the 3-dimensional study of deep sedimentary basins: the fundaments of trans-national 3D modelling in the project GeoMol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capar, Laure

    2013-04-01

    Within the framework of the transnational project GeoMol geophysical and geological information on the entire Molasse Basin and on the Po Basin are gathered to build consistent cross-border 3D geological models based on borehole evidence and seismic data. Benefiting from important progress in seismic processing, these new models will provide some answers to various questions regarding the usage of subsurface resources, as there are geothermal energy, CO2 and gas storage, oil and gas production, and support decisions-making to national and local administrations as well as to industries. More than 28 000 km of 2D seismic lines are compiled reprocessed and harmonized. This work faces various problems like the vertical drop of more than 700 meters between West and East of the Molasse Basin and to al lesser extent in the Po Plain, the heterogeneities of the substratum, the large disparities between the period and parameters of seismic acquisition, and depending of their availability, the use of two types of seismic data, raw and processed seismic data. The main challenge is to harmonize all lines at the same reference level, amplitude and step of signal processing from France to Austria, spanning more than 1000 km, to avoid misfits at crossing points between seismic lines and artifacts at the country borders, facilitating the interpretation of the various geological layers in the Molasse Basin and Po Basin. A generalized stratigraphic column for the two basins is set up, representing all geological layers relevant to subsurface usage. This stratigraphy constitutes the harmonized framework for seismic reprocessing. In general, processed seismic data is available on paper at stack stage and the mandatory information to take these seismic lines to the final stage of processing, the migration step, are datum plane and replacement velocity. However several datum planes and replacement velocities were used during previous processing projects. Our processing sequence is to

  9. Crystal structure of (S)-2-[(3S,8S,9S,10R,13S,14S,17R)-3-hy­droxy-10,13-dimethyl-2,3,4,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17-tetra­deca­hydro-1H-cyclo­penta[a]phenanthren-17-yl]-N-meth­oxy-N-methyl­pro­pan­amide (Fernholz Weinreb amide)

    PubMed Central

    Viktorsson, Elvar Ørn; Åstrand, Ove Alexander Høgmoen; Haseeb, Rasha Sabah; Görbitz, Carl Henrik; Rongved, Pål

    2015-01-01

    The literature compound 3β-hy­droxy-bis­nor-5-cholenic aldehyde is an important inter­mediate for the synthesis of new modulators of the nuclear oxysterol receptor Liver X. As part of our ongoing search for new LXR antagonists, the title compound, C24H39NO3, has proven to be an important inter­mediate in our new synthetic pathway, giving the corresponding aldehyde in high yield and in only three steps from the commercially available 3β-hy­droxy-bis­nor-5-cholenic acid. The title amide crystallized with two mol­ecules in the asymmetric unit, linked into helices by O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds involving the hy­droxy and carbonyl groups. PMID:25844186

  10. Contribution of seismic processing to put up the scaffolding for the 3-dimensional study of deep sedimentary basins: the fundaments of trans-national 3D modelling in the project GeoMol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capar, Laure

    2013-04-01

    Within the framework of the transnational project GeoMol geophysical and geological information on the entire Molasse Basin and on the Po Basin are gathered to build consistent cross-border 3D geological models based on borehole evidence and seismic data. Benefiting from important progress in seismic processing, these new models will provide some answers to various questions regarding the usage of subsurface resources, as there are geothermal energy, CO2 and gas storage, oil and gas production, and support decisions-making to national and local administrations as well as to industries. More than 28 000 km of 2D seismic lines are compiled reprocessed and harmonized. This work faces various problems like the vertical drop of more than 700 meters between West and East of the Molasse Basin and to al lesser extent in the Po Plain, the heterogeneities of the substratum, the large disparities between the period and parameters of seismic acquisition, and depending of their availability, the use of two types of seismic data, raw and processed seismic data. The main challenge is to harmonize all lines at the same reference level, amplitude and step of signal processing from France to Austria, spanning more than 1000 km, to avoid misfits at crossing points between seismic lines and artifacts at the country borders, facilitating the interpretation of the various geological layers in the Molasse Basin and Po Basin. A generalized stratigraphic column for the two basins is set up, representing all geological layers relevant to subsurface usage. This stratigraphy constitutes the harmonized framework for seismic reprocessing. In general, processed seismic data is available on paper at stack stage and the mandatory information to take these seismic lines to the final stage of processing, the migration step, are datum plane and replacement velocity. However several datum planes and replacement velocities were used during previous processing projects. Our processing sequence is to

  11. Multi-approach mapping to help spatial planning and management of the kelp species L. digitata and L. hyperborea: Case study of the Molène Archipelago, Brittany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bajjouk, Touria; Rochette, Sébastien; Laurans, Martial; Ehrhold, Axel; Hamdi, Anouar; Le Niliot, Philippe

    2015-06-01

    The Molène Archipelago in Brittany (France) hosts one of the largest kelp forests in Europe. Beyond their recognized ecological importance as an essential habitat and food for a variety of marine species, kelp also contributes towards regional economies by means of the alginate industry. Thousands of tons of kelp are collected each year for the needs of the chemical and food industries. Kelp harvesting in Brittany mainly concerns two species, Laminaria digitata (59,000 t) and Laminaria hyperborea (24,000 t), that, together, represent approximately 95% of the national landings. Estimating the available standing stock and its distribution is a clear need for providing appropriate and sustainable management measures. Prior to estimating the spatial distribution of biomasses, we produced a detailed seabed topography map with accurate hard substrate delineation thanks to surveys and appropriate processing of airborne optical and acoustic imaging. Habitat suitability models of presence-absence and biomass were then developed for each species by relating in situ observations from underwater video and sampling to the many biotic and abiotic factors that may govern kelp species distribution. Our statistical approach combining generalized additive models (GAM) in a delta approach also provided spatial uncertainty associated with each prediction to help management decisions. This study confirmed that the adopted strategy, based on an integrated approach, enhanced knowledge on kelp biomass distributions in the Molène Archipelago and provided a promising direct link between research and management. Indeed, the high resolution topography and hard substrate maps produced for the study greatly improved knowledge on the sea bottom of the area. This was also of major importance for an accurate mapping of kelp distribution. The quality of the habitat suitability models was verified with fishing effort data (RECOPESCA program) and confirmed by local managers and kelp harvesters

  12. Impact of 1 mmol dm(-3) concentrations of small molecules containing nitrogen-based cationic groups on the oxygen reduction reaction on polycrystalline platinum in aqueous KOH (1 mol dm(-3)).

    PubMed

    Ong, Ai Lien; Whelligan, Daniel K; Fox, Michael L; Varcoe, John R

    2013-11-21

    Alkaline anion-exchange membranes (AAEMs) containing cationic head-groups (e.g. involving quaternary ammonium and imidazolium groups) are of interest with regard to application in alkaline polymer electrolyte fuel cells (APEFCs). This initial ex situ study evaluated the effect of 1 mmol dm(-3) concentrations of model molecules containing (AAEM-relevant) cationic groups on the oxygen reduction reaction on a polycrystalline platinum disk (Ptpc) electrode in aqueous KOH (1 mol dm(-3)). The cationic molecules studied were tetramethylammonium (TMA), benzyltrimethylammonium (BTMA), 1-benzyl-3-methylimidazolium (BMI), 1-benzyl-4-aza-1-azoniabicyclo[2.2.2]octane (BAABCO) and 6-(benzyloxy)-N,N,N-trimethylhexan-1-aminium (BOTMHA). Both cyclic and hydrodynamic linear sweep rotating disk electrode voltammetry techniques were used. The resulting voltammograms, derived estimates of apparent electrochemically active surface areas, Tafel slopes, apparent exchange-current densities and the number of electrons transferred (per O2 molecule) were compared. The results strongly suggest that 1 mmol dm(-3) concentrations of BTMA, BAABCO, and (especially) BMI seriously inhibit the catalytic activities of Ptpc in an aqueous KOH electrolyte at 25 °C. The negative influence of (benzene-ring-free) TMA and Cl(-) anions (KCl control experiment) appeared to be less severe. The separation of the trimethylammonium group from the benzene ring via a hexyloxy spacer chain (in BOTMHA) also produced a milder negative effect. PMID:24100347

  13. Key comparison BIPM.RI(I)-K6 of the standards for absorbed dose to water at 5 g cm-2 and 7 g cm-2 of the NPL, United Kingdom and the BIPM in accelerator photon beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picard, S.; Burns, D. T.; Roger, P.; Duane, S.; Bass, G. A.; Manning, J. W.; Shipley, D. R.

    2015-01-01

    A comparison of the dosimetry for accelerator photon beams was carried out between the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) and the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) in two periods from September to November 2013. The comparison was based on the determination of absorbed dose to water for three radiation qualities at the NPL. The results, reported as ratios of the NPL and the BIPM evaluations (and with the combined standard uncertainties given in parentheses), are 0.9973(62) at 6 MV, 0.9995(66) at 10 MV and 0.9957(81) at 25 MV. This result is the sixth in the on-going BIPM.RI(I)-K6 series of comparisons. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCRI, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  14. ISS Update: Students Test Their Satellite Control Skills – 01.10.13

    NASA Video Gallery

    Public Affairs Officer Dan Huot conducts a phone interview with Dr. Alvar Saenz-Otero from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Saenz-Otero is the lead scientist for the SPHERES-Zero-Ro...

  15. Canadian Association for University Continuing Education Conference Proceedings (Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada, June 10-13, 1992).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canadian Association for University Continuing Education, Ottawa (Ontario).

    This document contains the following papers: "University Continuing Educators: Entrepreneurs or Social Activists" (Phyllis Cunningham); "Ambivalent Activists, Uneasy Enterprisers--and the Search for Truth" (Milton Stern); "Our Role as Change Agents" (Timothy Pyrch, Albert A. Einsiedel); "Entrepreneurial Education--A Paradigm Shift" (Glen Hass);…

  16. Conference of the Society for Literature and Science. Proceedings (Atlanta, Georgia, October 10-13, 1996).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkowitz, Sidney, Ed.

    The papers contained in these proceedings from the 1996 Society for Literature and Science Conference are organized into sections based on theme. Some of these themes are: (1) Secularizing Enlightenment; (2) Eugenics and the Politics of Knowledge; (3) Reading the Discourses of Psychology; (4) Women and Medicine; (5) The Rhetoric of Public Health;…

  17. Research Priorities in Childhood Disability: Conference Proceedings (London, Ontario, Canada, May 10-13, 1988).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Easter Seal Research Inst., Don Mills (Ontario).

    The conference reported in this document utilized a conceptual matrix to organize presentations on research priorities in prevention, definitive treatment, and ongoing management of impairment, disability, and handicap. Ten research strategy recommendations developed at the conference are offered for implementation by The Easter Seal Research…

  18. Future directions in studies of nuclei far from stability. [Nashville, Tennessee, Sept. 10-13, 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, J.H.; Spejewski, E.H.; Bingham, C.R.; Zganjar, E.F.

    1980-01-01

    Individual abstracts were prepared for 27 of the papers in this volume. The remaining ten have already been cited in ERA; these papers can be located by reference to the entry CONF-790976-- in the report number index. (RWR)

  19. International Symposium on Microgravity Science and Application (ISMSA), Beijing, China, May 10-13, 1993

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greger, Gottfried; Rath, Hans J.

    1994-01-01

    Papers at this conference on Microgravity Science and Technology concerned fluid science and biotechnology. Some representative titles include the following: Hydrodynamic Instabilities in Thermocapillary Flow; Marangoni Convection in Immiscible Double Liquid Layers; Note on the Instability of Capillary Jet with Thermocapillarity; Residual Gravity Jitter Effects on Fluid Processes; Responsive Motion of Bubbles to Periodic g-jitter; and Protein Crystallization in Space.

  20. The development of the concepts of heat and temperature in 10-13 year-olds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shayer, Michael; Wylam, Hugh

    A crucial issue in the theory of science education at present is the problem of how much it is possible to generalize about steps in understanding achieved by different pupils in a given topic. Many Piagetians believe that there are qualitatively different steps followed in the same succession by all pupils: some Ausubelians believe that there is no such order, and that for each pupil the best criterion for the teacher is the pupil's present knowledge. One purpose of this study is to shed light on this issue. The study to be described made use of three inputs. The development of a technique of psychometrising Piaget by an English team based at London University provided a way of extending a study by Erickson (1977) of personal conceptual inventories to testing a sample of 200 children by a 68 item demonstrated group-test. In addition a team of curriculum developers had provided a tentative list of objectives for the teaching of Heat to Middle School students. The schools in which the study was carried out wished to know which of the objectives were more suitable for 9 or for 12 year-olds. The group-test utilized descriptors both from the Erickson study and from the list of curriculum objectives. In addition to the Heat test a Piagetian group-test (NFER, 1979) in the area of Volume and Heaviness was administered to see whether the development of concepts of Heat could be mapped onto Piagetian stages of development. Test-items in nine aspects of heat were written, with some of the experiments to be demonstrated to the class. These aspects included Conduction, Expansion, Composition of Heat, Temperature Scales, Changes of State, etc. Factor analysis of the data showed that one factor was sufficient to explain the common-factor variance of the heat scales, and that the Heat test was also unifactor with the Piagetian test. It was possible to describe Early Concrete, Late Concrete and Early Formal levels of understanding in the area of Heat and Temperature. In this particular case it appears that the hypothesis of a number of different developmental paths, dependent on previous experience, cannot be sustained. It is not claimed that this would be true of all cognitive development, particularly where culture-specific myths may be involved.

  1. Active Travel to School: Views of 10-13 Year Old Schoolchildren in Scotland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, Joanna; Inchley, Joanna

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the views of Scottish schoolchildren on active travel to school and their ideas about promotion strategies for school-based interventions. Design/methodology/approach: Focus group discussions were conducted with 66 students from four primary and three secondary schools. Findings: The most common…

  2. Digital Mapping Techniques '09-Workshop Proceedings, Morgantown, West Virginia, May 10-13, 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Soller, David R.

    2011-01-01

    As in the previous years' meetings, the objective was to foster informal discussion and exchange of technical information, principally in order to develop more efficient methods for digital mapping, cartography, GIS analysis, and information management. At this meeting, oral and poster presentations and special discussion sessions emphasized (1) methods for creating and publishing map products (here, "publishing" includes Web-based release); (2) field data capture software and techniques, including the use of LiDAR; (3) digital cartographic techniques; (4) migration of digital maps into ArcGIS Geodatabase format; (5) analytical GIS techniques; and (6) continued development of the National Geologic Map Database.

  3. Military Curricula for Vocational & Technical Education. Orthopedic Specialist, Classroom Course 10-13.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooke Army Medical Center, Fort Sam Houston, TX. Health Care Research Div.

    These military-developed curriculum materials for a course for orthopedic specialists are targeted for students from grades 11 through the adult level. The course is designed to provide a working knowledge of the application of casts, traction, and splints to orthopedic patients and the removal of these devices; a working knowledge of assisting in…

  4. American Vocational Education Research Association (AVERA) Proceedings (New Orleans, Louisiana, December 10-13, 1998).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Vocational Education Research Association.

    This document contains 14 research paper presentations and 5 "mini-tips" from the 1998 American Vocational Education Research Association (AVERA) annual meeting. The first section includes three papers on international and distance education: "Determining Success of Vocational Students Enrolled in Distance Education Courses" (Michael K. Swan,…

  5. Conference on the Educational and Occupational Needs of White Ethnic Women (October 10-13, 1978).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Education (ED), Washington, DC.

    These conference papers address the issues of educational and occupational equality for women and identify factors contributing to the underrepresentation of minority women in education and work. The conferences, sponsored by the National Institute of Education (NIE), were held between 1975 and 1978 to solicit the views of black,…

  6. Strongly enhanced vortex pinning from 4 to 77 K in magnetic fields up to 31 T in 15 mol.% Zr-added (Gd, Y)-Ba-Cu-O superconducting tapes

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, A; Delgado, L; Khatri, N; Liu, Y; Selvamanickam, V; Abraimov, D; Jaroszynski, J; Kametani, F; Larbalestier, DC

    2014-04-01

    Applications of REBCO coated conductors are now being developed for a very wide range of temperatures and magnetic fields and it is not yet clear whether vortex pinning strategies aimed for high temperature, low field operation are equally valid at lower temperatures and higher fields. A detailed characterization of the superconducting properties of a 15 mol.% Zr-added REBCO thin film made by metal organic chemical vapor deposition, from 4.2 to 77 K under magnetic fields up to 31 T is presented in this article. Even at a such high level of Zr addition, T-c depression has been avoided (T-c = 91 K), while at the same time an exceptionally high irreversibility field H-irr approximate to 14.8 T at 77 K and a remarkably high vortex pinning force density F-p approximate to 1.7 TN/m(3) at 4.2 K have been achieved. We ascribe the excellent pinning performance at high temperatures to the high density (equivalent vortex matching field similar to 7 T) of self-assembled BZO nanorods, while the low temperature pinning force is enhanced by large additional pinning which we ascribe to strain-induced point defects induced in the REBCO matrix by the BZO nanorods. Our results suggest even more room for further performance enhancement of commercial REBCO coated conductors and point the way to REBCO coil applications at liquid nitrogen temperatures since the critical current density J(c)(H//c) characteristic at 77 K are now almost identical to those of fully optimized Nb-Ti at 4 K. (C) 2014 Author(s).

  7. Gd(1.96-x)Y(x)Eu0.04O3 (x = 0.0, 0.49, 0.98, 1.47, 1.96 mol%) nanophosphors: propellant combustion synthesis, structural and luminescence studies.

    PubMed

    Shilpa, C J; Dhananjaya, N; Nagabhushana, H; Sharma, S C; Shivakumara, C; Sudheerkumar, K H; Nagabhushana, B M; Chakradhar, R P S

    2014-07-15

    Gd(1.96-x)Y(x)Eu0.04O3 (x = 0.0, 0.49, 0.98, 1.47, 1.96 mol%) nanophosphors were synthesized by propellant combustion method at low temperature (400°C). The powder X-ray diffraction patterns of as formed Gd1.96Eu0.04O3 showed monoclinic phase, however with the addition of yttria it transforms from monoclinic to pure cubic phase. The porous nature increases with increase of yttria content. The particle size was estimated from Scherrer's and W-H plots which was found to be in the range 30-40 nm. These results were in well agreement with transmission electron microscopy studies. The optical band gap energies estimated were found to be in the range 5.32-5.49 eV. PL emission was recorded under 305 nm excitation show an intense emission peak at 611 nm along with other emission peaks at 582, 641 nm. These emission peaks were attributed to the transition of (5)D0→(7)FJ (J = 0, 1, 2, 3) of Eu(3+) ions. It was observed that PL intensity increases with increase of Y content up to x = 0.98 and thereafter intensity decreases. CIE color co-ordinates indicates that at x = 1.47 an intense red bright color can be achieved, which could find a promising application in flat panel displays. The cubic and monoclinic phases show different thermoluminescence glow peak values measured under identical conditions. The response of the cubic phase to the applied dose showed good linearity, negligible fading, and simple glow curve structure than monoclinic phase indicating that suitability of this phosphor in dosimetric applications. PMID:24699292

  8. Optical spectra and crystal field analysis of Dy3+ in Cs2NaDyCl6 and Cs2NaYCl6: Dy3+(5 mol %)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, David R.; Richardson, F. S.

    1985-02-01

    Optical absorption and emission measurements are reported for the Cs2NaDyCl6 and Cs2NaYCl6: Dy3+(5 mol %) systems under variable-temperature (10-298 K) conditions. For both systems, the data are compatible with the retention of octahedral (Oh) site symmetry at the Dy3+ ions over the entire 298 to 10 K temperature range. The only differentiation between the systems is the much greater quantum efficiency of 4F9/2 emission in the doped system vs that in the neat system. Forty-five crystal-field levels spanning 18 multiplets of the Dy3+ 4f9 electronic configuration are located and assigned, and an additional 12 crystal-field levels associated with six other multiplet manifolds are located, but left unassigned. These energy level results are analyzed on the basis of a nine-parameter 4f-electron Hamiltonian operating within a complete Russell-Saunders (SLJ) basis set for the 4f9 configuration of Dy3+. The most intense electric-dipole vibronic lines observed in the optical spectra are assigned to one-phonon vibronic transitions associated with the three odd-parity ``moiety'' modes of the DyCl3-6 octahedral clusters: ν3(t1u), ν4(t1u), and ν6(t2u). Intensity calculations are reported for both the no-phonon magnetic-dipole (origin) transitions and the one-phonon (ν3, ν4, and ν6) electric-dipole vibronic transitions.

  9. Fine-Grained Rims in the Allan Hills 81002 and Lewis Cliff 90500 CM2 Meteorites: Their Origin and Modification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hua, X.; Wang, J.; Buseck, P. R.

    2002-01-01

    Antarctic CM meteorites Allan Hills (ALH) 8 1002 and Lewis Cliff (LEW) 90500 contain abundant fine-grained rims (FGRs) that surround a variety of coarse-grained objects. FGRs from both meteorites have similar compositions and petrographic features, independent of their enclosed objects. The FGRs are chemically homogeneous at the 10 m scale for major and minor elements and at the 25 m scale for trace elements. They display accretionary features and contain large amounts of volatiles, presumably water. They are depleted in Ca, Mn, and S but enriched in P. All FGRs show a slightly fractionated rare earth element (REE) pattern, with enrichments of Gd and Yb and depletion of Er. Gd is twice as abundant as Er. Our results indicate that those FGRs are not genetically related to their enclosed cores. They were sampled from a reservoir of homogeneously mixed dust, prior to accretion to their parent body. The rim materials subsequently experienced aqueous alteration under identical conditions. Based on their mineral, textural, and especially chemical similarities, we conclude that ALH 8 1002 and LEW 90500 likely have a similar or identical source.

  10. Fluorescent imaging over an ultra-large field-of-view of 532 cm2 using a flatbed scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Göröcs, Zoltán. S.; Ling, Yuye; Yu, Meng D.; Karahalios, Dimitri; Mogharabi, Kian; Lu, Kenny; Wei, Qingshan; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2014-03-01

    We introduce a fluorescent imaging method that is capable of detecting fluorescent micro-particles over an ultra-wide field of view of 19 cm × 28 cm using a modified flatbed scanner. We added a custom-designed absorbing emission filter, a computer controlled two dimensional LED array, and modified the driver of the scanner to maximize the sensitivity, exposure time, and gain for fluorescent detection of micro-objects. This high-throughput fluorescent imaging device used in conjunction with a microfluidic sample holder enables rapid screening of fluorescent micro-objects inside more than 2.2mL of optically dense media (i.e., whole blood) within 5 minutes. The device is sensitive enough to detect fluorescently labeled cells, and generates images that have an effective pixel count of 2.2 Giga-pixels.

  11. Polymer-based solar cells having an active area of 1.6 cm2 fabricated via spray coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarratt, N. W.; Griffin, J.; Wang, T.; Zhang, Y.; Yi, H.; Iraqi, A.; Lidzey, D. G.

    2015-12-01

    We demonstrate the fabrication of polymer solar cells in which both a PEDOT:PSS hole transport and a PCDTBT:PC71BM photoactive layer are deposited by spray-casting. Two device geometries are explored, with devices having a pixel area of 165 mm2 attaining a power conversion efficiency of 3.7%. Surface metrology indicates that the PEDOT:PSS and PCDTBT:PC71BM layers have a roughness of 2.57 nm and 1.18 nm over an area of 100 μm2. Light beam induced current mapping reveals fluctuations in current generation efficiency over length-scales of ˜2 mm, with the average photocurrent being 75% of its maximum value.

  12. Operation of a Five-Stage 40,000-CM(2)-Area Insulator Stack at 158 KV/CM

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson R.A.; Clark, Robert E.; Corcoran, P.A.; Douglas, John W.; Gilliland, T.L.; Horry, M.L.; Hughes, Thomas P.; Ives, H.C.; Long, F.W.; Martin, T.H.; McDaniel, D.H.; Milton, Osborne; Mostrom, Michael A.; Seamen, J.F.; Shoup, R.W.; Smith, I.D.; Smith, J.W.; Spielman, R.B.; Struve, K.W.; Stygar, W.A.; Vogtlin, George E.; Wagoner, T.C.; Yamamoto, Osamu

    1999-06-30

    We have demonstrated successful operation of a 3.35- m-diameter insulator stack at 158 kV/cm on five consecutive Z-accelerator shots. The stack consisted of five +45°-profile 5.715-cm-thick cross-linked-polystyrene (Rexolite- 1422) insulator rings, and four anodized- aluminum grading rings shaped to reduce the field at cathode triple junctions. The width of the voltage pulse at 89% of peak was 32 ns. We compare this result to a new empirical flashover relation developed from previous small-insulator experiments conducted with flat unanodized electrodes. The relation predicts a 50% flashover probability for a Rexolite insulator during an applied voltage pulse when Emaxe-0.27/d(teffC)1/10 = 224, where Emax is the peak mean electric field (kV/cm), d is the insulator thickness (cm), teff is the effective pulse width (ps), and C is the insulator circumference (cm). We find the Z stack can be operated at a stress at least 19% higher than predicted. This result, and previous experiments conducted by Vogtlin, suggest anodized electrodes with geometries that reduce the field at both anode and cathode triple junctions would improve the flashover strength of +45° insulators.

  13. Spatially Resolved XRF, XRD and Fe-XANES Analysis of Fine-Grained Rims in the Murchison (CM2) Meteorite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, A. J.; Schofield, P. F.; Mosselmans, J. F. W.; Russell, S. S.

    2014-09-01

    Fe3+/ΣFe ratios suggest that hydration of fine-grained rims and matrix in the Murchison meteorite occurred in a similar environment. However, local variations in mineralogy and crystal chemistry indicate that the alteration varied at the μm-scale.

  14. 53Mn-53Cr dating of aqueously formed carbonates in the CM2 lithology of the Sutter's Mill carbonaceous chondrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jilly, Christine E.; Huss, Gary R.; Krot, Alexander N.; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Yin, Qing-Zhu; Sugiura, Naoji

    2014-11-01

    Radiometric dating of secondary minerals can be used to constrain the timing of aqueous alteration on meteoritic parent bodies. Dolomite is a well-documented secondary mineral in CM chondrites, and is thought to have formed by precipitation from an aqueous fluid on the CM parent body within several million years of accretion. The petrographic context of crosscutting dolomite veins indicates that aqueous alteration occurred in situ, rather than in the nebular setting. Here, we present 53Mn-53Cr systematics for dolomite grains in Sutter's Mill section SM51-1. The Mn-Cr isotope data show well-resolved excesses of 53Cr correlated with 55Mn/52Cr ratio, which we interpret as evidence for the in situ decay of radioactive 53Mn. After correcting for the relative sensitivities of Mn and Cr using a synthetic Mn- and Cr-bearing calcite standard, the data yield an isochron with slope corresponding to an initial 53Mn/55Mn ratio of 3.42 ± 0.86 × 10-6. The reported error includes systematic uncertainty from the relative sensitivity factor. When calculated relative to the U-corrected Pb-Pb absolute age of the D'Orbigny angrite, Sutter's Mill dolomites give a formation age between 4564.8 and 4562.2 Ma (2.4-5.0 Myr after the birth of the solar system). This age is contemporaneous with previously reported ages for secondary carbonates in CM and CI chondrites. Consistent carbonate precipitation ages between the carbonaceous chondrite groups suggest that aqueous alteration was a common process during the early stages of parent body formation, probably occurring via heating from internal 26Al decay. The high-precision isochron for Sutter's Mill dolomite indicates that late-stage processing did not reach temperatures that were high enough to further disturb the Mn-Cr isochron.

  15. Diagnostic moléculaire d'helicobacter pylori par PCR chez les patients en consultation gastroentérologique au Centre Médical Saint Camille de Ouagadougou

    PubMed Central

    Werme, Karidia; Bisseye, Cyrille; Ouedraogo, Issiaka; Yonli, Albert Théophane; Ouermi, Djénèba; Djigma, Florencia; Moret, Rémy; Gnoula, Charlemagne; Nikiema, Jean-Baptiste; Simpore, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    Introduction L'infection par Helicobacter pylori constitue un problème de santé publique notamment dans les pays en développement. Elle entraine une gastrite pouvant évoluer vers des formes sévères d'ulcération et de transformation maligne. La présenté étude avait pour objectif de diagnostiquer H. pylori par des techniques sérologique et moléculaire au Burkina Faso. Méthodes L’étude prospective a été conduite de mars à juin 2012 sur 70 patients venus en consultation dans le service de gastroentérologie au Centre Médical Saint Camille. Le diagnostic de H. pylori a été réalisé par le test ELISA Immunocomb (ORGENICS Ltd, Yavne, Israël) et la PCR sur des biopsies gastriques prélevées sur les patients. Résultats Les pathologies gastroduodénales étaient plus fréquentes chez les patients de plus de 45 ans. Les prévalences de H. pylori étaient respectivement de 88,57% et de 91,43% par sérologie Immunocomb et par PCR. La différence entre les deux techniques n’était pas significative (P = 0,573). La performance de la PCR a été comparée à celle de la technique Immunocomb. Les résultats montrent une sensibilité et une spécificité de 92,2% et 50,0% pour la technique Immunocomb. Conclusion Le diagnostic de H. pylori par PCR est plus spécifique que le test sérologique Immunocomb et devrait être introduit dans le diagnostic de routine de cette bactérie pathogène au Burkina Faso. PMID:26327960

  16. Coordination of bis­(pyrazol-1-yl)amine to palladium(II): influence of the co-ligands and counter-ions on the mol­ecular and crystal structures1

    PubMed Central

    Mendoza, María de los Angeles; Bernès, Sylvain; Mendoza-Díaz, Guillermo

    2015-01-01

    The structures of a series of complexes with general formula n[Pd(pza)X]Y·mH2O (n = 1, 2; X = Cl, Br, I, N3, NCS; Y = NO3, I, N3, [Pd(SCN)4]; m = 0, 0.5, 1) have been determined, where pza is the tridentate ligand bis­[2-(3,5-di­methyl­pyrazol-1-yl)eth­yl]amine, C14H23N5. In all complexes, {bis­[2-(3,5-di­methyl­pyrazol-1-yl-κN 2)eth­yl]amine-κN}chlorido­palladium nitrate, [Pd(pza)Cl]NO3, (1), {bis­[2-(3,5-di­methyl­pyrazol-1-yl-κN 2)eth­yl]amine-κN}bromido­palladium nitrate, [Pd(pza)Br]NO3, (2), {bis­[2-(3,5-di­methyl­pyrazol-1-yl-κN 2)eth­yl]amine-κN}iodido­palladium iodide hemihydrate, [Pd(pza)I]I·0.5H2O, (3), azido{bis­[2-(3,5-di­methyl­pyrazol-1-yl-κN 2)eth­yl]amine-κN}palladium azide monohydrate, [Pd(pza)N3]N3·H2O, (4), and bis­[{bis­[2-(3,5-di­methyl­pyrazol-1-yl-κN 2)eth­yl]amine-κN}(thio­cyanato-κN)palladium] tetra­kis­(thio­cyanato-κS)palladate, [Pd(pza)NCS]2[Pd(SCN)4], (5), the [Pd(pza)X]+ complex cation displays a square-planar coordination geometry, and the pza ligand is twisted, approximating twofold rotation symmetry. Although the pza ligand is found with the same conformation along the series, the dihedral angle between pyrazole rings depends on the co-ligand X. This angle span the range 79.0 (3)–88.6 (1)° for the studied complexes. In (3), two complex cations, two I− anions and one water mol­ecule of crystallization are present in the asymmetric unit. In (5), the central amine group of pza is disordered over two positions [occupancy ratio 0.770 (18):0.230 (18)]. The complex [Pd(SCN)4]2− anion of this compound exhibits inversion symmetry and shows the Pd2+ transition metal cation likewise in a square-planar coordination environment. Compound (5) is also a rare occurrence of a non-polymeric compound in which the pseudohalide ligand NCS− behaves both as thio­cyanate and iso­thio­cyanate, i.e. is coordinating either through the N atom (in the cation) or the S atom (in the anion). PMID

  17. Crystal structure of cis-bis­{4-phenyl-1-[(3R)-1,7,7-tri­methyl-2-oxobi­cyclo­[2.2.1]heptan-3-ylidene]thio­semicarbazidato-κ3 O,N 1,S}cadmium(II) with an unknown solvent mol­ecule

    PubMed Central

    Nogueira, Vanessa Senna; Bresolin, Leandro; Näther, Christian; Jess, Inke; de Oliveira, Adriano Bof

    2015-01-01

    The reaction between the racemic mixture of the camphor-4-phenyl­thio­semicarbazone derivative and cadmium acetate dihydrate yielded the title compound, [Cd(C17H20N3OS)2]. The CdII ion is six-coordinated in a distorted octa­hedral environment by two deprotonated thio­semicarbazone ligands acting as an O,N,S-donor in a tridentate chelating mode, forming five-membered chelate rings. In the crystal, the mol­ecules are connected via pairs of N—H⋯S and C—H⋯S inter­actions, building centrosymmetric dimers. One of the ligands is disordered in the campher unit over two sets of sites with site-occupancy factors of 0.7 and 0.3. The structure contains additional solvent mol­ecules, which are disordered and for which no reasonable split model was found. Therefore, the data were corrected for disordered solvent using the SQUEEZE routine [Spek (2015 ▸). Acta Cryst. C71, 9–18] in PLATON. Since the disordered solvents were removed by data processing, and the number of solvent entities was a suggestion only, they were not considered in the chemical formula and subsequent chemical or crystal information. PMID:26870441

  18. Crystal structure of cis-bis-{4-phenyl-1-[(3R)-1,7,7-tri-methyl-2-oxobi-cyclo-[2.2.1]heptan-3-ylidene]thio-semicarbazidato-κ(3) O,N (1),S}cadmium(II) with an unknown solvent mol-ecule.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Vanessa Senna; Bresolin, Leandro; Näther, Christian; Jess, Inke; de Oliveira, Adriano Bof

    2015-12-01

    The reaction between the racemic mixture of the camphor-4-phenyl-thio-semicarbazone derivative and cadmium acetate dihydrate yielded the title compound, [Cd(C17H20N3OS)2]. The Cd(II) ion is six-coordinated in a distorted octa-hedral environment by two deprotonated thio-semicarbazone ligands acting as an O,N,S-donor in a tridentate chelating mode, forming five-membered chelate rings. In the crystal, the mol-ecules are connected via pairs of N-H⋯S and C-H⋯S inter-actions, building centrosymmetric dimers. One of the ligands is disordered in the campher unit over two sets of sites with site-occupancy factors of 0.7 and 0.3. The structure contains additional solvent mol-ecules, which are disordered and for which no reasonable split model was found. Therefore, the data were corrected for disordered solvent using the SQUEEZE routine [Spek (2015 ▸). Acta Cryst. C71, 9-18] in PLATON. Since the disordered solvents were removed by data processing, and the number of solvent entities was a suggestion only, they were not considered in the chemical formula and subsequent chemical or crystal information. PMID:26870441

  19. High Calcium (~80mol%) Late Stage Carbonate in ALH84001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gildea, K. J.; Holland, G.; Lyon, I. C.; Chatzitheodoridis, E.; Burgess, R.

    2006-03-01

    Brief petrological, chemical and textural description of previously undescribed high Ca late stage carbonate in Martian meteorite ALH84001. This carbonate surrounds Mg rich carbonates and rosette fragments.

  20. Mol-Gastronomie Granulare Fleischgerichte und molekulares Kleben

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilgis, Thomas A.

    2005-09-01

    Buletten, Fleischküchle oder Kebabs, Köstlichkeiten aus gehacktem Fleisch bestimmter Körnung, finden sich in allen Kulturen. Physikalisch ein großes Problem, denn zu Tisch dürfen diese Gebilde nicht auseinander brechen und zerfallen. Für ausreichend Bindung und Klebung muss also gesorgt werden.

  1. Shuttle pointing of electro-optical experiments; Proceedings of the Seminar, Los Angeles, Calif., February 10-13, 1981

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jerkovsky, W.

    1981-04-01

    A Spacelab/sortie program overview is presented and related programs and techniques are discussed. Pointing systems are considered along with optical sensors for pointing systems, Spacelab experiments, sortie experiments, and future experiments and programs. Attention is given to European pointed experiments on the first Spacelab payload, Spacelab 2 pointed experiments, crew optimized Shuttle/experiment pointing, interactive data analysis for astronomy Shuttle experiments at Goddard Space Flight Center, an overview of infrared measurement programs, a 102 cm balloon-borne telescope for far-infrared astronomical observations, analysis techniques applied to balloon-borne mosaic interferometer and radiometer measurements, reduction and analysis of electrographic imagery and spectra, Skylab's Apollo telescope mount, experiment pointing with magnetic suspension, Gimbalfex fine pointing system, design considerations for imaging charge-coupled device star sensors, a solid-state aspect sensor, attitude transfer by electro-optical instrumentation for Shuttle experiments, an atmospheric emissions photometric imaging experiment for Spacelab 1, and orbital operations with the Shuttle infrared telescope facility.

  2. Life Beyond Walls. Proceedings of the National Conference on Outdoor Recreation (Ft. Collins, Colorado, November 10-13, 1988).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Jim, Ed.; Bruner, Eric, Ed.

    This proceedings contains 16 papers on recreation and adventure programming, outdoor education, and outdoor leadership training. The papers are: (1) "Beyond Recreation: Our Classroom Is Wild America" (Barry Auskern); (2) "Outward Bound Leadership Model: An Exploratory Study of Leadership Variables" (Natalie L. Bartley); (3) "'Putting a Little…

  3. Economic Education in the Precollege Setting: Proceedings of the Towbes Conference (Santa Barbara, California, August 10-13, 1988).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reason Foundation, Santa Monica, CA.

    This collection of 23 papers delivered by a diverse array of participants at a conference on elementary/secondary economics instruction reflects a concern that U.S. students have limited understanding of how or why the U.S. economy operates the way it does. The papers included are: "Economic Education: Leading the Way to Educational Reform" (M.…

  4. EDUCAUSE 2000: Thinking IT Through. Proceedings and Post-Conference Materials (Nashville, Tennessee, October 10-13, 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EDUCAUSE, Washington, DC.

    This document presents the proceedings and post-conference materials of the annual EDUCAUSE conference. The theme of this conference was "Thinking IT Through." Conference sessions are divided into six domains: Infrastructure and Basic Services; Teaching and Learning; Managing Information Technologies and Resources; Information Systems; New…

  5. A study of heavy precipitation events in Taiwan during 10-13 August, 1994: mesoscale model simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tao, W.-K.; Chen, C.-S.; Jia, Y.; Baker, D.; Lang, S.; Wetzel, P.; Lau, K.-M.; Kuo, Y.-H.; Dudhia, J.; Starr, David O'C. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Heavy rainfall occurred over the western side of Taiwan's complex terrain from August 10 to 13, 1994 after Typhoon Doug moved northward from the East China Sea into Taiwan and on towards the Yellow Sea. On August 10, most of the rainfall fell over sloped areas. The heaviest daily rainfall totals were in excess of 200 mm over southwestern as well as central Taiwan. However, not much rainfall occurred over northern Taiwan. The lack of rainfall over northern Taiwan also occurred on August 11, 12 and 13. The larger rainfall amounts shifted westward from the sloped areas on August 10 toward lower terrain on August 11. On August 12 and 13, most of the higher rainfall amounts were found over the coastal area in southwestern Taiwan. Notably, about 300 to 400 mm per day fell over the coastal area in southwest Taiwan on August 12 and 13. The distribution of rainfall amount was different on August 10 and 11 (termed as Case 1) compared to August 12 and 13 (termed as Case 2). The environmental situation and precipitation characteristics are analyzed using EC/TOGA data, ground-based radar data, surface rainfall patterns, surface wind data, and upper air soundings. Chen at al. (2001) also categorized the precipitation pattern into two types, propagating and quasi-stationary. For the propagating type of precipitation, rainrates increased or remained the same as systems went from the plains to mountainous regions. With the quasi-stationary type of precipitation, however, rainrates decreased as precipitation propagated across the plains and into the mountains. The focus of this study is to understand what causes the h1aher amounts of rainfall over Taiwan, and what factors influence where the higher amounts of rainfall will occur, over sloped areas or over coastal areas.

  6. Migrants' Education. Standing Conference of European Ministers of Education, Eleventh Session (The Haugue, June 10-13, 1979).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menendez-Pidal y Oliver, Juan A.

    The Standing Conference of European Ministers of Education prompted this report by their need to know about the impact of 1975 and 1977 official actions on various aspects of migrant education in their member countries. Answers to questionnaires sent to member countries and organizations in May 1978 are synthesized according to: (1) use of Council…

  7. Numerical simulation of a rainfall event in Greenland during 10-13 July 2012 using Non-hydrostatic Regional Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, A.; Niwano, M.; Aoki, T.

    2015-12-01

    On 12 July 2012, extensive surface melt occurred across much of the Greenland ice sheet. During this event, the expeditionary team of Snow Impurity and Glacial Microbe effects on the Arctic (SIGMA) project experienced unexpectedly heavy rainfall at their campsite on the northwestern Greenland ice sheet. We tried to reproduce the rainfall event by using the Japan Meteorological Agency Non-Hydrostatic Model (JMA-NHM) with 5-km horizontal resolution to characterize the temporal and spatial variation of the types of precipitation. The simulated results well agreed with observational data from surface stations and space-borne radar. According to the simulated results, the areas where the 1-h rainfall exceeded 0.1 mm at least once during the event accounted for 48% of the entire area of the Greenland ice sheet. In the coastal regions of western Greenland, precipitation during the event was composed of liquid hydrometeors, whereas in high-elevation regions, it was composed mainly of solid hydrometeors. Over intermediate regions, the phase of the precipitation changed temporally and spatially among liquid, solid, and a mixture of both. These phase transitions of the precipitation are very likely to affect the surface radiative properties of the ice sheet as well as the heat and mass balance at the surface of the ice sheet during the study period and afterward.

  8. Angular Resolution of an EAS Array for Gamma Ray Astronomy at Energies Greater Than 5 x 10 (13) Ev

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Apte, A. R.; Gopalakrishnan, N. V.; Tonwar, S. C.; Uma, V.

    1985-01-01

    A 24 detector extensive air shower array is being operated at Ootacamund (2300 m altitude, 11.4 deg N latitude) in southern India for a study of arrival directions of showers of energies greater than 5 x 10 to the 13th power eV. Various configurations of the array of detectors have been used to estimate the accuracy in determination of arrival angle of showers with such an array. These studies show that it is possible to achieve an angular resolution of better than 2 deg with the Ooty array for search for point sources of Cosmic gamma rays at energies above 5 x 10 to the 13th power eV.

  9. 40 CFR 721.10178 - Distillates (Fischer-Tropsch), hydroisomerized middle, C10-13-branched alkane fraction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Distillates (Fischer-Tropsch... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10178 Distillates (Fischer-Tropsch... to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as distillates (Fischer-Tropsch),...

  10. Doing Much More with Less: Implementing Operational Excellence at UC Berkeley. Research & Occasional Paper Series: CSHE.10.13

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szeri, Andrew J.; Lyons, Richard; Huston, Peggy; Wilton, John

    2013-01-01

    Universities are undergoing historic change, from the sharp downward shift in government funding to widespread demands to document performance. At the University of California Berkeley, this led to an operational change effort unlike any the university had ever attempted, dubbed Operational Excellence. The authors describe their experiences…

  11. A Brief Look at: Test Scores and the Standard Error of Measurement. E&R Report No. 10.13

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holdzkom, David; Sumner, Brian; McMillen, Brad

    2010-01-01

    In the context of standardized testing, the standard error of measurement (SEM) is a measure of the factors other than the student's actual knowledge of the tested material that may affect the student's test score. Such factors may include distractions in the testing environment, fatigue, hunger, or even luck. This means that a student's observed…

  12. Working Knowledge: Productive Learning at Work. Proceedings [of the] International Conference (Sydney, Australia, December 10-13, 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Symes, Colin, Ed.

    This conference proceedings contains 65 presentations and 3 colloquiums from a conference that dealt with knowledge at work and knowledge that works and with how education can be successfully integrated into work and work into education. The papers are "Reading the Contexts of Complex Incidents of Adult Education Practice" (Apte); "Models of Work…

  13. A Study of Heavy Precipitation Events in Taiwan During 10-13 August, 1994. Part 2; Mesoscale Model Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tao, Wei Kuo; Chen, C.-S.; Jia, Y.; Baker, D.; Lang, S.; Wetzel, P.; Lau, W. K.-M.

    2001-01-01

    Several heavy precipitation episodes occurred over Taiwan from August 10 to 13, 1994. Precipitation patterns and characteristics are quite different between the precipitation events that occurred from August 10 and I I and from August 12 and 13. In Part I (Chen et al. 2001), the environmental situation and precipitation characteristics are analyzed using the EC/TOGA data, ground-based radar data, surface rainfall patterns, surface wind data, and upper air soundings. In this study (Part II), the Penn State/NCAR Mesoscale Model (MM5) is used to study the precipitation characteristics of these heavy precipitation events. Various physical processes (schemes) developed at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (i.e., cloud microphysics scheme, radiative transfer model, and land-soil-vegetation surface model) have recently implemented into the MM5. These physical packages are described in the paper, Two way interactive nested grids are used with horizontal resolutions of 45, 15 and 5 km. The model results indicated that Cloud physics, land surface and radiation processes generally do not change the location (horizontal distribution) of heavy precipitation. The Goddard 3-class ice scheme produced more rainfall than the 2-class scheme. The Goddard multi-broad-band radiative transfer model reduced precipitation compared to a one-broad band (emissivity) radiation model. The Goddard land-soil-vegetation surface model also reduce the rainfall compared to a simple surface model in which the surface temperature is computed from a Surface energy budget following the "force-re store" method. However, model runs including all Goddard physical processes enhanced precipitation significantly for both cases. The results from these runs are in better agreement with observations. Despite improved simulations using different physical schemes, there are still some deficiencies in the model simulations. Some potential problems are discussed. Sensitivity tests (removing either terrain or radiative processes) are performed to identify the physical processes that determine the precipitation patterns and characteristics for heavy rainfall events. These sensitivity tests indicated that terrain can play a major role in determining the exact location for both precipitation events. The terrain can also play a major role in determining the intensity of precipitation for both events. However, it has a large impact on one event but a smaller one on the other. The radiative processes are also important for determining, the precipitation patterns for one case but. not the other. The radiative processes can also effect the total rainfall for both cases to different extents.

  14. Perceived milk intolerance is related to bone mineral content in 10-13 year-old female adolescents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine associations among lactose maldigestion status, perceived milk intolerance (PMI), dietary calcium intake and bone mineral content in early adolescent females. Methodology: Subjects were 291 girls who participated in a sub-study of the multiple-...

  15. Laboratory studies of the newly discovered infrared band at 4705.2/cm (2.1253 microns) in the spectrum of Io - The tentative identification of CO2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandford, Scott A.; Salama, Farid; Allamandola, Louis J.; Trafton, Larry M.; Lester, Dan F.

    1991-01-01

    The present evaluation of results from over 120 laboratory experiments relevant to the Trafton et al. (1991) discovery of a 2.1253-micron line in the spectrum of Io demonstrates that this band is produced by neither overtones nor combinations of the fundamental bands of molecules already noted on Io. Since the band's frequency is close to the first overtone of the nu(3) asymmetric stretching mode of CO2, attention is given this molecule's behavior under Io conditions. While pure solid CO2, and CO2 intimately mixed in a matrix of solid SO2 and H2S, generate bands of similar widths, these fall at frequencies lower than the Io band. Attention is given to the possible identification of the Io band with CO2 multimers of 'clusters' on Io.

  16. Synthesis Of [2h, 13c]M [2h2m 13c], And [2h3,, 13c] Methyl Aryl Sulfones And Sulfoxides

    DOEpatents

    Martinez, Rodolfo A.; Alvarez, Marc A.; Silks, III, Louis A.; Unkefer, Clifford J.; Schmidt, Jurgen G.

    2004-07-20

    The present invention is directed to labeled compounds, [.sup.2 H.sub.1, .sup.13 C], [.sup.2 H.sub.2, .sup.13 C] and [.sup.2 H.sub.3, .sup.13 C]methyl aryl sulfones and [.sup.2 H.sub.1, .sup.13 C], [.sup.2 H.sub.2, .sup.13 C] and [.sup.2 H.sub.3, .sup.13 C]methyl aryl sulfoxides, wherein the .sup.13 C methyl group attached to the sulfur of the sulfone or sulfoxide includes exactly one, two or three deuterium atoms and the aryl group is selected from the group consisting of 1-naphthyl, substituted 1-naphthyl, 2-naphthyl, substituted 2-naphthyl, and phenyl groups with the structure: ##STR1## wherein R.sub.1, R.sub.2, R.sub.3, R.sub.4 and R.sub.5 are each independently, hydrogen, a C.sub.1 -C.sub.4 lower alkyl, a halogen, an amino group from the group consisting of NH.sub.2, NHR and NRR' where R and R' are each a C.sub.1 -C.sub.4 lower alkyl, a phenyl, or an alkoxy group. The present invention is also directed to processes of preparing methyl aryl sulfones and methyl aryl sulfoxides.

  17. Uranium mobility during interaction of rhyolitic obsidian, perlite and felsite with alkaline carbonate solution: T = 120° C, P = 210 kg/cm2

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zielinski, Robert A.

    1979-01-01

    Well-characterized samples of rhyolitic obsidian, perlite and felsite from a single lava flow are leached of U by alkaline oxidizing solutions under open-system conditions. Pressure, temperature, flow rate and solution composition are held constant in order to evaluate the relative importance of differences in surface area and crystallinity. Under the experimental conditions U removal from crushed glassy samples proceeds by a mechanism of glass dissolution in which U and silica are dissolved in approximately equal weight fractions. The rate of U removal from crushed glassy samples increases with decreasing average grain size (surface area). Initial rapid loss of a small component (≈ 2.5%) of the total U from crushed felsite. followed by much slower U loss, reflects variable rates of attack of numerous uranium sites. The fractions of U removed during the experiment ranged from 3.2% (felsite) to 27% (perlite). An empirical method for evaluating the relative rate of U loss from contemporaneous volcanic rocks is presented which incorporates leaching results and rock permeability data.

  18. Mineralogy and Textural Characteristics of Fine-grained Rims in the Yamato 791198 CM2 Carbonaceous Chondrite: Constraints on the Location of Aqueous Alteration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chizmadia, Lysa J.; Brearley, Adrian J.

    2003-01-01

    Carbonaceous chondrites provide important clues into the nature of physical and chemical processes in the early solar system. A question of key importance concerns the role of water in solar nebular and asteroidal processes. The effects of water on primary mineral assemblages have been widely recognized in chondritic meteorites, especially the CI and CM carbonaceous chondrites. These meteorites have undergone extensive aqueous alteration that occurred prior to their arrival on Earth. In the case of the CM chondrites, this alteration has resulted in the partial to complete replacement of the primary nebular phases with secondary alteration phases. Considerable controversy exists as to the exact location where the alteration of the CM chondrites occurred. Several textural lines of evidence have been cited in support of aqueous alteration prior to the accretion of the final parent asteroid. An important line of evidence to support this hypothesis is the dis-equilibrium nature of fine-grained rims and matrix materials. [2] also noted the juxtaposition of micron-sized Fe-Ni metal grains and apparently unaltered chondrule glass against hydrated rim silicates. Conversely, there is a large body of evidence in favor of parent body alteration such as the occurrence of undisturbed Fe-rich aureoles and the systematic redistribution of elemental components over millimeters, e.g., Mg(+2) into the matrix and Fe(+2) into chondrules etc.

  19. Nanophase, Low-Ni Metal Grains in Fine-grained Rims in the Murchison CM2 Chondrite: Insights into the Survival of Metal Grains During Aqueous Alteration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brearley, Adrian J.

    2003-01-01

    Aqueous alteration has played a significant role in the geological evolution of almost all the chondrite groups and attests to the importance of water during the earliest history of the solar system. Among the chondrites that show evidence of aqueous alteration the CM chondrites, in particular, have received considerable attention, because of their primitive composition and the fact that they preserve a record of incomplete hydration. Petrologic studies of this group of meteorites have helped provide important insights into aqueous alteration processes and the nature of the alteration products. However, due to the complex history of these chondrites, important details of the alteration remain enigmatic. Among the major problems to be resolved are the location and timing of aqueous alteration as well as the relationship between alteration and brecciation. Although many authors favor aqueous alteration within a parent body environment, there is also evidence that some of the components of CM chondrites may have experienced aqueous alteration prior to accretion. One of the key lines of evidence for alteration in a pre-accretionary environment is the presence of unaltered metal grains associated with hydrated phases. Low-Ni metal (kamacite) is typically one of the first phases in CM chondrites that alters in the presence of water. However, in some CM chondrites, such as Yamato 791198, micron-sized metal grains are present within the hydrated fine-grained rim material around chondrules. In addition, nanometer-sized grains that have been interpreted as being unaltered metal particles have been reported in the relatively heavily altered CM chondrite, ALH 81002. In most cases, these occurrences have been interpreted as being the result of mixing of anhydrous and hydrous materials prior to accretion. According to this hypothesis, the metal grains remain unaltered because little or no post-accretionary alteration took place. Whilst such a scenario is plausible, no alternative explanations such as the presence of submicron protective layers or a minor element chemistry that might inhibit oxidation have been investigated in detail. During a study of the distribution of carbonaceous material in fine-grained rims on chondrules in Murchison, previously unidentified, nanometer-sized metal grains were observed. These grains were characterized in detail using high resolution TEM and energy filtered TEM (EFTEM) and provide important insights into how metal grains in CM chondrites may survive aqueous alteration.

  20. Analysis of the electron component of EAS at observational level 700 g x cm(-2) with a scale breaking interaction model and gammaisation hypothesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Procureur, J.; Stamenov, J. N.; Stavrev, P. V.; Ushev, S. Z.

    1985-01-01

    Scale breaking model and gammaisation processes for high energies give a correct description of the longitudinal development of extensive air showers (E.A.S.). From the analysis of phenomenological characteristics of E.A.S. at Tien-Shan experiment, it follows that for energies near 10 to the 6 GeV the secondary particle multiplicity increases with energy faster than is predicted by the accepted scale breaking model.

  1. The system NaCl-CaCl[sub 2]-H[sub 2]O; 2: Densities for ionic strengths of 0. 1--19. 2 mol[center dot]kg[sup [minus]1] at 298. 15 and 308. 15 K and at 0. 1 MPa

    SciTech Connect

    Oakes, C.S.; Bodnar, R.J. . Dept. of Geological Sciences); Simonson, J.M. . Chemistry Division)

    1990-01-01

    Data on the physical properties of the ternary system NaCl-CaCl[sub 2]-H[sub 2]O are of particular importance in the processing and disposal of brines produced from industrial processes, chemical manufacture, and petroleum and geothermal reservoirs. Densities for ternary solutions in the system NaCl-CaCl[sub 2]-H[sub 2]O were measured with a vibrating-tube densimeter at 298.15 [+-] 0.09 and 308.15 [+-] 0.03 K and 0.1 MPa and over a range of ionic strengths from 0.1 to 19.2 mol[center dot]kg[sup [minus]1]. The present results are in excellent agreement with previously published data for the NaCl-H[sub 2]O binary and are in very good agreement with the more precise of the available data for the CaCl[sub 2]-H[sub 2]O binary at 298.15 K. Very large discrepancies between the results of the three most recent reports of densities for the CaCl[sub 2]-H[sub 2]O system at 308.15 K are resolved here, improving both the accuracy and precision for this system. Most significantly, the results reported here substantially expand the volumetric data base for ternary solutions. On the basis of the results of this study, most of the previously reported 308.15 K density data in the ternary system appear to contain large errors. The authors have evaluated the data within the framework of the Pitzer formalism and obtain new values for the ion interaction and mixing parameters for this ternary system. In addition to the parameters determined from the binary end-member solutions, it was found that only [theta][sub NaCa][sup v] was needed to represent the ternary results.

  2. ( x = 0-0.3) Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maji, Binoy Kumar; Jena, Hrudananda; Govindan Kutty, K. V.

    2014-09-01

    Various compositions of Sr1- x La x MoO4+δ ( x = 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3) compounds were prepared by solid state reaction route. The samples were characterized by powder-XRD, TG-DTA, and SEM-EDAX techniques. Formation of single crystalline phases of Sr1- x La x MoO4+δ was confirmed from powder-XRD patterns. The thermal stability of La-doped SrMoO4 compounds was investigated by TG-DTA. Uniform grain distribution was observed in the SEM image of 10-20 mol.% La-substituted compositions. Needle-shaped structures were observed in the SEM image of Sr0.3La0.1MoO4+δ and were confirmed to be La2Mo2O9 by XRD examination. The electrical conductivity of these compounds was measured by AC-impedance technique in the temperature range of 373-1073 K in air ambience and compared with that of pristine SrMoO4. The electrical conductivity was found to decrease for La-substituted SrMoO4 compared to pristine SrMoO4. The diffusion coefficient calculated from the electrical conductivity was found to be in the range of 1.94 ± 0.02 × 10-13 to 1.15 ± 0.01 × 10-11 cm2/S at 873-1173 K for substituted composition and 3.47 ± 0.02 × 10-13 to 2.48 ± 0.01 × 10-10 cm2/S for pristine SrMoO4 at 673-1073 K temperature range.

  3. Computational simulations of hydrogen circular migration in protonated acetylene induced by circularly polarized light.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xuetao; Li, Wen; Schlegel, H Bernhard

    2016-08-28

    The hydrogens in protonated acetylene are very mobile and can easily migrate around the C2 core by moving between classical and non-classical structures of the cation. The lowest energy structure is the T-shaped, non-classical cation with a hydrogen bridging the two carbons. Conversion to the classical H2CCH(+) ion requires only 4 kcal/mol. The effect of circularly polarized light on the migration of hydrogens in oriented C2H3 (+) has been simulated by Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics. Classical trajectory calculations were carried out with the M062X/6-311+G(3df,2pd) level of theory using linearly and circularly polarized 32 cycle 7 μm cosine squared pulses with peak intensity of 5.6 × 10(13) W/cm(2) and 3.15 × 10(13) W/cm(2), respectively. These linearly and circularly polarized pulses transfer similar amounts of energy and total angular momentum to C2H3 (+). The average angular momentum vectors of the three hydrogens show opposite directions of rotation for right and left circularly polarized light, but no directional preference for linearly polarized light. This difference results in an appreciable amount of angular displacement of the three hydrogens relative to the C2 core for circularly polarized light, but only an insignificant amount for linearly polarized light. Over the course of the simulation with circularly polarized light, this corresponds to a propeller-like motion of the three hydrogens around the C2 core of protonated acetylene. PMID:27586924

  4. College Perspective '74: Changes, Challenges, Choices. Proceedings, Annual International Institute on the Community College (5th, Lambton College, Sarnia, Ontario, June 10-13, 1974).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delgrosso, G. M., Ed.; Colford, G. D., Ed.

    These conference papers deal with many topics of current interest to community college educators in Canada and the United States. Subjects discussed include: performance-based, individualized, self-paced, and personalized systems of instruction; institutional goals; systems approaches to instruction; the integration of community colleges, public…

  5. Vibrations of blades and bladed disk assemblies; Proceedings of the Tenth Biennial Conference on Mechanical Vibration and Noise, Cincinnati, OH, September 10-13, 1985

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kielb, R. E. (Editor); Rieger, N. F. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    The papers presented in this volume provide an overview of recent theoretical and analytical research in bladed disk assemblies, with particular attention given to forced response, mistuning, and damping. Specific topics discussed include the response of mistuned bladed disk assemblies; forced response analysis of an aerodynamically detuned supersonic turbomachine rotor; dynamic analysis of blade groups using component mode synthesis; and pendulum dynamic vibration absorbers for reducing blade vibration in industrial fans.

  6. Alternative energy source II; Proceedings of the Second Miami International Conference, Miami Beach, Fla., December 10-13, 1979. Volume 6 - Nuclear energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veziroglu, T. N.

    This volume examines conventional nuclear energy, breeder reactors, and thermonuclear energy. The particular papers presented consider current developments in nuclear breeder technology, fusion-driven fissile fuel breeder systems, and the fusion fission hybrid reactor. The implications of nuclear energy utilization in the Phillipines and the internationally safeguarded atomic fuel exchanger center for the Asian-Pacific basin are also discussed.

  7. European Symposium for the Evaluation of Innovative Projects To Integrate Disadvantaged Young People into Work (Trier, Germany, March 10-13, 1993).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chome, Gesa, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    Some 180 experts from 10 European countries met at the University of Trier (Germany) to exchange information about youth assistance projects and hear views about the extent of unemployment among disadvantaged youth and development of innovative solutions. "The Failure of Young People to Cope with Life When Unemployed" (Bohnisch) showed how…

  8. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (79th, Anaheim, CA, August 10-13, 1996). History Division.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication.

    The history section of the Proceedings contains the following 17 papers: "A Bid for Legitimacy: The Women's Press Club Movement, 1881-1900" (Elizabeth V. Burt); "'Securing the Affections of Those People at This Critical Juncture': Newspaper Portrayal of Colonial-Native American Relations, 1754-1763" (David A. Copeland); "'The Unfortunate Conflict…

  9. Alternative energy sources II; Proceedings of the Second Miami International Conference, Miami Beach, Fla., December 10-13, 1979. Volume 9 - Conservation, economics, and policy; Index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veziroglu, T. N.

    The book examines the topics of waste utilization, conservation, and energy economics and policy. Energy supply and demand, energy economics and planning, and energy strategies and policies are reviewed. Papers are presented on the contributions to the energy supply of the industrialized countries from nuclear energy and regenerative energy flows, a method for estimating escalation and interest during construction, and a comparison of the incentives used to stimulate energy production between the United States and Japan.

  10. National Research Conference on Day Programs for Hearing Impaired Children (Lake Mohonk, New York, May 10-13, 1967). Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulholland, Ann M.; Fellendorf, George W.

    State needs in public school education for the hearing impaired and steps in the development of comprehensive state planning are presented along with recommendations of conference participants, a summary report, and models for regional planning, day programs, and the team approach. The interest of the Alexander Graham Bell Association and the U.S.…

  11. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (79th, Anaheim, CA, August 10-13, 1996). International Communications Division.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication.

    The international communications section of the Proceedings contains the following 14 papers: "Spinning Stories: Latin America and the World Wide Web" (Eliza Tanner); "Private-Enterprise Broadcasting and Accelerating Dependency: Case Studies from Nigeria and Uganda" (Folu Folarin Ogundimu); "The Transitional Media System of Post-Communist…

  12. The Proceedings of the North American Conference on Outdoor Pursuits in Higher Education (1st, Appalachian State University, Boone, North Carolina, February 10-13, 1974).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smathers, Keener, Ed.

    In February of 1974, 135 representatives of 40 colleges and universities from the U.S. and Canada met for the first time to share experiences and programs relative to experimental outdoor education, and these conference proceedings contain the 7 major addresses and a condensed sampling of other presentations from individual college programs.…

  13. Monte Carlo simulations of electron lateral distributions in the core region of 10(13) - 10(16) eV air showers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ash, A. G.

    1985-01-01

    This paper contains details of computer models of shower development which have been used to investigate the experimental data on shower cores observed in the Leeds 35 sq m and Sacramento Peak (New Mexico) 20 sq m arrays of current limited spark (discharge) chambers. The simulations include predictions for primaries ranging from protons to iron nuclei (with heavy nuclei treated using both superposition and fragmentation models).

  14. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (79th, Anaheim, CA, August 10-13, 1996). Law Division.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication.

    The law section of the Proceedings contains the following 12 papers: "Middle Justice: Anthony Kennedy's Freedom of Expression Jurisprudence" (Evelyn C. Ellison); "Defending the News Media's Right of Access to the Battlefield" (Timothy H. Hoyle); "The Freedom of Information Act and Access to Computerized Government Information" (Hsiao-Yin Hsueh);…

  15. Abstracts of Research Papers Presented at the National Convention of the American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance (Cincinnati, Ohio, April 10-13, 1986).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franks, B. Don, Ed.

    This volume contains the Research Consortium abstracts accepted for the 1986 American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance (AAHPERD) convention in Cincinnati, Ohio. There are 45 papers and 184 poster papers that were selected for presentation from a total of 376 abstracts submitted. Each abstract was evaluated by three…

  16. The Changing Face of Adult Learning. Adult Higher Education Alliance/ACE Conference Proceedings (Austin, TX, October 10-13, 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adult Higher Education Alliance.

    These proceedings included the following papers: "The Language of Interdisciplinary Programs or 'What Do You Mean By That?'" (Ezzell, Turner); "When Mothers Become Students: Impact on Children and the Family System" (Burns, Gabrick); "Multi-Discipline Theorizing Meets the Blackboard: The Evolving Discourse Community" (Currey); "Streaming Media:…

  17. Online Catalog Screen Displays. A Series of Discussions. Report of a Conference Sponsored by the Council on Library Resources (Austin, Texas, March 10-13, 1985).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Joan Frye, Ed.

    Papers presented and summaries of discussions at a 3-day conference which focused on screen displays for online catalogs are included in this report. Papers presented were: (1) "Suggested Guidelines for Screen Layouts and Design of Online Catalogs" (Joseph R. Matthews); (2) "Displays in Database Search Systems" (Fran Spigai); (3) "Critique of…

  18. BOOK REVIEW : Future Professional Communication in Astronomy. Proceedings of the Colloquium held at the Palace of the Academies, Brussels, 10-13 June 2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duerbeck, H. W.; Heck, A.; Houziaux, L.

    These are the timely and well-edited proceedings of a colloquium dealing with the present state and the future of "communication'' in astronomy. While communication in the past was mainly restricted to printed journals, conferences and colloquia, things have changed dramatically in the last decades. Journals have gone online, and runs of paper copies are slowly declining. 25 astronomers and representatives of various publishing institutions met in Brussels in June 2007 to discuss the future and the different options of information communication and -exchange. 16 contributions are supplemented by summaries of discussions held at the meeting. After a general overview of one of the organizers, who has played a key role in various aspects of information exchange, several representatives discuss future plans of their publications: K.B. Marvel presents the AAS journals (ApJ parts I and II, ApJS, AJ, which are just being transferred from the University of Chicago Press to Institute of Physics Publishing). P. Murdin represents the RAS and its main journal, the MNRAS. "Open Access'' is of course one of the key words of this conference. Producing a journal (either on paper or electronically) is expensive. For the AAS journals, these costs are shared between authors andsubscribers. Future plans are to abandon "paper copies'' at all, although "printable pages'' will continue to be provided. For MNRAS, it is the subscribers who pay. And if it would have "open access'', authors would have to be charged for publication.Some research funding agencies demand that scientific results that they have sponsored should appear online, and freely available (at least after a certaintime). Various approaches were outlined by representatives of publishers (Wiley-Blackwell, Springer, Elsevier, EDP Sciences). S. Plaszczynski introduced a project for "open access'' in the field of high energy physics. To replace "repositories'' and collections of "preprints'' that may have never made it to the pages of journals for various reasons, a SCOAP model was initiated. This "Sponsoring Consortium for Open Access Publishing in Particle Physics'' will be a global network of funding agencies, laboratories and libraries that will provide the necessary funding for publishing material in the main journals for high energy physics (involving four publishers). M. Kurtz outlined the "Open access policy'' of Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS), while T. Mahoney voiced some caution, since open access may lead to a deterioration or even collapse of the publication process. W. B. Burton and H. A. Abt discussed long-term trends in research literature, while C. Madsen and L. L. Christensen discussed aspects of communication of specialists with politicians and the public. We could only give a brief summary of this book. Many thought-provoking ideas simply defied being abstracted. Anyone who is interested in the publication process in astronomy and its aspects in the future will find a lot of interesting reading in these proceedings.

  19. Physiologic adaptation of man in space; Proceedings of the Seventh International Man in Space Symposium, Houston, TX, Feb. 10-13, 1986

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holland, Albert W. (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    Topics discussed in this volume include space motion sickness, cardiovascular adaptation, fluid shifts, extravehicular activity, general physiology, perception, vestibular response modifications, vestibular physiology, and pharmacology. Papers are presented on the clinical characterization and etiology of space motion sickness, ultrasound techniques in space medicine, fluid shifts in weightlessness, Space Shuttle inflight and postflight fluid shifts measured by leg volume changes, and the probability of oxygen toxicity in an 8-psi space suit. Consideration is also given to the metabolic and hormonal status of crewmembers in short-term space flights, adaptive changes in perception of body orientation and mental image rotation in microgravity, the effects of a visual-vestibular stimulus on the vestibulo-ocular reflex, rotation tests in the weightless phase of parabolic flight, and the mechanisms of antimotion sickness drugs.

  20. The Cartographic Representation of Linguistic Data. Discussion Papers in Geolinguistics Nos. 19-21. Selected Papers from a Geolinguistic Seminar (Le Pailly, France, September 10-13, 1992).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peeters, Yvo J. D., Ed.; Williams, Colin H., Ed.

    Papers from a conference on cartography in geolinguistics include: "The Political Importance of Visualisation of Language Contact" (Yvo J. D. Peeters); "Some Considerations on People and Boundaries" (Guy Heraud); "Geolinguistic Developments and Cartographic Problems" (Colin H. Williams, John E. Ambrose); "A Conceptual Home for Geolinguistics:…

  1. Removing Barriers to the Adult Learner: Through Marketing, Management, and Programming. NUCEA Region VI Conference (Las Vegas, Nevada, October 10-13, 1982).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conter, Robert V., Ed.; Porcelli, Winifred A., Ed.

    These proceedings contain the texts of nine presentations delivered at a conference on removing barriers to the adult learner through marketing, management, and programing. Included in the volume are the following papers: "Faculty Perceptions of Adult Learners, Off-Campus Credit Programs, and Teaching Strategies," by Diane Brewster-Norman; "The…

  2. 1995--Planning and Managing the Odyssey. Proceedings of the National Conference of CAUSE (New Orleans, Louisiana, December 10-13, 1985).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CAUSE, Boulder, CO.

    The 1985 annual meeting of CAUSE, the Professional Association for Computing and Information Technology in Higher Education, addressed the current state and the future of higher education computing from a planning and management perspective, and provided participants with a forum to share special problems and opportunities confronting…

  3. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (79th, Anaheim, CA, August 10-13, 1996). Newspaper and Magazine Division.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication.

    The Newspaper and Magazine section of the proceedings contains the following 11 papers: "Real-Time Journalism: Instantaneous Change for News Writing" (Karla Aronson and others); "Names in the News: A Study of Journalistic Decision-Making in Regard to the Naming of Crime Victims" (Michelle Johnson); "The Daily Newspaper and Audiotex Personals: A…

  4. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (79th, Anaheim, CA, August 10-13, 1996). Radio and Television Division.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication.

    The Radio and Television section of the proceedings contains the following 13 papers: "Two Pacific Powers View the World: News on CBS and TBS Television" (Anne Cooper-Chen); "Nicholas Johnson: The Public's Defender on the Federal Communication Commission, 1966-1973" (Max V. Grubb); "News Tips, TV Viewers, and Computer Links: A Follow-Up Story"…

  5. Alternative energy sources II; Proceedings of the Second Miami International Conference, Miami Beach, Fla., December 10-13, 1979. Volume 4 - Indirect solar energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veziroglu, T. N.

    This volume gives consideration to the topics of wood energy, wind turbines and siting, wind power generation, wave and current energy, tide energy and ocean thermal energy. Particular attention is given to the performance analysis of vertical axis wind turbines, estimating wind potential for small scale energy generation, and the effects of wind integration with conventional electrical generating systems. The development of tidal power in Korea, the design of the OTEC Seacoast Test Facility at Keahole Point, Hawaii, and wind energy utilization possibilities in Turkey are reviewed.

  6. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (79th, Anaheim, CA, August 10-13, 1996). Qualitative Studies Division.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication.

    The Qualitative Studies section of the proceedings contains the following 13 papers: "Writing as Theater: The Marketing of the Digital Word" (Sally McMillan); "Rethinking Ideology: Polysemy, Pleasure and Hegemony in Television Culture" (Luis Rivera-Perez); "Low Power FM: A Small History" (Gregory J. Adamo); "The Residue of Culture: An Ellulian…

  7. Particle distributions in approximately 10(13) - 10(16) eV air shower cores at mountain altitude and comparison with Monte Carlo simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ash, A. G.

    1985-01-01

    Photographs of 521 shower cores in an array of current-limited spark (discharge) chambers at Sacramento Peak (2900m above sea level, 730 g /sq cm.), New Mexico, U.S.A., have been analyzed and the results compared with similar data from Leeds (80m above sea level, 1020 g sq cm.). It was found that the central density differential spectrum is consistent with a power law index of -2 up to approx. 1500/sq m where it steepens, and that shower cores become flatter on average with increasing size. Scaling model predictions for proton primaries with a approx E sup -2.71 energy spectrum account well for the altitude dependence of the data at lower densities. However, deviations at higher densities indicate a change in hadron interaction characteristics between approx few x 10 to the 14th power and 10 to the 15th power eV primary energy causing particles close to the shower axis to be spread further out.

  8. Specific loss of chromosomes 1, 2, 6, 10, 13, 17, and 21 in chromophobe renal cell carcinomas revealed by comparative genomic hybridization.

    PubMed

    Speicher, M R; Schoell, B; du Manoir, S; Schröck, E; Ried, T; Cremer, T; Störkel, S; Kovacs, A; Kovacs, G

    1994-08-01

    We analyzed 19 chromophobe renal cell carcinomas by means of comparative genomic hybridization. Two tumors revealed no numerical abnormalities. In the remaining 17 cases we found loss of entire chromosomes with underrepresentation of chromosome 1 occurring in all 17 cases; loss of chromosomes 2, 10, and 13 in 16 cases; loss of chromosomes 6 and 21 in 15 tumors; and loss of chromosome 17 in 13 cases. The loss of the Y chromosome was observed in 6 of 13 tumors from male patients, whereas 1 X chromosome was lost in 3 of 4 tumors obtained from females. Comparative genomic hybridization results were verified by interphase cytogenetics. We conclude that a specific combination of multiple chromosomal losses characterizes chromophobe renal cell carcinomas and may help to differentiate them unequivocally from other types of kidney cancer. PMID:7519827

  9. Specific loss of chromosomes 1, 2, 6, 10, 13, 17, and 21 in chromophobe renal cell carcinomas revealed by comparative genomic hybridization.

    PubMed Central

    Speicher, M. R.; Schoell, B.; du Manoir, S.; Schröck, E.; Ried, T.; Cremer, T.; Störkel, S.; Kovacs, A.; Kovacs, G.

    1994-01-01

    We analyzed 19 chromophobe renal cell carcinomas by means of comparative genomic hybridization. Two tumors revealed no numerical abnormalities. In the remaining 17 cases we found loss of entire chromosomes with underrepresentation of chromosome 1 occurring in all 17 cases; loss of chromosomes 2, 10, and 13 in 16 cases; loss of chromosomes 6 and 21 in 15 tumors; and loss of chromosome 17 in 13 cases. The loss of the Y chromosome was observed in 6 of 13 tumors from male patients, whereas 1 X chromosome was lost in 3 of 4 tumors obtained from females. Comparative genomic hybridization results were verified by interphase cytogenetics. We conclude that a specific combination of multiple chromosomal losses characterizes chromophobe renal cell carcinomas and may help to differentiate them unequivocally from other types of kidney cancer. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:7519827

  10. Vibration analysis to improve reliability and reduce failure; Proceedings of the Design Automation Conference, Cincinnati, OH, September 10-13, 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Niskode, P.M.; Doepker, P.E.

    1985-01-01

    Among the topics discussed are: turbomachinery tip rubs and interactive casting resonances; the transverse vibrational characteristics of an externally damaged pipe and performance of vibration monitoring for the prevention of gas turbine airfoil failures. Consideration is also given to: velocity response analysis of a spherical roller bearing; vibration monitoring of large pumps via a remote satellite stations; dynamic edge strain prediction in stiffened honeycomb panels; and fault-diagnosis for turbo-machines by means of vibration monitoring. Additional topics discussed include: early detection and diagnosis of faults rolling element bearings; spectral analysis of damped vibration by means of a modified version of the Prony method and guidelines for forced vibration in machine tools for use in protective maintenance and analysis.

  11. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (77th, Atlanta, Georgia, August 10-13, 1994). Part IV: International Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication.

    The International Media section of this collection of conference presentations contains the following 15 papers: "Testing the Interaction of the Third-Person Effect and Spiral of Silence in a Political Pressure Cooker: The Case of Hong Kong" (Lars Willnat); "The Use of Small State Variables in Research on Coverage of Foreign Policy: New Zealand…

  12. Communication, Community, Collaboration, Connection. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Telecommunications in Education (3rd, Albuquerque, New Mexico, November 10-13, 1994).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, David, Ed.; Jolly, Deborah V., Ed.

    New initiatives have provided educators with exciting resources to develop local, regional, and national infrastructures. Many new public and private sector collaborations have been the result, and this conference explores the implications of these changes for the education profession. The profession has focused on the various ethical issues…

  13. Adaptation of Rural and Foreign Workers to Industry, International Joint Seminar (Wiesbaden, December 10-13, 1963). Final Report. International Seminars 1963-4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France). Social Affairs Div.

    The major purpose of a seminar held in Wiesbaden, Germany, was to exchange experiences and views on the methods of expediating adjustment of rural and foreign workers to industry. Major presentations for discussion were "Internal Migration" by Magda Talamo, and "International Migration" by Elie Dimitras. Some conclusions were: (1) Movement of the…

  14. What Are the School-Wide Strategies that Support Sustained, Regular and Effective Instructional Reading Programmes for 10-13-Year-Old Students? A New Zealand Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Jo; Grimley, Michael; Greenwood, Janinka; Parkhill, Faye

    2012-01-01

    There is a significant body of international research indicating that reading instruction does not consistently occur in the final years of primary schooling and progress drops-off as students move through the schooling system. This paper uses case study research to investigate the interactions and the self-perceptions of five literacy leaders,…

  15. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (77th, Atlanta, Georgia, August 10-13, 1994). Part I: Media History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication.

    The Media History section of this collection of conference presentations contains the following 21 papers: "Social Class Advocacy Journalism: Prelude to Party Politics, 1892" (David J. Vergobbi); "Pilfering the News: A Quality Comparison of the World and Journal's Spanish-American War Coverage" (Randall S. Sumpter); "The Early Black Press in…

  16. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (77th, Atlanta, Georgia, August 10-13, 1994). Part X: Miscellaneous Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication.

    The Miscellaneous Studies section of this collection of conference presentations contains the following 22 papers: "Men and Women Journalists in the Movies: Exploration of Some Sexism and Gender Issues in Their Portrayals in Eleven Films" (Albert D. Talbott); "Female Archetypes in Late '80s Films" (Fakhri Haghani); "Chain Ownership, Organizational…

  17. 19 CFR 10.13 - Statutory provision: Subheading 9802.00.80, Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States (19 U...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... integrated circuit. If the movement in question is subject to the specific rate of duty of 75 cents if the value of the assembled movement is $30, and if the value of the American-made integrated circuit is $10, then the value of the integrated circuit represents one third of the total value of the...

  18. 19 CFR 10.13 - Statutory provision: Subheading 9802.00.80, Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States (19 U...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... integrated circuit. If the movement in question is subject to the specific rate of duty of 75 cents if the value of the assembled movement is $30, and if the value of the American-made integrated circuit is $10, then the value of the integrated circuit represents one third of the total value of the...

  19. 19 CFR 10.13 - Statutory provision: Subheading 9802.00.80, Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States (19 U...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... integrated circuit. If the movement in question is subject to the specific rate of duty of 75 cents if the value of the assembled movement is $30, and if the value of the American-made integrated circuit is $10, then the value of the integrated circuit represents one third of the total value of the...

  20. 19 CFR 10.13 - Statutory provision: Subheading 9802.00.80, Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States (19 U...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... integrated circuit. If the movement in question is subject to the specific rate of duty of 75 cents if the value of the assembled movement is $30, and if the value of the American-made integrated circuit is $10, then the value of the integrated circuit represents one third of the total value of the...

  1. National Association for Research in Science Teaching Annual Conference, Abstracts of Presented Papers (61st, Lake of the Ozarks, MO, April 10-13, 1988).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blosser, Patricia E., Ed.; Helgeson, Stanley L., Ed.

    This document contains the abstracts of most of the papers, symposia and poster sessions presented at the 61st Annual Conference of the National Association for Research in Science Teaching (NARST). Subject areas addressed include: teacher preparation, science, technology and society; classroom research; elementary science; process skills;…

  2. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (77th, Atlanta, Georgia, August 10-13, 1994). Part IX: Magazines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication.

    The Magazines section of this collection of conference presentations contains the following 15 papers: "'National Geographic Magazine' and the Vietnam War: Did We Just Get Pretty Pictures?" (John W. Williams); "Free Speech at All Costs: A Short History of 'The Masses'" (Chris Lamb); "Newspapers Locally Edited Magazines Seek Ways to Maintain Place…

  3. History and modern applications of nano-composite materials carrying GA/cm2 current density due to a Bose-Einstein Condensate at room temperature produced by Focused Electron Beam Induced Processing for many extraordinary novel technical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koops, Hans W. P.

    2015-12-01

    The discovery of Focused Electron Beam Induced Processing and early applications of this technology led to the possible use of a novel nanogranular material “Koops-GranMat®” using Pt/C and Au/C material. which carries at room temperature a current density > 50 times the current density which high TC superconductors can carry. The explanation for the characteristics of this novel material is given. This fact allows producing novel products for many applications using Dual Beam system having a gas supply and X.Y.T stream data programming and not using GDSII layout pattern control software. Novel products are possible for energy transportation. -distribution.-switching, photon-detection above 65 meV energy for very efficient energy harvesting, for bright field emission electron sources used for vacuum electronic devices like amplifiers for HF electronics, micro-tubes, 30 GHz to 6 THz switching amplifiers with signal to noise ratio >10(!), THz power sources up to 1 Watt, in combination with miniaturized vacuum pumps, vacuum gauges, IR to THz detectors, EUV- and X-Ray sources. Since focusing electron beam induced deposition works also at low energy, selfcloning multibeam-production machines for field emitter lamps, displays, multi-beam - lithography, - imaging, and - inspection, energy harvesting, and power distribution with switches controlling field-emitter arrays for KA of currents but with < 100 V switching voltage are possible. Finally the replacement of HTC superconductors and its applications by the Koops-GranMat® having Koops-Pairs at room temperature will allow the investigation devices similar to Josephson Junctions and its applications now called QUIDART (Quantum interference devices at Room Temperature). All these possibilities will support a revolution in the optical, electric, power, and electronic technology.

  4. U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory Solid-State Lighting Core Technologies Light Emitting Diodes on Semipolar Bulk GaN Substrate with IQE > 80% at 150 A/cm2 and 100 0C

    SciTech Connect

    Chakraborty, Arpan; David, Aurelien; Grundmann, Michael; Tyagi, Anurag; Craven, Michael; Hurni, Christophe; Cich, Michael

    2015-03-31

    GaN is a crucial material for light-emitting diodes (LEDs) emitting in the violet-to-green range. Despite its good performance, it still suffers from significant technical limitations. In particular, the efficiency of GaN-based LEDs decreases at high current (“current droop”) and high temperature (“temperature droop”). This is problematic in some lighting applications, where a high-power operation is required. This program studied the use of particular substrates to improve the efficiency of GaN-based LEDs: bulk semipolar (SP) GaN substrates. These substrates possess a very high material quality, and physical properties which are distinctly different from legacy substrates currently used in the LED industry. The program focused on the development of accurate metrology to quantify the performance of GaN-based LEDs, and on improvement to LED quality and design on SP substrates. Through a thorough optimization process, we demonstrated violet LEDs with very high internal quantum efficiency, exceeding 85% at high temperature and high current. We also investigated longer-wavelength blue emitters, but found that the limited strain budget was a key limitation.

  5. ExoMol molecular line lists - XIV: The rotation-vibration spectrum of hot SO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Underwood, Daniel S.; Tennyson, Jonathan; Yurchenko, Sergei N.; Huang, Xinchuan; Schwenke, David W.; Lee, Timothy J.; Clausen, Sønnik; Fateev, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    Sulphur dioxide is well-known in the atmospheres of planets and satellites, where its presence is often associated with volcanism, and in circumstellar envelopes of young and evolved stars as well as the interstellar medium. This work presents a line list of 1.3 billion 32S16O2 vibration-rotation transitions computed using an empirically-adjusted potential energy surface and an ab initio dipole moment surface. The list gives complete coverage up to 8000 cm-1 (wavelengths longer than 1.25 μm) for temperatures below 2000 K. Infrared absorption cross sections are recorded at 300 and 500 C are used to validated the resulting ExoAmes line list. The line list is made available in electronic form as supplementary data to this article and at www.exomol.com.

  6. ExoMol line lists XV: A new hot line list for hydrogen peroxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Refaie, Ahmed F.; Polyansky, Oleg L.; Ovsyannikov, Roman I.; Tennyson, Jonathan; Yurchenko, Sergei N.

    2016-05-01

    A computed line list for hydrogen peroxide, H216O2, applicable to temperatures up to T = 1250 K is presented. A semi-empirical high accuracy potential energy surface is constructed and used with an ab initio dipole moment surface as input TROVE to compute 7.5 million rotational-vibrational states and around 20 billion transitions with associated Einstein-A coefficients for rotational excitations up to J = 85. The resulting APTY line list is complete for wavenumbers below 6 000 cm-1 (λ < 1.67 μm) and temperatures up to 1250 K. Room-temperature spectra are compared with laboratory measurements and data currently available in the HITRAN database and literature. Our rms with line positions from the literature is 0.152 cm-1 and our absolute intensities agree better than 10%. The full line list is available from the CDS database as well as at www.exomol.com.

  7. Free-radical scavengers and antioxidants from Peumus boldus Mol. ("Boldo").

    PubMed

    Schmeda-Hirschmann, G; Rodriguez, J A; Theoduloz, C; Astudillo, S L; Feresin, G E; Tapia, A

    2003-04-01

    The dry leaves of Peumus boldus (Monimiaceae) are used in infusion or decoction as a digestive and to improve hepatic complains. Preliminary assays showed free-radical scavenging activity in hot water extracts of boldo leaves, measured by the decoloration of a methanolic solution of the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl radical (DPPH). Assay-guided isolation led to the active compounds. Catechin proved to be the main free-radical scavenger of the extracts. Lipid peroxidation in erythrocytes was inhibited by boldo extracts and fractions at 500 microg/ml with higher effect for the ethyl acetate soluble and alkaloid fractions. The IC50 for catechin and boldine in the lipid peroxidation test were 75.6 and 12.5 microg/ml, respectively. On the basis of dry starting material the catechin content in the crude drug was 2.25% while the total alkaloid calculated as boldine was 0.06%. The activity of boldine was six times higher than catechin in the lipid peroxidation assay. However, the mean catechin:total alkaloid content ratio was 37:1. The relative concentration of alkaloids and phenolics in boldo leaves and their activity suggest that free-radical scavenging effect is mainly due to catechin and flavonoids and that antioxidant effect is mainly related with the catechin content The high catechin content of boldo leaves and its bioactivity suggest that quality control of Boldo folium has to combine the analysis of catechin as well as their characteristic aporphine alkaloids. PMID:12747739

  8. [Storage of cereal bars with mesquite cotyledon (Prosopis chilensis (Mol) Stuntz)].

    PubMed

    Escobar, B; Estévez, A M; Guiñez, M A

    2000-06-01

    The use of walnut or peanut in the elaboration of cereal bars represents a possible risk of undesirable changes during their storage due to their high content of unsaturated fatty acids in the oil; oxidizing of the fatty acids is one of the main causes of deterioration. Development of new snack products implies the use of packages that should protect the food against the damage caused by light and reduce the oxygen concentration of in their interior. The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the physical, chemical and sensory changes in the storage of cereal bars with peanut or walnut and mezquite cotyledon subjected to two thermal treatments, packed in cellophane or milky polypropilene. Four types of bars were elaborated with 6% of mezquite cotyledon, treated by microwaves or toasted, and with 18% of peanut or walnut. The bars were stored for 90 days at room temperature; and each 30 days it was measured moisture content, peroxides index, water activity, sensory quality and acceptability. The peroxides values (4.9-13.8 meq/kg of oil) indicates that the shelf life of the bars in all the studied treatments was 90 days. The packaging materials used allows to maintain in good conditions, for 3 months, the cereals bars of moisture (7.4-11.2%), water activity (0.50-0.65) and sensory acceptability. PMID:11048587

  9. Coprecipitation Synthesis of Superplastic 3 Mol. % Yttria -- Stabilized Tetragonal Zirconia Polycrystalline / Magnesium Aluminate Spinel Nanocomposite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Opoku, Michael

    3 mole % Yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystalline/Magnesium aluminate spinel (3Y-TZP/MgAl2O4) nanocomposite have exhibited high strain rate superplasticity at 1.7x10--2 --3.3x10--1 s --1. Low strain rate superplasticity (10--5--10 --3 s--1) has been the main drawback of using superplastic ceramics in industries. Microstructural design of 3Y-TZP/MgAl2O4 composite is a key in obtaining high strain rate superplasticity within the range of 10 --2--100 s--1 ). 3Y-TZP/MgAl2O4 may experience a surge in its application at high temperature if the microstructure is designed to exhibit high strain rates at low temperatures. In the present study, the reverse coprecipitation synthesis technique was adopted to synthesize nanocomposite powders containing 70%3Y-TZP/30%MgAl 2O4 and 60%3Y-TZP/40%MgAl2O4 with microstructural characteristics suitable for superplastic application. It was expected that the coprecipitation synthesis technique route will yield highly homogeneous nanocrystalline composite powders, which could be sintered into a dense component with high thermal stability of the small grains. Microstructual features observed after processing powders of 3Y-TZP/MgAl2O4 revealed that the coprecipitation synthesis is a suitable technique for processing nanocomposite powders for superplastic application.

  10. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Properties of SCUBA cores in Perseus mol. cloud (Curtis+, 2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curtis, E. I.; Richer, J. S.

    2013-05-01

    We extracted fully calibrated and reduced SCUBA 850um maps across the four regions in Perseus we observed with HARP from the data presented by Hatchell et al. (2005, Cat. J/A+A/440/151), where we refer the reader for details of the observations and processing. In short, the data were taken during 20 nights between 1999 and 2003. (2 data files).

  11. ExoMol line lists - XV. A new hot line list for hydrogen peroxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Refaie, Ahmed F.; Polyansky, Oleg L.; Ovsyannikov, Roman I.; Tennyson, Jonathan; Yurchenko, Sergei N.

    2016-09-01

    A computed line list for hydrogen peroxide, H216O2, applicable to temperatures up to T = 1250 K is presented. A semi-empirical high-accuracy potential energy surface is constructed and used with an ab initio dipole moment surface as input TROVE to compute 7.5 million rotational-vibrational states and around 20 billion transitions with associated Einstein-A coefficients for rotational excitations up to J = 85. The resulting APTY line list is complete for wavenumbers below 6000 cm-1 (λ < 1.67 μm) and temperatures up to 1250 K. Room-temperature spectra are compared with laboratory measurements and data currently available in the HITRAN data base and literature. Our rms with line positions from the literature is 0.152 cm-1 and our absolute intensities agree better than 10 per cent. The full line list is available from the CDS data base as well as at www.exomol.com.

  12. ExoMol line lists XVIII. The high temperature spectrum of VO.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKemmish, Laura K.; Yurchenko, Sergei N.; Tennyson, Jonathan

    2016-08-01

    An accurate line list, VOMYT, of spectroscopic transitions is presented for hot VO. The 13 lowest electronic states are considered. Curves and couplings are based on initial ab initio electronic structure calculations and then tuned using available experimental data. Dipole moment curves, used to obtain transition intensities, are computed using high levels of theory (e.g. MRCI/aug-cc-pVQZ using state-specific or minimal-state CAS for dipole moments). This line list contains over 277 million transitions between almost 640,000 energy levels. It covers the wavelengths longer than 0.29 μm and includes all transitions from energy levels within the lowest nine electronic states which have energies less than 20,000 cm-1 to upper states within the lowest 13 electronic states which have energies below 50,000 cm-1. The line lists give significantly increased absorption at infrared wavelengths compared to currently available VO line lists. The full line lists is made available in electronic form via the CDS database and at www.exomol.com.

  13. Plasma etch challenges with new EUV lithography material introduction for patterning for MOL and BEOL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Changwoo; Nagabhirava, Bhaskar; Goss, Michael; Wang, Peng; Friddle, Phil; Schmitz, Stafan; Wu, Jian; Yang, Richard; Mignot, Yann; Rassoul, Nouradine; Hamieh, Bassem; Beique, Genevieve; Labonte, Andre; Labelle, Catherine; Arnold, John; Mucci, John

    2015-03-01

    As feature critical dimension (CD) shrinks towards and beyond the 7nm node, patterning techniques for optical lithography with double and triple exposure will be replaced by EUV patterning. EUV enables process and overlay improvement, as well as a potential cost reduction due to fewer wafer passes and masks required for patterning. However, the EUV lithography technique introduces newer types of resists that are thinner and softer compared to conventional 193nm resists currently being used. The main challenge is to find the key etch process parameters to improve the EUV resist selectivity, reduce LER and LWR, minimize line end shrink, improve tip-to-tip degradation, and avoid line wiggling while still enabling previous schemes such as trench-first-metal-hard-mask (TFMHM), self-aligned via (SAV) and self-aligned contact (SAC). In this paper, we will discuss some of the approaches that we have investigated to define the best etch process adjustments to enable EUV patterning. RF pulsing is one of the key parameters utilized to overcome most of the previously described challenges, and has also been coupled with stack optimization. This study will focus on RF pulsing (high vs. low frequency results) and bias control (RF frequency dependence). In particular, pulsing effects on resist morphology, selectivity and profile management will be reported, as well as the role of aspect ratio and etch chemistry on organic mask wiggling and collapse. This work was performed by the Research Alliance Teams at various IBM Research and Development Facilities.

  14. P. MULTOCIDA MEMBRANE PROTEOME ANALYSIS (POSTER PRESENTATION FOR THE AM. SOC. BIOCHEM. & MOL. BIOL. MEETING)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Commercial bacterins for the control of fowl cholera are comprised of P. multocida serotypes A:1, A:3, and A:4, which are the serotypes that are most often associated with outbreaks in poultry flocks. A membrane-associated protein fraction (cross-protective factor, CPF), comprised of 11 major prote...

  15. ExoMol line lists - VIII. A variationally computed line list for hot formaldehyde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Refaie, Ahmed F.; Yachmenev, Andrey; Tennyson, Jonathan; Yurchenko, Sergei N.

    2015-04-01

    A computed line list for formaldehyde, H212C16O, applicable to temperatures up to T = 1500 K is presented. An empirical potential energy and ab initio dipole moment surfaces are used as the input to the nuclear motion program TROVE. The resulting line list, referred to as AYTY, contains 10.3 million rotational-vibrational states and around 10 billion transition frequencies. Each transition includes associated Einstein-A coefficients and absolute transition intensities, for wavenumbers below 10 000 cm-1 and rotational excitations up to J = 70. Room-temperature spectra are compared with laboratory measurements and data currently available in the HITRAN data base. These spectra show excellent agreement with experimental spectra and highlight the gaps and limitations of the HITRAN data. The full line list is available from the CDS data base as well as at www.exomol.com.

  16. VizieR Online Data Catalog: ExoMol line lists for HNO3 (Pavlyuchko+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlyuchko, A. I.; Yurchenko, S. N.; Tennyson, J.

    2015-05-01

    The data for each isotopologue are in two parts. The first, HNO3.states contains a list of rovibronic states. Each state is labelled with the total angular momentum, state degeneracy, total parity, vibrational quantum number, projection of the electronic, spin and total angular momenta. Each state has a unique number, which is the number of the row in which it appears in the file. This number is the means by which the state is related to the second part of the data system, the transitions files. Because of their size, the transitions are listed in 71 separate files, each containing all the transitions in a 100cm-1 wavenumber range. These and their contents are ordered by increasing frequency. The name of the file includes the lowest frequency in the range; thus the a-00500.dat file contains all the transitions in the frequency range 500-600cm-1. The transition files a-*.dat contain three columns: the reference number in the energy file of the upper state; that of the lower state; and the Einstein A coefficient of the transition. (3 data files).

  17. ExoMol molecular line lists - XIV. The rotation-vibration spectrum of hot SO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Underwood, Daniel S.; Tennyson, Jonathan; Yurchenko, Sergei N.; Huang, Xinchuan; Schwenke, David W.; Lee, Timothy J.; Clausen, Sønnik; Fateev, Alexander

    2016-07-01

    Sulphur dioxide is well-known in the atmospheres of planets and satellites, where its presence is often associated with volcanism, and in circumstellar envelopes of young and evolved stars as well as the interstellar medium. This work presents a line list of 1.3 billion 32S16O2 vibration-rotation transitions computed using an empirically adjusted potential energy surface and an ab initio dipole moment surface. The list gives complete coverage up to 8000 cm-1 (wavelengths longer than 1.25 μm) for temperatures below 2000 K. Infrared absorption cross-sections are recorded at 300 and 500 C are used to validated the resulting ExoAmes line list. The line list is made available in electronic form as supplementary data to this article and at www.exomol.com.

  18. Seismic Monitoring at the Underground Nuclear Research Laboratory in Mol, Belgium - 12461

    SciTech Connect

    Areias, Lou

    2012-07-01

    Micro-seismic piezoelectric transmitters installed in the Boom Clay at HADES produce predominantly high frequency signals, above 5 kHz, which favour the generation of P waves. However, above 5 kHz shear (S) waves are not detected by the installation. Recent studies at HADES indicate that it is possible to detect S waves with the current setup when applying a low (5 kHz) cut-off filter. The results also show that S waves have frequencies mainly below 1 kHz, while P waves are detectable at all of the eight transmitted frequencies but show optimum resolution in the range of 7 to 23 kHz. Although the system offers great potential for monitoring the evolution of a geological disposal site, further improvements in signal generation and treatment are necessary. One of these includes the design and testing of a new S-wave source at HADES planned in the framework of the EC MoDeRn project (http://www.modern-fp7.eu/). The seismic installation at HADES continues to provide useful information on the changing properties of the Boom Clay in the near and far field around the PRACLAY gallery since its start of operation in 2006. In the future, the system will also monitor the PRACLAY heater experiment that will start in 2012 and go on for 10 years. So far, the results of long term seismic monitoring show that S waves contain frequencies mainly below 1 kHz. The P waves are detectable at all of the eight transmitted frequencies but show optimum resolution in the range of 7 to 23 kHz. To improve the signal-to-noise ratio and detection of S waves at HADES it is, therefore, necessary to apply a strong low-pass filter that matches the S-wave frequency content. Due to the different frequency ranges observed for the P and S waves, it is recommended to treat them separately. The evolution of both P and S wave velocities in the EDZ around the PRACLAY gallery show continued recovery since its construction in 2007. Modelling results of the variation in crack density obtained from the inversion of the modelled P-wave transmission velocities further confirm the recovery of the EDZ and the self-healing properties of the Boom Clay. (authors)

  19. VizieR Online Data Catalog: ExoMol line lists for CH4 (Yurchenko+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yurchenko, S. N.; Tennyson, J.

    2014-02-01

    The data are in two parts. The first, ch4_0-39.dat contains a list of 7,819,352 rovibrational states. Each state is labelled with: nine normal mode vibrational quantum numbers and the vibrational symmety; three rotational quantum numbers including the total angular momentum J and rotational symmetry; the total symmetry quantum number Gamma and the running number in the same (J,Gamma,Polyad) combination, where Polyad is a polyad number (see paper). In addition there are nine local mode vibrational numbers and the largest coefficient used to assign the state in question. Each rovibrational state has a unique number, which is the number of the row in which it appears in the file. This number is the means by which the state is related to the second part of the data system, the transitions files. The total degeneracy is also given to facilitate the intensity calculations. Because of their size, the transitions are listed in 120 separate files, each containing all the transitions in a 100cm-1 frequency range. These and their contents are ordered by increasing frequency. The name of the file includes the lowest frequency in the range; thus the a-00500.dat file contains all the transitions in the frequency range 500-600cm-1. The transition files contain three columns: the reference number in the energy file of the upper state; that of the lower state; and the Einstein A coefficient of the transition. The energy file and the transitions files are zipped, and need to be extracted before use. There is a Fortran 90 programme, s_10to10.f90 which may be used to generate synthetic spectra (see s_10to10.txt for details). Using this, it is possible to generate absorption or emission spectra in either 'stick' form or else cross-sections convoluted with a gaussian with the half-width at half maximum being specified by the user, or with a the temperature-dependent doppler half-width. Sample input files s*.inp for use with s10to10.f90 are supplied. (9 data files).

  20. Nanostructured crystals of fluorite phases Sr{sub 1−x}R{sub x}F{sub 2+x} (R Are Rare Earth Elements) and their ordering: 10. Ordering under spontaneous crystallization and annealing of Sr{sub 1−x}R{sub x}F{sub 2+x} Alloys (R = Tb-Lu, Y) with 23.8–36.1 mol % RF{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Sulyanova, E. A. Karimov, D. N.; Sulyanov, S. N.; Zhmurova, Z. I.; Golubev, A. M.; Sobolev, B. P.

    2015-01-15

    The products of spontaneous crystallization (at a cooling rate of ∼200 K/min) of Sr{sub 1−x}R{sub x}F{sub 2+x} melts in the homogeneity range of the fluorite phase have been investigated. Thirty-two irrational compositions with 23.8–36.1 mol % RF{sub 3} and eight rational Sr{sub 2}RF{sub 7} compositions are obtained. With respect to the RF{sub 3} content, these compositions form five groups: (1) Sr{sub 0.762}R{sub 0.238}F{sub 2.238} (23.8% RF{sub 3}), (2) Sr{sub 0.744}R{sub 0.256}F{sub 2.256} (25.6%), (3) Sr{sub 0.718}R{sub 0.282}F{sub 2.282} (28.2%), (4) Sr{sub 2}RF{sub 7} (33.3%), and (5) Sr{sub 0.639}R{sub 0.361}F{sub 2.361} (36.1%). R = Tb-Lu, Y for all groups. Quenching melts of group 5 with R = Tb, Dy, and Ho leads to the formation of ordered phases with the trigonal distortion of the rhβ-Na{sub 7}Zr{sub 6}F{sub 31} type, while for melts of group 5 with R = Lu, quenching yields a phase of the trigonal rhα′-Sr{sub 4}Lu{sub 3}F{sub 17} type. In group 5 with R = Y, Er, Tm, or Yb and in groups 1–4 with all REEs, fluorite phases are formed. Annealing at 900 ± 20°C for 96 h with subsequent cooling at a rate of ∼200 K/min expands the variety of ordered phases: a phase with a new r type of orthorhombic distortion is formed in group 1 with R = Lu, in group 2 with R = Tm or Lu, and in group 3 with R = Ho-Lu, Y; a t-Sr{sub 2}RF{sub 7} phase with tetragonal distortion is formed in group 4 with R = Tb-Er, Y; and a phase of trigonal rhα′ type is formed in group 5 with R = Y, Yb, or Lu. A fluorite phase arises in group 1 with R = Tb-Lu, Y as a result of quenching and annealing. The tendency to ordering becomes more pronounced with an increase in the RF{sub 3} content and REE atomic number. The annealing conditions do not provide equilibrium or the completely ordered state of all alloys.

  1. Conformation of heparin studied with macromolecular hydrodynamic methods and X-ray scattering.

    PubMed

    Pavlov, Georges; Finet, Stéphanie; Tatarenko, Karine; Korneeva, Evgueniya; Ebel, Christine

    2003-08-01

    The hydrodynamic characteristics of heparin fractions in a 0.2 M NaCl solution have been determined. Experimental values varied over the following ranges: the sedimentation coefficient (at 20.0 degrees C), 1.310(13)<3.2 s; the Gralen coefficient (sedimentation concentration-dependence parameter), 10cm2 s(-1); the intrinsic viscosity, 7.9<[eta]<40 cm3 g(-1). Combination of s0 with D0 using the Svedberg equation yielded molecular weights in the range 3.9mol(-1). The value of the mass per unit length of the heparin molecule, ML, was determined using the theory of hydrodynamic properties of a weakly bending rod, giving ML=570 +/- 50 g nm(-1) mol(-1). The equilibrium rigidity, Kuhn segment length (A=9 +/- 2 nm) and hydrodynamic diameter (d=0.9 +/- 0.1 nm) of heparin were evaluated on the basis of the worm-like coil theory without the excluded volume effect, using the combination of hydrodynamic data obtained from fractions of different sizes. Small-angle X-ray scattering for three heparin fractions allowed an estimate for the cross-sectional radius of gyration as 0.43 nm; from the evolution with the macromolecule contour length of the radius of gyration, a value for the Kuhn segment length of 9 +/- 1 nm was obtained. A good correlation is thus observed for the conformational parameters of heparin from hydrodynamic and X-ray scattering data. These values describe heparin as a semi-rigid polymer, with an equilibrium rigidity that is essentially determined by a structural component, the electrostatic contribution being negligible in 0.2 M NaCl. PMID:12844240

  2. Damage and annealing of potassium titanyl phosphate after Er + and Yb + implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ke-Ming; Shi, Bo-Rong; Zhai, Hong-Ying; Liu, Xiang-Dong; Liu, Yao-Gang; Li, Yi; Li, Ju-Sheng

    1994-12-01

    200-350 keV Er + and Yb + were implanted into potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP or KTiOPO 4). The dose ranged from 1 × 10 13 to 5 × 10 13 ions cm -2. The radiation damage was investigated by RBS (Rutherford backscattering spectrometry)/channeling as a function of dose, energy, ion mass and annealing. The results show that the damage in KTiOPO 4 depends strongly on the dose, energy, ion mass and annealing. After 800°C annealing, some recrystallization was observed, but there remained damage for KTiOPO 4 (100) irradiated by 200 keV Er + at a dose of 2 × 10 13 ions cm -2 which is a little different from the report on the case of 400 keV He ions implanted into the KTP.

  3. Optical properties and electrochemical dealloying of Gold-Silver alloy nanoparticles immobilized on composite thin-film electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starr, Christopher A.

    Gold-silver alloy nanoparticles (NPs) capped with adenosine 5'-triphosphate were synthesized by borohydride reduction of dilute aqueous metal precursors. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy showed the as-synthesized particles to be spherical with average diameters ~4 nm. Optical properties were measured by UV-Visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), and the formation of alloy NPs was verified across all gold:silver ratios by a linear shift in the plasmon band maxima against alloy composition. The molar absorptivities of the NPs decreased non-linearly with increasing gold content from 2.0 x 108 M-1 cm-1 (lambdamax = 404 nm) for pure silver to 4.1 x 107 M-1 cm -1 (lambdamax = 511 nm) for pure gold. The NPs were immobilized onto transparent indium-tin oxide composite electrodes using layer-by-layer (LbL) deposition with poly(diallyldimethylammonium) acting as a cationic binder. The UV-Vis absorbance of the LbL film was used to calculate the surface coverage of alloy NPs on the electrode. Typical preparations had average NP surface coverages of 2.8 x 10-13 mol NPs/cm2 (~5% of cubic closest packing) with saturated films reaching ~20% of ccp for single-layer preparations (1.0 ~ 10-12 mol NPs/cm2). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirmed the presence of alloy NPs in the LbL film and showed silver enrichment of the NP surfaces by ~9%. Irreversible oxidative dissolution (dealloying) of the less noble silver atoms from the NPs on LbL electrodes was performed by cyclic voltammetry (CV) in sulfuric acid. Alloy NPs with higher gold content required larger overpotentials for silver dealloying. Dealloying of the more-noble gold atoms from the alloy NPs was also achieved by CV in sodium chloride. The silver was oxidized first to cohesive silver chloride, and then gold dealloyed to soluble HAuCl 4- at higher potentials. Silver oxidation was inhibited during the first oxidative scan, but subsequent cycles showed typical, reversible silver-to-silver chloride voltammetry. The

  4. Infrared spectral properties for α-NaYF4 single crystal of various Er3+doping concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Cheng; Xia, Haiping; Feng, Zhigang; Zhang, Zhixiong; Jiang, Dongsheng; Zhang, Jian; He, Shinan; Tang, Qingyang; sheng, Qiguo; Gu, Xuemei; Zhang, Yuepin; Chen, Baojiu; Jiang, Haochuan

    2016-08-01

    The α-NaYF4 single crystals doped with 0.2 mol%, 0.5 mol%, 1 mol%, 2 mol% and 3 mol% Er3+ ions were fabricated by an improved Bridgman method. The ~1.5 μm and ~2.7 μm emission properties were investigated in detail through the measured absorption and emission spectra. A Judd-Ofelt analysis of Er3+in α-NaYF4 samples is performed. The Judd-Ofelt parameters are obtained (Ω2=2.71×10-20 cm2, Ω4=2.28×10-20 cm2, Ω6=0.84×10-20 cm2) and the radiative lifetimes of Er3+energy levels and the branching ratios of Er3+transitions are calculated. The calculated maximum emission cross section by McCumber theory for ~1.5 μm and ~2.7 μm reached 1.35×10-20 cm2 and 2.2×10-20 cm2, respectively. The gain cross section spectra were calculated based on the absorption and emission cross section spectra. All these spectral properties indicated that this kind of fluoride crystal has potential application as host material for infrared lasers.

  5. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (77th, Atlanta, Georgia, August 10-13, 1994). Part VII: Media and Politics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication.

    The Media and Politics section of this collection of conference proceedings contains the following 11 papers: "Characteristics of Readers of Religious Publications for Political Information" (Judith M. Buddenbaum); "Is 'Nightline' Biased?: A Content Analysis of the Issue of Gays in the Military" (Chuck Hoy and Terry Scott); "Newspaper Coverage of…

  6. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (77th, Atlanta, Georgia, August 10-13, 1994). Part II: Media and Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication.

    The Media and Law section of this collection of conference presentations contains the following 11 papers: "Independent State Constitutional Analysis of Public Concern and Opinion Issues in Defamation Litigation, 1977-1993" (James Parramore); "The President John F. Kennedy Assassination Records Collection Act of 1992: Will Sun Finally Shine over…

  7. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (77th, Atlanta, Georgia, August 10-13, 1994). Part VI: Mass Media Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication.

    The Mass Media Effects section of this collection of conference presentations contains the following 13 papers: "The Nature of the Public's Objections to Television Programs: An Examination of Third-Person Effects" (Guy E. Lometti and others); "An Examination of the Relationship of Structural Pluralism, News Role and Source Use with Framing in the…

  8. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (77th, Atlanta, Georgia, August 10-13, 1994). Part V: Media and Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication.

    The Media and Technology section of this collection of conference presentations contains the following 10 papers: "Carpooling on the Information Superhighway" (Lorna Veraldi); "New Media Departure in 'The Principle of Relative Constancy': VCRs" (Ghee-Young Noh); "Why the Western Design Approach Does Not Work for Asian Language Computers" (Virginia…

  9. Clear cutting (10-13th century) and deep stable economy (18-19th century) as responsible interventions for sand drifting and plaggic deposition in cultural landscapes on aeolian sands (SE-Netherlands).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Mourik, Jan; Vera, Hein; Wallinga, Jakob

    2013-04-01

    The landscape in extensive areas in SE-Netherlands is underlain by coversand, deposited during the Late Glacial of the Weichselian. In the Preboreal, aeolian processes reduced soil formation. From the Preboreal to the Atlantic a deciduous climax forest developed. The geomorphology was a coversand landscape, composed of ridges (umbric podzols), coversand plains (gleyic podzols), coversand depressions (histic podzols) and small valleys (gleysols). The area was used by hunting people during the Late Paleolithic and Mesolithic. During the Bronze and Iron Ages the area was populated by people, living from forest grazing, shifting cultivation and trade. The natural deciduous forest gradually degraded into Calluna heath. The deforestation accelerated the soil acidification and affected the hydrology, which is reflected in drying out of ridges and wetting of depressions, promoting the development of histic podzols and even histosols. Aeolian erosion was during this period restricted to local, small scale sand drifting, related to natural hazards as forest fires and hurricanes and shifting cultivation. Sustainable crop productivity on chemically poor sandy substrates required application of organic fertilizers, composed of a mixture of organic litter and animal manure with a very low mineral compound, produced in shallow stables. At least since 1000 AD, heath management was regulated by a series of rules that aimed to protect the valuable heat lands against degradation. During the 11th, 12th and 13th centuries there was an increasing demand for wood and clear cutting transformed the majority of the forests in driftsand landscapes. The most important market was formed by the very wealthy Flemish cities. The exposed soil surface was subjected to wind erosion and sand drifting which endangered the Calluna heath, arable land and even farmhouses. As a consequence, umbric podzols, the natural climax soil under deciduous forests on coversand, degraded into larger scale driftsand landscapes, characterized by deflation plains (gleyic arenosols) and complexes of inland dunes (haplic arenosols). Clear cutting was responsible for the mediaeval first large scale expansion of drift sand landscapes. In such driftsand landscapes, the majority of the podzolic soils in coversand has been truncated by aeolian erosion. Only on scattered sheltered sites in the landscape, palaeopodzols were buried under mono or polycyclic driftsand deposits. They are now the valuable soil archives for palaeoecological research. During the 18th century, the population growth and regional economic activity stimulated the agricultural productivity. Farmers introduced the innovative 'deep stable' technique to increase the production of fertilizers. Farmers started sod digging, including the top of the Ah horizon of the humus forms. This consequently promoted heath degradation and sand drifting, resulting in the extension of driftsand landscapes. Deep stable economy and sod digging was responsible for the 18th century second large scale expansion of drift sand landscapes. During the 19th century, farmers tried to find alternative fertilizers and authorities initiated reforestation projects. The invention of chemical fertilizers at the end of the 19th century marked the end of the period of heath management and plaggic agriculture. The heath was no longer used for the harvesting of plaggic matter and new land management practices were introduced. Heath was reclaimed to new arable land or reforested with Scotch pine. Geomorphological features as inland dunes and plaggic covers survived in the landscape and are now included in the geological inheritance.

  10. Setting the Pace for Professionalism. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association of Physical Plant Administrators of Universities and Colleges (70th, Louisville, Kentucky, July 10-13, 1983).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Physical Plant Administrators of Universities and Colleges, Washington, DC.

    Professionalism in the management and operations of the physical plant at universities and colleges is addressed in the 30 papers published in this Proceedings, which contains all the presentations made at the 1983 meeting. Papers and authors include the following: "Evaluation of Single-Ply Roof Systems" (Mark D. Langford, Steve Wolff); "Managing…

  11. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (79th, Anaheim, CA, August 10-13, 1996). Status of Women and Minorities and Communication Division.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication.

    The Status of Women and Minorities and Communication section of the proceedings contains the following 14 papers: "Who Harasses Women Journalists? A Qualitative Look at Sexual Harassment among U.S. Newswomen" (Kim Walsh-Childers and others); "Not There Yet--Coverage of Women in Foreign News: A 1995 Multi-National Study" (Anat First and Donald L.…

  12. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (79th, Anaheim, CA, August 10-13, 1996). Mass Communication and Society Division.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication.

    The mass communication and society section of the Proceedings contains the following 17 papers: "Deviance in News Coverage of On-Line Communications: A Print Media Comparison" (Lisa M. Weidman); "Political Tolerance of Environmental Protest: The Roles of Generalized and Specialized Information" (Catherine A. Steele and Carol M. Liebler); "First…

  13. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (79th, Anaheim, CA, August 10-13, 1996). Communication Theory and Methodology Division.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication.

    The communication theory and methodology section of the Proceedings contains the following 20 papers: "Political Adwatches and the Third-Person Effect" (Ekaterina Ognianova and others); "Understanding Adopters of Audio Information Services" (Kimberly A. Neuendorf and others); "A Principal-Agent Approach to the Study of Media Organizations: Toward…

  14. Research in Science Education, 1994. Selected Refereed Papers from the Annual Conference of the Australasian Science Education Research Association (25th, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia, July 10-13, 1994).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Paul L., Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This volume contains 41 papers, 10 abstracts/research notes, and an after-dinner speech "The Book of Genesis and the Chronicles of the People of ASERA (Australasian Science Education Research Association). Paper titles include: "Improving students' understanding of carbohydrate metabolism in first-year Biochemistry at tertiary level"; "Students'…

  15. Preparing for a New Century of Learning: Technology, Education, and the Internet. ICTE Tampa 1999: International Conference on Technology and Education Proceedings (17th, Tampa, Florida, October 10-13, 1999).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1999

    The overarching focus of the International Conference on Technology and Education (ICTE) Tampa 1999 conference was "Preparing for a New Century of Learning: Technology, Education, and the Internet." Twelve themes supported this focus: "Implementation in the Classroom"; "Educational Tools"; "Information Technology and Educational Policy";…

  16. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (77th, Atlanta, Georgia, August 10-13, 1994). Part VIII: Advertising and Public Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication.

    The Advertising and Public Relations section of this collection of conference presentations contains the following 17 papers: "Using the FCB Grid and the 'Lost Quadrants' to Write Advertising Strategy" (Johan C. Yssel); "Antitrust and the Marketplace of Ideas: The Continuing Problem of Issue Advertising Access to Broadcast Television Networks"…

  17. Quality Programming in H.P.E.R. Volume II. Selected Papers Presented at the Convention of the Canadian Association for Health, Physical Education and Recreation (British Columbia, Canada, June 10-13, 1981). Physical Education Series Number 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, John J., Ed.; Turkington, H. David, Ed.

    This volume contains 27 edited papers, and abstracts of 14 papers, presented during the 1981 convention of the Canadian Association for Health, Physical Education and Recreation. Subjects discussed are listed in 10 categories: (1) working together for quality programs; (2) challenges facing the physical education teacher; (3) skill development and…

  18. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (79th, Anaheim, CA, August 10-13, 1996). Advertising and Public Relations Division.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication.

    The Advertising and Public Relations section of the proceedings contains the following 14 papers: "Toward an Understanding of Cultural Values Manifest in Advertising: A Content Analysis of Chinese Television Commercials from 1990 and 1995" (Hong Cheng); "The Impact of Advertising Distance on International Advertising: An Analysis of Creative…

  19. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (79th, Anaheim, CA, August 10-13, 1996). Visual Communication and Science and Health Communication Division.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication.

    The Visual Communication and Science and Health Communication section of the proceedings contains the following 12 papers: "The Designers' Toolbox: Newsroom Experience and Ideal Characteristics of Newspaper Designers" (Wayne Wanta and Lauren Danner); "Patterned Image of the Homeless: Discourse Analysis of Television News Narrative" (In-Sung Whang…

  20. Professionals Working Together. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association of Physical Plant Administrators of Universities and Colleges (72nd, San Diego, California, July 10-13, 1985).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Physical Plant Administrators of Universities and Colleges, Washington, DC.

    Issues concerning the conditions of college facilities are considered in 29 papers from the 1985 annual meeting of the Association of Physical Plant Administrators of Universities and Colleges. Papers and authors include: "Crumbling Academe" (Harvey H. Kaiser); "Physical Facilities Evaluation" (Henry L. Shelby); "Managing the Process of Facility…

  1. Quality Programming in H.P.E.R. Selected Papers Presented at the Convention of the Canadian Association for Health, Physical Education and Recreation (British Columbia, Canada, June 10-13, 1981). Physical Education Series Number 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, John J., Ed.; Turkington, H. David, Ed.

    These papers, presented during the 1981 convention of the Canadian Association for Health, Physical Education and Recreation, addressed eight major topics: (1) the physical education and sport profession in Canada; (2) physical fitness (community agencies, radiology, aging and physical activity, the effective physical education program, aerobic…

  2. mtsslSuite: In silico spin labelling, trilateration and distance-constrained rigid body docking in PyMOL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagelueken, Gregor; Abdullin, Dinar; Ward, Richard; Schiemann, Olav

    2013-10-01

    Nanometer distance measurements based on electron paramagnetic resonance methods in combination with site-directed spin labelling are powerful tools for the structural analysis of macromolecules. The software package mtsslSuite provides scientists with a set of tools for the translation of experimental distance distributions into structural information. The package is based on the previously published mtsslWizard software for in silico spin labelling. The mtsslSuite includes a new version of MtsslWizard that has improved performance and now includes additional types of spin labels. Moreover, it contains applications for the trilateration of paramagnetic centres in biomolecules and for rigid-body docking of subdomains of macromolecular complexes. The mtsslSuite is tested on a number of challenging test cases and its strengths and weaknesses are evaluated.

  3. Broad Temperature Pinning Study of 15 mol.% Zr-Added (Gd, Y)-Ba-Cu-O MOCVD Coated Conductors

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, AX; Khatri, N; Liu, YH; Majkic, G; Galstyan, E; Selvamanickam, V; Chen, YM; Lei, CH; Abraimov, D; Hu, XB; Jaroszynski, J; Larbalestier, D

    2015-06-01

    BaZrO3 (BZO) nanocolumns have long been shown to be very effective for raising the pinning force F-p of REBa2Cu3Ox (REBCO, where RE = rare earth) films at high temperatures and recently at low temperatures too. We have successfully incorporated a high density of BZO nanorods into metal organic chemical vapor deposited (MOCVD) REBCO coated conductors via Zr addition. We found that, compared to the 7.5% Zr-added coated conductor, dense BZO nanorod arrays in the 15% Zr-added conductor are effective over the whole temperature range from 77 K down to 4.2 K. We attribute the substantially enhanced J(c) at 30 K to the weak uncorrelated pinning as well as the strong correlated pinning. Meanwhile, by tripling the REBCO layer thickness to similar to 2.8 mu m, the engineering critical current density J(e) at 30 K exceeds J(e) of optimized Nb-Ti wires at 4.2 K.

  4. [Use of algarrobo (Prosopis chilensis (Mol) Stuntz) flour as protein and dietary fiber source in cookies and fried chips manufacture].

    PubMed

    Escobar, Berta; Estévez, Ana María; Fuentes, Carolina; Venegas, Daniela

    2009-06-01

    Limiting amino acids of the protein from chilean "algarrobo" are isoleucine, theronine and methionine/cyteine. Cereals and legume blends allow to improve the amino acid balance, since legume have more lysine, and cereals are richer in sulphur amino acids. Due to the nutritional interest of "algarrobo" cotyledons, the use of "algarrobo cotyledon" flour (ACF) in sweet and salty snack manufacture was evaluated. Cookies and fried salty chips with 0%, 10% and 20% ACF were prepared. Flours were analyzed for color, particle size, moisture, proximate composition, available lysine, and soluble, insoluble and total dietary fiber. Cookies and chips were analyzed for the same characteristics (except for particle size); besides there were determined water activity, weight and size of the units, and also, the caloric value was computed. Sensory quality and acceptance of both products were evaluated. It is noticeable the high amount of protein, lipids, ash, crude fiber (63.6; 10.2; 4.3 and 4.2 g/100 g dmb, respectively), available lysine (62.4 mg/g protein) and total dietary fiber (24.2 g/100 g dmb) of ACF. Both, cookies and chips with ACF, showed a significant increase in the amount of protein, lipids, ash, crude fiber and, available lysine (from 15.5 to 19,3 and from 20.3 a 29.6 mg lisina/g protein, respectively), and total dietary fiber (from 1.39 to 2.80 and from 1.60 a 5.60 g/100 g dmb, respectively). All of the cookies trials were well accepted ("I like it very much"); chips with 10% of AFC showed the highest acceptance ("I like it"). It can be concluded that the use of ACF in cookies and chips manufacture increases the contribution of available lysine; their protein and dietary fiber content, improving the soluble/insoluble fiber ratio, without affect neither their physical nor their sensory acceptance. PMID:19719017

  5. The Potential of Algarrobo ( Prosopis chilensis (Mol.) Stuntz) for Regeneration of Desertified Soils: Assessing Seed Germination Under Saline Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westphal, Claus; Gachón, Paloma; Bravo, Jaime; Navarrete, Carlos; Salas, Carlos; Ibáñez, Cristian

    2015-07-01

    Due to their multipurpose use, leguminous trees are desirable for the restoration of degraded ecosystems. Our aim was to investigate seed germination of the leguminous tree Prosopis chilensis in response to salinity, one of the major abiotic challenges of desertified soils. Germination percentages of seed from 12 wild P. chilensis populations were studied. Treatments included four aqueous NaCl concentrations (150, 300, 450, and 600 mM). In each population, the highest germination percentage was seen using distilled water (control), followed closely by 150 mM NaCl. At 300 mM NaCl or higher salt concentration, germination was progressively inhibited attaining the lowest value at 450 mM NaCl, while at 600 mM NaCl germination remained reduced but with large variation among group of samples. These results allowed us to allocate the 12 groups from where seeds were collected into three classes. First, the seeds from Huanta-Rivadavia showed the lowest percent germination for each salt condition. The second group was composed of moderately salt-tolerant seeds with 75 % germination at 300 mM NaCl, followed by 50 % germination at 450 mM NaCl and 30 % germination at 600 mM NaCl. The third group from Maitencillo and Rapel areas was the most salt tolerant with an impressive seed germination level of 97 % at 300 mM NaCl, 82 % at 450 mM NaCl, and 42 % at 600 mM NaCl. Our results demonstrate that P. chilensis seeds from these latter localities have an increased germination capability under saline stress, confirming that P. chilensis is an appropriate species to rehabilitate desertified soils.

  6. VizieR Online Data Catalog: ExoMol line lists for H216O2 (Al-Refaie+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Refaie, A. F.; Polyansky, O. L.; Tennyson, J.; Yurchenko, S. N.

    2016-06-01

    The data are in two parts. The first, h2o20-85.dat contains a list of 7,560,352 rovibrational states. Each state is labelled with: six normal mode vibrational quantum numbers the torsional symmetry number (tau) and the vibrational symmetry; three rotational quantum numbers including the total angular momentum J and rotational symmetry; the total symmetry quantum number Gamma and the running number in the same J,Gamma block. In addition there are six local mode vibrational numbers and the largest coefficient used to assign the state in question. Each rovibrational state has a unique number, which is the number of the row in which it appears in the file. This number is the means by which the state is related to the second part of the data system, the transitions files. The total degeneracy is also given to facilitate the intensity calculations. Because of their size, the transitions are listed in 60 separate files, each containing all the transitions in a 100cm-1 frequency range. These and their contents are ordered by increasing frequency. The name of the file includes the lowest frequency in the range; thus the a-0500.dat file contains all the transitions in the frequency range 500-600cm-1. The transition files contain three columns: the reference number in the energy file of the upper state; that of the lower state; and the Einstein A coefficient of the transition. The energy file and the transitions files are zipped, and need to be extracted before use. There is a Fortran 90 programme, s_APTY.f90 which may be used to generate synthetic spectra (see s_APTY.txt for details). Using this, it is possible to generate absorption or emission spectra in either 'stick' form or else cross-sections convoluted with a gaussian with the half-width at half maximum being specified by the user, or with a the temperature-dependent doppler half-width. Sample input files s*.inp for use with sAPTY.f90 are supplied. (10 data files).

  7. VizieR Online Data Catalog: NIR survey of Spitzer YSOs in Orion Mol. Cloud (Kounkel+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kounkel, M.; Megeath, S. T.; Poteet, C. A.; Fischer, W. J.; Hartmann, L.

    2016-06-01

    As part of program GO 11548, 87 orbits of HST observations were successfully executed with the NICMOS camera in 2008 August and September. The remaining protostars in the target catalog were observed in 126 orbits obtained between 2009 August and 2010 December with WFC3. A total of five nights of observations were obtained at the NASA InfraRed Telescope Facility (IRTF) with the NSFCAM2 camera in the L' band, centered at 3.76um. (2 data files).

  8. ExoMol molecular line lists - XVI. The rotation-vibration spectrum of hot H2S

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azzam, Ala'a. A. A.; Tennyson, Jonathan; Yurchenko, Sergei N.; Naumenko, Olga V.

    2016-08-01

    This work presents the AYT2 line list: a comprehensive list of 114 million $^{1}$H$_2$$^{32}$S vibration-rotation transitions computed using an empirically-adjusted potential energy surface and an {\\it ab initio} dipole moment surface. The line list gives complete coverage up to 11000 \\cm\\ (wavelengths longer than 0.91 $\\mu$m) for temperatures up to 2000 K. Room temperature spectra can be simulated up to 20000 \\cm\\ (0.5 $\\mu$m) but the predictions at visible wavelengths are less reliable. AYT2 is made available in electronic form as supplementary data to this article and at \\url{www.exomol.com}.

  9. Observation des cycles enzymatiques des ADN topoisomérases par micromanipulation de molécules individuelles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strick, Terence R.; Charvin, Gilles; Dekker, Nynke H.; Allemand, Jean-François; Bensimon, David; Croquette, Vincent

    In this article, we describe single-molecule assays using magnetic traps and we applied these assays to topoisomerase enzymes which unwind and disentangle DNA molecules. First, the elasticity of single DNA molecule is characterized using the magnetic trap. We show that a twisting constraint may be easily applied and that its effect upon DNA may be measured accurately. Then we describe how the topoisomerase activity may be observed at the single-molecule level giving direct access to the important biological parameters of the enzyme such as velocity and processivity. Furthermore, individual cycles of unwinding can be observed in real time. This permits an accurate characterization of the enzyme's biochemical cycle. The data treatment required to identify and analyze individual topoisomerization cycles will be presented in detail. This analysis is applicable to a wide variety of molecular motors. To cite this article: T.R. Strick et al., C. R. Physique 3 (2002) 595-618.

  10. KEY COMPARISON: International comparison CCQM-K51: Carbon monoxide (CO) in nitrogen (5 µmol mol-1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botha, Angelique; Janse van Rensburg, Mellisa; Tshilongo, James; Leshabane, Nompumelelo; Ntsasa, Napo; Kato, Kenji; Matsumoto, Nobuhiro; Stummer, Volker; Konopelko, L. A.; Kustikov, Y. A.; Pankratov, V. V.; Vasserman, I. I.; Zavyalov, C. V.; Gromova, E. V.; Uprichard, Ian; Vargha, Gergely; Maruyama, M.; Heine, Hans-Joachim; Rangel Murillo, Francisco; Serrano Caballero, Victor M.; Pérez Castorena, Alejandro; Mace, Tatiana; Guenther, Franklin; Miller, Walter; Rojo, Andrés; Fernández, Teresa; Cieciora, Dariusz; Cunha, Valnei S.; Ribeiro, Claudia C.; Augusto, Cristiane R.; Qiao, Han; Zhou, Zeyi; Smeulders, Damian; Gerboles, Michel; Kapus, Matej; Wessel, Rob M.; Dias, Florbela; Baptista, Gonçalo; Gupta, Prabhat K.; Johri, P.; Laongsri, Bunthoon; Sinweeruthai, Ratirat; Niederhauser, Bernhard; Ackermann, Andreas; Froehlich, Marina; Wolf, Andreas; Lee, Jeongsoon; Musil, Stanislav; Valkova, Miroslava; Walden, Jari; Laurila, Sisko

    2010-01-01

    The first key comparison on carbon monoxide (CO) in nitrogen dates back to 1992 (CCQM-K1a). It was one of the first types of gas mixtures that were used in an international key comparison. Since then, numerous national metrology institutes (NMIs) have been setting up facilities for gas analysis, and have developed claims for their Calibration and Measurement Capabilities (CMCs) for these mixtures. Furthermore, in the April 2005 meeting of the CCQM (Consultative Committee for Amount of Substance) Gas Analysis Working Group, a policy was proposed to repeat key comparisons for stable mixtures every 10 years. This comparison was performed in line with the policy proposal and provided an opportunity for NMIs that could not participate in the previous comparison. NMISA from South Africa acted as the pilot laboratory. Of the 25 participating laboratories, 19 (76%) showed satisfactory degrees of equivalence to the gravimetric reference value. The results show that the CO concentration is not influenced by the measurement method used, and from this it may be concluded that the pure CO, used to prepare the gas mixtures, was not 13C-isotope depleted. This was confirmed by the isotope ratio analysis carried out by KRISS on a 1% mixture of CO in nitrogen, obtained from the NMISA. There is no indication of positive or negative bias in the gravimetric reference value, as the results from the different laboratories are evenly distributed on both sides of the key comparison reference value. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCQM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  11. Threshold Photoelectron Photoion Coincidence (TPEPICO) Studies. The Road to ± 0.1 kJ/mol Thermochemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Baer, Tomas

    2013-10-14

    The threshold photoelectron photoion coincidence (TPEPICO) technique is utilized to investigate the dissociation dynamics and thermochemistry of energy selected medium to large organic molecular ions. The reactions include parallel and consecutive steps that are modeled with the statistical theory in order to extract dissociation onsets for multiple dissociation paths. These studies are carried out with the aid of molecular orbital calculations of both ions and the transition states connecting the ion structure to their products. The results of these investigations yield accurate heats of formation of ions, free radicals, and stable molecules. In addition, they provide information about the potential energy surface that governs the dissociation process. Isomerization reactions prior to dissociation are readily inferred from the TPEPICO data.

  12. The Potential of Algarrobo (Prosopis chilensis (Mol.) Stuntz) for Regeneration of Desertified Soils: Assessing Seed Germination Under Saline Conditions.

    PubMed

    Westphal, Claus; Gachón, Paloma; Bravo, Jaime; Navarrete, Carlos; Salas, Carlos; Ibáñez, Cristian

    2015-07-01

    Due to their multipurpose use, leguminous trees are desirable for the restoration of degraded ecosystems. Our aim was to investigate seed germination of the leguminous tree Prosopis chilensis in response to salinity, one of the major abiotic challenges of desertified soils. Germination percentages of seed from 12 wild P. chilensis populations were studied. Treatments included four aqueous NaCl concentrations (150, 300, 450, and 600 mM). In each population, the highest germination percentage was seen using distilled water (control), followed closely by 150 mM NaCl. At 300 mM NaCl or higher salt concentration, germination was progressively inhibited attaining the lowest value at 450 mM NaCl, while at 600 mM NaCl germination remained reduced but with large variation among group of samples. These results allowed us to allocate the 12 groups from where seeds were collected into three classes. First, the seeds from Huanta-Rivadavia showed the lowest percent germination for each salt condition. The second group was composed of moderately salt-tolerant seeds with 75% germination at 300 mM NaCl, followed by 50% germination at 450 mM NaCl and 30% germination at 600 mM NaCl. The third group from Maitencillo and Rapel areas was the most salt tolerant with an impressive seed germination level of 97% at 300 mM NaCl, 82 % at 450 mM NaCl, and 42 % at 600 mM NaCl. Our results demonstrate that P. chilensis seeds from these latter localities have an increased germination capability under saline stress, confirming that P. chilensis is an appropriate species to rehabilitate desertified soils. PMID:25894272

  13. ExoMol molecular line lists - XVI. The rotation-vibration spectrum of hot H2S

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azzam, Ala'a. A. A.; Tennyson, Jonathan; Yurchenko, Sergei N.; Naumenko, Olga V.

    2016-08-01

    This work presents the AYT2 line list: a comprehensive list of 115 million 1H232S vibration-rotation transitions computed using an empirically adjusted potential energy surface and an ab initio dipole moment surface. The line list gives complete coverage up to 11 000 cm-1 (wavelengths longer than 0.91 μm) for temperatures up to 2000 K. Room temperature spectra can be simulated up to 20 000 cm-1 (0.5 μm) but the predictions at visible wavelengths are less reliable. AYT2 is made available in electronic form as supplementary data to this paper at www.exomol.com.

  14. ExoMol line lists - VII. The rotation-vibration spectrum of phosphine up to 1500 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sousa-Silva, Clara; Al-Refaie, Ahmed F.; Tennyson, Jonathan; Yurchenko, Sergei N.

    2015-01-01

    A comprehensive hot line list is calculated for 31PH3 in its ground electronic state. This line list, called SAlTY, contains almost 16.8 billion transitions between 7.5 million energy levels and it is suitable for simulating spectra up to temperatures of 1500 K. It covers wavelengths longer than 1 μm and includes all transitions to upper states with energies below hc × 18 000 cm-1 and rotational excitation up to J = 46. The line list is computed by variational solution of the Schrödinger equation for the rotation-vibration motion employing the nuclear-motion program TROVE. A previously reported ab initio dipole moment surface is used as well as an updated `spectroscopic' potential energy surface, obtained by refining an existing ab initio surface through least-squares fitting to the experimentally derived energies. Detailed comparisons with other available sources of phosphine transitions confirms SAlTY's accuracy and illustrates the incompleteness of previous experimental and theoretical compilations for temperatures above 300 K. Atmospheric models are expected to severely underestimate the abundance of phosphine in disequilibrium environments, and it is predicted that phosphine will be detectable in the upper troposphere of many substellar objects. This list is suitable for modelling atmospheres of many astrophysical environments, namely carbon stars, Y dwarfs, T dwarfs, hot Jupiters and Solar system gas giant planets. It is available in full from the Strasbourg data centre, CDS, and at www.exomol.com.

  15. ExoMol line lists - IV. The rotation-vibration spectrum of methane up to 1500 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yurchenko, Sergei N.; Tennyson, Jonathan

    2014-05-01

    A new hot line list is calculated for 12CH4 in its ground electronic state. This line list, called 10to10, contains 9.8 billion transitions and should be complete for temperatures up to 1500 K. It covers the wavelengths longer than 1 μm and includes all transitions to upper states with energies below hc · 18 000 cm-1 and rotational excitation up to J = 39. The line list is computed using the eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of CH4 obtained by variational solution of the Schrödinger equation for the rotation-vibration motion of nuclei employing program TROVE and a new `spectroscopic' potential energy surface (PES) obtained by refining an ab initio PES (CCSD(T)-F12c/aug-cc-pVQZ) through least-squares fitting to the experimentally derived energies with J = 0-4 and a previously reported ab initio dipole moment surface (CCSD(T)-F12c/aug-cc-pVTZ). Detailed comparisons with other available sources of methane transitions including HITRAN, experimental compilations and other theoretical line lists show that these sources lack transitions both higher temperatures and near-infrared wavelengths. The 10to10 line list is suitable for modelling atmospheres of cool stars and exoplanets. It is available from the CDS data base as well as at www.exomol.com.

  16. VizieR Online Data Catalog: ExoMol line lists for formaldehyde H2CO (Al-Refaie+,

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Refaie, A. F.; Yachmenev, A.; Tennyson, J.; Yurchenko, S. N.

    2015-01-01

    The data are in two parts. The first, h2co_0-70.dat contains a list of 10,296,998 rovibrational states. Each state is labelled with: 6 normal mode vibrational quantum numbers, and the vibrational symmetry; three rotational quantum numbers including the total angular momentum J, the projection of J in the z-axis K,rotational symmetry and the total symmetry quantum number Gamma In addition there are six local mode vibrational numbers and the largest coeffecient used to assign the state in question. Each rovibrational state has a unique number, which is the number of the row in which it appears in the file. This number is the means by which the state is related to the second part of the data system, the transitions files. The total degeneracy is also given to facilitate the intensity calculations. Because of their size, the transitions are listed in 100 separate files, each containing all the transitions in a 100cm-1 frequency range. These and their contents are ordered by increasing frequency. The name of the file includes the lowest frequency in the range; thus the a-00500.dat file contains all the transitions in the frequency range 500-600cm-1. The transition files contain three columns: the reference number in the energy file of the upper state; that of the lower state; and the Einstein A coefficient of the transition. The energy file and the transitions files are zipped, and need to be extracted before use. There is a Fortran 90 programme, s_AYTY.f90 which may be used to generate synthetic spectra (see s_AYTY.txt for details). Using this, it is possible to generate absorption or emission spectra in either 'stick' form or else cross-sections convoluted with a gaussian with the half-width at half maximum being specified by the user, or with a the temperature-dependent doppler half-width. Sample input files s*.inp for use with sSAlTY.f90 are supplied. (9 data files).

  17. Spectrally resolved fluorescence cross sections of BG and BT with a 266-nm pump wavelength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkins, Joshua; Thomas, Michael E.; Joseph, Richard I.

    2007-04-01

    The spectrally resolved absolute fluorescence cross sections of Bacillus globigii (BG) and Bacillus thuringiensis (BT) were measured with a 266nm Nd:YAG laser source. The aerosol samples were prepared in dilute aqueous suspensions for measurement and the absolute cross section was found by use of the Raman scattering line from water. Integrated cross sections for BT and BG were found to be 1.1864 × 10 -12 cm2(spore sr) and 3.251 × 10 -13 cm2/ (spore sr) respectively.

  18. Observations of interstellar formamide: availability of a prebiotic precursor in the galactic habitable zone.

    PubMed

    Adande, Gilles R; Woolf, Neville J; Ziurys, Lucy M

    2013-05-01

    We conducted a study on interstellar formamide, NH2CHO, toward star-forming regions of dense molecular clouds, using the telescopes of the Arizona Radio Observatory (ARO). The Kitt Peak 12 m antenna and the Submillimeter Telescope (SMT) were used to measure multiple rotational transitions of this molecule between 100 and 250 GHz. Four new sources of formamide were found [W51M, M17 SW, G34.3, and DR21(OH)], and complementary data were obtained toward Orion-KL, W3(OH), and NGC 7538. From these observations, column densities for formamide were determined to be in the range of 1.1×10(12) to 9.1×10(13) cm(-2), with rotational temperatures of 70-177 K. The molecule is thus present in warm gas, with abundances relative to H2 of 1×10(-11) to 1×10(-10). It appears to be a common constituent of star-forming regions that foster planetary systems within the galactic habitable zone, with abundances comparable to that found in comet Hale-Bopp. Formamide's presence in comets and molecular clouds suggests that the compound could have been brought to Earth by exogenous delivery, perhaps with an infall flux as high as ~0.1 mol/km(2)/yr or 0.18 mmol/m(2) in a single impact. Formamide has recently been proposed as a single-carbon, prebiotic source of nucleobases and nucleic acids. This study suggests that a sufficient amount of NH2CHO could have been available for such chemistry. PMID:23654214

  19. A search for temperature induced time-dependent structural transitions in 10mol%Sc2O3–1mol%CeO2–ZrO2 and 8mol%Y2O3–ZrO2 electrolyte ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Yan; Orlovskaya, Nina; Payzant, E. Andrew; Graule, Thomas; Kuebler, Jakob

    2014-11-08

    Both Sc2O3–CeO2-stabilized-ZrO2 (SCSZ) and Y2O3-stabilized-ZrO2 (YSZ) show similar Young's modulus damping at 175–400 °C and 200–400 °C, respectively, by impulse excitation acoustic technique. The phase transition in SCSZ is considered responsible for the damping; however for YSZ, such a phase transition has never been reported. To clarify the relation of damping and structural transition in these two materials, the time-dependent high temperature stabilities are studied by in situ X-ray diffraction, neutron diffraction and Raman scattering during long-term annealing of SCSZ at 350 °C and YSZ at 275 °C. The cubic-to-rhombohedral transition in SCSZ is detected. However, the existence of t' phase in YSZ raw powders is confirmed without significant changes of the cubic structure during isothermal annealing. It is concluded that the phase transition contributes to the Young's modulus damping in SCSZ, while the structural transition is excluded from the reason for damping in YSZ.

  20. A search for temperature induced time-dependent structural transitions in 10mol%Sc2O3–1mol%CeO2–ZrO2 and 8mol%Y2O3–ZrO2 electrolyte ceramics

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Chen, Yan; Orlovskaya, Nina; Payzant, E. Andrew; Graule, Thomas; Kuebler, Jakob

    2014-11-08

    Both Sc2O3–CeO2-stabilized-ZrO2 (SCSZ) and Y2O3-stabilized-ZrO2 (YSZ) show similar Young's modulus damping at 175–400 °C and 200–400 °C, respectively, by impulse excitation acoustic technique. The phase transition in SCSZ is considered responsible for the damping; however for YSZ, such a phase transition has never been reported. To clarify the relation of damping and structural transition in these two materials, the time-dependent high temperature stabilities are studied by in situ X-ray diffraction, neutron diffraction and Raman scattering during long-term annealing of SCSZ at 350 °C and YSZ at 275 °C. The cubic-to-rhombohedral transition in SCSZ is detected. However, the existence of t'more » phase in YSZ raw powders is confirmed without significant changes of the cubic structure during isothermal annealing. It is concluded that the phase transition contributes to the Young's modulus damping in SCSZ, while the structural transition is excluded from the reason for damping in YSZ.« less

  1. Measurement of the Flux and Zenith-Angle Distribution of Upward Through-Going Muons in Kamiokande II+III

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatakeyama, S.; Hara, T.; Fukuda, Y.; Hayakawa, T.; Inoue, K.; Ishihara, K.; Ishino, H.; Joukou, S.; Kajita, T.; Kasuga, S.; Koshio, Y.; Kumita, T.; Matsumoto, K.; Nakahata, M.; Nakamura, K.; Okumura, K.; Sakai, A.; Shiozawa, M.; Suzuki, J.; Suzuki, Y.; Tomoeda, T.; Totsuka, Y.; Hirata, K. S.; Kihara, K.; Oyama, Y.; Koshiba, M.; Nishijima, K.; Horiuchi, T.; Fujita, K.; Koga, M.; Maruyama, T.; Suzuki, A.; Mori, M.; Suda, T.; Suzuki, A. T.; Ishizuka, T.; Miyano, K.; Okazawa, H.; Nagashima, Y.; Takita, M.; Yamaguchi, T.; Hayato, Y.; Kaneyuki, K.; Suzuki, T.; Takeuchi, Y.; Tanimori, T.; Tasaka, S.; Ichihara, E.; Miyamoto, S.; Nishikawa, K.

    1998-09-01

    The flux of upward through-going muons of minimum (mean) threshold energy >1.6 (3.0) GeV is measured, based on a total of 372 events observed by the Kamiokande II+III detector during 2456 detector live days. The observed muon flux was Φobs = [1.94+/-0.10\\(stat.\\)+0.07-0.06sys.\\)]×10-13 cm-2 s-1 sr-1, which is compared to an expected value of Φtheo = [2.46+/-0.54\\(theo.\\)]×10-13 cm-2 s-1 sr-1. The observation is in agreement with the prediction within the errors. The zenith-angle dependence of the observed upward through-going muons supports the previous indication of neutrino oscillations made by Kamiokande using sub- and multi-GeV atmospheric neutrino events.

  2. Study and development of sulfated zirconia based proton exchange fuel cell membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemp, Brittany Wilson

    With the increasing consumption of energy, fuel cells are among the most promising alternatives to fossil fuels, provided some technical challenges are overcome. Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) have been investigated and improvements have been made, but the problem with NafionRTM, the main membrane for PEMFCs, has not been solved. NafionRTM restricts the membranes from operating at higher temperatures, thus preventing them from working in small electronics. The problem is to develop a novel fuel cell membrane that performs comparably to NafionRTM in PEMFCs. The membranes were fabricated by applying sulfated zirconia, via template wetting, to porous alumina membranes. The fabricated membranes showed a proton conductivity of 0.016 S/cm in comparison to the proton conductivity of Nafion RTM (0.05 S/cm). Both formic acid and methanol had a lower crossover flux through the sulfated zirconia membranes (formic acid- 2.89x10 -7 mols/cm2s and methanol-1.78x10-9 mols/cm2s) than through NafionRTM (formic acid-2.03x10 -8 mols/cm2s methanol-2.42x10-6 mols/cm 2s), indicating that a sulfated zirconia PEMFC may serve as a replacement for NafionRTM.

  3. Electrical measurements on ion-implanted LPCVD polycrystalline silicon films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Ruey-Shing; Cheng, Chin-Hsiung; Liu, J. C.; Lee, M. K.; Chen, C. T.

    1983-07-01

    The electrical conduction properties of ion implanted polycrystalline silicon films have been studied. The polysilicon films were deposited by pyrolysis of silane at 647°C in LPCVD system onto oxide-coated silicon wafers to a thickness of 0.6 μm. Dopants were itroducd by implanting with boron or phosphorus ions, accelerated to 145 keV; doses ranged from 1 × 10 12 cm -2 to 1 × 10 15 cm -2. Film resistivities spanning 8 orders of magnitude were obtained using this doping range. Current-voltage characteristics of polysilicon resistors were measured at temperatures ranging from 24 to 140°C. The associated barrier heights and activation energies were derived. The grain-boundary trapping states density was estimated to be 5 × 10 12 cm -2. We found that both dopant atom segregation and carrier trapping at the grain boundaries play important roles in polysilicon electrical conduction properties. However, within the dose range studies, the dopant atom segragation is most detrimental to the film conductivity for doses < 1 × 10 13 cm -2; as the dose is increased, carrier trapping effects become more pronounced for doses up to 5 × 10 14 cm -2. For doses ⩾ 5 × 10 14 cm -2, conduction due to carriers tunneling through the potential barriers at grain boundaries has to be considered.

  4. In vitro photodynamic inactivation of conidia of the phytopathogenic fungus Colletotrichum graminicola with cationic porphyrins.

    PubMed

    Vandresen, Camila Chevonica; Gonçalves, Alan Guilherme; Ducatti, Diogo Ricardo Bazan; Murakami, Fabio Seigi; Noseda, Miguel Daniel; Duarte, Maria Eugenia Rabello; Barreira, Sandra Mara Woranovicz

    2016-05-11

    Photodynamic inactivation (PDI) is an efficient approach for the elimination of a series of microorganisms; however, PDI involving phytopathogenic filamentous fungi is scarce in the literature. In the present study, we have demonstrated the photoinactivating properties of five cationic meso-(1-methyl-4-pyridinio)porphyrins on conidia of the phytopathogen Colletotrichum graminicola. For this purpose, photophysical properties (photostability and (1)O2 singlet production) of the porphyrins under study were first evaluated. PDI assays were then performed with a fluence of 30, 60, 90 and 120 J cm(-2) and varying the porphyrin concentration from 1 to 25 μmol L(-1). Considering the lowest concentration that enabled the best photoinactivation, with the respective lowest effective irradiation time, the meso-(1-methyl-4-pyridinio)porphyrins herein studied could be ranked as follows: triple-charged 4 (1 μmol L(-1) with a fluence of 30 J cm(-2)) > double-charged-trans2 (1 μmol L(-1) with 60 J cm(-2)) > tetra-charged 5 (15 μmol L(-1) with 90 J cm(-2)) > mono-charged 1 (25 μmol L(-1) with 120 J cm(-2)). Double-charged-cis-porphyrin 3 inactivated C. graminicola conidia in the absence of light. Evaluation of the porphyrin binding to the conidia and fluorescence microscopic analysis were also performed, which were in agreement with the PDI results. In conclusion, the cationic porphyrins herein studied were considered efficient photosensitizers to inactivate C. graminicola conidia. The amount and position of positive charges are related to the compounds' amphiphilicity and therefore to their photodynamic activity. PMID:27109559

  5. Diffusion and isotope effects in the diffusion of homovalent cations in cesium iodide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klotsman, S. M.; Polikarpova, I. P.; Tatarinova, G. N.; Timofeev, A. N.

    1988-10-01

    Preexponentials D0 and activation energies Q for self-diffusion and diffusion of homovalent cations of small radius in single crystals of CsI measured by the tracer sectioning method are as follows: for 137Cs, 19+/-1.5 cm2 s-1 and 35.59+/-0.18 kcal/mol; for 86Rb, 30.7+/-3.0 cm2 s-1 and 35.13+/-0.22 kcal/mol; for 42K, 47+/-6 cm2 s-1 and 35.30+/-0.30 kcal/mol; for 22Na, 34.94+/-0.20 kcal/mol, respectively. The temperature dependence of the isotope effect for diffusion of 22,24Na in CsI is described by a simple exponent: E=126 exp[-(13.3+/-1.5 kcal/mol)/RT]. Calculations based on these experimental results and the ``five-frequency model'' of diffusion are provided to obtain the main diffusion parameters for all homovalent cations in CsI. The diffusion behavior of these cations in CsI is in good agreement with the model of ``displaced homovalent cations of small radius.''

  6. A high-resolution atlas of the infrared spectrum of the Sun and the Earth atmosphere from space: A compilation of ATMOS spectra of the region from 650 to 4800 cm (2.3 to 16 micron). Volume 1: The Sun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farmer, Crofton B.; Norton, Robert H.

    1989-01-01

    During the period April 29 through May 2, 1985, the Atmospheric Trace Molecular Spectroscopy experiment was operated as part of the Spacelab-3 payload of the shuttle Challenger. The instrument, a modified Michelson Interferometer covering the frequency range from 600 to 5000/cm, at a spectral resolution of 0.01/cm, recorded infrared spectra of the Sun and of the Earth's atmosphere at times close to entry into and exit from occultation by the Earth's limb as seen from the shuttle orbit of 360 km. Spectra were obtained that are free from absorptions due to constituents of the atmosphere (i.e., solar pure spectra), as well as spectra of the atmosphere itself, covering line-of-sight tangent altitudes that span the range from the lower thermosphere to the bottom of the troposphere. This atlas, believed to be the first record of observations of the continuous high resolution infrared spectrum of the Sun and the Earth's atmosphere from space, provides a compilation of these spectra arranged in a hardcopy format suitable for quick-look reference purposes; the data are also available in digital form.

  7. A high-resolution atlas of the infrared spectrum of the Sun and the Earth atmosphere from space: A compilation of ATMOS spectra of the region from 650 to 4800 cm (2.3 to 16 micron). Volume 1: The Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farmer, Crofton B.; Norton, Robert H.

    During the period April 29 through May 2, 1985, the Atmospheric Trace Molecular Spectroscopy experiment was operated as part of the Spacelab-3 payload of the shuttle Challenger. The instrument, a modified Michelson Interferometer covering the frequency range from 600 to 5000/cm, at a spectral resolution of 0.01/cm, recorded infrared spectra of the Sun and of the Earth's atmosphere at times close to entry into and exit from occultation by the Earth's limb as seen from the shuttle orbit of 360 km. Spectra were obtained that are free from absorptions due to constituents of the atmosphere (i.e., solar pure spectra), as well as spectra of the atmosphere itself, covering line-of-sight tangent altitudes that span the range from the lower thermosphere to the bottom of the troposphere. This atlas, believed to be the first record of observations of the continuous high resolution infrared spectrum of the Sun and the Earth's atmosphere from space, provides a compilation of these spectra arranged in a hardcopy format suitable for quick-look reference purposes; the data are also available in digital form.

  8. Modification of carbon paste electrode with Fe(III)-clinoptilolite nano-particles for simultaneous voltammetric determination of acetaminophen and ascorbic acid.

    PubMed

    Sharifian, Samira; Nezamzadeh-Ejhieh, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    A novel carbon paste electrode (CPE) modified with Fe(III)-exchanged clinoptilolite nano-particles (Fe(III)-NClino/CPE) was constructed and used for simultaneous voltammetric (CV, SqW and chronoamperometry) determination of ascorbic acid and acetaminophen. Raw and modified zeolites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The square wave peak current was linearly increased in the concentration ranges of 1.0 × 10(-9)-1.0 × 10(-2) mol L(-1) for ascorbic acid and 1.0 × 10(-10-)1.0 × 10(-2) mol L(-1) for acetaminophen with detection limits of 1.8 × 10(-9) mol L(-1) and 9.9 × 10(-10) mol L(-1), respectively. The detection limits of 2.4 × 10(-10) mol L(-1) and 2.5 × 10(-11) mol L(-1) were also obtained for AA and AC in chronoamperometric measurements, respectively. The diffusion coefficients of 7.5 × 10(-5) cm(2) s(-1) and 2.4 × 10(-5) cm(2) s(-1) were respectively calculated for the oxidation of AC and AA by chronoamperometry. The proposed electrode exhibited high sensitivity and good stability, and would be valuable for the clinical assay of ascorbic acid and acetaminophen. PMID:26478339

  9. Biofunctionalization of multiwalled carbon nanotubes by electropolymerized poly(pyrrole-concanavalin A) films.

    PubMed

    Papper, Vladislav; Elouarzaki, Kamal; Gorgy, Karine; Sukharaharja, Ayrine; Cosnier, Serge; Marks, Robert S

    2014-10-13

    The synthesis and electropolymerization of a pyrrolic concanavalin A derivative (pyrrole-Con A) onto a multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) deposit is reported. Glucose oxidase was then immobilized onto the MWCNT-poly(pyrrole-Con A) coating by affinity carbohydrate interactions with the polymerized Con A protein. The resulting enzyme electrode was applied to the amperometric detection of glucose exhibiting a high sensitivity of 36 mA cm(-2) mol(-1) L and a maximum current density of 350 μA cm(-2) . PMID:25179428

  10. Theoretical analysis of non-radiative multiphonon recombination activity of intrinsic defects in CdTe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasikov, D. N.; Scherbinin, A. V.; Knizhnik, A. A.; Vasiliev, A. N.; Potapkin, B. V.; Sommerer, T. J.

    2016-02-01

    We present an analysis of recombination activity of intrinsic defects (VCd, TeCd, VTe, and Tei) in CdTe based on the multiphonon single-mode carrier-capture model, with vibronic parameters obtained using hybrid density functional theory. This analysis allows us to determine the defects and the corresponding electronic processes that have high trapping rates for electrons, for holes, or for both. The latter, being potentially the most active recombination centers, decreases the carrier lifetime in the absorber layer of a CdTe solar cell. Taking into account the relatively high calculated capture cross-sections of the TeCd antisite defect (σ = 8.7× 10-15 cm2 for electron capture on TeCd+2 defect, σ = 6.8 × 10-14 cm2 for hole capture on TeCd+1 defect at room temperature) and its deep trapping level (0.41 eV for +2/+1 level), we conclude that this defect is the most active recombination center among the intrinsic defects in p-type CdTe. Other processes that do not lead to effective recombination are: (i) fast hole capture on Tei+1 defect (σ = 1.1 × 10-13 cm-2), (ii) electron capture on TeCd+1 defect (σ = 2.9 × 10-15 cm-2), (iii) somewhat slower hole capture on TeCd0 defect (σ = 9.4 × 10-20 cm-2), (iv) hole capture on VCd-1 defect (σ = 7 × 10-19 cm2), and (v) electron capture on Tei+1 defect (σ = 4.4 × 10-19 cm-2). The cross-sections are found to be negligibly small for the remaining capture processes.

  11. Spontaneous and strong multi-layer graphene n-doping on soda-lime glass and its application in graphene-semiconductor junctions.

    PubMed

    Dissanayake, D M N M; Ashraf, A; Dwyer, D; Kisslinger, K; Zhang, L; Pang, Y; Efstathiadis, H; Eisaman, M D

    2016-01-01

    Scalable and low-cost doping of graphene could improve technologies in a wide range of fields such as microelectronics, optoelectronics, and energy storage. While achieving strong p-doping is relatively straightforward, non-electrostatic approaches to n-dope graphene, such as chemical doping, have yielded electron densities of 9.5 × 10(12) e/cm(2) or below. Furthermore, chemical doping is susceptible to degradation and can adversely affect intrinsic graphene's properties. Here we demonstrate strong (1.33 × 10(13) e/cm(2)), robust, and spontaneous graphene n-doping on a soda-lime-glass substrate via surface-transfer doping from Na without any external chemical, high-temperature, or vacuum processes. Remarkably, the n-doping reaches 2.11 × 10(13) e/cm(2) when graphene is transferred onto a p-type copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS) semiconductor that itself has been deposited onto soda-lime-glass, via surface-transfer doping from Na atoms that diffuse to the CIGS surface. Using this effect, we demonstrate an n-graphene/p-semiconductor Schottky junction with ideality factor of 1.21 and strong photo-response. The ability to achieve strong and persistent graphene n-doping on low-cost, industry-standard materials paves the way toward an entirely new class of graphene-based devices such as photodetectors, photovoltaics, sensors, batteries, and supercapacitors. PMID:26867673

  12. Supercontinuum spatial modulation spectroscopy: Detection and noise limitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, M. P.; Vietmeyer, F.; Aleksiuk, D.; Kuno, M.

    2013-11-01

    Supercontinuum spatial modulation spectroscopy is a facile tool for conducting single molecule/particle extinction spectroscopy throughout the visible and near infrared (420-1100 nm). The technique's capabilities are benchmarked using individual Au nanoparticles (NPs) as a standard since they are well studied and display a prominent plasmon resonance in the visible. Extinction spectra of individual Au NPs with diameters (d) ranging from d ˜ 8 to 40 nm are resolved with extinction cross sections (σext) of σext ˜1 × 10-13-1 ×10-11 cm2. Corresponding signal-to-noise ratios range from ˜30 to ˜1400. The technique's limit of detection is determined to be 4.3 × 10-14 cm2 (4.3 nm2). To showcase supercontinuum spatial modulation spectroscopy's broader applicability, extinction spectra are acquired for other model systems, such as individual single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and CdSe nanowires. We show for the first time extinction spectra of individual (8,3) and (6,5) SWCNTs. For both chiralities, their E11 [(8,3) 1.30 eV (952 nm); (6,5) 1.26 eV (986 nm)] and E22 [(8,3) 1.86 eV (667 nm); (6,5) 2.19 eV (567 nm)] excitonic resonances are seen with corresponding cross sections of σext ˜ 10-13 cm2 μm-1.

  13. Intrinsic Charge Carrier Mobility in Single-Layer Black Phosphorus.

    PubMed

    Rudenko, A N; Brener, S; Katsnelson, M I

    2016-06-17

    We present a theory for single- and two-phonon charge carrier scattering in anisotropic two-dimensional semiconductors applied to single-layer black phosphorus (BP). We show that in contrast to graphene, where two-phonon processes due to the scattering by flexural phonons dominate at any practically relevant temperatures and are independent of the carrier concentration n, two-phonon scattering in BP is less important and can be considered negligible at n≳10^{13}  cm^{-2}. At smaller n, however, phonons enter in the essentially anharmonic regime. Compared to the hole mobility, which does not exhibit strong anisotropy between the principal directions of BP (μ_{xx}/μ_{yy}∼1.4 at n=10^{13} cm^{-2} and T=300  K), the electron mobility is found to be significantly more anisotropic (μ_{xx}/μ_{yy}∼6.2). Absolute values of μ_{xx} do not exceed 250 (700)  cm^{2} V^{-1} s^{-1} for holes (electrons), which can be considered as an upper limit for the mobility in BP at room temperature. PMID:27367397

  14. Water permeability of aquaporin-4 channel depends on bilayer composition, thickness, and elasticity.

    PubMed

    Tong, Jihong; Briggs, Margaret M; McIntosh, Thomas J

    2012-11-01

    Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) is the primary water channel in the mammalian brain, particularly abundant in astrocytes, whose plasma membranes normally contain high concentrations of cholesterol. Here we test the hypothesis that the water permeabilities of two naturally occurring isoforms (AQP4-M1 and AQP4-M23) depend on bilayer mechanical/structural properties modulated by cholesterol and phospholipid composition. Osmotic stress measurements were performed with proteoliposomes containing AQP4 and three different lipid mixtures: 1), phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylglycerol (PG); 2), PC, PG, with 40 mol % cholesterol; and 3), sphingomyelin (SM), PG, with 40 mol % cholesterol. The unit permeabilities of AQP4-M1 were 3.3 ± 0.4 × 10(-13) cm(3)/s (mean ± SE), 1.2 ± 0.1 × 10(-13) cm(3)/s, and 0.4 ± 0.1 × 10(-13) cm(3)/s in PC:PG, PC:PG:cholesterol, and SM:PG:cholesterol, respectively. The unit permeabilities of AQP4-M23 were 2.1 ± 0.2 × 10(-13) cm(3)/s, 0.8 ± 0.1 × 10(-13) cm(3)/s, and 0.3 ± 0.1 × 10(-13) cm(3)/s in PC:PG, PC:PG:cholesterol, and SM:PG:cholesterol, respectively. Thus, for each isoform the unit permeabilities strongly depended on bilayer composition and systematically decreased with increasing bilayer compressibility modulus and bilayer thickness. These observations suggest that altering lipid environment provides a means of regulating water channel permeability. Such permeability changes could have physiological consequences, because AQP4 water permeability would be reduced by its sequestration into SM:cholesterol-enriched raft microdomains. Conversely, under ischemic conditions astrocyte membrane cholesterol content decreases, which could increase AQP4 permeability. PMID:23199918

  15. The Multiple Forms of alpha-Amylase Enzyme of the Araucaria Species of South America: A. araucana (Mol.) Koch and A. angustifolia (Bert.) O. Kutz : A Comparative Study.

    PubMed

    Salas, E; Cardemil, L

    1986-08-01

    alpha-Amylase is one of the major enzymes present in the seeds of both Araucaria species of South America and it initiates starch hydrolysis during germination and early seedling growth. The pattern of the multiple forms of alpha-amylase of the two Araucaria species was investigated by electrophoresis and isoelectrofocusing of the native enzyme in polyacrylamide gels. The enzyme forms were compared in the embryo and megagametophyte of quiescent seeds and of seeds imbibed for 18, 48, and 90 hours. Specific alpha-amylase enzyme forms appear and disappear during these imbibition periods showing both similarities and differences between tissues and species. Before imbibition, there are five alpha-amylase forms identical in both tissues, but different between species. After 18 hours of imbibition, there are two enzyme forms in both tissues of Araucaria araucana seeds, only one form in the embryo of Araucaria angustifolia but two forms in the megagametophyte of this specie. After 48 hours of seed imbibition, most of the enzyme forms present in quiescent seeds reappear. At 90 hours of imbibition different enzyme forms are detected in the embryo with respect to the gametophyte. The changes in form patterns of alpha-amylase are discussed according to a possible regulation of gene expression by endogenous gibberellins. PMID:16664944

  16. Corrigendum to "Electronic structure and photoelectron spectra of nickel (II) acetylacetonate and its thio- and amino-substituted analogues" [J. Mol. Struct. 1099 (2015) 579-587

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vovna, Vitaliy I.; Korochentsev, Vladimir V.; Komissarov, Alexander A.; L'vov, Igor B.; Myshakina, Nataliya S.

    2016-01-01

    The authors regret to inform that it was given erroneous spelling of Vitaliy I. Vovna author name in the published version of the article. It was written "Vitaliy V. Vovna" instead of "Vitaliy I. Vovna".

  17. Structural characterization of two benzene-1,2-di-amine complexes of zinc chloride: a mol-ecular compound and a co-crystal salt.

    PubMed

    Zick, Patricia L; Geiger, David K

    2016-07-01

    The structures of two zinc complexes containing bidentate benzene-1,2-di-amine ligands are reported. (Benzene-1,2-di-amine-κ(2) N,N')di-chloro-idozinc, [ZnCl2(C6H8N2)], (I), displays a distorted tetra-hedral coordination sphere for the metal cation. The di-amine ligand and the Zn atom reside on a crystallographic mirror plane. In the 1:1 co-crystal salt trans-di-aqua-bis-(4,5-di-methyl-benzene-1,2-di-amine-κ(2) N,N')zinc chloride-4,5-di-methyl-benzene-1,2-di-amine (1/1), [Zn(C8H12N2)2(H2O)2]Cl2·2C8H12N2, (II), the zinc(II) complex cation exhibits a tetra-gonally distorted octa-hedral coordination sphere. The Zn atom sits on a crystallographically imposed inversion center and the di-amine ligands are tilted 30.63 (6)° with respect to the ZnN4 plane. Both complexes exhibit extensive hydrogen bonding. In (I), a stacked-sheet extended structure parallel to (101) is observed. In (II), the co-crystallized di-amine is hydrogen-bonded to the complex cation via O-H⋯N and N-H⋯N linkages. These units are in turn linked into planes along (200) by O-H⋯Cl and N-H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds. PMID:27555958

  18. Engineering microstructure and redox properties in the mixed conductor Ce(0.9)Pr(0.1)O(2-δ) + Co 2 mol%.

    PubMed

    Balaguer, María; Solís, Cecilia; Roitsch, Stefan; Serra, José M

    2014-03-21

    10% Praseodymium doped ceria exhibits a combination of mixed ionic and electronic conductivity, redox catalytic properties and chemical compatibility with water and carbon dioxide at high temperatures. Minor additions of cobalt oxide have been demonstrated to act as a sintering aid as well as an effective promoter of the electronic conduction. However, an excess of sintering temperature causes cobalt aggregation into the grain boundaries as inferred from FE-SEM/EDX and TEM analysis. The redox behaviour of the materials was studied by means of temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and reduction (TPR). This work shows the systematic study of sintering conditions in order to understand the evolution of the material microstructure, grain boundaries and the role of cobalt in this complex system. The final purpose of the work is to improve both electronic and oxygen ion transport properties for their potential application as oxygen-transport membranes and solid oxide fuel cell components. The sample sintered at 1000 °C exhibited the highest total conductivity at high temperatures, which is principally related to the improvement in the electronic conductivity through the grain boundary network. PMID:24141898

  19. pH- and mol-ratio dependent formation of zinc(II) coordination polymers with iminodiacetic acid: Synthesis, spectroscopic, crystal structure and thermal studies

    SciTech Connect

    Ni Lubin; Zhang Ronghua; Liu Qiongxin; Xia Wensheng; Wang Hongxin; Zhou Zhaohui

    2009-10-15

    Three novel zinc coordination polymers (NH{sub 4}){sub n}[Zn(Hida)Cl{sub 2}]{sub n} (1), [Zn(ida)(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]{sub n} (2), [Zn(Hida){sub 2}]{sub n}.4nH{sub 2}O (3) (H{sub 2}ida=iminodiacetic acid) and a monomeric complex [Zn(ida)(phen)(H{sub 2}O)].2H{sub 2}O (4) (phen=1,10-phenanthroline) have been synthesized and characterized by X-ray diffraction methods. 1 and 2 form one-dimensional (1-D) chain structures, whereas 3 exhibits a three-dimensional (3-D) diamondoid framework with an open channel. The mononuclear complex 4 is extended into a 3-D supramolecular architecture through hydrogen bonds and pi-pi stacking. Interestingly, cyclic nonplanar tetrameric water clusters are observed that encapsulated in the 3-D lattice of 4. Based on {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR observations, there is obvious coordination of complex 2 in solution, while 1 and 3 decompose into free iminodiacetate ligand. Monomer [Zn(ida)(H{sub 2}O){sub 3}] (5) is considered as a possible discrete species from 2. These coordination polymers can serve as good molecular precursors for zinc oxide. - Text3: Reaction of zinc salt with iminodiacetic acid afforded three new coordination polymers 1-3 and a monomer 4, which is dependent on pH value and molar ratio of the reactants.

  20. A cell surface integral membrane glycoprotein of 85,000 mol wt (gp85) associated with triton X-100-insoluble cell skeleton.

    PubMed

    Tarone, G; Ferracini, R; Galetto, G; Comoglio, P

    1984-08-01

    The Triton X-100-insoluble skeleton of baby hamster kidney BHK cells consists of the nucleus, intermediate-size filaments, and actin fibers. By transmission electron microscopy, membrane fragments were found to be associated with these insoluble structures. When radioiodinated or [3H]glucosamine-labeled cells were extracted with 0.5% Triton, most plasma membrane glycoproteins were solubilized except for a glycoprotein with a molecular weight of 85,000 (gp85) that remained associated with the insoluble skeletons. Immunoprecipitation with a specific antiserum indicated that the gp85 is not a proteolytic degradation product of fibronectin, an extracellular matrix glycoprotein insoluble in detergent. A monoclonal antibody of BHK cells specific for gp85 was produced. Immunofluorescence analysis with this monoclonal antibody indicated that gp85 is not associated with the extracellular matrix, but is confined to the cell membrane. Both in fixed and unfixed intact cells, fluorescence was concentrated in dots preferentially aligned in streaks on the cell surface. Gp85 was found to behave as an integral membrane protein interacting with the hydrophobic core of the lipid bilayer since it was extracted from membrane preparations by ionic detergents such as SDS, but not by 0.1 N NaOH (pH 12) in the absence of detergents, a condition known to release peripheral molecules. Association of gp85 with the cell skeleton was unaffected by increasing the Triton concentration up to 5%, but it was affected when actin filaments were dissociated or when a protein-denaturing agent (6 M urea) was used in the presence of Triton, suggesting that protein-protein interactions are involved in the association of gp85 with the cell skeleton. We conclude that gp85 is an integral plasma membrane glycoprotein that might have a role in cell surface-cytoskeleton interaction. PMID:6378925