Science.gov

Sample records for 10-15 km high

  1. Exploring KM Features of High-Performance Companies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Wei-Wen

    2007-12-01

    For reacting to an increasingly rival business environment, many companies emphasize the importance of knowledge management (KM). It is a favorable way to explore and learn KM features of high-performance companies. However, finding out the critical KM features of high-performance companies is a qualitative analysis problem. To handle this kind of problem, the rough set approach is suitable because it is based on data-mining techniques to discover knowledge without rigorous statistical assumptions. Thus, this paper explored KM features of high-performance companies by using the rough set approach. The results show that high-performance companies stress the importance on both tacit and explicit knowledge, and consider that incentives and evaluations are the essentials to implementing KM.

  2. High energy neutrino detection with KM3NeT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Migliozzi, Pasquale; KM3NeT Collaboration

    2016-05-01

    The KM3NeT Collaboration has started the construction of a next generation high-energy neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean Sea: the largest and most sensitive neutrino research infrastructure. The full KM3NeT detector will be a several cubic kilometres distributed, networked infrastructure. In Italy, off the coast of Capo Passero, and in France, off the coast of Toulon. Thanks to its location in the Northern hemisphere and to its large instrumented volume, KM3NeT will be the optimal instrument to search for neutrinos from the Southern sky and in particular from the Galactic plane, thus making it complementary to IceCube. In this work the technologically innovative component of the detector, the status of construction and the first results from prototypes of the KM3NeT detector will be described as well as its capability to discover neutrino sources are reported.

  3. Neutral winds above 200Km at high latitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meriwether, J. W.; Heppner, J. P.; Stolarik, J. D.; Wescott, E. M.

    1972-01-01

    Motion from multiple chemical releases between 200 and 300 km from 15 rockets launched from 4 high latitude locations are analyzed. The observations in the evening and midnight hours at magnetic altitudes or = 65 deg suggest that in these regions ion drag is the dominant force in driving neutral winds between 200 and 300 km. This conclusion is based on both the agreement between ion and neutral drift directions, and the fact that there are distinct changes in the wind associated with (a) the reversal in east-west ion drift at the Harang discontinuity, and (b) the transition from auroral belt, sunward ion drift and polar cap, anti-solar ion drift.

  4. A high resolution (1 km) groundwater model for Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutanudjaja, Edwin; Verkaik, Jarno; de Graaf, Inge; van Beek, Rens; Erkens, Gilles; Bierkens, Marc

    2015-04-01

    Groundwater is important in many parts of Indonesia. It serves as a primary source of drinking water and industrial activities. During times of drought, it sustains water flows in streams, rivers, lakes and wetlands, and thus support ecosystem habitat and biodiversity as well as preventing hazardous forest fire. Besides its importance, groundwater is known as a vulnerable resource as unsustainable groundwater exploitation and management occurs in many areas of the country. Therefore, in order to ensure sustainable management of groundwater resources, monitoring and predicting groundwater changes in Indonesia are imperative. However, large extent groundwater models to assess these changes on a regional scale are almost non-existent and are hampered by the strong topographical and lithological transitions that characterize Indonesia. In this study, we built an 1 km resolution groundwater model for the entire Indonesian archipelago (total inland area: about 2 million km2). We adopted the approaches of Sutanudjaja et al. (2011, 2014a) and de Graaf et al. (2014) in order to make a MODFLOW (Harbaugh et al., 2000) groundwater model by using only global datasets. Aquifer schematization and properties of the groundwater model were developed from available global lithological maps (e.g. Dürr et al., 2005; Gleeson et al., 2011; Hartmann & Moorsdorf, 2012; Gleeson et al., 2014). We forced the groundwater model with the recent output of global hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB version 2.0 (Sutanudjaja et al., 2014b; van Beek et al., 2011), specifically the long term average of groundwater recharge and average surface water levels derived from channel discharge. Simulation results were promising. The MODFLOW model converged with realistic aquifer properties (i.e. transmissivities) and produced reasonable groundwater head spatial distribution reflecting the positions of major groundwater bodies and surface water bodies in the country. In Vienna, we aim to show and demonstrate these

  5. Simplified manual fabrication of cubic-zirconia gem anvils for extended energy-range spectroscopic studies to routine high pressures of 100-150 kbar (10-15 GPa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, N. R.; Erasmus, R. M.; Hearne, G. R.

    2010-07-01

    Methodology has been developed so as to attain routine extreme conditions as high as 10-15 GPa in a gem anvil optical pressure cell using hand (manual) processed gem anvils. The anvils polished by a simplified hand held tool are inexpensive single crystal cubic zirconia (CZ) gems that have various optical advantages over diamond anvils. Appreciable pressures are attained with culet and corresponding sample cavity dimensions that are relatively convenient to load with sample material. Some technical details are provided as regards the simplified manual fabrication process, thus emphasizing the relative ease and cost effectiveness of the hand polishing technique for fabricating such high pressure anvils. Raman spectroscopy measurements, in triple subtractive mode with a confocal pinhole geometry, are used to exemplify the usefulness of the CZ gem anvil cell methodology in pressure tuning experiments. This is particularly convenient for conventional low wave-number (lattice mode regime) Raman high pressure studies, which have not been reported previously in this context. Various other applications of such anvils are suggested.

  6. Development of a high-resolution (1 km × 1 km, 1 h) emission model for Spain: The High-Elective Resolution Modelling Emission System (HERMES)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldasano, José María; Güereca, Leonor Patricia; López, Eugeni; Gassó, Santiago; Jimenez-Guerrero, Pedro

    This work presents the results of the development and application of the High-Elective Resolution Modelling Emission System (HERMES). HERMES generates the emissions for Spain needed for the application of high-resolution chemistry transport models, taking the year 2004 as reference with a temporal resolution of 1 h and a spatial resolution of 1 km 2 considering both anthropogenic (power generation, industrial activities, on-road traffic, ports, airports, solvent use, domestic and commercial fossil fuel use) and biogenic sources (vegetation), using a bottom-up approach, up-to-date information and state-of-the-art methodologies for emission estimation. HERMES is capable of calculating emissions by sector-specific sources or by individual installations and stacks. The annual addition of hourly sectorial emissions leads to an estimation of total annual emissions as follows: NO x, 795 kt; NMVOCs, 1025 kt; CO, 1236 kt; SO 2, 1142 kt and TSP, 180 kt; which are distributed principally in the greater areas of the main cities, highways and large point sources. NO x, SO 2 and PM 2.5 highly correlate with the power generation by coal use, achieving higher emission levels during summertime due to the increase of electricity demand by cooling systems. NMVOCs show high correlation with temperature and solar radiation (mainly as a consequence of the important weight of biogenic emissions) causing the maximum emissions during the daylight hours of summer months. CO emissions are mostly influenced by the on-road traffic; consequently the higher emissions are attained in summer because of the increase of daily average traffic during holidays. The most significant total emission sources are on-road traffic (38%), combustion in power generation plants (33%), biogenic sources (12%) and combustion in manufacturing industries (9%). The inventory generated with HERMES emission model has been successfully integrated within the Spanish Ministry of the Environment's air quality forecasting

  7. High frequencies are a critical component of aftershock triggering at <100-150 km (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felzer, K. R.

    2010-12-01

    Triggered earthquakes at large distances from the mainshock have been observed to closely follow the arrival of ~0.03-0.6 Hz surface waves (Hill, 2008). Triggering by body waves at these distances is generally not observed. At distances closer than 50-100 km, however, surface waves are not well developed and have minimal amplitude. Thus triggering at these distances is presumably accomplished by static stress change and/or by body waves via a mechanism that does not work at further distances. Pollitz (2006) demonstrated that slow slip events on the San Andreas fault do not trigger many aftershocks, suggesting that static stresses alone are not effective triggers, while Felzer and Brodsky (2006) demonstrated that dynamic stresses alone do appear to trigger aftershocks at least in the 10--50 km range. Yet Parsons and Velasco (2009) found that underground nuclear tests, which are essentially dynamic-only sources, do not produce aftershocks at regional distances. Here we demonstrate that Southern California quarry blasts also fail to produce aftershocks. Both nuclear tests and quarry blasts are depleted in high frequency energy in comparison to tectonic earthquakes (Su et al. 1991; Allman et al. 2008). Therefore the observation that both slow slip events and blasts fail to trigger many aftershocks suggests that the missing ingredient of high frequency body wave energy plays a critical role in the triggering process. Quarry blast spectra data and scaling considerations allow the critical triggering frequency to be constrained to > 20-60 Hz. Energy in this frequency band may be expected to persist at depth at least out to 100 km (Leary, 1995). Huc and Main (2003) found that aftershock triggering by global earthquakes follows a continuous decay curve out to ~150 km, suggesting that triggering by high frequency body waves might extend this far. At much further distances the high frequencies are likely attenuated, explaining why only low frequency surface wave triggering

  8. Experimental High Resolution (3 km) SMAP Soil Moisture Data Fields With Uncertainty Estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, N. N.

    2015-12-01

    NASA's Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission was launched on January 31st, 2015. The objective of the mission is global mapping of surface soil moisture and landscape freeze/thaw state. SMAP utilizes an L-band radar and radiometer sharing a rotating 6-meter mesh reflector antenna. The SMAP spacecraft is in a 685-km Sun-synchronous near-polar orbit, and viewing the surface at a constant 40-degree incidence angle with a 1000-km swath width. Merging of the high-resolution active (radar) and coarse-resolution but high-sensitivity passive (radiometer) L-band observations enable an unprecedented combination of accuracy, resolution, coverage and revisit-time for soil moisture and freeze/thaw state retrievals. However, on July 7th, 2015, the SMAP radar encountered an anomaly and is currently inoperable. Efforts are being made to revive the SMAP radar. Due to the present status of the SMAP observatory, nearly ~2.5 months (from the end of In-Orbit-Check April 13th, 2015 to July 7th, 2015) of the SMAP Active Passive product will be available to public through the NASA DAAC at National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC). The baseline L2_SM_AP product is retrieved soil moisture from the disaggregated/downscaled brightness temperature obtained by merging the coarse-resolution (~36 km) radiometer brightness temperature data and the high-resolution (~3 km) radar backscatter data. The baseline product is intermediate scale 9 km global soil moisture information. Experimentally, a much higher resolution global surface soil moisture data set is also produced at 3 km. This experimental product covering the 2.5 Spring/Summer months is the focus of this presentation. We specifically focus on the analysis of errors and reliability of this data set. The errors in disaggregated brightness temperatures and the retrived soil moisture estimates are discussed. In the presentation the accuracies of the SMAP L2-SM_AP soil moisture retrievals will be shown using summary comparisons with in

  9. Extreme precipitation events in southestearn France in a high-resolution regional climate model : comparison of a 12 km and a 50 km hindcast with ALADIN-Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colin, Jeanne; Déqué, Michel; Sanchez Gomez, Emilia; Somot, Samuel

    2010-05-01

    We present a comparison of the modelling of intense precipitations over France in two regional climate simulations performed with the Limited Area Model (LAM) ALADIN-Climate, run at a 12 km and a 50 km resolution. In both experiments, the model is forced by the ERA40 re-analysis over the 1958-2000 period. We focus on the representation of the highest precipitation extremes occuring in southeastern France in Autumn. These events involve small-scale processes than can be explicitly resolved only with 2-1 km resolution non-hydrostatic models. However, previous studies have shown that regional climate models are able to simulate heavy rainfalls in this area, although the amounts of rain are much smaller than the ones that are actually observed. Here, we further explore the ability of ALADIN-Climate in reproducing these specific events and the possible added-value of a higher resolution regarding this matter. Indeed, driving the LAM with ERA40 allows the LAM to stick to the real chronology and therefore enables us to analyze its results not only from a statistical point of view but also through day-to-day diagnosis. First, we assess the performances of the model at the 12 km and 50 km resolutions by comparing the simulated daily precipitations with observations over the south east part of France. To do so, we use the high-resolution gridded SAFRAN analysis which provides series of hourly fields over the french territory at a 8 km resolution, from 1958 to 2008. We consider the differences in the upper quantiles of precipitations between the model and the data, as well as the time correlations of heavy rainfalls and the spatial rain patterns for given extreme events. Then we compare the performances of ALADIN-Climate in both simulations to the ones obtained with a statistical downscaling method we apply to the last twenty years of the ERA40 period. This method is based on a weather regime approach and uses the analog methodology (Boé and Terray, 2007) to reconstruct

  10. High-resolution polar climate parameters derived from 1-km AVHRR data

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchinson, T.A.; Scambos, T.A.

    1997-11-01

    This paper describes the development of a time-series of composites of albedo, surface temperature, and sea ice motion. The composites will be generated from high-resolution (Local Area Coverage and High Resolution Picture Transmission) Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR). Composites of albedo and surface (skin) temperature will be derived from AVHRR data within three hours of two selected local times (0400 and 1400 for the northern hemisphere, and 0200 and 1600 for the southern hemisphere) for each day. These products will be gridded at 1.25 km cell size in an equal-area projection compatible with recent gridded products from Special Sensor Microwave/Imager data and planned products from the TIROS Operational Verticle Sounder and other AVHRR data sets. Sea ice motion will be calculated once per day by comparing clear-sky image data of sea ice over a three-day period, and reported on a 1.25 km grid. A brief discussion of a reconnaissance survey of the output geophysical parameters for the Northern Hemisphere between August and October 1993 is also presented. 9 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Shuttle high resolution accelerometer package experiment results - Atmospheric density measurements between 60-160 km

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanchard, R. C.; Hinson, E. W.; Nicholson, J. Y.

    1988-01-01

    Indirect or inferred values of atmospheric density encountered by the Shuttle Orbiter during reentry have been calculated from acceleration measurements made by the High Resolution Accelerometer Package (HiRAP) and the Orbiter Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) liner accelerometers. The atmospheric density data developed from this study represent a significant gain with respect to the body of data collected to date by various techniques in the altitude range of 60 to 160 km. The data are unique in that they cover a very wide horizontal range during each flight and provide insight into the actual density variations encountered along the reentry flight path. The data, which were collected over about 3 years, are also characterized by variations in solar activity, geomagnetic index, and local solar time. Comparison of the flight-derived densities with various atmospheric models have been made, and analyses have attempted to characterize the data and to show correlation with selected physical variables.

  12. Energy reconstruction of high energy muon and neutrino events in KM3NeT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drakopoulou, Evangelia; Markou, Christos; Tzamariudaki, Ekaterini; Pikounis, Konstantinos

    2016-04-01

    KM3NeT will be a European deep-sea infrastructure of neutrino telescopes covering a volume of several cubic kilometers in the Mediterranean Sea aiming to search for high energy neutrinos from galactic and extragalactic sources. This analysis focuses on muons coming from neutrino charged-current interactions. In large water Cherenkov detectors the reconstructed muon is used to approximate the neutrino direction and energy, thus providing information on the astrophysical neutrino source. Muon energy estimation is also critical for the differentiation of neutrinos originating from astrophysical sources from neutrinos generated in the atmosphere which constitute the detector background. We describe a method to determine the muon and neutrino energy employing a Neural Network. An energy resolution of approximately 0.27 has been achieved for muons at the TeV range.

  13. Titan scan TB 10/15 operating performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitham, K.; Mendonsa, R.; Anamkath, H.; Gower, F.; Zante, A.

    1997-02-01

    June of 1993 marked the installation of Titan Beta's first commercially designed LINAC for the exclusive use of the sterilization of new medical products at its contract sterilization facility located in Denver, Colorado. This system, a 10 MeV, 10 kW RF Linac has been operating successfully, since that time, at its planned duty cycle of up to 7,000 hours per year. More recently, Titan commissioned its second sterilization facility, located in San Diego, California, in the past summer of 1995. This facility incorporates a Titan Beta Model TB-10/15 RF Linac, a design based on the Denver machine with upgrades that have addressed marketing requirements and Denver's operational data. In addition to the San Diego machine, Titan Beta has recently completed the installation and validation of an identical TB-10/15 Linac at the BSE Mediscan facility located in Austria. Both the San Diego and Austrian machines were assembled, tested and installed within 11-12 months after receipt of order, and were fully operational and ready for facility integration and commissioning within 2-3 weeks after arrival on-site. Due to the high duty cycle at which these machines operate, the customer quickly acquires an in depth understanding of their operating performance. Because of this, Beta maintains constant communication with the users and compiles and maintains maintenance logs to trend systems performance. This paper describes the TB 10/15's in the field and presents their operating performance.

  14. 46 CFR 194.10-15 - Magazine van construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

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  15. 46 CFR 53.10-15 - Manufacturers' data report forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

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  16. 46 CFR 53.10-15 - Manufacturers' data report forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Manufacturers' data report forms. 53.10-15 Section 53.10-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING HEATING BOILERS Tests, Inspection, Stamping, and Reporting (Article 5) § 53.10-15 Manufacturers' data report...

  17. 46 CFR 53.10-15 - Manufacturers' data report forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Manufacturers' data report forms. 53.10-15 Section 53.10-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING HEATING BOILERS Tests, Inspection, Stamping, and Reporting (Article 5) § 53.10-15 Manufacturers' data report...

  18. 46 CFR 53.10-15 - Manufacturers' data report forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Manufacturers' data report forms. 53.10-15 Section 53.10-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING HEATING BOILERS Tests, Inspection, Stamping, and Reporting (Article 5) § 53.10-15 Manufacturers' data report...

  19. 46 CFR 53.10-15 - Manufacturers' data report forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Manufacturers' data report forms. 53.10-15 Section 53.10-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING HEATING BOILERS Tests, Inspection, Stamping, and Reporting (Article 5) § 53.10-15 Manufacturers' data report...

  20. 46 CFR 50.10-15 - Marine inspector or inspector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Marine inspector or inspector. 50.10-15 Section 50.10-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 50.10-15 Marine inspector or inspector. The term...

  1. 46 CFR 50.10-15 - Marine inspector or inspector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marine inspector or inspector. 50.10-15 Section 50.10-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 50.10-15 Marine inspector or inspector. The term...

  2. 46 CFR 50.10-15 - Marine inspector or inspector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Marine inspector or inspector. 50.10-15 Section 50.10-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 50.10-15 Marine inspector or inspector. The term...

  3. 46 CFR 50.10-15 - Marine inspector or inspector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Marine inspector or inspector. 50.10-15 Section 50.10-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 50.10-15 Marine inspector or inspector. The term...

  4. 46 CFR 50.10-15 - Marine inspector or inspector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Marine inspector or inspector. 50.10-15 Section 50.10-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 50.10-15 Marine inspector or inspector. The term...

  5. 46 CFR 34.10-15 - Piping-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

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  6. 33 CFR 66.10-15 - Aids to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

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  7. 33 CFR 66.10-15 - Aids to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

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  8. 33 CFR 66.10-15 - Aids to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Aids to navigation. 66.10-15 Section 66.10-15 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Uniform State Waterway Marking System § 66.10-15 Aids to navigation....

  9. 33 CFR 66.10-15 - Aids to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Aids to navigation. 66.10-15 Section 66.10-15 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Uniform State Waterway Marking System § 66.10-15 Aids to navigation....

  10. 33 CFR 66.10-15 - Aids to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Aids to navigation. 66.10-15 Section 66.10-15 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Uniform State Waterway Marking System § 66.10-15 Aids to navigation....

  11. Synthesizing High-Frequency (1-25 HZ) Regional Phases at Large Distances (>1000 KM) Using Generalized Screen Propagators (GSP)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-09-01

    seismology and earthquake seismology . The generalized screen propagator (GSP) is based on the one-way wave equation and the one-return approximation. The...High-Frequency (1-25 HZ) Regional Phases at Large Distances O (>1000 KM) Using Generalized Screen Propagators (GSP) SApproved for public release...DTRA 01-97-1-0004 Synthesizing High-Freguency (1-25 HZ) Regional Phases at Large Distances (1 > 1000 KM) Using Generalized Screen Propagators (GSP) 5b

  12. Taxonomic characterization and metabolic analysis of the Halomonas sp. KM-1, a highly bioplastic poly(3-hydroxybutyrate)-producing bacterium.

    PubMed

    Kawata, Yoshikazu; Shi, Lian-Hua; Kawasaki, Kazunori; Shigeri, Yasushi

    2012-04-01

    In a brief previous report, the gram-negative moderately halophilic bacterium, Halomonas sp. KM-1, that was isolated in our laboratory was shown to produce the bioplastic, poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB), using biodiesel waste glycerol (Kawata and Aiba, Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem., 74, 175-177, 2010). Here, we further characterized this KM-1 strain and compared it to other Halomonas strains. Strain KM-1 was subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic study. Strain KM-1 was rod-shaped and formed colonies on a plate that were cream-beige in color, smooth, opaque, and circular with entire edges. KM-1 grew under environmental conditions of 0.1%-10% (w/v) NaCl, pH 6.5-10.5 and at temperatures between 10°C and 45°C. The G+C content of strain KM-1 was 63.9 mol%. Of the 16 Halomonas strains examined in this study, the strain KM-1 exhibited the highest production of PHB (63.6%, w/v) in SOT medium supplemented with 10% glycerol, 10.0 g/L sodium nitrate and 2.0 g/L dipotassium hydrogen phosphate. The intracellular structures within which PHB accumulated had the appearance of intracellular granules with a diameter of approximately 0.5 μm, as assessed by electron microscopy. The intra- and extra-cellular metabolites of strain KM-1 were analyzed by capillary electrophoresis mass spectrometry. In spite of the high amount of PHB stored intra-cellularly, as possible precursors for PHB only a small quantity of 3-hydroxybutyric acid and acetyl CoA, and no quantity of 3-hydroxybutyl CoA, acetoacetyl CoA and acetoacetate were detected either intra- or extra-cellularly, suggesting highly efficient conversion of these precursors to PHB.

  13. Highly dispersion-tolerant 160 Gbaud optical Nyquist pulse TDM transmission over 525 km.

    PubMed

    Hirooka, Toshihiko; Ruan, Peng; Guan, Pengyu; Nakazawa, Masataka

    2012-07-02

    We demonstrate an optical Nyquist pulse TDM (Nyquist OTDM) transmission at 160 Gbaud with a substantial increase in the dispersion tolerance compared with a conventional OTDM transmission. Optical Nyquist pulses can be bit-interleaved to ultrahigh symbol rate without suffering from intersymbol interference due to its zero-crossing property at every symbol interval. This allows the signal bandwidth to be greatly narrowed compared to typical pulse waveforms such as Gaussian or sech profile. By virtue of this property, a dispersion tolerance over ± 8 ps/nm was successfully realized in 160 Gbaud, 525 km transmission.

  14. 46 CFR 194.10-15 - Magazine van construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Magazine van construction. 194.10-15 Section 194.10-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS HANDLING... (Electrical Engineering) of this chapter. The electrical terminals for connections to the ship's...

  15. 46 CFR 105.10-15 - Flammable liquid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Flammable liquid. 105.10-15 Section 105.10-15 Shipping... liquid. (a) The term flammable liquid means any liquid which gives off flammable vapors (as determined by.... Flammable liquids are referred to by grades as follows: (1) Grade A. Any flammable liquid having a Reid...

  16. 46 CFR 105.10-15 - Flammable liquid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Flammable liquid. 105.10-15 Section 105.10-15 Shipping... liquid. (a) The term flammable liquid means any liquid which gives off flammable vapors (as determined by.... Flammable liquids are referred to by grades as follows: (1) Grade A. Any flammable liquid having a Reid...

  17. 46 CFR 105.10-15 - Flammable liquid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Flammable liquid. 105.10-15 Section 105.10-15 Shipping... liquid. (a) The term flammable liquid means any liquid which gives off flammable vapors (as determined by.... Flammable liquids are referred to by grades as follows: (1) Grade A. Any flammable liquid having a Reid...

  18. 46 CFR 105.10-15 - Flammable liquid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flammable liquid. 105.10-15 Section 105.10-15 Shipping... liquid. (a) The term flammable liquid means any liquid which gives off flammable vapors (as determined by.... Flammable liquids are referred to by grades as follows: (1) Grade A. Any flammable liquid having a Reid...

  19. 46 CFR 105.10-15 - Flammable liquid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Flammable liquid. 105.10-15 Section 105.10-15 Shipping... liquid. (a) The term flammable liquid means any liquid which gives off flammable vapors (as determined by.... Flammable liquids are referred to by grades as follows: (1) Grade A. Any flammable liquid having a Reid...

  20. Energy status and oxidation reduction status in rat liver at high altitude /3.8 km/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, R. D.; Pace, N.

    1980-01-01

    Adult male rats were exposed to 3.8-km altitude for intervals ranging from 1 h-60 d. Liver samples were taken under light ether anesthesia and were examined by enzymatic analyses. Within 1-6 h of hypoxic exposure, ATP levels decreased while ADP and AMP levels increased, producing a fall in calculated ATP/ADP and adenylate charge ratios. Concurrently, lactate/pyruvate and alpha-glycerophosphate/dihydroxyacetone phosphate ratios increased markedly. Direct measurements of cellular pyridine nucleotides indicated increased NADH/NAD and NADPH/NADP ratios. Levels of total adenosine phosphates and pyridine nucleotides decreased in a significant accompanying response. Many metabolite levels and calculated ratios returned to near-normal values within 1 week of exposure, indicating secondary intracellular adjustments to hypoxic stress; however, persistence of that stress is reflected in lactate concentrations and both substrate redox ratios. Results support and explore concepts that increased oxidation-reduction status and decreased energy status are primary events during hypoxia.

  1. The distribution of high altitude (70km) ice clouds in the Mars atmosphere from MGS TES limb radiance measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clancy, T.; Wolff, M.

    One of the more interesting aspects of the atmospheric temperature profiles retrieved during the Pathfinder descent entry was the detection of cold 80km altitude temperatures below the saturation conditions for CO2 ice formation (Schofield et al., 1997). Disk average measurements of 70-80 km altitudes temperatures from ground-based sub-millimeter CO line observations are only 20K above CO2 saturation temperatures around the Mars Ls = 0 and 180 equinoctial seasons (Clancy, 1999). Clancy and Sandor (1998) suggested the relatively frequent occurrence of CO2 ice clouds in the 70-80 km altitude region, on the basis of the observed cold temperatures, Pathfinder images of blue (small size) ice clouds in the predawn sky, and Mariner 6 and 7 near-IR (4.3 micron) identification of CO2 ice in equatorial limb tangent views around Ls=200 in 1969 (Herr and Pimental, 1970). Before MGS observations, it remained unclear whether CO2 or water ice aerosols are ever present at >60km altitudes. Certainly dust aerosols had been identified at such high altitudes in Mariner 9 (Anderson and Leovy, 1978) and Viking (Jaquin et al., 1986) limb imaging, associated with the 1971 and 1977 global dust storms. The highest detached ice cloud identified from Viking limb data occurred at 55 km tangent altitude, at 16S, 72W and Ls = 176 (Jaquin et al., 1986; recently modeled by Montmessin et al., 2002). This seasonal period and location is actually fairly consistent with 70-80 km detached limb clouds that are observed prominently in the TES solarband limb scans, and appear restricted to fairly specific locations and seasons. The character of these high altitude limb clouds is displayed as a strong peak in scattered light is presented at 70-80 km altitudes, which is not resolved by the TES limb vertical resolution of ˜ 10 km and not detected in the coincident TES thermal IR spectral radiances. It is possible that co-adding of all limb IR spectra associated with TES solarband detections of these clouds

  2. High-speed data encryption over 25 km of fiber by two-mode coherent-state quantum cryptography.

    PubMed

    Corndorf, Eric; Barbosa, Geraldo; Liang, Chuang; Yuen, Horace P; Kumar, Prem

    2003-11-01

    We demonstrate high-speed (250 Mbps) data encryption over 25 km of telecommunication fiber by use of coherent states. For the parameter values used in the experiment, the demonstration is secure against individual ciphertext-only eavesdropping attacks near the transmitter with ideal detection equipment. Whereas other quantum-cryptographic schemes require the use of fragile quantum states and ultrasensitive detection equipment, our protocol is loss tolerant, uses off-the-shelf components, and is optically amplifiable.

  3. The Distribution of High Altitude (70KM) Ice Clouds in the Mars Atmospere from MGS TES and MOC LIMB Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clancy, R. T.; Wolff, M.; Whitney, B.; Cantor, B.

    2004-11-01

    The Pathfinder descent entry detected extremely cold temperatures at 70-100 km altitudes (Schofield et al., 1997), suggesting the possibility of frequent CO2 ice cloud occurrence in the 70-80 km altitude region (Clancy and Sandor, 1998). However, prior to recent MGS limb measurements, it remained unclear whether CO2 or water ice aerosols are ever present at >60 km altitudes. Dust aerosols have been identified at such high altitudes in Mariner 9 (Anderson and Leovy, 1978), Viking (Jaquin et al., 1986), and MGS limb measurements (Clancy, 2003), associated with the 1971, 1977, and 2001 planet-encircling dust storms, respectively. The highest detached ice cloud identified from Viking limb data occurred at a projected tangent altitude of 55km, at 16S, 72W and Ls = 176° (Jaquin et al., 1986; recently modeled by Montmessin et al., 2002). The seasonal period and location of this detached limb cloud appears consistent with 55-75 km detached limb clouds that we have observed as prominent in MGS TES solarband limb scans and MGS MOC wide-angle (WA) limb images (1-3 pm local times). Their occurrence frequency approaches unity at the beginning and end of the aphelion northern summer season on Mars (centered at Ls =30° and 150° ), where they are confined to equatorial (15S-15N) latitudes and two relatively narrow longitude ranges (330-20W and 50-120W). Cloud altitudes of 65-75km are derived from the distribution of projected limb heights. Peak optical (visible) depths are quite significant (0.01) for the low pressure region of formation ( 1 microbar). It remains unclear as to their composition (water or CO2), although coadded MGS thermal IR spectra indicate potential for water ice identification and particle size information. We will present the spatial and temporal distribution of these mesospheric clouds indicated in the MSG TES and MOC visible limb data, and derived vertical profiles of optical depth and particle size based upon a monte carlo spherical RT analysis of the

  4. Correcting Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer (MGS-TES) High Altitude (40 - 65 km) Temperature Retrievals for Instrumental Correlated Noise and Biases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McConnochie, T. H.; Smith, M. D.

    2011-12-01

    Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer (MGS-TES) nadir-soundings have been used to derive atmospheric temperatures up to roughly 40 km [Conrath et al., JGR 105 2000, Smith et al., JGR 106, 2001], and MGS-TES limb soundings have been used to extend the atmospheric temperature data set to > 60 km in altitude [Smith et al., JGR 106, 2001]. The ~40 - ~65 km altitude range probed by the MGS-TES limb sounding is particularly important for capturing key dynamical features such as the warm winter polar mesosphere [e.g., Smith et al., JGR 106, 2001; McCleese et al., Nature Geoscience 1, 2008], and the response of thermal tides to dust opacity [e.g. Wilson and Hamilton, J. Atmos. Sci. 53, 1996]. Thus accurate and precise temperature profiles at these altitudes are particularly important for constraining global circulation models. They are also critical for interpreting observations of mesospheric condensate aerosols [e.g., Määttänen et al., Icarus 209, 2010; McConnochie et al., Icarus 210, 2010)]. We have indentified correlated noise components in the MGS-TES limb sounding radiances that propagate into very large uncertainties in the retrieved temperatures. We have also identified a slowly varying radiance bias in the limb sounding radiances. Note that the nadir-sounding-based MGS-TES atmospheric temperatures currently available from the Planetary Data System are not affected by either of these issues. These two issues affect the existing MGS-TES limb sounding temperature data set are as follows: Considering, for example, the 1.5 Pascal pressure level (which typically falls between 50 and 60 km altitude), correlated-noise induced standard errors for individual limb-sounding temperature retrievals were 3 - 5 K in Mars Year 24, rising to 5 - 15 K in Mars Year 25 and 10 - 15 K in Mars Year 26 and 27. The radiance bias, although consistent on ~10-sol time scales, is highly variable over the course of the MGS-TES mission. It results in temperatures (at the 1

  5. 46 CFR 59.10-15 - Rivets and staybolts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... VESSELS AND APPURTENANCES Welding Repairs to Boilers and Pressure Vessels in -Service § 59.10-15 Rivets and staybolts. (a) It is not permitted to reinforce or build up by welding the heads of rivets or staybolts that have deteriorated. Such rivets or staybolts shall be replaced. The seal welding of...

  6. 46 CFR 59.10-15 - Rivets and staybolts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... VESSELS AND APPURTENANCES Welding Repairs to Boilers and Pressure Vessels in -Service § 59.10-15 Rivets and staybolts. (a) It is not permitted to reinforce or build up by welding the heads of rivets or staybolts that have deteriorated. Such rivets or staybolts shall be replaced. The seal welding of...

  7. 46 CFR 59.10-15 - Rivets and staybolts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... VESSELS AND APPURTENANCES Welding Repairs to Boilers and Pressure Vessels in -Service § 59.10-15 Rivets and staybolts. (a) It is not permitted to reinforce or build up by welding the heads of rivets or staybolts that have deteriorated. Such rivets or staybolts shall be replaced. The seal welding of...

  8. 46 CFR 59.10-15 - Rivets and staybolts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... VESSELS AND APPURTENANCES Welding Repairs to Boilers and Pressure Vessels in -Service § 59.10-15 Rivets and staybolts. (a) It is not permitted to reinforce or build up by welding the heads of rivets or staybolts that have deteriorated. Such rivets or staybolts shall be replaced. The seal welding of...

  9. 46 CFR 58.10-15 - Gas turbine installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Internal Combustion Engine Installations § 58.10-15 Gas turbine installations... natural or forced, through the engine compartment for cooling and ventilation. (f) Automatic shutdown. (1) The control system shall be designed for automatic shutdown of the engine with actuation of...

  10. 46 CFR 58.10-15 - Gas turbine installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Internal Combustion Engine Installations § 58.10-15 Gas turbine installations... natural or forced, through the engine compartment for cooling and ventilation. (f) Automatic shutdown. (1) The control system shall be designed for automatic shutdown of the engine with actuation of...

  11. 46 CFR 58.10-15 - Gas turbine installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Internal Combustion Engine Installations § 58.10-15 Gas turbine installations... natural or forced, through the engine compartment for cooling and ventilation. (f) Automatic shutdown. (1) The control system shall be designed for automatic shutdown of the engine with actuation of...

  12. 46 CFR 58.10-15 - Gas turbine installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Internal Combustion Engine Installations § 58.10-15 Gas turbine installations... natural or forced, through the engine compartment for cooling and ventilation. (f) Automatic shutdown. (1) The control system shall be designed for automatic shutdown of the engine with actuation of...

  13. 46 CFR 58.10-15 - Gas turbine installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Internal Combustion Engine Installations § 58.10-15 Gas turbine installations... natural or forced, through the engine compartment for cooling and ventilation. (f) Automatic shutdown. (1) The control system shall be designed for automatic shutdown of the engine with actuation of...

  14. 46 CFR 59.10-15 - Rivets and staybolts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... VESSELS AND APPURTENANCES Welding Repairs to Boilers and Pressure Vessels in -Service § 59.10-15 Rivets and staybolts. (a) It is not permitted to reinforce or build up by welding the heads of rivets or staybolts that have deteriorated. Such rivets or staybolts shall be replaced. The seal welding of...

  15. 33 CFR 67.10-15 - Approval of sound signals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Approval of sound signals. 67.10... Sound signals § 67.10-15 Approval of sound signals. (a) The Coast Guard approves a sound signal if: (1) It meets the requirements for sound signals in § 67.10-1 (a), (b), (c), (d), and (e) when...

  16. 33 CFR 67.10-15 - Approval of sound signals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of sound signals. 67.10... Sound signals § 67.10-15 Approval of sound signals. (a) The Coast Guard approves a sound signal if: (1) It meets the requirements for sound signals in § 67.10-1 (a), (b), (c), (d), and (e) when...

  17. 33 CFR 67.10-15 - Approval of sound signals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Approval of sound signals. 67.10... Sound signals § 67.10-15 Approval of sound signals. (a) The Coast Guard approves a sound signal if: (1) It meets the requirements for sound signals in § 67.10-1 (a), (b), (c), (d), and (e) when...

  18. 33 CFR 67.10-15 - Approval of sound signals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Approval of sound signals. 67.10... Sound signals § 67.10-15 Approval of sound signals. (a) The Coast Guard approves a sound signal if: (1) It meets the requirements for sound signals in § 67.10-1 (a), (b), (c), (d), and (e) when...

  19. 33 CFR 67.10-15 - Approval of sound signals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Approval of sound signals. 67.10... Sound signals § 67.10-15 Approval of sound signals. (a) The Coast Guard approves a sound signal if: (1) It meets the requirements for sound signals in § 67.10-1 (a), (b), (c), (d), and (e) when...

  20. Validation of High Speed Earth Atmospheric Entry Radiative Heating from 9.5 to 15.5 km/s

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandis, A. M.; Johnston, C. O.; Cruden, B. A.; Prabhu, D. K.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the analysis and measurements of equilibrium radiation obtained in the NASA Ames Research Center's Electric Arc Shock Tube (EAST) facility as a part of recent testing aimed at reaching shock velocities up to 15.5 km/s. The goal of these experiments was to measure the level of radiation encountered during high speed Earth entry conditions, such as would be relevant for an asteroid, inter-planetary or lunar return mission. These experiments provide the first spectrally and spatially resolved data for high speed Earth entry and cover conditions ranging from 9.5 to 15.5 km/s at 13.3 and 26.6 Pa (0.1 and 0.2 Torr). The present analysis endeavors to provide a validation of shock tube radiation measurements and simulations at high speed conditions. A comprehensive comparison between the spectrally resolved absolute equilibrium radiance measured in EAST and the predictive tools, NEQAIR and HARA, is presented. In order to provide a more accurate representation of the agreement between the experimental and simulation results, the integrated value of radiance has been compared across four spectral regions (VUV, UV/Vis, Vis/NIR and IR) as a function of velocity. Results have generally shown excellent agreement between the two codes and EAST data for the Vis through IR spectral regions, however, discrepancies have been identified in the VUV and parts of the UV spectral regions. As a result of the analysis presented in this paper, an updated parametric uncertainty for high speed radiation in air has been evaluated to be [9.0%, -6.3%]. Furthermore, due to the nature of the radiating environment at these high shock speeds, initial calculations aimed at modeling phenomena that become more significant with increasing shock speed have been performed. These phenomena include analyzing the radiating species emitting ahead of the shock and the increased significance of radiative cooling mechanisms.

  1. The High Arctic Magnetic High - The Geophysical Manifestation of a Large (1.36 x 10e6 km2) and Voluminous (5-10 x 10e6 km3) Igneous Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saltus, Richard; Oakey, Gordon; Miller, Elizabeth; Jackson, Ruth

    2013-04-01

    The High Arctic Magnetic High (HAMH) dominates the magnetic anomaly field of the Earth north of about 75°N; this magnetic domain consists of very high amplitude magnetic highs and lows with variable orientations. The HAMH is visible on satellite magnetic compilations (e.g., MF6) with anomaly amplitudes greater than 200 nT indicating it is a globally significant feature. The magnetic potential of this magnetic feature is a single large intensity high indicative of a large volume of magnetic material in the crust. The map area of this magnetic domain is roughly 1.36 x 10e6 km2. Geographically the HAMH lies within the Amerasian Basin adjacent to the Lomonosov Ridge, encompasses the region of the Alpha and Mendeleev Ridges, and extends beneath the northern portions of the Canada Basin. Ocean floor geomorphology, limited seismic and sonobouy data, sparse dredge samples, and dated samples from the perimeter of the Arctic Ocean are consistent with the interpretation of the HAMH as the geophysical manifestation of a Large Igneous Province. The designation "High Arctic Large Igneous Province (HALIP)" has been applied to portions of the Arctic perimeter based on geologic mapping and sampling. The designation "Alpha/Mendeleev Large Igneous Province (AMLIP)" has been applied to the offshore Alpha/Mendeleev region (e.g., Grantz et al., 2009) with boundaries defined, in large part, by magnetic anomaly patterns. We have constructed 2D and 3D models of the HAMH to investigate the structure and geometry of this significant crustal feature. We estimate the overall volume of magnetic material as between 5-10 x 10e6 km3. The area and volume of this feature are comparable with estimates for the Deccan Traps and the North Atlantic Igneous Province, but are significantly smaller than the Kerguellen or Ontong Java Plateaus (based on tables in Coffin and Eldholm, 1994). In detail we find significant correlation between shorter wavelength portions of this magnetic feature and the

  2. Distribution of high-stability 10 GHz local oscillator over 100 km optical fiber with accurate phase-correction system.

    PubMed

    Wang, Siwei; Sun, Dongning; Dong, Yi; Xie, Weilin; Shi, Hongxiao; Yi, Lilin; Hu, Weisheng

    2014-02-15

    We have developed a radio-frequency local oscillator remote distribution system, which transfers a phase-stabilized 10.03 GHz signal over 100 km optical fiber. The phase noise of the remote signal caused by temperature and mechanical stress variations on the fiber is compensated by a high-precision phase-correction system, which is achieved using a single sideband modulator to transfer the phase correction from intermediate frequency to radio frequency, thus enabling accurate phase control of the 10 GHz signal. The residual phase noise of the remote 10.03 GHz signal is measured to be -70  dBc/Hz at 1 Hz offset, and long-term stability of less than 1×10⁻¹⁶ at 10,000 s averaging time is achieved. Phase error is less than ±0.03π.

  3. EAM-based high-speed 100-km OFDM transmission featuring tolerant modulator operation enabled using SSII cancellation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsing-Yu; Wei, Chia-Chien; Lu, I-Cheng; Chen, Yu-Chao; Chu, Hsuan-Hao; Chen, Jyehong

    2014-06-16

    In this study, a technique was developed to compensate for nonlinear distortion through cancelling subcarrier-to-subcarrier intermixing interference (SSII) in an electroabsorption modulator (EAM)-based orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) transmission system. The nonlinear distortion to be compensated for is induced by both EAM nonlinearity and fiber dispersion. Because an OFDM signal features an inherently high peak-to-average power ratio, a trade-off exists between the optical modulation index (OMI) and modulator nonlinearity. Therefore, the nonlinear distortion limits the operational tolerance of the bias voltage and the driving power to a small region. After applying the proposed SSII cancellation, the OMI of an OFDM signal was increased yielding only a small increment of nonlinear distortion, and the tolerance region of the operational conditions was also increased. By employing the proposed scheme, this study successfully demonstrates 50-Gbps OFDM transmission over 100-km dispersion-uncompensated single-mode fiber based on a single 10-GHz EAM.

  4. Discovering New Global Climate Patterns: Curating a 21-Year High Temporal (Hourly) and Spatial (40km) Resolution Reanalysis Dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, C. Y.; Dattore, R.; Peng, G. S.

    2014-12-01

    The National Center for Atmospheric Research's Global Climate Four-Dimensional Data Assimilation (CFDDA) Hourly 40km Reanalysis dataset is a dynamically downscaled dataset with high temporal and spatial resolution. The dataset contains three-dimensional hourly analyses in netCDF format for the global atmospheric state from 1985 to 2005 on a 40km horizontal grid (0.4°grid increment) with 28 vertical levels, providing good representation of local forcing and diurnal variation of processes in the planetary boundary layer. This project aimed to make the dataset publicly available, accessible, and usable in order to provide a unique resource to allow and promote studies of new climate characteristics. When the curation project started, it had been five years since the data files were generated. Also, although the Principal Investigator (PI) had generated a user document at the end of the project in 2009, the document had not been maintained. Furthermore, the PI had moved to a new institution, and the remaining team members were reassigned to other projects. These factors made data curation in the areas of verifying data quality, harvest metadata descriptions, documenting provenance information especially challenging. As a result, the project's curation process found that: Data curator's skill and knowledge helped make decisions, such as file format and structure and workflow documentation, that had significant, positive impact on the ease of the dataset's management and long term preservation. Use of data curation tools, such as the Data Curation Profiles Toolkit's guidelines, revealed important information for promoting the data's usability and enhancing preservation planning. Involving data curators during each stage of the data curation life cycle instead of at the end could improve the curation process' efficiency. Overall, the project showed that proper resources invested in the curation process would give datasets the best chance to fulfill their potential to

  5. NCAR Global Climate Four-Dimensional Data Assimilation (CFDDA) Hourly 40 km Reanalysis: a high-resolution dynamically downscaled climatography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, G. S.; Hou, C. Y.; Rife, D. L.; Dattore, R.

    2014-12-01

    Wind energy cost models incur inaccuracies from uncertainty in ambient wind measurements and estimates. This inhibits the best possible investment in wind energy infrastructure and management systems. High-resolution temporal and spatial wind data needed for wind availability analysis—usually created with regional-scale models—have traditionally been proprietary and costly to obtain. Freely available global model data suffers from either lower spatial or temporal resolution, or both. Low spatial resolution fails to realistically represent wind speeds in complex terrain. Low temporal resolution fails to capture the full diurnal cycle of wind behavior. The NCAR Global Climate Four-Dimensional Data Assimilation (CFDDA) Hourly 40 km Reanalysis was developed in 2009-2010 by the Research Applications Laboratory (RAL) to provide the most accurate boundary layer wind estimates available at that time. CFDDA used 28 sigma levels, with 19 between the surface and 700 hPa, a four-fold improvement over the contemporary NWP models. The dataset spans 21 years, 1985-2005, providing hourly atmospheric parameters, including winds, on 28 vertical levels on a global 40 km grid. This presentation will introduce the modeling and assimilation strategy, highlight the available data content including the parameter set, and review the data access options available from the RDA. CFDDA project partners, Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA), NCAR RAL and NCAR Mesoscale & Microscale Meteorology (MMM) divisions are offering this dataset to the public for free with minor restrictions. NCAR Research Data Archive (RDA), hosted by the Computational and Information Systems Laboratory, provides data support. It is available at http://rda.ucar.edu/datasets/ds604.0/

  6. High-energy emitting BL Lacs and high-energy neutrinos. Prospects for the direct association with IceCube and KM3NeT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Righi, C.; Tavecchio, F.; Guetta, D.

    2017-01-01

    Context. The origin of the high-energy flux of neutrinos detected by IceCube remains unknown. Recent works report evidence for a possible positional correlation between the reconstructed neutrino arrival directions and the positions in the sky of low-power, high-energy-emitting BL Lac objects (HBL). Aims: Assuming that γ-ray-emitting HBL form the bulk of the sources of high-energy neutrinos above 100 TeV, we intend to calculate the number of events expected to be detected for each source by IceCube and KM3NeT. Methods: Based on a simple theoretically-motivated framework inspired by the structured jet scenario for these sources, we postulate a direct proportionality between high-energy γ-ray and neutrino fluxes. We calculate the expected neutrino event rate for the HBL sources of the Second Fermi-LAT Catalog of High-Energy Sources (2FHL) for IceCube and the presently under-construction KM3NeT using declination-dependent and exposure-weighted effective areas. Results: We provide a list of 2FHL HBL with the calculated number of events. For IceCube, the derived count rate for several sources is relatively high, of the order of ≲1 yr-1, consistent with the recent findings of a possible positional correlation. For KM3NeT, the calculated rates are higher, with several sources with expected rates exceeding 1 yr-1. This, coupled with the improved angular resolution, implies that the HBL origin can be effectively tested with few years of observation of KM3NeT (and IceCube Gen2, for which similar performances are foreseen) through the direct association of neutrinos and single HBL. Conclusions: Our results show that if, as suggested by recent works, HBL represent a possible population of high-energy neutrino emitters, several single sources should be identified in a few years of exposure of KM3NeT, highlighting the importance of the improved angular resolution anticipated for KM3NeT and IceCube Gen2.

  7. Purification of the high-Km aldehyde reductase from rat brain and liver and from ox brain.

    PubMed Central

    Rivett, A J; Smith, I L; Tipton, K F

    1981-01-01

    A procedure is described that yields an apparently homogeneous preparation of the high-Km aldehyde reductase from rat brain. This procedure is also applicable to the purification of this enzyme from rat liver and ox brain. In the latter case, however, the purified preparation could be resolved into two protein bands, both of which had enzyme activity, by polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. Since a sample of the ox brain enzyme from an earlier step in the purification procedure only showed the presence of a single band of activity after electrophoresis, this apparent multiplicity probably results from modification of the enzyme, possibly by oxidation, during the final step of the purification. A number of properties of the rat brain enzyme were determined and these were compared with those of the enzyme from rat liver. The two preparations were similar in their stabilities, behaviour during purification, kinetic properties, electrophoretic mobilities and amino acid compositions. Antibodies to the rat liver enzyme cross-reacted with that from brain and the inhibition of both these preparations by the antiserum was similar, further supporting the view that the enzymes from these two sources were closely similar if not identical. PMID:6798966

  8. Disentangling neutrino-nucleon cross section and high energy neutrino flux with a km^3 neutrino telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Borriello, E.; Cuoco, A.; Mangano, G.; Miele, G.; Pastor, S.; Pisanti, O.; Serpico, P.D.

    2007-11-01

    The energy-zenith angular event distribution in a neutrino telescope provides a unique tool to determine at the same time the neutrino-nucleon cross section at extreme kinematical regions, and the high energy neutrino flux. By using a simple parameterization for fluxes and cross sections, we present a sensitivity analysis for the case of a km{sup 3} neutrino telescope. In particular, we consider the specific case of an under-water Mediterranean telescope placed at the NEMO site, although most of our results also apply to an under-ice detector such as IceCube. We determine the sensitivity to departures from standard values of the cross sections above 1 PeV which can be probed independently from an a-priori knowledge of the normalization and energy dependence of the flux. We also stress that the capability to tag downgoing neutrino showers in the PeV range against the cosmic ray induced background of penetrating muons appears to be a crucial requirement to derive meaningful constraints on the cross section.

  9. A comparison of the updated very high resolution model RegCM3_10km with the previous version RegCM3_25km over the complex terrain of Greece: present and future projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolika, Konstantia; Anagnostopoulou, Christina; Velikou, Kondylia; Vagenas, Christos

    2016-11-01

    The ability of a fine resolution regional climate model (10 × 10 km) in simulating efficiently the climate characteristics (temperature, precipitation, and wind) over Greece, in comparison to the previous version of the model with a 25 × 25 km resolution, is examined and analyzed in the present study. Overall, the results showed that the finer resolution model presented a better skill in generating low winter temperatures at high altitudinal areas, the temperature difference between the islands and the surrounding sea, high rainfall totals over the mountainous areas, the thermal storms during summer, and the wind maxima over the Aegean Sea. Regarding the future projections, even though the two models agree on the climatic signal, differences are found mainly to the magnitude of change of the selected parameters. Finally, it was found that at higher pressure levels, the present day projections of the two models do not show significant differences since the topography and terrain does not play such an important role as the general atmospheric circulation.

  10. Clinical significance of high-Km 5'-nucleotidase (cN-II) mRNA expression in high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Keijiro; Sugawara, Takeshi; Oyake, Tatsuo; Uchiyama, Toshiyuki; Aoki, Yusei; Tsukushi, Yasuhiko; Onodera, Shima; Ito, Shigeki; Murai, Kazunori; Ishida, Yoji

    2007-10-01

    We analyzed cytosolic high-Km 5'-nucleotidase (cN-II) and deoxycytidine kinase (dCK) mRNA expression in bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMNC) of patients with high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (rt-PCR). At diagnosis, the cN-II mRNA expression of patients was higher than that of healthy volunteers, but the dCK mRNA expression showed no significant difference. Patients with ara-C-containing chemotherapies whose BMMNC showed a high level of cN-II expression (greater than the median value) had shorter median overall survival (15 months versus 22 months, p<0.01) and shorter median post-chemotherapy survival (10 months versus 16 months, p=0.012). These data suggest that the expression level of cN-II mRNA might be a prognostic factor of high-risk MDS.

  11. β-Nitro-5,10,15-tritolylcorroles

    PubMed Central

    Stefanelli, Manuela; Pomarico, Giuseppe; Tortora, Luca; Nardis, Sara; Fronczek, Frank R.; McCandless, Gregory T.; Smith, Kevin M.; Manowong, Machima; Chen, Ping; Kadish, Karl M.; Rosa, Angela; Ricciardi, Giampaolo; Paolesse, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    Functionalization of the β-pyrrolic positions of the corrole macrocycle with –NO2 groups is limited at present to metallocorrolates due to of the instability exhibited by corrole free bases under oxidizing conditions. A careful choice of the oxidant can limit the transformation of corroles into decomposition products or isocorrole species, preserving the corrole aromaticity, and thus allowing the insertion of nitro groups onto the corrole framework. Here we report results obtained by reacting 5,10,15-tritolylcorrole (TTCorrH3) with the AgNO2/NaNO2 system, to give mono- and di-nitrocorrole derivatives when stoichiometry is carefully controlled. Reactions were found to be regioselective, affording the 3-NO2TTCorrH3 and 3,17-(NO2)2TTCorrH3 isomers as the main products in the case of mono- and di-substitution, in 53 and 20% yields, respectively. In both cases, traces of other mono- and di-substituted isomers were detected, which were structurally characterized by X-ray crystallography. The influence of the β-nitro substituents on the corrole properties is studied in detail by UV-visible, electrochemical, and spectroelectrochemical characterization of these functionalized corroles. Density Functional Theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TDDFT) calculations of the ground and excited state properties of these β-nitrocorrole derivatives also afforded significant information, closely matching the experimental observations. It is found that the β-NO2 substituents conjugate with the π-aromatic system of the macrocycle, which initiates significant changes in both the spectroscopic and redox properties of the so functionalized corroles. This effect is more pronounced when the nitro group is introduced at the 2-position, because in this case the conjugation is, for steric reasons, more efficient than in the 3-nitro isomer. PMID:22668242

  12. High-resolution DPP-BOTDA over 50 km LEAF using return-to-zero coded pulses.

    PubMed

    Liang, Hao; Li, Wenhai; Linze, Nicolas; Chen, Liang; Bao, Xiaoyi

    2010-05-15

    Coded optical probe pulses in return-to-zero/non-return-to-zero (RZ/NRZ) formats are used for long-range distance sensing based on a differential pulse-width pair Brillouin optical time-domain analysis (DPP-BOTDA) in order to enhance the spatial resolution and measurement accuracy. It is found that using the RZ format maintains the Brillouin spectral shape, enhances the sensing range and leads to a higher signal-to-noise ratio compared to a single-pulse Brillouin optical time-domain analysis. With 512 bit RZ-coded pulse pairs of 60/55 ns for the DPP-BOTDA, a spatial resolution of approximately 0.5 m and a strain resolution of 12 microepsilon (which is equivalent to a 0.7 MHz Brillouin frequency shift) have been achieved over a 50 km large effective area fiber.

  13. 46 CFR 38.10-15 - Safety relief valves-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Safety relief valves-TB/ALL. 38.10-15 Section 38.10-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS LIQUEFIED FLAMMABLE GASES Piping, Valves, Fittings, and Accessory Equipment § 38.10-15 Safety relief valves—TB/ALL. (a) Each tank shall be...

  14. KM3NeT

    SciTech Connect

    Jong, M. de; Collaboration: KM3NeT Collaboration

    2015-07-15

    KM3NeT is a large research infrastructure, that will consist of a network of deep-sea neutrino telescopes in the Mediterranean Sea. The main objective of KM3NeT is the discovery and subsequent observation of high-energy neutrino sources in the Universe. A further physics perspective is the measurement of the mass hierarchy of neutrinos. A corresponding study, ORCA, is ongoing within KM3NeT. A cost effective technology for (very) large water Cherenkov detectors has been developed based on a new generation of low price 3-inch photo-multiplier tubes. Following the successful deployment and operation of two prototypes, the construction of the KM3NeT research infrastructure has started. The prospects of the different phases of the implementation of KM3NeT are summarised.

  15. The role of human cytochrome P450 enzymes in the formation of 2-hydroxymetronidazole: CYP2A6 is the high affinity (low Km) catalyst.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Robin E; Cohen-Wolkowiez, Michael; Sampson, Mario R; Kearns, Gregory L

    2013-09-01

    Despite metronidazole's widespread clinical use since the 1960s, the specific enzymes involved in its biotransformation have not been previously identified. Hence, in vitro studies were conducted to identify and characterize the cytochrome P450 enzymes involved in the formation of the major metabolite, 2-hydroxymetronidazole. Formation of 2-hydroxymetronidazole in human liver microsomes was consistent with biphasic, Michaelis-Menten kinetics. Although several cDNA-expressed P450 enzymes catalyzed 2-hydroxymetronidazole formation at a supratherapeutic concentration of metronidazole (2000 μM), at a "therapeutic concentration" of 100 μM only CYPs 2A6, 3A4, 3A5, and 3A7 catalyzed metronidazole 2-hydroxylation at rates substantially greater than control vector, and CYP2A6 catalyzed 2-hydroxymetronidazole formation at rates 6-fold higher than the next most active enzyme. Kinetic studies with these recombinant enzymes revealed that CYP2A6 has a Km = 289 μM which is comparable to the Km for the high-affinity (low-Km) enzyme in human liver microsomes, whereas the Km values for the CYP3A enzymes corresponded with the low-affinity (high-Km) component. The sample-to-sample variation in 2-hydroxymetronidazole formation correlated significantly with CYP2A6 activity (r ≥ 0.970, P < 0.001) at substrate concentrations of 100 and 300 μM. Selective chemical inhibitors of CYP2A6 inhibited metronidazole 2-hydroxylation in a concentration-dependent manner and inhibitory antibodies against CYP2A6 virtually eliminated metronidazole 2-hydroxylation (>99%). Chemical and antibody inhibitors of other P450 enzymes had little or no effect on metronidazole 2-hydroxylation. These results suggest that CYP2A6 is the primary catalyst responsible for the 2-hydroxylation of metronidazole, a reaction that may function as a marker of CYP2A6 activity both in vitro and in vivo.

  16. 400 Gbit/s 256 QAM-OFDM transmission over 720 km with a 14 bit/s/Hz spectral efficiency by using high-resolution FDE.

    PubMed

    Omiya, Tatsunori; Yoshida, Masato; Nakazawa, Masataka

    2013-02-11

    We demonstrate 400 Gbit/s frequency-division-multiplexed and polarization-division-multiplexed 256 QAM-OFDM transmission over 720 km with a spectral efficiency of 14 bit/s/Hz by using high-resolution frequency domain equalization (FDE) and digital back-propagation (DBP) methods. A detailed analytical evaluation of the 256 QAM-OFDM transmission is also provided, which clarifies the influence of quantization error in the digital coherent receiver on the waveform distortion compensation with DBP.

  17. Characteristics of the Alaskan 1-Km Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer data sets used for analysis of vegetation biophysical properties

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Markon, Carl J.

    1999-01-01

    In this study, data characteristics for composited, multitemporal Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer data sets for Alaska were assessed for a 7- year period from 1991 to 1997. This involved consideration of the satellite sensors used, data processing performed, and data set compilation, along with an analysis of acquisition date, solar zenith angle, satellite viewing angle, presence of clouds, and registration accuracy for each year. Each year?s worth of data are available on CD-ROM in byte format. All data sets have an initial start date of April 1, but had varying ending dates (mid-September to late October) because of satellite sensor malfunction or the presence of clouds or snow; no data set extended beyond October 31. Satellite scan angles were summarized in seven categories: data obtained at nadir, data within 30, 40, and 55 degrees of nadir, data greater than 55 degrees off nadir, and proportions of the data representing east or west look angles. Minimum, maximum, and average solar zenith angles were provided for each period. Estimates of cloud cover for each period were based on three tests: reflectance gross cloud test, channel 3 minus channel 4, and channel 4 minus channel 5. Registration accuracy was estimated using a gray-level autocorrelation technique. Results of this investigation indicate that the composited data available on CD-ROM should be useful for a number of different regional assessments of Earth cover properties. However, caution is advised when using these data because (1) loss in precision from the conversion to a byte format, (2) low sun angles and high viewing angles in the September and October data, and (3) registration inaccuracies of 2 to 8 pixels.

  18. 46 CFR 54.10-15 - Pneumatic test (modifies UG-100).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... first opportunity following the pneumatic test. The tank supports and saddles, connecting piping, and... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pneumatic test (modifies UG-100). 54.10-15 Section 54.10... VESSELS Inspection, Reports, and Stamping § 54.10-15 Pneumatic test (modifies UG-100). (a)...

  19. 46 CFR 38.10-15 - Safety relief valves-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Safety relief valves-TB/ALL. 38.10-15 Section 38.10-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS LIQUEFIED FLAMMABLE GASES Piping, Valves... excessive external pressure. (f) Void spaces between the primary and secondary barriers of...

  20. 46 CFR 38.10-15 - Safety relief valves-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Safety relief valves-TB/ALL. 38.10-15 Section 38.10-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS LIQUEFIED FLAMMABLE GASES Piping, Valves... excessive external pressure. (f) Void spaces between the primary and secondary barriers of...

  1. 46 CFR 35.10-15 - Emergency lighting and power systems-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Emergency lighting and power systems-T/ALL. 35.10-15... Emergency Requirements § 35.10-15 Emergency lighting and power systems—T/ALL. (a) Where fitted, it shall be the duty of the master to see that the emergency lighting and power systems are tested and...

  2. 46 CFR 35.10-15 - Emergency lighting and power systems-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Emergency lighting and power systems-T/ALL. 35.10-15... Emergency Requirements § 35.10-15 Emergency lighting and power systems—T/ALL. (a) Where fitted, it shall be the duty of the master to see that the emergency lighting and power systems are tested and...

  3. 46 CFR 35.10-15 - Emergency lighting and power systems-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Emergency lighting and power systems-T/ALL. 35.10-15... Emergency Requirements § 35.10-15 Emergency lighting and power systems—T/ALL. (a) Where fitted, it shall be the duty of the master to see that the emergency lighting and power systems are tested and...

  4. 46 CFR 35.10-15 - Emergency lighting and power systems-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Emergency lighting and power systems-T/ALL. 35.10-15... Emergency Requirements § 35.10-15 Emergency lighting and power systems—T/ALL. (a) Where fitted, it shall be the duty of the master to see that the emergency lighting and power systems are tested and...

  5. 46 CFR 35.10-15 - Emergency lighting and power systems-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Emergency lighting and power systems-T/ALL. 35.10-15... Emergency Requirements § 35.10-15 Emergency lighting and power systems—T/ALL. (a) Where fitted, it shall be the duty of the master to see that the emergency lighting and power systems are tested and...

  6. 46 CFR 30.10-15 - Combustible liquid-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Combustible liquid-TB/ALL. 30.10-15 Section 30.10-15...-15 Combustible liquid—TB/ALL. The term combustible liquid means any liquid having a flashpoint above... of this subchapter, combustible liquids are referred to by grades, as follows: (a) Grade D....

  7. 46 CFR 30.10-15 - Combustible liquid-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Combustible liquid-TB/ALL. 30.10-15 Section 30.10-15...-15 Combustible liquid—TB/ALL. The term combustible liquid means any liquid having a flashpoint above... of this subchapter, combustible liquids are referred to by grades, as follows: (a) Grade D....

  8. 46 CFR 30.10-15 - Combustible liquid-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Combustible liquid-TB/ALL. 30.10-15 Section 30.10-15...-15 Combustible liquid—TB/ALL. The term combustible liquid means any liquid having a flashpoint above... of this subchapter, combustible liquids are referred to by grades, as follows: (a) Grade D....

  9. 46 CFR 30.10-15 - Combustible liquid-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Combustible liquid-TB/ALL. 30.10-15 Section 30.10-15...-15 Combustible liquid—TB/ALL. The term combustible liquid means any liquid having a flashpoint above... of this subchapter, combustible liquids are referred to by grades, as follows: (a) Grade D....

  10. 46 CFR 30.10-15 - Combustible liquid-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Combustible liquid-TB/ALL. 30.10-15 Section 30.10-15...-15 Combustible liquid—TB/ALL. The term combustible liquid means any liquid having a flashpoint above... of this subchapter, combustible liquids are referred to by grades, as follows: (a) Grade D....

  11. A New View of Alcohol Metabolism and Alcoholism—Role of the High-Km Class III Alcohol Dehydrogenase (ADH3)

    PubMed Central

    Haseba, Takeshi; Ohno, Youkichi

    2010-01-01

    The conventional view is that alcohol metabolism is carried out by ADH1 (Class I) in the liver. However, it has been suggested that another pathway plays an important role in alcohol metabolism, especially when the level of blood ethanol is high or when drinking is chronic. Over the past three decades, vigorous attempts to identify the enzyme responsible for the non-ADH1 pathway have focused on the microsomal ethanol oxidizing system (MEOS) and catalase, but have failed to clarify their roles in systemic alcohol metabolism. Recently, using ADH3-null mutant mice, we demonstrated that ADH3 (Class III), which has a high Km and is a ubiquitous enzyme of ancient origin, contributes to systemic alcohol metabolism in a dose-dependent manner, thereby diminishing acute alcohol intoxication. Although the activity of ADH3 toward ethanol is usually low in vitro due to its very high Km, the catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km) is markedly enhanced when the solution hydrophobicity of the reaction medium increases. Activation of ADH3 by increasing hydrophobicity should also occur in liver cells; a cytoplasmic solution of mouse liver cells was shown to be much more hydrophobic than a buffer solution when using Nile red as a hydrophobicity probe. When various doses of ethanol are administered to mice, liver ADH3 activity is dynamically regulated through induction or kinetic activation, while ADH1 activity is markedly lower at high doses (3–5 g/kg). These data suggest that ADH3 plays a dynamic role in alcohol metabolism, either collaborating with ADH1 or compensating for the reduced role of ADH1. A complex two-ADH model that ascribes total liver ADH activity to both ADH1 and ADH3 explains the dose-dependent changes in the pharmacokinetic parameters (β, CLT, AUC) of blood ethanol very well, suggesting that alcohol metabolism in mice is primarily governed by these two ADHs. In patients with alcoholic liver disease, liver ADH3 activity increases, while ADH1 activity decreases, as alcohol

  12. THE 300 km s{sup -1} STELLAR STREAM NEAR SEGUE 1: INSIGHTS FROM HIGH-RESOLUTION SPECTROSCOPY OF ITS BRIGHTEST STAR

    SciTech Connect

    Frebel, Anna; Casey, Andrew R.; Lunnan, Ragnhild; Norris, John E.; Wyse, Rosemary F. G.; Gilmore, Gerard

    2013-07-01

    We present a chemical abundance analysis of 300S-1, the brightest likely member star of the 300 km s{sup -1} stream near the faint satellite galaxy Segue 1. From a high-resolution Magellan/MIKE spectrum, we determine a metallicity of [Fe/H] = -1.46 {+-} 0.05 {+-} 0.23 (random and systematic uncertainties) for star 300S-1, and find an abundance pattern similar to typical halo stars at this metallicity. Comparing our stellar parameters to theoretical isochrones, we estimate a distance of 18 {+-} 7 kpc. Both the metallicity and distance estimates are in good agreement with what can be inferred from comparing the Sloan Digital Sky Survey photometric data of the stream stars to globular cluster sequences. While several other structures overlap with the stream in this part of the sky, the combination of kinematic, chemical, and distance information makes it unlikely that these stars are associated with either the Segue 1 galaxy, the Sagittarius Stream, or the Orphan Stream. Streams with halo-like abundance signatures, such as the 300 km s{sup -1} stream, present another observational piece for understanding the accretion history of the Galactic halo.

  13. 40Km Into Lebanon,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-07-01

    answer to the difficulties in Palestine, London organized a study of the problem under Lord Peel , a for- mer Secretary of State for India, who in 1937...issued the report of the Commission bearing his name. As Peel saw it, the only solution was to partition Palestine between the two communities. The...minority suggestions. The majority 22 40Km into Lebanon report recommended partition with an economic union, much as Peel had proposed in 1937. A

  14. Sildenafil does not improve steady state cardiovascular hemodynamics, peak power, or 15-km time trial cycling performance at simulated moderate or high altitudes in men and women.

    PubMed

    Kressler, Jochen; Stoutenberg, Mark; Roos, Bernard A; Friedlander, Anne L; Perry, Arlette C; Signorile, Joseph F; Jacobs, Kevin A

    2011-12-01

    Sildenafil improves oxygen delivery and maximal exercise capacity at very high altitudes (≥ 4,350 m), but it is unknown whether sildenafil improves these variables and longer-duration exercise performance at moderate and high altitudes where competitions are more common. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of sildenafil on cardiovascular hemodynamics, arterial oxygen saturation (SaO(2)), peak exercise capacity (W (peak)), and 15-km time trial performance in endurance-trained subjects at simulated moderate (MA; ~2,100 m, 16.2% F(I)O(2)) and high (HA; ~3,900 m, 12.8% F(I)O(2)) altitudes. Eleven men and ten women completed two HA W (peak) trials after ingesting placebo or 50 mg sildenafil. Subjects then completed four exercise trials (30 min at 55% of altitude-specific W (peak) + 15-km time trial) at MA and HA after ingesting placebo or 50 mg sildenafil. All trials were performed in randomized, counterbalanced, and double-blind fashion. Sildenafil had little influence on cardiovascular hemodynamics at MA or HA, but did result in higher SaO(2) values (+3%, p < 0.05) compared to placebo during steady state and time trial exercise at HA. W (peak) at HA was 19% lower than SL (p < 0.001) and was not significantly affected by sildenafil. Similarly, the significantly slower time trial performance at MA (28.1 ± 0.5 min, p = 0.016) and HA (30.3 ± 0.6 min, p < 0.001) compared to SL (27.5 ± 0.6 min) was unaffected by sildenafil. We conclude that sildenafil is unlikely to exert beneficial effects at altitudes <4,000 m for a majority of the population.

  15. Design of the high-speed framing, FEC, and interleaving hardware used in a 5.4km free-space optical communication experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greco, Joseph A.

    2009-08-01

    The forward error correction (FEC) and interleaver realizations used in a 5.4 km horizontal-path link experiment incorporated several unique elements that were specifically tailored to address turbulence-induced fading. To facilitate optimization studies, this hardware was designed to afford a high degree of flexibility in the FEC code structure and interleaver length. An essential aspect of this structure was the standards-compliant client interface, which provided seamless connectivity to fiber-based terrestrial networks. Through the use of an OTU1 (2.667 Gbaud) architecture with nonstandard interleaving, error-free transmission was achieved in the presence of strong scintillation that produced fade events that frequently exceeded 10 ms in duration. This work was sponsored by the Department of Defense, RRCO DDR&E, under Air Force Contract FA8721-05-C-0002. Opinions, interpretations, conclusions and recommendations are those of the authors and are not necessarily endorsed by the United States Government.

  16. A global coupled Eulerian-Lagrangian model and 1 1 km CO2 surface flux dataset for high-resolution atmospheric CO2 transport simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Ganshin, A; Oda, T; Saito, M; Maksyutov, S; Valsala, V; Andres, Robert Joseph; Fischer, R; Lowry, D; Lukyanov, A; Matsueda, H; Nisbet, E; Rigby, M; Sawa, Y; Toumi, R; Tsuboi, K; Varlagin, A; Zhuravlev, R

    2012-01-01

    Abstract. We designed a method to simulate atmospheric CO2 concentrations at several continuous observation sites around the globe using surface fluxes at a very high spatial resolution. The simulations presented in this study were performed using the Global Eulerian-Lagrangian Coupled Atmospheric model (GELCA), comprising a Lagrangian particle dispersion model coupled to a global atmospheric tracer transport model with prescribed global surface CO2 flux maps at a 1 1 km resolution. The surface fluxes used in the simulations were prepared by assembling the individual components of terrestrial, oceanic and fossil fuel CO2 fluxes. This experimental setup (i.e. a transport model running at a medium resolution, coupled to a high-resolution Lagrangian particle dispersion model together with global surface fluxes at a very high resolution), which was designed to represent high-frequency variations in atmospheric CO2 concentration, has not been reported at a global scale previously. Two sensitivity experiments were performed: (a) using the global transport model without coupling to the Lagrangian dispersion model, and (b) using the coupled model with a reduced resolution of surface fluxes, in order to evaluate the performance of Eulerian-Lagrangian coupling and the role of high-resolution fluxes in simulating high-frequency variations in atmospheric CO2 concentrations. A correlation analysis between observed and simulated atmospheric CO2 concentrations at selected locations revealed that the inclusion of both Eulerian-Lagrangian coupling and highresolution fluxes improves the high-frequency simulations of the model. The results highlight the potential of a coupled Eulerian-Lagrangian model in simulating high-frequency atmospheric CO2 concentrations at many locations worldwide. The model performs well in representing observations of atmospheric CO2 concentrations at high spatial and temporal resolutions, especially for coastal sites and sites located close to sources of

  17. Seismic interrogation of two highly dynamical earth boundaries: The 410-km discontinuity low-velocity layer and the inner-outer core boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasbinsek, John J.

    Bayesian statistical analysis of forward modeling results. My results demonstrate that beneath the western U.S. pervasive and thick (24-32 km) low-velocity layers exist atop the 410 with 5-8% shear velocity reductions. These seismic constraints are interpreted as manifesting a ubiquitous occurrence of melt layers as predicted by the TZWF model. Extrapolation of upper-mantle melt-velocity scaling relationships suggests a 2.4-4% melt porosity in the 410 km discontinuity melt layers. In Chapter 2, comparison of our melt-layer constraints from the RISTRA seismic array with high resolution tomographic velocity images that extend to 600 km depth suggests that the 410 km melt layer may be shedding wet blobs or melt-volumes, via Rayleigh-Taylor-like instabilities, into the upper mantle that ultimately impact at the base of the lithosphere. Seismic characterization of the ICB seismic structure is difficult. First and foremost, due to their small reflection amplitude, P-waves reflecting from the inner-core boundary (PKiKP) are rarely visually identified in seismograms. In fact, my findings show that the peak ground velocity amplitude of a PKiKP arrival from a Guatamalan earthquake recorded by the EarthScope transportable array is only about 18 nm/sec. Yet, the PKiKP phase is a fundamental observable that provides important constraints on the density contrast at the inner-core boundary. Furthermore, this ICB density contrast explicitly determines the dominant power available (Pg = Deltarho ICB·2·1011 W) to drive magneto-hydrodynamic convection in the fluid core, thus powering the geodynamo. In Chapter 3, I analyze 323 EarthScope Transportable Array (TA) stations for PKiKP arrivals and estimate the density contrast at the inner-core boundary beneath northern Mexico as 0.77 g/cm3, consistent with previous studies and sufficient to drive the geodynamo. Two regions of enhanced reflectivity are found via visually picked waveforms which may be related to ICB dynamics. Analysis of the

  18. Short wavelength and high amplitude (~ 1 km) surface uplift in the western Colorado Plateau driven by recent and ongoing mantle flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crow, R.; Karlstrom, K. E.

    2011-12-01

    On the southwestern edge of the Colorado Plateau, two tributaries to the Virgin River record differing amounts of epeirogenic uplift in their longitudinal profiles and thus provide a geologic test for models of mantle-driven dynamic topography. The North and East Forks of the Virgin River have similar bedrock lithologies and drainage basin areas such that they should have similar longitudinal profiles and incision histories. Instead, the North Fork is steeper with an average channel slope of 0.023 compared to the East Fork which has a slope of 0.014. The headwaters of the North Fork are also ca. 500 m higher than that of the East Fork. These differences in the longitudinal profiles of the rivers are best explained by the fact that they straddle one of the largest mantle velocity gradients (4.5% at 80 km depth over 200 km) in the western U.S. The East Fork drains a region that has ca. 1% higher upper mantle velocity than the North Fork. Throughout this area of high mantle velocity gradient, between the Colorado Plateau rim and the Escalante, UT area, channel slope at a given drainage basin area is strongly linked to the upper mantle velocity structure. At drainage basin areas less than 0.5 km2, only streams underlain by upper mantle with negative velocities have channel slope values greater than 0.015. This relationship is seen despite bedrock strength variations along the streams and the presence of transient kickpoints due to old base level falls and strongly indicates that uplift of the area is recent if not ongoing. Recent and ongoing uplift of the area under the North Fork can explain the high relief and dramatic slot canyons of Zion National Park, which it flows through. Published Virgin River incision rates also show differential block uplift of ca. 1000 m across the Hurricane and Washington faults. Similar differential block uplift of ca. 700 m has been documented across the Hurricane fault in Grand Canyon. This indicates that buoyancy differences in the

  19. The furofuran-ring selectivity, hydrogen peroxide-production and low Km value are the three elements for highly effective detoxification of aflatoxin oxidase.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yuan-Zhen; Lu, Fu-Pu; Jiang, Hai-Lan; Tan, Cui-Ping; Yao, Dong-Sheng; Xie, Chun-Fang; Liu, Da-Ling

    2015-02-01

    AFO (aflatoxin oxidase), an enzyme from Armillariella tabescens previously named aflatoxin detoxifizyme, exhibits oxidative detoxification activity toward aflatoxin B1 and sterigmatocystin. Bioinformatics reveals that AFO is a newly discovered oxidase because AFO does not share any significant similarities with any known oxidase. It is critically important to understand how AFO acts on aflatoxin B1. In this study, in addition to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and sterigmatocystin (ST), five other chemicals that have furan or pyran structures were investigated. The results indicated that in addition to AFB1 and ST, AFO is also able to act on versicolorin A, 3,4-dihydro-2H-pyran and furan. These results suggested that 8,9-unsaturated carboncarbon bond of aflatoxin B1 is the potential reactive site for AFO. Further findings indicated that the action of AFO is oxygen-dependent and hydrogen peroxide-producing. The simultaneously produced-hydrogen peroxide possibly plays the essential role in detoxification of AFO. In addition, the extremely low Km value of 0.33 µmol/l for AFO-AFB1 and 0.11 µmol/l for AFO-ST signifies that AFO is highly selective for AFB1 as well as ST.

  20. Lake surface water temperatures of European Alpine lakes (1989-2013) based on the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) 1 km data set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riffler, M.; Lieberherr, G.; Wunderle, S.

    2015-02-01

    Lake water temperature (LWT) is an important driver of lake ecosystems and it has been identified as an indicator of climate change. Consequently, the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) lists LWT as an essential climate variable. Although for some European lakes long in situ time series of LWT do exist, many lakes are not observed or only on a non-regular basis making these observations insufficient for climate monitoring. Satellite data can provide the information needed. However, only few satellite sensors offer the possibility to analyse time series which cover 25 years or more. The Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) is among these and has been flown as a heritage instrument for almost 35 years. It will be carried on for at least ten more years, offering a unique opportunity for satellite-based climate studies. Herein we present a satellite-based lake surface water temperature (LSWT) data set for European water bodies in or near the Alps based on the extensive AVHRR 1 km data record (1989-2013) of the Remote Sensing Research Group at the University of Bern. It has been compiled out of AVHRR/2 (NOAA-07, -09, -11, -14) and AVHRR/3 (NOAA-16, -17, -18, -19 and MetOp-A) data. The high accuracy needed for climate related studies requires careful pre-processing and consideration of the atmospheric state. The LSWT retrieval is based on a simulation-based scheme making use of the Radiative Transfer for TOVS (RTTOV) Version 10 together with ERA-interim reanalysis data from the European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts. The resulting LSWTs were extensively compared with in situ measurements from lakes with various sizes between 14 and 580 km2 and the resulting biases and RMSEs were found to be within the range of -0.5 to 0.6 K and 1.0 to 1.6 K, respectively. The upper limits of the reported errors could be rather attributed to uncertainties in the data comparison between in situ and satellite observations than inaccuracies of the satellite

  1. Summer Leadership Conference Proceedings (Dingmans Ferry, Pennsylvania, August 10-15, 1980).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Supervisors Association, Washington, DC.

    Believing that effective supervision depends upon a well-informed, competent leader, the National Association of Science Supervisors (NSSA) conducted a regional leadership conference for science chairpersons and supervisors (August 10-15, 1980) which focused on (1) increasing leadership skills in selecting supervisory techniques and strategies,…

  2. 19 CFR 10.15 - Fabricated components not subject to the exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Fabricated components not subject to the exemption... Provisions Articles Assembled Abroad with United States Components § 10.15 Fabricated components not subject to the exemption. Fabricated components which are not products of the United States are excluded...

  3. 19 CFR 10.15 - Fabricated components not subject to the exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fabricated components not subject to the exemption... Provisions Articles Assembled Abroad with United States Components § 10.15 Fabricated components not subject to the exemption. Fabricated components which are not products of the United States are excluded...

  4. Design and fabrication of the 20 km/10 kV electromechanical tether for TSS-1 using high impact conductor (Hiwire)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scala, E.; Bentley, D. P.; Marshall, L. S.

    1986-01-01

    The development of a 20-km electromechanical tether for the tethered satellite system (TSS) is described. The basic design requirements for electromagnetic cables and for conductors in cables subject to stresses and cyclic loading are discussed. The tether fabricatioon procedures involve: (1) conductor twisting around the core, (2) insulation extrusion, (3) strength member braiding, and (4) protective jacket braiding.

  5. High cesium concentrations in groundwater in the upper 1.2 km of fractured crystalline rock - Influence of groundwater origin and secondary minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathurin, Frédéric A.; Drake, Henrik; Tullborg, Eva-Lena; Berger, Tobias; Peltola, Pasi; Kalinowski, Birgitta E.; Åström, Mats E.

    2014-05-01

    Dissolved and solid phase cesium (Cs) was studied in the upper 1.2 km of a coastal granitoid fracture network on the Baltic Shield (Äspö Hard Rock Laboratory and Laxemar area, SE Sweden). There unusually high Cs concentrations (up to 5-6 μg L-1) occur in the low-temperature (<20 °C) groundwater. The material includes water collected in earlier hydrochemical monitoring programs and secondary precipitates (fracture coatings) collected on the fracture walls, as follows: (a) hydraulically pristine fracture groundwater sampled through 23 surface boreholes equipped for the retrieval of representative groundwater at controlled depths (Laxemar area), (b) fracture groundwater affected by artificial drainage collected through 80 boreholes drilled mostly along the Äspö Hard Rock Laboratory (underground research facility), (c) surface water collected in local streams, a lake and sea bay, and shallow groundwater collected in 8 regolith boreholes, and (d) 84 new specimens of fracture coatings sampled in cores from the Äspö HRL and Laxemar areas. The groundwater in each area is different, which affects Cs concentrations. The highest Cs concentrations occurred in deep-seated saline groundwater (median Äspö HRL: 4.1 μg L-1; median Laxemar: 3.7 μg L-1) and groundwater with marine origin (Äspö HRL: 4.2 μg L-1). Overall lower, but variable, Cs concentrations were found in other types of groundwater. The similar concentrations of Cs in the saline groundwater, which had a residence time in the order of millions of years, and in the marine groundwater, which had residence times in the order of years, shows that duration of water-rock interactions is not the single and primary control of dissolved Cs in these systems. The high Cs concentrations in the saline groundwater is ascribed to long-term weathering of minerals, primarily Cs-enriched fracture coatings dominated by illite and mixed-layer clays and possibly wall rock micaceous minerals. The high Cs concentrations in the

  6. Prior Low- or High-Intensity Exercise Alters Pacing Strategy, Energy System Contribution and Performance during a 4-km Cycling Time Trial

    PubMed Central

    Correia-Oliveira, Carlos Rafaell; Santos, Ralmony Alcantara; Silva-Cavalcante, Marcos David; Bertuzzi, Romulo; Kiss, Maria Augusta Peduti Dal’Molin; Bishop, David John; Lima-Silva, Adriano Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed the influence of prior exercise designed to reduce predominantly muscle glycogen in either type I or II fibers on pacing and performance during a 4-km cycling time trial (TT). After preliminary and familiarization trials, in a randomized, repeated-measures crossover design, ten amateur cyclists performed: 1) an exercise designed to reduce glycogen of type I muscle fibers, followed by a 4-km TT (EX-FIB I); 2) an exercise designed to reduce glycogen of type II muscle fibers, followed by a 4-km TT (EX-FIB II) and; 3) a 4-km TT, without the prior exercise (CONT). The muscle-glycogen-reducing exercise in both EX-FIB I and EX-FIB II was performed in the evening, ∼12 h before the 4-km TT. Performance time was increased and power output (PO) was reduced in EX-FIB I (432.8±8.3 s and 204.9±10.9 W) and EX-FIB II (428.7±6.7 s and 207.5±9.1 W) compared to CONT (420.8±6.4 s and 218.4±9.3 W; P<0.01), without a difference between EX-FIB I and EX-FIB II (P>0.05). The PO was lower in EX-FIB I than in CONT at the beginning and middle of the trial (P<0.05). The mean aerobic contribution during EX-FIB I was also significantly lower than in CONT (P<0.05), but there was no difference between CONT and EX-FIB II or between EX-FIB I and EX-FIB II (P>0.05). The integrated electromyography was unchanged between conditions (P>0.05). Performance may have been impaired in EX-FIB I due a more conservative pacing at the beginning and middle, which was associated with a reduced aerobic contribution. In turn, the PO profile adopted in EX-FIB II was also reduced throughout the trial, but the impairment in performance may be attributed to a reduced glycolytic contribution (i.e. reduced lactate accumulation). PMID:25330452

  7. The R337C mutation generates a high Km 11{beta}-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type II enzyme in a family with apparent mineralocorticoid excess

    SciTech Connect

    Obeyisekere, V.R.; Ferrari, P.; Funder, J.W.; Krozowski, Z.S.

    1995-10-01

    The 11{beta}-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type II enzyme (11{beta}HSD2) inactivates glucocorticoids in the kidney and thus permits aldosterone to occupy the non-selective mineralocortiocid receptor in epithelial tissues. We have recently described a C to T transition in the HSD11B2 gene which results in an arginine to cysteine mutation (R337C) in the 11{beta}HSD2 enzyme in a consanguineous family with three siblings suffering from Apparent Mineralocorticoid Excess (AME). In the present study we have examined the metabolism of cortisol in mammalian cells transfected with plasmids expressing the wild type and mutant enzymes. In whole cells the Km of the normal enzyme was 110nM, while the enzyme containing the R337C mutation displayed a Km of 1010nM. Further experiments revealed that the mutant was totally inactive in cell free preparations, suggesting that it has additional properties which may compromise its activity in whole cells. 10 refs., 2 figs.

  8. Status of KM3NeT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riccobene, G.

    2016-07-01

    The recent observation of cosmic neutrinos by IceCube has pushed the quest towards the identification of cosmic sources of high-energy particles. The KM3NeT Collaboration is now ready to launch the massive construction of detection units to be installed in deep sea to build a km-cubic size neutrino telescope. The main elements of the detector, the status of the project and the expected perfomances are briefly reported.

  9. 1.92 Tb/s coherent DWDM-OFDMA-PON with no high-speed ONU-side electronics over 100 km SSMF and 1:64 passive split.

    PubMed

    Cvijetic, Neda; Huang, Ming-Fang; Ip, Ezra; Shao, Yin; Huang, Yue-Kai; Cvijetic, Milorad; Wang, Ting

    2011-11-21

    Record 1.92-Tb/s (40λ × 48 Gb/s/λ) coherent DWDM-OFDMA-PON without high-speed ONU-side ADCs/DACs/DSP/RF clock sources is demonstrated over 100 km straight SSMF with a 1:64 passive split. Novel optical-domain OFDMA sub-band selection, coherent detection, and simple RF components are exploited. As the first experimental verification of a next-generation optical platform capable of delivering 1 Gb/s to 1000(+) users over 100 km, the new architecture is promising for future optical access/metro systems.

  10. The effects of a cycling warm-up including high-intensity heavy-resistance conditioning contractions on subsequent 4 km time trial performance.

    PubMed

    Chorley, Alan; Lamb, Kevin L

    2017-03-25

    Prior exercise has been shown to improve subsequent performance via different mechanisms. Sport-specific conditioning contractions can be used to exploit the 'post-activation potentiation' (PAP) phenomenon to enhance performance although this has rarely been investigated in short endurance events. The aim of this study was to compare a cycling warm-up with PAP-inducing conditioning contractions (CW) with a moderate intensity warm-up (MW) on performance and physiological outcomes of 4 km time trial. Ten well-trained male endurance cyclists (V[Combining Dot Above]O2max 65.3 ± 5.6 ml·kg·min) performed two 4 km cycling time trials following a 5-minute recovery after a warm-up at 60% of V[Combining Dot Above]O2max for 6.5-minutes (MW), and a warm-up with conditioning contractions (CW) consisting of 5 minutes at 60% of V[Combining Dot Above]O2max then 3 x 10-seconds at 70% of peak power interspersed with 30-seconds recovery. Blood lactate concentrations were measured before and after time trial. Expired gases were analysed along with time, power output (PO), and peak forces over each 500 m split. Following CW, mean completion time was reduced (1.7 ± 3.5 s p > 0.05), PO increased (5.1 ± 10.5 W p > 0.05) as did peak force per pedal stroke (5.7 ± 11 N p > 0.05) when compared to MW. V[Combining Dot Above]O2 increased (1.4 ± 1.6 ml·kg·min p < 0.05) following CW, whilst RER decreased (0.05 ± 0.02 p < 0.05). Physiological and performance differences following CW were greatest over the first 1500 m of the trials. The results suggest a PAP-inducing warm-up alters V[Combining Dot Above]O2 kinetics and can lead to performance improvements in short endurance cycling but work and recovery durations should be optimised for each athlete.

  11. Knob manager (KM) operators guide

    SciTech Connect

    1993-10-08

    KM, Knob Manager, is a tool which enables the user to use the SUNDIALS knob box to adjust the settings of the control system. The followings are some features of KM: dynamic knob assignments with the user friendly interface; user-defined gain for individual knob; graphical displays for operating range and status of each process variable is assigned; backup and restore one or multiple process variable; save current settings to a file and recall the settings from that file in future.

  12. In-orbit Calibration Approach of the Microscope Experiment for the Test of the Equivalence Principle at 10-15

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradels, Grégory

    the satellite, a spectral density of 10-12 m/s^2/Hz is expected in the frequency range around 10-3 Hz. Then, an accuracy of a few 10-15 m/s^2 can be reached after an integration over 1 day in presence of the 8 m/s^2 Earth gravity field, leading to the EP test with a two orders of magnitude better accuracy than the current laboratory tests. The two ultra sensitive accelerometers, used in combination to build the instrument, are derived from the one flying in the CHAMP space mission which offers for the first time a very fine measurement (10-9 m/s^2/Hz resolution) of the non-gravitational forces applied on a satellite at altitude lower than 500 km. The temporal and spectral analyses confirm the specified intrinsic parameters of the instrument as the bias, the noise level or the thermal sensitivity. A time-frequency analysis provides the first look on disturbances that might occur on this type of satellite : mechanical vibrations after thruster firings, peaks of different amplitudes due to Earth's shadow crossings or effects of the satellite thermal control. A specific and adaptive filter has been developed to reject these perturbations out of the geodesic measurements. After this treatment, the data show some very interesting behaviours as the evolution of the drag with the rotation of the orbit of the satellite. These results are of great interest for the future projects like MICROSCOPE, LISA the space gravity wave antenna developed by NASA and ESA or GOCE the ESA gradiometric solid Earth mission. The MICROSCOPE mission requires not only high resolution for the accelerometers but also fine matching of the parameters because the eventual EP violation signal is detected in the instrument output comparison. The analytic model of the mission measurement demonstrates the necessity of the evaluation of the instrument sensitivity, alignment and coupling with a minimum accuracy of 3 10-4, depending on the relative test mass position, the orbital pointing mode of the satellite

  13. Development of the mandibular condylar cartilage in human specimens of 10-15 weeks' gestation.

    PubMed

    Mérida Velasco, J R; Rodríguez Vázquez, J F; De la Cuadra Blanco, C; Campos López, R; Sánchez, Montesinos; Mérida Velasco, J A

    2009-01-01

    This study analyses some morphological and histological aspects that could have a role in the development of the condylar cartilage (CC). The specimens used were serial sections from 49 human fetuses aged 10-15 weeks. In addition, 3D reconstructions of the mandibular ramus and the CC were made from four specimens. During weeks 10-11 of development, the vascular canals (VC) appear in the CC and the intramembranous ossification process begins. At the same time, in the medial region of the CC, chondroclasts appear adjacent to the vascular invasion and to the cartilage destruction. During weeks 12-13 of development, the deepest portion of the posterolateral vascular canal is completely surrounded by the hypertrophic chondrocytes. The latter emerge with an irregular layout. During week 15 of development, the endochondral ossification of the CC begins. Our results suggest that the situation of the chondroclasts, the posterolateral vascular canal and the irregular arrangement of the hypertrophic chondrocytes may play a notable role in the development of the CC.

  14. Short-term changes in 10-km race pace aerobic demand and gait mechanics following a bout of high-intensity distance running.

    PubMed

    Morgan, D W; Strohmeyer, H S; Daniels, J T; Beaudoin, C C; Craib, M W; Borden, R A; Greer, P J; Burleson, C L

    1996-01-01

    Following treadmill accommodation and a 3-day period of tapered running, ten well-trained male distance runners [x maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) = 71.3 ml.kg-1.min-1] performed two 10-min level treadmill runs designed to assess running economy at 90% VO2max. Video recordings were obtained during the last minute of each run to quantify selected gait descriptors. Two to 3 days following the second economy run, each subject completed 30 min of high-intensity (HI) running at 90% VO2max. One 2, and 4 days after the HI run, subjects repeated the 10-min economy runs. Compared to pre HI-run values, no significant change (P > 0.05) in running economy was observed during the post-HI runs. Biomechanical analyses also revealed that running style remained unaltered after the HI run. These results support earlier findings obtained on moderately trained subjects featuring measurement of running economy and gait mechanics at less-demanding intensities and suggest that among well-trained athletes, 30 min of HI running does not elicit an increase in VO2 or disrupt gait mechanics over the short term in subsequent distance runs performed at near-maximal speeds.

  15. Synthesis and properties of 5,10,15,20-tetra(4-lauroylimidophenyl)porphyrin and its metal complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Er-jun; Cheng, Xiu-li; Wang, Dong; Tang, Xue-xin; Yu, Shuang-jiang; Shi, Tong-shun

    2007-11-01

    Transition metal complexes of 5,10,15,20-tetra(4-lauroylimidophenyl)porphyrin TLPPM [M = Mn(Cl), Fe(Cl), Co, Ni, Cu, Zn] have been synthesized and characterized by means of elemental analyses, UV-VIS spectra, infrared spectra, 1H NMR spectra, molar conductance, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), polarized optical microscopy (POM), cyclic voltammetry, luminescence spectra and surface photovoltage spectroscopies. The porphyrin ligand shows liquid crystalline behaviour, and it exhibits a high phase transition temperature 182 °C and a broad mesophase temperature span, 88 °C. The oxidation and reduction properties of the compounds were investigated by cyclic voltammetry. The photovoltaic properties and charge transfer process of the compounds were investigated by surface photovoltage spectroscopy (SPS) and electric field-induced surface photovoltage spectroscopic (EFISPS) techniques, which revealed that all the compounds are p-type semiconductors. Quantum yields of the S 1 → S 0 fluorescence were measured at room temperature. These studies will contribute to further choice and application of the liquid crystals.

  16. Nickel removal from nickel-5,10,15,20-tetraphenylporphine using supercritical water in absence of catalyst: a basic study.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Pradip Chandra; Wahyudiono; Sasaki, Mitsuru; Goto, Motonobu

    2011-03-15

    Reactions of nickel-5,10,15,20-tetraphenylporphine (Ni-TPP) were studied in supercritical water in the presence of toluene without the addition of any catalyst, H(2) or H(2)S that is called a green process. The objective of this study was to remove nickel from Ni-TPP, the most common metal compound present in heavy crude, in high extent at low reaction time. All experiments were carried out in an 8.8 mL batch reactor fabricated from hastelloy C-276. The ability of supercritical water (SCW) to remove nickel from Ni-TPP was studied at temperatures of 450-490 °C and water partial pressures of 25-35 MPa. Water partial pressure had no effect on overall conversion at temperatures of 450 °C and a reaction time of 60 min. The overall Ni-TPP conversion was 89.80%, a figure above that of previous catalytic studies. The percentage of nickel removal was estimated as a function of reaction time and temperature. It were temperature 490 °C and pressure 25 MPa at reaction time 90 min where 65.68% nickel were removed by the action of SCW and toluene, as a co-solvent. It was determined that Ni-TPP undergoes a series of reactions, ending in demetallation and ring fragmentation. The obtained results suggest that supercritical water has a capability to remove nickel from Ni-TPP.

  17. Predominance of Viable Spore-Forming Piezophilic Bacteria in High-Pressure Enrichment Cultures from ~1.5 to 2.4 km-Deep Coal-Bearing Sediments below the Ocean Floor.

    PubMed

    Fang, Jiasong; Kato, Chiaki; Runko, Gabriella M; Nogi, Yuichi; Hori, Tomoyuki; Li, Jiangtao; Morono, Yuki; Inagaki, Fumio

    2017-01-01

    Phylogenetically diverse microorganisms have been observed in marine subsurface sediments down to ~2.5 km below the seafloor (kmbsf). However, very little is known about the pressure-adapted and/or pressure-loving microorganisms, the so called piezophiles, in the deep subseafloor biosphere, despite that pressure directly affects microbial physiology, metabolism, and biogeochemical processes of carbon and other elements in situ. In this study, we studied taxonomic compositions of microbial communities in high-pressure incubated sediment, obtained during the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 337 off the Shimokita Peninsula, Japan. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene-tagged sequences showed that members of spore-forming bacteria within Firmicutes and Actinobacteria were predominantly detected in all enrichment cultures from ~1.5 to 2.4 km-deep sediment samples, followed by members of Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, and Bacteroidetes according to the sequence frequency. To further study the physiology of the deep subseafloor sedimentary piezophilic bacteria, we isolated and characterized two bacterial strains, 19R1-5 and 29R7-12, from 1.9 and 2.4 km-deep sediment samples, respectively. The isolates were both low G+C content, gram-positive, endospore-forming and facultative anaerobic piezophilic bacteria, closely related to Virgibacillus pantothenticus and Bacillus subtilis within the phylum Firmicutes, respectively. The optimal pressure and temperature conditions for growth were 20 MPa and 42°C for strain 19R1-5, and 10 MPa and 43°C for strain 29R7-12. Bacterial (endo)spores were observed in both the enrichment and pure cultures examined, suggesting that these piezophilic members were derived from microbial communities buried in the ~20 million-year-old coal-bearing sediments after the long-term survival as spores and that the deep biosphere may host more abundant gram-positive spore-forming bacteria and their spores than hitherto recognized.

  18. Predominance of Viable Spore-Forming Piezophilic Bacteria in High-Pressure Enrichment Cultures from ~1.5 to 2.4 km-Deep Coal-Bearing Sediments below the Ocean Floor

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Jiasong; Kato, Chiaki; Runko, Gabriella M.; Nogi, Yuichi; Hori, Tomoyuki; Li, Jiangtao; Morono, Yuki; Inagaki, Fumio

    2017-01-01

    Phylogenetically diverse microorganisms have been observed in marine subsurface sediments down to ~2.5 km below the seafloor (kmbsf). However, very little is known about the pressure-adapted and/or pressure-loving microorganisms, the so called piezophiles, in the deep subseafloor biosphere, despite that pressure directly affects microbial physiology, metabolism, and biogeochemical processes of carbon and other elements in situ. In this study, we studied taxonomic compositions of microbial communities in high-pressure incubated sediment, obtained during the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 337 off the Shimokita Peninsula, Japan. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene-tagged sequences showed that members of spore-forming bacteria within Firmicutes and Actinobacteria were predominantly detected in all enrichment cultures from ~1.5 to 2.4 km-deep sediment samples, followed by members of Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, and Bacteroidetes according to the sequence frequency. To further study the physiology of the deep subseafloor sedimentary piezophilic bacteria, we isolated and characterized two bacterial strains, 19R1-5 and 29R7-12, from 1.9 and 2.4 km-deep sediment samples, respectively. The isolates were both low G+C content, gram-positive, endospore-forming and facultative anaerobic piezophilic bacteria, closely related to Virgibacillus pantothenticus and Bacillus subtilis within the phylum Firmicutes, respectively. The optimal pressure and temperature conditions for growth were 20 MPa and 42°C for strain 19R1-5, and 10 MPa and 43°C for strain 29R7-12. Bacterial (endo)spores were observed in both the enrichment and pure cultures examined, suggesting that these piezophilic members were derived from microbial communities buried in the ~20 million-year-old coal-bearing sediments after the long-term survival as spores and that the deep biosphere may host more abundant gram-positive spore-forming bacteria and their spores than hitherto recognized. PMID:28220112

  19. 850-nm Zn-diffusion vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with with oxide-relief structure for high-speed and energy-efficient optical interconnects from very-short to medium (2km) reaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Jin-Wei; Wei, Chia-Chien; Chen, Jason (Jyehong); Yang, Ying-Jay

    2015-03-01

    High-speed and "green" ~850 nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) have lately attracted lots of attention due to their suitability for applications in optical interconnects (OIs). To further enhance the speed and its maximum allowable linking distance of VCSELs are two major trends to meet the requirement of OI in next generation data centers. Recently, by use of the advanced 850 nm VCSEL technique, data rate as high as 64 Gbit/sec over 57m and 20 Gbit/sec over 2km MMF transmission have been demonstrated, respectively. Here, we will review our recent work about 850 nm Zn-diffusion VCSELs with oxide-relief apertures to further enhance the above-mentioned performances. By using Zn-diffusion, we can not only reduce the device resistance but also manipulate the number of optical modes to benefit transmission. Combing such device, which has excellent single-mode (SMSR >30 dB) and high-power (~7mW) performance, with advanced modulation format (OFDM), record-high bit-rate-distance-product through MMF (2.3 km×28 Gbit/sec) has been demonstrated. Furthermore, by selective etching away the oxide aperture inside Zn-diffusion VCSEL, significant enhancement of device speed, D-factor, and reliability can be observed. With such unique VCSEL structure, >40 Gbit/sec energy-efficient transmission over 100m MMF under extremely low-driving current density (<10kA/cm2) has been successfully demonstrated.

  20. MODIS 3km Aerosol Product: Algorithm and Global Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remer, L. A.; Mattoo, S.; Levy, R. C.; Munchak, L.

    2013-01-01

    After more than a decade of producing a nominal 10 km aerosol product based on the dark target method, the MODIS aerosol team will be releasing a nominal 3 km product as part of their Collection 6 release. The new product differs from the original 10 km product only in the manner in which reflectance pixels are ingested, organized and selected by the aerosol algorithm. Overall, the 3 km product closely mirrors the 10 km product. However, the finer resolution product is able to retrieve over ocean closer to islands and coastlines, and is better able to resolve fine aerosol features such as smoke plumes over both ocean and land. In some situations, it provides retrievals over entire regions that the 10 km product barely samples. In situations traditionally difficult for the dark target algorithm, such as over bright or urban surfaces the 3 km product introduces isolated spikes of artificially high aerosol optical depth (AOD) that the 10 km algorithm avoids. Over land, globally, the 3 km product appears to be 0.01 to 0.02 higher than the 10 km product, while over ocean, the 3 km algorithm is retrieving a proportionally greater number of very low aerosol loading situations. Based on collocations with ground-based observations for only six months, expected errors associated with the 3 km land product are determined to be greater than for the 10 km product: 0.05 0.25 AOD. Over ocean, the suggestion is for expected errors to be the same as the 10 km product: 0.03 0.05 AOD. The advantage of the product is on the local scale, which will require continued evaluation not addressed here. Nevertheless, the new 3 km product is expected to provide important information complementary to existing satellite-derived products and become an important tool for the aerosol community.

  1. Regeneratively mode-locked fiber laser with a repetition rate stability of 4.9x10-15 using a hydrogen maser phase-locked loop.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Masato; Hirayama, Toru; Nakazawa, Masataka; Hagimoto, Ken; Ikegami, Takeshi

    2007-07-01

    We demonstrate an ultrastable regeneratively mode-locked fiber laser that employs a phase-locked loop (PLL) circuit with a hydrogen maser. The stability for an integration time of 1s was 6.2x10(-13), which is 16 times better than that of a conventional PLL laser. For an integration time of 1000s, the stability reached as high as 4.9x10(-15). The repetition-rate stability was limited by the synthesizer used for the PLL operation, and there was no additional fluctuation induced by the laser operation.

  2. Biomimetic oxidation of curcumin with hydrogen peroxide catalyzed by 5,10,15,20-tetraarylporphyrinatoiron(III) chlorides in dichloromethane.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Shive Murat Singh; Kandadai, Appan Srinivas; Jain, Nidhi; Kumar, Anil

    2003-11-01

    The biomimetic oxidation of curcumin, a main turmeric pigment with hydrogen peroxide catalyzed by different 5,10,15,20-tetraarylporphyrinatoiron(III) chlorides [TAPFe(III)Cl] in dichloromethane has been studied to give a C-C coupled curcumin dimer in 40-70% yield. The structure of the dimer has been elucidated by (1)H-, (13)C-NMR, IR and FAB-Mass spectroscopic data.

  3. Microscope in orbit calibration procedure for a test of the equivalence principle at 10(-15).

    PubMed

    Pradels, G; Touboul, P

    2003-01-01

    The scientific objectives of the MICROSCOPE space mission impose a very fine calibration of the on-board accelerometers. However the required performance cannot be achieved on ground because of the presence of high disturbing sources. On-board the CHAMP satellite, accelerometers similar in the concept to the MICROSCOPE instrument, have already flown and analysis of the provided data then allowed to characterise the vibration environment at low altitude as well as the fluctuation of the drag. The requirements of the in-orbit calibration procedure for the MICROSCOPE instrument are demonstrated by modelling the expected applied acceleration signals with the developed analytic model of the mission. The proposed approach exploits the drag-free system of the satellite and the sensitivity of the accelerometers. A specific simulator of the attitude control system of the satellite has been developed and tests of the proposed solution are performed using nominal conditions or disturbing conditions as observed during the CHAMP mission.

  4. Photophysical Characterization and in Vitro Phototoxicity Evaluation of 5,10,15,20-Tetra(quinolin-2-yl)porphyrin as a Potential Sensitizer for Photodynamic Therapy.

    PubMed

    Costa, Letícia D; e Silva, Joana de A; Fonseca, Sofia M; Arranja, Cláudia T; Urbano, Ana M; Sobral, Abilio J F N

    2016-03-31

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a selective and minimally invasive therapeutic approach, involving the combination of a light-sensitive compound, called a photosensitizer (PS), visible light and molecular oxygen. The interaction of these per se harmless agents results in the production of reactive species. This triggers a series of cellular events that culminate in the selective destruction of cancer cells, inside which the photosensitizer preferentially accumulates. The search for ideal PDT photosensitizers has been a very active field of research, with a special focus on porphyrins and porphyrin-related macrocycle molecules. The present study describes the photophysical characterization and in vitro phototoxicity evaluation of 5,10,15,20-tetra(quinolin-2-yl)porphyrin (2-TQP) as a potential PDT photosensitizer. Molar absorption coefficients were determined from the corresponding absorption spectrum, the fluorescence quantum yield was calculated using 5,10,15,20-tetraphenylporphyrin (TPP) as a standard and the quantum yield of singlet oxygen generation was determined by direct phosphorescence measurements. Toxicity evaluations (in the presence and absence of irradiation) were performed against HT29 colorectal adenocarcinoma cancer cells. The results from this preliminary study show that the hydrophobic 2-TQP fulfills several critical requirements for a good PDT photosensitizer, namely a high quantum yield of singlet oxygen generation (Φ∆ 0.62), absence of dark toxicity and significant in vitro phototoxicity for concentrations in the micromolar range.

  5. Chelation and fluorescence properties of tetraphenylporphyrin and 5,10,15,20-tetra(4-hydroxyphenyl)porphyrin in acetonitrile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanova, Yu. B.; Parfenov, A. S.; Mamardashvili, N. Zh.

    2017-01-01

    The kinetics of complex formation between zinc and 5,10,15,20-tetraphenylporphyrin and 5,10,15,20-tetra(4-hydroxyphenyl)porphyrin in acetonitrile is studied in the temperature range from 298 to 318 K. The fluorescent properties of these compounds are examined, the emission in the red region of the spectrum is measured, and the fluorescence quantum yields are determined. It is found that although the electronic absorption spectra of the studied compounds are almost identical, hydroxyl substituents are observed to have a considerable effect on the chelating ability of ligands. The rate constant of the formation of ZnT(4-OH-Ph)P is thus approximately three times higher than that of ZnTPhP, with the energy consumption being lower (about 20 kJ mol-1). The calculated fluorescence quantum yields of H2TPhP, H2T(4-OH-Ph) P, ZnTPhP, and ZnT(4-OH-Ph)P in acetonitrile are half those in toluene, while the ratio between the quantum yields of ligands and their metal complexes is a constant equal to approximately 3 and does not depend on which solvent is used.

  6. KM3NeT: towards a km 3-scale neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Distefano, C.; KM3NeT Consortium

    2009-05-01

    The observation of high energy neutrinos ( ≳1 TeV) from astrophysical sources would substantially improve our knowledge and understanding of the non-thermal processes in these sources, and would in particular pinpoint the accelerators of cosmic rays. Theoretical predictions indicate that km 3-scale detectors are needed to detect astrophysical neutrino fluxes. That is the reason why the three Mediterranean experiments, ANTARES, NEMO and NESTOR are working together on preparing KM3NeT, a large deep-sea neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean Sea which will survey a large part of the Galactic disc, including the Galactic Centre. It will complement the IceCube telescope currently under construction at the South Pole. Furthermore, the improved optical properties of sea water, compared to Antarctic ice, will allow for a better angular resolution and hence a better background rejection. The construction of this detector will require the solution of technological problems common to many deep submarine installations, and will help paving the way for other deep-sea research facilities. In this paper the major activities and the status of KM3NeT are presented.

  7. KM3NeT: towards a km3-scale neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Km3NeT Consortium; Distefano, C.; KM3NeT Consortium

    2009-05-01

    The observation of high energy neutrinos (≳1 TeV) from astrophysical sources would substantially improve our knowledge and understanding of the non-thermal processes in these sources, and would in particular pinpoint the accelerators of cosmic rays. Theoretical predictions indicate that km3-scale detectors are needed to detect astrophysical neutrino fluxes. That is the reason why the three Mediterranean experiments, ANTARES, NEMO and NESTOR are working together on preparing KM3NeT, a large deep-sea neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean Sea which will survey a large part of the Galactic disc, including the Galactic Centre. It will complement the IceCube telescope currently under construction at the South Pole. Furthermore, the improved optical properties of sea water, compared to Antarctic ice, will allow for a better angular resolution and hence a better background rejection. The construction of this detector will require the solution of technological problems common to many deep submarine installations, and will help paving the way for other deep-sea research facilities. In this paper the major activities and the status of KM3NeT are presented.

  8. Predicting km-scale shear zone formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerbi, Christopher; Culshaw, Nicholas; Shulman, Deborah; Foley, Maura; Marsh, Jeffrey

    2015-04-01

    Because km-scale shear zones play a first-order role in lithospheric kinematics, accurate conceptual and numerical models of orogenic development require predicting when and where they form. Although a strain-based algorithm in the upper crust for weakening due to faulting appears to succeed (e.g., Koons et al., 2010, doi:10.1029/2009TC002463), a comparable general rule for the viscous crust remains unestablished. Here we consider two aspects of the geological argument for a similar algorithm in the viscous regime, namely (1) whether predicting km-scale shear zone development based on a single parameter (such as strain or shear heating) is reasonable; and (2) whether lithologic variability inherent in most orogenic systems precludes a simple predictive rule. A review of tectonically significant shear zones worldwide and more detailed investigations in the Central Gneiss belt of the Ontario segment of the Grenville Province reveals that most km-scale shear zones occur at lithological boundaries and involve mass transfer, but have fairly little else in common. As examples, the relatively flat-lying Twelve Mile Bay shear zone in the western Central Gneiss belt bounds the Parry Sound domain and is likely the product of both localized anatexis and later retrograde hydration with attendant metamorphism. Moderately dipping shear zones in granitoids of the Grenville Front Tectonic Zone apparently resulted from cooperation among several complementary microstructural processes, such as grain size reduction, enhanced diffusion, and a small degree of metamorphic reaction. Localization into shear zones requires the operation of some spatially restricted processes such as stress concentration, metamorphism/fluid access, textural evolution, and thermal perturbation. All of these could be due in part to strain, but not necessarily linearly related to strain. Stress concentrations, such as those that form at rheological boundaries, may be sufficient to nucleate high strain

  9. Structural and magnetic properties of Mn50Fe50-xSnx (x=10, 15 and 20) alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Tanmoy; Agarwal, Sandeep; Mukhopadhyay, P. K.

    2016-11-01

    In this work we report measurements and comparisons of the structural, magnetic and transport properties of a series of Mn50Fe50-xSnx alloys (x=10, 15 and 20). We found that while the lower Sn composition sample stabilized in β-Mn-type crystallographic phase, the higher Sn composition alloys contained both β-Mn-type as well as Mn3Sn-type hexagonal DO19 phases. Through d.c. and a.c. magnetic property measurements we have established the existence of a ferromagnetic transition near room temperature followed by a spin reorientation at lower temperature in the Mn3Sn-type crystallographic phase of the alloys. Our resistivity study also revealed an interesting behavior with negative temperature coefficient (TCR) in these alloys.

  10. Method of using 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(carboxyphenyl)porphine for detecting cancers of the lung

    DOEpatents

    Cole, D.A.; Moody, D.C. III; Ellinwood, L.E.; Klein, M.G.

    1992-11-10

    A method is described for using tetra-aryl porphyrins for and, in particular, 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-carboxyphenyl)porphine as a fluorescent tracer for cancers of the lung, and as a radiotracer therefor as a complex with [sup 67]Cu. The latter complex also provides a source of beta radiation for selective destruction of lung malignancies as well as gamma radiation useful for image analysis of the lungs by single photon emission computed tomography, as an example, both in vivo. Copper-64 may be substituted for the [sup 67]Cu if only radiotracer characteristics are of interest. This lighter isotope of copper is a positron emitter, and positron emission tomography techniques can be used to locate the malignant tissue mass. 1 figure.

  11. Method using 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-carboxyphenyl)porphine for treating cancers of the lung

    DOEpatents

    Cole, Dean A.; Moody, III, David C.; Ellinwood, L. Edward; Klein, M. Gerard

    1995-01-01

    Method using tetra-aryl porphyrins for and, in particular, 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-carboxyphenyl)porphine as a fluorescent tracer for cancers of the lung, and as a radiotracer therefor as a complex with .sup.67 Cu. The latter complex also provides a source of beta radiation for selective destruction of lung malignancies as well as gamma radiation useful for image analysis of the situs thereof by single photon emission computed tomography, as an example, both in vivo. Copper-64 may be substituted for the .sup.67 Cu if only radiotracer characteristics are of interest. This lighter isotope of copper is a positron emitter, and positron emission tomography techniques can be used to locate the malignant tissue mass.

  12. Method of using 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(carboxyphenyl)porphine for detecting cancers of the lung

    DOEpatents

    Cole, Dean A.; Moody, III, David C.; Ellinwood, L. Edward; Klein, M. Gerard

    1992-01-01

    Method using tetra-aryl porphyrins for and, in particular, 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-carboxyphenyl)porphine as a fluorescent tracer for cancers of the lung, and as a radiotracer therefor as a complex with .sup.67 Cu. The latter complex also provides a source of beta radiation for selective destruction of lung malignancies as well as gamma radiation useful for image analysis of the situs thereof by single photon emission computed tomography, as an example, both in vivo. Copper-64 may be substituted for the .sup.67 Cu if only radiotracer characteristics are of interest. This lighter isotope of copper is a positron emitter, and positron emission tomography techniques cna be used to locate the malignant tissue mass.

  13. 3D reflection seismic imaging at the 2.5 km deep COSC-1 scientific borehole, central Scandinavian Caledonides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedin, Peter; Almqvist, Bjarne; Berthet, Théo; Juhlin, Christopher; Buske, Stefan; Simon, Helge; Giese, Rüdiger; Krauß, Felix; Rosberg, Jan-Erik; Alm, Per-Gunnar

    2016-10-01

    The 2.5 km deep scientific COSC-1 borehole (ICDP 5054-1-A) was successfully drilled with nearly complete core recovery during spring and summer of 2014. Downhole and on-core measurements through the targeted Lower Seve Nappe provide a comprehensive data set. An observed gradual increase in strain below 1700 m, with mica schists and intermittent mylonites increasing in frequency and thickness, is here interpreted as the basal thrust zone of the Lower Seve Nappe. This high strain zone was not fully penetrated at the total drilled depth and is thus greater than 800 m in thickness. To allow extrapolation of the results from downhole logging, core analysis and other experiments into the surrounding rock and to link these with the regional tectonic setting and evolution, three post-drilling high-resolution seismic experiments were conducted in and around the borehole. One of these, the first 3D seismic reflection land survey to target the nappe structures of the Scandinavian Caledonides, is presented here. It provides new information on the 3D geometry of structures both within the drilled Lower Seve Nappe and underlying rocks down to at least 9 km. The observed reflectivity correlates well with results from the core analysis and downhole logging, despite challenges in processing. Reflections from the uppermost part of the Lower Seve Nappe have limited lateral extent and varying dips, possibly related to mafic lenses or boudins of variable character within felsic rock. Reflections occurring within the high strain zone, however, are laterally continuous over distances of a kilometer or more and dip 10-15° towards the southeast. Reflections from structures beneath the high strain unit and the COSC-1 borehole can be followed through most of the seismic volume down to at least 9 km and have dips of varying degree, mainly in the east-west thrust direction of the orogen.

  14. Teleportation of entanglement over 143 km.

    PubMed

    Herbst, Thomas; Scheidl, Thomas; Fink, Matthias; Handsteiner, Johannes; Wittmann, Bernhard; Ursin, Rupert; Zeilinger, Anton

    2015-11-17

    As a direct consequence of the no-cloning theorem, the deterministic amplification as in classical communication is impossible for unknown quantum states. This calls for more advanced techniques in a future global quantum network, e.g., for cloud quantum computing. A unique solution is the teleportation of an entangled state, i.e., entanglement swapping, representing the central resource to relay entanglement between distant nodes. Together with entanglement purification and a quantum memory it constitutes a so-called quantum repeater. Since the aforementioned building blocks have been individually demonstrated in laboratory setups only, the applicability of the required technology in real-world scenarios remained to be proven. Here we present a free-space entanglement-swapping experiment between the Canary Islands of La Palma and Tenerife, verifying the presence of quantum entanglement between two previously independent photons separated by 143 km. We obtained an expectation value for the entanglement-witness operator, more than 6 SDs beyond the classical limit. By consecutive generation of the two required photon pairs and space-like separation of the relevant measurement events, we also showed the feasibility of the swapping protocol in a long-distance scenario, where the independence of the nodes is highly demanded. Because our results already allow for efficient implementation of entanglement purification, we anticipate our research to lay the ground for a fully fledged quantum repeater over a realistic high-loss and even turbulent quantum channel.

  15. Neutral Wind Observations below 200 km altitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, S.; Abe, T.; Habu, H.; Kakinami, Y.; Larsen, M. F.; Pfaff, R. F., Jr.; Yamamoto, M.

    2015-12-01

    Neutral Wind Observations below 200 km altitudesS. Watanabe1, T. Abe2, H. Habu2, Y. Kakinami3, M. Larsen4, R. Pfaff5, M. Yamamoto6, M-Y. Yamamoto31Hokkaido University/Hokkaido Information University, 2JAXA/ISAS, 3Kochi University of Technology, 4Clemson University, 5NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, 6Kyoto University, Neutral wind in the thermosphere is one of the key parameters to understand the ionosphere-thermosphere coupling process. JAXA/ISAS successfully launched sounding rockets from Uchinoura Space Center (USC) on September 2, 2007, January 12, 2012, and July 20, 2013, and NASA launched sounding rockets from Kwajalein on May 7, 2013 and from Wallops on July 4, 2013. The rockets installed Lithium and/or TMA canisters as well as instruments for plasma and electric and magnetic fields. The atomic Lithium gases were released at altitudes between 150 km and 300 km in the evening on September 2, 2007, at altitude of ~100 km in the morning on January 12, 2012, at altitude of ~120km in the midnight on July 20, 2013, at altitude between 150 km and 300 km in the evening on May 7, 2013 and at altitude of ~150 km in the noon on July 4, 2013. The Lithium atoms were scattering sunlight by resonance scattering with wavelength of 670nm. However, the Lithium atoms scattered moon light on July 20, 2013. The moon light scattering is the first time to use for thermospheric wind measurement in the midnight. The Lithium clouds/trails and TMA trails showed clearly the neutral wind shears and atmospheric waves at ~150 km altitude in the lower thermosphere for all local time.

  16. News from KM3NeT

    SciTech Connect

    Katz, Ulrich F.; Collaboration: KM3NeT Collaboration

    2014-11-18

    KM3NeT is a future research infrastructure in the Mediterranean Sea, hosting a multi-cubic-kilometre neutrino telescope and nodes for Earth and Sea sciences. In this report we shortly summarise the genesis of the KM3NeT project and present key elements of its technical design. The physics objectives of the KM3NeT neutrino telescope and some selected sensitivity estimates are discussed. Finally, some first results from prototype operations and the next steps towards implementation – in particular the first construction phase in 2014/15 – are described.

  17. Exhaustive Analysis of a Genotype Space Comprising 10(15 )Central Carbon Metabolisms Reveals an Organization Conducive to Metabolic Innovation.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Sayed-Rzgar; Barve, Aditya; Wagner, Andreas

    2015-08-01

    All biological evolution takes place in a space of possible genotypes and their phenotypes. The structure of this space defines the evolutionary potential and limitations of an evolving system. Metabolism is one of the most ancient and fundamental evolving systems, sustaining life by extracting energy from extracellular nutrients. Here we study metabolism's potential for innovation by analyzing an exhaustive genotype-phenotype map for a space of 10(15) metabolisms that encodes all possible subsets of 51 reactions in central carbon metabolism. Using flux balance analysis, we predict the viability of these metabolisms on 10 different carbon sources which give rise to 1024 potential metabolic phenotypes. Although viable metabolisms with any one phenotype comprise a tiny fraction of genotype space, their absolute numbers exceed 10(9) for some phenotypes. Metabolisms with any one phenotype typically form a single network of genotypes that extends far or all the way through metabolic genotype space, where any two genotypes can be reached from each other through a series of single reaction changes. The minimal distance of genotype networks associated with different phenotypes is small, such that one can reach metabolisms with novel phenotypes--viable on new carbon sources--through one or few genotypic changes. Exceptions to these principles exist for those metabolisms whose complexity (number of reactions) is close to the minimum needed for viability. Increasing metabolic complexity enhances the potential for both evolutionary conservation and evolutionary innovation.

  18. How does music aid 5 km of running?

    PubMed

    Bigliassi, Marcelo; León-Domínguez, Umberto; Buzzachera, Cosme F; Barreto-Silva, Vinícius; Altimari, Leandro R

    2015-02-01

    This research investigated the effects of music and its time of application on a 5-km run. Fifteen well-trained male long-distance runners (24.87 ± 2.47 years; 78.87 ± 10.57 kg; 178 ± 07 cm) participated in this study. Five randomized experimental conditions during a 5-km run on an official track were tested (PM: motivational songs, applied before 5 km of running; SM: slow motivational songs, applied during 5 km of running; FM: fast and motivational songs, applied during 5 km of running; CS: calm songs, applied after 5 km of running; CO: control condition). Psychophysiological assessments were performed before (functional near-infrared spectroscopy, heart rate variability [HRV], valence, and arousal), during (performance time, heart rate, and rate of perceived exertion [RPE]), and after (mood, RPE, and HRV) tests. The chosen songs were considered pleasurable and capable of activating. Furthermore, they activated the 3 assessed prefrontal cortex (PFC) areas (medial, right dorsolateral, and left dorsolateral) similarly, generating positive emotional consequences by autonomous system analysis. The first 800 m was accomplished faster for SM and FM compared with other conditions (p ≤ 0.05); moreover, there was a high probability of improving running performance when music was applied (SM: 89%; FM: 85%; PM: 39%). Finally, music was capable of accelerating vagal tonus after 5 km of running with CS (p ≤ 0.05). In conclusion, music was able to activate the PFC area, minimize perceptions, improve performance, and accelerate recovery during 5 km of running.

  19. 75 FR 6160 - Airworthiness Directives; McDonnell Douglas Corporation Model DC-10-10, DC-10-10F, DC-10-15, DC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-08

    ... Douglas Corporation Model DC- 10-10, DC-10-10F, DC-10-15, DC-10-30, DC-10-30F (KC-10A and KDC-10), DC-10... airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Model DC-10-10, DC-10-10F, DC-10-15, DC-10-30, DC-10-30F (KC- 10A and... would require a one-time installation of electrical bonding jumpers for the fill valve controllers...

  20. Detection of the structure near the 410 km and 660 km discontinuities in Japan subduction zone from the waveform triplication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, H.; Zhou, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Slab subduction plays an important role in the mantle material circulation [Stern, 2002], and can also affect the feature of the 410 km and 660 km seismic discontinuities (410 and 660) [Lebedev et al., 2002]. Japan subduction zone is a natural laboratory for studying the mantle composition and velocity structure associated with the deep subduction of the Pacific plate. In this study, triplicated waveforms of an intermediate-depth earthquake at the Hokkaido of Japan (2011/10/21, 08:02:37.62, 142.5315°E, 43.8729°N, Mb6.0, relocated depth: 188 km) are retrieved from the dense Chinese Digital Seismic Network (CDSN). P and S waveforms are filtered with the band of 0.05-1.0 Hz and 0.02-0.5 Hz, respectively, and then integrated into the displacement data. The relative traveltime and synthetic waveform fitting is applied to mapping the deep structure. The best fitting models are obtained through the trial and error tests. We find a 15 km uplift of the 410 and a 25 km depression of the 660, indicating the cold environment caused by the subduction slab; both the 410 and 660 show the sharp discontinuity, but a smaller velocity contrast than the IASP91 model [Kennett and Engdahl, 1991]. Atop the 410 and 660, there are high-velocity layers associated with the subduction (or stagnant) slab. We also find a low-velocity anomaly with the thickness of ~65 km below the 660, which may relate to the slab dehydration or the hot upwelling at the top of the lower mantle. The seismic velocity ratio (VP/VS) shows a lower zone at the depth of ~210-395 km, showing the consistency with the low Poisson's ratio signature of the oceanic plate; a higher zone at the depth of ~560-685 km, implying the hydrous mantle transition zone.

  1. Oxidation of tertiary benzamides by 5,10,15,20-tetraphenylporphyrinatoironIII chloride-tert-butylhydroperoxide.

    PubMed

    Constantino, Luis; Iley, Jim

    2004-07-07

    Tertiary benzamides are oxidized by the 5,10,15,20-tetraphenylporphyrinatoiron(III) chloride-Bu'(t)OOH system at the alpha-position of the N-alkyl groups. The major products are N-acylamides, although small amounts of secondary amides, the products of dealkylation, are also formed. Plots of initial rate versus initial substrate concentration for these reactions are curved, suggesting formation of an oxidant-substrate complex. The reaction rates are almost insensitive to the substituent in the benzamide moiety, but there is a kinetic deuterium isotope effect of 5.6 for the reaction of the N,N-(CH(3))(2) and N,N-(CD(3))(2) compounds. Comparison of the reaction products from N-alkyl-N-methylbenzamides reveals that, for all compounds studied except N-cyclopropyl-N-methylbenzamide, oxidation of the alkyl group is preferred, strongly so (by a factor of ca. 8) for N-allyl-N-methylbenzamide. In contrast to microsomal oxidation, there is no steric hindrance to oxidation of an isopropyl group. Thus, we propose that these reactions proceed via hydrogen atom abstraction to form an alpha-carbon-centred radical and we attribute the observed diminished reactivity of the N-cyclopropyl group to its known reluctance to form a cyclopropyl radical. Oxidation of N-methyl-N-(2,2,3,3-tetramethylcyclopropyl)methylbenzamide provides preliminary evidence for rearrangement of an intermediate radical. While it remains unclear how these reactions proceed directly to the N-acyl products, we have established that N-hydroxymethyl, N-alkoxymethyl and N-alkylperoxymethyl intermediates are not involved.

  2. Distribution of high-stability 100.04  GHz millimeter wave signal over 60  km optical fiber with fast phase-error-correcting capability.

    PubMed

    Sun, Dongning; Dong, Yi; Shi, Hongxiao; Xia, Zongyang; Liu, Zhangweiyi; Wang, Siwei; Xie, Weilin; Hu, Weisheng

    2014-05-15

    We demonstrate a phase-stabilized remote distribution of 100.04 GHz millimeter wave signal over 60 km optical fiber. The phase error of the remote millimeter wave signal induced by fiber transmission delay variations is detected by dual-heterodyne phase error transfer and corrected with a feedback system based on a fast response acousto-optic frequency shifter. The phase noise within the bandwidth of 300 Hz is effectively suppressed; thus, the fast transmission delay variations can be compensated. The residual phase noise of the remote 100.04 GHz signal reaches -56  dBc/Hz at 1 Hz frequency offset from the carrier, and long-term stability of 1.6×10(-16) at 1000 s averaging time is achieved. The fast phase-noise-correcting capability is evaluated by vibrating part of the transmission fiber link.

  3. Plasma cortisol and testosterone following 19-km and 42-km kayak races.

    PubMed

    Lutoslawska, G; Obminski, Z; Krogulski, A; Sendecki, W

    1991-12-01

    Plasma cortisol and testosterone levels were examined in five, elite, male kayakers before and after 19-km and 42-km kayak races. Both races resulted in significant elevation in plasma cortisol and observed increase is likely to depend on race duration, being much more pronounced after 42-km race compared to 19-km. It should be stressed that observed elevation in cortisol level after 42-km race was higher than reported previously after a marathon run. This finding is in line with reports on hormonal changes in response to arms exercise. Both contests caused a decrease in plasma testosterone level, but the difference between races was not significant. Testosterone/cortisol ratio dropped significantly immediately after the races and the observed decrease was more dominant after the 42-km distance. On the next day, 18 h after the races plasma cortisol, testosterone levels and T/C ratio returned to basal level indicating recuperation from post exercise changes.

  4. Estimation of terrestrial carbon fluxes with 1km by 1km spatial-resolution using satellite- driven model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasai, T.; Nasahara, K.; Ito, A.; Saigusa, N.; Hirata, R.; Takagi, K.; Oikawa, T.

    2008-12-01

    Terrestrial carbon cycle is strongly affected by some local natural phenomena and human-induced activities, which bring change to the carbon exchanges via vegetation and soil microbe activities. In order to accurately understand a realistic spatial pattern in carbon exchanges including such an effect of local-scale events, we need to calculate carbon fluxes and storages with as detailed spatial resolution as possible. In response to this, we attempt to estimate terrestrial carbon fluxes with 1km by 1km spatial resolution using satellite-driven model. Study area of the model estimation is the Further East Asia region, which lies at 30-50 north latitude and 125-150 east longitude. The model is the Biosphere model integrating Eco-physiological And Mechanistic approaches using Satellite data (BEAMS) [Sasai et al., 2005, 2007]. Being aim at simulating terrestrial carbon exchanges under more realistic land surface condition, we applied as many as possible of satellite-observation products such as the standard MODIS, TRMM, and SRTM high-level land products as model inputs. In the model validation, we compared between model estimations and eddy covariance measurements at four flux sites. As a result, a correlation coefficient of the terrestrial carbon fluxes between estimations and measurements were high values, leading up that the model estimations are virtually reasonable. In model analysis, BEAMS was operated with 1km by 1km spatial resolution from 2001 to 2006. Spatial distributions in the annual mean NPP and NEP showed that high values were distributed over the hilly and plateau regions, and they were gradually decreasing towards the urban and high mountain areas, meaning that we could reflect an impact of the local-scale events in the carbon flux estimations. In future, we would extend study area to the East Asia region, and the carbon exchange map with 1km by 1km spatial- resolution is distributed on the website.

  5. MODIS 3 km and 10 km aerosol optical depth for China: Evaluation and comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Qingqing; Zhang, Ming; Huang, Bo; Tong, Xuelian

    2017-03-01

    The recently released Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) Collection 6 introduced a fine scale aerosol optical depth (AOD) distribution, the 3 km product, which is expected to perform well in analyzing aerosols and identifying local air pollution, especially in the severely polluted atmosphere of China. However, few detailed evaluations of regional variations have been conducted. In this paper, we evaluate MODIS 3 km and 10 km AOD products for China against ground-based measurements and compare their performance with respect to spatial and temporal variations. The ground validations indicate that the two products are generally correlated well to ground-based observations. Spatially, the 3 km product slightly outperform the 10 km product in well-developed areas of southern China. Temporally, both products perform worse during spring and summer. Atmospheric clouds and underlying surface are two key factors that influence the accuracy and number of retrievals for both products. The comparison analysis reveals the newly introduced AOD product clearly shows good relationships with the coarse resolution retrievals in spatial and temporal variation but significant differences regarding details. The 3 km AOD product provides better aerosol gradients, more retrievals in bare areas of western China and some spikes of diurnal variation in cloudy days. Seasonal comparisons show the 3 km AOD product is higher than the 10 km product in all seasons, especially during spring and summer. Although the 3 km product for China generally performs slightly worse than the 10 km product, the added information of the MODIS 3 km AOD product shows potential for studying local aerosol characterization, and may facilitate studies of air pollution.

  6. The estimation of 550 km x 550 km mean gravity anomalies. [from free atmosphere gravimetry data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williamson, M. R.; Gaposchkin, E. M.

    1975-01-01

    The calculation of 550 km X 550 km mean gravity anomalies from 1 degree X 1 degree mean free-air gravimetry data is discussed. The block estimate procedure developed by Kaula was used, and estimates for 1452 of the 1654 blocks were obtained.

  7. Applying WebMining on KM system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimazu, Keiko; Ozaki, Tomonobu; Furukawa, Koichi

    KM (Knowledge Management) systems have recently been adopted within the realm of enterprise management. On the other hand, data mining technology is widely acknowledged within Information systems' R&D Divisions. Specially, acquisition of meaningful information from Web usage data has become one of the most exciting eras. In this paper, we employ a Web based KM system and propose a framework for applying Web Usage Mining technology to KM data. As it turns out, task duration varies according to different user operations such as referencing a table-of-contents page, down-loading a target file, and writing to a bulletin board. This in turn makes it possible to easily predict the purpose of the user's task. By taking these observations into account, we segmented access log data manually. These results were compared with results abstained by applying the constant interval method. Next, we obtained a segmentation rule of Web access logs by applying a machine-learning algorithm to manually segmented access logs as training data. Then, the newly obtained segmentation rule was compared with other known methods including the time interval method by evaluating their segmentation results in terms of recall and precision rates and it was shown that our rule attained the best results in both measures. Furthermore, the segmented data were fed to an association rule miner and the obtained association rules were utilized to modify the Web structure.

  8. Km3Net Italy - Seafloor network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papaleo, Riccardo

    2016-04-01

    The KM3NeT European project aims to construct a large volume underwater neutrino telescope in the depths of the Mediterranean Sea. INFN and KM3NeT collaboration, thanks to a dedicated funding of 21.000.000 € (PON 2007-2013), are committed to build and deploy the Phase 1 of the telescope, composed of a network of detection units: 8 towers, equipped with single photomultiplier optical modules, and 24 strings, equipped with multi-photomultipliers optical modules. All the towers and strings are connected to the main electro optical cable by means of a network of junction boxes and electro optical interlink cables. Each junction box is an active node able to provide all the necessary power to the detection units and to guarantee the data transmission between the detector and the on-shore control station. The KM3NeT Italia project foresees the realization and the installation of the first part of the deep sea network, composed of three junction boxes, one for the towers and two for the strings. In July 2015, two junction boxes have been deployed and connected to the new cable termination frame installed during the same sea campaign. The third and last one will be installed in November 2015. The status of the deep sea network is presented together with technical details of the project.

  9. Hypervelocity launch capabilities to over 10 km/s

    SciTech Connect

    Chhabildas, L.C.

    1991-01-01

    Very high pressure and acceleration is necessary to launch flier plates to hypervelocities. In addition, the high pressure loading must be uniform, structured, and shockless, i.e., time-dependent to prevent the flier plate from either fracturing or melting. In this paper, a novel technique is described which allows the use of megabar level loading pressures, and 10{sup 9} g acceleration to launch intact flier plates to velocities of 12.2 km/s. 32 refs., 2 figs.

  10. 75 FR 23571 - Airworthiness Directives; McDonnell Douglas Corporation Model DC-10-10, DC-10-10F, DC-10-15, DC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-04

    ... Corporation Model DC- 10-10, DC-10-10F, DC-10-15, DC-10-30, DC-10-30F (KC-10A and KDC-10), DC-10-40, DC-10-40F.... ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: We are adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Model DC-10-10, DC-10-10F, DC-10-15, DC-10-30, DC-10-30F (KC-10A and KDC-10), DC-10-40,......

  11. Twisted light transmission over 143 km

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krenn, Mario; Handsteiner, Johannes; Fink, Matthias; Fickler, Robert; Ursin, Rupert; Malik, Mehul; Zeilinger, Anton

    2016-11-01

    Spatial modes of light can potentially carry a vast amount of information, making them promising candidates for both classical and quantum communication. However, the distribution of such modes over large distances remains difficult. Intermodal coupling complicates their use with common fibers, whereas free-space transmission is thought to be strongly influenced by atmospheric turbulence. Here, we show the transmission of orbital angular momentum modes of light over a distance of 143 km between two Canary Islands, which is 50× greater than the maximum distance achieved previously. As a demonstration of the transmission quality, we use superpositions of these modes to encode a short message. At the receiver, an artificial neural network is used for distinguishing between the different twisted light superpositions. The algorithm is able to identify different mode superpositions with an accuracy of more than 80% up to the third mode order and decode the transmitted message with an error rate of 8.33%. Using our data, we estimate that the distribution of orbital angular momentum entanglement over more than 100 km of free space is feasible. Moreover, the quality of our free-space link can be further improved by the use of state-of-the-art adaptive optics systems.

  12. 45-km horizontal path optical link demonstration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, Abhijit; Wright, Malcolm W.; Sanii, Babak; Page, Norman A.

    2001-06-01

    Observations made during a mountain-top-to-mountain-top horizontal optical link demonstration are described. The optical link spans a range of 46 Km at an average altitude of 2 Km above sea level. A multibeam beacon comprised of eight laser beams emerging from four multimode fiber coupled lasers (780 nm) is launched through a 0.6 m diameter telescope located at the JPL Table Mountain Facility (TMF) in Wrightwood, California. The multibeam beacon is received at Strawberry Peak located in the San Bernardino Mountains of California. The NASA, JPL developed optical communications demonstrator (OCD) receives the beacon, senses the atmospheric turbulence induced motion and using an upgraded fine steering loop actively points a communications laser beam (852 nm, 400 Mbps on-off key modulated, PN7 pseudo random bit sequence) to TMF. The eight-beam beacon allowed a four-fold reduction in normalized irradiance or scintillation index. This in turn was sufficient to eliminate beacon fades sensed by the OCD and enable performance evaluation of the fine steering loop. The residual tracking error was determined to be +/- 1.1 to +/- 1.7 (mu) rad compared to a model prediction of +/- 3.4 (mu) rad. The best link performance observed showed average bit error rates (BER) of 1E-5 over long durations (30 seconds); however, instantaneous BERs of at least 0.8E-6 over durations of 2 ms were observed. The paper also discusses results pertaining to atmospheric effects, link analysis, and overall performance.

  13. Twisted light transmission over 143 km.

    PubMed

    Krenn, Mario; Handsteiner, Johannes; Fink, Matthias; Fickler, Robert; Ursin, Rupert; Malik, Mehul; Zeilinger, Anton

    2016-11-29

    Spatial modes of light can potentially carry a vast amount of information, making them promising candidates for both classical and quantum communication. However, the distribution of such modes over large distances remains difficult. Intermodal coupling complicates their use with common fibers, whereas free-space transmission is thought to be strongly influenced by atmospheric turbulence. Here, we show the transmission of orbital angular momentum modes of light over a distance of 143 km between two Canary Islands, which is 50× greater than the maximum distance achieved previously. As a demonstration of the transmission quality, we use superpositions of these modes to encode a short message. At the receiver, an artificial neural network is used for distinguishing between the different twisted light superpositions. The algorithm is able to identify different mode superpositions with an accuracy of more than 80% up to the third mode order and decode the transmitted message with an error rate of 8.33%. Using our data, we estimate that the distribution of orbital angular momentum entanglement over more than 100 km of free space is feasible. Moreover, the quality of our free-space link can be further improved by the use of state-of-the-art adaptive optics systems.

  14. Synthesis and properties of 5,10,15,20-tetrakis[4-(3-N,N-dimethylaminopropoxy)phenyl] chlorin as potential broad-spectrum antimicrobial photosensitizers.

    PubMed

    Ferreyra, Darío D; Reynoso, Eugenia; Cordero, Paula; Spesia, Mariana B; Alvarez, M Gabriela; Milanesio, M Elisa; Durantini, Edgardo N

    2016-05-01

    A novel 5,10,15,20-tetrakis[4-(3-N,N-dimethylaminopropoxy)phenyl]chlorin (TAPC) was synthesized by reduction of the corresponding porphyrin TAPP with p-toluenesulfonhydrazide, followed by selective oxidation with o-chloranil. Spectroscopic properties and the photodynamic activity of these photosensitizers were compared in N,N-dimethylformamide. An increase in the absorption band at 650nm was found for the chlorin derivative with respect to TAPP. These photosensitizers emit red fluorescence with quantum yields of 0.15. Both compounds were able to photosensitize singlet molecular oxygen with quantum yields of about 0.5. Also, the formation of superoxide anion radical was detected in the presence of TAPC or TAPP and NADH. Photodynamic inactivation was investigated on a Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus, a Gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli and a fungal yeast Candida albicans cells. In vitro experiments showed that TAPC or TAPP were rapidly bound to microbial cells at short incubation periods. These photosensitizers, without intrinsic positive charges, contain four basic amino groups. These substituents can be protonated at physiological pH, increasing the interaction with the cell envelopment. Photosensitized inactivation improved with an increase of both photosensitizer concentrations and irradiation times. After 15min irradiation, a 7 log reduction of S. aureus was found for treated with 1μM photosensitizer. Similar result was obtained with E. coli after using 5μM photosensitizer and 30min irradiation. Also, the last conditions produced a decrease of 5 log in C. albicans cells. Therefore, TAPC was highly effective as a broad-spectrum antimicrobial photosensitizer.

  15. Creating Cultures of Peace: Pedagogical Thought and Practice. Selected Papers from the 10th Triennial World Conference (September 10-15, 2001, Madrid, Spain)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benton, Jean E., Ed.; Swami, Piyush, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    The 10th Triennial World Conference of the World Council for Curriculum and Instruction (WCCI) was held September 10-15, 2001 in Madrid, Spain. The theme of the conference was "Cultures of Peace." Thirty-four papers and presentations are divided into nine sections. Part I, Tributes to the Founders of WCCI, includes: (1) Tribute to Alice…

  16. Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run and Body Mass Index among an Ethnically Diverse Sample of 10-15-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beets, Michael W.; Pitetti, Kenneth H.; Cardinal, Bradley J.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the cardiovascular fitness (CVF, Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run [PACER], number of laps completed) and the prevalence of at risk of overweight (AR) and overweight (OW) among 10-15-year-olds (48% girls) from the following ethnic backgrounds: African American (n = 2,604), Asian-Pacific Islander (n = 3,888),…

  17. The KM3NeT neutrino telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coniglione, R.; KM3NeT Collaboration

    2015-08-01

    The construction phase of an underwater high energy neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean Sea, named KM3NeT, has started. The neutrino telescope that will consist of several blocks of instrumented structures will have a size of the order of a cubic-kilometer. In this work the main elements of the detector, the status of the project and the expected performance will be briefly reported.

  18. KM3NeT-ARCA project status and plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coniglione, R.

    2016-04-01

    The KM3NeT Collaboration aims at building a research infrastructure in the depths of the Mediterranean Sea hosting a cubic kilometre neutrino telescope. The KM3NeT/ARCA detector is the ideal instrument to look for high-energy neutrino sources thanks to the latitude of the detector and to the optical characteristics of the sea water. The detector latitude allows for a wide coverage of the observable sky including the region of the Galactic centre and the optical sea water properties allow for the measure of the neutrino direction with excellent angular resolution also for cascade events. The technologically innovative components of the detector and the status of construction will be presented as well as the capability it offers to discover neutrinos.

  19. 45 Km Horizontal Path Optical Link Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biswas, A.; Ceniceros, J.; Novak, M.; Jeganathan, M.; Portillo, A.; Erickson, D.; Depew, J.; Sanii, B.; Lesh, J. R.

    2000-01-01

    Mountain-top to mountain-top optical link experiments have been initiated at JPL, in order to perform a systems level evaluation of optical communications. Progress made so far is reported. ne NASA, JPL developed optical communications demonstrator (OCD) is used to transmit a laser signal from Strawberry Peak (SP), located in the San Bernadino mountains of California. This laser beam is received by a 0.6 m aperture telescope at JPL's Table Mountain Facility (TMF), located in Wrightwood, California. The optical link is bi-directional with the TMF telescope transmitting a continuous 4-wave (cw) 780 run beacon and the OCD sending back a 840 nm, 100 - 500 Mbps pseudo noise (PN) modulated, laser beam. The optical link path is at an average altitude of 2 km above sea level, covers a range of 46.8 km and provides an atmospheric channel equivalent to approx. 4 air masses. Average received power measured at either end fall well within the uncertainties predicted by link analysis. The reduction in normalized intensity variance (sigma(sup 2, sub I)) for the 4-beam beacon, compared to each individual beam, at SP, was from approx. 0.68 to 0.22. With some allowance for intra-beam mis-alignment, this is consistent with incoherent averaging. The sigma(sup2, sub I) measured at TMF approx. 0.43 +/- 0.22 exceeded the expected aperture averaged value of less than 0.1, probably because of beam wander. The focused spot sizes of approx. 162 +/- 6 microns at the TMF Coude and approx. 64 +/- 3 microns on the OCD compare to the predicted size range of 52 - 172 microns and 57 - 93 microns, respectively. This is consistent with 4 - 5 arcsec of atmospheric "seeing". The preliminary evaluation of OCD's fine tracking indicates that the uncompensated tracking error is approx. 3.3 micro rad compared to approx. 1.7 micro rad observed in the laboratory. Fine tracking performance was intermittent, primarily due to beacon fades on the OCD tracking sensor. The best bit error rates observed while

  20. Towards a 1km resolution global flood risk model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, Paul; Neal, Jeff; Sampson, Chris; Smith, Andy

    2014-05-01

    Recent advances in computationally efficient numerical algorithms and new High Performance Computing architectures now make high (1-2km) resolution global hydrodynamic models a realistic proposition. However in many areas of the world the data sets and tools necessary to undertake such modelling do not currently exist. In particular, five major problems need to be resolved: (1) the best globally available terrain data (SRTM) was generated from X-band interferometric radar data which does not penetrate vegetation canopies and which has significant problems in determining ground elevations in urban areas; (2) a global river bathymetry data set does not currently exist; (3) most river channels globally are less than the smallest currently resolvable grid scale (1km) and therefore require a sub-grid treatment; (4) a means to estimate the magnitude of the T year flood at any point along the global river network does not currently exist; and (5) a large proportion of flood losses are generated by off-floodplain surface water flows which are not well represented in current hydrodynamic modelling systems. In this paper we propose solutions to each of these five issues as part of a concerted effort to develop a 1km (or better) resolution global flood hazard model. We describe the new numerical algorithms, computer architectures and computational resources used, and demonstrate solutions to the five previously intractable problems identified above. We conduct a validation study of the modelling against satellite imagery of major flooding on the Mississippi-Missouri confluence plain in the central USA before outlining a proof-of-concept regional study for SE Asia as a step towards a global scale model. For SE Asia we simulate flood hazard for ten different flood return periods over the entire Thailand, Cambodia, Vietnam, Malaysia and Laos region at 1km resolution and show that the modelling produces coherent, consistent and sensible simulations of extent and water depth.

  1. 10-15 years of GST monitoring over mountain permafrost in Switzerland: Indicators for driving forces for permafrost evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staub, Benno; Delaloye, Reynald; Hilbich, Christin; Lambiel, Christophe; Nötzli, Jeannette; Völksch, Ingo

    2013-04-01

    Ground Surface Temperatures (GST) are mainly controlled by atmospheric factors and topographical effects and represent an important standard element within the operational permafrost monitoring network PERMOS in Switzerland. Due to its shape, position and extent the Alpine arc is influenced by prevailing winds from several directions provoking a complex and highly variable pattern of precipitation in different regions of Switzerland with a general trend to a more continental climate in some inner-alpine valleys. The lower boundary for the occurrence of mountain permafrost in the Swiss Alps is located at about 2500 m asl., close to the free atmosphere where air temperatures are almost homogenous in all regions, but precipitation usually shows large regional differences regarding timing and quantity depending on the meteorological conditions. At the elevation range of mountain permafrost the ground surface remains snow-free only for about 4-5 months (between June and November) with a high temporal and spatial variability, while over the rest of the year it stays well shielded from the atmosphere (due to the high surface albedo and emissivity and low thermal conductivity of snow). Therefore, the influence of the atmosphere at this boundary layer on the ground thermal regime is well reflected by GST measurements on a very local, site-specific scale. Relative values like GST anomalies can serve as indicators describing processes of energy and heat transfer at the ground surface in a semi-quantitative way. This information is used in a signal-response analysis integrating GST with other permafrost monitoring elements that represent the permafrost response to external effects (e.g. relative changes in borehole temperatures, apparent electrical resistivities or rock glacier creep rates). To identify and quantify the dominant processes and factors controlling the response of Alpine permafrost to external forces, special consideration is devoted to the characteristics of

  2. Synthesis and unusual properties of the first 2,3,7,8,12,13,17,18-octabromo-5,10,15,20-tetraalkylporphyrin

    SciTech Connect

    NELSON,NORA Y.; MEDFORTH,CRAIG J.; NURCO,DANIEL J.; JIA,SONG-LING; SHELNUTT,JOHN A.; SMITH,KEVIN M.

    2000-03-06

    The new perhalogenated porphyrin 2,3,7,8,12,13,17,18-octabromo-5,10,15,20-tetrakis(trifluoromethyl)porphinato-nickel(II) exhibits several striking features, including an extremely ruffled macrocycle with a very short Ni-N distance, an unusually red-shifted optical spectrum, and, surprisingly, hindered rotation of the meso-trifluoromethyl substituents ({Delta}G{sub 278}{sup +} = 47 kJ/mol).

  3. Development and comparison of layer-counted chronologies from the WAIS Divide and EDML ice cores, Antarctica, over the last glacial transition (10-15 ka BP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winstrup, Mai; Vinther, Bo M.; Sigl, Michael; McConnell, Joe; Svensson, Anders M.; Wegner, Anna

    2014-05-01

    Some ice cores can be very precisely dated far back in time by counting the annual layering in various impurity records, and the most robust chronologies rely on the parallel analysis of annual features expressed in multiple data sets. Layer-counted Antarctic ice-core chronologies are now emerging: Multi-parameter layer counting has been carried out for the Holocene and late glacial section of the EDML ice core, Dronning Maud Land (Vinther et al., in prep.), and a layer-counted timescale for the WAIS Divide core, West Antarctica, reaching back to 30 kyr BP, was recently completed (WDC06A-7; WAIS Divide Members, 2013). Beyond 24 kyr b2k, the main part of this timescale relies solely on electrical measurements on the core. We here use a novel statistical framework for automated annual layer counting (Winstrup et al., 2012) to extend and improve the two chronologies from EDML and WAIS Divide. Using this method, we have 1) revised the multi-parameter layer counts for the EDML ice core back to 15 kyr BP, and 2) employed high-resolution chemistry measurements from WAIS Divide to obtain a layer-counted multi-parameter timescale for WAIS Divide over the same period (10-15 ka b2k). The EDML and WAIS Divide ice cores have been tightly synchronized using volcanic marker horizons, thus allowing a detailed comparison of annual layer counts between tie points using the various approaches. The corresponding timescales are compared also to the EDML timescale from the flow-model based AICC2012 chronology (Veres, 2012). For the Holocene section of the period (10-11.7 ka BP), all timescales show very good agreement. The peculiar accumulation anomaly observed in the WAIS Divide layer thicknesses in the beginning of the Holocene is confirmed by the multi-parameter layer counts from both WAIS Divide and EDML. The transition into the Holocene has generally proven a difficult period to date by annual layer counting, since the appearance of an annual layer in the various records can change

  4. Peregrine 100-km Sounding Rocket Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zilliac, Gregory

    2012-01-01

    The Peregrine Sounding Rocket Program is a joint basic research program of NASA Ames Research Center, NASA Wallops, Stanford University, and the Space Propulsion Group, Inc. (SPG). The goal is to determine the applicability of this technology to a small launch system. The approach is to design, build, and fly a stable, efficient liquefying fuel hybrid rocket vehicle to an altitude of 100 km. The program was kicked off in October of 2006 and has seen considerable progress in the subsequent 18 months. This research group began studying liquifying hybrid rocket fuel technology more than a decade ago. The overall goal of the research was to gain a better understanding of the fundamental physics of the liquid layer entrainment process responsible for the large increase in regression rate observed in these fuels, and to demonstrate the effect of increased regression rate on hybrid rocket motor performance. At the time of this reporting, more than 400 motor tests were conducted with a variety of oxidizers (N2O, GOx, LOx) at ever increasing scales with thrust levels from 5 to over 15,000 pounds (22 N to over 66 kN) in order to move this technology from the laboratory to practical applications. The Peregrine program is the natural next step in this development. A number of small sounding rockets with diameters of 3, 4, and 6 in. (7.6, 10.2, and 15.2 cm) have been flown, but Peregrine at a diameter of 15 in. (38.1 cm) and 14,000-lb (62.3-kN) thrust is by far the largest system ever attempted and will be one of the largest hybrids ever flown. Successful Peregrine flights will set the stage for a wide range of applications of this technology.

  5. Saqqar: A 34 km diameter impact structure in Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenkmann, Thomas; Afifi, Abdulkader M.; Stewart, Simon A.; Poelchau, Michael H.; Cook, Douglas J.; Neville, Allen S.

    2015-11-01

    Here we present the first proof of an impact origin for the Saqqar circular structure in northwestern Saudi Arabia (Neville et al. ), with an apparent diameter of 34 km, centered at 29°35'N, 38°42'E. The structure is formed in Cambrian-Devonian siliciclastics and is unconformably overlain by undeformed Cretaceous and Paleogene sediments. The age of impact is not well constrained and lies somewhere between 410 and 70 Ma. The subsurface structure is constrained by 2-D reflection seismic profiles and six drilled wells. First-order structural features are a central uplift that rises approximately 2 km above regional datums, surrounded by a ring syncline. The crater rim is defined by circumferential normal faults. The central uplift and ring syncline correspond to a Bouguer gravity high and an annular ring-like low, respectively. The wells were drilled within the central uplift, the deepest among them exceed 2 km depth. Sandstone core samples from these wells show abundant indicators of a shock metamorphic overprint. Planar deformation features (PDFs) were measured with orientations along (0001), {101¯3}, and less frequently along {101¯1} and {101¯4}. Planar fractures (PFs) predominantly occur along (0001) and {101¯1}, and are locally associated with feather features (FFs). In addition, some shocked feldspar grains and strongly deformed mica flakes were found. The recorded shock pressure ranges between 5 and 15 GPa. The preserved level of shock and the absence of an allochthonous crater fill suggest that Saqqar was eroded by 1-2 km between the Devonian and Maastrichtian. The documentation of unequivocal shock features proves the formation of the Saqqar structure by a hypervelocity impact event.

  6. Percent utilization of VO2 max at 5-km competition velocity does not determine time performance at 5 km among elite distance runners.

    PubMed

    Støa, Eva Maria; Støren, Øyvind; Enoksen, Eystein; Ingjer, Frank

    2010-05-01

    The present study investigated to what extent maximum oxygen uptake (VO2 max) and fractional utilization (%VO2 max) in 5-km competition speed correlate with 5-km performance times among elite long distance runners. Eight elite long distance runners with 5-km performance times of 15.10 minutes ( +/- 32 seconds) were tested for VO2 max during an incremental protocol and for %VO2 max during an 8-minute treadmill test at the velocity representing their 5-km seasonal best performance time. There was no correlation between fractional utilization and 5-km performance. The study showed no significant difference between VO2 max obtained during an incremental VO2 max test and %VO2 max when running for 8 minutes at the runner's individual 5-km competition speed. The 5-km time was related to the runner's VO2 max even in a homogenous high-level performance group. In conclusion, the present study found no relationship between fractional utilization and 5-km performance time. Training aiming to increase %VO2 max may thus be of little or no importance in performance enhancement for competitions lasting up to approximately 20 minutes.

  7. MODIS 3 Km Aerosol Product: Applications over Land in an Urban/suburban Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munchak, L. A.; Levy, R. C.; Mattoo, S.; Remer, L. A.; Holben, B. N.; Schafer, J. S.; Hostetler, C. A.; Ferrare, R. A.

    2013-01-01

    MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instruments aboard the Terra and Aqua satellites have provided a rich dataset of aerosol information at a 10 km spatial scale. Although originally intended for climate applications, the air quality community quickly became interested in using the MODIS aerosol data. However, 10 km resolution is not sufficient to resolve local scale aerosol features. With this in mind, MODIS Collection 6 is including a global aerosol product with a 3 km resolution. Here, we evaluate the 3 km product over the Baltimore/Washington D.C., USA, corridor during the summer of 2011, by comparing with spatially dense data collected as part of the DISCOVER-AQ campaign these data were measured by the NASA Langley Research Center airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) and a network of 44 sun photometers (SP) spaced approximately 10 km apart. The HSRL instrument shows that AOD can vary by up to 0.2 within a single 10 km MODIS pixel, meaning that higher resolution satellite retrievals may help to characterize aerosol spatial distributions in this region. Different techniques for validating a high-resolution aerosol product against SP measurements are considered. Although the 10 km product is more statistically reliable than the 3 km product, the 3 km product still performs acceptably, with more than two-thirds of MODIS/SP collocations falling within the expected error envelope with high correlation (R > 0.90). The 3 km product can better resolve aerosol gradients and retrieve closer to clouds and shorelines than the 10 km product, but tends to show more significant noise especially in urban areas. This urban degradation is quantified using ancillary land cover data. Overall, we show that the MODIS 3 km product adds new information to the existing set of satellite derived aerosol products and validates well over the region, but due to noise and problems in urban areas, should be treated with some degree of caution.

  8. Mapping the global land surface using 1 km AVHRR data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lauer, D.T.; Eidenshink, J.C.

    1998-01-01

    The scientific requirements for mapping the global land surface using 1 km advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) data have been set forth by the U.S. Global Change Research Program; the International Geosphere Biosphere Programme (IGBP); The United Nations; the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA); the Committee on Earth Observations Satellites; and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) mission to planet Earth (MTPE) program. Mapping the global land surface using 1 km AVHRR data is an international effort to acquire, archive, process, and distribute 1 km AVHRR data to meet the needs of the international science community. A network of AVHRR receiving stations, along with data recorded by NOAA, has been acquiring daily global land coverage since April 1, 1992. A data set of over 70,000 AVHRR images is archived and distributed by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) EROS Data Center, and the European Space Agency. Under the guidance of the IGBP, processing standards have been developed for calibration, atmospheric correction, geometric registration, and the production of global 10-day maximum normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) composites. The major uses of the composites are for the study of surface vegetation condition, mapping land cover, and deriving biophysical characteristics of terrestrial ecosystems. A time-series of 54 10-day global vegetation index composites for the period of April 1, 1992 through September 1993 has been produced. The production of a time-series of 33 10-day global vegetation index composites using NOAA-14 data for the period of February 1, 1995 through December 31, 1995 is underway. The data products are available from the USGS, in cooperation with NASA's MTPE program and other international organizations.

  9. Early lung cancer detection project: Evaluation of 5, 10, 15, 20 tetrakis (4-carboxyphenyl) porphine (H{sub 2}TCPP). Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Tockman, M.S.

    1998-10-01

    The author evaluated a synthetic porphyrin, 5, 10, 15, 20 tetrakis (4-carboxyphenyl) porphene (H{sub 2}TCPP) as a marker of carcinogenesis. H{sub 2}TCPP was compared with two other carcinogenesis markers evaluated in the laboratory for their ability to detect exfoliated sputum cells undergoing transformation to lung cancer. In the present project the authors first established optimal conditions for cultured neoplastic and non-neoplastic (sputum) cells to take up H{sub 2}TCPP. This was accomplished using spectrofluorimetry and video-enhanced fluorescent microscopy to maximize H{sub 2}TCPP auto-fluorescence across a matrix of substrate conditions, including; reagent concentration, incubation time, temperature, and pH. The second aim was to validate H{sub 2}TCPP on clinical material obtained from subjects monitored in advance of clinical cancer and link those marker results with subsequent histologic confirmation of disease. This was accomplished by applying H{sub 2}TCPP to sputum specimens archived by the Frost Center at Johns Hopkins which maintains a record of the clinical course and long-term follow-up for the patients from whom the specimens were obtained. The authors have used fluorescent immunostaining and flow cytometry to compare uptake of these cytoplasmic Mabs to that of a potential new marker of carcinogenesis, 5, 10, 15, 20 tetrakis (4 carboxyphenyl) porphene (H{sub 2}TCPP). The nuclear uptake of H{sub 2}TCPP was compared to a standard quantitative fluorescent DNA marker (7-AAD).

  10. Transport System for Delivery Tourists At Altitude 140 km

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolonkin, Alexander

    2002-01-01

    The author offers a new method and installation for flight in space. This method uses the centrifugal force of a rotating circular cable that provides a means for the launch of a payload into outer space, to keep the fixed space stations at high altitudes (up to 200 km). The method may also be useful for landing to space bodies, for launching of the space ships (crafts), and for moving and accelerating other artificial apparatuses. The offered installation may be used as a propulsion system for space ships and/or probes. This system uses the material of any space body (i.e. stones) for acceleration and change of the space vehicle trajectory. The suggested system may be also used as a high capacity energy accumulator.

  11. The ion population between 1300 km and 230000 km in the coma of comet P/Halley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Altwegg, K.; Balsiger, H.; Geiss, J.; Goldstein, R.; Ip, W. -H.; Meier, A.; Neugebauer, M.; Rosenbauer, H.; Shelley, E.

    1993-01-01

    During the encounter of the spacecraft Giotto with Comet Halley the two sensors of the ion mass spectrometer (IMS), high energy range spectrometer (HERS) and high intensity spectrometer (HIS), measured the mass and the three-dimensional velocity distributions of cometary ions. HIS looked mainly at the cold, slow part of the distribution close to the nucleus, HERS at the more energetic pick-up ions further out. After a thorough recalibration of the HIS flight spare unit and an extensive data analysis we present here continuous ion density-, composition-, velocity-, and temperature profiles for the water group ion (mass range 16-19 amu/e) along Giotto's inbound trajectory from 230,000 to 1300 km from the comet nucleus. The two sensors are in very good agreement in the region where their measurements overlap thus giving an excellent data base for the discussion of theoretical comet models. The most prominent feature where models and observations disagree is the so called pile up region between 8000 and 15,000 km from the nucleus.

  12. Quantum crytography over 14km of installed optical fiber

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, R.J.; Luther, G.G.; Morgan, G.L.; Simmons, C.

    1995-09-01

    We have made the first demonstration that low error rate quantum cryptography over long distances (14km) of installed optical fiber in a real-world environment, subject to uncontrolled temperature and mechanical influences, representing an important new step towards incorporation of quantum cryptography into existing information security systems. We also point out that the high visibility single-photon interference in our experiment allows us to infer a test of the superposition principle of quantum mechanics: a photon reaching the detector has traveled over 14km of optical fiber in a wavepacket comprising a coherent superposition of two components that are spatially separated by about 2m. In principle, there are decoherence processes (or even possible modifications of quantum mechanics) that could cause the photon`s wavefunction to collapse into one component or the other during propagation, leading to a reduction in visibility. However, our results are consistent with no such loss of quantum coherence during the 67-{mu}s propagation time.

  13. Hidden treasures - 50 km points of interests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lommi, Matias; Kortelainen, Jaana

    2015-04-01

    Tampere is third largest city in Finland and a regional centre. During 70's there occurred several communal mergers. Nowadays this local area has both strong and diversed identity - from wilderness and agricultural fields to high density city living. Outside the city center there are interesting geological points unknown for modern city settlers. There is even a local proverb, "Go abroad to Teisko!". That is the area the Hidden Treasures -student project is focused on. Our school Tammerkoski Upper Secondary School (or Gymnasium) has emphasis on visual arts. We are going to offer our art students scientific and artistic experiences and knowledge about the hidden treasures of Teisko area and involve the Teisko inhabitants into this project. Hidden treasures - Precambrian subduction zone and a volcanism belt with dense bed of gold (Au) and arsenic (As), operating goldmines and quarries of minerals and metamorphic slates. - North of subduction zone a homogenic precambrian magmastone area with quarries, products known as Kuru Grey. - Former ashores of post-glasial Lake Näsijärvi and it's sediments enabled the developing agriculture and sustained settlement. Nowadays these ashores have both scenery and biodiversity values. - Old cattle sheds and dairy buildings made of local granite stones related to cultural stonebuilding inheritance. - Local active community of Kapee, about 100 inhabitants. Students will discover information of these "hidden" phenomena, and rendering this information trough Enviromental Art Method. Final form of this project will be published in several artistic and informative geocaches. These caches are achieved by a GPS-based special Hidden Treasures Cycling Route and by a website guiding people to find these hidden points of interests.

  14. Dosimetry of secondary cosmic radiation up to an altitude of 30 km.

    PubMed

    Wissmann, F; Burda, O; Khurana, S; Klages, T; Langner, F

    2014-10-01

    Dosimetric measurements in the field of secondary cosmic radiation were extensively made during the last years. Since the majority of these measurements were performed on-board passenger aircraft at altitudes between 10 and 12 km, measurements at higher altitudes are desirable for the verification of the legal dose assessment procedures for aircrew. A simple solution is to use a high-altitude balloon that reaches altitudes as high as 30 km. In this work, it is shown that the dose rate profile up to 30 km can be measured with acceptable uncertainties using a Si-detector.

  15. Pure Rotational Raman Lidar for Temperature Measurements from 5-40 Km Over Wuhan, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yajuan; Song, Shalei; Yang, Yong; Li, Faquan; Cheng, Xuewu; Chen, Zhenwei; Liu, Linmei; McCormick, M. Patrick; Gong, Shunsheng

    2016-06-01

    In this paper a pure rotational Raman lidar (PRR) was established for the atmospheric temperature measurements from 5 km to 40 km over Wuhan, China (30.5°N, 114.5°E). To extract the expected PRR signals and simultaneously suppress the elastically backscattered light, a high-spectral resolution polychromator for light splitting and filtering was designed. Observational results revealed that the temperature difference measured by PRR lidar and the local radiosonde below 30 km was less than 3.0 K. The good agreement validated the reliability of the PRR lidar. With the 1-h integration and 150-m spatial resolution, the statistical temperature error for PRR lidar increases from 0.4 K at 10 km up to 4 K at altitudes of about 30 km. In addition, the whole night temperature profiles were obtained for study of the long-term observation of atmospheric fluctuations.

  16. Comparison between 5,10,15,20-tetraaryl- and 5,15-diarylporphyrins as photosensitizers: synthesis, photodynamic activity, and quantitative structure-activity relationship modeling.

    PubMed

    Banfi, Stefano; Caruso, Enrico; Buccafurni, Loredana; Murano, Roberto; Monti, Elena; Gariboldi, Marzia; Papa, Ester; Gramatica, Paola

    2006-06-01

    The synthesis of a panel of seven nonsymmetric 5,10,15,20-tetraarylporphyrins, 13 symmetric and nonsymmetric 5,15-diarylporphyrins, and one 5,15-diarylchlorin is described. In vitro photodynamic activities on HCT116 human colon adenocarcinoma cells were evaluated by standard cytotoxicity assays. A predictive quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) regression model, based on theoretical holistic molecular descriptors, of a series of 34 tetrapyrrolic photosensitizers (PSs), including the 24 compounds synthesized in this work, was developed to describe the relationship between structural features and photodynamic activity. The present study demonstrates that structural features significantly influence the photodynamic activity of tetrapyrrolic derivatives: diaryl compounds were more active with respect to the tetraarylporphyrins, and among the diaryl derivatives, hydroxy-substituted compounds were more effective than the corresponding methoxy-substituted ones. Furthermore, three monoarylporphyrins, isolated as byproducts during diarylporphyrin synthesis, were considered for both photodynamic and QSAR studies; surprisingly they were found to be particularly active photosensitizers.

  17. A model for the ethylene and acetylene adsorption on the surface of Cun(n = 10-15) nanoclusters: A theoretical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farmanzadeh, Davood; Abdollahi, Tahereh

    2016-11-01

    In this work, we report the results of density functional theory calculations of ethylene and acetylene adsorption on the most stable Cun (n = 10-15) nanoclusters, in two π and di- σ adsorption modes. Both the hydrocarbons molecularly adsorbed on the surface. Our results show that the quality of interaction of ethylene and acetylene with odd copper nanoclusters (n = 11, 13, 15) is different from what is found on even copper nanoclusters (n = 10, 12, 14). One of the interesting features of this adsorption is that acetylene never orient toward di-σ mode for Cusbnd Cu bond in odd copper nanoclusters. Also, for di- σ-CunC2H4, no stable structure is identified. The highest interaction and deformation energies are seen for the adsorption of acetylene and ethylene on Cu11 in π-mode.

  18. Photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy activity of (5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-(4-carboxyphenycarbonoimidoyl)phenyl)porphyrinato) chloro gallium(III).

    PubMed

    Managa, Muthumuni; Amuhaya, Edith K; Nyokong, Tebello

    2015-12-05

    (5,10,15,20-Tetrakis(4-(4-carboxyphenycarbonoimidoyl)phenyl)porphyrinato) chloro gallium(III) (complex 1) was conjugated to platinum nanoparticles (PtNPs) (represented as 1-PtNPs). The resulting conjugate showed 18 nm red shift in the Soret band when compared to 1 alone. Complex 1 and 1-PtNPs showed promising photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT) activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans in solution where the log reductions obtained were 4.92, 3.76, and 3.95, respectively for 1-PtNPs. The singlet oxygen quantum yields obtained were higher at 0.56 for 1-PtNPs in DMF while that of 1 was 0.52 in the same solvent. This resulted in improved PACT activity for 1-PtNPs compared to 1 alone.

  19. A 700 km long crustal transect across northern Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbonell, Ramon; Gallart, Josep; Díaz, Jordi; Gil, Alba; Harnafi, Mimoun; Ouraini, Fadila; Ayarza, Puy; Teixell, Antonio; Arboleya, Maria Luisa; Palomeras, Imma; Levander, Alan

    2013-04-01

    Two controlled-source wide angle seismic reflection experiments have been acquired recently (2010 and 2011) in northern Africa across Morocco. A lithospheric scale transect can be constructed by joining both data sets. Hence, an approximately 700 km-long seismic velocity cross section can be derived. From south-to-north the transect goes from the Sahara Platform, south of Merzouga, to Tanger in the north. The first experiment, SIMA, aimed to constrain the crustal structure across the Atlas Mountains. The Rif, the orogenic belt located just south of the coast of Alboran Sea, was the target of the second experiment, RIFSIS. In both cases 900 recording instruments (TEXANS) from the IRIS-PASSCAL instrument center were used to record the acoustic energy generated by explosion shots. In both experiments the shots consisted of 1 TM of explosives fired in ~30 m deep boreholes. Although the data quality varies from shot to shot, key seismic phases as Pg, PmP, Pn, and a few intra-crustal arrivals have been identified to constrain the velocity-depth structure along the whole transect. Forward modelling of the seismic reflection/refraction phases reveals a crust consisting of 3 layers in average. The Moho topography shows from south to north a relatively moderate crustal root beneath the High Atlas, which can reach 40-42 km depth. The crust is thicker beneath the Rif where the Moho is imaged as an asymmetric feature that locally defines a crustal root reaching depths of 50 km and suggesting a crustal imbrication. P wave velocities are rather low in the crust and upper mantle. First arrivals/reflections tomography supports the forward modelling results. Low fold wide-angle stacks obtained by using hyperbolic move-out reveals the geometry of the Moho along the entire transect. Beneath the Atlas, the moderate crustal root inferred is not isostatically consistent with the high surface elevations, hence supporting the idea of a 'mantle plume' as main contributor to the Atlas

  20. Measurement-Device-Independent Quantum Key Distribution over 200 km

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Yan-Lin; Yin, Hua-Lei; Chen, Si-Jing; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Wei-Jun; Jiang, Xiao; Zhang, Lu; Wang, Jian; You, Li-Xing; Guan, Jian-Yu; Yang, Dong-Xu; Wang, Zhen; Liang, Hao; Zhang, Zhen; Zhou, Nan; Ma, Xiongfeng; Chen, Teng-Yun; Zhang, Qiang; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2014-11-01

    Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MDIQKD) protocol is immune to all attacks on detection and guarantees the information-theoretical security even with imperfect single-photon detectors. Recently, several proof-of-principle demonstrations of MDIQKD have been achieved. Those experiments, although novel, are implemented through limited distance with a key rate less than 0.1 bit /s . Here, by developing a 75 MHz clock rate fully automatic and highly stable system and superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors with detection efficiencies of more than 40%, we extend the secure transmission distance of MDIQKD to 200 km and achieve a secure key rate 3 orders of magnitude higher. These results pave the way towards a quantum network with measurement-device-independent security.

  1. An in vitro enzymatic assay to measure transcription inhibition by gallium(III) and H3 5,10,15-tris(pentafluorophenyl)corroles.

    PubMed

    Tang, Grace Y; Pribisko, Melanie A; Henning, Ryan K; Lim, Punnajit; Termini, John; Gray, Harry B; Grubbs, Robert H

    2015-03-18

    Chemotherapy often involves broad-spectrum cytotoxic agents with many side effects and limited targeting. Corroles are a class of tetrapyrrolic macrocycles that exhibit differential cytostatic and cytotoxic properties in specific cell lines, depending on the identities of the chelated metal and functional groups. The unique behavior of functionalized corroles towards specific cell lines introduces the possibility of targeted chemotherapy. Many anticancer drugs are evaluated by their ability to inhibit RNA transcription. Here we present a step-by-step protocol for RNA transcription in the presence of known and potential inhibitors. The evaluation of the RNA products of the transcription reaction by gel electrophoresis and UV-Vis spectroscopy provides information on inhibitive properties of potential anticancer drug candidates and, with modifications to the assay, more about their mechanism of action. Little is known about the molecular mechanism of action of corrole cytotoxicity. In this experiment, we consider two corrole compounds: gallium(III) 5,10,15-(tris)pentafluorophenylcorrole (Ga(tpfc)) and freebase analogue 5,10,15-(tris)pentafluorophenylcorrole (tpfc). An RNA transcription assay was used to examine the inhibitive properties of the corroles. Five transcription reactions were prepared: DNA treated with Actinomycin D, triptolide, Ga(tpfc), tpfc at a [complex]:[template DNA base] ratio of 0.01, respectively, and an untreated control. The transcription reactions were analyzed after 4 hr using agarose gel electrophoresis and UV-Vis spectroscopy. There is clear inhibition by Ga(tpfc), Actinomycin D, and triptolide. This RNA transcription assay can be modified to provide more mechanistic detail by varying the concentrations of the anticancer complex, DNA, or polymerase enzyme, or by incubating the DNA or polymerase with the complexes prior to RNA transcription; these modifications would differentiate between an inhibition mechanism involving the DNA or the enzyme

  2. A 233 km Tunnel for Lepton and Hadron Colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Summers, D. J.; Cremaldi, L. M.; Datta, A.; Duraisamy, M.; Luo, T.; Lyons, G. T.

    2012-07-01

    A decade ago, a cost analysis was conducted to bore a 233 km circumference Very Large Hadron Collider (VLHC) tunnel passing through Fermilab. Here we outline implementations of $e^+e^-$, $p \\bar{p}$, and $\\mu^+ \\mu^-$ collider rings in this tunnel using recent technological innovations. The 240 and 500 GeV $e^+e^-$ colliders employ Crab Waist Crossings, ultra low emittance damped bunches, short vertical IP focal lengths, superconducting RF, and low coercivity, grain oriented silicon steel/concrete dipoles. Some details are also provided for a high luminosity 240 GeV $e^+ e^-$ collider and 1.75 TeV muon accelerator in a Fermilab site filler tunnel. The 40 TeV $p \\bar{p}$ collider uses the high intensity Fermilab $\\bar{p}$ source, exploits high cross sections for $p \\bar{p}$ production of high mass states, and uses 2 Tesla ultra low carbon steel/YBCO superconducting magnets run with liquid neon. The 35 TeV muon ring ramps the 2 Tesla superconducting magnets at 9 Hz every 0.4 seconds, uses 250 GV of superconducting RF to accelerate muons from 1.75 to 17.5 TeV in 63 orbits with 71% survival, and mitigates neutrino radiation with phase shifting, roller coaster motion in a FODO lattice.

  3. A 233 km tunnel for lepton and hadron colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Summers, D. J.; Cremaldi, L. M.; Datta, A.; Duraisamy, M.; Luo, T.; Lyons, G. T.

    2012-12-21

    A decade ago, a cost analysis was conducted to bore a 233 km circumference Very Large Hadron Collider (VLHC) tunnel passing through Fermilab. Here we outline implementations of e{sup +}e{sup -}, pp-bar , and {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -} collider rings in this tunnel using recent technological innovations. The 240 and 500 GeV e{sup +}e{sup -} colliders employ Crab Waist Crossings, ultra low emittance damped bunches, short vertical IP focal lengths, superconducting RF, and low coercivity, grain oriented silicon steel/concrete dipoles. Some details are also provided for a high luminosity 240 GeV e{sup +}e{sup -} collider and 1.75 TeV muon accelerator in a Fermilab site filler tunnel. The 40 TeV pp-bar collider uses the high intensity Fermilab p-bar source, exploits high cross sections for pp-bar production of high mass states, and uses 2 Tesla ultra low carbon steel/YBCO superconducting magnets run with liquid neon. The 35 TeV muon ring ramps the 2 Tesla superconducting magnets at 9 Hz every 0.4 seconds, uses 250 GV of superconducting RF to accelerate muons from 1.75 to 17.5 TeV in 63 orbits with 71% survival, and mitigates neutrino radiation with phase shifting, roller coaster motion in a FODO lattice.

  4. Microphysical Model of the Venus clouds between 40km and 80km

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGouldrick, Kevin

    2013-10-01

    I am continuing to adapt the Community Aerosol and Radiation Model for Atmospheres (CARMA) to successfully simulate the multi-layered clouds of Venus. The present version of the one-dimensional model now includes a simple parameterization of the photochemicial production of sulfuric acid around altitudes of 62km, and its thermochemical destruction below cloud base. Photochemical production in the model is limited by the availability of water vapor and insolation. Upper cloud particles are introduced into the model via binary homogeneous nucleation, while the lower and middle cloud particles are created via activation of involatile cloud condensation nuclei. Growth by condensation and coagulation and coalescence are also treated. Mass loadings and particle sizes compare favorably with the in situ observations by the Pioneer Venus Large Probe Particle Size Spectrometer, and mixing ratios of volatiles compare favorably with remotely sensed observations of water vapor and sulfuric acid vapor. This work was supported by the NASA Planetary Atmospheres Program, grant number NNX11AD79G.

  5. A synchrotron study of [5,10,15,20-tetrakis(3-cyanophenyl)porphyrinato-κ(4)N(5),N(10),N(15),N(20)]copper(II) nitrobenzene trisolvate at 80 K.

    PubMed

    Seidel, Rüdiger W; Goddard, Richard; Mayer-Gall, Thomas; Oppel, Iris M

    2016-11-01

    Porphyrin assemblies display interesting photophysical properties and a relatively high thermal stability. Moreover, meso-functionalized porphyrins with virtually fourfold symmetry can be relatively readily synthesized from pyrrole and the appropriate aldehyde. A number of metallo derivatives of 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-cyanophenyl)porphyrin, where the N atom of the linear cyano group can act both as a donor for coordination bonds or as an acceptor for hydrogen bonds, have been structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray analysis. The supramolecular and structural chemistry of the corresponding 2- and 3-cyanophenyl isomers of the parent porphyrin, however, has remained largely unexplored. The crystal structure of [5,10,15,20-tetrakis(3-cyanophenyl)porphyrinato]copper(II) (CuTCNPP) nitrobenzene trisolvate, [Cu(C48H24N8)]·3C6H5NO2, has been determined at 80 K by synchrotron single-crystal X-ray diffraction. CuTCNPP exhibits a C2h-symmetric ααββ conformation, despite an unsymmetrical crystal environment, and is situated on a crystallographic centre of symmetry. The Cu(II) ion adopts a genuine square-planar coordination by the four pyrrole N atoms. The 24-membered porphyrin ring system shows no marked deviation from planarity. In the crystal, the CuTCNPP molecules and two nitrobenzene molecules are face-to-face stacked in an alternating fashion, resulting in corrugated layers. The remaining nitrobenzene guest molecule per CuTCNPP resides in the region between four neighbouring columnar stacks of CuTCNPP and sandwiched nitrobenzene molecules, and is disordered over four positions about a centre of symmetry.

  6. The KM3Net project: A neutrino telescope in the depths of the Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Capua, F.; KM3NeT Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The KM3NeT Collaboration has started the first phase of construction of a next generation high-energy neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean Sea. With several cubic kilometers instrumented and thousand of optical sensors, KM3NeT will be the largest and most sensitive high-energy neutrino telescope. Thanks to its location in the Northern hemisphere and to its large instrumented volume KM3NeT will be the optimal instrument to search for neutrinos from the Southern sky and in particular from the Galactic plane, thus making it complementary to IceCube. The full KM3NeT detector will be a distributed, networked infrastructure comprising several detector blocks. In Italy, off the coast of Capo Passero, and in France, off the coast of Toulon, the construction of the KM3NeT-It and KM3NeT-Fr infrastructures respectively is in progress. In this work the technologically innovative component of the detector, the status of construction and the first results from prototypes of the KM3NeT detector will be described and its capability to discover neutrino sources is reported as well.

  7. KM3NeT/ARCA sensitivity and discovery potential for neutrino point-like sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trovato, A.

    2016-04-01

    KM3NeT is a large research infrastructure with a network of deep-sea neutrino telescopes in the abyss of the Mediterranean Sea. Of these, the KM3NeT/ARCA detector, installed in the KM3NeT-It node of the network, is optimised for studying high-energy neutrinos of cosmic origin. Sensitivities to galactic sources such as the supernova remnant RXJ1713.7-3946 and the pulsar wind nebula Vela X are presented as well as sensitivities to a generic point source with an E-2 spectrum which represents an approximation for the spectrum of extragalactic candidate neutrino sources.

  8. Full 40 km crustal reflection seismic datasets in several Indonesian basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinkelman, M. G.; Granath, J. W.; Christ, J. M.; Emmet, P. A.; Bird, D. E.

    2010-12-01

    sedimentary and burial metamorphosed sedimentary rock that we divide into two packages on the basis of seismic character. The upper is 8-15 km of undeformed late Precambrian sediments the top of which ties Eocambrian rocks in wells in offshore New Guinea. This package appears to correlate to the Wessel Group in northern Australia. The lower package is composed of 10-15 km of strongly bedded, presumably burial metamorphosed rocks that make up the bulk of the lower crust. These may equate to any of a number of northern Australian Mesoproterozoic basins. This lower package offlaps ‘pods’ of seismically transparent basement (?Paleoproterozoic or Archean) that make up at most the lowermost 15 km of the 40 km PSDM line. Both Precambrian packages appear to be craton-margin sedimentary wedges, the younger overlapping the older. The SE extent of the lowermost package is deformed in a thrust system which may mark the event that detached it from its original underlying oceanic or transitional crust during cratonization. The SPAN programs are important new data sets to clarify and in some cases solve outstanding problems in basin architecture and tectonic evolution.

  9. 7 CFR 29.1035 - Mixed color (KM).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Mixed color (KM). 29.1035 Section 29.1035 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1035 Mixed color (KM). Distinctly different colors of the type mingled together....

  10. 7 CFR 29.1035 - Mixed color (KM).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Mixed color (KM). 29.1035 Section 29.1035 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1035 Mixed color (KM). Distinctly different colors of the type mingled together....

  11. 7 CFR 29.1035 - Mixed color (KM).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Mixed color (KM). 29.1035 Section 29.1035 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1035 Mixed color (KM). Distinctly different colors of the type mingled together....

  12. 7 CFR 29.1035 - Mixed color (KM).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mixed color (KM). 29.1035 Section 29.1035 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1035 Mixed color (KM). Distinctly different colors of the type mingled together....

  13. 7 CFR 29.1035 - Mixed color (KM).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Mixed color (KM). 29.1035 Section 29.1035 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1035 Mixed color (KM). Distinctly different colors of the type mingled together....

  14. Stratospheric microbiology at 20 km over the Pacific Ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, David J.; Griffin, Dale W.; Schuerger, Andrew C.

    2010-01-01

    An aerobiology sampling flight at 20 km was conducted on 28 April 2008 over the Pacific Ocean (36.5° N, 118–149° W), a period of time that coincided with the movement of Asian dust across the ocean. The aim of this study was to confirm the presence of viable bacteria and fungi within a transoceanic, atmospheric bridge and to improve the resolution of flight hardware processing techniques. Isolates of the microbial strains recovered were analyzed with ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) sequencing to identify bacterial species Bacillus sp., Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus endophyticus, and the fungal genus Penicillium. Satellite imagery and ground-based radiosonde observations were used to measure dust movement and characterize the high-altitude environment at the time of collection. Considering the atmospheric residency time (7–10 days), the extreme temperature regime of the environment (-75°C), and the absence of a mechanism that could sustain particulates at high altitude, it is unlikely that our samples indicate a permanent, stratospheric ecosystem. However, the presence of viable fungi and bacteria in transoceanic stratosphere remains relevant to understanding the distribution and extent of microbial life on Earth.

  15. Marshall Space Flight Center Propulsion Systems Department (PSD) KM Initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caraccioli, Paul; Varnadoe, Tom; McCarter, Mike

    2006-01-01

    NASA Marshall Space Flight Center s Propulsion Systems Department (PSD) is four months into a fifteen month Knowledge Management (KM) initiative to support enhanced engineering decision making and analyses, faster resolution of anomalies (near-term) and effective, efficient knowledge infused engineering processes, reduced knowledge attrition, and reduced anomaly occurrences (long-term). The near-term objective of this initiative is developing a KM Pilot project, within the context of a 3-5 year KM strategy, to introduce and evaluate the use of KM within PSD. An internal NASA/MSFC PSD KM team was established early in project formulation to maintain a practitioner, user-centric focus throughout the conceptual development, planning and deployment of KM technologies and capabilities with in the PSD. The PSD internal team is supported by the University of Alabama's Aging Infrastructure Systems Center Of Excellence (AISCE), Intergraph Corporation, and The Knowledge Institute. The principle product of the initial four month effort has been strategic planning of PSD KM implementation by first determining the "as is" state of KM capabilities and developing, planning and documenting the roadmap to achieve the desired "to be" state. Activities undertaken to support the planning phase have included data gathering; cultural surveys, group work-sessions, interviews, documentation review, and independent research. Assessments and analyses have been performed including industry benchmarking, related local and Agency initiatives, specific tools and techniques used and strategies for leveraging existing resources, people and technology to achieve common KM goals. Key findings captured in the PSD KM Strategic Plan include the system vision, purpose, stakeholders, prioritized strategic objectives mapped to the top ten practitioner needs and analysis of current resource usage. Opportunities identified from research, analyses, cultural/KM surveys and practitioner interviews include

  16. The effect of laser activation of 5,10,15,20-tetra-sulphophenyl-porphyrin loaded in K562 cells and human normal mononuclear cells.

    PubMed

    Constantin, Carolina; Neagu, Monica; Manda, Gina; Ion, Rodica-Mariana; Iordăchescu, Dana Iord

    2004-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a relatively new type of treatment in cancer, based on a photosensitizer, visible light and molecular oxygen. Reactive oxygen species are generated, causing tumor cells death by apoptosis or necrosis. Significant nowadays research efforts are focused on finding new photosensitizers with antineoplastic activity and an acceptable toxicological profile. Although consistent information exists regarding PDT in solid tumors, relatively few data are available for PDT of blood cancers. Therefore, we carried out a comparative study on lymphoblastic K562 cells and human normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) treated at a density of 2 x 10(5) cells/mL with 5,10,15,20-tetra-sulphophenyl-porphyrin (TSPP) and then irradiated with He-Ne laser light (lamda = 632.8 nm). The following cell functions were investigated: viability, multiplication, RNA synthesis, total RNA levels and apoptosis. After irradiation, the viability of TSPP-loaded tumor cells decrease, the multiplication rate and the total RNA level are drastically reduced and cells undergo apoptosis. TSPP alone loaded into cells but not activated by irradiation, does not affect these cell parameters. Human normal PBMC subjected to TSPP loading and laser-irradiation develop a different cellular response, their viability and proliferative capacity not being altered by experimental PDT. Accordingly, it appears that TSPP is a non-aggressive compound for cellular physiology and becomes cytotoxic only by irradiation; moreover laser-activated TSPP affects only cells that have a tumoral pattern.

  17. Molecular structure, UV/vis spectra, and cyclic voltammograms of Mn(II), Co(II), and Zn(II) 5,10,15,20-tetraphenyl-21-oxaporphyrins.

    PubMed

    Stute, Silvio; Götzke, Linda; Meyer, Dirk; Merroun, Mohamed L; Rapta, Peter; Kataeva, Olga; Seichter, Wilhelm; Gloe, Kerstin; Dunsch, Lothar; Gloe, Karsten

    2013-02-04

    The 5,10,15,20-tetraphenyl-21-oxaporphyrin complexes of Mn(II), Co(II), and Zn(II) have been crystallized and studied by X-ray diffraction, NMR and UV/vis spectroscopy, and mass spectrometry as well as cyclic voltammetry. The X-ray structure of the earlier described Cu(II) complex is also reported. All complex structures possess a five-coordinate, approximately square-pyramidal geometry with a slight deviation of the heteroaromatic moieties from planarity. The packing structures are characterized by parallel strands of complex molecules interacting by weak hydrogen bonds. In the case of Zn(II) an octahedral complex has also been isolated using a side-chain hydroxy functionalized oxaporphyrin ligand; the structure was verified by NMR and EXAFS spectroscopy. Cyclic voltammetry studies reveal that the reduction of the complex bound Mn(II), Co(II), and Zn(II) ions is a ligand-centered process whereas the first oxidation step depends on the metal ion present.

  18. Infrared spectroscopic characteristics of mixed rare earth triple-decker complexes with phthalocyaninato and 5-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-10,15,20-tris(4-octyloxy)porphyrinato ligands.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wendong; Bao, Guihong; Mao, Yajun; Lu, Fanli

    2013-03-01

    The infrared (IR) spectroscopic data for a series of nine mixed rare earth triple-deckers M(2)(III)[TO(OH)PP](Pc)(2)] [M=La···Dy, except Pm, Y and Ho⋯Lu; H(2)Por=5-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-10,15,20-tris(4-octyloxyphenyl)porphyrin, Pc=unsubstituted phthalocyanine] with tervalent rare earths have been collected. For M(2)(III)[TO(OH)PP](Pc)(2)], typical IR marker bands for the unsubstituted phthalocyanine dianion Pc(2-) are strong bands at 1327-1329 cm(-1), and a weak band around 1370-1383 cm(-1). They can be assigned to pyrrole CC stretchings. The absence of Pc(2-) another marker IR band around 1376 cm(-1) demonstrates that the cerium metal ion in the IR spectrum of Ce(2)(III)[TO(OH)PP](Pc)(2)] exists as intermediate valence state between III and IV. The IR spectra of these mixed triple-decker complexes reveal that the frequencies of pyrrole stretching, isoindole breathing, and aza stretchings are decreased sensitive to the rare earth ionic size, and remain basically unchanged along with the lanthanide contraction. These facts indicate that the π-π interactions in these mixed triple-deckers are weaker than those in the double-deckers.

  19. Infrared spectroscopic characteristics of mixed rare earth triple-decker complexes with phthalocyaninato and 5-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-10,15,20-tris(4-octyloxy)porphyrinato ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wendong; Bao, Guihong; Mao, Yajun; Lu, Fanli

    2013-03-01

    The infrared (IR) spectroscopic data for a series of nine mixed rare earth triple-deckers M2III[TO(OH)PP](Pc)2] [M = La⋯Dy, except Pm, Y and Ho⋯Lu; H2Por = 5-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-10,15,20-tris(4-octyloxyphenyl)porphyrin, Pc = unsubstituted phthalocyanine] with tervalent rare earths have been collected. For M2III[TO(OH)PP](Pc)2], typical IR marker bands for the unsubstituted phthalocyanine dianion Pc2- are strong bands at 1327-1329 cm-1, and a weak band around 1370-1383 cm-1. They can be assigned to pyrrole Cdbnd C stretchings. The absence of Pc2- another marker IR band around 1376 cm-1 demonstrates that the cerium metal ion in the IR spectrum of Ce2III[TO(OH)PP](Pc)2] exists as intermediate valence state between III and IV. The IR spectra of these mixed triple-decker complexes reveal that the frequencies of pyrrole stretching, isoindole breathing, and aza stretchings are decreased sensitive to the rare earth ionic size, and remain basically unchanged along with the lanthanide contraction. These facts indicate that the π-π interactions in these mixed triple-deckers are weaker than those in the double-deckers.

  20. Tissue maximum ratios (and other parameters) of small circular 4, 6, 10, 15 and 24 MV x-ray beams for radiosurgery.

    PubMed

    Serago, C F; Houdek, P V; Hartmann, G H; Saini, D S; Serago, M E; Kaydee, A

    1992-10-01

    Small, circular, x-ray beams are commonly used for radiosurgery applications. Dosimetric characteristics of 4, 6, 10, 15 and 24 MV circular x-ray beams ranging in size from 10 to 40 mm are reported. These characteristics include the measurement of TMR, beam profiles and relative output factors. Measurements of these parameters were performed in a solid water phantom using film, a small diode, small parallel-plate and cylindrical ionization chambers and TLD. Comparison of relative dose measurements of small, circular beams performed using these detectors showed that the small diode, film and TLD results consistently agreed for circular beams as small as 10 mm diameter. Beam profiles were measured using film dosimetry. Comparison of TMR values of a 10 mm diameter beam measured using film and a small parallel-plate ionization chamber showed no significant differences. Tertiary collimators designed with tapered, divergence-matching holes, and straight-drilled holes have been used for radiosurgery applications. Measurement of beam penumbra produced with either of these types of tertiary collimators showed minimal differences between them.

  1. Kinetic Spectrophotometric Determination of Trace Cadmium in Environmental Fresh Water with 5,10,15,20-Tetraphenyl-21H,23H-porphinetetrasulfonic Acid.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Yuya; Yamamoto, Natsuki; Suzuki, Yasutada; Ueta, Ikuo; Kawakubo, Susumu

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium-catalyzed complexation of zinc with 5,10,15,20-tetraphenyl-21H,23H-porphinetetrasulfonic acid (TPPS) was monitored spectrophotometrically. A kinetic parameter for the determination was obtained under kinetic consideration. Absorbance of zinc-TPPS at a fixed reaction time was proportional to the concentration of cadmium at pH 8 and 25°C. Tolerable concentration of interfering ions were 200, 200, 2000, 50, 500 and 1 μg L(-1) for Mg(II), Al(III), Ca(II), Fe(III), Zn(II) and Hg(II), respectively, in the determination of 20 μg L(-1) of cadmium, indicating Ca(II) and Mg(II) interferes with the analysis of natural fresh water. Such interference became tolerable at 5 mg L(-1) by the addition of an excess Ca(II) (50 mg L(-1)) in the reacting solution of sample and cadmium standards. A calibration curve of Cd(II) was linear up to 100 μg L(-1) with a detection limit of 2 μg L(-1). The reliability of the proposed method was confirmed by the recovery test of cadmium spiked into tap, river and reservoir water samples.

  2. Mössbauer effect study of tight spin coupling in oxidized chloro-5,10,15,20- tetra(mesityl)porphyrinatoiron(III)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boso, Brian; Lang, George; McMurry, Thomas J.; Groves, John T.

    1983-08-01

    Mössbauer spectra of a polycrystalline form of oxidized chloro-5,10,15,20-tetra(mesityl)porphyrin- atoiron(III) [Fe(TMP)Cl], compound A, were recorded over a range of temperatures (4.2-195 K) and magnetic fields (0-6 T). These spectra of compound A exhibit magnetic features which are markedly different from those of the analogous protein complexes, horse radish peroxidase compound I (HRP-I) and compound ES of cytochrome c peroxidase, even though chemical evidence and optical spectroscopy indicate that compound A is similar to the others in comprising a Fe(IV) complex within a porphyrin cation radical. We interpret the data by employing a spin Hamiltonian model in which the central Fe(IV) complex, with S=1, is tightly coupled to a S=1/2 system of the oxidized porphyrin to yield a net S=3/2 system as suggested by the susceptibility measurements. The theoretical treatment yields information on the d-electron energies which is similar to that more directly available in the peroxidase spectra. The strength of the axial crystal field is found to increase progressively in the series HRP-I, ES, compound A, while the spin coupling in A is the strongest of the three by several orders of magnitude. The good fits to experimental data confirm the efficacy of the theoretical treatment which may be applicable to a variety of other coupled systems.

  3. Novel nanomaterials based on 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-21H,23H-porphyrin entrapped in silica matrices

    SciTech Connect

    Fagadar-Cosma, Eugenia; Enache, Corina; Vlascici, Dana; Fagadar-Cosma, Gheorghe; Vasile, Mihaela; Bazylak, Grzegorz

    2009-12-15

    The present study is dealing with the obtaining of transparent hybrid silica materials encapsulating 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-21H,23H-porphyrin designated for advanced optoelectronic devices. The porphyrin was synthesized by three methods: an Adler-type reaction between pyrrole and 3,4-dimethoxybenzaldehyde in propionic acid medium; by Lindsey condensation of pyrrole with 3,4-dimethoxybenzaldehyde in the presence of BF{sub 3}.OEt{sub 2} and by a multicomponent reaction by simultaneously using of pyrrole and two different aldehydes: 3,4-dimethoxybenzaldehyde and 3-hydroxybenzaldehyde. The 3,4-dimethoxyphenyl substituted porphyrin was characterized by HPLC, TLC, UV-vis, FT-IR, {sup 1}H NMR and {sup 13}C NMR analysis. Excitation and emission spectra were also discussed in terms of pH conditions. The hybrid materials, consisting in the porphyrin encapsulated in silica matrices, have been prepared successfully via the two steps acid-base catalyzed hydrolysis and condensation of tetraethylorthosilicate using different approaches of the sol-gel process: in situ, by impregnation and by sonication. The synthetic conditions and the compositions were monitored and characterized by using spectroscopic methods such as FT-IR, fluorescence and UV-vis. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) has been applied to observe the columnar or pyramidal nanostructures which are formed by the immobilization of porphyrin on the silica matrices.

  4. Comparative genomic analysis of the swine pathogen Bordetella bronchisepticastrain KM22.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Tracy L; Shore, Sarah M; Register, Karen B; Bayles, Darrell O; Kingsley, Robert A; Brunelle, Brain W

    2016-01-01

    The well-characterized Bordetella bronchiseptica strain KM22, originally isolated from a pig with atrophic rhinitis, has been used to develop a reproducible swine respiratory disease model. The goal of this study was to identify genetic features unique to KM22 by comparing the genome sequence of KM22 to the laboratory reference strain RB50. To gain a broader perspective of the genetic relationship of KM22 among other B. bronchiseptica strains, selected genes of KM22 were then compared to five other B. bronchiseptica strains isolated from different hosts. Overall, the KM22 genome sequence is more similar to the genome sequences of the strains isolated from animals than the strains isolated from humans. The majority of virulence gene expression in Bordetella is positively regulated by the two-component sensory transduction system BvgAS. bopN, bvgA, fimB, and fimC were the most highly conserved BvgAS-regulated genes present in all seven strains analyzed. In contrast, the BvgAS-regulated genes present in all seven strains with the highest sequence divergence werefimN, fim2, fhaL, andfhaS. A total of eight major fimbrial subunit genes were identified in KM22. Quantitative real-time PCR data demonstrated that seven of the eight fimbrial subunit genes identified in KM22 are expressed and regulated by BvgAS. The annotation of the KM22 genome sequence, coupled with the comparative genomic analyses reported in this study, can be used to facilitate the development of vaccines with improved efficacy towards B. bronchiseptica in swine to decrease the prevalence and disease burden caused by this pathogen.

  5. 2 GHz clock quantum key distribution over 260 km of standard telecom fiber.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuang; Chen, Wei; Guo, Jun-Fu; Yin, Zhen-Qiang; Li, Hong-Wei; Zhou, Zheng; Guo, Guang-Can; Han, Zheng-Fu

    2012-03-15

    We report a demonstration of quantum key distribution (QKD) over a standard telecom fiber exceeding 50 dB in loss and 250 km in length. The differential phase shift QKD protocol was chosen and implemented with a 2 GHz system clock rate. By careful optimization of the 1 bit delayed Faraday-Michelson interferometer and the use of the superconducting single photon detector (SSPD), we achieved a quantum bit error rate below 2% when the fiber length was no more than 205 km, and of 3.45% for a 260 km fiber with 52.9 dB loss. We also improved the quantum efficiency of SSPD to obtain a high key rate for 50 km length.

  6. ASIC design in the KM3NeT detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gajanana, D.; Gromov, V.; Timmer, P.

    2013-02-01

    In the KM3NeT project [1], Cherenkov light from the muon interactions with transparent matter around the detector, is used to detect neutrinos. Photo multiplier tubes (PMT) used as photon sensor, are housed in a glass sphere (aka Optical Module) to detect single photons from the Cherenkov light. The PMT needs high operational voltage ( ~ 1.5 kV) and is generated by a Cockroft-Walton (CW) multiplier circuit. The electronics required to control the PMT's and collect the signals is integrated in two ASIC's namely: 1) a front-end mixed signal ASIC (PROMiS) for the readout of the PMT and 2) an analog ASIC (CoCo) to generate pulses for charging the CW circuit and to control the feedback of the CW circuit. In this article, we discuss the two integrated circuits and test results of the complete setup. PROMiS amplifies the input charge, converts it to a pulse width and delivers the information via LVDS signals. These LVDS signals carry accurate information on the Time of arrival ( < 2 ns) and Time over Threshold. A PROM block provides unique identification to the chip. The chip communicates with the control electronics via an I2C bus. This unique combination of the ASIC's results in a very cost and power efficient PMT base design.

  7. Evaluating KM Journal Content: An Assessment of Trends (2000-2005)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    Creating a KM Systems Thinking Framework...........................................................17 What is a KM-specific Journal...loop Learning ................................................................... 27 Figure 6. Combining KM Frameworks into a KM Systems Thinking Framework...30 Figure 7. KM Systems Thinking Framework .................................................................. 31 Figure 8. Content

  8. Akeno 20 km (2) air shower array (Akeno Branch)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teshima, M.; Ohoka, H.; Matsubara, Y.; Hara, T.; Hatano, Y.; Hayashida, N.; He, C. X.; Honda, M.; Ishikawa, F.; Kamata, K.

    1985-01-01

    As the first stage of the future huge array, the Akeno air shower array was expanded to about 20 sq. km. by adding 19 scintillation detectors of 2.25 sq m area outside the present 1 sq. km. Akeno array with a new data collection system. These detectors are spaced about 1km from each other and connected by two optical fiber cables. This array has been in partial operation from 8th, Sep. 1984 and full operation from 20th, Dec. 1984. 20 sq m muon stations are planned to be set with 2km separation and one of them is now under construction. The origin of the highest energy cosmic rays is studied.

  9. Evaluation of the 7-km GEOS-5 Nature Run

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gelaro, Ronald; Putman, William M.; Pawson, Steven; Draper, Clara; Molod, Andrea; Norris, Peter M.; Ott, Lesley; Prive, Nikki; Reale, Oreste; Achuthavarier, Deepthi; Bosilovich, Michael; Buchard, Virginie; Chao, Winston; Coy, Lawrence; Cullather, Richard; da Silva, Arlindo; Darmenov, Anton; Koster, Randal; McCarty, Will; Schubert, Siegfried

    2015-01-01

    This report documents an evaluation by the Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO) of a two-year 7-km-resolution non-hydrostatic global mesoscale simulation produced with the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS-5) atmospheric general circulation model. The simulation was produced as a Nature Run for conducting observing system simulation experiments (OSSEs). Generation of the GEOS-5 Nature Run (G5NR) was motivated in part by the desire of the OSSE community for an improved high-resolution sequel to an existing Nature Run produced by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), which has served the community for several years. The intended use of the G5NR in this context is for generating simulated observations to test proposed observing system designs regarding new instruments and their deployments. Because NASA's interest in OSSEs extends beyond traditional weather forecasting applications, the G5NR includes, in addition to standard meteorological components, a suite of aerosol types and several trace gas concentrations, with emissions downscaled to 10 km using ancillary information such as power plant location, population density and night-light information. The evaluation exercise described here involved more than twenty-five GMAO scientists investigating various aspects of the G5NR performance, including time mean temperature and wind fields, energy spectra, precipitation and the hydrological cycle, the representation of waves, tropical cyclones and midlatitude storms, land and ocean surface characteristics, the representation and forcing effects of clouds and radiation, dynamics of the stratosphere and mesosphere, and the representation of aerosols and trace gases. Comparisons are made with observational data sets when possible, as well as with reanalyses and other long model simulations. The evaluation is broad in scope, as it is meant to assess the overall realism of basic aspects of the G5NR deemed relevant to the conduct of OSSEs

  10. File Specification for the 7-km GEOS-5 Nature Run, Ganymed Release Non-Hydrostatic 7-km Global Mesoscale Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    da Silva, Arlindo M.; Putman, William; Nattala, J.

    2014-01-01

    This document describes the gridded output files produced by a two-year global, non-hydrostatic mesoscale simulation for the period 2005-2006 produced with the non-hydrostatic version of GEOS-5 Atmospheric Global Climate Model (AGCM). In addition to standard meteorological parameters (wind, temperature, moisture, surface pressure), this simulation includes 15 aerosol tracers (dust, sea-salt, sulfate, black and organic carbon), O3, CO and CO2. This model simulation is driven by prescribed sea-surface temperature and sea-ice, daily volcanic and biomass burning emissions, as well as high-resolution inventories of anthropogenic sources. A description of the GEOS-5 model configuration used for this simulation can be found in Putman et al. (2014). The simulation is performed at a horizontal resolution of 7 km using a cubed-sphere horizontal grid with 72 vertical levels, extending up to to 0.01 hPa (approximately 80 km). For user convenience, all data products are generated on two logically rectangular longitude-latitude grids: a full-resolution 0.0625 deg grid that approximately matches the native cubed-sphere resolution, and another 0.5 deg reduced-resolution grid. The majority of the full-resolution data products are instantaneous with some fields being time-averaged. The reduced-resolution datasets are mostly time-averaged, with some fields being instantaneous. Hourly data intervals are used for the reduced-resolution datasets, while 30-minute intervals are used for the full-resolution products. All full-resolution output is on the model's native 72-layer hybrid sigma-pressure vertical grid, while the reduced-resolution output is given on native vertical levels and on 48 pressure surfaces extending up to 0.02 hPa. Section 4 presents additional details on horizontal and vertical grids. Information of the model surface representation can be found in Appendix B. The GEOS-5 product is organized into file collections that are described in detail in Appendix C. Additional

  11. Local fluctuations of ozone from 16 km to 45 km deduced from in situ vertical ozone profile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moreau, G.; Robert, C.

    1994-01-01

    A vertical ozone profile obtained by an in situ ozone sonde from 16 km to 45 km, has allowed to observe local ozone concentration variations. These variations can be observed, thanks to a fast measurement system based on a UV absorption KrF excimer laser beam in a multipass cell. Ozone standard deviation versus altitude calculated from the mean is derived. Ozone variations or fluctuations are correlated with the different dynamic zones of the stratosphere.

  12. The Effect of Boron on the Low Cycle Fatigue Behavior of Disk Alloy KM4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gabb, Timothy; Gayda, John; Sweeney, Joseph

    2000-01-01

    The durability of powder metallurgy nickel base superalloys employed as compressor and turbine disks is often limited by low cycle fatigue (LCF) crack initiation and crack growth from highly stressed surface locations (corners, holes, etc.). Crack growth induced by dwells at high stresses during aerospace engine operation can be particularly severe. Supersolvus solution heat treatments can be used to produce coarse grain sizes approaching ASTM 6 for improved resistance to dwell fatigue crack growth. However, the coarse grain sizes reduce yield strength, which can lower LCF initiation life. These high temperature heat treatments also can encourage pores to form. In the advanced General Electric disk superalloy KM4, such pores can initiate fatigue cracks that limit LCF initiation life. Hot isostatic pressing (HIP) during the supersolvus solution heat treatment has been shown to improve LCF initiation life in KM4, as the HIP pressure minimizes formation of the pores. Reduction of boron levels in KM4 has also been shown to increase LCF initiation life after a conventional supersolvus heat treatment, again possibly due to effects on the formation tendencies of these pores. However, the effects of reduced boron levels on microstructure, pore characteristics, and LCF failure modes in KM4 still need to be fully quantified. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of boron level on the microstructure, porosity, LCF behavior, and failure modes of supersolvus heat treated KM4.

  13. Role of the transition zone and 660 km discontinuity in mantle dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ringwood, A. E.

    1994-10-01

    of differentiated oceanic lithosphere, with discrete lithological domains of former oceanic crust, former harzburgite and former lherzolite. However, in the upper mantle, these lithologies have been homogenized via convective mixing and partial melting to form a uniform pyrolite composition. Seismic velocity gradients in the heterogeneous mixture of lithologies of the transition zone are higher than they would be in homogeneous pyrolite, because of the survival of clinopyroxene to a depth of about 500 km. This may contribute towards high seismic velocity gradients observed in the transition zone. The behavior during partial melting of heterogeneous lithologies from the transition zone is also quite different from the partial melting of homogeneous pyrolite. The transition zone provides the principal source region for alkaline intraplate basalts world-wide (including ocean island basalts) whereas the homogeneous pyrolite source region of the upper mantle yields mid-ocean ridge basalt magmas.

  14. Gravity Waves Near 300 km Over the Polar Caps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, F. S.; Hanson, W. B.; Hodges, R. R.; Coley, W. R.; Carignan, G. R.; Spencer, N. W.

    1995-01-01

    Distinctive wave forms in the distributions of vertical velocity and temperature of both neutral particles and ions are frequently observed from Dynamics Explorer 2 at altitudes above 250 km over the polar caps. These are interpreted as being due to internal gravity waves propagating in the neutral atmosphere. The disturbances characterized by vertical velocity perturbations of the order of 100 m/s and horizontal wave lengths along the satellite path of about 500 km. They often extend across the entire polar cap. The associated temperature perturbations indicate that the horizontal phase progression is from the nightside to the dayside. Vertical displacements are inferred to be of the order of 10 km and the periods to be of the order of 10(exp 3) s. The waves must propagate in the neutral atmosphere, but they usually are most clearly recognizable in the observations of ion vertical velocity and ion temperature. By combining the neutral pressure calculated from the observed neutral concentration and temperature with the vertical component of the neutral velocity, an upward energy flux of the order of 0.04 erg/sq cm-s at 250 km has been calculated, which is about equal to the maximum total solar ultraviolet heat input above that altitude. Upward energy fluxes calculated from observations on orbital passes at altitudes from 250 to 560 km indicate relatively little attenuation with altitude.

  15. The KM3NeT Digital Optical Module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vivolo, Daniele

    2016-04-01

    KM3NeT is a European deep-sea multidisciplinary research infrastructure in the Mediterranean Sea. It will host a km3-scale neutrino telescope and dedicated instruments for long-term and continuous measurements for Earth and Sea sciences. The KM3NeT neutrino telescope is a 3-dimensional array of Digital Optical Modules, suspended in the sea by means of vertical string structures, called Detection Units, supported by two pre-stretched Dyneema ropes, anchored to the seabed and kept taut with a system of buoys. The Digital Optical Module represents the active part of the neutrino telescope. It is composed by a 17-inch, 14 mm thick borosilicate glass (Vitrovex) spheric vessel housing 31 photomultiplier tubes with 3-inch photocathode diameter and the associated front-end and readout electronics. The technical solution adopted for the KM3NeT optical modules is characterized by an innovative design, considering that existing neutrino telescopes, Baikal, IceCube and ANTARES, all use large photomultipliers, typically with a diameter of 8″ or 10″. It offers several advantages: higher sensitive surface (1260 cm2), weaker sensitivity to Earth's magnetic field, better distinction between single-photon and multi-photon events (photon counting) and directional information with an almost isotropic field of view. In this contribution the design and the performance of the KM3NeT Digital Optical Modules are discussed, with a particular focus on enabling technologies and integration procedure.

  16. Processing techniques for global land 1-km AVHRR data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eidenshink, Jeffery C.; Steinwand, Daniel R.; Wivell, Charles E.; Hollaren, Douglas M.; Meyer, David

    1993-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Data Center (EDC) in cooperation with several international science organizations has developed techniques for processing daily Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) 1-km data of the entire global land surface. These techniques include orbital stitching, geometric rectification, radiometric calibration, and atmospheric correction. An orbital stitching algorithm was developed to combine consecutive observations acquired along an orbit by ground receiving stations into contiguous half-orbital segments. The geometric rectification process uses an AVHRR satellite model that contains modules for forward mapping, forward terrain correction, and inverse mapping with terrain correction. The correction is accomplished by using the hydrologic features coastlines and lakes from the Digital Chart of the World. These features are rasterized into the satellite projection and are matched to the AVHRR imagery using binary edge correlation techniques. The resulting coefficients are related to six attitude correction parameters: roll, roll rate, pitch, pitch rate, yaw, and altitude. The image can then be precision corrected to a variety of map projections and user-selected image frames. Because the AVHRR lacks onboard calibration for the optical wavelengths, a series of time-variant calibration coefficients derived from vicarious calibration methods and are used to model the degradation profile of the instruments. Reducing atmospheric effects on AVHRR data is important. A method has been develop that will remove the effects of molecular scattering and absorption from clear sky observations, using climatological measurements of ozone. Other methods to remove the effects of water vapor and aerosols are being investigated.

  17. Global Investigation of the Mg Atom and ion Layers using SCIAMACHY/Envisat Observations between 70 km and 150 km Altitude and WACCM-MG Model Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langowski, M.; vonSavigny, C.; Burrows, J. P.; Feng, W.; Plane, J. M. C.; Marsh, D. R.; Janches, Diego; Sinnhuber, M.; Aikin, A. C.

    2014-01-01

    Mg and Mg+ concentration fields in the upper mesosphere/lower thermosphere (UMLT) region are retrieved from SCIAMACHY/Envisat limb measurements of Mg and Mg+ dayglow emissions using a 2-D tomographic retrieval approach. The time series of monthly means of Mg and Mg+ for number density as well as vertical column density in different latitudinal regions are shown. Data from the limb mesosphere-thermosphere mode of SCIAMACHY/Envisat are used, which covers the 50 km to 150 km altitude region with a vertical sampling of 3.3 km and a highest latitude of 82 deg. The high latitudes are not covered in the winter months, because there is no dayglow emission during polar night. The measurements were performed every 14 days from mid-2008 until April 2012. Mg profiles show a peak at around 90 km altitude with a density between 750 cm(exp-3) and 2000 cm(exp-3). Mg does not show strong seasonal variation at mid-latitudes. The Mg+ peak occurs 5-15 km above the neutral Mg peak at 95-105 km. Furthermore, the ions show a significant seasonal cycle with a summer maximum in both hemispheres at mid- and high-latitudes. The strongest seasonal variations of the ions are observed at mid-latitudes between 20-40 deg and densities at the peak altitude range from 500 cm(exp-3) to 6000 cm(exp-3). The peak altitude of the ions shows a latitudinal dependence with a maximum at mid-latitudes that is up to 10 km higher than the peak altitude at the equator. The SCIAMACHY measurements are compared to other measurements and WACCM model results. In contrast to the SCIAMACHY results, the WACCM results show a strong seasonal variability for Mg with a winter maximum, which is not observable by SCIAMACHY, and globally higher peak densities. Although the peak densities do not agree the vertical column densities agree, since SCIAMACHY results show a wider vertical profile. The agreement of SCIAMACHY and WACCM results is much better for Mg+, showing the same seasonality and similar peak densities. However

  18. Reliability of 5-km Running Performance in a Competitive Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurst, Philip; Board, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the reliability of a 5-km time-trial during a competitive outdoor running event. Fifteen endurance runners (age = 29.5 ± 4.3 years, height = 1.75 ± 0.08 m, body mass = 71.0 ± 7.1 kg, 5-km lifetime personal best = 19:13 ± 1:13 minutes) completed two competitive 5-km time-trials over 2 weeks. No systematic…

  19. Simulation of CO2 release at 800 km altitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setayesh, A.

    1993-08-01

    The SOCRATES contamination-interaction code has been used to simulate the reactions of 0 + CO2 yields CO2(v) + O, O + CO2 - CO(v) + O2, and CO2 + H - CO + OH(v) at an altitude of 800 km in both ram and wake directions of the spacecraft. These simulations show that the radiation from these reactions can be measurable for the parameters which have been used in these calculations. The investigation carries out the simulations as much as 30 km from the spacecraft. The radiative intensity of CO(v) and OH(v) show the highest and lowest, respectively.

  20. Digital optical module electronics of KM3NeT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Real, D.; Calvo, D.

    2016-11-01

    The KM3NeT neutrino telescope is being built on the Mediterranean sea and, once completed, it will be composed by tens of thousands of glass spheres (nodes) including each 31 of small photocathode (3"). The readout and data acquisition system of KM3NeT has to collect, treat and send to shore, in an economic way, the enormous amount of data produced by the photomultipliers and at the same time to provide time synchronization between each node at the level of 1 ns. It is described in the present article all the electronics developed for achieving this goal.

  1. Cascade sensitivity studies for KM3NeT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fusco, Luigi Antonio

    2016-07-01

    KM3NeT is a future research infrastructure in the deep seas of the Mediterranean housing a large scale neutrino telescope. The first phase of construction of the telescope has started. Next step is an intermediate phase realising a detector volume of about one-third of the final detector volume. We report on calculations of the sensitivity of the KM3NeT detector to showering neutrino events, the strategy to optimise the detector to a cosmic neutrino flux analogous to the one reported by the IceCube Collaboration and the results of this strategy applied to the intermediate phase detector.

  2. Ultrafast relaxation dynamics of 5,10,15,20-meso-tetrakis pentafluorophenyl porphyrin studied by fluorescence up-conversion and transient absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Kumar, P Hemant; Venkatesh, Yeduru; Siva, Doddi; Ramakrishna, B; Bangal, Prakriti Ranjan

    2015-02-26

    The ultrafast photophysical characterization of 5,10,15,20-meso-tetrakis pentafluorophenyl porphyrin (H2F20TPP) in 4:1 dichloromethane (DCM) and tetrahydrofuran (THF) solution has been done in the femtosecond-picosecond time domain, by combining fluorescence up-conversion and femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy. Fluorescence up-conversion studies on H2F20TPP were done demonstrating fluorescence dynamics over the whole spectral range from 440 to 650 nm when excited at 405 nm, 360.5 cm(-1) excess vibrational energy of Soret band (411 nm). Single-exponential decay with ∼160 ± 50 fs lifetime of Soret fluorescence (also called S2 fluorescence or B band fluorescence) at around 440 nm was observed. On going from 440 nm, S2 fluorescence to S1 fluorescence, (Q-band) around 640 nm (wavelength of 0-0 transition in the stationary spectrum), single-exponential fluorescence time profile turns into a multiexponential time profile and it could be resolved critically into five-exponential components. An ultrafast rise component with ∼160 ± 50 fs followed by two decay components: a very fast decay component with 200 ± 50 fs time constant and another relatively slower 1.8 ± 0.5 ps decay component. Next, a very prominent rise component with 105 ± 30 ps lifetime followed by long-lived 10 ns decay component. The initial rise of S1 (Q-band) fluorescence around 640 nm agreed with the decay time of S2 (Soret or B band) fluorescence indicates that internal conversion (IC) from relaxed S2 to vibrationally excited S1 occurs in the ∼160 fs time scale and subsequent very fast decay with 200 fs time constant, which is assigned to be intramolecular vibrational dephasing or redistribution. The 1.8 ps decay component of S1 fluorescence is attributed to be "hot" fluorescence from vibrationally excited S1 state, and it reveals the vibrational relaxation time induced by elastic or quasi-elastic collision with solvent molecules. The 105 ps rise component is the creation time of the

  3. Running economy during a simulated 60-km trial.

    PubMed

    Schena, Federico; Pellegrini, Barbara; Tarperi, Cantor; Calabria, Elisa; Salvagno, Gian Luca; Capelli, Carlo

    2014-07-01

    The effect of a prolonged running trial on the energy cost of running (C(r)) during a 60-km ultramarathon simulation at the pace of a 100-km competition was investigated in 13 men (40.8 ± 5.6 y, 70.7 ± 5.5 kg, 177.5 ± 4.5 cm) and 5 women (40.4 ± 2.3 y, 53.7 ± 4.4 kg, 162.4 ± 4.8 cm) who participated in a 60-km trial consisting of 3 consecutive 20-km laps. Oxygen uptake (VO(2)) at steady state was determined at constant speed before the test and at the end of each lap; stride length (SL) and frequency and contact time were measured at the same time points; serum creatine kinase (S-CPK) was measured before and at the end of the test. C(r) in J · kg(-1) · m(-1), as calculated from VO(2ss) and respiratory-exchange ratio, did not increase with distance. SL significantly decreased with distance. The net increase in S-CPK was linearly related with the percentage increase of C(r) observed during the trial. It is concluded that, in spite of increased S-CPK, this effort was not able to elicit any peripheral or central fatigue or biomechanical adaptation leading to any modification of C(r).

  4. Gravity wave vertical energy flux at 95 km

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacob, P. G.; Jacka, F.

    1985-01-01

    A three-field photometer (3FP) located at Mt. Torrens near Adelaide, is capable of monitoring different airglow emissions from three spaced fields in the sky. A wheel containing up to six different narrow bandpass interference filters can be rotated, allowing each of the filters to be sequentially placed into each of the three fields. The airglow emission of interest is the 557.7 nm line which has an intensity maximum at 95 km. Each circular field of view is located at the apexes of an equilateral triangle centered on zenith with diameters of 5 km and field separations of 13 km when projected to the 95-km level. The sampling period was 30 seconds and typical data lengths were between 7 and 8 hours. The analysis and results from the interaction of gravity waves on the 557.7 nm emission layer are derived using an atmospheric model similar to that proposed by Hines (1960) where the atmosphere is assumed isothermal and perturbations caused by gravity waves are small and adiabatic, therefore, resulting in linearized equations of motion. In the absence of waves, the atmosphere is also considered stationary. Thirteen nights of quality data from January 1983 to October 1984, covering all seasons, are used in this analysis.

  5. Body Composition Measurements of 161-km Ultramarathon Participants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study compares body composition characteristics with performance among participants in a 161-km trail ultramarathon. Height, mass, and percent body fat from bioimpedence spectroscopy were measured on 72 starters. Correlation analyses were used to compare body characteristics with finish time, ...

  6. Models of earth's atmosphere (90 to 2500 km)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    This monograph replaces a monograph on the upper atmosphere which was a computerized version of Jacchia's model. The current model has a range from 90 to 2500 km. In addition to the computerized model, a quick-look prediction method is given that may be used to estimate the density for any time and spatial location without using a computer.

  7. The Trigger and Data Acquisition System for the KM3NeT neutrino telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellegrino, Carmelo; Chiarusi, Tommaso

    2016-04-01

    KM3NeT is a large research infrastructure in the Mediterranean Sea that includes a network of deep-sea neutrino telescopes. The telescopes consist of vertical detection units carrying optical modules, whose separation is optimised according to the different ranges of neutrino energy that shall be explored. Two building blocks, each one made of 115 detection units, will be deployed at the KM3NeT-IT site, about 80 km from Capo Passero, Italy, to search for high-energy neutrino sources (ARCA); another building block will be installed at the KM3NeT-Fr site, about 40 km from Toulon, France, to study the hierarchy of neutrino masses (ORCA). The modular design of the KM3NeT allows for a progressive implementation and data taking even with an incomplete detector. The same scalable design is used for the Trigger and Data Acquisition Systems (TriDAS). In order to reduce the complexity of the hardware inside the optical modules, the "all data to shore" concept is adopted. This implies that the throughput is dominated by the optical background due to the decay of 40K dissolved in the sea water and to the bursts of bioluminescence, about 3 orders of magnitude larger than the physics signal, ranging from 20 Gbps to several hundreds Gbps, according to the number of detection units. In addition, information from the acoustic positioning system of the detection units must be transmitted. As a consequence of the detector construction, the on-shore DAQ infrastructure must be expanded to handle an increasing data-rate and implement an efficient fast data filtering for both the optical and acoustic channels. In this contribution, the Trigger and Data Acquisition System designed for the Phase 1 of KM3NeT and its future expansion are presented. The network infrastructure, the shore computing resources and the developed applications for handling, filtering and monitoring the optical and acoustic data-streams are described.

  8. The isolated 678-km deep 30 May 2015 MW 7.9 Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, L.; Lay, T.; Zhan, Z.; Kanamori, H.; Hao, J.

    2015-12-01

    Deep-focus earthquakes, located 300 to 700 km below the Earth's surface within sinking slabs of relatively cold oceanic lithosphere, are mysterious phenomena. Seismic radiation from deep events is essentially indistinguishable from that for shallow stick-slip frictional-sliding earthquakes, but the confining pressure and temperature are so high for deep-focus events that a distinct process is likely needed to account for their abrupt energy release. The largest recorded deep-focus earthquake (MW 7.9) in the Izu-Bonin slab struck on 30 May 2015 beneath the Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands, isolated from prior seismicity by over 100 km in depth, and followed by only 2 small aftershocks. Globally, this is the deepest (678 km) major (MW > 7) earthquake in the seismological record. Seismicity indicates along-strike contortion of the Izu-Bonin slab, with horizontal flattening near a depth of 550 km in the Izu region and progressive steepening to near-vertical toward the south above the location of the 2015 event. Analyses of a large global data set of P, SH and pP seismic phases using short-period back-projection, subevent directivity, and broadband finite-fault inversion indicate that the mainshock ruptured a shallowly-dipping fault plane with patchy slip that spread over a distance of ~40 km with variable expansion rate (~5 km/s down-dip initially, ~3 km/s up-dip later). During the 17 s rupture duration the radiated energy was ~3.3 x 1016 J and the stress drop was ~38 MPa. The radiation efficiency is moderate (0.34), intermediate to that of the 1994 Bolivia and 2013 Sea of Okhotsk MW 8.3 earthquakes, indicating a continuum of processes. The isolated occurrence of the event suggests that localized stress concentration associated with the pronounced deformation of the Izu-Bonin slab likely played a role in generating this major earthquake.

  9. Results and simulation of the prototype detection unit of KM3NeT-ARCA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hugon, C. M. F.

    2017-03-01

    KM3NeT-ARCA is a deep sea high energy neutrino detector. A detection unit prototype was deployed in the future KM3NeT-ARCA deep-sea site, off of the Sicilian coast. This detection unit is composed of a line of 3 digital optical modules with 31 photomultiplier tubes on each one. The prototype detection unit was operated since its deployment in May 2014 until its decommissioning in July 2015. The results of the calibration of this detection unit and its simulation are presented and discussed.

  10. Gravity wave and tidal structures between 60 and 140 km inferred from space shuttle reentry data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fritts, David C.; Wang, Ding-Yi; Blanchard, Robert C.

    1993-01-01

    This study presents an analysis of density measurements made using high-resolution accelerometers aboard several space shuttles at altitudes from 60 to 140 km during reentry into the earth's atmosphere. The observed density fluctuations are interpreted in terms of gravity waves and tides and provide evidence of the importance of such motions well into the thermosphere. Height profiles of fractional density variance reveal that wave amplitudes increase at a rate consistent with observations at lower levels up to about 90 km. The rate of amplitude growth decreases at greater heights, however, and appears to cease above about 110 km. Wave amplitudes are nevertheless large at these heights and suggest that gravity waves may play an important role in forcing of the lower thermosphere.

  11. Status of the central logic board (CLB) of the KM3NeT neutrino telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvo, D.; Real, D.

    2015-12-01

    The KM3NeT collaboration aims at the construction of a multi-km3 high-energy neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean Sea consisting of thousands of glass spheres, each of them containing 31 photomultiplier of small photocathode area. The readout and data acquisition system of KM3NeT has to collect, treat and send to shore, the enormous amount of data produced by the photomultipliers, the acoustics sensor and the rest of the instrumentation. The electronics design includes a multiboot module which allows for the re-configuration of the nodes of the telescope remotely from the shore station. All the modules and subsystems are controlled by two embedded microprocessors, implemented on a Kintetx-7 FPGA, and complex embedded software.

  12. Gravity wave and tidal structures between 60 and 140 km inferred from space shuttle reentry data

    SciTech Connect

    Fritts, D.C. ); Dingyi Wang ); Blanchard, R.C. )

    1993-03-15

    This study presents an analysis of density measurements made using high-resolution accelerometers aboard several space shuttles at altitudes from 60 to 140 km during reentry into the earth's atmosphere. The observed density fluctuations are interpreted in terms of gravity waves and tides and provide evidence of the importance of such motions well into the thermosphere. Height profiles of fractional density variance reveal that wave amplitudes increase at a rate consistent with observations at lower levels up to [approximately]90 km. The rate of amplitude growth decreases at greater heights, however, and appears to cease above [approximately]110 km. Wave amplitudes are nevertheless large at these heights and suggest that gravity waves may play an important role in forcing of the lower thermosphere.

  13. Monthly mean global climatology of temperature, wind, geopotential height and pressure for 0-120 km

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandra, Sushil; Schoeberl, Mark R.; Fleming, Eric L.; Barnett, John J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents a monthly mean climatology of zonal mean temperature, zonal wind, and geopotential height with nearly pole-to-pole coverage (80 deg S-80 deg N) for 0-120 km which can be used as a function of altitude and pressure. This climatology reproduces most of the characteristic features of the atmosphere such as the lowering and cooling of the mesopause and the lowering and warming of the stratopause during the summer months at high latitudes. A series of zonal wind profiles is also presented comparing this climatological wind with monthly mean climatological direct wind measurements in the upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere. The two data sets compare well below 80 km, with some general seasonal trend agreement observed above 80 km. The zonal wind at the equator presented here simulates the observed features of the semiannual oscillation in the upper stratosphere and mesosphere.

  14. Time-division multiplexing-based BOTDA over 100 km sensing length.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yongkang; Chen, Liang; Bao, Xiaoyi

    2011-01-15

    We propose and demonstrate a high-performance and long-range Brillouin optical time-domain analysis (BOTDA) based on time-division multiplexing measurement, where a probe pulse and a pump pulse are used to perform the measurement on a selected sensing section, and the measurement of the entire sensing fiber is realized by combining the series measurements over different sections through changing the delay time between the two pulses. In experiment, a 100 km sensing fiber is divided into 11 sections based on the gain-controlled principle, and spatial resolutions of 0.6 m and 2 m are obtained at the end of 75 km and 100 km, respectively.

  15. Fact Sheet for KM200 Front-end Electronics

    SciTech Connect

    Ianakiev, Kiril Dimitrov; Iliev, Metodi; Swinhoe, Martyn Thomas

    2015-07-08

    The KM200 device is a versatile, configurable front-end electronics boards that can be used as a functional replacement for Canberra’s JAB-01 boards based on the Amptek A-111 hybrid chip, which continues to be the preferred choice of electronics for large number of the boards in junction boxes of multiplicity counters that process the signal from an array of 3He detectors. Unlike the A-111 chip’s fixed time constants and sensitivity range, the shaping time and sensitivity of the new KM200 can be optimized for demanding applications such as spent fuel, and thus could improve the safeguards measurements of existing systems where the A-111 or PDT electronics does not perform well.

  16. Remote (250 km) Fiber Bragg Grating Multiplexing System

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Vallejo, Montserrat; Rota-Rodrigo, Sergio; Lopez-Amo, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    We propose and demonstrate two ultra-long range fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor interrogation systems. In the first approach four FBGs are located 200 km from the monitoring station and a signal to noise ratio of 20 dB is obtained. The second improved version is able to detect the four multiplexed FBGs placed 250 km away, offering a signal to noise ratio of 6–8 dB. Consequently, this last system represents the longest range FBG sensor system reported so far that includes fiber sensor multiplexing capability. Both simple systems are based on a wavelength swept laser to scan the reflection spectra of the FBGs, and they are composed by two identical-lengths optical paths: the first one intended to launch the amplified laser signal by means of Raman amplification and the other one is employed to guide the reflection signal to the reception system. PMID:22164101

  17. Cascade sensitivity studies for KM3NeT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fusco, L. A.; KM3NeT Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    KM3NeT is a future neutrino observatory to be built in the Mediterranean Sea. Its main astrophysical goal it to search for cosmic sources of neutrinos. The status of searches for diffuse fluxes of cosmic neutrinos in the cascade channel are reported in this contribution. A signal analogous to that observed by the IceCube collaboration will be observed with a 5 σ significance within one year of operation of the detector.

  18. Towards Mapping the Ocean Surface Topography at 1 km Resolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fu, Lee-Lueng; Rodriquez, Ernesto

    2006-01-01

    We propose to apply the technique of synthetic aperture radar interferometry to the measurement of ocean surface topography at spatial resolution approaching 1 km. The measurement will have wide ranging applications in oceanography, hydrology, and marine geophysics. The oceanographic and related societal applications are briefly discussed in the paper. To meet the requirements for oceanographic applications, the instrument must be flown in an orbit with proper sampling of ocean tides.

  19. Organizations, Paradigms, and People: The Challenge of KM Interventions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Teresa; Burton, Yvette

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents viewgraphs on Knowledge Management (KM) and how these interventions are put into practice by organizations and society. The topics include: 1) The Multiple Paradigm Tool; 2) Four Paradigms: tool for the Analyzing Organizations; 3) Assumptions About the Nature of Social Science; 4) Assumptions About the Nature of Society; 5) Schools of Sociological and Organizational Theory; 6) Meaning and Metaphors in the Four Paradigms; and 7) Possibilities and Conclusions.

  20. Hole transporting material 5, 10, 15-tribenzyl-5H-diindolo[3, 2-a:3‧, 2‧-c]-carbazole for efficient optoelectronic applications as an active layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yan-Qiong; J. Potscavage, William, Jr.; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Wei, Bin; Huang, Rong-Juan

    2015-02-01

    In order to explore the novel application of the transparent hole-transporting material 5,10,15-tribenzyl-5H-diindolo[3,2-a:3‧,2‧-c]-carbazole (TBDI), in this article TBDI is used as an active layer but not a buffer layer in a photodetector (PD), organic light-emitting diode (OLED), and organic photovoltaic cell (OPV) for the first time. Firstly, the absorption and emission spectra of a blend layer comprised of TBDI and electron-transporting material bis-(2-methyl-8-quinolinate) 4-phenylphenolate (BAlq) are investigated. Based on the absorption properties, an organic PD with a peak absorption at 320 nm is fabricated, and a relatively-high detectivity of 2.44 × 1011 cm·Hz1/2/W under 320-nm illumination is obtained. The TBDI/tris (8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq3) OLED device exhibits a comparable external quantum efficiency and current efficiency to a traditional 4, 4-bis[N-(1-naphthyl)-N-phenyl-amino]biphenyl (α-NPD)/Alq3 OLED. A C70-based Schottky junction with 5 wt%-TBDI yields a power conversion efficiency of 5.0%, which is much higher than 1.7% for an α-NPD-based junction in the same configuration. These results suggest that TBDI has some promising properties which are in favor of the hole-transporting in Schottky junctions with a low-concentration donor. Project supported by the Funding Program for World-Leading Innovative R & D on Science and Technology (FIRST) from JSPS, the Fund from the Science and Technology Commission of Shanghai Municipality, China (Grant Nos. 14DZ2280900 and 14XD1401800), and the Natural Science Foundation of Shanghai (Grant No. 15ZR1416600).

  1. Acceleration of barium ions near 8000 km above an aurora

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stenbaek-Nielsen, H. C.; Hallinan, T. J.; Wescott, E. M.; Foeppl, H.

    1984-01-01

    A barium shaped charge, named Limerick, was released from a rocket launched from Poker Flat Research Range, Alaska, on March 30, 1982, at 1033 UT. The release took place in a small auroral breakup. The jet of ionized barium reached an altitude of 8100 km 14.5 min after release, indicating that there were no parallel electric fields below this altitude. At 8100 km the jet appeared to stop. Analysis shows that the barium at this altitude was effectively removed from the tip. It is concluded that the barium was actually accelerated upward, resulting in a large decrease in the line-of-sight density and hence the optical intensity. The parallel electric potential in the acceleration region must have been greater than 1 kV over an altitude interval of less than 200 km. The acceleration region, although presumably auroral in origin, did not seem to be related to individual auroral structures, but appeared to be a large-scale horizontal structure. The perpendicular electric field below, as deduced from the drift of the barium, was temporally and spatially very uniform and showed no variation related to individual auroral structures passing through.

  2. "Be Informed, Stay Connected, Community Transformation!" Selected Papers from the PIALA Conference 2014, Pacific Islands Association of Libraries, Archives, and Museums Annual Conference (24th, Koror, Republic of Palau, Nov 10-15, 2014)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drake, Paul Burton

    2015-01-01

    This publication follows the tradition of publishing selected papers from the Pacific Islands Association of Libraries, Archives and Museums (PIALA) annual conferences. This 24th annual conference was held in Koror, Republic of Palau, November 10-15, 2014. This volume includes a listing of the PIALA 2014 Organizing Committee and PIALA Officers and…

  3. Application of an octa-anionic 5,10,15,20-tetra[3,5-(nido-carboranylmethyl)phenyl]porphyrin (H2OCP) as dual sensitizer for BNCT and PDT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The applications of the octa-anionic 5,10,15,20-tetra[3,5-(nidocarboranylmethyl) phenyl]porphyrin (H2OCP) as a boron delivery agent in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) and a photosensitizer in photodynamic therapy (PDT) have been investigated. Using F98 Rat glioma cells, we evaluated the cytotox...

  4. 21 CFR 73.3117 - 16,23-Dihydrodinaphtho[2,3-a:2′,3′-i] naphth [2′,3′:6,7] indolo [2,3-c] carbazole-5,10,15,17,22...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false 16,23-Dihydrodinaphtho naphth indolo carbazole-5,10,15,17,22,24-hexone. 73.3117 Section 73.3117 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... minimum reasonably required to accomplish the intended coloring effect. (2) Authorization for this...

  5. 21 CFR 73.3117 - 16,23-Dihydrodinaphtho[2,3-a:2′,3′-i] naphth [2′,3′:6,7] indolo [2,3-c] carbazole-5,10,15,17,22...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false 16,23-Dihydrodinaphtho naphth indolo carbazole-5,10,15,17,22,24-hexone. 73.3117 Section 73.3117 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... minimum reasonably required to accomplish the intended coloring effect. (2) Authorization for this...

  6. Hydrologic monitoring in 1-km2 headwater catchments in Sierra Nevada forests for predictive modeling of hydrologic response to forest treatments across 140-km2 firesheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saksa, P. C.; Bales, R. C.; Conklin, M. H.; Martin, S. E.; Rice, R.

    2010-12-01

    As part of the Sierra Nevada Adaptive Management Project, an eight-year study designed to measure the impacts of forest treatments (thinning, mastication, controlled burns) on multiple forest attributes, four headwater catchments were established to provide data on hydrologic response to treatments. These 1-km2 study catchments are each sited within 40-100 km2 firesheds, which in this case largely follow watershed boundaries, and which are the larger study areas for informing adaptive management of approximately 3,000 km2 of mixed-conifer forest in California’s central and southern Sierra Nevada. The aim of the hydrologic design was to put in place a ground-based monitoring network that would measure hydrologic attributes at representative locations, and when combined with remotely sensed data, provide a basis for predictive modeling of the larger study area. The selected locations employ instrument clusters, or groupings of instruments in a compact arrangement, to maximize the number of measurements possible and accessibility to the monitoring sites. The two study firesheds , located in the Tahoe and Sierra National Forests, cover a total of about 140-km2. Within each fireshed, two meteorological stations were placed near 1650-m and 2150-m, spanning the precipitation gradient from lower-elevation rain-dominated to higher-elevation snow-dominated systems. Two headwater streams draining approximately 1-km2 are monitored for stage, discharge, electrical conductivity, and sediment movement. Additionally, instrument nodes to monitor temperature, snow depth and soil moisture are installed within 0.5-1 km of the outlet and meterological stations. These nodes were placed to monitor end members of aspect, slope, elevation and canopy cover, which set the boundaries for the model outputs. High-resolution LiDAR provides the topographic and distributed vegetation characteristics, which are combined with field surveys and standard soils information to define the modeling

  7. Nanobeacon: A low cost time calibration instrument for the KM3NeT neutrino telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Calvo, David [IFIC. Instituto de Física Corpuscular, CSIC-Universidad de Valencia, C Collaboration: KM3NeT Collaboration

    2014-11-18

    The KM3NeT collaboration aims at the construction of a multi-km3 high-energy neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean Sea consisting of a matrix of pressure resistant glass spheres holding each one a set (31) of small area photomultipliers. The main goal of the telescope is to observe cosmic neutrinos through the Cherenkov light induced in sea water by charged particles produced in neutrino interactions with the surrounding medium. A relative time calibration between photomultipliers of the order of 1 ns is required to achieve an optimal performance. Due to the high volume to be covered by KM3NeT, a cost reduction of the different systems is a priority. To this end a very low price calibration device, the so called Nanobeacon, has been designed and developed. At present one of such devices has already been integrated successfully at the KM3NeT telescope and eight of them in the Nemo Tower Phase II. In this article the main properties and operation of this device are described.

  8. The possible subduction of continental material to depths greater than 200 km.

    PubMed

    Ye, K; Cong, B; Ye, D

    2000-10-12

    Determining the depth to which continental lithosphere can be subducted into the mantle at convergent plate boundaries is of importance for understanding the long-term growth of supercontinents as well as the dynamic processes that shape such margins. Recent discoveries of coesite and diamond in regional ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) metamorphic rocks has demonstrated that continental material can be subducted to depths of at least 120 km (ref. 1), and subduction to depths of 150-300 km has been inferred from garnet peridotites in orogenic UHP belts based on several indirect observations. But continental subduction to such depths is difficult to trace directly in natural UHP metamorphic crustal rocks by conventional mineralogical and petrological methods because of extensive late-stage recrystallization and the lack of a suitable pressure indicator. It has been predicted from experimental work, however, that solid-state dissolution of pyroxene should occur in garnet at depths greater than 150 km (refs 6-8). Here we report the observation of high concentrations of clinopyroxene, rutile and apatite exsolutions in garnet within eclogites from Yangkou in the Sulu UHP metamorphic belt, China. We interpret these data as resulting from the high-pressure formation of pyroxene solid solutions in subducted continental material. Appropriate conditions for the Na2O concentrations and octahedral silicon observed in these samples are met at depths greater than 200 km.

  9. Primary gamma-rays with E gamma or = to 10(15) eV: Evidence for ultrahigh energy particle acceleration in galactic sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aharonian, F. A.; Mamidjanian, E. A.; Nikolsky, S. I.; Tukish, E. I.

    1985-01-01

    The recently observed primary ultra high energy gamma-rays (UHEGR) testify to the cosmic ray (CR) acceleration in the Galaxy. The available data may be interpreted as gamma-ray production due to photomeson production in CR sources.

  10. Mantle seismic anisotropy beneath the 660km phase transition generated by subduction body force stresses.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nippress, S.; Kusznir, N. J.; Kendall, M.

    2003-04-01

    Observations of seismic anisotropy can provide insights into the style of mantle dynamics near the 660km discontinuity. Wookey et al. (2002) report up to 7 seconds of shear wave splitting for rays generated by deep focus events from the Tonga subduction zone and recorded in Australia. The results suggest a transversely isotropic symmetry with the symmetry axis in the vertical plane, perpendicular to the ray direction. Thus, for horizontally travelling waves this would imply horizontally polarised shear waves (SH lead SV). They show that a topmost lower mantle model with anisotropy between 660-900km could produce theoretical shear wave splitting similar to that observed. Therefore, the seismic anisotropy observed by Wookey et al., can be explained by an anisotropic region between 660-900km, with only a minimal contribution from above the 660km phase transition. The goal of this study is to try to explain the observed shear wave splitting using geodynamical modelling. We use finite element (FE) modelling to calculate slab-induced models of fluid flow, total stress and deviatoric stress. A simple 2D subduction zone model with a prescribed viscosity structure and slab density is used. Large deviatoric stresses (maximum values ~ 40 MPa) are generated in the topmost lower mantle when the subducting slab encounters an increase in viscosity at the 660km phase transition. These stresses may induce mineral alignment in a broad region (lateral wavelength approximately » 800km) in the topmost lower mantle below the slab. Perovskite may therefore be aligned with a rotated symmetry axis conformal to the shape of this region of high deviatoric stress. Aligned Perovskite rotated more than 30 degrees predicts SH-waves faster than SV-waves for horizontally travelling S-waves. The formulation of McKenzie (1979) is used to calculate the finite strain accumulated by a mantle parcel as it propagates through the FE flow models. The computed strain ellipsoids align in a similar region

  11. Analysis of sex differences in open-water ultra-distance swimming performances in the FINA World Cup races in 5 km, 10 km and 25 km from 2000 to 2012

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The present study investigated the changes in swimming speeds and sex differences for elite male and female swimmers competing in 5 km, 10 km and 25 km open-water FINA World Cup races held between 2000 and 2012. Methods The changes in swimming speeds and sex differences across years were analysed using linear, non-linear, and multi-level regression analyses for the annual fastest and the annual ten fastest competitors. Results For the annual fastest, swimming speed remained stable for men and women in 5 km (5.50 ± 0.21 and 5.08 ± 0.19 km/h, respectively), in 10 km (5.38 ± 0.21 and 5.05 ± 0.26 km/h, respectively) and in 25 km (5.03 ± 0.32 and 4.58 ± 0.27 km/h, respectively). In the annual ten fastest, swimming speed remained constant in 5 km in women (5.02 ± 0.19 km/h) but decreased significantly and linearly in men from 5.42 ± 0.03 km/h to 5.39 ± 0.02 km/h. In 10 km, swimming speed increased significantly and linearly in women from 4.75 ± 0.01 km/h to 5.74 ± 0.01 km/h but remained stable in men at 5.36 ± 0.21 km/h. In 25 km, swimming speed decreased significantly and linearly in women from 4.60 ± 0.06 km/h to 4.44 ± 0.08 km/h but remained unchanged at 4.93 ± 0.34 km/h in men. For the annual fastest, the sex difference in swimming speed remained unchanged in 5 km (7.6 ± 3.0%), 10 km (6.1 ± 2.5%) and 25 km (9.0 ± 3.7%). For the annual ten fastest, the sex difference remained stable in 5 km at 7.6 ± 0.6%, decreased significantly and linearly in 10 km from 7.7 ± 0.7% to 1.2 ± 0.3% and increased significantly and linearly from 4.7 ± 1.4% to 9.6 ± 1.5% in 25 km. Conclusions To summarize, elite female open-water ultra-distance swimmers improved in 10 km but impaired in 25 km leading to a linear decrease in sex difference in 10 km and a linear increase in sex difference in 25 km. The linear changes in sex differences

  12. Development of km23-Based Diagnostics and Therapeutics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-01

    Attisano, L., Wieser, R., Ventura , F., and Massagu6, J. (1994) Nature 370, 341-347 28. Biggs, J. R., Kraft, A. S. (1999) J. Biol. Chem. 274, 36987-36994...Macias- Silva et al; 1996). Since blockade of km23 could reduce both the levels of phosphorylated Smad2 and the nuclear expression of Smad2, it was of...in TGF-P signaling. Front BioscL. 8, 1280-1303. Macias- Silva , M., Abdollah, S., Hoodless, P. A., Pirone, R., and Attisano, L., Wrana, J. L. (1996

  13. The relational database system of KM3NeT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albert, Arnauld; Bozza, Cristiano

    2016-04-01

    The KM3NeT Collaboration is building a new generation of neutrino telescopes in the Mediterranean Sea. For these telescopes, a relational database is designed and implemented for several purposes, such as the centralised management of accounts, the storage of all documentation about components and the status of the detector and information about slow control and calibration data. It also contains information useful during the construction and the data acquisition phases. Highlights in the database schema, storage and management are discussed along with design choices that have impact on performances. In most cases, the database is not accessed directly by applications, but via a custom designed Web application server.

  14. An evaluation of the global 1-km AVHRR land dataset

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Teillet, P.M.; El Saleous, N.; Hansen, M.C.; Eidenshink, Jeffery C.; Justice, C.O.; Townshend, J.R.G.

    2000-01-01

    This paper summarizes the steps taken in the generation of the global 1-km AVHRR land dataset, and it documents an evaluation of the data product with respect to the original specifications and its usefulness in research and applications to date. The evaluation addresses data characterization, processing, compositing and handling issues. Examples of the main scientific outputs are presented and options for improved processing are outlined and prioritized. The dataset has made a significant contribution, and a strong recommendation is made for its reprocessing and continuation to produce a long-term record for global change research.

  15. EVLA/NMA: Within and Beyond the 21-km Radius

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durand, Steve; Romney, Jonathan D.

    NRAO's Expanded Very Large Array (EVLA) project is being implemented in two phases. Each involves extremely wide- bandwidth data transmission over optical fibers, but the two phases necessarily involve quite different approaches to the required fiber infrastructure, which make for an interesting contrast. Phase 1, formally called the "Ultrasensitive Array", involves replacing almost all of the existing electronics, leaving only the mechanical and track infrastructure of the VLA. The data transmission system being implemented for Phase 1 uses dedicated optical fibers, currently being buried at the VLA site. Twelve standard single-mode fibers will run from each of 72 antenna pads to the central building. One of these fibers will support the wideband data transmission system, using a dense wavelength division multiplexing technique to carry a bandwidth of 96 Gbps (120 Gbps formatted) per antenna. Fibers from the 27 active antenna pads will carry a total bandwidth of 2.6 Tbps. The longest of these fibers will extend the full 21- km length of each arm. Phase 2 will add the "New Mexico Array". Eight new stations will be built, and the electronics of the VLBA Pie Town and Los Alamos stations will be upgraded, to create a medium-resolution array, with sensitivity even higher than Phase 1. All ten NMA stations will lie within the State of New Mexico. The new antennas will range as far as 265 km from the VLA site, and will be located so as to facilitate access to existing fiber trunks installed, primarily, by rural telephone companies. These trunks include numerous unused fibers which, it is anticipated, can be leased economically. The longest fiber run from the VLA is 480 km. The same 96-Gbps total bandwidth per station will be supported, with the same underlying sub-band structure. Signals from up to three NMA stations will be multiplexed onto a single fiber in the existing trunks. This will limit the total length of fiber which must be leased or acquired to about 1240 km.

  16. 157km BOTDA with pulse coding and image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Xianyang; Wang, Zinan; Wang, Song; Xue, Naitian; Sun, Wei; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Bin; Rao, Yunjiang

    2016-05-01

    A repeater-less Brillouin optical time-domain analyzer (BOTDA) with 157.68km sensing range is demonstrated, using the combination of random fiber laser Raman pumping and low-noise laser-diode-Raman pumping. With optical pulse coding (OPC) and Non Local Means (NLM) image processing, temperature sensing with +/-0.70°C uncertainty and 8m spatial resolution is experimentally demonstrated. The image processing approach has been proved to be compatible with OPC, and it further increases the figure-of-merit (FoM) of the system by 57%.

  17. Hypervelocity impact testing above 10 km/s of advanced orbital debris shields

    SciTech Connect

    Christiansen, E.L.; Crews, J.L.; Kerr, J.H.; Chhabildas, L.C.

    1996-05-01

    NASA has developed enhanced performance shields to improve the protection of spacecraft from orbital debris and meteoroid impacts. One of these enhanced shields includes a blanket of Nextel{trademark} ceramic fabric and Kevlar{trademark} high strength fabric that is positioned midway between an aluminum bumper and the spacecraft pressure wall. As part of the evaluation of this new shielding technology, impact data above 10 km/sec has been obtained by NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) from the Sandia National Laboratories HVL ({open_quotes}hypervelocity launcher{close_quotes}) and the Southwest Research Institute inhibited shaped charge launcher (ISCL). The HVL launches flyer-plates in the velocity range of 10 to 15 km/s while the ISCL launches hollow cylinders at {approximately}11.5km/s. The {gt}10km/s experiments are complemented by hydrocode analysis and light-gas gun testing at the JSC Hypervelocity Impact Test Facility (HIT-F) to assess the effects of projectile shape on shield performance. Results from the testing and analysis indicate that the Nextel{trademark}/Kevlar{trademark} shield provides superior protection performance compared to an all-aluminum shield alternative. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  18. Hypervelocity impact testing above 10 km/s of advanced orbital debris shields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christiansen, Eric L.; Crews, Jeanne Lee; Kerr, Justin H.; Chhabildas, Lalit C.

    1996-05-01

    NASA has developed enhanced performance shields to improve the protection of spacecraft from orbital debris and meteoroid impacts. One of these enhanced shields includes a blanket of Nextel™ ceramic fabric and Kevlar™ high strength fabric that is positioned midway between an aluminum bumper and the spacecraft pressure wall. As part of the evaluation of this new shielding technology, impact data above 10 km/sec has been obtained by NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) from the Sandia National Laboratories HVL ("hypervelocity launcher") and the Southwest Research Institute inhibited shaped charge launcher (ISCL). The HVL launches flyer-plates in the velocity range of 10 to 15 km/s while the ISCL launches hollow cylinders at ˜11.5 km/s. The >10 km/s experiments are complemented by hydrocode analysis and light-gas gun testing at the JSC Hypervelocity Impact Test Facility (HIT-F) to assess the effects of projectile shape on shield performance. Results from the testing and analysis indicate that the Nextel™/Kevlar™ shield provides superior protection performance compared to an all-aluminum shield alternative.

  19. A report from the 13th International Conference on Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders (ICAD) (July 10-15, 2010-Honolulu, Hawaii, USA).

    PubMed

    Rabasseda, X

    2010-11-01

    What comes to mind when thinking of Hawaii and Honolulu are beaches, sun, sand, blue water, palm trees... But thinking and imagining may be altered in patients with cognitive impairments, and as in the brain of subjects with dementia, thunderstorms are also a reality on tropical islands. Honolulu has much more to offer, from restaurants and nightlife, to a modern convention center that was the site of the International Conference on Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders this year. Attendees to the meeting struggled to combine science with recreation, but many interesting, highly relevant educational activities and high-impact news discussed during the conference focused attention on the former, with updated information on how to prevent and manage cognitive disorders in clinical practice.

  20. KM3NeT/ORCA status and plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samtleben, Dorothea F. E.

    2016-04-01

    Neutrinos created in interactions of cosmic rays with the atmosphere can serve as a powerful tool to unveil the neutrino mass hierarchy (NMH). At low energies, around a few GeV, matter effects from the transition through the Earth are expected to imprint a distinct but also subtle signature on the oscillation pattern, specific to the ordering of the neutrino masses. KM3NeT/ORCA (Oscillations Research with Cosmics in the Abyss), a densely instrumented building block of the upcoming KM3NeT neutrino telescope, will be designated to measuring this signature in the Mediterranean Sea. Using detailed simulations the sensitivity towards this signature has been evaluated. The multi-PMT detectors allow in the water for an accurate reconstruction of GeV neutrino event signatures and distinction of neutrino flavours. For the determination of the mass hierarchy a median significance of 2-6σ has been estimated for three years of data taking, depending on the actual hierarchy and the oscillation parameters. At the same time the values of several oscillation parameters like θ23 will be determined to unprecedented precision.

  1. CO2 LIDAR measurements over a 20-km slant path

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senft, Daniel C.; Fox, Marsha J.; Gonglewski, John D.; Dowling, James A.; Highland, Ronald G.; Shilko, Michael L.

    1997-01-01

    The Air Force Phillips Laboratory conducted a series of measurements in February, May and August 1995 at the Air Force Maui Optical Station (AMOS) facility on Maui, Hawaii, to determine system requirements for an airborne long path CO(subscript 2) DIAL system. The lidar incorporates a cavity-matched mode-locked 3-J laser with the 60 cm diameter AMOS Beam Director Telescope. The one-way beam propagation path length was 21.3 km, originating at the AMOS facility on Haleakala at an altitude of 3.050 km ASL, and terminating at a target site near sea level. Both heterodyne and direct detection techniques are compared with respect to radiometric performance and signal statistics. Minimum detectable absorption levels for DIAL systems using both detection techniques and a variety of targets are estimated from long- range measurements with controlled absorbers. The signal correlation as a function of interpulse temporal separation was determined for long-range direct detection measurements. Radiometric models including system optical characteristics, beam propagation considerations, target reflectivity characteristics,a nd atmospheric effects have been developed and validated experimentally. A new receiver system is currently being fabricated and the laser transmitter is being upgraded for pulse-to-pulse wavelength agility, prior to incorporation into a C-135E airborne platform for future flight experiments.

  2. Sentiment of Search: KM and IT for User Expectations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berndt, Sarah Ann; Meza, David

    2014-01-01

    User perceived value is the number one indicator of a successful implementation of KM and IT collaborations. The system known as "Search" requires more strategy and workflow that a mere data dump or ungoverned infrastructure can provide. Monitoring of user sentiment can be a driver for providing objective measures of success and justifying changes to the user interface. The dynamic nature of information technology makes traditional usability metrics difficult to identify, yet easy to argue against. There is little disagreement, however, on the criticality of adapting to user needs and expectations. The Systems Usability Scale (SUS), developed by John Brook in 1986 has become an industry standard for usability engineering. The first phase of a modified SUS, polls the sentiment of representative users of the JSC Search system. This information can be used to correlate user determined value with types of information sought and how the system is (or is not) meeting expectations. Sentiment analysis by way of the SUS assists an organization in identification and prioritization of the KM and IT variables impacting user perceived value. A secondary, user group focused analysis is the topic of additional work that demonstrates the impact of specific changes dictated by user sentiment.

  3. KM3NeT Neutrino Telescope 1-ns Resolution Time To Digital Converters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvo, David; Real, Diego

    2016-04-01

    The KM3NeT collaboration aims the construction of a multi-km3 high-energy neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean sea consisting of thousands of glass spheres, each of them containing 31 photomultiplier of small photocathode area. The main digitization system is composed by 31 Time to Digital Converter channels with 1-ns resolution embedded in a Field Programmable Gate Array. An architecture with low resource occupancy has been chosen allowing the implementation of other instrumentation, communication and synchronization systems on the same device. The 4-oversampling technique with two high frequency clocks working in opposed phases has been used together with an asymmetric FIFO memory. In the present article the architecture and the first results obtained with the Time to Digital Converters are presented.

  4. The project of comprehensive cosmic ray investigations with mountain elevation experimental setups in the energy range 10 15-10 18eV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slavatinsky, S. A.; Pamir Collaboration; Tien Shan Collaboration

    2001-04-01

    The project of upgrading of two currently operating experimental setups, i.e., the Pamir and the Hadron setups, located at high mountain altitudes is proposed for comprehensive investigations of the primary cosmic rays (PCR) in the energy range 1-1000 PeV. The main goals of the project are the research of primary energy spectrum peculiarities, namely, the direct and feasible reverse bends of the spectrum and the study of the PCR mass composition as well as revealing the nature of some new phenomena in cosmic rays recently observed at mountain elevations.

  5. The Effect of Water on the 410-km Discontinuity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smyth, J. R.; Frost, D. J.

    2001-12-01

    The H content of the Earth is one of the most poorly constrained compositional variables for the planet. The nominally anhydrous olivine and spinelloid phases thought to compose the bulk of the upper mantle and transition zone may contain many times the amount of H and O that reside in the hydrosphere. The discontinuity at 410 kilometers corresponds to the olivine-wadsleyite transition with an increase in both density and S-wave velocity of about five percent. Previous experiments and calculations in the anhydrous peridotite system indicate an olivine-wadsleyite two-phase interval that is from 10 to 18 km in width. Calculations indicate that the two-phase region would be significantly broader in a hydrous system. We have conducted a series of synthesis experiments in the multi-anvil press on hydrous and anhydrous peridotite compositions and characterized the products by electron microprobe and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Six experiments were conducted in a hydrous peridotite system, and three in an anhydrous system. The results of our synthesis experiments are consistent with the prediction of Wood (1995) that the presence of H2O extends the stability of wadsleyite to 0.6 to 1.0 GPa lower pressure and would broaden the two-phase loop to as much as 30 km. In the hydrous runs containing both olivine and wadsleyite, there appears a sharp boundary between regions of olivine and regions of wadsleyite. The texture of the run thus does not appear to be a simple chemical equilibrium, but rather a diffusion-controlled boundary. Hydrogen is known to diffuse very rapidly in these materials, raising the possibility that diffusion of H might control the texture and may affect the sharpness of the boundary in the natural system. Hydrous wadsleyite is about five percent denser than anhydrous olivine. In a hypothetical two-phase region consisting of olivine and wadsleyite plus lesser amounts of garnet and clinopyroxene extending over a depth 20 km in a hydrous system

  6. Low-velocity zone atop the 410-km seismic discontinuity in the northwestern United States.

    PubMed

    Song, Teh-Ru Alex; Helmberger, Don V; Grand, Stephen P

    2004-02-05

    The seismic discontinuity at 410 km depth in the Earth's mantle is generally attributed to the phase transition of (Mg,Fe)2SiO4 (refs 1, 2) from the olivine to wadsleyite structure. Variation in the depth of this discontinuity is often taken as a proxy for mantle temperature owing to its response to thermal perturbations. For example, a cold anomaly would elevate the 410-km discontinuity, because of its positive Clapeyron slope, whereas a warm anomaly would depress the discontinuity. But trade-offs between seismic wave-speed heterogeneity and discontinuity topography often inhibit detailed analysis of these discontinuities, and structure often appears very complicated. Here we simultaneously model seismic refracted waves and scattered waves from the 410-km discontinuity in the western United States to constrain structure in the region. We find a low-velocity zone, with a shear-wave velocity drop of 5%, on top of the 410-km discontinuity beneath the northwestern United States, extending from southwestern Oregon to the northern Basin and Range province. This low-velocity zone has a thickness that varies from 20 to 90 km with rapid lateral variations. Its spatial extent coincides with both an anomalous composition of overlying volcanism and seismic 'receiver-function' observations observed above the region. We interpret the low-velocity zone as a compositional anomaly, possibly due to a dense partial-melt layer, which may be linked to prior subduction of the Farallon plate and back-arc extension. The existence of such a layer could be indicative of high water content in the Earth's transition zone.

  7. 1 ns time to digital converters for the KM3NeT data readout system

    SciTech Connect

    Calvo, David [IFIC, Instituto de Física Corpuscular, CSIC- Universidad de Valencia, C Collaboration: KM3NeT Collaboration

    2014-11-18

    The KM3NeT collaboration aims at the construction of a multi-km3 high-energy neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean Sea consisting of thousands of glass spheres (nodes), each of them containing 31 photomultiplier (PMT) of small photocathode area. The readout and data acquisition system of KM3NeT has to collect, treat and send to shore, in an economic way, the enormous amount of data produced by the photomultipliers. For this purpose, 31 high-resolution time-interval measuring channels are implemented on the Field-Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA) based on Time to Digital Converter (TDC). TDC are very common devices in particles physics experiments. Architectures with low resources occupancy are desirable allowing the implementation of other instrumentation, communication and synchronization systems on the same device. The required resolution to measure both, time of flight and timestamp must be 1 ns. A 4-Oversampling technique with two high frequency clocks is used to achieve this resolution. The proposed TDC firmware is developed using very few resources in Xilinx Kintex-7.

  8. The Caetano Caldera, Nevada: 5 km Thickness of Intracaldera Rhyolite Ignimbrite and Co-Magmatic Batholith

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    John, D. A.; Henry, C. D.; Colgan, J. P.

    2008-12-01

    The Caetano caldera in northern Nevada is cut by Miocene extensional faults that extraordinarily expose a complete, thick (>4 km) intracaldera rhyolite ignimbrite (Caetano Tuff) and underlying cogenetic granitic plutons in tilted blocks reaching to >5 km of paleodepth. The caldera contains (1) a 1-km-thick upper unit of Caetano Tuff composed of multiple, thin cooling units and interbedded sedimentary rocks, (2) a >3.5- km-thick lower compound cooling unit of Caetano Tuff, and (3) 5 shallowly emplaced (locally <1 km) granite porphyries consisting of the Carico Lake pluton and slightly older, altered intrusions that are exposed over >50 km2. Ten sanidine 40Ar/39Ar ages from the stratigraphically lowest Caetano Tuff through the youngest shallow pluton are indistinguishable at 33.8 Ma, indicating that eruption of >1000 km3 of rhyolite tuff, caldera collapse, magma resurgence, and pluton emplacement occurred in <0.1 Ma. The compositionally zoned, crystal-rich Caetano Tuff (~40 vol % phenocrysts) and Carico Lake pluton (60% phenocrysts) contain quartz, sanidine, plagioclase, biotite, Fe-Ti oxide ± hornblende. Allanite, apatite, and zircon are common accessories; sphene is absent. The lower ~3000 m of the lower Caetano Tuff is a monotonous high-silica rhyolite (76-77% SiO2) with relatively flat chondrite- normalized REE patterns (La/Lun~5) and a pronounced negative Eu anomaly. The uppermost ~500 m of the lower Caetano Tuff, upper Caetano Tuff, and Carico Lake pluton all have lower SiO2 (71-75%) and steep REE patterns (La/Lun~30), are enriched in LREE, Ba, Sr, and Zr, lack Eu anomalies, and are depleted in HREE relative to the bulk of the lower Caetano Tuff. These distinct chemical trends suggest two different magma batches were tapped during ignimbrite eruption and that the Carico Lake pluton represents residual magma from the reservoir that fed the later parts of the eruption. Field, geochemical, and geochronologic data prove a shallow batholith-scale magma reservoir

  9. Calibration methods and tools for KM3NeT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulikovskiy, Vladimir

    2016-04-01

    The KM3NeT detectors, ARCA and ORCA, composed of several thousands digital optical modules, are in the process of their realization in the Mediterranean Sea. Each optical module contains 31 3-inch photomultipliers. Readout of the optical modules and other detector components is synchronized at the level of sub-nanoseconds. The position of the module is measured by acoustic piezo detectors inside the module and external acoustic emitters installed on the bottom of the sea. The orientation of the module is obtained with an internal attitude and heading reference system chip. Detector calibration, i.e. timing, positioning and sea-water properties, is overviewed in this talk and discussed in detail in this conference. Results of the procedure applied to the first detector unit ready for installation in the deep sea will be shown.

  10. Estimating worldwide solar radiation resources on a 40km grid

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, E.L.; George, R.L.; Brady, E.H.

    1996-11-01

    During 1995, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), initiated the Data Grid Task under the auspices of DOE`s Resource Assessment Program. A data grid is a framework of uniformly spaced locations (grid points) for which data are available. Estimates of monthly averages of direct normal, diffuse horizontal, and global horizontal daily-total solar radiation energy (kWh/m{sup 2}) are being made for each point on a grid covering the US, Mexico, the Caribbean, and southern Canada. The grid points are separated by approximately 40 km. Using interpolation methods, the digital data grid can be used to estimate solar resources at any location. The most encouraging result to date has been the location of sources providing worldwide data for most of the input parameters required for modeling daily total solar radiation. This is a multiyear task expected to continue through the rest of this century.

  11. Fatal truck-bicycle accident involving dragging for 45 km.

    PubMed

    Klintschar, M; Darok, M; Roll, P

    2003-08-01

    Vehicle-bicycle accidents with subsequent dragging of the rider over long distances are extremely rare. The case reported here is that of a 16-year-old mentally retarded bike rider who was run over by a truck whose driver failed to notice the accident. The legs of the victim became trapped by the rear axle of the trailer and the body was dragged over 45 km before being discovered under the parked truck. The autopsy revealed that the boy had died from the initial impact and not from the dragging injuries which had caused extensive mutilation. The reports of the technical expert and the forensic pathologist led the prosecutor to drop the case against the truck driver for manslaughter.

  12. Wintertime density perturbations near 50 km in relation to latitude

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quiroz, R. S.

    1977-01-01

    Standard and reference atmospheres which depict the horizontal distribution of air density in the stratosphere and mesosphere are not realistic in that they do not provide information on the large departures from standard that may occur during a given month, nor on the time- and space-scales of atmospheric perturbations responsible for these departures. In the present paper, it is shown how this information can be obtained from a special analysis of satellite radiance measurements. Plots of the mean zonal radiance, obtained with the VTPR instrument, and the corresponding 50-km density show not only the expected strong poleward gradient of density, but also a strong density surge from late December to early January, affecting all latitudes.

  13. The modelled surface mass balance of the Antarctic Peninsula at 5.5 km horizontal resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Wessem, J. M.; Ligtenberg, S. R. M.; Reijmer, C. H.; van de Berg, W. J.; van den Broeke, M. R.; Barrand, N. E.; Thomas, E. R.; Turner, J.; Wuite, J.; Scambos, T. A.; van Meijgaard, E.

    2016-02-01

    This study presents a high-resolution (˜ 5.5 km) estimate of surface mass balance (SMB) over the period 1979-2014 for the Antarctic Peninsula (AP), generated by the regional atmospheric climate model RACMO2.3 and a firn densification model (FDM). RACMO2.3 is used to force the FDM, which calculates processes in the snowpack, such as meltwater percolation, refreezing and runoff. We evaluate model output with 132 in situ SMB observations and discharge rates from six glacier drainage basins, and find that the model realistically simulates the strong spatial variability in precipitation, but that significant biases remain as a result of the highly complex topography of the AP. It is also clear that the observations significantly underrepresent the high-accumulation regimes, complicating a full model evaluation. The SMB map reveals large accumulation gradients, with precipitation values above 3000 mm we yr-1 in the western AP (WAP) and below 500 mm we yr-1 in the eastern AP (EAP), not resolved by coarser data sets such as ERA-Interim. The average AP ice-sheet-integrated SMB, including ice shelves (an area of 4.1 × 105 km2), is estimated at 351 Gt yr-1 with an interannual variability of 58 Gt yr-1, which is dominated by precipitation (PR) (365 ± 57 Gt yr-1). The WAP (2.4 × 105 km2) SMB (276 ± 47 Gt yr-1), where PR is large (276 ± 47 Gt yr-1), dominates over the EAP (1.7 × 105 km2) SMB (75 ± 11 Gt yr-1) and PR (84 ± 11 Gt yr-1). Total sublimation is 11 ± 2 Gt yr-1 and meltwater runoff into the ocean is 4 ± 4 Gt yr-1. There are no significant trends in any of the modelled AP SMB components, except for snowmelt that shows a significant decrease over the last 36 years (-0.36 Gt yr-2).

  14. Sensitivity of the KM3NeT detector to a neutrino flux from the Fermi bubbles

    SciTech Connect

    Coniglione, R.; Piattelli, P.; Sapienza, P.; Trovato, A.; Collaboration: KM3NeT Collaboration

    2014-11-18

    The Fermi Large Area Telescope data has provided evidence for a high-intensity emission of high-energy gamma rays with a E{sup −2} spectrum from two large bubbles above and below the Galactic Center. Hadronic mechanisms were proposed for this gamma-ray emission making the Fermi bubbles promising source candidates of high-energy neutrino emission. In this work preliminary simulation results regarding the detectability of high-energy neutrinos from the Fermi bubbles with the future multi-km{sup 3} neutrino telescope KM3NeT are presented.

  15. Lithium isotope systematics of volcanic glasses from ridge axes and off-axis seamounts in the northern EPR (10-15°N)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, L.; Shirey, S. B.; Castillo, P. R.

    2012-12-01

    It is now widely recognized that the upper mantle source of mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB) is compositionally heterogeneous on various scales, from whole ocean basins [e.g., Castillo and Batiza, Nature, 342, 1989] to individual minerals [e.g., Laubier et al., Chem. Geol., 240, 2007]. Studies on the geochemical heterogeneity of MORB have primarily been based on abundances of incompatible trace elements and long-lived radiogenic isotope ratios. Light stable isotopes, such as Li, have geochemical behavior that potentially can complement these petrogenetic studies because of their anomalously heavy isotopic composition in seawater-altered oceanic crust or subduction wedge mantle and, conversely, light composition in subducted slab [e.g., Elliott et al., Nature, 443, 2006]. However, the lack of correlations between Li isotopes and other conventional geochemical indices (e.g., incompatible trace element ratios) in the global MORB data set [Tomascak et al., Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta., 72, 2008] requires detailed studies of the regions where closely spaced samples can be examined. In this study we attempt to better constrain the composition of mantle source and the nature of mantle heterogeneity beneath the East Pacific Rise (EPR) by analyzing Li isotopic ratios of a group of well-characterized volcanic glasses from the northern EPR between 10°N and 15°N. The analyzed samples are from both ridge axes and off-axis seamounts where small volumes of melts that undergo low degree of crystal fractionation and mixing and, thus, provide direct geochemical information of mantle heterogeneity. They span a wide range of compositions, from normal-MORB (K2O/TiO2<0.1) to enriched-MORB (K2O/TiO2>0.1). The δ7Li values of on- and off-axis glasses show systematic correlations with conventional geochemical indices of mantle heterogeneity, forming a trend toward more enriched compositions. In detail, heavier Li isotopic ratios are associated with higher highly/moderately incompatible trace

  16. The Control Unit of KM3NeT data acquisition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozza, Cristiano

    2016-04-01

    The KM3NeT Collaboration is building a new generation of neutrino telescopes in the Mediterranean Sea. With the telescopes, scientists will search for cosmic neutrinos to study highly energetic objects in the Universe, while one neutrino detector will be dedicated to measure the properties of the high-energy neutrino particles themselves. Control of the KM3NeT data acquisition processes is handled by the KM3NeT Control Unit, which has been designed to maximise the detector live time. The Control Unit features software programs with different roles, following the philosophy of having no single point of failure. While all programs are interconnected, each one can also work alone for most of the time in case other services are unavailable. All services run on the Common Language Runtime, which ensures portability, flexibility and automatic memory management. Each service has an embedded Web server, providing a user interface as well as programmatic access to data and functions. Data to and from detector components for monitoring and management purposes are transmitted using a custom designed protocol. The Control Unit is interfaced to one or more Message Dispatchers to control the data acquisition chain. A Data Base Interface provides fast and fault-tolerant connection to a remote Data Base.

  17. Tropical Waves and the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation in a 7-km Global Climate Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, Laura A.; Alexander, M. Joan; Coy, Lawrence; Molod, Andrea; Putman, William; Pawson, Steven

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates tropical waves and their role in driving a quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO)-like signal in stratospheric winds in a global 7-km-horizontal-resolution atmospheric general circulation model. The Nature Run (NR) is a 2-year global mesoscale simulation of the Goddard Earth Observing System Model, version 5 (GEOS-5). In the tropics, there is evidence that the NR supports a broad range of convectively generated waves. The NR precipitation spectrum resembles the observed spectrum in many aspects, including the preference for westward-propagating waves. However, even with very high horizontal resolution and a healthy population of resolved waves, the zonal force provided by the resolved waves is still too low in the QBO region and parameterized gravity wave drag is the main driver of the NR QBO-like oscillation (NRQBO). The authors suggest that causes include coarse vertical resolution and excessive dissipation. Nevertheless, the very-high-resolution NR provides an opportunity to analyze the resolved wave forcing of the NR-QBO. In agreement with previous studies, large-scale Kelvin and small-scale waves contribute to the NRQBO driving in eastward shear zones and small-scale waves dominate the NR-QBO driving in westward shear zones. Waves with zonal wavelength,1000 km account for up to half of the small-scale (,3300 km) resolved wave forcing in eastward shear zones and up to 70% of the small-scale resolved wave forcing in westward shear zones of the NR-QBO.

  18. Physical Contact between the +20 km s-1 Cloud and the Galactic Circumnuclear Disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takekawa, Shunya; Oka, Tomoharu; Tanaka, Kunihiko

    2017-01-01

    We report the discovery of physical contact between the Galactic circumnuclear disk (CND) and an adjacent giant molecular cloud. The central 10 pc of our Galaxy has been imaged in molecular lines at millimeter wavelength using the Nobeyama Radio Observatory 45 m radio telescope. In the position-velocity maps of several high-density probe lines, we have found an emission ``bridge'' connecting the +20 km s-1 cloud (M-0.13-0.08) and the negative longitude extension of the CND. The collision between the +20 km s-1 cloud and the CND may be responsible for the formation of the bridge. This event can promote mass accretion onto the CND and/or into the inner cavity.

  19. Evaluation of Whipple bumper shields at 7 and 10 km/s

    SciTech Connect

    Ang, J.A.; Chhabildas, L.C. ); Cour-Palais, B.G. ); Christiansen, E.L.; Crews, J.L. . Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center)

    1991-01-01

    A series of experiments has been performed on the Sandia Hypervelocity Launcher to determine the performance limits of conventional Whipple shields against representative 0.8 g aluminum orbital debris plate-like fragments with velocities of 7 and 10 km/s. Supporting diagnostics include flash X-rays, high speed photography and transient digitizers for timing correlation. Two Whipple shield designs were tested with either a 0.030 cm or a 0.127 cm thick front sheet and a 0.407 cm thick backsheet separated by 30.5 cm. These two designs bracket the ballistic penetration limit curve for protection against these debris simulants for 7 km/s impacts. 7 refs.

  20. Evaluation of Whipple bumper shields at 7 and 10 km/s

    SciTech Connect

    Ang, J.A.; Chhabildas, L.C.; Cour-Palais, B.G.; Christiansen, E.L.; Crews, J.L.

    1991-12-31

    A series of experiments has been performed on the Sandia Hypervelocity Launcher to determine the performance limits of conventional Whipple shields against representative 0.8 g aluminum orbital debris plate-like fragments with velocities of 7 and 10 km/s. Supporting diagnostics include flash X-rays, high speed photography and transient digitizers for timing correlation. Two Whipple shield designs were tested with either a 0.030 cm or a 0.127 cm thick front sheet and a 0.407 cm thick backsheet separated by 30.5 cm. These two designs bracket the ballistic penetration limit curve for protection against these debris simulants for 7 km/s impacts. 7 refs.

  1. Evaluation of Whipple Bumper shields at 7 and 10 km/s

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ang, J. A.; Chhabildas, L. C.; Cour-Palais, B. G.; Christiansen, E. L.; Crews, J. L.

    1992-01-01

    A series of experiments has been performed on the Sandia Hypervelocity Launcher to determine the performance limits of conventional Whipple shields against representative 0.8 g aluminum orbital debris plate-like fragments with velocities of 7 and 10 km/s. Supporting diagnostics include flash X-rays, high speed photography and transient digitizers for timing correlation. Two Whipple shield designs were tested with either a 0.030 cm or a 0.127 cm thick front sheet and a 0.407 cm thick backsheet separated by 30.5 cm. These two designs bracket the ballistic penetration limit curve for protection against these debris simulants for 7 km/s impacts.

  2. 45-km horizontal-path optical link experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, Abhijit; Ceniceros, Juan M.; Novak, Matthew J.; Jeganathan, Muthu; Portillo, Angel; Erickson, David M.; de Pew, Jon; Sanii, B.; Lesh, James R.

    1999-04-01

    Mountain-top to mountain-top optical link experiments have been initiated at JPL, in order to perform a systems level evaluation of optical communications. Progress made so far is reported. The NASA, JPL developed optical communications demonstrator (OCD) is used to transmit a laser signal from Strawberry Peak (SP), located in the San Bernadino mountains of California. This laser beam is received by a 0.6 m aperture telescope at JPL's Table Mountain Facility (TMF), located in Wrightwood, California. The optical link is bi-directional with the TMF telescope transmitting a continuous 4-wave (cw) 780 nm beacon and the OCD sending back an 840 nm, 100 - 500 Mbps pseudo noise (PN) modulated, laser beam. The optical link path is at an average altitude of 2 Km above sea level, covers a range of 46.8 Km and provides an atmospheric channel equivalent to approximately 4 air masses. Average received power measured at either end fall well within the uncertainties predicted by link analysis. The reduction in normalized intensity variance ((sigma) I2) for the 4- beam beacon, compared to each individual beam, at SP, was from approximately 0.68 to 0.22. With some allowance for intra-beam mis-alignment, this is consistent with incoherent averaging. The (sigma) I2 measured at TMF approximately 0.43 plus or minus 0.22 exceeded the expected aperture averaged value of less than 0.1, probably because of beam wander. The focused spot sizes of approximately 162 plus or minus 6 micrometer at the TMF Coude and approximately 64 plus or minus 3 micrometer on the OCD compare to the predicted size range of 52 - 172 micrometer and 57 - 93 micrometer, respectively. This is consistent with 4 - 5 arcsec of atmospheric 'seeing.' The preliminary evaluation of OCD's fine tracking indicates that the uncompensated tracking error is approximately 3.3 (mu) rad compared to approximately 1.7 (mu) rad observed in the laboratory. Fine tracking performance was intermittent, primarily due to beacon fades on the

  3. Seismic evidence of negligible water carried below 400-km depth in subducting lithosphere.

    PubMed

    Green, Harry W; Chen, Wang-Ping; Brudzinski, Michael R

    2010-10-14

    Strong evidence exists that water is carried from the surface into the upper mantle by hydrous minerals in the uppermost 10-12 km of subducting lithosphere, and more water may be added as the lithosphere bends and goes downwards. Significant amounts of that water are released as the lithosphere heats up, triggering earthquakes and fluxing arc volcanism. In addition, there is experimental evidence for high solubility of water in olivine, the most abundant mineral in the upper mantle, for even higher solubility in olivine's high-pressure polymorphs, wadsleyite and ringwoodite, and for the existence of dense hydrous magnesium silicates that potentially could carry water well into the lower mantle (deeper than 1,000 km). Here we compare experimental and seismic evidence to test whether patterns of seismicity and the stabilities of these potentially relevant hydrous phases are consistent with a wet lithosphere. We show that there is nearly a one-to-one correlation between dehydration of minerals and seismicity at depths less than about 250 km, and conclude that the dehydration of minerals is the trigger of instability that leads to seismicity. At greater depths, however, we find no correlation between occurrences of earthquakes and depths where breakdown of hydrous phases is expected. Lastly, we note that there is compelling evidence for the existence of metastable olivine (which, if present, can explain the distribution of deep-focus earthquakes) west of and within the subducting Tonga slab and also in three other subduction zones, despite metastable olivine being incompatible with even extremely small amounts of water (of the order of 100 p.p.m. by weight). We conclude that subducting slabs are essentially dry at depths below 400 km and thus do not provide a pathway for significant amounts of water to enter the mantle transition zone or the lower mantle.

  4. KM3NeT Digital Optical Module electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Real, Diego

    2016-04-01

    The KM3NeT collaboration is currently building of a neutrino telescope with a volume of several cubic kilometres at the bottom of the Mediterranean Sea. The telescope consists of a matrix of Digital Optical Modules that will detect the Cherenkov light originated by the interaction of the neutrinos in the proximity of the detector. This contribution describes the main components of the read-out electronics of the Digital Optical Module: the Power Board, which delivers all the power supply required by the Digital Optical Molule electronics; the Central Logic Board, the main core of the read-out system, hosting 31 Time to Digital Converters with 1 ns resolution and the White Rabbit protocol embedded in the Central Logic Board Field Programmable Gate Array; the Octopus boards, that transfer the Low Voltage Digital Signals from the PMT bases to the Central Logic Board and finally the PMT bases, in charge of converting the analogue signal produced in the 31 3" PMTs into a Low Voltage Digital Signal.

  5. Marine oil dietary supplementation reduces delayed onset muscle soreness after a 30 km run

    PubMed Central

    Baum, Klaus; Telford, Richard D; Cunningham, Ross B

    2013-01-01

    Objective Runners are prone to delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) during long distance training. This especially holds for unaccustomed training volumes at moderate to high intensities. We investigated the effects of a marine oil complex, PCSO-524®, derived from the New Zealand green-lipped mussel (formulated as Lyprinol® and Omega XL®) on DOMS after a 30 km training run. Methods Initially, peak oxygen uptake of 32 distance runners (4 female, 28 male; median age 45 years, range 28–53) was measured on a treadmill with a 1.5 km hour−1 increase every 4 minutes starting from 8.5 km hour−1. At least 1-week after this initial test, they participated in a 30 km road run at a speed corresponding to about 70% of their individual peak oxygen uptake on a flat terrain. Before and after (0, 24, and 48 hours) the run, blood concentration of creatine kinase (CK) were measured and pain sensation was determined (pain scale from 0 = no pain to 10 = extremely painful). Runners were then matched in pairs based on maximal CK and peak oxygen uptake, and allocated randomly into two different groups. One group was supplemented with 400 mg per day of PCSO-524® for 11 weeks, the other group with an olive oil placebo. After that period, CK and pain sensations were remeasured following a second 30 km run at the same speed and on the same terrain. Results The general pattern of soreness in the PCSO-524® supplemented group was reduced by 1.1 units (standard error 0.41) compared to the placebo (P < 0.05), the effects being greater in lesser trained runners (P < 0.05). CK levels were positively associated with pain sensation (P < 0.05), but trends toward lower CK in the PCSO-524® group, which were also more pronounced in the lesser trained runners, were not statistically significant. Conclusion Pain sensations experienced by distance runners following a 30 km run were reduced by supplementation with the marine oil complex PCSO-524®, an effect which was greater in lesser trained

  6. 46 CFR 76.10-15 - Piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... fire pumps operating simultaneously. This is in addition to § 76.10-5(c). The discharge of this quantity of water through hoses and nozzles at a sufficient number of adjacent hydrants shall be at a minimum Pitot tube pressure of approximately 50 pounds per square inch....

  7. 46 CFR 76.10-15 - Piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... fire pumps operating simultaneously. This is in addition to § 76.10-5(c). The discharge of this quantity of water through hoses and nozzles at a sufficient number of adjacent hydrants shall be at a minimum Pitot tube pressure of approximately 50 pounds per square inch....

  8. 46 CFR 76.10-15 - Piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... fire pumps operating simultaneously. This is in addition to § 76.10-5(c). The discharge of this quantity of water through hoses and nozzles at a sufficient number of adjacent hydrants shall be at a minimum Pitot tube pressure of approximately 50 pounds per square inch....

  9. 46 CFR 95.10-15 - Piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... discharge from two fire pumps operating simultaneously. This requirement is in addition to § 95.10-5(c). The discharge of this quantity of water through hoses and nozzles at a sufficient number of adjacent hydrants shall be at a minimum Pitot tube pressure of approximately 50 pounds per square inch....

  10. 46 CFR 193.10-15 - Piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... required discharge from two fire pumps operating simultaneously. This requirement is in addition to § 193.10-5(c). The discharge of this quantity of water through hoses and nozzles at a sufficient number of adjacent hydrants must be at a minimum Pitot tube pressure of 50 pounds per square inch....

  11. 46 CFR 193.10-15 - Piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... required discharge from two fire pumps operating simultaneously. This requirement is in addition to § 193.10-5(c). The discharge of this quantity of water through hoses and nozzles at a sufficient number of adjacent hydrants must be at a minimum Pitot tube pressure of 50 pounds per square inch....

  12. 46 CFR 95.10-15 - Piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... discharge from two fire pumps operating simultaneously. This requirement is in addition to § 95.10-5(c). The discharge of this quantity of water through hoses and nozzles at a sufficient number of adjacent hydrants shall be at a minimum Pitot tube pressure of approximately 50 pounds per square inch....

  13. 46 CFR 76.10-15 - Piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... fire pumps operating simultaneously. This is in addition to § 76.10-5(c). The discharge of this quantity of water through hoses and nozzles at a sufficient number of adjacent hydrants shall be at a minimum Pitot tube pressure of approximately 50 pounds per square inch....

  14. 46 CFR 95.10-15 - Piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... discharge from two fire pumps operating simultaneously. This requirement is in addition to § 95.10-5(c). The discharge of this quantity of water through hoses and nozzles at a sufficient number of adjacent hydrants shall be at a minimum Pitot tube pressure of approximately 50 pounds per square inch....

  15. 46 CFR 193.10-15 - Piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... required discharge from two fire pumps operating simultaneously. This requirement is in addition to § 193.10-5(c). The discharge of this quantity of water through hoses and nozzles at a sufficient number of adjacent hydrants must be at a minimum Pitot tube pressure of 50 pounds per square inch....

  16. Kinematics of the New Zealand plate boundary: Relative motion by GPS across networks of 1000 km and 50 km spacing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meertens, Charles M.; Rocken, Christian; Perin, Barbara; Walcott, Richard

    1993-01-01

    The NASA/DOSE 'Kinematics of the New Zealand Plate Boundary' experiment is a four-year cooperative Global Positioning System (GPS) experiment involving 6 universities and institutions in New Zealand and the United States. The investigation covers two scales, the first on the scale of plates (approximately 1000 km) and the second is on the scale of the plate boundary zone (approximately 50 km). In the first portion of the experiment, phase A, the objective is to make direct measurements of tectonic plate motion between the Australian and Pacific plates using GPS in order to determine the Euler vector of this plate pair. The phase A portion of this experiment was initiated in December 1992 with the first-epoch baseline measurements on the large scale network. The network will be resurveyed two years later to obtain velocities. The stations which were observed for phase A are shown and listed. Additional regional stations which will be used for this study are listed and are part of either CIGNET or other global tracking networks. The phase A portion of the experiment is primarily the responsibility of the UNAVCO investigators. Therefore, this report concentrates on phase A. The first year of NASA funding for phase A included only support for the field work. Processing and analysis will take place with the second year of funding. The second part of the experiemnt measured relative motion between the Australian and Pacific plates across the pate boundary zone between Hokitika and Christchurch on the South Island of New Zealand. The extent and rate of deformation will be determined by comparisons with historical, conventional surveys and by repeated GPS measurements to be made in two years. This activity was the emphasis of the LDGO portion of the study. An ancillary experiment, phase C, concentrated on plate boundary deformation in the vicinity of Wellington and was done as part of training during the early portion of the field campaign. Details of the objectives of the

  17. Debris cloud characterization at impact velocities of 5 to 11 km/s

    SciTech Connect

    Chhabildas, L.C.; Boslough, M.B.; Reinhart, W.D.; Hall, C.A.

    1993-08-01

    A series of experiments has been performed on the Sandia HyperVelocity Launcher to impact a 1.25-mm thick aluminum bumper by an aluminum flier plate 17-mm diameter by 0.92-mm thick over the velocity range of 5 km/s to 11 km/s. Radiographic techniques were employed to record the debris cloud generated upon impact. The shape of the debris cloud is found to depend on the flier plate tilt. Generally -- the data indicate a central core of higher density surrounded by a diffused layer. These experiments allow measurements of debris cloud expansion velocities as the material undergoes a phase change from solid fragments at impact velocities of 5 km/s to a mixture of liquid and vapor phase at higher impact velocities. The expansion velocity of the debris cloud increases with increasing impact velocity, with the high-density leading edge traveling faster than the impact velocity. There is a difference between the X-ray and photographic measurements of expansion velocities at higher impact velocities. This is believed to be due to the presence of very low-density vapor in the photographic records that are not detecting using X-ray techniques.

  18. Physical Contact between the +20 km s^{-1} Cloud and the Galactic Circumnuclear Disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takekawa, Shunya; Oka, Tomoharu; Tanaka, Kunihiko

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports the discovery of evidence for physical contact between the Galactic circumnuclear disk (CND) and an exterior giant molecular cloud. The central 10 pc of our Galaxy has been imaged in the HCN J = 1–0, HCO+ J = 1–0, CS J = 2–1, H13CN J = 1–0, SiO J = 2–1, SO NJ = 23–12, and HC3N J = 11–10 lines using the Nobeyama Radio Observatory 45 m radio telescope. Based on our examination of the position–velocity maps of several high-density probe lines, we have found that an emission “bridge” may be connecting the +20 km s‑1 cloud (M–0.13–0.08) and the negative-longitude extension of the CND. Analyses of line intensity ratios imply that the chemical property of the bridge is located between the +20 km s‑1 cloud and the CND. We introduce a new interpretation that a part of the CND may be colliding with the 20 km s‑1 cloud and the collision may be responsible for the formation of the bridge. Such collisional events could promote mass accretion onto the CND or into the inner ionized cavity, which may be further tested by proper motion studies.

  19. Gastrointestinal distress is common during a 161-km ultramarathon.

    PubMed

    Stuempfle, Kristin Jean; Hoffman, Martin Dean

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the incidence, severity, and timing of gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms in finishers and non-finishers of the 161-km Western States Endurance Run. A total of 272 runners (71.0% of starters) completed a post-race questionnaire that assessed the incidence and severity (none = 0, mild = 1, moderate = 2, severe = 3, very severe = 4) of 12 upper (reflux/heartburn, belching, stomach bloating, stomach cramps/pain, nausea, vomiting) and lower (intestinal cramps/pain, flatulence, side ache/stitch, urge to defecate, loose stool/diarrhoea, intestinal bleeding/bloody faeces) GI symptoms experienced during each of four race segments. GI symptoms were experienced by most runners (96.0%). Flatulence (65.9% frequency, mean value 1.0, s = 0.6 severity), belching (61.3% frequency, mean value 1.0, s = 0.6 severity), and nausea (60.3% frequency, mean value 1.0, s = 0.7 severity) were the most common symptoms. Among race finishers, 43.9% reported that GI symptoms affected their race performance, with nausea being the most common symptom (86.0%). Among race non-finishers, 35.6% reported that GI symptoms were a reason for dropping out of the race, with nausea being the most common symptom (90.5%). For both finishers and non-finishers, nausea was greatest during the most challenging and hottest part of the race. GI symptoms are very common during ultramarathon running, and in particular, nausea is the most common complaint for finishers and non-finishers.

  20. Estimation of Land Surface Temperature from 1-km AVHRR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frey, Corinne

    2016-04-01

    In order to re-process DLRs 1km AVHRR data archive to different geophysical and descriptive parameters of the land surface and the atmosphere, a series of scientific data processors are being developed in the framework of the TIMELINE project. The archive of DLR ranges back to the 80ies. One of the data processors is SurfTemp, which processes L2 LST and emissivity datasets from AVHRR L1b data. The development of the data processor included the selection of statistical procedures suitable for time series processing, including four mono-window and six split window algorithms. For almost all of these algorithms, new constants were generated, which better account for different atmospheric and geometric acquisition situations. The selection of optimal algorithms for SurfTemp is based on a round robin approach, in which the selected mono-window and split window algorithms are tested on the basis of a large number of TOA radiance/LST pairs, which were generated using a radiative transfer model and the SeeBorV5 profile database. The original LSTs are thereby compared to the LSTs derived from the TOA radiances using the mono- and split window algorithms. The algorithm comparison includes measures of precision, as well as the sensitivity of a method to the accuracy of its input data. The results of the round robin are presented, as well as the implementation of selected algorithms into SurfTemp. Further, first cross-validation results between the AVHRR LST and MODIS LST are shown.

  1. Determinants of recovery from a 161-km ultramarathon.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Martin D; Badowski, Natalie; Chin, Joseph; Stuempfle, Kristin J; Parise, Carol A

    2017-04-01

    The primary study objective was to identify determinants of short-term recovery from a 161-km ultramarathon. Participants completed 400 m runs at maximum speed before the race and on days 3 and 5 post-race, provided a post-race blood sample for plasma creatine kinase (CK) concentration, and provided lower body muscle pain and soreness ratings (soreness, 10-point scale) and overall muscular fatigue scores (fatigue, 100-point scale) pre-race and for 7 days post-race. Among 72 race finishers, soreness and fatigue had statistically returned to pre-race levels by 5 days post-race; and 400 m times at days 3 and 5 remained 26% (P = 0.001) and 12% (P = 0.01) slower compared with pre-race, respectively. CK best modelled soreness, fatigue and per cent change in post-race 400 m time. Runners with the highest CKs had 1.5 points higher (P < 0.001) soreness and 11.2 points higher (P = 0.006) fatigue than runners with the lowest CKs. For the model of 400 m time, a significant interaction of time with CK (P < 0.001) indicates that higher CKs were linked with a slower rate of return to pre-race 400 m time. Since post-race CK was the main modifiable determinant of recovery following the ultramarathon, appropriate training appears to be the optimal approach to enhance ultramarathon recovery.

  2. Correlation of the 410 km Discontinuity Low Velocity Layer with Tomographic Wavespeed Variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Z.; Dueker, K. G.

    2010-12-01

    The transition zone water-filter model predicts that a hydrous melt layer at the 410-km discontinuity is only actively produced in upwelling region, and does not exist in downwelling region (Bercovici and Karato, 2003). This prediction has been tested by stacking of P-S receiver functions using the RISTRA linear array which crosses west-Texas, New Mexico and Utah. The receiver functions are binned into the NW, SE, SW azimuthal quadrants and stacked to produce well-resolved images of the 410- and 660-km discontinuities. The three receiver function quadrant stack images find a correlation between the occurrence of negative polarity 410-km low velocity layer arrival and the teleseismic body wave velocity tomogram of Schmandt and Humphreys (2010); the 410 low velocity layer arrival is absent where the velocities about the 410 km discontinuity are relatively high and present where the velocities are low. Our finding is consistent with a simple interpretation of the transition zone water filter model which predicts the production of a hydrous melt layer where upflow of sufficiently hydrated transition zone mantle occurs and destruction of a hydrous melt layer where there is downflow. We test this prediction by analyzing the Colorado Rockies Experiment and Seismic Transects (CREST) seismic data which was collected in 2008-2009. This 15 month deployment of 59 CREST stations in tandem with 31 Transportable Array stations yields a total of 161 Mb>5.5 events at 30°-95° distances. The P-S receiver functions are calculated using a multi-channel deconvolution methodology and filtered with a 30-3 s post-deconvolution filter. The receiver function dataset contains about 1800 SV components after RMS, cross-correlation, and visual data quality culling. Common conversion point images are constructed using Pds timing correction from a 3-D upper mantle tomography model (McCarthy and Aster, pers. com.) to account for lateral P/S velocity heterogeneity.

  3. The effect of skin temperature on performance during a 7.5-km cycling time trial.

    PubMed

    Levels, Koen; de Koning, Jos J; Foster, Carl; Daanen, Hein A M

    2012-09-01

    Aerobic exercise performance is seriously compromised in the heat. Possibly, a high skin temperature causes a rating of perceived exertion (RPE)-mediated decrease in exercise intensity. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of skin temperature on power output during a 7.5-km cycling time trial. Thirteen well-trained male subjects performed a 7.5-km cycling time trial at 15°C and 50% relative humidity (CONTROL), with radiative heat stress during the time trial, and with (PRECOOL) or without (HEAT) precooling. Heat stress was applied by infrared heaters positioned in front of the cycle ergometer between 1.5 and 6.0 km. Skin, rectal, and pill temperature, power output, heart rate, and RPE were measured during the trial. Despite the lower mean skin temperature at the start of the time trial for PRECOOL compared to HEAT (-2.1 ± 0.7°C; P < 0.01) and CONTROL (-1.8 ± 0.6°C; P < 0.05), and a greater increase in mean skin temperature during the heat stress period for PRECOOL (4.5 ± 1.0°C) and HEAT (3.9 ± 0.8°C) than for CONTROL (-0.3 ± 0.6°C; P < 0.01), no differences in power output were found between HEAT (273 ± 45 W) and CONTROL (284 ± 43 W; P = 0.11) and between HEAT and PRECOOL (266 ± 50 W; P = 0.47). Power output during the time trial was greater for CONTROL than for PRECOOL (P < 0.05). Additionally, no differences were observed in core temperature measures, HR, and RPE. Skin temperature does not affect the selection and modulation of exercise intensity in a 7.5-km cycling time trial.

  4. The RF spectra of first and subsequent lightning return strokes in the 1- to 200-km range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Serhan, G. I.; Uman, M. A.; Childers, D. G.; Lin, Y. T.

    1980-01-01

    An experimental characterization of the frequency spectra of first and subsequent stroke electric fields are presented over a distance range from about 1 km, where the fields are primarily electrostatic, to 200 km, where they are primarily radiation. Spectra are presented to about 700 kHz for lightning within 12 km and to about 300 kHz for lightning at 50 and 200 km. It is shown that the return stroke ground wave spectrum beyond 50 km has a peak near 4 kHz but that within 10 km the spectrum shows a steady increase with decreasing frequency to 1 kHz. Frequency spectra at all ranges fall off roughly as 1/f for frequencies between 5 and 100 kHz, while the falloff above 100 kHz is faster as the distance to the stroke increases. From this high-frequency attenuation an RF conductivity for central Florida of between 0.002 and 0.005/ohm/m was determined.

  5. Seasonal variations of NO and O3 at altitudes of 18.3 and 21.3 km

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loewenstein, M.; Savage, H. F.; Whitten, R. C.

    1975-01-01

    Nitric oxide and ozone concentrations have been measured in situ from a high-altitude research aircraft. Data which show the variations of NO and O3 with the time of year are presented for altitudes of 18.3 and 21.3 km. The extreme values of the observed NO concentrations at 21.3 km are 1.2 billion per cu cm in summer and 0.2 billion per cu cm in winter. At 18.3 km the extreme values are 1.6 billion per cu cm in summer and 0.1 billion per cu cm in winter. The smoothed NO seasonal data show a variation of about a factor of 2.5 at 21.3 km and a factor of 4 at 18.3 km. The ozone data show the generally expected magnitude and seasonal variation. We have used a photochemical model employing the measured ozone concentrations, the mean solar zenith angle, and seasonal HNO3 data reported by others to predict the seasonal NO variation at 20 km. The result is a summer-to-winter NO ratio of 2.5 which is in fair agreement with the observed ratios.

  6. 112 Gb/s PM-QPSK transmission up to 6000 km with 200 km amplifier spacing and a hybrid fiber span configuration.

    PubMed

    Downie, John D; Hurley, Jason; Cartledge, John; Bickham, Scott; Mishra, Snigdharaj

    2011-12-12

    We demonstrate transmission of 112 Gb/s PM-QPSK signals over a system with 200 km span lengths. Amplification is provided by hybrid backward-pumped Raman/EDFA amplifiers and reach lengths up to 6000 km for an 8 channel system and 5400 km for a 32 channel system are shown. As a means of maximizing OSNR, a simple hybrid fiber span configuration is used that combines two ultra-low loss fibers, one having very large effective area.

  7. IGBP-DIS global 1 km land cover data set, DISCover: First results

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Loveland, T.R.; Belward, A.S.

    1997-01-01

    The International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme Data and Information System (IGBP-DIS) is co-ordinating the development of global land data sets from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data. The first is a 1 km spatial resolution land cover product `DISCover', based on monthly Normalized Difference Vegetation Index composites from 1992 and 1993. DISCover is a 17 class land cover dataset based on the science requirements of IGBP elements. Mapping uses unsupervised classification with post-classification refinement using ancillary data. Draft Africa, North America and South America products are now available for peer review.

  8. Mid-Latitude Temperatures at 87 km: Results From Multi-Instrument Fourier Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drob, Douglas P.; Picone, J. M.; Eckermann, Stephen D.; She, C . Y.; Kafkalidis, J. F.; Ortland, D. A.; Niciejewski, R. J.; Killeen, T. L.

    2000-01-01

    Using a novel Fourier fitting method we combine two years of mid-latitude temperature measurements at 87 km from the High Resolution Doppler Imager, the Colorado State University lidar, and the Peach Mountain Interferometer. After accounting for calibration bias, significant local-time variations on the order of 10 K were observed. Stationary planetary waves with amplitudes up to 10 K were observed during winter, with weaker wave amplitudes occurring during other seasons. Because of calibration biases among these instruments, we could estimate the annual mean temperature to no better than 193.5 plus or minus 8.5 K.

  9. Characterisation and testing of the KM3NeT acoustic positioning system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viola, S.; Simeone, F.; Saldaña, M.

    2016-04-01

    In underwater neutrino telescopes, the search of point-like sources through the Cherenkov detection technique requires a precise knowledge of the positions of thousands of optical sensors, spread in a volume of a few cubic kilometres. In KM3NeT the optical sensors are hosted in 700 m high semi-rigid structures, called detection units, which move under the effects of underwater currents. These movements are continuously monitored through an underwater positioning system based on acoustic emitters and receivers. In this work, the tests performed on the key elements of the positioning system are presented.

  10. Focusing of relative plate motion at a continental transform fault: Cenozoic dextral displacement >700 km on New Zealand's Alpine Fault, reversing >225 km of Late Cretaceous sinistral motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamb, Simon; Mortimer, Nick; Smith, Euan; Turner, Gillian

    2016-03-01

    The widely accepted ˜450 km Cenozoic dextral strike-slip displacement on New Zealand's Alpine Fault is large for continental strike-slip faults, but it is still less than 60% of the Cenozoic relative plate motion between the Australian and Pacific plates through Zealandia, with the remaining motion assumed to be taken up by rotation and displacement on other faults in a zone up to 300 km wide. We show here that the 450 km total displacement across the Alpine Fault is an artifact of assumptions about the geometry of New Zealand's basement terranes in the Eocene, and the actual Cenozoic dextral displacement across the active trace is greater than 665 km, with more than 700 km (and <785 km since 25 Ma) occurring in a narrow zone less than 10 km wide. This way, the Alpine Fault has accommodated almost all (>94%) of the relative plate motion in the last 25 Ma at an average rate in excess of 28 mm/yr. It reverses more than 225 km (and <300 km) of sinistral shear through Zealandia in the Late Cretaceous, when Zealandia lay on the margin of Gondwana, providing a direct constraint on the kinematics of extension between East and West Antarctica at this time.

  11. SoilGrids1km — Global Soil Information Based on Automated Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Hengl, Tomislav; de Jesus, Jorge Mendes; MacMillan, Robert A.; Batjes, Niels H.; Heuvelink, Gerard B. M.; Ribeiro, Eloi; Samuel-Rosa, Alessandro; Kempen, Bas; Leenaars, Johan G. B.; Walsh, Markus G.; Gonzalez, Maria Ruiperez

    2014-01-01

    Grids system is highly automated and flexible, increasingly accurate predictions can be generated as new input data become available. SoilGrids1km are available for download via http://soilgrids.org under a Creative Commons Non Commercial license. PMID:25171179

  12. Field-aligned electron density irregularities near 500 km Equator to polar cap topside sounder observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benson, R. F.

    1985-06-01

    In addition to spread F, evidence for field-aligned electron density irregularities is commonly observed on Alouette 2 topside sounder ionograms recorded near perigee (500 km). This evidence is provided by distinctive signal returns from sounder-generated Z mode waves. At low latitudes these waves become guided in wave ducts caused by field-aligned electron density irregularities and give rise to strong long-duration echoes. At high latitudes, extending well into the polar cap, these Z mode waves (and stimulated electrostatic waves at the plasma frequency) produce a series of vertical bars on the ionogram display as the satellite traverses discrete field-aligned density structures. The radio frequency (RF) noise environment to be expected in the 400 to 500 km altitude region from low to high latitudes was examined by analyzing perigee Alouette 2 topside sounder data. All observed noise bands were scaled on nearly 200 topside sounder ionograms recorded near perigee at low, mid, and high latitude telemetry stations. The minimum and maximum frequencies of each noise band were entered into a data base or computer analysis. The signals of primary interest in the perigee study were found to be sounder-generated.

  13. Field-aligned electron density irregularities near 500 km Equator to polar cap topside sounder observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benson, R. F.

    1985-01-01

    In addition to spread F, evidence for field-aligned electron density irregularities is commonly observed on Alouette 2 topside sounder ionograms recorded near perigee (500 km). This evidence is provided by distinctive signal returns from sounder-generated Z mode waves. At low latitudes these waves become guided in wave ducts caused by field-aligned electron density irregularities and give rise to strong long-duration echoes. At high latitudes, extending well into the polar cap, these Z mode waves (and stimulated electrostatic waves at the plasma frequency) produce a series of vertical bars on the ionogram display as the satellite traverses discrete field-aligned density structures. The radio frequency (RF) noise environment to be expected in the 400 to 500 km altitude region from low to high latitudes was examined by analyzing perigee Alouette 2 topside sounder data. All observed noise bands were scaled on nearly 200 topside sounder ionograms recorded near perigee at low, mid, and high latitude telemetry stations. The minimum and maximum frequencies of each noise band were entered into a data base or computer analysis. The signals of primary interest in the perigee study were found to be sounder-generated.

  14. Field-aligned electron density irregularities near 500 km Equator to polar cap topside sounder observations

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, R.F.

    1985-06-01

    In addition to spread F, evidence for field-aligned electron density irregularities is commonly observed on Alouette 2 topside sounder ionograms recorded near perigee (500 km). This evidence is provided by distinctive signal returns from sounder-generated Z mode waves. At low latitudes these waves become guided in wave ducts caused by field-aligned electron density irregularities and give rise to strong long-duration echoes. At high latitudes, extending well into the polar cap, these Z mode waves (and stimulated electrostatic waves at the plasma frequency) produce a series of vertical bars on the ionogram display as the satellite traverses discrete field-aligned density structures. The radio frequency (RF) noise environment to be expected in the 400 to 500 km altitude region from low to high latitudes was examined by analyzing perigee Alouette 2 topside sounder data. All observed noise bands were scaled on nearly 200 topside sounder ionograms recorded near perigee at low, mid, and high latitude telemetry stations. The minimum and maximum frequencies of each noise band were entered into a data base or computer analysis. The signals of primary interest in the perigee study were found to be sounder-generated. 15 references.

  15. Prototype of readout electronics for the LHAASO KM2A electromagnetic particle detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiang; Chang, Jing-Fan; Wang, Zheng; Fan, Lei

    2016-07-01

    The KM2A (one kilometer square extensive air shower array) is the largest detector array in the LHAASO (Large High Altitude Air Shower Observatory) project. The KM2A consists of 5242 EDs (Electromagnetic particle Detectors) and 1221 MDs (Muon Detectors). The EDs are distributed and exposed in the wild. Two channels, anode and dynode, are employed for the PMT (photomultiplier tube) signal readout. The readout electronics designed in this paper aims at accurate charge and arrival time measurement of the PMT signals, which cover a large amplitude range from 20 P.E. (photoelectrons) to 2 × 105 P.E. By using a “trigger-less” architecture, we digitize signals close to the PMTs. All digitized data is transmitted to DAQ (Data Acquisition) via a simplified White Rabbit protocol. Compared with traditional high energy experiments, high precision of time measurement over such a large area and suppression of temperature effects in the wild become the key techniques. Experiments show that the design has fulfilled the requirements in this project. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11375210) and the Knowledge Innovation Fund of IHEP, Beijing

  16. A comparison of the IGBP DISCover and University of Maryland 1 km global land cover products

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, M.C.; Reed, B.

    2000-01-01

    Two global 1 km land cover data sets derived from 1992-1993 Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data are currently available, the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme Data and Information System (IGBP-DIS) DISCover and the University of Maryland (UMd) 1 km land cover maps. This paper makes a preliminary comparison of the methodologies and results of the two products. The DISCover methodology employed an unsupervised clustering classification scheme on a per-continent basis using 12 monthly maximum NDVI composites as inputs. The UMd approach employed a supervised classification tree method in which temporal metrics derived from all AVHRR bands and the NDVI were used to predict class membership across the entire globe. The DISCover map uses the IGBP classification scheme, while the UMd map employs a modified IGBP scheme minus the classes of permanent wetlands, cropland/natural vegetation mosaic and ice and snow. Global area totals of aggregated vegetation types are very similar and have a per-pixel agreement of 74%. For tall versus short/no vegetation, the per-pixel agreement is 84%. For broad vegetation types, core areas map similarly, while transition zones around core areas differ significantly. This results in high regional variability between the maps. Individual class agreement between the two 1 km maps is 49%. Comparison of the maps at a nominal 0.5 resolution with two global ground-based maps shows an improvement of thematic concurrency of 46% when viewing average class agreement. The absence of the cropland mosaic class creates a difficulty in comparing the maps, due to its significant extent in the DISCover map. The DISCover map, in general, has more forest, while the UMd map has considerably more area in the intermediate tree cover classes of woody savanna/ woodland and savanna/wooded grassland.

  17. Igneous Crystallization Beginning at 20 km Beneath the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, 14 to 16 N

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelemen, P.

    2003-12-01

    be plagioclase lherzolite saturated at 0.54 GPa (+/-0.14 GPa, 2σ ) and 1220° C (+/-16° C, 2σ ) [Kinzler & Grove, JGR 92]. Impregnated peridotites and olivine gabbronorites at other sites contain all or most of these minerals, have similar compositions, and record similar conditions. Melts entered the thermal boundary layer beneath the Mid-Atlantic Ridge at about 20 km depth [e.g., Sleep, JGR1975; Reid & Jackson, MGR 82; Grove et al JGR 92; Cannat JGR 96; Michael & Chase CMP 97; Braun et al., EPSL 00], and began to crystallize within impregnated peridotites and as discrete plutons intruding peridotite. 25% gabbro in the upper 20 km of an oceanic plate would correspond to 5 km of "normal" oceanic crust. 25% gabbro (7.2 km/s) + 75% peridotite (8.2 km/s) yields a "mantle" Vp (8 km/s). Residual mantle peridotites from Leg 209 Sites N and S of the 15° 20 Fracture Zone are among the most depleted from the mid-ocean ridges. No regional compositional gradient is evident. Most gabbroic rocks are evolved gabbronorites that are not complementary to MORB; instead, they result from complete, near-fractional crystallization of migrating melt at depth. Site 1268 gabbronorites, together with impregnated peridotites, may be primitive cumulates complementary to MORB. As reported elsewhere at this meeting, high temperature shear zones and faults accomodated nearly all of the subsolidus deformation associated with corner flow and exhumation of residual peridotites and high pressure igneous rocks.

  18. A method to stabilise the performance of negatively fed KM3NeT photomultipliers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adrián-Martínez, S.; Ageron, M.; Aiello, S.; Albert, A.; Ameli, F.; Anassontzis, E. G.; Andre, M.; Androulakis, G.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Ardid, M.; Avgitas, T.; Barbarino, G.; Barbarito, E.; Baret, B.; Barrios-Martí, J.; Belias, A.; Berbee, E.; van den Berg, A.; Bertin, V.; Beurthey, S.; van Beveren, V.; Beverini, N.; Biagi, S.; Biagioni, A.; Billault, M.; Bondì, M.; Bormuth, R.; Bouhadef, B.; Bourlis, G.; Bourret, S.; Boutonnet, C.; Bouwhuis, M.; Bozza, C.; Bruijn, R.; Brunner, J.; Buis, E.; Buompane, R.; Busto, J.; Cacopardo, G.; Caillat, L.; Calamai, M.; Calvo, D.; Capone, A.; Caramete, L.; Cecchini, S.; Celli, S.; Champion, C.; Cherubini, S.; Chiarella, V.; Chiarelli, L.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Classen, L.; Cobas, D.; Cocimano, R.; Coelho, J. A. B.; Coleiro, A.; Colonges, S.; Coniglione, R.; Cordelli, M.; Cosquer, A.; Coyle, P.; Creusot, A.; Cuttone, G.; D'Amato, C.; D'Amico, A.; D'Onofrio, A.; De Bonis, G.; De Sio, C.; Di Capua, F.; Di Palma, I.; Distefano, C.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Dorosti-Hasankiadeh, Q.; Drakopoulou, E.; Drouhin, D.; Durocher, M.; Eberl, T.; Eichie, S.; van Eijk, D.; El Bojaddaini, I.; Elsaesser, D.; Enzenhöfer, A.; Favaro, M.; Fermani, P.; Ferrara, G.; Frascadore, G.; Furini, M.; Fusco, L. A.; Gal, T.; Galatà, S.; Garufi, F.; Gay, P.; Gebyehu, M.; Giacomini, F.; Gialanella, L.; Giordano, V.; Gizani, N.; Gracia, R.; Graf, K.; Grégoire, T.; Grella, G.; Grmek, A.; Guerzoni, M.; Habel, R.; Hallmann, S.; van Haren, H.; Harissopulos, S.; Heid, T.; Heijboer, A.; Heine, E.; Henry, S.; Hernández-Rey, J. J.; Hevinga, M.; Hofestädt, J.; Hugon, C. M. F.; Illuminati, G.; James, C. W.; Jansweijer, P.; Jongen, M.; de Jong, M.; Kadler, M.; Kalekin, O.; Kappes, A.; Katz, U. F.; Keller, P.; Kieft, G.; Kießling, D.; Koffeman, E. N.; Kooijman, P.; Kouchner, A.; Kreter, M.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lahmann, R.; Lamare, P.; Leisos, A.; Leonora, E.; Clark, M. Lindsey; Liolios, A.; Llorens Alvarez, C. D.; Lo Presti, D.; Löhner, H.; Lonardo, A.; Lotze, M.; Loucatos, S.; Maccioni, E.; Mannheim, K.; Manzali, M.; Margiotta, A.; Margotti, A.; Marinelli, A.; Mariš, O.; Markou, C.; Martínez-Mora, J. A.; Martini, A.; Marzaioli, F.; Mele, R.; Melis, K. W.; Michael, T.; Migliozzi, P.; Migneco, E.; Mijakowski, P.; Miraglia, A.; Mollo, C. M.; Mongelli, M.; Morganti, M.; Moussa, A.; Musico, P.; Musumeci, M.; Nicolau, C. A.; Olcina, I.; Olivetto, C.; Orlando, A.; Orzelli, A.; Pancaldi, G.; Paolucci, A.; Papaikonomou, A.; Papaleo, R.; Păvălaš, G. E.; Peek, H.; Pellegrini, G.; Pellegrino, C.; Perrina, C.; Pfutzner, M.; Piattelli, P.; Pikounis, K.; Poma, G. E.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Pratolongo, F.; Pühlhofer, G.; Pulvirenti, S.; Quinn, L.; Racca, C.; Raffaelli, F.; Randazzo, N.; Real, D.; Resvanis, L.; Reubelt, J.; Riccobene, G.; Rossi, C.; Rovelli, A.; Saldaña, M.; Salvadori, I.; Samtleben, D. F. E.; Sánchez García, A.; Sánchez Losa, A.; Sanguineti, M.; Santangelo, A.; Santonocito, D.; Sapienza, P.; Schimmel, F.; Schmelling, J.; Schnabel, J.; Sciacca, V.; Sedita, M.; Seitz, T.; Sgura, I.; Simeone, F.; Sipala, V.; Spisso, B.; Spurio, M.; Stavropoulos, G.; Steijger, J.; Stellacci, S. M.; Stransky, D.; Taiuti, M.; Tayalati, Y.; Terrasi, F.; Tézier, D.; Theraube, S.; Timmer, P.; Töonnis, C.; Trasatti, L.; Travaglini, R.; Trovato, A.; Tsirigotis, A.; Tzamarias, S.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Vallage, B.; Van Elewyck, V.; Vermeulen, J.; Versari, F.; Vicini, P.; Viola, S.; Vivolo, D.; Volkert, M.; Wiggers, L.; Wilms, J.; de Wolf, E.; Zachariadou, K.; Zani, S.; Zornoza, J. D.; Zúñiga, J.

    2016-12-01

    The KM3NeT research infrastructure, currently under construction in the Mediterranean Sea, will host neutrino telescopes for the identification of neutrino sources in the Universe and for studies of the neutrino mass hierarchy. These telescopes will house hundreds of thousands of photomultiplier tubes that will have to be operated in a stable and reliable fashion. In this context, the stability of the dark counts has been investigated for photomultiplier tubes with negative high voltage on the photocathode and held in insulating support structures made of 3D printed nylon material. Small gaps between the rigid support structure and the photomultiplier tubes in the presence of electric fields can lead to discharges that produce dark count rates that are highly variable. A solution was found by applying the same insulating varnish as used for the high voltage bases directly to the outside of the photomultiplier tubes. This transparent conformal coating provides a convenient and inexpensive method of insulation.

  19. Numerical Studies of High-Z Plasma in the HyperV Plasma Guns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Linchun; Messer, Sarah; Witherspoon, F. Douglas; Welch, Dale; Thoma, Carsten; Phillips, Mike; Bogatu, I. Nick; Galkin, Sergei; Macfarlane, Joe; Golovkin, Igor

    2010-11-01

    Numerical studies of railguns and coaxial guns at HyperV Technologies Corp. include simulations of hypervelocity plasma transport in the gun, plasma expansion out of the nozzle, and two or more jets merging in vacuum. Plasma detachment, merging jets temperature and charge state evolution are examined in these processes. High-Z materials, such as argon and xenon, are used throughout these simulations. The plasma moves with an initial velocity of 0-10 km/s (80-100 km/s for jet merging), the initial number density ranges from 10^15cm-3 to 10^18cm-3, and the merging jets are several centimeters in radius. The LSP code is used to perform the simulations using improved fluid algorithms and equation-of-state models from Voss and atomic data from Prism.

  20. A Global Database of Land Surface Parameters at 1-km Resolution in Meteorological and Climate Models.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masson, Valéry; Champeaux, Jean-Louis; Chauvin, Fabrice; Meriguet, Christelle; Lacaze, Roselyne

    2003-05-01

    Ecoclimap, a new complete surface parameter global dataset at a 1-km resolution, is presented. It is intended to be used to initialize the soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer schemes (SVATs) in meteorological and climate models (at all horizontal scales). The database supports the `tile' approach, which is utilized by an increasing number of SVATs. Two hundred and fifteen ecosystems representing areas of homogeneous vegetation are derived by combining existing land cover maps and climate maps, in addition to using Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) satellite data. Then, all surface parameters are derived for each of these ecosystems using lookup tables with the annual cycle of the leaf area index (LAI) being constrained by the AVHRR information. The resulting LAI is validated against a large amount of in situ ground observations, and it is also compared to LAI derived from the International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project (ISLSCP-2) database and the Polarization and Directionality of the Earth's Reflectance (POLDER) satellite. The comparison shows that this new LAI both reproduces values coherent at large scales with other datasets, and includes the high spatial variations owing to the input land cover data at a 1-km resolution. In terms of climate modeling studies, the use of this new database is shown to improve the surface climatology of the ARPEGE climate model.

  1. Live monitoring and quasi-online event reconstruction for KM3NeT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gal, Tamas

    2016-04-01

    KM3NeT is a new generation neutrino telescope in the abyss of the Mediterranean Sea. It will instrument a volume of several cubic kilometres of sea water in its final configuration. Currently, the project is in its first phase with the aim of constructing and installing 31 detection units up to 700 m in height, each equipped with 18 digital optical modules. The optical modules are equipped with 31 3-inch photomultipliers to detect the Cherenkov light of charged secondary particles produced in high-energy neutrino interactions. This contribution describes a live detector monitoring system, which enables real-time parameter control and a reconstruction of events soon after the data acquisition. It also allows a rapid response to or provision of external alarms of multi-messenger campaigns. The data acquisition system of KM3NeT provides pre-filtered data in event form, as well as general detector status messages. The events will be processed almost in real-time - with a delay in the range of minutes - using fast reconstruction mechanisms. This allows for high-level monitoring of the detector status using derived distributions, such as time and charge distributions and event rates. The resulting data is displayed on a web page using a dedicated, flexible web service. The same service also displays low-level monitoring data such as trigger rates, PMT hit rates and the general status of the optical modules.

  2. Clouds in ECMWF's 30 KM Resolution Global Atmospheric Forecast Model (TL639)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cahalan, R. F.; Morcrette, J. J.

    1999-01-01

    Global models of the general circulation of the atmosphere resolve a wide range of length scales, and in particular cloud structures extend from planetary scales to the smallest scales resolvable, now down to 30 km in state-of-the-art models. Even the highest resolution models do not resolve small-scale cloud phenomena seen, for example, in Landsat and other high-resolution satellite images of clouds. Unresolved small-scale disturbances often grow into larger ones through non-linear processes that transfer energy upscale. Understanding upscale cascades is of crucial importance in predicting current weather, and in parameterizing cloud-radiative processes that control long term climate. Several movie animations provide examples of the temporal and spatial variation of cloud fields produced in 4-day runs of the forecast model at the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) in Reading, England, at particular times and locations of simultaneous measurement field campaigns. model resolution is approximately 30 km horizontally (triangular truncation TL639) with 31 vertical levels from surface to stratosphere. Timestep of the model is about 10 minutes, but animation frames are 3 hours apart, at timesteps when the radiation is computed. The animations were prepared from an archive of several 4-day runs at the highest available model resolution, and archived at ECMWF. Cloud, wind and temperature fields in an approximately 1000 km X 1000 km box were retrieved from the archive, then approximately 60 Mb Vis5d files were prepared with the help of Graeme Kelly of ECMWF, and were compressed into MPEG files each less than 3 Mb. We discuss the interaction of clouds and radiation in the model, and compare the variability of cloud liquid as a function of scale to that seen in cloud observations made in intensive field campaigns. Comparison of high-resolution global runs to cloud-resolving models, and to lower resolution climate models is leading to better

  3. Redetermination of cyclo-tetra-kis-(μ-5,10,15,20-tetra-4-pyridyl-porphyrinato)tetra-zinc(II) dimethyl-formamide octa-solvate trihydrate at 100 K.

    PubMed

    Seidel, Rüdiger W; Graf, Jürgen; Goddard, Richard; Oppel, Iris M

    2011-01-22

    The structure of the title compound, [Zn(4)(C(40)H(24)N(8))(4)]·8C(3)H(7)NO·3H(2)O, has been redetermined at 100 K. The redetermination is of significantly higher precision and gives further insight into the disorder of pyridyl groups and solvent mol-ecules. The mol-ecules of (5,10,15,20-tetra-4-pyridyl-porphyrinato)zinc(II) (ZnTPyP) form homomolecular cyclic tetra-mers by coordination of a peripheral pyridyl group to the central Zn atom of an adjacent symmetry-related mol-ecule. The tetra-mer so formed exhibits mol-ecular S(4) symmetry and is located about a crystallographic fourfold rotoinversion axis. Severely disordered dimethyl-formamide and water mol-ecules are present in the crystal, the contributions of which were omitted from refinement. Inter-molecular C-H⋯N hydrogen bonding is observed.

  4. Microstructure and magnetic microstructure of the Pr 60Al 10Ni 10Cu 20-xFe x ( x=0, 4, 10, 15, 18) alloys observed by magnetic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Z. Y.; Han, S. H.; Wang, Y. T.; Wang, W. H.; Han, B. S.

    2005-03-01

    The microstructure and magnetic microstructure of the Pr 60Al 10Ni 10Cu 20-xFe x ( x=0, 4, 10, 15, 18) alloys have been achieved simultaneously by employing a magnetic force microscope directly on the as-cast cylinder rod surface for the first time. By varying the content of Fe, the microstructure of the Pr-based alloy changes progressively from a full glassy state to a composite state with nanocrystalline particles embedded in the glassy matrix, and finally into a nanostructured state. The accompanying magnetic property gradually changes from paramagnetic to hard. The experiment directly evidences the existence of exchange coupling between the crystallites and the variety of the grain-size-dependent magnetic properties can be well explained by Löffler et al.'s new random-anisotropy model (Löffler, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 85 (9) (2000) 1990).

  5. Seismic evidence for a wide-spread low velocity layer atop the 410-km discontinuity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tauzin, B.; Debayle, E.; Wittlinger, G.

    2009-12-01

    The origin of a low seismic-velocity layer observed in a few regions in the world atop the upper boundary of the mantle transition zone (the 410-km seismic discontinuity) is debated. It has been attributed to the dehydration of subductions, the dehydration of water-bearing silicate beneath continental platforms in the vicinity of mantle plumes, or to dehydration-induced partial melting of ascending ambient mantle rising out of a high-water-solubility transition zone. These interpretations suggest the effect of water which reduces the solidus of mantle silicate rocks and favors partial melting. We present global multiple frequency observations of P-to-S receiver functions indicating that this low velocity layer is actually a wide-spread feature of the upper mantle. Its location is uncorrelated with any tectonic or geodynamic environment. The estimated layer thickness varies over short lateral wavelengths (~200 km) in a range 30 to 100 km. This complexity suggests a compositional origin with a lens-type lateral extension. Dehydration in the vicinity of subductions or mantle plumes cannot solely explain the observed layer implantation. (A) Synthetic receiver functions (RFs) obtained at four lower corner periods for different thicknesses of a low velocity layer (LVL) atop the "410". Steep downward increases of seismic velocities (e.g. the "410") show up as positive (white) amplitudes on the RFs. Steep downward velocity decreases (e.g. the top of the LVL) show up as negative (black) amplitudes. (B) Multiple-frequency RFs obtained at 42 seismic stations after alignment on the "410" waveform. The "410" waveform has a positive amplitude and is colored in white. Under these stations, the top of a LVL is visible. It shows up as a negative (black) amplitude and is emphasized with the small white crosses. The RFs have been ordered by increasing LVL thickness. (C) Synthetic RFs computed using the same LVL thickness distribution as observed on the data.

  6. One-Hundred-km-Scale Basins on Enceladus: Evidence for an Active Ice Shell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schenk, Paul M.; McKinnon, William B.

    2009-01-01

    Stereo-derived topographic mapping of 50% of Enceladus reveals at least 6 large-scale, ovoid depressions (basins) 90-175 km across and 800-to-1500 m deep and uncorrelated with geologic boundaries. Their shape and scale are inconsistent with impact, geoid deflection, or with dynamically supported topography. Isostatic thinning of Enceladus ice shell associated with upwellings (and tidally-driven ice melting) can plausibly account for the basins. Thinning implies upwarping of the base of the shell of 10-20 km beneath the depressions, depending on total shell thickness; loss of near-surface porosity due to enhanced heat flow may also contribute to basin lows. Alternatively, the basins may overly cold, inactive, and hence denser ice, but thermal isostasy alone requires thermal expansion more consistent with clathrate hydrate than water ice. In contrast to the basins, the south polar depression (SPD) is larger (350 wide) and shallower (0.4-to-0.8 km deep) and correlates with the area of tectonic deformation and active resurfacing. The SPD also differs in that the floor is relatively flat (i.e., conforms roughly to the global triaxial shape, or geoid) with broad, gently sloping flanks. The relative flatness across the SPD suggests that it is in or near isostatic equilibrium, and underlain by denser material, supporting the polar sea hypothesis of Collins and Goodman. Near flatness is also predicted by a crustal spreading origin for the "tiger stripes (McKinnon and Barr 2007, Barr 2008); the extraordinary, high CIRS heat flows imply half-spreading rates in excess of 10 cm/yr, a very young surface age (250,000 yr), and a rather thin lithosphere (hence modest thermal topography). Topographic rises in places along the outer margin of the SPD correlate with parallel ridges and deformation along the edge of the resurfaced terrain, consistent with a compressional, imbricate thrust origin for these ridges, driven by the spreading.

  7. Development of a global land cover characteristics database and IGBP DISCover from 1 km AVHRR data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Loveland, T.R.; Reed, B.C.; Brown, J.F.; Ohlen, D.O.; Zhu, Z.; Yang, L.; Merchant, J.W.

    2000-01-01

    Researchers from the U.S. Geological Survey, University of Nebraska-Lincoln and the European Commission's Joint Research Centre, Ispra, Italy produced a 1 km resolution global land cover characteristics database for use in a wide range of continental-to global-scale environmental studies. This database provides a unique view of the broad patterns of the biogeographical and ecoclimatic diversity of the global land surface, and presents a detailed interpretation of the extent of human development. The project was carried out as an International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme, Data and Information Systems (IGBP-DIS) initiative. The IGBP DISCover global land cover product is an integral component of the global land cover database. DISCover includes 17 general land cover classes defined to meet the needs of IGBP core science projects. A formal accuracy assessment of the DISCover data layer will be completed in 1998. The 1 km global land cover database was developed through a continent-by-continent unsupervised classification of 1 km monthly Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) composites covering 1992-1993. Extensive post-classification stratification was necessary to resolve spectral/temporal confusion between disparate land cover types. The complete global database consists of 961 seasonal land cover regions that capture patterns of land cover, seasonality and relative primary productivity. The seasonal land cover regions were aggregated to produce seven separate land cover data sets used for global environmental modelling and assessment. The data sets include IGBP DISCover, U.S. Geological Survey Anderson System, Simple Biosphere Model, Simple Biosphere Model 2, Biosphere-Atmosphere Transfer Scheme, Olson Ecosystems and Running Global Remote Sensing Land Cover. The database also includes all digital sources that were used in the classification. The complete database can be sourced from the website: http://edcwww.cr.usgs.gov/landdaac/glcc/glcc.html.

  8. Synthesis, characterisation and in vitro investigation of photodynamic activity of 5-(4-octadecanamidophenyl)-10,15,20-tris(N-methylpyridinium-3-yl)porphyrin trichloride on HeLa cells using low light fluence rate.

    PubMed

    Malatesti, Nela; Harej, Anja; Kraljević Pavelić, Sandra; Lončarić, Martin; Zorc, Hrvoje; Wittine, Karlo; Andjelkovic, Uros; Josic, Djuro

    2016-09-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a treatment that aims to kill cancer cells by reactive oxygen species, mainly singlet oxygen, produced through light activation of a photosensitiser (PS). Amongst photosensitisers that attracted the most attention in the last decade are cationic and amphiphilic molecules based on porphyrin, chlorin and phthalocyanine structures. Our aim was to join this search for more optimal balance of the lipophilic and hydrophilic moieties in a PS. A new amphiphilic porphyrin, 5-(4-octadecanamidophenyl)-10,15,20-tris(N-methylpyridinium-3-yl)porphyrin trichloride (5) was synthesised and characterised by (1)H NMR, UV-vis and fluorescence spectroscopy, and by MALDI-TOF/TOF spectrometry. In vitro photodynamic activity of 5 was evaluated on HeLa cell lines and compared to the activity of the hydrophilic 5-(4-acetamidophenyl)-10,15,20-tris(N-methylpyridinium-3-yl)porphyrin trichloride (7). Low fluence rate (2mWcm(-2)) of red light (643nm) was used for the activation, and both porphyrins showed a drug dose-response as well as a light dose-response relationship, but the amphiphilic porphyrin was presented with significantly lower IC50 values. The obtained IC50 values for 5 were 1.4μM at 15min irradiation time and 0.7μM when the time of irradiation was 30min, while for 7 these values were 37 and 6 times higher, respectively. These results confirm the importance of the lipophilic component in a PS and show a potential for 5 to be used as a PS in PDT applications.

  9. Tenth value layers for 60Co gamma rays and for 4, 6, 10, 15, and 18 MV x rays in concrete for beams of cone angles between 0 degrees and 14 degrees calculated by Monte Carlo simulation.

    PubMed

    Jaradat, Adnan K; Biggs, Peter J

    2007-05-01

    The calculation of shielding barrier thicknesses for radiation therapy facilities according to the NCRP formalism is based on the use of broad beams (that is, the maximum possible field sizes). However, in practice, treatment fields used in radiation therapy are, on average, less than half the maximum size. Indeed, many contemporary treatment techniques call for reduced field sizes to reduce co-morbidity and the risk of second cancers. Therefore, published tenth value layers (TVLs) for shielding materials do not apply to these very small fields. There is, hence, a need to determine the TVLs for various beam modalities as a function of field size. The attenuation of (60)Co gamma rays and photons of 4, 6, 10, 15, and 18 MV bremsstrahlung x ray beams by concrete has been studied using the Monte Carlo technique (MCNP version 4C2) for beams of half-opening angles of 0 degrees , 3 degrees , 6 degrees , 9 degrees , 12 degrees , and 14 degrees . The distance between the x-ray source and the distal surface of the shielding wall was fixed at 600 cm, a distance that is typical for modern radiation therapy rooms. The maximum concrete thickness varied between 76.5 cm and 151.5 cm for (60)Co and 18 MV x rays, respectively. Detectors were placed at 630 cm, 700 cm, and 800 cm from the source. TVLs have been determined down to the third TVL. Energy spectra for 4, 6, 10, 15, and 18 MV x rays for 10 x 10 cm(2) and 40 x 40 cm(2) field sizes were used to generate depth dose curves in water that were compared with experimentally measured values.

  10. Developing Knowledge Management (KM): Contributions by Organizational Learning and Total Quality Management (TQM)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hung, Richard Yu-Yuan; Lien, Bella Ya-Hui

    2005-01-01

    Knowledge management is an integral business function for many organizations to manage intellectual resources effectively. From a resource-based perspective, organizational learning and TQM are antecedents that are closely related to KM. The purposes of this study were to explain the contents of KM, and explore the relationship between KM-related…

  11. Gravity waves from 30 to 160 km observed by an Fe lidar at McMurdo, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, X.; Chen, C.; Yu, Z.; Fong, W.; Roberts, B. R.; Lu, X.; Fuller-Rowell, T. J.; Vadas, S. L.; McDonald, A.; Gardner, C. S.

    2012-12-01

    Observations of gravity waves in the neutral atmosphere were usually limited to ~105 km where lidars can have appreciable signals. The first discovery of neutral Fe layers with gravity wave signatures in the thermosphere up to 160 km by an Fe Boltzmann lidar campaign at McMurdo, Antarctica has significantly pushed the limit to ~160 km. Two channels of Fe signals allow us to derive the Fe density from ~75 to 160 km and Fe temperature from ~80 to 150 km using the Fe Boltzmann technique. Furthermore, operating at UV 372 and 374 nm, this Alexandrite-laser-based Fe Boltzmann lidar produces strong Rayleigh scattering signals from air molecules. High-resolution measurements of temperatures are thus achieved from 30 to ~70 km utilizing the Rayleigh integration technique. As a consequence, the McMurdo Fe lidar data provide the first opportunity to trace gravity waves from ~30 km all the way up to ~160 km with a single ground-based instrument, which is the main focus of the current study. McMurdo (77.83S, 166.66E) is in the gap region between the South Pole and the Antarctic Circle. Located on the Ross Island, McMurdo is next to the most southerly active volcano Mt. Erebus, also to the east of the Trans-Antarctic Mountains, and by the poleward edge of the aurora oval as its geomagnetic latitude is near 80 deg. McMurdo turns out to be a 'hot spot' for waves, and large amplitude waves are frequently observed from the stratosphere to the thermosphere. All these factors may have contributed to, or influence, the very rich wave activities, the formation of converged Fe layers in the thermosphere, and the elevated thermospheric temperatures revealed by the lidar data of temperature and Fe density. Starting from late December 2010, the University of Colorado lidar group has collected over 1900 hours of data in the first 19 months at McMurdo, establishing a database for gravity wave studies. In this paper we will characterize gravity wave parameters from ~30 km up to 160 km for the

  12. Energy system contribution in a maximal incremental test: correlations with pacing and overall performance in a 10-km running trial

    PubMed Central

    Damasceno, M.V.; Pasqua, L.A.; Lima-Silva, A.E.; Bertuzzi, R.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to verify the association between the contribution of energy systems during an incremental exercise test (IET), pacing, and performance during a 10-km running time trial. Thirteen male recreational runners completed an incremental exercise test on a treadmill to determine the respiratory compensation point (RCP), maximal oxygen uptake (V˙O2max), peak treadmill speed (PTS), and energy systems contribution; and a 10-km running time trial (T10-km) to determine endurance performance. The fractions of the aerobic (WAER) and glycolytic (WGLYCOL) contributions were calculated for each stage based on the oxygen uptake and the oxygen energy equivalents derived by blood lactate accumulation, respectively. Total metabolic demand (WTOTAL) was the sum of these two energy systems. Endurance performance during the T10-km was moderately correlated with RCP, V˙O2maxand PTS (P<@0.05), and moderate-to-highly correlated with WAER, WGLYCOL, and WTOTAL (P<0.05). In addition, WAER, WGLYCOL, and WTOTAL were also significantly correlated with running speed in the middle (P<0.01) and final (P<0.01) sections of the T10-km. These findings suggest that the assessment of energy contribution during IET is potentially useful as an alternative variable in the evaluation of endurance runners, especially because of its relationship with specific parts of a long-distance race. PMID:26397970

  13. Inverse approach to estimating larval dispersal reveals limited population connectivity along 700 km of wave-swept open coast.

    PubMed

    Hameed, Sarah O; White, J Wilson; Miller, Seth H; Nickols, Kerry J; Morgan, Steven G

    2016-06-29

    Demographic connectivity is fundamental to the persistence and resilience of metapopulations, but our understanding of the link between reproduction and recruitment is notoriously poor in open-coast marine populations. We provide the first evidence of high local retention and limited connectivity among populations spanning 700 km along an open coast in an upwelling system. Using extensive field measurements of fecundity, population size and settlement in concert with a Bayesian inverse modelling approach, we estimated that, on average, Petrolisthes cinctipes larvae disperse only 6.9 km (±25.0 km s.d.) from natal populations, despite spending approximately six weeks in an open-coast system that was once assumed to be broadly dispersive. This estimate differed substantially from our prior dispersal estimate (153.9 km) based on currents and larval duration and behaviour, revealing the importance of employing demographic data in larval dispersal estimates. Based on this estimate, we predict that demographic connectivity occurs predominantly among neighbouring populations less than 30 km apart. Comprehensive studies of larval production, settlement and connectivity are needed to advance an understanding of the ecology and evolution of life in the sea as well as to conserve ecosystems. Our novel approach provides a tractable framework for addressing these questions for species occurring in discrete coastal populations.

  14. Proposal of a new generation of Laser Beacon for time calibration in the KM3NeT neutrino telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Real, Diego [IFIC, Instituto de Física Corpuscular, CSIC-Universidad de Valencia, C Collaboration: KM3NeT Collaboration

    2014-11-18

    The KM3NeT collaboration aims at the construction of a multi-km3 high-energy neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean Sea consisting of a matrix of pressure resistant glass spheres holding each a set (31) of small area photomultipliers. The main motivation of the telescope is to observe cosmic neutrinos through the Cherenkov light induced in sea water by charged particles produced in neutrino interactions with the surrounding medium. A relative time calibration between photomultipliers of the order of 1 ns is required to achieve an optimal performance. To this end, several time calibration subsystems have been developed. In this article, the proposal of a last generation Laser Beacon, to be used in KM3NeT and developed to measure and monitor the relative time offsets between photomultipliers, is presented.

  15. Quiet-time plasma irregularities at 1400 km in the cleft region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kayser, S. E.; Maier, E. J.; Brace, L. H.

    1978-01-01

    The quiet north polar cleft at 1400 km was studied by Isis-2 instruments, and data from the retarding potential analyzer and the cylindrical electrostatic probe show that thermal plasma density fluctuations are distributed in a region between 75 deg and 82 deg invariant latitude and approximately dawn to dusk. Cleft shape and shape variations are described. Thermal ions and thermal electrons usually fluctuated together, but suprathermal electrons fluctuated independently. Data on thermal plasma patterns correlates fairly well with observations of soft particles and auroral optical emissions and not as well with measurements of high-energy particles. The data suggest that the energy source for the thermal irregularities is associated with soft particles and that precipitating high-energy particles do not drive the thermal plasma at these altitudes.

  16. Converted phases from sharp 1000 km depth mid-mantle heterogeneity beneath Western Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, J.; Deuss, A.; Cottaar, S.

    2017-02-01

    Until recently, most of the lower mantle was generally considered to be well-mixed with strong heterogeneity restricted to the lowermost several hundred kilometres above the core-mantle boundary, known as the D″ layer. However several recent studies have started to hint at a potential change in Earth's structure at mid-mantle depths beneath the transition zone. Here we present a continental-wide search of Europe and the North Atlantic for mid-mantle P-to-s wave converted phases. Our data set consists of close to 50,000 high quality receiver functions. These are combined in slowness and depth stacks to identify seismic discontinuities in the range of 800-1400 km depth to determine at which depths and in which tectonic settings these features exist. Receiver functions are computed in different frequency bands to resolve the sharpness of the observed discontinuities. We find most seismic velocity jumps are observed between 975-1050 km depth, localised beneath western Europe and Iceland. The shear wave velocity jumps are roughly 1-2.5% velocity increase with depth occurring over less than 8 km in width. The most robust observations are coincident with areas of active upwelling (under Iceland) and an elongate lateral low velocity anomaly imaged in recent tomographic models which has been interpreted as diverted plume material at depth. The lack of any suggested phase change in a normal pyrolitic mantle composition at around 1000 km depth indicates the presence of regional chemical heterogeneity within the mid-mantle, potentially caused by diverted plume material. We hypothesise that our observations represent either a phase change within chemically distinct plume material itself, or are caused by small scale chemical heterogeneities entrained within the upwelling plume, either in the form of recycled basaltic material or deep sourced chemically distinct material from LLSVPs. Our observations, which cannot be directly linked to an area of either active or ancient

  17. BOREAS AFM-12 1-km AVHRR Seasonal Land Cover Classification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steyaert, Lou; Hall, Forrest G.; Newcomer, Jeffrey A. (Editor); Knapp, David E. (Editor); Loveland, Thomas R.; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Airborne Fluxes and Meteorology (AFM)-12 team's efforts focused on regional scale Surface Vegetation and Atmosphere (SVAT) modeling to improve parameterization of the heterogeneous BOREAS landscape for use in larger scale Global Circulation Models (GCMs). This regional land cover data set was developed as part of a multitemporal one-kilometer Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) land cover analysis approach that was used as the basis for regional land cover mapping, fire disturbance-regeneration, and multiresolution land cover scaling studies in the boreal forest ecosystem of central Canada. This land cover classification was derived by using regional field observations from ground and low-level aircraft transits to analyze spectral-temporal clusters that were derived from an unsupervised cluster analysis of monthly Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) image composites (April-September 1992). This regional data set was developed for use by BOREAS investigators, especially those involved in simulation modeling, remote sensing algorithm development, and aircraft flux studies. Based on regional field data verification, this multitemporal one-kilometer AVHRR land cover mapping approach was effective in characterizing the biome-level land cover structure, embedded spatially heterogeneous landscape patterns, and other types of key land cover information of interest to BOREAS modelers.The land cover mosaics in this classification include: (1) wet conifer mosaic (low, medium, and high tree stand density), (2) mixed coniferous-deciduous forest (80% coniferous, codominant, and 80% deciduous), (3) recent visible bum, vegetation regeneration, or rock outcrops-bare ground-sparsely vegetated slow regeneration bum (four classes), (4) open water and grassland marshes, and (5) general agricultural land use/ grasslands (three classes). This land cover mapping approach did not detect small subpixel-scale landscape

  18. Underwater acoustic positioning system for the SMO and KM3NeT - Italia projects

    SciTech Connect

    Viola, S.; Barbagallo, G.; Cacopardo, G.; Calí, C.; Cocimano, R.; Coniglione, R.; Costa, M.; Cuttone, G.; D'Amato, C.; D'Amato, V.; D'Amico, A.; De Luca, V.; Del Tevere, F.; Distefano, C.; Ferrera, F.; Gmerk, A.; Grasso, R.; Imbesi, M.; Larosa, G.; Lattuada, D.; and others

    2014-11-18

    In the underwater neutrino telescopes, the positions of the Cherenkov light sensors and their movements must be known with an accuracy of few tens of centimetres. In this work, the activities of the SMO and KM3NeT-Italia teams for the development of an acoustic positioning system for KM3NeT-Italia project are presented. The KM3NeT-Italia project foresees the construction, within two years, of 8 towers in the view of the several km{sup 3}-scale neutrino telescope KM3NeT.

  19. Optimal Inflatable Space Towers with 3 - 100 km Height

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolonkin, Alexander

    2003-01-01

    Theory and computations are provided for building inflatable space towers up to one hundred kilometers in height. These towers can be used for tourism, scientific observation of space, observation of the Earth's surface, weather and upper atmosphere, and for radio, television, and communication transmissions. These towers can also be used to launch space ships and Earth satellites. These projects are not expensive and do not require rockets. They require thin strong films composed from artificial fibers and fabricated by current industry. The towers can be built using present technology. The towers can be used (for tourism, communication, etc.) during the construction process and provide self-financing for further construction. The tower design does not require work at high altitudes; all construction can be done at the Earth's surface. The transport system for a tower consists of a small engine (used only for friction compensation) located at the Earth's surface. The tower is separated into sections and has special protection mechanisms in case of damage. Problems involving security, control, repair, and stability of the proposed towers are addressed in other publications. The author is prepared to discuss these and other problems with serious organizations desiring to research and develop these projects.

  20. A 10 km-resolution synthetic Venus gravity field model based on topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Fei; Yan, Jianguo; Xu, Luyuan; Jin, Shuanggen; Rodriguez, J. Alexis P.; Dohm, James H.

    2015-02-01

    A high resolution gravity field model is extremely important in the exploration of Venus. In this paper, we present a 3-dimensional Venus gravity field VGM2014 constructed by using the latest gravity and topography models, residual terrain model (RTM) and the Airy-Heiskanen isostatic compensation model. The VGM2014 is the first 10 km scale Venus gravity field model; the final results are representations of the 3-dimensional surface gravity accelerations and gravity disturbances for Venus. We found that the optimal global compensation depth of Venus is about 60 km, and the crustal density is potentially less than the commonly accepted value of 2700-2900 kg m-3. This model will be potentially beneficial for the precise orbit determination and landing navigation of spacecraft around Venus, and may be utilized as a priori model for Venus gravity field simulation and inversion studies. The VGM2014 does not incorporate direct gravity information beyond degree 70 and it is not recommended for small-scale geophysical interpretation.

  1. Asymmetric Penetration of Shocked Solar Wind Down to 400-km Altitudes at Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsunaga, K.; Seki, K.; Hara, T.; Brain, D. A.

    2014-12-01

    The solar wind interaction with a planetary atmosphere produces the magnetic pile-up region near the planet. The Martian magnetic pile-up region prevents direct penetration of shocked solar wind (magnetosheath) plasma and the penetration boundary is typically located at altitudes above 800 km. Spacecraft measurements have shown, however, that magnetosheath plasma occasionally penetrates into low altitudes below 400 km. Here we used Mars Global Surveyor magnetic field and electron observations during the period from April 1999 to November 2006 to investigate the magnetosheath penetration events. We identified 240 events and found that both solar wind dynamic pressure (Psw) and the orientation of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) control the occurrence of the events. The magnetosheath penetration events during the low Psw periods tend to be distributed in low latitudes of the northern hemisphere where the crustal magnetic field is weak, while the event locations widely distributed in terms of the latitude under high Psw conditions. During the low Psw periods, a remarkable feature is that the observational probability is approximately 7 times larger during periods of the "away" IMF sector than during the "toward" sector. These results thus indicate that the magnetosheath penetrations into Martian upper atmosphere more often occur in the upward electric field hemisphere than in the downward electric field hemisphere. Large-amplitude undulation excited by the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in the upward electric field hemisphere previously suggested from global hybrid simulation can be one of candidate processes to cause the asymmetric penetration during low Psw periods.

  2. Bottom interacting sound at 50 km range in a deep ocean environment.

    PubMed

    Udovydchenkov, Ilya A; Stephen, Ralph A; Duda, Timothy F; Bolmer, S Thompson; Worcester, Peter F; Dzieciuch, Matthew A; Mercer, James A; Andrew, Rex K; Howe, Bruce M

    2012-10-01

    Data collected during the 2004 Long-range Ocean Acoustic Propagation Experiment provide absolute intensities and travel times of acoustic pulses at ranges varying from 50 to 3200 km. In this paper a subset of these data is analyzed, focusing on the effects of seafloor reflections at the shortest transmission range of approximately 50 km. At this range bottom-reflected (BR) and surface-reflected, bottom-reflected energy interferes with refracted arrivals. For a finite vertical receiving array spanning the sound channel axis, a high mode number energy in the BR arrivals aliases into low mode numbers because of the vertical spacing between hydrophones. Therefore, knowledge of the BR paths is necessary to fully understand even low mode number processes. Acoustic modeling using the parabolic equation method shows that inclusion of range-dependent bathymetry is necessary to get an acceptable model-data fit. The bottom is modeled as a fluid layer without rigidity, without three dimensional effects, and without scattering from wavelength-scale features. Nonetheless, a good model-data fit is obtained for sub-bottom properties estimated from the data.

  3. Characterization of 750 Large Area Photomultipliers for the KM3NeT-Italia towers

    SciTech Connect

    Leonora, Emanuele; Aiello, S.; Giordano, V.

    2015-07-01

    The KM3NeT European experiment aims to construct a large volume underwater neutrino telescope, in the depths of the Mediterranean Sea. Thanks to a dedicated funding by the Italian Ministry of Education, University and Research, in its first phase named KM3NeT-Italia, an 8-towers detector is under construction, equipped with 672 optical sensors. The detection element of the telescope, the 'optical module', is composed by a 13-inch high-pressure glass-vessel that contains a single 10-inch photomultiplier. As the key sensor, all the characteristics of the photomultiplier have a severe impact on the performance of the whole detector. The selected photomultiplier was the 10-inch R7081 PMT produced by Hamamatsu. In the frame of the optical modules mass production, performed in the INFN-LNS site of Catania, 750 photomultipliers have been tested by means of a dedicated test bench. The paper deals with the main results obtained from the massive photomultipliers measurements, which exhibited that such kind of devices comply with the general requirements imposed by the project. (authors)

  4. The 1 km AVHRR global land data set: first stages in implementation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eidenshink, J.C.; Faundeen, J.L.

    1994-01-01

    The global land 1 km data set project represents an international effort to acquire, archive, process, and distribute 1 km AVHRR data of the entire global land surface in order to meet the needs of the international science community. A network of 26 high resolution picture transmission (HRPT) stations, along with data recorded by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), has been acquiring daily global land coverage since 1 April 1992. A data set of over 30000 AVHRR images has been archived and made available for distribution by the United States Geological Survey, EROS Data Center and the European Space Agency. Under the guidance of the International Geosphere Biosphere programme, processing standards for the AVHRR data have been developed for calibration, atmospheric correction, geometric registration, and the production of global 10-day maximum normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) composites. The major uses of the composites are related to the study of surface vegetation cover. A prototype 10-day composite was produced for the period of 21–30 June 1992. Production of an 18-month time series of 10-day composites is underway.

  5. Injuries associated with the 580 km university student grand voluntary road march: focus on foot injuries.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sang-cheon; Min, Young-gi; Lee, In-Soo; Yoon, Gi-Ho; Kang, Bo-Ra; Jung, Yoon-Seok; Cho, Joon-Pil; Kim, Gi-Woon

    2013-12-01

    College student volunteers (n = 142) completed a 580 km road march for 21 consecutive days. Each volunteer carried a backpack that weighed 14.1 ± 1.4 kg on the average. We investigated the incidence and location of blisters associated with the road march using a foot map along with other injuries. Overall, 95.1% of the subjects (135 of 142) sustained one or more injuries. All injured subjects had foot blisters, and 18% had other foot injuries. The most common locations of blister development were the right 5th toe (61%) and the left 5th toe (57%). The little toes seem to have been subjected to the greatest friction and shearing forces. March-related injuries, excluding foot injuries, were ankle pain (12.7%), knee pain (12.7%) and Achilles tendon pain (7.7%). Six subjects (4.2%) needed extra medical treatment for more than 2 weeks prior to returning to their daily lives after completion of the march due to associated injuries. The present study observed a very high incidence rate of injuries (95.1%) associated with the 580 km university students grand road march. These injuries posed an obstacle against completion of the road march and against returning to daily life. Active preventive interventions such as physical therapy and customized reinforced shoes and education program are recommended for reducing incidence rate and severity of injuries.

  6. Route Recapitulation and Route Loyalty in Homing Pigeons: Pilotage From 25 km?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biro, Dora; Meade, Jessica; Guilford, Tim

    2006-01-01

    We utilised precision Global Positioning System (GPS) tracking to examine the homing paths of pigeons (Columba livia) released 20 times consecutively 25 km from the loft. By the end of the training phase, birds had developed highly stereotyped yet individually distinct routes home, with detailed recapitulation evident at each stage of the journey. Following training, birds also participated in a series of releases from novel sites at perpendicular distances of up to 3 km from their established routes. Results showed that subjects were attracted back to their established routes and recapitulated them from the point of contact. Naïve conspecifics (yoked controls) released from the same off-route sites confirmed that the experienced birds' route choices were not influenced by constraints exerted by terrain features, but that increased experience with the general area conferred a homing advantage in the form of more efficient flight tracks, even from these novel sites. Patterns in the paths taken by experienced birds to rejoin their established routes are discussed with reference to navigational mechanisms employed by homing pigeons in their familiar area.

  7. Injuries Associated with the 580 km University Student Grand Voluntary Road March: Focus on Foot Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Sang-cheon; Min, Young-Gi; Lee, In-Soo; Yoon, Gi-Ho; Kang, Bo-Ra; Jung, Yoon-Seok; Cho, Joon-Pil

    2013-01-01

    College student volunteers (n = 142) completed a 580 km road march for 21 consecutive days. Each volunteer carried a backpack that weighed 14.1 ± 1.4 kg on the average. We investigated the incidence and location of blisters associated with the road march using a foot map along with other injuries. Overall, 95.1% of the subjects (135 of 142) sustained one or more injuries. All injured subjects had foot blisters, and 18% had other foot injuries. The most common locations of blister development were the right 5th toe (61%) and the left 5th toe (57%). The little toes seem to have been subjected to the greatest friction and shearing forces. March-related injuries, excluding foot injuries, were ankle pain (12.7%), knee pain (12.7%) and Achilles tendon pain (7.7%). Six subjects (4.2%) needed extra medical treatment for more than 2 weeks prior to returning to their daily lives after completion of the march due to associated injuries. The present study observed a very high incidence rate of injuries (95.1%) associated with the 580 km university students grand road march. These injuries posed an obstacle against completion of the road march and against returning to daily life. Active preventive interventions such as physical therapy and customized reinforced shoes and education program are recommended for reducing incidence rate and severity of injuries. PMID:24339714

  8. Monitoring massive fracture growth at 2-km depths using surface tiltmeter arrays

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, M.D.

    1979-01-01

    Tilt due to massive hydraulic fractures induced in sedimentary rocks at depths of up to 2.2 km have been recorded by surface tiltmeters. Injection of fluid volumes up to 4 ?? 105 liters and masses of propping agent up to 5 ?? 105 kg is designed to produce fractures approximately 1 km long, 50-100 m high and about 1 cm wide. The surface tilt data adequately fit a dislocation model of a tensional fault in a half-space. Theoretical and observational results indicate that maximum tilt occurs at a distance off the strike of the fracture equivalent to 0.4 of the depth to the fracture. Azimuth and extent of the fracture deduced from the geometry of the tilt field agree with other kinds of geophysical measurements. Detailed correlation of the tilt signatures with pumping parameters (pressure, rate, volume, mass) have provided details on asymmetry in geometry and growth rate. Whereas amplitude variations in tilt vary inversely with the square of the depth, changes in flow rate or pressure gradient can produce a cubic change in width. These studies offer a large-scale experimental approach to the study of problems involving fracturing, mass transport, and dilatancy processes. ?? 1979.

  9. The isolated ˜680 km deep 30 May 2015 MW 7.9 Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Lingling; Lay, Thorne; Zhan, Zhongwen; Kanamori, Hiroo; Hao, Jin-Lai

    2016-01-01

    Deep-focus earthquakes, located in very high-pressure conditions 300 to 700 km below the Earth's surface within sinking slabs of relatively cold oceanic lithosphere, are mysterious phenomena. The largest recorded deep-focus earthquake (MW 7.9) in the Izu-Bonin slab struck on 30 May 2015 beneath the Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands, isolated from prior seismicity by over 100 km in depth, and followed by only a few small aftershocks. Globally, this is the deepest (680 km centroid depth) event with MW ≥ 7.8 in the seismological record. Seismicity indicates along-strike contortion of the Izu-Bonin slab, with horizontal flattening near a depth of 550 km in the Izu region and rapid steepening to near-vertical toward the south above the location of the 2015 event. This event was exceptionally well-recorded by seismic stations around the world, allowing detailed constraints to be placed on the source process. Analyses of a large global data set of P, SH and pP seismic phases using short-period back-projection, subevent directivity, and broadband finite-fault inversion indicate that the mainshock ruptured a shallowly-dipping fault plane with patchy slip that spread over a distance of ∼40 km with a multi-stage expansion rate (∼ 5 + km /s down-dip initially, ∼3 km/s up-dip later). During the 17 s total rupture duration the radiated energy was ∼ 3.3 ×1016 J and the stress drop was ∼38 MPa. The radiation efficiency is moderate (0.34), intermediate to that of the 1994 Bolivia and 2013 Sea of Okhotsk MW 8.3 deep earthquakes, indicating that source processes of very large deep earthquakes sample a wide range of behavior from dissipative, more viscous failure to very brittle failure. The isolated occurrence of the event, much deeper than the apparently thermally-bounded distribution of Bonin-slab seismicity above 600 km depth, suggests that localized stress concentration associated with the pronounced deformation of the Izu-Bonin slab and proximity to the 660-km phase

  10. Predicted sensitivity of the KM3NeT/ARCA detector to a diffuse flux of cosmic neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coniglione, R.; Fusco, L. A.; Stransky, D.

    2016-04-01

    The KM3NeT Collaboration has started the construction of a research infrastructure hosting a network of underwater neutrino detectors in the Mediterranean Sea. Two instruments based on the same technology are being built: KM3NeT/ORCA to measure the neutrino mass hierarchy and to study atmospheric neutrino oscillations and KM3NeT/ARCA to detect high-energy cosmic neutrinos both in diffuse and point source mode. The excellent angular resolution of the ARCA detector, with an instrumented volume of about one Gton, will allow for an unprecedented exploration of the neutrino sky searching for neutrinos coming from defined sources of sky regions, like the Galactic Plane and the Fermi Bubbles. It will also look for diffuse high energy neutrino fluxes following the indication provided by the IceCube signal. This contribution will report on the sensitivity of the KM3NeT/ARCA telescope with particular attention to the region of the Galactic Plane. Comparisons with theoretical expectations are also discussed.

  11. Geothermal research on the 2.5 km deep COSC-1 drillhole, Central Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascal, Christophe; Beltrami, Hugo; Daly, Stephen; Juhlin, Christopher; Kukkonen, Ilmo; Long, Mike; Rath, Volker; Renner, Joerg; Schwarz, Gerhard; Sundberg, Jan

    2015-04-01

    The scientific drilling project "Collisional Orogeny in the Scandinavian Caledonides" (COSC), supported by ICDP and the Swedish Research Council, involves the drilling of two boreholes through carefully selected sections of the Paleozoic Caledonian orogen in Central Sweden. COSC-1, the first of the two planned boreholes, was drilled and fully cored down to 2.5 km depth during spring and summer 2014 near the town of Åre. The COSC working group is organised around six thematic teams including us, the geothermal team. The major objectives of the COSC geothermal team are: a) to contribute to basic knowledge about the thermal regime of Palaeozoic orogenic belts, ancient shield areas and high heat-producing plutons; b) to refine knowledge on climate change at high latitudes (i.e. Scandinavia), including historical global changes, recent palaeoclimate development (since last ice age) and expected future trends; c) to determine the vertical variation of the geothermal gradient, heat flow and thermal properties down to 2.5 km, and to determine the required corrections for shallow (< 1 km) heat flow data; d) to explore the geothermal potential of the Åre-Järpen area; e) to explore to what degree the conductive heat transfer is affected by groundwater flow in the uppermost crust and f) to evaluate the heat generation input and impact from the basement and the alum shales. To reach these targets the following tasks were carried out or are planned: 1) heat flow predictions from shallow boreholes; 2) geophysical logging; 3) analyses of logs and well tests; (3) determination of rock thermal properties on core samples; 4) determination of heat generation rates from radiometric and geochemical studies; 5) fracture characterisation for permeability and convective heat flow estimations; 6) analysis of convective signals; 7) analysis of paleoclimatic signals; 8) heat flow modelling and evaluation of geothermal potential and 9) Fennoscandia heat flow map compilation. The purpose of

  12. GPS-aided gravimetry at 30 km altitude from a balloon-borne platform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lazarewicz, Andrew R.; Evans, Alan G.

    1989-01-01

    A balloon-borne experiment, flown at 30 km altitude over New Mexico, was used to test dynamic differential Global Positioning System (GPS) tracking in support of gravimetry at high-altitudes. The experiment package contained a gravimeter (Vibrating String Accelerometer), a full complement of inertial instruments, a TI-4100 GPS receiver and a radar transponder. The flight was supported by two GPS receivers on the ground near the flight path. From the 8 hour flight, about a forty minute period was selected for analysis. Differential GPS phase measurements were used to estimate changes in position over the sample time interval, or average velocity. In addition to average velocity, differential positions and numerical averages of acceleration were obtained in three components. Gravitational acceleration was estimated by correcting for accelerations due to translational motion, ignoring all rotational effects.

  13. 1 GHz, 1 km fiber-optic link for satellite communication integrated terminals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, J. J.

    In connection with the growth of satellite communications, demands concerning satellite ground terminals are continuously changing. A description is presented of an integrated terminal concept, using a cost-effective microstrip hybrid integrated circuit, GaAs MESFET, and fiber-optic technology, with complete elimination of waveguide transmission loss. The miniature low-noise front-end, consisting of a single-gate MESFET low-noise amplifier, a dual-gate MESFET active mixer, and an injection laser diode transmitter, is capable of being integrated inside the antenna feed. Through a fiber-optic cable, the downconverter signal is sent to the signal processing facility at a distance of 1 km from the antenna site. The considered link provides the advantages of wide bandwidth, elimination of ground loop and noise pick-up, transmission security, and high-voltage (lightning) isolation.

  14. Lower thermosphere (80-100 km) dynamics response to solar and geomagnetic activity: Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kazimirovsky, E. S.

    1989-01-01

    The variations of solar and geomagnetic activity may affect the thermosphere circulation via plasma heating and electric fields, especially at high latitudes. The possibility exists that the energy involved in auroral and magnetic storms can produce significant changes of mesosphere and lower thermosphere wind systems. A study of global radar measurements of winds at 80 to 100 km region revealed the short term effects (correlation between wind field and geomagnetic storms) and long term variations over a solar cycle. It seems likely that the correlation results from a modification of planetary waves and tides propagated from below, thus altering the dynamical regime of the thermosphere. Sometimes the long term behavior points rather to a climatic variation with the internal atmospheric cause than to a direct solar control.

  15. Ballistic Performance of Porous Ceramic Thermal Protection Systems at 9 km/s

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Joshua E.; Bohl, W. E.; Foreman, C. D.; Christiansen, Eric L.; Davis, B. A.

    2009-01-01

    Porous-ceramic, thermal-protection-systems are used heavily in current reentry vehicles like the Orbiter, and they are currently being proposed for the next generation of manned spacecraft, Orion. These materials insulate the structural components and sensitive electronic components of a spacecraft against the intense thermal environments of atmospheric reentry. Furthermore, these materials are also highly exposed to space environmental hazards like meteoroid and orbital debris impacts. This paper discusses recent impact testing up to 9 km/s on ceramic tiles similar to those used on the Orbiter. These tiles have a porous-batting of nominally 8 lb/cubic ft alumina-fiber-enhanced-thermal-barrier (AETB8) insulating material coated with a damage-resistant, toughened-unipiece-fibrous-insulation (TUFI) layer.

  16. Ballistic Performance of Porous-Ceramic, Thermal Protection Systems to 9 km/s

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Joshua E.; Bohl, William E.; Foreman, Cory D.; Christiansen, Eric C.; Davis, Bruce A.

    2010-01-01

    Porous-ceramic, thermal protection systems are used heavily in current reentry vehicles like the Orbiter, and they are currently being proposed for the next generation of US manned spacecraft, Orion. These materials insulate the structural components and sensitive components of a spacecraft against the intense thermal environments of atmospheric reentry. These materials are also highly exposed to solid particle space environment hazards. This paper discusses recent impact testing up to 9.65 km/s on ceramic tiles similar to those used on the Orbiter. These tiles are a porous-ceramic insulator of nominally 8 lb/ft(exp 3) alumina-fiber-enhanced-thermal-barrier (AETB8) coated with a damage-resistant, toughened-unipiece-fibrous-insulation/reaction-cured-glass layer (TUFI/RCG).

  17. Microprobe Evaluations of Grain Boundary Segregation in KM4 and IN100

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gabb, T. P.; Smith, J. W.

    2001-01-01

    Turbine disk alloys subjected to fatigue cycles with dwells at high temperatures and stresses can fail by cracking along grain boundaries. This could be due to concentrated creep deformation or environmental attack at grain boundaries. It would be important to identify any chemical segregation along grain boundaries to aid understanding of this intergranular failure mode. The objective of this study was to evaluate the degree of chemical segregation present at the grain boundaries of two disk alloys, KM4 and IN 100. An electron microprobe employing wavelength dispersive x-ray chemical analyses was used to characterize the chemistry along multiple grain boundaries in metallographically prepared samples of each alloy. Some degrees of boron, chromium, and cobalt enrichment of grain boundaries were observed in each alloy.

  18. Study on the performance of electromagnetic particle detectors of LHAASO-KM2A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhongquan; Hou, Chao; Cao, Zhen; Chang, Jingfan; Feng, Cunfeng; Hanapia, Erlan; Gong, Guanghua; Liu, Jia; Lv, Hongkui; Sheng, Xiangdong; Zhang, Shaoru; Zhu, Chengguang

    2017-02-01

    The electromagnetic particle detectors (EDs) for one square kilometer detector array (KM2A) of large high altitude air shower observation (LHAASO) are designed to measure the densities and arrival times of secondary particles in extensive air showers (EASs). ED is a type of plastic scintillator detector with an active area of 1 m2. This study investigates the design and performance of prototype ED. Approximately 20 photoelectrons are collected by the 1st dynode of a photomultiplier tube (PMT). The prototype ED exhibited good detection efficiency and time resolution. The detection for the wide dynamic particle density varying from 1 to 10 000 particles/m2 is realized with the design of the PMT divider for the readout of both the anode and 6th dynode.

  19. Lattice design for an ILC damping ring with 3 km circumference

    SciTech Connect

    Wolski, Andrzej

    2004-10-11

    We describe a simple lattice that meets the specifications for the damping times and horizontal and longitudinal emittances for the International Linear Collider (ILC) damping rings. The circumference of a little over 3 km leads to a bunch spacing of around 3 ns, which will require advances in kicker technology for injection and extraction. We present the lattice design, and initial results of studies of the acceptance and collective effects. With the high bunch charge and close spacing, the ion and electron cloud effects are expected to be severe; however, the simple structure of the lattice allows for easy variation of the circumference and bunch spacing, which may make it useful for future investigations.

  20. Letter of intent for KM3NeT 2.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adrián-Martínez, S.; Ageron, M.; Aharonian, F.; Aiello, S.; Albert, A.; Ameli, F.; Anassontzis, E.; Andre, M.; Androulakis, G.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Ardid, M.; Avgitas, T.; Barbarino, G.; Barbarito, E.; Baret, B.; Barrios-Martí, J.; Belhorma, B.; Belias, A.; Berbee, E.; van den Berg, A.; Bertin, V.; Beurthey, S.; van Beveren, V.; Beverini, N.; Biagi, S.; Biagioni, A.; Billault, M.; Bondì, M.; Bormuth, R.; Bouhadef, B.; Bourlis, G.; Bourret, S.; Boutonnet, C.; Bouwhuis, M.; Bozza, C.; Bruijn, R.; Brunner, J.; Buis, E.; Busto, J.; Cacopardo, G.; Caillat, L.; Calamai, M.; Calvo, D.; Capone, A.; Caramete, L.; Cecchini, S.; Celli, S.; Champion, C.; Cherkaoui El Moursli, R.; Cherubini, S.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Classen, L.; Cocimano, R.; Coelho, J. A. B.; Coleiro, A.; Colonges, S.; Coniglione, R.; Cordelli, M.; Cosquer, A.; Coyle, P.; Creusot, A.; Cuttone, G.; D'Amico, A.; De Bonis, G.; De Rosa, G.; De Sio, C.; Di Capua, F.; Di Palma, I.; Díaz García, A. F.; Distefano, C.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Dorosti-Hasankiadeh, Q.; Drakopoulou, E.; Drouhin, D.; Drury, L.; Durocher, M.; Eberl, T.; Eichie, S.; van Eijk, D.; El Bojaddaini, I.; El Khayati, N.; Elsaesser, D.; Enzenhöfer, A.; Fassi, F.; Favali, P.; Fermani, P.; Ferrara, G.; Filippidis, C.; Frascadore, G.; Fusco, L. A.; Gal, T.; Galatà, S.; Garufi, F.; Gay, P.; Gebyehu, M.; Giordano, V.; Gizani, N.; Gracia, R.; Graf, K.; Grégoire, T.; Grella, G.; Habel, R.; Hallmann, S.; van Haren, H.; Harissopulos, S.; Heid, T.; Heijboer, A.; Heine, E.; Henry, S.; Hernández-Rey, J. J.; Hevinga, M.; Hofestädt, J.; Hugon, C. M. F.; Illuminati, G.; James, C. W.; Jansweijer, P.; Jongen, M.; de Jong, M.; Kadler, M.; Kalekin, O.; Kappes, A.; Katz, U. F.; Keller, P.; Kieft, G.; Kießling, D.; Koffeman, E. N.; Kooijman, P.; Kouchner, A.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lahmann, R.; Lamare, P.; Leisos, A.; Leonora, E.; Clark, M. Lindsey; Liolios, A.; Llorens Alvarez, C. D.; Lo Presti, D.; Löhner, H.; Lonardo, A.; Lotze, M.; Loucatos, S.; Maccioni, E.; Mannheim, K.; Margiotta, A.; Marinelli, A.; Mariş, O.; Markou, C.; Martínez-Mora, J. A.; Martini, A.; Mele, R.; Melis, K. W.; Michael, T.; Migliozzi, P.; Migneco, E.; Mijakowski, P.; Miraglia, A.; Mollo, C. M.; Mongelli, M.; Morganti, M.; Moussa, A.; Musico, P.; Musumeci, M.; Navas, S.; Nicolau, C. A.; Olcina, I.; Olivetto, C.; Orlando, A.; Papaikonomou, A.; Papaleo, R.; Păvălaş, G. E.; Peek, H.; Pellegrino, C.; Perrina, C.; Pfutzner, M.; Piattelli, P.; Pikounis, K.; Poma, G. E.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Pratolongo, F.; Pühlhofer, G.; Pulvirenti, S.; Quinn, L.; Racca, C.; Raffaelli, F.; Randazzo, N.; Rapidis, P.; Razis, P.; Real, D.; Resvanis, L.; Reubelt, J.; Riccobene, G.; Rossi, C.; Rovelli, A.; Saldaña, M.; Salvadori, I.; Samtleben, D. F. E.; Sánchez García, A.; Sánchez Losa, A.; Sanguineti, M.; Santangelo, A.; Santonocito, D.; Sapienza, P.; Schimmel, F.; Schmelling, J.; Sciacca, V.; Sedita, M.; Seitz, T.; Sgura, I.; Simeone, F.; Siotis, I.; Sipala, V.; Spisso, B.; Spurio, M.; Stavropoulos, G.; Steijger, J.; Stellacci, S. M.; Stransky, D.; Taiuti, M.; Tayalati, Y.; Tézier, D.; Theraube, S.; Thompson, L.; Timmer, P.; Tönnis, C.; Trasatti, L.; Trovato, A.; Tsirigotis, A.; Tzamarias, S.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Vallage, B.; Van Elewyck, V.; Vermeulen, J.; Vicini, P.; Viola, S.; Vivolo, D.; Volkert, M.; Voulgaris, G.; Wiggers, L.; Wilms, J.; de Wolf, E.; Zachariadou, K.; Zornoza, J. D.; Zúñiga, J.

    2016-08-01

    The main objectives of the KM3NeT Collaboration are (i) the discovery and subsequent observation of high-energy neutrino sources in the Universe and (ii) the determination of the mass hierarchy of neutrinos. These objectives are strongly motivated by two recent important discoveries, namely: (1) the high-energy astrophysical neutrino signal reported by IceCube and (2) the sizable contribution of electron neutrinos to the third neutrino mass eigenstate as reported by Daya Bay, Reno and others. To meet these objectives, the KM3NeT Collaboration plans to build a new Research Infrastructure consisting of a network of deep-sea neutrino telescopes in the Mediterranean Sea. A phased and distributed implementation is pursued which maximises the access to regional funds, the availability of human resources and the synergistic opportunities for the Earth and sea sciences community. Three suitable deep-sea sites are selected, namely off-shore Toulon (France), Capo Passero (Sicily, Italy) and Pylos (Peloponnese, Greece). The infrastructure will consist of three so-called building blocks. A building block comprises 115 strings, each string comprises 18 optical modules and each optical module comprises 31 photo-multiplier tubes. Each building block thus constitutes a three-dimensional array of photo sensors that can be used to detect the Cherenkov light produced by relativistic particles emerging from neutrino interactions. Two building blocks will be sparsely configured to fully explore the IceCube signal with similar instrumented volume, different methodology, improved resolution and complementary field of view, including the galactic plane. One building block will be densely configured to precisely measure atmospheric neutrino oscillations.

  1. Dual coenzyme activities of high-Km aldehyde dehydrogenase from rat liver mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Tsai, C S; Senior, D J

    1990-04-01

    Various kinetic approaches were carried out to investigate kinetic attributes for the dual coenzyme activities of mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase from rat liver. The enzyme catalyses NAD(+)- and NADP(+)-dependent oxidations of ethanal by an ordered bi-bi mechanism with NAD(P)+ as the first reactant bound and NAD(P)H as the last product released. The two coenzymes presumably interact with the kinetically identical site. NAD+ forms the dynamic binary complex with the enzyme, while the enzyme-NAD(P)H complex formation is associated with conformation change(s). A stopped-flow burst of NAD(P)H formation, followed by a slower steady-state turnover, suggests that either the deacylation or the release of NAD(P)H is rate limiting. Although NADP+ is reduced by a faster burst rate, NAD+ is slightly favored as the coenzyme by virtue of its marginally faster turnover rate.

  2. Instrumentation for the High Resolution Measurement of Ocean Surface Waves and Currents over km Square Areas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    constructed as a matrix of smaller individual Tonpilz transducer elements. These smaller elements would be nearly ideal for use in Doppler applications...development of the sonar itself there were two principal challenges. The first was to create an efficient 50 kHz transducer . We had two previous...experiences working in this frequency band, with custom transducers developed by channel Industries and by APL, Penn State. Both efforts proved to be very

  3. 1306-km 20x124.8-Gb/s PM-64QAM transmission over PSCF with net SEDP 11,300 (b ∙ km)/s/Hz using 1.15 samp/symb DAC.

    PubMed

    Nespola, A; Straullu, S; Bosco, G; Carena, A; Yanchao, J; Poggiolini, P; Forghieri, F; Yamamoto, Y; Hirano, M; Sasaki, T; Bauwelinck, J; Verheyen, K

    2014-01-27

    We demonstrated the transmission of a Nyquist-WDM signal based on PM-64QAM modulation in an EDFA-only submarine configuration composed of 54.4 km-long fiber spans: 20 channels at 124.8-Gb/s were propagated over 1306 km of low-loss pure-silica-core fiber (PSCF). Thanks to an aggressive digital spectral shaping, we achieved a raw spectral efficiency (SE) of 10.4 b/s/Hz, corresponding to 8.67 b/s/Hz net SE when considering a 20% FEC overhead. Transmitter DACs are operated at a record-low 1.15 samples/symbol, enabled by the insertion of advanced anti-alias filters. The achieved SE-times-distance product was 11,327 (b ∙ km)/(s ∙ Hz), the highest reported so far for PM-64QAM. Combining the experimental results with the performance predictions obtained using an analytical model of nonlinear propagation in uncompensated coherent optical systems (the so-called "GN-model"), we show that PM-64QAM is a realistic option for ultra-high capacity systems in the 1,000 km range, carrying up 40 Tb/s in the C-band.

  4. Synthesis, FT–IR characterization and crystal structure of aqua­(5,10,15,20-tetra­phenyl­porphyrinato-κ4 N)manganese(III) tri­fluoro­methane­sulfonate

    PubMed Central

    Harhouri, Wafa; Mchiri, Chadlia; Najmudin, Shabir; Bonifácio, Cecilia; Nasri, Habib

    2016-01-01

    In the title salt, [Mn(C44H28N4)(H2O)](CF3SO3) or [MnIII(TPP)(H2O)](CF3SO3) (where TPP is the dianion of 5,10,15,20-tetra­phenyl­porphyrin), the MnIII cation is chelated by the four pyrrole N atoms of the porphyrinate anion and additionally coordinated by an aqua ligand in an apical site, completing the distorted square-pyramidal coordination environment. The average Mn—N(pyrrole) bond length is 1.998 (9) Å and the Mn—O(aqua) bond length is 2.1057 (15) Å. The central MnIII ion is displaced by 0.1575 (5) Å from the N4C20 mean plane of the porphyrinate anion towards the apical aqua ligand. The porphyrinate macrocycle exhibits a moderate ruffling and strong saddle deformations. In the crystal lattice, the [MnIII(TPP)(H2O)]+ cation and the tri­fluoro­methane­sulfonate counter-ions are arranged in alternating planes packed along [001]. The components are linked together through O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds and much weaker C—H⋯O and C—H⋯F inter­actions. The crystal packing is further stabilized by weak C—H⋯π inter­actions involving the pyrrole and phenyl rings of the porphyrin moieties. PMID:27308027

  5. Altered knee joint neuromuscular control during landing from a jump in 10-15 year old children with Generalised Joint Hypermobility. A substudy of the CHAMPS-study Denmark.

    PubMed

    Junge, Tina; Wedderkopp, Niels; Thorlund, Jonas Bloch; Søgaard, Karen; Juul-Kristensen, Birgit

    2015-06-01

    Generalised Joint Hypermobility (GJH) is considered an intrinsic risk factor for knee injuries. Knee neuromuscular control during landing may be altered in GJH due to reduced passive stability. The aim was to identify differences in knee neuromuscular control during landing of the Single-Leg-Hop-for-Distance test (SLHD) in 25 children with GJH compared to 29 children without GJH (controls), all 10-15years. Inclusion criteria for GJH: Beighton score⩾5/9 and minimum one hypermobile knee. EMG was recorded from the quadriceps, the hamstring and the calf muscles, presented relative to Maximum Voluntary Electrical activity (MVE). There was no difference in jump length between groups. Before landing, GJH had 33% lower Semitendinosus, but 32% higher Gastrocnemius Medialis activity and 39% higher co contraction of the lateral knee muscles, than controls. After landing, GJH had 36% lower Semitendinosus activity than controls, all significant findings. Although the groups performed equally in SLHD, GJH had a Gastrocnemius Medialis dominated neuromuscular strategy before landing, plausibly caused by reduced Semitendinosus activity. Reduced Semitendinosus activity was seen in GJH after landing, but with no compensatory Gastrocnemius Medialis activity. Reduced pre and post-activation of the Semitendinosus may present a risk factor for traumatic knee injuries as ACL ruptures in GJH with knee hypermobility.

  6. A comparative study of the interaction of 5,10,15,20-tetrakis (N-methylpyridinium-4-yl)porphyrin and its zinc complex with DNA using fluorescence spectroscopy and topoisomerisation.

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, J M; Murphy, M J; McConnell, D J; OhUigin, C

    1985-01-01

    Binding of 5,10,15,20-tetrakis (N-methylpyridinium-4-yl)porphyrin (H2TMPyP4+) and its zinc complex (ZnTMPyP4+) to DNA is demonstrated by their coelectrophoresis and by absorption and fluorescence spectroscopic methods. Topoisomerisation of pBR322 DNA shows that H2TMPyP4+ unwinds DNA as efficiently as ethidium bromide showing that it intercalates at many sites. ZnTMPyP4+ may cause limited unwinding. Marked changes in the fluorescence spectra of the porphyrins are found in the presence of DNA. The fluorescence intensity of either H2TMPyP4+ or ZnTMPyP4+ is enhanced in the presence of poly (d(A-T)), whereas in the presence of poly (d(G-C] the fluorescence intensity of ZnTMPyP4+ is only slightly affected and that of H2TMPyP4+ markedly reduced. Both the porphyrins photosensitize the cleavage of DNA in aerated solution upon visible light irradiation. Images PMID:2987789

  7. Redetermination of cyclo-tetra­kis­(μ-5,10,15,20-tetra-4-pyridyl­porphyrinato)tetra­zinc(II) dimethyl­formamide octa­solvate trihydrate at 100 K

    PubMed Central

    Seidel, Rüdiger W.; Graf, Jürgen; Goddard, Richard; Oppel, Iris M.

    2011-01-01

    The structure of the title compound, [Zn4(C40H24N8)4]·8C3H7NO·3H2O, has been redetermined at 100 K. The redetermination is of significantly higher precision and gives further insight into the disorder of pyridyl groups and solvent mol­ecules. The mol­ecules of (5,10,15,20-tetra-4-pyridyl­porphyrinato)zinc(II) (ZnTPyP) form homomolecular cyclic tetra­mers by coordination of a peripheral pyridyl group to the central Zn atom of an adjacent symmetry-related mol­ecule. The tetra­mer so formed exhibits mol­ecular S 4 symmetry and is located about a crystallographic fourfold rotoinversion axis. Severely disordered dimethyl­formamide and water mol­ecules are present in the crystal, the contributions of which were omitted from refinement. Inter­molecular C—H⋯N hydrogen bonding is observed. PMID:21522892

  8. A method for the detection of alcohol vapours based on optical sensing of magnesium 5,10,15,20-tetraphenyl porphyrin thin film by an optical spectrometer and principal component analysis.

    PubMed

    Kladsomboon, Sumana; Kerdcharoen, Teerakiat

    2012-12-13

    In this work we have proposed a method for the detection of alcohol vapours, i.e. methanol, ethanol and isopropanol, based on the optical sensing response of magnesium 5,10,15,20-tetraphenyl porphyrin (MgTPP) thin films, as measured by optical spectrometry with the assistance of chemometric analysis. We have implemented a scheme which allows a laboratory UV-vis spectrometer to act as a so-called "electronic nose" with very little modification. MgTPP thin films were prepared by a spin coating technique, using chloroform as the solvent, and then subjected to thermal annealing at 280°C in an argon atmosphere. These MgTPP optical gas sensors presented significant responses with methanol compared to ethanol and isopropanol, based on the dynamic flow of alcohol vapours at the same mol% of alcohol concentration. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were performed to model the underlying mechanism of this selectivity. The performance of the optical gas sensors was optimised by varying the fabrication parameters. It is hoped that the MgTPP thin film together with an off-the-shelf optical spectrometer and a simple chemometrics algorithm can be a valuable tool for the analysis of alcoholic content in the beverage industry.

  9. Di-μ-azido-bis­(μ-1,4,7,10,13,16-hexa­oxacyclo­octa­deca­ne)bis­(5,10,15,20-tetra­phenyl­porphyrinato)dicadmium­disodium

    PubMed Central

    Toumi, Hamza; Amiri, Nesrine; Belkhiria, Mohamed Salah; Daran, Jean-Claude; Nasri, Habib

    2012-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, [Cd2Na2(N3)2(C44H28N4)2(C12H24O6)2], consists of one half of the dimeric complex; the tetra­nuclear mol­ecule lies about an inversion centre. The CdII atom is coordinated by the four pyrrole N atoms of the 5,10,15,20-tetra­phenyl­porphyrinate ligand and one N atom of the axial azide ligand in a square-pyramidal geometry. The azide group is also linked to the NaI atom, which is surrounded by one 18-crown-6 molecule and additionally bonded to a second 18-crown-6 molecule trans to the azide group. The porphyrin core exhibits a major doming distortion (∼40%) and the crystal structure is stabilized by weak C—H⋯π inter­actions. The mol­ecular structure features weak intra­molecular hydrogen bonds: two O—H⋯O inter­actions within the 18-crown-6 mol­ecule and one C—H(18-crown-6)⋯N(azido) contact. PMID:23468761

  10. Crystal structure of di­aqua­[5,10,15,20-tetra­kis­(4-bromo­phen­yl)porphyrinato-κ4 N]magnesium

    PubMed Central

    Amiri, Nesrine; Nasri, Soumaya; Roisnel, Thierry; Simonneaux, Gérard; Nasri, Habib

    2015-01-01

    The title compound, [Mg(C44H24Br4N4)(H2O)2] or [Mg(TBrPP)(H2O)2], where TBrPP is the 5,10,15,20-tetra­kis­(4-bromo­phen­yl)porphyrinato ligand, was obtained unintentionally as a by-product of the reaction of the [Mg(TBrPP)] complex with an excess of di­methyl­glyoxime in di­chloro­methane. The entire mol­ecule exhibits point group symmetry 4/m. In the asymmetric unit, except for two C atoms of the phenyl ring, all other atoms lie on special positions. The MgII atom is situated at a site with symmetry 4/m, while the N and the C atoms of the porphyrin macrocycle, as well as two C atoms of the phenyl ring and the Br atom lie in the mirror plane containing the porphyrin core. The H atoms of the axially bonded water mol­ecule are incompatible with the fourfold rotation axis and are disordered over two sites. In the crystal, mol­ecules are packed in rows along [001]. Weak inter­molecular C—H⋯π and C—H⋯Br inter­actions, as well as O—H⋯Br hydrogen bonds, stabilize the crystal packing. PMID:25844215

  11. The HyperV 8000 μg, 50 km/s Plasma Railgun for PLX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brockington, Samuel; Case, Andrew; Messer, Sarah; Wu, Linchun; Witherspoon, F. Douglas

    2012-10-01

    HyperV has developed a gas fed, pulsed, plasma railgun which accelerates 8000 μg of argon to 50 km/s meeting the performance requirements originally specified for the Plasma Liner Experiment (PLX). The present 2.5 cm square-bore plasma railgun forms plasma armatures from high density neutral gas, pre-ionizes it electro-thermally, and accelerates the armature with 30 cm long parallel-plate railgun electrodes driven by a pulse forming network (PFN). A high voltage, high current linear array spark-gap switch and flexible, low-inductance transmission line were designed and constructed to handle the increased current load. We will describe these systems and present initial performance data from high current operation of the plasma rail gun from spectroscopy, interferometry, and imaging systems. Measurements of momentum, pressure, magnetic field, and other optical diagnostics will also be discussed as well as plans for upcoming experimentation to increase performance even further. Work supported by USDOE under DE-FG02-05ER54810 and DE-FG02-08ER85114.

  12. Variations in Km(CO2) of Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate Carboxylase among Grasses

    PubMed Central

    Yeoh, Hock-Hin; Badger, Murray R.; Watson, Leslie

    1980-01-01

    A survey of the Km(CO2) values of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase from 60 grass species shows that enzyme from C3 grasses consistently exhibits lower Km(CO2) than does that from C4 grasses. Systematically ordered variation in Km(CO2) of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylases from C3 and C4 grasses is also apparent and, among C4 grasses, this shows some correlation with C4 types. PMID:16661586

  13. Running Performance, Nationality, Sex and Age in 10km, Half-marathon, Marathon and 100km Ultra-marathon IAAF 1999-2015.

    PubMed

    Nikolaidis, Pantelis T; Onywera, Vincent O; Knechtle, Beat

    2016-10-13

    The aim of the present study was to examine the performance of the world's best runners in 10km, half-marathon, marathon and 100km by age, sex and nationality during 1999-2015 using data from International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF). A total of 38,895 runners (17,136 women and 21,759 men) were considered with 2,594 (1,360 women and 1,234 male) in 10km, 11,595 (5,225 women and 6,370 male) in half-marathon, 23,973 (10,208 women and 13,765 male) in marathon and 733 (343 women and 390 male) in 100km. Most of the runners in 10km (women 40%, men 67%) and half-marathon (women 30%, men 57%) were Kenyans. In marathon, most female and male runners were Ethiopians (women 17%, men 14%) and Kenyans (women 15%, men 43%), respectively. In 100km, most runners were Japanese (20% in women and men). Women were older than men in 10km (32.0±6.0 versus 25.3±4.3 years, p<0.001), half-marathon (27.5±4.7 versus 25.9±4.1 years, p<0.001) and marathon (29.5±5.5 versus 29.1±4.3 years, p<0.001), but not in 100km (36.6±6.1 versus 35.9±5.5 years, p=0.097). Men were faster than women in 10km (28:04±0:17 versus 32:08±0.31 min:sec, p<0.001), half-marathon (1:01:58±0:00:52 versus 1:11:21±0:01:18 h:min:sec, p<0.001), marathon (2:13:42±0:03:01 versus 2:35:04±0:05:21 h:min:s, p<0.001), and 100km (6:48:01±0:11:29 versus 7:53:51±0:16:37 h:min:sec, p<0.001). East-Africans were not the fastest compared to athletes originating from other countries where only Ethiopian men were faster than all other men in marathon. In summary, (i) most runners were from Kenya and Ethiopia in 10km, half-marathon and marathon, but from Japan and Russia in 100km, (ii) women were older than men in all distances except 100km, (iii) men were the fastest in all distances, and (iii) Ethiopian men were faster than all other men in marathon.

  14. Potential of KM3NeT to observe galactic neutrino point-like sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trovato, Agata

    2016-07-01

    KM3NeT (http://www.km3net.org">http://www.km3net.org) will be the next-generation cubic-kilometre-scale neutrino telescope to be installed in the depths of the Mediterranean Sea. This location will allow for surveying the Galactic Centre, most of the Galactic Plane as well as a large part of the sky. We report KM3NeT discovery potential for the SNR RXJ1713.7-3946 and the PWN Vela X and its sensitivity to point-like sources with an E-2 spectrum.

  15. Protective effect of kombucha mushroom (KM) tea on phenol-induced cytotoxicity in albino mice.

    PubMed

    Yapar, Kursad; Cavusoglu, Kultigin; Oruc, Ertan; Yalcin, Emine

    2010-09-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the protective role of kombucha mushroom (KM) tea on cytotoxicity induced by phenol (PHE) in mice. We used weight gain and micronucleus (MN) frequency as indicators of cytotoxicity and supported these parameters with pathological findings. The animals were randomly divided into seven groups: (Group I) only tap water (Group II) 1000 microl kg(-1) b. wt KM-tea, (Group III) 35 mg kg(-1) body wt. PHE (Group IV) 35 mg kg(-1) body wt. PHE + 250 microl kg(-1) b. wt KM-tea (Group V) 35 mg kg(-1) b. wt PHE + 500 microl kg(-1) b. wt KM-tea (Group VI) 35 mg kg(-1) b. wt PHE + 750 microl kg(-1) b. wt KM-tea, (Group VII) 35 mg kg(-1) b. wt PHE + 1000 microl kg(-1) b. wt KM-tea, for 20 consecutive days by oral gavage. The results indicated that all KM-tea supplemented mice showed a lower MN frequency than erythrocytes in only PHE-treated group. There was an observable regression on account of lesions in tissues of mice supplemented with different doses of KM-tea in histopathological observations. In conclusion, the KM-tea supplementation decreases cytotoxicity induced by PHE and its protective role is dose-dependent.

  16. A daily, 1 km resolution data set of downscaled Greenland ice sheet surface mass balance (1958-2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noël, Brice; van de Berg, Willem Jan; Machguth, Horst; Lhermitte, Stef; Howat, Ian; Fettweis, Xavier; van den Broeke, Michiel R.

    2016-10-01

    This study presents a data set of daily, 1 km resolution Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) surface mass balance (SMB) covering the period 1958-2015. Applying corrections for elevation, bare ice albedo and accumulation bias, the high-resolution product is statistically downscaled from the native daily output of the polar regional climate model RACMO2.3 at 11 km. The data set includes all individual SMB components projected to a down-sampled version of the Greenland Ice Mapping Project (GIMP) digital elevation model and ice mask. The 1 km mask better resolves narrow ablation zones, valley glaciers, fjords and disconnected ice caps. Relative to the 11 km product, the more detailed representation of isolated glaciated areas leads to increased precipitation over the southeastern GrIS. In addition, the downscaled product shows a significant increase in runoff owing to better resolved low-lying marginal glaciated regions. The combined corrections for elevation and bare ice albedo markedly improve model agreement with a newly compiled data set of ablation measurements.

  17. A downscaled 1 km dataset of daily Greenland ice sheet surface mass balance components (1958-2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noel, B.; Van De Berg, W. J.; Fettweis, X.; Machguth, H.; Howat, I. M.; van den Broeke, M. R.

    2015-12-01

    The current spatial resolution in regional climate models (RCMs), typically around 5 to 20 km, remains too coarse to accurately reproduce the spatial variability in surface mass balance (SMB) components over the narrow ablation zones, marginal outlet glaciers and neighbouring ice caps of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS). In these topographically rough terrains, the SMB components are highly dependent on local variations in topography. However, the relatively low-resolution elevation and ice mask prescribed in RCMs contribute to significantly underestimate melt and runoff in these regions due to unresolved valley glaciers and fjords. Therefore, near-km resolution topography is essential to better capture SMB variability in these spatially restricted regions. We present a 1 km resolution dataset of daily GrIS SMB covering the period 1958-2014, which is statistically downscaled from data of the polar regional climate model RACMO2.3 at 11 km, using an elevation dependence. The dataset includes all individual SMB components projected on the elevation and ice mask from the GIMP DEM, down-sampled to 1 km. Daily runoff and sublimation are interpolated to the 1 km topography using a local regression to elevation valid for each day specifically; daily precipitation is bi-linearly downscaled without elevation corrections. The daily SMB dataset is then reconstructed by summing downscaled precipitation, sublimation and runoff. High-resolution elevation and ice mask allow for properly resolving the narrow ablation zones and valley glaciers at the GrIS margins, leading to significant increase in runoff estimate. In these regions, and especially over narrow glaciers tongues, the downscaled products improve on the original RACMO2.3 outputs by better representing local SMB patterns through a gradual ablation increase towards the GrIS margins. We discuss the impact of downscaling on the SMB components in a case study for a spatially restricted region, where large elevation

  18. Group training in adolescent runners: influence on VO2max and 5-km race performance.

    PubMed

    Loprinzi, Paul D; Cardinal, Bradley J; Karp, Jason R; Brodowicz, Gary R

    2011-10-01

    The aims of this study were to (a) examine the interrelationships between training intensity, VO2max, and race performance in adolescent crosscountry runners and (b) determine if adolescent runners participating in a group crosscountry training program differ in the amount of training time at various intensities. In this study, 7 adolescent runners performed a laboratory-based VO2max test before and after a 9-week high-school crosscountry season. Heart rate (HR) and ventilatory threshold (VT) were used to identify 3 training zones for each runner based on the HR at ventilator threshold (HR(VT)): zone 1: >15 b·min(-1) below HR(VT); zone 2: between zone 1 and HR(VT); zone 3: >HR(VT). During each training session throughout the season, HR was measured to quantify the amount of training time in each of these 3 intensity zones. Results showed that the time in each of the 3 zones was not significantly associated with 5-km race performance. Zone 3 training time was positively associated with postseason VO2max (r = 0.73, p = 0.06); VO2max was significantly inversely associated with 5-km race performance (r = -0.77, p = 0.04). Each week, the amount of training time at, above, and below the VT was significantly different among the participants even though the training prescription for the group was standardized. The results suggest that, among adolescent crosscountry runners, training above the VT may be important in increasing VO2max and ultimately, race performance. Given the between-participant differences in the amount of training time in each HR zone, coaches should apply individual, rather than group, training programs.

  19. Multi-PMT optical module for the KM3NeT neutrino telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavatsyuk, O.; Dorosti-Hasankiadeh, Q.; Löhner, H.; KM3NeT Consortium

    2012-12-01

    The future cubic kilometre scale neutrino telescope KM3NeT will employ a novel type of a Digital Optical Module (DOM), developed during the recent FP6 Design Study. A pressure-resistant glass sphere hosts 31 photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) of 3-in. diameter, together with all the electronics for high-voltage generation and signal readout. The optical module forms a complete stand-alone detector that is connected to the outside world via a single optical fibre and two copper conductors providing electrical power. The advantages of using multiple small PMTs in the same DOM are the higher quantum efficiency (>30% expected), smaller transit time spread, better two-photon separation capability and directional sensitivity. Moreover, a longer operating lifetime is expected than for large PMTs due to the accumulation of less charge on the anode. In addition, small PMTs are insensitive to the Earth's magnetic field and do not require μ-metal shielding. In order to maximise the detector sensitivity, each PMT will be surrounded by an expansion cone collecting photons that would normally miss the photocathode. Such an expansion cone consists of an aluminium ring filled with silicone gel. An increase in the overall sensitivity, integrated over all angles of incidence, was estimated to be about 27%. Monte-Carlo simulations have shown that a detector configuration with multi-PMT DOMs requires three times less OMs to achieve the same performance as conventional OMs hosting 10-in. PMTs. Prototype DOMs are currently being built by the KM3NeT consortium.

  20. Simultaneous transfer of optical frequency and time over 306 km long-haul optical fibre link

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hucl, Vaclav; Cizek, Martin; Pravdova, Lenka; Rerucha, Simon; Hrabina, Jan; Mikel, Bretislav; Smotlacha, Vladimir; Vojtech, Josef; Lazar, Josef; Cip, Ondrej

    2016-12-01

    Optical fibre links for distributing optical frequencies and time stamps were researched and experimentally tested in the past fifteen years. They have been used mainly for stability comparison of experimental optical clocks. But recent development puts demands on a technology transfer from laboratory experiments to the real industry. The remote calibration of interrogators of Fibre Bragg Grating strain sensory networks is one of important examples. The first step of the adoption the time and frequency broadcasting should be the drop-out free long-term operation of this technology between research laboratories connected via long-haul fibre links. We present a 306 km long-haul optical fibre link between the cities of Prague and Brno in the Czech Republic where a coherent transfer of stable optical frequency and a stable time signal has been firstly demonstrated. The link between ISI CAS Brno and CESNET Prague uses an internet communication fibre where a window of 1540-1546 nm is dedicated for the coherent transfer and 1PPS signal. The link is equipped with 6 bidirectional EDFA amplifiers. The optical frequency standard based on the highly-coherent laser Koheras Adjustik working at 1540.5 nm and stabilized with a saturation absorption spectroscopy technique was used for the coherent wave transfer. The suppression of the Doppler shift induced by the optical fibre was based on an accoustooptical modulator with a servo-loop including a fast PID controller processing the beat-note frequency given by mixing of the Adjustik laser (Brno) and the reflected frequency of this laser from the far end of 306 km long-haul fibre link (Prague). We verified the Doppler shift suppression for the coherent wave with a measuring method analysing the transport delay of the 1PPS signal.

  1. Equatorial density depletions observed at 840 km during the great magnetic storm of March 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Greenspan, M.E. ); Rasmussen, C.E. ); Burke, W.J. ); Abdu, M.A. )

    1991-08-01

    Early on March 14, 1989, a thermal plasma probe on the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) F9 spacecraft detected extensive and dramatic decreases in the ion density at 840 km, near 2130 LT, during two consecutive transequatorial passes over South America. The order of magnitude decreases in the ion density extended more than 4,000 km along the satellite track. The depletions were accompanied by upward and westward plasma drifts, both in excess of 100 m/s. Their onsets and terminations were marked by extremely sharp density gradients. A partial depletion was detected over the eastern Pacific during the following orbit. The DMSP F9 ground track passed slightly west of a Brazilian total electron content (TEC) station and two Brazilian ionosondes during the first depletion encounter. The TEC fell far below normal during the night of March 13-14. The ionosonde measurements indicate that, in the hour after sunset, before DMSP passed through the depletions, the F{sub 2} layer rose rapidly and disappeared, but at the time of the first depletion encounter, h{sub m}F{sub 2} was decreasing over one of the stations. The authors develop a phenomenological model reconciling DMSP F8, F9 and ground-based measurements. The calculations show that rapid upward drifts sustained for several hours can produce depletions in the equatorial ion density with sharp gradients at their high-latitude boundaries, consistent with the data. They discuss possible contributing mechanisms for generating these upward drifts. These include direct penetration of the magnetospheric electric field to low latitudes, the electric fields generated by the disturbance dynamo, and the effects of conductivity gradients near the dusk terminator and the South Atlantic anomaly.

  2. Fiber-Level Modeling of Dynamic Strength of Kevlar® KM2 Ballistic Fabric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grujicic, M.; Hariharan, A.; Pandurangan, B.; Yen, C.-F.; Cheeseman, B. A.; Wang, Y.; Miao, Y.; Zheng, J. Q.

    2012-07-01

    In recent years, modeling of the high-performance ballistic fabric has gradually shifted from the continuum and yarn length scales to the sub-yarn length scale which enabled establishment of the relationships between the fabric penetration resistance and various fiber-level phenomena such as fiber-fiber friction, fiber twist, transverse properties of the fibers, and the stochastic nature of fiber strength. In general, these sub-yarn modeling schemes involve special numerical techniques (e.g., digital-element method) and customized computational codes. This status of the sub-yarn fabric-modeling methods and tools makes them not readily available to wider academic and industrial research communities. In the present work, an attempt is made to use conventional finite-element methods and tools in order to carry out sub-yarn numerical analysis of the penetration resistance of Kevlar® KM2 ballistic fabric. The goal was to demonstrate that results could be obtained which are comparable to their digital-element method = based counterparts. Specifically, a series of transient nonlinear dynamics finite-element analyses was carried out in order to investigate the role of the following two important sub-yarn phenomena on the penetration resistance of Kevlar® KM2 fabric: (a) fiber transverse properties including nonlinear elastic and plastic response and (b) fiber-fiber friction within the context of stochastically distributed fiber axial strength. It is generally found that the results obtained are consistent with their digital-element method-based counterparts.

  3. Abiotic versus biotic controls on soil nitrogen cycling in drylands along a 3200 km transect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Dongwei; Zhu, Weixing; Wang, Xiaobo; Pan, Yuepeng; Wang, Chao; Xi, Dan; Bai, Edith; Wang, Yuesi; Han, Xingguo; Fang, Yunting

    2017-03-01

    Nitrogen (N) cycling in drylands under changing climate is not well understood. Our understanding of N cycling over larger scales to date relies heavily on the measurement of bulk soil N, and the information about internal soil N transformations remains limited. The 15N natural abundance (δ15N) of ammonium and nitrate can serve as a proxy record for the N processes in soils. To better understand the patterns and mechanisms of N cycling in drylands, we collected soils along a 3200 km transect at about 100 km intervals in northern China, with mean annual precipitation (MAP) ranging from 36 to 436 mm. We analyzed N pools and δ15N of ammonium, dual isotopes (15N and 18O) of nitrate, and the microbial gene abundance associated with soil N transformations. We found that N status and its driving factors were different above and below a MAP threshold of 100 mm. In the arid zone with MAP below 100 mm, soil inorganic N accumulated, with a large fraction being of atmospheric origin, and ammonia volatilization was strong in soils with high pH. In addition, the abundance of microbial genes associated with soil N transformations was low. In the semiarid zone with MAP above 100 mm, soil inorganic N concentrations were low and were controlled mainly by biological processes (e.g., plant uptake and denitrification). The preference for soil ammonium over nitrate by the dominant plant species may enhance the possibility of soil nitrate losses via denitrification. Overall, our study suggests that a shift from abiotic to biotic controls on soil N biogeochemistry under global climate changes would greatly affect N losses, soil N availability, and other N transformation processes in these drylands in China.

  4. Desulfotomaculum spp.and Methanobacterium spp. Dominate a 4-5 km Deep Fault

    SciTech Connect

    Moser, Duane P.; Gihring, Thomas M.; Brockman, Fred J.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Balkwill, David L.; Dollhopf, M E.; Lollar, B S.; Pratt, Lisa; Boice, E.; Southam, G; Wanger, Greg; Baker, Brett; Pfiffner, S; Lin, L; Onstott, T C.

    2005-12-01

    Sulfidic, 54-60 C, 3 to 30 million year old meteoric water stably Alkaline, sulfidic, 54 to 60 C, 4 to 53 million-year-old meteoric water emanating from a borehole intersecting quartzite-hosted fractures >3.3 km beneath the surface supported a microbial community dominated by a bacterial species affiliated with Desulfotomaculum spp. and an archaeal species related to Methanobacterium spp. The geochemical homogeneity over the 650-m length of the borehole, the lack of dividing cells, and the absence of these microorganisms in mine service water support an indigenous origin for the microbial community. The coexistence of these two microorganisms is consistent with a limiting flux of inorganic carbon and SO4 2 in the presence of high pH, high concentrations of H2 and CH4, and minimal free energy for autotrophic methanogenesis. Sulfide isotopic compositions were highly enriched, consistent with microbial SO4 2 reduction under hydrologic isolation. An analogous microbial couple and similar abiogenic gas chemistry have been reported recently for hydrothermal carbonate vents of the Lost City near the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (D. S. Kelly et al., Science 307:1428-1434, 2005), suggesting that these features may be common to deep subsurface habitats (continental and marine) bearing this geochemical signature. The geochemical setting and microbial communities described here are notably different from microbial ecosystems reported for shallower continental subsurface environments.

  5. Climatological analysis of the real-time NSSL 4km WRF-ARW

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goines, D. C.; Kennedy, A. D.

    2014-12-01

    In recent years, the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model has been used for dynamic downscaling ofGlobal Climate Models (GCMs) to forecast smaller scale phenomena that GCMs cannot resolve at coarseresolutions. High resolution convection-allowing (CA) WRF simulations have gained popularity in recent yearsdue to their ability to resolve the structure of high impact phenomena such as topographically inducedprecipitation, mesoscale convective systems, and supercell thunderstorms. An accurate representation of theseextreme events is important for climate mitigation and adaptation strategies by policy makers. With the usage ofdownscaling and fine resolutions of WRF simulations becoming more recurrent, the question still remains: dohigh resolution CA WRF simulations correctly represent climatological precipitation? This study examines theclimatology of precipitation over the U.S. Central Plains produced for 7 years (2007-2013) by the NationalSevere Storms Laboratory (NSSL) high resolution (4km) CA WRF model. Precipitation forecasts for variousforecast hours are analyzed to determine whether the model climatology is similar to observations. TheMeteorological Evaluation Tool (MET) Method for Object-Based Diagnostic Evaluation (MODE) is utilized tocompare the precipitation forecasts to observations. The National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP)Stage IV multi-sensor precipitation analysis is used as the truth for model assessment. Model performance isinvestigated for a variety of synoptic regimes using self-organizing maps (SOMs).

  6. The Crust and Mantle Relationships Beneath Central and Southern Iberian Peninsula constrained by a 550 km long multiseismic transect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehsan, Siddique Akhtar; Carbonell, Ramon; Simancas, Jose Fernando; Martinez Poyatos, David; Azor, Antonio; Ayarza, Puy; Storti, Fabrizio

    2013-04-01

    A composite lithospheric cross section which is composed by data from controlled source multiseismic experiments strongly constrains the lithospheric structure of southwestern Iberia. The data includes coincident normal incidence and wide-angle profiles along an, approximately, 550 km long transect. This transect goes across, from North-to-South, the major tectonic zones that build up Southwestern part of the Iberian Peninsula (the Central Iberian Zone -CIZ-, the Ossa-Morena Zone -OMZ- and the South Portuguese Zone -SPZ-). The knowledge provided by these datasets constitutes the base to develop multidisciplinary models of the lithosphere. The multichannel deep seismic high resolution (60-90 fold) profiles, IBERSEIS & ALCUDIA were acquired in summer 2001 and 2007 are about 300 and 250 km long respectively. The transects image 20 s (TWTT), about 70 km depth. To address the crust and upper mantle structural relationships a reassessment of the normal incidence seismic reflection transect ALCUDIA has been carried out. We revised the key processing steps and applied advance analysis on the ALCUDIA transect with the aim to improve the signal to noise ratio especially in the deep parts and to produce a depth migrated image. The velocity model generated through wide-angle seismic survey (2003) was used to convert IBERSEIS time migrated stack image into depth. The new data processing flow provide better structural constraints on the shallow and deep structures as the current images reveal indentation features which strongly suggest horizontal tectonics. The ALCUDIA transect shows slightly less reflective upper crust about 13 km thick decoupled from the comparatively reflective lower crust. The reflectivity of the lower crust is continuous, high amplitude, horizontal and parallel though evidences of deformation are present as flat-ramp-flat geometry on the northeastern portion and a "Crocodile structure" wedging into the upper mantle on the southwestern portion of the ALCUDIA

  7. Crystal structure of an unknown solvate of (piperazine-κN){5,10,15,20-tetra­kis­[4-(benzo­yloxy)phen­yl]porphyrinato-κ4 N}zinc

    PubMed Central

    Nasri, Soumaya; Ezzayani, Khaireddine; Turowska-Tyrk, Ilona; Roisnel, Thierry; Nasri, Habib

    2016-01-01

    The title compound, [Zn(C72H44N4O8)(C4H10N2)] or [Zn(TPBP)(pipz] (where TPBP and pipz are 5,10,15,20-tetra­kis­[4-(benzo­yloxy)phen­yl]porphyrinato and piperazine ligands respectively), features a distorted square-pyramidal coordin­ation geometry about the central ZnII atom. This central atom is chelated by the four N atoms of the porphyrinate anion and further coordinated by a nitro­gen atom of the piperazine axial ligand, which adopts a chair confirmation. The average Zn—N(pyrrole) bond length is 2.078 (7) Å and the Zn— N(pipz) bond length is 2.1274 (19) Å. The zinc cation is displaced by 0.4365 (4) Å from the N4C20 mean plane of the porphyrinate anion toward the piperazine axial ligand. This porphyrinate macrocycle exhibits major saddle and moderate ruffling deformations. In the crystal, the supra­molecular structure is made by parallel pairs of layers along (100), with an inter­layer distance of 4.100 Å while the distance between two pairs of layers is 4.047 Å. A region of electron density was treated with the SQUEEZE [Spek (2015 ▸). Acta Cryst. C71, 9–18] procedure in PLATON following unsuccessful attempts to model it as being part of disordered n-hexane solvent and water mol­ecules. The given chemical formula and other crystal data do not take into account these solvent mol­ecules. PMID:27555935

  8. Crystal structure of an unknown solvate of (piperazine-κN){5,10,15,20-tetra-kis-[4-(benzo-yloxy)phen-yl]porphyrinato-κ(4) N}zinc.

    PubMed

    Nasri, Soumaya; Ezzayani, Khaireddine; Turowska-Tyrk, Ilona; Roisnel, Thierry; Nasri, Habib

    2016-07-01

    The title compound, [Zn(C72H44N4O8)(C4H10N2)] or [Zn(TPBP)(pipz] (where TPBP and pipz are 5,10,15,20-tetra-kis-[4-(benzo-yloxy)phen-yl]porphyrinato and piperazine ligands respectively), features a distorted square-pyramidal coordin-ation geometry about the central Zn(II) atom. This central atom is chelated by the four N atoms of the porphyrinate anion and further coordinated by a nitro-gen atom of the piperazine axial ligand, which adopts a chair confirmation. The average Zn-N(pyrrole) bond length is 2.078 (7) Å and the Zn- N(pipz) bond length is 2.1274 (19) Å. The zinc cation is displaced by 0.4365 (4) Å from the N4C20 mean plane of the porphyrinate anion toward the piperazine axial ligand. This porphyrinate macrocycle exhibits major saddle and moderate ruffling deformations. In the crystal, the supra-molecular structure is made by parallel pairs of layers along (100), with an inter-layer distance of 4.100 Å while the distance between two pairs of layers is 4.047 Å. A region of electron density was treated with the SQUEEZE [Spek (2015 ▸). Acta Cryst. C71, 9-18] procedure in PLATON following unsuccessful attempts to model it as being part of disordered n-hexane solvent and water mol-ecules. The given chemical formula and other crystal data do not take into account these solvent mol-ecules.

  9. Crystal structure of (4-cyano­pyridine-κN){5,10,15,20-tetrakis[4-(benzoyloxy)phenyl]porphyrinato-κ4 N}zinc–4-cyano­pyridine (1/1)

    PubMed Central

    Nasri, Soumaya; Amiri, Nesrine; Turowska-Tyrk, Ilona; Daran, Jean-Claude; Nasri, Habib

    2016-01-01

    In the title compound, [Zn(C72H44N4O8)(C6H4N2)]·C6H4N2 or [Zn(TPBP)(4-CNpy]·(4-CNpy) [where TPBP and 4-CNpy are 5,10,15,20-(tetra­phenyl­benzoate)porphyrinate and 4-cyano­pyridine, respectively], the ZnII cation is chelated by four pyrrole-N atoms of the porphyrinate anion and coordinated by a pyridyl-N atom of the 4-CNpy axial ligand in a distorted square-pyramidal geometry. The average Zn—N(pyrrole) bond length is 2.060 (6) Å and the Zn—N(4-CNpy) bond length is 2.159 (2) Å. The zinc cation is displaced by 0.319 (1) Å from the N4C20 mean plane of the porphyrinate anion toward the 4-cyano­pyridine axial ligand. This porphyrinate macrocycle exhibits major saddle and moderate ruffling and doming deformations. In the crystal, the [Zn(TPBP)(4-CNpy)] complex mol­ecules are linked together via weak C—H⋯N, C—H⋯O and C—H⋯π inter­actions, forming supra­molecular channels parallel to the c axis. The non-coordinating 4-cyano­pyridine mol­ecules are located in the channels and linked with the complex mol­ecules, via weak C—H⋯N inter­actions and π-π stacking or via weak C—H⋯O and C—H⋯π inter­actions. The non-coordinating 4-cyano­pyridine mol­ecule is disordered over two positions with an occupancy ratio of 0.666 (4):0.334 (4). PMID:26958379

  10. Scaling of water vapor in the meso-gamma (2-20km) and lower meso-beta (20-50km) scales from tall tower time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pressel, K. G.; Collins, W.; Desai, A. R.

    2011-12-01

    Deficiencies in the parameterization of boundary layer clouds in global climate models (GCMs) remains one of the greatest sources of uncertainty in climate change predictions. Many GCM cloud parameterizations, which seek to include some representation of subgrid-scale cloud variability, do so by making assumptions regarding the subgrid-scale spatial probability density function (PDF) of total water content. Properly specifying the form and parameters of the total water PDF is an essential step in the formulation of PDF based cloud parameterizations. In the cloud free boundary layer, the PDF of total water mixing ratio is equivalent to the PDF of water vapor mixing ratio. Understanding the PDF of water vapor mixing ratio in the cloud free atmosphere is a necessary step towards understanding the PDF of water vapor in the cloudy atmosphere. A primary challenge in empirically constraining the PDF of water vapor mixing ratio is a distinct lack of a spatially distributed observational dataset at or near cloud scale. However, at meso-beta (20-50km) and larger scales, there is a wealth of information on the spatial distribution of water vapor contained in the physically retrieved water vapor profiles from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder onboard NASA`s Aqua satellite. The scaling (scale-invariance) of the observed water vapor field has been suggested as means of using observations at satellite observed (meso-beta) scales to derive information about cloud scale PDFs. However, doing so requires the derivation of a robust climatology of water vapor scaling from in-situ observations across the meso- gamma (2-20km) and meso-beta scales. In this work, we present the results of the scaling of high frequency (10Hz) time series of water vapor mixing ratio as observed from the 447m WLEF tower located near Park Falls, Wisconsin. Observations from a tall tower offer an ideal set of observations with which to investigate scaling at meso-gamma and meso-beta scales requiring only the

  11. Changes in Body Mass, Hydration and Electrolytes Following a 161-km Endurance Race

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purpose: To examine electrolyte concentrations and changes in body mass and total body water (TBW) during a 161-km ultra-marathon, and relate these to finish time and incidence of hyponatremia. Methods: Subjects were recruited from the 161-km 2008 Rio Del Lago Endurance Race. Body mass, TBW, and s...

  12. New Marker Development for the Rice Blast Resistance Gene Pi-km

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The blast resistance (R) gene Pi-km protects rice against specific races of the fungal pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae. The use of blast R genes remains the most cost-effective method of disease control. To facilitate the breeding process, we developed a Pi-km specific molecular marker. For this purp...

  13. Draft genome sequence of the Bordetella bronchiseptica swine isolate KM22

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bordetella bronchiseptica swine isolate KM22 has been used in experimental infections of swine as a model of clinical B. bronchiseptica infections within swine herds and to study host-to-host transmission. Here we report the draft genome sequence of KM22....

  14. A Co-Creation Blended KM Model for Cultivating Critical-Thinking Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeh, Yu-chu

    2012-01-01

    Both critical thinking (CT) and knowledge management (KM) skills are necessary elements for a university student's success. Therefore, this study developed a co-creation blended KM model to cultivate university students' CT skills and to explore the underlying mechanisms for achieving success. Thirty-one university students participated in this…

  15. Climate changes following impacts of 1 and 10 km diameter asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toon, O. B.; Bardeen, C.; Garcia, R. R.

    2013-05-01

    We use the NCAR Community Earth System Model to simulate climate change that might occur after the impact of a 1 km diameter asteroid on land and that might have occurred after the K-Pg impact. We have surveyed the literature to determine the model input conditions for the K-Pg impact and categorized them in terms of the degree to which observations show that a material was present in the atmosphere of importance to the climate. We will discuss areas in which further data would be useful for climate models and how K-Pg data can be used to estimate the input conditions for a 1 km asteroid. The K-Pg boundary material clearly contains spherules with sizes near 200 μm, but these are of little direct interest to climate due to their short residence time in the atmosphere. Soot is abundant in the boundary layer and would have created an optical depth above 100, making it highly significant to the climate. Optical depth is a measure of the amount of light transmitted to the ground through the material: no light would reach the ground for an optical depth of 100. The origin of the soot is debated, but of secondary importance to its climate effects. Hypotheses for the formation of the 200 μm spherules from condensing rock vapor suggest the presence of additional abundant rock vapor which did not condense to form large spheres. This vapor may instead have formed particles with sizes of tens of nm. These may be represented in the K-Pg layer by nano-phase iron. These particles may have had an optical depth above 1000, and because they likely were injected higher than the smoke they would have dominated the climate changes. The K-Pg layer also contains clastics, notably shocked quartz. While some have discounted the abundance of submicron clastics, we find it likely that they were very abundant, again with an optical depth near 100. The role of clastics in climate change relative to soot and vaporized impactor is likely to have been moderate due to their size and optical

  16. Unexpected characteristics of the 150 km echoes observed over Gadanki and their implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patra, A. K.; Pavan Chaitanya, P.

    2016-11-01

    Recent discovery of two distinct types of 150 km echoes, namely, type-A and type-B, and subsequent progress in the large-scale kinetic simulation of photoelectron-induced plasma waves have begun a new era in resolving the five decades long 150 km echoing riddle. In this paper, we present hitherto unrevealed three important and unexpected findings on the two distinct types of 150 km echoes based on Gadanki radar observations. Our observations show unexpected predominance of type-A echoes, strong seasonal dependence of both type-A and type-B echoes, and a surprising connection of the type-B echoes to the unusually deep solar minimum of 2008-2009. We discuss how these results provide important new clues in tethering the competing processes involved in the daytime 150 km echoes and have significance in the recently proposed photoelectron-induced plasma fluctuations as a potential mechanism for the 150 km echoes.

  17. Cape Canaveral, Florida range reference atmosphere 0-70 km altitude

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tingle, A. (Editor)

    1983-01-01

    The RRA contains tabulations for monthly and annual means, standard deviations, skewness coefficients for wind speed, pressure temperature, density, water vapor pressure, virtual temperature, dew-point temperature, and the means and standard deviations for the zonal and meridional wind components and the linear (product moment) correlation coefficient between the wind components. These statistical parameters are tabulated at the station elevation and at 1 km intervals from sea level to 30 km and at 2 km intervals from 30 to 90 km altitude. The wind statistics are given at approximately 10 m above the station elevations and at altitudes with respect to mean sea level thereafter. For those range sites without rocketsonde measurements, the RRAs terminate at 30 km altitude or they are extended, if required, when rocketsonde data from a nearby launch site are available. There are four sets of tables for each of the 12 monthly reference periods and the annual reference period.

  18. Design and mass production of the optical modules for KM3NeT-Italia project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonora, Emanuele; Aiello, Sebastiano; Giordano, Valentina

    2016-04-01

    The KM3NeT European project aims at constructing a km3 underwater neutrino telescope in the depths of the Mediterranean Sea. The first phase that is under construction will comprise eight tower-like detection structures (KM3NeT-Italia), which will form the internal core of a km3-scale detector. The detection element of KM3NeT-Italia, the optical module, is made of a 13-inch pressure-resistant glass-vessel that contains a single 10-inch photomultiplier and the relative electronics. The design of the whole optical module, the main results obtained from the massive photomultipliers measurements, and the foremost phases of the mass production procedure performed at the production site of Catania are also presented.

  19. Listening to music in the first, but not the last 1.5 km of a 5-km running trial alters pacing strategy and improves performance.

    PubMed

    Lima-Silva, A E; Silva-Cavalcante, M D; Pires, F O; Bertuzzi, R; Oliveira, R S F; Bishop, D

    2012-10-01

    We examined the effects of listening to music on attentional focus, rating of perceived exertion (RPE), pacing strategy and performance during a simulated 5-km running race. 15 participants performed 2 controlled trials to establish their best baseline time, followed by 2 counterbalanced experimental trials during which they listened to music during the first (M start) or the last (M finish) 1.5 km. The mean running velocity during the first 1.5 km was significantly higher in M start than in the fastest control condition (p<0.05), but there was no difference in velocity between conditions during the last 1.5 km (p>0.05). The faster first 1.5 m in M start was accompanied by a reduction in associative thoughts compared with the fastest control condition. There were no significant differences in RPE between conditions (p>0.05). These results suggest that listening to music at the beginning of a trial may draw the attentional focus away from internal sensations of fatigue to thoughts about the external environment. However, along with the reduction in associative thoughts and the increase in running velocity while listening to music, the RPE increased linearly and similarly under all conditions, suggesting that the change in velocity throughout the race may be to maintain the same rate of RPE increase.

  20. Capture of Cometary Dust Grains in Impacts at 6.1 km s-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burchell, M. J.; Foster, N.; Kearsley, A.; Wozniakiewicz, P.

    2009-12-01

    The NASA Stardust mission to comet 81P/Wild 2 collected grains of cometary dust freshly ejected from the comet during a fly-by at a speed of 6.1 km s-1. These were captured on aluminum foils and in blocks of silica aerogel. The dust underwent a severe shock during capture. The nature of the shock process depends on the properties of the dust and the collecting media. On the aluminium, the shock process and impact damage is typical of that between high-density (or hard materials) at high velocity, resulting in craters lined with impactor residues. The peak shock pressures are estimated at 60-80 GPa. Two main crater types are seen, simple bowl shaped and multiple pit craters: these reflect the degree of consolidation of the original dust grain. Capture in the low density aerogel was via a more gradual slowing of the dust grains accompanied by a variety of effects on the grains (complete break up of weak grains vs. ablation of well consolidated grains). The relation between the structure of the dust grains and the resulting impact features in both collector materials is discussed.

  1. The effects of running a 308 km ultra-marathon on cardiac markers.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Joo; Shin, Young-Oh; Lee, Jeong-Beom; Lee, Yoon-Hee; Shin, Kyung-A; Kim, Al-Chan; Goh, Choong-Won; Kim, Chul; Oh, Jae-Keun; Min, Young-Ki; Yang, Hun-Mo

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of cardiac strain and damage in 18 male marathoners with average age of 52.8 ± 5.0 years running at a 308 km ultra-marathon. Blood samples were collected at pre-race, 100 km, 200 km and 308 km check points for the analysis of cardiac muscle injury markers, creatine kinase (CK), creatine kinase-myocardial band (CK-MB), cardiac troponin I (cTnI) and cardiac muscle strain marker, N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP). The CK levels increased 1127.2 ± 507.9 IU/L, 5133.8 ± 2492.7 IU/L and 4958.4 ± 2087.9 IU/L at 100 km, 200 km and 308 km, respectively, compared to the pre-race levels. The CK-MB levels increased 20.2 ± 11.2 ng/mL, 73.3 ± 35.6 ng/mL and 68.6 ± 42.6 ng/mL at 100, 200 and 308 km, respectively, compared to the pre-race levels. The CK-MB/CK ratio showed that the CK-MB mass index was within the normal range (<2.5%) at 100 km, 200 km and 308 km. The cTnI levels showed no significant difference in all check points. The NT-proBNP levels increased 146.55 ± 92.7 pg/mL, 167.95 ± 111.9 pg/mL and 241.23 ± 121.2 pg/mL at 100, 200 and 308 km, respectively, compared to the pre-race levels. The normal CK-MB mass index (<5.0 ng/mL) and the absence of an increase in the cTnI levels during the 308 km ultra-marathon suggested that no myocardial injury despite an elevation in CK-MB. The increase in NT-proBNP levels probably resulted from continuous hemodynamic cardiac stress and represents a transient physiological myocardial protective response.

  2. Marshall Space Flight Center Propulsion Systems Department (PSD) Knowledge Management (KM) Initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caraccioli, Paul; Varnedoe, Tom; Smith, Randy; McCarter, Mike; Wilson, Barry; Porter, Richard

    2006-01-01

    NASA Marshall Space Flight Center's Propulsion Systems Department (PSD) is four months into a fifteen month Knowledge Management (KM) initiative to support enhanced engineering decision making and analyses, faster resolution of anomalies (near-term) and effective, efficient knowledge infused engineering processes, reduced knowledge attrition, and reduced anomaly occurrences (long-term). The near-term objective of this initiative is developing a KM Pilot project, within the context of a 3-5 year KM strategy, to introduce and evaluate the use of KM within PSD. An internal NASA/MSFC PSD KM team was established early in project formulation to maintain a practitioner, user-centric focus throughout the conceptual development, planning and deployment of KM technologies and capabilities within the PSD. The PSD internal team is supported by the University of Alabama's Aging Infrastructure Systems Center of Excellence (AISCE), lntergraph Corporation, and The Knowledge Institute. The principle product of the initial four month effort has been strategic planning of PSD KNI implementation by first determining the "as is" state of KM capabilities and developing, planning and documenting the roadmap to achieve the desired "to be" state. Activities undertaken to suppoth e planning phase have included data gathering; cultural surveys, group work-sessions, interviews, documentation review, and independent research. Assessments and analyses have beon pedormed including industry benchmarking, related local and Agency initiatives, specific tools and techniques used and strategies for leveraging existing resources, people and technology to achieve common KM goals. Key findings captured in the PSD KM Strategic Plan include the system vision, purpose, stakeholders, prioritized strategic objectives mapped to the top ten practitioner needs and analysis of current resource usage. Opportunities identified from research, analyses, cultural1KM surveys and practitioner interviews include

  3. [Comparative studies on monoclonal antibody KM10 and anti-CEA monoclonal antibodies].

    PubMed

    Soyama, N; Yamamoto, M; Ohyanagi, H; Saitoh, Y

    1989-11-01

    The specificity of KM10 was evaluated in comparison with newly developed anti-CEA monoclonal antibodies (A10, B9, JA4, AH3). Both KM10 and all anti-CEA monoclonal antibodies reacted with CEA in ELISA system, and with adenocarcinoma of the stomach, colon, and pancreas in the immunohistochemical assay. B9, JA4, and AH3 were suggested to react with CEA related antigens, such as NCA and BGPI, whereas KM10 and A10 were suggested to recognize the distinctive part of CEA. The antigenic determinant of CEA reactive with KM10 and A10 was revealed to be protein moiety after enzyme treatment. The competitive binding inhibition assay, however, indicated that epitopes of KM10 and A10 were different each other. Enzyme immunoassay using both KM10 and A10 could detect CEA. These findings showed the possible use of both KM10 and A10 for clinical diagnosis and treatment by means of targeting for the distinctive part of CEA.

  4. Photographer : JPL Range : 106,250,000 km. ( 66 million miles) P-22830C This, Voyager 1 image shows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Photographer : JPL Range : 106,250,000 km. ( 66 million miles) P-22830C This, Voyager 1 image shows Saturn and three of its satellites. A series of dark and light cloud bands appears through high altitude haze in the northern hemisphere. Cosiderable structure can be seen in the rings. The Cassini division, between the A-ring and B-ring, is readily visible. The shadow of rings on the planet's disk can also be seeen. The three satellites visible are, left to right, Enceladus (off the left edge of rings), Dione (just below the planet), and Tethys (at right edge of frame). The spacecraft will make its closest approach, 124,200 km. (77,174 miles) abovr the cloud tops, at 3:45 pm PST on Nov. 12, 1980. Nine months later, in August 1981, Voyager 2 will encounter Saturn and then continue on to Uranus.

  5. The Trigger and Data Acquisition System (TriDAS) of the KM3NeT experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellegrino, C.; KM3NeT Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Starting from 2015, the new generation underwater high energy neutrino telescope, KM3NeT, is being installed in the Mediterranean Sea. During Phase 1, 32 Detection Units (8 tower-like and 24 string-like) will be deployed in the Ionian Sea, about 100km offshore Portopalo di Capo Passero, Sicily, and 7 string-like DUs will be deployed in the MEUST site, offshore Toulon in France. During Phase 2, several hundreds of DUs will be added to the Phase 1 detector, reaching an effective detection volume of some cubic kilometres. In this contribution the Trigger and Data Acquisition System (TriDAS) of the string-based detector is described. The TriDAS is designed to scale with the detector size, allowing the read-out and the on-line trigger of data from both Phase 1 and Phase 2, whose continuous throughputs are expected to be about 10Gbps and more than 250Gbps, respectively.

  6. 10 km running performance predicted by a multiple linear regression model with allometrically adjusted variables

    PubMed Central

    Abad, Cesar C. C.; Barros, Ronaldo V.; Bertuzzi, Romulo; Gagliardi, João F. L.; Lima-Silva, Adriano E.; Lambert, Mike I.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to verify the power of VO2max, peak treadmill running velocity (PTV), and running economy (RE), unadjusted or allometrically adjusted, in predicting 10 km running performance. Eighteen male endurance runners performed: 1) an incremental test to exhaustion to determine VO2max and PTV; 2) a constant submaximal run at 12 km·h−1 on an outdoor track for RE determination; and 3) a 10 km running race. Unadjusted (VO2max, PTV and RE) and adjusted variables (VO2max0.72, PTV0.72 and RE0.60) were investigated through independent multiple regression models to predict 10 km running race time. There were no significant correlations between 10 km running time and either the adjusted or unadjusted VO2max. Significant correlations (p < 0.01) were found between 10 km running time and adjusted and unadjusted RE and PTV, providing models with effect size > 0.84 and power > 0.88. The allometrically adjusted predictive model was composed of PTV0.72 and RE0.60 and explained 83% of the variance in 10 km running time with a standard error of the estimate (SEE) of 1.5 min. The unadjusted model composed of a single PVT accounted for 72% of the variance in 10 km running time (SEE of 1.9 min). Both regression models provided powerful estimates of 10 km running time; however, the unadjusted PTV may provide an uncomplicated estimation. PMID:28149382

  7. Characterization of the KM3NeT photomultipliers in the Hellenic Open University

    SciTech Connect

    Bourlis, G.; Avgitas, T.; Tsirigotis, A.; Tzamarias, S.; Collaboration: KM3NeT Collaboration

    2014-11-18

    The KM3NeT neutrino research infrastructure will be a deep sea multidisciplinary observatory in the Mediterranean Sea hosting a neutrino telescope. The Physics Laboratory of the Hellenic Open University is involved in the characterization of the KM3NeT neutrino detector. The present work describes measurement techniques for the functional characteristics of the candidate KM3NeT photomultipliers. These characteristics include dark current, transit time spread, gain slope and single photoelectron characteristics, as well as delayed and after pulses.

  8. Survival of the Tardigrade Hypsibius Dujardini during Hypervelocity Impact Events up to 5.49 km s-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasini, D.

    2014-04-01

    Studies have previously been conducted to verify the survivability of living cells during hypervelocity impact events to test the panspermia and lithopanspermia hypotheses [1, 2]. It has been demonstrated that bacteria survive impacts up to 5.4 km s-1 (approx. shock pressure 30 GPa) - albeit with a low probability of survival [1], whilst larger, more complex, objects (such as seeds) break up at ~1 km s-1 [2]. The survivability of yeast spores in impacts up to 7.4 km s-1 has also recently been shown [3]. Previous work by the authors demonstrated the survivability of Nannochloropsis Oculata Phytoplankton, a eukaryotic photosynthesizing autotroph found in the 'euphotic zone' (sunlit surface layers of oceans [4]), at impact velocities up to 6.07 km s-1 [5]. Other groups have also reported that lichens are able to survive shocks in similar pressure ranges [6]. However, whilst many simple single celled organisms have now been shown to survive such impacts (and the associated pressures) as those encountered during the migration of material from one planet to another [1, 3, 5], complex multicellular organisms have either largely not been tested or, those that have been, have not survived the process [2]. Hypsibius dujardini, like most species of tardigrade, are complex organisms composed of approximately 40,000 cells [7]. When humidity decreases they enter a highly dehydrated state known as a 'tun' and can survive extreme temperatures (as low as - 253°C or as high as 151°C), as well as exposure to Xrays and the vacuum of space [7]. Here we test the shock survivability of Hypsibius dujardini by firing a nylon projectile onto a frozen sample of water containing frozen tardigrades using a light gas gun (LGG) [8]. The recovered ice and water were then analysed under an optical microscope to check the viability of any remnant organisms that may have survived impact, and the pressures generated.

  9. Improved phylogenetic resolution and rapid diversification of Y-chromosome haplogroup K-M526 in Southeast Asia

    PubMed Central

    Karafet, Tatiana M; Mendez, Fernando L; Sudoyo, Herawati; Lansing, J Stephen; Hammer, Michael F

    2015-01-01

    The highly structured distribution of Y-chromosome haplogroups suggests that current patterns of variation may be informative of past population processes. However, limited phylogenetic resolution, particularly of subclades within haplogroup K, has obscured the relationships of lineages that are common across Eurasia. Here we genotype 13 new highly informative single-nucleotide polymorphisms in a worldwide sample of 4413 males that carry the derived allele at M526, and reconstruct an NRY haplogroup tree with significantly higher resolution for the major clade within haplogroup K, K-M526. Although K-M526 was previously characterized by a single polytomy of eight major branches, the phylogenetic structure of haplogroup K-M526 is now resolved into four major subclades (K2a–d). The largest of these subclades, K2b, is divided into two clusters: K2b1 and K2b2. K2b1 combines the previously known haplogroups M, S, K-P60 and K-P79, whereas K2b2 comprises haplogroups P and its subhaplogroups Q and R. Interestingly, the monophyletic group formed by haplogroups R and Q, which make up the majority of paternal lineages in Europe, Central Asia and the Americas, represents the only subclade with K2b that is not geographically restricted to Southeast Asia and Oceania. Estimates of the interval times for the branching events between M9 and P295 point to an initial rapid diversification process of K-M526 that likely occurred in Southeast Asia, with subsequent westward expansions of the ancestors of haplogroups R and Q. PMID:24896152

  10. The Reliability of Running Performance in a 5 km Time Trial on a Non-motorized Treadmill.

    PubMed

    Stevens, C J; Hacene, J; Sculley, D V; Taylor, L; Callister, R; Dascombe, B

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to establish the reliability of performance and physiological responses during a self-paced 5 km running time trial on a non-motorized treadmill. 17 male runners (age: 32±13 years, height: 177±7 cm, body mass: 71±9 kg, sum of 7 skinfolds: 55±21 mm) performed familiarization then 2 separate maximal 5 km running time trials on a non-motorized treadmill. Physiological responses measured included heart rate, oxygen uptake, expired air volume, blood lactate concentration, tissue saturation index and integrated electromyography. Running time (1,522±163 s vs. 1,519±162 s for trials 1 and 2, respectively) demonstrated a low CV of 1.2% and high ICC of 0.99. All physiological variables had CVs of less than 4% and ICCs of >0.92, with the exception of blood lactate concentration (7.0±2 mmol·L(-1) vs. 6.5±1.5 mmol·L(-1) for trials 1 and 2, respectively; CV: 12%, ICC: 0.83) and the electromyography measures (CV: 8-27%, ICC: 0.71-0.91). The data demonstrate that performance time in a 5 km running time trial on a non-motorized treadmill is a highly reliable test. Most physiological responses measured across the 5 km run also demonstrated good reliability.

  11. The Moon: why anomalously numerous evenly covering surface, about 100 km across craters are well resolved gravimetrically

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochemasov, G. G.

    2012-09-01

    The NASA's GRAIL mission will produce an unprecedented detail gravity map of the lunar subsurface as measurements will include some depths of the satellite. One could say that this map will principally repeat the gravity pattern acquired earlier (Fig. 2, 3; [1]) which shows surface densely "peppered" by even-sized "craters" (rings) about 100 km in diameter. The wave planetology admits that many of them reflect features of impact origin but a bulk is due to an intersection of standing waves produced by elliptical orbits of the body (around Earth and Sun (Fig.1 gives a graphic representation of such waves). These waves of standing character and four directions (ortho- and diagonal) arise in any cosmic body due to its movement with changing accelerations in keplerian orbit. An interference of these waves brings about rising (+), falling (-), and neutral (0) tectonic blocks regular combination of which makes chains and grids of "round" (polygonal) features (Fig. 1). The lunar community should realize that one of bases of the Moon's geology - crater size -frequency curve is of a complex nature. Impacts surely contribute to this curve but a significant part of it is due to ring structures of non-impact origin (Fig. 4). Ring structures of this kind are produced by an interference of standing inertia-gravity waves of 4 directions warping any rotating celestial body moving in an elliptical orbit [2, 3]. Many ring structures observed on solid and gaseous planetary spheres are of such profound nature. They form regular grids of shoulder-to-shoulder even ring structures (Fig. 1) (the best example from the past - Triton's cantaloup surface, from the present- outgassing crater's chains at the Hartley comet core). Their sizes depend on orbiting frequencies: the higher frequency- the smaller "rings", and vice versa. Satellites having two orbiting frequencies in the Solar system are particularly "peppered" with rings as a low frequency modulates a high one producing along with the

  12. Near-Cloud Aerosol Properties from the 1 Km Resolution MODIS Ocean Product

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Varnai, Tamas; Marshak, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    This study examines aerosol properties in the vicinity of clouds by analyzing high-resolution atmospheric correction parameters provided in the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) ocean color product. The study analyzes data from a 2 week long period of September in 10 years, covering a large area in the northeast Atlantic Ocean. The results indicate that on the one hand, the Quality Assessment (QA) flags of the ocean color product successfully eliminate cloud-related uncertainties in ocean parameters such as chlorophyll content, but on the other hand, using the flags introduces a sampling bias in atmospheric products such as aerosol optical thickness (AOT) and Angstrom exponent. Therefore, researchers need to select QA flags by balancing the risks of increased retrieval uncertainties and sampling biases. Using an optimal set of QA flags, the results reveal substantial increases in optical thickness near clouds-on average the increase is 50% for the roughly half of pixels within 5 km from clouds and is accompanied by a roughly matching increase in particle size. Theoretical simulations show that the 50% increase in 550nm AOT changes instantaneous direct aerosol radiative forcing by up to 8W/m2 and that the radiative impact is significantly larger if observed near-cloud changes are attributed to aerosol particles as opposed to undetected cloud particles. These results underline that accounting for near-cloud areas and understanding the causes of near-cloud particle changes are critical for accurate calculations of direct aerosol radiative forcing.

  13. Ediacaran 2,500-km-long synchronous deep continental subduction in the West Gondwana Orogen.

    PubMed

    Ganade de Araujo, Carlos E; Rubatto, Daniela; Hermann, Joerg; Cordani, Umberto G; Caby, Renaud; Basei, Miguel A S

    2014-10-16

    The deeply eroded West Gondwana Orogen is a major continental collision zone that exposes numerous occurrences of deeply subducted rocks, such as eclogites. The position of these eclogites marks the suture zone between colliding cratons, and the age of metamorphism constrains the transition from subduction-dominated tectonics to continental collision and mountain building. Here we investigate the metamorphic conditions and age of high-pressure and ultrahigh-pressure eclogites from Mali, Togo and NE-Brazil and demonstrate that continental subduction occurred within 20 million years over at least a 2,500-km-long section of the orogen during the Ediacaran. We consider this to be the earliest evidence of large-scale deep-continental subduction and consequent appearance of Himalayan-scale mountains in the geological record. The rise and subsequent erosion of such mountains in the Late Ediacaran is perfectly timed to deliver sediments and nutrients that are thought to have been necessary for the subsequent evolution of sustainable life on Earth.

  14. Diversity of Pico- to Mesoplankton along the 2000 km Salinity Gradient of the Baltic Sea

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yue O. O.; Karlson, Bengt; Charvet, Sophie; Andersson, Anders F.

    2016-01-01

    Microbial plankton form the productive base of both marine and freshwater ecosystems and are key drivers of global biogeochemical cycles of carbon and nutrients. Plankton diversity is immense with representations from all major phyla within the three domains of life. So far, plankton monitoring has mainly been based on microscopic identification, which has limited sensitivity and reproducibility, not least because of the numerical majority of plankton being unidentifiable under the light microscope. High-throughput sequencing of taxonomic marker genes offers a means to identify taxa inaccessible by traditional methods; thus, recent studies have unveiled an extensive previously unknown diversity of plankton. Here, we conducted ultra-deep Illumina sequencing (average 105 sequences/sample) of rRNA gene amplicons of surface water eukaryotic and bacterial plankton communities sampled in summer along a 2000 km transect following the salinity gradient of the Baltic Sea. Community composition was strongly correlated with salinity for both bacterial and eukaryotic plankton assemblages, highlighting the importance of salinity for structuring the biodiversity within this ecosystem. In contrast, no clear trends in alpha-diversity for bacterial or eukaryotic communities could be detected along the transect. The distribution of major planktonic taxa followed expected patterns as observed in monitoring programs, but groups novel to the Baltic Sea were also identified, such as relatives to the coccolithophore Emiliana huxleyi detected in the northern Baltic Sea. This study provides the first ultra-deep sequencing-based survey on eukaryotic and bacterial plankton biogeography in the Baltic Sea. PMID:27242706

  15. Long-range BOTDA sensor over 50 km distance employing pre-pumped Simplex coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Qiao; Tu, Xiaobo; Sun, Shilin; Meng, Zhou

    2016-05-01

    We propose and demonstrate a long-range Brillouin optical time-domain analysis (BOTDA) sensor based on the pre-pumped Simplex coding technique. This approach combines Simplex coding with the pulse pre-pump technique, which takes full advantage of the signal-to-noise ratio enhancement provided by optical pulse coding and achieves meter-scale spatial resolution with an unbroadened Brillouin gain spectrum by the use of pre-pumped short pump pulse. Compared to the widely used differential pulse-width pair technique, a comparable performance can be realized while the measurement time is reduced by half. The theoretical analysis of pre-pumped Simplex coding applied to BOTDA systems is presented and a proof-of-concept experiment is carried out along a ∼51 km single-mode fiber composed of two fiber segments with slightly different Brillouin frequency shift values. With the proposed technique, Brillouin frequency shifts of the two different fiber sections at the end of the sensing fiber are clearly distinguished, and the obtained spatial resolution and temperature/strain accuracy along the sensing fiber are respectively 1 m and {0.4}\\circ {{C}}/8μ \\varepsilon . According to the experimental results, we believe that the BOTDA employing pre-pumped Simplex coding is able to realize extra-long distance sensing without Raman amplification, while keeping a high spatial resolution and measurement accuracy.

  16. The effect of the 162 km endurance ride on equine peripheral blood neutrophil and lymphocyte functions.

    PubMed

    Cywińska, A; Wyszyńska, Z; Górecka, R; Szarska, E; Witkowski, L; Dziekan, P; Winnicka, A; Schollenberger, A

    2010-01-01

    Strenuous exercise is recognized as a stress, which may induce functional immunodeficiency and increase individual susceptibility to infection. It has been shown in equine athletes, that alterations in leukocyte functions occur after moderate and submaximal exertion, however, no data deal with the effect of extreme physical exertion. In this study, we evaluated leukocyte functions (neutrophil oxidative burst and lymphocyte proliferation activity in response to mitogens) in horses following the CEI 3* 162 km endurance ride. Exercise-induced stress was manifested as neutrophilic leukocytosis and lymphopaenia resulting in a significant increase in neutrophil:lymphocyte ratio. The alterations in neutrophil function were expressed as a lower percentage of the cells undergoing oxidative burst. The spontaneous lymphocyte proliferation was very high, however, the cells failed to respond to mitogens. Although a decrease in lymphocyte proliferation in response to mitogens has been reported previously, the pattern determined in our study was unique. It may suggest that during the extreme physical exercise immune cells receive an excessive stimulation from yet undetermined factor(s), which renders them unresponsive to extraneous mitogens. The differences between alterations in leukocyte activities induced by extreme exertion may reflect the exercise type and duration as well as the training status of the horses.

  17. EVIDENCE FOR 1000 km s{sup -1} MOLECULAR OUTFLOWS IN THE LOCAL ULIRG POPULATION

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Aeree; Yun, Min S.; Naraynan, Gopal; Heyer, Mark; Erickson, Neal R.

    2011-05-01

    The feedback from galactic outflows is thought to play an important role in shaping the gas content, star formation history, and ultimately the stellar mass function of galaxies. Here we present evidence for massive molecular outflows associated with ultra-luminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) in the co-added Redshift Search Receiver {sup 12}CO (1-0) spectrum. Our stacked spectrum of 27 ULIRGs at z = 0.043-0.11 ({nu}{sub rest} = 110-120 GHz) shows broad wings around the CO line with {Delta}V(FWZI) {approx} 2000 km s{sup -1}. Its integrated line flux accounts for up to 25% {+-} 5% of the total CO line luminosity. When interpreted as a massive molecular outflow wind, the associated mechanical energy can be explained by a concentrated starburst with star formation rate (SFR) {>=}100 M{sub sun} yr{sup -1}, which agrees well with their SFR derived from the FIR luminosity. Using the high signal-to-noise stacked composite spectrum, we also probe {sup 13}CO and {sup 12}CN emission in the sample and discuss how the chemical abundance of molecular gas may vary depending on the physical conditions of the nuclear region.

  18. Near-cloud aerosol properties from the 1 km resolution MODIS ocean product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Várnai, Tamás.; Marshak, Alexander

    2014-02-01

    This study examines aerosol properties in the vicinity of clouds by analyzing high-resolution atmospheric correction parameters provided in the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) ocean color product. The study analyzes data from a 2 week long period of September in 10 years, covering a large area in the northeast Atlantic Ocean. The results indicate that on the one hand, the Quality Assessment (QA) flags of the ocean color product successfully eliminate cloud-related uncertainties in ocean parameters such as chlorophyll content, but on the other hand, using the flags introduces a sampling bias in atmospheric products such as aerosol optical thickness (AOT) and Angstrom exponent. Therefore, researchers need to select QA flags by balancing the risks of increased retrieval uncertainties and sampling biases. Using an optimal set of QA flags, the results reveal substantial increases in optical thickness near clouds—on average the increase is 50% for the roughly half of pixels within 5 km from clouds and is accompanied by a roughly matching increase in particle size. Theoretical simulations show that the 50% increase in 550 nm AOT changes instantaneous direct aerosol radiative forcing by up to 8 W/m2 and that the radiative impact is significantly larger if observed near-cloud changes are attributed to aerosol particles as opposed to undetected cloud particles. These results underline that accounting for near-cloud areas and understanding the causes of near-cloud particle changes are critical for accurate calculations of direct aerosol radiative forcing.

  19. A new global 1-km dataset of percentage tree cover derived from remote sensing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeFries, R.S.; Hansen, M.C.; Townshend, J.R.G.; Janetos, A.C.; Loveland, T.R.

    2000-01-01

    Accurate assessment of the spatial extent of forest cover is a crucial requirement for quantifying the sources and sinks of carbon from the terrestrial biosphere. In the more immediate context of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, implementation of the Kyoto Protocol calls for estimates of carbon stocks for a baseline year as well as for subsequent years. Data sources from country level statistics and other ground-based information are based on varying definitions of 'forest' and are consequently problematic for obtaining spatially and temporally consistent carbon stock estimates. By combining two datasets previously derived from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) at 1 km spatial resolution, we have generated a prototype global map depicting percentage tree cover and associated proportions of trees with different leaf longevity (evergreen and deciduous) and leaf type (broadleaf and needleleaf). The product is intended for use in terrestrial carbon cycle models, in conjunction with other spatial datasets such as climate and soil type, to obtain more consistent and reliable estimates of carbon stocks. The percentage tree cover dataset is available through the Global Land Cover Facility at the University of Maryland at http://glcf.umiacs.umd.edu.

  20. Mapping Land Cover Types in Amazon Basin Using 1km JERS-1 Mosaic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saatchi, Sassan S.; Nelson, Bruce; Podest, Erika; Holt, John

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, the 100 meter JERS-1 Amazon mosaic image was used in a new classifier to generate a I km resolution land cover map. The inputs to the classifier were 1 km resolution mean backscatter and seven first order texture measures derived from the 100 m data by using a 10 x 10 independent sampling window. The classification approach included two interdependent stages: 1) a supervised maximum a posteriori Bayesian approach to classify the mean backscatter image into 5 general land cover categories of forest, savannah, inundated, white sand, and anthropogenic vegetation classes, and 2) a texture measure decision rule approach to further discriminate subcategory classes based on taxonomic information and biomass levels. Fourteen classes were successfully separated at 1 km scale. The results were verified by examining the accuracy of the approach by comparison with the IBGE and the AVHRR 1 km resolution land cover maps.

  1. Making sense of KM through users: Information gaps and intellectual property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascual, Roberto de Miguel; Casado, Esther Monterroso

    2014-10-01

    Despite its lack of definition, in a general sense, knowledge management (KM) is consubstantial to contemporary innovation-driven social systems (IDSSs), allowing individuals, organizations, and entire societies, to cope with their intrinsic technical uncertainties more effectively. Before the advent of IDSSs, most of the results of KM were considered naturally inappropriable as well as fractions of the public domain. In such context, patents litigation was almost anecdotic. This paper summarizes various social scientific and humanistic approaches that nourish the emergence of a new KM model in which innovation will be anchored in the claim for universality. Patentability of ICT and services is also considered on the realm of a commons-based KM.

  2. KM3NeT tower data acquisition and data transport electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolau, C. A.; Ameli, F.; Biagioni, A.; Capone, A.; Frezza, O.; Lonardo, A.; Masullo, R.; Mollo, C. M.; Orlando, A.; Simeone, F.; Vicini, P.

    2016-04-01

    In the framework of the KM3Net European project, the production stage of a large volume underwater neutrino telescope has started. The forthcoming installation includes 8 towers and 24 strings, that will be installed 100 km off-shore Capo Passero (Italy) at 3500 m depth. The KM3NeT tower, whose layout is strongly based on the NEMO Phase-2 prototype tower deployed in March 2013, has been re-engineered and partially re-designed in order to optimize production costs, power consumption, and usability. This contribution gives a description of the main electronics, including front-end, data transport and clock distribution system, of the KM3NeT tower detection unit.

  3. 40 Gbps 100-km SSMF VSB-IMDD OFDM transmission experiment based on FBG filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ju, Cheng; Yang, Pengfei; Chen, Xue; Zhang, Zhiguo; Liu, Na

    2014-10-01

    This work studies the transmission performance of vestigial-sideband (VSB)-IMDD OFDM system by theoretical analysis and numerical simulation. The analysis shows that the detrimental effect of dispersion-induced power fading can be effectively suppressed. The presence of positive and negative chirp of modulator will increase the dispersion-, chirp- and VSB optical filter-induced subcarrier to subcarrier intermixing interference (SSII), which significantly restricts transmission performance. Relatively lower order Gaussian optical filter has almost the same performance with ideal rectangular filter over 100-km SMF transmission and have better performance in less than 60-km transmission. Furthermore, we successfully transmit a 40 Gbps, 16QAM, MZM-based VSB-IMDD OFDM signal through 100-km of uncompensated standard single mode fiber (SSMF) by using an economical FBG optical filter. The experimental results show that available bandwidth has been extended up to 10 GHz after 100-km SSMF transmission.

  4. Hayward Fault: A 50-km-long Locked Patch Regulates Its Large Earthquake Cycle (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lienkaemper, J. J.; Simpson, R. W.; Williams, P. L.; McFarland, F. S.; Caskey, S. J.

    2010-12-01

    We have documented a chronology of 11 paleoearthquakes on the southern Hayward fault (HS) preceding the Mw6.8, 1868 earthquake. These large earthquakes were both regular and frequent, as indicated by a 0.40 coefficient of variation and mean recurrence interval (MRI) of 161 ± 65 yr (1σ of recurrence intervals). Furthermore, the Oxcal-modeled probability distribution for the average interval resembles a Gaussian rather than a more irregular Brownian passage time distribution. Our revised 3D-modeling of subsurface creep, using newly updated long-term creep rates, now suggests there is only one ~50-km-long locked patch (instead of two), confined laterally between two large patches of deep creep (≥9 km), with an extent consistent with evidence for the 1868 rupture. This locked patch and the fault’s lowest rates of surface creep are approximately centered on HS’s largest bend and a large gabbro body, particularly where the gabbro forms both east and west faces of the fault. We suggest that this locked patch serves as a mechanical capacitor, limiting earthquake size and frequency. The moment accumulation over 161 yr summed on all locked elements of the model reaches Mw6.79, but if half of the moment stored in the creeping elements were to fail dynamically, Mw could reach 6.91. The paleoearthquake histories for nearby faults of the San Francisco Bay region appear to indicate less regular and frequent earthquakes, possibly because most lack the high proportion (40-60%) of aseismic release found on the Hayward fault. The northernmost Hayward fault and Rodgers Creek fault (RCF) appear to rupture only half as frequently as the HS and are separated from the HS by a creep buffer and 5-km wide releasing bend respectively, both tending to limit through-going ruptures. The paleoseismic record allows multi-segment, Hayward fault-RCF ruptures, but does not require it. The 1868 HS rupture preceded the 1906 multi-segmented San Andreas fault (SAF) rupture, perhaps because the HS

  5. Long-term monitoring of local stress changes in 67km installed OPGW cable using BOTDA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, L.; Sezerman, O.

    2015-09-01

    The initial results from continuing long-term monitoring of a 67 km of an aerial fiber optic cable installed on a 500 kV power line cable (total fiber length of 134km) using BOTDA are presented. The effects of thunderstorms and rime ice on the cable were identified by monitoring strain on OPGW fibers. Variations of strain between day and night on the OPGW cable were observed and can potentially be exploited.

  6. 91-km attenuation-free transmission with low noise accumulation by use of distributed erbium-doped fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lester, Christian; Rottwitt, Karsten; Povlsen, Jørn H.; Varming, Poul; Newhouse, Mark A.; Antos, A. J.

    1995-06-01

    Transparency of a 91-km distributed erbium-doped fiber is achieved with 0.46 mW / km of pump power at a signal power of -12dBm . The accumulation of amplifier noise is measured to be smaller than the minimum noise accumulation that can be achieved in a 91-km link with two lumped amplifiers separated by 45 km.

  7. Daytime zonal drifts in the ionospheric E and 150 km regions estimated using EAR observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peddapati, PavanChaitanya; Otsuka, Yuichi; Yamamoto, Mamoru; Yokoyama, Tatsuhiro; Patra, Amit

    2016-07-01

    The Equatorial Atmosphere Radar (EAR), located at Kototabang (0.2o S, 100.32o E, mag. lat. 10.36o S), Indonesia, is capable of detecting both E region and 150 km echoes during daytime. We have conducted multi-beam observations using the EAR during daytime covering all seasons to study seasonal variations of these echoes and their dynamics. Given the facts that drifts at the 150 km region are governed primarily by electric field, drifts at the E region are governed by both electric field and neutral wind, simultaneous observations of drifts in both E and 150 km regions would help understand their variations. In this paper we present local time and seasonal variations of zonal drifts in the E and 150 km regions estimated using multi-beam observations. Zonal drifts (positive eastward) in the E and 150 km regions are found to be in the range of -10 to -60 m/s and -40 to 80 m/s, respectively. In the E region, zonal drifts show height reversal and temporal variations having tidal signature and noticeable seasonal variations. Zonal drifts in the 150 km region also show noticeable height and seasonal variations. These results are compared with model drifts and evaluated in terms of electric field and neutral wind.

  8. A 16-year time series of 1 km AVHRR satellite data of the conterminous United States and Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eidenshink, Jeff

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has developed a 16-year time series of vegetation condition information for the conterminous United States and Alaska using 1 km Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data. The AVHRR data have been processed using consistent methods that account for radiometric variability due to calibration uncertainty, the effects of the atmosphere on surface radiometric measurements obtained from wide field-of-view observations, and the geometric registration accuracy. The conterminous United States and Alaska data sets have an atmospheric correction for water vapor, ozone, and Rayleigh scattering and include a cloud mask derived using the Clouds from AVHRR (CLAVR) algorithm. In comparison with other AVHRR time series data sets, the conterminous United States and Alaska data are processed using similar techniques. The primary difference is that the conterminous United States and Alaska data are at 1 km resolution, while others are at 8 km resolution. The time series consists of weekly and biweekly maximum normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) composites.

  9. Trace element signature of subduction-zone fluids, melts and supercritical liquids at 120-180 km depth.

    PubMed

    Kessel, Ronit; Schmidt, Max W; Ulmer, Peter; Pettke, Thomas

    2005-09-29

    Fluids and melts liberated from subducting oceanic crust recycle lithophile elements back into the mantle wedge, facilitate melting and ultimately lead to prolific subduction-zone arc volcanism. The nature and composition of the mobile phases generated in the subducting slab at high pressures have, however, remained largely unknown. Here we report direct LA-ICPMS measurements of the composition of fluids and melts equilibrated with a basaltic eclogite at pressures equivalent to depths in the Earth of 120-180 km and temperatures of 700-1,200 degrees C. The resultant liquid/mineral partition coefficients constrain the recycling rates of key elements. The dichotomy of dehydration versus melting at 120 km depth is expressed through contrasting behaviour of many trace elements (U/Th, Sr, Ba, Be and the light rare-earth elements). At pressures equivalent to 180 km depth, however, a supercritical liquid with melt-like solubilities for the investigated trace elements is observed, even at low temperatures. This mobilizes most of the key trace elements (except the heavy rare-earth elements, Y and Sc) and thus limits fluid-phase transfer of geochemical signatures in subduction zones to pressures less than 6 GPa.

  10. CEH-GEAR: 1 km resolution daily and monthly areal rainfall estimates for the UK for hydrological use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, V. D. J.; Tanguy, M.; Prosdocimi, I.; Terry, J. A.; Hitt, O.; Cole, S. J.; Fry, M.; Morris, D. G.; Dixon, H.

    2015-01-01

    The Centre for Ecology & Hydrology - Gridded Estimates of Areal Rainfall (CEH-GEAR) dataset was developed to provide reliable 1 km gridded estimates of daily and monthly rainfall for Great Britain (GB) and Northern Ireland (NI) (together with approximately 3500 km2 of catchment in the Republic of Ireland) from 1890 onwards. The dataset was primarily required to support hydrological modelling. The rainfall estimates are derived from the Met Office collated historical weather observations for the UK which include a national database of raingauge observations. The natural neighbour interpolation methodology, including a normalisation step based on average annual rainfall, was used to generate the daily and monthly rainfall grids. To derive the monthly estimates, rainfall totals from monthly and daily (when complete month available) read raingauges were used in order to obtain maximum information from the raingauge network. The daily grids were adjusted so that the monthly grids are fully consistent with the daily grids. The CEH-GEAR dataset was developed according to the guidance provided by the British Standards Institution. The CEH-GEAR dataset contains 1 km grids of daily and monthly rainfall estimates for GB and NI for the period 1890-2012. For each day and month, CEH-GEAR includes a secondary grid of distance to the nearest operational raingauge. This may be used as an indicator of the quality of the estimates. When this distance is greater than 100 km, the estimates are not calculated due to high uncertainty. CEH-GEAR is available free of charge for commercial and non-commercial use subject to licensing terms and conditions. doi:10.5285/5dc179dc-f692-49ba-9326-a6893a503f6e

  11. CEH-GEAR: 1 km resolution daily and monthly areal rainfall estimates for the UK for hydrological and other applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, V. D. J.; Tanguy, M.; Prosdocimi, I.; Terry, J. A.; Hitt, O.; Cole, S. J.; Fry, M.; Morris, D. G.; Dixon, H.

    2015-06-01

    The Centre for Ecology & Hydrology - Gridded Estimates of Areal Rainfall (CEH-GEAR) data set was developed to provide reliable 1 km gridded estimates of daily and monthly rainfall for Great Britain (GB) and Northern Ireland (NI) (together with approximately 3500 km2 of catchment in the Republic of Ireland) from 1890 onwards. The data set was primarily required to support hydrological modelling. The rainfall estimates are derived from the Met Office collated historical weather observations for the UK which include a national database of rain gauge observations. The natural neighbour interpolation methodology, including a normalisation step based on average annual rainfall (AAR), was used to generate the daily and monthly rainfall grids. To derive the monthly estimates, rainfall totals from monthly and daily (when complete month available) rain gauges were used in order to obtain maximum information from the rain gauge network. The daily grids were adjusted so that the monthly grids are fully consistent with the daily grids. The CEH-GEAR data set was developed according to the guidance provided by the British Standards Institution. The CEH-GEAR data set contains 1 km grids of daily and monthly rainfall estimates for GB and NI for the period 1890-2012. For each day and month, CEH-GEAR includes a secondary grid of distance to the nearest operational rain gauge. This may be used as an indicator of the quality of the estimates. When this distance is greater than 100 km, the estimates are not calculated due to high uncertainty. CEH-GEAR is available from doi:10.5285/5dc179dc-f692-49ba-9326-a6893a503f6e and is free of charge for commercial and non-commercial use subject to licensing terms and conditions.

  12. Excitotoxic brain damage involves early peroxynitrite formation in a model of Huntington's disease in rats: protective role of iron porphyrinate 5,10,15,20-tetrakis (4-sulfonatophenyl)porphyrinate iron (III).

    PubMed

    Pérez-De La Cruz, V; González-Cortés, C; Galván-Arzate, S; Medina-Campos, O N; Pérez-Severiano, F; Ali, S F; Pedraza-Chaverrí, J; Santamaría, A

    2005-01-01

    Oxidative/nitrosative stress is involved in NMDA receptor-mediated excitotoxic brain damage produced by the glutamate analog quinolinic acid. The purpose of this work was to study a possible role of peroxynitrite, a reactive oxygen/nitrogen species, in the course of excitotoxic events evoked by quinolinic acid in the brain. The effects of Fe(TPPS) (5,10,15,20-tetrakis (4-sulfonatophenyl)porphyrinate iron (III)), an iron porphyrinate and putative peroxynitrite decomposition catalyst, were tested on lipid peroxidation and mitochondrial function in brain synaptic vesicles exposed to quinolinic acid, as well as on peroxynitrite formation, nitric oxide synthase and superoxide dismutase activities, lipid peroxidation, caspase-3-like activation, DNA fragmentation, and GABA levels in striatal tissue from rats lesioned by quinolinic acid. Circling behavior was also evaluated. Increasing concentrations of Fe(TPPS) reduced lipid peroxidation and mitochondrial dysfunction induced by quinolinic acid (100 microM) in synaptic vesicles in a concentration-dependent manner (10-800 microM). In addition, Fe(TPPS) (10 mg/kg, i.p.) administered 2 h before the striatal lesions, prevented the formation of peroxynitrite, the increased nitric oxide synthase activity, the decreased superoxide dismutase activity and the increased lipid peroxidation induced by quinolinic acid (240 nmol/microl) 120 min after the toxin infusion. Enhanced caspase-3-like activity and DNA fragmentation were also reduced by the porphyrinate 24 h after the injection of the excitotoxin. Circling behavior from quinolinic acid-treated rats was abolished by Fe(TPPS) six days after quinolinic acid injection, while the striatal levels of GABA, measured one day later, were partially recovered. The protective effects that Fe(TPPS) exerted on quinolinic acid-induced lipid peroxidation and mitochondrial dysfunction in synaptic vesicles suggest a primary action of the porphyrinate as an antioxidant molecule. In vivo findings

  13. The Molecular Gas Environment in the 20 km s‑1 Cloud in the Central Molecular Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Xing; Zhang, Qizhou; Kauffmann, Jens; Pillai, Thushara; Longmore, Steven N.; Kruijssen, J. M. Diederik; Battersby, Cara; Liu, Hauyu Baobab; Ginsburg, Adam; Mills, Elisabeth A. C.; Zhang, Zhi-Yu; Gu, Qiusheng

    2017-04-01

    We recently reported a population of protostellar candidates in the 20 km s‑1 cloud in the Central Molecular Zone of the Milky Way, traced by H2O masers in gravitationally bound dense cores. In this paper, we report molecular line studies with high angular resolution (∼3″) of the environment of star formation in this cloud. Maps of various molecular line transitions as well as the continuum at 1.3 mm are obtained using the Submillimeter Array. Five NH3 inversion lines and the 1.3 cm continuum are observed with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array. The interferometric observations are complemented with single-dish data. We find that the CH3OH, SO, and HNCO lines, which are usually shock tracers, are better correlated spatially with the compact dust emission from dense cores among the detected lines. These lines also show enhancement in intensities with respect to SiO intensities toward the compact dust emission, suggesting the presence of slow shocks or hot cores in these regions. We find gas temperatures of ≳100 K at 0.1 pc scales based on RADEX modeling of the H2CO and NH3 lines. Although no strong correlations between temperatures and linewidths/H2O maser luminosities are found, in high-angular-resolution maps we note several candidate shock-heated regions offset from any dense cores, as well as signatures of localized heating by protostars in several dense cores. Our findings suggest that at 0.1 pc scales in this cloud star formation and strong turbulence may together affect the chemistry and temperature of the molecular gas.

  14. Cloud-cloud collision in the Galactic center 50 km s-1 molecular cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuboi, Masato; Miyazaki, Atsushi; Uehara, Kenta

    2015-12-01

    We performed a search of star-forming sites influenced by external factors, such as SNRs, H II regions, and cloud-cloud collisions (CCCs), to understand the star-forming activity in the Galactic center region using the NRO Galactic Center Survey in SiO v = 0, J = 2-1, H13CO+J = 1-0, and CS J = 1-0 emission lines obtained with the Nobeyama 45 m telescope. We found a half-shell-like feature (HSF) with a high integrated line intensity ratio of ∫TB(SiO v = 0, J = 2-1)dv/∫TB(H13CO+J = 1-0)dv ˜ 6-8 in the 50 km s-1 molecular cloud; the HSF is a most conspicuous molecular cloud in the region and harbors an active star-forming site where several compact H II regions can be seen. The high ratio in the HSF indicates that the cloud contains huge shocked molecular gas. The HSF can be also seen as a half-shell feature in the position-velocity diagram. A hypothesis explaining the chemical and kinetic properties of the HSF is that the feature originates from a CCC. We analyzed the CS J = 1-0 emission line data obtained with the Nobeyama Millimeter Array to reveal the relation between the HSF and the molecular cloud cores in the cloud. We made a cumulative core mass function (CMF) of the molecular cloud cores within the HSF. The CMF in the CCC region is not truncated at least up to ˜2500 M⊙, although the CMF of the non-CCC region reaches the upper limit of ˜1500 M⊙. Most massive molecular cores with Mgas > 750 M⊙ are located only around the ridge of the HSF and adjoin the compact H II region. These may be a sign of massive star formation induced by CCCs in the Galactic center region.

  15. Hyperveolcity impacts on aluminum from 6 to 11 km/s for hydrocode benchmarking.

    SciTech Connect

    Saul, W. Venner; Reinhart, William Dodd; Thornhill, Tom Finley, III; Lawrence, Raymond Jeffery Jr.; Chhabildas, Lalit Chandra; Bessette, Gregory Carl; Kipp, Marlin E.

    2003-04-01

    A systematic computational and experimental study is presented on impact generated debris resulting from record-high impact speeds recently achieved on the Sandia three-stage light-gas gun. In these experiments, a target plate of aluminum is impacted by a titanium-alloy flyer plate at speeds ranging from 6.5 to 11 km/s, producing pressures from 1 Mb to over 2.3 Mb, and temperatures as high as 15000 K (>1 eV). The aluminum plate is totally melted at stresses above 1.6 Mb. Upon release, the thermodynamic release isentropes will interact with the vapor dome. The amount of vapor generated in the debris cloud will depend on many factors such as the thickness of the aluminum plate, super-cooling, vaporization kinetics, the distance, and therefore time, over which the impact-generated debris is allowed to expand. To characterize the debris cloud, the velocity history produced by stagnation of the aluminum expansion products against a witness plate is measured using velocity interferometry. X-ray measurements of the debris cloud are also recorded prior to stagnation against an aluminum witness plate. Both radiographs and witness-plate velocity measurements suggest that the vaporization process is both time-dependent and heterogeneous when the material is released from shocked states around 230 GPa. Experiments suggest that the threshold for vaporization kinetics in aluminum should become significant when expanded from shocked states over 230 GPa. Numerical simulations are conducted to compare the measured x-ray radiographs of the debris cloud and the time-resolved experimental interferometer record with calculational results using the 3-D hydrodynamic wavecode, CTH. Results of these experiments and calculations are discussed in this paper.

  16. An evaluation of dynamical downscaling of Central Plains summer precipitation using a WRF-based regional climate model at a convection-permitting 4 km resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xuguang; Xue, Ming; Brotzge, Jerald; McPherson, Renee A.; Hu, Xiao-Ming; Yang, Xiu-Qun

    2016-12-01

    A significant challenge with dynamical downscaling of climate simulations is the ability to accurately represent convection and precipitation. The use of convection-permitting resolutions avoids cumulus parameterization, which is known to be a large source of uncertainty. A regional climate model (RCM) based on the Weather Research and Forecasting model is configured with a 4 km grid spacing and applied to the U.S. Great Plains, a region characterized by many forms of weather and climate extremes. The 4 km RCM is evaluated by running it in a hindcast mode over the central U.S. region for a 10 year period, forced at the boundary by the 32 km North America Regional Reanalysis. The model is also run at a 25 km grid spacing, but with cumulus parameterization turned on for comparison. The 4 km run more successfully reproduces certain observed features of the Great Plains May-through-August precipitation. In particular, the magnitude of extreme precipitation and the diurnal cycle of precipitation over the Great Plains are better simulated. The 4 km run more realistically simulates the low-level jet and related atmospheric circulations that transport and redistribute moisture from Gulf of Mexico. The convection-permitting RCM may therefore produce better dynamical downscaling of future climate when nested within global model climate projections, especially for extreme precipitation magnitudes. The 4 km and 25 km simulations do share similar precipitation biases, including low biases over the central Great Plains and high biases over the Rockies. These biases appear linked to circulation biases in the simulations, but determining of the exact causes will require extensive, separate studies.

  17. Participation and performance trends in 100-km ultra-marathons worldwide.

    PubMed

    Cejka, Nadine; Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Lepers, Romuald; Onywera, Vincent; Rosemann, Thomas; Knechtle, Beat

    2014-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to (1) investigate the participation trends for the origin of athletes competing in 100-km ultra-marathons and (2) determine the nationalities of athletes achieving the fastest 100-km race times worldwide. Race times and nationality from 112,283 athletes (15,204 women and 97,079 men) from 102 countries who completed a 100-km ultra-marathon worldwide between 1998 and 2011 were investigated using single- and multi-level regression analyses. The number of finishers increased exponentially, both for women and men. Most of the finishers (73.5%) were from Europe, in particular, France (30.4%). The number of finishers from Japan, Germany, Italy, Poland and the United States of America increased exponentially during the studied period. For women, runners from Canada became slower while those from Italy became faster over time. For men, runners from Belgium, Canada and Japan became slower. Between 1998 and 2011, the ten best race times were achieved by Japanese runners for both women with 457.1 (s = 28.8) min and men with 393.4 (s = 9.6) min. To summarise, most of the finishers in 100-km ultra-marathons originated from Europe, but the best performances belong to Japanese runners. Although East African runners dominate running up to a marathon, Japanese were the best in 100 km.

  18. Operation and results of the prototype KM3NeT detection unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biagi, Simone

    2016-07-01

    KM3NeT will be a km3-scale neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean Sea. The detector will consist of blocks of about one hundred detection units. Each detection unit will host 18 digital optical modules, connected along a 700 m-long vertical structure. Electro-optical cables allow for data transmission and power supply to the optical modules. The optical module comprises 31 photomultiplier tubes of 3'', instruments to monitor environmental variables and electronic boards to communicate onshore and operate the photomultipliers. A prototype detection unit has been deployed in May 2014 at the KM3NeT-It installation site 80 km SE offshore of Capo Passero, Sicily. This prototype allowed to test the deployment procedures, the mechanics and the electronic of the apparatus, the data taking and analysis procedures. A general description of the detector and some results of the prototype are presented. The first detection unit of the KM3NeT neutrino telescope will be deployed and become operative by the end of 2015.

  19. M. tuberculosis ferritin (Rv3841): Potential involvement in Amikacin (AK) & Kanamycin (KM) resistance.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Divakar; Lata, Manju; Faheem, Mohammad; Khan, Asad Ullah; Joshi, Beenu; Venkatesan, Krishnamurthy; Shukla, Sangeeta; Bisht, Deepa

    2016-09-16

    Tuberculosis is an infectious disease, caused by one of the most successful human pathogen, Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Aminoglycosides, Amikacin (AK) & Kanamycin (KM) are commonly used to treat drug resistant tuberculosis. They target the protein synthesis machinery by interacting with several steps of translation. Several explanations have been proposed to explain the mechanism of aminoglycoside resistance but still our information is inadequate. Iron storing/interacting proteins were found to be overexpressed in aminoglycosides resistant isolates. Iron assimilation and utilization in M. tuberculosis plays a crucial role in growth, virulence and latency. To establish the relationship of ferritin with AK & KM resistance ferritin (Rv3841/bfrB) was cloned, expressed and antimicrobial drug susceptibility testing (DST) was carried out. Rv3841/bfrB gene was cloned and expressed in E. coli BL21 using pQE2 expression vector. Etest results for DST against AK & KM showed that the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of ferritin recombinant cells was changed. Recombinants showed two fold changes in MIC with AK and three fold with KM E-strips. Overexpression of ferritin reflect the MIC shift which might be playing a critical role in the survival of mycobacteria by inhibiting/modulating the effects of AK & KM. String analysis also suggests that ferritin interacted with few proteins which are directly and indirectly involved in M. tuberculosis growth, Iron assimilation, virulence, resistance, stresses and latency.

  20. An evaluation of acoustic seabed classification techniques for marine biotope monitoring over broad-scales (>1 km 2) and meso-scales (10 m 2-1 km 2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Rein, H.; Brown, C. J.; Quinn, R.; Breen, J.; Schoeman, D.

    2011-07-01

    Acoustic seabed classification is a useful tool for monitoring marine benthic habitats over broad-scales (>1 km 2) and meso-scales (10 m 2-1 km 2). Its utility in this context was evaluated using two approaches: by describing natural changes in the temporal distribution of marine biotopes across the broad-scale (4 km 2), and by attempting to detect specific experimentally-induced changes to kelp-dominated biotopes across the meso-scale (100 m 2). For the first approach, acoustic backscatter mosaics were constructed using sidescan sonar and multibeam echosounder data collected from Church Bay (Rathlin Island, Northern Ireland) in 1999, 2008 and 2009. The mosaics were manually segmented into acoustic facies, which were ground-truthed using a drop-video camera. Biotopes were classified from the video by multivariate exploratory analysis and cross-tabulated with the acoustic facies, showing a positive correlation. These results were integrated with bathymetric data to map the distribution of seven unique biotopes in Church Bay. Kappa analysis showed the biotope distribution was highly similar between the biotope maps, possibly due to the stability of bedforms shaped by the tidal regime around Rathlin Island. The greatest biotope change in this approach was represented by seasonal and annual changes in the growth of the seagrass, Zostera marina. In the second approach, sidescan sonar data were collected before and after the removal of 100 m 2 of kelp from three sites. Comparison of the data revealed no differences between the high-resolution backscatter imagery. It is concluded that acoustic seabed classification can be used to monitor change over broad- and meso-scales but not necessarily for all biotopes; its success depends on the type of acoustic system employed and the biological characteristics of the target biotope.

  1. Olivine-Wadsleyite-Pyroxene Epitaxy: Element and Volatile Distributions at the 410km Discontinuity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smyth, J. R.; Miyajima, N.; Huss, G. R.; Hellebrand, E.; Rubie, D. C.; Frost, D. J.

    2010-12-01

    We have synthesized hydrous peridotite-composition samples at 13GPa and 1400C with co-existing coarse grains (~100 micrometer) of olivine, wadsleyite, clinoenstatite, and melt in a multi-anvil press. The olivine grains contain fine-scale lamellae of wadsleyite and clinoenstatite that likely resulted from small temperature fluctuations during the four-hour experiment. Major-element compositions were determined by electron microprobe and H contents by secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS). The olivine is about Fo93 in composition and contains about 650 ppm by weight H2O. The wadsleyite is about Fo87 in composition and contains about 1650 weight percent H2O. The clinoenstatite is about En96 in composition and about 440 ppm H2O. High resolution transmission electron microscopy of the lamellae and host show that the olivine and wadsleyite share their close-packed oxygen planes so that the wadsleyite lamellae are nearly planar and perpendicular to the [1 0 0] of olivine. The wadsleyite lamellae thus have their [1 0 1] and [1 0 -1] directions parallel to the [1 0 0] of olivine. Additionally, a second orientation relation with the [001] of olivine parallel to [100] of wadsleyite is also found as are incoherent blebs of wadsleyite in olivine. The coexisting melt phase quenched to a feathery mass of mostly wadsleyite crystals. Neither a quenched glass phase nor a nominally hydrous phase was observed. The lamellae indicate that the olivine-wadsleyite transformation can proceed effectively by coherent mechanisms that could potentially preserve lattice preferred orientation. The observed rapid coherent inversion from olivine to wadsleyite means that a metastable preservation of olivine below 410 km is unlikely under slightly hydrous conditions. The distribution of H among the nominally anhydrous phases implies that dehydration of peridotites by partial melting is inefficient so that complete dehydration of subducting slabs is unlikely. SEM-BSE image of wadsleyite (W) blebs and

  2. Field-aligned electron density irregularities near 500 km. Equator to polar cap topside sounder Z mode observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benson, R. F.

    1984-04-01

    In addition to spread F, evidence for field-aligned electron density irregularities is commonly observed on Alouette 2 topside sounder ionograms recorded near perigee (500 km). This evidence is provided by distinctive signal returns from sounder-generated Z mode waves. At low latitudes these waves become guided in wave ducts caused by field-aligned electron density irregularities and give rise to strong long-duration echoes. At high latitudes, extending well into the polar cap, these Z mode waves (and stimulated electrostatic waves at the plasma frequency) produce a series of vertical bars on the ionogram display as the satellite traverses discrete field-aligned density structures. The radio frequency (RF) noise environment to be expected in the 400 to 500 km altitude region from low to high latitudes was examined by analyzing perigee Alouette 2 topside sounder data. All observed noise bands were scaled on nearly 200 topside sounder ionograms recorded near perigee at low, mid, and high latitude telemetry stations. The minimum and maximum frequencies of each noise band were entered into a data base or compuer analysis. The signals of primary interest in the perigee study were found to be sounder-generated.

  3. Investigation on Prototype Superconducting Linear Synchronous Motor (LSM) for 600-km/h Wheel-Type Railway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eom, Beomyong; Lee, Changhyeong; Kim, Seokho; Lee, Changyoung; Yun, Sangwon

    The existing wheel-type high-speed railway with a rotatable motor has a limit of 600 km/h speed. The normal conducting electromagnet has several disadvantages to realize 600 km/h speed. Several disadvantages are the increased space and weight, and the decreased electric efficiency to generate the required high magnetic field. In order to reduce the volume and weight, superconducting electromagnets can be considered for LSM (Linear Synchronous Motor). Prior to the fabrication of the real system, a prototype demo-coil is designed and fabricated using 2G high temperature superconducting wire. The prototype HTS coil is cooled by the conduction using a GM cryocooler. To reduce the heat penetration, thermal design was performed for the current leads, supporting structure and radiation shield considering the thermal stress. The operating temperature and current are 30∼40 K and 100 A. The coil consists of two double pancake coils (N, S pole, respectively) and it is driven on a test rail, which is installed for the test car. This paper describes the design and test results of the prototype HTS LSM system. Thermal characteristics are investigated with additional dummy thermal mass on the coil after turning off the cryocooler.

  4. Field-aligned electron density irregularities near 500 km. Equator to polar cap topside sounder Z mode observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benson, R. F.

    1984-01-01

    In addition to spread F, evidence for field-aligned electron density irregularities is commonly observed on Alouette 2 topside sounder ionograms recorded near perigee (500 km). This evidence is provided by distinctive signal returns from sounder-generated Z mode waves. At low latitudes these waves become guided in wave ducts caused by field-aligned electron density irregularities and give rise to strong long-duration echoes. At high latitudes, extending well into the polar cap, these Z mode waves (and stimulated electrostatic waves at the plasma frequency) produce a series of vertical bars on the ionogram display as the satellite traverses discrete field-aligned density structures. The radio frequency (RF) noise environment to be expected in the 400 to 500 km altitude region from low to high latitudes was examined by analyzing perigee Alouette 2 topside sounder data. All observed noise bands were scaled on nearly 200 topside sounder ionograms recorded near perigee at low, mid, and high latitude telemetry stations. The minimum and maximum frequencies of each noise band were entered into a data base or compuer analysis. The signals of primary interest in the perigee study were found to be sounder-generated.

  5. Daytime vertical and zonal velocities from 150-km echoes: Their relevance to F-region dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chau, Jorge L.; Woodman, Ronald F.

    2004-09-01

    As it was suggested by Kudeki and Fawcett [1993], and later shown by Woodman and Villanueva [1995], vertical Doppler velocities of daytime 150-km echoes represent the vertical E × B drift velocities at F region altitudes. Recently a special experiment was conducted to compare not only the vertical but also the zonal velocities from 150-km echoes with those from an incoherent scatter radar (ISR) mode perpendicular to the magnetic field. The vertical velocity comparisons show that (1) there is a very good agreement between 150-km velocity and the mean F-region E × B drift, and (2) much better agreement is found with the extrapolated values from the ISR altitudinal profiles. On the other hand poor-to-good agreement is found between their zonal components. Our preliminary zonal velocity results, indicate that there is a poor agreement before noontime, while better agreement is found in the afternoon.

  6. Acoustic neutrino detection investigations within ANTARES and prospects for KM3NeT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahmann, Robert

    2016-04-01

    The acoustic neutrino detection technique is a promising approach for future large-scale detectors with the aim of measuring the small expected flux of cosmogenic neutrinos at energies exceeding 1 EeV. It suggests itself to investigate this technique in the context of underwater Cherenkov neutrino telescopes, in particular KM3NeT, because acoustic sensors are present by design to allow for the calibration of the positions of the optical sensors. For the future, the KM3NeT detector in the Mediterranean Sea will provide an ideal infrastructure for a dedicated array of acoustic sensors. In this presentation results from the acoustic array AMADEUS of the ANTARES detector will be discussed with respect to the potential and implications for acoustic neutrino detection with KM3NeT and beyond.

  7. AmeriFlux BR-Sa1 Santarem-Km67-Primary Forest

    SciTech Connect

    Saleska, Scott

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site BR-Sa1 Santarem-Km67-Primary Forest. Site Description - The LBA Tapajos KM67 Mature Forest site is located in the Tapajos National Forest, a 450,000 ha closed-canopy upland forest in Amazonian Brazil. Bounded by the Tapajos River in the west and highway BR-163 to the east, the tower is located on a flat plateau (or planalto) that extends up to 150 km to the north, south, and east. Within the confines of the National Forest, anthropogenic disturbances are limited to a few small hunting trails. The surrounding stand is classified as primary or "old-growth"" predominantly by its uneven age distribution, emergent trees, numerous epiphytes and abundant large logs. In 2007 falling trees hit the tower guy wires rendering all instrumentation in-operational. After a complete restoration tower measurements resumed in August of 2008.

  8. Comparison of turbulence-induced scintillations for multi-wavelength laser beacons over tactical (7 km) and long (149 km) atmospheric propagation paths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorontsov, M.; Gudimetla, V.; Carhart, G.; Weyrauch, T.; Lachinova, S.; Polnau, E.; Reierson, J.; Beresnev, L.; Liu, J.; Riker, J.

    2011-09-01

    We report results of the experimental analysis of atmospheric effects on laser beam propagation over two distinctive propagation paths: a long-range (149 km) propagation path between Mauna Loa (Island of Hawaii) and Haleakala (Island of Maui) mountains, and a tactical-range (7 km) propagation path between the roof of the Dayton Veterans Administration Medical Center (VAMC) and the Intelligent Optics Laboratory (IOL/UD) located on the 5th floor of the University of Dayton College Park Center building. Both testbeds include three laser beacons operating at wavelengths 532 nm, 1064 nm, and 1550 nm and a set of identical optical receiver systems with fast-framing IR cameras for simultaneous measurements of pupil and focal plane intensity distributions. The results reported here are focused on analysis of intensity scintillations that were simultaneously measured at three wavelengths. Comparison of experimental results shows significant differences in the physics of atmospheric turbulence impact on laser beam propagation over the long- and tactical-range distances.

  9. On the origin of 150-km echoes: Recent observational results and current understanding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patra, Amit

    2012-07-01

    Discovered nearly 45 years ago, the so-called 150-km echoing phenomenon continues to be a puzzle. These are the coherent radar echoes coming from the height region of 140-180 km during daytime and are of special interest to the ionospheric scientists since they are very useful means for estimating the daytime electric fields, a crucial parameter for studying daytime electrodynamics and plasma physics, and can be observed by radar with moderate sensitivity. Although the 150-km echoes are being regularly used for studying low latitude electrodynamics, it is a bit awkward using them in the scientific work without knowing their origin. This paper is meant to present and discuss new results obtained from Gadanki (13.5o N, 79.2o E, mag. lat. 6.5o N), India to elucidate the underlying physical processes, not considered before. Two new findings, one obtained during the passage of a solar eclipse and another linked with the intermediate layer type descending properties of 150-km echoes, clearly indicate the role of electron density gradient in generating the irregularities responsible for the 150-km radar echoes, not envisioned before. Given the fact that Gadanki is located at magnetically low latitude, it is proposed that the descending echoing layers are produced by interchange instability on the gradient of daytime descending ion layer formed by meridional wind shear associated with tidal/gravity waves quite similar to that observed during nighttime. Comparative anatomy of daytime 150-km echoes and nighttime intermediate layer echoes will also be presented and discussed in an effort to have a deeper understanding on the underlying instability processes.

  10. Influence of an Enforced Fast Start on 10-km-Running Performance.

    PubMed

    do Carmo, Everton C; Barroso, Renato; Renfree, Andrew; Gil, Saulo; Tricoli, Valmor

    2016-09-01

    The effects of an enforced fast start on long-distance performance are controversial and seem to depend on the athlete's capacity to delay and tolerate metabolic disruption. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of an enforced start on 10-km-running performance and the influence of the some physiological and performance variables on the ability to tolerate an enforced fast start during the running. Fifteen moderately trained runners performed two 10-km time trials (TTs): free pacing (FP-TT) and fast start (FS-TT). During FS-TT, speed during the first kilometer was 6% higher than in FP-TT. Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), peak velocity (PV), velocity associated with VO2max (vVO2max), ventilatory threshold, and running economy at 10 and 12 km/h and FP-TT average velocity (AV-10 km) were individually determined. There were no differences between FP-TT and FS-TT performance (45:01 ± 4:08 vs 45:11 ± 4:46 min:s, respectively, P = .4). Eight participants improved (+2.2%) their performance and were classified as positive responders (PR) and 7 decreased (-3.3%) performance and were classified as negative responders (NR). Running speed was significantly higher for PR between 6 and 9.2 km (P < .05) during FS-TT. In addition, PR presented higher PV (P = .02) and vVO2max (P = .01) than NR, suggesting that PV and vVO2max might influence the ability to tolerate a fast-start strategy. In conclusion, there was an individual response to the enforced fast-start strategy during 10-km running, and those who improved performance also presented higher vVO2max and PV, suggesting a possible association between these variables and response to the strategy adopted.

  11. Effects of 200 km propagation on Florida lightning return stroke electric fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uman, M. A.; Swanberg, C. E.; Tiller, J. A.; Lin, Y. T.; Krider, E. P.

    1976-01-01

    The electric fields produced by lightning return strokes near Kennedy Space Center, Florida, have been measured simultaneously at distances of about 5 to 25 km and about 200 km. Detailed records of the first 12 microsec of waveforms from four strokes are presented, as well as data on the initial field risetimes for 58 first and 92 subsequent strokes. The mean field risetime measured between the 10 to 90% points was about 1 microsec at the close station and about 2 microsec at the distant one.

  12. LES Modeling of Lateral Dispersion in the Ocean on Scales of 10 m to 10 km

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-20

    Report 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 01/07/2010 – 06/06/2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE LES Modeling of Lateral Dispersion in the Ocean on Scales of 10...ocean on scales of 0.1-10 km that can be implemented in larger- scale ocean models. These parameterizations will incorporate the effects of local...Distribution approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Final Report LES Modeling of Lateral Dispersion on Scales of 10 m to 10 km M.-Pascale

  13. One kilometer (1 km) electric solar wind sail tether produced automatically.

    PubMed

    Seppänen, Henri; Rauhala, Timo; Kiprich, Sergiy; Ukkonen, Jukka; Simonsson, Martin; Kurppa, Risto; Janhunen, Pekka; Hæggström, Edward

    2013-09-01

    We produced a 1 km continuous piece of multifilament electric solar wind sail tether of μm-diameter aluminum wires using a custom made automatic tether factory. The tether comprising 90,704 bonds between 25 and 50 μm diameter wires is reeled onto a metal reel. The total mass of 1 km tether is 10 g. We reached a production rate of 70 m/24 h and a quality level of 1‰ loose bonds and 2‰ rebonded ones. We thus demonstrated that production of long electric solar wind sail tethers is possible and practical.

  14. KM3NeT - ORCA: measuring the neutrino mass ordering in the Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouchner, Antoine

    2016-05-01

    ORCA (Oscillations Research with Cosmics in the Abyss) is the low-energy branch of KM3NeT, the underwater Cherenkov neutrino detector in the Mediterranean. Its primary goal is to resolve the long-standing unsolved question of the neutrino mass ordering by measuring matter oscillation effects in atmospheric neutrinos. To be deployed at the French KM3NeT site, ORCA’s multi-PMT optical modules will exploit the excellent optical properties of deep seawater to reconstruct cascade and track events with a few GeV of energy. This contribution reviews the methods and technology, and discusses the current expected performances.

  15. Appraising the reliability of converted wavefield imaging: application to USArray imaging of the 410-km discontinuity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xin; Pavlis, Gary L.

    2013-03-01

    We develop a generic method to appraise the reliability of wavefield imaging methods and use it to validate some novel observations on the 410-km discontinuity. The core concept of the error appraisal method is to produce a simulated data set that replicates the geometry of the real data. Here we implemented two simulation methods: (1) flat layer primary P to S conversions, and (2) a point source scattering model for P to S conversion data based on the Born approximation and ray theory propagators. We show how the approach can be extended for any simulation algorithm. We apply this new approach to appraise recent results using a 3-D, three-component P to S conversion imaging method applied to data collected by the USArray. Multiple metrics show that the amplitude of P to S converted energy scattered from the 410-km discontinuity varies by 18 dB with a systematically lower amplitude in an irregular band running from Idaho through northern Arizona. In addition, we observe strong lateral changes in the ratio of amplitudes recovered on the radial versus the transverse component. We compute point resolution functions and a checkerboard test to demonstrate we can reliably recover relative amplitudes with a lateral scale of the order of 200 km and a vertical scale of approximately 10 km. Irregular coverage locally distorts the amplitudes recovered in the checkerboard, but a 156 km scale checkerboard pattern is recovered. Flat layer simulations show we can recover relative amplitudes to within a range of 1 dB and the reconstructed transverse to radial amplitude is everywhere less than 0.1. A model with north-south oriented ridges with a 3° wavelength and 12.5 km amplitude shows of the order of ±6 dB amplitude variations and small, but clear correlation of the transverse/radial amplitude ratio topography in the model. Finally, we model the 410-km discontinuity as a rough surface characterized by variations in amplitude and depth derived from the USArray data. The rough

  16. Configuration Management (CM) Support for KM Processes at NASA/Johnson Space Center (JSC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cioletti, Louis

    2010-01-01

    Collection and processing of information are critical aspects of every business activity from raw data to information to an executable decision. Configuration Management (CM) supports KM practices through its automated business practices and its integrated operations within the organization. This presentation delivers an overview of JSC/Space Life Sciences Directorate (SLSD) and its methods to encourage innovation through collaboration and participation. Specifically, this presentation will illustrate how SLSD CM creates an embedded KM activity with an established IT platform to control and update baselines, requirements, documents, schedules, budgets, while tracking changes essentially managing critical knowledge elements.

  17. Crystal structure of di­aqua­[5,10,15,20-tetra­kis­(4-meth­oxy­phen­yl)porphyrinato-κ4 N]iron(III) di­aqua­(18-crown-6)potassium bis­(tri­fluoro­methane­sulfonate)–18-crown-6 (1/2)

    PubMed Central

    Ben Haj Hassen, Leila; Denden, Zouhour; Rousselin, Yoann; Nasri, Habib

    2015-01-01

    In the title compound, [FeIII(C48H36N4O2)(H2O)2][K(C12H24O6)(H2O)2](SO3CF3)2·2C12H24O6, the FeIII atom is situated on an inversion centre and is octa­hedrally coordin­ated by four pyrrole N atoms of the deprotenated 5,10,15,20-tetra­kis­(4-meth­oxy­phen­yl)porphyrinate ligand and two water mol­ecules. The average equatorial Fe—N(pyrrole) bond length [2.043 (6) Å] is consistent with a high-spin (S = 5/2) iron(III) metalloporphyrin derivative. The K+ cation, which also lies on an inversion centre, is chelated by the six O atoms of one 18-crown-6 mol­ecule and is additionally coordinated by two water mol­ecules in a distorted hexa­gonal–bipyramidal geometry. In the crystal, the cations, anions and one non-coordinating 18-crown-6 mol­ecule are linked by classical O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds and non-conventional C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, leading to a one-dimensional supra­molecular architecture along [10-1]. The crystal packing is further stabilized by weak C—H⋯π inter­actions involving pyrrole and phenyl rings of the porphyrins, as well as weak C—H⋯F contacts involving the (SO3CF3)− counter-ion and the 18-crown-6 mol­ecules. PMID:26870431

  18. Heavy metal effects on the biodegradation of fluorene by Sphingobacterium sp. KM-02 isolated from PAHs-contaminated mine soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nam, I.; Chon, C.; Jung, K.; Kim, J.

    2012-12-01

    considered during biodegradation in mine impacted areas. The heavy metal effects on the degradation of fluorene by Sphingobacterium sp. KM-02 was determined in liquid cultures. The results showed that 10 mg/L cadmium, mercury and copper not only affected the growth of KM-02 with fluorene but also the ability of resting cells to degrade this compound. Growth and degradation were strongly inhibited by mercury, even at 1 mg/L, while the inhibitory effect of cadmium and copper at the same concentration or at 5 mg/L were negligible. In contrast, arsenic and lead did not affect degradation or growth, even at very high concentrations of 100 mg/L. Subsequent analyses additionally revealed that concentrations of arsenic and lead remained unchanged following incubation, while those of cadmium, mercury and copper decreased significantly. These data suggest the potential inhibition of fluorene degradation in mine soil, the major source of PAHs degradation, but which also would limit the applicability of a slurry-based fermentation reactor for PAHs degradation. Therefore, further study should be performed to elucidate whether these conditions are effectively imitating those of contaminated mine impacted soil, which are very complicated chemical and physical phenomena.

  19. Variation of electron and ion density distribution along Earth's magnetic field line deduced from whistler mode (wm) sounding of image/rpi satellite below altitude 5000 km

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazra, Susmita

    DMSP satellites. (5) The effective ion mass in the day side is more than two times higher than night side below altitude ~500 km. (6) The O+/H+ and O+/(H ++He+) transition heights at day side are ~300-500 km higher than night side; the transition heights from the IRI-2012 model lie within the uncertainty limit of WM sounding for night side, but for day side (L-shell>2.5) they are 200 km higher than WM uncertainty limits. (7) foF2 (F2 peak plasma densities) from ionosonde stations and the IRI-2012 model are ~1.5-3 MHz higher than those from WM sounding during daytime. These measurements are very important as the ion density profile along geomagnetic field lines is poorly known. They can lead to a better understanding of global cold plasma distribution inside the plasmasphere at low altitude and thereby bridge the gap between high topside ionosphere and plasmasphere measurements. These results will provide important guidance for the design of future space-borne sounders in terms of frequency and virtual range, in order to adequately cover ion density measurements at low altitudes and wide range of MLTs, solar and geophysical conditions.

  20. Elevation-dependency of the representation of precipitation with COSMO-CLM at 3km over the Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piazza, Marie; Truhetz, Heimo; Csaki, Andras

    2016-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that convection-permitting simulations accurately reproduce the diurnal cycle of precipitation, especially over mountainous regions in summer. However, a strong dependency to elevation has been shown with COSMO-CLM at 3km. Indeed, the model is unable to reproduce the mid-afternoon peak in low- and flat-lands in the Eastern Alps. Associated processes are investigated in the framework of NHCM-2 (project number P24758-N29), using a set of sensitivity experiments over the greater Alpine region. These experiments are designed to cover a broad range of influences, including orographic forcing and physical parametrizations. Model evaluation is performed with a set of observations-based high-quality datasets at 1km over the Eastern Alps. These datasets are provided by the Austrian Central Department for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG), and include data from the now-casting system INCA, and newly generated gridded dataset from homogenized high-density network of in situ measurement stations. First results of process-oriented analysis will be presented in the context of model inter-comparison with WRF.

  1. Molecular oxygen measurements at 200 km from AE-D near winter solstice, 1975

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kayser, D. C.; Potter, W. E.

    1976-01-01

    Utilizing the fly-through mode, the open source neutral mass spectrometer on Atmosphere Explorer-D (AE-D) has measured O2 densities, as well as N2 densities and in situ neutral temperatures, at midmorning during winter solstice over the latitude range 90 degrees S to 90 degrees N. The expected seasonal variation in N2 was found at 200 km together with a more complex behavior in molecular oxygen than might be expected from a diffusive equilibrium model with constant lower boundary values. Under geomagnetically quiet conditions the equatorial 200 km value of O2 was about 1.7 x 10 to the 8th/cu cm. A local maximum in the 200 km O2 densities was found near 70 degrees N, where an average quiet time value was 2.5 x 10 to the 8th/cu cm, implying a 120 km density of 8.3 x 10 to the 10th/cu cm. The in situ temperature measurements confirm the presence of higher temperatures near 70 degrees N latitude, even during geomagnetically quiet conditions.

  2. SMOS disaggregated soil moisture product at 1 km resolution: processor overview and first validation results

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity) mission provides surface soil moisture (SM) maps at a mean resolution of ~50 km. However, agricultural applications (irrigation, crop monitoring) and some hydrological applications (floods and modeling of small basins) require higher resolution SM...

  3. The extra vector abeyance (EVA) mechanism as the origin of the KM matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, S.; Lopez, Jorge L.; Nanopoulos, D. V.

    1991-06-01

    We examine a general mechanism whereby an extra vector-like quark of mass Meva generates realistic quark mixing angles from otherwise flavor diagonal quark Yukawa matrices. For scales above Meva the vector-like quark is manifest, while the Yukawa matrices are diagonal, i.e., the KM matrix is held in abeyance. Conversely, for scales below Meva the vector-like quark is in an abeyant state, while the KM matrix is manifest. This mechanism is naturally realized in many superstring models. In fact, knowledge of the Yukawa matrices at the string scale, together with suitable renormalization group scaling, unambigously determines the quark mass ratios and the KM angles at low energies. Conversely, these low-energy observables may be used to determine asyet-unknown parameters in the string model. We explicitly apply the EVA mechanism to a toy model inspired by the structure of the flipped SU (5) string model, to illustrate how this mechanism may be used to predict some of the KM angles. We also outline the procedure to be followed in a realistic calculation in the flipped SU (5) string model. Supported in part by DOE grant DE-AS05-81ER40039.

  4. The Effect of a 20 km Run on Appetite Regulation in Long Distance Runners

    PubMed Central

    Kojima, Chihiro; Ishibashi, Aya; Ebi, Kumiko; Goto, Kazushige

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate appetite-related hormonal responses and energy intake after a 20 km run in trained long distance runners. Twenty-three male long-distance runners completed two trials: either an exercise trial consisting of a 20 km outdoor run (EX) or a control trial with an identical period of rest (CON). Blood samples were collected to determine plasma acylated ghrelin, peptide YY3-36 (PYY3-36) and other hormonal and metabolite concentrations. Energy intake during a buffet test meal was also measured 30 min after the exercise or rest periods. Although plasma acylated ghrelin concentrations were significantly decreased after the 20 km run (p < 0.05), plasma PYY3-36 did not change significantly following exercise. Absolute energy intake during the buffet test meal in EX (1325 ± 55 kcal) was significantly lower than that in CON (1529 ± 55 kcal), and there was a relatively large degree of individual variability for exercise-induced changes in energy intake (−40.2% to 12.8%). However, exercise-induced changes in energy intake were not associated with plasma acylated ghrelin or PYY3-36 responses. The results demonstrated that a 20 km run significantly decreased plasma acylated ghrelin concentrations and absolute energy intake among well-trained long distance runners. PMID:27792164

  5. The Trigger and Data Acquisition System for the KM3NeT-Italia towers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favaro, M.; Chiarusi, T.; Giacomini, F.; Manzali, M.; Margiotta, A.; Pellegrino, C.

    2016-04-01

    KM3NeT-Italia is an INFN project supported with Italian PON fundings for building the core of the Italian node of the KM3NeT neutrino telescope. The detector, made of 700 10'' Optical Modules (OMs) lodged along 8 vertical structures called towers, will be deployed starting from fall 2015 at the KM3NeT-Italy site, about 80 km off Capo Passero, Italy, 3500 m deep. The all data to shore approach is used to reduce the complexity of the submarine detector, demanding for an on-line trigger integrated in the data acquisition system running in the shore station, called TriDAS. Due to the large optical background in the sea from 40K decays and bioluminescence, the throughput from the underwater detector can range up to 30 Gbps. This puts strong constraints on the design and performances of the TriDAS and of the related network infrastructure. In this contribution the technology behind the implementation of the TriDAS infrastructure is reviewed, focusing on the relationship between the various components and their performances. The modular design of the TriDAS, which allows for its scalability up to a larger detector than the 8-tower configuration is also discussed.

  6. Enabling Grid Computing resources within the KM3NeT computing model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filippidis, Christos

    2016-04-01

    KM3NeT is a future European deep-sea research infrastructure hosting a new generation neutrino detectors that - located at the bottom of the Mediterranean Sea - will open a new window on the universe and answer fundamental questions both in particle physics and astrophysics. International collaborative scientific experiments, like KM3NeT, are generating datasets which are increasing exponentially in both complexity and volume, making their analysis, archival, and sharing one of the grand challenges of the 21st century. These experiments, in their majority, adopt computing models consisting of different Tiers with several computing centres and providing a specific set of services for the different steps of data processing such as detector calibration, simulation and data filtering, reconstruction and analysis. The computing requirements are extremely demanding and, usually, span from serial to multi-parallel or GPU-optimized jobs. The collaborative nature of these experiments demands very frequent WAN data transfers and data sharing among individuals and groups. In order to support the aforementioned demanding computing requirements we enabled Grid Computing resources, operated by EGI, within the KM3NeT computing model. In this study we describe our first advances in this field and the method for the KM3NeT users to utilize the EGI computing resources in a simulation-driven use-case.

  7. Magnetic Anomalies of the Fennoscandian Shield on a 2km resolution grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korhonen, Juha V.; Aaro, Sven; Reidar Skilbrei, Jan; All, Tarmo

    2010-05-01

    Joint magnetic anomaly grid of the Fennoscandian Shield was released 2002, smoothed and used as data for the WDMAM2007. In comparison with MF5 this grid showed superior characteristics to other sets. The data will be released as a 2 km resolution grid for the WDMAM2011 with eventual updates of anomaly levels.

  8. Global 4 km resolution monthly gridded Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) data set derived from FLUXNET2015

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Jitendra; Hoffman, Forrest M.; Hargrove, William W.; Collier, Nathan

    2016-08-01

    This data set contain global gridded surfaces of Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) at 2 arc minute (approximately 4 km) spatial resolution monthly for the period of 2000-2014 derived from FLUXNET2015 (released July 12, 2016) observations using a representativeness based upscaling approach.

  9. Spatial correlation of large historical earthquakes and moderate shocks >10 km deep in eastern North America

    SciTech Connect

    Acharya, H.

    1980-12-01

    A good spatial correlation is noted between historical earthquakes with epicentral intensity > or =VIII (MM) and recent moderate size earthquakes with focal depth >10 km, suggesting that large historical earthquakes in eastern North America may be associated with deep-seated faults

  10. Effects of a minimalist shoe on running economy and 5-km running performance.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Joel T; Thewlis, Dominic; Tsiros, Margarita D; Brown, Nicholas A T; Buckley, Jonathan D

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if minimalist shoes improve time trial performance of trained distance runners and if changes in running economy, shoe mass, stride length, stride rate and footfall pattern were related to any difference in performance. Twenty-six trained runners performed three 6-min sub-maximal treadmill runs at 11, 13 and 15 km·h(-1) in minimalist and conventional shoes while running economy, stride length, stride rate and footfall pattern were assessed. They then performed a 5-km time trial. In the minimalist shoe, runners completed the trial in less time (effect size 0.20 ± 0.12), were more economical during sub-maximal running (effect size 0.33 ± 0.14) and decreased stride length (effect size 0.22 ± 0.10) and increased stride rate (effect size 0.22 ± 0.11). All but one runner ran with a rearfoot footfall in the minimalist shoe. Improvements in time trial performance were associated with improvements in running economy at 15 km·h(-1) (r = 0.58), with 79% of the improved economy accounted for by reduced shoe mass (P < 0.05). The results suggest that running in minimalist shoes improves running economy and 5-km running performance.

  11. MISR 17.6 KM Gridded Cloud Motion Vectors: Overview and Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, Kevin; Garay, Michael; Moroney, Catherine; Jovanovic, Veljko

    2012-01-01

    The MISR (Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer) instrument on the Terra satellite has been retrieving cloud motion vectors (CMVs) globally and almost continuously since early in 2000. In February 2012 the new MISR Level 2 Cloud product was publicly released, providing cloud motion vectors at 17.6 km resolution with improved accuracy and roughly threefold increased coverage relative to the 70.4 km resolution vectors of the current MISR Level 2 Stereo product (which remains available). MISR retrieves both horizontal cloud motion and height from the apparent displacement due to parallax and movement of cloud features across three visible channel (670nm) camera views over a span of 200 seconds. The retrieval has comparable accuracy to operational atmospheric motion vectors from other current sensors, but holds the additional advantage of global coverage and finer precision height retrieval that is insensitive to radiometric calibration. The MISR mission is expected to continue operation for many more years, possibly until 2019, and Level 2 Cloud has the possibility of being produced with a sensing-to-availability lag of 5 hours. This report compares MISR CMV with collocated motion vectors from arctic rawinsonde sites, and from the GOES and MODISTerra instruments. CMV at heights below 3 km exhibit the smallest differences, as small as 3.3 m/s for MISR and GOES. Clouds above 3 km exhibit larger differences, as large as 8.9 m/s for MISR and MODIS. Typical differences are on the order of 6 m/s.

  12. Temperature minima in the average thermal structure of the middle mesosphere (70 - 80 km) from analysis of 40- to 92-km SME global temperature profiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clancy, R. Todd; Rusch, David W.; Callan, Michael T.

    1994-01-01

    Global temperatures have been derived for the upper stratosphere and mesosphere from analysis of Solar Mesosphere Explorer (SME) limb radiance profiles. The SME temperature represent fixed local time observations at 1400 - 1500 LT, with partial zonal coverage of 3 - 5 longitudes per day over the 1982-1986 period. These new SME temperatures are compared to the COSPAR International Ionosphere Reference Atmosphere 86 (CIRA 86) climatology (Fleming et al., 1990) as well as stratospheric and mesospheric sounder (SAMS); Barnett and Corney, 1984), National Meteorological Center (NMC); (Gelman et al., 1986), and individual lidar and rocket observations. Significant areas of disagreement between the SME and CIRA 86 mesospheric temperatures are 10 K warmer SME temperatures at altitudes above 80 km. The 1981-1982 SAMS temperatures are in much closer agreement with the SME temperatures between 40 and 75 km. Although much of the SME-CIRA 86 disagreement probably stems from the poor vertical resolution of the observations comprising the CIRA 86 modelm, some portion of the differences may reflect 5- to 10-year temporal variations in mesospheric temperatures. The CIRA 86 climatology is based on 1973-1978 measurements. Relatively large (1 K/yr) 5- to 10-year trends in temperatures as functions of longitude, latitude, and altitude have been observed for both the upper stratosphere (Clancy and Rusch, 1989a) and mesosphere (Clancy and Rusch, 1989b; Hauchecorne et al., 1991). The SME temperatures also exhibit enhanced amplitudes for the semiannual oscillation (SAO) of upper mesospheric temperatures at low latitudes, which are not evident in the CIRA 86 climatology. The so-called mesospheric `temperature inversions' at wintertime midlatitudes, which have been observed by ground-based lidar (Hauschecorne et al., 1987) and rocket in situ measurements (Schmidlin, 1976), are shown to be a climatological aspect of the mesosphere, based on the SME observations.

  13. Performance of Whipple Shields at Impact Velocities above 9 km/s

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christiansen, Eric L.; Davis, Bruce A.; Piekutowski, Andrew J.; Poormon, Kevin L.

    2009-01-01

    Whipple shields were first proposed as a means of protecting spacecraft from the impact of micrometeoroids in 1947 [1] and are currently in use as micrometeoroid and orbital debris shields on modern spacecraft. In the intervening years, the function of the thin bumper used to shatter or melt threatening particles has been augmented and enhanced by the use of various types and configurations of intermediate layers of various materials. All shield designs serve to minimize the threat of a spall failure or perforation of the main wall of the spacecraft as a result of the impact of the fragments. With increasing use of Whipple shields, various ballistic limit equations (BLEs) for guiding the design and estimating the performance of shield systems have been developed. Perhaps the best known and most used are the "new" modified Cour-Palais (Christiansen) equations [2]. These equations address the three phases of impact: (1) ballistic (<3 km/s), where the projectile is moving too slowly to fragment and essentially penetrates as an intact projectile; (2) shatter (3 to 7 km/s), where the projectile fragments at impact and forms an expanding cloud of debris fragments; and (3) melt/vaporization (>7 km/s), where the projectile melts or vaporizes at impact. The performance of Whipple shields and the adequacy of the BLEs have been examined for the first two phases using the results of impact tests obtained from two-stage, light-gas gun test firings. Shield performance and the adequacy of the BLEs has not been evaluated in the melt/vaporization phase until now because of the limitations of launchers used to accelerate projectiles with controlled properties to velocities above 7.5 km/s. A three-stage, light-gas gun, developed at the University of Dayton Research Institute (UDRI) [3], is capable of launching small, aluminum spheres to velocities above 9 km/s. This launcher was used to evaluate the ballistic performance of two Whipple shield systems, various thermal protection

  14. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Radial velocities of K-M dwarfs (Sperauskas+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sperauskas, J.; Bartasiute, S.; Boyle, R. P.; Deveikis, V.; Raudeliunas, S.; Upgren, A. R.

    2016-09-01

    We analyzed nearly 3300 measurements of radial velocities for 1049 K-M dwarfs, that we obtained during the past decade with a CORAVEL-type instrument, with a primary emphasis on detecting and eliminating from kinematic calculations the spectroscopic binaries and binary candidates. We present the catalog of our observations of radial velocities for 959 stars which are not suspected of velocity variability. Of these, 776 stars are from the MCC sample and 173 stars are K-M dwarfs from the CNS4. The catalog consists of two parts: Table 2 lists the mean radial velocities, and Table 2a contains individual measurements. Our radial velocities agree with the best published standard stars to within 0.7km/s in precision. Combining these and supplementary radial-velocity data with Hipparcos/Tycho-2 astrometry (Table 4 summarizes input observational data) we calculated the space velocity components and parameters of the galactic orbits in a three-component model potential by Johnston K.V. et al. (1995ApJ...451..598J) for a total of 1088 K-M dwarfs (Table 5), that we use for kinematical analysis and for the identification of possible candidate members of nearby stellar kinematic groups. We identified 146 stars as possible candidate members of the classical moving groups and known or suspected subgroups (Table 7). We show that the distributions of space-velocity components, orbital eccentricities, and maximum distances from the Galactic plane for nearby K-M dwarfs are consistent with the presence of young, intermediate-age and old populations of the thin disk and a small fraction (3%) of stars with the thick disk kinematics. (7 data files).

  15. Effects of wearing a cooling vest during the warm-up on 10-km run performance.

    PubMed

    Stannard, Alicja B; Brandenburg, Jason P; Pitney, William A; Lukaszuk, Judith M

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether wearing a cooling vest during an active warm-up would improve the 10-km time trial (TT) performance of endurance runners. Seven male runners completed 3 10-km TTs (1 familiarization and 2 experimental) on a treadmill after a 30-minute warm-up. During the warm-up of the experimental TTs, runners wore either a t-shirt (control [C]) or a cooling vest (V), the order of which was randomized. No differences were found between the C and V conditions for the 10-km TT times (2,533 ± 144 and 2,543 ± 149 seconds, respectively) (p = 0.746) or any of the 2-km split times. Heart rate (HR) at the start of the TT equaled 90 ± 17 b·min for C and 94 ± 16 b·min for V. The HR peaked at 184 ± 20 b·min in C and 181 ± 19 b·min in V. At the start of the TT Tc was 37.65 ± .72°C in C and 37.29 ± .73°C in V (p = 0.067). In C, Tc gradually increased until 39.34 ± 0.43°C while in V is reached 39.18 ± 0.72°C (p = 0.621). Although rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and Thermal sensation (TS) increased during both experimental TTs, there were no differences between V and C. Findings suggest wearing a cooling vest during a warm-up does not improve 10-km performance. The use of cooling vests during the warm-up did not produce any physiological (HR and Tc) or psychological (RPE and TS) benefit, perhaps accounting for the lack of improvement.

  16. The Relationship of Foot Strike Pattern, Shoe Type, and Performance in a 50-km Trail Race.

    PubMed

    Kasmer, Mark E; Liu, Xue-Cheng; Roberts, Kyle G; Valadao, Jason M

    2016-06-01

    Recent "in-race" studies have observed the foot strike patterns of runners in traditional road marathon races. However, similar studies have not been conducted for trail runners, which have been estimated to account for 11% of all runners. The purpose of this study was to (a) determine the rear-foot strike (RFS) prevalence in a 50-km trail race and compare with traditional road marathon races; (b) determine if there is a relationship between foot strike and sex in a 50-km trail race; and (c) determine if there is a relationship between foot strike, shoe type, and performance in a 50-km trail race. One hundred sixty-five runners were videotaped at the 8.1-km mark of the 2012 Ice Age Trail 50-km race. Foot strike analysis revealed RFS prevalence of 85.1%, less than previously reported in traditional road marathon races. There was no relationship found between sex and foot strike (p = 0.60). A significant effect of shoe type on foot strike (RFS was less common among runners in minimalist shoes, p < 0.01) and performance (faster runners were more likely to be wearing minimalist shoes, p < 0.01) was observed; however, no association between foot strike and performance was observed (p = 0.83). This study suggests that most trail runners, albeit less than road runners, prefer an RFS pattern, which is accompanied by biomechanical consequences unique from a non-RFS pattern and, therefore, likely carries a unique injury profile. In addition, the findings in this study suggest that minimalist shoes may represent a reasonable training modification to improve performance.

  17. Two-phase growth of high topography in eastern Tibet during the Cenozoic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, E.; Kirby, E.; Furlong, K. P.; van Soest, M.; Xu, G.; Shi, X.; Kamp, P. J. J.; Hodges, K. V.

    2012-09-01

    High topography in eastern Tibet is thought to have formed when deep crust beneath the central Tibetan Plateau flowed towards the plateau margin, causing crustal thickening and surface uplift. Rapid exhumation starting about 10-15million years ago is inferred to mark the onset of surface uplift and fluvial incision. Although geophysical data are consistent with weak crust capable of flow, it is unclear how the timing and amount of deformation adjacent to the Sichuan Basin during the Cenozoic era can be explained in this way. Here we use thermochronology to measure the cooling histories of rocks exposed in a section that stretches vertically over 3km adjacent to the Sichuan Basin. Our thermal models of exhumation-driven cooling show that these rocks, and hence the plateau margin, were subject to slow, steady exhumation during early Cenozoic time, followed by two pulses of rapid exhumation, one beginning 30-25million years ago and a second 10-15million years ago that continues to present. Our findings imply that significant topographic relief existed adjacent to the Sichuan Basin before the Indo-Asian collision. Furthermore, the onset of Cenozoic mountain building probably pre-dated development of the weak lower crust, implying that early topography was instead formed during thickening of the upper crust along faults. We suggest that episodes of mountain building may reflect distinct geodynamic mechanisms of crustal thickening.

  18. Aircraft observations of aerosol and trace gas concentrations in the tropical troposphere up to 12 km during the INCA campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minikin, A.; Baehr, J.; Krejci, R.; Schlager, H.; van Velthoven, P.; Seifert, M.; Ström, J.; Petzold, A.; Schumann, U.

    2003-04-01

    During the EU funded project INCA (Interhemispheric differences in cirrus properties from anthropogenic emissions) the DLR Falcon 20, a German research aircraft with a maximum ceiling of 13~km, carried out measurements of aerosol and trace gas concentrations during transfer from Europe to South America and back in order to obtain meridional cross sections between 50^o~N and 50^o~S. At tropical latitudes the southbound transfer flights were directed along the west coast of South America, whereas the northbound transfer flights passed over Brazil and the central Atlantic Ocean. We report on observational data of number concentrations of Aitken and accumulation mode particles, the fractionation between volatile and non-volatile particles, as well as mixing ratios of carbon monoxide, reactive nitrogen species and ozone. In the tropics aerosol number concentrations above 9~km altitude increase by one order of magnitude, if compared to the sub-tropics and mid-latitudes, most pronounced for refractory particles. These elevated aerosol concentrations occur where 3-dimensional back trajectories originate from the central South American continent (Amazon basin) and have undergone systematic uplifting. The very high fraction of refractory particles, up to 50--60~% of total condensation nuclei, may indicate a strong contribution of continental ground sources. The INCA measurements confirm earlier TROPOZ II observations of an extended upper tropospheric layer of enhanced CO and NO over tropical South America during the wet season. Vertical distributions show a striking increase of CO mixing ratios above 6~km. Corresponding increases of NO and NOy and decreases of ozone were also found. During INCA an anticyclonic flow over tropical South America was persistent in the upper troposphere. This upper-level anticyclone is associated with intense convective activity over the Amazon basin and redistributes the convectively lifted air masses over a large area in the tropical middle

  19. Sub-km HIMU-type Enriched Mantle at a Mid-ocean Ridge Far From a Plume: Endeavour, JdFR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gill, J. B.; Michael, P. J.; Dreyer, B. M.; Clague, D. A.; Ramos, F. C.

    2015-12-01

    The Endeavour segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge is characterized by abundant enriched (E) MORB since the currently inflated axial ridge formed <105 years ago, and by the full range of depleted (D) to E-MORB during the last 2300 years in the km-wide axial graben. Two different styles of enrichment of moderately incompatible elements are present. The first characterized basalts across the ~5 km-wide ridge from >10,000 to ~4000 years ago, whereas the second characterizes more recent basalts erupted in the axial graben. We attribute the first to a higher proportion of pyroxenite to enriched peridotite in the mantle source during ridge inflation. The more recent style reflects the reduced role of pyroxenite after the axial graben formed. The enriched component for both styles is a HIMU-type because it has low 87Sr/86Sr and 176Hf/177Hf relative to 143Nd/144Nd, lower 3He/4He (~8.1 RA) than in the more depleted basalts, shallow slopes on Pb isotope diagrams, and high Nb/LREE ratios. It is regionally widespread and shared with the West Valley and Explorer segments to the north. At least 14 different samplings of mantle components occurred within <1 km of ridge length and width during a time when <1 km of upwelling occurred, indicating that the scale of mantle heterogeneity is <1 km in this setting that is far from a plume.

  20. IAP RAS microwave radiometry complex: sounding atmospheric thermal structure from the ground up to 55km.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belikovich, Mikhail; Shvetsov, Alexander; Ryskin, Vitaly; Mukhin, Dmitry; Kulikov, Mikhail; Feigin, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    Thermal structure is the key characteristic of the atmosphere. Depending on the altitude, it is measured by different methods. In troposphere a plethora of in-situ techniques exists while in middle atmosphere remote sensing is primary type of measurement. The remote sensing is conducted in different wavelengths: optical, infrared and microwave. Satellite based measurements are the most popular kind of remote sensing measurements as it provides global coverage. Ground based passive microwave remote sensing technique has its place when one need permanent monitoring with high time resolution in order to study short-term local events like gravity waves. Institute of Applied Physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IAP RAS) develops multi-purpose radiometry complex for constant atmospheric monitoring. For now, it measures temperature profiles from ground to 55km, tropospheric water vapor and ozone. It consists of several radiometers with spectral bands ranging from 20 to 112 GHz. In 2015 two radiometers were added in order to measure thermal structure at surface level and troposphere: scanning device operating in 55-59GHz, and device at 50-55GHz. The change led to modifying the retrieval software. The work presents the description of the radiometry complex and corresponding retrieval software. The main part is devoted to new radiometers and enhancements in retrieval procedure. The retrieval algorithms are described: for each device separately and for the whole temperature retrieval part of the complex. The use of the single procedure for the group of radiometers helps to merge the profile with each other correctly. The main issue of the single procedure (numerical complexity aside) is dealing with the possible difference in calibration of the devices. Error analysis of the procedures is conducted. The characteristics of the complex and the retrieval algorithms are presented. The capabilities of the algorithms are shown on simulated and real data; the last one was

  1. Equation of State Measurements of Materials Using a Three-Stage Gun to Impact Velocities of 11km/s

    SciTech Connect

    REINHART,WILLIAM D.; CHHABILDAS,LALIT C.; CARROLL,DANIEL E.; THORNHILL,T.G.; WINFREE,N.A.

    2000-09-26

    Understanding high pressure behavior of homogeneous as well as heterogeneous materials is necessary in order to address the physical processes associated with hypervelocity impact events related to space science applications including orbital debris impact and impact lethality. At very high impact velocities, material properties will be subjugated to phase-changes, such as melting and vaporization. These phase states cannot be obtained through conventional gun technology. These processes need to be represented accurately in hydrodynamic codes to allow credible computational analysis of impact events resulting from hypervelocity impact. In this paper, techniques that are being developed and implemented to obtain the needed shock loading parameters (Hugoniot states) for material characterization studies, namely shock velocity and particle velocity, will be described at impact velocities up to 11 km/s. What is new in this report is that these techniques are being implemented for use at engagement velocities never before attained utilizing two-stage light-gas gun technology.

  2. 25 MHz clock continuous-variable quantum key distribution system over 50 km fiber channel

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chao; Huang, Duan; Huang, Peng; Lin, Dakai; Peng, Jinye; Zeng, Guihua

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a practical continuous-variable quantum key distribution system is developed and it runs in the real-world conditions with 25 MHz clock rate. To reach high-rate, we have employed a homodyne detector with maximal bandwidth to 300 MHz and an optimal high-efficiency error reconciliation algorithm with processing speed up to 25 Mbps. To optimize the stability of the system, several key techniques are developed, which include a novel phase compensation algorithm, a polarization feedback algorithm, and related stability method on the modulators. Practically, our system is tested for more than 12 hours with a final secret key rate of 52 kbps over 50 km transmission distance, which is the highest rate so far in such distance. Our system may pave the road for practical broadband secure quantum communication with continuous variables in the commercial conditions. PMID:26419413

  3. Extending MGS-TES Temperature Retrievals in the Martian Atmosphere up to 90 Km: Retrieval Approach and Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feofilov, A. G.; Kutepov, A. A.; Rezac, L.; Smith, M. D.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a methodology for performing a temperature retrieval in the Martian atmosphere in the 50-90 km altitude range using spectrally integrated 15 micrometers C02 limb emissions measured by the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES), the thermal infrared spectrometer on board the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS). We demonstrate that temperature retrievals from limb observations in the 75-90 km altitude range require accounting for the non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (non-LTE) populations of the C02(v2) vibrational levels. Using the methodology described in the paper, we have retrieved approximately 1200 individual temperature profiles from MGS TES limb observations in the altitude range between 60 and 90 km. 0ur dataset of retrieved temperature profiles is available for download in supplemental materials of this paper. The temperature retrieval uncertainties are mainly caused by radiance noise, and are estimated to be about 2 K at 60 km and below, 4 K at 70 km, 7 K at 80 km, 10 K at 85 km, and 20 K at 90 km. We compare the retrieved profiles to Mars Climate Database temperature profiles and find good qualitative agreement. Quantitatively, our retrieved profiles are in general warmer and demonstrate strong variability with the following values for bias and standard deviations (in brackets) compared to the Martian Year 24 dataset of the Mars Climate Database: 6 (+/-20) K at 60 km, 7.5 (+/-25) K at 65 km, 9 (+/-27) K at 70 km, 9.5 (+/-27) K at 75 km, 10 (+/-28) K at 80 km, 11 (+/-29) K at 85 km, and 11.5 (+/-31) K at 90 km. Possible reasons for the positive temperature bias are discussed. carbon dioxide molecular vibrations

  4. Seismic Hazard Implications of a Vanished Punjab Mountain Rammed 100 km Beneath the Southeast End of the Kashmir Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiffman, C. R.; Bali, B. S.; Bilham, R. G.

    2011-12-01

    An active normal fault parallel-to, and midway between, the Zanskar and Pir Pinjal ranges at the SE end of the Kashmir Valley (33.56N, 75.51E) raises the intriguing question of why a normal fault should exist in a region of prevailing Himalayan compression. We believe the normal fault is caused by a prominent bulge on the Indian plate. The fault is approximately 5 km long and has a surface scarp of approximately 4 m, tapering to zero to the WNW and ESE. Its recent origin is indicated by its offset of glacial moraines and stream channels with the subsequent formation of several poorly developed uphill-facing colluvial wedges, and a conspicuous 40 m x 60 m Alpine sag pond (Oldham, 1988). The fault dips steeply to the SW and its limited offset suggests that it was possibly formed in a single earthquake with Mw less than 6.0. The fault lies approximately 70 km northeast of a prominent salient in the Himalayan frontal thrusts west of the town of Jammu, and is one of several similar faults spaced roughly 5 km apart in a north-south line. The tensile surface stress implied by normal faulting is suggestive of north-south convex flexure of the region, possibly caused by the passage of a bulge on the Indian plate beneath SE Kashmir. We suggest that the Jammu salient and these normal faults record the passage of a mountain or range of mountains on the Indian plate beneath the divide separating the Chenab and Jhelum river drainages. The passage of the range is presumably responsible for the current location of the river divide and for the high passes that close the SE end of the Kashmir valley. Assuming that the crest of the range has passed 100 km beneath the Himalaya places the date of its initial collision with the frontal thrusts at 6 Mya. We anticipate that subduction of this range has resulted in significantly higher friction of the décollement here, influencing the style of Himalayan thrust faulting, and perhaps controlling the along-strike initiation or termination of

  5. Comparison of Two Fluid Replacement Protocols During a 20-km Trail Running Race in the Heat.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Rebecca M; Casa, Douglas J; Jensen, Katherine A; Stearns, Rebecca L; DeMartini, Julie K; Pagnotta, Kelly D; Roti, Melissa W; Armstrong, Lawrence E; Maresh, Carl M

    2016-09-01

    Lopez, RM, Casa, DJ, Jensen, K, Stearns, RL, DeMartini, JK, Pagnotta, KD, Roti, MW, Armstrong, LE, and Maresh, CM. Comparison of two fluid replacement protocols during a 20-km trail running race in the heat. J Strength Cond Res 30(9): 2609-2616, 2016-Proper hydration is imperative for athletes striving for peak performance and safety, however, the effectiveness of various fluid replacement strategies in the field setting is unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate how two hydration protocols affect physiological responses and performance during a 20-km trail running race. A randomized, counter-balanced, crossover design was used in a field setting (mean ± SD: WBGT 28.3 ± 1.9° C). Well-trained male (n = 8) and female (n = 5) runners (39 ± 14 years; 175 ± 9 cm; 67.5 ± 11.1 kg; 13.4 ± 4.6% BF) completed two 20-km trail races (5 × 4-km loop) with different water hydration protocols: (a) ad libitum (AL) consumption and (b) individualized rehydration (IR). Data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA. Paired t-tests compared pre-race-post-race measures. Main outcome variables were race time, heart rate (HR), gastrointestinal temperature (TGI), fluid consumed, percent body mass loss (BML), and urine osmolality (Uosm). Race times between groups were similar. There was a significant condition × time interaction (p = 0.048) for HR, but TGI was similar between conditions. Subjects replaced 30 ± 14% of their water losses in AL and 64 ± 16% of their losses in IR (p < 0.001). Ad libitum trial experienced greater BML (-2.6 ± 0.5%) compared with IR (-1.3 ± 0.5%; p < 0.001). Pre-race to post-race Uosm differences existed between AL (-273 ± 146 mOsm) and IR (-145 ± 215 mOsm, p = 0.032). In IR, runners drank twice as much fluid than AL during the 20-km race, leading to > 2% BML in AL. Ad libitum drinking resulted in 1.3% greater BML over the 20-km race, which resulted in no thermoregulatory or performance differences from IR.

  6. Aerobic capacity and running performance across a 1.6 km altitude difference in two sciurid rodents.

    PubMed

    Chappell, Mark A; Dlugosz, Elizabeth M

    2009-03-01

    Hypoxia at high altitudes is often assumed to constrain exercise capacity, but there have been few high- versus low-altitude comparisons of species native to a wide range of altitudes. Such studies are ecologically realistic, as wild-caught animals tested at their native altitude are presumably maximally acclimated (via phenotypic plasticity) or adapted (by evolutionary change) to that altitude. We compared aerobic performance, measured as maximum oxygen consumption in forced exercise (V(O(2),max)), and voluntary wheel-running in two species of sciurid rodents captured and tested at field sites that differed in altitude by 1.6 km (2165 m versus 3800 m). We found reduced V(O(2),max) at 3800 m in least chipmunks (Tamias minimus) but no significant effect of altitude on V(O(2),max) in golden-mantled ground squirrels (Spermophilus lateralis). Individuals of both species averaged several km day(-1) in wheels. Most behavioral indices of voluntary running (including mean and maximum speeds, time spent running, daily running distance, and the number and duration of running bouts) were unaffected by altitude, even in the species with reduced V(O(2),max) at high altitude. Metabolic rates during running and energy costs of transport differed to some extent across altitudes but in different ways in the two species. At both test sites, voluntary running by both species was almost exclusively at speeds well within aerobic limits. We conclude that substantial differences in altitude do not necessarily result in differences in aerobic capacity in small mammals and, even if V(O(2),max) is reduced at high altitude, there may be no effect on voluntary running behavior.

  7. Towards measuring large-scale hydraulic properties of the seismogenic Gole Larghe Fault Zone at 8 km depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bistacchi, Andrea; Mittempergher, Silvia; Smith, Steve; Di Toro, Giulio; Mitchell, Tom; Nielsen, Stefan

    2013-04-01

    Fluid flow along fault zones is a major issue in structural geology and seismology. The permeability of fault rocks can be measured in laboratory experiments (e.g. Mitchell et al., this meeting) but its upscaling to large scale structures is not an easy task. On the other hand, in-situ measurements of permeability have been carried out just at relatively shallow depths, only exceptionally up to 3 km for active tectonic settings (e.g. SAFOD), whilst deeper experiments have been performed only in the stable continental crust (e.g. KTB). In this contribution we combine field and microstructural observations, fracture network modelling techniques borrowed from the oil industry, and geochemistry, in order to characterize the (possibly transient) hydraulic structure of the Gole Larghe Fault Zone (GLFZ, Italian Southern Alps), exhumed from ca. 8 km where it was characterized by a well-documented seismic activity. Our strategy consists of: (1) quantitative field characterization of the large- and meso-scale fault and fracture network of the GLFZ, combining DGPS scanlines and image analysis; (2) evaluation of the aperture of fractures based on microstructural and mechanical considerations; (3) reconstruction of realistic Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) 3D models; (4) output in terms of upscaled hydraulic parameters; (5) calibration based on the observed large scale fluid-rock interaction pattern. In this contribution we present the first results of this study performed on the GLFZ, which reveals a composite, heterogeneous, and highly anisotropic hydraulic structure.

  8. A 7-km Non-Hydrostatic Global Mesoscale Simulation with the Goddard Earth Observing System Model (GEOS-5) for Observing System Simulation Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putman, W.; Suarez, M.; Gelaro, R.; daSilva, A.; Molod, A.; Ott, L. E.; Darmenov, A.

    2014-12-01

    The Global Modeling and Assimilation Office at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center has used the Goddard Earth Observing System model (GEOS-5) to produce a 2-year non-hydrostatic global mesoscale simulation for the period of June 2005-2007. This 7-km GEOS-5 Nature Run (7km-G5NR) product will provide synthetic observations for observing system simulation experiments (OSSE)s at NASA and NOAA through the Joint Center for Satellite Data Assimilation and the NASA Center for Climate Simulation. While GEOS-5 is regularly applied in seasonal-to-decadal climate simulations, and medium range weather prediction and data assimilation, GEOS-5 is also readily adaptable for application as a global mesoscale model in pursuit of global cloud resolving applications. Recent computing advances have permitted experimentation with global atmospheric models at these scales, although production applications like the 7km-G5NR have remained limited. By incorporating a non-hydrostatic finite-volume dynamical core with scale aware physics parameterizations, the 7km-G5NR produces organized convective systems and robust weather systems ideal for producing observations for existing and new remote sensing instruments. In addition to standard meteorological parameters, the 7km-G5NR includes 15 aerosol tracers (including dust, seasalt, sulfate, black and organic carbon), O3, CO and CO2. The 7km-G5NR is driven by prescribed sea-surface temperatures and sea-ice, daily volcanic and biomass burning emissions, as well as high-resolution inventories of anthropogenic sources. We will discuss the technical challenges of producing the 7km-G5NR including the nearly 5 petabytes of full resolution output at 30-minute intervals as required by the OSSE developers, and modifications to the standard GEOS-5 physics to permit convective organization at the 'grey-zone' resolution of 7km. Highlights of the 7km-G5NR validation will focus on the representation of clouds and organized convection including tropical cyclones

  9. A parametric study of dissociation and ionization models at 12 km/sec

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitcheltree, R. A.

    1991-01-01

    Thermochemical nonequilibrium-solution dependence on available models for the chemical reaction rates is examined. Solutions from the Kang and Dunn (1973) reaction-rate set, the Park rate set of 1987, and the Park rate set of 1991 are compared. The blunt-nosed, axisymmetric geometry considered is a 60-deg sphere cone with nose radius of 1.07 m and cicular aft skirt. The nonequilibrium test case is 12 km/sec entry into the earth's atmosphere at 80 km altitude. The model variations are implemented into the Langley aerothermodynamics upwind relaxation algorithm code. While variations in the reaction rates have no effect on the surface pressure distribution and little effect on the convective heating, the effect on degree of ionization and radiative heating can be a factor of three.

  10. Projectile and rail launcher design analysis for electromagnetic propulsion to velocities exceeding 10 km/s

    SciTech Connect

    Buckingham, A.C.

    1981-02-24

    Hypersonic projectile launch was achieved using thrust exerted by an expanding electromagnetic field acting on the projectile base. Previous designs were confined to simple parallel-opposing flat rails. The rails carried the induction current used to launch rectangular projectiles. The projectiles weighed up to several grams and were launched at nearly 10 km/s. Here, a revised design for the launcher and projectiles using a more conventional cylindrical bore is described. Projectile spin-stabilization was considered together with the associated added-stress loads to projectile and launcher. In addition, both the design of the projectile configuration and materials capable of withstanding earth orbital, earth- and solar-system-escape launch loads, aerodynamic loads, and ablation and erosion penalties were studied. Projectile masses of ten to several hundred kilograms and launch speeds from 20 to 50 km/s are included in the analysis and discussion.

  11. Neutral hydrogen flux measured at 100- to 200-km altitude in an electron aurora

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iglesias, G. E.; Anderson, H. R.

    1975-01-01

    Neutral hydrogen fluxes were measured at altitudes of 120-200 km by a rocket payload that also measured electron and proton fluxes and vector magnetic fields. An intense electron arc was crossed, while an upper limit to the flux of 0.5- to 20-keV protons was 1,000,000 per sq cm s sr keV. A neutral flux of 50,000,000 per sq cm s sr was observed, assuming hydrogen with greater than 1-keV energy, with greater north-south extent than the electron flux. Its pitch angle distribution was peaked toward 90 deg, tending toward isotropy in the center. This is fitted to a model describing spreading of an initial proton arc above 500 km.

  12. Characterization of the 80-mm diameter Hamamatsu PMTs for the KM3NeT project

    SciTech Connect

    Aiello, S.; Giordano, V.; Leonora, E.; Classen, L.; Reubelt, J.; Peek, H.; Visser, E.; Samtleben, D.; Kalekin, Oleg Collaboration: KM3NeT Collaboration

    2014-11-18

    The optical module designed for the KM3NeT project consists of 31 photomultipliers of 3-inch diameter housed into a 17-inch diameter glass sphere. A proposed photomultiplier was the R12199-02 Hamamatsu 80-mm diameter. 203 of such PMTs have been delivered from Hamamatsu and tested by the KM3NeT groups of NIKHEF-Amsterdam, ECAP-Erlangen and INFN-Catania. Tests have been performed to measure the main parameters, such as gain, transit time spread, dark pulses rate, fraction of spurious pulses, quantum efficiency and effective photocathode size. The main results matched with the requirements of the project. Methods and results are presented in this report.

  13. The Calibration Units of the KM3NeT neutrino telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baret, B.; Keller, P.; Clark, M. Lindsey

    2016-04-01

    KM3NeT is a network of deep-sea neutrino telescopes to be deployed in the Mediterranean Sea that will perform neutrino astronomy and oscillation studies. It consists of three-dimensional arrays of thousands of optical modules that detect the Cherenkov light induced by charged particles resulting from the interaction of a neutrino with the surrounding medium. The performance of the neutrino telescope relies on the precise timing and positioning calibration of the detector elements. Other environmental conditions which may affect light and sound transmission, such as water temperature and salinity, must also be continuously monitored. This contribution describes the technical design of the first Calibration Unit, to be deployed on the French site as part of KM3NeT Phase 1.

  14. First results of the KM3NeT multi-PMT DOM

    SciTech Connect

    Michael, Tino; Collaboration: KM3NeT Collaboration

    2014-11-18

    The future KM3NeT neutrino telescope will consist of several thousand digital optical modules (DOMs), each of which will be equipped with 31 3-inch photo-multiplier tubes (PMTs). This design has various advantages over the use of one large PMT per optical module, e.g. concerning effective photocathode area per module, improved background suppression and directional reconstruction. Currently, the KM3NeT collaboration is testing a prototype DOM deployed on the instrumentation line of the ANTARES neutrino telescope. The DOM has been operational since mid-April 2013. First data are presented and compared to simulation results. The results are very encouraging and indicate that muon identification and a coarse direction estimation are possible event with a single DOM.

  15. The cytotoxic mechanism of karlotoxin 2 (KmTx 2) from Karlodinium veneficum (Dinophyceae)

    PubMed Central

    Deeds, Jonathan R.; Hoesch, Robert E.; Place, Allen R.; Kao, Joseph P.Y.

    2015-01-01

    This study demonstrates that the polyketide toxin karlotoxin 2 (KmTx 2) produced by Karlodinium veneficum, a dinoflagellate associated with fish kills in temperate estuaries worldwide, alters vertebrate cell membrane permeability. Microfluorimetric and electrophysiological measurements were used to determine that vertebrate cellular toxicity occurs through non-selective permeabilization of plasma membranes, leading to osmotic cell lysis. Previous studies showed that KmTx 2 is lethal to fish at naturally-occurring concentrations measured during fish kills, while sub-lethal doses severely damage gill epithelia. This study provides a mechanistic explanation for the association between K. veneficum blooms and fish kills that has long been observed in temperate estuaries worldwide. PMID:25546005

  16. ERTS surveys a 500 km squared locust breeding site in Saudi Arabia. [Red Sea coastal plain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pedgley, D. E.

    1974-01-01

    From September 1972 to January 1973, ERTS-1 precisely located a 500 sq km area on the Red Sea coastal plain of Saudi Arabia within which the Desert Locust (Schistocerca gregaria, Forsk.) bred successfully and produced many small swarms. Growth of vegetation shown by satellite imagery was confirmed from ground surveys and raingauge data. The experiment demonstrates the feasibility of detecting potential locust breeding sites by satellite, and shows that an operational satellite would be a powerful tool for routine survey of the 3 x 10 to the 7th power sq km invasion area of the Desert Locust in Africa and Asia, as well as of other locust species in the arid and semi-arid tropics.

  17. Progress toward a Km-scale neutrino detector in the deep ocean

    SciTech Connect

    Stokstad, R.G.

    1997-11-01

    The best particles for observing distant objects are photons and neutrinos. Because of the neutrino`s weak interaction cross section, detectors suitable for astronomy must be very large and well shielded from cosmic rays. Eventually, a detector with the order of a square km of effective area will be needed for systematic observations of distant point sources such as active galactic nuclei. Prototype detectors are currently being developed at several sites in the ocean, at Lake Baikal, and in Antarctica. This talk summarizes the status of the projects that use the deep ocean for the detector medium and shielding: DUMAND, NESTOR and ANTARES. Technical developments will be needed for a future km-scale detector; progress on one of these, a digital electronic system, is also described.

  18. Measurement-Device-Independent Quantum Key Distribution Over a 404 km Optical Fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Hua-Lei; Chen, Teng-Yun; Yu, Zong-Wen; Liu, Hui; You, Li-Xing; Zhou, Yi-Heng; Chen, Si-Jing; Mao, Yingqiu; Huang, Ming-Qi; Zhang, Wei-Jun; Chen, Hao; Li, Ming Jun; Nolan, Daniel; Zhou, Fei; Jiang, Xiao; Wang, Zhen; Zhang, Qiang; Wang, Xiang-Bin; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2016-11-01

    Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MDIQKD) with the decoy-state method negates security threats of both the imperfect single-photon source and detection losses. Lengthening the distance and improving the key rate of quantum key distribution (QKD) are vital issues in practical applications of QKD. Herein, we report the results of MDIQKD over 404 km of ultralow-loss optical fiber and 311 km of a standard optical fiber while employing an optimized four-intensity decoy-state method. This record-breaking implementation of the MDIQKD method not only provides a new distance record for both MDIQKD and all types of QKD systems but also, more significantly, achieves a distance that the traditional Bennett-Brassard 1984 QKD would not be able to achieve with the same detection devices even with ideal single-photon sources. This work represents a significant step toward proving and developing feasible long-distance QKD.

  19. Response of Organic Materials to Hypervelocity Impacts (up to 11.2 km/sec)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bass, D. S.; Murphy, W. M.; Miller, G. P.; Grosch, D. J.; Walker, J. D.; Mullin, A.; Waite, J. H.

    1998-09-01

    It is speculated that organic-rich planetesimals played a role in the origin of life on Earth. However, the mechanism by which organics could have been delivered from space to a planetary surface is difficult to determine. Particularly problematic is the question of the stability of organic material under hypervelocity impact conditions. Although some evidence suggests organic molecules cannot survive impacts from projectile velocities greater than about 10 km/sec [1], other investigators have found that impacts create a favorable environment for post-shock recombination of organic molecules in the plume phase [2, 3]. Understanding the mechanisms involved in delivering organics to a planetary surface remains difficult to assess due to the lack of experimental results of hypervelocity impacts, particularly in the velocity range of tens of km/sec. Organic material preservation and destruction from impact shocks, the synthesis of organics in the post-impact plume environment, and implications of these processes for Earth and Mars can be investigated by launching an inorganic projectile into an analog planetesimal-and-bolide organic-rich target. We explored the pressure and temperature ranges of hypervelocity impacts (11.2 km/sec) through simulations with CTH impact physics computer code. Using an inhibited shaped-charge launcher, we also experimentally determined the response of organic material to hypervelocity impacts. Initial work focused on saturating well-characterized zeolitic tuff with an aqueous solution containing dissolved naphthalene, a common polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH). Porosity measurements, thin section, and x-ray diffraction analyses were performed to determine that the tuff is primarily fine-grained clinoptilolite. In order to distinguish between contaminants and compounds generated or destroyed in the impact, we tagged the aqueous component of our target with deuterium. Experimental tests revealed that to first order, naphthalene survived

  20. Coherent scatter radar observations of 150-km echoes and vertical plasma drifts in the Brazilian sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, F. S.; de Paula, E. R.; Hysell, D. L.; Chau, J. L.

    2008-12-01

    Coherent scatter echoes coming from the valley region (~150 km altitude) in the equatorial ionosphere during daytime have been detected by the Jicamarca radar in Peru for several decades (Basley, 1945). More recently, it was found that the vertical Doppler shift of these echoes corresponds to the vertical velocity of the F-region background plasma (Kudeki and Fawcett, 1993; Woodman and Villanueva,1995, Chau and Woodman, 2004). Jicamarca now uses observations of 150-km echoes to provide estimates of the diurnal variation of the equatorial vertical plasma drifts in addition to traditional incoherent scatter radar drift measurements. These 150-km echoes have also been observed in other longitude sectors (e.g. Tsunoda and Ecklund,2004; Patra et al., 2008). Additionally, these echoes have also been detected in a semi-routine basis with a small, low-power radar in Sao Luis, Brazil. Initial results of our analysis suggest that vertical plasma drifts can be estimated from these observations. These measurements combined with simultaneous measurements made by the Jicamarca radar and the C/NOFS satellite can help us better understand the day-to-day variability and longitudinal variation of equatorial electric fields. In this talk we will present examples of 150-km echoes observations made with the Sao Luis radar. We will describe how vertical drifts can be estimated from the observations and how the vertical drifts over Sao Luis compare with the drifts measured simultaneously at Jicamarca. These new measurements can provide important new information about the low-latitude electrodynamics, and consequently to the C/NOFS mission.