Science.gov

Sample records for 10-15 cm3 molecule-1

  1. 46 CFR 76.10-15 - Piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piping. 76.10-15 Section 76.10-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fire Main System, Details § 76.10-15 Piping. (a) All piping, valves, and fittings shall meet the applicable requirements...

  2. 46 CFR 95.10-15 - Piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piping. 95.10-15 Section 95.10-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fire Main System, Details § 95.10-15 Piping. (a) All piping, valves, and fittings shall meet the...

  3. 46 CFR 193.10-15 - Piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Piping. 193.10-15 Section 193.10-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fire Main System, Details § 193.10-15 Piping. (a) All piping, valves, and fittings, shall meet...

  4. Adaptation of California Measure of Mental Motivation-CM3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Özdemir, Hasan Fehmi; Demirtasli, Nükhet Çikrikçi

    2015-01-01

    Education without doubt, plays a vital role for individuals to gain the essential personal traits of the 21st century, also known as "knowledge age". One of the most important skills among these fundamental qualities which the individuals should be equipped with is critical thinking. California Measure of Mental Motivation-CM3 was…

  5. 46 CFR 188.10-15 - Coastwise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 188.10-15 Coastwise. Under this designation shall be included all vessels normally navigating the waters of any ocean or the Gulf of Mexico 20 nautical miles...

  6. 46 CFR 188.10-15 - Coastwise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 188.10-15 Coastwise. Under this designation shall be included all vessels normally navigating the waters of any ocean or the Gulf of Mexico 20 nautical miles...

  7. 46 CFR 188.10-15 - Coastwise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 188.10-15 Coastwise. Under this designation shall be included all vessels normally navigating the waters of any ocean or the Gulf of Mexico 20 nautical miles...

  8. 5,10,15-Triferrocenylcorrole Complexes.

    PubMed

    Pomarico, Giuseppe; Galloni, Pierluca; Mandoj, Federica; Nardis, Sara; Stefanelli, Manuela; Vecchi, Andrea; Lentini, Sara; Cicero, Daniel O; Cui, Yan; Zeng, Lihan; Kadish, Karl M; Paolesse, Roberto

    2015-11-01

    Complexes of 5,10,15-triferrocenylcorrole were synthesized from the crude free-base corrole product obtained by the reaction of ferrocenyl aldehyde and pyrrole. Direct formation of the complex in this manner leads to an increase of the reaction yield by protecting the corrole ring toward oxidative decomposition. The procedure was successful and gave the expected product in the case of the copper and triphenylphosphinecobalt complexes, but an unexpected result was obtained in the case of the nickel derivative, where metal insertion led to a ring opening of the macrocycle at the 5 position, giving as a final product a linear tetrapyrrole nickel complex bearing two ferrocenyl groups. The purified 5,10,15-triferrocenylcorrole complexes have been fully characterized by a combination of spectroscopic methods, electrochemistry, spectroelectrochemistry, and density functional theory calculations. Copper derivatives of 10-monoferrocenyl- and 5,15-diferrocenylcorrole were prepared to investigate how the number and position of the ferrocenyl groups influenced the spectroscopic and electrochemical properties of the resulting complexes. A complete assignment of resonances in the (1)H and (13)C NMR spectra was performed for the cobalt and nickel complexes, and detailed electrochemical characterization was carried out to provide additional insight into the degree of communication between the meso-ferrocenyl groups on the conjugated macrocycle and the central metal ion of the ferrocenylcorrole derivatives. PMID:26460880

  9. 33 CFR 66.10-15 - Aids to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aids to navigation. 66.10-15 Section 66.10-15 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Uniform State Waterway Marking System § 66.10-15 Aids to navigation....

  10. 33 CFR 66.10-15 - Aids to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Aids to navigation. 66.10-15 Section 66.10-15 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Uniform State Waterway Marking System § 66.10-15 Aids to navigation....

  11. 33 CFR 66.10-15 - Aids to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Aids to navigation. 66.10-15 Section 66.10-15 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Uniform State Waterway Marking System § 66.10-15 Aids to navigation....

  12. 33 CFR 66.10-15 - Aids to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Aids to navigation. 66.10-15 Section 66.10-15 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Uniform State Waterway Marking System § 66.10-15 Aids to navigation....

  13. 33 CFR 66.10-15 - Aids to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Aids to navigation. 66.10-15 Section 66.10-15 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Uniform State Waterway Marking System § 66.10-15 Aids to navigation....

  14. 46 CFR 194.10-15 - Magazine van construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Magazine van construction. 194.10-15 Section 194.10-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS HANDLING, USE, AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Magazines § 194.10-15 Magazine...

  15. 46 CFR 194.10-15 - Magazine van construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Magazine van construction. 194.10-15 Section 194.10-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS HANDLING, USE, AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Magazines § 194.10-15 Magazine...

  16. 46 CFR 194.10-15 - Magazine van construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Magazine van construction. 194.10-15 Section 194.10-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS HANDLING, USE, AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Magazines § 194.10-15 Magazine...

  17. 46 CFR 194.10-15 - Magazine van construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Magazine van construction. 194.10-15 Section 194.10-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS HANDLING, USE, AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Magazines § 194.10-15 Magazine...

  18. 46 CFR 90.10-15 - Industrial personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Industrial personnel. 90.10-15 Section 90.10-15 Shipping... PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 90.10-15 Industrial personnel. This term means every person carried on board an industrial vessel for the sole purpose of carrying out the industrial...

  19. 46 CFR 90.10-15 - Industrial personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Industrial personnel. 90.10-15 Section 90.10-15 Shipping... PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 90.10-15 Industrial personnel. This term means every person carried on board an industrial vessel for the sole purpose of carrying out the industrial...

  20. 46 CFR 90.10-15 - Industrial personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Industrial personnel. 90.10-15 Section 90.10-15 Shipping... PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 90.10-15 Industrial personnel. This term means every person carried on board an industrial vessel for the sole purpose of carrying out the industrial...

  1. 46 CFR 90.10-15 - Industrial personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Industrial personnel. 90.10-15 Section 90.10-15 Shipping... PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 90.10-15 Industrial personnel. This term means every person carried on board an industrial vessel for the sole purpose of carrying out the industrial...

  2. 46 CFR 90.10-15 - Industrial personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Industrial personnel. 90.10-15 Section 90.10-15 Shipping... PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 90.10-15 Industrial personnel. This term means every person carried on board an industrial vessel for the sole purpose of carrying out the industrial...

  3. 46 CFR 105.10-15 - Flammable liquid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Flammable liquid. 105.10-15 Section 105.10-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS COMMERCIAL FISHING VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Definition of Terms Used in This Part § 105.10-15 Flammable liquid. (a) The term flammable liquid...

  4. 46 CFR 105.10-15 - Flammable liquid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Flammable liquid. 105.10-15 Section 105.10-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS COMMERCIAL FISHING VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Definition of Terms Used in This Part § 105.10-15 Flammable liquid. (a) The term flammable liquid...

  5. 46 CFR 34.10-15 - Piping-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piping-T/ALL. 34.10-15 Section 34.10-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT Fire Main System, Details § 34.10-15 Piping—T/ALL. (a) All piping, valves and fittings shall meet the applicable requirements...

  6. 49 CFR 10.15 - Protection of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Protection of records. 10.15 Section 10.15... INDIVIDUALS General § 10.15 Protection of records. (a) No person may, without permission, remove any record... authority, sells, conveys or disposes of any record * * * or thing of value of the United States or of...

  7. 49 CFR 10.15 - Protection of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Protection of records. 10.15 Section 10.15... INDIVIDUALS General § 10.15 Protection of records. (a) No person may, without permission, remove any record... authority, sells, conveys or disposes of any record * * * or thing of value of the United States or of...

  8. 49 CFR 10.15 - Protection of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Protection of records. 10.15 Section 10.15... INDIVIDUALS General § 10.15 Protection of records. (a) No person may, without permission, remove any record... authority, sells, conveys or disposes of any record * * * or thing of value of the United States or of...

  9. 49 CFR 10.15 - Protection of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Protection of records. 10.15 Section 10.15... INDIVIDUALS General § 10.15 Protection of records. (a) No person may, without permission, remove any record... authority, sells, conveys or disposes of any record * * * or thing of value of the United States or of...

  10. 49 CFR 10.15 - Protection of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Protection of records. 10.15 Section 10.15... INDIVIDUALS General § 10.15 Protection of records. (a) No person may, without permission, remove any record... authority, sells, conveys or disposes of any record * * * or thing of value of the United States or of...

  11. 46 CFR 151.10-15 - Certificate endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Certificate endorsement. 151.10-15 Section 151.10-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES BARGES CARRYING BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Barge Hull Construction Requirements § 151.10-15 Certificate endorsement. (a)-(b) (c)...

  12. 46 CFR 50.10-15 - Marine inspector or inspector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marine inspector or inspector. 50.10-15 Section 50.10-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 50.10-15 Marine inspector or inspector. The term...

  13. 46 CFR 50.10-15 - Marine inspector or inspector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Marine inspector or inspector. 50.10-15 Section 50.10-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 50.10-15 Marine inspector or inspector. The term...

  14. 46 CFR 50.10-15 - Marine inspector or inspector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Marine inspector or inspector. 50.10-15 Section 50.10-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 50.10-15 Marine inspector or inspector. The term...

  15. 46 CFR 50.10-15 - Marine inspector or inspector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Marine inspector or inspector. 50.10-15 Section 50.10-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 50.10-15 Marine inspector or inspector. The term...

  16. 46 CFR 50.10-15 - Marine inspector or inspector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Marine inspector or inspector. 50.10-15 Section 50.10-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 50.10-15 Marine inspector or inspector. The term...

  17. 46 CFR 59.10-15 - Rivets and staybolts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Rivets and staybolts. 59.10-15 Section 59.10-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING REPAIRS TO BOILERS, PRESSURE VESSELS AND APPURTENANCES Welding Repairs to Boilers and Pressure Vessels in -Service § 59.10-15...

  18. 46 CFR 59.10-15 - Rivets and staybolts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rivets and staybolts. 59.10-15 Section 59.10-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING REPAIRS TO BOILERS, PRESSURE VESSELS AND APPURTENANCES Welding Repairs to Boilers and Pressure Vessels in -Service § 59.10-15...

  19. 46 CFR 190.10-15 - Vertical ladders not accepted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Vertical ladders not accepted. 190.10-15 Section 190.10-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Means of Escape § 190.10-15 Vertical ladders not accepted. (a) Vertical...

  20. 46 CFR 190.10-15 - Vertical ladders not accepted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vertical ladders not accepted. 190.10-15 Section 190.10-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Means of Escape § 190.10-15 Vertical ladders not accepted. (a) Vertical ladders and deck scuttles shall not in general...

  1. 20 CFR 10.15 - May compensation rights be waived?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false May compensation rights be waived? 10.15 Section 10.15 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' COMPENSATION ACT CLAIMS FOR COMPENSATION UNDER THE FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' COMPENSATION ACT,...

  2. 20 CFR 10.15 - May compensation rights be waived?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true May compensation rights be waived? 10.15 Section 10.15 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' COMPENSATION ACT CLAIMS FOR COMPENSATION UNDER THE FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' COMPENSATION ACT,...

  3. 46 CFR 53.10-15 - Manufacturers' data report forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Vessel Code (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 53.01-1) must be made available to the marine... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Manufacturers' data report forms. 53.10-15 Section 53.10-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING...

  4. 46 CFR 53.10-15 - Manufacturers' data report forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Vessel Code (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 53.01-1) must be made available to the marine... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Manufacturers' data report forms. 53.10-15 Section 53.10-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING...

  5. 46 CFR 53.10-15 - Manufacturers' data report forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Vessel Code (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 53.01-1) must be made available to the marine... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Manufacturers' data report forms. 53.10-15 Section 53.10-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING...

  6. 46 CFR 53.10-15 - Manufacturers' data report forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Vessel Code (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 53.01-1) must be made available to the marine... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Manufacturers' data report forms. 53.10-15 Section 53.10-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING...

  7. 46 CFR 53.10-15 - Manufacturers' data report forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Vessel Code (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 53.01-1) must be made available to the marine... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Manufacturers' data report forms. 53.10-15 Section 53.10-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING...

  8. The amino acid sequence of protein CM-3 from Dendroaspis polylepis polylepis (black mamba) venom.

    PubMed

    Joubert, F J

    1985-01-01

    Protein CM-3 from Dendroaspis polylepis polylepis venom was purified by gel filtration and ion exchange chromatography. It comprises 65 amino acids including eight half-cystines. The complete amino acid sequence of protein CM-3 has been elucidated. The sequence (residues 1-50) resembles that of the N-terminal sequence of the subunits of a synergistic type protein and residues 51-65 that of the C-terminal sequence of an angusticeps type protein. Mixtures of protein CM-3 and angusticeps type proteins showed no apparent synergistic effect, in that their toxicity in combination was no greater than the sum of their individual toxicities. PMID:4029488

  9. 46 CFR 59.10-15 - Rivets and staybolts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... VESSELS AND APPURTENANCES Welding Repairs to Boilers and Pressure Vessels in -Service § 59.10-15 Rivets and staybolts. (a) It is not permitted to reinforce or build up by welding the heads of rivets or staybolts that have deteriorated. Such rivets or staybolts shall be replaced. The seal welding of...

  10. 46 CFR 59.10-15 - Rivets and staybolts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... VESSELS AND APPURTENANCES Welding Repairs to Boilers and Pressure Vessels in -Service § 59.10-15 Rivets and staybolts. (a) It is not permitted to reinforce or build up by welding the heads of rivets or staybolts that have deteriorated. Such rivets or staybolts shall be replaced. The seal welding of...

  11. 46 CFR 59.10-15 - Rivets and staybolts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... VESSELS AND APPURTENANCES Welding Repairs to Boilers and Pressure Vessels in -Service § 59.10-15 Rivets and staybolts. (a) It is not permitted to reinforce or build up by welding the heads of rivets or staybolts that have deteriorated. Such rivets or staybolts shall be replaced. The seal welding of...

  12. 33 CFR 67.10-15 - Approval of sound signals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of sound signals. 67.10... Sound signals § 67.10-15 Approval of sound signals. (a) The Coast Guard approves a sound signal if: (1) It meets the requirements for sound signals in § 67.10-1 (a), (b), (c), (d), and (e) when...

  13. 33 CFR 67.10-15 - Approval of sound signals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Approval of sound signals. 67.10... Sound signals § 67.10-15 Approval of sound signals. (a) The Coast Guard approves a sound signal if: (1) It meets the requirements for sound signals in § 67.10-1 (a), (b), (c), (d), and (e) when...

  14. 33 CFR 67.10-15 - Approval of sound signals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Approval of sound signals. 67.10... Sound signals § 67.10-15 Approval of sound signals. (a) The Coast Guard approves a sound signal if: (1) It meets the requirements for sound signals in § 67.10-1 (a), (b), (c), (d), and (e) when...

  15. 33 CFR 67.10-15 - Approval of sound signals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Approval of sound signals. 67.10... Sound signals § 67.10-15 Approval of sound signals. (a) The Coast Guard approves a sound signal if: (1) It meets the requirements for sound signals in § 67.10-1 (a), (b), (c), (d), and (e) when...

  16. 33 CFR 67.10-15 - Approval of sound signals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Approval of sound signals. 67.10... Sound signals § 67.10-15 Approval of sound signals. (a) The Coast Guard approves a sound signal if: (1) It meets the requirements for sound signals in § 67.10-1 (a), (b), (c), (d), and (e) when...

  17. 46 CFR 194.10-15 - Magazine van construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... system shall be of watertight construction and bear a label plate denoting the power requirement of the..., USE, AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Magazines § 194.10-15 Magazine van... incombustible materials. (b) Lighting fixtures, if installed, shall be of an approved type equipped with...

  18. 46 CFR 58.10-15 - Gas turbine installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Internal Combustion Engine Installations § 58.10-15 Gas turbine installations... reference, see 46 CFR 58.03-1). (b) Materials. The materials used for gas turbine installations shall have... submitted to substantiate their suitability and safety for the service intended: (1) Combustion chamber....

  19. 46 CFR 58.10-15 - Gas turbine installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Internal Combustion Engine Installations § 58.10-15 Gas turbine installations... reference, see 46 CFR 58.03-1). (b) Materials. The materials used for gas turbine installations shall have... submitted to substantiate their suitability and safety for the service intended: (1) Combustion chamber....

  20. 46 CFR 58.10-15 - Gas turbine installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Internal Combustion Engine Installations § 58.10-15 Gas turbine installations... reference, see 46 CFR 58.03-1). (b) Materials. The materials used for gas turbine installations shall have... submitted to substantiate their suitability and safety for the service intended: (1) Combustion chamber....

  1. 46 CFR 58.10-15 - Gas turbine installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Internal Combustion Engine Installations § 58.10-15 Gas turbine installations... reference, see 46 CFR 58.03-1). (b) Materials. The materials used for gas turbine installations shall have... submitted to substantiate their suitability and safety for the service intended: (1) Combustion chamber....

  2. 46 CFR 58.10-15 - Gas turbine installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Internal Combustion Engine Installations § 58.10-15 Gas turbine installations... reference, see 46 CFR 58.03-1). (b) Materials. The materials used for gas turbine installations shall have... submitted to substantiate their suitability and safety for the service intended: (1) Combustion chamber....

  3. On line Coupling of Aerosole Thermodynamic Model with RegCM3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shalaby, Ahmed; Zakey, Ashraf

    2010-05-01

    Development of RegCM3 to be a comprehensive an On-line climate-chemistry model run through two phase. Phase one include coupling of gas-phase chemistry and Second phase include coupling of Aerosole Thermodynamic model. Here ISOROPPIA is coupled with RegCM3 to calculate the composition and phase state of ammonia, sulfate, nitrate, chloride, sodium, calcium, potassium, magnisium, water inorganic aerosole in thermodynamic equilibrium with gas phase precursor. The coupling include only the direct effect of aerosols. The simulation has been done over Northern Africa and Mediterranean region to study the effect of new aerosoles chemistry on the radiation field and how such aerosoles affect the concentration of surface ozone.

  4. The influence of vegetation on the ITCZ and South Asian monsoon in HadCM3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarthy, M. P.; Sanjay, J.; Booth, B. B. B.; Krishna Kumar, K.; Betts, R. A.

    2012-06-01

    The role of global vegetation on the large-scale tropical circulation is examined in the version 3 Hadley Centre climate model (HadCM3). Alternative representations of global vegetation cover from observations and a dynamic global vegetation model (DGVM) were used as the land-cover component for a number of HadCM3 experiments under a nominal present day climate state, and compared to the simulations using the standard land cover map of HadCM3. The alternative vegetation covers result in a large scale cooling of the Northern Hemisphere extra-tropics relative to the HadCM3 standard, resulting in a southward shift in the location of the inter-tropical convergence zone (ITCZ). A significant reduction in Indian monsoon precipitation is also found, which is related to a weakening of the South Asian monsoon circulation, broadly consistent with documented mechanisms relating to temperature and snow perturbations in the Northern Hemisphere extra-tropics in winter and spring, delaying the onset of the monsoon. The role of the Northern Hemisphere extra-tropics on tropical climate is demonstrated, with an additional representation of vegetation cover based on DGVM simulated changes in Northern Hemisphere vegetation from the end of the 21st Century. This experiment shows that through similar processes the simulated extra-tropical vegetation changes in the future contribute to a strengthening of the South Asian monsoon in this model. These findings provide renewed motivation to give careful consideration to the role of global scale vegetation feedbacks when looking at climate change, and its impact on the tropical circulation and South Asian monsoon in the latest generation of Earth System models.

  5. Moisture characteristics over Indian region during Summer Monsoon using RegCM3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janardanan, Rajesh; Rajanayagam, Lorna; Mohanakumar, Kesavapillai

    In this study, the spatial characteristics of the total Precipitable Water during monsoon season over Indian region, based on the sensitivity experiments performed by a regional climate model for an anomalously dry year. The present study uses a recent version (Version-III) of National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Regional Climate Model (RegCM3). RegCM3 has been integrated at 60 km horizontal resolution over the Indian domain. The planetary boundary layer scheme used is that of Holtslag, cumulus parameterization scheme Emanuel of MIT, SUBEX large scale precipitation scheme and BATS ocean flux parameterization scheme. The model is run from 1st May to 30th September. The first month is taken for the spin up. The next four months are taken to study the monsoon. The experiments are carried out by increasing the initial conditions of Sea Surface Temperature by steps of 0.1 degree ranging up to 1degree. The change in the Total Precipitable water and their spatial distribution are studied. The zonal and meridional moisture transports are also analysed. The features simulated by RegCM3 are compared with those of the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis. Key words:- Peninsular India, model integration, Monsoon Rainfall Reference: K. C. chow, Yiming Liu, Johnny C. L. Chan and Yihui Ding, Int. J. Climatol. 26: 1339-1359 (2006) K. C. Chow, Hang-Wai Tong and Johnny C. L. Chan, Clim. Dyn. DOI 10.1007/s00382-007- 0301-6 G. P. Singh, Jai-Ho Oh, Jin-Young Kim and Ok-Yeon Kim; ", SOLA, Vol. 2, pp.29-32 (2006) Dash S. K., Shekhar M. S., Singh G. P. Theoretical and Applied Climatology 86(1-4): 161 (2006)

  6. The influence of vegetation on the ITCZ and South Asian Monsoon in HadCM3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarthy, M. P.; Sanjay, J.; Booth, B. B. B.; Krishna Kumar, K.; Betts, R. A.

    2012-02-01

    The role of extra-tropical vegetation on the large-scale tropical circulation is examined in the version 3 Hadley Centre Climate Model (HadCM3). Alternative representations of present day vegetation from observations and a dynamic vegetation model were used as the land-cover component for a number of HadCM3 experiments under a nominal present day climate state, and are shown to induce perturbations to the simulated global dynamics. This results in a shift in the location of the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) and changes in the South Asian monsoon circulation. This has a significant impact on the Indian land precipitation compared to the standard configuration of HadCM3. This large-scale forcing is consistent with documented mechanisms relating to temperature and snow perturbations in the Northern Hemisphere extra-tropics. This analysis demonstrates that uncertainties in the representation of present day vegetation cover can result in significant perturbations to the simulated climate. The role of the Northern Hemisphere extra-tropics is further demonstrated with a fourth representation of vegetation cover produced by imposing simulated changes in Northern Hemisphere extra-tropical vegetation from the end of the 21st century on the present day climate. This experiment shows that through similar processes extra-tropical vegetation changes in the future contribute to a strengthening of the South Asian monsoon in this model, with a particular influence on the monsoon onset. These findings provide renewed motivation to give careful consideration to the role of global scale vegetation feedbacks when looking at climate change and its impact on the tropics and South Asian monsoon in the latest generation of Earth System models.

  7. Parameterization Measurements of a 963 cm3 LaBr3:Ce Crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsh, J. C.; Litz, M. S.; Chiara, C. J.; Carroll, J. J.

    2015-04-01

    LaBr3:Ce is a relatively new scintillator with characteristics that surpass more commonly used radiation detection scintillators. Published results for small (< 10 cm3) LaBr3 detectors (NIMA 683, 46, 2012) describe improved time resolutions (~ 35 ps), energy resolutions (~3.5% at 662 keV), and optical yields (~63,000 photons/MeV) compared to NaI and BGO. Here it was possible to assess the characteristics of a 963 cm3 (7.6 cm length, 12.7 cm diameter) cylindrical crystal optically coupled to an ET9390KB photomultiplier tube optimized for crystal emissions at 380 nm. A 3 × 3 array of crystals will be used for neutron-stimulated evaluations of materials for elemental and chemical composition. A custom bleeder chain was designed to minimize current saturation and optimize the energy linearity over a 2-12 MeV energy range. Because large volume crystal characteristics do not always scale linearly, energy resolution, detector efficiency, crystal homogeneity, timing resolution, pulse shape, peak-to-Compton ratios, energy linearity, and self activity were all measured and compared to published results on other LaBr3 detectors. Advantages and disadvantages of such large LaBr3 crystals will be discussed, and future plans will be described. This work was supported by the Army Research Laboratory under Cooperative Agreement W911NF-12-2-0019.

  8. Recent and future changes in Arctic sea ice simulated by the HadCM3 AOGCM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregory, J. M.; Stott, P. A.; Cresswell, D. J.; Rayner, N. A.; Gordon, C.; Sexton, D. M. H.

    2002-12-01

    The HadCM3 AOGCM has been used to undertake an ensemble of four integrations from 1860 to 1999 with forcings due to all major anthropogenic and natural climate factors. The simulated decreasing trend in average Arctic sea ice extent for 1970-1999 (-2.5% per decade) is very similar to observations. HadCM3 indicates that internal variability and natural forcings (solar and volcanic) of the climate system are very unlikely by themselves to have caused a trend of this size. The simulated decreasing trend in Arctic sea ice volume (-3.4% per decade for 1961-1998) is less than some recent observationally based estimates. Extending the integrations into the 21st century, Arctic sea ice area and volume continue to decline. Area decreases linearly as global-average temperature rises (by 13% per K), and volume diminishes more rapidly than area. By the end of the century, in some scenarios, the Arctic is ice-free in late summer.

  9. Relationship between tropospheric temperature and Indian summer monsoon rainfall as simulated by RegCM3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pattnayak, K. C.; Panda, S. K.; Saraswat, Vaishali; Dash, S. K.

    2016-05-01

    Relationship between rainfall and tropospheric temperature (TT) has been examined over the Indian subcontinent during four seasons of the year using Regional Climate Model Version 3.0 (RegCM3). The model has been integrated at 55 km horizontal resolution over India during the years 1980-2000 with prescribed lateral boundary forcing from the 40 years re-analysis (ERA40) of the European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts. Results of this study show that RegCM3 in general is able to capture the spatial distributions of rainfall in all the seasons as compared to the corresponding IMD0.5 gridded rainfall. The model has simulated warmer TT over the Himalayan region in all the seasons as compared to ERA40. However, it is well captured over the peninsular India and the oceanic regions. In the model, larger warming by about 0.5 °C over the northwest and Central India in the summer monsoon months might have lead to lower surface pressure there. Also, the vertical extent of the monsoon trough is found to be up to 500 hPa in the model as compared to that in NCEP/NCAR reanalysis. As a consequence, the simulated monsoon circulation and rainfall are stronger than those observed. The two most important rainfall seasons, the summer monsoon and winter are reasonably well simulated with correlation coefficients (CC) of 0.60 and 0.59 respectively significant at 99 % confidence level with the corresponding observed values of IMD0.5. Further, Indian summer monsoon rainfall (ISMR) and TT during the contrasting monsoon years are also close to their respective observed values. Temporal CCs between the TT over Tibet, Pakistan and Central India during the summer monsoon season and gridded ISMR values reveals that the TT over Pakistan has been better correlated with the ISMR than those over Tibet and Central India. This relationship has been well supported by the model simulations.

  10. β-Nitro-5,10,15-tritolylcorroles

    PubMed Central

    Stefanelli, Manuela; Pomarico, Giuseppe; Tortora, Luca; Nardis, Sara; Fronczek, Frank R.; McCandless, Gregory T.; Smith, Kevin M.; Manowong, Machima; Chen, Ping; Kadish, Karl M.; Rosa, Angela; Ricciardi, Giampaolo; Paolesse, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    Functionalization of the β-pyrrolic positions of the corrole macrocycle with –NO2 groups is limited at present to metallocorrolates due to of the instability exhibited by corrole free bases under oxidizing conditions. A careful choice of the oxidant can limit the transformation of corroles into decomposition products or isocorrole species, preserving the corrole aromaticity, and thus allowing the insertion of nitro groups onto the corrole framework. Here we report results obtained by reacting 5,10,15-tritolylcorrole (TTCorrH3) with the AgNO2/NaNO2 system, to give mono- and di-nitrocorrole derivatives when stoichiometry is carefully controlled. Reactions were found to be regioselective, affording the 3-NO2TTCorrH3 and 3,17-(NO2)2TTCorrH3 isomers as the main products in the case of mono- and di-substitution, in 53 and 20% yields, respectively. In both cases, traces of other mono- and di-substituted isomers were detected, which were structurally characterized by X-ray crystallography. The influence of the β-nitro substituents on the corrole properties is studied in detail by UV-visible, electrochemical, and spectroelectrochemical characterization of these functionalized corroles. Density Functional Theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TDDFT) calculations of the ground and excited state properties of these β-nitrocorrole derivatives also afforded significant information, closely matching the experimental observations. It is found that the β-NO2 substituents conjugate with the π-aromatic system of the macrocycle, which initiates significant changes in both the spectroscopic and redox properties of the so functionalized corroles. This effect is more pronounced when the nitro group is introduced at the 2-position, because in this case the conjugation is, for steric reasons, more efficient than in the 3-nitro isomer. PMID:22668242

  11. Unravelling the Drivers of the Recent Drought over Sao Paulo (Brazil) using HadCM3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pattnayak, K. C.; Tindall, J. C.; Brienen, R.; Baker, J.; Spracklen, D. V.; Gloor, E. U.

    2015-12-01

    Since ca. 2010, Sao Paulo has struggled with a multi-year drought. Reservoir levels of Sao Paulo, south-America's largest city, are at a record low level, and as a result the city has implemented water-controlling measures. Usually, the rainy season runs from October through March, bringing important rain for this city. However, over the last 5 years, Sao Paulo has experienced multiple years of below average rainfall. In this study, we try to explain the climatic drivers and mechanisms behind the observed drought over Sao Paulo using a combination of observations and model simulations. We analyse observed precipitation, air temperature and sea surface temperature (SST) datasets over the recent past to characterise the climate anomalies and visualize the extent of the drought. We then use the Hadley Centre Climate model (HadCM3) with prescribed observed SST anomalies to probe the possible causes behind the drought. This analysis will show us possible climatic drivers behind the drought in the most densely populated region of South America.

  12. Improvement of surface albedo parameterization within a regional climate model (RegCM3)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Y.; Lü, S.

    2009-03-01

    A parameterization for calculating surface albedo of Solar Zenith Angel (SZA) dependence with coefficient for each vegetation type determined on the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectro-radiometer (MODIS) reformed by the Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) is incorporated within the latest Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) Regional Climate Model (RegCM3), and evaluated with a high resolution one-way nesting simulation in China using the Climate Research Unit (CRU) data and the observations from the Field Experiment on Interaction between Land and Atmosphere in Arid Region of Northwest China (NWC-ALIEX). The performance of the SZA method modeling surface characteristic is investigated.Results indicate, RegCM with SZA method (RCM_SZA) considerably improve the cold bias of original RegCM (RCM_ORI) in air surface temperature in East Asia with 1.2 degree increased in summer due to the lower albedo produced by SZA method which makes more solar radiation absorbed by the surface and used for heating the atmosphere near to the surface. The simulated diurnal cycle of ground temperature conforms fairly well to the observation in the nesting simulation in Northwest China, especially during the noon time when the SZA has the lowest value. However, the modification can not obviously affect the East Asia summer monsoon precipitation simulation although RCM_SZA produce more evapo-transpiration in surface with more than 2 Wm-2 increases in simulated latent heat fluxes both in East Asia and in Northwest China compared to RCM_ORI.

  13. Evaluation and analysis of RegCM3 simulated summer rainfall over the Huaihe River Basin of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zong, Peishu; Wang, Huijun

    2011-06-01

    This study evaluates the ability of the Abdus Salam International Center for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) version 3 Regional Climate Model (RegCM3) in simulating the summer rainfall amount and distribution and large-scale circulation over the Huaihe River basin of China. We conducted the simulation for the period of 1982-2001 and the wet year of 2003 to test the ensemble simulation capacity of RegCM3. First, by comparing the simulated rainfall amount and distribution against the observations, it is found that RegCM3 can reproduce the rainfall pattern and its annual variations. In addition, the simulated spatial patterns of 850-hPa wind and specific humidity fields are close to the observations, although the wind speed and humidity values are larger. Finally, the ensemble simulation of RegCM3 for summer 2003 failed to capture the spatial distribution and underestimated the magnitude of the precipitation anomalies, and the reasons are analyzed.

  14. Sensitivity of ICTP Regional Climate Model (RegCM3) to Initial and Lateral Boundary Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadeem, I.; Formayer, H.

    2009-04-01

    Regional climate simulations require lateral boundary conditions. These are typically reanalysis of past observations or alternatively, output from climate general circulation models. Lateral boundary conditions are available at various temporal and spatial resolutions. At present, spatial resolution of reanalysis datasets ranges from few kilometers, for example, regional reanalysis limited to only single continent, to the coarser but global datasets like ECMWF 40 Years Re-Analysis. While these datasets represent reasonable analyses of 3-D atmospheric as well as surface conditions, their resolutions, the physics of the models used to generate them, and the means of assimilating data into them can produce very different results when used as boundary conditions for regional climate models. The sensitivity of ICTP Regional Climate Model (RegCM3) to different lateral boundary conditions was investigated over the Alpine region. The model was run directly at 10km horizontal resolution as well as in one-way double nested mode, with a 30 km grid point spacing mother domain encompassing the Europe and a 10 km grid point spacing nested domain covering the Alpine Region. The simulations spans the one-year period of 1989. The boundary conditions used for various simulations were ECMWF Interim Re-Analysis (ERA-Interim, 0.75° and 1.5° grid spacings, 6-h intervals), the ECMWF 40 Years Re-Analysis (ERA40, 1° and 2.5° grid spacings, 6-h interval) and finally the 2.5°, 6-h NCEP/DOE AMIP-II Reanalysis (Reanalysis-2). Sea Surface Temperature for the simulated periods were obtained from a UK Met Office Global Ocean Surface Temperature (GISST), a set of SST data in monthly 1° area grids. When recently released ERA-Interim Reanalysis, which is based on a recent release of the Integrated Forecasting System (IFS Cy31r2) containing many improvements both in the forecasting model and analysis methodology, was used as lateral and boundary conditions, the simulated precipitation field

  15. High resolution climate change simulation of the 21st century over East Asia by RegCM3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xuejie

    2010-05-01

    To meet the increasing demands from the climate change impact assessment studies, a high resolution climate change simulation over East Asia region has being performed in the National Climate Center of the China Meteorological Administration. The model employed in the study is the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) Regional Climate Model (RegCM3). A global model of the CCSR/NIES/FRCGC MIROC3.2_hires is selected to drive RegCM3 because of its high resolution (T106) and its good performances in simulating the present day climate over the region. The simulation is conducted at 25-km grid spacing for the period of 1951-2100. Observed CO2 concentration are used for the present day simulation of 1951-2000 and the emission scenario of IPCC SRES A1B is used as the GHG (greenhouse gases) forcing. Simulations of present day climate over China by RegCM3 and MIROC3.2_hires are compared against observation to valid the model performances. Results show that both models reproduced the general pattern of surface air temperature and precipitation well over the region. Compared to the driving MIROC3.2_hires, RegCM3 provides with more spatial details of the surface fields. Differed from previous GCM-RegCM3 simulations, the RegCM3 did not improves the general pattern of the precipitation due to the good performances of MIROC3.2_hires. Preliminary analysis of the future changes simulated by the two models' show difference, in particular during June-July-August. For example while the MIROC3.2_hires projected a prevailing increase of precipitation in JJA over China, the RegCM3 projected extended areas of decreased precipitation. The data are available for those interested from the community of climate change impacts studies.

  16. 46 CFR 31.10-15 - Inspection for certification-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inspection for certification-TB/ALL. 31.10-15 Section 31.10-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspections § 31.10-15 Inspection for certification—TB/ALL. (a) After receiving an application for...

  17. 46 CFR 31.10-15 - Inspection for certification-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Inspection for certification-TB/ALL. 31.10-15 Section 31.10-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspections § 31.10-15 Inspection for certification—TB/ALL. (a) After receiving an application for...

  18. 46 CFR 31.10-15 - Inspection for certification-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Inspection for certification-TB/ALL. 31.10-15 Section 31.10-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspections § 31.10-15 Inspection for certification—TB/ALL. (a) After receiving an application for...

  19. 46 CFR 31.10-15 - Inspection for certification-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Inspection for certification-TB/ALL. 31.10-15 Section 31.10-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspections § 31.10-15 Inspection for certification—TB/ALL. (a) After receiving an application for...

  20. 46 CFR 31.10-15 - Inspection for certification-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Inspection for certification-TB/ALL. 31.10-15 Section 31.10-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspections § 31.10-15 Inspection for certification—TB/ALL. (a) After receiving an application for...

  1. 46 CFR 38.10-15 - Safety relief valves-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Safety relief valves-TB/ALL. 38.10-15 Section 38.10-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS LIQUEFIED FLAMMABLE GASES Piping, Valves, Fittings, and Accessory Equipment § 38.10-15 Safety relief valves—TB/ALL. (a) Each tank shall be...

  2. 46 CFR 38.10-15 - Safety relief valves-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Safety relief valves-TB/ALL. 38.10-15 Section 38.10-15..., Fittings, and Accessory Equipment § 38.10-15 Safety relief valves—TB/ALL. (a) Each tank shall be fitted with or (subject to approval by the Commandant) connected to one or more safety relief valves...

  3. Sensitivity of the GCM driven summer monsoon simulations to cumulus parameterization schemes in nested RegCM3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, P.; Mohanty, U. C.; Kar, S. C.; Dash, S. K.; Kumari, S.

    2013-04-01

    The regional climate model (RegCM3) from the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics has been used to simulate the Indian summer monsoon for three different monsoon seasons such as deficit (1987), excess (1988) and normal (1989). Sensitivity to various cumulus parameterization and closure schemes of RegCM3 driven by the National Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasting global spectral model products has been tested. The model integration of the nested RegCM3 is conducted using 90 and 30-km horizontal resolutions for outer and inner domains, respectively. The India Meteorological Department gridded rainfall (1° × 1°) and National Centre for Environment Prediction (NCEP)-Department of Energy (DOE) reanalysis-2 of 2.5° × 2.5° horizontal resolution data has been used for verification. The RegCM3 forced by NCEP-DOE reanalysis-2 data simulates monsoon seasons of 1987 and 1988 reasonably well, but the monsoon season of 1989 is not represented well in the model simulations. The RegCM3 runs driven by the global model are able to bring out seasonal mean rainfall and circulations well with the use of the Grell and Anthes-Kuo cumulus scheme at 90-km resolution. While the rainfall intensity and distribution is brought out well with the Anthes-Kuo scheme, upper air circulation features are brought out better by the Grell scheme. The simulated rainfall distribution is better with RegCM3 using the MIT-Emanuel cumulus scheme for 30-km resolution. Several statistical analyses, such as correlation coefficient, root mean square error, equitable threat score, confirm that the performance of MIT-Emanuel scheme at 30-km resolution is better in simulating all-India summer monsoon rainfall. The RegCM3 simulated rainfall amount is more and closer to observations than that from the global model. The RegCM3 has corrected its driven GCM in terms of rainfall distribution and magnitude over some parts of India during extreme years. This study brings out several

  4. Implantation technique of the 50-cm3 SynCardia Total Artificial Heart: does size make a difference?

    PubMed

    Spiliopoulos, Sotirios; Guersoy, Dilek; Dimitriou, Alexandros Merkourios; Koerfer, Reiner; Tenderich, Gero

    2015-01-01

    Despite downsizing, implantation technique of the 50-cm(3) SynCardia Total Artificial Heart and settings of the Companion driver remain unchanged. Owing to the absence of de-airing nipples, de-airing procedure is even more crucial and has to be performed carefully. PMID:26438624

  5. New α-adrenergic property for synthetic MTβ and CM-3 three-finger fold toxins from black mamba.

    PubMed

    Blanchet, Guillaume; Upert, Gregory; Mourier, Gilles; Gilquin, Bernard; Gilles, Nicolas; Servent, Denis

    2013-12-01

    Despite their isolation more than fifteen years ago from the venom of the African mamba Dendroaspis polylepis, very few data are known on the functional activity of MTβ and CM-3 toxins. MTβ was initially classified as a muscarinic toxin interacting non-selectively and with low affinity with the five muscarinic receptor subtypes while no biological function was determined for CM-3. Recent results highlight the multifunctional activity of three-finger fold toxins for muscarinic and adrenergic receptors and reveal some discrepancies in the pharmacological profiles of their venom-purified and synthetic forms. Here, we report the pharmacological characterization of chemically-synthesized MTβ and CM-3 toxins on nine subtypes of muscarinic and adrenergic receptors and demonstrate their high potency for α-adrenoceptors and in particular a sub-nanomolar affinity for the α1A-subtype. Strikingly, no or very weak affinity were found for muscarinic receptors, highlighting that pharmacological characterizations of venom-purified peptides may be risky due to possible contaminations. The biological profile of these two homologous toxins looks like that one previously reported for the Dendroaspis angusticeps ρ-Da1a toxin. Nevertheless, MTβ and CM-3 interact more potently than ρ-Da1a with α1B- and α1D-AR subtypes. A computational analysis of the stability of the MTβ structure suggests that mutation S38I, could be involved in this gain in function. PMID:23648423

  6. Tellurite-, tellurate-, and selenite-based anaerobic respiration by strain CM-3 isolated from gold mine tailings.

    PubMed

    Maltman, Chris; Piercey-Normore, Michele D; Yurkov, Vladimir

    2015-09-01

    The newly discovered strain CM-3, a Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium from gold mine tailings of the Central Mine in Nopiming Provincial Park, Canada, is capable of dissimilatory anaerobic reduction of tellurite, tellurate, and selenite. CM-3 possesses very high level resistance to these oxides, both aerobically and anaerobically. During aerobic growth, tellurite and tellurate resistance was up to 1500 and 1000 µg/ml, respectively. In the presence of selenite, growth occurred at the highest concentration tested, 7000 µg/ml. Under anaerobic conditions, resistance was decreased to 800 µg/ml for the Te oxides; however, much like under aerobic conditions, growth with selenite still took place at 7000 µg/ml. In the absence of oxygen, CM-3 couples oxide reduction to an increase in biomass. Following an initial drop in viable cells, due to switching from aerobic to anaerobic conditions, there was an increase in CFU/ml greater than one order of magnitude in the presence of tellurite (6.6 × 10(3)-8.6 × 10(4) CFU/ml), tellurate (4.6 × 10(3)-1.4 × 10(5) CFU/ml), and selenite (2.7 × 10(5)-5.6 × 10(6) CFU/ml). A control culture without metalloid oxides showed a steady decrease in CFU/ml with no recovery. ATP production was also increased in the presence of each oxide, further indicating anaerobic respiration. Partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed a 99.0 % similarity of CM-3 to Pseudomonas reactans. PMID:26254805

  7. Sensitivity of simulated extreme precipitation and temperature to convective parameterization using RegCM3 in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hui, Pinhong; Tang, Jianping; Wang, Shuyu; Wu, Jian

    2015-10-01

    In this study, the regional climate model of RegCM3 is applied to investigate the sensitivity of regional climate over China using four cumulus parameterizations, the modified Anthes-Kuo (AK), the Grell with Arakawa-Schubert closure, the Grell with Fritsch-Chappell closure, and the MIT-Emanuel (EM). The model was integrated over the period of 1982 to 2001 using the NCEP Reanalysis data NNRP2 as boundary conditions. RegCM3 coupled with various cumulus parameterizations is evaluated firstly as for its ability to represent regional climatology and climate extreme indices, and the results show that simulated regional climate in China is sensitive to the option of cumulus parameterizations. All the cumulus schemes produce a northward expansion of heavy rain area and an underestimation of surface air temperature. For precipitation, the AK scheme simulates relatively better magnitude, while the EM scheme has more reliable performance on the spatial distribution. RegCM3 can represent the spatial distributions of extreme indices for both precipitation and temperature, as well as their decadal trends irrelevant to the cumulus parameterizations. However, the model underestimates the consecutive dry days and overestimates the three extreme wet indices, with the EM scheme giving the worst result. Slight underestimations of extreme temperature indices are detected in all cumulus parameterization scheme runs. The shapes of probability distribution functions for extreme indices are correctly produced, though the probabilities of extreme dry and warm events are underestimated.

  8. 46 CFR 30.10-15 - Combustible liquid-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Combustible liquid-TB/ALL. 30.10-15 Section 30.10-15...-15 Combustible liquid—TB/ALL. The term combustible liquid means any liquid having a flashpoint above... of this subchapter, combustible liquids are referred to by grades, as follows: (a) Grade D....

  9. 46 CFR 30.10-15 - Combustible liquid-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Combustible liquid-TB/ALL. 30.10-15 Section 30.10-15...-15 Combustible liquid—TB/ALL. The term combustible liquid means any liquid having a flashpoint above... of this subchapter, combustible liquids are referred to by grades, as follows: (a) Grade D....

  10. 46 CFR 30.10-15 - Combustible liquid-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Combustible liquid-TB/ALL. 30.10-15 Section 30.10-15...-15 Combustible liquid—TB/ALL. The term combustible liquid means any liquid having a flashpoint above... of this subchapter, combustible liquids are referred to by grades, as follows: (a) Grade D....

  11. 46 CFR 30.10-15 - Combustible liquid-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Combustible liquid-TB/ALL. 30.10-15 Section 30.10-15...-15 Combustible liquid—TB/ALL. The term combustible liquid means any liquid having a flashpoint above... of this subchapter, combustible liquids are referred to by grades, as follows: (a) Grade D....

  12. 46 CFR 30.10-15 - Combustible liquid-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Combustible liquid-TB/ALL. 30.10-15 Section 30.10-15...-15 Combustible liquid—TB/ALL. The term combustible liquid means any liquid having a flashpoint above... of this subchapter, combustible liquids are referred to by grades, as follows: (a) Grade D....

  13. 46 CFR 35.10-15 - Emergency lighting and power systems-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Emergency lighting and power systems-T/ALL. 35.10-15... Emergency Requirements § 35.10-15 Emergency lighting and power systems—T/ALL. (a) Where fitted, it shall be the duty of the master to see that the emergency lighting and power systems are tested and...

  14. 46 CFR 35.10-15 - Emergency lighting and power systems-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Emergency lighting and power systems-T/ALL. 35.10-15... Emergency Requirements § 35.10-15 Emergency lighting and power systems—T/ALL. (a) Where fitted, it shall be the duty of the master to see that the emergency lighting and power systems are tested and...

  15. 46 CFR 35.10-15 - Emergency lighting and power systems-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Emergency lighting and power systems-T/ALL. 35.10-15... Emergency Requirements § 35.10-15 Emergency lighting and power systems—T/ALL. (a) Where fitted, it shall be the duty of the master to see that the emergency lighting and power systems are tested and...

  16. 46 CFR 35.10-15 - Emergency lighting and power systems-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Emergency lighting and power systems-T/ALL. 35.10-15... Emergency Requirements § 35.10-15 Emergency lighting and power systems—T/ALL. (a) Where fitted, it shall be the duty of the master to see that the emergency lighting and power systems are tested and...

  17. 46 CFR 35.10-15 - Emergency lighting and power systems-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Emergency lighting and power systems-T/ALL. 35.10-15... Emergency Requirements § 35.10-15 Emergency lighting and power systems—T/ALL. (a) Where fitted, it shall be the duty of the master to see that the emergency lighting and power systems are tested and...

  18. 38 CFR 10.15 - Designation of more than one beneficiary under an adjusted service certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... World War Adjusted Compensation Act may name more than one beneficiary to receive the proceeds of his... one beneficiary under an adjusted service certificate. 10.15 Section 10.15 Pensions, Bonuses, and....15 Designation of more than one beneficiary under an adjusted service certificate. A veteran to...

  19. Late 20th century attribution of drying trends in the Sahel from the Regional Climate Model (RegCM3)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, Gregory S.; Gaye, Amadou T.; Sylla, Bamba

    2005-11-01

    The RegCM3 has been integrated for the period of 1960-2002 using initial and lateral boundary conditions from the NCEP re-analyses at 6-hour intervals. Greenhouse gas concentrations remain fixed and the land-use/soil properties are not altered. The RegCM3 accurately portrays a trend from wetter conditions in the 1960s to very dry conditions in the 1980s. The dry 1980s temperatures in the Sahel are approximately 3°K warmer than the wet 1960s, caused by a reduction in precipitation and clouds leading to an increase in the net absorbed solar radiation at the surface. This anomalous warming maintains the steepest meridional temperature gradient and therefore the African Easterly Jet in lower latitudes. The initiation of dry conditions starts in June and persists through July and August in the model simulations. The initiation of dry conditions appears to be related to a weaker Tropical Easterly Jet which may be linked to warmer Indian Ocean temperatures over the past several decades.

  20. Deionization of Dopants in Silicon Nanofilms Even with Donor Concentration of Greater than 10(19) cm(-3).

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Takahisa; Kurosawa, Yuya; Kadotani, Naotoshi; Takahashi, Tsunaki; Oda, Shunri; Uchida, Ken

    2016-02-10

    Understanding the dopant properties in heavily doped nanoscale semiconductors is essential to design nanoscale devices. We report the deionization or finite ionization energy of dopants in silicon (Si) nanofilms with dopant concentration (ND) of greater than 10(19) cm(-3), which is in contrast to the zero ionization energy (ED) in bulk Si at the same ND. From the comparison of experimentally observed and theoretically calculated ED, we attribute the deionization to the suppression of metal-insulator transition in highly doped nanoscale semiconductors in addition to the quantum confinement and the dielectric mismatch, which greatly increase ED in low-doped nanoscale semiconductors. Thus, for nanoscale transistors, ND should be higher than that estimated from bulk Si dopant properties in order to reduce their resistivity by the metal-insulator transition. PMID:26741540

  1. Investigating Tectonic Drivers of Miocene - Pliocene Polar Climate Evolution using the HadCM3 Climate Model.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunter, S. J.; Knies, J.; Haywood, A. M.; Dolan, A. M.; Pound, M. J.

    2015-12-01

    We model the climate of the Miocene (Tortonian and the Messinian) and the Pliocene (Piacenzian) using the HadCM3 Atmosphere-Ocean GCM. We use baseline Miocene and Pliocene geographies that have different reconstruction lineages so we describe methods to create a set of self-consistent paleogeographies that represent the main features of the three stages. We present large-scale features of the evolving climate and examine model fidelity by comparing modelled climatology against palaeoenvironmental proxy data. We focus on the climate of the Arctic region and investigate tectonic drivers of sea ice expansion by comparing and interpreting model predictions against borehole data from the North Atlantic and Arctic Ocean. In particular how Late Miocene/ early Pliocene tectonic uplift in the Svalbard/Barents Sea and Greenland region, the opening of the Bering Strait, and the onset of deep water Atlantic-Arctic exchange influenced the development of modern sea ice cover.

  2. Sensitivity of the simulated African monsoon of summers 1993 and 1999 to convective parameterization schemes in RegCM3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tchotchou, L. A. Djiotang; Kamga, F. Mkankam

    2010-03-01

    In this study, the International Center for Theoretical Physics Regional Climate Model version 3 (RegCM3) was used to investigate the sensitivity of the simulation of the West African monsoon using four different cumulus and closures parameterization schemes of Anthes Kuo (AK), Grell and Fristish Chappell (GFC), Grell and Arakawa Schubert (GAS), and MIT-Emmanuel (EM) while maintaining other physical packages unchanged. The contrasting monsoon years of 1993 and 1999, which were dry and wet years, respectively, were simulated. The model was integrated from a period of 5 months, starting from May 1 to September 30 of each year using the European Centre for Medium-Range-Weather Forecast (ECMWF) Reanalysis data (ERA40) as input boundary conditions. The 6-hourly reanalysis data were used to provide the lateral boundary conditions, and the observed weekly Reynolds Sea Surface Temperature interpolated to 6 h was used as the lower boundary forcing. The results show that in West Africa, monsoon precipitations are sensitive to the choice of cumulus parameterization and closure schemes. None of the schemes is able to simulate the monsoon rainfall accurately, and furthermore, there is little difference in behavior among schemes between dry and wet years. The spatial features of precipitation are not identical among schemes, although they all show a northward shift of the rain bands, giving a very wet Sahel and dry Guinean Coast. The GFC and EM schemes are able to capture the diurnal cycle of precipitation and the zonal averages of stratiform rain fractions as observed in the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), although they overestimated rainfall amounts. The most important deficiencies, however, cannot be attributed to the schemes. In particular, the northward shift of both the rain band and the AEJ in RegCM3 is the result of unrealistic soil moisture resulting from the way albedo is parameterized, leading to an excessive northward penetration of monsoon flow. A

  3. Regional Climate Responses To Planetary-Scale Geoengineering Activities, as Modeled Using climateprediction.net/HadCM3L

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricke, K.

    2009-12-01

    Concerns that climate mitigation is occurring too slowly, or that there may be a rapid "climate surprise," have lead to renewed dialogue within the scientific community about cooling the planet through geoengineering, specifically stratospheric albedo modification (SAM). There is little consensus about regional hydrological effects of such activities despite a recent spate of climate modeling studies looking at its potential impacts. Here we present the results from one large-ensemble experiment that used Hadley Centre Coupled Model, version 3 with reduced resolution over the ocean (HadCM3L), implemented through climateprediction.net. The analysis examines 54 globally-uniform stratospheric optical depth modification scenarios designed to stabilize global temperatures under SRES A1B. We present normalized regional temperature anomalies versus normalized regional precipitation and subsurface runoff anomalies (for example, see Figure 1) and the results of regression analyses to quantify the relationships between level of stratospheric optical property modification (i.e., geoengineering) and regional hydrology. Results show that while such shortwave compensations for longwave anthropogenic forcings does generally return regional climates to closer to their baseline climate states than the no-geoengineering, business-as-usual scenarios, the magnitudes and sensitivities of regional responses to this type of activity, as modeled in HadCM3L, are highly variable. Regions, such as Eastern China and India, migrate away from their baseline climate states in different ways, illustrating the impossibility of simultaneous stabilization of regional climates. The linearity of the effect of incrementally increasing stratospheric optical depth also varies regionally. Figure 1: Normalized regional temperature and precipitation anomalies (<2020s>-<1990s> and <2070s>-<1990s>) in units of baseline standard deviations for each region). Each grayscale point in-series near the origin

  4. Stable relativistic/charge-displacement channels in ultrahigh power density (≈1021 W/cm3) plasmas

    PubMed Central

    Borisov, A. B.; Longworth, J. W.; Boyer, K.; Rhodes, C. K.

    1998-01-01

    Robust stability is a chief characteristic of relativistic/charge-displacement self-channeling. Theoretical analysis of the dynamics of this stability (i) reveals a leading role for the eigenmodes in the development of stable channels, (ii) suggests a technique using a simple longitudinal gradient in the electron density to extend the zone of stability into the high electron density/high power density regime, (iii) indicates that a situation approaching unconditional stability can be achieved, (iv) demonstrates the efficacy of the stable dynamics in trapping severely perturbed beams in single uniform channels, and (v) predicts that ≈104 critical powers can be trapped in a single stable channel. The scaling of the maximum power density with the propagating wavelength λ is shown to be proportional to λ−4 for a given propagating power and a fixed ratio of the electron plasma density to the critical plasma density. An estimate of the maximum power density that can be achieved in these channels with a power of ≈2 TW at a UV (248 nm) wavelength gives a value of ≈1021 W/cm3 with a corresponding atomic specific magnitude of ≈60 W/atom. The characteristic intensity propagating in the channel under these conditions exceeds 1021 W/cm2. PMID:9653104

  5. Gas- and particle-phase distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in two-stroke, 50-cm 3 moped emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spezzano, Pasquale; Picini, Paolo; Cataldi, Dario

    Gas- and particle-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) concentrations evaluated in the exhaust of 10 two-stroke, 50-cm 3 mopeds belonging to three different levels of emission legislation (EURO-0, EURO-1 and EURO-2) were used to assess the prevalent mechanism driving the gas/particle partitioning of PAHs in moped exhaust. Sampling was performed on a dynamometer bench both during the "cold-start" and the "hot" phases of the ECE-47 driving cycle. Gas and particulate phase PAHs were collected on polyurethane foam (PUF) plugs and 47-mm Pallflex T60A20 filters, respectively, under isokinetic conditions by using sampling probes inserted into the dilution tunnel of a Constant Volume Sampling - Critical Flow Venturi (CVS-CFV) system. The results show that semi-volatile PAHs were predominantly partitioned to the particle phase. The soluble organic fraction (SOF) of the collected particulates ranged between 72 and 98%. Measured total suspended particulate matter normalized partition coefficients ( Kp) were predicted within a factor of 3-5 by assuming absorption into the organic fraction according to a model developed by Harner and Bidleman [Harner, T., Bidleman, T.F., 1998. Octanol-air partition coefficient for describing particle/gas partitioning of aromatic compounds in urban air. Environmental Science & Technology 32, 1494-1502.]. This suggests that the gas/particle partitioning in moped exhaust is mainly driven by the high fraction of organic matter of the emitted particles and that absorption could be the main partitioning mechanism of PAHs.

  6. Particle- and gas-phase emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from two-stroke, 50-cm 3 mopeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spezzano, Pasquale; Picini, Paolo; Cataldi, Dario; Messale, Fabrizio; Manni, Claudio

    2008-06-01

    The emissions of gas- and particle-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were evaluated in the exhaust of 10 mopeds (4 EURO-0, 4 EURO-1 and 2 EURO-2) equipped with two-stroke engines with displacement of 50 cm3. Sampling was performed on a dynamometer bench both during the "cold-start" and the "hot" phases of the ECE-47 driving cycle. Eighteen PAHs were quantified and total PAH emission factors (∑PAH) ranged from 1790 to 15,059 μg km-1. Expressed in benzo(a)pyrene equivalent (BaPeq), emission factors ranged 4.7-86.3 μg km-1. PAH emissions are reduced according to the legislation class: EURO-0>EURO-1>EURO-2. PAH emission factors were greater during the cold-start phase than the hot phase of the ECE-47 cycle. Results show that despite their small engine size, two-stroke mopeds can emit amounts of particulate PAHs comparable or even higher than PAH emissions reported elsewhere from gasoline- and diesel-powered passenger cars and light- and heavy-duty vehicles.

  7. The corrole and ferrocene marriage: 5,10,15-triferrocenylcorrolato Cu.

    PubMed

    Pomarico, Giuseppe; Vecchi, Andrea; Mandoj, Federica; Bortolini, Olga; Cicero, Daniel O; Galloni, Pierluca; Paolesse, Roberto

    2014-04-21

    Two synthetic routes have been defined for the preparation of a 5,10,15-triferrocenylcorrole Cu derivative. This complex has been characterized and the preliminary electrochemical investigation shows a strong interaction among the corrole and meso ferrocenyl substituents. The results obtained suggest that peculiar properties are gained by combining the eccentric characteristics of ferrocenyl substitution with the corrole macrocycle. PMID:24616907

  8. Carbohydrate ligands for endothelial - Leukocyte adhesion molecule 1

    SciTech Connect

    Tiemeyer, M.; Swiedler, S.J.; Ishihara, Masayuki; Moreland, M.; Schweingruber, H.; Hirtzer, P.; Brandley, B.K. )

    1991-02-15

    The acute inflammatory response requires that circulating leukocytes bind to and penetrate the vascular wall to access the site of injury. Several receptors have been implicated in this interaction, including a family of putative carbohydrate-binding proteins. The authors report here the identification of an endogenous carbohydrate ligand for one of these receptors, endothelial-leukocyte adhesion molecule 1 (ELAM-1). Radiolabeled COS cells transfected with a plasmid containing the cDNA for ELAM-1 were used as probes to screen glycolipids extracted from human leukocytes. COS cells transfected with this plasmid adhered to a subset of sialylated glycolipids resolved on TLC plates or adsorbed on polyvinyl chloride microtiter wells. Adhesion to these glycolipids required calcium but was not inhibited by heparin, chondroitin sulfate, keratan sulfate, or yeast phosphomannan. Monosaccharide composition, linkage analysis, and fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry of the glycolipids indicate that the ligands for ELAM-1 are terminally sialylated lactosylceramides with a variable number of N-acetyllactosamine repeats and at least one fucosylated N-acetylglucosamine residue.

  9. Ionizing radiation induces human intercellular adhesion molecule-1 in vitro.

    PubMed

    Behrends, U; Peter, R U; Hintermeier-Knabe, R; Eissner, G; Holler, E; Bornkamm, G W; Caughman, S W; Degitz, K

    1994-11-01

    Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) plays a central role in various inflammatory reactions and its expression is readily induced by inflammatory stimuli such as cytokines or ultraviolet irradiation. We have investigated the effect of ionizing radiation (IR) on human ICAM-1 expression in human cell lines and skin cultures. ICAM-1 mRNA levels in HL60, HaCaT, and HeLa cells were elevated at 3-6 h after irradiation and increased with doses from 10-40 Gy. The rapid induction of ICAM-1 occurred at the level of transcription, was independent of de novo protein synthesis, and did not involve autocrine stimuli including tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-1. IR also induced ICAM-1 cell surface expression within 24 h. Immunohistologic analysis of cultured human split skin revealed ICAM-1 upregulation on epidermal keratinocytes and dermal microvascular endothelial cells 24 h after exposure to 6 Gy. In conclusion, we propose ICAM-1 as an important radiation-induced enhancer of immunologic cell adhesion, which contributes to inflammatory reactions after local and total body irradiation. PMID:7963663

  10. Circulating intercellular adhesion molecule-1 in patients with systemic sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Sfikakis, P P; Tesar, J; Baraf, H; Lipnick, R; Klipple, G; Tsokos, G C

    1993-07-01

    In view of recent data demonstrating increased expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in the skin of patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) we studied whether levels of soluble ICAM-1 (s-ICAM-1) shed into the circulation are increased in patients with this disorder. We also compared blood levels of s-ICAM-1 in SSc with those in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and we investigated any possible association of s-ICAM-1 with soluble IL-2 receptor (s-IL 2R) levels, the latter being considered as a marker of lymphocyte activation. Patients with SSc had increased levels of sICAM-1 compared with healthy control subjects (mean +/- SEM, 587 +/- 34 versus 373 +/- 27 ng/ml, P < 0.0001). Patients with diffuse rapidly progressive disease had the highest s-ICAM-1 levels. No association was observed between the extent of skin or internal organ involvement and s-ICAM-1 levels. Patients with digital ulcers had significantly elevated s-ICAM-1, but not s-IL 2R, levels. No correlation was detected between individual s-ICAM-1 and S-IL 2R levels in SSc patients. These novel findings suggest that circulating s-ICAM-1 levels may be a useful marker of endothelial activation in SSc; however, further studies are needed to determine the role of ICAM-1 in the pathogenesis of this disorder. PMID:8099861

  11. The eastern Tropical Pacific hydroclimate over the last 120kyr: a perspective from HadCM3.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, W. H. G.; Valdes, P. J.

    2014-12-01

    The focus of the majority of studies looking into the evolving tropical pacific climate on glacial/interglacial timescales has been the role of the changing orbital forcing. While this is of course the fundamental forcing that drives changes in the climate on these time scales, without a fully interactive Earth System Model the effects that the evolving ice sheets/sea level and green house gases have on the climate will be missed. In the absence of such models these other forcings must be imposed. While the impact on the temperature in both the high latitudes, and to some extent in the tropics, of all of the forcings is reasonably clear, their impact on the hydroclimate is less obvious. In this study we shall investigate what role all of the different forcings that vary over a glacial/interglacial cycle play on the hydroclimate in the eastern Tropical Pacific. We use as the basis of our study a set of three climate model experiments using the model HadCM3. Each of these simulates the last 120 thousand years as a series of time slices in one of three configurations: varying the orbital forcing; varying the orbital and greenhouse gas forcing; varying the orbital, greenhouse and ice sheet/sea level forcing. With these experiments we can deconvolve the role that each forcing plays. We will show that, in addition to the orbital forcing, both the greenhouse gas forcing and the ice sheet configuration have a large impact on the eastern Tropical Pacific's hydroclimate. Using a set of more idealised model simulations we shall elucidate the mechanisms by which each of these different forcing mechanism causes the simulated changes.

  12. Intercellular Adhesion Molecule 1 Knockout Abrogates Radiation Induced Pulmonary Inflammation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallahan, Dennis E.; Virudachalam, Subbulakshmi

    1997-06-01

    Increased expression of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1; CD54) is induced by exposure to ionizing radiation. The lung was used as a model to study the role of ICAM-1 in the pathogenesis of the radiation-induced inflammation-like response. ICAM-1 expression increased in the pulmonary microvascular endothelium and not in the endothelium of larger pulmonary vessels following treatment of mice with thoracic irradiation. To quantify radiation-induced ICAM-1 expression, we utilized fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis of anti-ICAM-1 antibody labeling of pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells from human cadaver donors (HMVEC-L cells). Fluorochrome conjugates and UV microscopy were used to quantify the fluorescence intensity of ICAM in the irradiated lung. These studies showed a dose- and time-dependent increase in ICAM-1 expression in the pulmonary microvascular endothelium. Peak expression occurred at 24 h, while threshold dose was as low as 2 Gy. To determine whether ICAM-1 is required for inflammatory cell infiltration into the irradiated lung, the anti-ICAM-1 blocking antibody was administered by tail vein injection to mice following thoracic irradiation. Inflammatory cells were quantified by immunofluorescence for leukocyte common antigen (CD45). Mice treated with the anti-ICAM-1 blocking antibody showed attenuation of inflammatory cell infiltration into the lung in response to ionizing radiation exposure. To verify the requirement of ICAM-1 in the inflammation-like radiation response, we utilized the ICAM-1 knockout mouse. ICAM-1 was not expressed in the lungs of ICAM-1-deficient mice following treatment with thoracic irradiation. ICAM-1 knockout mice had no increase in the inflammatory cell infiltration into the lung in response to thoracic irradiation. These studies demonstrate a radiation dose-dependent increase in ICAM-1 expression in the pulmonary microvascular endothelium, and show that ICAM-1 is required for inflammatory cell infiltration

  13. Intercellular adhesion molecule 1 knockout abrogates radiation induced pulmonary inflammation.

    PubMed

    Hallahan, D E; Virudachalam, S

    1997-06-10

    Increased expression of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1; CD54) is induced by exposure to ionizing radiation. The lung was used as a model to study the role of ICAM-1 in the pathogenesis of the radiation-induced inflammation-like response. ICAM-1 expression increased in the pulmonary microvascular endothelium and not in the endothelium of larger pulmonary vessels following treatment of mice with thoracic irradiation. To quantify radiation-induced ICAM-1 expression, we utilized fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis of anti-ICAM-1 antibody labeling of pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells from human cadaver donors (HMVEC-L cells). Fluorochrome conjugates and UV microscopy were used to quantify the fluorescence intensity of ICAM in the irradiated lung. These studies showed a dose- and time-dependent increase in ICAM-1 expression in the pulmonary microvascular endothelium. Peak expression occurred at 24 h, while threshold dose was as low as 2 Gy. To determine whether ICAM-1 is required for inflammatory cell infiltration into the irradiated lung, the anti-ICAM-1 blocking antibody was administered by tail vein injection to mice following thoracic irradiation. Inflammatory cells were quantified by immunofluorescence for leukocyte common antigen (CD45). Mice treated with the anti-ICAM-1 blocking antibody showed attenuation of inflammatory cell infiltration into the lung in response to ionizing radiation exposure. To verify the requirement of ICAM-1 in the inflammation-like radiation response, we utilized the ICAM-1 knockout mouse. ICAM-1 was not expressed in the lungs of ICAM-1-deficient mice following treatment with thoracic irradiation. ICAM-1 knockout mice had no increase in the inflammatory cell infiltration into the lung in response to thoracic irradiation. These studies demonstrate a radiation dose-dependent increase in ICAM-1 expression in the pulmonary microvascular endothelium, and show that ICAM-1 is required for inflammatory cell infiltration

  14. Coupling of a regional atmospheric model (RegCM3) and a regional oceanic model (FVCOM) over the maritime continent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Jun; Malanotte-Rizzoli, Paola; Eltahir, Elfatih A. B.; Xue, Pengfei; Xu, Danya

    2014-09-01

    Climatological high resolution coupled climate model simulations for the maritime continent have been carried out using the regional climate model (RegCM) version 3 and the finite volume coastal ocean model (FVCOM) specifically designed to resolve regions characterized by complex geometry and bathymetry. The RegCM3 boundary forcing is provided by the EMCWF-ERA40 re-analysis. FVCOM is embedded in the Global MITgcm which provides boundary forcing. The domain of the coupled regional model covers the entire South China Sea with its through-flow, the entire Indonesian archipelago with the Indonesian through-flow (ITF) and includes a large region in the western Pacific and eastern Indian oceans. The coupled model is able to provide stable and realistic climatological simulations for a specific decade of atmospheric-oceanic variables without flux correction. The major focus of this work is on oceanic properties. First, the coupled simulation is assessed against ocean-only simulations carried out under two different sets of air-sea heat fluxes. The first set, provided by the MITgcm, is proved to be grossly deficient as the heat fluxes are evaluated by a two-dimensional, zonally averaged atmosphere and the simulated SST have anomalous cold biases. Hence the MITgcm fluxes are discarded. The second set, the NCEP re-analysis heat fluxes, produces a climatological evolution of the SST with an average cold bias of ~-0.8 °C. The coupling eliminates the cold bias and the coupled SST evolution is in excellent agreement with the analogous evolution in the SODA re-analysis data. The detailed comparison of oceanic circulation properties with the International Nusantara Stratification and Transport observations shows that the coupled simulation produces the best estimate of the total ITF transport through the Makassar strait while the transports of three ocean-only simulations are all underestimated. The annual cycle of the transport is also very well reproduced. The coupling also

  15. Very high (> 1019 cm-3) in situ n-type doping of silicon during molecular beam epitaxy using supersonic jets of phosphine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malik, R.; Gulari, E.; Bhattacharya, P.; Linder, K. K.; Rieh, J.-S.

    1997-03-01

    The use of supersonically injected pulses of phosphine to achieve uniform and high levels of n-type doping in Si during gas-source molecular beam epitaxy is demonstrated. Uniform n-type doping up to levels of 5×1019 cm-3 is obtained. SiGe/Si junction diodes made with this doping technique show good doping profiles and rectifying characteristics.

  16. Use of the "Mental Health Inventory - 5" with Portuguese 10-15 years old.

    PubMed

    Marques, Susana C; Pais-Ribeiro, José Luis; Lopez, Shane J

    2011-05-01

    The present study describes the psychometric properties of the Portuguese version of the Mental Health Inventory-5 for use with young adolescents. A sample of 367 Portuguese students (aged 10-15 years) completed the Portuguese-language versions of Mental Health Inventory-5 (MHI-5; Berwick et al., 1991), Children's Hope Scale (CHS; Snyder et al., 1997), Students' Life Satisfaction Scale (SLSS; Huebner, 1991a), and Global Self-Worth Sub-scale (Harter, 1985). Analysis of readability, reliability (internal consistency and 1-year stability), factor structure, and criterion-related validity suggested that the MHI-5 can be appropriately used in this age group. Implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:21568203

  17. Analysis of the present and future winter Pacific-North American teleconnection in the ECHAM5 global and RegCM3 regional climate models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allan, Andrea M.; Hostetler, Steven W.; Alder, Jay R.

    2014-01-01

    We use the NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis (NCEP) and the MPI/ECHAM5 general circulation model to drive the RegCM3 regional climate model to assess the ability of the models to reproduce the spatiotemporal aspects of the Pacific-North American teleconnection (PNA) pattern. Composite anomalies of the NCEP-driven RegCM3 simulations for 1982–2000 indicate that the regional model is capable of accurately simulating the key features (500-hPa heights, surface temperature, and precipitation) of the positive and negative phases of the PNA with little loss of information in the downscaling process. The basic structure of the PNA is captured in both the ECHAM5 global and ECHAM5-driven RegCM3 simulations. The 1950–2000 ECHAM5 simulation displays similar temporal and spatial variability in the PNA index as that of NCEP; however, the magnitudes of the positive and negative phases are weaker than those of NCEP. The RegCM3 simulations clearly differentiate the climatology and associated anomalies of snow water equivalent and soil moisture of the positive and negative PNA phases. In the RegCM3 simulations of the future (2050–2100), changes in the location and extent of the Aleutian low and the continental high over North America alter the dominant flow patterns associated with positive and negative PNA modes. The future projections display a shift in the patterns of the relationship between the PNA and surface climate variables, which suggest the potential for changes in the PNA-related surface hydrology of North America.

  18. Impact of resolution on regional climate modeling in the source region of Yellow River with complex terrain using RegCM3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hui, Pinhong; Tang, Jianping; Wang, Shuyu; Wu, Jian; Niu, Xiaorui; Kang, Yue

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents results from a 20-year (1990-2009) simulation by RegCM3 with both 45- and 15-km horizontal resolutions. The research focuses on the source region of Yellow River and its surrounding area, which is located on the northeast edge of the Tibetan Plateau with its very complex topography. Driven by the ECMWF ERA-interim reanalysis data, RegCM3 displays reasonable ability to reproduce the spatial patterns, annual cycles, and the interannual variabilities of regional surface climate, though the model shows wet and cold bias. The model's performance is more close to observation for the source region of Yellow River than the other part of the analysis region, and the application of high resolution of 15 km demonstrates better skill with less bias for mean climate and larger correlation coefficients for interannual variability at most stations. However, the high-resolution simulation shows little advantage for reproducing the variations of precipitation and surface air temperature with altitude. The RegCM3 model also generally reproduces the probability distribution functions (PDFs) of surface climate and, consequently, the occurrence of climatic extremes and extreme indices. The simulation with high resolution again proves to be more reliable to generate climatic extremes over complex terrain of the source region of the Yellow River, related to its better representation of complex terrain and local processes.

  19. Impact of resolution on regional climate modeling in the source region of Yellow River with complex terrain using RegCM3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hui, Pinhong; Tang, Jianping; Wang, Shuyu; Wu, Jian; Niu, Xiaorui; Kang, Yue

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents results from a 20-year (1990-2009) simulation by RegCM3 with both 45- and 15-km horizontal resolutions. The research focuses on the source region of Yellow River and its surrounding area, which is located on the northeast edge of the Tibetan Plateau with its very complex topography. Driven by the ECMWF ERA-interim reanalysis data, RegCM3 displays reasonable ability to reproduce the spatial patterns, annual cycles, and the interannual variabilities of regional surface climate, though the model shows wet and cold bias. The model's performance is more close to observation for the source region of Yellow River than the other part of the analysis region, and the application of high resolution of 15 km demonstrates better skill with less bias for mean climate and larger correlation coefficients for interannual variability at most stations. However, the high-resolution simulation shows little advantage for reproducing the variations of precipitation and surface air temperature with altitude. The RegCM3 model also generally reproduces the probability distribution functions (PDFs) of surface climate and, consequently, the occurrence of climatic extremes and extreme indices. The simulation with high resolution again proves to be more reliable to generate climatic extremes over complex terrain of the source region of the Yellow River, related to its better representation of complex terrain and local processes.

  20. The dynamical core, physical parameterizations, and basic simulation characteristics of the atmospheric component AM3 of the GFDL global coupled model CM3

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Donner, L.J.; Wyman, B.L.; Hemler, R.S.; Horowitz, L.W.; Ming, Y.; Zhao, M.; Golaz, J.-C.; Ginoux, P.; Lin, S.-J.; Schwarzkopf, M.D.; Austin, J.; Alaka, G.; Cooke, W.F.; Delworth, T.L.; Freidenreich, S.M.; Gordon, C.T.; Griffies, S.M.; Held, I.M.; Hurlin, W.J.; Klein, S.A.; Knutson, T.R.; Langenhorst, A.R.; Lee, H.-C.; Lin, Y.; Magi, B.I.; Malyshev, S.L.; Milly, P.C.D.; Naik, V.; Nath, M.J.; Pincus, R.; Ploshay, J.J.; Ramaswamy, V.; Seman, C.J.; Shevliakova, E.; Sirutis, J.J.; Stern, W.F.; Stouffer, R.J.; Wilson, R.J.; Winton, M.; Wittenberg, A.T.; Zeng, F.

    2011-01-01

    The Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) has developed a coupled general circulation model (CM3) for the atmosphere, oceans, land, and sea ice. The goal of CM3 is to address emerging issues in climate change, including aerosol-cloud interactions, chemistry-climate interactions, and coupling between the troposphere and stratosphere. The model is also designed to serve as the physical system component of earth system models and models for decadal prediction in the near-term future-for example, through improved simulations in tropical land precipitation relative to earlier-generation GFDL models. This paper describes the dynamical core, physical parameterizations, and basic simulation characteristics of the atmospheric component (AM3) of this model. Relative to GFDL AM2, AM3 includes new treatments of deep and shallow cumulus convection, cloud droplet activation by aerosols, subgrid variability of stratiform vertical velocities for droplet activation, and atmospheric chemistry driven by emissions with advective, convective, and turbulent transport. AM3 employs a cubed-sphere implementation of a finite-volume dynamical core and is coupled to LM3, a new land model with ecosystem dynamics and hydrology. Its horizontal resolution is approximately 200 km, and its vertical resolution ranges approximately from 70 m near the earth's surface to 1 to 1.5 km near the tropopause and 3 to 4 km in much of the stratosphere. Most basic circulation features in AM3 are simulated as realistically, or more so, as in AM2. In particular, dry biases have been reduced over South America. In coupled mode, the simulation of Arctic sea ice concentration has improved. AM3 aerosol optical depths, scattering properties, and surface clear-sky downward shortwave radiation are more realistic than in AM2. The simulation of marine stratocumulus decks remains problematic, as in AM2. The most intense 0.2% of precipitation rates occur less frequently in AM3 than observed. The last two decades of

  1. Partial melting of lower crust at 10-15 kbar: constraints on adakite and TTG formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Qing; Hermann, Jörg

    2013-06-01

    The pressure-temperature ( P- T) conditions for producing adakite/tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite (TTG) magmas from lower crust compositions are still open to debate. We have carried out partial melting experiments of mafic lower crust in the piston-cylinder apparatus at 10-15 kbar and 800-1,050 °C to investigate the major and trace elements of melts and residual minerals and further constrain the P- T range appropriate for adakite/TTG formation. The experimental residues include the following: amphibolite (plagioclase + amphibole ± garnet) at 10-15 kbar and 800 °C, garnet granulite (plagioclase + amphibole + garnet + clinopyroxene + orthopyroxene) at 12.5 kbar and 900 °C, two-pyroxene granulite (plagioclase + clinopyroxene + orthopyroxene ± amphibole) at 10 kbar and 900 °C and 10-12.5 kbar and 1,000 °C, garnet pyroxenite (garnet + clinopyroxene ± amphibole) at 13.5-15 kbar and 900-1,000 °C, and pyroxenite (clinopyroxene + orthopyroxene) at 15 kbar and 1,050 °C. The partial melts change from granodiorite to tonalite with increasing melt proportions. Sr enrichment occurs in partial melts in equilibrium with <20 wt% plagioclase, whereas depletions of Ti, Sr, and heavy rare earth elements (HREE) occur relative to the starting material when the amounts of residual amphibole, plagioclase, and garnet are >20 wt%, respectively. Major elements and trace element patterns of partial melts produced by 10-40 wt% melting of lower crust composition at 10-12.5 kbar and 800-900 °C and 15 kbar and 800 °C closely resemble adakite/TTG rocks. TiO2 contents of the 1,000-1,050 °C melts are higher than that of pristine adakite/TTG. In comparison with natural adakite/TTG, partial melts produced at 10-12.5 kbar and 1,000 °C and 15 kbar and 1,050 °C have elevated HREE, whereas partial melts at 13.5-15 kbar and 900-1,000 °C in equilibrium with >20 wt% garnet have depressed Yb and elevated La/Yb and Gd/Yb. It is suggested that the most appropriate P- T conditions for

  2. Climate Impact on South America due to Land Use Degradation of Amazon Rainforest during Winter and Summer Periods by RegCM3 Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, M. E. S.; Da Rocha, R.; Pereira, G.

    2015-12-01

    In this study we investigated the climatic impact over South America region due to the increasing of deforestation at the eastern and southern regions of Amazon through the use of the climate model RegCM3 with 50 km of spatial resolution. Many studies, among global and regional models have been used to simulate climatic impact due to deforestation. Most of them used relatively coarse resolution, small domains over South America, besides do not consider deforestation as usually observed. In order to verify the RegCM3 ability to simulate climate impacts due to Amazon deforestation including relatively higher horizontal resolutions, 50 km, a larger domain, the whole South America, deforested areas more similar to the route-shaped commonly seen, and a landuse updating, the model was run for the 2001-2006 period. As the major part of the previous studies focusing Amazon deforestation, RegCM3-50km simulated over degraded areas air temperature increase, ranging from 1.0 to 2.5oC, and precipitation decreasing, ~10%. These aspects are mainly resulting from soil water depletion and roughness vegetation decreasing, both inhibiting evapotranspiration processes. Apart from these results, the model with 50 km simulated precipitation increasing, ~10%, over the eastern South America and adjacent South Atlantic ocean, after Amazon deforestation. Seeking for physical related reasons able to provide the precipitation increasing during rainy seasons, over eastern South America, we found out that upper levels high pressure system (the Bolivian High) intensification, coupled to the southeastward trough, what follows the low troposphere warming, seems to contribute to the precipitation increasing. The climatic impact simulated for winter seasons presents strongest values for areas with altered landuse, over the north region of South America.

  3. Accurate quantum chemical modelling of the separation of Eu(3+) from Am(3+)/Cm(3+) by liquid-liquid extraction with Cyanex272.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Jun; Weissmann, Daniel; Dolg, Michael; Chen, Xuebo

    2015-08-28

    The experimentally observed extraction complexes of trivalent lanthanide Eu(3+) and actinide Am(3+)/Cm(3+) cations with Cyanex272 [bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl) phosphinic acid, denoted as HC272] and Cyanex301 [bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl) dithiophosphinic acid, denoted as HC301] have been studied by using relativistic energy-consistent 4f- and 5f-in-core pseudopotentials for trivalent f elements, combined with density functional theory and a continuum solvation model. It has been found that, as a result of hydrogen bonding, HC272 exists primarily as a self-associated species, whereas HC301 is preferably a monomer. The calculations show that in case of all three M(3+) (M = Eu, Am, Cm) ions for HC272 the extraction complexes M[H(C272)2]3 are formed prior to M(C272)3, whereas for HC301 the extraction complexes M(C301)3 have priority over M[H(C301)2]3. The calculated M-O and M-S bond lengths and the M-P distances of these preferred extraction complexes agree very well with the available experimental data. The obtained changes of the Gibbs free energies in the liquid-liquid extraction reactions (1): Maqu(3+) + 3(HC272)2,org→ M[H(C272)2]3,org + 3Haqu(+) and (2): Maqu(3+) + 3HC301org→ M(C301)3,org + 3Haqu(+) agree with the experimentally observed thermodynamical priorities of HC272 and HC301, i.e., HC272 prefers Eu(3+) over Am(3+)/Cm(3+) and HC301 prefers Am(3+)/Cm(3+) over Eu(3+). The obtained changes of the Gibbs free energies in reaction (2) (Eu, 68.1 kJ mol(-1); Am, 46.5 kJ mol(-1)) agree quite well with the experimental findings (Eu, 63.3 kJ mol(-1); Am, 44.1 kJ mol(-1)). PMID:26203895

  4. Parameter Tuning and Calibration of RegCM3 with MIT-Emanuel Cumulus Parameterization Scheme over CORDEX East Asian Domain

    SciTech Connect

    Zou, Liwei; Qian, Yun; Zhou, Tianjun; Yang, Ben

    2014-10-01

    In this study, we calibrated the performance of regional climate model RegCM3 with Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)-Emanuel cumulus parameterization scheme over CORDEX East Asia domain by tuning the selected seven parameters through multiple very fast simulated annealing (MVFSA) sampling method. The seven parameters were selected based on previous studies, which customized the RegCM3 with MIT-Emanuel scheme through three different ways by using the sensitivity experiments. The responses of model results to the seven parameters were investigated. Since the monthly total rainfall is constrained, the simulated spatial pattern of rainfall and the probability density function (PDF) distribution of daily rainfall rates are significantly improved in the optimal simulation. Sensitivity analysis suggest that the parameter “relative humidity criteria” (RH), which has not been considered in the default simulation, has the largest effect on the model results. The responses of total rainfall over different regions to RH were examined. Positive responses of total rainfall to RH are found over northern equatorial western Pacific, which are contributed by the positive responses of explicit rainfall. Followed by an increase of RH, the increases of the low-level convergence and the associated increases in cloud water favor the increase of the explicit rainfall. The identified optimal parameters constrained by the total rainfall have positive effects on the low-level circulation and the surface air temperature. Furthermore, the optimized parameters based on the extreme case are suitable for a normal case and the model’s new version with mixed convection scheme.

  5. Perovskite CH3NH3PbI3(Cl) Single Crystals: Rapid Solution Growth, Unparalleled Crystalline Quality, and Low Trap Density toward 10(8) cm(-3).

    PubMed

    Lian, Zhipeng; Yan, Qingfeng; Gao, Taotao; Ding, Jie; Lv, Qianrui; Ning, Chuangang; Li, Qiang; Sun, Jia-Lin

    2016-08-01

    Single crystal reflects the intrinsic physical properties of a material, and single crystals with high-crystalline quality are highly desired for the acquisition of high-performance devices. We found that large single crystals of perovskite CH3NH3PbI3(Cl) could be grown rapidly from chlorine-containing solutions. Within 5 days, CH3NH3PbI3(Cl) single crystal as large as 20 mm × 18 mm × 6 mm was harvested. As a most important index to evaluate the crystalline quality, the full width at half-maximum (fwhm) in the high-resolution X-ray rocking curve (HR-XRC) of as-grown CH3NH3PbI3(Cl) single crystal was measured as 20 arcsec, which is far superior to so far reported CH3NH3PbI3 single crystals (∼1338 arcsec). The unparalleled crystalline quality delivered a low trap-state density of down to 7.6 × 10(8) cm(-3), high carrier mobility of 167 ± 35 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1), and long transient photovoltaic carrier lifetime of 449 ± 76 μs. The improvement in the crystalline quality, together with the rapid growth rate and excellent carrier transport property, provides state-of-the-art single crystalline hybrid perovskite materials for high-performance optoelectronic devices. PMID:27458057

  6. Silicon photomultiplier readout of a monolithic 270×5×5 cm3 plastic scintillator bar for time of flight applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinhardt, Tobias P.; Gohl, Stefan; Reinicke, Stefan; Bemmerer, Daniel; Cowan, Thomas E.; Heidel, Klaus; Röder, Marko; Stach, Daniel; Wagner, Andreas; Weinberger, David; Zuber, Kai

    2016-04-01

    The detection of 200-1000 MeV neutrons requires large amounts, ~ 100 cm, of detector material because of the long nuclear interaction length of these particles. In the example of the NeuLAND neutron time-of-flight detector at FAIR, this is accomplished by using 3000 monolithic scintillator bars of 270 × 5 × 5cm3 size made of a fast plastic. Each bar is read out on the two long ends, and the needed time resolution of σt < 150 ps is reached with fast timing photomultipliers. In the present work, it is investigated whether silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) photosensors can be used instead. Experiments with a picosecond laser system were conducted to determine the timing response of the assembly made up of SiPM and preamplifier. The response of the full system including also the scintillator was studied using 30 MeV single electrons provided by the ELBE superconducting electron linac. The ELBE data were matched by a simple Monte Carlo simulation, and they were found to obey an inverse-square-root scaling law. In the electron beam tests, a time resolution of σt = 136 ps was reached with a pure SiPM readout, well within the design parameters for NeuLAND.

  7. Monte Carlo correction factors for a Farmer 0.6 cm3 ion chamber dose measurement in the build-up region of the 6 MV clinical beam.

    PubMed

    Pena, J; Sánchez-Doblado, F; Capote, R; Terrón, J A; Gómez, F

    2006-03-21

    Reference dosimetry of photon fields is a well-established subject and currently available protocols (such as the IAEA TRS-398 and AAPM TG-51) provide methods for converting the ionization chamber (IC) reading into dose to water, provided reference conditions of charged particle equilibrium (CPE) are fulfilled. But these protocols cannot deal with the build-up region, where the lack of CPE limits the applicability of the cavity theorems and so the chamber correction factors become depth dependent. By explicitly including the IC geometry in the Monte Carlo simulations, depth-dependent dose correction factors are calculated for a PTW 30001 0.6 cm(3) ion chamber in the build-up region of the 6 MV photon beam. The corrected percentage depth dose (PDD) agrees within 2% with that measured using the NACP 02 plane-parallel ion chamber in the build-up region at depths greater than 0.4 cm, where the Farmer chamber wall reaches the phantom surface. PMID:16510960

  8. Markedly diminished epidermal keratinocyte expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in Sezary syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Nickoloff, B.J.; Griffiths, E.M.; Baadsgaard, O.; Voorhees, J.J.; Hanson, C.A.; Cooper, K.D. )

    1989-04-21

    In mucosis fungoides the malignant T cells express lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1, which allows them to bind to epidermal keratinocytes expressing the gamma interferon-inducible intercellular adhesion molecule-1. In this report, a patient with leukemic-stage mucosis fungoides (Sezary syndrome) had widespread erythematous dermal infiltrates containing malignant T cells, but without any epidermotropism. The authors discovered that the T cells expressed normal amounts of functional lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1, but the keratinocytes did not express significant levels of intercellular adhesion molecule-1, which was probably due to the inability of the malignant T cells to produce gamma interferon. These results support the concept that the inability of malignant T cells to enter the epidermis may contribute to emergence of more clinically aggressive T-cell clones that are no longer confined to the skin, but infiltrate the blood, lymph nodes, and viscera, as is seen in Sezary syndrome.

  9. Association between two single base polymorphisms of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 gene and inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Habibi, Manijeh; Naderi, Nosratllah; Farnood, Alma; Balaii, Hedieh; Dadaei, Tahereh; Almasi, Shohreh; Zojaji, Homayoun; Asadzadeh Aghdae, Hamid; Zali, Mohammad Reza

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The present study evaluated the association between G241R and K469E polymorphisms of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 gene and inflammatory bowel disease in Iranian population. Background: Inflammatory bowel disease including ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease, is a chronic idiopathic inflammatory disease of the gastrointestinal tract. There are two single base polymorphisms of intercellular adhesion molecule 1gene, G241R and K469E, reported to be associated with inflammatory disorders. Patients and methods: In this case-control study, 156 inflammatory bowel disease patients (110 ulcerative colitis and 46 Crohn’s disease patients) and 131 healthy controls were enrolled. Two polymorphisms of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 gene, including G241R and K469E, were assessed by polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism. Results: The E469 allele of K469E polymorphism was significantly more frequent in Crohn’s disease patients compared to controls (P< 0.05, OR= 1.83; 95% CI: 1.13 to 2.96). The mutant homozygote genotype of K469E polymorphism (E/E) was also significantly more frequent in Crohn’s disease patients compared to controls (P< 0.05, OR= 4.23; 95% CI: 1.42 to 12.59). No difference was observed in the frequency of K469E polymorphism among ulcerative colitis patients compared to controls. There were no significant differences in genotype and allele frequencies of G241R polymorphism among ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease patients compared to control subjects. Conclusion: According to our findings, K469E polymorphism of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 gene may probably participate in the pathogenesis of Crohn’s disease in Iran. PMID:27099667

  10. Sensitivity studies of high-resolution RegCM3 simulations of precipitation over the European Alps: the effect of lateral boundary conditions and domain size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadeem, Imran; Formayer, Herbert

    2015-08-01

    A suite of high-resolution (10 km) simulations were performed with the International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) Regional Climate Model (RegCM3) to study the effect of various lateral boundary conditions (LBCs), domain size, and intermediate domains on simulated precipitation over the Great Alpine Region. The boundary conditions used were ECMWF ERA-Interim Reanalysis with grid spacing 0.75∘, the ECMWF ERA-40 Reanalysis with grid spacing 1.125 and 2.5∘, and finally the 2.5∘ NCEP/DOE AMIP-II Reanalysis. The model was run in one-way nesting mode with direct nesting of the high-resolution RCM (horizontal grid spacing Δx = 10 km) with driving reanalysis, with one intermediate resolution nest (Δx = 30 km) between high-resolution RCM and reanalysis forcings, and also with two intermediate resolution nests (Δx = 90 km and Δx = 30 km) for simulations forced with LBC of resolution 2.5∘. Additionally, the impact of domain size was investigated. The results of multiple simulations were evaluated using different analysis techniques, e.g., Taylor diagram and a newly defined useful statistical parameter, called Skill-Score, for evaluation of daily precipitation simulated by the model. It has been found that domain size has the major impact on the results, while different resolution and versions of LBCs, e.g., 1.125∘ ERA40 and 0.7∘ ERA-Interim, do not produce significantly different results. It is also noticed that direct nesting with reasonable domain size, seems to be the most adequate method for reproducing precipitation over complex terrain, while introducing intermediate resolution nests seems to deteriorate the results.

  11. Interaction peculiarities of 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-N-methylpyridil) tetra iodide porphyrin with albumin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebedeva, N. Sh.; Malkova, E. A.; Popova, T. E.; Kutyrev, A. E.; Syrbu, S. A.; Parfenyuk, E. V.; Vyugin, A. I.

    2014-01-01

    In present work interactions of bovine serum albumin with 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-N-methylpyridil) tetra iodide porphyrin have been studied by electron absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy. The studies were carried out in aqueous media at different pH and in water-dimethylformamide mixtures containing up to 0.19 M of the organic solvent. It has been demonstrated that the porphyrin forms stable complexes with BSA in which the porphyrin is located subdomains IB and IIA. The stability constants of the complexes is practically independent of pH.

  12. Regulation of platelet biology by platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1.

    PubMed

    Jones, Chris I; Moraes, Leonardo A; Gibbins, Jonathan M

    2012-01-01

    Platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1), an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif containing receptor, plays diverse and apparently contradictory roles in regulating the response of platelets to stimuli; inhibiting platelet response to immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif and G protein-coupled receptor signalling following stimulation with collagen, adenosine diphosphate, and thrombin, as well as enhancing integrin outside-in signalling. These dual, and opposing, roles suggest an important and complex role for PECAM-1 in orchestrating platelet response to vascular damage. Indeed, during thrombus formation, the influence of PECAM-1 on the multiple signalling pathways combines leading to a relatively large inhibitory effect on thrombus formation. PMID:22035359

  13. Kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) mediates renal epithelial cell repair via ERK MAPK signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhiwei; Cai, Cindy X

    2016-01-01

    The expression of kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), a very promising sensitive and specific urinary biomarker for acute renal injury, is markedly upregulated in injured and regenerating renal proximal tubular epithelial cells following ischemic or toxic insults, suggesting a possible role for this molecule in renal repair process. In the present study we report that expression of KIM-1 facilitates renal tubular epithelial cell repair by promoting cell migration and proliferation. KIM-1 expression also enhances ERK MAPK activation, and the modulatory effect of KIM-1 on cellular repair process is likely mediated via ERK MAPK signaling pathway. PMID:27084535

  14. Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in the Pathogenesis of Asthma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wesgner, Craig D.; Gundel, Robert H.; Reilly, Patricia; Haynes, Nancy; Letts, L. Gordon; Rothlein, Robert

    1990-01-01

    Airway eosinophilia, epithelial desquamation, and hyperresponsiveness are characteristics of the airway inflammation underlying bronchial asthma. The contribution of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) to eosinophil migration and airway responsiveness was studied. ICAM-1 partially mediated eosinophil adhesion to endothelium in vitro and was upregulated on inflamed bronchial endothelium in vivo. ICAM-1 expression was also upregulated on inflamed airway epithelium in vitro and in vivo. In a primate model of asthma, a monoclonal antibody to ICAM-1 attenuated airway eosinophilia and hyperresponsiveness. Thus, antagonism of ICAM-1 may provide a therapeutic approach to reducing airway inflammation, hyperresponsiveness, and asthma symptoms.

  15. Kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) mediates renal epithelial cell repair via ERK MAPK signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhiwei; Cai, Cindy X

    2016-05-01

    The expression of kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), a very promising sensitive and specific urinary biomarker for acute renal injury, is markedly upregulated in injured and regenerating renal proximal tubular epithelial cells following ischemic or toxic insults, suggesting a possible role for this molecule in renal repair process. In the present study, we report that expression of KIM-1 facilitates renal tubular epithelial cell repair by promoting cell migration and proliferation. KIM-1 expression also enhances ERK MAPK activation, and the modulatory effect of KIM-1 on cellular repair process is likely mediated via ERK MAPK signaling pathway. PMID:27084535

  16. Late outcome of very severe blunt head trauma: a 10-15 year second follow-up.

    PubMed Central

    Thomsen, I V

    1984-01-01

    Forty patients with very severe blunt head trauma (post-traumatic amnesia greater than or equal to 1 month) were initially examined at an average of 4.5 months after the injury. The patients were visited in their homes 2.5 years and 10-15 years after the accident and questionnaires were presented to patients, relatives and/or staff. Though physical impairment, dysarthria and defects of memory remained severe in many cases, the psychosocial sequelae presented the most serious problems. Permanent changes in personality and emotion were reported in two thirds and were especially frequent among the youngest patients. The worse overall outcome was seen in cases with severe brainstem involvement or anterior lesions or both. In spite of the great frequency of deficits long-term improvement of functional state was common and several regained at least some work capacity. PMID:6707671

  17. Method of using 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(carboxyphenyl)porphine for detecting cancers of the lung

    DOEpatents

    Cole, D.A.; Moody, D.C. III; Ellinwood, L.E.; Klein, M.G.

    1992-11-10

    A method is described for using tetra-aryl porphyrins for and, in particular, 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-carboxyphenyl)porphine as a fluorescent tracer for cancers of the lung, and as a radiotracer therefor as a complex with [sup 67]Cu. The latter complex also provides a source of beta radiation for selective destruction of lung malignancies as well as gamma radiation useful for image analysis of the lungs by single photon emission computed tomography, as an example, both in vivo. Copper-64 may be substituted for the [sup 67]Cu if only radiotracer characteristics are of interest. This lighter isotope of copper is a positron emitter, and positron emission tomography techniques can be used to locate the malignant tissue mass. 1 figure.

  18. Method of using 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(carboxyphenyl)porphine for detecting cancers of the lung

    DOEpatents

    Cole, Dean A.; Moody, III, David C.; Ellinwood, L. Edward; Klein, M. Gerard

    1992-01-01

    Method using tetra-aryl porphyrins for and, in particular, 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-carboxyphenyl)porphine as a fluorescent tracer for cancers of the lung, and as a radiotracer therefor as a complex with .sup.67 Cu. The latter complex also provides a source of beta radiation for selective destruction of lung malignancies as well as gamma radiation useful for image analysis of the situs thereof by single photon emission computed tomography, as an example, both in vivo. Copper-64 may be substituted for the .sup.67 Cu if only radiotracer characteristics are of interest. This lighter isotope of copper is a positron emitter, and positron emission tomography techniques cna be used to locate the malignant tissue mass.

  19. Method using 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-carboxyphenyl)porphine for treating cancers of the lung

    DOEpatents

    Cole, Dean A.; Moody, III, David C.; Ellinwood, L. Edward; Klein, M. Gerard

    1995-01-01

    Method using tetra-aryl porphyrins for and, in particular, 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-carboxyphenyl)porphine as a fluorescent tracer for cancers of the lung, and as a radiotracer therefor as a complex with .sup.67 Cu. The latter complex also provides a source of beta radiation for selective destruction of lung malignancies as well as gamma radiation useful for image analysis of the situs thereof by single photon emission computed tomography, as an example, both in vivo. Copper-64 may be substituted for the .sup.67 Cu if only radiotracer characteristics are of interest. This lighter isotope of copper is a positron emitter, and positron emission tomography techniques can be used to locate the malignant tissue mass.

  20. Platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 and mechanotransduction in vascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, K

    2006-04-01

    Endothelial cells are known to respond to mechanical forces such as fluid shear stress and cyclic stretch, but elucidating the mechanism for mechanosensing has been difficult. Experimental data indicate that there are probably several sensing mechanisms. We have recently proposed a novel mechanoresponse mechanism that involves platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1). When endothelial cells are stimulated by fluid shear stress, PECAM-1 is tyrosine phosphorylated and activates the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) signalling cascade. The same signalling events occurred when we applied pulling force directly on PECAM-1 on the endothelial cell surface using magnetic beads coated with antibodies against the external domain of PECAM-1. These results appear to indicate that PECAM-1 is a mechanotransduction molecule. To our knowledge, this is the first mammalian molecule that is shown to respond to mechanical force directly exerted to it. PMID:16594905

  1. Pathogenic Actions of Cell Adhesion Molecule 1 in Pulmonary Emphysema and Atopic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Yoneshige, Azusa; Hagiyama, Man; Fujita, Mitsugu; Ito, Akihiko

    2015-01-01

    Cell adhesion mediated by adhesion molecules is of central importance in the maintenance of tissue homeostasis. Therefore, altered expression of adhesion molecules leads to the development of various tissue disorders involving cell activation, degeneration, and apoptosis. Nevertheless, it still remains unclear what initiates the altered expression of adhesion molecules and how the subsequent pathological cascades proceed. In this regard, cell adhesion molecule 1 (CADM1) is one of the candidates that is involved in the development of pathological lesions; it is an intercellular adhesion molecule that is expressed in various types of cells such as pulmonary cells, neurons, and mast cells. Recent studies have revealed that alterations in the transcriptional or post-transcriptional expressions of CADM1 correlate with the pathogenesis of pulmonary diseases and allergic diseases. In this review, we specifically focus on how CADM1 is involved in the development of pathological lesions in pulmonary emphysema and atopic dermatitis. PMID:26636084

  2. Drug-induced expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 on lesional keratinocytes in fixed drug eruption.

    PubMed Central

    Teraki, Y.; Moriya, N.; Shiohara, T.

    1994-01-01

    The mechanism(s) and the factor(s) that contribute to preferential localization of fixed drug eruption (FDE) lesions to certain skin sites remain speculative. Previous studies suggested that populations of T cells residing in the lesional epidermis may be involved in selective destruction of the epidermis in FDE. In this study, to define the earliest cellular and molecular events with potential relevance to activation of the epidermal T cells, expression of adhesion molecules on keratinocytes (KC) and vascular endothelium was examined sequentially in the lesional skin of FDE patients after challenge with the causative drug. Rapid and intense intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression was induced on the vascular endothelium and KC as early as 1.5 hours after challenge, at which time E-selectin and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) were not up-regulated. In vitro studies using skin organ culture showed that the lesional KC and endothelium responded more rapidly and intensely to express ICAM-1 to tumor necrosis factor-alpha or interferon-gamma compared with those in the nonlesional skin. Surprisingly, such selective induction of KC ICAM-1 restricted to the lesional skin was also observed after exposure to the causative drug alone in skin organ culture. Pretreatment of the lesional skin with anti-tumor necrosis factor completely abrogated in vitro induction of KC ICAM-1 expression by the drug. Drug-induced, TNF-alpha-dependent KC ICAM-1 expression in the lesional skin suggests that induction of ICAM-1 expression by the lesional KC after ingestion of the drug would probably provide a localized initiating stimulus for activation of the disease-associated epidermal T cells. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:7915886

  3. In vitro cytotoxicity assessment of [5,10,15,20-tetra (4-sulfophenyl) porphyrin] on tumor and nontumor cell lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandrova, R.; Sabotinov, O.; Stoykova, Elena V.; Ion, Rodica-Mariana; Shurulinkov, Stanislav; Minchev, Georgi

    2004-06-01

    In this study we evaluate the cytotoxicity of 5,10,15,20- tetra (4-sulfophenyl) porphyrins on a tumor cell line LSCC-SF-Mc29, obtained from a transplantable chicken hepatoma induced by the myelocytomatosis virus Mc29, a timor line LSR-SF-SR, obtained from a transplantable sarcoma in rat induced by Rous sarcoma virus strain Schmidt-Ruppin and for normal mouse cell line (BALB/c-3T3-A31) and bovine kidney cell line (MDBK). The cells were exposed to irradiation from a pulsed CuBr vapor laser system at 510.6 nm and 578.2 nm at fluence rate 50 mW/cm2 and pulse frequency rate 20 kHz. The viability of cells was determined by the neutral red uptake cytotoxicity assay. The light dose-response curves and light exposures that ensure viability drop to 50 % were obtained for each cell line. The cytotoxic effect of TS4PP is most distinguished for LSCC-SF-Mc29. The bovine cell line is more vulnerable than the mouse line, especially at 510.6 nm. The 2-4 times higher viability of the normal cell lines in comparison with the tumor lines has been obtained.

  4. A compact, robust, and transportable ultra-stable laser with a fractional frequency instability of 1 × 10-15

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Qun-Feng; Nevsky, Alexander; Cardace, Marco; Schiller, Stephan; Legero, Thomas; Häfner, Sebastian; Uhde, Andre; Sterr, Uwe

    2014-11-01

    We present a compact and robust transportable ultra-stable laser system with minimum fractional frequency instability of 1 × 10-15 at integration times between 1 and 10 s. The system was conceived as a prototype of a subsystem of a microwave-optical local oscillator to be used on the satellite mission Space-Time Explorer and QUantum Equivalence Principle Space Test (STE-QUEST) (http://sci.esa.int/ste-quest/). It was therefore designed to be compact, to sustain accelerations occurring during rocket launch, to exhibit low vibration sensitivity, and to reach a low frequency instability. Overall dimensions of the optical system are 40 cm × 20 cm × 30 cm. The acceleration sensitivities of the optical frequency in the three directions were measured to be 1.7 × 10-11/g, 8.0 × 10-11/g, and 3.9 × 10-10/g, and the absolute frequency instability was determined via a three-cornered hat measurement. Two additional cavity-stabilized lasers were used for this purpose, one of which had an instability σy < 4 × 10-16 at 1 s integration time. The design is also appropriate and useful for terrestrial applications.

  5. Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule 1: testing for a role in insect immunity, behaviour and reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Wensing, Kristina U.; Eggert, Hendrik; Scharsack, Jörn P.

    2016-01-01

    Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule 1 (Dscam1) has wide-reaching and vital neuronal functions although the role it plays in insect and crustacean immunity is less well understood. In this study, we combine different approaches to understand the roles that Dscam1 plays in fitness-related contexts in two model insect species. Contrary to our expectations, we found no short-term modulation of Dscam1 gene expression after haemocoelic or oral bacterial exposure in Tribolium castaneum, or after haemocoelic bacterial exposure in Drosophila melanogaster. Furthermore, RNAi-mediated Dscam1 knockdown and subsequent bacterial exposure did not reduce T. castaneum survival. However, Dscam1 knockdown in larvae resulted in adult locomotion defects, as well as dramatically reduced fecundity in males and females. We suggest that Dscam1 does not always play a straightforward role in immunity, but strongly influences behaviour and fecundity. This study takes a step towards understanding more about the role of this intriguing gene from different phenotypic perspectives. PMID:27152227

  6. Members of the thrombospondin gene family bind stromal interaction molecule 1 and regulate calcium channel activity

    PubMed Central

    Duquette, Mark; Nadler, Monica; Okuhara, Dayne; Thompson, Jill; Shuttleworth, Trevor; Lawler, Jack

    2015-01-01

    The thrombospondins (TSPs) are a family of matricellular proteins that regulate cellular phenotype through interactions with a myriad of other proteins and proteoglycans. We have identified a novel interaction of the members of the TSP gene family with stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1). This association is robust since it is preserved in Triton X-100, can be detected with multiple anti-TSP-1 and anti-STIM1 antibodies, and is detected in a wide range of cell types. We have also found that STIM1 co-immunoprecipitates with TSP-4 and cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP), and that a recombinant version of the N-terminal domain of STIM1 binds to the signature domain of TSP-1 and COMP. The association of the TSPs with STIM1 is observed in both the presence and absence of calcium indicating that the calcium-dependent conformation of the signature domain of TSPs is not required for binding. Thus, this interaction could occur in the ER under conditions of normal or low calcium concentration. Furthermore, we observed that the expression of COMP in HEK 293 cells decreases STIM1-mediated calcium release activated calcium (CRAC) channel currents and increases arachidonic acid calcium (ARC) channel currents. These data indicate that the TSPs regulate STIM1 function and participate in the reciprocal regulation of two channels that mediate calcium entry into the cell. PMID:24845346

  7. Mammalian Target of Rapamycin Mediates Kidney Injury Molecule 1-Dependent Tubule Injury in a Surrogate Model.

    PubMed

    Yin, Wenqing; Naini, Said Movahedi; Chen, Guochun; Hentschel, Dirk M; Humphreys, Benjamin D; Bonventre, Joseph V

    2016-07-01

    Kidney injury molecule 1 (KIM-1), an epithelial phagocytic receptor, is markedly upregulated in the proximal tubule in various forms of acute and chronic kidney injury in humans and many other species. Whereas acute expression of KIM-1 has adaptive anti-inflammatory effects, chronic expression may be maladaptive in mice. Here, we characterized the zebrafish Kim family, consisting of Kim-1, Kim-3, and Kim-4. Kim-1 was markedly upregulated in kidney after gentamicin-induced injury and had conserved phagocytic activity in zebrafish. Both constitutive and tamoxifen-induced expression of Kim-1 in zebrafish kidney tubules resulted in loss of the tubule brush border, reduced GFR, pericardial edema, and increased mortality. Kim-1-induced kidney injury was associated with reduction of growth of adult fish. Kim-1 expression led to activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway, and inhibition of this pathway with rapamycin increased survival. mTOR pathway inhibition in KIM-1-overexpressing transgenic mice also significantly ameliorated serum creatinine level, proteinuria, tubular injury, and kidney inflammation. In conclusion, persistent Kim-1 expression results in chronic kidney damage in zebrafish through a mechanism involving mTOR. This observation predicted the role of the mTOR pathway and the therapeutic efficacy of mTOR-targeted agents in KIM-1-mediated kidney injury and fibrosis in mice, demonstrating the utility of the Kim-1 renal tubule zebrafish models. PMID:26538632

  8. Effect of Cell Adhesion Molecule 1 Expression on Intracellular Granule Movement in Pancreatic α Cells.

    PubMed

    Yokawa, Satoru; Furuno, Tadahide; Suzuki, Takahiro; Inoh, Yoshikazu; Suzuki, Ryo; Hirashima, Naohide

    2016-09-01

    Although glucagon secreted from pancreatic α cells plays a role in increasing glucose concentrations in serum, the mechanism regulating glucagon secretion from α cells remains unclear. Cell adhesion molecule 1 (CADM1), identified as an adhesion molecule in α cells, has been reported not only to communicate among α cells and between nerve fibers, but also to prevent excessive glucagon secretion from α cells. Here, we investigated the effect of CADM1 expression on the movement of intracellular secretory granules in α cells because the granule transport is an important step in secretion. Spinning disk microscopic analysis showed that granules moved at a mean velocity of 0.236 ± 0.010 μm/s in the mouse α cell line αTC6 that expressed CADM1 endogenously. The mean velocity was significantly decreased in CADM1-knockdown (KD) cells (mean velocity: 0.190 ± 0.016 μm/s). The velocity of granule movement decreased greatly in αTC6 cells treated with the microtubule-depolymerizing reagent nocodazole, but not in αTC6 cells treated with the actin-depolymerizing reagent cytochalasin D. No difference in the mean velocity was observed between αTC6 and CADM1-KD cells treated with nocodazole. These results suggest that intracellular granules in pancreatic α cells move along the microtubule network, and that CADM1 influences their velocity. PMID:27262873

  9. Kidney Injury Molecule-1 and Cardiovascular Diseases: From Basic Science to Clinical Practice

    PubMed Central

    Medić, Branislava; Rovčanin, Branislav; Basta Jovanović, Gordana; Radojević-Škodrić, Sanja; Prostran, Milica

    2015-01-01

    Despite the recent findings concerning pathogenesis and novel therapeutic strategies, cardiovascular disease (CVD) still stays the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with renal dysfunction, especially acute kidney injury (AKI). Early detection of patients with impaired renal function with cardiovascular risk may help ensure more aggressive treatment and improve clinical outcome. Kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) is a new, promising marker of kidney damage which is currently the focus of countless studies worldwide. Some recent animal and human studies established KIM-1 as an important marker of acute tubular necrosis (ATN) and reliable predictor of development and prognosis of AKI. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in USA acclaimed KIM-1 as an AKI biomarker for preclinical drug development. Recent data suggest the importance of monitoring of KIM-1 for early diagnosis and clinical course not only in patients with various forms of AKI and other renal diseases but also in patients with cardiorenal syndrome, heart failure, cardiopulmonary bypass, cardiothoracic surgical interventions in the pediatric emergency setting, and so forth. The aim of this review article is to summarize the literature data concerning KIM-1 as a potential novel marker in the early diagnosis and prediction of clinical outcome of certain cardiovascular diseases. PMID:26697493

  10. Host-related carcinoembryonic antigen cell adhesion molecule 1 promotes metastasis of colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Arabzadeh, A; Chan, C; Nouvion, A-L; Breton, V; Benlolo, S; DeMarte, L; Turbide, C; Brodt, P; Ferri, L; Beauchemin, N

    2013-02-14

    Liver metastasis is the predominant cause of colorectal cancer (CRC)-related mortality in developed countries. Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1) is a cell adhesion molecule with reduced expression in early phases of CRC development and thus functions as a tumor growth inhibitor. However, CEACAM1 is upregulated in metastatic colon cancer, suggesting a bimodal role in CRC progression. To investigate the role of this protein in the host metastatic environment, Ceacam1(-/-) mice were injected intrasplenically with metastatic MC38 mouse CRC cells. A significant reduction in metastatic burden was observed in Ceacam1(-/-) compared with wild-type (WT) livers. Intravital microscopy showed decreased early survival of MC38 cells in Ceacam1(-/-) endothelial environment. Metastatic cell proliferation within the Ceacam1(-/-) livers was also diminished. Bone marrow-derived cell recruitment, attenuation of immune infiltrates and diminished CCL2, CCL3 and CCL5 chemokine production participated in the reduced Ceacam1(-/-) metastatic phenotype. Transplantations of WT bone marrow (BM) into Ceacam1(-/-) mice fully rescued metastatic development, whereas Ceacam1(-/-) BM transfer into WT mice showed reduced metastatic burden. Chimeric immune cell profiling revealed diminished recruitment of CD11b(+)Gr1(+) myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) to Ceacam1(-/-) metastatic livers and adoptive transfer of MDSCs confirmed the involvement of these immune cells in reduction of liver metastasis. CEACAM1 may represent a novel metastatic CRC target for treatment. PMID:22469976

  11. The Prion Protein Controls Polysialylation of Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule 1 during Cellular Morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Mehrabian, Mohadeseh; Brethour, Dylan; Wang, Hansen; Xi, Zhengrui; Rogaeva, Ekaterina; Schmitt-Ulms, Gerold

    2015-01-01

    Despite its multi-faceted role in neurodegenerative diseases, the physiological function of the prion protein (PrP) has remained elusive. On the basis of its evolutionary relationship to ZIP metal ion transporters, we considered that PrP may contribute to the morphogenetic reprogramming of cells underlying epithelial-to-mesenchymal transitions (EMT). Consistent with this hypothesis, PrP transcription increased more than tenfold during EMT, and stable PrP-deficient cells failed to complete EMT in a mammalian cell model. A global comparative proteomics analysis identified the neural cell adhesion molecule 1 (NCAM1) as a candidate mediator of this impairment, which led to the observation that PrP-deficient cells fail to undergo NCAM1 polysialylation during EMT. Surprisingly, this defect was caused by a perturbed transcription of the polysialyltransferase ST8SIA2 gene. Proteomics data pointed toward β-catenin as a transcriptional regulator affected in PrP-deficient cells. Indeed, pharmacological blockade or siRNA-based knockdown of β-catenin mimicked PrP-deficiency in regards to NCAM1 polysialylation. Our data established the existence of a PrP-ST8SIA2-NCAM signaling loop, merged two mature fields of investigation and offer a simple model for explaining phenotypes linked to PrP. PMID:26288071

  12. Role of Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 in Radiation-Induced Brain Injury

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, K.-L.; Tu Ba; Li Yuqing; Wong, C. Shun

    2010-01-15

    Purpose: To determine the role of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in the pathogenesis of brain injury after irradiation (IR). Methods and Materials: We assessed the expression of ICAM-1 in mouse brain after cranial IR and determined the histopathologic and behavioral changes in mice that were either wildtype (+/+) or knockout (-/-) of the ICAM-1 gene after IR. Results: There was an early dose-dependent increase in ICAM-1 mRNA and protein expression after IR. Increased ICAM-1 immunoreactivity was observed in endothelia and glia of ICAM-1+/+ mice up to 8 months after IR. ICAM-1-/- mice showed no expression. ICAM-1+/+ and ICAM-1-/- mice showed similar vascular abnormalities at 2 months after 10-17 Gy, and there was evidence for demyelination and inhibition of hippocampal neurogenesis at 8 months after 10 Gy. After 10 Gy, irradiated ICAM-1+/+ and ICAM-1-/- mice showed similar behavioral changes at 2-6 months in open field, light-dark chamber, and T-maze compared with age-matched genotype controls. Conclusion: There is early and late upregulation of ICAM-1 in the vasculature and glia of mouse brain after IR. ICAM-1, however, does not have a causative role in the histopathologic injury and behavioral dysfunction after moderate single doses of cranial IR.

  13. The Prion Protein Controls Polysialylation of Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule 1 during Cellular Morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Mehrabian, Mohadeseh; Brethour, Dylan; Wang, Hansen; Xi, Zhengrui; Rogaeva, Ekaterina; Schmitt-Ulms, Gerold

    2015-01-01

    Despite its multi-faceted role in neurodegenerative diseases, the physiological function of the prion protein (PrP) has remained elusive. On the basis of its evolutionary relationship to ZIP metal ion transporters, we considered that PrP may contribute to the morphogenetic reprogramming of cells underlying epithelial-to-mesenchymal transitions (EMT). Consistent with this hypothesis, PrP transcription increased more than tenfold during EMT, and stable PrP-deficient cells failed to complete EMT in a mammalian cell model. A global comparative proteomics analysis identified the neural cell adhesion molecule 1 (NCAM1) as a candidate mediator of this impairment, which led to the observation that PrP-deficient cells fail to undergo NCAM1 polysialylation during EMT. Surprisingly, this defect was caused by a perturbed transcription of the polysialyltransferase ST8SIA2 gene. Proteomics data pointed toward β-catenin as a transcriptional regulator affected in PrP-deficient cells. Indeed, pharmacological blockade or siRNA-based knockdown of β-catenin mimicked PrP-deficiency in regards to NCAM1 polysialylation. Our data established the existence of a PrP-ST8SIA2-NCAM signaling loop, merged two mature fields of investigation and offer a simple model for explaining phenotypes linked to PrP. PMID:26288071

  14. Knockdown of stromal interaction molecule 1 attenuates hepatocyte growth factor-induced endothelial progenitor cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yankun; Song, Mingbao; Guo, Ruiwei; Wang, Hong; Gao, Pan; Shi, Weibin; Huang, Lan

    2010-03-01

    Increased Ca(2+) entry through store-operated Ca(2+) channels (SOCCs) plays an essential role in the regulation of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)-induced cell proliferation. Stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1) is thought to transmit endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca(2+) store depletion signals to the plasma membrane (PM), causing the opening of SOCCs in the PM. However, the relationship between HGF and STIM1 in endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) proliferation remains uncharacterized. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential involvement of STIM1 in HGF-induced EPC proliferation. For this purpose, we used cultured rat bone marrow-derived EPCs and found that HGF-induced EPC proliferation at low concentrations. Store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE) was elevated in HGF-treated EPCs, and the SOCC inhibitors 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB) and BTP-2 inhibited the HGF-induced proliferation response. Moreover, STIM1 mRNA and protein expression levels were increased in response to HGF stimulation and knockdown of STMI1 decreased SOCE and prevented HGF-induced EPC proliferation. In conclusion, our data suggest that HGF-induced EPC proliferation is mediated partly via activation of STIM1. PMID:20404049

  15. Early Growth Response Protein 1 Promotes Restenosis by Upregulating Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 in Vein Graft

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Kui; Cao, Jian; Dong, Ran; Du, Jie

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. To verify the relationship between Egr-1 and vein graft restenosis and investigate the related mechanisms. Methods. Mouse vein graft models were established in Egr-1 knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice. The vein grafts in the mice were taken for pathological examination and immunohistochemical analysis. The endothelial cells (ECs) were stimulated by using a computer-controlled cyclic stress unit. BrdU staining and PCR were used to detect ECs proliferation activity and Egr-1 and ICAM-1 mRNA expression, respectively. Western-blot analysis was also used to detect expression of Egr-1 and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) proteins. Results. The lumens of vein grafts in Egr-1 KO mice were wider than in WT mice. ECs proliferation after mechanical stretch stimulation was suppressed by Egr-1 knockout (P < 0.05). Both in vein grafts and ECs from WT mice after mechanical stretch stimulation, mRNA expression and protein of Egr-1 and ICAM-1 showed increases (P < 0.05). However, ICAM-1 expression was significantly suppressed in ECs from Egr-1 knockout mice (P < 0.05). Conclusions. Egr-1 may promote ECs proliferation and result in vein graft restenosis by upregulating the expression of ICAM-1. As a key factor of vein graft restenosis, it could be a target for the prevention of restenosis after CABG surgery. PMID:24386503

  16. R-Ras Regulates Murine T Cell Migration and Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 Binding.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xiaocai; Yan, Mingfei; Guo, Yihe; Singh, Gobind; Chen, Yuhong; Yu, Mei; Wang, Demin; Hillery, Cheryl A; Chan, Andrew M

    2015-01-01

    The trafficking of T-lymphocytes to peripheral draining lymph nodes is crucial for mounting an adaptive immune response. The role of chemokines in the activation of integrins via Ras-related small GTPases has been well established. R-Ras is a member of the Ras-subfamily of small guanosine-5'-triphosphate-binding proteins and its role in T cell trafficking has been investigated in R-Ras null mice (Rras-/-). An examination of the lymphoid organs of Rras-/- mice revealed a 40% reduction in the cellularity of the peripheral lymph nodes. Morphologically, the high endothelial venules of Rras-/- mice were more disorganized and less mature than those of wild-type mice. Furthermore, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells from Rras-/- mice had approximately 42% lower surface expression of L-selectin/CD62L. These aberrant peripheral lymph node phenotypes were associated with proliferative and trafficking defects in Rras-/- T cells. Furthermore, R-Ras could be activated by the chemokine, CCL21. Indeed, Rras-/- T cells had approximately 14.5% attenuation in binding to intercellular adhesion molecule 1 upon CCL21 stimulation. Finally, in a graft-versus host disease model, recipient mice that were transfused with Rras-/- T cells showed a significant reduction in disease severity when compared with mice transplanted with wild-type T cells. These findings implicate a role for R-Ras in T cell trafficking in the high endothelial venules during an effective immune response. PMID:26710069

  17. Interaction of Intercellular Adhesion Molecule 1 (ICAM1) Polymorphisms and Environmental Tobacco Smoke on Childhood Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yu-Fen; Lin, Che-Chen; Tai, Chien-Kuo

    2014-01-01

    Asthma is a chronic disease that is particularly common in children. The association between polymorphisms of the gene encoding intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM1) and gene-environment interactions with childhood asthma has not been fully investigated. A cross-sectional study was undertaken to investigate these associations among children in Taiwan. The effects of two functional single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of ICAM1, rs5491 (K56M) and rs5498 (K469E), and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) were studied. Two hundred and eighteen asthmatic and 877 nonasthmatic children were recruited from elementary schools. It was found that the genetic effect of each SNP was modified by the other SNP and by exposure to ETS. The risk of asthma was higher for children carrying the rs5491 AT or TT genotypes and the rs5498 GG genotype (odds ratio = 1.68, 95% confidence interval 1.09–2.59) than for those with the rs5491 AA and rs5498 AA or AG genotypes (the reference group). The risk for the other two combinations of genotypes did not differ significantly from that of the reference group (p of interaction = 0.0063). The two studied ICAM1 SNPs were associated with childhood asthma among children exposed to ETS, but not among those without ETS exposure (p of interaction = 0.05 and 0.01 for rs5491 and rs5498, respectively). Both ICAM1 and ETS, and interactions between these two factors are likely to be involved in the development of asthma in childhood. PMID:25003170

  18. Association of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 with the multichain high-affinity interleukin 2 receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Burton, J; Goldman, C K; Rao, P; Moos, M; Waldmann, T A

    1990-01-01

    Previously, using flow cytometric resonance energy transfer and lateral diffusion measurements, we demonstrated that a 95-kDa protein identified by two monoclonal antibodies (OKT27 and OKT27b) interacts physically with the 55-kDa alpha protein of the high-affinity interleukin 2 (IL-2) receptor. In the present study, this 95-kDa protein (p95) was purified and amino acid sequence data were obtained that showed strong homology to the human intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1). The identity of the p95 protein with ICAM-1 was confirmed by sequential immunoprecipitations using OKT27 and an antibody, WEHI-CAM-1, that is directed toward ICAM-1. We confirmed the physical proximity of p95/ICAM-1 to the IL-2 receptor alpha subunit by demonstrating that radiolabeled IL-2 could be cross-linked to this protein expressed on activated T cells. In functional studies, the antibodies OKT27 and OKT27b inhibited T-cell proliferative responses to OKT3, to soluble antigen, and to heterologous cells (mixed lymphocyte reaction). However, these antibodies did not inhibit IL-2-induced proliferation of an IL-2-dependent T-cell line. Taken together with our previous observations, the present studies suggest that ICAM-1 is in proximity and interacts physically with the high-affinity IL-2 receptor. The association of ICAM-1 with the IL-2 receptor may facilitate the paracrine IL-2-mediated stimulation of T cells expressing IL-2 receptors by augmenting homotypic T-T-cell interaction, by receptor-directed focusing of IL-2 release by helper T cells, and by focusing IL-2 receptors of the physically linked cells to the site of lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1-ICAM-1-IL-2 receptor interaction. Images PMID:1976256

  19. Anti-interleukin-33 Reduces Ovalbumin-Induced Nephrotoxicity and Expression of Kidney Injury Molecule-1

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of anti-interleukin-33 (anti-IL-33) on a mouse model of ovalbumin (OVA)-induced acute kidney injury (AKI). Methods: Twenty-four female BALB/c mice were assigned to 4 groups: group A (control, n=6) was administered sterile saline intraperitoneally (i.p.) and intranasally (i.n.); group B (allergic, n=6) was administered i.p./i.n. OVA challenge; group C (null treatment, n=6) was administered control IgG i.p. before OVA challenge; and group D (anti-IL-33, n=6) was pretreated with 3.6 µg of anti-IL-33 i.p. before every OVA challenge. The following were evaluated after sacrifice: serum blood urea nitrogen and creatinine levels, Kidney injury molecule-1 gene (Kim-1) and protein (KIM-1) expression in renal parenchyma, and expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), phosphorylated endothelial NOS (p-eNOS), and phosphorylated AMP kinase (p-AMPK) proteins in renal parenchyma. Results: After OVA injection and intranasal challenge, mice in groups B and C showed significant increases in the expression of Kim-1 at both the mRNA and protein levels. After anti-IL-33 treatment, mice in group D showed significant Kim-1 down-regulation at the mRNA and protein levels. Group D also showed significantly lower COX-2 protein expression, marginally lesser iNOS expression than groups B and C, and p-eNOS and p-AMPK expression at baseline levels. Conclusions: Kim-1 could be a useful marker for detecting early-stage renal injury in mouse models of OVA-induced AKI. Further, anti-IL-33 might have beneficial effects on these mouse models. PMID:27377943

  20. Environmental exposure to arsenic and chromium in children is associated with kidney injury molecule-1.

    PubMed

    Cárdenas-González, M; Osorio-Yáñez, C; Gaspar-Ramírez, O; Pavković, M; Ochoa-Martínez, A; López-Ventura, D; Medeiros, M; Barbier, O C; Pérez-Maldonado, I N; Sabbisetti, V S; Bonventre, J V; Vaidya, V S

    2016-10-01

    Environmental hazards from natural or anthropological sources are widespread, especially in the north-central region of Mexico. Children represent a susceptible population due to their unique routes of exposure and special vulnerabilities. In this study we evaluated the association of exposure to environmental kidney toxicants with kidney injury biomarkers in children living in San Luis Potosi (SLP), Mexico. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 83 children (5-12 years of age) residents of Villa de Reyes, SLP. Exposure to arsenic, cadmium, chromium, fluoride and lead was assessed in urine, blood and drinking water samples. Almost all tap and well water samples had levels of arsenic (81.5%) and fluoride (100%) above the permissible levels recommended by the World Health Organization. Mean urine arsenic (45.6ppb) and chromium (61.7ppb) were higher than the biological exposure index, a reference value in occupational settings. Using multivariate adjusted models, we found a dose-dependent association between kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) across chromium exposure tertiles [(T1: reference, T2: 467pg/mL; T3: 615pg/mL) (p-trend=0.001)]. Chromium upper tertile was also associated with higher urinary miR-200c (500 copies/μl) and miR-423 (189 copies/μL). Arsenic upper tertile was also associated with higher urinary KIM-1 (372pg/mL). Other kidney injury/functional biomarkers such as serum creatinine, glomerular filtration rate, albuminuria, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin and miR-21 did not show any association with arsenic, chromium or any of the other toxicants evaluated. We conclude that KIM-1 might serve as a sensitive biomarker to screen children for kidney damage induced by environmental toxic agents. PMID:27431456

  1. Release of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 into bile and serum in murine endotoxin shock.

    PubMed

    Jaeschke, H; Essani, N A; Fisher, M A; Vonderfecht, S L; Farhood, A; Smith, C W

    1996-03-01

    Neutrophil-induced liver injury during endotoxemia is dependent on the adhesion molecules Mac-1 (CD11b/CD18) on neutrophils and its counterreceptor on endothelial cells and hepatocytes, intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1). To investigate a potential release of a soluble form of ICAM-1 (sICAM-1), animals received 100 micrograms/kg Salmonella abortus equi endotoxin alone or in combination with 700 mg/kg galactosamine. In endotoxin-sensitive mice (C3Heb/FeJ), injection of endotoxin did not cause liver injury but induced a time-dependent increase of sICAM-1 in serum (300%) and in bile (615%) without affecting bile flow. In galactosamine/endotoxin-treated animals, which developed liver injury, the increase in both compartments was only 97% and 104%, respectively. In either case, the increase in sICAM-1 concentrations paralleled the enhanced ICAM-1 expression in the liver. The endotoxin-resistant strain (C3H/HeJ) did not show elevated sICAM-1 levels in serum or bile after endotoxin administration. In contrast, the intravenous injection of murine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1 alpha) or IL-1 beta (13-23 micrograms/kg) into endotoxin-resistant mice induced a 225% to 364% increase in serum sICAM-1 and a 370% elevation of the biliary efflux of sICAM-1, again independent of changes in bile flow. These data indicate that cytokines are major inducers of sICAM-1 formation during endotoxemia in vivo. The described experimental model can be used to investigate the role of sICAM-1 in the pathophysiology of inflammatory liver disease. PMID:8617433

  2. R-Ras Regulates Murine T Cell Migration and Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 Binding

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Xiaocai; Yan, Mingfei; Guo, Yihe; Singh, Gobind; Chen, Yuhong; Yu, Mei; Wang, Demin; Hillery, Cheryl A.; Chan, Andrew M.

    2015-01-01

    The trafficking of T-lymphocytes to peripheral draining lymph nodes is crucial for mounting an adaptive immune response. The role of chemokines in the activation of integrins via Ras-related small GTPases has been well established. R-Ras is a member of the Ras-subfamily of small guanosine-5’-triphosphate-binding proteins and its role in T cell trafficking has been investigated in R-Ras null mice (Rras−/−). An examination of the lymphoid organs of Rras−/− mice revealed a 40% reduction in the cellularity of the peripheral lymph nodes. Morphologically, the high endothelial venules of Rras−/− mice were more disorganized and less mature than those of wild-type mice. Furthermore, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells from Rras−/− mice had approximately 42% lower surface expression of L-selectin/CD62L. These aberrant peripheral lymph node phenotypes were associated with proliferative and trafficking defects in Rras−/− T cells. Furthermore, R-Ras could be activated by the chemokine, CCL21. Indeed, Rras−/− T cells had approximately 14.5% attenuation in binding to intercellular adhesion molecule 1 upon CCL21 stimulation. Finally, in a graft-versus host disease model, recipient mice that were transfused with Rras−/− T cells showed a significant reduction in disease severity when compared with mice transplanted with wild-type T cells. These findings implicate a role for R-Ras in T cell trafficking in the high endothelial venules during an effective immune response. PMID:26710069

  3. Differential up-regulation of circulating soluble and endothelial cell intercellular adhesion molecule-1 in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Komatsu, S.; Flores, S.; Gerritsen, M. E.; Anderson, D. C.; Granger, D. N.

    1997-01-01

    Although circulating levels of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) are frequently used as an indicator of the severity of different immune, inflammatory, or neoplastic diseases, little is known about the factors that govern plasma sICAM-1 concentration and its relationship to the membranous form of ICAM-1 (mICAM-1) expressed on vascular endothelial cells. Plasma sICAM-1 concentration (measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) and mICAM-1 expression (measured using the dual radiolabeled monoclonal antibody technique) in different vascular beds (eg, lung, small intestine, and spleen) were monitored in wild-type (C57BL) and ICAM-1-deficient mice, before and after administration of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha. In wild-type mice, TNF-alpha elicited time-dependent increases in lung and intestine mICAM-1 (plateau achieved at 12 hours), with a corresponding increase in plasma sICAM-1 (peaked at 5 hours and then declined). The initial increases in mICAM-1 and pulmonary leukocyte sequestration (measured as lung myeloperoxidase activity) induced by TNF-alpha preceded any detectable elevation in sICAM-1. In ICAM-1-deficient mice, plasma sICAM-1 was reduced by approximately 70%, with > 95% reductions of mICAM-1 in lung and intestine, and > 75% reduction in splenic accumulation of anti-ICAM-1 antibody. Although TNF-alpha doubled plasma sICAM-1 in ICAM-1-deficient mice, mICAM-1 was unaffected in all tissues. Either splenectomy or pretreatment with cycloheximide resulted in an attenuated TNF-induced increase in sICAM-1, without affecting mICAM-1 expression. These findings indicate that plasma sICAM-1 concentration does not accurately reflect the level of ICAM-1 expression on endothelial cells in different vascular beds. PMID:9212746

  4. Carcinoembryonic Antigen Cell Adhesion Molecule 1 long isoform modulates malignancy of poorly differentiated colon cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Arabzadeh, Azadeh; Dupaul-Chicoine, Jeremy; Breton, Valérie; Haftchenary, Sina; Yumeen, Sara; Turbide, Claire; Saleh, Maya; McGregor, Kevin; Greenwood, Celia M T; Akavia, Uri David; Blumberg, Richard S; Gunning, Patrick T; Beauchemin, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Objective Nearly 20%–29% of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) succumb to liver or lung metastasis and there is a dire need for novel targets to improve the survival of patients with metastasis. The long isoform of the Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1-L or CC1-L) is a key regulator of immune surveillance in primary CRC, but its role in metastasis remains largely unexplored. We have examined how CC1-L expression impacts on colon cancer liver metastasis. Design Murine MC38 transfected with CC1-L were evaluated in vitro for proliferation, migration and invasion, and for in vivo experimental liver metastasis. Using shRNA silencing or pharmacological inhibition, we delineated the role in liver metastasis of Chemokine (C-C motif) Ligand 2 (CCL2) and Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3) downstream of CC1-L. We further assessed the clinical relevance of these findings in a cohort of patients with CRC. Results MC38-CC1-L-expressing cells exhibited significantly reduced in vivo liver metastasis and displayed decreased CCL2 chemokine secretion and reduced STAT3 activity. Down-modulation of CCL2 expression and pharmacological inhibition of STAT3 activity in MC38 cells led to reduced cell invasion capacity and decreased liver metastasis. The clinical relevance of our findings is illustrated by the fact that high CC1 expression in patients with CRC combined with some inflammation-regulated and STAT3-regulated genes correlate with improved 10-year survival. Conclusions CC1-L regulates inflammation and STAT3 signalling and contributes to the maintenance of a less-invasive CRC metastatic phenotype of poorly differentiated carcinomas. PMID:25666195

  5. Kidney Injury Molecule-1 Enhances Endocytosis of Albumin in Renal Proximal Tubular Cells.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xueying; Jiang, Chen; Olufade, Rebecca; Liu, Dong; Emmett, Nerimiah

    2016-04-01

    Receptor-mediated endocytosis plays an important role in albumin reabsorption by renal proximal tubule epithelial cells. Kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) is a scavenger receptor that is upregulated on the apical membrane of proximal tubules in proteinuric kidney disease. In this study, we examined the cellular localization and functional role of KIM-1 in cultured renal tubule epithelial cells (TECs). Confocal immunofluorescence microscopy reveals intracellular and cell surface localization of KIM-1 in primary renal TECs. Albumin stimulation resulted in a redistribution of KIM-1 and tight junction protein zonula occludens-1 in primary TEC monolayer. An increase in albumin internalization was observed in both primary TECs expressing endogenous KIM-1 and rat kidney cell line (NRK-52E) overexpressing exogenous KIM-1. KIM-1-induced albumin accumulation was abolished by its specific antibody. Moreover, endocytosed KIM-1 and its cargo proteins were delivered from endosomes to lysosomes for degradation in a clathrin-dependent pathway. Supportive evidence includes (1) detection of KIM-1 in Rab5-positive early endosomes, Rab7-positive late endosomes/multivesicular bodies, and LAMP1-positive lysosomes, (2) colocalization of KIM-1 and clathrin in the intracellular vesicles, and (3) blockade of KIM-1-mediated albumin internalization by chlorpromazine, an inhibitor of clathrin-dependent endocytosis. KIM-1 expression was upregulated by albumin but downregulated by transforming growth factor-β1. Taken together, our data indicate that KIM-1 increases albumin endocytosis in renal tubule epithelial cells, at least partially via a clathrin-dependent mechanism. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 896-907, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26332568

  6. Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 (ICAM-1) Polymorphisms and Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    CHENG, Daye; LIANG, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) Lys469Glu (K469E) polymorphism and Gly 241Arg (G241R) polymorphism might play important roles in cancer development and progression. However, the results of previous studies are inconsistent. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between ICAM-1 K469E and G241R polymorphisms and the risk of cancer by meta-analysis. Methods: A comprehensive literature search (last search updated in November 2013) was conducted to identify case-control studies that investigated the association between ICAM-1 K469E and G241R polymorphisms and cancer risk. Results: A total of 18 case-control studies for ICAM-1 polymorphisms were included in the meta-analysis, including 4,844 cancer cases and 5,618 healthy controls. For K469E polymorphism, no significant association was found between K469E polymorphism and cancer risk. However, subgroup analysis by ethnicity revealed one genetic comparison (GG vs. AA) presented the relationship with cancer risk in Asian subgroup, and two genetic models (GG+GA vs. AA and GA vs. AA) in European subgroup, respectively. For G241R polymorphism, G241R polymorphism was significantly association with cancer risk in overall analysis. The subgroup analysis by ethnicity showed that G241R polymorphism was significantly associated with cancer risk in European subgroup. Conclusion: ICAM-1 G241R polymorphism might be associated with cancer risk, especially in European populations, but the results doesn’t support ICAM-1 K469E polymorphism as a risk factor for cancer. PMID:26284202

  7. Soluble intracellular adhesion molecule 1 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of allergic subjects following segmental antigen challenge.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, N; Liu, M C; Proud, D; Yu, X Y; Hasegawa, S; Spannhake, E W

    1994-09-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the relationship of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (sICAM-1) levels in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid during allergic airway inflammation to those in the vascular compartment and to cellular components in the BAL fluids. A group of 11 allergic subjects underwent initial bronchoscopy during which a control BAL was performed and normal saline (NS) and specific antigen (Ag) were administered to two sublobar segments. A second bronchoscopy was performed 17 to 21 h later, and the NS and Ag segments were lavaged. Blood was drawn before each bronchoscopic procedure. The mean concentration of sICAM-1 in BAL fluid from NS-challenged segments was 59.2 +/- 7.6 ng/ml and was not different from that in unchallenged segments (51.5 +/- 5.6 ng/ml). In BAL fluid from Ag-challenged segments, mean concentrations of sICAM-1 increased significantly to 97.5 +/- 12.5 ng/ml. Segmental antigen challenge was associated with a small but statistically significant increase in sICAM-1 concentrations in serum. The concentrations of sICAM-1 in BAL fluid after antigen challenge exceeded levels that could be accounted for by passive transudation from the circulation, based upon the magnitude of increases in BAL albumin concentrations. The levels of sICAM-1 in BAL from Ag-challenged segments were correlated significantly with the total white cell, lymphocyte, neutrophil, and eosinophil counts in BAL fluids. These results are supportive of the notion that the local release of sICAM-1 may play a role in allergen-induced inflammatory processes in the airways. PMID:7916246

  8. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression by skeletal muscle cells augments myogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Goh, Qingnian; Dearth, Christopher L.; Corbett, Jacob T.; Pierre, Philippe; Chadee, Deborah N.; Pizza, Francis X.

    2015-02-15

    We previously demonstrated that the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) by skeletal muscle cells after muscle overload contributes to ensuing regenerative and hypertrophic processes in skeletal muscle. The objective of the present study is to reveal mechanisms through which skeletal muscle cell expression of ICAM-1 augments regenerative and hypertrophic processes of myogenesis. This was accomplished by genetically engineering C2C12 myoblasts to stably express ICAM-1, and by inhibiting the adhesive and signaling functions of ICAM-1 through the use of a neutralizing antibody or cell penetrating peptide, respectively. Expression of ICAM-1 by cultured skeletal muscle cells augmented myoblast–myoblast adhesion, myotube formation, myonuclear number, myotube alignment, myotube–myotube fusion, and myotube size without influencing the ability of myoblasts to proliferate or differentiate. ICAM-1 augmented myotube formation, myonuclear accretion, and myotube alignment through a mechanism involving adhesion-induced activation of ICAM-1 signaling, as these dependent measures were reduced via antibody and peptide inhibition of ICAM-1. The adhesive and signaling functions of ICAM-1 also facilitated myotube hypertrophy through a mechanism involving myotube–myotube fusion, protein synthesis, and Akt/p70s6k signaling. Our findings demonstrate that ICAM-1 expression by skeletal muscle cells augments myogenesis, and establish a novel mechanism through which the inflammatory response facilitates growth processes in skeletal muscle. - Highlights: • We examined mechanisms through which skeletal muscle cell expression of ICAM-1 facilitates events of in vitro myogenesis. • Expression of ICAM-1 by cultured myoblasts did not influence their ability to proliferate or differentiate. • Skeletal muscle cell expression of ICAM-1 augmented myoblast fusion, myotube alignment, myotube–myotube fusion, and myotube size. • ICAM-1 augmented myogenic processes through

  9. Solubility of chlorargyrite (AgCl(cr./l.)) in water: New experimental data and a predictive model valid for a wide range of temperatures (273-873 K) and water densities (0.01-1 g·cm-3)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akinfiev, Nikolay N.; Zotov, Alexander V.

    2016-04-01

    The solubility of chlorargyrite, AgCl(cr./l.), in pure water at 623, 673 and 753 (±2) K as a function of pressure in a wide range aqueous densities (0.01-0.7 g·cm-3) was determined using various experimental approaches. Combined theoretical quantum chemistry simulations of Ag speciation and structure with a recently developed equation of state (EoS) for aqueous neutral species (Akinfiev and Diamond, 2003) were applied to describe published and newly made AgCl(cr./l.) solubility measurements in water. The use of the employed EoS for AgCl(H2O)(aq) cluster is found out to provide a good description of the whole set of experimental measurements in a wide range of temperatures (273-753 K), water densities (0.01-0.7 g·cm-3), and pressures of 0.1-100 MPa. Also, the proposed AgCl(H2O)(aq) thermodynamic description is proved to be valid for a dense aqueous fluid (0.7-1 g·cm-3) at 273-623 K and saturation water pressure. Although silver obviously shows greater affinity to dense aqueous fluid, AgCl hydration in the vapour phase is demonstrated to be also significant. A model extrapolation to magmatic conditions predicts an appreciable silver content even in low density fluids, thus supporting the hypothesis of metal transport with vapour.

  10. LC/MS analysis of proteolytic peptides in wheat extracts for determining the content of the allergen amylase/trypsin inhibitor CM3: influence of growing area and variety.

    PubMed

    Prandi, Barbara; Faccini, Andrea; Tedeschi, Tullia; Galaverna, Gianni; Sforza, Stefano

    2013-09-01

    Food allergy from wheat is triggered by several protein classes, such as LTPs, ω5-gliadins and α-amylase/trypsin inhibitors. The latter proteins, belonging to the prolamin superfamily, are mostly involved in baker's asthma, a form of occupational allergy in which the sensitization occurs through the respiratory tract. α-Amylase/trypsin inhibitors were also found to be involved in wheat-related atopic dermatitis. In this work, the allergen Tri a 30 (the CM3 α-amylase/trypsin inhibitor) was quantified in durum wheat salt soluble extracts using a peptidomic approach. CM3 protein identification was confirmed by using LTQ-OrbiTrap analysis on peptides obtained from the enzymatically digested protein separated by gel electrophoresis. Then, marker peptides derived from the protein after enzymatic cleavage of the full wheat extracts were identified by LC-MS/MS. One of them was used as marker for quantitative determination on an UPLC/ESI-MS system by using its isotopically labelled analogue as internal standard, allowing to assess the protein content in the different samples. The CM3 allergenic proteins were found to greatly vary among different cultivation areas. PMID:23578625

  11. Soluble platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1, a biomarker of ventilator-induced lung injury

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Endothelial cell injury is an important component of acute lung injury. Platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM1) is a transmembrane protein that connects endothelial cells to one another and can be detected as a soluble, truncated protein (sPECAM1) in serum. We hypothesized that injurious mechanical ventilation (MV) leads to shedding of PECAM1 from lung endothelial cells resulting in increasing sPECAM1 levels in the systemic circulation. Methods We studied 36 Sprague–Dawley rats in two prospective, randomized, controlled studies (healthy and septic) using established animal models of ventilator-induced lung injury. Animals (n = 6 in each group) were randomized to spontaneous breathing or two MV strategies: low tidal volume (VT) (6 ml/kg) and high-VT (20 ml/kg) on 2 cmH2O of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP). In low-VT septic animals, 10 cmH2O of PEEP was applied. We performed pulmonary histological and physiological evaluation and measured lung PECAM1 protein content and serum sPECAM1 levels after four hours ventilation period. Results High-VT MV caused severe lung injury in healthy and septic animals, and decreased lung PECAM1 protein content (P < 0.001). Animals on high-VT had a four- to six-fold increase of mean sPECAM1 serum levels than the unventilated counterpart (35.4 ± 10.4 versus 5.6 ± 1.7 ng/ml in healthy rats; 156.8 ± 47.6 versus 35.6 ± 12.6 ng/ml in septic rats) (P < 0.0001). Low-VT MV prevented these changes. Levels of sPECAM1 in healthy animals on high-VT MV paralleled the sPECAM1 levels of non-ventilated septic animals. Conclusions Our findings suggest that circulating sPECAM1 may represent a promising biomarker for the detection and monitoring of ventilator-induced lung injury. PMID:24588994

  12. Human Kidney Injury Molecule-1 Is a Tissue and Urinary Tumor Marker of Renal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Han, Won K.; Alinani, Anwar; Wu, Chin-Lee; Michaelson, Dror; Loda, Massimo; McGovern, Francis J.; Thadhani, Ravi; Bonventre, Joseph V.

    2005-01-01

    Human kidney injury molecule-1 (hKIM-1) is a type 1 transmembrane protein that is not detectable in normal kidney tissue but is expressed at high levels in human and rodent kidneys with dedifferentiated proximal tubule epithelial cells after ischemic or toxic injury. Therefore, it was hypothesized that renal tumors express hKIM-1 and release this protein into the urine. Forty renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and 484 nonrenal tumors were analyzed by immunohistochemistry for expression of hKIM-1 (group 1). Urine samples before nephrectomy and nephrectomy tissue samples were collected from an additional 42 patients with renal tumors, from 30 normal control subjects, and also from 10 patients with prostate carcinoma (group 2). In five additional patients with RCC, urine was collected before and after nephrectomy (group 3). Tissue was examined for expression of hKIM-1, and cell-free urine supernatants were analyzed for hKIM-1 by ELISA. Urinary hKIM-1 was normalized to the urinary creatinine concentration (UCr). Expression of hKIM-1 was present in 32 tissue sections (91%) of 35 clear cell RCC (group 1). In group 2, the normalized urinary hKIM-1 levels were significantly higher in patients with clear cell RCC (0.39 ± 0.08 ng/mg UCr; n = 21), compared with levels in patients with prostate carcinoma (0.12 ± 0.03 ng/mg UCr; P < 0.02; n = 10), or normal control subjects (0.05 ± 0.01 ng/mg UCr; P < 0.005; n = 30). Tissue sections from 28 (82%) of 34 primary RCC stained positively for the expression of hKIM-1. In all patients with a detectable prenephrectomy urinary hKIM-1 level, there was either complete disappearance or marked reduction after nephrectomy (group 3). In conclusion, the cleaved ectodomain of hKIM-1 can be detected in the urine of patients with RCC and may serve as a new biomarker for early detection of RCC. PMID:15744000

  13. Soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 for stable and acute phases of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Okuda, Ryo; Matsushima, Hidekazu; Aoshiba, Kazutetsu; Oba, Tomohiro; Kawabe, Rie; Honda, Koujiro; Amano, Masako

    2015-01-01

    The levels of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) have been reported to increase in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. However, the utility of sICAM-1 has not been reported in detail. The aim of this study was to investigate whether sICAM-1 was a useful biomarker for stable idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and early phase of acute exacerbation of IPF. The patients who were diagnosed with IPF between 2013 and 2015 were enrolled. The levels of sICAM-1 and other interstitial pneumonia markers were measured. In this study, 30 patients with stable IPF and 11 patients with acute exacerbation of IPF were collected. Mean sICAM-1 levels were 434 ± 139 ng/mL for the stable phase of IPF, 645 ± 247 ng/mL for early phase of acute exacerbation of IPF, 534 ± 223 ng/mL for connective tissue disease-associated interstitial pneumonia, 221 ± 42 for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and 150 ± 32 ng/mL in healthy volunteers. For the stable phase of IPF, sICAM-1 levels correlated with Krebs von den Lungen-6 (KL-6) (r value: 0.41; p value: 0.036). Mean sICAM-1 levels were significantly higher in patients with early phase of acute exacerbation of IPF than with stable phase of IPF (p = 0.0199). Multiple logistic analyses indicated that the predictors for early phase of acute exacerbation of IPF were only sICAM-1 and C-reactive protein (odds ratio: 1.0093; 1.6069). In patients with stable IPF, sICAM-1 levels correlated with KL-6; sICAM-1 might be a predictive indicator for prognosis. In the early phase of acute exacerbation of IPF, sICAM-1 might be more useful for diagnosis than other interstitial pneumonia markers. PMID:26543791

  14. Arsenite enhances tumor necrosis factor-{alpha}-induced expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1

    SciTech Connect

    Tsou, T.-C. . E-mail: tctsou@nhri.org.tw; Yeh, Szu Ching; Tsai, E.-M.; Tsai, F.-Y.; Chao, H.-R.; Chang, Louis W.

    2005-11-15

    Epidemiological studies demonstrated a high association of vascular diseases with arsenite exposure. We hypothesize that arsenite potentiates the effect of proinflammatory cytokines on vascular endothelial cells, and hence contributes to atherosclerosis. In this study, we investigated the effect of arsenite and its induction of glutathione (GSH) on vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) protein expression in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in response to tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}), a typical proinflammatory cytokine. Our study demonstrated that arsenite pretreatment potentiated the TNF-{alpha}-induced VCAM-1 expression with up-regulations of both activator protein-1 (AP-1) and nuclear factor-{kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B). To elucidate the role of GSH in regulation of AP-1, NF-{kappa}B, and VCAM-1 expression, we employed L-buthionine (S,R)-sulfoximine (BSO), a specific {gamma}-glutamylcysteine synthetase ({gamma}-GCS) inhibitor, to block intracellular GSH synthesis. Our investigation revealed that, by depleting GSH, arsenite attenuated the TNF-{alpha}-induced VCAM-1 expression as well as a potentiation of AP-1 and an attenuation of NF-{kappa}B activations by TNF-{alpha}. Moreover, we found that depletion of GSH would also attenuate the TNF-{alpha}-induced VCAM-1 expression with a down-regulation of the TNF-{alpha}-induced NF-{kappa}B activation and without significant effect on AP-1. On the other hand, the TNF-{alpha}-induced VCAM-1 expression could be completely abolished by inhibition of AP-1 or NF-{kappa}B activity, suggesting that activation of both AP-1 and NF-{kappa}B was necessary for VCAM-1 expression. In summary, we demonstrate that arsenite enhances the TNF-{alpha}-induced VCAM-1 expression in HUVECs via regulation of AP-1 and NF-{kappa}B activities in a GSH-sensitive manner. Our present study suggested a potential mechanism for arsenite in the induction of vascular inflammation and vascular diseases via modulating the actions

  15. In-orbit Calibration Approach of the Microscope Experiment for the Test of the Equivalence Principle at 10-15

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradels, Grégory

    the satellite, a spectral density of 10-12 m/s^2/Hz is expected in the frequency range around 10-3 Hz. Then, an accuracy of a few 10-15 m/s^2 can be reached after an integration over 1 day in presence of the 8 m/s^2 Earth gravity field, leading to the EP test with a two orders of magnitude better accuracy than the current laboratory tests. The two ultra sensitive accelerometers, used in combination to build the instrument, are derived from the one flying in the CHAMP space mission which offers for the first time a very fine measurement (10-9 m/s^2/Hz resolution) of the non-gravitational forces applied on a satellite at altitude lower than 500 km. The temporal and spectral analyses confirm the specified intrinsic parameters of the instrument as the bias, the noise level or the thermal sensitivity. A time-frequency analysis provides the first look on disturbances that might occur on this type of satellite : mechanical vibrations after thruster firings, peaks of different amplitudes due to Earth's shadow crossings or effects of the satellite thermal control. A specific and adaptive filter has been developed to reject these perturbations out of the geodesic measurements. After this treatment, the data show some very interesting behaviours as the evolution of the drag with the rotation of the orbit of the satellite. These results are of great interest for the future projects like MICROSCOPE, LISA the space gravity wave antenna developed by NASA and ESA or GOCE the ESA gradiometric solid Earth mission. The MICROSCOPE mission requires not only high resolution for the accelerometers but also fine matching of the parameters because the eventual EP violation signal is detected in the instrument output comparison. The analytic model of the mission measurement demonstrates the necessity of the evaluation of the instrument sensitivity, alignment and coupling with a minimum accuracy of 3 10-4, depending on the relative test mass position, the orbital pointing mode of the satellite

  16. Creating Cultures of Peace: Pedagogical Thought and Practice. Selected Papers from the 10th Triennial World Conference (September 10-15, 2001, Madrid, Spain)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benton, Jean E., Ed.; Swami, Piyush, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    The 10th Triennial World Conference of the World Council for Curriculum and Instruction (WCCI) was held September 10-15, 2001 in Madrid, Spain. The theme of the conference was "Cultures of Peace." Thirty-four papers and presentations are divided into nine sections. Part I, Tributes to the Founders of WCCI, includes: (1) Tribute to Alice Miel…

  17. Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run and Body Mass Index among an Ethnically Diverse Sample of 10-15-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beets, Michael W.; Pitetti, Kenneth H.; Cardinal, Bradley J.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the cardiovascular fitness (CVF, Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run [PACER], number of laps completed) and the prevalence of at risk of overweight (AR) and overweight (OW) among 10-15-year-olds (48% girls) from the following ethnic backgrounds: African American (n = 2,604), Asian-Pacific Islander (n = 3,888),…

  18. Synthesis and unusual properties of the first 2,3,7,8,12,13,17,18-octabromo-5,10,15,20-tetraalkylporphyrin

    SciTech Connect

    NELSON,NORA Y.; MEDFORTH,CRAIG J.; NURCO,DANIEL J.; JIA,SONG-LING; SHELNUTT,JOHN A.; SMITH,KEVIN M.

    2000-03-06

    The new perhalogenated porphyrin 2,3,7,8,12,13,17,18-octabromo-5,10,15,20-tetrakis(trifluoromethyl)porphinato-nickel(II) exhibits several striking features, including an extremely ruffled macrocycle with a very short Ni-N distance, an unusually red-shifted optical spectrum, and, surprisingly, hindered rotation of the meso-trifluoromethyl substituents ({Delta}G{sub 278}{sup +} = 47 kJ/mol).

  19. Immunotoxicity activity of 2,6,10,15-tetrame-heptadecane from the essential oils of Clerodendron trichotomum Thunb. against Aedes aegypti L.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sung-Jae; Moon, Hyung-In

    2010-12-01

    The leaf parts of Clerodendron trichotomum were extracted and the major essential oils composition and immunotoxicity effects were studied. The analyses were conducted by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) revealed that the essential oils of C. trichotomum (CTEO). The CTEO yield was 0.071%, and GC/MS analysis revealed that its major constituents were Hexanal (3.31%), 5-Me-3-heptanone (1.71%), 2,6,6-trime-cyclohexanone (2.23%), 2,6,10,15-tetrame-heptadecane (24.21%) and Linalool (31.2%). The essential oil had a significant toxic effect against early fourth-stage larvae of Aedes aegypti L with an LC(50) value of 32.78 ppm and an LC(90) value of 93.72 ppm. 2,6,10,15-tetrame-heptadecane was the most toxic among the two major components (2,6,10,15-tetrame-heptadecane and Linalool), with an LC(50) value near 43.9 ppm. The results could be useful in search for newer, safer, and more effective natural immunotoxicity agents against A. aegypti. PMID:20233126

  20. Studying the properties and response of a large volume (946 cm3) LaBr3:Ce detector with γ-rays up to 22.5 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazumdar, I.; Gothe, D. A.; Anil Kumar, G.; Yadav, N.; Chavan, P. B.; Patel, S. M.

    2013-03-01

    This paper presents the results of our measurements and detailed simulations using GEANT4 to investigate the performance of a large volume (946 cm3) cylindrical (3.5 in.diameter×6 in.length) LaBr3:Ce detector. The properties of the detector have been studied using γ-rays from radioactive sources and in-beam reaction, from few hundred keV to 22.5 MeV. The salient features, which have been studied in-depth, are the uniformity and internal activity of the crystal, the energy and timing resolutions, linearity of the response up to 22.5 MeV, and efficiencies. A highly linear response has been observed by extracting the energy signal from a lower dynode and operating the PMT at a low voltage. The detector is to be primarily used for measuring high energy γ-rays spectra from Giant Dipole Resonance (GDR) decay studies.

  1. The intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (icam-1) in lung cancer: implications for disease progression and prognosis.

    PubMed

    Kotteas, Elias A; Boulas, Panagiotis; Gkiozos, Ioannis; Tsagkouli, Sofia; Tsoukalas, George; Syrigos, Konstantinos N

    2014-09-01

    The intercellular cell-adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) is a transmembrane molecule and a distinguished member of the Immunoglobulin superfamily of proteins that participates in many important processes, including leukocyte endothelial transmigration, cell signaling, cell-cell interaction, cell polarity and tissue stability. ICAM-1and its soluble part are highly expressed in inflammatory conditions, chronic diseases and a number of malignancies. In the present article we present the implications of ICAM-1 in the progression and prognosis of one of the major global killers of our era: lung cancer. PMID:25202042

  2. Early lung cancer detection project: Evaluation of 5, 10, 15, 20 tetrakis (4-carboxyphenyl) porphine (H{sub 2}TCPP). Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Tockman, M.S.

    1998-10-01

    The author evaluated a synthetic porphyrin, 5, 10, 15, 20 tetrakis (4-carboxyphenyl) porphene (H{sub 2}TCPP) as a marker of carcinogenesis. H{sub 2}TCPP was compared with two other carcinogenesis markers evaluated in the laboratory for their ability to detect exfoliated sputum cells undergoing transformation to lung cancer. In the present project the authors first established optimal conditions for cultured neoplastic and non-neoplastic (sputum) cells to take up H{sub 2}TCPP. This was accomplished using spectrofluorimetry and video-enhanced fluorescent microscopy to maximize H{sub 2}TCPP auto-fluorescence across a matrix of substrate conditions, including; reagent concentration, incubation time, temperature, and pH. The second aim was to validate H{sub 2}TCPP on clinical material obtained from subjects monitored in advance of clinical cancer and link those marker results with subsequent histologic confirmation of disease. This was accomplished by applying H{sub 2}TCPP to sputum specimens archived by the Frost Center at Johns Hopkins which maintains a record of the clinical course and long-term follow-up for the patients from whom the specimens were obtained. The authors have used fluorescent immunostaining and flow cytometry to compare uptake of these cytoplasmic Mabs to that of a potential new marker of carcinogenesis, 5, 10, 15, 20 tetrakis (4 carboxyphenyl) porphene (H{sub 2}TCPP). The nuclear uptake of H{sub 2}TCPP was compared to a standard quantitative fluorescent DNA marker (7-AAD).

  3. Photophysical Characterization and in Vitro Phototoxicity Evaluation of 5,10,15,20-Tetra(quinolin-2-yl)porphyrin as a Potential Sensitizer for Photodynamic Therapy.

    PubMed

    Costa, Letícia D; e Silva, Joana de A; Fonseca, Sofia M; Arranja, Cláudia T; Urbano, Ana M; Sobral, Abilio J F N

    2016-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a selective and minimally invasive therapeutic approach, involving the combination of a light-sensitive compound, called a photosensitizer (PS), visible light and molecular oxygen. The interaction of these per se harmless agents results in the production of reactive species. This triggers a series of cellular events that culminate in the selective destruction of cancer cells, inside which the photosensitizer preferentially accumulates. The search for ideal PDT photosensitizers has been a very active field of research, with a special focus on porphyrins and porphyrin-related macrocycle molecules. The present study describes the photophysical characterization and in vitro phototoxicity evaluation of 5,10,15,20-tetra(quinolin-2-yl)porphyrin (2-TQP) as a potential PDT photosensitizer. Molar absorption coefficients were determined from the corresponding absorption spectrum, the fluorescence quantum yield was calculated using 5,10,15,20-tetraphenylporphyrin (TPP) as a standard and the quantum yield of singlet oxygen generation was determined by direct phosphorescence measurements. Toxicity evaluations (in the presence and absence of irradiation) were performed against HT29 colorectal adenocarcinoma cancer cells. The results from this preliminary study show that the hydrophobic 2-TQP fulfills several critical requirements for a good PDT photosensitizer, namely a high quantum yield of singlet oxygen generation (Φ∆ 0.62), absence of dark toxicity and significant in vitro phototoxicity for concentrations in the micromolar range. PMID:27043519

  4. Soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 and endothelial adhesion molecules (intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1) as predictive markers for blood pressure reduction after renal sympathetic denervation.

    PubMed

    Dörr, Oliver; Liebetrau, Christoph; Möllmann, Helge; Gaede, Luise; Troidl, Christian; Rixe, Johannes; Hamm, Christian; Nef, Holger

    2014-05-01

    Renal sympathetic denervation (RSD) is a treatment option for patients with resistant arterial hypertension, but in some patients it is not successful. Predictive parameters on the success of RSD remain unknown. The angiogenic factors soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFLT-1), intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) are known to be associated with endothelial dysfunction, vascular remodeling, and hypertension. We evaluated whether sFLT-1, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1 are predictive markers for blood pressure reduction after RSD. Consecutive patients (n=55) undergoing renal denervation were included. Venous serum samples for measurement of sFlt-1, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1 were collected before and 6 months after RSD. A therapeutic response was defined as an office systolic blood pressure reduction of >10 mm Hg 6 months after RSD. A significant mean office systolic blood pressure reduction of 31.2 mm Hg was observed in 46 patients 6 months after RSD. Nine patients were classified as nonresponders, with a mean systolic blood pressure reduction of 4.6 mm Hg. At baseline, sFLT-1 levels were significantly higher in responders than in nonresponders (P<0.001) as were ICAM-1 (P<0.001) and VCAM-1 levels (P<0.01). The areas under the curve for sFLT-1, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1 were 0.82 (interquartile range, 0.718-0.921; P<0.001), 0.754 (0.654-0.854; P<0.001), and 0.684 (0.564-804; P=0.01), respectively, demonstrating prediction of an RSD response. Responders showed significantly higher serum levels of sFLT-1, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1 at baseline compared with nonresponders. Thus, this study identified for the first time potential biomarkers with a predictive value indicating a responder or nonresponder before renal denervation. PMID:24470464

  5. An AFM-based surface oxidation process for heavily carbon-doped p-type GaAs with a hole concentration of 1.5×1021 cm-3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirakashi, J.-I.; Matsumoto, K.; Konagai, M.

    Under appropriate bias conditions in ambient humidity, AFM can be used to selectively oxidize the surface of electronic materials such as metals and semiconductors. Therefore, an AFM-based surface modification technique would be a powerful tool for fabricating nanometer-sized metal (M)/insulator (I) or semiconductor (S)/insulator (I) junction structures. Heavily carbon-doped p-type GaAs with a hole concentration of 1.5×1021 cm-3 is also of great interest for application to novel device structures, because the carrier concentration is comparable to that of normal metals. Selective surface oxidation of carbon-doped p-type GaAs was achieved using a negatively biased conductive tip. The oxidation shown here was carried out under 20-25% ambient humidity. By changing the applied bias voltage and the scanning speed of the cantilever, the size of the modified structure wires was precisely controlled, with a feature size of 10 nm. These results suggest that GaAs-based devices with ultra-small SIS junction systems could be realized using the AFM-based surface oxidation process.

  6. Electrical detection of kidney injury molecule-1 with AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, H. T.; Kang, B. S.; Ren, F.; Pearton, S. J.; Johnson, J. W.; Rajagopal, P.; Roberts, J. C.; Piner, E. L.; Linthicum, K. J.

    2007-11-26

    AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) were used to detect kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), an important biomarker for early kidney injury detection. The gate region consisted of 5 nm gold deposited onto the AlGaN surface. The gold was conjugated to highly specific KIM-1 antibodies through a self-assembled monolayer of thioglycolic acid. The HEMT source-drain current showed a clear dependence on the KIM-1 concentration in phosphate-buffered saline solution. The limit of detection was 1 ng/ml using a 20x50 {mu}m{sup 2} gate sensing area. This approach shows potential for both preclinical and clinical kidney injury diagnosis with accurate, rapid, noninvasive, and high throughput capabilities.

  7. Nitric oxide pretreatment enhances atheroma component highlighting in vivo with intercellular adhesion molecule-1-targeted echogenic liposomes.

    PubMed

    Kee, Patrick H; Kim, Hyunggun; Huang, Shaoling; Laing, Susan T; Moody, Melanie R; Vela, Deborah; Klegerman, Melvin E; McPherson, David D

    2014-06-01

    We present an ultrasound technique for the detection of inflammatory changes in developing atheromas. We used contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging with (i) microbubbles targeted to intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), a molecule of adhesion involved in inflammatory processes in lesions of atheromas in New Zealand White rabbits, and (ii) pretreatment with nitric oxide-loaded microbubbles and ultrasound activation at the site of the endothelium to enhance the permeability of the arterial wall and the penetration of ICAM-1-targeted microbubbles. This procedure increases acoustic enhancement 1.2-fold. Pretreatment with nitric oxide-loaded echogenic liposomes and ultrasound activation can potentially facilitate the subsequent penetration of targeted echogenic liposomes into the arterial wall, thus allowing improved detection of inflammatory changes in developing atheromas. PMID:24613216

  8. Human dermal mast cells contain and release tumor necrosis factor alpha, which induces endothelial leukocyte adhesion molecule 1.

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, L J; Trinchieri, G; Waldorf, H A; Whitaker, D; Murphy, G F

    1991-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) is a proinflammatory cytokine that mediates endothelial leukocyte interactions by inducing expression of adhesion molecules. In this report, we demonstrate that human dermal mast cells contain sizeable stores of immunoreactive and biologically active TNF-alpha within granules, which can be released rapidly into the extracellular space upon degranulation. Among normal human dermal cells, mast cells are the predominant cell type that expresses both TNF-alpha protein and TNF-alpha mRNA. Moreover, induction of endothelial leukocyte adhesion molecule 1 expression is a direct consequence of release of mast cell-derived TNF-alpha. These findings establish a role for human mast cells as "gatekeepers" of the dermal microvasculature and indicate that mast cell products other than vasoactive amines influence endothelium in a proinflammatory fashion. Images PMID:1709737

  9. Carboxylated, heteroaryl-substituted chalcones as inhibitors of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression for use in chronic inflammatory diseases.

    PubMed

    Meng, Charles Q; Ni, Liming; Worsencroft, Kimberly J; Ye, Zhihong; Weingarten, M David; Simpson, Jacob E; Skudlarek, Jason W; Marino, Elaine M; Suen, Ki-Ling; Kunsch, Charles; Souder, Amy; Howard, Randy B; Sundell, Cynthia L; Wasserman, Martin A; Sikorski, James A

    2007-03-22

    Starting from a simple chalcone template, structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies led to a series of carboxylated, heteroaryl-substituted chalcone derivatives as novel, potent inhibitors of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) expression. Correlations between lipophilicity determined by calculated logP values and inhibitory efficacy were observed among structurally similar compounds of the series. Various substituents were found to be tolerated at several positions of the chalcone backbone as long as the compounds fell into the right range of lipophilicity. The chalcone alpha,beta-unsaturated ketone moiety seemed to be the pharmacophore required for inhibition of VCAM-1 expression. Compound 19 showed significant antiinflammatory effects in a mouse model of allergic inflammation, indicating that this series of compounds might have therapeutic value for human asthma and other inflammatory disorders. PMID:17323940

  10. S fimbriae of uropathogenic Escherichia coli bind to primary human renal proximal tubular epithelial cells but do not induce expression of intercellular adhesion molecule 1.

    PubMed Central

    Kreft, B; Placzek, M; Doehn, C; Hacker, J; Schmidt, G; Wasenauer, G; Daha, M R; van der Woude, F J; Sack, K

    1995-01-01

    We have recently reported an increase of expression of the intercellular adhesion molecule 1 by renal carcinoma cells in response to S fimbriae of Escherichia coli. Now we demonstrate that E. coli expressing S and P fimbriae strongly binds to human proximal tubular epithelial cells. However, in primary and simian virus 40-transfected renal tubular epithelial cells S fimbriae do not enhance the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule 1. PMID:7622256

  11. 15-(4-Carboxyphenyl)-10,15,20-triphenylporphyrin manganese(III) chloride grafted on magnetic polyglycidyl methacrylate as biomimetic catalyst and their catalytic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ying; Jiang, Pingping; Zhang, Weijie; Zheng, Jiawei

    2013-04-01

    Manganese(III) 5-(4-carboxyphenyl)-10,15,20-triphenylporphyrin chloride (Mn(TCPP)Cl) was grafted through amide bond on magnetic polyglycidyl methacrylate (mPGMA) cross-linked by divinylbenzene (DVB). XRD, ICP-AES, N2 physisorption, SEM, TEM, FTIR and thermal analysis were employed to analyze these novel materials. mPGMA supported catalyst was used for epoxidation with structural durability and steadily reusability. Mn-NH-mPGMA as biomimetic catalyst caused a liquid-solid heterogeneous epoxidation system, and exhibited an excellent conversion with high selectivity at room temperature. Catalytic activity remained when catalyst was recycled seven times. The recycled experiments presented in this article indicated that Mn(TCPP)Cl grafted on mPGMA was suitable for efficient isolation with high recovery yield.

  12. Development of regional future climate change scenarios in South America using the Eta CPTEC/HadCM3 climate change projections: climatology and regional analyses for the Amazon, São Francisco and the Paraná River basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marengo, Jose A.; Chou, Sin Chan; Kay, Gillian; Alves, Lincoln M.; Pesquero, José F.; Soares, Wagner R.; Santos, Daniel C.; Lyra, André A.; Sueiro, Gustavo; Betts, Richard; Chagas, Diego J.; Gomes, Jorge L.; Bustamante, Josiane F.; Tavares, Priscila

    2012-05-01

    The objective of this study is to assess the climate projections over South America using the Eta-CPTEC regional model driven by four members of an ensemble of the Met Office Hadley Centre Global Coupled climate model HadCM3. The global model ensemble was run over the twenty-first century according to the SRES A1B emissions scenario, but with each member having a different climate sensitivity. The four members selected to drive the Eta-CPTEC model span the sensitivity range in the global model ensemble. The Eta-CPTEC model nested in these lateral boundary conditions was configured with a 40-km grid size and was run over 1961-1990 to represent baseline climate, and 2011-2100 to simulate possible future changes. Results presented here focus on austral summer and winter climate of 2011-2040, 2041-2070 and 2071-2100 periods, for South America and for three major river basins in Brazil. Projections of changes in upper and low-level circulation and the mean sea level pressure (SLP) fields simulate a pattern of weakening of the tropical circulation and strengthening of the subtropical circulation, marked by intensification at the surface of the Chaco Low and the subtropical highs. Strong warming (4-6°C) of continental South America increases the temperature gradient between continental South America and the South Atlantic. This leads to stronger SLP gradients between continent and oceans, and to changes in moisture transport and rainfall. Large rainfall reductions are simulated in Amazonia and Northeast Brazil (reaching up to 40%), and rainfall increases around the northern coast of Peru and Ecuador and in southeastern South America, reaching up to 30% in northern Argentina. All changes are more intense after 2040. The Precipitation-Evaporation (P-E) difference in the A1B downscaled scenario suggest water deficits and river runoff reductions in the eastern Amazon and São Francisco Basin, making these regions susceptible to drier conditions and droughts in the future.

  13. Nitric Oxide-Enhanced Molecular Imaging of Atheroma using Vascular Cellular Adhesion Molecule-1 Targeted Echogenic Immunoliposomes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyunggun; Kee, Patrick H.; Rim, Yonghoon; Moody, Melanie R.; Klegerman, Melvin E.; Vela, Deborah; Huang, Shao-Ling; McPherson, David D.; Laing, Susan T.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to demonstrate whether pretreatment with nitric-oxide loaded echogenic liposomes (NO-ELIP) plus ultrasound can improve highlighting by molecularly targeted [anti-vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1)] ELIP of atheroma components. Atherosclerotic animals were treated with anti-VCAM-1 ELIP or immunoglobulin (IgG)-ELIP. Each group was randomized to receive pretreatment with standard ELIP plus ultrasound, NO-ELIP without ultrasound, or NO-ELIP plus ultrasound. Intravascular ultrasound highlighting data of the same arterial segments were collected before and after treatment. Pretreatment with NO-ELIP plus ultrasound demonstrated a significant increase in acoustic enhancement by anti-VCAM-1 ELIP (21.3 ± 1.5% for gray scale value, 53.9 ± 3.1% for radiofrequency data; p<0.001 vs. IgG-ELIP, p<0.05 vs. pretreatment with standard ELIP plus ultrasound or NO-ELIP without ultrasound). NO-ELIP plus ultrasound can improve highlighting of atheroma by anti-VCAM-1 ELIP. This NO pretreatment strategy may be useful for optimizing contrast agent delivery to the vascular wall for both diagnostic and therapeutic applications. PMID:25819469

  14. Nitric Oxide-Enhanced Molecular Imaging of Atheroma using Vascular Cellular Adhesion Molecule 1-Targeted Echogenic Immunoliposomes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyunggun; Kee, Patrick H; Rim, Yonghoon; Moody, Melanie R; Klegerman, Melvin E; Vela, Deborah; Huang, Shao-Ling; McPherson, David D; Laing, Susan T

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether pre-treatment with nitric oxide-loaded echogenic liposomes (NO-ELIP) plus ultrasound can improve highlighting by molecularly targeted (anti-vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 [VCAM-1]) ELIP of atheroma components. Atherosclerotic animals were treated with anti-VCAM-1-ELIP or immunoglobulin (IgG)-ELIP. Each group was selected at random to receive pre-treatment with standard ELIP plus ultrasound, NO-ELIP without ultrasound and NO-ELIP plus ultrasound. Intravascular ultrasound highlighting data for the same arterial segments were collected before and after treatment. Pre-treatment with NO-ELIP plus ultrasound resulted in a significant increase in acoustic enhancement by anti-VCAM-1-ELIP (21.3 ± 1.5% for gray-scale value, 53.9 ± 3.1% for radiofrequency data; p < 0.001 vs. IgG-ELIP, p < 0.05 vs. pre-treatment with standard ELIP plus ultrasound or NO-ELIP without ultrasound). NO-ELIP plus ultrasound can improve highlighting of atheroma by anti-VCAM-1 ELIP. This NO pre-treatment strategy may be useful in optimizing contrast agent delivery to the vascular wall for both diagnostic and therapeutic applications. PMID:25819469

  15. Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 Expression and Signaling During Disease: Regulation by Reactive Oxygen Species and Antioxidants

    PubMed Central

    Marchese, Michelle E.; Abdala-Valencia, Hiam

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The endothelium is immunoregulatory in that inhibiting the function of vascular adhesion molecules blocks leukocyte recruitment and thus tissue inflammation. The function of endothelial cells during leukocyte recruitment is regulated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidants. In inflammatory sites and lymph nodes, the endothelium is stimulated to express adhesion molecules that mediate leukocyte binding. Upon leukocyte binding, these adhesion molecules activate endothelial cell signal transduction that then alters endothelial cell shape for the opening of passageways through which leukocytes can migrate. If the stimulation of this opening is blocked, inflammation is blocked. In this review, we focus on the endothelial cell adhesion molecule, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1). Expression of VCAM-1 is induced on endothelial cells during inflammatory diseases by several mediators, including ROS. Then, VCAM-1 on the endothelium functions as both a scaffold for leukocyte migration and a trigger of endothelial signaling through NADPH oxidase-generated ROS. These ROS induce signals for the opening of intercellular passageways through which leukocytes migrate. In several inflammatory diseases, inflammation is blocked by inhibition of leukocyte binding to VCAM-1 or by inhibition of VCAM-1 signal transduction. VCAM-1 signal transduction and VCAM-1-dependent inflammation are blocked by antioxidants. Thus, VCAM-1 signaling is a target for intervention by pharmacological agents and by antioxidants during inflammatory diseases. This review discusses ROS and antioxidant functions during activation of VCAM-1 expression and VCAM-1 signaling in inflammatory diseases. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 15, 1607–1638. PMID:21050132

  16. Molecular architecture of a complex between an adhesion protein from the malaria parasite and intracellular adhesion molecule 1.

    PubMed

    Brown, Alan; Turner, Louise; Christoffersen, Stig; Andrews, Katrina A; Szestak, Tadge; Zhao, Yuguang; Larsen, Sine; Craig, Alister G; Higgins, Matthew K

    2013-02-22

    The adhesion of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes to human tissues or endothelium is central to the pathology caused by the parasite during malaria. It contributes to the avoidance of parasite clearance by the spleen and to the specific pathologies of cerebral and placental malaria. The PfEMP1 family of adhesive proteins is responsible for this sequestration by mediating interactions with diverse human ligands. In addition, as the primary targets of acquired, protective immunity, the PfEMP1s are potential vaccine candidates. PfEMP1s contain large extracellular ectodomains made from CIDR (cysteine-rich interdomain regions) and DBL (Duffy-binding-like) domains and show extensive variation in sequence, size, and domain organization. Here we use biophysical methods to characterize the entire ∼300-kDa ectodomain from IT4VAR13, a protein that interacts with the host receptor, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). We show through small angle x-ray scattering that IT4VAR13 is rigid, elongated, and monomeric. We also show that it interacts with ICAM-1 through the DBLβ domain alone, forming a 1:1 complex. These studies provide a first low resolution structural view of a PfEMP1 ectodomain in complex with its ligand. They show that it combines a modular domain arrangement consisting of individual ligand binding domains, with a defined higher order architecture that exposes the ICAM-1 binding surface to allow adhesion. PMID:23297413

  17. Ambient but not incremental oxidant generation effects intercellular adhesion molecule 1 induction by tumour necrosis factor alpha in endothelium.

    PubMed

    Arai, T; Kelly, S A; Brengman, M L; Takano, M; Smith, E H; Goldschmidt-Clermont, P J; Bulkley, G B

    1998-05-01

    Proinflammatory cytokines upregulate endothelial adhesion molecule expression, thereby initiating the microvascular inflammatory response. We re-evaluated the reported role of reactive oxygen metabolites (ROMs) in signalling upregulation of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) on endothelial cells by tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) in vitro. TNF-alpha upregulation of endothelial-cell ICAM-1 expression was inhibited by the cell-permeable antioxidants, or by the adenovirus-mediated intracellular overexpression of Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase, but not by the exogenous (extracellular) administration of the cell-impermeable antioxidants, superoxide dismutase and/or catalase. This ICAM-1 upregulation was also inhibited by inhibitors of NADH dehydrogenase, cytochrome bc1 complex and NADPH oxidase. However, a measurable increase in net cellular ROM generation in response to TNF-alpha was not seen using four disparate sensitive ROM assays. Moreover, the stimulation of exogenous or endogenous ROM generation did not upregulate ICAM-1, nor enhance ICAM-1 upregulation by TNF-alpha. These findings suggest that an ambient background flux of ROMs, generated intracellularly, but not their net incremental generation, is necessary for TNF-alpha to induce ICAM-1 expression in endothelium in vitro. PMID:9560314

  18. Silencing stromal interaction molecule 1 by RNA interference inhibits the proliferation and migration of endothelial progenitor cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kuang, Chun-yan; Yu, Yang; Guo, Rui-wei; Qian, De-hui; Wang, Kui; Den, Meng-yang; Shi, Yan-kun; Huang, Lan

    2010-07-23

    Research highlights: {yields} STIM1 and TRPC1 are expressed in EPCs. {yields} Knockdown of STIM1 inhibits the proliferation, migration and SOCE of EPCs. {yields} TRPC1-SOC cooperates with STIM1 to mediate the SOCE of EPCs. -- Abstract: Knockdown of stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1) significantly suppresses neointima hyperplasia after vascular injury. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are the major source of cells that respond to endothelium repair and contribute to re-endothelialization by reducing neointima formation after vascular injury. We hypothesized that the effect of STIM1 on neointima hyperplasia inhibition is mediated through its effect on the biological properties of EPCs. In this study, we investigated the effects of STIM1 on the proliferation and migration of EPCs and examined the effect of STIM1 knockdown using cultured rat bone marrow-derived EPCs. STIM1 was expressed in EPCs, and knockdown of STIM1 by adenoviral delivery of small interfering RNA (siRNA) significantly suppressed the proliferation and migration of EPCs. Furthermore, STIM1 knockdown decreased store-operated channel entry 48 h after transfection. Replenishment with recombinant human STIM1 reversed the effects of STIM1 knockdown. Our data suggest that the store-operated transient receptor potential canonical 1 channel is involved in regulating the biological properties of EPCs through STIM1. STIM1 is a potent regulator of cell proliferation and migration in rat EPCs and may play an important role in the biological properties of EPCs.

  19. CCN4 induces vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression in human synovial fibroblasts and promotes monocyte adhesion.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ju-Fang; Hou, Sheng-Mou; Tsai, Chun-Hao; Huang, Chun-Yin; Hsu, Chin-Jung; Tang, Chih-Hsin

    2013-05-01

    CCN4 is a cysteine-rich protein that belongs to the Cyr61, CTGF, Nov family of matricellular proteins. Here, we investigated the intracellular signaling pathways involved in CCN4-induced vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression in human osteoarthritis synovial fibroblasts. Stimulation of OASFs with CCN4 induced VCAM-1 expression. CCN4-induced VCAM-1 expression was attenuated by αvβ5 or α6β1 integrin antibody, Syk inhibitor, PKCδ inhibitor (rottlerin), JNK inhibitor (SP600125), and AP-1 inhibitors (curcumin and tanshinone). Stimulation of cells with CCN4 increased Syk, PKCδ, and JNK activation. Treatment of OASFs with CCN4 also increased c-Jun phosphorylation, AP-1-luciferase activity, and c-Jun binding to the AP-1 element in the VCAM-1 promoter. Moreover, up-regulation of VCAM-1 increased the adhesion of monocytes to OASF monolayers, and this adhesion was attenuated by transfection with a VCAM-1 siRNA. Our results suggest that CCN4 increases VCAM-1 expression in human OASFs via the Syk, PKCδ, JNK, c-Jun, and AP-1 signaling pathways. The CCN4-induced VCAM-1 expression promoted monocyte adhesion to human OASFs. PMID:23313051

  20. Neutrophils lacking platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 exhibit loss of directionality and motility in CXCR2-mediated chemotaxis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yue; Stabach, Paul; Michaud, Michael; Madri, Joseph A

    2005-09-15

    Time-lapsed videomicroscopy was used to study the migration of platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1-deficient (PECAM-1(-/-)) murine neutrophils undergoing chemotaxis in Zigmond chambers containing IL-8, KC, or fMLP gradients. PECAM-1(-/-) neutrophils failed to translocate up the IL-8, KC, and fMLP gradients. Significant reductions in cell motility and cell spreading were also observed in IL-8 or KC gradients. In wild-type neutrophils, PECAM-1 and F-actin were colocalized at the leading fronts of polarized cells toward the gradient. In contrast, in PECAM-1(-/-) neutrophils, although F-actin also localized to the leading front of migrating cells, F-actin polymerization was unstable, and cycling was remarkably increased compared with that of wild-type neutrophils. This may be due to the decreased cytokine-induced mobilization of the actin-binding protein, moesin, into the cytoskeleton of PECAM-1(-/-) neutrophils. PECAM-1(-/-) neutrophils also exhibited intracellularly dislocalized Src homology 2 domain containing phosphatase 1 (SHP-1) and had less IL-8-induced SHP-1 phosphatase activity. These results suggest that PECAM-1 regulates neutrophil chemotaxis by modulating cell motility and directionality, in part through its effects on SHP-1 localization and activation. PMID:16148090

  1. Milk IgA responses are augmented by antigen delivery to the mucosal addressin cellular adhesion molecule 1.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Susan; Bourges, Dorothee; Wijburg, Odilia; Strugnell, Richard A; Lew, Andrew M

    2006-07-01

    The mucosal addressin cellular adhesion molecule 1 (MAdCAM) is expressed on the venules of the gut associated lymphoid tissue (GALT); it is also expressed on the venules of the lobules of the mammary gland. We have previously found that MAdCAM-targeting using a rat anti-MAdCAM monoclonal Ab as both antigen and targeting moiety resulted in an enhanced local IgA gut response. We therefore surmised that such targeting may also enhance IgA responses in the mammary gland. We show that our model antigen localizes to the lobules of the mammary glands as well as the GALT, but not to the draining lymph nodes and that targeting MAdCAM results in secretory IgA responses in the milk. We provide evidence that this milk IgA Ab is of a secretory nature and is consistent with derivation from gut plasmablasts that have migrated to the mammary gland. Targeting MAdCAM may be a way for a novel vaccine strategy that affords protection to the mammary gland and the suckling neonate. PMID:16723174

  2. Kidney Injury Molecule-1 Outperforms Traditional Biomarkers of Kidney Injury in Multi-site Preclinical Biomarker Qualification Studies

    PubMed Central

    Vaidya, Vishal S.; Ozer, Josef S.; Frank, Dieterle; Collings, Fitz B.; Ramirez, Victoria; Troth, Sean; Muniappa, Nagaraja; Thudium, Douglas; Gerhold, David; Holder, Daniel J.; Bobadilla, Norma A.; Marrer, Estelle; Perentes, Elias; Cordier, André; Vonderscher, Jacky; Maurer, Gérard; Goering, Peter L.; Sistare, Frank D.; Bonventre, Joseph V.

    2010-01-01

    Kidney toxicity accounts for a significant percentage of morbidity and drug candidate failure. Serum creatinine (SCr) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) have been used to monitor kidney dysfunction for over a century but these markers are insensitive and non-specific. In multi-site preclinical rat toxicology studies the diagnostic performance of urinary kidney injury molecule-1 (Kim-1) was compared to traditional biomarkers as predictors of kidney tubular histopathologic changes, currently considered the “gold standard” of nephrotoxicity. In multiple models of kidney injury, urinary Kim-1 significantly outperformed SCr and BUN. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for Kim-1 was between 0.91 and 0.99 as compared to 0.79 to 0.9 for BUN and 0.73 to 0.85 for SCr. Thus urinary Kim-1 is the first injury biomarker of kidney toxicity qualified by the FDA and EMEA and is expected to significantly improve kidney safety monitoring. PMID:20458318

  3. Correlation of clinical features and genetic profiles of stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1) in colorectal cancers

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Henry Sung-Ching; Chang, Wei-Chiao

    2015-01-01

    STIM1 overexpression has been observed in a portion of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients and associated with cancer cell invasion and migration. To characterize the distinctive expression profiles associated with stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1) overexpression/low-expression between CRC subtypes, and further assess the divergence transcription regulation impact of STIM1 between colon (COADs) and rectum (READs) adenocarcinomas in order to depict the role of SOCE pathway in CRCs, we have conducted a comprehensive phenome-transcriptome-interactome analysis to clarify underlying molecular differences of COADs/READs contributed by STIM1. Results demonstrated that a number of novel STIM1-associated signatures have been identified in COADs but not READs. Specifically, the presence of STIM1 overexpression in COADs, which represented a disturbance of the SOCE pathway, was associated with cell migration and cell motility properties. We identified 11 prognostic mRNA/miRNA predictors associated with the overall survival of COAD patients, suggesting the correlation of STIM1-associated features to clinicopathological outcomes. These findings enhance our understanding on differences between CRC subtypes in panoramic view, and suggested STIM1 as a promising therapeutic biomarker in COADs. PMID:26543234

  4. A heat-stable component of Bartonella henselae upregulates intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression on vascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Maeno, N; Yoshiie, K; Matayoshi, S; Fujimura, T; Mao, S; Wahid, M R; Oda, H

    2002-04-01

    Bartonella henselae upregulated the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The induction level of ICAM-1 depended on the inoculation bacterial dose. ICAM-1 expression began increasing 4 h after infection and reached a sustained peak beginning at 12 h after B. henselae infection; this time course was similar to that of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Escherichia coli. The stimulatory effect was abolished when live B. henselae were separated from HUVECs by a filter membrane. The nonpiliated strain, which is unable to invade endothelial cells, induced ICAM-1 expression to the same extent as the piliated strain. Inactivation of B. henselae by ultraviolet (UV) irradiation, heat (56 degrees C, 30 min), or sonication did not alter its stimulatory activity. Polymyxin B, which strongly inhibited the effect of LPS, did not exert any influence on the stimulatory activity of B. henselae. Furthermore, the effect of sonicated B. henselae was not inhibited even by boiling, which was also the case with LPS. Our data suggest that some heat-stable component of B. henselae binds to the endothelial cell surface, inducing ICAM-1 expression. Though the participation of LPS could not be completely ruled out, we suppose that some unidentified heat-stable proteins, lipids, or polysaccharides may be the stimulatory factor(s). The ability of B. henselae to enhance the expression of adhesion molecules on endothelial cells may be an important mechanism in the pathogenesis of B. henselae infection. PMID:11967118

  5. Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 is expressed and as a function histotype in ovarian tumors.

    PubMed

    Li, Ning; Yang, Jing-Yan; Wang, Xiao-Ying; Wang, Hai-Tao; Guan, Bing-Xin; Zhou, Cheng-Jun

    2016-02-01

    Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1) is a cell-cell adhesion receptor and is implicated in several cellular functions. It is rarely reported in ovarian tumors. The aim of this study is to determine the expression of CEACAM1 in ovarian tumors, trying to see whether CEACAM1 has different expression patterns as a function of histotype. Antigen expression was examined by immunohistochemistry with mouse anti-human antibody for CEACAM1. Immunohistochemistry was performed using avidin-biotin-diaminobenzide staining. The results were expressed as average score ± SD (0, negative; 8, highest) for each histotype. In ovarian tumors, the benign serous and mucinous cystadenoma negatively or weakly expressed CEACAM1, the malignant epithelial tumors strongly expressed CEACAM1, and there was significant difference between benign epithelial tumor and adenocarcinoma (P < .05). The well-differentiated serous adenocarcinoma expressed CEACAM1 mainly with membrane pattern, and the intermediately and poorly differentiated serous adenocarcinomas expressed CEACAM1 mainly with cytoplasmic pattern (P < .05). In addition, CEACAM1 expression is elevated in solid tumors of ovary but variable as a function of histotype. Compared with membranous expression, the cytoplasmic expression was observed almost in metastatic carcinoma that might decrease the adhesive interactions of the carcinoma cells with the surrounding cells, especially with tumor cells, and this could facilitate the tumor cells to metastasize to distant regions. So, we thought that cytoplasmic CEACAM1 might play an important role in tumor progression, especially in tumor metastasis. PMID:26653024

  6. Epidermal Expression of Intercellular Adhesion Molecule 1 is Not a Primary Inducer of Cutaneous Inflammation in Transgenic Mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Ifor R.; Kupper, Thomas S.

    1994-10-01

    Keratinocytes at sites of cutaneous inflammation have increased expression of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), a cytokine-inducible adhesion molecule which binds the leukocyte integrins LFA-1 and Mac-1. Transgenic mice were prepared in which the expression of mouse ICAM-1 was targeted to basal keratinocytes by using the human K14 keratin promoter. The level of constitutive expression attained in the transgenic mice exceeded the peak level of ICAM-1 expression induced on nontransgenic mouse keratinocytes in vitro by optimal combinations of interferon γ and tumor necrosis factor α or in vivo by proinflammatory stimuli such as phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate. In vitro adhesion assays demonstrated that cultured transgenic keratinocytes were superior to normal keratinocytes as a substrate for the LFA-1-dependent binding of mouse T cells, confirming that the transgene-encoded ICAM-1 was expressed in a functional form. However, the high level of constitutive ICAM-1 expression achieved on keratinocytes in vivo in these transgenic mice did not result in additional recruitment of CD45^+ leukocytes into transgenic epidermis, nor did it elicit dermal inflammation. Keratinocyte ICAM-1 expression also did not potentiate contact-hypersensitivity reactions to epicutaneous application of haptens. The absence of a spontaneous phenotype in these transgenic mice was not the result of increased levels of soluble ICAM-1, since serum levels of soluble ICAM-1 were equal in transgenic mice and controls. We conclude that elevated ICAM-1 expression on keratinocytes cannot act independently to influence leukocyte trafficking and elicit cutaneous inflammation.

  7. Discovery of novel phenolic antioxidants as inhibitors of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression for use in chronic inflammatory diseases.

    PubMed

    Meng, Charles Q; Somers, Patricia K; Hoong, Lee K; Zheng, X Sharon; Ye, Zhihong; Worsencroft, Kimberly J; Simpson, Jacob E; Hotema, Martha R; Weingarten, M David; MacDOnald, Mathew L; Hill, Russell R; Marino, Elaine M; Suen, Ki-Ling; Luchoomun, Jayraz; Kunsch, Charles; Landers, Laura K; Stefanopoulos, Dimitria; Howard, Randy B; Sundell, Cynthia L; Saxena, Uday; Wasserman, Martin A; Sikorski, James A

    2004-12-01

    Vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) mediates recruitment of leukocytes to endothelial cells and is implicated in many inflammatory conditions. Since part of the signal transduction pathway that regulates the activation of VCAM-1 expression is redox-sensitive, compounds with antioxidant properties may have inhibitory effects on VCAM-1 expression. Novel phenolic compounds have been designed and synthesized starting from probucol (1). Many of these compounds demonstrated potent inhibitory effects on cytokine-induced VCAM-1 expression and displayed potent antioxidant effects in vitro. Some of these derivatives (4o, 4p, 4w, and 4x) inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta), and IL-6 from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (hPBMCs) in a concentration-dependent manner in vitro and showed antiinflammatory effects in an animal model. Compounds 4ad and 4ae are currently in clinical trials for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and prevention of chronic organ transplant rejection, respectively. PMID:15566311

  8. A stromal interaction molecule 1 variant up-regulates matrix metalloproteinase-2 expression by strengthening nucleoplasmic Ca2+ signaling.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fengrong; Zhu, Liping; Cai, Lei; Zhang, Jiwei; Zeng, Xianqin; Li, Jiansha; Su, Yuan; Hu, Qinghua

    2016-04-01

    Very recent studies hold promise to reveal the role of stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1) in non-store-operated Ca2+ entry. Here we showed that in contrast to cytoplasmic membrane redistribution as previously noted, human umbilical vein endothelial STIM1 with a T-to-C nucleotide transition resulting in an amino acid substitution of leucine by proline in the signal peptide sequence translocated to perinuclear membrane upon intracellular Ca2+ depletion, amplified nucleoplasmic Ca2+ signaling through ryanodine receptor-dependent pathway, and enhanced the subsequent cAMP responsive element binding protein activity, matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) gene expression, and endothelial tube forming. The abundance of mutated STIM1 and the MMP-2 expression were higher in native human umbilical vein endothelial cells of patients with gestational hypertension than controls and were significantly correlated with blood pressure. These findings broaden our understanding about structure-function bias of STIM1 and offer unique insights into its application in nucleoplasmic Ca2+, MMP-2 expression, endothelial dysfunction, and pathophysiological mechanism(s) of gestational hypertension. PMID:26775216

  9. Endothelial leukocyte adhesion molecule-1 mediates antigen-induced acute airway inflammation and late-phase airway obstruction in monkeys.

    PubMed Central

    Gundel, R H; Wegner, C D; Torcellini, C A; Clarke, C C; Haynes, N; Rothlein, R; Smith, C W; Letts, L G

    1991-01-01

    This study examines the role of endothelial leukocyte adhesion molecule-1 (ELAM-1) in the development of the acute airway inflammation (cell influx) and late-phase airway obstruction in a primate model of extrinsic asthma. In animals sensitive to antigen, a single inhalation exposure induced the rapid expression of ELAM-1 (6 h) exclusively on vascular endothelium that correlated with the influx of neutrophils into the lungs and the onset of late-phase airway obstruction. In contrast, basal levels of ICAM-1 was constitutively expressed on vascular endothelium and airway epithelium before antigen challenge. After the single antigen exposure, changes in ICAM-1 expression did not correlate with neutrophil influx or the change in airway caliber. This was confirmed by showing that pretreatment with a monoclonal antibody to ICAM-1 did not inhibit the acute influx of neutrophils associated with late-phase airway obstruction, whereas a monoclonal antibody to ELAM-1 blocked both the influx of neutrophils and the late-phase airway obstruction. This study demonstrates a functional role for ELAM-1 in the development of acute airway inflammation in vivo. We conclude that, in primates, the late-phase response is the result of an ELAM-1 dependent influx of neutrophils. Therefore, the regulation of ELAM-1 expression may provide a novel approach to controlling the acute inflammatory response, and thereby, affecting airway function associated with inflammatory disorders, including asthma. Images PMID:1717514

  10. Intercellular adhesion molecule 1 serves as a primary cognate receptor for the Type IV pilus of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae.

    PubMed

    Novotny, Laura A; Bakaletz, Lauren O

    2016-08-01

    Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHI) utilizes the Type IV pilus (Tfp) to adhere to respiratory tract epithelial cells thus colonizing its human host; however, the host cell receptor to which this adhesive protein binds is unknown. From a panel of receptors engaged by Tfp expressed by other bacterial species, we showed that the majority subunit of NTHI Tfp, PilA, bound to intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM1) and that this interaction was both specific and of high affinity. Further, Tfp-expressing NTHI inoculated on to polarized respiratory tract epithelial cells that expressed ICAM1 were significantly more adherent compared to Tfp-deficient NTHI or NTHI inoculated on to epithelial cells to which ICAM1 gene expression was silenced. Moreover, pre-incubation of epithelial cells with recombinant soluble PilA (rsPilA) blocked adherence of NTHI, an outcome that was abrogated by admixing rsPilA with ICAM1 prior to application on to the target cells. Epithelial cells infected with adenovirus or respiratory syncytial virus showed increased expression of ICAM1; this outcome supported augmented adherence of Tfp-expressing NTHI. Collectively, these data revealed the cognate receptor for NTHI Tfp as ICAM1 and promote continued development of a Tfp-targeted vaccine for NTHI-induced diseases of the airway wherein upper respiratory tract viruses play a key predisposing role. PMID:26857242

  11. Early Detection of Junctional Adhesion Molecule-1 (JAM-1) in the Circulation after Experimental and Clinical Polytrauma

    PubMed Central

    Denk, Stephanie; Wiegner, Rebecca; Hönes, Felix M.; Messerer, David A. C.; Radermacher, Peter; Weiss, Manfred; Kalbitz, Miriam; Ehrnthaller, Christian; Braumüller, Sonja; McCook, Oscar; Gebhard, Florian; Weckbach, Sebastian; Huber-Lang, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Severe tissue trauma-induced systemic inflammation is often accompanied by evident or occult blood-organ barrier dysfunctions, frequently leading to multiple organ dysfunction. However, it is unknown whether specific barrier molecules are shed into the circulation early after trauma as potential indicators of an initial barrier dysfunction. The release of the barrier molecule junctional adhesion molecule-1 (JAM-1) was investigated in plasma of C57BL/6 mice 2 h after experimental mono- and polytrauma as well as in polytrauma patients (ISS ≥ 18) during a 10-day period. Correlation analyses were performed to indicate a linkage between JAM-1 plasma concentrations and organ failure. JAM-1 was systemically detected after experimental trauma in mice with blunt chest trauma as a driving force. Accordingly, JAM-1 was reduced in lung tissue after pulmonary contusion and JAM-1 plasma levels significantly correlated with increased protein levels in the bronchoalveolar lavage as a sign for alveolocapillary barrier dysfunction. Furthermore, JAM-1 was markedly released into the plasma of polytrauma patients as early as 4 h after the trauma insult and significantly correlated with severity of disease and organ dysfunction (APACHE II and SOFA score). The data support an early injury- and time-dependent appearance of the barrier molecule JAM-1 in the circulation indicative of a commencing trauma-induced barrier dysfunction. PMID:26556956

  12. Coxsackievirus A21 binds to decay-accelerating factor but requires intercellular adhesion molecule 1 for cell entry.

    PubMed Central

    Shafren, D R; Dorahy, D J; Ingham, R A; Burns, G F; Barry, R D

    1997-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly apparent that many viruses employ multiple receptor molecules in their cell entry mechanisms. The human enterovirus coxsackievirus A21 (CAV21) has been reported to bind to the N-terminal domain of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and undergo limited replication in ICAM-1-expressing murine L cells. In this study, we show that in addition to binding to ICAM-1, CAV21 binds to the first short consensus repeat (SCR) of decay-accelerating factor (DAF). Dual antibody blockade using both anti-ICAM-1 (domain 1) and anti-DAF (SCR1) monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) is required to completely abolish binding and replication of high-titered CAV21. However, the binding of CAV21 to DAF, unlike that to ICAM-1, does not initiate a productive cell infection. The capacity of an anti-DAF (SCR3) MAb to block CAV21 infection but not binding, coupled with immunoprecipitation data from chemical cross-linking studies, indicates that DAF and ICAM-1 are closely associated on the cell surface. It is therefore suggested that DAF may function as a low-affinity attachment receptor either enhancing viral presentation or providing a viral sequestration site for subsequent high-affinity binding to ICAM-1. PMID:9151867

  13. Soluble Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 (VCAM-1) as a Biomarker in the Mouse Model of Experimental Autoimmune Myocarditis (EAM)

    PubMed Central

    Grabmaier, U.; Kania, G.; Kreiner, J.; Grabmeier, J.; Uhl, A.; Huber, B. C.; Lackermair, K.; Herbach, N.; Todica, A.; Eriksson, U.; Weckbach, L. T.; Brunner, S.

    2016-01-01

    Vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) is strongly upregulated in hearts of mice with coxsackie virus-induced as well as in patients with viral infection-triggered dilated cardiomyopathy. Nevertheless, the role of its soluble form as a biomarker in inflammatory heart diseases remains unclear. Therefore, we investigated whether plasma levels of soluble VCAM-1 (sVCAM-1) directly correlated with disease activity and progression of cardiac dysfunction in the mouse model of experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM). EAM was induced by immunization of BALB/c mice with heart-specific myosin-alpha heavy chain peptide together with complete Freund`s adjuvant. ELISA revealed strong expression of cardiac VCAM-1 (cVCAM-1) throughout the course of EAM in immunized mice compared to control animals. Furthermore, sVCAM-1 was elevated in the plasma of immunized compared to control mice at acute and chronic stages of the disease. sVCAM-1 did not correlate with the degree of acute cardiac inflammation analyzed by histology or cardiac cytokine expression investigated by ELISA. Nevertheless, heart to body weight ratio correlated significantly with sVCAM-1 at chronic stages of EAM. Cardiac systolic dysfunction studied with positron emission tomography indicated a weak relationship with sVCAM-1 at the chronic stage of the disease. Our data provide evidence that plasma levels of sVCAM-1 are elevated throughout all stages of the disease but showed no strong correlation with the severity of EAM. PMID:27501319

  14. Novel nanomaterials based on 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-21H,23H-porphyrin entrapped in silica matrices

    SciTech Connect

    Fagadar-Cosma, Eugenia; Enache, Corina; Vlascici, Dana; Fagadar-Cosma, Gheorghe; Vasile, Mihaela; Bazylak, Grzegorz

    2009-12-15

    The present study is dealing with the obtaining of transparent hybrid silica materials encapsulating 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-21H,23H-porphyrin designated for advanced optoelectronic devices. The porphyrin was synthesized by three methods: an Adler-type reaction between pyrrole and 3,4-dimethoxybenzaldehyde in propionic acid medium; by Lindsey condensation of pyrrole with 3,4-dimethoxybenzaldehyde in the presence of BF{sub 3}.OEt{sub 2} and by a multicomponent reaction by simultaneously using of pyrrole and two different aldehydes: 3,4-dimethoxybenzaldehyde and 3-hydroxybenzaldehyde. The 3,4-dimethoxyphenyl substituted porphyrin was characterized by HPLC, TLC, UV-vis, FT-IR, {sup 1}H NMR and {sup 13}C NMR analysis. Excitation and emission spectra were also discussed in terms of pH conditions. The hybrid materials, consisting in the porphyrin encapsulated in silica matrices, have been prepared successfully via the two steps acid-base catalyzed hydrolysis and condensation of tetraethylorthosilicate using different approaches of the sol-gel process: in situ, by impregnation and by sonication. The synthetic conditions and the compositions were monitored and characterized by using spectroscopic methods such as FT-IR, fluorescence and UV-vis. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) has been applied to observe the columnar or pyramidal nanostructures which are formed by the immobilization of porphyrin on the silica matrices.

  15. A true electron-transfer reaction between 5,10,15,20-tetraphenylporphyrinato cadmium(II) and the hexacyanoferrate couple at the nitrobenzene/water interface.

    PubMed

    Osakai, Toshiyuki; Ichikawa, Seiko; Hotta, Hiroki; Nagatani, Hirohisa

    2004-11-01

    The ability of some metal complexes of 5,10,15,20-tetraphenylporphyrin (TPP) to give a voltammetric wave due to the heterogeneous electron transfer (ET) at a nitrobenzene (NB)/water (W) interface has been examined. The previously-proposed, electron-conductor separating oil-water (ECSOW) system has been successfully employed to find that the TPP complex with cadmium(II) added to NB gives a well-defined, reversible wave for the heterogeneous (i.e., "true") ET with the hexacyanoferrate couple in W. A digital simulation analysis has entirely excluded the possibility of the ion-transfer mechanism due to the homogeneous ET in W. The a.c. impedance method has then been used to determine the kinetic parameters including the standard rate constant k0 (= 0.10 cm M(-1) s(-1)) and the transfer coefficient alpha (= 0.53 at the half-wave potential). These values are in good agreement with those predicted from the Marcus theory with the assumption that the heterogeneous ET due to molecular collision occurs at the "sharp" NB/W interface. PMID:15566151

  16. Mössbauer effect study of tight spin coupling in oxidized chloro-5,10,15,20- tetra(mesityl)porphyrinatoiron(III)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boso, Brian; Lang, George; McMurry, Thomas J.; Groves, John T.

    1983-08-01

    Mössbauer spectra of a polycrystalline form of oxidized chloro-5,10,15,20-tetra(mesityl)porphyrin- atoiron(III) [Fe(TMP)Cl], compound A, were recorded over a range of temperatures (4.2-195 K) and magnetic fields (0-6 T). These spectra of compound A exhibit magnetic features which are markedly different from those of the analogous protein complexes, horse radish peroxidase compound I (HRP-I) and compound ES of cytochrome c peroxidase, even though chemical evidence and optical spectroscopy indicate that compound A is similar to the others in comprising a Fe(IV) complex within a porphyrin cation radical. We interpret the data by employing a spin Hamiltonian model in which the central Fe(IV) complex, with S=1, is tightly coupled to a S=1/2 system of the oxidized porphyrin to yield a net S=3/2 system as suggested by the susceptibility measurements. The theoretical treatment yields information on the d-electron energies which is similar to that more directly available in the peroxidase spectra. The strength of the axial crystal field is found to increase progressively in the series HRP-I, ES, compound A, while the spin coupling in A is the strongest of the three by several orders of magnitude. The good fits to experimental data confirm the efficacy of the theoretical treatment which may be applicable to a variety of other coupled systems.

  17. Thermodynamics and kinetics of the formation of the supramolecular complexes bisacetato(5,10,15,20-tetraphenylporphinate)zirconium(IV) with pyridine and imidazole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyulyaeva, E. Yu.; Lomova, T. N.

    2010-05-01

    The equilibria and rates of step reactions for the formation of the supramolecular complexes of bisacetato(5,10,15,20-tetraphenylporphinate)zirconium(IV) (AcO)2ZrTPP and bioactive bases pyridine (Py) and imidazole (Im) in toluene were studied using UV-Vis and IR spectroscopy. The step stoichiometric mechanism, including the reversible coordination of two Py molecules ( K 1 = 1.8 × 108 l2/mol2), the equilibrium of the displacement of two AcO- into the second coordination sphere by increasing the concentration of the solvent polar component ( K 2 = 2.4), and the coordination of the third and fourth Py molecules in a one step with the formation of [(Py)4ZrTPP]2+ · 2(AcO)- ( K 3 = 2.8 × 104 l2/mol2), was verified. It was established that the spectrophotometric titration is sensible for the two-stage π-π-complexation of [(Py)4ZrTPP]2+ · 2(AcO)- with Py molecules ( K 4 = 29 l/mol and K 5 = 1.8 l/mol). It was shown that the stronger base Im reacts irreversibly with (AcO)2ZrTPP. The thermodynamic and optical characteristics of (AcO)2ZrTPP required for using the complex in the detection of bioactive bases were studied.

  18. A direct sensitized fluorimetric determination of 5,10,15,20-tetra(m-hydroxyphenyl)chlorin [m-THPC (Foscan)] in human plasma using a cyclodextrin inclusion complex.

    PubMed

    Desroches, M C; Kasselouri, A; Bourdon, O; Chaminade, P; Blais, J; Prognon, P

    2001-06-01

    The 5,10,15,20-tetra(m-hydroxyphenyl)chlorin (m-THPC) (Foscan) is a photosensitizer used in the photodynamic therapy (PDT) of cancers which is currently under clinical trial. The formation of a m-THPC inclusion complex with dimethyl-beta-cyclodextrin (Me-beta-CD) in solution was demonstrated on the basis of circular dichroism experiments. A 1:2 complex stoichiometry was found and an inclusion constant beta 2 = 2.8(+/- 0.4) x 10(10) M-2 was determined. The formation of such a complex was shown to enhance the m-THPC fluorescence intensity. It could be exploited to improve the sensitivity of the direct m-THPC detection in human plasma. Optimization of the operating conditions shows that the best results were obtained by the addition of 100 microL of a concentrated Me-beta-CD solution (3.2 x 10(-2) M) to 1 mL plasma samples. Compared to the standard conditions, a 90% increase in sensitivity was obtained. The proposed analytical method which showed a linear response function [0-300 ng mL-1 (440 pM)] and a low limit of detection [1.5 ng mL-1 (2 pM) (S/N = 3)] appears, especially due to the absence of metabolism, a simple and specific method suitable for pharmacokinetics studies in patients. PMID:11445963

  19. Mitochondria and DNA Targeting of 5,10,15,20-Tetrakis(7-sulfonatobenzo[b]thiophene) Porphyrin-Induced Photodynamic Therapy via Intrinsic and Extrinsic Apoptotic Cell Death.

    PubMed

    Rangasamy, Sabarinathan; Ju, Hee; Um, Soohyun; Oh, Dong-Chan; Song, Joon Myong

    2015-09-10

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) selectively targets subcellular organelles and promises an excellent therapeutic strategy for cancer treatment. Here, we report the synthesis of a new water-soluble photosensitizer, 5,10,15,20-tetrakis (7-sulfonatobenzo[b]thiophene) porphyrin (SBTP). Rational design of the porphyrinic molecule containing benzo[b]thiophene moiety at the meso-position led to selective accumulation in both mitochondria and nucleus of MCF-7 cells. This multitarget ability of SBTP can cause damage to mitochondria as well as DNA simultaneously. FACS analysis showed rapid cellular uptake of SBTP. High-content cell-based assay was executed to concurrently monitor increase of cytosolic Ca(2+) levels, mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT), and caspase-3/7/8 activation in MCF-7 cells under the pathological condition caused by PDT action of SBTP. The study of cell death dynamics showed that PDT action of SBTP caused an increase in the MPT followed by an increase in cytosolic Ca(2+) level. The localization of SBTP in the mitochondria activated the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. Additionally, localization of SBTP in the nucleus led to DNA damage in MCF-7 cells. The DNA fragmentation that occurred by PDT action of SBTP was thought to be responsible for extrinsic apoptosis of MCF-7 cells. SBTP demonstrated effective PDT activity of 5 μM IC50 value to MCF-7 cells by bitargeting mitochondria and DNA. PMID:26295496

  20. Structural, optical and dispersion properties of 5,10,15,20-tetraphenyl-21H,23H-porphyrin zinc thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeyada, Hamdy M.; Makhlouf, Mohamed M.; Ali, Mohamed A.

    2016-02-01

    The thin films of 5,10,15,20-tetraphenyl-21H,23H-porphyrin zinc, ZnTPP, were successfully prepared by the thermal evaporation technique. The structure formation and optical properties of ZnTPP thin films were studied. The surface morphology and structural characteristics of ZnTPP thin films were analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques, respectively. The optical constants of ZnTPP films were measured by spectrophotometer measurements of the transmittance and reflectance at a normal incidence of light in the spectral wavelength range from 200 to 2500 nm. The absorption spectrum of ZnTPP films showed four absorption bands, namely, the Q, B, N, and M bands. Anomalous dispersion was observed in the absorption region and normal dispersion occurred in the transparent region of the spectrum. We adopted the multi-oscillator and the single-oscillator models to interpret the results of anomalous and normal dispersion characteristics, respectively. The energy band gap of ZnTPP films was measured and the type of electron transition was determined to be the indirect allowed transition. The annealing process had an obvious effect on the morphology, structure, optical constants, and spectral dispersion parameters of ZnTPP thin films.

  1. 21 CFR 73.3117 - 16,23-Dihydrodinaphtho[2,3-a:2′,3′-i] naphth [2′,3′:6,7] indolo [2,3-c] carbazole-5,10,15,17,22...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Medical Devices § 73.3117 16,23-Dihydrodinaphtho naphth indolo carbazole-5,10,15,17,22,24-hexone. (a)...

  2. 21 CFR 73.3117 - 16,23-Dihydrodinaphtho[2,3-a:2′,3′-i] naphth [2′,3′:6,7] indolo [2,3-c] carbazole-5,10,15,17,22...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Medical Devices § 73.3117 16,23-Dihydrodinaphtho naphth indolo carbazole-5,10,15,17,22,24-hexone. (a)...

  3. Prognostic prediction and diagnostic role of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM1) expression in clear cell renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xuebing; Jiang, Jifa; Ye, Xiaobing; Liu, Yanyan; Wu, Qiong; Wang, Lu

    2014-08-01

    The intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM1) has been reported to function in multiple malignancies, but its effect on clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) hasn't been discussed yet. This study aimed to identify the potential role of ICAM1 in prognostic prediction and early diagnosis of ccRCC. ICAM1 expression was inspected by immunohistochemistry and correlated with clinicopathologic variables. Association between protein expression and cancer-specific survival (CSS) of ccRCC patients was evaluated and the value of area under the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve (AUC) was calculated to measure the protein's diagnostic accuracy. ICAM1 was positively immunostained in 83.2% of 173 ccRCC tissues, but negatively immunostained in all the para-cancerous normal epitheliums of renal tubules. High ICAM1 expression was significantly related to male sex (P = 0.00241), T3/T4 stage (P = 0.02249), non-N0M0 stage (P = 0.03797) and positive renal pelvis invasion (P = 0.04227). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis illustrated that high ICAM1 expression was significantly correlated to a decreased CSS (P = 0.00006). Multivariate Cox analysis indicated that ICAM1 was an independent predictor for CSS of patients (P = 0.00451). Furthermore, the AUC value of ICAM1 in diagnosing ccRCC was 0.916 (P < 0.00001). In conclusion, high ICAM1 expression on tumor cells indicates a poor outcome of patients and ICAM1 is likely to be an independent predictor for the prognosis of ccRCC. Moreover, ICAM1 has a high AUC value and may be a potential and useful diagnostic marker. PMID:24535541

  4. Collaborative Enhancement of Endothelial Targeting of Nanocarriers by Modulating Platelet-Endothelial Cell Adhesion Molecule-1/CD31 Epitope Engagement.

    PubMed

    Chacko, Ann-Marie; Han, Jingyan; Greineder, Colin F; Zern, Blaine J; Mikitsh, John L; Nayak, Madhura; Menon, Divya; Johnston, Ian H; Poncz, Mortimer; Eckmann, David M; Davies, Peter F; Muzykantov, Vladimir R

    2015-07-28

    Nanocarriers (NCs) coated with antibodies (Abs) to extracellular epitopes of the transmembrane glycoprotein PECAM (platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1/CD31) enable targeted drug delivery to vascular endothelial cells. Recent studies revealed that paired Abs directed to adjacent, yet distinct epitopes of PECAM stimulate each other's binding to endothelial cells in vitro and in vivo ("collaborative enhancement"). This phenomenon improves targeting of therapeutic fusion proteins, yet its potential role in targeting multivalent NCs has not been addressed. Herein, we studied the effects of Ab-mediated collaborative enhancement on multivalent NC spheres coated with PECAM Abs (Ab/NC, ∼180 nm diameter). We found that PECAM Abs do mutually enhance endothelial cell binding of Ab/NC coated by paired, but not "self" Ab. In vitro, collaborative enhancement of endothelial binding of Ab/NC by paired Abs is modulated by Ab/NC avidity, epitope selection, and flow. Cell fixation, but not blocking of endocytosis, obliterated collaborative enhancement of Ab/NC binding, indicating that the effect is mediated by molecular reorganization of PECAM molecules in the endothelial plasmalemma. The collaborative enhancement of Ab/NC binding was affirmed in vivo. Intravascular injection of paired Abs enhanced targeting of Ab/NC to pulmonary vasculature in mice by an order of magnitude. This stimulatory effect greatly exceeded enhancement of Ab targeting by paired Abs, indicating that '"collaborative enhancement"' effect is even more pronounced for relatively large multivalent carriers versus free Abs, likely due to more profound consequences of positive alteration of epitope accessibility. This phenomenon provides a potential paradigm for optimizing the endothelial-targeted nanocarrier delivery of therapeutic agents. PMID:26153796

  5. Platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1) inhibits low density lipoprotein-induced signaling in platelets.

    PubMed

    Relou, Ingrid A M; Gorter, Gertie; Ferreira, Irlando Andrade; van Rijn, Herman J M; Akkerman, Jan-Willem N

    2003-08-29

    At physiological concentrations, low density lipoprotein (LDL) increases the sensitivity of platelets to aggregation- and secretion-inducing agents without acting as an independent activator of platelet functions. LDL sensitizes platelets by inducing a transient activation of p38MAPK, a Ser/Thr kinase that is activated by the simultaneous phosphorylation of Thr180 and Tyr182 and is an upstream regulator of cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2). A similar transient phosphorylation of p38MAPK is induced by a peptide mimicking amino acids 3359-3369 in apoB100 called the B-site. Here we report that the transient nature of p38MAPK activation is caused by platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1 (PECAM-1), a receptor with an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif. PECAM-1 activation by cross-linking induces tyrosine phosphorylation of PECAM-1 and a fall in phosphorylated p38MAPK and cPLA2. Interestingly, LDL and the B-site peptide also induce tyrosine phosphorylation of PECAM-1, and studies with immunoprecipitates indicate the involvement of c-Src. Inhibition of the Ser/Thr phosphatases PP1/PP2A (okadaic acid) makes the transient p38MAPK activation by LDL and the B-site peptide persistent. Inhibition of Tyr-phosphatases (vanadate) increases Tyr-phosphorylated PECAM-1 and blocks the activation of p38MAPK. Together, these findings suggest that, following a first phase in which LDL, through its B-site, phosphorylates and thereby activates p38MAPK, a second phase is initiated in which LDL activates PECAM-1 and induces dephosphorylation of p38MAPK via activation of the Ser/Thr phosphatases PP1/PP2A. PMID:12775720

  6. Platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 modulates endothelial cell motility through the small G-protein Rho.

    PubMed

    Gratzinger, Dita; Canosa, Sandra; Engelhardt, Britta; Madri, Joseph A

    2003-08-01

    Platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1), an immunoglobulin family vascular adhesion molecule, is involved in endothelial cell migration and angiogenesis (1, 2). We found that endothelial cells lacking PECAM-1 exhibit increased single cell motility and extension formation but poor wound healing migration, reminiscent of cells in which Rho activity has been suppressed by overexpressing a GTPase-activating protein (3). The ability of PECAM-1 to restore wound healing migration to PECAM-1-deficient cells was independent of its extracellular domain or signaling via its immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif. PECAM-1-deficient endothelial cells had a selective defect in RhoGTP loading, and inhibition of Rho activity mimicked the PECAM-1-deficient phenotype of increased chemokinetic single cell motility at the expense of coordinated wound healing migration. The wound healing advantage of PECAM-1-positive endothelial cells was not only Rho mediated but pertussis toxin inhibitable, characteristic of migration mediated by heterotrimeric G-protein-linked seven-transmembrane receptor signaling such as signaling in response to the serum sphingolipid sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) (4, 5). Indeed, we found that the wound healing defect of PECAM-1 null endothelial cells is minimized in sphingolipid-depleted media; moreover, PECAM-1 null endothelial cells fail to increase their migration in response to S1P. We have also found that PECAM-1 localizes to rafts and that in its absence heterotrimeric G-protein components are differentially recruited to rafts, providing a potential mechanism for PECAM-1-mediated coordination of S1P signaling. PECAM-1 may thus support the effective S1P/RhoGTP signaling required for wound healing endothelial migration by allowing for the spatially directed, coordinated activation of Galpha signaling pathways. PMID:12890700

  7. MicroRNA-221 controls expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 in epithelial cells in response to Cryptosporidium parvum infection

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Ai-Yu; Hu, Guoku; Zhou, Rui; Liu, Jun; Feng, Yaoyu; Soukup, Garrett A.; Chen, Xian-Ming

    2011-01-01

    Cryptosporidium parvum is a protozoan parasite that infects gastrointestinal epithelial cells and causes diarrheal disease in humans and animals globally. Pathological changes following C. parvum infection include crypt hyperplasia, a modest inflammatory reaction with increased infiltration of lymphocytes into intestinal mucosa. Expression of adhesion molecules such as intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), on infected epithelial cell surfaces may facilitate adhesion and recognition of lymphocytes at infection sites. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small RNA molecules of 23 nucleotides that negatively regulate protein-coding gene expression via translational suppression or mRNA degradation. We recently reported that microRNA-221 (miR-221) regulates ICAM-1 translation through targeting the ICAM-1 3′-untranslated region (UTR). In this study, we tested the role of miR-221 in regulating ICAM-1 expression in epithelial cells in response to C. parvum infection using an in vitro model of human biliary cryptosporidiosis. Up-regulation of ICAM-1 at both message and protein levels was detected in epithelial cells following C. parvum infection. Inhibition of ICAM-1 transcription with actinomycin D could only partially block C. parvum-induced ICAM-1 expression at the protein level. Cryptosporidium parvum infection decreased miR-221 expression in infected epithelial cells. When cells were transfected with a luciferase reporter construct covering the miR-221 binding site in the ICAM-1 3′-UTR and then exposed to C. parvum, an enhanced luciferase activity was detected. Transfection of miR-221 precursor abolished C. parvum-stimulated ICAM-1 protein expression. In addition, expression of ICAM-1 on infected epithelial cells facilitated epithelial adherence of co-cultured Jurkat cells. These results indicate that miR-221-mediated translational suppression controls ICAM-1 expression in epithelial cells in response to C. parvum infection. PMID:21236259

  8. Leptin Resistance Contributes to Obesity in Mice with Null Mutation of Carcinoembryonic Antigen-related Cell Adhesion Molecule 1.

    PubMed

    Heinrich, Garrett; Russo, Lucia; Castaneda, Tamara R; Pfeiffer, Verena; Ghadieh, Hilda E; Ghanem, Simona S; Wu, Jieshen; Faulkner, Latrice D; Ergün, Süleyman; McInerney, Marcia F; Hill, Jennifer W; Najjar, Sonia M

    2016-05-20

    Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1) promotes hepatic insulin clearance. Consistently, mice with null mutation of Ceacam1 (Cc1(-/-)) exhibit impaired insulin clearance with increased lipid production in liver and redistribution to white adipose tissue, leading to visceral obesity at 2 months of age. When the mutation is propagated on the C57/BL6J genetic background, total fat mass rises significantly with age, and glucose intolerance and systemic insulin resistance develop at 6 months of age. This study was carried out to determine the mechanisms underlying the marked increase in total fat mass in 6-month-old mutants. Indirect calorimetry analysis showed that Cc1(-/-) mice develop hyperphagia and a significant reduction in physical activity, in particular in the early hours of the dark cycle, during which energy expenditure is only slightly lower than in wild-type mice. They also exhibit increased triglyceride accumulation in skeletal muscle, due in part to incomplete fatty acid β-oxidation. Mechanistically, hypothalamic leptin signaling is reduced, as demonstrated by blunted STAT3 phosphorylation in coronal sections in response to an intracerebral ventricular injection of leptin. Hypothalamic fatty-acid synthase activity is also elevated in the mutants. Together, the data show that the increase in total fat mass in Cc1(-/-) mice is mainly attributed to hyperphagia and reduced spontaneous physical activity. Although the contribution of the loss of CEACAM1 from anorexigenic proopiomelanocortin neurons in the arcuate nucleus is unclear, leptin resistance and elevated hypothalamic fatty-acid synthase activity could underlie altered energy balance in these mice. PMID:27002145

  9. Sequestration of neutrophils in the hepatic vasculature during endotoxemia is independent of beta 2 integrins and intercellular adhesion molecule-1.

    PubMed

    Jaeschke, H; Farhood, A; Fisher, M A; Smith, C W

    1996-11-01

    Antibodies against cellular adhesion molecules protect against neutrophil-induced hepatic injury during ischemia-reperfusion and endotoxemia. To test if beta 2 integrins on neutrophils and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) on endothelial cells are involved in neutrophil sequestration in the hepatic vasculature, neutrophil accumulation in the liver was characterized during the early phase of endotoxemia. Intravenous injection of Salmonella enteritidis endotoxin induced a dose-dependent activation of complement, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) formation, and an increase of hepatic neutrophils with maximal numbers at 5 mg/kg (90 min: 339 +/- 14 cells/50 high power fields; controls: 18 +/- 2). Administration of 15 micrograms/kg TNF-alpha and intravascular complement activation with cobra venom factor (75 micrograms/kg) had additive effects on hepatic neutrophil accumulation compared with each mediator alone. Monoclonal antibodies (2 mg/kg) to ICAM-1 and the alpha-chain (CD11a, CD11b) or the beta-chain (CD18) of beta 2 integrins had no significant effect on hepatic neutrophil count after endotoxin. In contrast, these antibodies inhibited peritoneal neutrophil infiltration in response to glycogen administration by 28% (CD11b), 60% (CD11a, ICAM-1), and 92% (CD18). Our data suggest that TNF-alpha and complement factors contribute to hepatic neutrophil sequestration during the early phase of endotoxemia. Despite the fact that these inflammatory mediators can up-regulate integrins and ICAM-1, these adhesion molecules are not necessary for neutrophil accumulation in hepatic sinusoids. The protective effect of these antibodies against neutrophil-induced liver injury appears to be due to inhibition of transendothelial migration and adherence to parenchymal cells. PMID:8946651

  10. Benzo[a]pyrene induces intercellular adhesion molecule-1 through a caveolae and aryl hydrocarbon receptor mediated pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Oesterling, Elizabeth; Toborek, Michal; Hennig, Bernhard

    2008-10-15

    Toxicologic and epidemiologic studies have linked benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) exposure with cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis. The mechanisms of action leading to these diseases have not been fully understood. One key step in the development of atherosclerosis is vascular endothelial dysfunction, which is characterized by increased adhesiveness. To determine if B[a]P could lead to increased endothelial adhesiveness, the effects of B[a]P on human endothelial cell intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression was investigated. B[a]P was able to increase ICAM-1 protein only after pretreatment with the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonist {beta}-naphthoflavone ({beta}-NF). Knockdown of AhR by siRNA or treatment with AhR antagonist {alpha}-naphthoflavone ({alpha}-NF) eliminated the induction of ICAM-1 from B[a]P, confirming the necessity of AhR in this process. Likewise, B[a]P only increased monocyte adhesion to the vascular endothelium when cells were pretreated with {beta}-NF. Experiments were done to define a signaling mechanism. B[a]P increased phosphorylation of MEK and p38-MAPK, and inhibitors to these proteins blunted the ICAM-1 induction. B[a]P was also able to increase AP-1 DNA binding and phosphorylation of cJun. Phosphorylation of cJun was disrupted by MEK and p38-MAPK inhibitors linking the signaling cascade. Finally, the importance of membrane microdomains, caveolae, was demonstrated by knockdown of the structural protein caveolin-1. Disruption of caveolae eliminated the B[a]P-induced ICAM-1 expression. These data suggest a possible pro-inflammatory mechanism of action of B[a]P involving caveolae, leading to increased vascular endothelial adhesiveness, and this inflammation may be a critical step in the development of B[a]P-induced atherosclerosis.

  11. Organization, regulatory sequences, and alternatively spliced transcripts of the mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule-1 (MAdCAM-1) gene

    SciTech Connect

    Sampaio, S.O.; Mei, C.; Butcher, E.C.

    1995-09-01

    The mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule-1 (MAdCAM-1) is expressed selectively at venular sites of lymphocyte extravasation into mucosal lymphoid tissues and lamina propria, where it directs local lymphocyte trafficking. MAdCAM-1 is a multifunctional type I transmembrane adhesion molecule comprising two distal Ig domains involved in {alpha}4{beta}7 integrin binding, a mucin-like region able to display L-selectin-binding carbohydrates, and a membrane-proximal Ig domain homologous to IgA. We show in this work that the MAdCAM-1 gene is located on chromosome 10 and contains five exons. The signal peptide and each one of the three Ig domains are encoded by a distinct exon, whereas the transmembrane, cytoplasmic tail, and 3{prime}-untranslated region of MAdCAM-1 are combined on a single exon. The mucin-like region and the third Ig domain are encoded together on exon 4. An alternatively spliced MAdCAM-1 mRNA is identified that lacks the mucin/IgA-homologous exon 4-encoded sequences. This short variant of MAdCAM-1 may be specialized to support {alpha}4{beta}7-dependent adhesion strengthening, independent of carbohydrate-presenting function. Sequences 5{prime} of the transcription start site include tandem nuclear factor-KB sites; AP-1, AP-2, and signal peptide-1 binding sites; and an estrogen response element. Our findings reinforce the correspondence between the multidomain structure and versatile functions of this vascular addressin, and suggest an additional level of regulation of carbohydrate-presenting capability, and thus of its importance in lectin-mediated vs. {alpha}4{beta}7-dependent adhesive events in lymphocyte trafficking. 46 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Expression of a Soluble Isoform of Cell Adhesion Molecule 1 in the Brain and Its Involvement in Directional Neurite Outgrowth

    PubMed Central

    Hagiyama, Man; Ichiyanagi, Naoki; Kimura, Keiko B.; Murakami, Yoshinori; Ito, Akihiko

    2009-01-01

    Cell adhesion molecule 1 (CADM1), an immunoglobulin superfamily member, is expressed on superior cervical ganglion neurites and mediates cell–cell adhesion by trans-homophilic binding. In addition to the membrane-bound form, we have previously shown that a soluble form (sCADM1) generated by alternative splicing possesses a stop codon immediately downstream of the immunoglobulin-like domain. Here, we demonstrate the presence of sCADM1 in vivo and its possible role in neurite extension. sCADM1 appears to be a stromal protein because extracellular-restricted, but not intracellular-restricted, anti-CADM1 antibody stained stromal protein-rich extract from mouse brains. Murine plasmacytoma cells, P3U1, were modified to secrete sCADM1 fused with either immunoglobulin (Ig)G Fc portion (sCADM1-Fc) or its deletion form that lacks the immunoglobulin-like domain (ΔsCADM1-Fc). When P3U1 derivatives expressing sCADM1-Fc or ΔsCADM1-Fc were implanted into collagen gels, Fc-fused proteins were present more abundantly around the cells. Superior cervical ganglion neurons, parental P3U1, and either derivative were implanted into collagen gels separately, and co-cultured for 4 days. Bodian staining of the gel sections revealed that most superior cervical ganglion neurites turned toward the source of sCADM1-Fc, but not ΔsCADM1-Fc. Furthermore, immunofluorescence signals for sCADM1-Fc and membrane-bound CADM1 were co-localized on the neurite surface. These results show that sCADM1 appears to be involved in directional neurite extension by serving as an anchor to which membrane-bound CADM1 on the neurites can bind. PMID:19435791

  13. Polymorphisms in the ICAM1 gene predict circulating soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1(sICAM-1)

    PubMed Central

    Bielinski, Suzette J.; Reiner, Alex P.; Nickerson, Deborah; Carlson, Chris; Bailey, Kent R.; Thyagarajan, Bharat; Lange, Leslie A.; Boerwinkle, Eric A.; Jacobs, David R.; Gross, Myron D.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Polymorphisms within the ICAM1 structural gene have been shown to influence circulating levels of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule -1 (sICAM-1) but their relation to atherosclerosis has not been clearly established. We sought to determine whether ICAM1 SNPs are associated with circulating sICAM-1 concentration, coronary artery calcium (CAC), and common and internal carotid intima medial thickness (IMT). Methods and Results 3,550 black and white Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study subjects who participated in the year 15 and/or 20 examinations and were part of the Young Adult Longitudinal Study of Antioxidants (YALTA) ancillary study were included in this analysis. In whites, rs5498 was significantly associated with sICAM-1 (p < 0.001) and each G-allele of rs5498 was associated with 5% higher sICAM-1 concentration. In blacks, each C-allele of rs5490 was associated with 6 % higher sICAM-1 level; this SNP was in strong linkage disequilibrium with rs5491, a functional variant. Subclinical measurements of atherosclerosis in either year 15 or year 20 were not significantly related to ICAM1 SNPs. Conclusions In CARDIA, ICAM1 DNA segment variants were associated with sICAM-1 protein level including the novel finding that levels differ by the functional variant rs5491. However, ICAM1 SNPs were not strongly related to either IMT or CAC. Our findings in CARDIA suggest that ICAM1 variants are not major early contributors to subclinical atherosclerosis. PMID:21392767

  14. Increased plasma Kidney Injury Molecule-1 suggests early progressive renal decline in non-proteinuric patients with Type 1 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Nowak, Natalia; Skupien, Jan; Niewczas, Monika A.; Yamanouchi, Masayuki; Major, Melissa; Croall, Stephanie; Smiles, Adam; Warram, James H.; Bonventre, Joseph V.; Krolewski, Andrzej S.

    2015-01-01

    Progressively decreasing glomerular filtration rate (GFR), or renal decline, is seen in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and normoalbuminuria or microalbuminuria. Here we examined the associations of kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) in plasma and urine with the risk of renal decline and determine whether those associations are independent of markers of glomerular damage. The study group comprised patients with T1D from the 2nd Joslin Kidney Study of which 259 had normoalbuminuria and 203 had microalbuminuria. Serial measurements over 4 to 10 years of follow-up (median 8 years) of serum creatinine and cystatin C were used jointly to estimate eGFRcr-cys slopes and time of onset of CKD stage 3 or higher. Baseline urinary excretion of IgG2 and albumin were used as markers of glomerular damage, and urinary excretion of KIM-1 and its plasma concentration were used as markers of proximal tubular damage. All patients had normal renal function at baseline. During follow-up, renal decline (eGFRcr-cys loss 3.3% or more per year) developed in 96 patients and 62 progressed to CKD stage 3. For both outcomes, the risk rose with increasing baseline levels of plasma KIM-1. In multivariable models, elevated baseline plasma KIM-1 was strongly associated with risk of early progressive renal decline, regardless of baseline clinical characteristics, serum TNFR1 or markers of glomerular damage. Thus, damage to proximal tubules may play an independent role in the development of early progressive renal decline in non-proteinuric patients with T1D. PMID:26509588

  15. Association between the Polymorphisms in Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 and the Risk of Coronary Atherosclerosis: A Case-Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qingjiang; Xin, Yu; Chen, Yanjun; Tian, Ye

    2014-01-01

    Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), an important immune adhesion molecule, is related to the atherosclerosis. We explored the association between the polymorphisms of the ICAM-1 gene and coronary atherosclerotic stenosis to determine whether any risk factors correlate with genetic polymorphisms in Chinese patients with coronary atherosclerosis. Using the SNaPshot assay, we examined six SNPs of rs5491, rs281428, rs281432, rs5496, rs5498 and rs281437 in 604 patients diagnosed with coronary atherosclerotic stenosis by angiography and in 468 controls. We found that AG genotype of rs5498 had higher frequency in the coronary atherosclerotic stenosis patients (41.56% to 34.19%, P = 0.017, OR = 1.368,95%CI 1.057–1.770) and that the haplotype Ars5491Crs281428Grs281432 had higher frequency in patients (13.8% to 12.1%, P = 0.048). When analyzing the clinical risk factors for coronary atherosclerosis, we found that the rs5498 locus was associated with the levels of apolipoprotein A (APOA) (P = 0.0002) and triglycerides (TG) (P = 0.002). Furthermore, the levels of triglycerides (TG) were also associated with rs281432 (P = 0.040). Additionally, the TT genotype of rs281437 was associated with a higher level of apolipoprotein A (APOA) (P = 0.039) and apolipoprotein B (APOB) (P = 0.003). Finally, among those with coronary atherosclerosis, we found no differences in the haplotype analysis of polymorphisms of the ICAM-1 gene from individuals with hypertension or those who smoked. According to our results, the ICAM-1 polymorphisms were associated with risk of coronary atherosclerotic stenosis in Chinese individuals. PMID:25310099

  16. NiO nanoparticles modified with 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-carboxyl pheyl)-porphyrin: promising peroxidase mimetics for H2O2 and glucose detection.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qingyun; Yang, Yanting; Li, Hui; Zhu, Renren; Shao, Qian; Yang, Shanguang; Xu, Jingjing

    2015-02-15

    NiO nanoparticles (NPs) and 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-carboxyl pheyl)-porphyrin (H2TCPP) functionalized NiO nanoparticles (H2TCPP-NiO nanocomposites) have been prepared by a facile method and characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR), respectively. NiO NPs and H2TCPP-NiO nanocomposites have been proven to function as peroxidase mimetics that can catalyze the reaction of peroxidase substrate 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) in the presence of H2O2 to produce a blue color reaction. Kinetic analysis indicated that the catalytic behavior was in accord with typical Michaelis-Menten kinetics. And these nanoparticles also exhibited strong affinity for the substrates of 3,3,5,5-tetramethylbiphenyl dihydrochloride (TMB). Experimental results showed that H2TCPP-NiO NPs exhibited a high sensitivity and a low detection limit towards H2O2 (8.0 × 10(-6) M). The H2TCPP-NiO NPs/glucose oxidase (GOx)/TMB system provides a novel colorimetric sensor for glucose and shows good response toward glucose detection over arrange of 0.05-0.50 mM with a limit of detection 2.0 × 10(-5)M. Fluorescence probe experiments demonstrated that the peroxidase-like activity of H2TCPP-NiO NPs originated from the generation of OH radical. Thus it may provide great potential applications in biomedicine, biotechnology and environmental chemistry. PMID:25212068

  17. Manganese [III] Tetrakis [5,10,15,20]-Benzoic Acid Porphyrin Reduces Adiposity and Improves Insulin Action in Mice with Pre-Existing Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Brestoff, Jonathan R.; Brodsky, Tim; Sosinsky, Alexandra Z.; McLoughlin, Ryan; Stansky, Elena; Fussell, Leila; Sheppard, Aaron; DiSanto-Rose, Maria; Kershaw, Erin E.; Reynolds, Thomas H.

    2015-01-01

    The superoxide dismutase mimetic manganese [III] tetrakis [5,10,15,20]-benzoic acid porphyrin (MnTBAP) is a potent antioxidant compound that has been shown to limit weight gain during short-term high fat feeding without preventing insulin resistance. However, whether MnTBAP has therapeutic potential to treat pre-existing obesity and insulin resistance remains unknown. To investigate this, mice were treated with MnTBAP or vehicle during the last five weeks of a 24-week high fat diet (HFD) regimen. MnTBAP treatment significantly decreased body weight and reduced white adipose tissue (WAT) mass in mice fed a HFD and a low fat diet (LFD). The reduction in adiposity was associated with decreased caloric intake without significantly altering energy expenditure, indicating that MnTBAP decreases adiposity in part by modulating energy balance. MnTBAP treatment also improved insulin action in HFD-fed mice, a physiologic response that was associated with increased protein kinase B (PKB) phosphorylation and expression in muscle and WAT. Since MnTBAP is a metalloporphyrin molecule, we hypothesized that its ability to promote weight loss and improve insulin sensitivity was regulated by heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), in a similar fashion as cobalt protoporphyrins. Despite MnTBAP treatment increasing HO-1 expression, administration of the potent HO-1 inhibitor tin mesoporphyrin (SnMP) did not block the ability of MnTBAP to alter caloric intake, adiposity, or insulin action, suggesting that MnTBAP influences these metabolic processes independent of HO-1. These data demonstrate that MnTBAP can ameliorate pre-existing obesity and improve insulin action by reducing caloric intake and increasing PKB phosphorylation and expression. PMID:26397111

  18. Manganese [III] Tetrakis [5,10,15,20]-Benzoic Acid Porphyrin Reduces Adiposity and Improves Insulin Action in Mice with Pre-Existing Obesity.

    PubMed

    Brestoff, Jonathan R; Brodsky, Tim; Sosinsky, Alexandra Z; McLoughlin, Ryan; Stansky, Elena; Fussell, Leila; Sheppard, Aaron; DiSanto-Rose, Maria; Kershaw, Erin E; Reynolds, Thomas H

    2015-01-01

    The superoxide dismutase mimetic manganese [III] tetrakis [5,10,15,20]-benzoic acid porphyrin (MnTBAP) is a potent antioxidant compound that has been shown to limit weight gain during short-term high fat feeding without preventing insulin resistance. However, whether MnTBAP has therapeutic potential to treat pre-existing obesity and insulin resistance remains unknown. To investigate this, mice were treated with MnTBAP or vehicle during the last five weeks of a 24-week high fat diet (HFD) regimen. MnTBAP treatment significantly decreased body weight and reduced white adipose tissue (WAT) mass in mice fed a HFD and a low fat diet (LFD). The reduction in adiposity was associated with decreased caloric intake without significantly altering energy expenditure, indicating that MnTBAP decreases adiposity in part by modulating energy balance. MnTBAP treatment also improved insulin action in HFD-fed mice, a physiologic response that was associated with increased protein kinase B (PKB) phosphorylation and expression in muscle and WAT. Since MnTBAP is a metalloporphyrin molecule, we hypothesized that its ability to promote weight loss and improve insulin sensitivity was regulated by heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), in a similar fashion as cobalt protoporphyrins. Despite MnTBAP treatment increasing HO-1 expression, administration of the potent HO-1 inhibitor tin mesoporphyrin (SnMP) did not block the ability of MnTBAP to alter caloric intake, adiposity, or insulin action, suggesting that MnTBAP influences these metabolic processes independent of HO-1. These data demonstrate that MnTBAP can ameliorate pre-existing obesity and improve insulin action by reducing caloric intake and increasing PKB phosphorylation and expression. PMID:26397111

  19. Synthesis and properties of 5,10,15,20-tetrakis[4-(3-N,N-dimethylaminopropoxy)phenyl] chlorin as potential broad-spectrum antimicrobial photosensitizers.

    PubMed

    Ferreyra, Darío D; Reynoso, Eugenia; Cordero, Paula; Spesia, Mariana B; Alvarez, M Gabriela; Milanesio, M Elisa; Durantini, Edgardo N

    2016-05-01

    A novel 5,10,15,20-tetrakis[4-(3-N,N-dimethylaminopropoxy)phenyl]chlorin (TAPC) was synthesized by reduction of the corresponding porphyrin TAPP with p-toluenesulfonhydrazide, followed by selective oxidation with o-chloranil. Spectroscopic properties and the photodynamic activity of these photosensitizers were compared in N,N-dimethylformamide. An increase in the absorption band at 650nm was found for the chlorin derivative with respect to TAPP. These photosensitizers emit red fluorescence with quantum yields of 0.15. Both compounds were able to photosensitize singlet molecular oxygen with quantum yields of about 0.5. Also, the formation of superoxide anion radical was detected in the presence of TAPC or TAPP and NADH. Photodynamic inactivation was investigated on a Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus, a Gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli and a fungal yeast Candida albicans cells. In vitro experiments showed that TAPC or TAPP were rapidly bound to microbial cells at short incubation periods. These photosensitizers, without intrinsic positive charges, contain four basic amino groups. These substituents can be protonated at physiological pH, increasing the interaction with the cell envelopment. Photosensitized inactivation improved with an increase of both photosensitizer concentrations and irradiation times. After 15min irradiation, a 7 log reduction of S. aureus was found for treated with 1μM photosensitizer. Similar result was obtained with E. coli after using 5μM photosensitizer and 30min irradiation. Also, the last conditions produced a decrease of 5 log in C. albicans cells. Therefore, TAPC was highly effective as a broad-spectrum antimicrobial photosensitizer. PMID:26994333

  20. Effects of cytokines and periodontopathic bacteria on the leukocyte function-associated antigen 1/intercellular adhesion molecule 1 pathway in gingival fibroblasts in adult periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, J; Saito, I; Ishikawa, I; Miyasaka, N

    1994-12-01

    We investigated the effects of inflammatory cytokines and periodontopathic bacteria on expression of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule 1, and E-selectin (endothelial leukocyte adhesion molecule 1) in cultured human gingival fibroblasts (HGF). Cell surface ICAM-1 was upregulated on HGF under transcriptional control by exposure not only to interleukin-1 beta, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and gamma interferon but also to sonic extracts prepared from Porphyromonas gingivalis and Prevotella intermedia (nigrescens) and lipopolysaccharides from Escherichia coli. However, these stimuli induced only minimal expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 and E-selectin on HGF. Binding assays using HGF and Molt 4, the human T-cell leukemia cell line, showed induced ICAM-1 to be functional, and the increased binding was blocked by a combination of monoclonal antibodies against ICAM-1 and leukocyte function-associated antigen 1. Furthermore, gingival tissues from adult periodontitis patients showed increased mRNA expression of ICAM-1 compared with that in tissues from normal healthy donors. In immunohistological analysis, we also observed in vivo that the expression of ICAM-1 on fibroblasts in adult periodontitis tissues was greater than that in normal gingiva. Thus, the overexpression of ICAM-1 on gingival fibroblasts induced by cytokines and periodontopathic bacteria is speculated to be deeply involved in the accumulation and retention of leukocyte function-associated antigen 1-bearing leukocytes in adult periodontitis lesions. PMID:7525481

  1. Molecular determinants mediating gating of Transient Receptor Potential Canonical (TRPC) channels by stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1).

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyu Pil; Choi, Seok; Hong, Jeong Hee; Ahuja, Malini; Graham, Sarabeth; Ma, Rong; So, Insuk; Shin, Dong Min; Muallem, Shmuel; Yuan, Joseph P

    2014-03-01

    Transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC) channels mediate a critical part of the receptor-evoked Ca(2+) influx. TRPCs are gated open by the endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) sensor STIM1. Here we asked which stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1) and TRPC domains mediate the interaction between them and how this interaction is used to open the channels. We report that the STIM1 Orai1-activating region domain of STIM1 interacts with the TRPC channel coiled coil domains (CCDs) and that this interaction is essential for opening the channels by STIM1. Thus, disruption of the N-terminal (NT) CCDs by triple mutations eliminated TRPC surface localization and reduced binding of STIM1 to TRPC1 and TRPC5 while increasing binding to TRPC3 and TRPC6. Single mutations in TRPC1 NT or C-terminal (CT) CCDs reduced interaction and activation of TRPC1 by STIM1. Remarkably, single mutations in the TRPC3 NT CCD enhanced interaction and regulation by STIM1. Disruption in the TRPC3 CT CCD eliminated regulation by STIM1 and the enhanced interaction caused by NT CCD mutations. The NT CCD mutations converted TRPC3 from a TRPC1-dependent to a TRPC1-independent, STIM1-regulated channel. TRPC1 reduced the FRET between BFP-TRPC3 and TRPC3-YFP and between CFP-TRPC3-YFP upon stimulation. Accordingly, knockdown of TRPC1 made TRPC3 STIM1-independent. STIM1 dependence of TRPC3 was reconstituted by the TRPC1 CT CCD alone. Knockout of Trpc1 and Trpc3 similarly inhibited Ca(2+) influx, and inhibition of Trpc3 had no further effect on Ca(2+) influx in Trpc1(-/-) cells. Cell stimulation enhanced the formation of Trpc1-Stim1-Trpc3 complexes. These findings support a model in which the TRPC3 NT and CT CCDs interact to shield the CT CCD from interaction with STIM1. The TRPC1 CT CCD dissociates this interaction to allow the STIM1 Orai1-activating region within STIM1 access to the TRPC3 CT CCD and regulation of TRPC3 by STIM1. These studies provide evidence that the TRPC channel CCDs participate in channel

  2. Molecular Determinants Mediating Gating of Transient Receptor Potential Canonical (TRPC) Channels by Stromal Interaction Molecule 1 (STIM1)*

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyu Pil; Choi, Seok; Hong, Jeong Hee; Ahuja, Malini; Graham, Sarabeth; Ma, Rong; So, Insuk; Shin, Dong Min; Muallem, Shmuel; Yuan, Joseph P.

    2014-01-01

    Transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC) channels mediate a critical part of the receptor-evoked Ca2+ influx. TRPCs are gated open by the endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ sensor STIM1. Here we asked which stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1) and TRPC domains mediate the interaction between them and how this interaction is used to open the channels. We report that the STIM1 Orai1-activating region domain of STIM1 interacts with the TRPC channel coiled coil domains (CCDs) and that this interaction is essential for opening the channels by STIM1. Thus, disruption of the N-terminal (NT) CCDs by triple mutations eliminated TRPC surface localization and reduced binding of STIM1 to TRPC1 and TRPC5 while increasing binding to TRPC3 and TRPC6. Single mutations in TRPC1 NT or C-terminal (CT) CCDs reduced interaction and activation of TRPC1 by STIM1. Remarkably, single mutations in the TRPC3 NT CCD enhanced interaction and regulation by STIM1. Disruption in the TRPC3 CT CCD eliminated regulation by STIM1 and the enhanced interaction caused by NT CCD mutations. The NT CCD mutations converted TRPC3 from a TRPC1-dependent to a TRPC1-independent, STIM1-regulated channel. TRPC1 reduced the FRET between BFP-TRPC3 and TRPC3-YFP and between CFP-TRPC3-YFP upon stimulation. Accordingly, knockdown of TRPC1 made TRPC3 STIM1-independent. STIM1 dependence of TRPC3 was reconstituted by the TRPC1 CT CCD alone. Knockout of Trpc1 and Trpc3 similarly inhibited Ca2+ influx, and inhibition of Trpc3 had no further effect on Ca2+ influx in Trpc1−/− cells. Cell stimulation enhanced the formation of Trpc1-Stim1-Trpc3 complexes. These findings support a model in which the TRPC3 NT and CT CCDs interact to shield the CT CCD from interaction with STIM1. The TRPC1 CT CCD dissociates this interaction to allow the STIM1 Orai1-activating region within STIM1 access to the TRPC3 CT CCD and regulation of TRPC3 by STIM1. These studies provide evidence that the TRPC channel CCDs participate in channel gating

  3. In situ expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) mRNA in calves with acute Pasteurella haemolytica pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Radi, Z A; Register, K B; Lee, E K; Kehrli, M E; Brogden, K A; Gallup, J M; Ackermann, M R

    1999-09-01

    The in situ expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) mRNA in normal and pneumonic lung tissues of Holstein calves with bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency (BLAD) was compared with that of age-matched non-BLAD Holstein calves by in situ hybridization. Twenty-four Holstein calves (both BLAD and non-BLAD) were randomly assigned to one of two experimental groups and inoculated intrabronchially with Pasteurella haemolytica or pyrogen-free saline. Lung tissues were collected and fixed in 10% neutral formalin at 2 or 4 hours postinoculation (PI). The expression and distribution of ICAM-1 mRNA in the different cell types of the lung tissue was detected by in situ hybridization with a 307-base-pair bovine ICAM-1 riboprobe. In lungs of both non-BLAD and BLAD saline-inoculated calves, ICAM-1 expression was present in epithelial cells but occurred in <30% of cells in bronchi, bronchioles, and alveoli. ICAM-1 expression in vascular endothelial cells was present in <30% of cells in pulmonary arteries and veins. The expression of ICAM-1 was significantly greater (>60% of cells) in bronchiolar and alveolar epithelial cells and pulmonary endothelial cells of arteries and veins in both BLAD and non-BLAD calves inoculated with P. haemolytica. Bronchiolar epithelium had the highest intensity of mRNA expression and highest percentage of cells that were stained, whereas bronchial epithelium had the lowest intensity and percentage of cells stained. Most alveolar macrophages and neutrophils in infected lungs also expressed ICAM-1. ICAM-1 expression was generally increased in infected BLAD calves at 2 hours PI as compared with non-BLAD calves but not at 4 hours PI. The increased expression of ICAM-1 during acute P. haemolytica pneumonia in calves suggests that ICAM-1 is upregulated and may play a role in leukocyte infiltration. The extent of ICAM-1 expression in P. haemolytica-inoculated calves with BLAD was initially enhanced but otherwise similar to that in non

  4. Increased concentrations of soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and soluble CD40L in subjects with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Palomo, Iván G; Jaramillo, Julio C; Alarcón, Marcelo L; Gutiérrez, César L; Moore-Carrasco, Rodrigo; Segovia, Fabián M; Leiva, Elba M; Mujica, Verónica E; Icaza, Gloria; Dí, Nora S

    2009-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MS) is associated with a high incidence rate of cardiovascular disease. It is characterized by abdominal obesity, elevated blood pressure, atherogenic dyslipidemia [high LDL-c (low density lipoprotein cholesterol) and low HDL-c (high density lipoprotein cholesterol)] and insulin resistance or glucose intolerance. In the context of MS, alterations in the plasmatic levels of some soluble forms of cell adhesion molecules can appear, e.g., soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1), soluble E-selectin (sE-selectin) and soluble CD40L (sCD40L). The objective of this study was to compare the serum levels of sVCAM-1, sE-selectin and sCD40L in MS and non-MS groups and to associate these molecules with the diagnostic criteria of MS. A total of 185 non-smokers between 45 and 64 years of age were included. Of these, 93 corresponded to the MS group and the remaining 92 to a non-MS group (according to modified ATP III criteria). The serum concentration of sVCAM-1, sE-selectin and sCD40L was determined by commercial solid phase ELISA. The results were expressed as a median and interquartile range. The MS group showed high levels of sVCAM-1 (558.9 ng/ml; 481.3-667.6 ng/ml) compared with the non-MS group (405.2 ng/ml; 361.0-470.5 ng/ml) (p<0.0001). As well, the median level of sCD40L (3.0 ng/ml; 2.1l-11.7 ng/ml) was significantly higher in the MS group than that in the non-MS group (2.6 ng/ml; 2.3-3.4 ng/ml) (p=0.0061). sE-selectin levels did not differ significantly between the groups: 73.9 ng/ml (58.3-87.0 ng/ml) and 68.5 ng/ml (51.6-97.5 ng/ml) in the MS and non-MS group, respectively. In conclusion, the serum levels of sVCAM-1 and sCD40L, but not sE-selectin, were significantly higher in patients with MS than in subjects that did not present MS. MS may therefore increase the expression of cell adhesion molecules, probably through endothelial activation. PMID:21475854

  5. Development and comparison of layer-counted chronologies from the WAIS Divide and EDML ice cores, Antarctica, over the last glacial transition (10-15 ka BP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winstrup, Mai; Vinther, Bo M.; Sigl, Michael; McConnell, Joe; Svensson, Anders M.; Wegner, Anna

    2014-05-01

    Some ice cores can be very precisely dated far back in time by counting the annual layering in various impurity records, and the most robust chronologies rely on the parallel analysis of annual features expressed in multiple data sets. Layer-counted Antarctic ice-core chronologies are now emerging: Multi-parameter layer counting has been carried out for the Holocene and late glacial section of the EDML ice core, Dronning Maud Land (Vinther et al., in prep.), and a layer-counted timescale for the WAIS Divide core, West Antarctica, reaching back to 30 kyr BP, was recently completed (WDC06A-7; WAIS Divide Members, 2013). Beyond 24 kyr b2k, the main part of this timescale relies solely on electrical measurements on the core. We here use a novel statistical framework for automated annual layer counting (Winstrup et al., 2012) to extend and improve the two chronologies from EDML and WAIS Divide. Using this method, we have 1) revised the multi-parameter layer counts for the EDML ice core back to 15 kyr BP, and 2) employed high-resolution chemistry measurements from WAIS Divide to obtain a layer-counted multi-parameter timescale for WAIS Divide over the same period (10-15 ka b2k). The EDML and WAIS Divide ice cores have been tightly synchronized using volcanic marker horizons, thus allowing a detailed comparison of annual layer counts between tie points using the various approaches. The corresponding timescales are compared also to the EDML timescale from the flow-model based AICC2012 chronology (Veres, 2012). For the Holocene section of the period (10-11.7 ka BP), all timescales show very good agreement. The peculiar accumulation anomaly observed in the WAIS Divide layer thicknesses in the beginning of the Holocene is confirmed by the multi-parameter layer counts from both WAIS Divide and EDML. The transition into the Holocene has generally proven a difficult period to date by annual layer counting, since the appearance of an annual layer in the various records can change

  6. Direct measurements of the non-DD cross section {sigma}{sub {psi}}{sub (3770){yields}}{sub non-DD} at E{sub cm}=3.773 GeV and the branching fraction for {psi}(3770){yields}non-DD

    SciTech Connect

    Ablikim, M.; Bai, J. Z.; Cai, X.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, H. X.; Chen, J. C.; Chen, Jin; Chen, Y. B.; Chu, Y. P.; Deng, Z. Y.; Du, S. X.; Fang, J.; Fang, S. S.; Gao, C. S.; Gu, S. D.; Guo, Y. N.; He, K. L.; Heng, Y. K.; Hu, H. M.; Hu, T.

    2007-12-15

    By analyzing the data collected at the center-of-mass energy E{sub cm}=3.773 GeV and below the DD meson pair production threshold with the BES-II detector at the BEPC Collider, we directly measured the observed non-DD cross section of {psi}(3770) decay to be {sigma}{sub {psi}}{sub (3770){yields}}{sub non-DD}{sup obs}=(0.95{+-}0.35{+-}0.29) nb at E{sub cm}=3.773 GeV, and the branching fraction BF[{psi}(3770){yields}non-DD]=(13.4{+-}5.0{+-}3.6)% for inclusive non-DD decay of {psi}(3770). We also determined the cross section for DD meson pair production to be {sigma}{sub DD}{sup obs}=(6.12{+-}0.37{+-}0.23) nb at E{sub cm}=3.773 GeV.

  7. The relationship between platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 and paraquat-induced lung injury in rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Jing; Hu, Chun-lin; Gao, Yu-feng; Liao, Xiao-xing; Xu, Hope

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1), also known as CD31, is mainly distributed in vascular endothelial cells. Studies have shown that PECAM-1 is a very significant indicator of angiogenesis, and has been used as an indicator for vascular endothelial cells. The present study aimed to explore the relationship between the expression of PECAM-1 and the degree of acute lung injury (ALI) and fibrosis in paraquat (PQ) induced lung injury in rabbits. METHODS: Thirty-six adult New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into three groups (12 rabbits in each group) according to PQ dosage: 8 mg/kg (group A), 16 mg/kg (group B), and 32 mg/kg (group C). After PQ infusion, the rabbits were monitored for 7 days and then euthanized. The lungs were removed for histological evaluation. Masson staining was used to determine the degree of lung fibrosis (LF), and semi-quantitative immune-histochemistry analysis to determine the expression of PECAM-1. Pearson’s product-moment correlation analysis was performed to evaluate the relationship between the expression of PECAM-1 and the extent of lung injuries expressed by ALI score and degree of LF. RESULTS: Rabbits in the three groups showed apparent poisoning. The rabbits survived longer in group A than in groups B and C (6.47±0.99 days vs. 6.09±1.04 days vs. 4.77±2.04 days) (P<0.05). ALI score was lower in group A than in groups B and C (8.33±1.03 vs. 9.83±1.17 vs. 11.50±1.38) (P<0.05), and there was statistically significant difference between group B and group C (P=0.03). LF was slighter in group A than in groups B and C (31.09%±2.05 % vs. 34.37%±1.62 % vs. 36.54%±0.44%) (P<0.05), and there was statistically significant difference between group B and group C (P=0.026). The PEACAM-1 expression was higher in group A than in groups B and C (20.31%±0.70% vs. 19.34%±0.68% vs. 18.37%±0.46%) (P<0.05), and there was statistically significant difference between group B and group C (P=0.017). Pearson

  8. "Be Informed, Stay Connected, Community Transformation!" Selected Papers from the PIALA Conference 2014, Pacific Islands Association of Libraries, Archives, and Museums Annual Conference (24th, Koror, Republic of Palau, Nov 10-15, 2014)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drake, Paul Burton

    2015-01-01

    This publication follows the tradition of publishing selected papers from the Pacific Islands Association of Libraries, Archives and Museums (PIALA) annual conferences. This 24th annual conference was held in Koror, Republic of Palau, November 10-15, 2014. This volume includes a listing of the PIALA 2014 Organizing Committee and PIALA Officers and…

  9. Application of an octa-anionic 5,10,15,20-tetra[3,5-(nido-carboranylmethyl)phenyl]porphyrin (H2OCP) as dual sensitizer for BNCT and PDT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The applications of the octa-anionic 5,10,15,20-tetra[3,5-(nidocarboranylmethyl) phenyl]porphyrin (H2OCP) as a boron delivery agent in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) and a photosensitizer in photodynamic therapy (PDT) have been investigated. Using F98 Rat glioma cells, we evaluated the cytotox...

  10. The role of endothelial cell adhesion molecules P-selectin, E-selectin and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 in leucocyte recruitment induced by exogenous methylglyoxal

    PubMed Central

    Su, Yang; Lei, Xi; Wu, Lingyun; Liu, Lixin

    2012-01-01

    Methylglyoxal (MG) is a reactive dicarbonyl metabolite formed during glucose, protein and fatty acid metabolism. In hyperglycaemic conditions, increased MG level has been linked to the development of diabetes and its vascular complications at the macrovascular and microvascular levels where inflammation plays a role. To study the mechanism of MG-induced inflammation in vivo, we applied MG locally to healthy mice and used intravital microscopy to investigate the role of endothelial cell adhesion molecules in MG-induced leucocyte recruitment in cremasteric microvasculature. Administration of MG (25 and 50 mg/kg) to the tissue dose-dependently induced leucocyte recruitment at 4·0–5·5 hr, with 84–92% recruited cells being neutrophils. Such MG treatment up-regulated the expression of endothelial cell adhesion molecules P-selectin, E-selectin, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, but not vascular cell adhesion molecule-1. Activation of the nuclear factor-κB signalling pathway contributed to MG-induced up-regulation of these adhesion molecules and leucocyte recruitment. The role of the up-regulated endothelial cell adhesion molecules in MG-induced leucocyte recruitment was determined by applying specific functional blocking antibodies to MG-treated animals and observing changes in leucocyte recruitment parameters. Our data demonstrate that the up-regulation of P-selectin, E-selectin and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 contributes to the increased leucocyte rolling flux, reduced leucocyte rolling velocity, and increased leucocyte adhesion, respectively. Our results reveal the role of endothelial cell adhesion molecules in MG-induced leucocyte recruitment in microvasculature, an inflammatory condition related to diabetic vascular complications. PMID:22681228

  11. Elevated pretreatment serum levels of soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 and lactate dehydrogenase as predictors of survival in cutaneous metastatic malignant melanoma.

    PubMed Central

    Franzke, A.; Probst-Kepper, M.; Buer, J.; Duensing, S.; Hoffmann, R.; Wittke, F.; Volkenandt, M.; Ganser, A.; Atzpodien, J.

    1998-01-01

    Very rapid progression of disease with a median survival of 6-9 months is a common feature of metastatic cutaneous malignant melanoma. Nevertheless, substantial variability of survival suggests that metastatic cutaneous malignant melanoma can be divided into several biological subgroups. Pretreatment serum levels of soluble adhesion molecules and various clinical parameters in cutaneous metastatic malignant melanoma were evaluated to determine their prognostic value. In this study pretreatment serum levels of soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (sVCAM-1), soluble intercellular cell adhesion molecule 1 (sICAM-1), soluble endothelial leukocyte adhesion molecule 1 (sE-selectin) and multiple clinical factors were assessed in relation to overall survival of 97 consecutive patients with metastatic cutaneous malignant melanoma seen at our institution between May 1990 and April 1996. For statistical analysis, both univariate and multivariate Cox proportional-hazards models were used. Elevated pretreatment serum levels of sVCAM-1 (P < 0.005) and of lactate dehydrogenase (P < 0.002) were rendered statistically independent and were significantly associated with unfavourable outcome. Patients were assigned to one of three risk categories (low, intermediate and high) according to a cumulative risk score defined as the function of the sum of these two variables. There were significant differences in overall survival (P < 0.0001) between low- (n = 53, 5-year survival probability of 23.3%), intermediate- (n = 29, 5-year survival probability of 9.9%) and high-risk (n = 15) patients. Elevated pretreatment serum levels of sVCAM-1 and of lactate dehydrogenase correlate with poor outcome in metastatic cutaneous malignant melanoma. These data support risk stratification for future therapeutic trials and identify factors that need to be validated in prospective studies and may potentially influence decision-making in palliative management of patients with disseminated cutaneous

  12. Late and persistent up-regulation of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression by ionizing radiation in human endothelial cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Gaugler, M H; Squiban, C; van der Meeren, A; Bertho, J M; Vandamme, M; Mouthon, M A

    1997-08-01

    Adhesion molecules play a key role in cellular traffic through vascular endothelium, in particular during the inflammatory response when leukocytes migrate from blood into tissues. Since inflammation is one of the major consequences of radiation injury, we investigated the effect of ionizing radiation on cell-surface expression of the intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), the vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and E-selectin in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). Flow cytometry performed on irradiated HUVEC revealed both a time- (from 2 to 10 days) and dose- (from 2 to 10 Gy) dependent up-regulation of basal expression of ICAM-1, and no induction of VCAM-1 or E-selectin. The radiation-induced increase in ICAM-1 expression on HUVEC was correlated with augmented adhesion of neutrophils on irradiated endothelial cells. Interleukin-6 (Il-6) or other soluble factors released by irradiation were not involved in the enhanced ICAM-1 expression by irradiation. Northern blot analysis showed an overexpression of ICAM-1 mRNA from 1 to 6 days after a 10 Gy exposure. Our data suggest that ICAM-1 participates in the radiation-induced inflammatory reaction of the endothelium. PMID:9269313

  13. Cytoadherence of Plasmodium falciparum to intercellular adhesion molecule 1 and chondroitin-4-sulfate expressed by the syncytiotrophoblast in the human placenta.

    PubMed Central

    Maubert, B; Guilbert, L J; Deloron, P

    1997-01-01

    Late stages of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes (IRBCs) frequently sequester in the placentas of pregnant women, a phenomenon associated with low birth weight of the offspring. To investigate the physiological mechanism of this sequestration, we developed an in vitro assay for studying the cytoadherence of IRBCs to cultured term human trophoblasts. The capacity for binding to the syncytiotrophoblast varied greatly among P. falciparum isolates and was mediated by intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), as binding was totally inhibited by 84H10, a monoclonal antibody specific for ICAM-1. Binding of the P. falciparum line RP5 to the syncytiotrophoblast involves chondroitin-4-sulfate (CSA), as this binding was dramatically impaired by addition of free CSA to the binding medium or by preincubation of the syncytiotrophoblast with chondroitinase ABC. ICAM-1 and CSA were visualized on the syncytiotrophoblast by immunofluorescence, while CD36, E-selectin, and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 were not expressed even on tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha)-stimulated syncytiotrophoblast tissue, and monoclonal antibodies against these cell adhesion molecules did not inhibit cytoadherence. ICAM-1 expression and cytoadherence of wild isolates was upregulated by TNF-alpha, a cytokine that can be secreted by the numerous mononuclear phagocytes present in malaria-infected placentas. These results suggest that cytoadherence may be involved in the placental sequestration and broaden the understanding of the physiopathology of the malaria-infected placenta. PMID:9119459

  14. 46 CFR 193.10-15 - Piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fire... voyage, the diameter of the fire main shall be sufficient for the effective distribution of the maximum required discharge from two fire pumps operating simultaneously. This requirement is in addition to §...

  15. 46 CFR 76.10-15 - Piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fire Main System... fire main shall be sufficient for the effective distribution of the maximum required discharge from two fire pumps operating simultaneously. This is in addition to § 76.10-5(c). The discharge of...

  16. 46 CFR 76.10-15 - Piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fire Main System... fire main shall be sufficient for the effective distribution of the maximum required discharge from two fire pumps operating simultaneously. This is in addition to § 76.10-5(c). The discharge of...

  17. 46 CFR 76.10-15 - Piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fire Main System... fire main shall be sufficient for the effective distribution of the maximum required discharge from two fire pumps operating simultaneously. This is in addition to § 76.10-5(c). The discharge of...

  18. 46 CFR 193.10-15 - Piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fire... voyage, the diameter of the fire main shall be sufficient for the effective distribution of the maximum required discharge from two fire pumps operating simultaneously. This requirement is in addition to §...

  19. 46 CFR 95.10-15 - Piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fire... diameter of the fire main shall be sufficient for the effective distribution of the maximum required discharge from two fire pumps operating simultaneously. This requirement is in addition to § 95.10-5(c)....

  20. 46 CFR 76.10-15 - Piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fire Main System... fire main shall be sufficient for the effective distribution of the maximum required discharge from two fire pumps operating simultaneously. This is in addition to § 76.10-5(c). The discharge of...

  1. 46 CFR 193.10-15 - Piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fire... voyage, the diameter of the fire main shall be sufficient for the effective distribution of the maximum required discharge from two fire pumps operating simultaneously. This requirement is in addition to §...

  2. 46 CFR 95.10-15 - Piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fire... diameter of the fire main shall be sufficient for the effective distribution of the maximum required discharge from two fire pumps operating simultaneously. This requirement is in addition to § 95.10-5(c)....

  3. Fluorescence in situ hybridization mapping of the mouse platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM1) to mouse chromosome 6, region F3-G1

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Yong; Muller, W.A.

    1996-10-15

    Human platelet/endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM1), an important member of the immunoglobulin gene superfamily, is widely distributed on cells of the vascular system and mediates cellular interactions through both homophilic and heterophilic adhesive mechanisms. The function of PECAM1 in vitro has begun to be understood, but its function in vivo is yet to be established. To study the function of PECAM1 in vivo, its mouse counterpart was identified and its cDNA gene isolated and characterized. In this study, the mouse chromosomal localization was determined for the mouse gene encoding Pecam. Fluorescence in situ hybridization was used to map the Pecam gene on mouse chromosome 6, region F3-G1. 12 refs., 2 figs.

  4. Sphingosine 1-phosphate induces platelet/endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 phosphorylation in human endothelial cells through cSrc and Fyn.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu-Ting; Chen, Shee-Uan; Chou, Chia-Hong; Lee, Hsinyu

    2008-08-01

    Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) is a multifunctional phospholipid which acts through a specific family of G protein-coupled receptors. Platelet/endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1) form trans-homophilic binding at lateral cell border. Upon stimulation, its cytoplasmic tyrosine residues could be phosphorylated and interact with various downstream signaling molecules. In this study, we demonstrated that S1P induced PECAM-1 tyrosine phosphorylation in human umbilical cord vein cells (HUVECs). By pharmacological inhibitors, it was suggested that G(i) and Src family kinases were involved in PECAM-1 phosphorylation. Moreover, cSrc and Fyn siRNA significantly suppressed S1P-induced PECAM-1 phosphorylation. These results suggested that S1P-induced PECAM-1 phosphorylation through G(i) and subsequent cSrc and Fyn. Our findings provide further understanding of S1P and PECAM-1 signaling as well as their functions in endothelial cells. PMID:18502612

  5. The neutrophil-specific antigen CD177 is a counter-receptor for platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (CD31).

    PubMed

    Sachs, Ulrich J H; Andrei-Selmer, Cornelia L; Maniar, Amudhan; Weiss, Timo; Paddock, Cathy; Orlova, Valeria V; Choi, Eun Young; Newman, Peter J; Preissner, Klaus T; Chavakis, Triantafyllos; Santoso, Sentot

    2007-08-10

    Human neutrophil-specific CD177 (NB1 and PRV-1) has been reported to be up-regulated in a number of inflammatory settings, including bacterial infection and granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor application. Little is known about its function. By flow cytometry and immunoprecipitation studies, we identified platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1) as a binding partner of CD177. Real-time protein-protein analysis using surface plasmon resonance confirmed a cation-dependent, specific interaction between CD177 and the heterophilic domains of PECAM-1. Monoclonal antibodies against CD177 and against PECAM-1 domain 6 inhibited adhesion of U937 cells stably expressing CD177 to immobilized PECAM-1. Transendothelial migration of human neutrophils was also inhibited by these antibodies. Our findings provide direct evidence that neutrophil-specific CD177 is a heterophilic binding partner of PECAM-1. This interaction may constitute a new pathway that participates in neutrophil transmigration. PMID:17580308

  6. Schwann cell differentiation inhibits interferon-gamma induction of expression of major histocompatibility complex class II and intercellular adhesion molecule-1.

    PubMed

    Lisak, Robert P; Bealmear, Beverly; Benjamins, Joyce A

    2016-06-15

    Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) upregulates major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC class II) antigens and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) on Schwann cells (SC) in vitro, but in nerves of animals and patients MHC class II is primarily expressed on inflammatory cells. We investigated whether SC maturation influences their expression. IFN-γ induced MHC class II and upregulated ICAM-1; the axolemma-like signal 8-bromo cyclic adenosine monophosphate (8 Br cAMP) with IFN-γ inhibited expression. Delaying addition of 8 Br cAMP to SC already exposed to IFN-γ inhibited ongoing expression; addition of IFN-γ to SC already exposed to 8 Br cAMP resulted in minimal expression. Variability of cytokine-induced MHC class II and ICAM-1 expression by SC in vivo may represent the variability of signals from axolemma. PMID:27235355

  7. Short-term high-fat diet alters postprandial glucose metabolism and circulating vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 in healthy males.

    PubMed

    Numao, Shigeharu; Kawano, Hiroshi; Endo, Naoya; Yamada, Yuka; Takahashi, Masaki; Konishi, Masayuki; Sakamoto, Shizuo

    2016-08-01

    Short-term intake of a high-fat diet aggravates postprandial glucose metabolism; however, the dose-response relationship has not been investigated. We hypothesized that short-term intake of a eucaloric low-carbohydrate/high-fat diet (LCHF) would aggravate postprandial glucose metabolism and circulating adhesion molecules in healthy males. Seven healthy young males (mean ± SE; age: 26 ± 1 years) consumed either a eucaloric control diet (C, approximately 25% fats), a eucaloric intermediate-carbohydrate/intermediate-fat diet (ICIF, approximately 50% fats), or an LCHF (approximately 70% fats) for 3 days. An oral meal tolerance test (MTT) was performed after the 3-day dietary intervention. The concentrations of plasma glucose, insulin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), intercellular adhesion molecule-1, and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) were determined at rest and during MTT. The incremental area under the curve (iAUC) of plasma glucose concentration during MTT was significantly higher in LCHF than in C (P = 0.009). The first-phase insulin secretion indexes were significantly lower in LCHF than in C (P = 0.04). Moreover, the iAUC of GLP-1 and VCAM-1 concentrations was significantly higher in LCHF than in C (P = 0.014 and P = 0.04, respectively). The metabolites from ICIF and C were not significantly different. In conclusion, short-term intake of eucaloric diet containing a high percentage of fats in healthy males excessively increased postprandial glucose and VCAM-1 concentrations and attenuated first-phase insulin release. PMID:27454856

  8. Micromanipulation of adhesion of phorbol 12-myristate-13-acetate-stimulated T lymphocytes to planar membranes containing intercellular adhesion molecule-1.

    PubMed Central

    Tözeren, A; Mackie, L H; Lawrence, M B; Chan, P Y; Dustin, M L; Springer, T A

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents an analytical and experimental methodology to determine the physical strength of cell adhesion to a planar membrane containing one set of adhesion molecules. In particular, the T lymphocyte adhesion due to the interaction of the lymphocyte function associated molecule 1 on the surface of the cell, with its counter-receptor, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), on the planar membrane, was investigated. A micromanipulation method and mathematical analysis of cell deformation were used to determine (a) the area of conjugation between the cell and the substrate and (b) the energy that must be supplied to detach a unit area of the cell membrane from its substrate. T lymphocytes stimulated with phorbol 12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) conjugated strongly with the planar membrane containing purified ICAM-1. The T lymphocytes attached to the planar membrane deviated occasionally from their round configuration by extending pseudopods but without changing the size of the contact area. These adherent cells were dramatically deformed and then detached when pulled away from the planar membrane by a micropipette. Detachment occurred by a gradual decrease in the radius of the contact area. The physical strength of adhesion between a PMA-stimulated T lymphocyte and a planar membrane containing 1,000 ICAM-1 molecules/micron 2 was comparable to the strength of adhesion between a cytotoxic T cell and its target cell. The comparison of the adhesive energy density, measured at constant cell shape, with the model predictions suggests that the physical strength of cell adhesion may increase significantly when the adhesion bonds in the contact area are immobilized by the actin cytoskeleton. Images FIGURE 2 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 PMID:1358239

  9. Synthesis and photophysical properties of the photoactivatable cationic porphyrin 5-(4-N-dodecylpyridyl)-10,15,20-tri(4-N-methylpyridyl)-21H,23H-porphyrin tetraiodide for anti-malaria PDT.

    PubMed

    Stallivieri, Aurélie; Le Guern, Florent; Vanderesse, Régis; Meledje, Esme; Jori, Giulio; Frochot, Céline; Acherar, Samir

    2015-07-01

    This article describes a new synthetic method for obtaining three water soluble porphyrins. The more sophisticated porphyrin [5-(4-N-dodecylpyridyl)-10,15,20-tri(4-N-methylpyridyl)-21H,23H-porphyrin tetraiodide], also named C12 porphyrin, was obtained through a three step methodology. The improvements, compared to syntheses described in the literature, mostly concern the purification procedures. The photophysical properties of the three porphyrins are described and the C12 porphyrin presents a very good (1)O2 yield compared to its chemical intermediates. This porphyrin seems to be a very promising candidate for PDT applications. PMID:26066986

  10. Systematic Study of Rayleigh-Taylor Growth in Directly Driven Plastic Targets in a Laser-Intensity Range from ~2 x 10^14 to ~1.5 x 10^15 W/cm^2

    SciTech Connect

    Smalyuk, V.A.; Hu, S.X.; Goncharov, V.N.; Meyerhofer, D.D.; Sangster, T.C.; Stoeckl, C.; Yaakobi, B.

    2008-09-05

    Direct-drive, Rayleigh–Taylor (RT) growth experiments were performed using planar plastic targets on the OMEGA Laser Facility [T. R. Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)] at laser intensities between ~2 x 10^14 and ~1.5 x 10^15 W/cm^2. The primary purpose of the experiments was to test fundamental physics in hydrocodes at the range of drive intensities relevant to ignition designs. The target acceleration was measured with a streak camera using side-on, x-ray radiography, while RT growth was measured with a framing camera using face-on radiography. In a laser-intensity range from 2 to 5 x 10^14 W/cm^2, the measured RT growth agrees well with two-dimensional simulations, based on a local model of thermal-electron transport. The RT growth at drive intensities above ~1.0 x 10^15 W/cm^2 was strongly stabilized compared to the local model predictions. The experiments demonstrate that standard simulations, based on a local model of electron thermal transport, break down at peak intensities of ignition designs, although they work well at lower intensities. These results also imply that direct-drive ignition targets are significantly more stable than previously calculated using local electron-transport models at peak intensities of ignition designs. The preheating effects by nonlocal electron transport and hot electrons were identified as some of the stabilizing mechanisms.

  11. Synthesis, structure, electronic spectroscopy, photophysics, electrochemistry, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of highly-electron-deficient [5,10,15,20-tetrakis(perfluoroalkyl)porphinato]zinc(II ) complexes and their free base derivatives

    SciTech Connect

    Goll, J.G.; Moore, K.T.; Therien, M.J.; Ghosh, A.

    1996-09-04

    The synthesis, optical spectroscopy, photophysical properties, electrochemistry, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of a series of [5,10,15,20-tetrakis(perfluoroalkyl)porphinato]zinc(II ) complexes and their free base analogs are reported. The title compounds were prepared by a condensation methodology that utilizes perfluoro-1-(2`-pyrrolyl)-1-alkanol precursors and employs continuous water removal throughout the course of the reaction to yield the meso perfluorocarbon-substituted porphyrins. The nature of the porphyrin-pendant meso-perfluoroalkyl group exerts considerable influence over the macrocycle`s solubility properties. The structure of the monopyridyl adduct of [5,10,15,20-tetrakis(heptafluoropropyl)porphinato] zinc(II) features an S{sub 4}-distorted porphyrin core; X-ray data are given. Electrochemical studies carried out on these porphyrin and (porphinato)zinc(II) complexes indicate that meso-perfluoroalkylporphyrins are among the most electron-deficient porphyrinic species known. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy experiments corroborate the electron poor nature of these systems and evince extreme stabilization of the nitrogen ls orbitals, consonant with particularly effective removal of electron density from the macrocycle by the meso-perfluoroalkyl moieties that is modulated by {sigma}-symmetry orbitals. 27 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs.

  12. Vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and the integrin VLA-4 mediate adhesion of human B cell precursors to cultured bone marrow adherent cells.

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, D H; Nuccie, B L; Abboud, C N; Winslow, J M

    1991-01-01

    Adhesion of B cell precursors to accessory cells in the bone marrow microenvironment may be required for normal early B cell development. Human bone marrow B cell precursors adhere more avidly than mature B cells to bone marrow-derived fibroblasts. To determine the mechanism of this adhesion, expression of adhesion proteins on human B precursor cells and cell lines was measured by flow cytometry. The very late antigen (VLA) integrins VLA-4 and VLA-5 were the only adhesion proteins expressed at higher levels in B cell precursors than mature B cells. Antibodies to the alpha and beta chains of VLA-4, but not VLA-5, significantly blocked binding to bone marrow-derived fibroblasts of immature B cells and cell lines. Although fibronectin is a ligand for VLA-4, anti-fibronectin antibody and a soluble fibronectin fragment containing the VLA-4 binding domain did not block adhesion, suggesting that VLA-4 is involved in adhesion of B cell precursors, but not as a fibronectin receptor. Vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), the other known counterreceptor for VLA-4, was identified on bone marrow-derived fibroblasts, and anti-VCAM-1 significantly blocked adhesion of normal B cell precursors to bone marrow-derived fibroblasts, indicating that VLA-4/VCAM-1 interactions are important in adhesion of B cell precursors to the bone marrow microenvironment. Images PMID:1715889

  13. Artemether Combined with shRNA Interference of Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 Significantly Inhibited the Malignant Biological Behavior of Human Glioma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ping; Xue, Yi-Xue; Yao, Yi-Long; Yu, Bo; Liu, Yun-Hui

    2013-01-01

    Artemether is the derivative extracted from Chinese traditional herb and originally used for malaria. Artemether also has potential therapeutic effects against tumors. Vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) is an important cell surface adhesion molecule associated with malignancy of gliomas. In this work, we investigated the role and mechanism of artemether combined with shRNA interference of VCAM-1 (shRNA-VCAM-1) on the migration, invasion and apoptosis of glioma cells. U87 human glioma cells were treated with artemether at various concentrations and shRNA interfering technology was employed to silence the expression of VCAM-1. Cell viability, migration, invasiveness and apoptosis were assessed with MTT, wound healing, Transwell and Annexin V-FITC/PI staining. The expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and phosphorylated Akt (p-Akt) was checked by Western blot assay. Results showed that artemether and shRNA-VCAM-1 not only significantly inhibited the migration, invasiveness and expression of MMP-2/9 and p-Akt, but also promoted the apoptosis of U87 cells. Combined treatment of both displayed the maximum inhibitory effects on the malignant biological behavior of glioma cells. Our work revealed the potential therapeutic effects of artemether and antiVCAM-1 in the treatments of gliomas. PMID:23593320

  14. FRET Based Quantification and Screening Technology Platform for the Interactions of Leukocyte Function-Associated Antigen-1 (LFA-1) with InterCellular Adhesion Molecule-1 (ICAM-1)

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Sandeep; Núñez, David; Hu, Shih-Yang; Domingo, María Pilar; Pardo, Julian; Karmenyan, Artashes; Chiou, Arthur

    2014-01-01

    The interaction between leukocyte function-associated antigen-1(LFA-1) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) plays a pivotal role in cellular adhesion including the extravasation and inflammatory response of leukocytes, and also in the formation of immunological synapse. However, irregular expressions of LFA-1 or ICAM-1 or both may lead to autoimmune diseases, metastasis cancer, etc. Thus, the LFA-1/ICAM-1 interaction may serve as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of these diseases. Here, we developed one simple ‘in solution’ steady state fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) technique to obtain the dissociation constant (Kd) of the interaction between LFA-1 and ICAM-1. Moreover, we developed the assay into a screening platform to identify peptides and small molecules that inhibit the LFA-1/ICAM-1 interaction. For the FRET pair, we used Alexa Fluor 488-LFA-1 conjugate as donor and Alexa Fluor 555-human recombinant ICAM-1 (D1-D2-Fc) as acceptor. From our quantitative FRET analysis, the Kd between LFA-1 and D1-D2-Fc was determined to be 17.93±1.34 nM. Both the Kd determination and screening assay were performed in a 96-well plate platform, providing the opportunity to develop it into a high-throughput assay. This is the first reported work which applies FRET based technique to determine Kd as well as classifying inhibitors of the LFA-1/ICAM-1 interaction. PMID:25032811

  15. Glycated serum albumin stimulates expression of endothelial cell specific molecule-1 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells: Implication in diabetes mediated endothelial dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Nirala, Bikesh K; Perumal, Vivekanandan; Gohil, Nivedita K

    2015-07-01

    Pro-inflammatory conditions induced by products of protein glycation in diabetes substantially enhance the risk of endothelial dysfunction and related vascular complications. Endothelial cell specific molecule-1 (ESM-1) or endocan has been demonstrated as a potential biomarker in cancer and sepsis. Its role in diabetes-induced pathologies remains unknown. The expression of ESM-1 gene is under cytokine regulation, indicating its role in endothelium-dependent pathological disorders. In this study, we investigated the effect of advanced glycated human serum albumin (AGE-HSA) on the production of ESM-1. We show that AGE-HSA exerts a modulating role on the expression of ESM-1 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. It up-regulates expression of ESM-1 protein in a dose-dependent manner which correlates with its messenger RNA (mRNA) transcription. RAGE and galectin-3, both AGE receptors, show antagonistic action on its expression. While gene silencing of RAGE has down-regulatory effect, that of galectin-3 has up-regulatory effect on AGE-induced expression of ESM-1. Inhibition of MAPKKK and JNK pathways did not alter the expression. In contrast, phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K) inhibition significantly up-regulated ESM-1 expression. In conclusion, these results suggest that AGE-induced activation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells promotes formation of endocan which is an endothelial dysfunction marker and may be related to vascular disease in diabetes. PMID:25963575

  16. Identification of Fer tyrosine kinase localized on microtubules as a platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 phosphorylating kinase in vascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Kogata, Naoko; Masuda, Michitaka; Kamioka, Yuji; Yamagishi, Akiko; Endo, Akira; Okada, Masato; Mochizuki, Naoki

    2003-09-01

    Platelet endothelial adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1) is a part of intercellular junctions and triggers intracellular signaling cascades upon homophilic binding. The intracellular domain of PECAM-1 is tyrosine phosphorylated upon homophilic engagement. However, it remains unclear which tyrosine kinase phosphorylates PECAM-1. We sought to isolate tyrosine kinases responsible for PECAM-1 phosphorylation and identified Fer as a candidate, based on expression cloning. Fer kinase specifically phosphorylated PECAM-1 at the immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif. Notably, Fer induced tyrosine phosphorylation of SHP-2, which is known to bind to the immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif of PECAM-1, and Fer also induced tyrosine phosphorylation of Gab1 (Grb2-associated binder-1). Engagement-dependent PECAM-1 phosphorylation was inhibited by the overexpression of a kinase-inactive mutant of Fer, suggesting that Fer is responsible for the tyrosine phosphorylation upon PECAM-1 engagement. Furthermore, by using green fluorescent protein-tagged Fer and a time-lapse fluorescent microscope, we found that Fer localized at microtubules in polarized and motile vascular endothelial cells. Fer was dynamically associated with growing microtubules in the direction of cell-cell contacts, where p120catenin, which is known to associate with Fer, colocalized with PECAM-1. These results suggest that Fer localized on microtubules may play an important role in phosphorylation of PECAM-1, possibly through its association with p120catenin at nascent cell-cell contacts. PMID:12972546

  17. Coupling factor 6 downregulates platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 via c-Src activation and acts as a proatherogenic molecule.

    PubMed

    Kumagai, Akiko; Osanai, Tomohiro; Katoh, Chisato; Tanaka, Makoto; Tomita, Hirofumi; Morimoto, Takeshi; Murakami, Reiichi; Magota, Koji; Okumura, Ken

    2008-09-01

    Coupling factor 6 (CF6), a component of ATP synthase, suppresses the generation of prostacyclin and nitric oxide (NO). Platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1) is involved in shear-induced NO production. To investigate the linkage between the actions of CF6 and PECAM-1, we examined the effects of CF6 on PECAM-1 expression and shear-mediated NO release, comparatively with those of angiotensin II (AngII). Treatment of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and aortic endothelial cells (HAEC) with CF6 at 10(-7)M or AngII at 10(-7)M for 24h suppressed PECAM-1 gene and protein expression. CF6 or AngII activated c-Src at 15 min in HUVEC, and blockade of c-Src with PP1, its specific inhibitor, restored them. Efrapeptin, an inhibitor of ATPase, attenuated CF6-induced suppression of PECAM-1 gene expression by blockade of acidification, whereas superoxide dismutase or apocinin, an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase, blocked AngII-induced suppression of PECAM-1. Exposure of the cells to shear stress at 25 dynes/cm(2) for 30 min enhanced phosphorylation of eNOS at Ser(1177) and NO release. Pretreatment with CF6 or AngII for 24h attenuated them in HUVEC and HAEC. These suggest that CF6 downregulates PECAM-1 expression via c-Src activation and attenuates shear-induced NO release presumably by suppressing eNOS phosphorylation. PMID:18243211

  18. Breakdown of paraendothelial barrier function during Marburg virus infection is associated with early tyrosine phosphorylation of platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1.

    PubMed

    Böckeler, Michael; Ströher, Ute; Seebach, Jochen; Afanasieva, Tatiana; Suttorp, Norbert; Feldmann, Heinz; Schnittler, Hans-Joachim

    2007-11-15

    Marburg virus (MARV) infection often causes fulminant shock due to pathologic immune responses and alterations of the vascular system. Cytokines released from virus-infected monocytes/macrophages provoke endothelial activation and vascular hyperpermeability and contribute to the development of shock. Tyrosine phosphorylation of cell-junction proteins is important for the regulation of paraendothelial barrier function. We showed that mediators released from MARV-infected monocytes/macrophages, as well as recombinant tumor necrosis factor (TNF)- alpha /H2O2 and interferon (IFN)- gamma , caused tyrosine phosphorylation of platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1) but not of the vascular endothelial (VE) cadherin/catenin complex proteins. Tyrosine phosphorylation of PECAM-1 was associated with delayed opening of interendothelial junctions. Interestingly, we observed an early increase in water permeability in response to TNF- alpha /H2O2 that was not due to an opening of the interendothelial junctions. These data indicate 2 distinct mechanisms for the TNF- alpha /H2O2-mediated decrease in endothelial barrier function involving tyrosine phosphorylation of PECAM-1 but not requiring tyrosine phosphorylation of VE-cadherin or catenin proteins. PMID:17940969

  19. Kidney Injury Molecule-1 Is Specifically Expressed in Cystically-Transformed Proximal Tubules of the PKD/Mhm (cy/+) Rat Model of Polycystic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Gauer, Stefan; Urbschat, Anja; Gretz, Norbert; Hoffmann, Sigrid C.; Kränzlin, Bettina; Geiger, Helmut; Obermüller, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Expression of kidney injury molecule-1 (Kim-1) is rapidly upregulated following tubular injury, constituting a biomarker for acute kidney damage. We examined the renal localization of Kim-1 expression in PKD/Mhm (polycystic kidney disease, Mannheim) (cy/+) rats (cy: mutated allel, +: wild type allel), an established model for autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, with chronic, mainly proximal tubulointerstitial alterations. For immunohistochemistry or Western blot analysis, kidneys of male adult heterozygously-affected (cy/+) and unaffected (+/+) littermates were perfusion-fixed or directly removed. Kim-1 expression was determined using peroxidase- or fluorescence-linked immunohistochemistry (alone or in combination with markers for tubule segments or differentiation). Compared to (+/+), only in (cy/+) kidneys, a chronic expression of Kim-1 could be detected by Western blot analysis, which was histologically confined to an apical cellular localization in areas of cystically-transformed proximal tubules with varying size and morphology, but not in distal tubular segments. Kim-1 was expressed by cystic epithelia exhibiting varying extents of dedifferentiation, as shown by double labeling with aquaporin-1, vimentin or osteopontin, yielding partial cellular coexpression. In this model, in contrast to other known molecules indicating renal injury and/or repair mechanisms, the chronic renal expression of Kim-1 is strictly confined to proximal cysts. Its exact role in interfering with tubulo-interstitial alterations in polycystic kidney disease warrants future investigations. PMID:27231899

  20. Kidney Injury Molecule-1 Is Specifically Expressed in Cystically-Transformed Proximal Tubules of the PKD/Mhm (cy/+) Rat Model of Polycystic Kidney Disease.

    PubMed

    Gauer, Stefan; Urbschat, Anja; Gretz, Norbert; Hoffmann, Sigrid C; Kränzlin, Bettina; Geiger, Helmut; Obermüller, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Expression of kidney injury molecule-1 (Kim-1) is rapidly upregulated following tubular injury, constituting a biomarker for acute kidney damage. We examined the renal localization of Kim-1 expression in PKD/Mhm (polycystic kidney disease, Mannheim) (cy/+) rats (cy: mutated allel, +: wild type allel), an established model for autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, with chronic, mainly proximal tubulointerstitial alterations. For immunohistochemistry or Western blot analysis, kidneys of male adult heterozygously-affected (cy/+) and unaffected (+/+) littermates were perfusion-fixed or directly removed. Kim-1 expression was determined using peroxidase- or fluorescence-linked immunohistochemistry (alone or in combination with markers for tubule segments or differentiation). Compared to (+/+), only in (cy/+) kidneys, a chronic expression of Kim-1 could be detected by Western blot analysis, which was histologically confined to an apical cellular localization in areas of cystically-transformed proximal tubules with varying size and morphology, but not in distal tubular segments. Kim-1 was expressed by cystic epithelia exhibiting varying extents of dedifferentiation, as shown by double labeling with aquaporin-1, vimentin or osteopontin, yielding partial cellular coexpression. In this model, in contrast to other known molecules indicating renal injury and/or repair mechanisms, the chronic renal expression of Kim-1 is strictly confined to proximal cysts. Its exact role in interfering with tubulo-interstitial alterations in polycystic kidney disease warrants future investigations. PMID:27231899

  1. Activation of transcription factor AP-2 mediates UVA radiation- and singlet oxygen-induced expression of the human intercellular adhesion molecule 1 gene

    SciTech Connect

    Grether-Beck, S.; Olaizola-Horn, S.; Schmitt, H.; Grewe, M.

    1996-12-10

    UVA radiation is the major component of the UV solar spectrum that reaches the earth, and the therapeutic application of UVA radiation is increasing in medicine. Analysis of the cellular effects of UVA radiation has revealed that exposure of human cells to UVA radiation at physiological doses leads to increased gene expression and that this UVA response is primarily mediated through the generation of singlet oxygen. In this study, the mechanisms by which UVA radiation induces transcriptional activation of the human intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) were examined. UVA radiation was capable of inducing activation of the human ICAM-1 promoter and increasing OCAM-1 mRNA and protein expression. These UVA radiation effects were inhibited by singlet oxygen quenchers, augmented by enhancement of singlet oxygen life-time, and mimicked in unirradiated cells by a singlet oxygen-generating system. UVA radiation as well as singlet oxygen-induced ICAM-1 promoter activation required activation of the transcription factor AP-2. Accordingly, both stimuli activated AP-2, and deletion of the putative AP-2-binding site abrogated ICAM-1 promoter activation in this system. This study identified the AP-2 site as the UVA radiation- and singlet oxygen-responsive element of the human ICAM-1 gene. The capacity of UVA radiation and/or singlet oxygen to induce human gene expression through activation of AP-2 indicates a previously unrecognized role of this transcription factor in the mammalian stress response. 38 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. An association analysis between a silent C558T polymorphism at the pig vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 locus and sow reproduction and piglet survivability traits.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, O; Tomàs, A; Casellas, J; Blanch, M; Noguera, J L; Amills, M

    2008-10-01

    The vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM1) has a strong influence on embryonic development and on the formation of the umbilical cord and placenta. These developmental processes are crucial to ensure the success of pregnancy. In this work, we have identified two T306A and C558T single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) at exons 2 and 3 of the pig VCAM1 locus, respectively. The T306A substitution involves a non conservative Asn to Lys replacement at amino acid position 102, whereas the C558T polymorphism is synonymous. An in silico prediction of the consequences of the Asn(102)-->Lys(102) mutation with the PolyPhen software revealed that it is not deleterious. The T306A SNP segregated in the Iberian, Piétrain, Duroc, Large White and Landrace breeds as well as in European wild boars. The C558T SNP also segregated and most of commercial standard breeds. The genotyping of the C558T SNP in an Iberian x Meishan intercross allowed to find a suggestive association (Bonferroni threshold, p < 0.004) between C558T genotype and time the newborn piglet needs to reach the udder (p = 0.013) as well as a significant one with time to make the first ingestion of colostrum (p = 0.003). The biological basis of these associations remains unclear and they should be interpreted with caution. PMID:18312487

  3. Epidermal growth factor (EGF)-enhanced vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) expression promotes macrophage and glioblastoma cell interaction and tumor cell invasion.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yanhua; Yang, Weiwei; Aldape, Kenneth; He, Jie; Lu, Zhimin

    2013-11-01

    Activated EGF receptor (EGFR) signaling plays an instrumental role in glioblastoma (GBM) progression. However, how EGFR activation regulates the tumor microenvironment to promote GBM cell invasion remains to be clarified. Here, we demonstrate that the levels of EGFR activation in tumor cells correlated with the levels of macrophage infiltration in human GBM specimens. This was supported by our observation that EGFR activation enhanced the interaction between macrophages and GBM cells. In addition, EGF treatment induced up-regulation of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) expression in a PKCε- and NF-κB-dependent manner. Depletion of VCAM-1 interrupted the binding of macrophages to GBM cells and inhibited EGF-induced and macrophage-promoted GBM cell invasion. These results demonstrate an instrumental role for EGF-induced up-regulation of VCAM-1 expression in EGFR activation-promoted macrophage-tumor cell interaction and tumor cell invasion and indicate that VCAM-1 is a potential molecular target for improving cancer therapy. PMID:24045955

  4. TNF-α enhances vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression in human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells via the NF-κB, ERK and JNK signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    LU, ZI-YUAN; CHEN, WAN-CHENG; LI, YONG-HUA; LI, LI; ZHANG, HANG; PANG, YAN; XIAO, ZHI-FANG; XIAO, HAO-WEN; XIAO, YANG

    2016-01-01

    The migration of circulating mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to injured tissue is an important step in tissue regeneration and requires adhesion to the microvascular endothelium. The current study investigated the underlying mechanism of MSC adhesion to endothelial cells during inflammation. In in vitro MSC culture, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) increased the level of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) expression in a dose-dependent manner. The nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway inhibitors, pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC), U0126 and SP600125, respectively, suppressed VCAM-1 expression induced by TNF-α at the mRNA and protein levels (P<0.05). TNF-α augmented the activation of NF-κB, ERK and JNK, and promoted MSC adhesion to human umbilical vein endothelial cells; however, the inhibitors of NF-κB, ERK and JNK did not affect this process in these cells. The results of the current study indicate that adhesion of circulating MSCs to the endothelium is regulated by TNF-α-induced VCAM-1 expression, which is potentially mediated by the NF-κB, ERK and JNK signaling pathways. PMID:27221006

  5. C-type lectin-like molecule-1 (CLL1)-targeted TRAIL augments the tumoricidal activity of granulocytes and potentiates therapeutic antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Wiersma, Valerie R; de Bruyn, Marco; Shi, Ce; Gooden, Marloes JM; Wouters, Maartje CA; Samplonius, Douwe F; Hendriks, Djoke; Nijman, Hans W; Wei, Yunwei; Zhou, Jin; Helfrich, Wijnand; Bremer, Edwin

    2015-01-01

    The therapeutic effect of anti-cancer monoclonal antibodies stems from their capacity to opsonize targeted cancer cells with subsequent phagocytic removal, induction of antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) or induction of complement-mediated cytotoxicity (CDC). The major immune effector cells involved in these processes are natural killer (NK) cells and granulocytes. The latter and most prevalent blood cell population contributes to phagocytosis, but is not effective in inducing ADCC. Here, we report that targeted delivery of the tumoricidal protein tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) to granulocyte marker C-type lectin-like molecule-1 (CLL1), using fusion protein CLL1:TRAIL, equips granulocytes with high levels of TRAIL. Upon CLL1-selective binding of this fusion protein, granulocytes acquire additional TRAIL-mediated cytotoxic activity that, importantly, potentiates antibody-mediated cytotoxicity of clinically used therapeutic antibodies (e.g., rituximab, cetuximab). Thus, CLL1:TRAIL could be used as an adjuvant to optimize the clinical potential of anticancer antibody therapy by augmenting tumoricidal activity of granulocytes. PMID:25760768

  6. Tie2 Signaling Enhances Mast Cell Progenitor Adhesion to Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 (VCAM-1) through α4β1 Integrin

    PubMed Central

    Kanemaru, Kazumasa; Noguchi, Emiko; Tokunaga, Takahiro; Nagai, Kei; Hiroyama, Takashi; Nakamura, Yukio; Tahara-Hanaoka, Satoko; Shibuya, Akira

    2015-01-01

    Mast cell (MC) activation contributes considerably to immune responses, such as host protection and allergy. Cell surface immunoreceptors expressed on MCs play an important role in MC activation. Although various immunoreceptors on MCs have been identified, the regulatory mechanism of MC activation is not fully understood. To understand the regulatory mechanisms of MC activation, we used gene expression analyses of human and mouse MCs to identify a novel immunoreceptor expressed on MCs. We found that Tek, which encodes Tie2, was preferentially expressed in the MCs of both humans and mice. However, Tie2 was not detected on the cell surface of the mouse MCs of the peritoneal cavity, ear skin, or colon lamina propria. In contrast, it was expressed on mouse bone marrow–derived MCs and bone marrow MC progenitors (BM-MCps). Stimulation of Tie2 by its ligand angiopoietin-1 induced tyrosine phosphorylation of Tie2 in MEDMC-BRC6, a mouse embryonic stem cell-derived mast cell line, and enhanced MEDMC-BRC6 and mouse BM-MCp adhesion to vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) through α4β1 integrin. These results suggest that Tie2 signaling induces α4β1 integrin activation on BM-MCps for adhesion to VCAM-1. PMID:26659448

  7. Cocaine-associated retiform purpura: a C5b-9-mediated microangiopathy syndrome associated with enhanced apoptosis and high levels of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression.

    PubMed

    Magro, Cynthia M; Wang, Xuan

    2013-10-01

    Cocaine-associated retiform purpura is a recently described entity characterized by striking hemorrhagic necrosis involving areas of skin associated with administration of cocaine. Levamisole, an adulterant in cocaine, has been suggested as the main culprit pathogenetically. Four cases of cocaine-associated retiform purpura were encountered in the dermatopathology practice of C. M. Magro. The light microscopic findings were correlated with immunohistochemical and immunofluorescence studies. All 4 cases showed a very striking thrombotic diathesis associated with intravascular macrophage accumulation. Necrotizing vasculitis was noted in 1 case. Striking intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1)/CD54 expression in vessel wall along with endothelial expression of caspase 3 and extensive vascular C5b-9 deposition was observed in all biopsies examined. Cocaine-induced retiform purpura is a C5b-9-mediated microvascular injury associated with enhanced apoptosis and prominent vascular expression of ICAM-1, all of which have been shown in prior in vitro and in vivo murine models to be a direct effect of cocaine metabolic products. Antineutrophilic cytoplasmic antibody and antiphospholipid antibodies are likely the direct sequelae of the proapoptotic microenvironment. The inflammatory vasculitic lesion could reflect the downstream end point reflective of enhanced ICAM-1 expression and the development of antineutrophilic cytoplasmic antibody. Levamisole likely works synergistically with cocaine in the propagation of this syndromic complex. PMID:23392134

  8. Increase in interleukin-8 and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from premature infants who develop chronic lung disease.

    PubMed Central

    Kotecha, S.; Chan, B.; Azam, N.; Silverman, M.; Shaw, R. J.

    1995-01-01

    Interleukin-8 (IL-8), soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM), elastase and neutrophils were assessed in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from nine infants who developed chronic lung disease (CLD) after respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), seven who had recovered from RDS, and in four control infants. IL-8, sICAM, elastase and neutrophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were increased in the CLD group, the differences being most pronounced at 10 days of age. When babies with and without CLD were compared at 10 days of age, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from the babies with CLD had significantly increased IL-8 (114.0 vs 12.7 ng/ml), sICAM (19.0 vs 1.1 micrograms/ml), elastase (6.9 vs 0.9 micrograms/ml) and neutrophils (1.9 vs 0.4 x 10(9)/l). In serum the increased concentration of IL-8 observed at birth in the CLD (247 pg/ml) and RDS (192 pg/ml) groups decreased over three weeks to the concentrations observed in the controls (< 70 pg/ml). Persistent inflammation could be a major contributory factor in the development of CLD. PMID:7712280

  9. Fructus Corni extract-induced neuritogenesis in PC12 cells is associated with the suppression of stromal interaction molecule 1 expression and inhibition of Ca2+ influx

    PubMed Central

    WANG, XUSHI; LIU, JIAQI; JIN, NA; XU, DAN; WANG, JUNYU; HAN, YONGMING; YIN, NINA

    2015-01-01

    Fructus Corni (Cornus officinalis Sieb. et Zucc.) is commonly prescribed as a traditional Chinese herbal medicine that possesses pharmacological actions against inflammation, diabetic nephropathy, tumors, oxidation and aging. However, its function and mode of action within the nervous system remain largely unclear. In this study, the effects of Fructus Corni extract (FCE) on neuronal differentiation were investigated. It was found that FCE significantly increased the percentage of PC12 cells bearing neurites (P<0.001). Following the generation of neurite outgrowth, FCE treatment decreased the mRNA expression of stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1; P<0.05) and suppressed the expression of STIM1 protein (P<0.001). In addition, extracellular calcium (Ca2+) influx was inhibited resulting in a reduction in the intracellular Ca2+ level, suggesting that the inhibition of Ca2+ influx may be involved in the FCE-promoted neurite outgrowth of PC12 cells. These results demonstrate that FCE induces neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells and that this is associated with the suppression of STIM1 expression and the inhibition of Ca2+ influx, which may partially explain the FCE-induced neuritogenesis. PMID:26136892

  10. Transmission images and evaluation of tomographic imaging based scattered radiation from biological materials using 10, 15, 20 and 25 keV synchrotron X-rays: An analysis in terms of optimum energy

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, Donepudi V.; Akatsuka, Takao; Tromba, Giuliana

    2004-05-12

    Transmission images and tomographic imaging based scattered radiation is evaluated from biological materials, for example, Polyethylene, Poly carbonate, Plexiglas and Nylon using 10, 15, 20 and 25 keV synchrotron X-rays. The SYRMEP facility at Elettra,Trieste, Italy and the associated detection system has been used for the image acquisition. The scattered radiation is detected for each sample at three energies at an angle of 90 deg. using Si-Pin detector coupled to a multi-channel analyzer. The contribution of transmitted, Compton and fluorescence photons are assessed for a test phantom of small dimensions. The optimum analysis is performed with the use of the dimensions of the sample and detected radiation at various energies.

  11. Tenth value layers for 60Co gamma rays and for 4, 6, 10, 15, and 18 MV x rays in concrete for beams of cone angles between 0 degrees and 14 degrees calculated by Monte Carlo simulation.

    PubMed

    Jaradat, Adnan K; Biggs, Peter J

    2007-05-01

    The calculation of shielding barrier thicknesses for radiation therapy facilities according to the NCRP formalism is based on the use of broad beams (that is, the maximum possible field sizes). However, in practice, treatment fields used in radiation therapy are, on average, less than half the maximum size. Indeed, many contemporary treatment techniques call for reduced field sizes to reduce co-morbidity and the risk of second cancers. Therefore, published tenth value layers (TVLs) for shielding materials do not apply to these very small fields. There is, hence, a need to determine the TVLs for various beam modalities as a function of field size. The attenuation of (60)Co gamma rays and photons of 4, 6, 10, 15, and 18 MV bremsstrahlung x ray beams by concrete has been studied using the Monte Carlo technique (MCNP version 4C2) for beams of half-opening angles of 0 degrees , 3 degrees , 6 degrees , 9 degrees , 12 degrees , and 14 degrees . The distance between the x-ray source and the distal surface of the shielding wall was fixed at 600 cm, a distance that is typical for modern radiation therapy rooms. The maximum concrete thickness varied between 76.5 cm and 151.5 cm for (60)Co and 18 MV x rays, respectively. Detectors were placed at 630 cm, 700 cm, and 800 cm from the source. TVLs have been determined down to the third TVL. Energy spectra for 4, 6, 10, 15, and 18 MV x rays for 10 x 10 cm(2) and 40 x 40 cm(2) field sizes were used to generate depth dose curves in water that were compared with experimentally measured values. PMID:17429304

  12. Serum Interleukin-18, Fetuin-A, Soluble Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1, and Endothelin-1 in Ankylosing Spondylitis, Psoriatic Arthritis, and SAPHO Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Przepiera-Będzak, Hanna; Fischer, Katarzyna; Brzosko, Marek

    2016-01-01

    To examine serum interleukin 18 (IL-18), fetuin-A, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), and endothelin-1 (ET-1) levels in ankylosing spondylitis (AS), psoriatic arthritis (PsA), and Synovitis Acne Pustulosis Hyperostosis Osteitis syndrome (SAPHO). We studied 81 AS, 76 PsA, and 34 SAPHO patients. We measured serum IL-18, fetuin-A, sICAM-1, ET-1, IL-6, IL-23, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and epidermal growth factor (EGF). IL-18 levels were higher in AS (p = 0.001), PsA (p = 0.0003), and SAPHO (p = 0.01) than in controls, and were positively correlated with CRP (p = 0.03), VEGF (p = 0.03), and total cholesterol (TC, p = 0.006) in AS and with IL-6 (p = 0.03) in PsA. Serum fetuin-A levels were lower in AS (p = 0.001) and PsA (p = 0.001) than in controls, and negatively correlated with C-reactive protein (CRP) in AS (p = 0.04) and SAPHO (p = 0.03). sICAM-1 positively correlated with CRP (p = 0.01), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR, p = 0.01), and IL-6 (p = 0.008) in AS, and with IL-6 (p = 0.001) in SAPHO. Serum ET-1 levels were lower in AS (p = 0.0005) than in controls. ET-1 positively correlated with ESR (p = 0.04) and Disease Activity Score 28 (DAS28, p = 0.003) in PsA. In spondyloarthritis, markers of endothelial function correlated with disease activity and TC. PMID:27527149

  13. Cyclic stretching of mesangial cells up-regulates intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and leukocyte adherence: a possible new mechanism for glomerulosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Riser, B L; Varani, J; Cortes, P; Yee, J; Dame, M; Sharba, A K

    2001-01-01

    Intraglomerular hypertension is a primary causal factor in the progressive glomerulosclerosis that characterizes diabetic nephropathy or severe renal ablation. However, inflammation of the glomerular mesangium also participates in at least the early phase of these diseases. In glomerulonephritis, where inflammation is thought to be the predominant causal factor, intraglomerular hypertension is also often present. Mesangial cells (MCs) are critical in orchestrating key functions of the glomerulus including extracellular matrix metabolism, cytokine production, and interaction with leukocytes. Because MCs are subject to increased stretching when intraglomerular hypertension is present, and in glomerulonephritis MC/leukocyte interactions seem to be mediated primarily via the up-regulation of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), we examine the possibility that cyclic stretching is a stimulus for increased MC ICAM-1 activity. We demonstrate that the normal low levels of MC ICAM-1 mRNA and protein are dramatically up-regulated by even short intervals of cyclic stretch. This effect is dose- and time-dependent, and requires little amplitude and a brief period of elongation for significant induction. Stretch-induced MC ICAM-1 also leads to a marked elevation in phagocytic leukocyte adherence. This stimulated adherence is equal or greater than that induced by the inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha, whereas an additive effect occurs when both are applied in combination. Our results indicate that stretch-induced ICAM-1 may provide a direct link between hypertension and inflammation in the progression of injury and glomerulosclerosis in diabetes, renal ablation, and other forms of glomerulonephritis. PMID:11141473

  14. Novel association of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 and soluble P-selectin with the ABO blood group in a Chinese population

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wenjing; Xu, Qun; Zhuang, Yunlong; Chen, Yuanfeng

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have reported that the ABO gene can affect circulating expression levels of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (sICAM-1) and soluble P-selectin (sP-selectin) in Caucasians. However, several factors may affect the association, including the distribution and variations of the ABO gene, ethnic diversity and the inflammatory response status. The aim of the present study was to investigate this issue in Asian subjects of various blood groups. A total of 800 blood samples were randomly selected from healthy blood donors. The ABO blood groups were examined using standard serological tests, and ABO genotypes of group A and group AB specimens were analyzed. Plasma concentrations of sICAM-1 and sP-selectin were detected by standard enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. In healthy Chinese individuals, blood group A was detected to be significantly associated with lower circulating expression levels of sICAM-1 and sP-selectin, compared with group O. Individuals with ≥1 A1 allele had significantly lower expression levels of sICAM-1 and sP-selectin compared with all other ABO groups. The data indicate the significant association of ABO blood group antigens with sICAM-1 and sP-selectin expression levels in a healthy Chinese population, independent of the specific variations and distributions of ABO blood groups among ethnic populations. This result provides evidence for the previously unidentified role of ABO blood group antigens in the regulation of the inflammatory adhesion process. Accordingly, it can be proposed that ABO blood groups may require consideration when soluble adhesion molecules are identified as predictors for cardiovascular disease. PMID:27446295

  15. Store-operated Ca(2+) channels and Stromal Interaction Molecule 1 (STIM1) are targets for the actions of bile acids on liver cells.

    PubMed

    Aromataris, Edoardo C; Castro, Joel; Rychkov, Grigori Y; Barritt, Greg J

    2008-05-01

    Cholestasis is a significant contributor to liver pathology and can lead to primary sclerosis and liver failure. Cholestatic bile acids induce apoptosis and necrosis in hepatocytes but these effects can be partially alleviated by the pharmacological application of choleretic bile acids. These actions of bile acids on hepatocytes require changes in the release of Ca(2+) from intracellular stores and in Ca(2+) entry. However, the nature of the Ca(2+) entry pathway affected is not known. We show here using whole cell patch clamp experiments with H4-IIE liver cells that taurodeoxycholic acid (TDCA) and other choleretic bile acids reversibly activate an inwardly-rectifying current with characteristics similar to those of store-operated Ca(2+) channels (SOCs), while lithocholic acid (LCA) and other cholestatic bile acids inhibit SOCs. The activation of Ca(2+) entry was observed upon direct addition of the bile acid to the incubation medium, whereas the inhibition of SOCs required a 12 h pre-incubation. In cells loaded with fura-2, choleretic bile acids activated a Gd(3+)-inhibitable Ca(2+) entry, while cholestatic bile acids inhibited the release of Ca(2+) from intracellular stores and Ca(2+) entry induced by 2,5-di-(tert-butyl)-1,4-benzohydro-quinone (DBHQ). TDCA and LCA each caused a reversible redistribution of stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1, the endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) sensor required for the activation of Ca(2+) release-activated Ca(2+) channels and some other SOCs) to puncta, similar to that induced by thapsigargin. Knockdown of Stim1 using siRNA caused substantial inhibition of Ca(2+)-entry activated by choleretic bile acids. It is concluded that choleretic and cholestatic bile acids activate and inhibit, respectively, the previously well-characterised Ca(2+)-selective hepatocyte SOCs through mechanisms which involve the bile acid-induced redistribution of STIM1. PMID:18342630

  16. Determining β2-Integrin and Intercellular Adhesion Molecule 1 Binding Kinetics in Tumor Cell Adhesion to Leukocytes and Endothelial Cells by a Gas-driven Micropipette Assay*

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Changliang; Tong, Chunfang; Wang, Manliu; Gao, Yuxin; Zhang, Yan; Lü, Shouqin; Liang, Shile; Dong, Cheng; Long, Mian

    2011-01-01

    Interactions between polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) and tumor cells have been reported to facilitate the adhesion and subsequent extravasation of tumor cells through the endothelium under blood flow, both of which are mediated by binding β2-integrin to intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1). Here the adhesions between human WM9 metastatic melanoma cells, PMNs, and human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (HPMECs) were quantified by a gas-driven micropipette aspiration technique (GDMAT). Our data indicated that the cellular binding affinity of PMN-WM9 pair was 3.9-fold higher than that of the PMN-HPMEC pair. However, the effective binding affinities per molecular pair were comparable between the two cell pairs no matter whether WM9 cells or HPMECs were quiescent or cytokine-activated, indicating that the stronger adhesion between PMN-WM9 pair is mainly attributed to the high expression of ICAM-1 on WM9 cells. These results proposed an alternative mechanism, where WM9 melanoma cells adhere first with PMNs near vessel-wall regions and then bind to endothelial cells via PMNs under blood flow. In contrast, the adhesions between human MDA-MB-231 metastatic breast carcinoma cells and PMNs showed a comparable cellular binding affinity to PMN-HPMEC pair because the ICAM-1 expressions on MDA-MB-231 cells and HPMECs are similar. Furthermore, differences were observed in the intrinsic forward and reverse rates of the β2-integrin-ICAM-1 bond between PMN-TC and PMN-EC pairs. This GDMAT assay enables us to quantify the binding kinetics of cell adhesion molecules physiologically expressed on nucleated cells. The findings also further the understanding of leukocyte-facilitated tumor cell adhesion from the viewpoint of molecular binding kinetics. PMID:21840991

  17. Transcriptional activation of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 gene in vivo and its role in the pathophysiology of neutrophil-induced liver injury in murine endotoxin shock.

    PubMed

    Essani, N A; Bajt, M L; Farhood, A; Vonderfecht, S L; Jaeschke, H

    1997-06-15

    Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (neutrophils) can cause hepatic parenchymal cell injury during endotoxin (ET) shock. Because adhesion molecules are critical for inflammatory cell damage, the role of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) was studied in the pathophysiology of ET shock. ET-sensitive mice (C3Heb/FeJ) were treated with 700 mg/kg galactosamine in combination with 100 microg/kg Salmonella abortus equi ET, 15 microg/kg TNF-alpha, or 13 to 23 microg/kg IL-1. VCAM-1 mRNA formation was strongly activated in animals treated with ET, TNF-alpha, or IL-1. In contrast, only TNF-alpha and IL-1, not ET, induced VCAM-1 gene transcription in livers of ET-resistant mice (C3H/HeJ). Immunohistochemistry and isolation of liver cells during endotoxemia indicated that VCAM-1 mRNA and protein were only formed in endothelial cells and Kupffer cells, not in hepatocytes. Galactosamine/ET induced neutrophil accumulation in sinusoids (515 +/- 30 neutrophils/50 high power fields) followed by transmigration at 7 h. At that time, severe liver injury was observed (necrosis, 53 +/- 5%). An anti-VCAM-1 Ab (3 mg/kg) attenuated the area of necrosis by 60%. The Ab reduced neutrophil transmigration by 84%, but had no effect on the total number of cells in the liver vasculature. Flow cytometric analysis identified the presence of very late Ag-4 on mouse peripheral neutrophils. Our data demonstrated cytokine-dependent VCAM-1 gene transcription and protein expression in the liver during endotoxemia. Neutrophils were able to use very late Ag-4/VCAM-1 interactions to transmigrate into liver parenchyma in vivo. Preventing transmigration by blocking VCAM-1 protected hepatocytes against neutrophil-induced injury. PMID:9190948

  18. Vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 and alpha 4 and beta 1 integrins in lymphocyte aggregates in Sjögren's syndrome and rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, J C; Wilkinson, L S; Speight, P; Isenberg, D A

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--Interactions between vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) and its ligand, the alpha 4/beta 1 integrin, have been shown to be important in a number of cellular events in vitro. To assess the importance of such interactions in the development of lymphocytic infiltration in diseased tissue the distribution of the two ligands has been studied immunohistochemically. METHODS--Cryostat sections of labial tissue from patients with Sjögren's syndrome, normal labial tissues, rheumatoid synovia, and normal tonsils were stained using antibodies to VCAM-1, alpha 4 and beta 1 integrin chains, and markers for T cells, B cells, macrophages, and follicular dendritic reticulum cells (FDRCs), visualised using alkaline phosphatase and fast red. RESULTS--Staining patterns for VCAM-1 and integrin chains in lymphocyte aggregates in synovial and labial tissues were similar. VCAM-1 staining was found on both vascular and ramifying dendritic cells at the centre of large T cell aggregates and in all aggregates where there was a central clustering of B cells. VCAM-1 colocalised with, but also extended beyond, staining for the FDRC marker R4/23. Staining for the alpha 4 and beta 1 integrin chains was more widespread than staining for VCAM-1, with no significant increase in staining at sites of maximum VCAM-1 staining. In tonsils VCAM-1 and R4/23 codistributed in germinal centres, but staining for the alpha 4 and beta 1 integrin chains was chiefly seen in T lymphocyte areas. CONCLUSIONS--VCAM-1 may be more important in determining the distribution of B than T lymphocytes in lymphocytic infiltration of non-lymphoid tissue. Unlike the follicles of lymphoid tissue, ectopic follicle-like structures in non-lymphoid tissues may form by immigration of B cells via VCAM-1+ vessels at the centre of T cell aggregates. Images PMID:7504438

  19. Interaction between Endothelial Protein C Receptor and Intercellular Adhesion Molecule 1 to Mediate Binding of Plasmodium falciparum-Infected Erythrocytes to Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Avril, Marion; Bernabeu, Maria; Benjamin, Maxwell; Brazier, Andrew Jay

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and the endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR) are candidate receptors for the deadly complication cerebral malaria. However, it remains unclear if Plasmodium falciparum parasites with dual binding specificity are involved in cytoadhesion or different parasite subpopulations bind in brain microvessels. Here, we investigated this issue by studying different subtypes of ICAM-1-binding parasite lines. We show that two parasite lines expressing domain cassette 13 (DC13) of the P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) family have dual binding specificity for EPCR and ICAM-1 and further mapped ICAM-1 binding to the first DBLβ domain following the PfEMP1 head structure in both proteins. As PfEMP1 head structures have diverged between group A (EPCR binders) and groups B and C (CD36 binders), we also investigated how ICAM-1-binding parasites with different coreceptor binding traits influence P. falciparum-infected erythrocyte binding to endothelial cells. Whereas levels of binding to tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)-stimulated endothelial cells from the lung and brain by all ICAM-1-binding parasite lines increased, group A (EPCR and ICAM-1) was less dependent than group B (CD36 and ICAM-1) on ICAM-1 upregulation. Furthermore, both group A DC13 parasite lines had higher binding levels to brain endothelial cells (a microvascular niche with limited CD36 expression). This study shows that ICAM-1 is a coreceptor for a subset of EPCR-binding parasites and provides the first evidence of how EPCR and ICAM-1 interact to mediate parasite binding to both resting and TNF-α-activated primary brain and lung endothelial cells. PMID:27406562

  20. Heparan Sulfates Mediate the Interaction between Platelet Endothelial Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 (PECAM-1) and the Gαq/11 Subunits of Heterotrimeric G Proteins*

    PubMed Central

    dela Paz, Nathaniel G.; Melchior, Benoît; Shayo, Francisca Y.; Frangos, John A.

    2014-01-01

    The endothelial cell-cell junction has emerged as a major cell signaling structure that responds to shear stress by eliciting the activation of signaling pathways. Platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1) and heterotrimeric G protein subunits Gαq and 11 (Gαq/11) are junctional proteins that have been independently proposed as mechanosensors. Our previous findings suggest that they form a mechanosensitive junctional complex that discriminates between different flow profiles. The nature of the PECAM-1·Gαq/11 interaction is still unclear although it is likely an indirect association. Here, we investigated the role of heparan sulfates (HS) in mediating this interaction and in regulating downstream signaling in response to flow. Co-immunoprecipitation studies show that PECAM-1·Gαq/11 binding is dramatically decreased by competitive inhibition with heparin, pharmacological inhibition with the HS antagonist surfen, and enzymatic removal of HS chains with heparinase III treatment as well as by site-directed mutagenesis of basic residues within the extracellular domain of PECAM-1. Using an in situ proximity ligation assay, we show that endogenous PECAM-1·Gαq/11 interactions in endothelial cells are disrupted by both competitive inhibition and HS degradation. Furthermore, we identified the heparan sulfate proteoglycan syndecan-1 in complexes with PECAM-1 that are rapidly decreased in response to flow. Finally, we demonstrate that flow-induced Akt activation is attenuated in endothelial cells in which PECAM-1 was knocked down and reconstituted with a binding mutant. Taken together, our results indicate that the PECAM-1·Gαq/11 mechanosensitive complex contains an endogenous heparan sulfate proteoglycan with HS chains that is critical for junctional complex assembly and regulating the flow response. PMID:24497640

  1. Regulation of local and metastatic host-mediated anti-tumour mechanisms by l-selectin and intercellular adhesion molecule-1

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, M; Yanaba, K; Hasegawa, M; Matsushita, Y; Horikawa, M; Komura, K; Matsushita, T; Kawasuji, A; Fujita, T; Takehara, K; Steeber, D A; Tedder, T F; Sato, S

    2006-01-01

    Malignant melanoma is often accompanied by a host response of inflammatory cell infiltration that is highly regulated by multiple adhesion molecules. To assess the role of adhesion molecules, including l-selectin and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), in this process, subcutaneous primary growth and metastasis to the lung of B16 melanoma cells not expressing l-selectin, ICAM-1 or their ligands were examined in mice lacking l-selectin, ICAM-1 or both. Primary subcutaneous growth of B16 melanoma was augmented by loss of l-selectin, ICAM-1 or both, while pulmonary metastasis was enhanced by the loss of l-selectin or combined loss of l-selectin and ICAM-1. In both situations, the combined loss of l-selectin and ICAM-1 exhibited the greatest effect. This enhancement was associated generally with a reduced accumulation of natural killer (NK) cells, CD4+ T cells and CD8+ T cells and also with a diminished release of interferon (IFN)-γ and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α but not interleukin (IL)-6. Cytotoxicity against melanoma was not defective by the absence of ICAM-1, l-selectin or both, suggesting that the enhancement of tumour growth and metastasis caused by the loss of adhesion molecules results from an impaired migration of effector cells into the tissue rather than from a suppression of the cytotoxic response. The results indicate that l-selectin and ICAM-1 contribute co-operatively to the anti-tumour reaction by regulating lymphocyte infiltration to the tumour. PMID:16412045

  2. Breast cancer cells compete with hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells for intercellular adhesion molecule 1-mediated binding to the bone marrow microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Dhawan, Abhishek; Friedrichs, Jens; Bonin, Malte von; Bejestani, Elham Peshali; Werner, Carsten; Wobus, Manja; Chavakis, Triantafyllos; Bornhäuser, Martin

    2016-08-01

    Adhesion-based cellular interactions involved in breast cancer metastasis to the bone marrow remain elusive. We identified that breast cancer cells directly compete with hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) for retention in the bone marrow microenvironment. To this end, we established two models of competitive cell adhesion-simultaneous and sequential-to study a potential competition for homing to the niche and displacement of the endogenous HSPCs upon invasion by tumor cells. In both models, breast cancer cells but not non-tumorigenic cells competitively reduced adhesion of HSPCs to bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) in a tumor cell number-dependent manner. Higher adhesive force between breast cancer cells and MSCs, as compared with HSPCs, assessed by quantitative atomic force microscopy-based single-cell force spectroscopy could partially account for tumor cell mediated reduction in HSPC adhesion to MSCs. Genetic inactivation and blockade studies revealed that homophilic interactions between intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) expressed on tumor cells and MSCs, respectively, regulate the competition between tumor cells and HSPCs for binding to MSCs. Moreover, tumor cell-secreted soluble ICAM-1(sICAM-1) also impaired HSPC adhesion via blocking CD18-ICAM-1 binding between HSPCs and MSCs. Xenotransplantation studies in NOD.Cg-Prkdc(scid) Il2rg(tm1Wjl)/SzJ mice revealed reduction of human HSPCs in the bone marrow via metastatic breast cancer cells. These findings point to a direct competitive interaction between disseminated breast cancer cells and HSPCs within the bone marrow micro environment. This interaction might also have implications on niche-based tumor support. Therefore, targeting this cross talk may represent a novel therapeutic strategy. PMID:27207667

  3. Allergen-stimulated T lymphocytes from allergic patients induce vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) expression and IL-6 production by endothelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Delneste, Y; Jeannin, P; Gosset, P; Lassalle, P; Cardot, E; Tillie-Leblond, I; Joseph, M; Pestel, J; Tonnel, A B

    1995-01-01

    Adhesion of inflammatory cells to endothelium is a critical step for their transvascular migration to inflammatory sites. To evaluate the relationship between T lymphocytes (TL) and vascular endothelium, supernatants from allergen-stimulated TL obtained from patients sensitive to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Dpt) versus healthy subjects were added to endothelial cell (EC) cultures. TL were stimulated by autologous-activated antigen-presenting cells (APC) previously fixed in paraformaldehyde to prevent monokine secretion. Two parameters were measured: the expression of adhesion molecule and the production of IL-6. Related allergen-stimulated TL supernatants from allergic patients induced an increase of VCAM-1 and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression when supernatants of the control groups (TL exposed to an unrelated allergen or not stimulated or TL obtained from healthy subjects) did not. E-selectin expression was not modulated whatever the supernatant added to EC culture. IL-6 production by EC was significantly enhanced after activation with related allergen-stimulated TL supernatants from allergics compared with control supernatants. Induction of VCAM-1 expression was inhibited by adding neutralizing antibodies against IL-4, whereas IL-6 production and ICAM-1 expression were inhibited by anti-interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) antibodies. Enhanced production of IL-4 and IFN-gamma was detected in related allergen-stimulated TL supernatants from allergic subjects compared with the different supernatants. These data suggest that allergen-specific TL present in the peripheral blood of allergic patients are of Th1 and Th2 subtypes. Their stimulation in allergic patients may lead to the activation of endothelial cells and thereby participate in leucocyte recruitment towards the inflammatory site. PMID:7542574

  4. Urine Liver-Type Fatty Acid-Binding Protein and Kidney Injury Molecule-1 in HIV-Infected Patients Receiving Combined Antiretroviral Treatment Based on Tenofovir

    PubMed Central

    Wójcik, Kamila; Piekarska, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to determine the presence of kidney tubular damage in the absence of overt evidence of glomerular dysfunction (GFR>60 ml/min without proteinuria) in HIV-infected patients receiving antiretroviral therapy. Urine kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) and liver-type fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP) levels were measured by ELISA and expressed as a ratio to creatinine. Sixty-six patients (median age 38 years) and 10 healthy controls (median age 35.5 years) were included in the study. Patients with chronic diseases such as diabetes, hypertension, heart disease, or kidney disease were excluded from the study. All patients received tenofovir/emtricitabine combined with one of three other components, namely efavirenz, atazanavir/norvir, or lopinavir/norvir. A lower concentration of L-FABP/creatinine was observed in HIV-infected as compared to healthy individuals (p=0.0353); KIM-1/creatinine was also lower in comparison with healthy controls but not statistically significantly. Patients receiving efavirenz had higher levels of L-FABP/creatinine in comparison to healthy controls (p=0.0039). Patients with anti-HCV had higher concentrations of L-FABP/creatinine as compared to the HIV-monoinfected individuals (not statistically significant) and to healthy subjects (p=0.0356). All four patients with L-FABP>17.5 μg/g creatinine were HIV/HCV coinfected. On multivariate logistic regression urine L-FABP above 5.5 μg/g creatinine was independently associated with body weight (OR=0.93 p=0.039). This study suggests that HIV/HCV-coinfected patients with lower body weight treated with tenofovir may be at an increased risk of tubular dysfunction and should be monitored more closely. The use of protease inhibitors was not associated with an increased risk of tubular disorders. PMID:24164392

  5. Simple modifications to Methimazole that enhance its inhibitory effect on Tumor Necrosis Factor-α-induced Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 expression by human endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Alapati, Anuja; Deosarkar, Sudhir P.; Lanier, Olivia L.; Qi, Chunyan; Carlson, Grady E.; Burdick, Monica M.; Schwartz, Frank L.; McCall, Kelly D.; Bergmeier, Stephen C.; Goetz, Douglas J.

    2015-01-01

    The expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) on the vascular endothelium can be increased by pro-inflammatory cytokines [e.g. tumor necrosis factor – α (TNF-α)]. VCAM-1 contributes to leukocyte adhesion to, and emigration from, the vasculature which is a key aspect of pathological inflammation. As such, a promising therapeutic approach for pathological inflammation is to inhibit the expression of VCAM-1. Methimazole [3-methyl-1, 3 imidazole-2 thione (MMI)] is routinely used for the treatment of Graves’ disease and patients treated with MMI have decreased levels of circulating VCAM-1. In this study we used cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) to investigate the effect of MMI structural modifications on TNF-α induced VCAM-1 expression. We found that addition of a phenyl ring at the 4-nitrogen of MMI yields a compound that is significantly more potent than MMI at inhibiting 24 h TNF-α-induced VCAM-1 protein expression. Addition of a para methoxy to the appended phenyl group increases the inhibition while substitution of a thiazole ring for an imidazole ring in the phenyl derivatives yields no clear difference in inhibition. Addition of the phenyl ring to MMI appears to increase toxicity as does substitution of a thiazole ring for an imidazole ring in the phenyl MMI derivatives. Each of the compounds reduced TNF-α-induced VCAM-1 mRNA expression and had a functional inhibitory effect, i.e. each inhibited monocytic cell adhesion to 24 h TNF-α-activated HUVEC under fluid flow conditions. Combined, these studies provide important insights into the design of MMI-related anti-inflammatory compounds. PMID:25641748

  6. Urinary kidney injury molecule-1 and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 are noninvasive biomarkers of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in lung cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Shinke, Haruka; Masuda, Satohiro; Togashi, Yousuke; Ikemi, Yasuaki; Ozawa, Aiko; Sato, Tomoko; Kim, Young Hak; Mishima, Michiaki; Ichimura, Takaharu; Bonventre, Joseph V.; Matsubara, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common and serious adverse effect of cisplatin-based chemotherapy. However, traditional markers of kidney function, such as serum creatinine, are suboptimal, because they are not sensitive measures of proximal tubular injury. We aimed to determine whether the new urinary biomarkers such as kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) could detect cisplatin-induced AKI in lung cancer patients in comparison with the conventional urinary proteins such as N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) and β2-microglobulin. Methods We measured KIM-1, MCP-1, NGAL, NAG and β2-microglobulin concentrations in urine samples from 11 lung cancer patients, which were collected the day before cisplatin administration and on days 3, 7, and 14. Subsequently, we evaluated these biomarkers by comparing their concentrations in 30 AKI positive (+) and 12 AKI negative (−) samples and performing receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses. Results The urinary levels normalized with urine creatinine of KIM-1 and MCP-1, but not NGAL, NAG and β2-microglobulin in AKI (+) samples were significantly higher than those in AKI (−) samples. In addition, ROC curve analyses revealed that KIM-1 and MCP-1, but not NGAL, could detect AKI with high accuracy (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.858, 0.850, and 0.608, respectively). The combination of KIM-1 and MCP-1 outperformed either biomarker alone (AUC = 0.871). Conclusions Urinary KIM-1 and MCP-1, either alone or in combination, may represent biomarkers of cisplatin-induced AKI in lung cancer patients. PMID:26407820

  7. Early and long-term effects of radiation on intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) expression in mouse urinary bladder endothelium.

    PubMed

    Jaal, J; Dörr, W

    2005-05-01

    The aim was to assess the effect of irradiation on intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) expression in endothelial cells of vessels in mouse urinary bladder and to compare endothelial ICAM-1 expression with changes in bladder function (storage capacity) during the early and late radiation response phases. Female C3H/Neu mice were irradiated with doses of either 20 or 0 Gy. For assessment of ICAM-1 expression, which was measured by the intensity of the immunohistochemical staining signal in bladder endothelium, an arbitrary semiquantitative score (0 - 3) was applied. Bladder storage function was assessed by transurethral cystotonometry. A positive functional radiation response, defined as a reduction in bladder capacity by > 50%, between days 0 and 15 or 16 and 30 was found in 40 and 64% of the animals, respectively. A late functional response was observed in 71% of the animals sacrificed after day 180. Minor constitutive expression of ICAM-1 was observed in bladder endothelial cells. After irradiation, an increase in staining signal by day 2, with a maximum on day 4, and on days 16 - 28 was found, which preceded the functional radiation effects. A permanent increase in ICAM-1 staining signal was observed in the late phase on top of an age-related rise. ICAM-1 expression was significantly higher in animals with a positive late response on day 90, i.e. during the initial late phase. Irradiation induces significant early and chronic variations in ICAM-1 expression in bladder endothelium, which preceded the functional response. This suggests that endothelial ICAM-1 is involved in the pathogenesis of both the early and late phases of radiation-induced urinary bladder effects. PMID:16076754

  8. Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 Inhibits Osteogenic Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Impairs Bio-Scaffold-Mediated Bone Regeneration In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Fen-Fen; Li, Xi-Mei; Yang, Fei; Chen, Ji-De; Tang, Bo; Sun, Hong-Guang; Chu, Ya-Nan; Zheng, Rong-Xiu; Liu, Yuan-Lin

    2014-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) loaded bio-scaffold transplantation is a promising therapeutic approach for bone regeneration and repair. However, growing evidence shows that pro-inflammatory mediators from injured tissues suppress osteogenic differentiation and impair bone formation. To improve MSC-based bone regeneration, it is important to understand the mechanism of inflammation mediated osteogenic suppression. In the present study, we found that synovial fluid from rheumatoid arthritis patients and pro-inflammatory cytokines including interleukin-1α, interleukin-1β, and tumor necrosis factor α, stimulated intercellular adhesion molecule-1(ICAM-1) expression and impaired osteogenic differentiation of MSCs. Interestingly, overexpression of ICAM-1 in MSCs using a genetic approach also inhibited osteogenesis. In contrast, ICAM-1 knockdown significantly reversed the osteogenic suppression. In addition, after transplanting a traceable MSC-poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) construct in rat calvarial defects, we found that ICAM-1 suppressed MSC osteogenic differentiation and matrix mineralization in vivo. Mechanistically, we found that ICAM-1 enhances MSC proliferation but causes stem cell marker loss. Furthermore, overexpression of ICAM-1 stably activated the MAPK and NF-κB pathways but suppressed the PI3K/AKT pathway in MSCs. More importantly, specific inhibition of the ERK/MAPK and NF-κB pathways or activation of the PI3K/AKT pathway partially rescued osteogenic differentiation, while inhibition of the p38/MAPK and PI3K/AKT pathway caused more serious osteogenic suppression. In summary, our findings reveal a novel function of ICAM-1 in osteogenesis and suggest a new molecular target to improve bone regeneration and repair in inflammatory microenvironments. PMID:24702024

  9. Serum Interleukin-18, Fetuin-A, Soluble Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1, and Endothelin-1 in Ankylosing Spondylitis, Psoriatic Arthritis, and SAPHO Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Przepiera-Będzak, Hanna; Fischer, Katarzyna; Brzosko, Marek

    2016-01-01

    To examine serum interleukin 18 (IL-18), fetuin-A, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), and endothelin-1 (ET-1) levels in ankylosing spondylitis (AS), psoriatic arthritis (PsA), and Synovitis Acne Pustulosis Hyperostosis Osteitis syndrome (SAPHO). We studied 81 AS, 76 PsA, and 34 SAPHO patients. We measured serum IL-18, fetuin-A, sICAM-1, ET-1, IL-6, IL-23, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and epidermal growth factor (EGF). IL-18 levels were higher in AS (p = 0.001), PsA (p = 0.0003), and SAPHO (p = 0.01) than in controls, and were positively correlated with CRP (p = 0.03), VEGF (p = 0.03), and total cholesterol (TC, p = 0.006) in AS and with IL-6 (p = 0.03) in PsA. Serum fetuin-A levels were lower in AS (p = 0.001) and PsA (p = 0.001) than in controls, and negatively correlated with C-reactive protein (CRP) in AS (p = 0.04) and SAPHO (p = 0.03). sICAM-1 positively correlated with CRP (p = 0.01), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR, p = 0.01), and IL-6 (p = 0.008) in AS, and with IL-6 (p = 0.001) in SAPHO. Serum ET-1 levels were lower in AS (p = 0.0005) than in controls. ET-1 positively correlated with ESR (p = 0.04) and Disease Activity Score 28 (DAS28, p = 0.003) in PsA. In spondyloarthritis, markers of endothelial function correlated with disease activity and TC. PMID:27527149

  10. Maternal serum uric acid concentration is associated with the expression of tumour necrosis factor-α and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 in patients with preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Zhao, J; Zheng, D-Y; Yang, J-M; Wang, M; Zhang, X-T; Sun, L; Yun, X-G

    2016-07-01

    We aimed to investigate whether there is a correlation between elevated serum uric acid (SUA) concentration and endothelial inflammatory response in women with preeclampsia (PE). On the basis of clinical and laboratory findings, patients were assigned to three groups: normal blood pressure (Control (Con)), gestational hypertension (GH) and PE (n=50 in each group). SUA concentration was measured by spectrophotometry, and serum tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Western blotting and immunohistochemical staining were also used to detect the changes in TNF-α and ICAM-1 expression in subcutaneous fat tissue. PE patients showed significantly higher systolic and diastolic blood pressures compared with Con and GH pregnant women (P=0.02 and P=0.02, respectively). The changes of body mass index (ΔBMI) before and after pregnancy and 24-h urine protein were significantly different among the three groups (P<0.001). Maternal SUA, TNF-α and soluble ICAM-1 (sICAM-1) levels were significantly increased in the patients with PE (P<0.05) compared with the other two groups. Scatterplot analysis revealed that elevated SUA concentration positively correlated with TNF-α and sICAM-1 in pregnant women. Moreover, vessels in subcutaneous fat tissues of preeclamptic patients showed intense TNF-α and ICAM-1 staining compared with Con and GH patients. The results support that, to a certain extent, elevated SUA concentration is significantly associated with inflammation of maternal systemic vasculature as indicated by increased TNF-α and ICAM-1 expression in women with PE. PMID:26511169

  11. The CO donor CORM-2 inhibits LPS-induced vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression and leukocyte adhesion in human rheumatoid synovial fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Pei-Ling; Chuang, Yu-Chen; Chen, Yu-Wen; Lin, Chih-Chung; Hsiao, Li-Der; Yang, Chuen-Mao

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Infection with Gram-negative bacteria has been recognized as an initiator of rheumatoid arthritis, which is characterized by chronic inflammation and infiltration of immune cells. Carbon monoxide (CO) exhibits anti-inflammatory properties. Here we have investigated the detailed mechanisms of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) expression induced by LPS and if CO inhibited LPS-induced leukocyte adhesion to synovial fibroblasts by suppressing VCAM-1 expression. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Human rheumatoid arthritis synovial fibroblasts (RASFs) were incubated with LPS and/or the CO-releasing compound CORM-2. Effects of LPS on VCAM-1 levels were determined by analysing mRNA expression, promoter activity, protein expression, and immunohistochemical staining. The molecular mechanisms were investigated by determining the expression, activation, and binding activity of transcriptional factors using target signal antagonists. KEY RESULTS CORM-2 significantly inhibited inflammatory responses in LPS-treated RASFs by down-regulating the expression of adhesion molecule VCAM-1 and leukocyte infiltration. The down-regulation of LPS-induced VCAM-1 expression involved inhibition of the expression of phosphorylated-NF-κB p65 and AP-1 (p-c-Jun, c-Jun and c-Fos mRNA levels). These results were confirmed by chromatin immunoprecipitation assay to detect NF-κB and AP-1 DNA binding activity. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS LPS-mediated formation of the TLR4/MyD88/TRAF6/c-Src complex regulated NF-κB and MAPKs/AP-1 activation leading to VCAM-1 expression and leukocyte adhesion. CORM-2, which liberates CO to elicit direct biological activities, attenuated LPS-induced VCAM-1 expression by interfering with NF-κB and AP-1 activation, and significantly reduced LPS-induced immune cell infiltration of the synovium. PMID:24628691

  12. Major histocompatibility complex class I-intercellular adhesion molecule-1 association on the surface of target cells: implications for antigen presentation to cytotoxic T lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Lebedeva, Tatiana; Anikeeva, Nadja; Kalams, Spyros A; Walker, Bruce D; Gaidarov, Ibragim; Keen, James H; Sykulev, Yuri

    2004-12-01

    Polarization and segregation of the T-cell receptor (TCR) and integrins upon productive cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) target cell encounters are well documented. Much less is known about the redistribution of major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) proteins on target cells interacting with CTLs. Here we show that human leucocyte antigen-A2 (HLA-A2) MHC-I and ICAM-1 are physically associated and recovered from both the raft fraction and the fraction of soluble membranes of target cells. Conjugation of target cells with surrogate CTLs, i.e. polystyrene beads loaded with antibodies specific for HLA-A2 and ICAM-1, induced the accumulation of membrane rafts, and beads loaded with ICAM-1-specific antibodies caused the selective recruitment of HLA-A2 MHC-I at the contact area of the target cells. Disruption of raft integrity on target cells led to a release of HLA-A2 and ICAM-1 from the raft fraction, abatement of HLA-A2 polarization, and diminished the ability of target cells bearing viral peptides to induce a Ca(2+) flux in virus-specific CTLs. These data suggest that productive engagement of ICAM-1 on target cells facilitates the polarization of MHC-I at the CTL-target cell interface, augmenting presentation of cognate peptide-MHC (pMHC) complexes to CTLs. We propose that ICAM-1-MHC-I association on the cell membrane is a mechanism that enhances the linkage between antigen recognition and early immunological synapse formation. PMID:15554924

  13. Crystal structure of di­aqua­[5,10,15,20-tetra­kis­(4-bromo­phen­yl)porphyrinato-κ4 N]magnesium

    PubMed Central

    Amiri, Nesrine; Nasri, Soumaya; Roisnel, Thierry; Simonneaux, Gérard; Nasri, Habib

    2015-01-01

    The title compound, [Mg(C44H24Br4N4)(H2O)2] or [Mg(TBrPP)(H2O)2], where TBrPP is the 5,10,15,20-tetra­kis­(4-bromo­phen­yl)porphyrinato ligand, was obtained unintentionally as a by-product of the reaction of the [Mg(TBrPP)] complex with an excess of di­methyl­glyoxime in di­chloro­methane. The entire mol­ecule exhibits point group symmetry 4/m. In the asymmetric unit, except for two C atoms of the phenyl ring, all other atoms lie on special positions. The MgII atom is situated at a site with symmetry 4/m, while the N and the C atoms of the porphyrin macrocycle, as well as two C atoms of the phenyl ring and the Br atom lie in the mirror plane containing the porphyrin core. The H atoms of the axially bonded water mol­ecule are incompatible with the fourfold rotation axis and are disordered over two sites. In the crystal, mol­ecules are packed in rows along [001]. Weak inter­molecular C—H⋯π and C—H⋯Br inter­actions, as well as O—H⋯Br hydrogen bonds, stabilize the crystal packing. PMID:25844215

  14. Synthesis, FT-IR characterization and crystal structure of aqua-(5,10,15,20-tetra-phenyl-porphyrinato-κ(4) N)manganese(III) tri-fluoro-methane-sulfonate.

    PubMed

    Harhouri, Wafa; Mchiri, Chadlia; Najmudin, Shabir; Bonifácio, Cecilia; Nasri, Habib

    2016-05-01

    In the title salt, [Mn(C44H28N4)(H2O)](CF3SO3) or [Mn(III)(TPP)(H2O)](CF3SO3) (where TPP is the dianion of 5,10,15,20-tetra-phenyl-porphyrin), the Mn(III) cation is chelated by the four pyrrole N atoms of the porphyrinate anion and additionally coordinated by an aqua ligand in an apical site, completing the distorted square-pyramidal coordination environment. The average Mn-N(pyrrole) bond length is 1.998 (9) Å and the Mn-O(aqua) bond length is 2.1057 (15) Å. The central Mn(III) ion is displaced by 0.1575 (5) Å from the N4C20 mean plane of the porphyrinate anion towards the apical aqua ligand. The porphyrinate macrocycle exhibits a moderate ruffling and strong saddle deformations. In the crystal lattice, the [Mn(III)(TPP)(H2O)](+) cation and the tri-fluoro-methane-sulfonate counter-ions are arranged in alternating planes packed along [001]. The components are linked together through O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds and much weaker C-H⋯O and C-H⋯F inter-actions. The crystal packing is further stabilized by weak C-H⋯π inter-actions involving the pyrrole and phenyl rings of the porphyrin moieties. PMID:27308027

  15. Simplified manual fabrication of cubic-zirconia gem anvils for extended energy-range spectroscopic studies to routine high pressures of 100-150 kbar (10-15 GPa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, N. R.; Erasmus, R. M.; Hearne, G. R.

    2010-07-01

    Methodology has been developed so as to attain routine extreme conditions as high as 10-15 GPa in a gem anvil optical pressure cell using hand (manual) processed gem anvils. The anvils polished by a simplified hand held tool are inexpensive single crystal cubic zirconia (CZ) gems that have various optical advantages over diamond anvils. Appreciable pressures are attained with culet and corresponding sample cavity dimensions that are relatively convenient to load with sample material. Some technical details are provided as regards the simplified manual fabrication process, thus emphasizing the relative ease and cost effectiveness of the hand polishing technique for fabricating such high pressure anvils. Raman spectroscopy measurements, in triple subtractive mode with a confocal pinhole geometry, are used to exemplify the usefulness of the CZ gem anvil cell methodology in pressure tuning experiments. This is particularly convenient for conventional low wave-number (lattice mode regime) Raman high pressure studies, which have not been reported previously in this context. Various other applications of such anvils are suggested.

  16. Reversible thermally induced phase transition in ordered domains of Co(II)-5,10,15,20-tetrakis-(3,5-di-tert-butylphenyl)-porphyrin on Cu(111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stark, Michael; Ditze, Stefanie; Thomann, Michael; Lungerich, Dominik; Jux, Norbert; Steinrück, Hans-Peter; Marbach, Hubertus

    2016-08-01

    We investigated the adsorption behavior of Co(II)-5,10,15,20-tetrakis-(3,5-di-tert-butylphenyl)-porphyrin (CoTTBPP) on Cu(111) by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). At room temperature (RT), the coverage dependent adsorption behavior follows an expected scheme: at low coverage step decoration is found, which evolves into supramolecular domains with a hexagonal order at higher coverage. Interestingly, upon cooling the sample to 180 K the occurrence of a clearly distinguishable coexisting herringbone phase is observed. Upon heating to RT again, the herringbone phase vanishes. Thus a temperature dependent, fully reversible phase transition was observed. High resolution STM micrographs allow for the determination of the intramolecular conformations which are different for the two supramolecular arrangements. In addition, we studied the bias voltage dependent appearance of the molecule in STM and assigned a dominant contribution of the central Co at negative bias voltages close to the Fermi edge to the occupied dz2 orbital. Interestingly, the herringbone phase, which dominates at 180 K, exhibits a significantly higher molecular density than the monomodal hexagonal arrangement at RT, which is in line with the "normal" behavior of freezing substances.

  17. A method for the detection of alcohol vapours based on optical sensing of magnesium 5,10,15,20-tetraphenyl porphyrin thin film by an optical spectrometer and principal component analysis.

    PubMed

    Kladsomboon, Sumana; Kerdcharoen, Teerakiat

    2012-12-13

    In this work we have proposed a method for the detection of alcohol vapours, i.e. methanol, ethanol and isopropanol, based on the optical sensing response of magnesium 5,10,15,20-tetraphenyl porphyrin (MgTPP) thin films, as measured by optical spectrometry with the assistance of chemometric analysis. We have implemented a scheme which allows a laboratory UV-vis spectrometer to act as a so-called "electronic nose" with very little modification. MgTPP thin films were prepared by a spin coating technique, using chloroform as the solvent, and then subjected to thermal annealing at 280°C in an argon atmosphere. These MgTPP optical gas sensors presented significant responses with methanol compared to ethanol and isopropanol, based on the dynamic flow of alcohol vapours at the same mol% of alcohol concentration. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were performed to model the underlying mechanism of this selectivity. The performance of the optical gas sensors was optimised by varying the fabrication parameters. It is hoped that the MgTPP thin film together with an off-the-shelf optical spectrometer and a simple chemometrics algorithm can be a valuable tool for the analysis of alcoholic content in the beverage industry. PMID:23206399

  18. Crystal structure of bis-(benzyl-amine-κN)[5,10,15,20-tetra-kis-(4-chloro-phen-yl)porphyrinato-κ(4) N]iron(II) n-hexane monosolvate.

    PubMed

    Dhifaoui, Selma; Harhouri, Wafa; Bujacz, Anna; Nasri, Habib

    2016-01-01

    In the title compound, [Fe(II)(C44H24Cl4N4)(C6H5CH2NH2)2]·C6H14 or [Fe(II)(TPP-Cl)(BzNH2)2]·n-hexane [where TPP-Cl and BzNH2 are 5,10,15,20-tetra-kis-(4-chloro-phen-yl)porphyrinate and benzyl-amine ligands, respectively], the Fe(II) cation lies on an inversion centre and is octa-hedrally coordinated by the four pyrrole N atoms of the porphyrin ligand in the equatorial plane and by two amine N atoms of the benzyl-amine ligand in the axial sites. The crystal structure also contains one inversion-symmetric n-hexane solvent mol-ecule per complex mol-ecule. The average Fe-Npyrrole bond length [1.994 (3) Å] indicates a low-spin complex. The crystal packing is sustained by N-H⋯Cl and C-H⋯Cl hydrogen-bonding inter-actions and by C-H⋯π inter-molecular inter-actions, leading to a three-dimensional network structure. PMID:26870596

  19. Crystal structure of bis­(benzyl­amine-κN)[5,10,15,20-tetra­kis­(4-chloro­phen­yl)porphyrinato-κ4 N]iron(II) n-hexane monosolvate

    PubMed Central

    Dhifaoui, Selma; Harhouri, Wafa; Bujacz, Anna; Nasri, Habib

    2016-01-01

    In the title compound, [FeII(C44H24Cl4N4)(C6H5CH2NH2)2]·C6H14 or [FeII(TPP-Cl)(BzNH2)2]·n-hexane [where TPP-Cl and BzNH2 are 5,10,15,20-tetra­kis­(4-chloro­phen­yl)porphyrinate and benzyl­amine ligands, respectively], the FeII cation lies on an inversion centre and is octa­hedrally coordinated by the four pyrrole N atoms of the porphyrin ligand in the equatorial plane and by two amine N atoms of the benzyl­amine ligand in the axial sites. The crystal structure also contains one inversion-symmetric n-hexane solvent mol­ecule per complex mol­ecule. The average Fe—Npyrrole bond length [1.994 (3) Å] indicates a low-spin complex. The crystal packing is sustained by N—H⋯Cl and C—H⋯Cl hydrogen-bonding inter­actions and by C—H⋯π inter­molecular inter­actions, leading to a three-dimensional network structure. PMID:26870596

  20. Crystal structure of chlorido­{5,10,15,20-tetra­kis­[2-(2,2-di­methyl­propanamido)­phen­yl]porphyrinato-κ4 N}iron(III)

    PubMed Central

    Awasabisah, Dennis; Powell, Douglas R.; Richter-Addo, George B.

    2015-01-01

    The title compound, [Fe(C64H64N8O4)Cl], is a five-coordinate square-pyramidal porphyrin complex with a chloride ion in the axial position, being coordinated from the protected side of the porphyrin; the FeIII atom is displaced by 0.474 (5) Å from the 24-atom mean plane of the porphyrin core towards the chloride. The porphyrin moiety is a ‘picket-fence’ 5,10,15,20-tetra­kis­[2-(2,2-di­methyl­propanamido)­phen­yl]porph­yrinate (por) group. The Fe—Cl bond length is 2.221 (2) Å and the Fe—N(por) bond lengths are in the range 2.043 (5)–2.063 (5) Å. The supra­molecular architecture of the crystal is sustained by C—H⋯O inter­actions between the pyrrolic and phenyl H atoms of one mol­ecule and the carbonyl O atoms of the 2,2-di­methyl­propanamido groups of adjacent mol­ecules. The methyl groups of three of the four tert-butyl substituents exhibited rotational disorder over two positions. The investigated crystal was twinned by a twofold rotation about the (001) axis with a refined twin ratio of 0.4086 (16). PMID:25878847

  1. Redetermination of cyclo-tetra­kis­(μ-5,10,15,20-tetra-4-pyridyl­porphyrinato)tetra­zinc(II) dimethyl­formamide octa­solvate trihydrate at 100 K

    PubMed Central

    Seidel, Rüdiger W.; Graf, Jürgen; Goddard, Richard; Oppel, Iris M.

    2011-01-01

    The structure of the title compound, [Zn4(C40H24N8)4]·8C3H7NO·3H2O, has been redetermined at 100 K. The redetermination is of significantly higher precision and gives further insight into the disorder of pyridyl groups and solvent mol­ecules. The mol­ecules of (5,10,15,20-tetra-4-pyridyl­porphyrinato)zinc(II) (ZnTPyP) form homomolecular cyclic tetra­mers by coordination of a peripheral pyridyl group to the central Zn atom of an adjacent symmetry-related mol­ecule. The tetra­mer so formed exhibits mol­ecular S 4 symmetry and is located about a crystallographic fourfold rotoinversion axis. Severely disordered dimethyl­formamide and water mol­ecules are present in the crystal, the contributions of which were omitted from refinement. Inter­molecular C—H⋯N hydrogen bonding is observed. PMID:21522892

  2. Synthesis, FT–IR characterization and crystal structure of aqua­(5,10,15,20-tetra­phenyl­porphyrinato-κ4 N)manganese(III) tri­fluoro­methane­sulfonate

    PubMed Central

    Harhouri, Wafa; Mchiri, Chadlia; Najmudin, Shabir; Bonifácio, Cecilia; Nasri, Habib

    2016-01-01

    In the title salt, [Mn(C44H28N4)(H2O)](CF3SO3) or [MnIII(TPP)(H2O)](CF3SO3) (where TPP is the dianion of 5,10,15,20-tetra­phenyl­porphyrin), the MnIII cation is chelated by the four pyrrole N atoms of the porphyrinate anion and additionally coordinated by an aqua ligand in an apical site, completing the distorted square-pyramidal coordination environment. The average Mn—N(pyrrole) bond length is 1.998 (9) Å and the Mn—O(aqua) bond length is 2.1057 (15) Å. The central MnIII ion is displaced by 0.1575 (5) Å from the N4C20 mean plane of the porphyrinate anion towards the apical aqua ligand. The porphyrinate macrocycle exhibits a moderate ruffling and strong saddle deformations. In the crystal lattice, the [MnIII(TPP)(H2O)]+ cation and the tri­fluoro­methane­sulfonate counter-ions are arranged in alternating planes packed along [001]. The components are linked together through O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds and much weaker C—H⋯O and C—H⋯F inter­actions. The crystal packing is further stabilized by weak C—H⋯π inter­actions involving the pyrrole and phenyl rings of the porphyrin moieties. PMID:27308027

  3. Ligand 5,10,15,20-tetra(N-methyl-4-pyridyl)porphine (TMPyP4) prefers the parallel propeller-type human telomeric G-quadruplex DNA over its other polymorphs.

    PubMed

    Ali, Asfa; Bansal, Manju; Bhattacharya, Santanu

    2015-01-01

    The binding of ligand 5,10,15,20-tetra(N-methyl-4-pyridyl)porphine (TMPyP4) with telomeric and genomic G-quadruplex DNA has been extensively studied. However, a comparative study of interactions of TMPyP4 with different conformations of human telomeric G-quadruplex DNA, namely, parallel propeller-type (PP), antiparallel basket-type (AB), and mixed hybrid-type (MH) G-quadruplex DNA, has not been done. We considered all the possible binding sites in each of the G-quadruplex DNA structures and docked TMPyP4 to each one of them. The resultant most potent sites for binding were analyzed from the mean binding free energy of the complexes. Molecular dynamics simulations were then carried out, and analysis of the binding free energy of the TMPyP4-G-quadruplex complex showed that the binding of TMPyP4 with parallel propeller-type G-quadruplex DNA is preferred over the other two G-quadruplex DNA conformations. The results obtained from the change in solvent excluded surface area (SESA) and solvent accessible surface area (SASA) also support the more pronounced binding of the ligand with the parallel propeller-type G-quadruplex DNA. PMID:25526532

  4. Altered knee joint neuromuscular control during landing from a jump in 10-15 year old children with Generalised Joint Hypermobility. A substudy of the CHAMPS-study Denmark.

    PubMed

    Junge, Tina; Wedderkopp, Niels; Thorlund, Jonas Bloch; Søgaard, Karen; Juul-Kristensen, Birgit

    2015-06-01

    Generalised Joint Hypermobility (GJH) is considered an intrinsic risk factor for knee injuries. Knee neuromuscular control during landing may be altered in GJH due to reduced passive stability. The aim was to identify differences in knee neuromuscular control during landing of the Single-Leg-Hop-for-Distance test (SLHD) in 25 children with GJH compared to 29 children without GJH (controls), all 10-15years. Inclusion criteria for GJH: Beighton score⩾5/9 and minimum one hypermobile knee. EMG was recorded from the quadriceps, the hamstring and the calf muscles, presented relative to Maximum Voluntary Electrical activity (MVE). There was no difference in jump length between groups. Before landing, GJH had 33% lower Semitendinosus, but 32% higher Gastrocnemius Medialis activity and 39% higher co contraction of the lateral knee muscles, than controls. After landing, GJH had 36% lower Semitendinosus activity than controls, all significant findings. Although the groups performed equally in SLHD, GJH had a Gastrocnemius Medialis dominated neuromuscular strategy before landing, plausibly caused by reduced Semitendinosus activity. Reduced Semitendinosus activity was seen in GJH after landing, but with no compensatory Gastrocnemius Medialis activity. Reduced pre and post-activation of the Semitendinosus may present a risk factor for traumatic knee injuries as ACL ruptures in GJH with knee hypermobility. PMID:25801907

  5. Crystal structure of chlorido-{5,10,15,20-tetra-kis-[2-(2,2-di-methyl-propanamido)-phen-yl]porphyrinato-κ(4) N}iron(III).

    PubMed

    Awasabisah, Dennis; Powell, Douglas R; Richter-Addo, George B

    2015-02-01

    The title compound, [Fe(C64H64N8O4)Cl], is a five-coordinate square-pyramidal porphyrin complex with a chloride ion in the axial position, being coordinated from the protected side of the porphyrin; the Fe(III) atom is displaced by 0.474 (5) Å from the 24-atom mean plane of the porphyrin core towards the chloride. The porphyrin moiety is a 'picket-fence' 5,10,15,20-tetra-kis-[2-(2,2-di-methyl-propanamido)-phen-yl]porph-yrinate (por) group. The Fe-Cl bond length is 2.221 (2) Å and the Fe-N(por) bond lengths are in the range 2.043 (5)-2.063 (5) Å. The supra-molecular architecture of the crystal is sustained by C-H⋯O inter-actions between the pyrrolic and phenyl H atoms of one mol-ecule and the carbonyl O atoms of the 2,2-di-methyl-propanamido groups of adjacent mol-ecules. The methyl groups of three of the four tert-butyl substituents exhibited rotational disorder over two positions. The investigated crystal was twinned by a twofold rotation about the (001) axis with a refined twin ratio of 0.4086 (16). PMID:25878847

  6. Hydrogen peroxide mediates vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression from interleukin-18-activated hepatic sinusoidal endothelium: implications for circulating cancer cell arrest in the murine liver.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, L; Carrascal, T; De Luca, M; Fuentes, A M; Salado, C; Blanco, J; Vidal-Vanaclocha, F

    2001-08-01

    The mechanism of intrasinusoidal arrest of circulating cancer cells, which is a critical step in liver metastasis, appears to be facilitated by tumor-derived proinflammatory factors that increase sinusoidal cell adhesion receptors for cancer cells. However, how this prometastatic microenvironment is up-regulated remains unknown. Using intrasplenically injected B16 melanoma (B16M) cells, we show that the expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) significantly increased in hepatic sinusoidal endothelium (HSE) cells over physiologic baseline within the first 24 hours of metastatic cancer cell infiltration in the liver. This correlated with increased in vitro adhesion of B16M cells to HSE cells isolated from B16M cell-injected mice. In vivo VCAM-1 blockade with specific antibodies before B16M cell injection decreased sinusoidal retention of luciferase-transfected B16M cells by 85%, and metastasis development by 75%, indicating that VCAM-1 expression on tumor-activated HSE cells had a prometastatic contribution. Because VCAM-1 expression is oxidative stress-inducible, recombinant catalase was in vivo administered, resulting in a complete abrogation of both VCAM-1 expression and B16M cell adhesion increases in HSE cells isolated from B16M cell-injected mice. Catalase also abrogated the proadhesive response of HSE cells to B16M-conditioned medium (B16M-CM) in vitro, although this did not affect the concomitant release of major proinflammatory cytokines by HSE cells. HSE cells treated with B16M-CM released interleukin (IL)-18 via tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha)-dependent IL-1beta in vitro. In turn, H(2)O(2) production from B16M-CM-treated HSE cells was regulated by IL-18. Thus, liver-infiltrating B16M cells activated their adhesion to HSE through a sequential process involving TNF-alpha-dependent IL-1beta, which induced IL-18 to up-regulate VCAM-1 via H(2)O(2). The pivotal position of H(2)O(2) was further supported by the fact that incubation of HSE

  7. Association of susceptibility to septic shock with platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 gene Leu125Val polymorphism and serum sPECAM-1 levels in sepsis patients.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wei; Li, Fang-Shun; Zhang, Yuan-Huai; Wang, Xiao-Ping; Wang, Chao-Rong

    2015-01-01

    Sepsis is a systemic inflammatory response to infection and includes severe sepsis, septic shock and death. Platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1) is one cell adhesion molecule expressed on platelets and leukocytes. It regulates platelet activation and mediates transendothelial migration of leukocytes, thus maintaining the integrity of the vasculature. There are some animal experiments associated with the protective role of PECAM-1 against septic shock. However few host genetic risk factors have been identified for sepsis severity and susceptibility to septic shock. A case-control study was conducted, which included 217 patients with sepsis and 90 control subjects recruited from our hospital. One single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) of PECAM-1 gene Leu125Val (C373G) was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis. Serum soluble PECAM-1 (sPECAM-1) levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Our results showed that the CG and GG genotypes of SNP in Leu125Val of PECAM-1 (rs668: C>G) was significantly associated with increased susceptibility to septic shock compared with CC genotype in sepsis patients (CG genotype, OR: 2.493, 95% CI: 1.175~5.287, P = 0.016; GG genotype: OR: 3.328, 95% CI: 1.445~7.666, P = 0.004). The serum levels of sPECAM-1 in the sepsis patients (47.1 ± 17.5 ng/ml) were significantly higher than those in the healthy controls (61.3 ± 20.9 ng/ml, P<0.01). Among sepsis patients, the serum levels of sPECAM-1 were significantly higher in CG and GG genotype than in CC genotype. In septic shock patients, nonsurvivors (83.7 ± 12.6 ng/ml, n = 69) had a significantly higher serum sPECAM-1 level than the survivors (76.9 ± 12.7 ng/ml, n = 53) (P<0.01). In conclusion, PECAM-1 Leu125Val polymorphism and its sPECAM-1 levels are associated with sepsis severity and susceptibility to septic shock. PMID:26884965

  8. The diagnostic, predictive, and prognostic role of serum epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) levels in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Karabulut, S; Tas, F; Tastekin, D; Karabulut, M; Yasasever, C T; Ciftci, R; Güveli, M; Fayda, M; Vatansever, S; Serilmez, M; Disci, R; Aydıner, A

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the clinical significance of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) in breast cancer (BC) patients. Ninety-six BC patients and 30 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were enrolled into this study. Pretreatment serum markers were determined by the solid-phase sandwich (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)). The median age at diagnosis was 48 years (range 29-80 years). Majority of the patients (71 %) had luminal subtype, and 38.5 % had metastatic disease. Twenty-nine (30 %) patients showed tumor progression, and 20 (21 %) patients died during follow-up. Median progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 8.6 ± 1.7 and 35.5 ± 1.5 months, respectively. The baseline serum EpCAM levels of the patients were significantly higher than those of the controls (p < 0.001). There was no significant difference in the serum levels of VCAM-1 between the patients and controls (p = 0.47). No significant correlation was detected between the levels of the serum markers and other clinical parameters (p > 0.05). Patients with HER-2-positive and triple-negative tumors had significantly poorer PFS (p = 0.04 and p = 0.001, respectively), while metastatic disease and chemotherapy unresponsiveness had significantly adverse effect on OS analysis (p < 0.001 and p < 0.001, respectively). Neither serum VCAM-1 levels nor serum EpCAM levels were identified to have a prognostic role on either PFS or OS (VCAM-1 p = 0.76 and p = 0.32; EpCAM p = 0.16 and p = 0.69, respectively). Even though any predictive or prognostic role could not be determined for both markers, serum levels of EpCAM were found to have diagnostic value in BC patients. PMID:24891186

  9. Association of susceptibility to septic shock with platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 gene Leu125Val polymorphism and serum sPECAM-1 levels in sepsis patients

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Wei; Li, Fang-Shun; Zhang, Yuan-Huai; Wang, Xiao-Ping; Wang, Chao-Rong

    2015-01-01

    Sepsis is a systemic inflammatory response to infection and includes severe sepsis, septic shock and death. Platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1) is one cell adhesion molecule expressed on platelets and leukocytes. It regulates platelet activation and mediates transendothelial migration of leukocytes, thus maintaining the integrity of the vasculature. There are some animal experiments associated with the protective role of PECAM-1 against septic shock. However few host genetic risk factors have been identified for sepsis severity and susceptibility to septic shock. A case-control study was conducted, which included 217 patients with sepsis and 90 control subjects recruited from our hospital. One single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) of PECAM-1 gene Leu125Val (C373G) was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis. Serum soluble PECAM-1 (sPECAM-1) levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Our results showed that the CG and GG genotypes of SNP in Leu125Val of PECAM-1 (rs668: C>G) was significantly associated with increased susceptibility to septic shock compared with CC genotype in sepsis patients (CG genotype, OR: 2.493, 95% CI: 1.175~5.287, P = 0.016; GG genotype: OR: 3.328, 95% CI: 1.445~7.666, P = 0.004). The serum levels of sPECAM-1 in the sepsis patients (47.1 ± 17.5 ng/ml) were significantly higher than those in the healthy controls (61.3 ± 20.9 ng/ml, P<0.01). Among sepsis patients, the serum levels of sPECAM-1 were significantly higher in CG and GG genotype than in CC genotype. In septic shock patients, nonsurvivors (83.7 ± 12.6 ng/ml, n = 69) had a significantly higher serum sPECAM-1 level than the survivors (76.9 ± 12.7 ng/ml, n = 53) (P<0.01). In conclusion, PECAM-1 Leu125Val polymorphism and its sPECAM-1 levels are associated with sepsis severity and susceptibility to septic shock. PMID:26884965

  10. Differential transactivation of the intercellular adhesion molecule 1 gene promoter by Tax1 and Tax2 of human T-cell leukemia viruses.

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Y; Hayashi, M; Takagi, S; Yoshie, O

    1996-01-01

    Previously, we showed that surface expression of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) was strongly upregulated in T cells carrying proviral human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) and that the viral transactivator protein Tax1 was capable of inducing the ICAM-1 gene. To determine the responsive elements in the human ICAM-1 gene promoter, a reporter construct in which the 5'-flanking 4.4-kb region of the ICAM-1 gene was linked to the promoterless chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) gene was cotransfected with expression vectors for Tax1 and Tax2, both of which were separately confirmed to be potent transactivators of the HTLV-1 long terminal repeat (LTR). Tax1 strongly activated the ICAM-1 promoter in all the cell lines tested: three T-cell lines (Jurkat, MOLT-4, and CEM), one monocytoid cell line (U937), and HeLa. Unexpectedly, Tax2 activated the ICAM-1 promoter only in HeLa. By deletion and mutation analyses of the 1.3-kb 5'-flanking region, we found that Tax1 transactivated the ICAM-1 promoter mainly via a cyclic AMP-responsive element (CRE)-like site at -630 to -624 in the Jurkat T-cell line and via an NF-kappaB site at -185 to -177 and an SP-1 site at -59 to -54 in HeLa. On the other hand, Tax2 was totally inactive on the ICAM-1 promoter in Jurkat but transactivated the promoter via the NF-kappaB site at -185 to -177 in HeLa. Gel mobility shift assays demonstrated proteins specifically binding to the CRE-like site at -630 to -624 in Tax1-expressing T-cell lines. Stable expression of Tax1 but not Tax2 in Jurkat subclones enhanced the surface expression of ICAM-1. The differential ability of Tax1 and Tax2 in transactivation of the ICAM-1 gene may be related to the differential pathogenicity of HTLV-1 and HTLV-2. PMID:8970974

  11. Expression profile of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (CD106) in inflammatory foci using rhenium-188 labelled monoclonal antibody in mice.

    PubMed

    Kairemo, K J; Strömberg, S; Nikula, T K; Karonen, S L

    1998-06-01

    Rhenium (Re)-188 is a generator (W-188/Re-188) produced high energy beta-emitter suitable for radionuclide therapy (T1/2 is 16.9 hrs and Emax 2.1 MeV (range 11 mm)). We have labelled monoclonal antibody (MAb) raised against vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) with Re-188 using glucoheptonate chelation technique and SnCl2 as reducing agent. The labelling efficiency, free perrhenate and reduced Re were controlled with thin layer chromatography and the purification of Re-188-MoAbs was performed using gel filtration. Our results indicate that Re-188-labelled antibodies remain in vitro stable and the labelling purity is > 90%. We also have applied these Re-188-MoAbs for detection of inflammatory disease in a mouse. The effective half-lives of organs of interest after an injection of Re-188-anti-VCAM1 were as follows: blood 5.2 hr, kidney 4.7 hr, and liver 9.6 hr. Re-188-anti-VCAM-1 was found to accumulate mainly in kidney and liver. One hour after the injection, the kidney contained in average as high as 12.5% and the liver 2.8 ID/g tissue. After 6 hr, the kidney contained 5.5% ID/g and the liver 2.6% ID/g. At 24 hr, the kidney uptake was 0.5% ID/g and the liver uptake 0.8% ID/g, respectively. The inflamed foci, subcutaneous lesions in the footpad skin, were visualized using gamma camera. From the distribution data the uptakes in the inflamed foci as follows: at 1 hr 2.18 (inflammation) and 1.72% ID/g (control), at 6 hr 1.42 (inflammation) and 0.85% ID/g (control), and at 24 hr 0.17 (inflammation) and 0.084% ID/g (control), respectively. Anti-VCAM-1 MAb showed better targeting as compared to control MoAbs in inflammation (caused by E.coli lipoplysaccaride). In conclusion, Re-188 is suitable for MAb labelling, and MAb against VCAM-1 may be used for detection of local inflammatory disease. PMID:9762472

  12. Ultraviolet radiation can either suppress or induce expression of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) on the surface of cultured human keratinocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Norris, D.A.; Lyons, M.B.; Middleton, M.H.; Yohn, J.J.; Kashihara-Sawami, M. )

    1990-08-01

    Interactions of the ligand/receptor pair LFA-1(CD11a/CD18) and ICAM-1(CD54) initiate and control the cell-cell interactions of leukocytes and interactions of leukocytes with parenchymal cells in all phases of the immune response. Induction of the intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) on the surface of epidermal keratinocytes has been proposed as an important regulator of contact-dependent aspects of cutaneous inflammation. Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) also modifies cutaneous inflammation, producing both up- and down-regulation of contact hypersensitivity. We have found that UVR has a biphasic effect on the induction of keratinocyte CD54. Using immunofluorescence and FACS techniques to quantitate cell-surface CD54 staining, we have shown that UVR significantly (p less than 0.01) inhibits keratinocyte CD54 induction by gamma interferon 24 h after irradiation. However, at 48, 72, and 96 h after UVR, CD54 expression is significantly induced to levels even greater than are induced by gamma interferon (20 U/ml). In addition, at 48, 72, or 96 h following UVR (30-100 mJ/cm2), the gamma-interferon-induced CD54 expression on human keratinocytes is also strongly (p less than 0.05 to p less than 0.001) enhanced. In this cell-culture system, gamma interferon and TNF-alpha are both strong CD54 inducers and are synergistic, but GM-CSF, TFG-beta, and IL-1 have no direct CD54-inducing effects. Thus the effects of UVR on CD54 induction are biphasic, producing inhibition at 24 h and induction at 48, 72, and 96 h. This effect on CD54 may contribute to the biphasic effects of UVR on delayed hypersensitivity in vivo. The early inhibition of ICAM-1 by UVR may also contribute to the therapeutic effects of UVR. We also speculate that the late induction of ICAM-1 by UVR might be an important step in the induction of photosensitive diseases such as lupus erythematosus.

  13. Specific acceptance of fetal bowel allograft in mice after combined treatment with anti-intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and leukocyte function-associated antigen-1 antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Y; Yamataka, A; Yagita, H; Okumura, K; Fujiwara, T; Miyano, T

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to see whether tolerance could be induced by simultaneous administration of monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) to intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and leukocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1) after transplantation of fetal small bowel between fully incompatible mice strains. METHODS: Fetal small bowel from either BALB/c (H-2d) or C3H/He (H-2k) mice was transplanted into the space between the peritoneum and rectus abdominis of adult C3H/He recipient mice. Syngeneic (n = 6) and two allogeneic transplant groups were made. In one of the allogeneic groups (n = 8), no immunosuppressant was given. In the other allogeneic group (n = 13), both anti-LFA-1 and anti-ICAM-1 MoAbs (50 micrograms each/mouse/day) were given intraperitoneally after transplantation for the first 4 weeks. In the syngeneic and untreated allogeneic groups, all mice were killed 4 weeks after transplantation. In the treated allogeneic group, eight mice were killed 6 weeks after cessation of the MoAb treatment. At the time the mice were killed, the bowel graft as well as the recipient spleen were taken for histologic analysis and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) assay, respectively. Each mouse in the remaining treated five mice was transplanted with BALB/c and C57BL/6 (as third-party) full-thickness skin simultaneously 8 weeks after cessation of the MoAb treatment. RESULTS: All grafts in the syngeneic group survived with normally developing villi, whereas all grafts in the untreated allogeneic group disappeared. In the treated allogeneic group, all allografts developed normal mucosa without any sign of rejection. Splenocytes from the recipient mice in the untreated allogeneic group showed increased CTL induction against donor-type alloantigen (p < 0.005), compared with that in the syngeneic group. Suppressed CTL induction against donor-type alloantigen was observed in the treated allografted recipient (p < 0.001), whereas CTL induction against third

  14. Crystal structure of (4-cyano­pyridine-κN){5,10,15,20-tetrakis[4-(benzoyloxy)phenyl]porphyrinato-κ4 N}zinc–4-cyano­pyridine (1/1)

    PubMed Central

    Nasri, Soumaya; Amiri, Nesrine; Turowska-Tyrk, Ilona; Daran, Jean-Claude; Nasri, Habib

    2016-01-01

    In the title compound, [Zn(C72H44N4O8)(C6H4N2)]·C6H4N2 or [Zn(TPBP)(4-CNpy]·(4-CNpy) [where TPBP and 4-CNpy are 5,10,15,20-(tetra­phenyl­benzoate)porphyrinate and 4-cyano­pyridine, respectively], the ZnII cation is chelated by four pyrrole-N atoms of the porphyrinate anion and coordinated by a pyridyl-N atom of the 4-CNpy axial ligand in a distorted square-pyramidal geometry. The average Zn—N(pyrrole) bond length is 2.060 (6) Å and the Zn—N(4-CNpy) bond length is 2.159 (2) Å. The zinc cation is displaced by 0.319 (1) Å from the N4C20 mean plane of the porphyrinate anion toward the 4-cyano­pyridine axial ligand. This porphyrinate macrocycle exhibits major saddle and moderate ruffling and doming deformations. In the crystal, the [Zn(TPBP)(4-CNpy)] complex mol­ecules are linked together via weak C—H⋯N, C—H⋯O and C—H⋯π inter­actions, forming supra­molecular channels parallel to the c axis. The non-coordinating 4-cyano­pyridine mol­ecules are located in the channels and linked with the complex mol­ecules, via weak C—H⋯N inter­actions and π-π stacking or via weak C—H⋯O and C—H⋯π inter­actions. The non-coordinating 4-cyano­pyridine mol­ecule is disordered over two positions with an occupancy ratio of 0.666 (4):0.334 (4). PMID:26958379

  15. Potassium monopersulfate oxidation of 2,4,6-tribromophenol catalyzed by a SiO2-supported iron(III)-5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-carboxyphenyl)porphyrin.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Qianqian; Mizutani, Yusuke; Maeno, Shohei; Nishimoto, Ryo; Miyamoto, Takafumi; Fukushima, Masami

    2013-01-01

    Iron(III)-porphyrin complexes are generally regarded as green catalysts, since they mimic the catalytic center of cytochrome-P450 and widely used as green catalysts for degrading halogenated phenols in wastewater, such as landfill leachates. However, iron(III)-porphyrins are deactivated by self-oxidation in the presence of an oxygen donor, such as KHSO5. In the present study, to enhance the reusability of an iron(III)-porphyrin catalyst, iron(III)-5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-carboxyphenyl) porphyrin (FeTCPP) was immobilized on a functionalized silica gel. The oxidative degradation of 2,4,6-tribromophenol (TrBP), a widely used brominated flame retardant that is found in landfill leachates, was examined using the prepared catalyst. In addition, the influence of humic substances (HSs), major components of leachates, on the TrBP oxidation was investigated. Concerning the effect of pH, more than 90% of the TrBP was degraded in the pH range of 3-8 in the absence of HS, while the optimal pH for the reaction was in the range of pH 5-7 in the presence of HS. Although the oxidation of TrBP was inhibited in the presence of HSs, more than 90% of the TrBP was degraded in the presence of 50 mg L(-1) of HS. Thus, the prepared catalyst, SiO2-FeTCPP, showed a high catalytic activity and could be reused up to 10 times even in the presence of HS. PMID:23947696

  16. Hole transporting material 5, 10, 15-tribenzyl-5H-diindolo[3, 2-a:3‧, 2‧-c]-carbazole for efficient optoelectronic applications as an active layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yan-Qiong; J. Potscavage, William, Jr.; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Wei, Bin; Huang, Rong-Juan

    2015-02-01

    In order to explore the novel application of the transparent hole-transporting material 5,10,15-tribenzyl-5H-diindolo[3,2-a:3‧,2‧-c]-carbazole (TBDI), in this article TBDI is used as an active layer but not a buffer layer in a photodetector (PD), organic light-emitting diode (OLED), and organic photovoltaic cell (OPV) for the first time. Firstly, the absorption and emission spectra of a blend layer comprised of TBDI and electron-transporting material bis-(2-methyl-8-quinolinate) 4-phenylphenolate (BAlq) are investigated. Based on the absorption properties, an organic PD with a peak absorption at 320 nm is fabricated, and a relatively-high detectivity of 2.44 × 1011 cm·Hz1/2/W under 320-nm illumination is obtained. The TBDI/tris (8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq3) OLED device exhibits a comparable external quantum efficiency and current efficiency to a traditional 4, 4-bis[N-(1-naphthyl)-N-phenyl-amino]biphenyl (α-NPD)/Alq3 OLED. A C70-based Schottky junction with 5 wt%-TBDI yields a power conversion efficiency of 5.0%, which is much higher than 1.7% for an α-NPD-based junction in the same configuration. These results suggest that TBDI has some promising properties which are in favor of the hole-transporting in Schottky junctions with a low-concentration donor. Project supported by the Funding Program for World-Leading Innovative R & D on Science and Technology (FIRST) from JSPS, the Fund from the Science and Technology Commission of Shanghai Municipality, China (Grant Nos. 14DZ2280900 and 14XD1401800), and the Natural Science Foundation of Shanghai (Grant No. 15ZR1416600).

  17. Crystal structure of an unknown solvate of (piperazine-κN){5,10,15,20-tetra­kis­[4-(benzo­yloxy)phen­yl]porphyrinato-κ4 N}zinc

    PubMed Central

    Nasri, Soumaya; Ezzayani, Khaireddine; Turowska-Tyrk, Ilona; Roisnel, Thierry; Nasri, Habib

    2016-01-01

    The title compound, [Zn(C72H44N4O8)(C4H10N2)] or [Zn(TPBP)(pipz] (where TPBP and pipz are 5,10,15,20-tetra­kis­[4-(benzo­yloxy)phen­yl]porphyrinato and piperazine ligands respectively), features a distorted square-pyramidal coordin­ation geometry about the central ZnII atom. This central atom is chelated by the four N atoms of the porphyrinate anion and further coordinated by a nitro­gen atom of the piperazine axial ligand, which adopts a chair confirmation. The average Zn—N(pyrrole) bond length is 2.078 (7) Å and the Zn— N(pipz) bond length is 2.1274 (19) Å. The zinc cation is displaced by 0.4365 (4) Å from the N4C20 mean plane of the porphyrinate anion toward the piperazine axial ligand. This porphyrinate macrocycle exhibits major saddle and moderate ruffling deformations. In the crystal, the supra­molecular structure is made by parallel pairs of layers along (100), with an inter­layer distance of 4.100 Å while the distance between two pairs of layers is 4.047 Å. A region of electron density was treated with the SQUEEZE [Spek (2015 ▸). Acta Cryst. C71, 9–18] procedure in PLATON following unsuccessful attempts to model it as being part of disordered n-hexane solvent and water mol­ecules. The given chemical formula and other crystal data do not take into account these solvent mol­ecules. PMID:27555935

  18. Crystal structure of an unknown solvate of (piperazine-κN){5,10,15,20-tetra-kis-[4-(benzo-yloxy)phen-yl]porphyrinato-κ(4) N}zinc.

    PubMed

    Nasri, Soumaya; Ezzayani, Khaireddine; Turowska-Tyrk, Ilona; Roisnel, Thierry; Nasri, Habib

    2016-07-01

    The title compound, [Zn(C72H44N4O8)(C4H10N2)] or [Zn(TPBP)(pipz] (where TPBP and pipz are 5,10,15,20-tetra-kis-[4-(benzo-yloxy)phen-yl]porphyrinato and piperazine ligands respectively), features a distorted square-pyramidal coordin-ation geometry about the central Zn(II) atom. This central atom is chelated by the four N atoms of the porphyrinate anion and further coordinated by a nitro-gen atom of the piperazine axial ligand, which adopts a chair confirmation. The average Zn-N(pyrrole) bond length is 2.078 (7) Å and the Zn- N(pipz) bond length is 2.1274 (19) Å. The zinc cation is displaced by 0.4365 (4) Å from the N4C20 mean plane of the porphyrinate anion toward the piperazine axial ligand. This porphyrinate macrocycle exhibits major saddle and moderate ruffling deformations. In the crystal, the supra-molecular structure is made by parallel pairs of layers along (100), with an inter-layer distance of 4.100 Å while the distance between two pairs of layers is 4.047 Å. A region of electron density was treated with the SQUEEZE [Spek (2015 ▸). Acta Cryst. C71, 9-18] procedure in PLATON following unsuccessful attempts to model it as being part of disordered n-hexane solvent and water mol-ecules. The given chemical formula and other crystal data do not take into account these solvent mol-ecules. PMID:27555935

  19. Crystal structure of (4-cyano-pyridine-κN){5,10,15,20-tetrakis[4-(benzoyloxy)phenyl]porphyrinato-κ(4) N}zinc-4-cyano-pyridine (1/1).

    PubMed

    Nasri, Soumaya; Amiri, Nesrine; Turowska-Tyrk, Ilona; Daran, Jean-Claude; Nasri, Habib

    2016-02-01

    In the title compound, [Zn(C72H44N4O8)(C6H4N2)]·C6H4N2 or [Zn(TPBP)(4-CNpy]·(4-CNpy) [where TPBP and 4-CNpy are 5,10,15,20-(tetra-phenyl-benzoate)porphyrinate and 4-cyano-pyridine, respectively], the Zn(II) cation is chelated by four pyrrole-N atoms of the porphyrinate anion and coordinated by a pyridyl-N atom of the 4-CNpy axial ligand in a distorted square-pyramidal geometry. The average Zn-N(pyrrole) bond length is 2.060 (6) Å and the Zn-N(4-CNpy) bond length is 2.159 (2) Å. The zinc cation is displaced by 0.319 (1) Å from the N4C20 mean plane of the porphyrinate anion toward the 4-cyano-pyridine axial ligand. This porphyrinate macrocycle exhibits major saddle and moderate ruffling and doming deformations. In the crystal, the [Zn(TPBP)(4-CNpy)] complex mol-ecules are linked together via weak C-H⋯N, C-H⋯O and C-H⋯π inter-actions, forming supra-molecular channels parallel to the c axis. The non-coordinating 4-cyano-pyridine mol-ecules are located in the channels and linked with the complex mol-ecules, via weak C-H⋯N inter-actions and π-π stacking or via weak C-H⋯O and C-H⋯π inter-actions. The non-coordinating 4-cyano-pyridine mol-ecule is disordered over two positions with an occupancy ratio of 0.666 (4):0.334 (4). PMID:26958379

  20. INO-4885 [5,10,15,20-tetra[N-(benzyl-4'-carboxylate)-2-pyridinium]-21H,23H-porphine iron(III) chloride], a peroxynitrite decomposition catalyst, protects the heart against reperfusion injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Xiang-Ying; Gao, Erhe; Yuan, Yuexin; Wang, Yajing; Lau, Wayne Bond; Koch, Walter; Ma, Xin-Liang; Tao, Ling

    2009-03-01

    Oxidative/nitrative stress caused by peroxynitrite, the reaction product of superoxide (O2(.-)) and nitric oxide (NO), is the primary cause of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury. The present study determined whether INO-4885 [5,10,15,20-tetra[N-(benzyl-4'-carboxylate)-2-pyridinium]-21H,23H-porphine iron(III) chloride], a new peroxynitrite decomposition catalyst, may provide cellular protection and protect heart from myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury. Adult male mice were subjected to 30 min of ischemia and 3 or 24 h of reperfusion. Mice were randomized to receive vehicle, INO-4885 without catalytic moiety, or INO-4885 (3-300 microg/kg i.p.) 10 min before reperfusion. Infarct size, apoptosis, nitrotyrosine content, NO/O2(.-) production, and inducible nitric-oxide synthase (iNOS)/NADPH oxidase expression were determined. INO-4885 treatment reduced ischemia/reperfusion-induced protein nitration and caspase 3 activation in a dose-dependent fashion in the range of 3 to 100 microg/kg. However, doses exceeding 100 microg/kg produced nonspecific effects and attenuated its protective ability. At the optimal dose (30 microg/kg), INO-4885 significantly reduced infarct size (p < 0.01), decreased apoptosis (p < 0.01), and reduced tissue nitrotyrosine content (p < 0.01). As expected, INO-4885 had no effect on ischemia/reperfusion-induced iNOS expression and NO overproduction. To our surprise, this compound significantly reduced superoxide production and partially blocked NADPH oxidase overexpression in the ischemic/reperfused cardiac tissue. Additional experiments demonstrated that INO-4885 provided better cardioprotection than N-(3-(aminomethyl)benzyl)acetamidine (1400W, a selective iNOS inhibitor), apocynin (an NADPH oxidase inhibitor), or Tiron (a cell-permeable superoxide scavenger). Taken together, our data demonstrated that INO-4885 is a cardioprotective molecule that attenuates myocardial reperfusion injury by facilitating peroxynitrite decomposition and

  1. Effective exciton blocking by the hole-transporting material 5,10,15-tribenzyl-5H-diindolo[3,2-a:3‧,2‧-c]-carbazole (TBDI) in the tetraphenyldibenzoperiflanthene (DBP) based organic photovoltaic cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jing; Yang, Fang; Zheng, Yanqiong; Wei, Bin; Zhang, Xiaowen; Zhang, Jianhua; Wang, Zixing; Pu, Wenhong; Yang, Changzhu

    2015-12-01

    To explore the novel application of the hole-transporting material (HTM) as exciton blocking layer (EBL) in small molecule organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells, we introduce a recently reported HTM, 5,10,15-tribenzyl-5H-diindolo[3,2-a:3‧,2‧-c]-carbazole (TBDI), and the other two traditional HTMs, N,N‧-diphenyl-N,N‧-bis(1-naphthyl)-1,1‧-biphenyl-4,4‧-diamine (NPB) and 1,1‧-bis(di-4-tolylaminophenyl) cyclohexane (TAPC), to serve as EBLs in the tetraphenyldibenzoperiflanthene (DBP) based planar heterojunction cells. Due to the large band gap of these materials, the EBLs successfully block the misdirected electrons. The optimized devices including the EBLs of TBDI, NPB and TAPC achieve power conversion efficiency (ηPCE) of 1.70%, 1.33%, and 1.33%, respectively, whereas the control device without any EBL shows a ηPCE of only 1.25%. The optical simulation indicates that the maximum optical electric fields for the PHJs including 10-nm EBLs at the wavelength of 610 nm are significantly enhanced relative to that for the 20-nm DBP based control device. By impedance spectroscopy measurement, the device with TBDI EBL shows lower series resistance and total resistance than the device without TBDI, suggesting fast internal carrier mobility and smaller carrier recombination. The novel HTM TBDI better contributes to the device performance relative to the other two HTMs, stemming from its shallower lowest unoccupied molecule orbits (LUMO) level, stronger prevention of exciton quenching, and a smoother TBDI/DBP surface. These results suggest that TBDI is an excellent candidate as EBL for the DBP based OPVs. The overall ηPCE is further enhanced via optimizing the cathode buffer.

  2. Investigation of the interactions between Pt(II) and Pd(II) derivatives of 5,10,15,20-tetrakis (N-methyl-4-pyridyl) porphyrin and G-quadruplex DNA.

    PubMed

    Sabharwal, Navin C; Mendoza, Oscar; Nicoludis, John M; Ruan, Thomas; Mergny, Jean-Louis; Yatsunyk, Liliya A

    2016-04-01

    G-quadruplexes are non-canonical DNA structures formed by guanine-rich DNA sequences that are implicated in cancer and aging. Understanding how small molecule ligands interact with quadruplexes is essential both to the development of novel anticancer therapeutics and to the design of new quadruplex-selective probes needed for elucidation of quadruplex biological functions. In this work, UV-visible, fluorescence, and circular dichroism spectroscopies, fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) melting assays, and resonance light scattering were used to investigate how the Pt(II) and Pd(II) derivatives of the well-studied 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(N-methyl-4-pyridyl)porphyrin (TMPyP4) interact with quadruplexes formed by the human telomeric DNA, Tel22, and by the G-rich sequences from oncogene promoters. Our results suggest that Pt- and PdTMPyP4 interact with Tel22 via efficient π-π stacking with a binding affinity of 10(6)-10(7) M(-1). Under porphyrin excess, PtTMPyP4 aggregates using Tel22 as a template; the aggregates reach maximum size at [PtTMPyP4]/[Tel22] ~8 and dissolve at [PtTMPyP4]/[Tel22] ≤ 2. FRET assays reveal that both porphyrins are excellent stabilizers of human telomeric DNA, with stabilization temperature of 30.7 ± 0.6 °C for PtTMPyP4 and 30.9 ± 0.4 °C for PdTMPyP4 at [PtTMPyP4]/[Tel22] = 2 in K(+) buffer, values significantly higher as compared to those for TMPyP4. The porphyrins display modest selectivity for quadruplex vs. duplex DNA, with selectivity ratios of 150 and 330 for Pt- and PdTMPyP4, respectively. This selectivity was confirmed by observed 'light switch' effect: fluorescence of PtTMPyP4 increases significantly in the presence of a variety of DNA secondary structures, yet the strongest effect is produced by quadruplex DNA. PMID:26748794

  3. Transient formation of the oxo-iron(IV) porphyrin radical cation during the reaction of iron(III) tetrakis-5,10,15,20-(N-methyl-4-pyridyl)porphyrin with hydrogen peroxide in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Saha, Tapan Kumar; Karmaker, Subarna; Tamagake, Keietsu

    2003-01-01

    The reaction of iron(III) tetrakis-5,10,15,20-(N-methyl-4-pyridyl)porphyrin (Fe(III)TMPyP) with hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and the catalytic activity of the reaction intermediates on the luminescent peroxidation of luminol in aqueous solution were studied by using a double-mixing stopped-flow system. The observed luminescence intensities showed biphasic decay depending on the conditions. The initial flashlight decayed within <1 s followed by a sustained emission for more than 30 s. Computer deconvolution of the time-resolved absorption spectra under the same conditions revealed that the initial flashlight appeared during the formation of the oxo-iron(IV) porphyrin, TMPyPFe(IV) = O, which is responsible for the sustained emission. The absorption spectra 0.0-0.5 s did not reproduce well by a simple combination of the two spectra of Fe(III)TMPyP and TMPyPFe(IV) = O, indicating that transient species was formed at the initial stage. Addition of uric acid (UA) caused a significant delay in the initiation of the luminol emission as well as in the formation of the TMPyPFe(IV) = O. Both of them were completely diminished in the presence of UA equimolar with H(2)O(2), while mannitol had no effect at all. The delay of the light emission as well as the appearance of TMPyPFe(IV) = O was directly proportional to the [UA](0) but other kinetic profiles were not changed significantly. Based on these observations and the kinetic analysis, we confirmed the involvement of the oxo-iron(IV) porphyrin radical cation, (TMPyP)(.+)Fe(IV) = O, as an obligatory intermediate in the rate-determining step of the overall reaction, Fe(III)TMPyP + H(2)O(2) --> TMPyPFe(IV) = O, with a rate constant of k = 4.3 x 10(4)/mol/L/s. The rate constants for the reaction between the (TMPyP)(.+)Fe(IV) = O and luminol, and between the TMPyPFe(IV) = O and luminol were estimated to be 3.6 x 10(6)/mol/L/s and 1.31 x 10(4)/mol/L/s, respectively. PMID:12701092

  4. Excitotoxic brain damage involves early peroxynitrite formation in a model of Huntington's disease in rats: protective role of iron porphyrinate 5,10,15,20-tetrakis (4-sulfonatophenyl)porphyrinate iron (III).

    PubMed

    Pérez-De La Cruz, V; González-Cortés, C; Galván-Arzate, S; Medina-Campos, O N; Pérez-Severiano, F; Ali, S F; Pedraza-Chaverrí, J; Santamaría, A

    2005-01-01

    Oxidative/nitrosative stress is involved in NMDA receptor-mediated excitotoxic brain damage produced by the glutamate analog quinolinic acid. The purpose of this work was to study a possible role of peroxynitrite, a reactive oxygen/nitrogen species, in the course of excitotoxic events evoked by quinolinic acid in the brain. The effects of Fe(TPPS) (5,10,15,20-tetrakis (4-sulfonatophenyl)porphyrinate iron (III)), an iron porphyrinate and putative peroxynitrite decomposition catalyst, were tested on lipid peroxidation and mitochondrial function in brain synaptic vesicles exposed to quinolinic acid, as well as on peroxynitrite formation, nitric oxide synthase and superoxide dismutase activities, lipid peroxidation, caspase-3-like activation, DNA fragmentation, and GABA levels in striatal tissue from rats lesioned by quinolinic acid. Circling behavior was also evaluated. Increasing concentrations of Fe(TPPS) reduced lipid peroxidation and mitochondrial dysfunction induced by quinolinic acid (100 microM) in synaptic vesicles in a concentration-dependent manner (10-800 microM). In addition, Fe(TPPS) (10 mg/kg, i.p.) administered 2 h before the striatal lesions, prevented the formation of peroxynitrite, the increased nitric oxide synthase activity, the decreased superoxide dismutase activity and the increased lipid peroxidation induced by quinolinic acid (240 nmol/microl) 120 min after the toxin infusion. Enhanced caspase-3-like activity and DNA fragmentation were also reduced by the porphyrinate 24 h after the injection of the excitotoxin. Circling behavior from quinolinic acid-treated rats was abolished by Fe(TPPS) six days after quinolinic acid injection, while the striatal levels of GABA, measured one day later, were partially recovered. The protective effects that Fe(TPPS) exerted on quinolinic acid-induced lipid peroxidation and mitochondrial dysfunction in synaptic vesicles suggest a primary action of the porphyrinate as an antioxidant molecule. In vivo findings

  5. Atmospheric lifetimes, infrared spectra and degradation products of a series of hydrofluoroethers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavalli, F.; Glasius, M.; Hjorth, J.; Rindone, B.; Jensen, N. R.

    The rate constants of the reactions between the OH radical and a series of hydrofluoroethers (HFE) have been measured. The reaction of OH with CHF 2OCF 2OCHF 2 (1), CHF 2OCF 2CF 2OCHF 2 (2), CHF 2OCF 2CF 2OCF 2OCHF 2 (3) and CH 3OC 4F 9 (4) were investigated at 295±3 K and 740±5 Torr total pressure. The following values of the rate constants were determined for the reaction with the OH radical: k1=(2.4±0.7)×10 -15 cm 3 molecule -1 s -1, k2=(4.7±1.6)×10 -15 cm 3 molecule -1 s -1, k3=(4.6±1.6)×10 -15 cm 3 molecule -1 s -1 and k4=(7.2±1.6)×10 -15 cm 3 molecule -1 s -1. (All values are given with 2 σ uncertainties). Infrared spectra were obtained for all four HFEs in the range from 600 to 4000 cm -1 (3 to 17 μm), with the following IBI-values (integrated band intensities): IBI 1= (5.19±0.23)×10 -16 cm molecule -1 for the 978-1584 cm -1 band, IBI 2=(6.04±0.13)×10 -16 cm molecule -1 for the 930-1501 cm -1 band, IBI 3=(8.49±0.34)×10 -16 cm molecule -1 from the 963-1587 cm -1 band and IBI 4=(4.23±0.14)×10 -16 cm molecule -1 for the 845-1428 cm -1 band. Carbonyl fluoride, CF 2O, was the only fluorine-containing degradation product that was found from the Cl atom-initiated reactions of both CHF 2OCF 2OCF 2CF 2OCHF 2 and CH 3OC 4F 9, with measured product yields of 60-97% and 20-40% (based on carbon atoms), respectively. Due to the high uptake parameter of CF 2O to liquid water, its lifetime in the atmosphere is very short (with an upper limit between 15 and 30 d). It is rapidly incorporated into raindrops/aerosols, where it eventually degrades to HF and CO 2. The GWP of CF 2O is therefore negligible compared to those of CFC-11 and CFC-12.

  6. Determination of the number of detergent molecules associated with the reaction center protein isolated from the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas viridis. Effects of the amphiphilic molecule 1,2,3-heptanetriol.

    PubMed

    Gast, P; Hemelrijk, P; Hoff, A J

    1994-01-01

    Detergent-free reaction center (RC) proteins from the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas viridis were obtained using Bio-Beads SM-2. With these RCs, the amount of detergent molecules associated with the protein was measured by determining the detergent concentration at which re-solubilization occurred as a function of the RC concentration. For N,N-dimethyl dodecylamine-N-oxide (LDAO), Triton X-100 and beta-octylglucoside 260 +/- 30,105 +/- 10 and 360 +/- 100 detergent molecules were necessary to dissolve the protein, respectively. With this technique we have studied the effect of the amphiphilic molecule 1,2,3-heptanetriol, which is essential in the crystallization process of these RCs. Addition of 5% 1,2,3-heptanetriol reduces the value for LDAO to 120 +/- 20 LDAO/RC, supporting the notion that crystallization of the RCs is promoted by increasing the number of protein-protein contacts. PMID:8276109

  7. 46 CFR 105.10-15 - Flammable liquid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... vapor pressure of 14 pounds or more. 1 American Society of Testing Materials Standard D 323 (incorporated by reference, see § 105.01-3) (most recent revision), Method of Test for Vapor Pressure of Petroleum Products (Reid Method). (2) Grade B. Any flammable liquid having a Reid 1 vapor pressure under...

  8. 46 CFR 105.10-15 - Flammable liquid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... vapor pressure of 14 pounds or more. 1 American Society of Testing Materials Standard D 323 (incorporated by reference, see § 105.01-3) (most recent revision), Method of Test for Vapor Pressure of Petroleum Products (Reid Method). (2) Grade B. Any flammable liquid having a Reid 1 vapor pressure under...

  9. 46 CFR 105.10-15 - Flammable liquid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... vapor pressure of 14 pounds or more. 1 American Society of Testing Materials Standard D 323 (incorporated by reference, see § 105.01-3) (most recent revision), Method of Test for Vapor Pressure of Petroleum Products (Reid Method). (2) Grade B. Any flammable liquid having a Reid 1 vapor pressure under...

  10. 43 CFR 10.15 - Limitations and remedies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... remains, funerary objects, sacred objects, or objects of cultural patrimony is deemed to have irrevocably... prior to the time the particular human remains, funerary objects, sacred objects, or objects of cultural... to these regulations. (2) If there is more than one (1) claimant, the human remains, funerary...

  11. 46 CFR 34.10-15 - Piping-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT Fire Main System, Details... on either side of the vessel. (e) For tankships on an international voyage, the diameter of the fire main shall be sufficient for the effective distribution of the maximum required discharge from two...

  12. 43 CFR 10.15 - Limitations and remedies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ....15 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NATIVE AMERICAN GRAVES PROTECTION... of a lineal descendant, Indian tribe, or Native Hawaiian organization for repatriation or disposition... objects, sacred objects, or objects of cultural patrimony to Indian tribes, Native Hawaiian...

  13. 43 CFR 10.15 - Limitations and remedies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ....15 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NATIVE AMERICAN GRAVES PROTECTION... of a lineal descendant, Indian tribe, or Native Hawaiian organization for repatriation or disposition... objects, sacred objects, or objects of cultural patrimony to Indian tribes, Native Hawaiian...

  14. 43 CFR 10.15 - Limitations and remedies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ....15 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NATIVE AMERICAN GRAVES PROTECTION... Native Hawaiian organization for repatriation or disposition of human remains, funerary objects, sacred... patrimony to Indian tribes, Native Hawaiian organizations, or individuals; and (ii) Enter into any...

  15. 43 CFR 10.15 - Limitations and remedies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ....15 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NATIVE AMERICAN GRAVES PROTECTION... Native Hawaiian organization for repatriation or disposition of human remains, funerary objects, sacred... patrimony to Indian tribes, Native Hawaiian organizations, or individuals; and (ii) Enter into any...

  16. 33 CFR 49.10-15 - Final accounting by trustee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Final accounting by trustee. 49... Final accounting by trustee. The trustee or trustees, when payments, hereunder are terminated, shall... and the surety released. In event of death or disability of the trustee, the final accounting will...

  17. 33 CFR 49.10-15 - Final accounting by trustee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Final accounting by trustee. 49... Final accounting by trustee. The trustee or trustees, when payments, hereunder are terminated, shall... and the surety released. In event of death or disability of the trustee, the final accounting will...

  18. Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1)-induced syncytium formation mediated by vascular cell adhesion molecule-1: evidence for involvement of cell adhesion molecules in HTLV-1 biology.

    PubMed Central

    Hildreth, J E; Subramanium, A; Hampton, R A

    1997-01-01

    While studying the potential role of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) in infection of endothelial cells by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), we found that VCAM-1 can mediate human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1)-induced syncytium formation. Both expression-vector-encoded and endogenously expressed VCAM-1 supported fusion of uninfected cells with HTLV-1-infected cells. Fusion was obtained with cell lines carrying the HTLV-1 genome and expressing viral proteins but not with an HTLV-1-transformed cell line that does not express viral proteins. In clones of VCAM-1-transfected cells, the degree of syncytium formation observed directly reflected the level of VCAM-1 expression. Syncytium formation between HTLV-1-expressing cells and VCAM-1+ cells could be blocked with antiserum against HTLV-1 gp46 and with a monoclonal antibody (MAb) against VCAM-1. Fusion was not blocked by antiserum against HIV or a MAb against VLA-4, the physiological counter-receptor for VCAM-1. The results indicate that VCAM-1 can serve as an accessory molecule or potential coreceptor for HTLV-1-induced cell fusion and provide direct evidence of a role for cell adhesion molecules in the biology of HTLV-1. PMID:8995639

  19. Small GTPase Rho signaling is involved in {beta}1 integrin-mediated up-regulation of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 and receptor activator of nuclear factor {kappa}B ligand on osteoblasts and osteoclast maturation

    SciTech Connect

    Hirai, Fumihiko; Nakayamada, Shingo; Okada, Yosuke; Saito, Kazuyoshi; Kurose, Hitoshi; Mogami, Akira; Tanaka, Yoshiya . E-mail: tanaka@med.uoeh-u.ac.jp

    2007-04-27

    We assessed the characteristics of human osteoblasts, focusing on small GTPase Rho signaling. {beta}1 Integrin were highly expressed on osteoblasts. Engagement of {beta}1 integrins by type I collagen augmented expression of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and receptor activator of nuclear factor {kappa}B ligand (RANKL) on osteoblasts. Rho was activated by {beta}1 stimulation in osteoblasts. {beta}1 Integrin-induced up-regulation of ICAM-1 and RANKL was inhibited by transfection with adenoviruses encoding C3 transferase or pretreated with Y-27632, specific Rho and Rho-kinase inhibitors. Engagement of {beta}1 integrin on osteoblasts induced formation of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive multinuclear cells (MNC) in a coculture system of osteoblasts and peripheral monocytes, but this action was completely abrogated by transfection of C3 transferase. Our results indicate the direct involvement of Rho-mediated signaling in {beta}1 integrin-induced up-regulation of ICAM-1 and RANKL and RANKL-dependent osteoclast maturation. Thus, Rho-mediated signaling in osteoblasts seems to introduce major biases to bone resorption.

  20. α4-Integrin Antibody Treatment Blocks Monocyte/Macrophage Traffic to, Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 Expression in, and Pathology of the Dorsal Root Ganglia in an SIV Macaque Model of HIV-Peripheral Neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Lakritz, Jessica R; Thibault, Derek M; Robinson, Jake A; Campbell, Jennifer H; Miller, Andrew D; Williams, Kenneth C; Burdo, Tricia H

    2016-07-01

    Traffic of activated monocytes into the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) is critical for pathology in HIV peripheral neuropathy. We have shown that accumulation of recently recruited (bromodeoxyuridine(+) MAC387(+)) monocytes is associated with severe DRG pathology and loss of intraepidermal nerve fibers in SIV-infected macaques. Herein, we blocked leukocyte traffic by treating animals with natalizumab, which binds to α4-integrins. SIV-infected CD8-depleted macaques treated with natalizumab either early (the day of infection) or late (28 days after infection) were compared with untreated SIV-infected animals sacrificed at similar times. Histopathology showed diminished DRG pathology with natalizumab treatment, including decreased inflammation, neuronophagia, and Nageotte nodules. Natalizumab treatment resulted in a decrease in the number of bromodeoxyuridine(+) (early), MAC387(+) (late), CD68(+) (early and late), and SIVp28(+) (late) macrophages in DRG tissues. The number of CD3(+) T lymphocytes in DRGs was not affected by natalizumab treatment. Vascular cell adhesion molecule 1, an adhesion molecule that mediates leukocyte traffic, was diminished in DRGs of all natalizumab-treated animals. These data show that blocking monocyte, but not T lymphocyte, traffic to the DRG results in decreased inflammation and pathology, supporting a role for monocyte traffic and activation in HIV peripheral neuropathy. PMID:27157989

  1. Suppression of development of glomerulonephritis in NZB x NZWF1 mice by persistent infection with lactic dehydrogenase virus: relations between intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression on endothelial cells and leucocyte accumulation in glomeruli.

    PubMed Central

    Kameyama, Y.; Hayashi, T.

    1994-01-01

    The development of glomerulonephritis (GN) in autoimmune NZB x NZWF1 mice was suppressed by persistent lactic dehydrogenase virus (LDV) infection. In this study the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) on endothelial cells in glomeruli was examined during the development of GN. ICAM-1 expression on endothelial cells preceded the accumulation of leucocytes within glomeruli. The uninfected mice exhibited an age-related and profound increase in ICAM-1 expression associated with the development of a GN as evidenced by deposits of IgG and C3. Uninfected mice also showed increased accumulation of leucocytes, such as polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMNs), macrophages, T and CD4+ cells, which express the lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1) within glomeruli during the development of GN. These changes were strongly suppressed by LDV infection. Our findings suggest that the expression of ICAM-1 in glomerular endothelial cells may, at least in part, contribute to the development of GN. Suppressed expression of ICAM-1 in LDV-infected mice may be responsible for the suppression of GN seen in these animals. Thus there may be a pathogenetic role for ICAM-1 expression and for intraglomerular accumulation of leucocytes, especially PMNs, which express LFA-1 in the development of GN. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 7 Figure 9 Figure 11 PMID:7947231

  2. Scaling of dynamic thermoelectric harvesting devices in the 1-100 cm3 range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiziroglou, M. E.; Elefsiniotis, A.; Kokorakis, N.; Wright, S. W.; Toh, T. T.; Mitcheson, P. D.; Schmid, U.; Becker, Th.; Yeatman, E. M.

    2015-05-01

    Aircraft sensors are typically cable powered, imposing a significant weight overhead. The exploitation of temperature variations during flight by a phase change material (PCM) based heat storage thermoelectric energy harvester, as an alternative power source in aeronautical applications, has recently been flight tested. In this work, a scaled-down and a scaled-up prototype are presented. Output energy of 4.1 J per gram of PCM from a typical flight cycle is demonstrated for the scaled-down device, and 3.2 J per gram of PCM for the scaled-up device. The observed performance improvement with scaling down is attributed to the reduction in temperature inhomogeneity inside the PCM. As an application demonstrator for dynamic thermoelectric harvesting devices, the output of a thermoelectric module is used to directly power a microcontroller for the generation of a pulse width modulation signal.

  3. Fer and Fps/Fes participate in a Lyn-dependent pathway from FcepsilonRI to platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1 to limit mast cell activation.

    PubMed

    Udell, Christian M; Samayawardhena, Lionel A; Kawakami, Yuko; Kawakami, Toshiaki; Craig, Andrew W B

    2006-07-28

    Mast cells express the high affinity IgE receptor FcepsilonRI, which upon aggregation by multivalent antigens elicits signals that cause rapid changes within the mast cell and in the surrounding tissue. We previously showed that FcepsilonRI aggregation caused a rapid increase in phosphorylation of both Fer and Fps/Fes kinases in bone marrow-derived mast cells. In this study, we report that FcepsilonRI aggregation leads to increased Fer/Fps kinase activities and that Fer phosphorylation downstream of FcepsilonRI is independent of Syk, Fyn, and Gab2 but requires Lyn. Activated Fer/Fps readily phosphorylate the C terminus of platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1 (Pecam-1) on immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motifs (ITIMs) and a non-ITIM residue (Tyr(700)) in vitro and in transfected cells. Mast cells devoid of Fer/Fps kinase activities display a reduction in FcepsilonRI aggregation-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of Pecam-1, with no defects in recruitment of Shp1/Shp2 phosphatases observed. Lyn-deficient mast cells display a dramatic reduction in Pecam-1 phosphorylation at Tyr(685) and a complete loss of Shp2 recruitment, suggesting a role as an initiator kinase for Pecam-1. Consistent with previous studies of Pecam-1-deficient mast cells, we observe an exaggerated degranulation response in mast cells lacking Fer/Fps kinases at low antigen dosages. Thus, Lyn and Fer/Fps kinases cooperate to phosphorylate Pecam-1 and activate Shp1/Shp2 phosphatases that function in part to limit mast cell activation. PMID:16731527

  4. Mechanistic Control of Carcinoembryonic Antigen-related Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 (CEACAM1) Splice Isoforms by the Heterogeneous Nuclear Ribonuclear Proteins hnRNP L, hnRNP A1, and hnRNP M*

    PubMed Central

    Dery, Kenneth J.; Gaur, Shikha; Gencheva, Marieta; Yen, Yun; Shively, John E.; Gaur, Rajesh K.

    2011-01-01

    Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule-1 (CEACAM1) is expressed in a variety of cell types and is implicated in carcinogenesis. Alternative splicing of CEACAM1 pre-mRNA generates two cytoplasmic domain splice variants characterized by the inclusion (L-isoform) or exclusion (S-isoform) of exon 7. Here we show that the alternative splicing of CEACAM1 pre-mRNA is regulated by novel cis elements residing in exon 7. We report the presence of three exon regulatory elements that lead to the inclusion or exclusion of exon 7 CEACAM1 mRNA in ZR75 breast cancer cells. Heterologous splicing reporter assays demonstrated that the maintenance of authentic alternative splicing mechanisms were independent of the CEACAM1 intron sequence context. We show that forced expression of these exon regulatory elements could alter CEACAM1 splicing in HEK-293 cells. Using RNA affinity chromatography, three members of the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein family (hnRNP L, hnRNP A1, and hnRNP M) were identified. RNA immunoprecipitation of hnRNP L and hnRNP A1 revealed a binding motif located central and 3′ to exon 7, respectively. Depletion of hnRNP A1 or L by RNAi in HEK-293 cells promoted exon 7 inclusion, whereas overexpression led to exclusion of the variable exon. By contrast, overexpression of hnRNP M showed exon 7 inclusion and production of CEACAM1-L mRNA. Finally, stress-induced cytoplasmic accumulation of hnRNP A1 in MDA-MB-468 cells dynamically alters the CEACAM1-S:CEACAM1:L ratio in favor of the l-isoform. Thus, we have elucidated the molecular factors that control the mechanism of splice-site recognition in the alternative splicing regulation of CEACAM1. PMID:21398516

  5. Disturbed Homeostasis of Lung Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 and Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 During Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Laudes, Ines J.; Guo, Ren-Feng; Riedemann, Niels C.; Speyer, Cecilia; Craig, Ron; Sarma, J. Vidya; Ward, Peter A.

    2004-01-01

    Cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced sepsis in mice was associated with perturbations in vascular adhesion molecules. In CLP mice, lung vascular binding of 125I-monoclonal antibodies to intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1 revealed sharp increases in binding of anti-ICAM-1 and significantly reduced binding of anti-VCAM-1. In whole lung homogenates, intense ICAM-1 up-regulation was found (both in mRNA and in protein levels) during sepsis, whereas very little increase in VCAM-1 could be measured although some increased mRNA was found. During CLP soluble VCAM-1 (sVCAM-1) and soluble ICAM-1 (sICAM-1) appeared in the serum. When mouse dermal microvascular endothelial cells (MDMECs) were incubated with serum from CLP mice, constitutive endothelial VCAM-1 fell in association with the appearance of sVCAM-1 in the supernatant fluids. Under the same conditions, ICAM-1 cell content increased in MDMECs. When MDMECs were evaluated for leukocyte adhesion, exposure to CLP serum caused increased adhesion of neutrophils and decreased adhesion of macrophages and T cells. The progressive build-up in lung myeloperoxidase after CLP was ICAM-1-dependent and independent of VLA-4 and VCAM-1. These data suggest that sepsis disturbs endothelial homeostasis, greatly favoring neutrophil adhesion in the lung microvasculature, thereby putting the lung at increased risk of injury. PMID:15039231

  6. Serum levels of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1, CD54) in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer: correlation with histological expression of ICAM-1 and tumour stage.

    PubMed Central

    Grothey, A.; Heistermann, P.; Philippou, S.; Voigtmann, R.

    1998-01-01

    The expression of the intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1, CD54) seems to have an influence on the metastatic behaviour of tumour cells via immunological mechanisms. Recently, a soluble form of ICAM-1 was identified in physiological fluids. We analysed the serum levels of sICAM-1 in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and healthy individuals using a sandwich ELISA technique. Sera from 51 patients with NSCLC were tested for sICAM-1 (46 male, five female; age 38-81 years, median 64 years), 29 of whom presented with localized and 26 with metastatic disease. The control group consisted of 40 healthy individuals (20 smokers, 20 non-smokers). Immunohistochemical analysis of ICAM-1 in tumour cells was performed in 20 cases. Patients with NSCLC had significantly higher serum levels of sICAM-1 compared with healthy non-smokers (P = 0.00001) and smokers (P= 0.0328). Metastatic disease was associated with higher sICAM-1 than localized tumours (P = 0.0013). Only 11 out of 23 patients with localized NSCLC had sICAM-1 levels >300 ng ml(-1), compared with 25 out of 28 patients with metastatic disease. Histological expression of ICAM-1 was positively correlated with serum slCAM-1 (P = 0.0399). No difference was observed between histological tumour types with regard to sICAM-1 or NSCLC expression of ICAM-1. In sequential analysis (13 patients), rising sICAM-1 levels predicted a short-term fatal outcome (P = 0.0054) but, overall, sICAM-1 levels did not correlate with prognosis. In the control group, smokers showed significantly higher levels than non-smokers (P = 0.0016). In contrast to patients with NSCLC, sICAM-1 in the control group was correlated to the leucocyte count (r = 0.580, P = 0.003). In conclusion, serum levels of sICAM-1 seem to be associated with tumour burden and histological expression of ICAM-1 in patients with NSCLC. However, the (patho-) physiological role of ICAM-1 in NSCLC remains to be determined. PMID:9514061

  7. Ring-strain release in neutral and dicationic 7,8,17,18-tetra-bromo-5,10,15,20-tetra-phenyl-porphyrin: crystal structures of C44H26Br4N4 and C44H28Br4N4 (2+)·2ClO4 (-)·3CH2Cl2.

    PubMed

    Scheidt, W Robert; Duval, Hugues F; Oliver, Allen G

    2016-06-01

    Two porphyrin complexes were studied to determine the effects of protonation on ring deformation within the porphyrin. The porphyrin 7,8,17,18-tetra-bromo-5,10,15,20-tetra-phenyl-porphyrin, C44H26Br4N4, was selected because the neutral species is readily doubly protonated to yield a dication, which was crystallized here with perchlorate counter-ions as a di-chloro-methane tris-olvate, C44H28Br4N4 (2+)·2ClO4 (-)·3CH2Cl2. The centrosymmetric neutral species is observed to have a mild 'ruffling' of the pyrrole rings and is essentially planar throughout; intra-molecular N-H⋯N hydrogen bonds occur. In contrast, the dication exhibits considerable deformation, with the pyrrole rings oriented well out of the plane of the porphyrin, resulting in a 'saddle' conformation of the ring. The charged species forms N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds to the perchlorate anions, which lie above and below the plane of the porphyrin ring. Distortions to the planarity of the pyrrole rings in both cases are very minor. The characterization of the neutral species represents a low-temperature redetermination of the previous room-temperature analyses [Zou et al. (1995 ▸). Acta Cryst. C51, 760-761; Rayati et al. (2008 ▸). Polyhedron, pp. 2285-2290], which showed disorder and physically unrealistic displacement parameters. PMID:27308051

  8. Crystal structure of di­aqua­[5,10,15,20-tetra­kis­(4-meth­oxy­phen­yl)porphyrinato-κ4 N]iron(III) di­aqua­(18-crown-6)potassium bis­(tri­fluoro­methane­sulfonate)–18-crown-6 (1/2)

    PubMed Central

    Ben Haj Hassen, Leila; Denden, Zouhour; Rousselin, Yoann; Nasri, Habib

    2015-01-01

    In the title compound, [FeIII(C48H36N4O2)(H2O)2][K(C12H24O6)(H2O)2](SO3CF3)2·2C12H24O6, the FeIII atom is situated on an inversion centre and is octa­hedrally coordin­ated by four pyrrole N atoms of the deprotenated 5,10,15,20-tetra­kis­(4-meth­oxy­phen­yl)porphyrinate ligand and two water mol­ecules. The average equatorial Fe—N(pyrrole) bond length [2.043 (6) Å] is consistent with a high-spin (S = 5/2) iron(III) metalloporphyrin derivative. The K+ cation, which also lies on an inversion centre, is chelated by the six O atoms of one 18-crown-6 mol­ecule and is additionally coordinated by two water mol­ecules in a distorted hexa­gonal–bipyramidal geometry. In the crystal, the cations, anions and one non-coordinating 18-crown-6 mol­ecule are linked by classical O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds and non-conventional C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, leading to a one-dimensional supra­molecular architecture along [10-1]. The crystal packing is further stabilized by weak C—H⋯π inter­actions involving pyrrole and phenyl rings of the porphyrins, as well as weak C—H⋯F contacts involving the (SO3CF3)− counter-ion and the 18-crown-6 mol­ecules. PMID:26870431

  9. Crystal structure of di-aqua-[5,10,15,20-tetra-kis-(4-meth-oxy-phen-yl)porphyrinato-κ(4) N]iron(III) di-aqua-(18-crown-6)potassium bis-(tri-fluoro-methane-sulfonate)-18-crown-6 (1/2).

    PubMed

    Ben Haj Hassen, Leila; Denden, Zouhour; Rousselin, Yoann; Nasri, Habib

    2015-12-01

    In the title compound, [Fe(III)(C48H36N4O2)(H2O)2][K(C12H24O6)(H2O)2](SO3CF3)2·2C12H24O6, the Fe(III) atom is situated on an inversion centre and is octa-hedrally coordin-ated by four pyrrole N atoms of the deprotenated 5,10,15,20-tetra-kis-(4-meth-oxy-phen-yl)porphyrinate ligand and two water mol-ecules. The average equatorial Fe-N(pyrrole) bond length [2.043 (6) Å] is consistent with a high-spin (S = 5/2) iron(III) metalloporphyrin derivative. The K(+) cation, which also lies on an inversion centre, is chelated by the six O atoms of one 18-crown-6 mol-ecule and is additionally coordinated by two water mol-ecules in a distorted hexa-gonal-bipyramidal geometry. In the crystal, the cations, anions and one non-coordinating 18-crown-6 mol-ecule are linked by classical O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds and non-conventional C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, leading to a one-dimensional supra-molecular architecture along [10-1]. The crystal packing is further stabilized by weak C-H⋯π inter-actions involving pyrrole and phenyl rings of the porphyrins, as well as weak C-H⋯F contacts involving the (SO3CF3)(-) counter-ion and the 18-crown-6 mol-ecules. PMID:26870431

  10. Ring-strain release in neutral and dicationic 7,8,17,18-tetra­bromo-5,10,15,20-tetra­phenyl­porphyrin: crystal structures of C44H26Br4N4 and C44H28Br4N4 2+·2ClO4 −·3CH2Cl2

    PubMed Central

    Scheidt, W. Robert; Duval, Hugues F.; Oliver, Allen G.

    2016-01-01

    Two porphyrin complexes were studied to determine the effects of protonation on ring deformation within the porphyrin. The porphyrin 7,8,17,18-tetra­bromo-5,10,15,20-tetra­phenyl­porphyrin, C44H26Br4N4, was selected because the neutral species is readily doubly protonated to yield a dication, which was crystallized here with perchlorate counter-ions as a di­chloro­methane tris­olvate, C44H28Br4N4 2+·2ClO4 −·3CH2Cl2. The centrosymmetric neutral species is observed to have a mild ‘ruffling’ of the pyrrole rings and is essentially planar throughout; intra­molecular N—H⋯N hydrogen bonds occur. In contrast, the dication exhibits considerable deformation, with the pyrrole rings oriented well out of the plane of the porphyrin, resulting in a ‘saddle’ conformation of the ring. The charged species forms N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds to the perchlorate anions, which lie above and below the plane of the porphyrin ring. Distortions to the planarity of the pyrrole rings in both cases are very minor. The characterization of the neutral species represents a low-temperature redetermination of the previous room-temperature analyses [Zou et al. (1995 ▸). Acta Cryst. C51, 760–761; Rayati et al. (2008 ▸). Polyhedron, pp. 2285–2290], which showed disorder and physically unrealistic displacement parameters. PMID:27308051

  11. Pure manganese(III) 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-benzoic acid)porphyrin (MnTBAP) is not a superoxide dismutase mimic in aqueous systems: a case of structure-activity relationship as a watchdog mechanism in experimental therapeutics and biology.

    PubMed

    Rebouças, Júlio S; Spasojević, Ivan; Batinić-Haberle, Ines

    2008-02-01

    Superoxide is involved in a plethora of pathological and physiological processes via oxidative stress and/or signal transduction pathways. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) mimics have, thus, been actively sought for clinical and mechanistic purposes. Manganese(III) 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-benzoic acid)porphyrin (MnTBAP) is one of the most intensely explored "SOD mimics" in biology and medicine. However, we show here that this claimed SOD activity of MnTBAP in aqueous media is not corroborated by comprehensive structure-activity relationship studies for a wide set of Mn porphyrins and that MnTBAP from usual commercial sources contains different amounts of noninnocent trace impurities (Mn clusters), which inhibited xanthine oxidase and had SOD activity in their own right. In addition, the preparation and thorough characterization of a high-purity MnTBAP is presented for the first time and confirmed that pure MnTBAP has no SOD activity in aqueous medium. These findings call for an assessment of the relevance and suitability of using MnTBAP (or its impurities) as a mechanistic probe and antioxidant therapeutic; conclusions on the physiological and pathological role of superoxide derived from studies using MnTBAP of uncertain purity should be examined judiciously. An unequivocal distinction between the biological effects due to MnTBAP and that of its impurities can only be unambiguously made if a pure sample is/was used. This work also illustrates the contribution of fundamental structure-activity relationship studies not only for drug design and optimization, but also as a "watchdog" mechanism for checking/spotting eventual incongruence of drug activity in chemical and biological settings. PMID:18046586

  12. Atmospheric chemistry of isoflurane, desflurane, and sevoflurane: kinetics and mechanisms of reactions with chlorine atoms and OH radicals and global warming potentials.

    PubMed

    Sulbaek Andersen, Mads P; Nielsen, Ole J; Karpichev, Boris; Wallington, Timothy J; Sander, Stanley P

    2012-06-21

    The smog chamber/Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) technique was used to measure the rate coefficients k(Cl + CF(3)CHClOCHF(2), isoflurane) = (4.5 ± 0.8) × 10(-15), k(Cl + CF(3)CHFOCHF(2), desflurane) = (1.0 ± 0.3) × 10(-15), k(Cl + (CF(3))(2)CHOCH(2)F, sevoflurane) = (1.1 ± 0.1) × 10(-13), and k(OH + (CF(3))(2)CHOCH(2)F) = (3.5 ± 0.7) × 10(-14) cm(3) molecule(-1) in 700 Torr of N(2)/air diluent at 295 ± 2 K. An upper limit of 6 × 10(-17) cm(3) molecule(-1) was established for k(Cl + (CF(3))(2)CHOC(O)F). The laser photolysis/laser-induced fluorescence (LP/LIF) technique was employed to determine hydroxyl radical rate coefficients as a function of temperature (241-298 K): k(OH + CF(3)CHFOCHF(2)) = (7.05 ± 1.80) × 10(-13) exp[-(1551 ± 72)/T] cm(3) molecule(-1); k(296 ± 1 K) = (3.73 ± 0.08) × 10(-15) cm(3) molecule(-1), and k(OH + (CF(3))(2)CHOCH(2)F) = (9.98 ± 3.24) × 10(-13) exp[-(969 ± 82)/T] cm(3) molecule(-1); k(298 ± 1 K) = (3.94 ± 0.30) × 10(-14) cm(3) molecule(-1). The rate coefficient of k(OH + CF(3)CHClOCHF(2), 296 ± 1 K) = (1.45 ± 0.16) × 10(-14) cm(3) molecule(-1) was also determined. Chlorine atoms react with CF(3)CHFOCHF(2) via H-abstraction to give CF(3)CFOCHF(2) and CF(3)CHFOCF(2) radicals in yields of approximately 83% and 17%. The major atmospheric fate of the CF(3)C(O)FOCHF(2) alkoxy radical is decomposition via elimination of CF(3) to give FC(O)OCHF(2) and is unaffected by the method used to generate the CF(3)C(O)FOCHF(2) radicals. CF(3)CHFOCF(2) radicals add O(2) and are converted by subsequent reactions into CF(3)CHFOCF(2)O alkoxy radicals, which decompose to give COF(2) and CF(3)CHFO radicals. In 700 Torr of air 82% of CF(3)CHFO radicals undergo C-C scission to yield HC(O)F and CF(3) radicals with the remaining 18% reacting with O(2) to give CF(3)C(O)F. Atmospheric oxidation of (CF(3))(2)CHOCH(2)F gives (CF(3))(2)CHOC(O)F in a molar yield of 93 ± 6% with CF(3)C(O)CF(3) and HCOF as minor products. The IR

  13. The reaction mechanisms and kinetics of CF3CHFOCH 3 and CHF 2CHFOCF 3 with atomic chlorine: a computational study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fang-Yu; Long, Zheng-Wen; Tan, Xing-Feng; Long, Bo

    2014-09-01

    Due to their lack of effect on the ozone depletion, hydrofluoroethers are considered as potential candidates for third generation refrigerants. In the present work, the mechanisms and kinetics of reaction of the Cl atom with CF(3)CHFOCH(3) and CHF(2)CHFOCF(3) were investigated theoretically using quantum chemical methods and transition state theory. Four reaction pathways for the title reaction were explored. By using conventional transition state theory with Eckart tunneling correction, the rate constants of the title reaction were obtained over the temperature range 200-300 K. Kinetic calculations demonstrate that H-abstraction from the -CH(3) group in CF(3)CHFOCH(3) and H-abstraction from the -CHF2 group in CHF(2)CHFOCF(3) are major reaction pathways, with the barrier heights of the two paths calculated to be -1.04 and 4.33 kcal mol(-1), respectively. However, the contribution of H-abstraction from the -CHFO- group for the two reactions should also be taken into account with increased temperature. At 298 K, the calculated overall rate constants of the reaction of CHF(2)CHFOCF(3) with the Cl atom are 4.27 × 10(-15) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1), which is consistent with the experimental value of (1.2 ± 2.0) × 10(-15) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1). PMID:25204584

  14. A comparison of the updated very high resolution model RegCM3_10km with the previous version RegCM3_25km over the complex terrain of Greece: present and future projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolika, Konstantia; Anagnostopoulou, Christina; Velikou, Kondylia; Vagenas, Christos

    2015-08-01

    The ability of a fine resolution regional climate model (10 × 10 km) in simulating efficiently the climate characteristics (temperature, precipitation, and wind) over Greece, in comparison to the previous version of the model with a 25 × 25 km resolution, is examined and analyzed in the present study. Overall, the results showed that the finer resolution model presented a better skill in generating low winter temperatures at high altitudinal areas, the temperature difference between the islands and the surrounding sea, high rainfall totals over the mountainous areas, the thermal storms during summer, and the wind maxima over the Aegean Sea. Regarding the future projections, even though the two models agree on the climatic signal, differences are found mainly to the magnitude of change of the selected parameters. Finally, it was found that at higher pressure levels, the present day projections of the two models do not show significant differences since the topography and terrain does not play such an important role as the general atmospheric circulation.

  15. An investigation into linearity with cumulative emissions of the climate and carbon cycle response in HadCM3LC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liddicoat, S. K.; Booth, B. B. B.; Joshi, M. M.

    2016-06-01

    We investigate the extent to which global mean temperature, precipitation, and the carbon cycle are constrained by cumulative carbon emissions throughout four experiments with a fully coupled climate–carbon cycle model. The paired experiments adopt contrasting, idealised approaches to climate change mitigation at different action points this century, with total emissions rising to more than two trillion tonnes of carbon (TtC). For each pair, the contrasting mitigation approaches—capping emissions early versus reducing them to zero a few decades later—cause their cumulative emissions trajectories to diverge initially, then converge, cross, and diverge again. We find that global mean temperature is linear with cumulative emissions across all experiments, although differences of up to 1.5 K exist regionally when the trajectories of total carbon emitted during the course of the two scenarios coincide, for both pairs of experiments. Interestingly, although the oceanic precipitation response scales with cumulative emissions, the global precipitation response does not, due to a decrease in precipitation over land above emissions of around one TtC. Most carbon fluxes are less well constrained by cumulative emissions as they reach two trillion tonnes. The opposing mitigation approaches have different consequences for the Amazon rainforest, which affects the linearity with which the carbon cycle responds to cumulative emissions. The average Transient Climate Response to cumulative carbon Emissions (TCRE) is 1.95 K TtC‑1, at the upper end of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s range of 0.8–2.5 K TtC‑1.

  16. Sea surface temperatures of the mid-Piacenzian Warm Period: A comparison of PRISM3 and HadCM3

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dowsett, H.J.; Haywood, A.M.; Valdes, P.J.; Robinson, M.M.; Lunt, D.J.; Hill, D.J.; Stoll, D.K.; Foley, K.M.

    2011-01-01

    It is essential to document how well the current generation of climate models performs in simulating past climates to have confidence in their ability to project future conditions. We present the first global, in-depth comparison of Pliocene sea surface temperature (SST) estimates from a coupled ocean-atmosphere climate model experiment and a SST reconstruction based on proxy data. This enables the identification of areas in which both the climate model and the proxy dataset require improvement. In general, the fit between model-produced SST anomalies and those formed from the available data is very good. We focus our discussion on three regions where the data-model anomaly exceeds 2 ??C 1) In the high latitude North Pacific, a systematic model error may result in anomalies that are too cold. Also, the deeper Pliocene thermocline may cause disagreement along the California margin; either the upwelling in the model is too strong or the modeled thermocline is not deep enough. 2) In the North Atlantic, the model predicts cooling in the center of a data-based warming trend that steadily increases with latitude from +. 1.5 ??C to >+ 6 ??C. The discrepancy may arise because the modeled North Atlantic Current is too zonal compared to reality, which is reinforced by the lowering of the altitude of the Pliocene Western Cordillera Mountains. In addition, the model's use of modern bathymetry in the higher latitudes may have led the model to underestimate the northward penetration of warmer surface water into the Arctic. 3) Finally, though the data and model show good general agreement across most of the Southern Ocean, a few locations show offsets due to the modern land-sea mask used in the model. Additional considerations could account for many of the modest data-model anomalies, such as differences between calibration climatologies, the oversimplification of the seasonal cycle, and differences between SST proxies (i.e. seasonality and water depth). New SST estimates from data-sparse and regionally important areas will greatly enhance our ability to judge model performance. ?? 2011.

  17. Comparison of Grell and Emanuel schemes in the simulations of South America climate using RegCM3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Da Rocha, Rosmeri P.; Krüger, Luiz Fernando; Reboita, Michelle S.; Ambrizzi, Tércio; Cuadra, Santiago V.

    2010-05-01

    Climate simulations were carried out with the Regional Climate Model (RegCM) over South America (SA) in the frame of FP7 EU (2008-2012) CLARIS-LPB project (A Europe-South America Network for Climate Change Assessment and Impact Studies in La Plata Basin). Two 20 years (from 1989 to 2008) simulations using Grell (SG) and Emanuel (SE) convective parameterizations were compared. Both simulations were forced by ERA-Interim reanalysis in a domain that includes SA with 50 km of horizontal resolution. Some parameters were tuning in both SG and SE experiments. The simulated precipitation and temperature were compared to CMAP (and GPCP) and CRU datasets, respectively. The spatial distribution of the simulated precipitation and temperature are similar to the analyses in both experiments, though with some differences in the intensity. In summer, SE is wetter than SG and than the analyses over the continental branch of the South Atlantic Convergence Zone (SACZ). During the summer and winter, SG and SE underestimate the precipitation over the northern of Argentina and in the south extreme of Brazil, while they overestimate the precipitation in the southern of Chile. In comparison to the SG, SE presents two main improvements: it simulates the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) and it has more precipitation in the oceanic branch of the SACZ. Although the rainfall is better simulated by the SE than the SG, it is less skillful for the temperature. The SE simulates higher temperatures than CRU in large part of the SA in the summer. In winter, the temperature is well reproduced from center to the south of SA in both simulations. However, in the center-north (subtropics and tropics) of SA the SG (SE) underestimates (overestimates) the temperature. In summary, compared with previous results both simulations show some improvement in the annual cycle of temperature and precipitation over SA.

  18. Structure of Replicating Simian Virus 40 Deoxyribonucleic Acid Molecules 1

    PubMed Central

    Sebring, E. D.; Kelly, T. J.; Thoren, M. M.; Salzman, N. P.

    1971-01-01

    Properties of replicating simian virus 40 (SV40) deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) have been examined by sedimentation analysis and by direct observation during a lytic cycle of infection of African green monkey kidney cells. Two types of replicating DNA molecules were observed in the electron microscope. One was an open structure containing two branch points, three branches, and no free ends whose length measurements were consistent with those expected for replicating SV40 DNA molecules. A second species had the same features as the open structure, but in addition it contained a superhelix in the unreplicated portion of the molecule. Eighty to ninety per cent of the replicative intermediates (RI) were in this latter configuration, and length measurements of these molecules also were consistent with replicating SV40 DNA. Replicating DNA molecules with this configuration have not been described previously. RI, when examined in ethidium bromide-cesium chloride (EB-CsCl) isopycnic gradients, banded in a heterogeneous manner. A fraction of the RI banded at the same density as circular SV40 DNA containing one or more single-strand nicks (component II). The remaining radioactive RI banded at densities higher than that of component II, and material was present at all densities between that of supercoiled double-stranded DNA (component I) and component II. When RI that banded at different densities in EB-CsCl were examined in alkaline gradients, cosedimentation of parental DNA and newly replicated DNA did not occur. All newly replicated DNA sedimented more slowly than did intact single-stranded SV40 DNA, a finding that is inconsistent with the rolling circle model of DNA replication. An inverse correlation exists between the extent of replication of the SV40 DNA and the banding density in EB-CsCl. Under alkaline conditions, the parental DNA strands that were contained in the RI sedimented as covalently closed structures. The sedimentation rates in alkali of the covalently closed parental DNA decreased as replication progressed. Based on these observations, some possible models for replication of SV40 DNA are proposed. Images PMID:4331651

  19. Kinetic study of the gas phase reactions of a series of alcohols with the NO3 radical.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Alberto; Salgado, M Sagrario; Martín, M Pilar; Martínez, Ernesto; Cabañas, Beatriz

    2012-10-25

    The rate coefficients for the reaction of NO(3) radical with 2-butanol, 3-methyl-2-butanol, and 2,3-dimethyl-2-butanol were determined using relative rate technique in a 50 L glass pyrex photoreactor using in situ FT-IR spectroscopy at room temperature and a pressure of 350-670 Torr. The rate coefficient for the reaction of 2-methyl-2-butanol with NO(3) radical was also determined using, in this case, GC/MS. The rate coefficients calculated (in units of cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1)) were (2.51 ± 0.42) × 10(-15), (3.06 ± 0.52) × 10(-15), (2.67 ± 0.3) × 10(-15), and (1.57 ± 0.16) × 10(-15), respectively. Results indicate that the reaction occurs by an initial H-abstraction of the alcohols by the NO(3) radical and that NO(3) is more reactive toward a H atom attached to a tertiary carbon than that attached to a secondary or primary carbon. Results are also discussed as related to their homologous structural alkanes and in comparison with the reactivity of other atmospheric oxidants. Atmospheric relevance of the considered reactions is evaluated, concluding that they are potential ozone generators, they have no significant influence on global warming, and the dominant atmospheric loss process for these alcohols is their daytime reaction with OH radicals. PMID:23030849

  20. International Congress on Experimental Mechanics, 5th, Montreal, Canada, June 10-15, 1984, Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    The present conference on experimental mechanics considers topics in the fields of material plasticity, biomechanics, residual stress effects, photoelasticity, composite material behavior, optical methods in fracture mechanics, thermal stresses, numerical and moire study methods, and elastoplastic fracture. Also discussed are strain measurements, electronic image processing in optical metrology, joints and adhesives, materials testing methods, fracture of composites, stress concentration effects, interferometric methods, vibrational analysis and measurement, dynamic fracture mechanics, structural analysis and testing, the dynamic response of materials, and fatigue behavior.

  1. 2011 Organometallic Chemistry (July 10-15, 2011, Salve Regina University, Newport, RI)

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Emilio Bunel

    2011-07-15

    Organometallic chemistry has played and will continue to play a significant role in helping us understand the way bonds are made or broken in the presence of a transition metal complex. Current challenges range from the efficient exploitation of energy resources to the creative use of natural and artificial enzymes. Most of the new advances in the area are due to our extended understanding of processes at a molecular level due to new mechanistic studies, techniques to detect reaction intermediates and theory. The conference will bring the most recent advances in the field including nanocatalysis, surface organometallic chemistry, characterization techniques, new chemical reactivity and theoretical approaches along with applications to organic synthesis and the discovery of new materials. The Conference will bring together a collection of investigators who are at the forefront of their field, and will provide opportunities for junior scientists and graduate students to present their work in poster format and exchange ideas with leaders in the field. Six outstanding posters will be selected for short talks. The collegial atmosphere of this Conference, with programmed discussion sessions as well as opportunities for informal gatherings in the afternoons and evenings, provides an avenue for scientists from different disciplines to brainstorm and promotes cross-disciplinary collaborations in the various research areas represented. Graduate students and postdoctoral fellows should also consider participating in the Gordon Research Seminar on Organometallic Chemistry (July 9-10, same location) which is specially designed to promote interaction and discussion between junior scientists.

  2. 2011 Raditation & Climate Gordon Research Conference (July 10-15 2011- Colby College, Waterville, Maine)

    SciTech Connect

    Prof. Max Hoggblom

    2012-02-09

    The 2011 Gordon Research Conference on Radiation and Climate will present cutting-edge research on outstanding issues in climate change, particularly those in which the interactions between clouds, aerosols, and precipitation play a major role. The Conference will feature a broad range of topics, including grand challenges in atmospheric radiation and climate, cloud and water vapor feedbacks, aerosol-cloud-precipitation-climate interactions across scales, new approaches for remote sensing and in-situ observations of clouds, aerosols and precipitation, and multi-scale modeling challenges. The invited speakers will present the most important recent advances and future challenges in these areas. The Conference will bring together a collection of leading investigators who are at the forefront of their field, and will provide opportunities for scientists, especially junior scientists and graduate students, to present their work in poster format and exchange ideas with leaders in the field. The collegial atmosphere of this Conference, with programmed discussion sessions as well as opportunities for informal gatherings in the afternoons and evenings, provides an avenue for scientists from different disciplines to brainstorm and promotes cross-disciplinary collaborations in the various research areas represented.

  3. Military Curricula for Vocational & Technical Education. Medical Laboratory Specialist (Basic) Part II, 10-15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of the Army, Washington, DC.

    These instructor plans of instruction and lesson plans and student text and review materials for a secondary-postsecondary-level course for medical laboratory specialist are one of a number of military-developed curriculum packages selected for adaptation to vocational instruction and curriculum development in a civilian setting. It is the second…

  4. 46 CFR 38.10-15 - Safety relief valves-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... (Specifications) of this chapter may be used on tanks for a maximum pressure of 10 pounds per square inch gage... be used for any pressure. (c) The safety relief valves shall have a combined relieving capacity to discharge the greater of the following with not more than 20 percent rise in pressure (in the tank)...

  5. 46 CFR 38.10-15 - Safety relief valves-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... (Specifications) of this chapter may be used on tanks for a maximum pressure of 10 pounds per square inch gage... be used for any pressure. (c) The safety relief valves shall have a combined relieving capacity to discharge the greater of the following with not more than 20 percent rise in pressure (in the tank)...

  6. Review of a Proposal for a New Community College Center in Vallejo. Report 10-15

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Stacy; Fuller, Ryan

    2010-01-01

    This report provides a staff review of a proposal by the Solano Community College District to convert its existing facility in Vallejo to a state-approved off-campus educational center of Solano Community College. Educational centers can be a cost-effective means for meeting educational needs of a region through agreements with local high schools,…

  7. 46 CFR 54.10-15 - Pneumatic test (modifies UG-100).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... design temperature (see UG-21 of section VIII of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 54.01-1)). In no case shall the pneumatic test pressure exceed one and one... ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. (d) The pneumatic test of pressure vessels shall be...

  8. 46 CFR 54.10-15 - Pneumatic test (modifies UG-100).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... design temperature (see UG-21 of section VIII of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 54.01-1)). In no case shall the pneumatic test pressure exceed one and one... ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. (d) The pneumatic test of pressure vessels shall be...

  9. 46 CFR 54.10-15 - Pneumatic test (modifies UG-100).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... design temperature (see UG-21 of section VIII of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 54.01-1)). In no case shall the pneumatic test pressure exceed one and one... ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. (d) The pneumatic test of pressure vessels shall be...

  10. Microscope in orbit calibration procedure for a test of the equivalence principle at 10(-15).

    PubMed

    Pradels, G; Touboul, P

    2003-01-01

    The scientific objectives of the MICROSCOPE space mission impose a very fine calibration of the on-board accelerometers. However the required performance cannot be achieved on ground because of the presence of high disturbing sources. On-board the CHAMP satellite, accelerometers similar in the concept to the MICROSCOPE instrument, have already flown and analysis of the provided data then allowed to characterise the vibration environment at low altitude as well as the fluctuation of the drag. The requirements of the in-orbit calibration procedure for the MICROSCOPE instrument are demonstrated by modelling the expected applied acceleration signals with the developed analytic model of the mission. The proposed approach exploits the drag-free system of the satellite and the sensitivity of the accelerometers. A specific simulator of the attitude control system of the satellite has been developed and tests of the proposed solution are performed using nominal conditions or disturbing conditions as observed during the CHAMP mission. PMID:14649539

  11. 19 CFR 10.15 - Fabricated components not subject to the exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. General... electric motor are imported in several separate shipments and are entered under a temporary importation....S.C. 1202). The components are completed and assembled into finished electric motors. The...

  12. 19 CFR 10.15 - Fabricated components not subject to the exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. General... electric motor are imported in several separate shipments and are entered under a temporary importation....S.C. 1202). The components are completed and assembled into finished electric motors. The...

  13. 2005 Plant Metabolic Engineering Gordon Conference - July 10-15, 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Eleanore T. Wurtzel

    2006-06-30

    The post-genomic era presents new opportunities for manipulating plant chemistry for improvement of plant traits such as disease and stress resistance and nutritional qualities. This conference will provide a setting for developing multidisciplinary collaborations needed to unravel the dynamic complexity of plant metabolic networks and advance basic and applied research in plant metabolic engineering. The conference will integrate recent advances in genomics, with metabolite and gene expression analyses. Research discussions will explore how biosynthetic pathways interact with regard to substrate competition and channeling, plasticity of biosynthetic enzymes, and investigate the localization, structure, and assembly of biosynthetic metabolons in native and nonnative environments. The meeting will develop new perspectives for plant transgenic research with regard to how transgene expression may influence cellular metabolism. Incorporation of spectroscopic approaches for metabolic profiling and flux analysis combined with mathematical modeling will contribute to the development of rational metabolic engineering strategies and lead to the development of new tools to assess temporal and subcellular changes in metabolite pools. The conference will also highlight new technologies for pathway engineering, including use of heterologous systems, directed enzyme evolution, engineering of transcription factors and application of molecular/genetic techniques for controlling biosynthetic pathways.

  14. Microstructures Developed During Natural and Experimental Decompression of Peridotite From Pressures of 10-15 GPa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, H. W.; Dobrzhinetskaya, L. F.

    2004-12-01

    Evidence is now robust that continental rocks and sediments can be subducted to P > 6 GPa during continental collision and returned to the surface. Moreover, mantle rocks exhumed with this subducted material carry evidence of P > 9 GPa and perhaps much more. We present a short review of natural examples and discuss them in the context of decompression experiments conducted on garnet lherzolite over the range 14 -> 5 GPa. Experiments at 14 GPa dissolved all enstatite (En) and about 85% diopside (Di) into garnet, yielding run products of 40% Ol + 55% Grt + 5% Di. Re-annealing this product at 13 or 12 GPa resulted in exsolution of Di as blebs at garnet grain boundaries and oriented platelets of Ol chemistry within grt. Specimens first equilibrated at 8 GPa dissolved abundant En but little Di. When re-annealed at 5 GPa, En exsolved as blebs at garnet boundaries -- very similar to interstitial blebs of enstatite along grt grain boundaries in UHP (>200 km) Norwegian grt-harzburgite. In the latter rocks, abundant En and rare Di exsolution lamellae are also found in the cores of large garnets. Our experiments do not show such lamellae, supporting the arguments of van Roermund and Drury (1998) that they are produced only in the cores of large grains and that the interstitial pyroxenes found in their specimens are also exsolution products. Ol has not been reported with exsolution morphology in natural UHP products, nor did we observe it in our experiments at P = 5 GPa. On the other hand, our observation that Ol may be exsolved during decompression of majoritic garnet during decompression at higher P is consistent with expansion of the garnet field at the expense of wadsleyite at P > 13 GPa reported by Ringwood (1991). Di, En, and/or Ol do occur along grain boundaries within larger polycrystalline garnets and within embayments at the margins of smaller amoeboid garnets in subduction zone garnet peridotites. Such garnets also may contain rounded, non-oriented, inclusions of each of these minerals, or all three together, consistent with the results of majoritic garnet decompression presented above. Our results suggest that some Ol in this microstructure may have exsolved during decompression of majoritic garnet.

  15. Overview of developments in the last 10-15 years in recombinant vaccines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This introductory talk will describe the various types of recombinant DNA vaccines that have been developed for the poultry industry. The talk will not discuss the efficacy of specific recombinant DNA vaccines. Instead, I will focus on describing how various recombinant vaccines are made and some ad...

  16. Energy dependence of cosmic ray composition above 10(15) GeV/nucleus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linsley, J.; Fichtel, C. E.

    1985-01-01

    It is argued that above 10 to the 5th power GeV/nucleus, in the range where charge-resolved spectra have not yet been determined, the appropriate measures of equal-energy composition are 1nA and 1nA , the mean value and dispersion relative to the mean value and dispersion relative to the mean of 1nA, where A is the mass number. Experimental data which are sensitive to changes in 1nA with increasing energy are examined. It is found that, taken as a whole, they show no change (+ or 0.5) between 10 to the 5th power and 10 to the 6th power GeV, and a decrease of 1.5 + or - 0.5 between 10 to the 6th power and 10 to the 8th power GeV, with no further change + or - 0.5) above 10 to the 8th power GeV. Taken as a whole, the various indirect estimates of the absolute value of 1nA above 10 to the 5th power GeV/nucleus are also consistent with this pattern. For a wide range of astrophysically plausible composition models the value of the other measure, 1nA is insensitive to changes in 1nA . Because of this the existing data on 1nA can likewise easily be reconciled with this pattern.

  17. Core structure of EAS in 10(15) to 10(17) eV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hara, T.; Hatano, Y.; Hayashida, N.; Kifune, T.; Nagano, M.; Tanahashi, G.

    1985-01-01

    With the use of Akeno calorimeter, the attenuation of particles in concrete is analyzed as the function of the shower size of 10 to the 5th power to 10 to the 7th power. The attenuation length does not depend much on the shower size but depends a little on the shower age. The average value is approx. 150 g/sq cm for s = 0.5 to 0.85 and approx. 40 g/sq cm for s = 0.85 to 1.15. These values and their fluctuations are consistent with the equi-intensity curves of extensive air showers (EAS).

  18. 2011 Photochemistry Gordon Research Conference (July10-15, 2011, Stonehill College, Easton, MA)

    SciTech Connect

    Prof. Gerald Meyer

    2011-07-15

    Photochemistry has wide implications on fundamental science with technological applications that range from synthetic and mechanistic organic and inorganic chemistry to sensing/manipulation in the biological sciences to viable solar energy conversion assemblies. The 2011 Gordon Research Conference on Photochemistry will highlight recent advances on photochemical reactions, their mechanisms, spectroscopic techniques and applications to materials, organic synthesis, and biology. The conference will continue its long tradition on dynamic discussions on recent advances and unsolved scientific problems. The format of lectures, poster presentations and informal discussions provides an ideal venue for students and post-doctoral fellows to interact with the leaders in the field. These junior scientists will have an opportunity to participate in the Gordon Research Seminar on Photochemistry to be held prior to the GRC. The GRS will focus on photochemical aspects of solar energy conversion. Four abstracts for posters at the GRC and presentations at the GRS will be selected as short talks at the GRC.

  19. 46 CFR 54.10-15 - Pneumatic test (modifies UG-100).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. (d) The pneumatic test of pressure vessels shall be accomplished... allowable working pressure of the vessel to permit examination. (e) Pressure vessels pneumatically tested... testing of welded pressure vessels shall be permitted only for those units which are so designed...

  20. 46 CFR 54.10-15 - Pneumatic test (modifies UG-100).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. (d) The pneumatic test of pressure vessels shall be accomplished... allowable working pressure of the vessel to permit examination. (e) Pressure vessels pneumatically tested... testing of welded pressure vessels shall be permitted only for those units which are so designed...

  1. A method to improve observations of gamma-ray sources near 10 (15) eV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sommers, P.; Elbert, J. W.

    1985-01-01

    Now that sources of gamma rays near 10 to the 15th power eV have been identified, there is a need for telescopes which can study in detail the high energy gamma ray emissions from these sources. The capabilities of a Cerenkov detector which can track a source at large zenith angle (small elevation angle) are analyzed. Because the observed showers must then develop far from the detector, the effective detection area is very large. During a single half-hour hot phase of Cygnus X-3, for example, it may be possible to detect 45 signal showers compared with 10 background showers. Time structure within the hot phase may then be discernible. The precise capabilities of the detector depend on its mirror size, angular acceptance, electronic speed, coincidence properties, etc. Calculations are presented for one feasible design using mirrors of an improved Fly's Eye type.

  2. Optical-to-microwave frequency comparison with fractional uncertainty of 10-15

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stalnaker, J. E.; Diddams, S. A.; Fortier, T. M.; Kim, K.; Hollberg, L.; Bergquist, J. C.; Itano, W. M.; Delany, M. J.; Lorini, L.; Oskay, W. H.; Heavner, T. P.; Jefferts, S. R.; Levi, F.; Parker, T. E.; Shirley, J.

    2007-11-01

    We report the technical aspects of the optical-to-microwave comparison for our recent measurements of the optical frequency of the mercury single-ion frequency standard in terms of the SI second as realized by the NIST-F1 cesium fountain clock. Over the course of six years, these measurements have resulted in a determination of the mercury single-ion frequency with a fractional uncertainty of less than 7×10-16, making it the most accurately measured optical frequency to date. In this paper, we focus on the details of the comparison techniques used in the experiment and discuss the uncertainties associated with the optical-to-microwave synthesis based on a femtosecond laser frequency comb. We also present our most recent results in the context of the previous measurements of the mercury single-ion frequency and arrive at a final determination of the mercury single-ion optical frequency: f(Hg+)=1 064 721 609 899 145.30(69) Hz.

  3. 2012 PLASMONICS GORDON RESEARCH CONFERENCE AND GORDON RESEARCH SEMINAR, JUNE 10-15, 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Engheta, Nader

    2012-06-15

    The focus of this meeting is on recent advances in science and engineering of plasmonic optics and its applications in the design of novel devices and components. The impacts of plasmonic phenomena on other disciplines such as chemistry, biology, medicine and engineering will also be discussed.

  4. Template-free nanosized faujasite-type zeolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awala, Hussein; Gilson, Jean-Pierre; Retoux, Richard; Boullay, Philippe; Goupil, Jean-Michel; Valtchev, Valentin; Mintova, Svetlana

    2015-04-01

    Nanosized faujasite (FAU) crystals have great potential as catalysts or adsorbents to more efficiently process present and forthcoming synthetic and renewable feedstocks in oil refining, petrochemistry and fine chemistry. Here, we report the rational design of template-free nanosized FAU zeolites with exceptional properties, including extremely small crystallites (10-15 nm) with a narrow particle size distribution, high crystalline yields (above 80%), micropore volumes (0.30 cm3 g-1) comparable to their conventional counterparts (micrometre-sized crystals), Si/Al ratios adjustable between 1.1 and 2.1 (zeolites X or Y) and excellent thermal stability leading to superior catalytic performance in the dealkylation of a bulky molecule, 1,3,5-triisopropylbenzene, probing sites mostly located on the external surface of the nanosized crystals. Another important feature is their excellent colloidal stability, which facilitates a uniform dispersion on supports for applications in catalysis, sorption and thin-to-thick coatings.

  5. Mechanical and kinetic study on gas-phase formation of dinitro-naphthalene from 1- and 2-nitronaphthalene.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zixiao; Zhang, Qingzhu; Wang, Wenxing

    2016-08-01

    Nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons have received an increasing number of considerations because of their higher mutagens than parent PAHs. In this paper, the formation of dinitro-naphthalene was investigated mechanistically using 1- and 2-nitronaphthalene as precursors with the aid of high-accuracy quantum chemistry calculation. The geometrical parameters, as well as vibrational frequencies, were calculated at the BB1K/6-31+G(d,p) level. Water molecule plays an important role in the formation of dinitro-naphthalene. The rate constants were deduced by canonical variational transition-state theory with small curvature tunneling contribution over the temperature range of 273-333 K. Meanwhile, the Arrhenius formulas were fitted for the OH addition of both 1- and 2-nitronaphthalene. The calculated overall rate constants for 1-nitronaphthalene and 2-nitronaphthalene at 298 K and 1 atm are 7.43 × 10(-13) and 7.48 × 10(-13) cm(3molecule(-1) s(-1), respectively. The rate constants of NO3 addition to 1-nitronaphthalene and 2-nitronaphthalene by RRKM method at 298 K and 1 atm are 3.55 × 10(-15) and 3.47 × 10(-15cm(3molecule(-1) s(-1), respectively. This study provides a comprehensive investigation of the formation process of dinitro-naphthalenes, initiated by OH and NO3 radicals and should facilitate to illuminate its atmospheric source. Oxygen may probably be competitive with the second NO2 addition step when the concentration of NO2 is at low level. PMID:27174822

  6. Comparison of spherical double probe electric field measurements with plasma bulk flows in plasmas having densities less than 1 cm-3. [magnetosphere parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mozer, F. S.; Hones, E. W., Jr.; Birn, J.

    1983-01-01

    For a three-hour period in the magnetotail over which plasma density varied from less than 0.1 to about 1/cu cm, comparisons of ISEE-1 spherical double probe (dawn to dusk) electric field measurements and ISEE-2 plasma flows (converted to electric fields) show the zero lag cross correlation coefficient between 768 second averages of the two data sets to have been 0.93. A statistical relative uncertainty between pairs of points in the two data sets, estimated by only including counting statistics in the plasma measurement and time variations of the observed electric field over the measurement interval, is able to account for at least 75 percent of the deviations between the two data sets. In agreement with simple Langmuir probe theory, it has been found that the spacecraft potential measured over the three-hour interval by the double probe instrument varied as the log of the product of the plasma density and the square root of the electron temperature.

  7. FAMOUS, faster: using parallel computing techniques to accelerate the FAMOUS/HadCM3 climate model with a focus on the radiative transfer algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanappe, P.; Beurivé, A.; Laguzet, F.; Steels, L.; Bellouin, N.; Boucher, O.; Yamazaki, Y. H.; Aina, T.; Allen, M.

    2011-09-01

    We have optimised the atmospheric radiation algorithm of the FAMOUS climate model on several hardware platforms. The optimisation involved translating the Fortran code to C and restructuring the algorithm around the computation of a single air column. Instead of the existing MPI-based domain decomposition, we used a task queue and a thread pool to schedule the computation of individual columns on the available processors. Finally, four air columns are packed together in a single data structure and computed simultaneously using Single Instruction Multiple Data operations. The modified algorithm runs more than 50 times faster on the CELL's Synergistic Processing Element than on its main PowerPC processing element. On Intel-compatible processors, the new radiation code runs 4 times faster. On the tested graphics processor, using OpenCL, we find a speed-up of more than 2.5 times as compared to the original code on the main CPU. Because the radiation code takes more than 60 % of the total CPU time, FAMOUS executes more than twice as fast. Our version of the algorithm returns bit-wise identical results, which demonstrates the robustness of our approach. We estimate that this project required around two and a half man-years of work.

  8. A 0.5 cm(3) four-channel 1.1 mW wireless biosignal interface with 20 m range.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Tim; Nagaraju, Manohar; Winslow, Brent; Bernard, Amy; Otis, Brian P

    2014-02-01

    This paper presents a self-contained, single-chip biosignal monitoring system with wireless programmability and telemetry interface suitable for mainstream healthcare applications. The system consists of low-noise front end amplifiers, ADC, MICS/ISM transmitter and infrared programming capability to configure the state of the chip. An on-chip packetizer ensures easy pairing with standard off-the-shelf receivers. The chip is realized in the IBM 130 nm CMOS process with an area of 2×2 mm(2). The entire system consumes 1.07 mW from a 1.2 V supply. It weighs 0.6 g including a zinc-air battery. The system has been extensively tested in in vivo biological experiments and requires minimal human interaction or calibration. PMID:24681927

  9. Macro-molecular data storage with petabyte/cm3 density, highly parallel read/write operations, and genuine 3D storage capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansuripur, Masud; Khulbe, Pramod K.

    2004-09-01

    Digital information can be encoded in the building-block sequence of macromolecules, such as RNA and single-stranded DNA. Methods of "writing" and "reading" macromolecular strands are currently available, but they are slow and expensive. In an ideal molecular data storage system, routine operations such as write, read, erase, store, and transfer must be done reliably and at high speed within an integrated chip. As a first step toward demonstrating the feasibility of this concept, we report preliminary results of DNA readout experiments conducted in miniaturized chambers that are scalable to even smaller dimensions. We show that translocation of a single-stranded DNA molecule (consisting of 50 adenosine bases followed by 100 cytosine bases) through an ion-channel yields a characteristic signal that is attributable to the 2-segment structure of the molecule. We also examine the dependence of the rate and speed of molecular translocation on the adjustable parameters of the experiment.

  10. FAMOUS, faster: using parallel computing techniques to accelerate the FAMOUS/HadCM3 climate model with a focus on the radiative transfer algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanappe, P.; Beurivé, A.; Laguzet, F.; Steels, L.; Bellouin, N.; Boucher, O.; Yamazaki, Y. H.; Aina, T.; Allen, M.

    2011-06-01

    We have optimised the atmospheric radiation algorithm of the FAMOUS climate model on several hardware platforms. The optimisation involved translating the Fortran code to C and restructuring the algorithm around the computation of a single air column. A task queue and a thread pool are used to distribute the computation to several processors. Finally, four air columns are packed together in a single data structure and computed simultaneously using Single Instruction Multiple Data operations. The modified algorithm runs more than 50 times faster on the CELL's Synergistic Processing Elements than on its main PowerPC processing element. On Intel-compatible processors, the new radiation code runs 4 times faster and on graphics processors, using OpenCL, more than 2.5 times faster, as compared to the original code. Because the radiation code takes more than 60 % of the total CPU time, FAMOUS executes more than twice as fast. Our version of the algorithm returns bit-wise identical results, which demonstrates the robustness of our approach.

  11. Circulating intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), E-selectin and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) in human malignancies.

    PubMed Central

    Banks, R. E.; Gearing, A. J.; Hemingway, I. K.; Norfolk, D. R.; Perren, T. J.; Selby, P. J.

    1993-01-01

    Cellular adhesion molecules have been implicated in tumour progression and metastasis. This study examines for the first time the serum concentrations of circulating VCAM-1 and E-selectin in a consecutive series of 110 cancer patients seen in a general medical oncology clinic, and confirms and extends previous studies reporting measurement of circulating ICAM-1. Soluble ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 levels were significantly higher in all the patient groups compared with the controls whereas soluble E-selectin was significantly higher in the ovarian, breast and GI cancer groups and lower in the myeloma group. The significance of these results together with the possible sources and stimuli for release of these adhesion molecules are discussed. PMID:7686390

  12. Inflammatory cytokine-induced intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 in mesenchymal stem cells are critical for immunosuppression.

    PubMed

    Ren, Guangwen; Zhao, Xin; Zhang, Liying; Zhang, Jimin; L'Huillier, Andrew; Ling, Weifang; Roberts, Arthur I; Le, Anh D; Shi, Songtao; Shao, Changshun; Shi, Yufang

    2010-03-01

    Cell-cell adhesion mediated by ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 is critical for T cell activation and leukocyte recruitment to the inflammation site and, therefore, plays an important role in evoking effective immune responses. However, we found that ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 were critical for mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-mediated immunosuppression. When MSCs were cocultured with T cells in the presence of T cell Ag receptor activation, they significantly upregulated the adhesive capability of T cells due to the increased expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1. By comparing the immunosuppressive effect of MSCs toward various subtypes of T cells and the expression of these adhesion molecules, we found that the greater expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 by MSCs, the greater the immunosuppressive capacity that they exhibited. Furthermore, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 were found to be inducible by the concomitant presence of IFN-gamma and inflammatory cytokines (TNF-alpha or IL-1). Finally, MSC-mediated immunosuppression was significantly reversed in vitro and in vivo when the adhesion molecules were genetically deleted or functionally blocked, which corroborated the importance of cell-cell contact in immunosuppression by MSCs. Taken together, these findings reveal a novel function of adhesion molecules in immunoregulation by MSCs and provide new insights for the clinical studies of antiadhesion therapies in various immune disorders. PMID:20130212

  13. Crystal structure of 5-tert-but­yl-10,15,20-tri­phenyl­porphyrin

    PubMed Central

    Flanagan, Keith J.; Mothi, Ebrahim Mohamed; Kötzner, Lisa; Senge, Mathias O.

    2016-01-01

    In the title free base porphyrin, C42H34N4, the neighbouring N⋯N distances in the center of the ring vary from 2.818 (8) to 2.998 (8) Å and the phenyl rings are tilted from the 24-atom mean plane at angles varying between 62.42 (2)–71.63 (2)°. The NH groups are involved in intra­molecular bifurcated N—H⋯(N,N) hydrogen bonds. The Ca—Cm—Ca angles vary slightly for the phenyl rings, between 124.19 (18)–126.17 (18)°. The largest deviation from the mean plane of the 24-atom macrocycle is associated with the meso carbon at the substituted tert-butyl position, which is displaced from the mean plane by 0.44 (2) Å. The free base porphyrin is characterized by a significant degree of ruffled (B 1u) distortion with contributions from domed (A 2u) and wave [Eg(y) and Eg(x)] modes. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked by a number of weak C—H⋯π inter­actions, forming a three-dimensional framework. The structure was refined as a two-component inversion twin. PMID:26958370

  14. 10-15 years of GST monitoring over mountain permafrost in Switzerland: Indicators for driving forces for permafrost evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staub, Benno; Delaloye, Reynald; Hilbich, Christin; Lambiel, Christophe; Nötzli, Jeannette; Völksch, Ingo

    2013-04-01

    Ground Surface Temperatures (GST) are mainly controlled by atmospheric factors and topographical effects and represent an important standard element within the operational permafrost monitoring network PERMOS in Switzerland. Due to its shape, position and extent the Alpine arc is influenced by prevailing winds from several directions provoking a complex and highly variable pattern of precipitation in different regions of Switzerland with a general trend to a more continental climate in some inner-alpine valleys. The lower boundary for the occurrence of mountain permafrost in the Swiss Alps is located at about 2500 m asl., close to the free atmosphere where air temperatures are almost homogenous in all regions, but precipitation usually shows large regional differences regarding timing and quantity depending on the meteorological conditions. At the elevation range of mountain permafrost the ground surface remains snow-free only for about 4-5 months (between June and November) with a high temporal and spatial variability, while over the rest of the year it stays well shielded from the atmosphere (due to the high surface albedo and emissivity and low thermal conductivity of snow). Therefore, the influence of the atmosphere at this boundary layer on the ground thermal regime is well reflected by GST measurements on a very local, site-specific scale. Relative values like GST anomalies can serve as indicators describing processes of energy and heat transfer at the ground surface in a semi-quantitative way. This information is used in a signal-response analysis integrating GST with other permafrost monitoring elements that represent the permafrost response to external effects (e.g. relative changes in borehole temperatures, apparent electrical resistivities or rock glacier creep rates). To identify and quantify the dominant processes and factors controlling the response of Alpine permafrost to external forces, special consideration is devoted to the characteristics of different landform types (e.g. debris mantled terrain, talus slopes, rock glaciers, ice-cored moraines, push moraines), the topographical context (e.g. exposure to wind and solar radiation, remobilization of snow by avalanches) and regional aspects (e.g. precipitation events, timing and duration of the insulating snow cover). GST anomalies, indices and derivatives are analyzed over a large data set (~15 field sites) provided by the PERMOS network and different institutions within the SNF Sinergia project «The Evolution of Mountain Permafrost in Switzerland» (TEMPS, 2011-2014). First results show that GST anomalies observed during the past 10 to 15 years show largest disparities for different types of landforms and topographical contexts (because of modified snow cover dynamics). Despite of the complex and highly variable pattern of precipitation in the Swiss Alps, regional differences in GST anomalies remain remarkable small. These findings implicate that future permafrost monitoring based on GST does not necessarily depend on a dense network with a high number of field sites, but should cover at least one suitable spot per region with a variety of different topographical contexts.

  15. U.S. Geological Survey national computer technology meeting; program and abstracts, New Orleans, Louisiana, April 10-15, 1994

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Balthrop, B. H., (compiler); Baker, E.G.

    1994-01-01

    This report contains some of the abstracts of papers that were presented at the National Computer Technology Meeting that was held in April 1994. This meeting was sponsored by the Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey, and was attended by more than 200 technical and managerial personnel representing all the Divisions of the U.S. Geological Survey. Computer-related information from all Divisions of the U.S. Geological Survey are discussed in this compilation of abstracts. Some of the topics addressed are data transfer, data-base management, hydrologic applications, national water information systems, and geographic information systems applications and techniques.

  16. Investigation of microwave and radiofrequency radiation levels in Vernon Township, New Jersey, November 10-15, 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-06-01

    At the request of the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) investigated microwave levels in Vernon Township, New Jersey. Vernon is the site of three satellite earth stations which operate a total of over 15 uplink antennas. Each of the three earth-station facilities was surveyed with broadband equipment, and frequency-specific data were collected at twenty-five sites in the surrounding communities. EPA gathered data in satellite uplink, terrestrial microwave, and broadcast-band frequencies. The highest power density found in any publicly accessible area in Vernon was 60 microwatts/sq cm on the property of one of the earth stations. The highest peak-power density found at any of the community measurement locations was approximately 0.003 microwatts/sq cm, in a frequency band that is not used for satellite uplink transmissions. Typical power density values over all the frequency bands studied are well below 0.001 microwatts/sq cm.

  17. Adaptive structures; Proceedings of the ASME Winter Annual Meeting, San Francisco, CA, Dec. 10-15, 1989

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wada, Ben K. (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    The present conference on adaptive structures discusses piezoelectric and electrostrictive sensors and actuators for adaptive structures and smart materials, real-time control for composite structures with embedded actuators and sensors, a laminated-shell theory incorporating embedded distributed actuators, traveling-wave power flow techniques, uncertainty modeling for the control of an active structure, and active vibration isolation in the presence of unmodeled structural dynamic response. Also discussed are the control of flexible beams via free-free active truss, truss structure control using member actuators with latch mechanism, neural processors for smart-structure control, the effect of imperfections on the static control of adaptive structures, adaptive structures for segmented optical systems, and the shape-control of flexible structures.

  18. Study of the organic matter in the DSDP /JOIDES/ cores, legs 10-15. [Deep Sea Drilling Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simoneit, B. R. T.; Burlingame, A. L.

    1974-01-01

    The composition of the organic matter collected on legs 10 to 15 of the DSDP (Deep Sea Drilling Project) is described. Distributions of various alkanes, carboxylic acids, steroids and terpenoids, isoprenoid ketones and olefins, and aromatic polycyclic compounds are given. Samples analyzed had terrigenous clay components, with variable organic carbon contents and thus diverse solvent soluble matter. The distribution patterns for the various compound series monitored were of marine derivation, with the terrigenous components superimposed. Diagenesis of steroids appeared to proceed via both stanones and stanols to their respective steranes. Degradative processes were observed to be operative: oxidative products, mainly ketones derived from steroids and phytol, were identified, probably due to microbial alteration prior to or during sedimentation. Loss of alkane and fatty acid C preferences and presence of polycyclic aromatics evinced maturation. Results indicate that the accumulation, degradation, diagenesis and maturation of organic matter occurs in various steps in the deep sea environment.

  19. Designed heterodimerizing leucine zippers with a ranger of pIs and stabilities up to 10(-15) M.

    PubMed

    Moll, J R; Ruvinov, S B; Pastan, I; Vinson, C

    2001-03-01

    We have designed a heterodimerizing leucine zipper system to target a radionuclide to prelocalized noninternalizing tumor-specific antibodies. The modular nature of the leucine zipper allows us to iteratively use design rules to achieve specific homodimer and heterodimer affinities. We present circular-dichroism thermal denaturation measurements on four pairs of heterodimerizing leucine zippers. These peptides are 47 amino acids long and contain four or five pairs of electrostatically attractive g <--> e' (i, i' +5) interhelical heterodimeric interactions. The most stable heterodimer consists of an acidic leucine zipper and a basic leucine zipper that melt as homodimers in the micro (T(m) = 28 degrees C) or nanomolar (T(m) = 40 degrees C) range, respectively, but heterodimerize with a T(m) >90 degrees C, calculated to represent femtamolar affinities. Modifications to this pair of acidic and basic zippers, designed to destabilize homodimerization, resulted in peptides that are unstructured monomers at 4 microM and 6 degrees C but that heterodimerize with a T(m) = 74 degrees C or K(d(37)) = 1.1 x 10(-11) M. A third heterodimerizing pair was designed to have a more neutral isoelectric focusing point (pI) and formed a heterodimer with T(m) = 73 degrees C. We can tailor this heterodimerizing system to achieve pharmacokinetics aimed at optimizing targeted killing of cancer cells. PMID:11344333

  20. Weight loss and fillet quality characteristics of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) after purging for 5, 10, 15 or 20 days

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, are typically cultured in marine net pens. However, technological advancements in recirculating aquaculture systems have increased the feasibility of culturing Atlantic salmon in land-based systems to alleviate environmental and disease issues limiting sustainability. ...

  1. Quenching of the 1.0 and 2.3 µm excited electronic states of PuF6 at room temperature by selected rare gases and small polyatomic molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barefield, J. E., II; Rice, W. W.; Dye, B. A.

    1985-07-01

    The quenching rate constants kq for the following rare gases and small molecules (He, Ar, Xe, H2, D2, N2, O2, F2, Cl2, HF, CO, CO2, CH4, CHF3, CF4, NO2F, SOF4, SF6, and UF6) are reported in units of cm3 molecule-1 s-1 for both the 1.0 and 2.3 μm excited electronic states of PuF6 (see Table I). The self-quenching rate constants for PuF6 at room temperture are kq(1.0 μm) =1.12±0.01×10-12 and kq(2.3 μm)=5.01±0.11×10-15 cm3 molecule-1 s-1. The magnitude of the quenching rate constants for most all of the gases considered above suggest that the dominant process in the collisional deexcitation of excited state PuF*6 (1.0 or 2.3 μm) molecules at room temperature is physical quenching (i.e., E-T or electronic-to-translational collisional energy transfer). Our data also indicate that E-V (electronic-to-vibrational) energy transfer is responsible for the efficient quenching of electronically excited PuF6 by H2, HF, CH4, and CHF3. There is also evidence from our data that the efficient quenching of the excited states of PuF6 by ground state PuF6 molecules proceeds via resonant energy transfer.

  2. Functional role of stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1) in vascular smooth muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Yoichiro; Watanabe, Hiroyuki; Murakami, Manabu; Ono, Kyoichi; Munehisa, Yoshiko; Koyama, Takashi; Nobori, Kiyoshi; Iijima, Toshihiko; Ito, Hiroshi

    2007-10-05

    We investigated the functional role of STIM1, a Ca{sup 2+} sensor in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) that regulates store-operated Ca{sup 2+} entry (SOCE), in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). STIM1 was mainly localized at the ER and plasma membrane. The knockdown of STIM1 expression by small interfering (si) RNA drastically decreased SOCE. In contrast, an EF-hand mutant of STIM1, STIM1{sup E87A}, produced a marked increase in SOCE, which was abolished by co-transfection with siRNA to transient receptor potential canonical 1 (TRPC1). In addition, transfection with siRNA against STIM1 suppressed phosphorylation of cAMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB) and cell growth. These results suggest that STIM1 is an essential component of SOCE and that it is involved in VSMC proliferation.

  3. Intercellular adhesion molecule 1: recent findings and new concepts involved in mammalian spermatogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Mruk, Dolores D.; Xiao, Xiang; Lydka, Marta; Li, Michelle W.M.; Bilinska, Barbara; Cheng, C. Yan

    2013-01-01

    Spermatogenesis, the process of spermatozoa production, is regulated by several endocrine factors, including testosterone, follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone and estradiol 17β. For spermatogenesis to reach completion, developing germ cells must traverse the seminiferous epithelium while remaining transiently attached to Sertoli cells. If germ cell adhesion were to be compromised for a period of time longer than usual, germ cells would slough the seminiferous epithelium and infertility would result. Presently, Sertoli-germ cell adhesion is known to be mediated largely by classical and desmosomal cadherins. More recent studies, however, have begun to expand long-standing concepts and to examine the roles of other proteins such as intercellular adhesion molecules. In this review, we focus on the biology of intercellular adhesion molecules in the mammalian testis, hoping that this information is useful in the design of future studies. PMID:23942142

  4. Novel Vein Patterns in Arabidopsis Induced by Small Molecules1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Cutler, Sean

    2016-01-01

    The critical role of veins in transporting water, nutrients, and signals suggests that some key regulators of vein formation may be genetically redundant and, thus, undetectable by forward genetic screens. To identify such regulators, we screened more than 5000 structurally diverse small molecules for compounds that alter Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) leaf vein patterns. Many compound-induced phenotypes were observed, including vein networks with an open reticulum; decreased or increased vein number and thickness; and misaligned, misshapen, or nonpolar vascular cells. Further characterization of several individual active compounds suggests that their targets include hormone cross talk, hormone-dependent transcription, and PIN-FORMED trafficking. PMID:26574596

  5. Kinetics of the unimolecular reaction of CH2OO and the bimolecular reactions with the water monomer, acetaldehyde and acetone under atmospheric conditions.

    PubMed

    Berndt, Torsten; Kaethner, Ralf; Voigtländer, Jens; Stratmann, Frank; Pfeifle, Mark; Reichle, Patrick; Sipilä, Mikko; Kulmala, Markku; Olzmann, Matthias

    2015-08-14

    Stabilized Criegee Intermediates (sCIs) have been identified as oxidants of atmospheric trace gases such as SO2, NO2, carboxylic acids or carbonyls. The atmospheric sCI concentrations, and accordingly their importance for trace gas oxidation, are controlled by the rate of the most important loss processes, very likely the unimolecular reactions and the reaction with water vapour (monomer and dimer) ubiquitously present at high concentrations in the troposphere. In this study, the rate coefficients of the unimolecular reaction of the simplest sCI, formaldehyde oxide, CH2OO, and its bimolecular reaction with the water monomer have been experimentally determined at T = (297 ± 1) K and at atmospheric pressure by using a free-jet flow system. CH2OO was produced by the reaction of ozone with C2H4, and CH2OO concentrations were probed indirectly by detecting H2SO4 after titration with SO2. Time-resolved experiments yield a rate coefficient of the unimolecular reaction of k(uni) = (0.19 ± 0.07) s(-1), a value that is supported by quantum-chemical and statistical rate theory calculations as well as by additional measurements performed under CH2OO steady-state conditions. A rate coefficient of k(CH2OO+H2O) = (3.2 ± 1.2) × 10(-16) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) has been determined for sufficiently low H2O concentrations (<10(15) molecule cm(-3)) that allow separation from the CH2OO reaction with the water dimer. In order to evaluate the accuracy of the experimental approach, the rate coefficients of the reactions with acetaldehyde and acetone were reinvestigated. The obtained rate coefficients k(CH2OO+acetald) = (1.7 ± 0.5) × 10(-12) and k(CH2OO+acetone) = (3.4 ± 0.9) × 10(-13) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) are in good agreement with literature data. PMID:26159709

  6. Reactivity of 2-ethyl-1-hexanol in the atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Gallego-Iniesta García, María Paz; Moreno Sanroma, Alberto; Martín Porrero, María Pilar; Tapia Valle, Araceli; Cabañas Galán, Beatriz; Salgado Muñoz, María Sagrario

    2010-04-01

    Rate coefficients at room temperature for the reaction of 2-ethyl-1-hexanol with OH and NO(3) radicals and with Cl atoms have been determined in a 150 L PTFE chamber using GC-FID/SPME and FTIR as detection systems. The rate coefficients k (in units of cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1)) obtained were: (1.13 +/- 0.31) 10(-11) for the OH reaction, (2.93 +/- 0.92) 10(-15) for the NO(3) reaction and (1.88 +/- 0.25) 10(-10) for the Cl reaction. Despite the high concentrations of 2-ethyl-1-hexanol, especially in indoor air, this is the first kinetic study carried out to date for these reactions. The results are consistent with the expected reactivity given the chemical structure of 2-ethyl-1-hexanol. Calculated atmospheric lifetimes reveal that the dominant loss process for 2-ethyl-1-hexanol is clearly the daytime reaction with the hydroxyl radical. PMID:20237722

  7. Five Levels of Incompetence. Higher Education, Teaching, and the Education of Teachers. Report of the Grove Park Institute (June 10-15, 1969).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogt, Thomas, Ed.

    This report contains nine papers presented at a conference on methods of improving teaching and teacher education and the role of the universities and professional societies in this effort. The speeches are divided into five sequential levels of "incompetence," denoting increasing involvement and experience with the problem. The report also…

  8. Kinetics of the chemical oxidation of (5,10,15,20-tetraphenyl-21H,23H-porphinato)(chloro)(aqua)iridium(III)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyulyaeva, E. Yu.; Bichan, N. G.; Mozhzhukhina, E. G.; Lomova, T. N.

    2016-01-01

    The oxidation of (Cl)(H2O)IrTPP with atmospheric oxygen in the presence of concentrated H2SO4 accompanied by coordination of molecular O2 and substitution of axial ligands was studied spectrophotometrically. In 16.785-18.09 MH2SO4 at 298-318 K, (Cl)(H2O)IrTPP experienced two single-electron oxidations in sequence: with an increase in the oxidation state of the iridium cation and with formation of the π-radical cation form (HSO4)IrIVTPP•+ oxidized at the aromatic ligand ( k 298 = 7.2 × 10-6 mol-1 L s-1). Referring to the literature data on the oxidation of (Cl)(H2O)IrTPP in AcOH and CF3COOH, it was shown that the medium acidity and the nature of the axial ligands affect the electron removal site in the chemical oxidation of (Cl)(H2O)IrTPP with atmospheric oxygen in proton-donor solvents.

  9. The longitudinal development of muons in cosmic ray air showers at energies 10(15) - 10(17) eV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The relationship between longitudinal development of muons and conventional equi-intensity cuts is carefully investigated. The development of muons in Extensive Air Showers (EAS) has been calculated using simulation with a scaling violation model at the highest energies and mixed primary composition. Profiles of equi-intensity cuts expected at observation altitudes of 550, 690 and 930/sq cm can fit the observed data very well.

  10. Electron and muon parameters of EAS and the composition of primary cosmic rays in 10(15) to approximately 10(16) eV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheung, T.; Mackeown, P. K.

    1985-01-01

    Estimation of the relative intensities of protons and heavy nuclei in primary cosmic rays in the energy region 10 to the 15th power approx. 10 to the 17th power eV, was done by a systematic comparison between all available observed data on various parameters of extensive air showers (EAS) and the results of simulation. The interaction model used is an extrapolation of scaling violation indicated by recent pp collider results. A composition consisting of various percentages of Fe in an otherwise pure proton beam was assumed. Greatest overall consistency between the data and the simulation is found when the Fe fraction is in the region of 25%.

  11. Operation of NIM5 fountain with 1.5x10-15 uncertainty and design of new NIM6 in NIM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, F.; Liu, N.; Liu, K.; Chen, W.; Suo, R.; Li, Tianchu

    2016-06-01

    The cesium fountain primary frequency standard NIM5 started to operate since 2008 and started to report to BIPM since 2014. The major constrains of NIM5 is a relatively large background signal at the detection and microwave leakages due to the Ramsey cavity. A new fountain clock NIM6 is under construction. Besides some improvements on the vacuum system, a new Ramsey cavity and a microwave synthesizer are made to reduce the Type B uncertainty. Another feature of NIM6 is collecting atoms from a MOT loading optical molasses to get more atoms with a more uniform density distribution. With a new frequency synthesizer based on cryogenic sapphire oscillator (CSO), NIM6 is aiming to reach the quantum projection noise, thus leading to a reduced Type A uncertainty compared with NIM5.

  12. Proceedings of the Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (29th, Melbourne, Australia, July 10-15, 2005). Volume 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chick, Helen L., Ed.; Vincent, Jill L., Ed.

    2005-01-01

    This document contains the second volume of the proceedings of the 29th Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education. Conference papers are centered around the theme of "Learners and Learning Environments." This volume features 43 research reports by presenters with last names beginning between Adl and Fre: (1)…

  13. Samarkand complex setup for investigation of cosmic ray variation in the energy range of 7 10 (9) - 10 (15) eV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorman, L. I.

    1985-01-01

    The Samarkand complex setup is aimed at the study of cosmic ray variations in a wide energy range from 7 billion eV (which corresponds to the geomagnetic threshold in the region of Samarkand) up to approx 10 to the 15th power to 10 to the 16th power eV. The setup consists of four 6-counter sections of neutron supermonitor with counters SNM-15 and 48 scintillator detectors (1 sq m each) placed under and above the supermonitor. The effective area of the setup for recording neutrons and muons is 24 sq m. The setup can register time variations of the following cosmic ray components: (1) the total neutron counting rate, (2) counting rates for neutrons of different multiplicity, (3) soft-muon fluxes, (4) hard-muon fluxes at various zenith and azimuth angles, (5) electron-photon component, (6) extensive air showers (EAS) induced by primary particles in a wide energy range and accompanied or not accompanied by muons and neutrons.

  14. An Evaluation of the Wake County Public School System Alternative Educational Options, 2009-10. E&R Report No. 10.15

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhea, Anisa

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the Wake County Public School System (WCPSS) alternative educational options. The WCPSS options are similar to those in other North Carolina districts. WCPSS student outcomes based on state assessments and federal standards are also equivalent or higher than other districts, although the capacity for WCPSS…

  15. Scientist within You, Vol. 2: Women Scientists from Seven Continents--Biographies and Activities. Instructor's Guide for Use with Students Ages 10-15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Rebecca Lowe; Thompson, Mary H.

    This book is intended to celebrate the global successes of women in a variety of scientific fields. These women provide life stories and career images that positively impact girls' expectations of themselves and their performance in math and science. This book features full biographies on 29 women scientists, mathematicians, and engineers spanning…

  16. 2013 POLAR MARINE SCIENCE GORDON RESEARCH CONFERENCE AND GORDON RESEARCH SEMINAR (MARCH 10-15, 2013 - FOUR POINTS SHERATON, VENTURA CA)

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, Jeff S.

    2012-12-15

    As dynamic and thermodynamic processes associated with warming trends are impacting sea ice cover, oceanographic processes and atmosphere-ocean interactions across polar regions at unprecedented rate, observations and models show fundamentally different regional ecosystem responses. The non-linear and multi-directional biogeochemical responses of polar systems to atmospheric and oceanographic forcings emphasize the need to consider and reconcile observations and models at global and regional scales. The 9th GRC on Polar Marine Science will discuss recent developments and challenges emerging from contemporary and paleo-climate observations and models, encompassing regional and global scales. The GRC addresses the structure, functionalities and controls of polar marine systems through topics such as sea ice biogeochemistry, atmosphere-ocean forcings and interactions, food web trophodynamics, carbon and elemental cycling and fluxes, and a spectrum of ecological processes and interactions.

  17. Analytical and computational models of shells; Proceedings of the Symposium, ASME Winter Annual Meeting, San Francisco, CA, Dec. 10-15, 1989

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, Ahmed K. (Editor); Belytschko, Ted (Editor); Simo, Juan C. (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    Topics presented include asymptotic analysis and computation for shells, the edge effects in the Reissner-Mindlin plate theory, nonlinear problems of geometrically exact shell theories, and developments in variational methods for high performance plate and shell elements. Also presented are an assumed strain solid element model for geometrically nonlinear shell analysis, shell finite elements with six degrees of freedom per node, hierarchic plate and shell models based on p-extension, and a simple shell element formulation for large-scale elastoplastic analysis. Also discussed are the assessment of computational models for multilayered composite cylinders, shell models for impact analysis, analysis of shell structures subjected to contact-impacts, and the application of shell theory to cardiac mechanics.

  18. Comparison of injuries caused by the pistols Tokarev, Makarov and Glock 19 at firing distances of 10, 15 and 25cm.

    PubMed

    Lepik, Delia; Vasiliev, Vitaly

    2005-06-30

    Firings at cloth targets and at human skin from autopsy material were performed from the pistols 7.62 mm Tokarev (TT), 9 mm Makarov (PM) and 9 x 19 mm Glock 19 with common ammunition. The differences were in the soot deposit pattern, the degree of scorching of the synthetic fibres on the edges of the entrance hole and in the findings of the soot and the gunpowder particles. The results were similar on the cloth and on the skin targets. In the case of the TT and the PM, the soot deposit patterns reminded of a blossom or shafts of rays or fans, or the bullet wipe had four narrow and four wide sections regarding the number of lands and grooves. The TT left a large amount of soot and many gunpowder particles and caused the melting of the synthetic fibres on the edges of the entrance hole, producing a defect of the material 0.1-0.3 cm in diameter and defects of textile fibres around the entrance hole. In the skin the TT caused many intraepithelial tears, folds of the epidermis and recesses of the epidermis containing soot. Firings from the PM and the Glock 19 caused the melting only of the ends of individual synthetic fibres on the edges of the entrance hole. The PM left a large amount of soot and only a few gunpowder particles. The Glock 19 gave the least soot and the greatest number of gunpowder particles and also caused tears and recesses in the epidermis. Only in the case of the Glock 19, hexagonal or polygonal zones were seen in the soot deposit pattern. The differences in the soot pattern were more distinct at the firing distance of 10 cm. By increasing the distance from 10 to 15 cm, the intensity of soot diminished and began to disappear at 25cm, but remained more visible in the case of the TT. The gunpowder particles could be found in the epidermis and deeper in both layers of the dermis at all distances fired from the TT and the Glock 19. In the case of firings from the PM, at the distance 10 cm some of the gunpowder particles had penetrated into the dermis and most of them were in the upper layer of the dermis. At the firing distance of 15 and 25 cm, the gunpowder particles were only on and in the stratum corneum. PMID:15935936

  19. SINO-AMERICAN CONFERENCE ON INTELLECTUAL COOPERATION, REPORT AND PROCEEDINGS, HELD AT THE UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON, JULY 10-15, 1960.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    TAYLOR, GEORGE E.; AND OTHERS

    SCHOLARS FROM THE UNITED STATES AND THE REPUBLIC OF CHINA MET TO DISCUSS INTELLECTUAL COOPERATION AND COMMUNICATION BETWEEN THE TWO COUNTRIES. CONFERENCE PARTICIPANTS (N 76) PLACED EMPHASIS ON THE UNITY OF KNOWLEDGE AND THE UNIVERSALIZATION OF DISCIPLINES. MAJOR RECOMMENDATIONS WERE--(1) MUTUAL AGREEMENT ON OBJECTIVES, ON THE APPROACH, AND ON THE…

  20. Issues Affecting Rural Communities. Proceedings of an International Conference Held by the Rural Education Research and Development Centre (Townsville, Queensland, Australia, July 10-15, 1994).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McSwan, D., Ed.; McShane, M., Ed.

    This proceedings contains approximately 100 conference papers and workshop summaries on rural health, education, and community development. The majority of the papers are concerned with conditions in rural Australia; about 20 examine rural issues in the United States; while a smaller number cover Canada, New Zealand, and European countries. A…

  1. Heat transfer in gas turbine engines; Proceedings of the Symposium, ASME Winter Annual Meeting, San Francisco, CA, Dec. 10-15, 1989

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, J. C.; Mayle, R. E.

    Topics presented include an experimental study of convective heat transfer in radially rotating rectangular ducts, an experimental study of heat transfer in a spanwise rotating channel turbulated with 45 deg. criss-cross ribs, local heat transfer on a flat surface roughened with broken ribs, and turbulent heat transfer and friction in a square channel with discrete rib turbulators. Also presented are simulating transitional flow and heat transfer over the flat plate and circular cylinder using a k-epsilon turbulence model, velocity and temperature profiles for stagnation film cooling, film cooling effectiveness in high turbulence flow, and local convection heat transfer on a plane wall in the vicinity of strong streamwise accelerations.

  2. (2,3,5,6-Tetra­fluoro­phenolato-κO)(5,10,15,20-tetra­phenyl­porphyrinato)iron(III)

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Nan; Powell, Douglas R.; Richter-Addo, George B.

    2013-01-01

    The title compound, [Fe(C44H28N4)(C6HF4O)], is a porphyrin complex with iron(III) in fivefold coordination with a tetra­fluoro­phenolate group as the axial ligand. The Fe atom and the phenolate ligand are disordered across the porphyrin ring with the two phenolates appearing to be roughly related by a center of symmetry. The occupancies of the two phenolate groups refined to 0.788 (3) for the major component and 0.212 (3) for the minor component. The structure shows extraordinary Fe displacements of 0.488 (4) (major) and 0.673 (4) Å (minor) from the 24-atom mean plane of the porphyrin. The Fe—Np distances range from 2.063 (4) to 2.187 (6) Å and the Fe—O distances are 1.903 (5) Å for major component and 1.87 (2) Å for minor component. The four phenyl groups attached to the porphyrin ring form dihedral angles of 63.4 (4), 49.6 (4), 62.4 (4), and 63.3 (4)° (in increasing numerical order) with the three nearest C atoms of the porphyrin ring. The major and minor component phenolate groups form dihedral angles of 24.9 (4)° and 24.8 (4)°, respectively, with the four porphyrin N atoms. The Fe⋯Fe distance between the two iron(III) atoms of adjacent porphyrin mol­ecules is 6.677 (3) Å. No close inter­molecular inter­action was observed. The crystal studied was twinned by inversion, with a major–minor component ratio of 0.53 (3):0.47 (3). PMID:24098188

  3. Lithium isotope systematics of volcanic glasses from ridge axes and off-axis seamounts in the northern EPR (10-15°N)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, L.; Shirey, S. B.; Castillo, P. R.

    2012-12-01

    It is now widely recognized that the upper mantle source of mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB) is compositionally heterogeneous on various scales, from whole ocean basins [e.g., Castillo and Batiza, Nature, 342, 1989] to individual minerals [e.g., Laubier et al., Chem. Geol., 240, 2007]. Studies on the geochemical heterogeneity of MORB have primarily been based on abundances of incompatible trace elements and long-lived radiogenic isotope ratios. Light stable isotopes, such as Li, have geochemical behavior that potentially can complement these petrogenetic studies because of their anomalously heavy isotopic composition in seawater-altered oceanic crust or subduction wedge mantle and, conversely, light composition in subducted slab [e.g., Elliott et al., Nature, 443, 2006]. However, the lack of correlations between Li isotopes and other conventional geochemical indices (e.g., incompatible trace element ratios) in the global MORB data set [Tomascak et al., Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta., 72, 2008] requires detailed studies of the regions where closely spaced samples can be examined. In this study we attempt to better constrain the composition of mantle source and the nature of mantle heterogeneity beneath the East Pacific Rise (EPR) by analyzing Li isotopic ratios of a group of well-characterized volcanic glasses from the northern EPR between 10°N and 15°N. The analyzed samples are from both ridge axes and off-axis seamounts where small volumes of melts that undergo low degree of crystal fractionation and mixing and, thus, provide direct geochemical information of mantle heterogeneity. They span a wide range of compositions, from normal-MORB (K2O/TiO2<0.1) to enriched-MORB (K2O/TiO2>0.1). The δ7Li values of on- and off-axis glasses show systematic correlations with conventional geochemical indices of mantle heterogeneity, forming a trend toward more enriched compositions. In detail, heavier Li isotopic ratios are associated with higher highly/moderately incompatible trace element ratios (e.g., K2O/TiO2, (Ce/Yb)N, and Ba/Zr ratios), more radiogenic 87Sr/86Sr and less radiogenic 143Nd/144Nd. The data are consistent with previous conclusions that lateral compositional variability exists in the upper mantle beneath the EPR and axial and off-axis seamount volcanism share a common heterogeneous mantle source. Moreover, our data suggest that incorporation of a heavy-Li-enriched component, most likely a recycled subduction-metasomatized mantle [e.g., Elliott et al., Nature, 443, 2006], is responsible for the geochemical heterogeneity of the suboceanic mantle in the eastern Pacific.

  4. Primary gamma-rays with E gamma or = to 10(15) eV: Evidence for ultrahigh energy particle acceleration in galactic sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aharonian, F. A.; Mamidjanian, E. A.; Nikolsky, S. I.; Tukish, E. I.

    1985-01-01

    The recently observed primary ultra high energy gamma-rays (UHEGR) testify to the cosmic ray (CR) acceleration in the Galaxy. The available data may be interpreted as gamma-ray production due to photomeson production in CR sources.

  5. Tri-μ-oxido-bis­[(5,10,15,20-tetra­phenyl­porphyrinato-κ4 N)niobium(V)

    PubMed Central

    Soury, Raoudha; Belkhiria, Mohamed Salah; Daran, Jean-Claude; Nasri, Habib

    2011-01-01

    In the title dinuclear NbV compound, [Nb2(C44H28N4)2O3], each Nb atom is seven-coordinated with three bridging O atoms and four N atoms from a chelating tetra­phenyl­porphyrinate anion. The Nb—O bond lengths range from 1.757 (6) to 2.331 (6) Å, and the average (niobium–pyrrole N atom) distance is 2.239 Å. In the dinuclear mol­ecule, the Nb⋯Nb separation is 2.8200 (8) Å, and the dihedral angle between the two porphyrinate mean planes is 5.4 (1)°. Weak inter­molecular C—H⋯π inter­actions are present in the crystal structure. PMID:21836860

  6. A Comparison of Methods for Estimating Conditional Item Score Differences in Differential Item Functioning (DIF) Assessments. Research Report. ETS RR-10-15

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moses, Tim; Miao, Jing; Dorans, Neil

    2010-01-01

    This study compared the accuracies of four differential item functioning (DIF) estimation methods, where each method makes use of only one of the following: raw data, logistic regression, loglinear models, or kernel smoothing. The major focus was on the estimation strategies' potential for estimating score-level, conditional DIF. A secondary focus…

  7. Proceedings of the Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (29th, Melbourne, Australia, July 10-15, 2005). Volume 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chick, Helen L., Ed.; Vincent, Jill L., Ed.

    2005-01-01

    The third volume of the 29th annual conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education contains full research report papers. Papers include: (1) Students' Use of ICT Tools: Choices and Reasons (Anne Berit Fuglestad); (2) Interaction of Modalities in Cabri: A Case Study (Fulvia Furinghetti, Francesca Morselli, and…

  8. 3-NO2-5,10,15-triarylcorrolato-Cu as a versatile platform for synthesis of novel 3-functionalized corrole derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Stefanelli, M.; Mancini, M.; Raggio, M.; Fronczeck, F. R.; McCandless, G. T.; Smith, K. M.; Paolesse, R.

    2014-01-01

    β–Nitrocorrole derivatives are potentially valuable platforms for the preparation of a wide range of more elaborated corrole derivatives possessing unique chemical functionalities and electronic properties. Here we report our results on the chemical manipulation of a copper 3-NO2-triarylcorrolate using different organic reactions, all involving the reduction of –NO2 to –NH2 at an early stage, followed by further transformations. By way of a β-acylated copper corrolate, a novel corrole derivative bearing an alkyl azide group on the peripheral positions was obtained and exploited in the Huisgen 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition. PMID:25005049

  9. 75 FR 23571 - Airworthiness Directives; McDonnell Douglas Corporation Model DC-10-10, DC-10-10F, DC-10-15, DC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-04

    ..., and MD-11F airplanes. That NPRM was published in the Federal Register on February 8, 2010 (75 FR 6160... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979), and (3) Will not have a significant economic... by the manufacturer. We are issuing this AD to prevent point-of-contact arcing or filament...

  10. Is Traditional Teaching Really All that Bad? A Within-Student Between-Subject Approach. Program on Education Policy and Governance Working Papers Series. PEPG 10-15

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwerdt, Guido; Wuppermann, Amelie C.

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies conclude that teachers are important for student learning but it remains uncertain what actually determines effective teaching. This study directly peers into the black box of educational production by investigating the relationship between lecture style teaching and student achievement. Based on matched student-teacher data for the…

  11. Progress report on a new search for free e/3 quarks in the cores of 10(15) - 10(16) eV air showers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodson, A. L.; Bull, R. M.; Taylor, R. S.; Belford, C. H.

    1985-01-01

    The Leeds 3 sq m Wilson cloud chamber is being used in a new search for free e/3 quarks close to the axes of 10 to the 15th power - 10 to the 16th power eV air showers. A ratio trigger circuit is used to detect the incidence of air shower cores; the position of the shower center and the axis direction are determined from photographs of current-limited spark chambers. It is thus possible, for the first time, to know where we have looked for quarks in air showers and to select for scanning only those cloud chamber photographs where we have good evidence that the shower axis was close to the chamber. 250 g/sq cm of lead/concrete absorber above the cloud chamber serve to reduce particle densities and make a quark search possible very close to the shower axes. The current status of the search is given.

  12. A report from the 13th International Conference on Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders (ICAD) (July 10-15, 2010-Honolulu, Hawaii, USA).

    PubMed

    Rabasseda, X

    2010-11-01

    What comes to mind when thinking of Hawaii and Honolulu are beaches, sun, sand, blue water, palm trees... But thinking and imagining may be altered in patients with cognitive impairments, and as in the brain of subjects with dementia, thunderstorms are also a reality on tropical islands. Honolulu has much more to offer, from restaurants and nightlife, to a modern convention center that was the site of the International Conference on Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders this year. Attendees to the meeting struggled to combine science with recreation, but many interesting, highly relevant educational activities and high-impact news discussed during the conference focused attention on the former, with updated information on how to prevent and manage cognitive disorders in clinical practice. PMID:21225026

  13. Satellite hydrology; Proceedings of the Fifth Annual William T. Pecora Memorial Symposium on Remote Sensing, Sioux Falls, SD, June 10-15, 1979

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deutsch, M. (Editor); Wiesnet, D. R.; Rango, A.

    1981-01-01

    Philosophical and technical backgrounds for the application of remote sensing by earth scientists are presented. Interests and activities of participating agencies of the United States and Canadian governments, universities, and the private sector in implementing satellite technology in a diverse array of water-related programs are described. Consideration is then given to applications of satellite data to the various aspects of the hydrologic cycle and man's impact on it: meteorology, snow and ice, surface water, soil moisture, ground water, wetlands, coastal zone, water quality and environment, and water use and management.

  14. Proceedings of the Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (29th, Melbourne, Australia, July 10-15, 2005). Volume 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chick, Helen L., Ed.; Vincent, Jill L., Ed.

    2005-01-01

    This document is the fourth volume of the proceedings of the 29th Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education. Conference papers are centered around the theme of "Learners and Learning Environments." This volume features 42 research reports by presenters with last names beginning between Mul and Wu: (1) Case…

  15. 76 FR 31462 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Model DC-10-10, DC-10-10F, DC-10-15, DC-10-30, DC-10...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-01

    ... airworthiness directive (AD) 2007-15-05, amendment 39-15134 (72 FR 40216, July 24, 2007). That AD applies to the specified products. The NPRM published in the Federal Register on November 5, 2010 (75 FR 68246). That NPRM... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979), (3) Will not affect intrastate aviation in...

  16. 75 FR 68246 - Airworthiness Directives; McDonnell Douglas Corporation Model DC-10-10, DC-10-10F, DC-10-15, DC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-05

    ... proposed AD. Discussion On July 13, 2007, we issued AD 2007-15-05, Amendment 39-15134 (72 FR 40216, July 24...'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3. Will not have... amendment 39-15134 (72 FR 40216, July 24, 2007) and adding the following new AD: McDonnell...

  17. 75 FR 6160 - Airworthiness Directives; McDonnell Douglas Corporation Model DC-10-10, DC-10-10F, DC-10-15, DC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-08

    ... Friday, except Federal holidays. For service information identified in this proposed AD, contact Boeing... at the Docket Management Facility between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m., Monday through Friday, except Federal... Review, Flammability Reduction and Maintenance and Inspection Requirements'' (66 FR 23086, May 7,...

  18. 75 FR 60602 - Airworthiness Directives; McDonnell Douglas Corporation Model DC-10-10, DC-10-10F, DC-10-15, DC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-01

    ... published in the Federal Register on April 21, 2010 (75 FR 20790). That NPRM proposed to require installing... 01, dated December 3, 2008; MD11-28-132 IN 02, dated March 18, 2010; and MD11-28-132 IN 03, dated... ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979), and (3)...

  19. 75 FR 20790 - Airworthiness Directives; McDonnell Douglas Corporation Model DC-10-10, DC-10-10F, DC-10-15, DC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-21

    ... System Design Review, Flammability Reduction and Maintenance and Inspection Requirements'' (66 FR 23086... Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979), and 3. Will not have a significant economic impact, positive or... your principal maintenance inspector (PMI) or principal avionics inspector (PAI), as appropriate,...

  20. Proceedings of the Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (29th, Melbourne, Australia, July 10-15, 2005). Volume 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chick, Helen L., Ed.; Vincent, Jill L., Ed.

    2005-01-01

    The first volume of the 29th annual conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education contains plenary lecture and research forum papers as listed below. Short oral communications papers, poster presentations, brief summaries of discussion groups, and working sessions are also included in the volume. The plenary…

  1. Atmospheric chemistry of methyl and ethyl N,N,N',N'-tetramethylphosphorodiamidate and O,S-dimethyl methylphosphonothioate.

    PubMed

    Aschmann, Sara M; Atkinson, Roger

    2013-10-31

    Rate constants for the reactions of OH radicals with methyl N,N,N',N'-tetramethylphosphorodiamidate [CH3OP(O)[N(CH3)2]2; MTMPDA], ethyl N,N,N',N'-tetramethylphosphorodiamidate [C2H5OP(O)[N(CH3)2]2; ETMPDA], and O,S-dimethyl methylphosphonothioate [CH3OP(O)(CH3)SCH3; OSDMMP] have been measured over the temperature range 281-349 K at atmospheric pressure of air using a relative rate method. The rate expressions obtained were 4.96 × 10(-12) e((1058±71)/T) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) (1.73 × 10(-10) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) at 298 K) for OH + MTMPDA, 4.46 × 10(-12) e((1144±95)/T) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) (2.07 × 10(-10) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) at 298 K) for OH + ETMPDA, and 1.31 × 10(-13) e((1370±229)/T) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) (1.30 × 10(-11) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) at 298 K) for OH + OSDMMP. The rate constant for OH + OSDMMP was independent of O2 content over the range 2.1-71% O2 at 296 ± 2 K. In addition, rate constants for the reactions of NO3 radicals and O3 with MTMPDA, of (1.4 ± 0.1) × 10(-12) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) and <3.5 × 10(-19) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1), respectively, were measured at 297 ± 2 K. Products of the OH radical- and, for MTMPDA, NO3 radical-initiated reactions were investigated using gas chromatography and in situ atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometry. A product of molecular weight 180 was observed from the OH and NO3 radical-initiated reactions of MTMPDA, and this is attributed to CH3OP(O)[N(CH3)2]N(CH3)CHO. Similarly, a product of molecular weight 194 was observed from the OH + ETMPDA reaction and attributed to C2H5OP(O)[N(CH3)2]N(CH3)CHO. Possible reaction mechanisms are discussed. PMID:24134801

  2. Suppression of complement regulatory protein C1 inhibitor in vascular endothelial activation by inhibiting vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 action

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Haimou; Qin, Gangjian; Liang, Gang; Li, Jinan; Chiu, Isaac; Barrington, Robert A.; Liu, Dongxu . E-mail: dxliu001@yahoo.com

    2007-07-13

    Increased expression of adhesion molecules by activated endothelium is a critical feature of vascular inflammation associated with the several diseases such as endotoxin shock and sepsis/septic shock. Our data demonstrated complement regulatory protein C1 inhibitor (C1INH) prevents endothelial cell injury. We hypothesized that C1INH has the ability of an anti-endothelial activation associated with suppression of expression of adhesion molecule(s). C1INH blocked leukocyte adhesion to endothelial cell monolayer in both static assay and flow conditions. In inflammatory condition, C1INH reduced vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1) expression associated with its cytoplasmic mRNA destabilization and nuclear transcription level. Studies exploring the underlying mechanism of C1INH-mediated suppression in VCAM-1 expression were related to reduction of NF-{kappa}B activation and nuclear translocation in an I{kappa}B{alpha}-dependent manner. The inhibitory effects were associated with reduction of inhibitor I{kappa}B kinase activity and stabilization of the NF-{kappa}B inhibitor I{kappa}B. These findings indicate a novel role for C1INH in inhibition of vascular endothelial activation. These observations could provide the basis for new therapeutic application of C1INH to target inflammatory processes in different pathologic situations.

  3. A novel and critical role for tyrosine 663 in platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 trafficking and transendothelial migration.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Bidisha; Dufour, Eric; Mamdouh, Zahra; Muller, William A

    2009-04-15

    PECAM-1/CD31 is required for leukocyte transendothelial migration (TEM) under most inflammatory conditions. A critical pool of PECAM-1 resides in the lateral border recycling compartment (LBRC). During TEM, membrane from the LBRC is redirected to surround the leukocyte, and this targeted recycling per se is required for TEM. The cytoplasmic domain of PECAM-1 contains two tyrosine residues that have been implicated in PECAM-1 signaling in other cells but never examined in the context of TEM. We found that expression of PECAM-1 imparts on cells the ability to support TEM and that tyrosine 663 (but not tyrosine 686) is required. Furthermore, tyrosine 663 is required for PECAM-1 to efficiently enter and exit the LBRC. Most important, mutation of tyrosine 663 abolishes the ability of the endothelial cells to support targeted recycling of the LBRC. These data define a novel role for tyrosine 663 and suggest that it is part of a recognition motif for trafficking to and/or from the LBRC. PMID:19342684

  4. Tyrosine phosphorylation of platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1, CD31) in mechanically stimulated vascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Osawa, M; Masuda, M; Harada, N; Lopes, R B; Fujiwara, K

    1997-03-01

    Fluid flow triggers signal transducing events, modulates gene expression, and remodels cytoskeletal structures in vascular endothelial cells (ECs). However, the primary steps of mechanoreception are still unknown. We have recently reported that a glycoprotein is rapidly tyrosine-phosphorylated in bovine ECs exposed to fluid flow or osmotic shock. Here were cloned a 3.4 kb cDNA encoding this protein and found that this was bovine PECAM-1. The tyrosine-phosphorylation level of PECAM-1 immunoprecipitated from mechanically stimulated bovine or human ECs increased. The PECAM-1 phosphorylation was not induced by reagents that triggered Ca2+ mobilization in ECs. An autophosphorylatable band comigrating with c-Src was co-immunoprecipitated with anti-PECAM-1, and c-Src phosphorylated and bound to a GST fusion protein containing the PECAM-1 cytoplasmic domain. A spliced mRNA form lacking amino acid residues 703-721 in the cytoplasmic domain was also expressed in bovine ECs, c-Src neither phosphorylated nor bound to the fusion protein containing the spliced PECAM-1 cytoplasmic domain which lacked one (Tyr 713) of the six tyrosine residues in the PECAM-1 cytoplasmic domain. These results suggest that the YSEI motif containing Tyr 713 is the Src phosphorylation/binding site. Our study is the first demonstration of inducible tyrosine phosphorylation of PECAM-1 and suggests involvement of PECAM-1 and Src family kinases in the sensing/signal transduction of mechanical stimuli in ECs. PMID:9084985

  5. Molecular magnetic resonance imaging of acute vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression in a mouse model of cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Hoyte, Lisa C; Brooks, Keith J; Nagel, Simon; Akhtar, Asim; Chen, Ruoli; Mardiguian, Sylvie; McAteer, Martina A; Anthony, Daniel C; Choudhury, Robin P; Buchan, Alastair M; Sibson, Nicola R

    2010-06-01

    The pathogenesis of stroke is multifactorial, and inflammation is thought to have a critical function in lesion progression at early time points. Detection of inflammatory processes associated with cerebral ischemia would be greatly beneficial in both designing individual therapeutic strategies and monitoring outcome. We have recently developed a new approach to imaging components of the inflammatory response, namely endovascular adhesion molecule expression on the brain endothelium. In this study, we show specific imaging of vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1 expression in a mouse model of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), and a reduction in this inflammatory response, associated with improved behavioral outcome, as a result of preconditioning. The spatial extent of VCAM-1 expression is considerably greater than the detectable lesion using diffusion-weighted imaging (25% versus 3% total brain volume), which is generally taken to reflect the core of the lesion at early time points. Thus, VCAM-1 imaging seems to reveal both core and penumbral regions, and our data implicate VCAM-1 upregulation and associated inflammatory processes in the progression of penumbral tissue to infarction. Our findings indicate that such molecular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) approaches could be important clinical tools for patient evaluation, acute monitoring of therapy, and design of specific treatment strategies. PMID:20087364

  6. Interleukin-6 and intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression remains elevated in revived live endothelial cells following spaceflight.

    PubMed

    Muid, S; Froemming, G R A; Ali, A M; Nawawi, H

    2013-12-01

    The effects of spaceflight on cardiovascular health are not necessarily seen immediately after astronauts have returned but can be delayed. It is important to investigate the long term effects of spaceflight on protein and gene expression of inflammation and endothelial activation as a predictor for the development of atherosclerosis and potential cardiovascular problems. The objectives of this study were to investigate the (a) protein and gene expression of inflammation and endothelial activation, (b) expression of nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB), signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT-3) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) 3 months post-space flight travel compared to ground controls. HUVEC cultured on microcarriers in fluid processing apparatus were flown to the International Space Station (ISS) by the Soyuz TMA-11 rocket. After landing, the cells were detached from microcarriers and recultured in T-25 cm(2) culture flasks (Revived HUVEC). Soluble protein expression of IL-6, TNF-α, ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and e-selectin were measured by ELISA. Gene expression of these markers and in addition NFκB, STAT-3 and eNOS were measured. Spaceflight induced IL-6 and ICAM-1 remain elevated even after 3 months post spaceflight travel and this is mediated via STAT-3 pathway. The downregulation of eNOS expression in revived HUVEC cells suggests a reduced protection of the cells and the surrounding vessels against future insults that may lead to atherosclerosis. It would be crucial to explore preventive measures, in relation to atherosclerosis and its related complications. PMID:24362480

  7. Monocyte Trafficking to Hepatic Sites of Bacterial Infection Is Chemokine Independent and Directed by Focal Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 Expression

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Chao; Velázquez, Peter; Hohl, Tobias M.; Leiner, Ingrid; Dustin, Michael L.; Pamer, Eric G.

    2010-01-01

    Recruitment of CCR2+Ly6Chigh monocytes to sites of infection is essential for efficient clearance of microbial pathogens. Although CCR2-mediated signals promote monocyte emigration from bone marrow, the contribution of CCR2 to later stages of monocyte recruitment remains unresolved. In this article, we show that CCR2 deficiency markedly worsens hepatic Listeria monocytogenes infection because Ly6Chigh monocytes are retained in the bone marrow. Intravenously transferred, CCR2-deficient Ly6Chigh monocytes traffic normally to hepatic foci of infection and contribute to bacterial clearance. Pertussis toxin treatment of adoptively transferred monocytes does not impair their intrahepatic trafficking, suggesting that chemokine signaling, once CCR2+ Ly6Chigh monocytes emigrate from the bone marrow, is not required for monocyte localization to sites of bacterial infection in the liver. Expression of ICAM-1 is induced in close proximity to foci of bacterial infection in the liver, including on CD31+ endothelial cells, and blockade of CD11b and CD44 diminishes monocyte localization to these hepatic foci. Our studies demonstrated that Ly6Chigh monocyte recruitment from the bloodstream to the L. monocytogenes-infected liver does not require chemokine receptor-mediated signals but instead is principally dependent on integrin- and extracellular matrix-mediated monocyte adhesion. PMID:20435926

  8. Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1–Dependent Neutrophil Adhesion to Endothelial Cells Induces Caveolae-Mediated Pulmonary Vascular Hyperpermeability

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Guochang; Vogel, Stephen M.; Schwartz, David E.; Malik, Asrar B.; Minshall, Richard D.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the role of caveolae in the mechanism of increased pulmonary vascular permeability and edema formation induced by the activation of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs). We observed that the increase in lung vascular permeability induced by the activation of PMNs required caveolin-1, the caveolae scaffold protein. The permeability increase induced by PMN activation was blocked in caveolin-1 knockout mice and by suppressing caveolin-1 expression in rats. The response was also dependent on Src phosphorylation of caveolin-1 known to activate caveolae-mediated endocytosis in endothelial cells. To address the role of PMN interaction with endothelial cells, we used an intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 blocking monoclonal antibody. Preventing the ICAM-1–mediated PMN binding to endothelial cells abrogated Src phosphorylation of caveolin-1, as well as the increase in endothelial permeability. Direct ICAM-1 activation by crosslinking recapitulated these responses, suggesting that ICAM-1 activates caveolin-1 signaling responsible for caveolae-mediated endothelial hyperpermeability. Our results provide support for the novel concept that a large component of pulmonary vascular hyperpermeability induced by activation of PMNs adherent to the vessel wall is dependent on signaling via caveolin-1 and increased caveolae-mediated transcytosis. Thus, it is important to consider the role of the transendothelial vesicular permeability pathway that contributes to edema formation in developing therapeutic interventions against PMN-mediated inflammatory diseases such as acute lung injury. PMID:18511851

  9. Targeting Rapamycin to Podocytes Using a Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 (VCAM-1)-Harnessed SAINT-Based Lipid Carrier System

    PubMed Central

    Visweswaran, Ganesh Ram R.; Gholizadeh, Shima; Ruiters, Marcel H. J.; Molema, Grietje; Kok, Robbert J.; Kamps, Jan. A. A. M.

    2015-01-01

    Together with mesangial cells, glomerular endothelial cells and the basement membrane, podocytes constitute the glomerular filtration barrier (GFB) of the kidney. Podocytes play a pivotal role in the progression of various kidney-related diseases such as glomerular sclerosis and glomerulonephritis that finally lead to chronic end-stage renal disease. During podocytopathies, the slit-diaphragm connecting the adjacent podocytes are detached leading to severe loss of proteins in the urine. The pathophysiology of podocytopathies makes podocytes a potential and challenging target for nanomedicine development, though there is a lack of known molecular targets for cell selective drug delivery. To identify VCAM-1 as a cell-surface receptor that is suitable for binding and internalization of nanomedicine carrier systems by podocytes, we investigated its expression in the immortalized podocyte cell lines AB8/13 and MPC-5, and in primary podocytes. Gene and protein expression analyses revealed that VCAM-1 expression is increased by podocytes upon TNFα-activation for up to 24 h. This was paralleled by anti-VCAM-1 antibody binding to the TNFα-activated cells, which can be employed as a ligand to facilitate the uptake of nanocarriers under inflammatory conditions. Hence, we next explored the possibilities of using VCAM-1 as a cell-surface receptor to deliver the potent immunosuppressant rapamycin to TNFα-activated podocytes using the lipid-based nanocarrier system Saint-O-Somes. Anti-VCAM-1-rapamycin-SAINT-O-Somes more effectively inhibited the cell migration of AB8/13 cells than free rapamycin and non-targeted rapamycin-SAINT-O-Somes indicating the potential of VCAM-1 targeted drug delivery to podocytes. PMID:26407295

  10. A Coiled-coil Clamp Controls Both Conformation and Clustering of Stromal Interaction Molecule 1 (STIM1)*

    PubMed Central

    Fahrner, Marc; Muik, Martin; Schindl, Rainer; Butorac, Carmen; Stathopulos, Peter; Zheng, Le; Jardin, Isaac; Ikura, Mitsuhiko; Romanin, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Store-operated Ca2+ entry, essential for the adaptive immunity, is initiated by the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca2+ sensor STIM1. Ca2+ entry occurs through the plasma membrane resident Ca2+ channel Orai1 that directly interacts with the C-terminal STIM1 domain, named SOAR/CAD. Depletion of the ER Ca2+ store controls this STIM1/Orai1 interaction via transition to an extended STIM1 C-terminal conformation, exposure of the SOAR/CAD domain, and STIM1/Orai1 co-clustering. Here we developed a novel approach termed FRET-derived Interaction in a Restricted Environment (FIRE) in an attempt to dissect the interplay of coiled-coil (CC) interactions in controlling STIM1 quiescent as well as active conformation and cluster formation. We present evidence of a sequential activation mechanism in the STIM1 cytosolic domains where the interaction between CC1 and CC3 segment regulates both SOAR/CAD exposure and CC3-mediated higher-order oligomerization as well as cluster formation. These dual levels of STIM1 auto-inhibition provide efficient control over the coupling to and activation of Orai1 channels. PMID:25342749

  11. Endothelial cells proactively form microvilli-like membrane projections upon intercellular adhesion molecule 1 engagement of leukocyte LFA-1.

    PubMed

    Carman, Christopher V; Jun, Chang-Duk; Salas, Azucena; Springer, Timothy A

    2003-12-01

    Specific leukocyte/endothelial interactions are critical for immunity and inflammation, yet the molecular details of this interaction interface remain poorly understood. Thus, we investigated, with confocal microscopy, the distribution dynamics of the central adhesion molecules ICAM-1 and LFA-1 in this context. Monolayers of activated HUVECs stained with fluorescent anti-ICAM-1 Fabs or Chinese hamster ovary-K1 cells expressing ICAM-1-green fluorescent protein were allowed to bind LFA-1-bearing monocytes, neutrophils, or K562 LFA-1 transfectants. ICAM-1 was rapidly relocalized to newly formed microvilli-like membrane projections in response to binding LFA-1 on leukocytes. These ICAM-1-enriched projections encircled the leukocytes extending up their sides and clustered LFA-1 underneath into linear tracks. Projections formed independently of VCAM-1/very late Ag 4 interactions, shear, and proactive contributions from the LFA-1-bearing cells. In the ICAM-1-bearing endothelial cells, projections were enriched in actin but not microtubules, required intracellular calcium, and intact microfilament and microtubule cytoskeletons and were independent of Rho/Rho kinase signaling. Disruption of these projections with cytochalasin D, colchicine, or BAPTA-AM had no affect on firm adhesion. These data show that in response to LFA-1 engagement the endothelium proactively forms an ICAM-1-enriched cup-like structure that surrounds adherent leukocytes but is not important for firm adhesion. This finding leaves open a possible role in leukocyte transendothelial migration, which would be consistent with the geometry and kinetics of formation of the cup-like structure. PMID:14634129

  12. Atmospheric Chemistry: Laboratory Studies of Kinetics of Important Reactions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, S. J.

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Requires signed TDF. This thesis describes the experiments to measure the rate constants for some reactions of the atmospherically important nitrate radical (NO_3) using the discharge-flow technique. The nitrate radical was monitored by optical absorption at lambda = 662 nm. The reactions of NO_3 with some stable organic and inorganic substrates are reported. The temperature dependences of some of the rate constants have also been determined (298 < T < 523 K). In most cases, computer simulation was used to extract the rate constant for the primary process because the time-dependent behaviour of (NO_3) was affected by secondary reactions of NO_3 with products of the primary interaction. The Arrhenius parameter in parentheses (E _{rm a}/kJ mol^ {-1}, A/cm^3 molecule ^{-1}s^ {-1} respectively) for the following reactions have been determined: ethane (37, 6.7 times 10^{-12}), ethylene (25.8, 6.3 times 10^ {-12}), CH_3OH (21.3, 1.2 times 10^ {-12}), CHCiota_3 (23.4, 8.6 times 10 ^{-13}) and HCl (27.7, 4 times 10^{-12}). The activation energies for the reactions studied between NO_3 and some alkynes are represented well by the value 25 +/- 3 kJ mol^{-1} and the corresponding pre-exponential factors (expressed as ln(10 ^{13}A/cm^3 molecule^{-1}s ^{-1}) are as follows: C_2H_2 (1.6 +/- 1.4), C_3H _4 (5.0 +/- 1.4), 1-C_4H_6 (5.8 +/- 1.0), 1-C_5 H_8 (5.7 +/- 0.6) and 1-C_6H _{10} (4.5 +/- 0.4). Some reactions were studied at room temperature _3(298 +/- 2 K) only and the rate constants found (in units of cm ^3 molecule^{ -1}s^{-1}) are: buta-1,3-diene (1.8 times 10 ^{-13}), isobutene (2.8 times 10^{-13 }), HBr (1.3 times 10 ^{-15}) and hex-2-yne (3.0 times 10^{-14 }). Non-Arrhenius behaviour was found in the reactions of NO_3 with n-butane, isobutane and propene. The empirical variation of these rate constants with temperature is well represented by the three parameter expressions:. k(T) = 1.2 times 10 ^{-46}T^{11

  13. Ab initio chemical kinetics for H + NCN: prediction of NCN heat of formation and reaction product branching via doublet and quartet surfaces.

    PubMed

    Teng, Wen-Shuang; Moskaleva, Lyudmila V; Chen, Hui-Lung; Lin, M C

    2013-07-18

    The reaction of NCN with H atoms has been investigated by ab initio MO and RRKM theory calculations. The mechanisms for formation of major products on the doublet and quartet potential energy surfaces have been predicted at the CCSD(T) level of theory with the complete basis set limit. In addition, the heat of formation for NCN predicted at this rigorous level and those from five isogyric reactions are in close agreement with the best value based on the isodesmic process, (3)CCO + N2 = (3)NCN + CO, 109.4 kcal/mol, which lies within the two existing experimental values. The rate constants for the three possible reaction channels, H + NCN → CH + N2 (k(P1)), HCN + (4)N (k(QP1)), and HNC + (4)N (k(QP2)), have been calculated in the temperature range 298-3000 K. The results show that k(P1) is significantly higher than k(QP1) and k(QP2) and that the total rate constant agrees well with available experimental values in the whole temperature range studied. The kinetics of the reverse CH + N2 reaction has also been revisited at the CCSD(T)/CBS level; the predicted total rate constants at 760 Torr Ar pressure can be represented by kr = 4.01 × 10(-15) T(0.90) exp(-17.42 kcal mol(-1)/RT) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) at T = 800-4000 K. The result agrees closely with the most recent experimental data and the best theoretical result of Harding et al. (J. Phys. Chem. A 2008, 112, 522) as well as that of Moskaleva and Lin (Proc. Combust. Inst. 2000, 28, 2393) evaluated with a steady-state approximation after a coding error correction made in this study. PMID:23755876

  14. Isocyanic acid in a global chemistry transport model: Tropospheric distribution, budget, and identification of regions with potential health impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Paul. J.; Emmons, Louisa K.; Roberts, James M.; Lamarque, Jean-FrançOis; Wiedinmyer, Christine; Veres, Patrick; Vandenboer, Trevor C.

    2012-05-01

    This study uses a global chemical transport model to estimate the distribution of isocyanic acid (HNCO). HNCO is toxic, and concentrations exceeding 1 ppbv have been suggested to have negative health effects. Based on fire studies, HNCO emissions were scaled to those of hydrogen cyanide (30%), resulting in yearly total emissions of 1.5 Tg for 2008, from both anthropogenic and biomass burning sources. Loss processes included heterogeneous uptake (pH dependent), dry deposition (like formic acid), and reaction with the OH radical (k = 1 × 10-15 molecule-1 cm3 s-1). Annual mean surface HNCO concentrations were highest over parts of China (maximum of 470 pptv), but episodic fire emissions gave much higher levels, exceeding 4 ppbv in tropical Africa and the Amazon, and exceeding 10 ppbv in Southeast Asia and Siberia. This suggests that large biomass burning events could result in deleterious health effects for populations in these regions. For the tropospheric budget, using the model-calculated pH the HNCO lifetime was 37 days, with the split between dry deposition and heterogeneous loss being 95%:5%. Fixing the heterogeneous loss rate at pH = 7 meant that this process dominated, accounting for ˜70% of the total loss, giving a lifetime of 6 days, and resulting in upper tropospheric concentrations that were essentially zero. However, changing the pH does not notably impact the high concentrations found in biomass burning regions. More observational data is needed to evaluate the model, as well as a better representation of the likely underestimated biofuel emissions, which could mean more populations exposed to elevated HNCO concentrations.

  15. Reactivity of E-butenedial with the major atmospheric oxidants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martín, Pilar; Cabañas, Beatriz; Colmenar, Inmaculada; Salgado, María Sagrario; Villanueva, Florentina; Tapia, Araceli

    2013-05-01

    The degradation reactions of E-butenedial with OH and NO3 radicals and Cl atoms were investigated using a relative rate method. The experiments were carried out at ˜298 ± 1 K and an atmospheric pressure of N2 or synthetic air as the bath gas. Three different sampling/detection methods have been used for the study with Cl, OH and NO3: (1) Solid-Phase Microextraction and Gas Chromatography with Flame Ionization Detection (SPME/GC-FID), (2) ‘in situ’ with long-path Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), and (3) Tenax solid adsorbent and Gas Chromatography with Mass Spectrometry (Tenax/GC-MS) as the detection system. The measured rate coefficients for E-butenedial (cm3 molecule-1 s-1) are as follows: (1.35 ± 0.29) × 10-10 for the Cl atom, (3.45 ± 0.34) × 10-11 for the OH radical and (1.70 ± 0.83) × 10-15 for the NO3 radical. For the reaction of Cl and NO3 these are the first rate coefficient data to be reported and in the case of OH the literature value is confirmed. This study confirms that the chemical structure of the organic substances does not influence on the reactivity with Cl, has a significant effect for OH reactions and is very important for NO3 reactions. Calculated atmospheric lifetimes are in the order of days for Cl and NO3 reactions and hours for OH. In the case of Cl atoms, a lifetime of 20 h is estimated in the early morning hours in urban coastal air. These shorter lifetimes imply that the degradation reactions of E-butenedial are of great importance because their reaction products are secondary pollutants that are involved in processes such as the formation of photochemical smog or peroxyacyl nitrates (PANs).

  16. Amyloid Precursor-like Protein 2 Increases the Endocytosis, Instability, and Turnover of the H2-Kd MHC Class I Molecule1

    PubMed Central

    Tuli, Amit; Sharma, Mahak; McIlhaney, Mary M.; Talmadge, James E.; Naslavsky, Naava; Caplan, Steve; Solheim, Joyce C.

    2008-01-01

    The defense against the invasion of viruses and tumors relies on the presentation of viral and tumor-derived peptides to cytotoxic T lymphocytes by cell surface major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules. Previously, we showed that the ubiquitously expressed protein amyloid precursor-like protein 2 (APLP2) associates with the folded form of the MHC class I molecule Kd. In the current study, APLP2 was found to associate with folded Kd molecules following their endocytosis and to increase the amount of endocytosed Kd. In addition, increased expression of APLP2 was shown to decrease Kd surface expression and thermostability. Correspondingly, Kd thermostability and surface expression were increased by down-regulation of APLP2 expression. Overall, these data suggest that APLP2 modulates the stability and endocytosis of Kd molecules. PMID:18641335

  17. P2Y2 receptor-mediated lymphotoxin-α secretion regulates intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Seye, Cheikh I; Agca, Yuksel; Agca, Cansu; Derbigny, Wilbert

    2012-03-23

    The proinflammatory cytokine lymphotoxin-α (LTA) is thought to contribute to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. However, the mechanisms that regulate its expression in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) are poorly understood. The ability of exogenous nucleotides to stimulate LTA production was evaluated in VSMC by ELISA. The P2Y(2) nucleotide receptor (P2Y(2)R) agonist UTP stimulates a strong and sustained release of LTA from WT but not P2Y(2)R(-/-) SMC. Assessment of LTA gene transcription by LTA promoter-luciferase construct indicated that LTA levels are controlled at the level of transcription. We show using RNAi techniques that knockdown of the actin-binding protein filamin-A (FLNa) severely impaired nucleotide-induced Rho activation and consequent Rho-mediated LTA secretion. Reintroduction of FLNa in FLNa RNAi SMC rescued UTP-induced LTA expression. In addition, we found that UTP-stimulated LTA secretion is not sensitive to brefeldin A, which blocks the formation of vesicles involved in protein transport from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi apparatus, suggesting that P2Y(2)R/filamin-mediated secretion of LTA is independent of the endoplasmic reticulum/Golgi secretory vesicle route. Furthermore, UTP selectively induces ICAM-1 expression in WT but not SMC expressing a truncated P2Y(2)R deficient in LTA secretion. These data suggest that P2Y(2)R recruits FLNa to provide a cytoskeletal scaffold necessary for Rho signaling pathway upstream of LTA release and subsequent stimulation of ICAM-1 expression on vascular smooth muscle cells. PMID:22298782

  18. Expression of kidney injury molecule-1 (Kim-1) in relation to necrosis and apoptosis during the early stages of Cd-induced proximal tubule injury

    SciTech Connect

    Prozialeck, Walter C. Edwards, Joshua R.; Lamar, Peter C.; Liu, Jie; Vaidya, Vishal S.; Bonventre, Joseph V.

    2009-08-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a nephrotoxic industrial and environmental pollutant that causes a generalized dysfunction of the proximal tubule. Kim-1 is a transmembrane glycoprotein that is normally not detectable in non-injured kidney, but is up-regulated and shed into the urine during the early stages of Cd-induced proximal tubule injury. The objective of the present study was to examine the relationship between the Cd-induced increase in Kim-1 expression and the onset of necrotic and apoptotic cell death in the proximal tubule. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with 0.6 mg (5.36 {mu}mol) Cd/kg, subcutaneously, 5 days per week for up to 12 weeks. Urine samples were analyzed for levels of Kim-1 and the enzymatic markers of cell death, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and alpha-glutathione-S-transferase ({alpha}-GST). In addition, necrotic cells were specifically labeled by perfusing the kidneys in situ with ethidium homodimer using a procedure that has been recently developed and validated in the Prozialeck laboratory. Cryosections of the kidneys were also processed for the immunofluorescent visualization of Kim-1 and the identification of apoptotic cells by TUNEL labeling. Results showed that significant levels of Kim-1 began to appear in the urine after 6 weeks of Cd treatment, whereas the levels of total protein, {alpha}-GST and LDH were not increased until 8-12 weeks. Results of immunofluorescence labeling studies showed that after 6 weeks and 12 weeks, Kim-1 was expressed in the epithelial cells of the proximal tubule, but that there was no increase in the number of necrotic cells, and only a modest increase in the number of apoptotic cells at 12 weeks. These results indicate that the Cd-induced increase in Kim-1 expression occurs before the onset of necrosis and at a point where there is only a modest level of apoptosis in the proximal tubule.

  19. Hypoxia-induced mitogenic factor promotes vascular adhesion molecule-1 expression via the PI-3K/Akt-NF-kappaB signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Tong, Qiangsong; Zheng, Liduan; Lin, Li; Li, Bo; Wang, Danming; Li, Dechun

    2006-10-01

    Hypoxia-induced mitogenic factor (HIMF), also known as FIZZ1 (found in inflammatory zone 1), is an important player in lung inflammation. However, the effects of HIMF on cell adhesion molecules involved in lung inflammation remain largely unknown. In the present work, we tested whether HIMF modulates vascular adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1 expression, and dissected the possible signaling pathways that link HIMF to VCAM-1 upregulation. Recombinant HIMF protein, instilled intratracheally into adult mouse lungs, results in a significant increase of VCAM-1 production in vascular endothelial, alveolar type II, and airway epithelial cells. In cultured mouse endothelial SVEC 4-10 and lung epithelial MLE-12 cells, we demonstrated that HIMF induces VCAM-1 expression via the phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI-3K)/Akt-nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB signaling pathway. Knockdown of HIMF expression by small interference RNA attenuated LPS-induced VCAM-1 expression in vitro. We showed that HIMF induced phosphorylation of the IkappaB kinase signalsome and, subsequently, IkappaBalpha, leading to activation of NF-kappaB. Meanwhile, VCAM-1 production was correspondingly upregulated. Blocking NF-kappaB signaling pathway by expression of dominant-negative mutants of IkappaB kinase and IkappaBalpha suppressed HIMF-induced VCAM-1 upregulation. HIMF also strongly induced phosphorylation of Akt. A dominant-negative mutant of PI-3K, Deltap85, as well as PI-3K inhibitor, LY294002, also blocked HIMF-induced NF-kappaB activation and attenuated VCAM-1 production. Furthermore, LY294002 pretreatment abolished HIMF-enhanced mononuclear cells adhesion to endothelial and epithelial cells. Our findings connect HIMF to signaling pathways that regulate inflammation, and thus reveal the critical roles that HIMF plays in lung inflammation. PMID:16709959

  20. Ligand-induced adhesion to activated endothelium and to vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 in lymphocytes transfected with the N-formyl peptide receptor.

    PubMed

    Honda, S; Campbell, J J; Andrew, D P; Engelhardt, B; Butcher, B A; Warnock, R A; Ye, R D; Butcher, E C

    1994-04-15

    Binding of FMLP to the neutrophil N-formyl peptide receptor (FPR) transmits signals through pertussis toxin-sensitive G proteins triggering Ca2+ flux, superoxide production, granule exocytosis, and neutrophil aggregation and adhesion involving the beta 2 (CD18) integrins. Expression of the FPR in mouse fibroblasts or human kidney cells has been shown to confer an N-formyl peptide-inducible Ca2+ flux in transfectants. Here we demonstrate that the transfected receptor can also support ligand-induced alterations in cellular adhesion. We established stable transfectants of mouse L1-2 pre-B cells with cDNA for human FPR (L1-2 FPR cells). The transfectants bind N-formyl-Nle-Leu-Phe-Nle-Tyr-Lys-fluorescein with 1.4 x 10(5) sites per cell and a dissociation constant of 3.3 nM. Stimulation with FMLP induces a transient Ca2+ flux. FMLP also triggers adhesion of L1-2 FPR cells to TNF-alpha- or LPS-activated bEnd3 cells (mouse brain-derived endothelial cells) and to purified mouse VCAM-1. Binding is inhibited by Abs to VCAM-1 and to the alpha-chain of its lymphocyte receptor (the alpha 4 beta 1 integrin, VLA-4). Stimulation with FMLP does not induce a change in cell surface expression of alpha 4. Induced adhesion to VCAM-1 is rapid, detectable at the earliest times measurable (30 to 60 s after FMLP addition), and is inhibited by pertussis toxin. We conclude that FPR can mediate integrin activation not only in neutrophils but also in lymphocytes, and can trigger rapid adhesion via lymphocyte alpha 4 beta 1. The adhesion of lymphocytes is critical to their migration and targeting; our results suggest the possibility of manipulating adhesive responses through expression of chemoattractant receptors in lymphoid cells engineered for cellular therapy, allowing targeted adhesion and potentially migration in response to locally administered ligands. PMID:7511663

  1. CKIP-1 ameliorates high glucose-induced expression of fibronectin and intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 by activating the Nrf2/ARE pathway in glomerular mesangial cells.

    PubMed

    Gong, Wenyan; Chen, Cheng; Xiong, Fengxiao; Yang, Zhiying; Wang, Yu; Huang, Junying; Liu, Peiqing; Huang, Heqing

    2016-09-15

    Glucose and lipid metabolism disorders as well as oxidative stress (OSS) play important roles in diabetic nephropathy (DN). Glucose and lipid metabolic dysfunctions are the basic pathological changes of chronic microvascular complications of diabetes mellitus, such as DN. OSS can lead to the accumulation of extracellular matrix and inflammatory factors which will accelerate the progress of DN. Casein kinase 2 interacting protein-1 (CKIP-1) mediates adipogenesis, cell proliferation and inflammation under many circumstances. However, whether CKIP-1 is involved in the development of DN remains unknown. Here, we show that CKIP-1 is a novel regulator of resisting the development of DN and the underlying molecular mechanism is related to activating the nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)/antioxidant response element (ARE) antioxidative stress pathway. The following findings were obtained: (1) The treatment of glomerular mesangial cells (GMCs) with high glucose (HG) decreased CKIP-1 levels in a time-dependent manner; (2) CKIP-1 overexpression dramatically reduced fibronectin (FN) and intercellular adhesionmolecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression. Depletion of CKIP-1 further induced the production of FN and ICAM-1; (3) CKIP-1 promoted the nuclear accumulation, DNA binding, and transcriptional activity of Nrf2. Moreover, CKIP-1 upregulated the expression of Nrf2 downstream genes, heme oxygenase (HO-1) and superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1); and ultimately decreased the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The molecular mechanisms clarify that the advantageous effect of CKIP-1 on DN are well connected with the activation of the Nrf2/ARE antioxidative stress pathway. PMID:27481061

  2. Neutrophil transmigration mediated by the neutrophil-specific antigen CD177 is influenced by the endothelial S536N dimorphism of platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1.

    PubMed

    Bayat, Behnaz; Werth, Silke; Sachs, Ulrich J H; Newman, Debra K; Newman, Peter J; Santoso, Sentot

    2010-04-01

    The human neutrophil-specific adhesion molecule CD177 (also known as the NB1 alloantigen) becomes upregulated on the cell surface in a number of inflammatory settings. We recently showed that CD177 functions as a novel heterophilic counterreceptor for the endothelial junctional protein PECAM-1 (CD31), an interaction that is mediated by membrane-proximal PECAM-1 IgD 6, which is known to harbor an S(536)N single nucleotide polymorphism of two major isoforms V(98)N(536)G(643) and L(98)S(536)R(643) and a yet-to-be-determined region on CD177. In vitro transendothelial migration experiments revealed that CD177(+) neutrophils migrated significantly faster through HUVECs expressing the LSR, compared with the VNG, allelic variant of PECAM-1 and that this correlated with the decreased ability of anti-PECAM-1 Ab of ITIM tyrosine phosphorylation in HUVECs expressing the LSR allelic variant relative to the VNG allelic variant. Moreover, engagement of PECAM-1 with rCD177-Fc (to mimic heterophilic CD177 binding) suppressed Ab-induced tyrosine phosphorylation to a greater extent in cells expressing the LSR isoform compared with the VNG isoform, with a corresponding increased higher level of beta-catenin phosphorylation. These data suggest that heterophilic PECAM-1/CD177 interactions affect the phosphorylation state of PECAM-1 and endothelial cell junctional integrity in such a way as to facilitate neutrophil transmigration in a previously unrecognized allele-specific manner. PMID:20194726

  3. High-resolution laser-induced fluorescence study of a cage molecule, 1,4-diazabicyclo [2,2,2] octane, DABCO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Consalvo, D.; Drabbels, M.; Berden, G.; Leo Meerts, W.; Parker, D. H.; Reuss, J.

    1993-08-01

    Rotationally resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectra of the caged amine DABCO (1,4-diazabicyclo [2,2,2] octane) seeded in a supersonic He beam are recorded using a high-resolution pulsed dye laser system. Both one-photon and two-photon spectra of the S 1A '1) ← S 0(A '1) transition are measured. In the one-photon spectra we observe electric quadrupole transitions to the S 1 origin and to a '1 vibrational levels and vibrationally induced electric dipole transitions to a″ 2 and e' vibrational levels. For the first time parallel one-photon transitions with their characteristic rotational structure have been observed. Rotational constants are extracted from both the two-photon and one-photon spectra. The quantum mechanical model previously applied to explain the occurrence of the "memory effect" in fluorescence spectra emanating from the S 1(e') levels is extended here for the S 1(a″ 2) levels. Despite the presence of long progressions in several vibrational modes for the S 1(A' 1) ← S 0(A' 1) transition, the difference in S 0 and S 1 rotational constants are remarkably small, suggesting that compensating geometry changes take place on excitation to S 1.

  4. Combined Treatment with Amlodipine and Atorvastatin Calcium Reduces Circulating Levels of Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 and Tumor Necrosis Factor-α in Hypertensive Patients with Prediabetes

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Zhouqing; Chen, Chen; Li, Sheng; Kong, Fanqi; Shan, Peiren; Huang, Weijian

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effect of amlodipine and atorvastatin on intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α expression, as endothelial function and inflammation indicators, respectively, in hypertensive patients with and without prediabetes. Methods: Forty-five consecutive patients with hypertension, diagnosed according to JNC7, were divided into two groups based on the presence (HD group, n = 23) or absence (H group, n = 22) of prediabetes, diagnosed according to 2010 ADA criteria, including impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and fasting glucose tests. All patients simultaneously underwent 12-week treatment with daily single-pill amlodipine besylate/atorvastatin calcium combination (5/10 mg; Hisun-Pfizer Pharmaceuticals Co. Ltd). Serum isolated before and after treatment from overnight fasting blood samples was analyzed by ELISA. Results: In the HD and H groups after vs. before 12-week amlodipine/atorvastatin treatment, there were significantly (all P < 0.01) lower levels of ICAM-1 (3.06 ± 0.34 vs. 4.07 ± 0.70 pg/ml; 3.26 ± 0.32 vs. 3.81 ± 0.60 pg/ml, respectively) and TNF-α (78.71 ± 9.19 vs. 110.94 ± 10.71 pg/ml; 80.95 ± 9.33 vs. 101.79 ± 11.72 pg/ml, respectively), with more pronounced reductions in HD vs. H group (ICAM-1Δ: 1.01 ± 0.80 vs. 0.55 ± 0.64 pg/ml, respectively, P = 0.037; TNF-αΔ: 32.23 ± 14.33 vs. 20.84 ± 14.89 pg/ml, respectively, P = 0.011), independent of the blood pressure (BP) and cholesterol level reduction. Conclusions: Amlodipine/atorvastatin improved endothelial function and inflammation, as reflected by lower circulating levels of ICAM-1 and TNF-α, more prominently in hypertensives with than without prediabetes. Starting statin treatment before overt diabetes in hypertensives might thus improve cardiovascular outcomes. PMID:27610083

  5. Nuclear factor-kappa B directs carcinoembryonic antigen-related cellular adhesion molecule 1 receptor expression in Neisseria gonorrhoeae-infected epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Muenzner, Petra; Billker, Oliver; Meyer, Thomas F; Naumann, Michael

    2002-03-01

    The human-specific pathogen Neisseria gonorrhoeae expresses opacity-associated (Opa) protein adhesins that bind to various members of the carcinoembryonic antigen-related cellular adhesion molecule (CEACAM) family. In this study, we have analyzed the mechanism underlying N. gonorrhoeae-induced CEACAM up-regulation in epithelial cells. Epithelial cells represent the first barrier for the microbial pathogen. We therefore characterized CEACAM expression in primary human ovarian surface epithelial (HOSE) cells and found that CEACAM1-3 (L, S) and CEACAM1-4 (L, S) splice variants mediate an increased Opa(52)-dependent gonoccocal binding to HOSE cells. Up-regulation of these CEACAM molecules in HOSE cells is a direct process that takes place within 2 h postinfection and depends on close contact between microbial pathogen and HOSE cells. N. gonorrhoeae-triggered CEACAM1 up-regulation involves activation of the transcription factor nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB), which translocates as a p50/p65 heterodimer into the nucleus, and an NF-kappaB-specific inhibitory peptide inhibited CEACAM1-receptor up-regulation in N. gonorrhoeae-infected HOSE cells. Bacterial lipopolysaccharides did not induce NF-kappaB and CEACAM up-regulation, which corresponds to our findings that HOSE cells do not express toll-like receptor 4. The ability of N. gonorrhoeae to up-regulate its epithelial receptor CEACAM1 through NF-kappaB suggests an important mechanism allowing efficient bacterial colonization during the initial infection process. PMID:11751883

  6. Nectin-like molecule 1 is a protein 4.1N associated protein and recruits protein 4.1N from cytoplasm to the plasma membrane.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yan; Du, Guangwei; Hu, Xiaoyan; Yu, Shun; Liu, Yaobo; Xu, Yaqin; Huang, Xiaowei; Liu, Jin; Yin, Bin; Fan, Ming; Peng, Xiaozhong; Qiang, Boqin; Yuan, Jiangang

    2005-05-20

    Nectins are immunoglobulin superfamily adhesion molecules that participate in the organization of epithelial and endothelial junctions. Sharing high homology with the poliovirus receptor (PVR/CD155), nectins were also named poliovirus receptor-related proteins (PRRs). Four nectins and five nectin-like molecules have been identified. Here we describe the cloning and characterization of human and mouse nectin-like molecular 1 (NECL1). Human and mouse NECL1 share 87.3% identity at the amino acid level. NECL1 contains an ectodomain made of three immunoglobulin-like domains, and a cytoplasmic region homologous to those of glycophorin C and contactin-associated protein. RNA blot and in situ hybridization analysis showed that NECL1 predominantly expressed in the central nervous system, mainly in neuronal cell bodies in a variety of brain regions including the cerebellum, cerebral cortex and hippocampus. In vitro binding assay proved the association of NECL1 with protein 4.1N. NECL1 localizes to the cell-cell junctions and recruits protein 4.1N to the plasma membranes through its C-terminus, thus may regulate the function of the cell-cell junction. We propose that the NECL1 and protein 4.1N complex is involved in the morphological development, stability, and dynamic plasticity of the nervous system. PMID:15893517

  7. Cloning and Stable Expression of cDNA Coding For Platelet Endothelial Cell Adhesion Molecule -1 (PECAM-1, CD31) in NIH-3T3 Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Salehi-Lalemarzi, Hamed; Shanehbandi, Dariush; Shafaghat, Farzaneh; Abbasi-Kenarsari, Hajar; Baradaran, Behzad; Movassaghpour, Ali Akbar; Kazemi, Tohid

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: PECAM-1 (CD31) is a glycoprotein expressed on endothelial and bone marrow precursor cells. It plays important roles in angiogenesis, maintenance and integration of the cytoskeleton and direction of leukocytes to the site of inflammation. We aimed to clone the cDNA coding for human CD31 from KG1a for further subcloning and expression in NIH-3T3 mouse cell line. Methods: CD31 cDNA was cloned from KG1a cell line after total RNA extraction and cDNA synthesis. Pfu DNA polymerase-amplified specific band was ligated to pGEMT-easy vector and sub-cloned in pCMV6-Neo expression vector. After transfection of NIH-3T3 cells using 3 μg of recombinant construct and 6 μl of JetPEI transfection reagent, stable expression was obtained by selection of cells by G418 antibiotic and confirmed by surface flow cytometry. Results: 2235 bp specific band was aligned completely to human CD31 reference sequence in NCBI database. Transient and stable expression of human CD31 on transfected NIH-3T3 mouse fibroblast cells was achieved (23% and 96%, respectively) as shown by flow cytometry. Conclusion: Due to murine origin of NIH-3T3 cell line, CD31-expressing NIH-3T3 cells could be useful as immunogen in production of diagnostic monoclonal antibodies against human CD31, with no need for purification of recombinant proteins. PMID:26236664

  8. Association of Polymorphisms in Intercellular Adhesion Molecule 1 (ICAM-1) Gene with Cancer Susceptibility: A Meta-Analysis of 14 Case-Control Studies

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaolong; Huang, Junjie; Bai, Jian; Lu, Wei; Zhang, Meng; Mei, Hongbing

    2016-01-01

    Background Many epidemiology studies have indicated that polymorphisms in ICAM-1 are associated with a variety of cancers, but published data are contradictory and inconclusive. Therefore, we conducted the current meta-analysis to elaborate the effects of ICAM-1 polymorphisms (rs5491, rs3093030, rs281432, and rs1799969) on cancer susceptibility. Material/Methods We conducted a comprehensive literature search in PubMed, Web of Science, and Google Scholar. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated to assess the association between ICAM-1 polymorphisms and cancer susceptibility. Results We enrolled 14 published case-control studies including 4608 cancer cases and 4913 controls. We found an increased susceptibility of cancer in polymorphism rs1799969 (C vs. T: OR=1.662, 95%CI=1.288–2.143, p=0141; CT vs. TT: OR=1.860, 95%CI=1.398–2.474, p=0.507; CC+CT vs. TT: OR=1.812, 95%CI=1.373–2.391, p=0.284) of ICAM-1 among the overall population. However, no association between polymorphisms rs5491, rs3093030, or rs281432 of ICAM-1 and cancer susceptibility was identified. In the stratification analysis by ethnicity, we identified an increased susceptibility for Asians in rs3093030 polymorphism (CC vs. TC+TT: OR=1.728, 95% CI=1.234–2.421, p=0.787). Conclusions Our results suggest that the ICAM-1 polymorphism rs1799969 is significantly associated with increased susceptibility to overall cancer. Further studies (preferably prospective) are warranted to validate these relationships. PMID:26897511

  9. Platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1/CD31) is associated with a naïve B-cell phenotype in human tonsils.

    PubMed

    Jackson, D E; Gully, L M; Henshall, T L; Mardell, C E; Macardle, P J

    2000-08-01

    In B cells, signaling through the B-cell antigen receptor (BCR) is negatively modulated by the co-ligation of immunoglobulin (Ig)-immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif (ITIM)-bearing molecules such as FcgammaRIIB1, B-cell transmembrane protein CD72, paired immunoglobulin-like receptor PIR-B, leukocyte-associated immunoglobulin-like receptor-1 (LAIR-1), Ig-like transcript ILT2, biliary glycoprotein BGP-1 and B-cell co-receptor CD22. The co-expression of multiple Ig-ITIM receptors may provide B cells with different mechanisms of regulating inhibitory pathways at different stages of differentiation. In this study, we have examined the expression of a newly defined Ig-ITIM receptor, PECAM-1 (CD31) on human B-cells. Human tonsillar B cells were purified using negative selection by depleting T cells with a combination of monoclonal antibodies and magnetic bead separation. Following purification, the pattern of PECAM-1 expression was analyzed in B-cell subpopulations using two- and three-colour fluorescence. To complement this work, PECAM-1 localization in the context of distinct areas of human tonsil was defined by immunohistochemical analysis of tonsil sections. Finally to investigate somatic mutation, Ig variable (V) region genes belonging to the nonpolymorphic VH6 family were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), subcloned and sequenced from sort-purified CD19+ PECAM-1+ and CD19+ PECAM-1- B cells. Our results demonstrate that PECAM-1 is associated with an unstimulated resting B-cell phenotype, localization to the follicular mantle and marginal zones of human tonsil and expression of unmutated Ig V region genes. These studies suggest that PECAM-1 appears on the cell surface at the naive B-cell stage and is lost as B cells differentiate into memory cells, indicating that PECAM-1 is primarily involved in naive or immature B-cell function. PMID:11019910

  10. Green electrochemical sensing platforms: utilizing hydroxyapatite derived from natural fish scales as a novel electrochemical material for the sensitive detection of kidney injury molecule 1 (KIM-1).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Qing; Li, Kaiyang; Liu, Wei; Liu, Yong; Banks, Craig E

    2014-11-01

    Urinary KIM-1 is an ideal biomarker for acute kidney injury diagnosis. The proof-of-concept is demonstrated by utilizing the hydroxyapatite derived from natural fish scales as an electrode material, where the sensing of KIM-1 is shown to be possible for the first time with a linear range from 0.01 to 0.20 μg mL(-1) and a detection limit of 0.017 μg mL(-1) under model conditions; proof-of-concept is demonstrated in spiked urine. PMID:25192033

  11. Effects of anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha and anti-intercellular adhesion molecule-1 antibodies on ischemia/reperfusion lung injury.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Chi-Huei

    2006-10-31

    Inhibition of neutrophil activation and adherence to endothelium by antibodies to tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and intercellular adhesion molecules (ICAM-1), respectively, might attenuate ischemia-reperfusion injury (I/R). I/R was conducted in an isolated rat lung model. Anti-TNF-alpha antibody and/or anti-ICAM-1 antibody were added before ischemia or after reperfusion. Hemodynamic changes, lung weight gain (LWG), capillary filtration coefficients (Kfc), and pathologic changes were assessed to evaluate the severity of I/R. The LWG, Kfc, pathological changes and lung injury score of treatment groups with anti-TNF-alpha antibody treatment, either pre-ischemia or during reperfusion, were less than those observed in control groups. Similar findings were found in group treated with anti-ICAM-1 antibody or combination therapy during reperfusion. In contrast, pre-I/R treatment with anti-ICAM-1 antibody induced severe lung edema and failure to complete the experimental procedure. No additional therapeutic effect was found in combination therapy. We conclude that TNF-alpha and ICAM-1 play important roles in I/R. Anti-TNF-alpha antibody has therapeutic and preventive effects on I/R. However, combined therapy with anti-TNF-alpha antibody and anti-ICAM-1 antibody may have no additive effect and need further investigation. PMID:17294835

  12. Backbone 1H, 13C, and 15N assignments for the tandem ubiquitin binding domains of signal transducing adapter molecule 1.

    PubMed

    Lim, Jongsoo; Hong, Yoon-Hun; Lee, Bong-Jin; Ahn, Hee-Chul

    2011-04-01

    Signal transducing adapter molecule (STAM) forms the endosomal sorting complex required for transport-0 (ESCRT-0) complex with hepatocyte growth factor-regulated substrate (Hrs) to sort the ubiquitinated cargo proteins from the early endosomes to the ESCRT-1 complex. ESCRT-0 complex, STAM and Hrs, contains multiple ubiquitin binding domains, in which STAM has two ubiquitin binding domains, Vps27/Hrs/Stam (VHS) and ubiquitin interacting motif (UIM) at its N-terminus. By the cooperation of the multiple ubiquitin binding domains, the ESCRT-0 complex recognizes poly-ubiquitin, especially Lys63-linked ubiquitin. Here, we report the backbone resonance assignments and the secondary structure of the N-terminal 191 amino acids of the human STAM1 which includes the VHS domain and UIM. The {(1)H}-(15)N heteronuclear NOE experiments revealed that an unstructured and flexible loop region connects the VHS domain and UIM. Our work provides the basic information for the further NMR investigation of the interaction between STAM1 and poly-ubiquitin. PMID:20927613

  13. Pentosan polysulfate treatment ameliorates motor function with increased serum soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 in HTLV-1-associated neurologic disease.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Tatsufumi; Satoh, Katsuya; Fukuda, Taku; Kinoshita, Ikuo; Nishiura, Yoshihiro; Nagasato, Kunihiko; Yamauchi, Atsushi; Kataoka, Yasufumi; Nakamura, Tadahiro; Sasaki, Hitoshi; Kumagai, Kenji; Niwa, Masami; Noguchi, Mitsuru; Nakamura, Hideki; Nishida, Noriyuki; Kawakami, Atsushi

    2014-06-01

    The main therapeutic strategy against human T lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I)-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) characterized by lower extremity motor dysfunction is immunomodulatory treatment, with drugs such as corticosteroid hormone and interferon-α, at present. However, there are many issues in long-term treatment with these drugs, such as insufficient effects and various side effects. We now urgently need to develop other therapeutic strategies. The heparinoid, pentosan polysulfate sodium (PPS), has been safely used in Europe for the past 50 years as a thrombosis prophylaxis and for the treatment of phlebitis. We conducted a clinical trial to test the effect of subcutaneous administration of PPS in 12 patients with HAM/TSP in an open-labeled design. There was a marked improvement in lower extremity motor function, based on reduced spasticity, such as a reduced time required for walking 10 m and descending a flight of stairs. There were no significant changes in HTLV-I proviral copy numbers in peripheral blood contrary to the inhibitory effect of PPS in vitro for intercellular spread of HTLV-I. However, serum soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule (sVCAM)-1 was significantly increased without significant changes of serum level of chemokines (CXCL10 and CCL2). There was a positive correlation between increased sVCAM-1and reduced time required for walking 10 m. PPS might induce neurological improvement by inhibition of chronic inflammation in the spinal cord, through blocking the adhesion cascade by increasing serum sVCAM-1, in addition to rheological improvement of the microcirculation. PPS has the potential to be a new therapeutic tool for HAM/TSP. PMID:24671717

  14. Potential of mZD7349-conjugated PLGA nanoparticles for selective targeting of vascular cell-adhesion molecule-1 in inflamed endothelium.

    PubMed

    Imanparast, Fatemeh; Paknejad, Maliheh; Faramarzi, Mohammad Ali; Kobarfard, Farzad; Amani, Amir; Doosti, Mahmood

    2016-07-01

    Early diagnosis and restoring normal function of dysfunctional endothelium is an attractive strategy for prevention of inflammatory diseases such as atherosclerosis. Inhibition of cell adhesion in the process of atherosclerosis plaque formation, mediated by peptide antagonists of very late antigen-4 (VLA-4) has already been developed and evaluated both in vitro and in vivo. In this study, for the first time, modified ZD7349 (mZD7349) peptide, as an antagonist for VLA-4, was used for targeting fluorescein isothiocyanate-loaded poly (DL-lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles (FITC-PLGA NPs). Rate of binding and internalization of mZD7349-NPs to activated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were compared with that of untargeted. Effects of temperature reduction and clathrin-mediated endocytosis inhibitor (0.45M sucrose) were also studied on the binding and internalization of mZD7349-NPs and NPs. Results showed that binding of the conjugated NPs could be significantly blocked by pre-incubating cells with the free peptide, suggesting that the binding of NPs is mediated by attaching the surface peptide to VCAM-1 on HUVECs. Also, conjugated FITC-loaded NPs were shown to be rapidly endocytosized to a greater extent than the unconjugated ones. The binding and internalization of mZD7349-NPs and NPs were slowed down at low temperature and in the presence of sucrose with greater reductions for mZD7349-NPs. To conclude, the peptide-NPs targeting the VCAM-1 is suggested as a theranostic carrier for lesions upregulating VCAM-1. PMID:27105996

  15. Testing a new analytical approach for determination of vibrational transition moment directions in low symmetry planar molecules: 1-D- and 2-D-naphthalene.

    PubMed

    Rogojerov, Marin; Keresztury, Gábor; Kamenova-Nacheva, Mariana; Sundius, Tom

    2012-12-01

    A new analytical approach for improving the precision in determination of vibrational transition moment directions of low symmetry molecules (lacking orthogonal axes) is discussed in this paper. The target molecules are partially uniaxially oriented in nematic liquid crystalline solvent and are studied by IR absorption spectroscopy using polarized light. The fundamental problem addressed is that IR linear dichroism measurements of low symmetry molecules alone cannot provide sufficient information on molecular orientation and transition moment directions. It is shown that computational prediction of these quantities can supply relevant complementary data, helping to reveal the hidden information content and achieve a more meaningful and more precise interpretation of the measured dichroic ratios. The combined experimental and theoretical/computational method proposed by us recently for determination of the average orientation of molecules with C(s) symmetry has now been replaced by a more precise analytical approach. The new method introduced and discussed in full detail here uses a mathematically evaluated angle between two vibrational transition moment vectors as a reference. The discussion also deals with error analysis and estimation of uncertainties of the orientational parameters. The proposed procedure has been tested in an analysis of the infrared linear dichroism (IR-LD) spectra of 1-D- and 2-D-naphthalene complemented with DFT calculations using the scaled quantum mechanical force field (SQM FF) method. PMID:22981590

  16. Absence of Platelet Endothelial Cell Adhesion Molecule 1, PECAM-1/CD31, In Vivo Increases Resistance to Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lovelace, Michael D.; Yap, May Lin; Yip, Jana; Muller, William; Wijburg, Odilia

    2013-01-01

    PECAM-1/CD31 is known to regulate inflammatory responses and exhibit pro- and anti-inflammatory functions. This study was designed to determine the functional role of PECAM-1 in susceptibility to murine primary in vivo infection with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and in in vitro inflammatory responses of peritoneal macrophages. Lectin profiling showed that cellular PECAM-1 and recombinant human PECAM-1-Ig chimera contain high levels of mannose sugars and N-acetylglucosamine. Consistent with this carbohydrate pattern, both recombinant human and murine PECAM-1-Ig chimeras were shown to bind S. Typhimurium in a dose-dependent manner in vitro. Using oral and fecal-oral transmission models of S. Typhimurium SL1344 infection, PECAM-1−/− mice were found to be more resistant to S. Typhimurium infection than wild-type (WT) C57BL/6 mice. While fecal shedding of S. Typhimurium was comparable in wild-type and PECAM-1−/− mice, the PECAM-1-deficient mice had lower bacterial loads in systemic organs such as liver, spleen, and mesenteric lymph nodes than WT mice, suggesting that extraintestinal dissemination was reduced in the absence of PECAM-1. This reduced bacterial load correlated with reduced tumor necrosis factor (TNF), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP) levels in sera of PECAM-1−/− mice. Following in vitro stimulation of macrophages with either whole S. Typhimurium, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (Toll-like receptor 4 [TLR4] ligand), or poly(I·C) (TLR3 ligand), production of TNF and IL-6 by PECAM-1−/− macrophages was reduced. Together, these results suggest that PECAM-1 may have multiple functions in resistance to infection with S. Typhimurium, including binding to host cells, extraintestinal spread to deeper tissues, and regulation of inflammatory cytokine production by infected macrophages. PMID:23509149

  17. Plasma density inside a femtosecond laser filament in air: strong dependence on external focusing.

    PubMed

    Théberge, Francis; Liu, Weiwei; Simard, Patrick Tr; Becker, Andreas; Chin, See Leang

    2006-09-01

    Our experiment shows that external focusing strongly influences the plasma density and the diameter of femtosecond Ti-sapphire laser filaments generated in air. The control of plasma filament parameters is suitable for many applications such as remote spectroscopy, laser induced electrical discharge, and femtosecond laser material interactions. The measurements of the filament showed the plasma density increases from 10(15)cm(-3) to 2 x 10(18)cm(-3) when the focal length decreases from 380 cm to 10 cm while the diameter of the plasma column varies from 30 microm to 90 microm. The experimental results are in good qualitative agreement with the results of numerical simulations. PMID:17025753

  18. Significant Wilderness Qualities: Can They Be Identified and Monitored? Proceedings of the Annual NOLS [National Outdoor Leadership School] Wilderness Research Colloquium (3rd, Shoshone National Forest, Wyoming, August 10-15, 1987).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, David N., Comp.; Lucas, Robert C., Comp.

    This report is a compilation of the papers presented at a colloquium on wilderness management and a synopsis of discussions held during the conference. The conference theme was how to determine and monitor the most significant features and qualities of the wilderness resource. Generally, participants identify solitude; pollution-free air and…

  19. (2,3,5,6-Tetra­fluoro­phenolato)[5,10,15,20-tetra­kis­(4-meth­oxy­phen­yl)porphyrinato]iron(III) cyclo­hexane monosolvate

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Nan; Powell, Douglas R.; Richter-Addo, George B.

    2013-01-01

    The title compound, [Fe(C6HF4O)(C48H36N4O4)]·C6H12, represents a five-coordinate iron(III) porphyrin complex in a square-pyramidal geometry with a tetra­fluoro­phenolate anion as the axial ligand. The FeIII atom is displaced by 0.364 (2) Å from the 24-atom mean plane of the porphyrinate ring towards the tetra­fluoro phenolate anion. The average Fe—N distance is 2.053 (2) Å and the Fe—O distance is 1.883 (2) Å. A porphyrin aryl H atom points in the general direction of the phenoxide ring. The mean plane separation between the 24-atom porphyrin planes of two adjacent porphyrin rings is ∼3.7 Å, and the lateral shift is ∼3.5 Å resu, ting in an Fe⋯Fe separation of 5.6167 (14) Å. PMID:24098166

  20. DIMED 86: Discurso dos Media e Ensino a Distancia = Discours des Media et Enseignement a Distance = Media Speech and Distance Teaching. Papers Presented at a Seminar (21st, Algarve, Portugal, March 10-15, 1986).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coelho, Maria Eduarda Leal

    Presentations at this seminar on distance education focused on the different types of speech in multimedia presentations which contribute to the elaboration (simulated or substituted) of a situation involving different relationships. In addition to opening and closing remarks by Marcel de Greve and a final report by the Scientific Committee of…