Science.gov

Sample records for 10-20 watt module

  1. Test Report on the Qualification Program for the One-Quarter (1/4) Watt Split Stirling Common Module Cryogenic Cooler.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-01-01

    lUI~ II"- NATIONAL URFAU OF E O [pgnuc TE$1 Z 9 N (0 TEST REPORT ON THE QUALIFICATION PROGRAM for the One-Quarter (1/4) Watt Split Stirling Common...q le62.... O .. . TEST REPORT ON THE QUALIFICATION PROGRAM for the One-Quarter (1/4) Watt Split Stirling Common Module Cryogenic Cooler CONTRACT NO...1/4 Watt Split Stirling Common Module Cryogenic 41- PERFORMING ORO.REPORTNHUMMER Cooler 7. AUTMDR~e) 11 . CONTRACT 00 GRANT NUM0ER4’a) Raymond M

  2. Test Report on the Qualification Program for the One-Quarter (1/4) Watt Split Stirling Common Module Cryogenic Cooler.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-01-01

    Stirling Common Module Cryogenic Cooler CONTRACT NO. DAAK70-82-C-0216 January 1984 DTIC ELECTE * A ..... r This docum, ent ::n- I...8217% , ... . . .. , ...-. ... .- . . , -- . -.. , .-.... ’.’ .. ’.’..-’".- ’-.’,-.’*("-."-*. -- - -t . - - - - - -. TEST REPORT ON THE QUALIFICATION PROGRAM for the One-Quarter (1/4) Watt Split Stirling Comon...QUALIFICATION PROGRAM for the One-Quarter (1/4) Watt Split Stirling Common Module Cryogenic Cooler CONTRACT NO. DAAK7O-82-C-0216

  3. Watt-level red-emitting diode lasers and modules for display applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paschke, Katrin; Blume, Gunnar; Feise, David; Pohl, Johannes; Sumpf, Bernd

    2016-02-01

    Red-emitting lasers for display applications require high output powers and a high visibility. We demonstrate diode lasers and modules in the red spectral range based on AlGaInP with optical output powers up to 1 W and a nearly diffraction limited beam. These high-luminance light sources based on tapered lasers are well suited for laser TVs and projectors for virtual reality simulators based on the flying spot technology. Additionally, we developed diode lasers with internal distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) surface gratings. These DBR tapered lasers and master-oscillator power-amplifiers based on DBR ridge-waveguide lasers and tapered amplifiers feature high power, single mode emission with coherence lengths up to several meters, which are suitable for the next-generation 3D displays based on holography.

  4. Watt and joule balances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Ian A.

    2014-04-01

    The time is fast approaching when the SI unit of mass will cease to be based on a single material artefact and will instead be based upon the defined value of a fundamental constant—the Planck constant—h . This change requires that techniques exist both to determine the appropriate value to be assigned to the constant, and to measure mass in terms of the redefined unit. It is important to ensure that these techniques are accurate and reliable to allow full advantage to be taken of the stability and universality provided by the new definition and to guarantee the continuity of the world's mass measurements, which can affect the measurement of many other quantities such as energy and force. Up to now, efforts to provide the basis for such a redefinition of the kilogram were mainly concerned with resolving the discrepancies between individual implementations of the two principal techniques: the x-ray crystal density (XRCD) method [1] and the watt and joule balance methods which are the subject of this special issue. The first three papers report results from the NRC and NIST watt balance groups and the NIM joule balance group. The result from the NRC (formerly the NPL Mk II) watt balance is the first to be reported with a relative standard uncertainty below 2 × 10-8 and the NIST result has a relative standard uncertainty below 5 × 10-8. Both results are shown in figure 1 along with some previous results; the result from the NIM group is not shown on the plot but has a relative uncertainty of 8.9 × 10-6 and is consistent with all the results shown. The Consultative Committee for Mass and Related Quantities (CCM) in its meeting in 2013 produced a resolution [2] which set out the requirements for the number, type and quality of results intended to support the redefinition of the kilogram and required that there should be agreement between them. These results from NRC, NIST and the IAC may be considered to meet these requirements and are likely to be widely debated

  5. The Watt Count System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The Watt Count System combines aerospace and computer technology, an engineering systems design approach and the environmental control expertise of a group of engineers who worked on Apollo. First step of the system is a computerized energy consumption analysis based on plans for a new home. Company calculates heating and cooling loads and customizes the most energy efficient system for the particular structure analyzed. A quality control engineer assures that insulation and ducting are installed to specifications. Analysis and design techniques are so accurate that company is able to give homeowner a two-year guarantee that the home's energy consumption will not exceed the kilowatt hour level determined by the computer in step one. In an annual energy performance comparison, a Watt Count home used 45 percent less energy than a conventionally equipped home.

  6. 100 WATT THERMOELECTRIC GENERATOR.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    GENERATORS , *ENERGY CONVERSION, HEAT EXCHANGERS, THERMOELECTRICITY, THERMOCOUPLES, BLOWERS, MODULES(ELECTRONICS), SILICON ALLOYS, GERMANIUM ALLOYS, COMBUSTION, GASOLINE, VAPORIZATION, FUELS, LEAD COMPOUNDS.

  7. Specification for strontium-90 500-watt(e) radioisotopic thermoelectric generator. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hammel, T.; Himes, J.; Lieberman, A.; McGrew, J.; Owings, D.; Schumann, F.

    1983-04-01

    A conceptual design for a demonstration 500-watt(e) radioisotopic thermoelectric generator has been created for the Department of Energy. The design effort was divided into two tasks, viz., create a design specification for a capsule strength member that utilizes a standard Strontium-90 fluoride-filled WESF inner liner, and create a conceptual design for a 500-watt(e) RTG. Both tasks have been accomplished. The strength-member specification was designed to survive an external pressure of 24,500 psi and meet the requirements of special-form radioisotope heat sources. Therefore the capsule can, if desired, be licensed for domestic and international transport. The design for the RTG features a radioisotopic heat source, an array of nine capsules in a tungsten biological shield, four current-technology series-connected thermoelectric-conversion modules, low-conductivity thermal insulation, and a passive finned-housing radiator for waste-heat dissipation. The preliminary RTG specification formulated previous to contract award has been met or exceeded. The power source will generate the required power for the required service period at 28 volts dc with a conversion efficiency of 8%, provided the existing in-pool capsules at WESF meet the assumed thermal-inventory requirements.

  8. Reliability Testing on the CTI-Cryogenic 1 Watt Integral Cooler (HD- 1033C/UA)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-09-01

    SUBJECT TERMS (Continue on reverse if necessary and identify by block numbe) FIELD GROUP SUB-GROUP Cryocooler , Stirling Cycle, Cryogenics 19, ABSTRCT...Cryogenics I Watt Integral Stirling Cooler (HD- 1033C/UA). The common module I Watt Integral Cooler is currently used in the Ml FUR, M60 FLIR, and the

  9. High-efficiency, 200 watt, 12-gigahertz traveling wave tube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosmahl, H. G.; Mcnary, B. D.; Sauseng, O.

    1974-01-01

    Design and performance of a highly efficient experimental 200-watt traveling wave tube for space communications are described. The tube uses a coupled cavity slow wave structure with periodic permanent magnet focusing. A two-step velocity taper is incorporated in the slow wave structure for velocity resynchronization with the modulated beam. The spent beam is reconditioned in a refocusing section before it is collected in a novel multistage depressed collector. The collector is radiation cooled and heat insulated from the tube body. At saturation the tube provides peak output power of 240 watts with a 35-db gain and an overall maximum efficiency of 56 percent.

  10. 10 CFR 10.20 - Purpose of the procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Purpose of the procedures. 10.20 Section 10.20 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION CRITERIA AND PROCEDURES FOR DETERMINING ELIGIBILITY FOR ACCESS TO RESTRICTED DATA OR NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION OR AN EMPLOYMENT CLEARANCE Procedures § 10.20 Purpose of...

  11. 10 CFR 10.20 - Purpose of the procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Purpose of the procedures. 10.20 Section 10.20 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION CRITERIA AND PROCEDURES FOR DETERMINING ELIGIBILITY FOR ACCESS TO RESTRICTED DATA OR NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION OR AN EMPLOYMENT CLEARANCE Procedures § 10.20 Purpose of...

  12. 10 CFR 10.20 - Purpose of the procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Purpose of the procedures. 10.20 Section 10.20 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION CRITERIA AND PROCEDURES FOR DETERMINING ELIGIBILITY FOR ACCESS TO RESTRICTED DATA OR NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION OR AN EMPLOYMENT CLEARANCE Procedures § 10.20 Purpose of...

  13. 10 CFR 10.20 - Purpose of the procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Purpose of the procedures. 10.20 Section 10.20 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION CRITERIA AND PROCEDURES FOR DETERMINING ELIGIBILITY FOR ACCESS TO RESTRICTED DATA OR NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION OR AN EMPLOYMENT CLEARANCE Procedures § 10.20 Purpose of...

  14. 10 CFR 10.20 - Purpose of the procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Purpose of the procedures. 10.20 Section 10.20 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION CRITERIA AND PROCEDURES FOR DETERMINING ELIGIBILITY FOR ACCESS TO RESTRICTED DATA OR NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION OR AN EMPLOYMENT CLEARANCE Procedures § 10.20 Purpose of...

  15. 24 CFR 10.20 - Petition for rulemaking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Petition for rulemaking. 10.20 Section 10.20 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban...: (1) Be submitted to the Rules Docket Clerk, Room 5218, Department of Housing and Urban...

  16. General Music 10-20-30. Guide to Implementation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Lorraine, Ed.

    In Canada's province of Alberta, senior high school General Music 10-20-30 is a sequence of courses for students who are interested in a broad spectrum of musical experiences within a nonperformance-based environment but not interested in specializing in choral or instrumental performance. General Music 10, 20, and 30 courses are offered for 3 or…

  17. 33 CFR 67.10-20 - Sound signal tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sound signal tests. 67.10-20... NAVIGATION AIDS TO NAVIGATION ON ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS AND FIXED STRUCTURES General Requirements for Sound signals § 67.10-20 Sound signal tests. (a) Sound signal tests must: (1) Be made by the applicant in...

  18. 33 CFR 67.10-20 - Sound signal tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sound signal tests. 67.10-20... NAVIGATION AIDS TO NAVIGATION ON ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS AND FIXED STRUCTURES General Requirements for Sound signals § 67.10-20 Sound signal tests. (a) Sound signal tests must: (1) Be made by the applicant in...

  19. 33 CFR 67.10-20 - Sound signal tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sound signal tests. 67.10-20... NAVIGATION AIDS TO NAVIGATION ON ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS AND FIXED STRUCTURES General Requirements for Sound signals § 67.10-20 Sound signal tests. (a) Sound signal tests must: (1) Be made by the applicant in...

  20. 33 CFR 67.10-20 - Sound signal tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sound signal tests. 67.10-20... NAVIGATION AIDS TO NAVIGATION ON ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS AND FIXED STRUCTURES General Requirements for Sound signals § 67.10-20 Sound signal tests. (a) Sound signal tests must: (1) Be made by the applicant in...

  1. 33 CFR 67.10-20 - Sound signal tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sound signal tests. 67.10-20... NAVIGATION AIDS TO NAVIGATION ON ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS AND FIXED STRUCTURES General Requirements for Sound signals § 67.10-20 Sound signal tests. (a) Sound signal tests must: (1) Be made by the applicant in...

  2. God, James Watt, and the public's land

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, R.

    1981-05-01

    The political career of James Watt, Secretary of the Interior, is chronicled. His current reputation as archenemy of the environmental movement is largely the outgrowth of three and a half years of activity on behalf of the Mountain States Legal Foundation. Since taking office in January 1981, Watt has moved swiftly to impose his individual standards on USDI. Various programs and agencies are being terminated, and public lands may soon be open for mineral and energy exploitation. (7 drawings, 1 photo)

  3. Accounting 10-20-30. Senior High School Teacher Resource Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Curriculum Branch.

    This manual is intended to help teachers meet the objectives of the 1985 Alberta, Canada, Accounting 10-20-30 curriculum. The manual is organized in nine sections. The first section introduces the curriculum and lists the course objectives, and the following section provides a flowchart of the accounting modules. Information on planning the…

  4. Nathan Watt: A True American Idol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watt, Diana

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author profiles her son Nathan Watt, a 14-year-old who was born with Spina Bifida, who does not allow setbacks to keep him from achieving his goals and dreams in the areas of writing, recording, and performing his own music. He has also opened a business website and turned his story, "Anything is Possible," into a color story…

  5. What induces watts in WAT?

    PubMed Central

    Forest, Claude; Joffin, Nolwenn; Jaubert, Anne-Marie; Noirez, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Excess calories stored in white adipose tissue (WAT) could be reduced either through the activation of brown adipose tissue (BAT) or the development of brown-like cells (“beige” or “brite”) in WAT, a process named “browning.” Calorie dissipation in brown and beige adipocytes might rely on the induction of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), which is absent in white fat cells. Any increase in UCP1 is commonly considered as the trademark of energy expenditure. The intracellular events involved in the recruitment process of beige precursors were extensively studied lately, as were the effectors, hormones, cytokines, nutrients and drugs able to modulate the route of browning and theoretically affect fat mass in rodents and in humans. The aim of this review is to update the characterization of the extracellular effectors that induce UCP1 in WAT and potentially provoke calorie dissipation. The potential influence of metabolic cycling in energy expenditure is also questioned. PMID:27386158

  6. 46 CFR 105.10-20 - Pressure vacuum relief valve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pressure vacuum relief valve. 105.10-20 Section 105.10... Pressure vacuum relief valve. (a) The term pressure vacuum relief valve means any device or assembly of a mechanical, liquid, weight, or other type used for the automatic regulation of pressure or vacuum in...

  7. 46 CFR 105.10-20 - Pressure vacuum relief valve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pressure vacuum relief valve. 105.10-20 Section 105.10... Pressure vacuum relief valve. (a) The term pressure vacuum relief valve means any device or assembly of a mechanical, liquid, weight, or other type used for the automatic regulation of pressure or vacuum in...

  8. 46 CFR 105.10-20 - Pressure vacuum relief valve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pressure vacuum relief valve. 105.10-20 Section 105.10... Pressure vacuum relief valve. (a) The term pressure vacuum relief valve means any device or assembly of a mechanical, liquid, weight, or other type used for the automatic regulation of pressure or vacuum in...

  9. 46 CFR 105.10-20 - Pressure vacuum relief valve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pressure vacuum relief valve. 105.10-20 Section 105.10... Pressure vacuum relief valve. (a) The term pressure vacuum relief valve means any device or assembly of a mechanical, liquid, weight, or other type used for the automatic regulation of pressure or vacuum in...

  10. 46 CFR 105.10-20 - Pressure vacuum relief valve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pressure vacuum relief valve. 105.10-20 Section 105.10... Pressure vacuum relief valve. (a) The term pressure vacuum relief valve means any device or assembly of a mechanical, liquid, weight, or other type used for the automatic regulation of pressure or vacuum in...

  11. 500-WATT FUEL-CELL POWER PLANT.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    hydrogen and air, fuel - cell power plant. Two independent units are to be developed - a hydrogen-generator assembly and a fuel - cell assembly. The...hydrogen-generator assembly will convert the hydrocarbon fuel to hydrogen by steam reforming, and the fuel - cell assembly will electrochemically oxidize the...The report presents the technical approach to be used to establish the feasibility of a compact 500-watt, liquid-hydrocarbon and air, fuel - cell power

  12. Computer Processing 10-20-30. Business Education Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Curriculum Branch.

    This curriculum guide is one of nine such guides developed for an Alberta high school business education program. Its content covers the main subject area or strand of computer processing. Subject to the constraints outlined in the guide, the modules are to be formatted into three- or four-credit courses within each strand. Introductory materials…

  13. Multi-Watt Small Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Conceptual Design Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Determan, William R.; Otting, William; Frye, Patrick; Abelson, Robert; Ewell, Richard; Miyake, Bob; Synder, Jeff

    2007-01-01

    A need has been identified for a small, light-weight, reliable power source using a radioisotope heat source, to power the next generation of NASA's small surface rovers and exploration probes. Unit performance, development costs, and technical risk are key criteria to be used to select the best design approach. Because safety can be a major program cost and schedule driver, RTG designs should utilize the DOE radioisotope safety program's data base to the maximum extent possible. Other aspects important to the conceptual design include: 1) a multi-mission capable design for atmospheric and vacuum environments, 2) a module size based on one GPHS Step 2 module, 3) use of flight proven thermoelectric converter technologies, 4) a long service lifetime of up to 14 years, 5) maximize unit specific power consistent with all other requirements, and 6) be ready by 2013. Another critical aspect of the design is the thermal integration of the RTG with the rover or probe's heat rejection subsystem and the descent vehicle's heat rejection subsystem. This paper describes two multi-watt RTG design concepts and their integration with a MER-class rover.

  14. Watt-level ~2 μm laser output in Tm3+-doped tungsten tellurite glass double-cladding fiber.

    PubMed

    Li, Kefeng; Zhang, Guang; Hu, Lili

    2010-12-15

    We report, for the first time to the best of our knowledge, a watt level cw fiber laser at ~2 μm from a piece of 40-cm-long newly developed highly thulium-doped (3.76 × 10(20) ions/cm(3)) tungsten tellurite glass double cladding fiber pumped by a commercial 800 nm laser diode. The maximum output power of the fiber laser reaches 1.12 W. The slope efficiency and the optical-optical efficiency with respect to the absorbed pump are 20% and 16%, respectively. The lasing threshold is 1.46 W, and the lasing wavelength is centered at 1937 nm.

  15. 46 CFR 190.10-20 - No means for locking doors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false No means for locking doors. 190.10-20 Section 190.10-20... CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Means of Escape § 190.10-20 No means for locking doors. (a) No means shall be provided for locking door giving access to either of the two required means of escape except that...

  16. 46 CFR 92.10-20 - No means for locking doors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false No means for locking doors. 92.10-20 Section 92.10-20... CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Means of Escape § 92.10-20 No means for locking doors. (a) No means shall be provided for locking doors giving access to either of the two required means of escape, except that...

  17. 46 CFR 190.10-20 - No means for locking doors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false No means for locking doors. 190.10-20 Section 190.10-20... CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Means of Escape § 190.10-20 No means for locking doors. (a) No means shall be provided for locking door giving access to either of the two required means of escape except that...

  18. 46 CFR 92.10-20 - No means for locking doors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false No means for locking doors. 92.10-20 Section 92.10-20... CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Means of Escape § 92.10-20 No means for locking doors. (a) No means shall be provided for locking doors giving access to either of the two required means of escape, except that...

  19. Automating Visualization Service Generation with the WATT Compiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bollig, E. F.; Lyness, M. D.; Erlebacher, G.; Yuen, D. A.

    2007-12-01

    As tasks and workflows become increasingly complex, software developers are devoting increasing attention to automation tools. Among many examples, the Automator tool from Apple collects components of a workflow into a single script, with very little effort on the part of the user. Tasks are most often described as a series of instructions. The granularity of the tasks dictates the tools to use. Compilers translate fine-grained instructions to assembler code, while scripting languages (ruby, perl) are used to describe a series of tasks at a higher level. Compilers can also be viewed as transformational tools: a cross-compiler can translate executable code written on one computer to assembler code understood on another, while transformational tools can translate from one high-level language to another. We are interested in creating visualization web services automatically, starting from stand-alone VTK (Visualization Toolkit) code written in Tcl. To this end, using the OCaml programming language, we have developed a compiler that translates Tcl into C++, including all the stubs, classes and methods to interface with gSOAP, a C++ implementation of the Soap 1.1/1.2 protocols. This compiler, referred to as the Web Automation and Translation Toolkit (WATT), is the first step towards automated creation of specialized visualization web services without input from the user. The WATT compiler seeks to automate all aspects of web service generation, including the transport layer, the division of labor and the details related to interface generation. The WATT compiler is part of ongoing efforts within the NSF funded VLab consortium [1] to facilitate and automate time-consuming tasks for the science related to understanding planetary materials. Through examples of services produced by WATT for the VLab portal, we will illustrate features, limitations and the improvements necessary to achieve the ultimate goal of complete and transparent automation in the generation of web

  20. Suspended-sediment inflows to Watts Bar Reservoir. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Ewing, L.K.

    1993-09-01

    Suspended-sediment inflows to Watts Bar Reservoir are important data that are required in numerical modeling of transport and deposition of sediment in the reservoir. Acceptable numerical modeling requires sediment inflow rates and locations in order to be able to compute the location and quantity of sediment deposited within the reservoir. Therefore, the representativeness of modeling results is highly dependent on the characteristics of sediment input to the model. The following recommendations, that account for suspended-sediment inflows to be used in the numerical modeling of sediment transport and deposition in Watts Bar Reservoir, were developed through an evaluation of available watershed and sediment deposition data. (1) Use the suspended-sediment rating regression equations of Gaydos et al., for Emory River at Oakdale, TN, and for Poplar Creek near Oak Ridge, TN, to represent the suspended-sediment inflows into Watts Bar Reservoir from its tributaries; (2) Use a suspended-sediment rating regression equation that was derived from suspended-sediment and streamflow data of the Little Tennessee River at McGhee, TN, to represent sediment inflow from the Little Tennessee River for simulation of any historical year before the completion of Tellico Dam; (3) Check the appropriateness of any assumption for suspended-sediment inflows from upstream reservoirs by using its long-term relationship to local suspended-sediment inflows and to the suspended-sediment outflow through Watts Bar Dam; and (4) Focus refinements to suspended-sediment inflow rates on the Clinch arm of Watts Bar Reservoir.

  1. Block 5 documentation and solar modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Design and fabrication of Spire Corporation's Block 5 photovoltaic flat plate module is reviewed. These modules exhibited power of about 70 watts under standard test conditions. Results of performance and environmental testing are provided.

  2. 5 Watt, Solid State, EHF Transmitter.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-26

    satellite-communication ground terminals. This state-of- the- art transmitter demonstrates efficient and cost-effective RF power generation at EHF for...are relatively little or no spectrum allocation problems, is that the state-of-the- art in RF power generation is far below the required levels for...accomplished using E-H hybrid magic tees of reduced height waveguide with good balance and isolation characteristics. Modulation and other signal

  3. 46 CFR 72.10-20 - No means for locking door.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false No means for locking door. 72.10-20 Section 72.10-20... ARRANGEMENT Means of Escape § 72.10-20 No means for locking door. (a) No means shall be provided for locking doors giving access to either of the 2 required means of escape, except that crash doors or...

  4. 46 CFR 72.10-20 - No means for locking door.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false No means for locking door. 72.10-20 Section 72.10-20... ARRANGEMENT Means of Escape § 72.10-20 No means for locking door. (a) No means shall be provided for locking doors giving access to either of the 2 required means of escape, except that crash doors or...

  5. Design of the new METAS watt balance experiment Mark II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumann, H.; Eichenberger, A.; Cosandier, F.; Jeckelmann, B.; Clavel, R.; Reber, D.; Tommasini, D.

    2013-06-01

    The kilogram is the last unit of the international system of units (SI) still based on a material artefact, the international prototype of the kilogram (IPK). The comparisons made in the last hundred years have clearly revealed a long-term relative drift between the IPK and the official copies kept under similar conditions at the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures. A promising route towards a new definition of the kilogram based on a fundamental constant is represented by the watt balance experiment which links the mass unit to the Planck constant h. For more than ten years, the Federal Institute of Metrology METAS has been actively working in the conception and development of a watt balance experiment. This paper describes the new design of the Mark II METAS watt balance. The metrological characteristics of the different components of the experiment are described and discussed.

  6. A 20 GHz, 75 watt helix TWT for space communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heney, J. F.; Tamashiro, R. N.

    A space-qualified, helix-type traveling wave tube is being developed for satellite communication systems in the frequency band of 17.7 to 21.2 GHz. The design approach stresses very high efficiency operation, but with very low distortion. The tube provides multi-mode operation, permitting CW saturated power output levels of 75 watts, 40 watt and 7.5 watts. Operation is also anticipated at 5 dB below these saturation levels to achieve the required low distortion levels. Advanced construction features include a 5 stage depressed collector, a diamond supported helix slow-wave circuit, and a type M dispenser cathode. High reliability and long life (10 years) are objectives of the tube design. The status of the development and recent experimental results are presented.

  7. Particle Swarm Optimization with Watts-Strogatz Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Zhuanghua

    Particle swarm optimization (PSO) is a popular swarm intelligent methodology by simulating the animal social behaviors. Recent study shows that this type of social behaviors is a complex system, however, for most variants of PSO, all individuals lie in a fixed topology, and conflict this natural phenomenon. Therefore, in this paper, a new variant of PSO combined with Watts-Strogatz small-world topology model, called WSPSO, is proposed. In WSPSO, the topology is changed according to Watts-Strogatz rules within the whole evolutionary process. Simulation results show the proposed algorithm is effective and efficient.

  8. 46 CFR 38.10-20 - Liquid level gaging devices-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Liquid level gaging devices-TB/ALL. 38.10-20 Section 38... Piping, Valves, Fittings, and Accessory Equipment § 38.10-20 Liquid level gaging devices—TB/ALL. (a) Each tank shall be fitted with a liquid level gaging device of approved design to indicate the maximum...

  9. 46 CFR 38.10-20 - Liquid level gaging devices-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Liquid level gaging devices-TB/ALL. 38.10-20 Section 38... Piping, Valves, Fittings, and Accessory Equipment § 38.10-20 Liquid level gaging devices—TB/ALL. (a) Each tank shall be fitted with a liquid level gaging device of approved design to indicate the maximum...

  10. 46 CFR 38.10-20 - Liquid level gaging devices-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Liquid level gaging devices-TB/ALL. 38.10-20 Section 38... Piping, Valves, Fittings, and Accessory Equipment § 38.10-20 Liquid level gaging devices—TB/ALL. (a) Each tank shall be fitted with a liquid level gaging device of approved design to indicate the maximum...

  11. 46 CFR 38.10-20 - Liquid level gaging devices-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Liquid level gaging devices-TB/ALL. 38.10-20 Section 38... Piping, Valves, Fittings, and Accessory Equipment § 38.10-20 Liquid level gaging devices—TB/ALL. (a) Each tank shall be fitted with a liquid level gaging device of approved design to indicate the maximum...

  12. 46 CFR 38.10-20 - Liquid level gaging devices-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Liquid level gaging devices-TB/ALL. 38.10-20 Section 38... Piping, Valves, Fittings, and Accessory Equipment § 38.10-20 Liquid level gaging devices—TB/ALL. (a) Each tank shall be fitted with a liquid level gaging device of approved design to indicate the maximum...

  13. 46 CFR 59.10-20 - Patches in shells and tube sheets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patches in shells and tube sheets. 59.10-20 Section 59... § 59.10-20 Patches in shells and tube sheets. (a) Unreinforced openings in the shells or drums of... vessels are met. (b) Portions of tube sheets which have deteriorated may be renewed by replacing...

  14. 46 CFR 59.10-20 - Patches in shells and tube sheets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Patches in shells and tube sheets. 59.10-20 Section 59... § 59.10-20 Patches in shells and tube sheets. (a) Unreinforced openings in the shells or drums of... vessels are met. (b) Portions of tube sheets which have deteriorated may be renewed by replacing...

  15. 46 CFR 59.10-20 - Patches in shells and tube sheets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Patches in shells and tube sheets. 59.10-20 Section 59... § 59.10-20 Patches in shells and tube sheets. (a) Unreinforced openings in the shells or drums of... vessels are met. (b) Portions of tube sheets which have deteriorated may be renewed by replacing...

  16. 46 CFR 59.10-20 - Patches in shells and tube sheets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Patches in shells and tube sheets. 59.10-20 Section 59... § 59.10-20 Patches in shells and tube sheets. (a) Unreinforced openings in the shells or drums of... vessels are met. (b) Portions of tube sheets which have deteriorated may be renewed by replacing...

  17. 46 CFR 59.10-20 - Patches in shells and tube sheets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Patches in shells and tube sheets. 59.10-20 Section 59... § 59.10-20 Patches in shells and tube sheets. (a) Unreinforced openings in the shells or drums of... vessels are met. (b) Portions of tube sheets which have deteriorated may be renewed by replacing...

  18. Why Watts? An American Dilemma Today: Teacher's Manual; Student's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogt, Carol Busch

    Designed to invite the senior and junior high school student to investigate the immediate and underlying causes of riots and what can be done to prevent them, the student manual of this unit begins with a description of the Watts riots of 1965. The student is encouraged to draw his own conclusions, and to determine the feasibility of a variety of…

  19. A Simple Watt Balance for the Absolute Determination of Mass

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, Terry; Quinn, Lucas; Davis, Richard

    2013-01-01

    A watt balance is an electromechanical device that allows a mass to be determined in terms of measurable electrical and mechanical quantities, themselves traceable to the fundamental constants of physics. International plans are well advanced to redefine the unit of mass, the kilogram, in terms of a fixed numerical value for the Planck constant. A…

  20. Watts Up? Pro AC Power Meter for Automated Energy Recording

    PubMed Central

    Hirst, Jason M.; Miller, Jonathan R.; Kaplan, Brent A.; Reed, Derek D.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present paper is to review the Watts up? Pro AC power meter. Evaluations of the meter's reliability for measuring energy consumption by consumer electronics yielded acceptable levels of reliability. Implications and limitations for the use of this product in behavior analytic research and practice are discussed.

  1. An Interview with Toni Watt, 2004 Award Winner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Chemical Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Toni Austin Watt, the winner of the 2004 James Bryant Conant Award in High School Chemistry Teaching says that she was always an average student and had to invest more time in improving her skills and getting experiences, thus she is exhilarated that her efforts have received such acclaim and is honored that people thought her efforts were…

  2. Fishery status assessment of Watts Bar Reservoir with management recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, C.M.

    1987-09-01

    Watts Bar Reservior was impounded in 1942 and has been inventoried 16 of the following 44 years. The previous inventory was 1980. Fish biomass has increased over the years, most noticeably in prey and commercial species. Sport fish biomass has been the most stable overall. However, creel data indicate some important sport species numbers have had extreme fluctuations. 21 refs., 20 figs., 9 tabs.

  3. 10-20-30 training increases performance and lowers blood pressure and VEGF in runners.

    PubMed

    Gliemann, Lasse; Gunnarsson, Thomas P; Hellsten, Ylva; Bangsbo, Jens

    2015-10-01

    The present study examined the effect of training by the 10-20-30 concept on performance, blood pressure (BP), and skeletal muscle angiogenesis as well as the feasibility of completing high-intensity interval training in local running communities. One hundred sixty recreational runners were divided into either a control group (CON; n = 28), or a 10-20-30 training group (10-20-30; n = 132) replacing two of three weekly training sessions with 10-20-30 training for 8 weeks and performance of a 5-km run (5-K) and BP was measured. VO2max was measured and resting muscle biopsies were taken in a subgroup of runners (n = 18). 10-20-30 improved 5-K time (38 s) and lowered systolic BP (2 ± 1 mmHg). For hypertensive subjects in 10-20-30 (n = 30), systolic and diastolic BP was lowered by 5 ± 4 and 3 ± 2 mmHg, respectively, which was a greater reduction than in the non-hypertensive subjects (n = 102). 10-20-30 increased VO2max but did not influence muscle fiber area, distribution or capillarization, whereas the expression of the pro-angiogenic vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was lowered by 22%. No changes were observed in CON. These results suggest that 10-20-30 training is an effective and easily implemented training intervention improving endurance performance, VO2max and lowering BP in recreational runners, but does not affect muscle morphology and reduces muscle VEGF.

  4. Early performance of the 12-GHz, 200-watt transmitter experiment package in the communications technology satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Measured performance characteristics of the transmitter experiment package (TEP) aboard the Communications Technology Satellite for the first 90 operating days in orbit are presented. The TEP consists of a nominal 200-watt output stage tube (OST), a supporting power processing system (PPS), and a variable-conductance heat pipe system (VCHPS). The OST, a traveling-wave tube augmented with a 10-stage depressed collector, has an overall saturated average efficiency of 51.5 percent and an average saturated radiofrequency (RF) output power at center-band frequency of 240 watts. The PPS operated with a measured efficiency of 86.5 percent to 88.5 percent. The VCHPS, using three pipes to conduct heat from the PPS and the body of the OST to a 52-centimeter by 124-centimeter (20.5-in. by 48.75-in.) radiator fin, maintained by the PPS baseplate temperature below 50 C for all operating conditions. The TEP performance characteristics presented include frequency response, RF output power, efficiency, and distortions. Communications characteristics were evaluated by using both video and audio modulated signals.

  5. Two-watt, 4-Kelvin closed cycle refrigerator performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britcliffe, M.

    1987-01-01

    A 2-watt, 4-K helium refrigerator using the Gifford-McMahon/Joule Thomson cycle is described. The unit features a removable displacer cylinder and high-efficiency, low-pressure drop heat exchangers. These improvements result in a 100 percent increase in cooling power over the existing Deep Space Network system. The effects of the heat exchanger efficiency and Gifford-McMahon expander performance on refrigerator capacity are also discussed.

  6. Design and Performance of 20 Watts Portable Solar Generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majid, Z. A. Abdul; Hazali, N.; Hanafiah, M. A. K. M.; Abdullah, A. A.; Ismail, A. F.; Ruslan, M. H.; Sopian, K.; Mohd Azmi, M. S.

    2012-09-01

    A new portable solar generator has been developed to generate electricity. It has the potential to replace petrol generator, widely used by peddlers at night markets (pasar malam). Conventional generators are heavy, oily, have high maintenance and use fossil fuel to generate electricity. The solar generator can generate 20 Watts of electricity. This amount of power can supply up to 96 hours of electricity for the purpose of lighting and running small electrical appliances. The power output is (alternating current) AC current using 150 Watts inverter with 200 Watts surge, suitable for all commercial single phase electric appliances. Solar charge controller is used to maximize the charging rate and to protect the battery. The system has low maintenance whereby the batteries need to be changed every three to four years, depending on the usage. The main concepts of portable solar generator are to reduce installation cost and to introduce a compact design of an optimal energy sizing system. The materials used to develop the solar generator can be easily obtained from local markets, thus reducing the cost of developing the system and making it suitable for commercialization.

  7. External Pressure Testing of the 60-Watt Isotopic Heat Source

    SciTech Connect

    Frazier, T. A.; Christenbury, S. T.

    1995-03-15

    The purpose of this manual is to establish the capability of the IHS generator system to contain its radioisotopic source under an accident scenario in which the generator is deposited in the ocean at great depth. This procedure is to be used on assemblies designated to demonstrate the capability of the 60-watt IHS in external pressure environments. A qualified helium leak technician (NDE) performs evaluations during post test activities. Quality Engineering (QE) is present during testing to monitor activities. Testing involves a 60-watt IHS/Heater Head Assembly with the simulant yttria in place of the isotopic fuel. The standard length 0.094 inch diameter SST dowel pin is replaced with a longer pin to facilitate disassembly. The assembly is tested to 1000 atmospheres (-15,000 psi). It is then evaluated. If it shows no evidence of collapse, an additional test is conducted for information only. The Source Document is "Safety Test Program Plan for the 60-Watt Isotopic Heat Source (IHS)", TBE-32156-IHS-008 Issue

  8. Feedback of 10-20-day intraseasonal oscillations on seasonal mean SST in the tropical Western North Pacific during boreal spring through fall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Renguang

    2016-09-01

    The present study documents the factors for year-to-year changes in the intensity of 10-20-day intraseasonal oscillations (ISOs) and investigates the feedback of the 10-20-day ISO intensity on seasonal mean sea surface temperature (SST) change in the tropical western North Pacific during boreal spring through fall. An analysis of local correlation reveals a significant negative correlation of the 10-20-day ISO intensity and the seasonal mean SST tendency in the tropical western North Pacific during spring, summer, and fall, suggesting a plausible feedback of the ISO intensity on seasonal mean SST anomaly. The 10-20-day ISO intensity change over the tropical western North Pacific is influenced by El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) through modulation of vertical shear of zonal winds, lower-level moisture, and upward motion. Due to the phase dependence of location of these ENSO-induced background field changes, the ISO intensity is subject to ENSO influence in different regions during the three seasons. The feedback of the 10-20-day ISO intensity on local seasonal mean SST change in the tropical western North Pacific is demonstrated by separating latent heat flux anomalies into components on different time scales. The ISO-induced latent heat flux anomalies may accumulate in a season and overcome interannual anomalies due to seasonal mean changes. Thus, the ISO-induced surface heat flux change may play an important role in the seasonal mean SST anomaly in the tropical western North Pacific.

  9. Two cases of partial trisomy 10q syndrome due to a familial 10;20 translocation.

    PubMed

    Tüysüz, B; Hacihanefioglu, S; Silahtaroglu, A; Yilmaz, S; Deviren, A; Cenani, A

    2000-01-01

    We describe an eleven day-old boy and his first degree double cousin who both have distal trisomy 10q syndrome. Their cytogenetic analysis using GTG-banding showed an unbalanced translocation 46, XY, -20, +der(20), t(10;20)(q22.3, p11) mat and 46, XX, -20, +der(20), t(10;20)(q22.3, p11) mat. The translocation was confirmed by FISH. We have found balanced translocation t(10;20)(q22.3; p11) with cytogenetic and FISH studies in the mothers and maternal grandfather of these children. Our cases had typical craniofacial and visceral anomalies of this syndrome. However case 1 had an agenesia of corpus callosum which was not previously described and case 2 had hypertrophied cardiomyopathy and cliteromegaly which were previously described as rare anomalies for this syndrome.

  10. 500 Watt Diesel Fueled TPV Portable Power Supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horne, W. E.; Morgan, M. D.; Sundaram, V. S.; Butcher, T.

    2003-01-01

    A test-bed 500 watt diesel fueled thermophotovoltaic (TPV) portable power supply is described. The goal of the design is a compact, rugged field portable unit weighing less than 15 pounds without fuel. The conversion efficiency goal is set at 15% fuel energy to electric energy delivered to an external load at 24 volts. A burner/recuperator system has been developed to meet the objectives of high combustion air preheat temperatures with a compact heat exchanger, low excess air operation, and high convective heat transfer rates to the silicon carbide emitter surface. The burner incorporates a air blast atomizer with 100% of the combustion air passing through the nozzle. Designed firing rate of 2900 watts at 0.07 gallons of oil per hour. This incorporates a single air supply dc motor/fan set and avoids the need for a system air compressor. The recuperator consists of three annular, concentric laminar flow passages. Heat from the combustion of the diesel fuel is both radiantly and convectively coupled to the inside wall of a cylindrical silicon carbide emitter. The outer wall of the emitter then radiates blackbody energy at the design temperature of 1400°C. The cylindrical emitter is enclosed in a quartz envelope that separates it from the photovoltaic (PV) cells. Spectral control is accomplished by a resonant mesh IR band-pass filter placed between the emitter and the PV array. The narrow band of energy transmitted by the filter is intercepted and converted to electricity by an array of GaSb PV cells. The array consists of 216 1-cm × 1-cm GaSb cells arranged into series and parallel arrays. An array of heat pipes couple the PV cell arrays to a heat exchanger which is cooled by forced air convection. A brief status of the key TPV technologies is presented followed by data characterizing the performance of the 500 watt TPV system.

  11. Characterization of flexure hinges for the French watt balance experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinot, Patrick; Genevès, Gérard

    2014-08-01

    In the French watt balance experiment, the translation and rotation functions must have no backlash, no friction, nor the need for lubricants. In addition errors in position and movement must be below 100 nm. Flexure hinges can meet all of these criteria. Different materials, profile shapes and machining techniques have been studied. The flexure pivots have been characterized using three techniques: 1) an optical microscope and, if necessary, a SEM to observe the surface inhomogeneities; 2) a mass comparator to determine the bending stiffness of unloaded pivots; 3) a loaded beam oscillating freely under vacuum to study the dynamic behavior of loaded pivots.

  12. A 75 Watt, 59 to 64 Ghz Space TWT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Limburg, Helen; Zamora, Diego; Davis, Jon; Tammaru, Ivo

    1995-01-01

    The design and performance of a high efficiency 70 Watt, 59 to 64 GHz traveling-wave tube (TWT) is described. This intersatellite communications TWT, designated the Hughes Aircraft Company Model 961HA, employs a coupled-cavity slow-wave structure with a two-step velocity taper and a four-stage isotropic graphite multistage depressed collector (MDC). This TWT achieved outstanding beam transmission, 96% with RF. This is the highest power and widest bandwidth device of this type. The tube has 45 dB of gain and 30% efficiency. This TWT is conduction cooled and weighs 13 lbs.

  13. High Throughput 600 Watt Hall Effect Thruster for Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szabo, James; Pote, Bruce; Tedrake, Rachel; Paintal, Surjeet; Byrne, Lawrence; Hruby, Vlad; Kamhawi, Hani; Smith, Tim

    2016-01-01

    A nominal 600-Watt Hall Effect Thruster was developed to propel unmanned space vehicles. Both xenon and iodine compatible versions were demonstrated. With xenon, peak measured thruster efficiency is 46-48% at 600-W, with specific impulse from 1400 s to 1700 s. Evolution of the thruster channel due to ion erosion was predicted through numerical models and calibrated with experimental measurements. Estimated xenon throughput is greater than 100 kg. The thruster is well sized for satellite station keeping and orbit maneuvering, either by itself or within a cluster.

  14. Static phase improvements in the LNE watt balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinot, P.; Espel, P.; Liu, Y.; Thomas, M.; Ziane, D.; Palacios-Restrepo, M.-A.; Piquemal, F.

    2016-10-01

    This paper describes the mechanical and electrical modifications carried out on the LNE watt balance to reduce the noise level associated with the static phase. The mechanical improvements concern the home-made balance beam using flexure hinges as pivots of the force comparator. The electrical improvements involve the source used to servo-control the equilibrium position of the beam during the static phase. All these modifications have led to a significant improvement of the repeatability and reproducibility of the results of static phase measurements.

  15. Photovoltaic Cz Silicon Module Improvements

    SciTech Connect

    Jester, T. L.

    1998-09-01

    Work focused on reducing the cost per watt of Cz silicon photovoltaic modules under Phase II of Siemens Solar Industries' DOE/NREL PVMaT 4A subcontract is described in this report. New module designs were deployed in this phase of the contract, improvements in yield of over 10% were realized, and further implementation of Statistical Process Control was achieved during this phase. Module configurations representing a 12% cost reduction per watt were implemented in small scale production under Phase II of this contract. Yield improvements are described in detail, yield sensitivity to wafer thickness is quantified, and the deployment of SPC in critical process steps is reported here.

  16. 500-Watt Solid-State RF Power Amplifier AM-7209( )/VRC.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-03-18

    nocoe y and td&tIl#)Y by blocki numiber) VHF RF Amplifiers 30 - 88 MHz Switching Power Supplies Power Amplifier li Freauency HoODing 20 ABSTRACT eCeIIIDI... switch which permits selection of either the full 500-watt nominal output or a reduced 250-watt level and a display control switch . The amplifier...AMPLIFIER SPECIFICATIONS The following specifications describe the 500-watt VHF power amplifier. OPERATOR CONTROLS POWER SWITCH Turns on primary power to the

  17. ORNL Trusted Corridors Project: Watts Bar Dam Inland Waterway Project

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Randy M; Gross, Ian G; Smith, Cyrus M; Hill, David E

    2011-11-01

    Radiation has existed everywhere in the environment since the Earth's formation - in rocks, soil, water, and plants. The mining and processing of naturally occurring radioactive materials for use in medicine, power generation, consumer products, and industry inevitably generate emissions and waste. Radiological measuring devices have been used by industry for years to measure for radiation in undesired locations or simply identify radioactive materials. Since the terrorist attacks on the United States on 9-11-01 these radiation measuring devices have proliferated in many places in our nation's commerce system. DOE, TVA, the Army Corps and ORNL collaborated to test the usefulness of these devices in our nation's waterway system on this project. The purpose of the Watts Bar Dam ORNL Trusted Corridors project was to investigate the security, safety and enforcement needs of local, state and federal government entities for state-of-the-art sensor monitoring in regards to illegal cargo including utilization of the existing infrastructure. TVA's inland waterways lock system is a recognized and accepted infrastructure by the commercial carrier industry. Safety Monitoring activities included tow boat operators, commercial barges and vessels, recreational watercraft and their cargo, identification of unsafe vessels and carriers, and, monitoring of domestic and foreign commercial vessels and cargo identification. Safety Enforcement activities included cargo safety, tracking, identification of hazardous materials, waterway safety regulations, and hazardous materials regulations. Homeland Security and Law Enforcement Applications included Radiological Dispersive Devices (RDD) identification, identification of unsafe or illicit transport of hazardous materials including chemicals and radiological materials, and screening for shipments of illicit drugs. In the Fall of 2005 the SensorNet funding for the project expired. After several unsuccessful attempts to find a Federal sponsor

  18. Two-watt radioisotope power generators for underwater applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caputo, R. S.; Truscello, V. C.

    1974-01-01

    Materials and design considerations are discussed for a low-cost, reliable radio-isotope-fueled thermoelectric generator for use in an undersea application. Plutonium has been selected as fuel, and the generator has to meet design goals of 2 watts after 20 years with a direct output voltage of 6-8 volts. The pressed and sintered form of Bi2Te3 appears to be the most appropriate thermoelectric material. Both fibrous and multilayer foil insulation could be used with proper processing and quality control, but there is less risk with fibrous type insulation. Min-K 1400 is recommended with a nitrogen cover gas. The heat source recommended is a three-layer capsule using T-111 for both the liner and strength member with an outer liner of Hastelloy-C.

  19. Watt-level wireless power transmission to multiple compact receivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garraud, A.; Munzer, D. J.; Althar, M.; Garraud, N.; Arnold, D. P.

    2015-12-01

    This paper reports an electrodynamic wireless power transmission (EWPT) system using a low-frequency (300 Hz) magnetic field to transmit watt-scale power levels to multiple compact receivers. As compared to inductively or resonantly coupled coils, EWPT facilitates transmission to multiple non-interacting receivers with little restriction on their orientation. A single 3.0 cm3 receiver achieves 1.25 W power transmission with 8% efficiency at a distance of 1 cm (350 mW/cm3 power density) from the transmitter. The same prototype achieves 9 mW at a distance of 9 cm. Moreover, we demonstrate simultaneous recharge of two wearable devices, using two receivers located in arbitrary positions and orientations.

  20. Automatic Generation of Remote Visualization Tools with WATT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, P. A.; Bollig, E. F.; Yuen, D. A.; Erlebacher, G.; Momsen, A. R.

    2006-12-01

    The ever increasing size and complexity of geophysical and other scientific datasets has forced developers to turn to more powerful alternatives for visualizing results of computations and experiments. These alternative need to be faster, scalable, more efficient, and able to be run on large machines. At the same time, advances in scripting languages and visualization libraries have significantly decreased the development time of smaller, desktop visualization tools. Ideally, programmers would be able to develop visualization tools in a high-level, local, scripted environment and then automatically convert their programs into compiled, remote visualization tools for integration into larger computation environments. The Web Automation and Translation Toolkit (WATT) [1] converts a Tcl script for the Visualization Toolkit (VTK) [2] into a standards-compliant web service. We will demonstrate the used of WATT for the automated conversion of a desktop visualization application (written in Tcl for VTK) into a remote visualization service of interest to geoscientists. The resulting service will allow real-time access to a large dataset through the Internet, and will be easily integrated into the existing architecture of the Virtual Laboratory for Earth and Planetary Materials (VLab) [3]. [1] Jensen, P.A., Yuen, D.A., Erlebacher, G., Bollig, E.F., Kigelman, D.G., Shukh, E.A., Automated Generation of Web Services for Visualization Toolkits, Eos Trans. AGU, 86(52), Fall Meet. Suppl., Abstract IN42A-06, 2005. [2] The Visualization Toolkit, http://www.vtk.org [3] The Virtual Laboratory for Earth and Planetary Materials, http://vlab.msi.umn.edu

  1. The Cabinet Member as a Representative of the President: The Case of James Watt.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renz, Mary Ann

    1987-01-01

    Compares the environmental rhetoric of former U.S. Interior Secretary James Watt and U.S. President Ronald Reagan, explaining that Watt's political value outweighed his political liability. Notes that cabinet members extend a President's influence by reaching issue-specific audiences while maintaining philosophical consistency, and serve as…

  2. Request for One-Time Shipment of 32 Watt PU-328 Source in 9968 Packaging

    SciTech Connect

    Massey, W.M.

    1998-11-25

    The 9968 package is designed for surface shipment of fissile and other radioactive materials where a high degree of double containment is required. The use of the 9968 radioactive material package for a one time shipment of a 32 watt heat source versus the SARP approved maximum 30 watt heat source is addressed in this report. The analyses show that the small increase in heat load from 30 watts to 32 watts does not substantially increase internal temperatures or pressures that would approach limits for the package. Also, the weight of the content is within the current 9968 package limits. It is concluded that the 32-watt heat source can be safely shipped in the 9968 package and therefore a waiver to ship the source is justified.

  3. Small Stirling dynamic isotope power system for multihundred-watt robotic missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bents, David J.

    1991-01-01

    Free Piston Stirling Engine (FPSE) and linear alternator (LA) technology is combined with radioisotope heat sources to produce a compact dynamic isotope power system (DIPS) suitable for multihundred watt space application which appears competitive with advance radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs). The small Stirling DIPS is scalable to multihundred watt power levels or lower. The FPSE/LA is a high efficiency convertor in sizes ranging from tens of kilowatts down to only a few watts. At multihundred watt unit size, the FPSE can be directly integrated with the General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) via radiative coupling; the resulting dynamic isotope power system has a size and weight that compares favorably with the advanced modular (Mod) RTG, but requires less than a third the amount of isotope fuel. Thus the FPSE extends the high efficiency advantage of dynamic systems into a power range never previously considered competitive for DIPS. This results in lower fuel cost and reduced radiological hazard per delivered electrical watt.

  4. Small Stirling dynamic isotope power system for multihundred-watt robotic missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bents, David J.

    1991-01-01

    Free piston Stirling Engine (FPSE) and linear alternator (LA) technology is combined with radioisotope heat sources to produce a compact dynamic isotope power system (DIPS) suitable for multihundred watt space application which appears competitive with advanced radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs). The small Stirling DIPS is scalable to multihundred watt power levels or lower. The FPSE/LA is a high efficiency convertor in sizes ranging from tens of kilowatts down to only a few watts. At multihundred watt unit size, the FPSE can be directly integrated with the General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) via radiative coupling; the resulting dynamic isotope power system has a size and weight that compares favorably with the advanced modular (Mod) RTG, but requires less than a third the amount of isotope fuel. Thus the FPSE extends the high efficiency advantage of dynamic systems into a power range never previously considered competitive for DIPS. This results in lower fuel cost and reduced radiological hazard per delivered electrical watt.

  5. Difference between the maximum empirical and field measured peak Watt values of thermal power system under highly sufficient solar conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elhussain, O. A.; Abdel-Magid, T. I. M.

    2016-08-01

    Mono-Crystalline solar cell module is experimentally conducted in Khartoum, Sudan to study the difference between maximum empirical value of peak Watt and maximum value of thermal power produced in field under highly sufficient solar conditions. Field measurements are recorded for incident solar radiation, produced voltage, current and temperature at several time intervals during sun shine period. The thermal power system has been calculated using fundamental principles of heat transfer. The study shows that solar power for considered module could not attain the empirical peak power irrespective to maximum value of direct incident solar radiation and maximum temperature gained. A loss of about 6% of power can be considered as the difference between field measurements and the manufacturer's indicated empirical value. Solar cell exhibits 94% efficiency in comparison with manufacturer's provided data, and is 3'% more efficient in thermal energy production than in electrical power extraction for hot-dry climate conditions.

  6. GaAs monolithic RF modules for SARSAT distress beacons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cauley, Michael A.

    1991-01-01

    Monolithic GaAs UHF components for use in SARSAT Emergency Distress beacons are under development by Microwave Monolithics, Inc., Simi Valley, CA. The components include a bi-phase modulator, driver amplifier, and a 5 watt power amplifier.

  7. Accurate whole genome sequencing and haplotyping from10-20 human cells

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Brock A.; Kermani, Bahram G.; Sparks, Andrew B.; Alferov, Oleg; Hong, Peter; Alexeev, Andrei; Jiang, Yuan; Dahl, Fredrik; Tang, Y. Tom; Haas, Juergen; Robasky, Kimberly; Zaranek, Alexander Wait; Lee, Je-Hyuk; Ball, Madeleine Price; Peterson, Joseph E.; Perazich, Helena; Yeung, George; Liu, Jia; Chen, Linsu; Kennemer, Michael I.; Pothuraju, Kaliprasad; Konvicka, Karel; Tsoupko-Sitnikov, Mike; Pant, Krishna P.; Ebert, Jessica C.; Nilsen, Geoffrey B.; Baccash, Jonathan; Halpern, Aaron L.; Church, George M.; Drmanac, Radoje

    2012-01-01

    Recent advances in whole genome sequencing have brought the vision of personal genomics and genomic medicine closer to reality. However, current methods lack clinical accuracy and the ability to describe the context (haplotypes) in which genome variants co-occur in a cost-effective manner. Here we describe a low-cost DNA sequencing and haplotyping process, Long Fragment Read (LFR) technology, similar to sequencing long single DNA molecules without cloning or separation of metaphase chromosomes. In this study, ten LFR libraries were made using only ~100 pg of human DNA per sample. Up to 97% of the heterozygous single nucleotide variants (SNVs) were assembled into long haplotype contigs. Removal of false positive SNVs not phased by multiple LFR haplotypes resulted in a final genome error rate of 1 in 10 Mb. Cost-effective and accurate genome sequencing and haplotyping from 10-20 human cells, as demonstrated here, will enable comprehensive genetic studies and diverse clinical applications. PMID:22785314

  8. Reliability testing of the Hughes temperature controlled 1/4 watt split cycle cryogenic cooler (HD-1045 (V)/UA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaffer, James; Dunmire, Howard; Samuels, Raemon; Trively, Martin

    1989-12-01

    The U.S. Army CECOM Center for Night Vision and Electro-Optics (C2NVEO) is responsible for developing cryogenic coolers for all infrared imaging systems for the Army. C2NVEO also maintains configuration management control of the forward-looking infrared (FLIR) Common Module coolers used in thermal imagers in fielded Army weapon systems such as: M60A3 and M1 Tanks, Bradley Fighting Vehicle (BFV) System, tube-launched, optically tracked, wire-guided (TOW) Missile System, and Army Attack Helicopters. Currently, there are over 30,000 coolers in fielded systems and several thousand more are added each year. C2NVEO conducts development programs and monitors contractor internal research and development efforts to improve cooler performance such as reliability, audio noise, power consumption, and output vibration. The HD-1045 1/4-Watt Split Stirling Cooler was originally designed and developed by the C2NVEO in the early 1970s as a replacement for the gas bottle/cryostat used on the Manportable Common Thermal Night Sights. To date, however, the HD-1045 cooler has been used in the field in the Integrated Sight Unit (ISU) of the BFV System and is currently being used in the Driver Thermal Viewer (DTV) full scale development program. This document describes and reports the results of reliability testing done on Hughes Temperature Controlled 1/4 Watt split Cycle Cryogenic Coolers (HD-1045 (V)/UA), referred to herein as the coolers.

  9. Narrow linewidth picosecond UV pulsed laser with mega-watt peak power.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chunning; Deibele, Craig; Liu, Yun

    2013-04-08

    We demonstrate a master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) burst mode laser system that generates 66 ps/402.5 MHz pulses with mega-watt peak power at 355 nm. The seed laser consists of a single frequency fiber laser (linewidth < 5 KHz), a high bandwidth electro-optic modulator (EOM), a picosecond pulse generator, and a fiber based preamplifier. A very high extinction ratio (45 dB) has been achieved by using an adaptive bias control of the EOM. The multi-stage Nd:YAG amplifier system allows a uniformly temporal shaping of the macropulse with a tunable pulse duration. The light output from the amplifier is converted to 355 nm, and over 1 MW peak power is obtained when the laser is operating in a 5-μs/10-Hz macropulse mode. The laser output has a transform-limited spectrum with a very narrow linewidth of individual longitudinal modes. The immediate application of the laser system is the laser-assisted hydrogen ion beam stripping for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS).

  10. Feasibility study of a 200 watt per kilogram lightweight solar array system. [for interplanetary spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanhouse, R.; Cokonis, J.; Rayl, G.

    1976-01-01

    Progress in an investigation of the feasibility of designing a lightweight solar array with a power-to-weight ratio of 200 watts per kilogram is described. This solar array will produce 10,000 watts of electrical power at 1 A.U. at its beginning of life (BOL), and degrade less than 20% over a three year period in interplanetary flight. A review of existing lightweight solar array system concepts is presented along with discussion pertaining to their applicable technology as it relates to a 200 watt/kilogram array. Also presented is a discussion of the candidate development solar cells being considered, and various deployable boom concepts under investigation.

  11. Measuring 10-20 T magnetic fields in single wire explosions using Zeeman splitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banasek, J. T.; Engelbrecht, J. T.; Pikuz, S. A.; Shelkovenko, T. A.; Hammer, D. A.

    2016-10-01

    We have shown that the Zeeman splitting of the sodium (Na) D-lines at 5890 Å and 5896 Å can be used to measure the magnetic field produced by the current flowing in an exploding wire prior to wire explosion. After wire explosion, the lines in question are either not visible in the strong continuum from the exploding wire plasma, or too broad to measure the magnetic field by methods discussed in this paper. We have determined magnetic fields in the range 10-20 T, which lies between the small field and Paschen-Back regimes for the Na D-lines, over a period of about 70 ns on a 10 kA peak current machine. The Na source is evaporated drops of water with a 0.171 M NaCl solution deposited on the wire. The Na desorbs from the wire as it heats up, and the excited vapor atoms are seen in emission lines. The measured magnetic field, determined by the Zeeman splitting of these emission lines, estimates the average radial location of the emitting Na vapor as a function of time under the assumption the current flows only in the wire during the time of the measurement.

  12. Recent developments in lightweight solar cell modules. [with protective glass cover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broder, J. D.; Forestieri, A. F.

    1980-01-01

    Two types of lightweight solar cell modules were prepared. The goal is to achieve a module with a power to weight ratio of 350 watts per kilogram. Both structures use thin cells approximately 50 micrometers thick and glass covers approximately 75 micrometers thick. In one structure the glass is bonded to the module using 93-500 silicone adhesive; while the other relies on heat and pressure bonding using FEP as the adhesive. Specific powers of about 335 watts per kilogram were achieved.

  13. Nickel-hydrogen spacecraft module configurations study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, W. B.; Mcdermott, J. K.; Smith, O. B.

    1985-01-01

    The incorporation of nickel-hydrogen technology into spacecraft power system designs for low Earth orbit vehicles offers significant power system weight reductions by increasing the power storage watt-hour efficiency. Several possible module configurations exist for the power system. The module configurations were compared utilizing reliability, weight, volume and load capability as evaluation parameters.

  14. Semi-automatic 10/20 Identification Method for MRI-Free Probe Placement in Transcranial Brain Mapping Techniques.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Xiang; Zhu, Hao; Liu, Wei-Jie; Yu, Xiao-Ting; Duan, Lian; Li, Zheng; Zhu, Chao-Zhe

    2017-01-01

    The International 10/20 system is an important head-surface-based positioning system for transcranial brain mapping techniques, e.g., fNIRS and TMS. As guidance for probe placement, the 10/20 system permits both proper ROI coverage and spatial consistency among multiple subjects and experiments in a MRI-free context. However, the traditional manual approach to the identification of 10/20 landmarks faces problems in reliability and time cost. In this study, we propose a semi-automatic method to address these problems. First, a novel head surface reconstruction algorithm reconstructs head geometry from a set of points uniformly and sparsely sampled on the subject's head. Second, virtual 10/20 landmarks are determined on the reconstructed head surface in computational space. Finally, a visually-guided real-time navigation system guides the experimenter to each of the identified 10/20 landmarks on the physical head of the subject. Compared with the traditional manual approach, our proposed method provides a significant improvement both in reliability and time cost and thus could contribute to improving both the effectiveness and efficiency of 10/20-guided MRI-free probe placement.

  15. Semi-automatic 10/20 Identification Method for MRI-Free Probe Placement in Transcranial Brain Mapping Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Xiang; Zhu, Hao; Liu, Wei-Jie; Yu, Xiao-Ting; Duan, Lian; Li, Zheng; Zhu, Chao-Zhe

    2017-01-01

    The International 10/20 system is an important head-surface-based positioning system for transcranial brain mapping techniques, e.g., fNIRS and TMS. As guidance for probe placement, the 10/20 system permits both proper ROI coverage and spatial consistency among multiple subjects and experiments in a MRI-free context. However, the traditional manual approach to the identification of 10/20 landmarks faces problems in reliability and time cost. In this study, we propose a semi-automatic method to address these problems. First, a novel head surface reconstruction algorithm reconstructs head geometry from a set of points uniformly and sparsely sampled on the subject's head. Second, virtual 10/20 landmarks are determined on the reconstructed head surface in computational space. Finally, a visually-guided real-time navigation system guides the experimenter to each of the identified 10/20 landmarks on the physical head of the subject. Compared with the traditional manual approach, our proposed method provides a significant improvement both in reliability and time cost and thus could contribute to improving both the effectiveness and efficiency of 10/20-guided MRI-free probe placement. PMID:28190997

  16. A LEGO Watt balance: An apparatus to determine a mass based on the new SI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, L. S.; Schlamminger, S.; Newell, D. B.; Pratt, J. R.; Seifert, F.; Zhang, X.; Sineriz, G.; Liu, M.; Haddad, D.

    2015-11-01

    A global effort to redefine our International System of Units (SI) is underway, and the change to the new system is expected to occur in 2018. Within the newly redefined SI, the present base units will still exist but be derived from fixed numerical values of seven reference constants. In particular, the unit of mass (the kilogram) will be realized through a fixed value of the Planck constant h. A so-called watt balance, for example, can then be used to realize the kilogram unit of mass within a few parts in 108. Such a balance has been designed and constructed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology. For educational outreach and to demonstrate the principle, we have constructed a LEGO tabletop watt balance capable of measuring a gram-level masses to 1% relative uncertainty. This article presents the design, construction, and performance of the LEGO watt balance and its ability to determine h.

  17. A discussion of Bl conservation on a two dimensional magnetic field plane in watt balances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shisong; Zhao, Wei; Huang, Songling

    2016-05-01

    The watt balance is an experiment being pursued in national metrology institutes for precision determination of the Planck constant h. In watt balances, the 1/r magnetic field, expected to generate a geometrical factor Bl independent to any coil horizontal displacement, can be created by a strict two dimensional, symmetric (horizontal r and vertical z) construction of the magnet system. In this paper, we present an analytical understanding of magnetic field distribution when the r symmetry of the magnet is broken and the establishment of the Bl conservation is shown. By using either Gauss’s law on magnetism with monopoles or conformal transformations, we extend the Bl conservation to arbitrary two dimensional magnetic planes where the vertical magnetic field component equals zero. The generalized Bl conservation allows a relaxed physical alignment criteria for watt balance magnet systems.

  18. GaAs monolithic R.F. modules for SARSAT distress beacons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cauley, Michael A.

    1991-01-01

    Monolithic GaAs UHF components for use in SARSAT Emergency Distress beacons are under development by Microwave Monolithics, Inc., Simi Valley, CA. The components include a bi-phase modulator, driver amplifier, and a 5 watt power amplifier.

  19. 1-watt composite-slab Er:YAG laser. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Page, R.H.; Bartels, R.A.; Beach, R.J.; Sutton, S.B.; Furu, L.H.; LaSala, J.E.

    1997-02-13

    A diode-side-pumped discrete-optic Er{sup 3+} :YAG laser employs pump-light coupling through a sapphire plate diffusion-bonded to the laser slab, removing heat directly at the pump face of the slab instead of requiring conduction through to its far side. This lowers the temperature in the gain region and gives reduced thermal lensing, which produces exceptional beam quality (M{sup 2} {approx} 1.3) at output powers {approx} 0.3 Watt. Powers above 1 Watt have been demonstrated with peak slope efficiencies {approx}20%. The novel architecture is also applicable to other side-pumped lasers.

  20. Random walk in degree space and the time-dependent Watts-Strogatz model.

    PubMed

    Casa Grande, H L; Cotacallapa, M; Hase, M O

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we propose a scheme that provides an analytical estimate for the time-dependent degree distribution of some networks. This scheme maps the problem into a random walk in degree space, and then we choose the paths that are responsible for the dominant contributions. The method is illustrated on the dynamical versions of the Erdős-Rényi and Watts-Strogatz graphs, which were introduced as static models in the original formulation. We have succeeded in obtaining an analytical form for the dynamics Watts-Strogatz model, which is asymptotically exact for some regimes.

  1. Random walk in degree space and the time-dependent Watts-Strogatz model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casa Grande, H. L.; Cotacallapa, M.; Hase, M. O.

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we propose a scheme that provides an analytical estimate for the time-dependent degree distribution of some networks. This scheme maps the problem into a random walk in degree space, and then we choose the paths that are responsible for the dominant contributions. The method is illustrated on the dynamical versions of the Erdős-Rényi and Watts-Strogatz graphs, which were introduced as static models in the original formulation. We have succeeded in obtaining an analytical form for the dynamics Watts-Strogatz model, which is asymptotically exact for some regimes.

  2. Productive Resources in Students' Ideas about Energy: An Alternative Analysis of Watts' Original Interview Transcripts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrer, Benedikt W.; Flood, Virginia J.; Wittmann, Michael C.

    2013-01-01

    For over 30 years, researchers have investigated students' ideas about energy with the intent of reforming instructional practice. In this pursuit, Watts contributed an influential study with his 1983 paper "Some alternative views of energy" ["Phys. Educ." 18, 213 (1983)]. Watts' "alternative frameworks"…

  3. Rock the Watt: An Energy Conservation Campaign at Pacific Northwest National Lab

    SciTech Connect

    2016-01-01

    Case study describes Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's (PNNL) three-month Rock the Watt campaign to reduce energy use at its main campus in Richland, Washington. The campaign objectives were to educate PNNL employees about energy conservation opportunities in their workplace and to motivate them to help PNNL save energy and costs and to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

  4. 75 FR 6257 - Watts Bar Reservoir Land Management Plan, Loudon, Meigs, Rhea, and Roane Counties, TN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-08

    ...), Industrial (Zone 5), Developed Recreation (Zone 6), and Shoreline Access (Zone 7). The allocations were made... public land for management on Watts Bar Reservoir. At full pool, the reservoir shoreline length is 721 miles, and the surface area is about 39,000 acres. Approximately 47 percent of this shoreline is...

  5. Heuristics can produce surprisingly rational probability estimates: Comment on Costello and Watts (2014).

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Håkan; Juslin, Peter; Winman, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Costello and Watts (2014) present a model assuming that people's knowledge of probabilities adheres to probability theory, but that their probability judgments are perturbed by a random noise in the retrieval from memory. Predictions for the relationships between probability judgments for constituent events and their disjunctions and conjunctions, as well as for sums of such judgments were derived from probability theory. Costello and Watts (2014) report behavioral data showing that subjective probability judgments accord with these predictions. Based on the finding that subjective probability judgments follow probability theory, Costello and Watts (2014) conclude that the results imply that people's probability judgments embody the rules of probability theory and thereby refute theories of heuristic processing. Here, we demonstrate the invalidity of this conclusion by showing that all of the tested predictions follow straightforwardly from an account assuming heuristic probability integration (Nilsson, Winman, Juslin, & Hansson, 2009). We end with a discussion of a number of previous findings that harmonize very poorly with the predictions by the model suggested by Costello and Watts (2014).

  6. Lives in the Balance: Youth, Poverty, and Education in Watts. SUNY Series, Urban Voices, Urban Visions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diver-Stamnes, Ann C.

    This analysis of causes of poverty in the Watts section of Los Angeles (California) and other inner-city communities and of the effects of poverty on children considers exogenous factors that affect lives and behaviors, focusing on the situations of high school students. The first five chapters are arranged around issues cited by those who blame…

  7. 78 FR 53494 - Dam Safety Modifications at Cherokee, Fort Loudoun, Tellico, and Watts Bar Dams

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-29

    ... of Dam Structures: Combination of Concrete Floodwalls and Earthen Embankments, will protect the four... Watts Bar). TVA also installed a permanent concrete apron on approximately 2 acres of the downstream...--Permanent Modifications of Dam Structures: Combination of Concrete Floodwalls and Earthen Embankments....

  8. 77 FR 71454 - Notice of Atomic Safety And Licensing Board Reconstitution, Tennessee Valley Authority (Watts Bar...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-30

    ... COMMISSION Notice of Atomic Safety And Licensing Board Reconstitution, Tennessee Valley Authority (Watts Bar, Unit 2) Pursuant to 10 CFR 2.313(c) and 2.321(b), the Atomic Safety and Licensing Board (Board) in the... 16th day of November 2012. E. Roy Hawkens, Chief Administrative Judge, Atomic Safety and...

  9. Confronting the Nation's Urban Crisis: From Watts (1965) to South Central Los Angeles (1992).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, George E.; And Others

    What has been learned about making cities better since civil disturbances first arose in American cities is summarized, and guidelines are offered for constructing an urban agenda for improvement. In some respects the country has made real progress since the Watts riots, but in other areas, conditions are unambiguously worse, with increasing…

  10. Multi-watt 589nm fiber laser source

    SciTech Connect

    DAWSON, J W; DROBSHOFF, A D; BEACH, R J; MESSERLY, M J; PAYNE, S A; BROWN, A; PENNINGTON, D M; BAMFORD, D J; SHARPE, S J; COOK, D J

    2006-01-19

    We have demonstrated 3.5W of 589nm light from a fiber laser using periodically poled stoichiometric Lithium Tantalate (PPSLT) as the frequency conversion crystal. The system employs 938nm and 1583nm fiber lasers, which were sum-frequency mixed in PPSLT to generate 589nm light. The 938nm fiber laser consists of a single frequency diode laser master oscillator (200mW), which was amplified in two stages to >15W using cladding pumped Nd{sup 3+} fiber amplifiers. The fiber amplifiers operate at 938nm and minimize amplified spontaneous emission at 1088nm by employing a specialty fiber design, which maximizes the core size relative to the cladding diameter. This design allows the 3-level laser system to operate at high inversion, thus making it competitive with the competing 1088nm 4-level laser transition. At 15W, the 938nm laser has an M{sup 2} of 1.1 and good polarization (correctable with a quarter and half wave plate to >15:1). The 1583nm fiber laser consists of a Koheras 1583nm fiber DFB laser that is pre-amplified to 100mW, phase modulated and then amplified to 14W in a commercial IPG fiber amplifier. As a part of our research efforts we are also investigating pulsed laser formats and power scaling of the 589nm system. We will discuss the fiber laser design and operation as well as our results in power scaling at 589nm.

  11. Multi-watt 589nm fiber laser source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, Jay W.; Drobshoff, Alex D.; Beach, Raymond J.; Messerly, Michael J.; Payne, Stephen A.; Brown, Aaron; Pennington, Deanna M.; Bamford, Douglas J.; Sharpe, Scott J.; Cook, David J.

    2006-02-01

    We have demonstrated 3.5W of 589nm light from a fiber laser using periodically poled stoichio-metric Lithium Tantalate (PPSLT) as the frequency conversion crystal. The system employs 938nm and 1583nm fiber lasers, which were sum-frequency mixed in PPSLT to generate 589nm light. The 938nm fiber laser consists of a single frequency diode laser master oscillator (200mW), which was amplified in two stages to >15W using cladding pumped Nd 3+ fiber amplifiers. The fiber amplifiers operate at 938nm and minimize amplified spontaneous emission at 1088nm by employing a specialty fiber design, which maximizes the core size relative to the cladding diameter. This design allows the 3-level laser system to operate at high inversion, thus making it competitive with the 1088nm 4-level laser transition. At 15W, the 938nm laser has an M2 of 1.1 and good polarization (correctable with a quarter and half wave plate to >15:1). The 1583nm fiber laser consists of a Koheras 1583nm fiber DFB laser that is pre-amplified to 100mW, phase modulated and then amplified to 14W in a commercial IPG fiber amplifier. As a part of our research efforts we are also investigating pulsed laser formats and power scaling of the 589nm system. We will discuss the fiber laser design and operation as well as our results in power scaling at 589nm.

  12. Optimization of solar cell contacts by system cost-per-watt minimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redfield, D.

    1977-01-01

    New, and considerably altered, optimum dimensions for solar-cell metallization patterns are found using the recently developed procedure whose optimization criterion is the minimum cost-per-watt effect on the entire photovoltaic system. It is also found that the optimum shadow fraction by the fine grid is independent of metal cost and resistivity as well as cell size. The optimum thickness of the fine grid metal depends on all these factors, and in familiar cases it should be appreciably greater than that found by less complete analyses. The optimum bus bar thickness is much greater than those generally used. The cost-per-watt penalty due to the need for increased amounts of metal per unit area on larger cells is determined quantitatively and thereby provides a criterion for the minimum benefits that must be obtained in other process steps to make larger cells cost effective.

  13. Stable 1.25 watts CW far infrared laser radiation at the 119 micron methanol line

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farhoomand, Jam; Pickett, Herbert M.

    1987-01-01

    Far-infrared CW radiation of 1.25 watts has been obtained at the 119 micron methanol line with a CO2 pump power of 125 watts, and the maximum frequency fluctuation of the free running laser is measured to be less than + or - 100 kHz per hour. Reflecting optics have been used, when possible, to minimize CO2 degradation, and the frequency stability is ensured by cooling the input and output couplers. The input and output assemblies within the lasing medium are enclosed to minimize the external effects on the cavity length and to eliminate the mechanical instabilities associated with the use of bellows. The vibrational bottle-neck is broken by cooling the resonator wall to 5 deg and adding He as the buffer gas.

  14. Development of a ruggedized 20-watt, 2.3- gigahertz transistor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    This program was to develop a ruggedized transistor capable of meeting the following CW objectives at 2.3 gigahertz: a power output of 20 watts, a power gain of 6 db, and an efficiency of 40 percent. Devices developed produced the following CW performance at 2.3 gigahertz: a power output of 23 watts, a power gain of 7.7 db, and an efficiently of 40.0 percent. This performance was achieved with an eight-cell TA8407 transistor design having the following modifications: a thin pellet, high-frequency diffusion, high-level emitter ballasting, an optimized emitter-bonding configuration for uniform power sharing, and a package that provides for some internal matching through the use of distributed line techniques.

  15. Elastic scattering and vibrational excitation of CO2 by 4, 10, 20 and 50 eV electrons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Register, D. F.; Trajmar, S.; Nishimura, H.

    1980-01-01

    Elastic and vibrationally inelastic differential, integral and momentum-transfer cross sections for electrons scattered by CO2 molecules are reported at 4, 10, 20 and 50 eV impact energies. The elastic cross sections are placed on an absolute scale by means of a relative flow technique. The inelastic cross sections are normalised to the elastic ones by using the inelastic to elastic intensity ratios. Data are reported for up to ten features in the 0.0 to 0.4 eV energy-loss region.

  16. Monolithic watt-level millimeter-wave diode-grid frequency tripler array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwu, R. J.; Luhmann, N. C., Jr.; Rutledge, D. B.; Hancock, B.; Lieneweg, U.

    1988-01-01

    In order to provide watt-level CW output power throughout the millimeter and submillimeter wave region, thousands of solid-state diodes have been monolithically integrated using a metal grid to produce a highly efficient frequency multiplier. Devices considered include GaAs Schottky diodes, thin MOS diodes, and GaAs Barrier-Intrinsic-N(+)diodes. The performance of the present compact low-cost device has been theoretically and experimentally validated.

  17. 1.56 µm 1 watt single frequency semiconductor disk laser.

    PubMed

    Rantamäki, Antti; Rautiainen, Jussi; Sirbu, Alexei; Mereuta, Alexandru; Kapon, Eli; Okhotnikov, Oleg G

    2013-01-28

    A single frequency wafer-fused semiconductor disk laser at 1.56 µm with 1 watt of output power and a coherence length over 5 km in fiber is demonstrated. The result represents the highest output power reported for a narrow-line semiconductor disk laser operating at this spectral range. The study shows the promising potential of the wafer fusion technique for power scaling of single frequency vertical-cavity lasers emitting in the 1.3-1.6 µm range.

  18. A 20 GHz, 70 watt, 48 percent efficient space communications TWT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDermott, M. A.; Tamashiro, R. N.

    A space qualifiable helix traveling wave tube capable of producing saturated output power levels above 70 watts at 48 percent total efficiency has been developed for 20 GHz satellite communications systems. The design approach stresses high reliability consistent with high power and efficiency. Advanced construction features incorporated into the design are a five stage collector, an M-type dispenser cathode, and a dynamic velocity tapered (DVT) helix.

  19. Fractional watt Vuillemier cryogenic refrigerator program engineering notebook. Volume 2: Stress analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, W. S.

    1974-01-01

    A structural analysis performed on the 1/4-watt cryogenic refrigerator. The analysis covered the complete assembly except for the cooling jacket and mounting brackets. Maximum stresses, margin of safety, and natural frequencies were calculated for structurally loaded refrigerator components shown in assembly drawings. The stress analysis indicates that the design is satisfactory for the specified vibration environment, and the proof, burst, and normal operating loads.

  20. Feasibility study of a 110 watt per kilogram lightweight solar array system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepard, N. F.; Stahle, C. V.; Hanson, K. L.; Schneider, A.; Blomstrom, L. E.; Hansen, W. T.; Kirpich, A.

    1973-01-01

    The feasibility of a 10,000 watt solar array panel which has a minimum power-to-mass ratio of 110 watt/kg is discussed. The application of this ultralightweight solar array to three possible missions was investigated. With the interplanetary mission as a baseline, the constraining requirements for a geosynchronous mission and for a manned space station mission are presented. A review of existing lightweight solar array system concepts revealed that changes in the system approach are necessary to achieve the specified 110 watt/kg goal. A comprehensive review of existing component technology is presented in the areas of thin solar cells, solar cell covers, welded interconnectors, substrates and deployable booms. Advances in the state-of-the-art of solar cell and deployable boom technology were investigated. System level trade studies required to select the optimum boom bending stiffness, system aspect ratio, bus voltage level, and solar cell circuit arrangement are reported. Design analysis tasks included the thermal analysis of the solar cell blanket, thermal stress analysis of the solar cell interconnectors/substrate, and the thermostructural loading of the deployed boom.

  1. Monitoring bald eagles using lists of nests: Response to Watts and Duerr

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sauer, John R.; Otto, Mark C.; Kendall, William L.; Zimmerman, Guthrie S.

    2011-01-01

    The post-delisting monitoring plan for bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) roposed use of a dual-frame sample design, in which sampling of known nest sites in combination with additional area-based sampling is used to estimate total number of nesting bald eagle pairs. Watts and Duerr (2010) used data from repeated observations of bald eagle nests in Virginia, USA to estimate a nest turnover rate and used this rate to simulate decline in number of occupied nests in list nests over time. Results of Watts and Duerr suggest that, given the rates of loss of nests from the list of known nest sites in Virginia, the list information will be of little value to sampling unless lists are constantly updated. Those authors criticize the plan for not placing sufficient emphasis on updating and maintaining lists of bald eagle nests. Watts and Duerr's metric of turnover rate does not distinguish detectability or temporary nonuse of nests from permanent loss of nests and likely overestimates turnover rate. We describe a multi-state capture–recapture model that allows appropriate estimation of rates of loss of nests, and we use the model to estimate rates of loss from a sample of nests from Maine, USA. The post-delisting monitoring plan addresses the need to maintain and update the lists of nests, and we show that dual frame sampling is an effective approach for sampling nesting bald eagle populations.

  2. Towards ten-watt-level 3-5 µm Raman lasers using tellurite fiber.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Gongwen; Geng, Lixiang; Zhu, Xiushan; Li, Li; Chen, Qian; Norwood, R A; Manzur, T; Peyghambarian, N

    2015-03-23

    Raman lasers based on mid-infrared fibers operating at 3-5 µm atmospheric transparency window are attractive sources for several applications. Compared to fluoride and chalcogenide fibers, tellurite fibers are more advantageous for high power Raman fiber laser sources at 3-5 µm because of their broader Raman gain bandwidth, much larger Raman shift and better physical and chemical properties. Here we report on our simulations for the development of 10-watt-level 3-5 µm Raman lasers using tellurite fibers as the nonlinear gain medium and readily available continuous-wave (cw) and Q-switched erbium-doped fluoride fiber lasers at 2.8 µm as the pump sources. Our results show that a watt-level or even ten-watt-level fiber laser source in the 3-5 µm atmospheric transparency window can be achieved by utilizing the 1st- and 2nd-order Raman scattering in the tellurite fiber. The presented numerical study provides valuable guidance for future 3-5 um Raman fiber laser development.

  3. Synthetic undecapeptide (NTX10-20) of noxiustoxin blocks completely the I(A) potassium currents of cerebellum granular cells.

    PubMed

    Frau, A; Pisciotta, M; Gurrola, G B; Possani, L D; Prestipino, G

    2001-01-01

    Native noxiustoxin (NTX) and synthetic peptides corresponding to its primary sequence, from positions 1-9, 1-14, 1-20, 10-20, 21-39 and 30 39, were prepared and assayed on the K+ currents of cerebellum granular cells, using the patch-clamp technique in the whole-cell configuration system. Native toxin has a reversible inhibitory effect (IC50 = 360 nM), whereas synthetic peptides NTXI-20 and NTX1-9 had a half-effective dose IC50 of approximately 2 and 10 microM, respectively, which correlates with their biological effects in vivo. Synthetic peptide NTX10-20 was quite remarkable in having a preference for the IA current, which was completely inhibited at high peptide concentration. The effects of the other peptides (NTXI 14, NTX21-39 and NTX30-39), although positive and reversible, required higher concentrations (50 200 microM) to block both currents, suggesting no affinity or, at least, much lower specificity for the channels responsible for the potassium currents in the granular cells studied.

  4. Gastric Fluid and Heat Stress Response of Listeria monocytogenes Inoculated on Frankfurters Formulated with 10%, 20%, and 30% Fat Content

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hack-Youn; Kim, Cheon-Jei; Han, Sung Gu; Choi, Kyoung-Hee

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of frankfurter fat content on Listeria monocytogenes resistance to heat stress and gastric fluid, and the Caco-2 cell invasion efficiency of the pathogen. A 10-strain mixture of L. monocytogenes was inoculated on frankfurters formulated with 10%, 20%, and 30% fat content (10%: F10, 20%: F20, 30%: F30) and stored at 10℃ for 30 d. The samples were analyzed for L. monocytogenes resistance to heat stress and a simulated gastric fluid challenge. The total bacteria and L. monocytogenes survival rates were measured on tryptic soy agar plus 0.6% yeast extract and Palcam agar, respectively. L. monocytogenes colonies inoculated on F10, F20, and F30 samples were used for a Caco-2 cell invasion assay. In general, no obvious differences were observed between the survival rates of total bacteria and L. monocytogenes grown on different fat contents under heat stress and gastric fluid challenge. However, L. monocytogenes obtained from the F30 samples had a significantly higher Caco-2 cell invasion efficiency than those in the F10 and F20 samples (p<0.05). These results indicate that although high fat content in food may not be related to L. monocytogenes resistance to heat stress and gastric fluid, it may increase the Caco-2 cell invasion efficiency of the pathogen. PMID:26760741

  5. A 1 watt GaAs power amplifier for the NASA 30/20 GHz communication system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goel, J.; Oransky, G.; Yuan, S.; Osullivan, P.; Burch, J.

    1982-01-01

    A multistage GaAs FET power amplifier, employing cascaded balanced stages using state-of-the-art 1/4, 1/2, and 1 watt devices, has been developed. A linear gain of 30 dB with 1.25 watts output has been achieved over a 17.7 to 19.4 GHz frequency band. The development and performance of the amplifier and its components are discussed.

  6. Environmental Test Report on the CTI-Cryogenics 1-Watt Integral Stirling Cooler (Long Life HD-1033D)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-04-01

    Continue on reverse if necessary and identify by block numbef)-"•-- ,., FIELD GRU u-ou SI Cryocooler , Stirling Cycle, Clearance Seal 19. ABSTRCT...Center for Night Vision and x Electro-Optics I AMSEL-RD-NV-0077 ENVIRONMENTAL TEST REPORT ON THE CTI-CRYOGENICS 1-WATT INTEGRAL STIRLING COOLER (LONG...NO. NO. [ ACCESSION NO. 11. TITLE (Incdude Securty Classificadon) Environmental Test Report on the CTI-CryoD nics 1-Watt Intektal Stirling Cooler

  7. I-V Curves from Photovoltaic Modules Deployed in Tucson

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopp, Emily; Brooks, Adria; Lonij, Vincent; Cronin, Alex

    2011-10-01

    More than 30 Mega Watts of photo-voltaic (PV) modules are connected to the electric power grid in Tucson, AZ. However, predictions of PV system electrical yields are uncertain, in part because PV modules degrade at various rates (observed typically in the range 0% to 3 %/yr). We present I-V curves (PV output current as a function of PV output voltage) as a means to study PV module efficiency, de-ratings, and degradation. A student-made I-V curve tracer for 100-Watt modules will be described. We present I-V curves for several different PV technologies operated at an outdoor test yard, and we compare new modules to modules that have been operated in the field for 10 years.

  8. Special Applications RTG Technology Program: Thermoelectric module development summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Brittain, W.M.

    1988-09-01

    The primary objective of the Special Applications thermoelectric module development program is to design, develop and demonstrate the performance of a module which provides a significant thermoelectric conversion efficiency improvement over available technology for low power, relatively high voltage RTGS intended for terrestrial applications. ``Low power`` can be construed as an RTG power output of 10 watts or less, and ``high voltage`` can be considered as a load voltage of 5 volts or greater. In particular, the effort is to improve the system efficiency characteristic of the state-of-the-art bismuth telluride-based RTG system (e.g., Five-Watt RTG and Half-Watt RTG), typically 3 to 4%, to the range of 6% or better. This increase in efficiency will also permit reductions in the weight and size of RTGs in the low power range.

  9. Design and fabrication of solar cell modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaughnessy, T. P.

    1978-01-01

    A program conducted for design, fabrication and evaluation of twelve silicon solar cell modules is described. The purpose of the program was to develop a module design consistent with the requirements and objectives of JPL specification and to also incorporate elements of new technologies under development to meet LSSA Project goals. Module development emphasized preparation of a technically and economically competitive design based upon utilization of ion implanted solar cells and a glass encapsulation system. The modules fabricated, tested and delivered were of nominal 2 X 2 foot dimensions and 20 watt minimum rating. Basic design, design rationale, performance and results of environmental testing are described.

  10. Design point characteristics of a 500 - 2500 watt isotope-Brayton power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barna, G. J.

    1972-01-01

    An analytical study was conducted to investigate the potential performance characteristics of an isotope-Brayton space power system at electric power levels from 500 - 2500 watts. Utilization of the Pu(238) heat source, or capsule, was assumed. A single-loop system design concept was selected. The design concept and results of first-order trade-off studies of the effects of major system parameters on system performance are presented. Results of the study indicate the potential for high system efficiency and high specific power over the entire power range.

  11. Performance of three-crystal 1800 watt CW Nd:YAG laser

    SciTech Connect

    Jellison, J.L.; Keicher, D.M.; Fuerschbach, P.W.

    1990-01-01

    The goal of this project was to develop a laser system that would combine some of the favorable characteristics of the two most commonly used lasers for seam welding of heat sensitive assemblies. A multirod (3) symmetrical resonator CW Nd:YAG laser has been developed that is rated at 1800 watts output power. By utilizing the symmetrical resonator design, beam characteristics are not significantly compromised compared to that of single rod systems. The laser is capable of producing acceptable welds in aluminum and copper alloys and also has sufficient power to produce welds in steels and nickel base alloys at high welding speeds. 4 refs., 5 figs. 1 tab.

  12. Design point characteristics of a 500 - 2500 watt isotope-Brayton power system.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barna, G. J.

    1972-01-01

    An analytical study was conducted to investigate the potential performance characteristics of an isotope-Brayton space power system at electric power levels from 500 to 2500 W. Utilization of the Pu 238 heat source, or capsule, being developed for the Multi-Hundred Watt Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator was assumed. A single-loop system design concept was selected. The design concept and results of first-order tradeoff studies of the effects of major system parameters on system performance are presented. Results of the study indicate the potential for high system efficiency and high specific power over the entire power range.

  13. Lumen Maintenance Testing of the Philips 60-Watt Replacement Lamp L Prize Entry

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, Kelly L.; Hafen, Ryan P.; Hathaway, John E.; McCullough, Jeffrey J.

    2012-09-01

    This paper describes testing conducted to evaluate the Philips' L Prize award winning 60-watt LED replacement product's ability to meet the lifetime/lumen maintenance requirement of the competition, which was: "having 70 percent of the lumen value under subparagraph (A) [producing a luminous flux greater than 900 lumens] exceeding 25,000 hours under typical conditions expected in residential use." A custom test apparatus was designed and constructed for this testing and a statistical approach was developed for use in evaluating the test results. This will be the only publicly available, third-party data set of long-term LED product operation.

  14. 3-D model of a radial flow sub-watt methanol fuel processor

    SciTech Connect

    Holladay, J. D.; Wang, Y.

    2015-10-01

    A 3-D model is presented for a novel sub-watt packed bed reactor. The reactor uses an annular inlet flow combined with a radial flow packed bed reactor. The baseline reactor is compared to a reactor with multiple outlets and a reactor with 3 internal fins. Increasing the outlets from 1 to 4 did improve the flow distribution, but did not increase the performance in the simulation. However, inserting fins allowed a decrease in temperature with same inlet flow of approximately 35K. Or the inlet flow rate could be increased by a factor of 2.8x while maintaining >99% conversion.

  15. Lead test assembly irradiation and analysis Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, Tennessee and Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) needs to confirm the viability of using a commercial light water reactor (CLWR) as a potential source for maintaining the nation`s supply of tritium. The Proposed Action discussed in this environmental assessment is a limited scale confirmatory test that would provide DOE with information needed to assess that option. This document contains the environmental assessment results for the Lead test assembly irradiation and analysis for the Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, Tennessee, and the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington.

  16. An initial measurement of Planck's constant using the NPL Mark II watt balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, I. A.; Kibble, B. P.

    2007-12-01

    During 2006 modifications were made to the NPL Mark II moving-coil watt balance which eliminated several significant sources of error. The apparatus was run from October 2006 to March 2007 to check its operation and to produce a preliminary value of Planck's constant h. This paper reports the current state of the work and predicts the uncertainty that is expected to be achievable with the existing apparatus. The preliminary value of h is 6.626 070 95(44) × 10-34 J s, which corresponds to a value of the Avogadro constant of NA = 6.022 139 99(40) × 1023 mol-1.

  17. A 200 watt traveling wave-tube for the communications technology satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, C. L.

    1976-01-01

    The results of the design, development, and test of experimental and production units of PPM focused traveling wave tube that produces 225 watts of CW RF power over 85 MHz centered at 12.080 GHz are presented. The tube uses a coupled cavity RF circuit with a velocity taper for greater than 26 percent basic efficiency. Overall efficiency of 50 percent is achieved by the incorporation of a multistage depressed collector designed at NASA Lewis Research Center. The collector is cooled by direct radiation to deep space. The tube was designed to be used for broadcasting power transmission from a satellite.

  18. First determination of the Planck constant using the LNE watt balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, M.; Espel, P.; Ziane, D.; Pinot, P.; Juncar, P.; Pereira Dos Santos, F.; Merlet, S.; Piquemal, F.; Genevès, G.

    2015-04-01

    After separate developments of the different elements with continuous characterizations and improvements, the LNE watt balance has been assembled. This paper describes the system in detail and gives its first measurements of the Planck’s constant h. The value determined in air is h = 6.626 068 8(20) × 10-34 Js which differs in relative terms by -0.05  ×  10-7 from the h90 value and by -1.1  ×  10-7 from that of the 2010 CODATA adjustment of h. The relative standard uncertainty associated is 3.1  ×  10-7.

  19. Feasibility study of a 110 watt per kilogram lightweight solar array system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepard, N. F.; Stahle, C. V.; Schneider, A.; Hanson, K. L.

    1972-01-01

    An investigation of the feasibility of a solar array panel subsystem which will produce 10,000 watts of electrical output at 1 A.U. with an overall beginning-of-life power-to-weight ratio of at least 110 watt/kg is reported. A description of the current baseline configuration which meets these requirements is presented. A parametric analysis of the single boom, two blanket planar solar array system was performed to arrive at the optimum system aspect ratio. A novel concept for the stiffening of a lightweight solar array by canting the solar cell blankets at a small angle to take advantage of the inherent in-plane stiffness to increase the symmetric out-of-plane frequency is introduced along with a preliminary analysis of the stiffening effect. A comparison of welded and soldered solar cell interconnections leads to the conclusion that welding is required on this ultralightweight solar array. The use of a boron/aluminum composite material in a BI-STEM type deployable boom is investigated as a possible advancement in the state-of-the-art.

  20. A five-watt G-M/J-T refrigerator for LHe target at BNL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, L. X.; Wang, L.; Addessi, L.; Miglionico, G.; Martin, D.; Leskowicz, J.; McNeill, M.; Yatauro, B.; Tallerico, T.

    2002-05-01

    A five-watts G-M/J-T refrigerator was built and installed for the high-energy physics research at Brookhaven National Laboratory in 2001. A liquid helium target of 8.25 liters was required for an experiment in the proton beam line at the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) of BNL. The large radiation heat load towards the target requires a five-watts refrigerator at 4.2 K to support a liquid helium flask of 0.2 meter in diameter and 0.3 meter in length, which is made of Mylar film of 0.35 mm in thickness. The liquid helium flask is thermally exposed to the vacuum windows that are also made of 0.35 mm thickness Mylar film at room temperature. The refrigerator uses a two-stage Gifford-McMahon cryocooler for precooling the Joule-Thomson circuit that consists of five Linde-type heat exchangers. A mass flow rate of 0.8˜1.0 grams per second at 17.7 atm is applied to the refrigerator cold box. The two-phase helium flows between the liquid target and liquid/gas separator by means of a thermosyphon. This paper presents the system design as well as the test results including the control of the thermal oscillation.

  1. Effects of choline chloride on electrodeposited Ni coating from a Watts-type bath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yurong; Yang, Caihong; He, Jiawei; Wang, Wenchang; Mitsuzak, Naotoshi; Chen, Zhidong

    2016-05-01

    Electrodeposition of bright nickel (Ni) was carried out in a Watts-type bath. Choline chloride (ChCl) was applied as a multifunctional additive and substitute for nickel chloride (NiCl2) in a Watts-type bath. The function of ChCl was investigated through conductivity tests, anodic polarization, and cathodic polarization experiments. The studies revealed that ChCl performed well as a conducting salt, anodic activator, and cathodic inhibitor. The effects of ChCl on deposition rate, preferred orientation, grain size, surface morphology, and microhardness of Ni coatings were also studied. The deposition rate reached a maximum value of greater than 27 μm h-1 when 20 g L-1 ChCl was introduced to the bath. Using X-ray diffraction, it was confirmed that progressive addition of ChCl promoted the preferred crystal orientation modification from (2 0 0) and (2 2 0) to (1 1 1), refined grain size, and enhanced microhardness. The presence of ChCl lowered the roughness of the coating.

  2. 3 Watt CW OPO tunable 604nm to 616nm for quantum optics applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, Angus; Halfmann, Thomas; Mieth, Simon

    2012-06-01

    A continuous wave optical parametric oscillator (CW OPO) pumped by a fiber laser has been developed which emits up to 3 Watts of single longitudinal mode radiation tunable in the wavelength range 604nm to 616nm. The device is a modified version of the ``Argos'' Model 2400 commercial product by Lockheed Martin Aculight. A 15 Watt 1064nm fiber laser pumps a CW OPO based upon periodically-poled Lithium Niobate (PPLN). A short section of the nonlinear crystal is poled to allow efficient intracavity sum frequency generation (SFG) between the OPO pump and signal wavelengths to generate orange radiation. The device can be coarsely tuned by matching the poling periods and temperature within the nonlinear crystal to phase-match both OPO and SFG processes simultaneously. Fine mode-hop-free tuning of the orange wavelength of up to 100GHz range can be achieved by applying a voltage to a PZT which tunes the pump laser. By similar intracavity conversion schemes, the system offers the potential of providing high power at wavelengths from 600nm to 1400nm in addition to the direct signal and idler wavelength ranges from 1400nm to 4630nm. Such capability comes without the complexity and reliability issues which are inherent in dye and Ti:Sapphire systems. Details of the OPO system performance and its use in quantum optics applications will be provided.

  3. Remedial investigation/feasibility study report for Lower Watts Bar Reservoir Operable Unit

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    This document is the combined Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study Report for the lower Watts Bar Reservoir (LWBR) Operable Unit (OU). The LWBR is located in Roane, Rhea, and Meigs counties, Tennessee, and consists of Watts Bar Reservoir downstream of the Clinch river. This area has received hazardous substances released over a period of 50 years from the US Department of Energy`s Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), a National Priority List site established under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). As required by this law, the ORR and all off-site areas that have received contaminants, including LWBR, must be investigated to determine the risk to human health and the environment resulting from these releases, the need for any remedial action to reduce these risks, and the remedial actions that are most feasible for implementation in this OU. Contaminants from the ORR are primarily transported to the LWBR via the Clinch River. There is little data regarding the quantities of most contaminants potentially released from the ORR to the Clinch River, particularly for the early years of ORR operations. Estimates of the quantities released during this period are available for most radionuclides and some inorganic contaminants, indicating that releases 30 to 50 years ago were much higher than today. Since the early 1970s, the release of potential contaminants has been monitored for compliance with environmental law and reported in the annual environmental monitoring reports for the ORR.

  4. Reconciling Planck constant determinations via watt balance and enriched-silicon measurements at NRC Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steele, A. G.; Meija, J.; Sanchez, C. A.; Yang, L.; Wood, B. M.; Sturgeon, R. E.; Mester, Z.; Inglis, A. D.

    2012-02-01

    The next revision to the International System of Units will emphasize the relationship between the base units (kilogram, metre, second, ampere, kelvin, candela and mole) and fundamental constants of nature (the speed of light, c, the Planck constant, h, the elementary charge, e, the Boltzmann constant, kB, the Avogadro constant, NA, etc). The redefinition cannot proceed without consistency between two complementary metrological approaches to measuring h: a 'physics' approach, using watt balances and the equivalence principle between electrical and mechanical force, and a 'chemistry' approach that can be viewed as determining the mass of a single atom of silicon. We report the first high precision physics and chemistry results that agree within 12 parts per billion: h (watt balance) = 6.626 070 63(43) × 10-34 J s and h(silicon) = 6.626 070 55(21) × 10-34 J s. When combined with values determined by other metrology laboratories, this work helps to constrain our knowledge of h to 20 parts per billion, moving us closer to a redefinition of the metric system used around the world.

  5. Effect of oral olive oil on healing of 10-20% total body surface area burn wounds in hospitalized patients.

    PubMed

    Najmi, Mahtab; Vahdat Shariatpanahi, Zahra; Tolouei, Mohammad; Amiri, Zohreh

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of consumption of oral olive oil on clinical outcomes and wound healing of thermally injured patients with hospital stays. One hundred patients (mean age; 33.34±7 years) with 10-20% total body surface area, deep second degree and more burn wounds were randomized to receive either oral olive oil or sunflower oil as the oil in their diet. Patients were evaluated daily for occurrence of wound infection, sepsis and healing of the grafted skin. Also the duration of hospitalization and admission to the intensive care unit were compared in two groups. Results showed that there was no significant difference between the olive oil group and the control group in percent of TBSA involvement (14.28±0.53 vs. 13.02±0.48, P=0.7), albumin concentration (3.25±0.5 vs. 3.13±0.5, P=0.5) and mean calorie intake (2034±216.9 kcal vs2118±192.1 kcal, P=0.2). We found a significant difference in the duration of wound healing (7.2±0.5 vs. 8.7±0.5, P=0.04) and duration of hospitalization (7.4±0.5 vs. 8.9±0.4, P=0.05) in the olive oil group versus the control group. We did not find any difference in ICU admission, wound infection and occurrence of sepsis between two groups. This study showed that an oral diet provided with olive oil in patients with burn may accelerate wound healing and decrease the duration of hospitalization.

  6. '…to whom it will be extremly Usefull.' Dr William Cullen's adoption of James Watt's copying machine.

    PubMed

    Wheelock, H

    2016-06-01

    Dr William Cullen (1710-1790) was a leading physician of the Enlightenment era. As professor in Edinburgh he became the most influential teacher of theoretical and practical medicine in 18th century Britain. A renowned private practitioner, Cullen systematically archived his postal 'consultations', now held by the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh. Initially Cullen preserved his replies as transcriptions, but from April 1781 he began using a mechanical copier, newly devised by the Scottish engineer James Watt. This paper describes the development, promotion and functioning of Watt's copier and considers Cullen's own adoption of the machine. It is suggested that with Cullen's adoption of Watt's copier, medical record keeping entered a new historical phase comparable with the recent digital revolution.

  7. TVA sediment-disturbing activities within the Watts Bar Reservoir and Melton Hill Reservoir areas of the Clinch River

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    The objectives of Task 5 were to review: (1) the extent of dredging, construction, and other sediment-disturbing activities conducted by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) in potentially contaminated areas of Watts Bar Reservoir; and (2) the disposition of the materials from these activities. This memorandum is the final report for Task 5. This memorandum describes major activities in the Watts Bar Reservoir and Melton Hill Reservoir areas of the Clinch River that possibly resulted in significant disturbance of potentially contaminated sediments. TVA records from the construction of Watts Bar Dam, Kingston Fossil Plant, and Melton Hill Dam were reviewed to facilitate qualitative description of the effect of these activities in disturbing potentially contaminated sediments. The critical period for these activities in disturbing contaminated sediments was during or after 1956 when the peak releases of radioactive contaminants occurred from the Oak Ridge Reservation.

  8. First Passage Percolation on the Newman-Watts Small World Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komjáthy, Júlia; Vadon, Viktória

    2016-02-01

    The Newman-Watts model is given by taking a cycle graph of n vertices and then adding each possible edge (i,j), |i-j|≠ 1 mod n with probability ρ /n for some ρ >0 constant. In this paper we add i.i.d. exponential edge weights to this graph, and investigate typical distances in the corresponding random metric space given by the least weight paths between vertices. We show that typical distances grow as 1/λ log n for a λ >0 and determine the distribution of smaller order terms in terms of limits of branching process random variables. We prove that the number of edges along the shortest weight path follows a Central Limit Theorem, and show that in a corresponding epidemic spread model the fraction of infected vertices follows a deterministic curve with a random shift.

  9. Details of the 1998 Watt Balance Experiment Determining the Planck Constant

    PubMed Central

    Steiner, Richard; Newell, David; Williams, Edwin

    2005-01-01

    The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) watt balance experiment completed a determination of Planck constant in 1998 with a relative standard uncertainty of 87 × 10−9 (k = 1), concurrently with an upper limit on the drift rate of the SI kilogram mass standard. A number of other fundamental physical constants with uncertainties dominated by this result are also calculated. This paper focuses on the details of the balance apparatus, the measurement and control procedures, and the reference calibrations. The alignment procedures are also described, as is a novel mutual inductance measurement procedure. The analysis summary discusses the data noise sources and estimates for the Type B uncertainty contributions to the uncertainty budget. Much of this detail, some historical progression, and a few recent findings have not been included in previous papers reporting the results of this experiment. PMID:27308100

  10. A watt-class 1-THz backward-wave oscillator based on sine waveguide

    SciTech Connect

    Xu Xiong; Wei Yanyu; Shen Fei; Yin Hairong; Xu Jin; Gong Yubin; Wang Wenxiang

    2012-01-15

    A novel backward wave oscillator was proposed by utilizing a concise sine waveguide slow-wave structure combined with sheet electron beam to operate at terahertz frequency band. First, the design method was described, and the dispersion curve and interaction impedance of the sine waveguide were calculated, then the device oscillation frequency and operating voltage were determined. Next, the circuit transmission losses were learned over the tunable frequency range. Finally, the particle-in-cell simulation method was applied to predict its signal generation performance. The investigation results show that, the backward wave oscillator can produce over 1.9 -W peak power output at the central operating frequency of 1-THz under 27-kV operating voltage and 5-mA beam current. And the interaction efficiency at 1-THz is more than 1.4% with a circuit length of 7.2-mm. It, therefore, will be considered as a promising watt-class terahertz radiation source.

  11. Spatial prisoner's dilemma game with volunteering in Newman-Watts small-world networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zhi-Xi; Xu, Xin-Jian; Chen, Yong; Wang, Ying-Hai

    2005-03-01

    A modified spatial prisoner’s dilemma game with voluntary participation in Newman-Watts small-world networks is studied. Some reasonable ingredients are introduced to the game evolutionary dynamics: each agent in the network is a pure strategist and can only take one of three strategies (cooperator, defector, and loner); its strategical transformation is associated with both the number of strategical states and the magnitude of average profits, which are adopted and acquired by its coplayers in the previous round of play; a stochastic strategy mutation is applied when it gets into the trouble of local commons that the agent and its neighbors are in the same state and get the same average payoffs. In the case of very low temptation to defect, it is found that agents are willing to participate in the game in typical small-world region and intensive collective oscillations arise in more random region.

  12. Evolutionary prisoner's dilemma on Newman-Watts social networks with an asymmetric payoff distribution mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Wen-Bo; Cao, Xian-Bin; Yang, Han-Xin; Hu, Mao-Bin

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce an asymmetric payoff distribution mechanism into the evolutionary prisoner's dilemma game (PDG) on Newman-Watts social networks, and study its effects on the evolution of cooperation. The asymmetric payoff distribution mechanism can be adjusted by the parameter α: if α > 0, the rich will exploit the poor to get richer; if α < 0, the rich are forced to offer part of their income to the poor. Numerical results show that the cooperator frequency monotonously increases with α and is remarkably promoted when α > 0. The effects of updating order and self-interaction are also investigated. The co-action of random updating and self-interaction can induce the highest cooperation level. Moreover, we employ the Gini coefficient to investigate the effect of asymmetric payoff distribution on the the system's wealth distribution. This work may be helpful for understanding cooperative behaviour and wealth inequality in society.

  13. Watt-level millimeter-wave monolithic diode-grid frequency multipliers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwu, J. R.; Jou, C. F.; Luhmann, N. C., Jr.; Lam, W. W.; Rutledge, D. B.; Hancock, B.; Lieneweg, U.; Maserjian, J.

    1988-01-01

    Wall-level CW solid-state sources in the millimeter-wave region are needed for plasma diagnostics. Monolithic metal-grid arrays containing in excess of 1000 Schottky diodes have produced watt-level output at 66 GHz in a doubler configuration, in excellent agreement with the large-signal predictions of the frequency multiplication. Current efforts are concentrated on fabricating and developing arrays of a novel barrier-intrinsic-N+ (BIN) diode which promise increased performance in a tripler configuration. Initial tests will be made for a configuration where a tripling efficiency of 35 percent at an output frequency of 100 GHz is predicted. Eventual goals are monolithic BIN diode grids operating at 1 THz.

  14. A tunnel wick 100,000 watt-inch heat pipe.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosson, R.; Hembach, R.; Edelstein, F.; Tawil, M.

    1972-01-01

    The tunnel wick is a new type of heat pipe artery which can prime in a gravity environment by temperature-induced pressure differences between interior and exterior. The paper discusses the concept and its application in the design of room-temperature high-transport-capacity heat pipes. The analytical model of the system is summarized; and performance data obtained with the aid of a related computer program is included. Test data verifying the concept is presented for several pipes, including an eight-foot-long, 0.9-inch ID heat pipe, using ammonia working fluid, with a transport capacity in excess of 150,000 watt-inches. A brief discussion of potential applications for this type of heat pipe includes a variable conductance device to serve as a radiator header and a high capacity heat transport system.

  15. Cascading failures with local load redistribution in interdependent Watts-Strogatz networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Chen; Zhang, Jun; Du, Wen-Bo; Sallan, Jose Maria; Lordan, Oriol

    2016-05-01

    Cascading failures of loads in isolated networks have been studied extensively over the last decade. Since 2010, such research has extended to interdependent networks. In this paper, we study cascading failures with local load redistribution in interdependent Watts-Strogatz (WS) networks. The effects of rewiring probability and coupling strength on the resilience of interdependent WS networks have been extensively investigated. It has been found that, for small values of the tolerance parameter, interdependent networks are more vulnerable as rewiring probability increases. For larger values of the tolerance parameter, the robustness of interdependent networks firstly decreases and then increases as rewiring probability increases. Coupling strength has a different impact on robustness. For low values of coupling strength, the resilience of interdependent networks decreases with the increment of the coupling strength until it reaches a certain threshold value. For values of coupling strength above this threshold, the opposite effect is observed. Our results are helpful to understand and design resilient interdependent networks.

  16. Development of a 75-watt 60-GHz traveling-wave tube for intersatellite communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rousseau, A. L.; Tammaru, I.; Vaszari, J. P.

    1988-01-01

    This program covers the initial design and development of a 75 watt, 60 GHz traveling-wave tube for intersatellite communications. The objective frequency band was 59 to 64 GHz, with a minimum tube gain of 35 dB. The objective overall efficiency at saturation was 40 percent. The tube, designated the 961H, used a coupled-cavity interaction circuit with periodic permanent magnet beam focusing to minimize the weight. For efficiency enhancement, it incorporated a four-stage depressed collector capable of radiation cooling in space. The electron gun had a low-temperature (type-M) cathode and an isolated anode. Two tubes were built and tested; one feasibility model with a single-stage collector and one experimental model that incorporated the multistage collector.

  17. Isotope Brayton electric power system for the 500 to 2500 watt range.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macosko, R. P.; Barna, G. J.; Block, H. B.; Ingle, B. D.

    1972-01-01

    An extensive study was conducted at the Lewis Research Center to evaluate an isotope Brayton electric power system for use in the 500 to 2500 W power range. The study emphasized overall system simplicity in order to reduce parasitic power losses and improve system reliability. The study included detailed parametric cycle analysis, conceptual component designs, and evaluation of system packaging. The study has resulted in the selection of a single-loop system (gas) with six major components including one rotating unit. Calculated net system efficiency varies from 23 to 28% over the power range. The use of the Pu-238 heat source being developed for the Multi-Hundred-Watt Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator program was assumed.

  18. Autaptic activity-induced synchronization transitions in Newman-Watts network of Hodgkin-Huxley neurons.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yanan; Gong, Yubing; Wang, Qi

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, we numerically study the effect of autapse on the synchronization of Newman-Watts small-world Hodgkin-Huxley neuron network. It is found that the neurons exhibit synchronization transitions as autaptic self-feedback delay is varied, and the phenomenon becomes strongest when autaptic self-feedback strength is optimal. This phenomenon also changes with the change of coupling strength and network randomness and become strongest when they are optimal. There are similar synchronization transitions for electrical and chemical autapse, but the synchronization transitions for chemical autapse occur more frequently and are stronger than those for electrical synapse. The underlying mechanisms are briefly discussed in quality. These results show that autaptic activity plays a subtle role in the synchronization of the neuronal network. These findings may find potential implications of autapse for the information processing and transmission in neural systems.

  19. Watts linkage based large band low frequency sensors for scientific applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barone, F.; Giordano, G.; Acernese, F.; Romano, R.

    2016-07-01

    The UNISA Folded Pendulum class of horizontal and vertical sensors, based on an innovative configuration of the classical Watt's linkage mechanical architecture, allows the design and implementation of very large band monolithic sensors (10-7 Hz to102 Hz), whose sensitivities for the most common applications are defined by the noise introduced by their readouts (e.g. <10-12 m /√{ Hz } with classical LVDT readouts). These unique features, coupled other relevant properties like scalability, compactness, lightness, high directivity, frequency tunability (typical resonance frequencies in the band 10-1 Hz to102 Hz), very high immunity to environmental noises and low cost make this class of sensors very effective for the implementation of uniaxial (horizontal and/or vertical) and triaxial seismometers and accelerometers for ground, space and underwater applications, including UHV and cryogenics ones.

  20. Performance of the 12GHz, 200 watt transmitter experiment package for the Hermes satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexovich, R. E.

    1977-01-01

    Performance characteristics from on-orbit tests of the Transmitter Experiment Package (TEP) for the Hermes Satellite are presented. The TEP consists of a Power Processing System (PPS), an Output Stage Tube (OST) and a Variable Conductance Heat Pipe System (VCHPS), all of which are described. The OST is a coupled-cavity Traveling Wave Tube (TWT) with a Multistage Depressed Collector (MDC) and a stepped velocity-tapered slow wave structure for efficiency enhancement. It has an RF output power of 233 watts and overall efficiency of 50.75 percent at a center band frequency of 12.080 GHz. The PPS provides the required operating voltages, regulation, control and protection for the OST. The VCHPS consists of a fin radiator and three dual-artery stainless steel heat pipes using methanol and a mixture of inert gases. Test results presented include efficiencies, RF output power and body current. A discussion of thermal anomalies which occurred is presented.

  1. Watt balance experiments for the determination of the Planck constant and the redefinition of the kilogram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stock, M.

    2013-02-01

    Since 1889 the international prototype of the kilogram has served as the definition of the unit of mass in the International System of Units (SI). It is the last material artefact to define a base unit of the SI, and it influences several other base units. This situation is no longer acceptable in a time of ever increasing measurement precision. It is therefore planned to redefine the unit of mass by fixing the numerical value of the Planck constant. At the same time three other base units, the ampere, the kelvin and the mole, will be redefined. As a first step, the kilogram redefinition requires a highly accurate determination of the Planck constant in the present SI system, with a relative uncertainty of the order of 1 part in 108. The most promising experiment for this purpose, and for the future realization of the kilogram, is the watt balance. It compares mechanical and electrical power and makes use of two macroscopic quantum effects, thus creating a relationship between a macroscopic mass and the Planck constant. In this paper the background for the choice of the Planck constant for the kilogram redefinition is discussed and the role of the Planck constant in physics is briefly reviewed. The operating principle of watt balance experiments is explained and the existing experiments are reviewed. An overview is given of all presently available experimental determinations of the Planck constant, and it is shown that further investigation is needed before the redefinition of the kilogram can take place. This article is based on a lecture given at the International School of Physics ‘Enrico Fermi’, Course CLXXXV: Metrology and Physical Constants, held in Varenna on 17-27 July 2012. It will also be published in the proceedings of the school, edited by E Bava, M Kühne and A M Rossi (IOS Press, Amsterdam and SIF, Bologna).

  2. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT - PHYSICAL REMOVAL OF MICROBIAL CONTAMINATION AGENTS IN DRINKING WATER, WATTS P{REMIER ULTRA 5 REVERSE OSMOSIS DRINKING WATER TREATMENT SYSTEM (POU)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Watts Premier Ultra 5 system was tested for removal of bacteria and viruses at NSF International's Laboratory. Watts Premier submitted ten units, which were split into two groups of five. One group received 25 days of conditioning prior to challenge testing, while the secon...

  3. 77 FR 41811 - In the Matter of Tennessee Valley Authority Watts Bar Nuclear Plant EA-12-021; Confirmatory Order...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION In the Matter of Tennessee Valley Authority Watts Bar Nuclear Plant EA-12-021; Confirmatory Order... for all matters discussed in the NRC's letter to TVA of March 23, 2012 (EA-12- 021). 8. This...

  4. 75 FR 80731 - Request for Exclusion of 120 Volt, 100 Watt R20 Short Incandescent Reflector Lamps

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-23

    ..., which is marketed for use in hot tub spas. Public comment is requested on whether DOE should grant the... watt R20 short, which is marketed exclusively for use in hot tub spas sold into specific jurisdictions... capacity for use in certain types of hot tub spas that require smaller dimensions--would lead to...

  5. ETV REPORT: REMOVAL OF CHEMICAL CONTAMINANTS IN DRINKING WATER – WATTS PREMIER INC. WP-4V DRINKING WATER TREATMENT SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Watts Premier WP-4V POU drinking water treatment system was tested for removal of aldicarb, benzene, cadmium, carbofuran, cesium, chloroform, dichlorvos, dicrotophos, fenamiphos, mercury, mevinphos, oxamyl, strontium, and strychnine. The WP-4V employs a reverse osmosis (RO) m...

  6. PHYSICAL REMOVAL OF MICROBIAL CONTAMINANTS IN DRINKING WATER – WATTS PREMIER INC. WP-4V DRINKING WATER TREATMENT SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Watts Premier WP-4V four-stage POU RO system was tested for removal of bacteria and viruses at NSF’s Drinking Water Treatment Systems Laboratory. Five systems were challenged with the bacteriophage viruses fr and MS2, and the bacteria Brevundimonas diminutaEM. The ...

  7. 75 FR 66797 - Watts Regulator, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Employment Control, D/B/A Employment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-29

    ... Employment and Training Administration Watts Regulator, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Employment Control, D/B/A Employment Staffing, Inc., Spindale, NC; Amended Certification Regarding Eligibility To... amended (``Act''), 19 U.S.C. 2273, the Department of Labor issued a Certification of Eligibility to...

  8. Polyimide based amorphous silicon solar modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeffrey, Frank R.; Grimmer, Derrick P.; Martens, Steven A.; Abudagga, Khaled; Thomas, Michael L.; Noak, Max

    1993-01-01

    Requirements for space power are increasingly emphasizing lower costs and higher specific powers. This results from new fiscal constraints, higher power requirements for larger applications, and the evolution toward longer distance missions such as a Lunar or Mars base. The polyimide based a-Si modules described are being developed to meet these needs. The modules consist of tandem a-Si solar cell material deposited directly on a roll of polyimide. A laser scribing/printing process subdivides the deposition into discrete cell strips which are series connected to produce the required voltage without cutting the polymer backing. The result is a large, monolithic, blanket type module approximately 30 cm wide and variable in length depending on demand. Current production modules have a specific power slightly over 500 W/Kg with room for significant improvement. Costs for the full blanket modules range from $30/Watt to $150/Watt depending on quantity and engineering requirements. Work to date focused on the modules themselves and adjusting them for the AMO spectrum. Work is needed yet to insure that the modules are suitable for the space environment.

  9. Photovoltaic concentrator module improvements study

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, S.L.; Kerschen, K.A. ); Hutchison, G. ); Nowlan, M.J. )

    1991-08-01

    This report presents results of a project to design and fabricate an improved photovoltaic concentrator module. Using previous work as a baseline, this study conducted analyses and testing to select major module components and design features. The lens parquet and concentrator solar cell were selected from the highest performing, available components. A single 185X point-focus module was fabricated by the project team and tested at Sandia. Major module characteristics include a 6 by 4 compression-molded acrylic lens parquet (0.737 m{sup 2} area), twenty-four 0.2 ohms-cm, FZ, p-Si solar cells (1.56 cm{sup 2} area) soldered to ceramic substrates and copper heat spreaders, and an aluminized steel housing with corrugated bottom. This project marked the first attempt to use prismatic covers on solar cells in a high-concentration, point-focus application. Cells with 15 percent metallization were obtained, but problems with the fabrication and placement of prismatic covers on these cells lead to the decision not to use covers in the prototype module. Cell assembly fabrication, module fabrication, and module optical design activities are presented here. Test results are also presented for bare cells, cell assemblies, and module. At operating conditions of 981 watts/m{sup 2} DNI and an estimated cell temperature of 65{degrees}C, the module demonstrated an efficiency of 13.9 percent prior to stressed environmental exposure. 12 refs., 56 figs., 7 tabs.

  10. The Planck Constant, the International System of Units, and the 2012 North American Watt Balance Absolute Gravity Comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newell, D. B.

    2012-12-01

    As outlined in Resolution 1 of the 24th Meeting of the General Conference on Weights and Measures (CGPM) on the future revision of the International System of Units (SI) [1], the current four SI base units the kilogram, the ampere, the kelvin and the mole, will be redefined in terms of invariants of nature. The new definitions will be based on fixed numerical values of the Planck constant (h), the elementary charge (e), the Boltzmann constant (k), and the Avogadro constant (NA), respectively. While significant progress has been made towards providing the necessary experimental results for the redefinition, some disagreement among the relevant data remain. Among the set of discrepant data towards the redefinition of the SI are the determinations of the Planck constant from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) watt balance [2] and the recent result from the National Research Council Canada (NRC) watt balance [3], with the discrepancy of roughly 2.5 parts in 107 being significantly outside the reported uncertainties. Of major concern is that the watt balance experiment is seen as a key component of a mise en pratique for the new kilogram definition, once such a redefinition takes place. The basic operational principle of a watt balance relates the Planck constant to mass, length, and time through h = mgvC, where m is the mass of an artifact mass standard, g is the local acceleration of gravity, v is a velocity, and C is a combination of frequencies and scalar constants. With the total uncertainty goal for the watt balance on the order of a few parts in 108, g needs to be determined at the location of the mass standard to parts in 109 such that its uncertainty is negligible in the final watt balance result. NIST and NRC have formed a collaborative effort to reconcile the relevant discrepant data and provide further progress towards preparing and testing a mise en pratique for the new kilogram definition. As an initial step, direct comparisons of

  11. Photovoltaic module bypass diode encapsulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepard, N. J., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    The design and processing techniques necessary to incorporate bypass diodes within the module encapsulant are presented. The Semicon PN junction diode cells were selected. Diode junction to heat spreader thermal resistance measurements, performed on a variety of mounted diode chip types and sizes, have yielded values which are consistently below 1 deg C per watt, but show some instability when thermally cycled over the temperature range from -40 to 150 deg C. Three representative experimental modules, each incorporating integral bypass diode/heat spreader assemblies of various sizes, were designed. Thermal testing of these modules enabled the formulation of a recommended heat spreader plate sizing relationship. The production cost of three encapsulated bypass diode/heat spreader assemblies were compared with similarly rated externally mounted packaged diodes. It is concluded that, when proper designed and installed, these bypass diode devices will improve the overall reliability of a terrestrial array over a 20 year design lifetime.

  12. Contrast of 10-20-day and 30-60-day intraseasonal SST propagation during summer and winter over the South China Sea and western North Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Xi; Wu, Renguang; Chen, Shangfeng

    2017-02-01

    This study documents the structure and propagation of intraseasonal sea surface temperature (SST) variations and relative contribution of surface latent heat flux and shortwave radiation to the SST propagation in the South China Sea (SCS) and western North Pacific (WNP) regions. The emphasis is on the contrast of intraseasonal SST propagation between summer and winter and between 10-20-day and 30-60-day time scales. The dominant SST pattern during summer displays a tilted southwest-northeast band from the SCS to the subtropical WNP on both time scales, but with a larger value in the subtropical WNP on the 10-20-day time scale and in the SCS on the 30-60-day time scale. The dominant SST pattern during winter resembles that during summer, but with a larger value in the SCS. In summer, the SST anomalies show obvious northwestward and northward propagations in the SCS-WNP region on the 10-20-day and 30-60-day time scales, respectively. The cloud-radiation effect is a dominant factor for the SST propagation on both time scales in the SCS-WNP region, with a supplementary effect from the wind-evaporation effect on the 10-20-day time scale. In winter, the SST anomalies show southward propagation on both time scales in the SCS, while the southward propagation in the WNP is weak and confined to the subtropics on the 10-20-day time scale. The wind-evaporation effect makes a larger contribution to the SST propagation than the cloud-radiation effect on both time scales in the SCS-WNP region.

  13. Quantum transport with long-range steps on Watts-Strogatz networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yan; Xu, Xin-Jian

    2016-07-01

    We study transport dynamics of quantum systems with long-range steps on the Watts-Strogatz network (WSN) which is generated by rewiring links of the regular ring. First, we probe physical systems modeled by the discrete nonlinear schrödinger (DNLS) equation. Using the localized initial condition, we compute the time-averaged occupation probability of the initial site, which is related to the nonlinearity, the long-range steps and rewiring links. Self-trapping transitions occur at large (small) nonlinear parameters for coupling ɛ=-1 (1), as long-range interactions are intensified. The structure disorder induced by random rewiring, however, has dual effects for ɛ=-1 and inhibits the self-trapping behavior for ɛ=1. Second, we investigate continuous-time quantum walks (CTQW) on the regular ring ruled by the discrete linear schrödinger (DLS) equation. It is found that only the presence of the long-range steps does not affect the efficiency of the coherent exciton transport, while only the allowance of random rewiring enhances the partial localization. If both factors are considered simultaneously, localization is greatly strengthened, and the transport becomes worse.

  14. Annual radiological environmental monitoring report: Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, 1992. Operations Services/Technical Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    This report describes the preoperational environmental radiological monitoring program conducted by TVA in the vicinity of the Watts Bar Nuclear Plant (WBN) in 1992. The program includes the collection of samples from the environment and the determination of the concentrations of radioactive materials in the samples. Samples are taken from stations in the general area of the plant and from areas that will not be influenced by plant operations. Material sampled includes air, water, milk, foods, vegetation, soil, fish, sediment, and direct radiation levels. During plant operations, results from stations near the plant will be compared with concentrations from control stations and with preoperational measurements to determine potential impacts to the public. Exposures calculated from environmental samples were contributed by naturally occurring radioactive materials, from materials commonly found in the environment as a result of atmospheric fallout, or from the operation of other nuclear facilities in the area. Since WBN has not operated, there has been no contribution of radioactivity from the plant to the environment.

  15. Watt-class high-power, high-beam-quality photonic-crystal lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirose, Kazuyoshi; Liang, Yong; Kurosaka, Yoshitaka; Watanabe, Akiyoshi; Sugiyama, Takahiro; Noda, Susumu

    2014-05-01

    The applications of surface-emitting lasers, in particular vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs), are currently being extended to various low-power fields including communications and interconnections. However, the fundamental difficulties in increasing their output power by more than several milliwatts while maintaining single-mode operation prevent their application in high-power fields such as material processing, laser medicine and nonlinear optics, despite their advantageous properties of circular beams, the absence of catastrophic optical damage, and their suitability for two-dimensional integration. Here, we demonstrate watt-class high-power, single-mode operation by a two-dimensional photonic-crystal surface-emitting laser under room-temperature, continuous-wave conditions. The two-dimensional band-edge resonant effect of a photonic crystal formed by metal-organic chemical vapour deposition enables a 1,000 times broader coherent-oscillation area, which results in a high beam quality of M2 <= 1.1, narrowing the focus spot by two orders of magnitude compared to VCSELs. Our demonstration promises to realize innovative high-power applications for surface-emitting lasers.

  16. Watt-level self-frequency-doubling Nd:GdCOB lasers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiyang; Zhang, Huaijin; Wang, Zhengping; Yu, Haohai; Zong, Nan; Ma, Changqin; Xu, Zuyan; Jiang, Minhua

    2010-05-24

    Laser-diode (LD) pumped self-frequency doubling (SFD) Nd:GdCa4O(BO3)3 (Nd:GdCOB) miniature laser was demonstrated. The output power as high as 1.35 W was achieved which is over than five times than previous values for Nd:LnCa4O(BO3)3 (Ln=Y or Gd) SFD lasers and becomes the highest continuous-wave output power in this field to our knowledge. The maximum optical conversion efficiency is 17%. By comparison, we found that the cutting direction along its optimal phase-matching direction out of the principal planes is the determining factor resulting in this watt-level efficient output power. Different with previous studies, the emission wavelength is centered at about 545 nm. We believed that this efficient laser will become the most competitive one in the existing commercial green lasers, especially in the laser display, medical treatment and spectroscopic analysis etc.

  17. Simulation of Watts Bar Unit 1 Initial Startup Tests with Continuous Energy Monte Carlo Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Godfrey, Andrew T; Gehin, Jess C; Bekar, Kursat B; Celik, Cihangir

    2014-01-01

    The Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors* is developing a collection of methods and software products known as VERA, the Virtual Environment for Reactor Applications. One component of the testing and validation plan for VERA is comparison of neutronics results to a set of continuous energy Monte Carlo solutions for a range of pressurized water reactor geometries using the SCALE component KENO-VI developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Recent improvements in data, methods, and parallelism have enabled KENO, previously utilized predominately as a criticality safety code, to demonstrate excellent capability and performance for reactor physics applications. The highly detailed and rigorous KENO solutions provide a reliable nu-meric reference for VERAneutronics and also demonstrate the most accurate predictions achievable by modeling and simulations tools for comparison to operating plant data. This paper demonstrates the performance of KENO-VI for the Watts Bar Unit 1 Cycle 1 zero power physics tests, including reactor criticality, control rod worths, and isothermal temperature coefficients.

  18. Quantification of degeneracy in Hodgkin-Huxley neurons on Newman-Watts small world network.

    PubMed

    Man, Menghua; Zhang, Ya; Ma, Guilei; Friston, Karl; Liu, Shanghe

    2016-08-07

    Degeneracy is a fundamental source of biological robustness, complexity and evolvability in many biological systems. However, degeneracy is often confused with redundancy. Furthermore, the quantification of degeneracy has not been addressed for realistic neuronal networks. The objective of this paper is to characterize degeneracy in neuronal network models via quantitative mathematic measures. Firstly, we establish Hodgkin-Huxley neuronal networks with Newman-Watts small world network architectures. Secondly, in order to calculate the degeneracy, redundancy and complexity in the ensuing networks, we use information entropy to quantify the information a neuronal response carries about the stimulus - and mutual information to measure the contribution of each subset of the neuronal network. Finally, we analyze the interdependency of degeneracy, redundancy and complexity - and how these three measures depend upon network architectures. Our results suggest that degeneracy can be applied to any neuronal network as a formal measure, and degeneracy is distinct from redundancy. Qualitatively degeneracy and complexity are more highly correlated over different network architectures, in comparison to redundancy. Quantitatively, the relationship between both degeneracy and redundancy depends on network coupling strength: both degeneracy and redundancy increase with complexity for small coupling strengths; however, as coupling strength increases, redundancy decreases with complexity (in contrast to degeneracy, which is relatively invariant). These results suggest that the degeneracy is a general topologic characteristic of neuronal networks, which could be applied quantitatively in neuroscience and connectomics.

  19. Photovoltaic frequency–watt curve design for frequency regulation and fast contingency reserves

    DOE PAGES

    Johnson, Jay; Neely, Jason C.; Delhotal, Jarod J.; ...

    2016-09-02

    When renewable energy resources are installed in electricity grids, they typically increase generation variability and displace thermal generator control action and inertia. Grid operators combat these emerging challenges with advanced distributed energy resource (DER) functions to support frequency and provide voltage regulation and protection mechanisms. This paper focuses on providing frequency reserves using autonomous IEC TR 61850-90-7 pointwise frequency-watt (FW) functions that adjust DER active power as a function of measured grid frequency. The importance of incorporating FW functions into a fleet of photovoltaic (PV) systems is demonstrated in simulation. Effects of FW curve design, including curtailment, deadband, and droop,more » were analyzed against performance metrics using Latin hypercube sampling for 20%, 70%, and 120% PV penetration scenarios on the Hawaiian island of Lanai. Finally, to understand the financial implications of FW functions to utilities, a performance function was defined based on monetary costs attributable to curtailed PV production, load shedding, and generator wear. An optimization wrapper was then created to find the best FW function curve for each penetration level. Lastly, it was found that in all cases, the utility would save money by implementing appropriate FW functions.« less

  20. Photovoltaic frequency–watt curve design for frequency regulation and fast contingency reserves

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Jay; Neely, Jason C.; Delhotal, Jarod J.; Lave, Matthew

    2016-09-02

    When renewable energy resources are installed in electricity grids, they typically increase generation variability and displace thermal generator control action and inertia. Grid operators combat these emerging challenges with advanced distributed energy resource (DER) functions to support frequency and provide voltage regulation and protection mechanisms. This paper focuses on providing frequency reserves using autonomous IEC TR 61850-90-7 pointwise frequency-watt (FW) functions that adjust DER active power as a function of measured grid frequency. The importance of incorporating FW functions into a fleet of photovoltaic (PV) systems is demonstrated in simulation. Effects of FW curve design, including curtailment, deadband, and droop, were analyzed against performance metrics using Latin hypercube sampling for 20%, 70%, and 120% PV penetration scenarios on the Hawaiian island of Lanai. Finally, to understand the financial implications of FW functions to utilities, a performance function was defined based on monetary costs attributable to curtailed PV production, load shedding, and generator wear. An optimization wrapper was then created to find the best FW function curve for each penetration level. Lastly, it was found that in all cases, the utility would save money by implementing appropriate FW functions.

  1. Ecological risk assessment for residual coal fly ash at Watts Bar Reservoir, Tennessee.

    PubMed

    Carriker, Neil E; Jones, Daniel S; Walls, Suzanne J; Stojak, Amber R

    2015-01-01

    The Tennessee Valley Authority conducted a Baseline Ecological Risk Assessment (BERA) for the Kingston Fossil Plant ash release site to evaluate potential effects of residual coal ash on biota in Watts Bar Reservoir, Tennessee. The BERA was in response to a release of 4.1 million m(3) of coal ash on December 22, 2008. It used multiple lines of evidence to assess risks for 17 different ecological receptors to approximately 400000 m(3) of residual ash in the Emory and Clinch rivers. Here, we provide a brief overview of the BERA results and then focus on how the results were used to help shape risk management decisions. Those decisions included selecting monitored natural recovery for remediation of the residual ash in the Emory and Clinch rivers and designing a long-term monitoring plan that includes adaptive management principles for timely adjustment to changing conditions. This study demonstrates the importance of site-specific ecological data (e.g., tissue concentrations for food items, reproductive data, and population data) in complex ecological risk assessments. It also illustrates the value of the US Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) data quality objectives process in building consensus and identifying multiple uses of results. The relatively limited adverse effects of this likely worst-case scenario for ash-related exposures in a lotic environment provide important context for the USEPA's new coal combustion residue disposal rules.

  2. Watts Bar Unit 1 Cycle Zero Power Physics Tests Analysis with VERA-CS

    SciTech Connect

    Gehin, Jess C; Godfrey, Andrew T; Evans, Thomas M; Hamilton, Steven P; Francheschini, F.

    2014-01-01

    The Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL) is developing a collection of methods and software products known as VERA, the Virtual Environment for Reactor Applications, including a core simulation capability called VERA-CS. A key milestone for this endeavor is to validate VERA against measurements from operating nuclear power reactors. The first step in validation against plant data is to determine the ability of VERA to accurately simulate the initial startup physics tests for Watts Bar Nuclear Power Station, Unit 1 (WBN1) cycle 1. VERA-CS calculations were performed with the Insilico code developed at ORNL using cross section processing from the SCALE system and the transport capabilities within the Denovo transport code using the SPN method. The calculations were performed with ENDF/B-VII.0 cross sections in 252 groups (collapsed to 23 groups for the 3D transport solution). The key results of the comparison of calculations with measurements include initial criticality, control rod worth critical configurations, control rod worth, differential boron worth, and isothermal temperature reactivity coefficient (ITC). The VERA results for these parameters show good agreement with measurements, with the exception of the ITC, which requires additional investigation. Results are also compared to those obtained with Monte Carlo methods and a current industry core simulator.

  3. Development of a radioisotope heat source for the two-watt radioisotope thermoelectric generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howell, Edwin I.; McNeil, Dennis C.; Amos, Wayne R.

    1992-01-01

    Described is a radioisotope heat source for the Two-Watt Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) which is being considered for possible application by the U.S. Navy and for other Department of Defense applications. The heat source thermal energy (75 Wt) is produced from the alpha decay of plutonium-238 which is in the form of high-fired plutonium dioxide. The capsule is non-vented and consists of three domed cylindrical components each closed with a corresponding sealed end cap. Surrounding the fuel is the liner component, which is fabricated from a tantalum-based alloy, T-111. Also fabricated from T-111 is the next component, the strength member, which serves to meet pressure and impact criteria. The outermost component, or clad, is the oxidation- and corrosion-resistant nickel-based alloy, Hastelloy S. This paper defines the design considerations, details the hardware fabrication and welding processes, discusses the addition of yttrium to the fuel to reduce liner embrittlement, and describes the testing that has been conducted or is planned to assure that there is fuel containment not only during the heat source operational life, but also in case of an accident environment.

  4. Suppression of spurious mode oscillation in mega-watt 77-GHz gyrotron as a high quality probe beam source for the collective Thomson scattering in LHD

    SciTech Connect

    Ogasawara, S.; Kubo, S.; Nishiura, M.; Tanaka, K.; Shimozuma, T.; Yoshimura, Y.; Igami, H.; Takahashi, H.; Ito, S.; Takita, Y.; Kobayashi, S.; Mizuno, Y.; Okada, K.; Tatematsu, Y.; Saito, T.; Minami, R.; Kariya, T.; Imai, T.

    2012-10-15

    Collective Thomson scattering (CTS) diagnostic requires a strong probing beam to diagnose a bulk and fast ion distribution function in fusion plasmas. A mega-watt gyrotron for electron cyclotron resonance heating is used as a probing beam in the large helical device. Spurious mode oscillations are often observed during the turning on/off phase of the modulation. The frequency spectra of the 77-GHz gyrotron output power have been measured, and then one of the spurious modes, which interferes with the CTS receiver system, is identified as the TE{sub 17,6} mode at the frequency of 74.7 GHz. The mode competition calculation indicates that the increase of the magnetic field strength at the gyrotron resonator can avoid such a spurious mode and excite only the main TE{sub 18,6} mode. The spurious radiation at the 74.7 GHz is experimentally demonstrated to be suppressed in the stronger magnetic field than that optimized for the high-power operation.

  5. A Comparison of Ion Acceleration Characteristics for Krypton and Xenon Propellants within a 600 Watt Hall Thruster

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-20

    fluctuation.8,9 However, care must be taken to ensure that the relative effects of these phenomena are separable. In addition, magnetic ( Zeeman effect ...capability. This work compares the internal propellant acceleration of krypton within a laboratory medium power Hall effect thruster to historical xenon...Watt Hall Effect Thruster William A. Hargus, Jr.∗ Gregory M. Azarnia† Michael R. Nakles‡ Air Force Research Laboratory, Edwards Air Force Base, CA

  6. An analysis and design of the mechanical characteristics of the knife edges used in the NPL watt balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, In-Mook; Robinson, Ian

    2014-04-01

    Of the seven base units of the international system of units, the SI, only the kilogram is still defined in terms of a material artefact. The watt balance is an experimental approach which supports a new definition of the kilogram in terms of constants of nature. Some watt balances, such as the NPL Mk II watt balance, use knives and flats for the balance pivots as they have the advantages of greater robustness over flexure pivots in this particular application. However, hysteresis in the knives can produce errors in the weighing through systematic shifts in the equilibrium point of the balance and it is desirable to investigate this effect as an aid to its elimination. This paper analyses the hysteresis mechanism using both finite element techniques and direct measurement. It was found that the cause of hysteresis is not normal stress but shear stress and that the deformation of the flat, rather than that of the knife, is an important factor. Problems that could not be analysed in a two-dimensional finite element model were investigated using a simplified stand-alone balance. The combined results from the finite element analysis and the stand-alone balance suggest that material properties and tip radius are more important than friction coefficient and tip angle. At loads where knife and flat distortion are low the straightness of the knife and the roughness of the surfaces can have a significant effect.

  7. Initial clinical results of laser prostatectomy procedure for symptomatic BPH using a new 50-watt diode laser (wavelength 1000 nm)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatta, Krishna M.

    1995-05-01

    Lasers have been used for symptomatic Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) in both contact and non-contact modes with reported success rates equivalent to that of Transurethral Resection of Prostate (TURP). A new high power diode laser (Phototome), capable of delivering up to 50 watts of 1000 nm wavelength laser power via a 1 mm quartz fiber, was used to treat 15 patients with symptomatic BPH. Five patients had acute retention, 3 had long term catheter (7 - 48 months), and 8 had severe prostatism. Spinal anesthesia was used in 11 patients, and 4 patients had local anesthesia and intravenous sedation. Four quadrant coagulation with an angle firing probe delivering 50 watts of laser power for 60 seconds in one quadrant was used as the core of the treatment in 11 patients, contact vaporization of BPH tissue was performed in one patient using a 4.5 mm ball tip was used in one patient and three patients with bladder neck stenosis had bladder neck incision performed using a 1 mm quartz fiber delivering 30 watts of laser power. A foley catheter was left indwelling and removed after 5 - 7 days. All patients except one were catheter free after a mean of 8 days. One patient continued to have severe prostatism and had a TURP performed with good results after 3 months of his laser prostatectomy procedure. AUA symptom scores available in 11 patients was found to be 4 after 1 - 3 months of the initial procedure.

  8. A new Cu(TiBN x ) alloy film for boosting the per-watt illuminance of high power LEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chon-Hsin

    2017-01-01

    In this study, a new Cu(TiBN x ) alloy film has been explored and utilized as a flexible heat dissipation layer for the substrate of high power LEDs to boost their per-watt illuminance by reducing the thermal resistance and increasing the thermal conductivity of the substrate. The new film is a Cu-alloy seed layer fabricated by co-sputtering Cu and TiB in an N2 atmosphere on a Ta/polyimide (Ta/PI) substrate. The film was then annealed at 340 °C for 1 h without noticeable Cu oxide formation around the film-substrate interface. The new film exhibits low resistivity, high thermal conductivity and low thermal resistance, rendering a substantially higher per-watt illuminance for LEDs that utilize the film as their additional heat dissipation layer. The experimental results gained in the study appear to confirm the new Cu(TiBN x ) film as a good candidate material, at least, for boosting the per-watt illuminance of high power LEDs.

  9. Size evolution of nanomagnetic particles and magnetotransport properties of (Co90Fe10)20Ag80 nanogranular films: influence of Cu80Ag15Au5 underlayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Öksüzoğlu, Ramis Mustafa; Meshcheryakov, Vladimir F.; Ayas, Erhan

    2012-06-01

    The influence of (Co90Fe10)20Ag80 film thickness and of Cu80Ag15Au5 underlayer on nanomagnetic, magnetotransport and structural properties of (Co90Fe10)20Ag80 nanogranular films prepared by ultra-high vacuum ion beam sputtering technique have been investigated using X-ray diffraction, X-ray reflectivity and vibrating sample magnetometer. Films indicate a superparamagnetic behavior. The evolution of the magnetic particle size in (Co90Fe10)20Ag80 film with different thicknesses was calculated by fit of magnetization curves using Langevin equation. A parallel resistance model has been used to determine particle size distribution. The average (mean) particle sizes range from 1.6 to 2.1 nm. A linear dependence of giant magnetoresistance (GMR) on the particle size has been found. This result is also supported by the observed linear correlation between the square root of the effective magnetization and the particle size. Furthermore, a linear correlation between the square of GMR and the distance between particles has been found. This remains unchanged also in (Co90Fe10)20Ag80 films with Cu80Ag15Au5 underlayer. Using of the underlayer leads to an enhancement of the mean particle size (1.8-2.5 nm) and GMR; however, to a reduction of distances between particles accompanied by the destruction of the <111> texture in the Ag matrix structure. The reason of the GMR effect in the nanogranular films is discussed by means of the obtained results.

  10. Assessment of Pellet-Clad Interaction Indicators in Watts Bar Unit 1 using the VERA Framework

    SciTech Connect

    Stimpson, Shane G; Powers, Jeffrey J; Clarno, Kevin T; Pawlowski, Roger; Bratton, Ryan

    2015-01-01

    The Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL) aims to provide high-fidelity, multiphysics simulations of light water reactors (LWRs) by coupling a variety of codes within the Virtual Environment for Reactor Analysis (VERA). One of the primary goals of CASL is to predict local cladding failure through pellet-clad interaction (PCI). This capability is currently being pursued through several different approaches, such as with Tiamat, which is a simulation tool within VERA that more tightly couples the MPACT neutron transport solver, the CTF thermal hydraulics solver, and the MOOSE-based Bison-CASL fuel performance code. However, the process in this paper focuses on running fuel performance calculations with Bison-CASL to predict PCI using the multicycle output data from coupled neutron transport/thermal hydraulics simulations. In recent work within CASL, Watts Bar Unit 1 has been simulated over 12 cycles using the VERA core simulator capability based on MPACT and CTF. Using the output from these simulations, Bison-CASL results can be obtained without rerunning all 12 cycles, while providing some insight into PCI indicators. Multi-cycle Bison-CASL results are presented and compared against results from the FRAPCON fuel performance code. There are several quantities of interest in considering PCI and subsequent fuel rod failures, such as the clad hoop stress and maximum centerline fuel temperature, particularly as a function of time. Bison-CASL performs single-rod simulations using representative power and temperature distributions, providing high-resolution results for these and a number of other quantities. This will assist in identifying fuels rods as potential failure locations for use in further analyses.

  11. Effects of coal fly ash on tree swallow reproduction in Watts Bar Reservoir, Tennessee.

    PubMed

    Walls, Suzanne J; Meyer, Carolyn B; Iannuzzi, Jacqueline; Schlekat, Tamar H

    2015-01-01

    Coal-fly ash was released in unprecedented amounts (4.1 × 10(6) m(3) ) into the Emory River from the Tennessee Valley Authority Kingston Fossil Plant on Watts Bar Reservoir in Tennessee. Tree swallows were exposed to ash-related constituents at the ash release via their diet of emergent aquatic insects, whose larval forms can accumulate constituents from submerged river sediments. Reproduction of tree swallow colonies was assessed over a 2-year period by evaluating whether 1) ash constituent concentrations were elevated in egg, eggshell, and nestling tissues at colonies near ash-impacted river reaches compared to reference colonies, 2) production of fledglings per nesting female was significantly lower in ash-impacted colonies versus reference colonies, and 3) ash constituent concentrations or diet concentrations were correlated with nest productivity measures (clutch size, hatching success, and nestling survival, and fledglings produced per nest). Of the 26 ash constituents evaluated, 4 (Se, Sr, Cu, and Hg) were significantly elevated in tissues potentially from the ash, and 3 (Se, Sr, and Cu) in tissues or in swallow diet items were weakly correlated to at least one nest-productivity measure or egg weight. Tree swallow hatching success was significantly reduced by 12%, but fledgling production per nest was unaffected due to larger clutch sizes in the impacted than reference colonies. Bioconcentration from the ash to insects in the diet to tree swallow eggs appears to be low. Overall, adverse impacts of the ash on tree swallow reproduction were not observed, but monitoring is continuing to further ensure Se from the residual ash does not adversely affect tree swallow reproduction over time. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2015;11:56-66. © 2014 SETAC.

  12. Life test result of Ricor K529N 1watt linear cryocooler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nachman, Ilan; Veprik, Alexander; Pundak, Nachman

    2007-04-01

    The authors summarize the results of the accelerated life testing of the Ricor type K529N 1 Watt linear split Stirling cooler. The test was conducted in the period 2003-2006, during which the cooler accumulated in excess of 27,500 working hours at an elevated ambient temperature, which is equivalent to 45,000 hours at normal ambient conditions, and performed about 7,500 operational cycles including cooldown and steady-state phases. The cryocooler performances were assessed through the cooldown time and power consumption; no visible degradation in performances was observed. After the cooler failure and the compressor disassembling, an electrical short was discovered in the driving coil. The analysis has shown that the wire insulating varnish was not suitable for such elevated temperatures. It is important to note that the cooler under test was taken from the earliest engineering series; in the later manufacturing line military grade wire with high temperature insulation was used, no customer complaints have been recorded in this instance Special attention was paid to the thorough examination of the technical condition of the critical components of the cooler interior. In particular, dynamic piston-cylinder seal, flying leads, internal O-rings and driving coil were examined in the compressor. As to the cold head, we focused on studying the conditions of the dynamic bushing-plunger seal, O-rings and displacer-regenerator. In addition, a leak test was performed to assess the condition of the metallic crushed seals. From the analysis, the authors draw the conclusion that the cooler design is adequate for long life performance (in excess of 20,000 working hours) applications.

  13. De Novo Transcriptome Sequencing of Oryza officinalis Wall ex Watt to Identify Disease-Resistance Genes.

    PubMed

    He, Bin; Gu, Yinghong; Tao, Xiang; Cheng, Xiaojie; Wei, Changhe; Fu, Jian; Cheng, Zaiquan; Zhang, Yizheng

    2015-12-10

    Oryza officinalis Wall ex Watt is one of the most important wild relatives of cultivated rice and exhibits high resistance to many diseases. It has been used as a source of genes for introgression into cultivated rice. However, there are limited genomic resources and little genetic information publicly reported for this species. To better understand the pathways and factors involved in disease resistance and accelerating the process of rice breeding, we carried out a de novo transcriptome sequencing of O. officinalis. In this research, 137,229 contigs were obtained ranging from 200 to 19,214 bp with an N50 of 2331 bp through de novo assembly of leaves, stems and roots in O. officinalis using an Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform. Based on sequence similarity searches against a non-redundant protein database, a total of 88,249 contigs were annotated with gene descriptions and 75,589 transcripts were further assigned to GO terms. Candidate genes for plant-pathogen interaction and plant hormones regulation pathways involved in disease-resistance were identified. Further analyses of gene expression profiles showed that the majority of genes related to disease resistance were all expressed in the three tissues. In addition, there are two kinds of rice bacterial blight-resistant genes in O. officinalis, including two Xa1 genes and three Xa26 genes. All 2 Xa1 genes showed the highest expression level in stem, whereas one of Xa26 was expressed dominantly in leaf and other 2 Xa26 genes displayed low expression level in all three tissues. This transcriptomic database provides an opportunity for identifying the genes involved in disease-resistance and will provide a basis for studying functional genomics of O. officinalis and genetic improvement of cultivated rice in the future.

  14. Standalone BISON Fuel Performance Results for Watts Bar Unit 1, Cycles 1-3

    SciTech Connect

    Clarno, Kevin T.; Pawlowski, Roger; Stimpson, Shane; Powers, Jeffrey

    2016-03-07

    The Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL) is moving forward with more complex multiphysics simulations and increased focus on incorporating fuel performance analysis methods. The coupled neutronics/thermal-hydraulics capabilities within the Virtual Environment for Reactor Applications Core Simulator (VERA-CS) have become relatively stable, and major advances have been made in analysis efforts, including the simulation of twelve cycles of Watts Bar Nuclear Unit 1 (WBN1) operation. While this is a major achievement, the VERA-CS approaches for treating fuel pin heat transfer have well-known limitations that could be eliminated through better integration with the BISON fuel performance code. Several approaches are being implemented to consider fuel performance, including a more direct multiway coupling with Tiamat, as well as a more loosely coupled one-way approach with standalone BISON cases. Fuel performance typically undergoes an independent analysis using a standalone fuel performance code with manually specified input defined from an independent core simulator solution or set of assumptions. This report summarizes the improvements made since the initial milestone to execute BISON from VERA-CS output. Many of these improvements were prompted through tighter collaboration with the BISON development team at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). A brief description of WBN1 and some of the VERA-CS data used to simulate it are presented. Data from a small mesh sensitivity study are shown, which helps justify the mesh parameters used in this work. The multi-cycle results are presented, followed by the results for the first three cycles of WBN1 operation, particularly the parameters of interest to pellet-clad interaction (PCI) screening (fuel-clad gap closure, maximum centerline fuel temperature, maximum/minimum clad hoop stress, and cumulative damage index). Once the mechanics of this capability are functioning, future work will target cycles with

  15. Results of Performance Tests Performed on the John Watts Casing Connection on 7" Pipe

    SciTech Connect

    John D. Watts

    1999-08-01

    Stress Engineering Services (SES) was contracted by Mr. John Watts to test his threaded connection developed for oilfield oil and gas service. This particular test required the application of a variety of loads including axial tension and compression, internal pressure (gas), external pressure (water), bending and both low and elevated temperature. These loads were used to determine the sealing and structural limits of the connection. The connection design tested had tapered threads with 10 threads per inch. A square thread form and a round thread form were tested. The square thread form had a 2{sup o} load flank and 15{sup o} stab flank. The round thread had a 0{sup o} load flank and 20{sup o} stab flank. Most of the testing was performed on the round thread form. Both a coupled connection design and an integral connection design were tested. The coupling was a pin by pin (male) thread, with the pipe having a box (female) thread. Both designs have outside and inside diameters that are flush with the pipe body. Both designs also contain a small external shoulder. The test procedure selected for this evaluation was the newly written ISO 13679 procedure for full scale testing of casing and tubing connections. The ISO procedure requires a variety of tests that includes makeup/breakout testing, internal gas sealability/external water sealability testing with axial tension, axial compression, bending, internal gas thermal cycle tests and limit load (failure) tests. This test was performed with four coupled samples and included most of these loads. Two integral samples were also included for limit load testing ISO makeup/breakout tests are divided into three types--initial makeup, IML1, repeated makeup within the same sample, MBL, and repeated makeup using several samples called round robin, RR. IMU and MBL were performed in this project. The ISO sealing and structural procedure is divided into four primary tests and identified as Series A, B, C and Limit Load (failure

  16. High-concentration photovoltaic module design

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, S.L.; Stoddard, L.E.

    1986-08-01

    Over the past 3 years, Black and Veatch has been leading a team in the ongoing design of a high-concentration, high-performance photovoltaic (PV) module for the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The current design consists of a deep-drawn aluminized steel housing containing 48 cell packages in a 4-row by 12-column matrix. Each cell package includes an anodized aluminum secondary optical element, a 27.5% efficient Stanford University/EPRI 500X concentration point contact silicon PV cell, an alumina substrate, and a copper heat spreader. Developmental efforts underway for a comolded glass/polymer Fresnel lens parquet indicate the potential for a substantial decrease in molding time and, thereby, cost, in comparison to more conventional compression molding of acrylic lenses. Further development is necessary to achieve comparable optical performance of the lens. Current activities have included the development of PVOPTICS, a Monte Carlo computer code particularly suited to the module optical design. The module is projected to produce 287 watts at an efficiency of 22%. The module cost, at large production rates, is estimated to be $275 ($0.96 per watt).

  17. Power Generator with Thermo-Differential Modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saiz, John R.; Nguyen, James

    2010-01-01

    A thermoelectric power generator consists of an oven box and a solar cooker/solar reflector unit. The solar reflector concentrates sunlight into heat and transfers the heat into the oven box via a heat pipe. The oven box unit is surrounded by five thermoelectric modules and is located at the bottom end of the solar reflector. When the heat is pumped into one side of the thermoelectric module and ejected from the opposite side at ambient temperatures, an electrical current is produced. Typical temperature accumulation in the solar reflector is approximately 200 C (392 F). The heat pipe then transfers heat into the oven box with a loss of about 40 percent. At the ambient temperature of about 20 C (68 F), the temperature differential is about 100 C (180 F) apart. Each thermoelectric module, generates about 6 watts of power. One oven box with five thermoelectric modules produces about 30 watts. The system provides power for unattended instruments in remote areas, such as space colonies and space vehicles, and in polar and other remote regions on Earth.

  18. 10/20, 10/10, and 10/5 systems revisited: their validity as relative head-surface-based positioning systems.

    PubMed

    Jurcak, Valer; Tsuzuki, Daisuke; Dan, Ippeita

    2007-02-15

    With the advent of multi-channel EEG hardware systems and the concurrent development of topographic and tomographic signal source localization methods, the international 10/20 system, a standard system for electrode positioning with 21 electrodes, was extended to higher density electrode settings such as 10/10 and 10/5 systems, allowing more than 300 electrode positions. However, their effectiveness as relative head-surface-based positioning systems has not been examined. We previously developed a virtual 10/20 measurement algorithm that can analyze any structural MR head and brain image. Extending this method to the virtual 10/10 and 10/5 measurement algorithms, we analyzed the MR images of 17 healthy subjects. The acquired scalp positions of the 10/10 and 10/5 systems were normalized to the Montreal Neurological Institute (MNI) stereotactic coordinates and their spatial variability was assessed. We described and examined the effects of spatial variability due to the selection of positioning systems and landmark placement strategies. As long as a detailed rule for a particular system was provided, it yielded precise landmark positions on the scalp. Moreover, we evaluated the effective spatial resolution of 329 scalp landmark positions of the 10/5 system for multi-subject studies. As long as a detailed rule for landmark setting was provided, 241 scalp positions could be set effectively when there was no overlapping of two neighboring positions. Importantly, 10/10 positions could be well separated on a scalp without overlapping. This study presents a referential framework for establishing the effective spatial resolutions of 10/20, 10/10, and 10/5 systems as relative head-surface-based positioning systems.

  19. Results of Performance Tests Performed on the John Watts WW Casing Connection on 7" Pipe

    SciTech Connect

    John D. Watts

    2000-02-01

    Stress Engineering Services (SES) was contracted by Mr. John Watts to test his ''WW'' threaded connection developed for oilfield oil and gas service. This work was a continuation of testing performed by SES as reported in August of 1999. The connection design tested was identified as ''WW''. The samples were all integral (no coupled connections) and contained a wedge thread form with 90{sup o} flank angles relative to the pipe centerline. The wedge thread form is a variable width thread that primarily engages on the flanks. This thread form provides very high torque capacity and good stabbing ability and makeup. The test procedure selected for one of the samples was the newly written ISO 13679 procedure for full scale testing of casing and tubing connections, which is currently going through the ISO acceptance process. The ISO procedure requires a variety of tests that includes makeup/breakout testing, internal gas sealability/external water sealability testing with axial tension, axial compression, bending, internal gas thermal cycle tests and limit load (failure) tests. This test procedure was performed with one sample. Four samples were tested to failure. Table 1 contains a summary of the tasks performed by SES. The project started with the delivery of test samples by Mr. Watts. Pipe from the previous round of tests was used for the new samples. Figure 1 shows the structural and sealing results relative to the pipe body. Sample 1 was used to determine the torque capacity of the connection. Torque was applied to the capacity of SES's equipment which was 28,424 ft-lbs. From this, an initial recommended torque range of 7,200 to 8,800 ft-lbs. was selected. The sample was disassembled and while there was no galling observed in the threads, the end of the pin had collapsed inward. Sample 2 received three makeups. Breakouts 1 and 2 also had collapsing of the pin end, with no thread galling. From these make/breaks, it was decided to reduce the amount of lubricant

  20. Assessing ecological risks to the fish community from residual coal fly ash in Watts Bar Reservoir, Tennessee

    DOE PAGES

    Rigg, David K.; Wacksman, Mitch N.; Iannuzzi, Jacqueline; ...

    2014-12-18

    For this research, extensive site-specific biological and environmental data were collected to support an evaluation of risks to the fish community in Watts Bar Reservoir from residual ash from the December 2008 Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) Kingston ash release. This paper describes the approach used and results of the risk assessment for the fish community, which consists of multiple measurement endpoints (measures of exposure and effects) for fish. The lines of evidence included 1) comparing postspill annual fish community assessments with nearby prespill data and data from other TVA reservoirs, 2) evaluating possible effects of exposures of fish eggs andmore » larval fish to ash in controlled laboratory toxicity tests, 3) evaluating reproductive competence of field-exposed fish, 4) assessing individual fish health through physical examination, histopathology, and blood chemistry, 5) comparing fish tissue concentrations with literature-based critical body residues, and 6) comparing concentrations of ash-related contaminants in surface waters with US Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) Ambient Water Quality Standards for Fish and Aquatic Life. These measurement endpoints were treated as independent lines of evidence that were integrated into an overall weight-of-evidence estimate of risk to the fish community. Collectively, the data and analysis presented here indicate that ash and ash-related constituents pose negligible risks to the fish communities in Watts Bar Reservoir. This conclusion contradicts the predictions by some researchers immediately following the ash release of devastating effects on the aquatic ecology of Watts Bar Reservoir. The information presented in this article reaffirms the wisdom of carefully evaluating the evidence before predicting probable ecological effects of a major event such as the TVA Kingston ash release. Lastly, this study demonstrates that a thorough and detailed investigation using multiple measurement endpoints

  1. Assessing ecological risks to the fish community from residual coal fly ash in Watts Bar Reservoir, Tennessee.

    PubMed

    Rigg, David K; Wacksman, Mitch N; Iannuzzi, Jacqueline; Baker, Tyler F; Adams, Marshall; Greeley, Mark S

    2015-01-01

    Extensive site-specific biological and environmental data were collected to support an evaluation of risks to the fish community in Watts Bar Reservoir from residual ash from the December 2008 Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) Kingston ash release. This article describes the approach used and results of the risk assessment for the fish community, which consists of multiple measurement endpoints (measures of exposure and effects) for fish. The lines of evidence included 1) comparing postspill annual fish community assessments with nearby prespill data and data from other TVA reservoirs, 2) evaluating possible effects of exposures of fish eggs and larval fish to ash in controlled laboratory toxicity tests, 3) evaluating reproductive competence of field-exposed fish, 4) assessing individual fish health through physical examination, histopathology, and blood chemistry, 5) comparing fish tissue concentrations with literature-based critical body residues, and 6) comparing concentrations of ash-related contaminants in surface waters with US Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) Ambient Water Quality Standards for Fish and Aquatic Life. These measurement endpoints were treated as independent lines of evidence that were integrated into an overall weight-of-evidence estimate of risk to the fish community. Collectively, the data and analysis presented here indicate that ash and ash-related constituents pose negligible risks to the fish communities in Watts Bar Reservoir. This conclusion contradicts the predictions by some researchers immediately following the ash release of devastating effects on the aquatic ecology of Watts Bar Reservoir. The information presented in this article reaffirms the wisdom of carefully evaluating the evidence before predicting probable ecological effects of a major event such as the TVA Kingston ash release. This study demonstrates that a thorough and detailed investigation using multiple measurement endpoints is needed to properly evaluate

  2. Assessing ecological risks to the fish community from residual coal fly ash in Watts Bar Reservoir, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Rigg, David K.; Wacksman, Mitch N.; Iannuzzi, Jacqueline; Baker, Tyler F.; Adams, Marshall; Greeley, Jr., Mark Stephen

    2014-12-18

    For this research, extensive site-specific biological and environmental data were collected to support an evaluation of risks to the fish community in Watts Bar Reservoir from residual ash from the December 2008 Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) Kingston ash release. This paper describes the approach used and results of the risk assessment for the fish community, which consists of multiple measurement endpoints (measures of exposure and effects) for fish. The lines of evidence included 1) comparing postspill annual fish community assessments with nearby prespill data and data from other TVA reservoirs, 2) evaluating possible effects of exposures of fish eggs and larval fish to ash in controlled laboratory toxicity tests, 3) evaluating reproductive competence of field-exposed fish, 4) assessing individual fish health through physical examination, histopathology, and blood chemistry, 5) comparing fish tissue concentrations with literature-based critical body residues, and 6) comparing concentrations of ash-related contaminants in surface waters with US Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) Ambient Water Quality Standards for Fish and Aquatic Life. These measurement endpoints were treated as independent lines of evidence that were integrated into an overall weight-of-evidence estimate of risk to the fish community. Collectively, the data and analysis presented here indicate that ash and ash-related constituents pose negligible risks to the fish communities in Watts Bar Reservoir. This conclusion contradicts the predictions by some researchers immediately following the ash release of devastating effects on the aquatic ecology of Watts Bar Reservoir. The information presented in this article reaffirms the wisdom of carefully evaluating the evidence before predicting probable ecological effects of a major event such as the TVA Kingston ash release. Lastly, this study demonstrates that a thorough and detailed investigation using multiple measurement endpoints is needed

  3. Description of a new Tiporus Watts, 1985 from northern Queensland, Australia (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae, Hydroporinae).

    PubMed

    Hendrich, Lars; Balke, Michael; Watts, Chris H S

    2016-11-09

    Tiporus queenslandicus sp. n. is described from NE Queensland. The new species is similar to T. undecimmaculatus (Clark, 1862) and T. giuliani (Watts, 1978) from the Northern Territory and north-western Australia but well characterized by its larger size, more elongate habitus, and form of median lobe and parameres. Tiporus queenslandicus sp. n. is a lotic species being collected from rest pools of intermittent creeks and rivers with a sandy bottom. Important species-defining characters (habitus, median lobe, paramere, protibia of male) are illustrated. Together with T. queenslandicus sp. n. the genus comprises now 13 species.

  4. An intracavity, frequency-doubled BaWO(4) Raman laser generating multi-watt continuous-wave, yellow emission.

    PubMed

    Lee, Andrew J; Pask, Helen M; Piper, James A; Zhang, Huaijin; Wang, Jiyang

    2010-03-15

    We report the generation of multi-watt continuous-wave (CW) yellow laser emission from an intracavity diode-pumped Nd:GdVO(4) /BaWO(4) Raman laser utilising a high-Q resonator (for fundamental and first-Stokes wavelengths) and intracavity frequency-doubling in LBO. CW output power of 2.9 W is achieved with a high overall diode-to-yellow conversion efficiency of 11% and with good beam quality (M(2) approximately 2.5).

  5. Photovoltaic Cz silicon module improvements. Annual technical progress report, November 9, 1995--November 8, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    King, R.R.; Mitchell, K.W.; Jester, T.L.

    1998-02-01

    Work focused on reducing the cost per watt of Cz silicon photovoltaic modules under Phase I of Siemens Solar Industries` DOE/NREL PVMaT 4A subcontract is described. Module cost components are analyzed and solutions to high-cost items are discussed in terms of specific module designs. The approaches of using larger cells and modulus to reduce per-part processing cost, and of minimizing yield loss are particularly leveraging. Yield components for various parts of the fabrication process and various types of defects are shown, and measurements of the force required to break wafers throughout the cell fabrication sequence are given. The most significant type of yield loss is mechanical breakage. The implementation of statistical process control on key manufacturing processes at Siemens Solar Industries is described. Module configurations prototyped during Phase I of this project and scheduled to begin production in Phase II have a projected cost per watt reduction of 19%.

  6. Present and future mass standards for the LNE watt balance and the future dissemination of the mass unit in France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinot, Patrick; Beaudoux, Florian; Bentouati, Djilali; Espel, Patrick; Madec, Tanguy; Thomas, Matthieu; Silvestri, Zaccari; Ziane, Djamel; Piquemal, François

    2016-08-01

    The value of the Planck constant h was determined in 2014 by means of the LNE watt balance experiment. The relative standard uncertainty was 31 parts in 108. This first determination was performed in air with a 500 g mass standard made from XSH Alacrite. The main uncertainty components in air associated with the mass involve the calibration, the mass stability, the buoyancy correction and the magnetic interaction correction. The combined relative uncertainty due to the mass is 7.2 parts in 108. The use in 2016 of a mass standard made from platinum iridium alloy significantly reduces the component of uncertainty arising from the mass standard for a Planck constant measurement either in air or under vacuum. The relative uncertainty due to this contribution is estimated to be about 3 parts in 108 in air and one part in 108 under vacuum. The future system for the dissemination of the mass unit using the LNE watt balance will be based on a primary realization with three 500 g mass standards made from platinum-iridium alloy, pure iridium and Udimet 720 respectively, coupled with a pool of kilograms made from different materials. Pure iridium and Udimet 720 are new materials to make reference mass standards proposed by CNAM and LNE respectively and have never been used by any NMI for manufacturing mass standards until now. Some new results concerning their surface behavior are given.

  7. Printed interconnects for photovoltaic modules

    SciTech Connect

    Fields, J. D.; Pach, G.; Horowitz, K. A. W.; Stockert, T. R.; Woodhouse, M.; van Hest, M. F. A. M.

    2017-01-01

    Film-based photovoltaic modules employ monolithic interconnects to minimize resistance loss and enhance module voltage via series connection. Conventional interconnect construction occurs sequentially, with a scribing step following deposition of the bottom electrode, a second scribe after deposition of absorber and intermediate layers, and a third following deposition of the top electrode. This method produces interconnect widths of about 300 um, and the area comprised by interconnects within a module (generally about 3%) does not contribute to power generation. The present work reports on an increasingly popular strategy capable of reducing the interconnect width to less than 100 um: printing interconnects. Cost modeling projects a savings of about $0.02/watt for CdTe module production through the use of printed interconnects, with savings coming from both reduced capital expense and increased module power output. Printed interconnect demonstrations with copper-indium-gallium-diselenide and cadmium-telluride solar cells show successful voltage addition and miniaturization down to 250 um. Material selection guidelines and considerations for commercialization are discussed.

  8. On-orbit performance of the 12 GHz, 200 watt transmitter experiment package for CTS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexovich, R. E.

    1977-01-01

    Performance characteristics from on-orbit tests of the transmitter experiment package (TEP) for the Communications Technology Satellite (CTS) are presented. The TEP consists of a power processing system (PPS), an output stage tube (OST) and a variable conductance heat pipe system (VCHPS), all of which are described. Test results presented include efficiencies, RF output power, frequency response, and performance with single and multiple (two) carriers, frequency-modulated by video signals.

  9. Sheet silicon cell/module technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, A. D.

    1983-01-01

    The cost involved in the performance of the standard operations for the manufacture of silicon wafers is insignificant in the case of space photovoltaics applications. It is, however, a decisive factor with respect to terrestrial applications of silicon photovoltaic devices. In 1975, a program was, therefore, begun to develop low cost silicon solar arrays for terrestrial applications. The goal was silicon-based photovoltaic (PV) modules ready for installation at a selling price of $0.50/watt (1975 dollars). Sheet and ribbon silicon growth held out the promise of reduced cost through continuous operation, high material throughput, high material utilization efficiency, and a product whose shape lent itself to the assembly of high packing density modules. Attention is given to ribbon growth technologies, sheet technology generic problems, and ribbon cell and module technology status. It is concluded that the potential for crystalline ribbon silicon appears to be better today than ever before.

  10. 500-Watt Solid-State RF Power Amplifier AM-7209( )/VRC.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-03-18

    Amplifier Frequency Hopping 20 ADSTRACT fContinu an revtee aide If nee eary and identify by block number) I Progress in amplifier module circuit design...Rectifiers 45 2.6.1.1.5 Output Capacitors 45 2.6.1.1.6 Snubber Networks 47 2.6.1.1.7 Regulator Loop/Control Circuits 49 2.6.1.2 Control Circuit Power...Supply 51 2.6.1.3 Loop Considerations 53 2.6.1.3.1 RF Amplifier Power Supply 53 2.6.1.3.2 Control Circuit Power Supply 62 2.6.2 EMI Filter Design 71

  11. Thermal and other tests of photovoltaic modules performed in natural sunlight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stultz, J. W.

    1978-01-01

    The bulk of the testing was the characterization of twenty-nine modules according to their nominal operating cell temperature (NOCT) and the effect on NOCT of changes in module design, various residential roof mounting configurations, and dirt accumulation. Other tests, often performed parallel with the NOCT measurements, evaluated the improvement in electrical performance by cooling the modules with water and by channeling the waste heat into a phase change material (wax). Electrical degradation resulting from the natural marriage of photovoltaic and solar water heating modules was also demonstrated. Cost effectiveness of each of these techniques are evaluated in light of the LSA cost goal of $0.50 per watt.

  12. Thermal and mechanical analysis of flip-chips on a liquid cooled multichip module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, R.; Hall, P. M.; Chanchani, R.

    In this paper, thermal analysis of a three dimensional quarter model of a 156 pad flip-chip on a liquid cooled multichip module with 75 other chips is simulated using COSMOS -- finite element software. Both flip-chip (pad grid array type) and TAB type of interconnections are used for the module. The total power on the board is 67 watts, the flip-chips generating up to 1.5 watts each, and the one TAB type generating 12 watts. Each chip can be modeled independently due to the absence of cross-heating by its neighbors. Forced convection liquid cooling using an organic coolant with various flow rates and thus various convection coefficients are used for the study. The temperature rise in the boundary layer of the coolant was 8 F at the coolant flow rate of 0.08 gallons per minute for the flip-chip with 1.5 watts. The maximum thermal strains calculated were found to be 0.35% (if the temperature of zero strain is assumed to be 0 F, and Young's modulus of solder is 2 Mpsi). The maximum shears were found in the corner bump, and they differed from the next bump by 20%. Polyimide layers above and below the solder bumps were found to contribute about 80% of the thermal resistance] These results are used in a Coffin-Manson analysis to predict adequate life (cycles) for the high lead solder bumps (95%Pb-5%Sn).

  13. Review of the genus Sekaliporus Watts, 1997 with description of a new species from northern Australia (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae, Hydroporinae).

    PubMed

    Hendrich, Lars; Balke, Michael

    2015-07-02

    Sekaliporus davidi sp. n. is described from northern Australia. It is the second species in the genus. It occurs from the Kimberley region in the northwest of Western Australia to north-eastern Queensland. The new species is morphologically similar to S. kriegi Watts, 1997 described from the Kakadu area in the Northern Territory but well characterized by its constantly larger size, six yellowish markings on elytra, the different form of the apical triangular spine of elytra, and the form of the median lobe. Sekaliporus davidi sp. n. is a lotic species from intermittent creeks and slow flowing rivers and their residual pools. Important species characters (median lobes, parameres and colour patterns) of the two species are figured, and notes on their habitats and distribution are given. Both species are capable of flight and were also collected at light.

  14. Watt-level passively Q-switched heavily Er3+-doped ZBLAN fiber laser with a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Yanlong; Wang, Yishan; Luan, Kunpeng; Huang, Ke; Tao, Mengmeng; Chen, Hongwei; Yi, Aiping; Feng, Guobin; Si, Jinhai

    2016-01-01

    A diode-cladding pumped mid-infrared passively Q-switched Er3+-doped ZBLAN fiber laser with an average output power of watt-level based on a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror (SESAM) is demonstrated. Stable pulse train was produced at a slope efficiency of 17.8% with respect to launched pump power. The maximum average power of 1.01 W at a repetition rate of 146.3 kHz was achieved with a corresponding pulse energy of 6.9 μJ, from which the maximum peak power was calculated to be 21.9 W. To the best of our knowledge, the average power and the peak power are the highest in 3 μm region passively Q-switched fiber lasers. The influence of gain fiber length on the operation regime of the fiber laser has been investigated in detail. PMID:27225029

  15. Spike-timing-dependent plasticity enhanced synchronization transitions induced by autapses in adaptive Newman-Watts neuronal networks.

    PubMed

    Gong, Yubing; Wang, Baoying; Xie, Huijuan

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, we numerically study the effect of spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) on synchronization transitions induced by autaptic activity in adaptive Newman-Watts Hodgkin-Huxley neuron networks. It is found that synchronization transitions induced by autaptic delay vary with the adjusting rate Ap of STDP and become strongest at a certain Ap value, and the Ap value increases when network randomness or network size increases. It is also found that the synchronization transitions induced by autaptic delay become strongest at a certain network randomness and network size, and the values increase and related synchronization transitions are enhanced when Ap increases. These results show that there is optimal STDP that can enhance the synchronization transitions induced by autaptic delay in the adaptive neuronal networks. These findings provide a new insight into the roles of STDP and autapses for the information transmission in neural systems.

  16. Performance characteristics of the 12 GHz, 200 watt transmitter experiment package for CTS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, E. F.; Fiala, J. L.; Hansen, I. G.

    1975-01-01

    The experiment package consists of a 200 W output stage tube (OST) powered by a power processing system (PPS). Descriptions of both the PPS and OST are given. The PPS provides the necessary voltages with a measured dc/dc conversion efficiency of 89 percent. The OST, a traveling wave tube with multiple collectors, has a saturated rf output power of 224 W and operates at an overall efficiency exceeding 40 percent over an 85 MHz bandwidth at 12 GHz. OST performance given includes frequency response, saturation characteristics, group delay, AM to PM conversion, inter-modulation distortion, and two channel gain suppression. Single and dual channel FM video performance is presented. It was determined that for 12 MHz peak to peak frequency deviation on each channel, dual channel FM television signals can be transmitted through the TEP at 60 W, each channel, with 40 MHz channel spacing (center to center).

  17. Gene Expression Responses Linked to Reproduction Effect Concentrations (EC10,20,50,90) of Dimethoate, Atrazine and Carbendazim, in Enchytraeus albidus

    PubMed Central

    Novais, Sara C.; De Coen, Wim; Amorim, Mónica J. B.

    2012-01-01

    Background Molecular mechanisms of response to pesticides are scarce and information on such responses from soil invertebrates is almost inexistent. Enchytraeus albidus (Oligochaeta) is a standard soil ecotoxicology model species for which effects of many pesticides are known on survival, reproduction and avoidance behaviour. With the recent microarray development additional information can be retrieved on the molecular effects. Methodology/Principal Findings Experiments were performed to investigate the transcription responses of E. albidus when exposed to three pesticides – dimethoate (insecticide), atrazine (herbicide) and carbendazim (fungicide) – in a range of concentrations that inhibited reproduction by 10%, 20%, 50% and 90% (EC10, EC20, EC50 and EC90, respectively). The goal of this study was to further identify key biological processes affected by each compound and if dose-related. All three pesticides significantly affected biological processes like translation, regulation of the cell cycle or general response to stress. Intracellular signalling and microtubule-based movement were affected by dimethoate and carbendazim whereas atrazine affected lipid and steroid metabolism (also by dimethoate) or carbohydrate metabolism (also by carbendazim). Response to DNA damage/DNA repair was exclusively affected by carbendazim. Conclusions Changes in gene expression were significantly altered after 2 days of exposure in a dose-related manner. The mechanisms of response were comparable with the ones for mammals, suggesting across species conserved modes of action. The present results indicate the potential of using gene expression in risk assessment and the advantage as early markers. PMID:22558331

  18. Neighbourhood risk factors for Common Mental Disorders among young people aged 10-20 years: a structured review of quantitative research.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Sarah; Pain, Rachel; Fuller, Sara; Khatib, Yasmin; Rothon, Catherine; Stansfeld, Stephen A; Daya, Shari

    2013-03-01

    We present a critical review of research concerning the vulnerability of mental health of young people in the 10-20 year age range to neighbourhood factors that are theoretically associated with increased risk of Common Mental Disorders (CMDs). We interpreted 'neighbourhood factors' as attributes and processes in the local social and physical environment that young people inhabit, beyond the immediate household. We conducted an extensive search, and a structured method of assessment of the research papers that met our search criteria. We draw conclusions about the research evidence on this topic and identify issues needing further discussion and investigation. We focus particularly on quantitative research that aims to measure these relationships. We note that parallel to this research, a significant body of qualitative research on the geographical experiences of young people (though not specifically on their mental health) offers a rich source of background information to illuminate the statistical findings. We conclude with some reflections on the future challenges for research in this field.

  19. Experimental and numerical investigations of radiation characteristics of Russian portable/compact pulsed neutron generators: ING-031, ING-07, ING-06 and ING-10-20-120

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernikova, D.; Romodanov, V. L.; Belevitin, A. G.; Afanas`ev, V. V.; Sakharov, V. K.; Bogolubov, E. P.; Ryzhkov, V. I.; Khasaev, T. O.; Sladkov, A. A.; Bitulev, A. A.

    2014-05-01

    The present paper discusses results of full-scale experimental and numerical investigations of influence of construction materials of portable pulsed neutron generators ING-031, ING-07, ING-06 and ING-10-20-120 (VNIIA, Russia) to their radiation characteristics formed during and after an operation (shutdown period). In particular, it is shown that an original monoenergetic isotropic angular distribution of neutrons emitted by TiT target changes into the significantly anisotropic angular distribution with a broad energy spectrum stretching to the thermal region. Along with the low-energetic neutron part, a significant amount of photons appears during the operation of generators. In the pulse mode of operation of neutron generator, a presence of the construction materials leads to the "tailing" of the original neutron pulse and the appearance of an accompanying photon pulse at ~ 3 ns after the instant neutron pulse. In addition to that, reactions of neutron capture and inelastic scattering lead to the creation of radioactive nuclides, such as 58Co, 62Cu, 64Cu and 18F, which form the so-called activation radiation. Thus, the selection of a portable neutron generator for a particular type of application has to be done considering radiation characteristics of the generator itself. This paper will be of interest to users of neutron generators, providing them with valuable information about limitations of a specific generator and with recommendations for improving the design and performance of the generator as a whole.

  20. Pharmacokinetics, Safety and Cognitive Function Profile of Rupatadine 10, 20 and 40 mg in Healthy Japanese Subjects: A Randomised Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Täubel, Jörg; Ferber, Georg; Fernandes, Sara; Lorch, Ulrike; Santamaría, Eva; Izquierdo, Iñaki

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Rupatadine is a marketed second generation antihistamine, with anti-PAF activity, indicated for symptomatic treatment of allergic rhinitis and urticaria. This study was conducted to evaluate the pharmacokinetics (PK), pharmacodynamics (PD), safety and tolerability of rupatadine in healthy Japanese subjects after single and multiple oral doses. Methods In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 27 male and female healthy Japanese subjects were administered single and multiple escalating rupatadine dose of 10, 20 and 40 mg or placebo. Blood samples were collected at different time points for PK measurements and subjects were assessed for safety and tolerability. The effect of rupatadine on cognitive functioning was evaluated by means of computerized cognitive tests: rapid visual information processing (RVP), reaction time (RT), spatial working memory (SWM) and visual analogue scales (VAS). Results Exposure to rupatadine as measured by Cmax and AUC was found to increase in a dose dependent manner over the dose range of 10–40 mg for both single and multiple dose administration. The safety assessments showed that all treatment related side effects were of mild intensity and there were no serious adverse events (SAEs) or withdrawals due to treatment–emergent adverse events (TEAEs) in this study. The therapeutic dose of rupatadine did not show any CNS impairment in any of the cognitive tests. Conclusions This study demonstrated that rupatadine is safe and well tolerated by Japanese healthy subjects. The PK-PD profile confirmed previous experience with rupatadine. PMID:27632557

  1. Warts and All: Personal Reflections on Social Justice in Counseling Psychology. Reply to Kiselica, Palmer, Thompson and Shermis, and Watts. Rejoinder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Lisa A.; Liang, Belle; Weintraub, Sarah R.; Helms, Janet E.; Latta, Rachel E.

    2004-01-01

    In their comments regarding Goodman, Liang, Helms, Latta, Sparks, and Weintraub's article "Training Counseling Psychologists as Social Justice Agents: Feminist and Multicultural Principles in Action," Kiselica, Palmer, Thompson and Shermis, and Watts offered a number of useful suggestions for elaborating on social justice theory,…

  2. REMOVAL OF CHEMICAL AND MICROBIAL CONTAMINANTS IN DRINKING WATER - WATTS PREMIER M-2400 POINT-OF-ENTRY REVERSE OSMOSIS DRINKINGWATER TREATMENT SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Watts Premier M-2400 POE RO Drinking Water Treatment System was tested at the NSF Drinking Water Treatment Systems Laboratory for removal of the viruses fr and MS2, the bacteria Brevundimonas diminuta, and chemicals aldicarb, benzene, cadmium, carbofuran, cesium, chl...

  3. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT, REMOVAL OF ARSENIC IN DRINKING WATER: WATTS PREMIER M-SERIES M-15,000 REVERSE OSMOSIS TREATMENT SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Verification testing of the Watts Premier M-Series M-15,000 RO Treatment System was conducted over a 31-day period from April 26, 2004, through May 26, 2004. This test was conducted at the Coachella Valley Water District (CVWD) Well 7802 in Thermal, California. The source water...

  4. On-orbit performance of the 12 GHz, 200 watt transmitter experiment package for CTS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexovich, R. E.

    1977-01-01

    Performance characteristics from on-orbit tests of the Transmitter Experiment Package (TEP) for the Communications Technology Satellite (CTS) are presented. The TEP consists of a Power Processing System (PPS), an Output Stage Tube (OST), and a Variable Conductance Heat Pipe System (VCHPS), all of which are described. The OST is a coupled-cavity traveling-wave tube with a multistage depressed collector and a stepped velocity-tapered slow-wave structure for efficiency enhancement. It has an RF output power of 240 W and an overall efficiency of 51.5% at a center band frequency of 12.080 GHz. The PPS provides the required operating voltages, regulation, control, and protection for the OST. It has a measured dc-dc conversion efficiency of 86.5% to 88.5%. The VCHPS consists of a fin radiator and three dual-artery stainless steel heat pipes using methanol and a mixture of inert gases. Test results presented include efficiencies, RF output power, frequency response, and performance with single and multiple (two) carriers frequency-modulated by video signals.

  5. Safety evaluation report related to the operation of Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2 (Docket Nos. 50-390 and 50-391). Supplement No. 17

    SciTech Connect

    Tam, P.S.

    1995-10-01

    This report supplements the Safety Evaluation Report (SER), NUREG-0847 (June 1982), Supplement No. 1 (September 1982), Supplement No. 2 (January 1984), Supplement No. 3 (January 1985), Supplement No. 4 (March 1985), Supplement No. 5 (November 1990), Supplement No. 6 (April 1991), Supplement No. 7 (September 1991), 1991), Supplement No. 8 (January 1992), Supplement No. 9 (June 1992), Supplement No. 10 (October 1992), Supplement No. 11 (April.1993), Supplement No. 12 (October 1993), Supplement No. 13 (April 1994), Supplement No. 14 (December 1994), Supplement No. 15 (June 1995), and Supplement No. 16 (September 1995) issued by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission with respect to the application filed by the Tennessee Valley Authority, as applicant and owner, for licenses to operate the Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2 (Docket Nos. 50--390 and 50--391). The facility is located in Rhea county, Tennessee, near the Watts Bar Dam on the Tennessee River. In this supplement, NRC examines the significant problems of construction quality and quality assurance effectiveness that led TVA to withdraw its certification in 1985 that Watts Bar Unit I was ready to load fuel. Also discussed are the extensive corrective actions performed by TVA according to its nuclear performance plans and other supplemental programs, and NRC`s extensive oversight to determine whether the Watts Bar Unit 1 construction quality and TVA`s operational readiness and quality assurance effectiveness are adequate for a low-power operating license to be issued. SSER 17 does not address Watts Bar Unit 2, except for the systems which are necessary to support Unit 1 operation.

  6. Summary report on water quality, sediment and water chemistry data for water and sediment samples collected from source areas to Melton Hill and Watts Bar reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Tomaszewski, T.M.; Bruggink, D.J.; Nunn, D.L.

    1995-08-01

    Contamination of surface water and sediments in the Clinch River and Watts Bar Reservoir (CR/WBR) system as a result of past and present activities by the US Department of Energy (DOE) on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) and also activities by non-ORR facilities are being studied by the Clinch River Environmental Restoration Program (CR-ERP). Previous studies have documented the presence of heavy metals, organics, and radionuclides in the sediments of reservoirs in the vicinity. In support of the CR-ERP, during the summer of 1991, TVA collected and evaluated water and sediment samples from swimming areas and municipal water intakes on Watts Bar Reservoir, Melton Hill Reservoir (which is considered part of the Clinch River and Watts Bar Reservoir System), and Norris Reservoir, which was considered a source of less-contaminated reference or background data. Results of this study indicated that the levels of contamination in the samples from the Watts Bar and Melton Hill Reservoir sites did not pose a threat to human health. Despite the numerous studies, until the current work documented by this report, relatively few sediment or water samples had been collected by the CR-ERP in the immediate vicinity of contaminant point sources. This work focused on water and sediment samples taken from points immediately downstream from suspected effluent point sources both on and off the ORR. In August and September, 1994, TVA sampled surface water and sediment at twelve locations in Melton Hill and Watts Bar Reservoirs. Eleven of the sampling sites were selected based on existence of pollutant discharge permits, known locations of hazardous waste sites, and knowledge of past practices. The twelfth sample site was selected as a relatively less contaminated reference site for comparison purposes.

  7. Development and Testing of Shingle-type Solar Cell Modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepard, N. F., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The design, development, fabrication and testing of a shingle-type terrestrial solar cell module which produces 98 watts/sq m of exposed module area at 1 kW/sq m insolation and 61 C are reported. These modules make it possible to easily incorporate photovoltaic power generation into the sloping roofs of residential or commercial buildings by simply nailing the modules to the plywood roof sheathing. This design consists of nineteen series-connected 53 mm diameter solar cells arranged in a closely packed hexagon configuration. These cells are individually bonded to the embossed surface of a 3 mm thick thermally tempered hexagon-shaped piece of glass. Polyvinyl butyral is used as the laminating adhesive.

  8. Transport and accumulation of cesium-137 and mercury in the Clinch River and Watts Bar Reservoir system

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, C.R.; Larsen, I.L.; Lowry, P.D.; Moriones, C.R.; Ford, C.J.; Dearstone, K.C.; Turner, R.R.; Kimmel, B.L.; Brandt, C.C.

    1992-06-01

    Operations and waste disposal activities at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and the Oak Ridge K-25 Site (formerly the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant) on the US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) have introduced a variety of airborne, liquid, and solid wastes into the surrounding environment. Some of these wastes may affect off-site areas by entering local streams, which ultimately drain into the Clinch and Tennessee river system. Previously reported concentrations of radionuclides, metals and organic compounds in water, sediment, and biota of the Clinch River and Watts Bar Reservoir suggest the presence of a variety of contaminants of possible concern to the protection of human health and the environment. The work reported here represents part of the initial scoping phase for the Clinch River RCRA Facility Investigation. In this work, the distribution of {sup 137}Cs is used to identify contaminant accumulation patterns and potential problem, or hot-spot,'' areas with regard to environmental hazard or human health. Radiocesium was chosen for this scoping effort because (1) its history of release into the Clinch River is reasonably well documented, (2) it is easy and inexpensive to measure by gamma spectrometry, and (3) it is rapidly sorbed to particulate matter and thus serves as a cost-effective tracer for identifying the transport and accumulation patterns of many other particle-reactive contaminants, such as mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), and plutonium (Pu), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs).

  9. Watt-level passively Q-switched double-cladding fiber laser based on graphene oxide saturable absorber.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhenhua; Song, Yanrong; Dong, Xinzheng; Li, Yanlin; Tian, Jinrong; Wang, Yonggang

    2013-10-10

    A watt-level passively Q-switched ytterbium-doped double-cladding fiber laser with a graphene oxide (GO) absorber was demonstrated. The structure of the GO saturable absorber mirror (GO-SAM) was of the sandwich type. A maximum output power of 1.8 W was obtained around a wavelength of 1044 nm. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest output power in Q-switched fiber lasers based on a GO saturable absorber. The pure GO was protected from the oxygen in the air so that the damage threshold of the GO-SAM was effectively raised. The gain fiber was a D-shaped ytterbium-doped double-cladding fiber. The pulse repetition rates were tuned from 120 to 215 kHz with pump powers from 3.89 to 7.8 W. The maximum pulse energy was 8.37 μJ at a pulse width of 1.7 μs.

  10. Transport and accumulation of cesium-137 and mercury in the Clinch River and Watts Bar Reservoir system. Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, C.R.; Larsen, I.L.; Lowry, P.D.; Moriones, C.R.; Ford, C.J.; Dearstone, K.C.; Turner, R.R.; Kimmel, B.L.; Brandt, C.C.

    1992-06-01

    Operations and waste disposal activities at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and the Oak Ridge K-25 Site (formerly the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant) on the US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) have introduced a variety of airborne, liquid, and solid wastes into the surrounding environment. Some of these wastes may affect off-site areas by entering local streams, which ultimately drain into the Clinch and Tennessee river system. Previously reported concentrations of radionuclides, metals and organic compounds in water, sediment, and biota of the Clinch River and Watts Bar Reservoir suggest the presence of a variety of contaminants of possible concern to the protection of human health and the environment. The work reported here represents part of the initial scoping phase for the Clinch River RCRA Facility Investigation. In this work, the distribution of {sup 137}Cs is used to identify contaminant accumulation patterns and potential problem, or ``hot-spot,`` areas with regard to environmental hazard or human health. Radiocesium was chosen for this scoping effort because (1) its history of release into the Clinch River is reasonably well documented, (2) it is easy and inexpensive to measure by gamma spectrometry, and (3) it is rapidly sorbed to particulate matter and thus serves as a cost-effective tracer for identifying the transport and accumulation patterns of many other particle-reactive contaminants, such as mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), and plutonium (Pu), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs).

  11. Designing tolerance for the misalignment of inner and outer yoke centers in the permanent magnet for watt or joule balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Qiang; Xu, JinXin; Fu, Zhuang

    2016-12-01

    A permanent magnet with soft magnetic yokes has been widely adopted in the watt or joule balance for precisely measuring the Planck constant. A circularly symmetric structure is conducive to the alignment of the coil but is also an enormous challenge for machining and assembly. In this paper, we mathematically prove that one of the mechanical requirements—the misalignment of the inner and outer yoke centers—can be compensated by horizontally moving the coil in a 2D magnetic plane and the compensating displacement is analytically calculated. There is a strong linear relationship between the compensating displacement and misalignment of yoke centers. The scaling factor is obtained by reasonable simplification. Then, the method for designing the tolerance for the misalignment of yoke centers is proposed. Although a new equilibrium position can be found when the inner and outer yokes are not concentrically aligned, torque is generated when the coil radially expands with heat and the torque is proportional to the increment of the radius of the coil and the misalignment of the yoke centers.

  12. Reproductive effects assessment of largemouth bass and bluegill in the Watts Bar Lake/Clinch River system

    SciTech Connect

    Niemela, S.L.; McCracken, M.K.; Ivey, L.J.; Greeley, M.S. Jr.

    1995-12-31

    Successful reproduction is key to the survival and maintenance of viable fish populations and therefore an important consideration in ecological risk assessments. In order to evaluate the reproductive health of fish in the Watts Bar Lake/Clinch River system downstream of the Department of Energy facilities in Oak Ridge, TN, largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) and bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus) were collected from seven sites at the beginning of the spawning period and a suite of parameters indicative of reproductive condition were measured. Measures of reproductive condition common to male and female fish included gonadal somatic index (GSI), and plasma concentrations of reproductive hormones. Gender specific analyses included a histological examination of the testes in males and a quantitative evaluation of ovarian parameters in females including determinations of fecundity, the number of vitellogenic and atretic oocytes, and the incidences of ovarian parasites. Evidence of reproductive impairment in largemouth bass at the two sites immediately adjacent to the Oak Ridge Reservation included lower GSIs and reproductive hormone levels (males and females), and reduced fecundity and an increase in the number of atretic oocytes (females). Similar trends were not observed in bluegill sunfish. These findings suggest that reproduction in a top-level predatory fish species, the largemouth bass, may be negatively affected by activities on the Oak Ridge Reservation.

  13. Periodic coupling strength-dependent multiple coherence resonance by time delay in Newman-Watts neuronal networks.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yanan; Gong, Yubing; Xu, Bo

    2013-12-01

    Recently, multiple coherence resonance induced by time delay has been observed in neuronal networks with constant coupling strength. In this paper, by employing Newman-Watts Hodgkin-Huxley neuron networks with time-periodic coupling strength, we study how the temporal coherence of spiking behavior and coherence resonance by time delay change when the frequency of periodic coupling strength is varied. It is found that delay induced coherence resonance is dependent on periodic coupling strength and increases when the frequency of periodic coupling strength increases. Periodic coupling strength can also induce multiple coherence resonance, and the coherence resonance occurs when the frequency of periodic coupling strength is approximately multiple of the spiking frequency. These results show that for periodic coupling strength time delay can more frequently optimize the temporal coherence of spiking activity, and periodic coupling strength can repetitively optimize the temporal coherence of spiking activity as well. Frequency locking may be the mechanism for multiple coherence resonance induced by periodic coupling strength. These findings imply that periodic coupling strength is more efficient for enhancing the temporal coherence of spiking activity of neuronal networks, and thus it could play a more important role in improving the time precision of information processing and transmission in neural networks.

  14. Simple and flexible generation of vestigial side band modified duobinary return-to-zero signals at 10, 20 and 40 Gb/s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yu; Zhang, Xinliang; Wang, Fei; Huang, Dexiu

    2010-05-01

    We propose and demonstrate a simple and flexible approach to generate vestigial side band modified duobinary return-to-zero (VSB MD-RZ) signals at 10-40 Gb/s, using a dual-drive Mach-Zehnder modulator and a detuned optical band-pass filter. The performance of the proposed VSB MD-RZ signal is investigated by comparing with double side band MD-RZ (DSB MD-RZ) and conventional VSB MD-RZ. Bit error ratio (BER) measurement at 10 Gb/s shows an error free operation for the generated signal. Good performance is further observed after 100 km of single-mode-fiber transmission at 40 Gb/s.

  15. Explanation of the Quantum-Mechanical Particle-Wave Duality through the Emission of Watt-Less Gravitational Waves by the Dirac Equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winterberg, Friedwardt

    2016-01-01

    An explanation of the quantum-mechanical particle-wave duality is given by the watt-less emission of gravitational waves from a particle described by the Dirac equation. This explanation is possible through the existence of negative energy, and hence negative mass solutions of Einstein's gravitational field equations. They permit to understand the Dirac equation as the equation for a gravitationally bound positive-negative mass (pole-dipole particle) two-body configuration, with the mass of the Dirac particle equal to the positive mass of the gravitational field binding the positive with the negative mass particle, and with the mass particles making a luminal "Zitterbewegung" (quivering motion), emitting a watt-less oscillating positive-negative space curvature wave. It is shown that this thusly produced "Zitterbewegung" reproduces the quantum potential of the Madelung-transformed Schrödinger equation. The watt-less gravitational wave emitted by the quivering particles is conjectured to be de Broglie's pilot wave. The hypothesised connection of the Dirac equation to gravitational wave physics could, with the failure to detect gravitational waves by the LIGO antennas and pulsar timing arrays, give a clue to extended theories of gravity, or a correction of astrophysical models for the generation of such waves.

  16. Report on water quality, sediment and water chemistry data for water and sediment samples collected from source areas to Melton Hill and Watts Bar reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Tomaszewski, T.M.; Bruggink, D.J.; Nunn, D.L.

    1995-08-18

    Contamination of surface water and sediments in the Clinch River and Watts Bar Reservoir (CR/WBR) system as a result of past and present activities by the US Department of Energy (DOE) on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) and also activities by non-ORR facilities are being studied by the Clinch River Environmental Restoration Program (CR-ERP). Previous studies have documented the presence of heavy metals, organics, and radionuclides in the sediments of reservoirs in the vicinity. In support of the CR-ERP, during the summer of 1991, TVA collected and evaluated water and sediment samples from swimming areas and municipal water intakes on Watts Bar Reservoir, Melton Hill Reservoir and Norris Reservoir, which was considered a source of less-contaminated reference or background data. Despite the numerous studies, until the current work documented by this report, relatively few sediment or water samples had been collected by the CR-ERP in the immediate vicinity of contaminant point sources. This work focused on water and sediment samples taken from points immediately downstream from suspected effluent point sources both on and off the ORR. In August and September, 1994, TVA sampled surface water and sediment at twelve locations in melton Hill and Watts Bar Reservoirs.

  17. Australian Marsh Beetles (Coleoptera: Scirtidae). 8. The new genera
    Cygnocyphon, Eximiocyphon, Paracyphon, Leptocyphon, Tectocyphon,
    and additions to Contacyphon de Gozis, Nanocyphon Zwick and Eurycyphon Watts.

    PubMed

    Zwick, Peter

    2015-07-07

    New monotypic genera proposed are: Cygnocyphon ibex n. gen., n. sp., Eximiocyphon excisus n. gen., n. sp., and Paracyphon avicularis n. gen., n. sp. Also proposed are the new genera Leptocyphon n. gen., with L. furcalonga, n. sp. and L. quadricornutus, n. sp., Tectocyphon n. gen., with T. microphallus n. sp., T. hirsutus n. sp., and T. victoriae n. sp. The diagnosis of genus Eurycyphon Watts is amended, E. fulvus Watts and E. aquilus Watts are partly redescribed. New species are: Eurycyphon barringtoni n. sp., E. castaneus n. sp., E. falcatus n. sp., E. parvus n. sp., E. perlatus n. sp., E. thunguttii, n. sp., E. tomweiri n. sp., and E. tricornis n. sp. Species of Nanocyphon are discussed and N. tasmanicus n. sp. is described. Contacyphon forcipatus n. sp. is described and an apparently introduced population of the European Contacyphon putonii Gozis is reported from West Australia. For comparison with some of the new taxa the redescription of Pseudomicrocara orientalis Armstrong, type species of the genus, is supplemented.

  18. Modulation techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schilling, D. L.

    1982-01-01

    Bandwidth efficient digital modulation techniques, proposed for use on and/or applied to satellite channels, are reviewed. In a survey of recent works on digital modulation techniques, the performance of several schemes operating in various environments are compared. Topics covered include: (1) quadrature phase shift keying; (2) offset - QPSK and MSK; (3) combined modulation and coding; and (4) spectrally efficient modulation techniques.

  19. Towards the redefinition of the kilogram: a measurement of the Planck constant using the NPL Mark II watt balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, I. A.

    2012-02-01

    After the elimination of significant mechanical problems, the NPL Mark II moving-coil watt balance made an initial series of measurements in the period from October 2006 to March 2007. Incremental improvements were made to the apparatus in the period from June 2007 to November 2008 and measurements of the Planck constant h were made up to June 2009, with the aim of providing further information to the ongoing efforts to redefine the SI kilogram in terms of a fixed value of the Planck constant. The apparatus was sold to NRC-INMS in early 2009 and was dismantled and shipped to Canada in the period between June and August 2009. In June 2009, just prior to the shipment, a possible source of significant type-B uncertainty in the mass/force exchange was discovered. There was insufficient time to fully investigate and correct the effect so a component has been added to the uncertainty budget to account for its estimated magnitude. The standard uncertainty of the apparatus, without allowance for the mass/force exchange problem, is estimated to be 36 nW W-1, which represents an improvement of almost a factor of two from the previously reported uncertainty of 66 nW W-1, but, allowing for the problem, the uncertainty increases to 200 nW W-1. Further work, once the apparatus is rebuilt in Canada, should eliminate the source of the added uncertainty. The value of h calculated from the measurements made from 2006 to 2009 is 6.626 071 23(133) × 10-34 J s, which represents a change of 43 nW W-1 from the value reported in 2007. The corresponding value of the Avogadro constant, NA, is 6.022 139 78(120) × 1023 mol-1.

  20. Commercialization of multijunction a-Si modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, D. E.; Arya, R. R.; Chen, L.-F.; Oswald, R.; Newton, J.; Rajan, K.; Romero, R.; Willing, F.; Yang, L.

    1997-02-01

    Solarex has just completed building a plant in James City County, Virginia that has the capacity to produce 10 MW per year of multijunction amorphous silicon PV modules. The plant will start commercial production of 8.6 ft2 tandem modules in early 1997. The tandem device structure consists of two stacked p-i-n junctions, a front junction containing amorphous silicon and a back junction containing an amorphous silicon germanium alloy. All amorphous silicon alloys are deposited using plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition, and the large-area monolithic modules are interconnected using computerized laser scribing coupled with a machine vision system. The principle products will be monolithic modules (26″×48″) with nominal stabilized power ratings of 56, 50 and 43 peak watts. All modules will be fabricated using a glass-EVA-glass encapsulation to ensure long-term reliability. These products are expected to be widely used in both remote and grid-tied applications.

  1. Advanced photovoltaic power systems using tandem GaAs/GaSb concentrator modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fraas, L. M.; Kuryla, M. S.; Pietila, D. A.; Sundaram, V. S.; Gruenbaum, P. E.; Avery, J. E.; Dihn, V.; Ballantyne, R.; Samuel, C.

    1992-01-01

    In 1989, Boeing announced the fabrication of a tandem gallium concentrator solar cell with an energy conversion efficiency of 30 percent. This research breakthrough has now led to panels which are significantly smaller, lighter, more radiation resistant, and potentially less expensive than the traditional silicon flat plate electric power supply. The new Boeing tandem concentrator (BTC) module uses an array of lightweight silicone Fresnel lenses mounted on the front side of a light weight aluminum honeycomb structure to focus sunlight onto small area solar cells mounted on a thin back plane. This module design is shown schematically. The tandem solar cell in this new module consists of a gallium arsenide light sensitive cell with a 24 percent energy conversion efficiency stacked on top of a gallium antimonide infrared sensitive cell with a conversion efficiency of 6 percent. This gives a total efficiency 30 percent for the cell-stack. The lens optical efficiency is typically 85 percent. Discounting for efficiency losses associated with lens packing, cell wiring, and cell operating temperature still allows for a module efficiency of 22 percent which leads to a module power density of 300 Watts/sq. m. This performance provides more than twice the power density available from a single crystal silicon flat plate module and at least four times the power density available from amorphous silicon modules. The fact that the lenses are only 0.010 ft. thick and the aluminum foil back plane is only 0.003 ft. thick leads to a very lightweight module. Although the cells are an easy to handle thickness of 0.020 ft., the fact that they are small, occupying one-twenty-fifth of the module area, means that they add little to the module weight. After summing all the module weights and given the high module power, we find that we are able to fabricate BTC modules with specific power of 100 watts/kg.

  2. Saving Watts of Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raloff, Janet

    1978-01-01

    Presented are different research program developments aimed at reducing the consumption of electrical energy for artificial lights. Explains the idea of the dimmers, where the amount of incoming daylight regulates the current needed for the lamp. (GA)

  3. 100 WATT THERMOELECTRIC GENERATOR.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    GENERATORS , THERMOELECTRICITY, THERMOCOUPLES, HEATERS, HEAT TRANSFER, ENERGY CONVERSION, GASOLINE, VOLTAGE REGULATORS, HEAT EXCHANGERS, LIFE EXPECTANCY(SERVICE LIFE), STARTING, PERFORMANCE(ENGINEERING).

  4. Thermal and mechanical analysis of flip-chips on a liquid cooled multichip module

    SciTech Connect

    Narayanan, R. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering); Hall, P.M. ); Chanchani, R. )

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, thermal analysis of a three dimensional quarter model of a 156 pad flip-chip on a liquid cooled multichip module with 75 other chips is simulated using COSMOS -- finite element software. Both flip-chip (pad grid array type) and TAB type of interconnections are used for the module. The total power on the board is 67 watts, the flip-chips generating up to 1.5 watts each and the one TAB type generating 12 waits. Each chip can be modeled independently due to the absence of cross-heating by its neighbors. Forced convection liquid cooling using an organic coolant with various flow rates and thus various convection coefficients is used for the study. The temperature rise in the boundary layer of the coolant was 8F[degrees] at the coolant flow rate of 0.08 gallons per minute for the flip-chip with 1.5 watts. The maximum thermal strains calculated were found to be 0.35% (if the temperature of zero strain is assumed to be 0[degrees]F, and Young's modulus of solder is 2 Mpsi). The maximum shears were found in the corner bump, and they differed from the next bump by 20%. Polyimide layers above and below the solder bumps were found to contribute about 80% of the thermal resistance These results are used in a Coffin-Manson analysis to predict adequate life (cycles) for the high lead solder bumps (95%Pb--5%Sn).

  5. Thermal and mechanical analysis of flip-chips on a liquid cooled multichip module

    SciTech Connect

    Narayanan, R.; Hall, P.M.; Chanchani, R.

    1992-12-31

    In this paper, thermal analysis of a three dimensional quarter model of a 156 pad flip-chip on a liquid cooled multichip module with 75 other chips is simulated using COSMOS -- finite element software. Both flip-chip (pad grid array type) and TAB type of interconnections are used for the module. The total power on the board is 67 watts, the flip-chips generating up to 1.5 watts each and the one TAB type generating 12 waits. Each chip can be modeled independently due to the absence of cross-heating by its neighbors. Forced convection liquid cooling using an organic coolant with various flow rates and thus various convection coefficients is used for the study. The temperature rise in the boundary layer of the coolant was 8F{degrees} at the coolant flow rate of 0.08 gallons per minute for the flip-chip with 1.5 watts. The maximum thermal strains calculated were found to be 0.35% (if the temperature of zero strain is assumed to be 0{degrees}F, and Young`s modulus of solder is 2 Mpsi). The maximum shears were found in the corner bump, and they differed from the next bump by 20%. Polyimide layers above and below the solder bumps were found to contribute about 80% of the thermal resistance! These results are used in a Coffin-Manson analysis to predict adequate life (cycles) for the high lead solder bumps (95%Pb--5%Sn).

  6. A Module Experimental Process System Development Unit (MEPSDU). [development of low cost solar arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The technical readiness of a cost effective process sequence that has the potential for the production of flat plate photovoltaic modules which met the price goal in 1986 of $.70 or less per Watt peak was demonstrated. The proposed process sequence was reviewed and laboratory verification experiments were conducted. The preliminary process includes the following features: semicrystalline silicon (10 cm by 10 cm) as the silicon input material; spray on dopant diffusion source; Al paste BSF formation; spray on AR coating; electroless Ni plate solder dip metallization; laser scribe edges; K & S tabbing and stringing machine; and laminated EVA modules.

  7. Highly Automated Module Production Incorporating Advanced Light Management

    SciTech Connect

    Perelli-Minetti, Michael; Roof, Kyle

    2015-08-11

    The objective was to enable a high volume, cost effective solution for increasing the amount of light captured by PV modules through utilization of an advanced Light Re-directing Film and to follow a phased approach to develop and implement this new technology in order to achieve an expected power gain of up to 12 watts per module. Full size PV modules were manufactured using a new Light Redirecting Film (LRF) material applied to two different areas of PV modules in order to increase the amount of light captured by the modules. One configuration involved applying thin strips of LRF film over the tabbing ribbon on the cells in order to redirect the light that is normally absorbed by the tabbing ribbon to the active areas of the cells. A second configuration involved applying thin strips of LRF film over the white spaces between cells within a module in order to capture some of the light that is normally reflected from the white areas back through the front glass of the modules. Significant power increases of 1.4% (3.9 watts) and 1.0% (3.2 watts), respectively, compared to standard PV modules were measured under standard test conditions. The performance of PV modules with LRF applied to the tabbing ribbon was modeled. The results showed that the power increase provided by LRF depended greatly on the angle of incident light with the optimum performance only occurring when the light was within a narrow range of being perpendicular to the solar module. The modeling showed that most of the performance gain would be lost when the angle of incident light was greater than 28 degrees off axis. This effect made the orientation of modules with LRF applied to tabbing ribbons very important as modules mounted in “portrait” mode were predicted to provide little to no power gain from LRF under real world conditions. Based on these results, modules with LRF on tabbing ribbons would have to be mounted in “landscape” mode to realize a performance advantage. In addition

  8. The 40 KW of Solar Cell Modules for the Large Scale Production Task a Low Cost Silicon Solar Array Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, G. T.

    1977-01-01

    Forty kilowatts of solar cell modules was produced in this program. This is equivalent to 4123 modules. The average power output per module was 9.7 watts at 16.5 volts, 60 C and 100 mW/sq cm. The peak production rate was 200 modules per week which is equal to 1.9 kW per week. This rate was sustained for over four and one-half months and is equivalent to 100 kW per year. This final report covers the solar cell module design, electrical and power performance, module preproduction environmental test results, production and shipping schedule, program summary, and delivery. A cost analysis section is written. Particular emphasis on the percentage of labor and material utilized in constructing a solar cell module is presented. Also included are cost reduction recommendations.

  9. Fishing along the Clinch River arm of Watts Bar reservoir adjacent to the Oak Ridge Reservation, Tennessee: behavior, knowledge and risk perception.

    PubMed

    Rouse Campbell, Kym; Dickey, Richard J; Sexton, Richard; Burger, Joanna

    2002-11-01

    Catching and eating fish is usually viewed as a fun, healthy and safe activity. However, with continuing increases in fish consumption advisories due to the contamination of our environment, anglers have to decide whether or not to eat the fish they catch. The Clinch River arm of Watts Bar Reservoir is under a fish consumption advisory because of elevated PCB concentrations in striped bass (Morone saxatilis), catfish (Ictalurus spp.) and sauger (Stizostedion canadense) due in part from contaminants released from the US Department of Energy's (USDOE's) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in East Tennessee. To obtain information about the demographics, fishing behavior, knowledge, fish consumption and risk perception of anglers, a survey was conducted of 202 people actively fishing either on land or by boat along the Clinch River arm of Watts Bar Reservoir adjacent to the ORR from Melton Hill Dam to the Poplar Creek confluence or on Poplar Creek within ORR boundaries from mid-March to early November 2001. Even though 81% of people interviewed knew about the fish consumption advisories for the study area, 48% of them thought the fish were safe to eat, while 38% ate the fish that they caught from the study area. Approximately 36% of anglers who had knowledge of the fish consumption warnings ate fish from the study area. Providing confirmation that people fish for many reasons, 35% of anglers interviewed did not eat fish at all. The majority of anglers interviewed knew about the fish consumption advisories because of the signs posted throughout the study area. However, few people knew the correct fish advisories. Significantly fewer blacks had knowledge of the fish consumption warnings than whites. Information resulting from this study could be used to design a program with the objective of reaching the people who may be most at risk from eating fish caught from the Clinch River arm of Watts Bar Reservoir.

  10. Hundred-watt-level high power random distributed feedback Raman fiber laser at 1150 nm and its application in mid-infrared laser generation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hanwei; Zhou, Pu; Wang, Xiong; Du, Xueyuan; Xiao, Hu; Xu, Xiaojun

    2015-06-29

    Two kinds of hundred-watt-level random distributed feedback Raman fiber have been demonstrated. The optical efficiency can reach to as high as 84.8%. The reported power and efficiency of the random laser is the highest one as we know. We have also demonstrated that the developed random laser can be further used to pump a Ho-doped fiber laser for mid-infrared laser generation. Finally, 23 W 2050 nm laser is achieved. The presented laser can obtain high power output efficiently and conveniently and opens a new direction for high power laser sources at designed wavelength.

  11. Module Configuration

    DOEpatents

    Oweis, Salah; D'Ussel, Louis; Chagnon, Guy; Zuhowski, Michael; Sack, Tim; Laucournet, Gaullume; Jackson, Edward J.

    2002-06-04

    A stand alone battery module including: (a) a mechanical configuration; (b) a thermal management configuration; (c) an electrical connection configuration; and (d) an electronics configuration. Such a module is fully interchangeable in a battery pack assembly, mechanically, from the thermal management point of view, and electrically. With the same hardware, the module can accommodate different cell sizes and, therefore, can easily have different capacities. The module structure is designed to accommodate the electronics monitoring, protection, and printed wiring assembly boards (PWAs), as well as to allow airflow through the module. A plurality of modules may easily be connected together to form a battery pack. The parts of the module are designed to facilitate their manufacture and assembly.

  12. Powering a Home with Just 25 Watts of Solar PV. Super-Efficient Appliances Can Enable Expanded Off-Grid Energy Service Using Small Solar Power Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Phadke, Amol A.; Jacobson, Arne; Park, Won Young; Lee, Ga Rick; Alstone, Peter; Khare, Amit

    2015-04-01

    Highly efficient direct current (DC) appliances have the potential to dramatically increase the affordability of off-grid solar power systems used for rural electrification in developing countries by reducing the size of the systems required. For example, the combined power requirement of a highly efficient color TV, four DC light emitting diode (LED) lamps, a mobile phone charger, and a radio is approximately 18 watts and can be supported by a small solar power system (at 27 watts peak, Wp). Price declines and efficiency advances in LED technology are already enabling rapidly increased use of small off-grid lighting systems in Africa and Asia. Similar progress is also possible for larger household-scale solar home systems that power appliances such as lights, TVs, fans, radios, and mobile phones. When super-efficient appliances are used, the total cost of solar home systems and their associated appliances can be reduced by as much as 50%. The results vary according to the appliances used with the system. These findings have critical relevance for efforts to provide modern energy services to the 1.2 billion people worldwide without access to the electrical grid and one billion more with unreliable access. However, policy and market support are needed to realize rapid adoption of super-efficient appliances.

  13. Safety evaluation report related to the operation of Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2 (Docket Nos. 50-390 and 50-391). Supplement No. 15

    SciTech Connect

    Tam, P.S.

    1995-06-01

    This report supplements the Safety Evaluation Report (SER), NUREG-0847 (June 1982), Supplement No. 1 (September 1982), Supplement No. 2 (January 1984), Supplement No. 3 (January 1985), Supplement No. 4 (March 1985), Supplement No. 5 (November 1990), Supplement No. 6 (April 1991), Supplement No. 7 (September 1991), Supplement No. 8 (January 1992), Supplement No. 9 (June 1992), Supplement No. 10 (October 1992), Supplement No. 11 (April 1993), Supplement No. 12 (October 1993), Supplement No. 13 (April 1994), and Supplement No. 14 (December 1994) issued by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission with respect to the application filed by the Tennessee Valley Authority, as applicant and owner, for licenses to operate the Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2 (Docket Nos. 50-390 and 50-391). The facility is located in Rhea County, Tennessee, near the Watts Bar Dam on the Tennessee River. This supplement provides recent information regarding resolution of some of the outstanding and confirmatory items, and proposed license conditions identified in the SER.

  14. On-chip power-combining techniques for watt-level linear power amplifiers in 0.18 μm CMOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhixiong, Ren; Kefeng, Zhang; Lanqi, Liu; Cong, Li; Xiaofei, Chen; Dongsheng, Liu; Zhenglin, Liu; Xuecheng, Zou

    2015-09-01

    Three linear CMOS power amplifiers (PAs) with high output power (more than watt-level output power) for high data-rate mobile applications are introduced. To realize watt-level output power, there are two 2.4 GHz PAs using an on-chip parallel combining transformer (PCT) and one 1.95 GHz PA using an on-chip series combining transformer (SCT) to combine output signals of multiple power stages. Furthermore, some linearization techniques including adaptive bias, diode linearizer, multi-gated transistors (MGTR) and the second harmonic control are applied in these PAs. Using the proposed power combiner, these three PAs are designed and fabricated in TSMC 0.18 μm RFCMOS process. According to the measurement results, the proposed two linear 2.4 GHz PAs achieve a gain of 33.2 dB and 34.3 dB, a maximum output power of 30.7 dBm and 29.4 dBm, with 29% and 31.3% of peak PAE, respectively. According to the simulation results, the presented linear 1.95 GHz PA achieves a gain of 37.5 dB, a maximum output power of 34.3 dBm with 36.3% of peak PAE. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 61076030).

  15. "Watts per person" paradigm to design net zero energy buildings: Examining technology interventions and integrating occupant feedback to reduce plug loads in a commercial building

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yagi Kim, Mika

    As building envelopes have improved due to more restrictive energy codes, internal loads have increased largely due to the proliferation of computers, electronics, appliances, imaging and audio visual equipment that continues to grow in commercial buildings. As the dependency on the internet for information and data transfer increases, the electricity demand will pose a challenge to design and operate Net Zero Energy Buildings (NZEBs). Plug Loads (PLs) as a proportion of the building load has become the largest non-regulated building energy load and represents the third highest electricity end-use in California's commercial office buildings, accounting for 23% of the total building electricity consumption (Ecova 2011,2). In the Annual Energy Outlook 2008 (AEO2008), prepared by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) that presents long-term projections of energy supply and demand through 2030 states that office equipment and personal computers are the "fastest growing electrical end uses" in the commercial sector. This thesis entitled "Watts Per Person" Paradigm to Design Net Zero Energy Buildings, measures the implementation of advanced controls and behavioral interventions to study the reduction of PL energy use in the commercial sector. By integrating real world data extracted from an energy efficient commercial building of its energy use, the results produce a new methodology on estimating PL energy use by calculating based on "Watts Per Person" and analyzes computational simulation methods to design NZEBs.

  16. Module Evaluation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-02-01

    various testing methodologies for the evaluation and characterization of Transmit /Receive (T/R) modules for phased array radars. Discussed are techniques...for characterizing T/R modules in transmit and receive modes under ideal and emulated operation environments. Further, techniques for life testing...characteristics of T/R modules developed during the early and mid 1980’s. Data provided shows the performance in terms of gain and phase for both transmit

  17. A Module Experimental Process System Development Unit (MEPSDU)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of this program is to demonstrate the technical readiness of a cost effective process sequence that has the potential for the production of flat plate photovoltaic modules which met the price goal in 1986 of $.70 or less per watt peak. Program efforts included: preliminary design review, preliminary cell fabrication using the proposed process sequence, verification of sandblasting back cleanup, study of resist parameters, evaluation of pull strength of the proposed metallization, measurement of contact resistance of Electroless Ni contacts, optimization of process parameter, design of the MEPSDU module, identification and testing of insulator tapes, development of a lamination process sequence, identification, discussions, demonstrations and visits with candidate equipment vendors, evaluation of proposals for tabbing and stringing machine.

  18. High Throughput, Continuous, Mass Production of Photovoltaic Modules

    SciTech Connect

    Kurt Barth

    2008-02-06

    AVA Solar has developed a very low cost solar photovoltaic (PV) manufacturing process and has demonstrated the significant economic and commercial potential of this technology. This I & I Category 3 project provided significant assistance toward accomplishing these milestones. The original goals of this project were to design, construct and test a production prototype system, fabricate PV modules and test the module performance. The original module manufacturing costs in the proposal were estimated at $2/Watt. The objectives of this project have been exceeded. An advanced processing line was designed, fabricated and installed. Using this automated, high throughput system, high efficiency devices and fully encapsulated modules were manufactured. AVA Solar has obtained 2 rounds of private equity funding, expand to 50 people and initiated the development of a large scale factory for 100+ megawatts of annual production. Modules will be manufactured at an industry leading cost which will enable AVA Solar's modules to produce power that is cost-competitive with traditional energy resources. With low manufacturing costs and the ability to scale manufacturing, AVA Solar has been contacted by some of the largest customers in the PV industry to negotiate long-term supply contracts. The current market for PV has continued to grow at 40%+ per year for nearly a decade and is projected to reach $40-$60 Billion by 2012. Currently, a crystalline silicon raw material supply shortage is limiting growth and raising costs. Our process does not use silicon, eliminating these limitations.

  19. Watts-level super-compact narrow-linewidth Tm-doped silica all-fiber laser near 1707 nm with fiber Bragg gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, X. S.; Guo, H. T.; Lu, M.; Yan, Z. J.; Wang, H. S.; Wang, Y. S.; Xu, Y. T.; Gao, C. X.; Cui, X. X.; Guo, Q.; Peng, B.

    2016-11-01

    Watts-level ultra-short wavelength operation of a Tm-doped all fiber laser was developed by using a 1550 nm Er-doped fiber laser pump source and a pair of fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs). The laser yielded 1.28 W of continuous-wave output at 1707.01 nm with a narrow linewidth of ~44 pm by means of a 20 cm Tm-doped fiber. The dependencies of the slope efficiencies and pump threshold of the Tm-doped fiber laser versus the length of active fiber and reflectivity of the output mirror (FBG) were investigated in detail, in which the maximum average slope efficiency was 36.1%. There is no doubt that this all fiber laser will be a perfect pump source for mid-IR laser output.

  20. CROSS-DISCIPLINARY PHYSICS AND RELATED AREAS OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: Evolutionary Games on Weighted Newman-Watts Small-World Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Wen-Bo; Cao, Xian-Bin; Zhao, Lin; Zhou, Hong

    2009-05-01

    We investigate the evolutionary prisoner's dilemma game (PDG) on weighted Newman-Watts (NW) networks. In weighted NW networks, the link weight wij is assigned to the link between the nodes i and j as: wij = (κi · κj)β, where κi(κj) is the degree of node i(j) and β represents the strength of the correlations. Obviously, the link weight can be tuned by only one parameter β. We focus on the cooperative behavior and wealth distribution in the system. Simulation results show that the cooperator frequency is promoted by a large range of β and there is a minimal cooperation frequency around β = - 1. Moreover, we also employ the Gini coefficient to study the wealth distribution in the population. Numerical results show that the Gini coefficient reaches its minimum when β approx - 1. Our work may be helpful in understanding the emergence of cooperation and unequal wealth distribution in society.

  1. Modulated Entry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, Frederick C.

    1960-01-01

    The technique of modulation, or variable coefficients, is discussed and the analytical formulation is reviewed. Representative numerical results of the use of modulation are shown for the lifting and nonlifting cases. These results include the effects of modulation on peak acceleration, entry corridor, and heat absorption. Results are given for entry at satellite speed and escape speed. The indications are that coefficient modulation on a vehicle with good lifting capability offers the possibility of sizable loading reductions or, alternatively, wider corridors; thus, steep entries become practical from the loading standpoint. The amount of steepness depends on the acceptable heating penalty. The price of sizable fractions of the possible gains does not appear to be excessive.

  2. High brightness laser-diode device emitting 160 watts from a 100 μm/NA 0.22 fiber.

    PubMed

    Yu, Junhong; Guo, Linui; Wu, Hualing; Wang, Zhao; Tan, Hao; Gao, Songxin; Wu, Deyong; Zhang, Kai

    2015-11-10

    A practical method of achieving a high-brightness and high-power fiber-coupled laser-diode device is demonstrated both by experiment and ZEMAX software simulation, which is obtained by a beam transformation system, free-space beam combining, and polarization beam combining based on a mini-bar laser-diode chip. Using this method, fiber-coupled laser-diode module output power from the multimode fiber with 100 μm core diameter and 0.22 numerical aperture (NA) could reach 174 W, with equalizing brightness of 14.2  MW/(cm2·sr). By this method, much wider applications of fiber-coupled laser-diodes are anticipated.

  3. Synthesis and evaluation of (17 alpha,20E)-21-(/sup 125/I)iodo-19-norpregna-1,3,5(10),20-tetraene-3,17 -diol and (17 alpha,20E)-21-(/sup 125/I)iodo-11 beta-methoxy-19-norpregna-1,3,5(10),20-tetraene-3,17-diol (17 alpha-(iodovinyl)estradiol derivatives) as high specific activity potential radiopharmaceuticals

    SciTech Connect

    Nakatsuka, I.; Ferreira, N.L.; Eckelman, W.C.; Francis, B.E.; Rzeszotarski, W.J.; Gibson, R.E.; Jagoda, E.M.; Reba, R.C.

    1984-10-01

    Two 17 alpha-(/sup 125/I)iodovinyl estradiol derivatives 4b,d possessing high specific activity have been prepared and tested as potential radiopharmaceuticals. The use of the 3-acetyl derivatives 2c,e and the replacement of iodine monochloride with sodium iodide and Chloramine-T in THF/phosphate buffer (pH 7.0) permitted us to synthesize no-carrier-added (17 alpha,20E)-21-(/sup 125/I)iodo-19-norpregna-1,3,5(10),20-tetraene-3,17-d iol (4b) and (17 alpha,20E)-21-(/sup 125/I)iodo-11 beta-methoxy-19-norpregna-1,3,5(10),20-tetraene-3,17-diol (4d) with 50% radiochemical yield and high purity. Although the specific activity represents only half of the theoretical value in some cases, this modified approach is a substantial improvement over the previously published method. Our preliminary distribution studies indicate that although both 4b and 4d localize in the tissues known to have a large concentration of estrogen receptors, 4d accumulates in higher amounts in target tissues and provides a high target to nontarget ratio.

  4. A Module Experimental Process System Development Unit (MEPSDU). [flat plate solar arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The development of a cost effective process sequence that has the potential for the production of flat plate photovoltaic modules which meet the price goal in 1986 of 70 cents or less per Watt peak is described. The major accomplishments include (1) an improved AR coating technique; (2) the use of sand blast back clean-up to reduce clean up costs and to allow much of the Al paste to serve as a back conductor; and (3) the development of wave soldering for use with solar cells. Cells were processed to evaluate different process steps, a cell and minimodule test plan was prepared and data were collected for preliminary Samics cost analysis.

  5. Firefighting Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    NASA and the U.S. Coast Guard are working jointly to develop a helicopter transportable firefighting module that can shave precious minutes in combating shipboard or harbor fires. The program was undertaken in 1975, after a series of disastrous fires on oil tankers indicated a need for a lightweight, self-contained system that could be moved quickly to the scene of a fire. A prototype module was delivered to the Coast Guard last year and service testing is under way. The compact module weighs little more than a ton but it contains everything needed to fight a fire. The key component is a high output pump, which delivers up to 2,000 gallons of sea water a minute; the pump can be brought up to maximum output in only one minute after turning on the power source, a small Allison gas turbine engine. The module also contains hose, a foam nozzle and a spray nozzle, three sets of protective clothing for firefighters, and fuel for three hours operation. Designed to be assembled without special tools, the module can be set up for operation in less than 20 minutes.

  6. Firefighting Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Aviation Power Supply's mobile firefighting module called Firefly II is mounted on a trailer pulled by a pickup truck. Trailer unit has two three- inch water cannons, and the pickup carries a six inch cannon. Completely self contained, module pumps 3,000 gallons of water a minute from hydrants or open bodies of water. Stream can go as far as 400 feet or can be employed in a high-loft mode to reach the tops of tall refinery towers. Compact Firefly II weighs only 2,500 pounds when fully fueled. Key component is a specially designed two stage pump. Power for the pump is generated by a gas turbine engine. Module also includes an electronic/pump controller, multiple hose connections, up to 1,500 feet of hose and fuel for four hours operation. Firefly trailer can be backed onto specially-built large fireboat.

  7. Firefighting Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Aviation Power Supply's mobile firefighting module called Firefly II is mounted on a trailer pulled by a pickup truck. Trailer unit has two three- inch water cannons, and the pickup carries a six inch cannon. Completely self contained, module pumps 3,000 gallons of water a minute from hydrants or open bodies of water. Stream can go as far as 400 feet or can be employed in a high-loft mode to reach the tops of tall refinery towers. Compact Firefly II weighs only 2,500 pounds when fully fueled. Key component is a specially designed two stage pump. Power for the pump is generated by a gas turbine engine. Module also includes an electronic/pump controller, multiple hose connections, up to 1,500 feet of hose and fuel for four hours operation. Firefly trailer can be backed onto specially-built large fireboat.

  8. Thermionic modules

    DOEpatents

    King, Donald B.; Sadwick, Laurence P.; Wernsman, Bernard R.

    2002-06-18

    Modules of assembled microminiature thermionic converters (MTCs) having high energy-conversion efficiencies and variable operating temperatures manufactured using MEMS manufacturing techniques including chemical vapor deposition. The MTCs incorporate cathode to anode spacing of about 1 micron or less and use cathode and anode materials having work functions ranging from about 1 eV to about 3 eV. The MTCs also exhibit maximum efficiencies of just under 30%, and thousands of the devices and modules can be fabricated at modest costs.

  9. Future directions in 980-nm pump lasers: submarine deployment to low-cost watt-class terrestrial pumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulgazov, Vadim N.; Jackson, Gordon S.; Lascola, Kevin M.; Major, Jo S.; Parke, Ross; Richard, Tim; Rossin, Victor V.; Zhang, Kai

    1999-09-01

    . Since the failure rate allowable for an amplifier is not a function of the number of pumps employed in the amplifier, the allowable failure rate of an individual pump laser is decreasing for next-generation amplifiers. This will lead to specifications for terrestrial pumps well below 1000 FIT, and may lead to the case where high power amplifiers need laser pump reliability to approach 100 FIT. In addition, 980 nm laser diodes are now being deployed in submarine systems where failure rates lower than 100 FIT are commonly specified. It is obvious that both terrestrial and submarine markets are pushing allowable failure rates for pumps for optical amplifiers to continually decrease. A second push for improvement is in the output power of 980 nm pump modules. There exist a number of motivations for increasing the output power of pump lasers. First, each additional channel in a DWDM system requires additional power. To first order, a doubling in channel count implies a doubling in pump power. Second, larger amplifiers require multiple pumps. Higher output power from pump modules allows for fewer pumps, less complicated control systems and smaller size amplifiers. The discussion of this paper will focus on how current development progress of 980 nm laser diodes addresses these issues: better reliability and higher output powers.

  10. Design of a nuclear isotope heat source assembly for a spaceborne mini-Brayton power module.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wein, D.; Gorland, S. H.

    1973-01-01

    Results of a study to develop a feasible design definition of a heat source assembly (HSA) for use in nominal 500-, 1200-, or 2000-W(e) mini-Brayton spacecraft power systems. The HSA is a modular design which is used either as a single unit to provide thermal energy to the 500-W(e) mini-Brayton power module or in parallel with one or two additional HSAs for the 1200- or 2000-W(e) power module systems. Principal components consist of a multihundred watt RTG isotope heat source, a heat source heat exchanger which transfers the thermal energy from the heat source to the mini-Brayton power conversion system, an auxiliary cooling system which provides requisite cooling during nonoperation of the power conversion module and an emergency cooling system which precludes accidental release of isotope fuel in the event of system failure.

  11. Design of polarizers for a mega-watt long-pulse millimeter-wave transmission line on the large helical device

    SciTech Connect

    Ii, T. Kubo, S.; Shimozuma, T.; Kobayashi, S.; Okada, K.; Yoshimura, Y.; Igami, H.; Takahashi, H.; Ito, S.; Mizuno, Y.; Okada, K.; Mutoh, T.; Makino, R.; Kobayashi, K.; Goto, Y.

    2015-02-15

    The polarizer is one of the critical components in a high-power millimeter-wave transmission line. It requires full and highly efficient coverage of any polarization states, high-power tolerance, and low-loss feature. Polarizers with rounded shape at the edge of the periodic groove surface are designed and fabricated by the machining process for a mega-watt long-pulse millimeter-wave transmission line of the electron cyclotron resonance heating system in the large helical device. The groove shape of λ/8- and λ/4-type polarizers for an 82.7 GHz transmission line is optimally designed in an integral method developed in the vector theories of diffraction gratings so that the efficiency to realize any polarization state can be maximized. The dependence of the polarization states on the combination of the two polarizer rotation angles (Φ{sub λ/8}, Φ{sub λ/4}) is examined experimentally in a low-power test with the newly developed polarization monitor. The results show that the measured polarization characteristics are in good agreement with the calculated ones.

  12. Ultra-compact Watt-level flat supercontinuum source pumped by noise-like pulse from an all-fiber oscillator.

    PubMed

    Chen, He; Zhou, Xuanfeng; Chen, Sheng-Ping; Jiang, Zong-Fu; Hou, Jing

    2015-12-28

    We demonstrate Watt-level flat visible supercontinuum (SC) generation in photonic crystal fibers, which is directly pumped by broadband noise-like pulses from an Yb-doped all-fiber oscillator. The novel SC generator is featured with elegant all-fiber-integrated architecture, high spectral flatness and high efficiency. Wide optical spectrum spanning from 500 nm to 2300 nm with 1.02 W optical power is obtained under the pump of 1.4 W noise-like pulse. The flatness of the spectrum in the range of 700 nm~1600 nm is less than 5 dB (including the pump residue). The exceptional simplicity, economical efficiency and the comparable performances make the noise-like pulse oscillator a competitive candidate to the widely used cascade amplified coherent pulse as the pump source of broadband SC. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of SC generation which is directly pumped by an all-fiber noise-like pulse oscillator.

  13. Tissue temperatures attained in indocyanine-green infiltrated and noninfiltrated bovine eyelids using diode laser (805-nm) energy at 3, 5, and 7 watts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkpatrick, John G.; Bartels, Kenneth E.; Dickey, D. Thomas; Powell, Ronald; Schafer, Steven A.; Zhou, Jin Fu; Wicksted, James P.

    1998-07-01

    Normal non-pigmented bovine eyelids in two Hereford cows under general anesthesia were treated with diode laser (805 nm) in a power range of 3 - 6.5 watts. Tissue temperatures were measured in areas infiltrated with 0.25% indocyanine green (ICG) solution and in non-infiltrated areas. Targeted tissue was laser treated at post-injection time intervals of 1 to 60 minutes. Temperatures were measured with a computerized temperature sensing program using hypodermic needle thermistors. Trial objectives were to establish power/chromophore concentration/time parameters to create tumor and peri-tumor tissue temperatures of 50 degrees Celsius without causing epidermal vaporization. Tissue temperature of 50 degrees Celsius has been established as the temperature producing coagulative necrosis of squamous cell carcinoma tumor tissue in 30 seconds. This temperature was produced in chromophore-enhanced tissue bit without repeatable confidence. Bovine ocular squamous cell carcinoma (BOSCC)-affected eyes and eyelids have been successfully treated with carbon dioxide focused and defocused laser with and without chromophore enhanced diode laser (805 nm) energy. The need for tumor staging and procedure standardization requires further investigation to determine laser power/chromophore concentration, and issue exposure times.

  14. 'The trial the world is watching': the 1972 prosecution of Derk Crichton and James Watts, abortion, and the regulation of the medical profession in apartheid South Africa.

    PubMed

    Klausen, Susanne M

    2014-04-01

    After its formation in 1910 as a self-governing dominion within the British empire, the Union of South Africa followed a combination of English and Roman-Dutch common laws on abortion that decreed the procedure permissible only when necessary to save a woman's life. The government continued doing so after South Africa withdrew from the Commonwealth and became a republic in 1961. In 1972 a sensational trial took place in the South African Supreme Court that for weeks placed clandestine abortion on the front pages of the country's newspapers. Two men, one an eminent doctor and the other a self-taught abortionist, were charged with conspiring to perform illegal abortions on twenty-six white teenagers and young unmarried women. The prosecution of Dr Derk Crichton and James Watts occurred while the National Party government was in the process of drafting abortion legislation and was perceived by legal experts as another test of the judiciary's stance on the common law on abortion. The trial was mainly intended to regulate the medical profession and ensure doctors ceased helping young white women evade their 'duty' to procreate within marriage. Ultimately, the event encapsulated a great deal about elites' attempt to buttress apartheid culture and is significant for, among other reasons, contributing to the production of South Africa's extremely restrictive Abortion and Sterilisation Act (1975).

  15. Community Emergency Response Team (CERT) Training of High-Risk Teens in the Community of Watts, South Los Angeles, 2013-2014.

    PubMed

    Ossey, Shamika; Sylvers, Sharon; Oksuzyan, Sona; Smith, Lisa V; Frye, Douglas; Family, Leila; Scott, Jannah; King, Jan B

    2017-04-11

    The Community Emergency Response Team (CERT) concept was initially developed for adult members of the community to help prepare for disasters and minimize damage when disasters occur. CERTs also served as a tool for building community capacity and self-sufficiency by supporting a diverse group of people working together in dealing with challenges affecting their communities. The novel approach to CERTs described here sought to involve high-risk youth from low-socioeconomic status communities in CERTs and first aid and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training to help them build ties with communities, stay off the streets, and become leaders in the community. It also helped to provide different perspectives on life, while building more resilient communities better prepared to minimize damage when a disaster strikes. After the successful launch of the first high-risk teen CERT cohort in Watts (27 CERT-trained and 14 first aid/CPR-trained), the project was expanded to other community groups and organizations. Seven additional cohorts underwent CERT and first aid/CPR training in 2013 through 2014. This initiative increased CERT visibility within South Los Angeles. New partnerships were developed between governmental, nongovernmental, and community-based organizations and groups. This model can be used to expand CERT programs to other communities and organizations by involving high-risk teens or other high-risk groups in CERT training. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;page 1 of 5).

  16. Effect of Spike-Timing-Dependent Plasticity on Intrinsic Coherence Resonance in Newman-Watts Stochastic Hodgkin-Huxley Neuronal Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Huijuan; Gong, Yubing; Wang, Qi

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we numerically study the effect of spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) on coherence resonance (CR) induced by channel noise in adaptive Newman-Watts stochastic Hodgkin-Huxley neuron networks. It is found that STDP can either enhance or suppress the intrinsic CR when the adjusting rate of STDP decreases or increases. STDP can alter the effects of network randomness and network size on the intrinsic CR. Under STDP, for electrical coupling there are optimal network randomness and network size by which the intrinsic CR becomes strongest, however, for chemical coupling the intrinsic CR is always enhanced as network randomness or network size increases, which are different from the results for fixed coupling. These results show that the intrinsic CR of the neuronal networks can be either enhanced or suppressed by STDP, and there are optimal network randomness and network size by which the intrinsic CR becomes strongest. These findings could provide a new insight into the role of STDP for the information processing and transmission in neural systems.

  17. Design of polarizers for a mega-watt long-pulse millimeter-wave transmission line on the large helical device.

    PubMed

    Ii, T; Kubo, S; Shimozuma, T; Kobayashi, S; Okada, K; Yoshimura, Y; Igami, H; Takahashi, H; Ito, S; Mizuno, Y; Okada, K; Makino, R; Kobayashi, K; Goto, Y; Mutoh, T

    2015-02-01

    The polarizer is one of the critical components in a high-power millimeter-wave transmission line. It requires full and highly efficient coverage of any polarization states, high-power tolerance, and low-loss feature. Polarizers with rounded shape at the edge of the periodic groove surface are designed and fabricated by the machining process for a mega-watt long-pulse millimeter-wave transmission line of the electron cyclotron resonance heating system in the large helical device. The groove shape of λ/8- and λ/4-type polarizers for an 82.7 GHz transmission line is optimally designed in an integral method developed in the vector theories of diffraction gratings so that the efficiency to realize any polarization state can be maximized. The dependence of the polarization states on the combination of the two polarizer rotation angles (Φλ/8, Φλ/4) is examined experimentally in a low-power test with the newly developed polarization monitor. The results show that the measured polarization characteristics are in good agreement with the calculated ones.

  18. Firefighting Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Firefly II pump module is NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center's commercial offshoot of a NASA/US Coast Guard program involving development of a lightweight, helicopter-transportable firefighting module for a quick response in combating shipboard or harbor fires. Operable on land or water, the Amphib One is equipped with 3 water cannons. When all 3 are operating, unit pumps more than 3,000 gallons a minute. Newly developed model used by U.S. Coast Guard can pump 5,000 gallons per minute. It was designed for applications such as firefighting onboard ship fires, emergency dockside water pumping, dewatering ships in danger of sinking, flood control, and emergency water supply at remote locations.

  19. Thermoelectric module

    DOEpatents

    Kortier, William E.; Mueller, John J.; Eggers, Philip E.

    1980-07-08

    A thermoelectric module containing lead telluride as the thermoelectric mrial is encapsulated as tightly as possible in a stainless steel canister to provide minimum void volume in the canister. The lead telluride thermoelectric elements are pressure-contacted to a tungsten hot strap and metallurgically bonded at the cold junction to iron shoes with a barrier layer of tin telluride between the iron shoe and the p-type lead telluride element.

  20. Linear modulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    A study of frequency division multiplexing (FDM) systems was made for the purpose of determining the system performance that can be obtained with available state of the art components. System performance was evaluated on the basis of past experience, system analysis, and component evaluation. The system study was specifically directed to the area of FDM systems using subcarrier channel frequencies from 4 kHz to 200 kHz and channel information bandwidths of dc to 1, 2, 4, 8, and 16 kHz. The evaluation also assumes that the demodulation will be from a tape recorder which produces frequency modulation of + or - 1% on the signal due to the tape recorder wow and flutter. For the modulation system it is assumed that the pilot and carrier channel frequencies are stable to within + or - .005% and that the FM on the channel carriers is negligible. The modulator system was evaluated for the temperature range of -20 degree to +85 degree while the demodulator system was evaluated for operation at room temperature.

  1. The 200 watts/kilogram solar array conceptual approach study. Phase 2: Assessment report for proof-of-concept experiments and Halley's comet concentrator array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The activities associated with the fabrication, handling, and testing of 2-mil solar cell modules on a flexible substrate are demonstrated. It is shown that 2-mil solar cells can be reliably handled, welded, and bonded to a Kapton substrate. Flexible Invar interconnects can be used to interconnect individual cells to form modules. These solar cell modules can be temperature cycled, wrapped around a 10-inch diameter drum, and vibrated to the shuttle environment with no significant damage. A bonding technique was developed to physically join adjacent modules that is stronger than the Kapton, itself. Ultraviolet radiation tests were performed on RTV - silicone as a cell cover material - with very encouraging results.

  2. Photovoltaic module and module arrays

    DOEpatents

    Botkin, Jonathan [El Cerrito, CA; Graves, Simon [Berkeley, CA; Lenox, Carl J. S. [Oakland, CA; Culligan, Matthew [Berkeley, CA; Danning, Matt [Oakland, CA

    2012-07-17

    A photovoltaic (PV) module including a PV device and a frame. The PV device has a PV laminate defining a perimeter and a major plane. The frame is assembled to and encases the laminate perimeter, and includes leading, trailing, and side frame members, and an arm that forms a support face opposite the laminate. The support face is adapted for placement against a horizontal installation surface, to support and orient the laminate in a non-parallel or tilted arrangement. Upon final assembly, the laminate and the frame combine to define a unitary structure. The frame can orient the laminate at an angle in the range of 3.degree.-7.degree. from horizontal, and can be entirely formed of a polymeric material. Optionally, the arm incorporates integral feature(s) that facilitate interconnection with corresponding features of a second, identically formed PV module.

  3. Photovoltaic module and module arrays

    DOEpatents

    Botkin, Jonathan; Graves, Simon; Lenox, Carl J. S.; Culligan, Matthew; Danning, Matt

    2013-08-27

    A photovoltaic (PV) module including a PV device and a frame, The PV device has a PV laminate defining a perimeter and a major plane. The frame is assembled to and encases the laminate perimeter, and includes leading, trailing, and side frame members, and an arm that forms a support face opposite the laminate. The support face is adapted for placement against a horizontal installation surface, to support and orient the laminate in a non-parallel or tilted arrangement. Upon final assembly, the laminate and the frame combine to define a unitary structure. The frame can orient the laminate at an angle in the range of 3.degree.-7.degree. from horizontal, and can be entirely formed of a polymeric material. Optionally, the arm incorporates integral feature(s) that facilitate interconnection with corresponding features of a second, identically formed PV module.

  4. Low cost high efficiency GaAs monolithic RF module for SARSAT distress beacons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petersen, W. C.; Siu, D. P.; Cook, H. F.

    1991-01-01

    Low cost high performance (5 Watts output) 406 MHz beacons are urgently needed to realize the maximum utilization of the Search and Rescue Satellite-Aided Tracking (SARSAT) system spearheaded in the U.S. by NASA. Although current technology can produce beacons meeting the output power requirement, power consumption is high due to the low efficiency of available transmitters. Field performance is currently unsatisfactory due to the lack of safe and reliable high density batteries capable of operation at -40 C. Low cost production is also a crucial but elusive requirement for the ultimate wide scale utilization of this system. Microwave Monolithics Incorporated (MMInc.) has proposed to make both the technical and cost goals for the SARSAT beacon attainable by developing a monolithic GaAs chip set for the RF module. This chip set consists of a high efficiency power amplifier and a bi-phase modulator. In addition to implementing the RF module in Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit (MMIC) form to minimize ultimate production costs, the power amplifier has a power-added efficiency nearly twice that attained with current commercial technology. A distress beacon built using this RF module chip set will be significantly smaller in size and lighter in weight due to a smaller battery requirement, since the 406 MHz signal source and the digital controller have far lower power consumption compared to the 5 watt power amplifier. All the program tasks have been successfully completed. The GaAs MMIC RF module chip set has been designed to be compatible with the present 406 MHz signal source and digital controller. A complete high performance low cost SARSAT beacon can be realized with only additional minor iteration and systems integration.

  5. Heat-source specification 500 watt(e) RTG

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-02-01

    This specification establishes the requirements for a /sup 90/SrF/sub 2/ heat source and its fuel capsule for application in a 500 W(e) thermoelectric generator. The specification covers: fuel composition and quantity; the Hastelloy S fuel capsule material and fabrication; and the quality assurance requirements for the assembled heat source. (LCL)

  6. Phenomenological study of unintegrated parton distribution functions in the frameworks of the Kimber-Martin-Ryskin and Martin-Ryskin-Watt approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modarres, M.; Hosseinkhani, H.; Olanj, N.

    2014-02-01

    The aim of the present work is to study the phenomenological behavior of unitegrated parton distribution functions (UPDF) by using the Kimber-Martin-Ryskin (KMR) and Martin-Ryskin-Watt (MRW) formalisms. In the first method, the leading order (LO) UPDF of the KMR prescription is extracted, by taking into account the PDF of Martin et al., i.e., MSTW2008-LO and MRST99-NLO and. While in the second scheme, the next-to-leading order (NLO) UPDF of the (MRW) procedure is generated through the set of MSTW2008-NLO PDFas the inputs. The different aspects of the UPDF in the two approaches, as well as the input PDF are discussed. Then, the deep inelastic proton structure functions, F2(x,Q2), are calculated from the above UPDF in the two schemes, and compared with the data, which are extracted from the ZEUS, NMC, and H1+ZEUS experimental measurements. In general, it is shown that the calculated structure functions based on the UPDF of two schemes, are consistent to the experimental data, and by a good approximation, they are independent to the input PDF. But the proton structure functions, which are extracted from the KMR prescription, have better agreement to the data with respect to that of MRW. Although the MRW formalism is in more compliance with the Dokshitzer-Bribov-Lipatov-Altarelli-Parisi (DGLAP) evolution equation requisites, but it seems in the KMR case, the angular ordering constraint spreads the UPDF to the whole transverse momentum region, and makes the results to sum up the leading DGLAP and Balitski-Fadin-Kuraev-Lipatov (BFKL) Logarithms. This point is under study by the authors.

  7. Design and simulation of maximum power point tracking (MPPT) system on solar module system using constant voltage (CV) method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatara, Sevty Satria; Iskandar, Reza Fauzi; Kirom, M. Ramdlan

    2016-02-01

    Solar energy is one of renewable energy resource where needs a photovoltaic module to convert it into electrical energy. One of the problems on solar energy conversion is the process of battery charging. To improve efficiency of energy conversion, PV system needs another control method on battery charging called maximum power point tracking (MPPT). This paper report the study on charging optimation using constant voltage (CV) method. This method has a function of determining output voltage of the PV system on maximal condition, so PV system will always produce a maximal energy. A model represented a PV system with and without MPPT was developed using Simulink. PV system simulation showed a different outcome energy when different solar radiation and numbers of solar module were applied in the model. On the simulation of solar radiation 1000 W/m2, PV system with MPPT produces 252.66 Watt energy and PV system without MPPT produces 252.66 Watt energy. The larger the solar radiation, the greater the energy of PV modules was produced.

  8. 980nm diode laser pump modules operating at high temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Jenna; Semenic, Tadej; Leisher, Paul; Bhunia, Avijit; Mashanovitch, Milan; Renner, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    Existing thermal management technologies for diode laser pumps place a significant load on the size, weight and power consumption of High Power Solid State and Fiber Laser systems, thus making current laser systems very large, heavy, and inefficient in many important practical applications. This problem is being addressed by the team formed by Freedom Photonics and Teledyne Scientific through the development of novel high power laser chip array architectures that can operate with high efficiency when cooled with coolants at temperatures higher than 50 degrees Celsius and also the development of an advanced thermal management system for efficient heat extraction from the laser chip array. This paper will present experimental results for the optical, electrical and thermal characteristics of 980 nm diode laser pump modules operating effectively with liquid coolant at temperatures above 50 degrees Celsius, showing a very small change in performance as the operating temperature increases from 20 to 50 degrees Celsius. These pump modules can achieve output power of many Watts per array lasing element with an operating Wall-Plug-Efficiency (WPE) of >55% at elevated coolant temperatures. The paper will also discuss the technical approach that has enabled this high level of pump module performance and opportunities for further improvement.

  9. 300 WATT PORTABLE THERMOELECTRIC GENERATOR.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    THERMOELECTRICITY, POWER SUPPLIES), (* GENERATORS , THERMOELECTRICITY), (*ELECTRIC POWER PRODUCTION, THERMOELECTRICITY), PORTABLE EQUIPMENT, THERMOCOUPLES, ENERGY CONVERSION, HEAT EXCHANGERS, WIRING DIAGRAMS

  10. 300 WATT PORTABLE THERMOELECTRIC GENERATOR.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    GENERATORS , *ELECTRIC POWER PRODUCTION, POWER SUPPLIES, THERMOELECTRICITY, THERMOELECTRICITY, PORTABLE EQUIPMENT, THERMOCOUPLES, ENERGY CONVERSION, LIFE EXPECTANCY(SERVICE LIFE), HEAT TRANSFER, VOLTAGE REGULATORS.

  11. Supported PV module assembly

    DOEpatents

    Mascolo, Gianluigi; Taggart, David F.; Botkin, Jonathan D.; Edgett, Christopher S.

    2013-10-15

    A supported PV assembly may include a PV module comprising a PV panel and PV module supports including module supports having a support surface supporting the module, a module registration member engaging the PV module to properly position the PV module on the module support, and a mounting element. In some embodiments the PV module registration members engage only the external surfaces of the PV modules at the corners. In some embodiments the assembly includes a wind deflector with ballast secured to a least one of the PV module supports and the wind deflector. An array of the assemblies can be secured to one another at their corners to prevent horizontal separation of the adjacent corners while permitting the PV modules to flex relative to one another so to permit the array of PV modules to follow a contour of the support surface.

  12. Ferrite Nanoparticles in Pharmacological Modulation of Angiogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deshmukh, Aparna; Radha, S.; Khan, Y.; Tilak, Priya

    2011-07-01

    Nanoparticles are being explored in the targeted drug delivery of pharmacological agents : angiogenesis being one such novel application which involves formation of new blood vessels or branching of existing ones. The present study involves the use of ferrite nanoparticles for precise therapeutic modulation of angiogenesis. The ferrite nanoparticles synthesized by co-precipitation of ferrous and ferric salts by a suitable base, were found to be 10-20 nm from X-ray diffraction and TEM measurements. The magnetization measurements showed superparamagnetic behavior of the uncoated nanoparticles. These ferrite nanoparticles were found to be bio-compatible with lymphocytes and neural cell lines from the biochemical assays. The chick chorioallantoic membrane(CAM) from the shell of fertile white Leghorn eggs was chosen as a model to study angiogenic activity. An enhancement in the angiogenic activity in the CAM due to addition of uncoated ferrite nanoparticles was observed.

  13. Lunar Module Ascent Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The Lunar Module 'Spider' ascent stage is photographed from the Command/Service Module on the fifth day of the Apollo 9 earth-orbital mission. The Lunar Module's descent stage had already been jettisoned.

  14. Wide deviation phase modulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Couch, R. H.; Hearn, C. P.; Wilson, L. R.

    1974-01-01

    Modulator produces phase-modulated waveform having high modulating linearity. Technique is inherently wideband with respect to carrier frequency and can operate over decade carrier frequency range without adjustments. Circuit performance is both mathematically predictable and highly reproducible.

  15. Plaque pH modulations of children's favourite snacks.

    PubMed

    Gauba, K; Goyal, A; Tewari, A

    1991-03-01

    Cariogenic potential of a few children's favourite snacks, assessed by evaluation of pH modulations on their respective consumption after 2,5,10,20,30 and 40 minutes compared to 10 percent sucrose control using pooled plaque method, in 8-12 years old children revealed lollipop (hard sucking candy) to be the most cariogenic and samosa without chutney to be the least cariogenic. The cariogenic potential of ice creams were similar, however, low as compared to sucrose solution of 10 percent.

  16. Ballasted photovoltaic module and module arrays

    DOEpatents

    Botkin, Jonathan [El Cerrito, CA; Graves, Simon [Berkeley, CA; Danning, Matt [Oakland, CA

    2011-11-29

    A photovoltaic (PV) module assembly including a PV module and a ballast tray. The PV module includes a PV device and a frame. A PV laminate is assembled to the frame, and the frame includes an arm. The ballast tray is adapted for containing ballast and is removably associated with the PV module in a ballasting state where the tray is vertically under the PV laminate and vertically over the arm to impede overt displacement of the PV module. The PV module assembly can be installed to a flat commercial rooftop, with the PV module and the ballast tray both resting upon the rooftop. In some embodiments, the ballasting state includes corresponding surfaces of the arm and the tray being spaced from one another under normal (low or no wind) conditions, such that the frame is not continuously subjected to a weight of the tray.

  17. Module utilization committee

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volkmer, K.; Praver, G.

    1984-01-01

    Photovoltaic collector modules were declared surplus to the needs of the U.S. Dept. of Energy. The Module Utilization Committee was formed to make appropriate disposition of the surplus modules on a national basis and to act as a broker for requests for these modules originating outside of the National Photovoltaics Program.

  18. Design, fabrication, test, and qualification and price analysis of third generation design solar cell modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepard, N. F.

    1980-01-01

    The Block 4 shingle type module makes it possible to apply a photovoltaic array to the sloping roof of a residential building by simply nailing the overlapping hexagon shaped shingles to the plywood roof sheathing. This third-generation shingle module design consists of nineteen series connected 100 mm diameter solar cells which are arranged in a closely packed hexagon configuration to provide in excess of 75 watts/sq m of exposed module area under standard operating conditions. The solar cells are individually bonded to the embossed underside of a 4.4 mm thick thermally tempered piece of glass. An experimental silicone pottant was used as the transparent bonding adhesive between the cells and glass. The semi-flexible portion of each shingle module is a composite laminate construction consisting of an outer layer of FLEXSEAL bonded to an inner core of closed cell polyethylene foam. Silaprene is used as the substrate laminating adhesive. The module design has satisfactorily survived qualification testing program which includes 50 thermal cycles between -40 and +90 C, a seven day temperature-humidity exposure test, and a wind resistance test.

  19. Almond brush module cutter

    SciTech Connect

    Zohns, M.A.; Jenkins, B.M.; Mehlschau, J.J.; Morrison, D.

    1983-06-01

    This paper addresses the design, construction, and evaluation of an almond brush module cutter. The module cutter is one link in a system which processes tree prunings for fuel and fiber. This system includes a modified cotton module builder, a module mover, the cutter, and a tub grinder. An economic analysis of the cutter is presented along with the problems involved in cutting brush modules.

  20. Safety evaluation report related to the operation of Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2, Docket Nos. 50-390 and 50-391, Tennessee Valley Authority. Supplement number 20

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    This report supplements the Safety Evaluation Report (SER), NUREG-0847 (June 1982), Supplement No. 1 (September 1982), Supplement No. 2 (January 1984), Supplement No. 3 (January 1985), Supplement No. 4 (March 1985), Supplement No. 5 (November 1990), Supplement No. 6 (April 1991), Supplement No. 7 (September 1991), Supplement No. 8 (January 1992), Supplement No. 9 (June 1992), Supplement No. 10 (October 1992), Supplement No. 11 (April 1993), Supplement No. 12 (October 1993), Supplement No. 13 (April 1994), Supplement No. 14 (December 1994), Supplement No. 15 (June 1995), Supplement No. 16 (September 1995), Supplement No. 17 (October 1995), Supplement No. 18 (October 1995), and Supplement No. 19 (November 1995) issued by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission with respect to the application filed by the Tennessee Valley Authority, as applicant and owner, for licenses to operate the Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2 (Docket Nos. 50-390 and 50-391). The facility is located in Rhea County, Tennessee, near the Watts Bar Dam on the Tennessee River. This supplement provides recent information regarding resolution of some of the issues identified in the SER.

  1. Tunable diode laser spectral diagnostic studies of a pressure modulator radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    May, Randy D.; Mccleese, Daniel J.; Rider, David M.; Schofield, John T.; Webster, Christopher R.

    1988-01-01

    The successful application of high-resolution tunable diode laser spectroscopy to the diagnostic measurement of a pressure modulator radiometer (PMR) is reported, and recorded line transmission profiles for a single N2O line at 1272/cm are presented. PMR measurements obtained for mean cell pressures of about 10, 20, and 30 Torr were found to be consistent with theoretical predictions. The validity of single-pressure and two-pressure approximation representations of the mean and modulated PMR transmission spectra has been verified.

  2. Dispersion interferometer using modulation amplitudes on LHD (invited).

    PubMed

    Akiyama, T; Yasuhara, R; Kawahata, K; Okajima, S; Nakayama, K

    2014-11-01

    Since a dispersion interferometer is insensitive to mechanical vibrations, a vibration compensation system is not necessary. The CO2 laser dispersion interferometer with phase modulations on the Large Helical Device utilizes the new phase extraction method which uses modulation amplitudes and can improve a disadvantage of the original dispersion interferometer: measurement errors caused by variations of detected intensities. The phase variation within ±2 × 10(17) m(-3) is obtained without vibration compensation system. The measured line averaged electron density with the dispersion interferometer shows good agreement with that with the existing far infrared laser interferometer. Fringe jump errors in high density ranging up to 1.5 × 10(20) m(-3) can be overcome by a sufficient sampling rate of about 100 kHz.

  3. Design, fabrication, test, qualification and price analysis for third generation design solar cell modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    An updated program plan is presented showing the task descriptions depicting the work, progress, achievements, and the cause of any deviations from the original plan (SC-1), and how this impacted on the original schedule of the program. In addition there is an update documenting all design alterations made during the pre-production phase and a complete up to date set of engineering and manufacturing documentation (CM-1). The purpose of the work in the original plan was to explore, design, develop, test, and deliver 1000 watts of prototype flat plate, photovoltaic modules appropriate for use in applications in the 20 to 500 kilowatt range and which show potential for meeting the 1986 cost goals.

  4. Wideband Linear Phase Modulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mysoor, Narayan R.; Mueller, Robert O.

    1994-01-01

    Phase modulator for transmission in X band provides large phase deviation that remains nearly linear with voltage over relatively wide range. Operates with low loss over wide frequency band and with stable characteristics over wide temperature range. Phase modulator contains two varactor-diode phase shifters coupled via circulators. Separate drive circuit applies modulating voltages to varactor diodes. Modulation voltages vary in accordance with input to drive circuit.

  5. Modulating lignin in plants

    SciTech Connect

    Apuya, Nestor; Bobzin, Steven Craig; Okamuro, Jack; Zhang, Ke

    2013-01-29

    Materials and methods for modulating (e.g., increasing or decreasing) lignin content in plants are disclosed. For example, nucleic acids encoding lignin-modulating polypeptides are disclosed as well as methods for using such nucleic acids to generate transgenic plants having a modulated lignin content.

  6. Temporal Aperture Modulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proctor, R. J.

    1981-01-01

    The two types of modulation techniques useful to X-ray imaging are reviewed. The use of optimum coded temporal aperature modulation is shown, in certain cases, to offer an advantage over a spatial aperture modulator. Example applications of a diffuse anisotropic X-ray background experiment and a wide field of view hard X-ray imager are discussed.

  7. Curriculum Development: Cultural Modules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, John C.

    1978-01-01

    Language and cultural modules are multimedia in nature and non-sequential. Modules should be used in association with the themes and vocabulary found in the main course textbook. Reference is made to the "A-LM German Language Programs" and modules produced by Ontario German teachers in 1976 in West Germany. (SW)

  8. Rescue Manual. Module 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Instructional Materials Lab.

    This learner manual for rescuers covers the current techniques or practices required in the rescue service. The fifth of 10 modules contains information on hazardous materials. Key points, an introduction, and conclusion accompany substantive material in this module. In addition, the module contains a Department of Transportation guide chart on…

  9. Integrating Module - NEMS Documentation

    EIA Publications

    2014-01-01

    Provides an overview of the complete National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) model, and includes brief descriptions of the modules with which the Integrating Module interacts. The emphasis and focus, however, is on the structure and function of the Integrating Module of NEMS.

  10. Spatial Light Amplifier Modulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eng, Sverre T.; Olsson, N. Anders

    1992-01-01

    Spatial light amplifier modulators (SLAM's) are conceptual devices that effect two-dimensional spatial modulation in optical computing and communication systems. Unlike current spatial light modulators, these provide gain. Optical processors incorporating SLAM's designed to operate in reflection or transmission mode. Each element of planar SLAM array is optical amplifier - surface-emitting diode laser. Array addressed electrically with ac modulating signals superimposed on dc bias currents supplied to lasers. SLAM device provides both desired modulation and enough optical gain to enable splitting of output signal into many optical fibers without excessive loss of power.

  11. Small modulation ellipsometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ducharme, Stephen P. (Inventor); El Hajj, Hassanayn M. (Inventor); Johs, Blaine D. (Inventor); Woollam, John A. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    In an ellipsometer, a phase-modulated, polarized light beam is applied to a sample, electrical signals are obtained representing the orthogonal planes of polarization of the light after it has interacted with the sample and the constants of the sample are calculated from the two resulting electrical signals. The phase modulation is sufficiently small so that the calibration errors are negligible. For this purpose, the phase modulator phase modulates the light within a range of no more than ten degrees modulations peak to peak. The two electrical signals are expanded by Fourier analysis and the coefficients thereof utilized to calculate psi and delta.

  12. Solar cells and modules from dentritic web silicon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, R. B.; Rohatgi, A.; Seman, E. J.; Davis, J. R.; Rai-Choudhury, P.; Gallagher, B. D.

    1980-01-01

    Some of the noteworthy features of the processes developed in the fabrication of solar cell modules are the handling of long lengths of web, the use of cost effective dip coating of photoresist and antireflection coatings, selective electroplating of the grid pattern and ultrasonic bonding of the cell interconnect. Data on the cells is obtained by means of dark I-V analysis and deep level transient spectroscopy. A histogram of over 100 dentritic web solar cells fabricated in a number of runs using different web crystals shows an average efficiency of over 13%, with some efficiencies running above 15%. Lower cell efficiency is generally associated with low minority carrier time due to recombination centers sometimes present in the bulk silicon. A cost analysis of the process sequence using a 25 MW production line indicates a selling price of $0.75/peak watt in 1986. It is concluded that the efficiency of dentritic web cells approaches that of float zone silicon cells, reduced somewhat by the lower bulk lifetime of the former.

  13. Flammability of photovoltaic modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sugimura, R. S.; Otth, D. H.; Ross, R. G., Jr.; Lewis, K. J.; Arnett, J. C.

    1984-01-01

    A series of Class B burning-brand tests were performed on experimental modules using high-temperature, back-surface materials to develop the technology base required to construct fire-ratable modules. Results indicate the existence of synergistic relationships between hydrocarbon encapsulation materials and the experimental module configurations that provide increased fire resistance. These configurations use Kapton, fiberglass, neoprene rubber, stainless-steel foil or aluminum foil as the back surface. Successful test results occur when the structural integrity of the module back surface is maintained. Test failures of these modules always occur for one of three reasons: the outermost back cover melts, rips, or is too porous. In each case flammable molten encapsulant, its gaseous byproducts, or both, penetrates the back surface of the module and bursts into flame. Future efforts to complete the technology base will concentrate on the spread-of-flame test, focusing on the more promising configurations identified in the initial series of tests.

  14. Flammability of photovoltaic modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugimura, R. S.; Otth, D. H.; Ross, R. G., Jr.; Lewis, K. J.; Arnett, J. C.

    A series of Class B burning-brand tests were performed on experimental modules using high-temperature, back-surface materials to develop the technology base required to construct fire-ratable modules. Results indicate the existence of synergistic relationships between hydrocarbon encapsulation materials and the experimental module configurations that provide increased fire resistance. These configurations use Kapton, fiberglass, neoprene rubber, stainless-steel foil or aluminum foil as the back surface. Successful test results occur when the structural integrity of the module back surface is maintained. Test failures of these modules always occur for one of three reasons: the outermost back cover melts, rips, or is too porous. In each case flammable molten encapsulant, its gaseous byproducts, or both, penetrates the back surface of the module and bursts into flame. Future efforts to complete the technology base will concentrate on the spread-of-flame test, focusing on the more promising configurations identified in the initial series of tests.

  15. THERMOELECTRIC POWER MODULES.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    During this reporting period the four thermo electric power modules which were put on life test completed 2000 hours of unattended operation. A hot...junction temperature of 800 C was main tained. During this time period satisfactory performance of the modules was observed and the test is continuing...Two additional modules were started on a cycled life test , one hour on and one and one half hours off for an eight hour period, and continuous

  16. Telemetry remote modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silverman, J. R.

    1972-01-01

    A fully operational engineering telemetry remote module is reported that forms the basis for a decentralized telemetry system which employs small low powered modules capable of distributing the multiplexer input gates around a spacecraft. The module operates mainly as a harness reducer, allowing data to be transmitted back to a central control core for inclusion in the telemetry bit stream. Each unit is capable of accepting 32 data points in various combinations.

  17. Cavity enhanced terahertz modulation

    SciTech Connect

    Born, N.; Scheller, M.; Moloney, J. V.; Koch, M.

    2014-03-10

    We present a versatile concept for all optical terahertz (THz) amplitude modulators based on a Fabry-Pérot semiconductor cavity design. Employing the high reflectivity of two parallel meta-surfaces allows for trapping selected THz photons within the cavity and thus only a weak optical modulation of the semiconductor absorbance is required to significantly damp the field within the cavity. The optical switching yields to modulation depths of more than 90% with insertion efficiencies of 80%.

  18. 46 CFR 194.10-20 - Magazine chest construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... lid shall have a minimum thickness of 1/8 inch. (b) Permanent sun shields shall be provided for sides... distance of 11/2 inches. Sun shields may be omitted when chests are installed “on deck protected,” shielded from direct exposure to the sun. (c) Chests shall be limited to a gross capacity of 100 cubic feet....

  19. 46 CFR 194.10-20 - Magazine chest construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... lid shall have a minimum thickness of 1/8 inch. (b) Permanent sun shields shall be provided for sides... distance of 11/2 inches. Sun shields may be omitted when chests are installed “on deck protected,” shielded from direct exposure to the sun. (c) Chests shall be limited to a gross capacity of 100 cubic feet....

  20. 46 CFR 194.10-20 - Magazine chest construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... lid shall have a minimum thickness of 1/8 inch. (b) Permanent sun shields shall be provided for sides... distance of 11/2 inches. Sun shields may be omitted when chests are installed “on deck protected,” shielded from direct exposure to the sun. (c) Chests shall be limited to a gross capacity of 100 cubic feet....

  1. 46 CFR 194.10-20 - Magazine chest construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... lid shall have a minimum thickness of 1/8 inch. (b) Permanent sun shields shall be provided for sides... distance of 11/2 inches. Sun shields may be omitted when chests are installed “on deck protected,” shielded from direct exposure to the sun. (c) Chests shall be limited to a gross capacity of 100 cubic feet....

  2. 46 CFR 194.10-20 - Magazine chest construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... lid shall have a minimum thickness of 1/8 inch. (b) Permanent sun shields shall be provided for sides and top including the lid. These shall have a minimum thickness of 1/8-inch aluminum or 16-gage steel. Side shields shall be offset from the body a distance of 1 inch. The top shield shall be offset...

  3. The NASA - Arc 10/20 micron camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roellig, T. L.; Cooper, R.; Deutsch, L. K.; Mccreight, C.; Mckelvey, M.; Pendleton, Y. J.; Witteborn, F. C.; Yuen, L.; Mcmahon, T.; Werner, M. W.

    1994-01-01

    A new infrared camera (AIR Camera) has been developed at NASA - Ames Research Center for observations from ground-based telescopes. The heart of the camera is a Hughes 58 x 62 pixel Arsenic-doped Silicon detector array that has the spectral sensitivity range to allow observations in both the 10 and 20 micron atmospheric windows.

  4. 46 CFR 2.10-20 - General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Inspection Fees, P.O. Box 531030, Atlanta, GA 30353-1030. (iii) For payment by check, made payable to U.S... 531030 (COI), 1075 Loop Road, Atlanta, GA 30337-6002. (2) For Overseas Inspection Fees: (i) For payment..., P.O. Box 531769, Atlanta, GA 30353-1769. (iii) For payment by check, made payable to U.S....

  5. 46 CFR 2.10-20 - General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ....O. Box 531030, Atlanta, GA 30353-1030. (iii) For payment by check, made payable to U.S. Treasury... (COI), 1075 Loop Road, Atlanta, GA 30337-6002. (2) For Overseas Inspection Fees: (i) For payment by... 531769, Atlanta, GA 30353-1769. (iii) For payment by check, made payable to U.S. Treasury, with...

  6. 46 CFR 2.10-20 - General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ....O. Box 531030, Atlanta, GA 30353-1030. (iii) For payment by check, made payable to U.S. Treasury... (COI), 1075 Loop Road, Atlanta, GA 30337-6002. (2) For Overseas Inspection Fees: (i) For payment by... 531769, Atlanta, GA 30353-1769. (iii) For payment by check, made payable to U.S. Treasury, with...

  7. 46 CFR 54.10-20 - Marking and stamping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PRESSURE VESSELS Inspection... (__ °F). (5) Class. (6) Minimum design metal temperature, if below −18 °C (0 °F). (7) Water capacity in... stamped is to be insulated or otherwise covered, the data shall be reproduced on a metal nameplate....

  8. 46 CFR 2.10-20 - General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... subpart must be paid in U.S. currency by check or money order, drawn on a U.S. bank, and made payable to the U.S. Treasury. Payment may also be made by credit card or wire transfer. (c) All payments must...

  9. 46 CFR 151.10-20 - Hull construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... tensile strength of the material, whichever is less. Critical buckling strength shall be at least 75 percent greater than calculated buckling stresses. The maximum tank bending moments and saddle...

  10. Budget Update, November 9, 2010. Report 10-20

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woolfork, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    On October 8, Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger signed the 2010-11 Budget Act for the State of California. This budget was the outcome of many months of negotiation between the Governor and the Legislature. The Governor vetoed $963 million in spending from the Legislature's budget, arriving at a budget that addresses an estimated $19.1 billion…

  11. 46 CFR 151.10-20 - Hull construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... rests upon a pinnacle at the water surface. The maximum hull and tank bending moment and tank saddle..., regardless of the number of saddle supports shall be subject to a still water bending analysis to determine... reactions. (iii) The still water tank bending moments and saddle reactions shall be superimposed upon...

  12. 46 CFR 151.10-20 - Hull construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... rests upon a pinnacle at the water surface. The maximum hull and tank bending moment and tank saddle..., regardless of the number of saddle supports shall be subject to a still water bending analysis to determine... reactions. (iii) The still water tank bending moments and saddle reactions shall be superimposed upon...

  13. Bubble memory module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bohning, O. D.; Becker, F. J.

    1980-01-01

    Design, fabrication and test of partially populated prototype recorder using 100 kilobit serial chips is described. Electrical interface, operating modes, and mechanical design of several module configurations are discussed. Fabrication and test of the module demonstrated the practicality of multiplexing resulting in lower power, weight, and volume. This effort resulted in the completion of a module consisting of a fully engineered printed circuit storage board populated with 5 of 8 possible cells and a wire wrapped electronics board. Interface of the module is 16 bits parallel at a maximum of 1.33 megabits per second data rate on either of two interface buses.

  14. Bubble memory module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohning, O. D.; Becker, F. J.

    1980-12-01

    Design, fabrication and test of partially populated prototype recorder using 100 kilobit serial chips is described. Electrical interface, operating modes, and mechanical design of several module configurations are discussed. Fabrication and test of the module demonstrated the practicality of multiplexing resulting in lower power, weight, and volume. This effort resulted in the completion of a module consisting of a fully engineered printed circuit storage board populated with 5 of 8 possible cells and a wire wrapped electronics board. Interface of the module is 16 bits parallel at a maximum of 1.33 megabits per second data rate on either of two interface buses.

  15. Advanced module development overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smokler, M. I.

    1984-01-01

    Crystalline silicon solar power modules are examined for reliability and cost effectiveness. A goal of 12% solar energy conversion efficiency is considered feasible at a cost of 12/kWh, and a decision is made to limit consideration to float zone silicon wafer and dendritic web silicone modules. A preliminary module packaging configuration of glass/ethylene vinyl acetate/plastic film is selected. Anticipated module efficiency levels are 12.6% at 25 C and 11.5% at NOCT (Nominal Operating Cell Temperature).

  16. Bracket for photovoltaic modules

    SciTech Connect

    Ciasulli, John; Jones, Jason

    2014-06-24

    Brackets for photovoltaic ("PV") modules are described. In one embodiment, a saddle bracket has a mounting surface to support one or more PV modules over a tube, a gusset coupled to the mounting surface, and a mounting feature coupled to the gusset to couple to the tube. The gusset can have a first leg and a second leg extending at an angle relative to the mounting surface. Saddle brackets can be coupled to a torque tube at predetermined locations. PV modules can be coupled to the saddle brackets. The mounting feature can be coupled to the first gusset and configured to stand the one or more PV modules off the tube.

  17. Thin-Film Thermoelectric Module for Power Generator Applications Using a Screen-Printing Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Heon-Bok; Yang, Hyun Jeong; We, Ju Hyung; Kim, Kukjoo; Choi, Kyung Cheol; Cho, Byung Jin

    2011-05-01

    A new process for fabricating a low-cost thermoelectric module using a screen-printing method has been developed. Thermoelectric properties of screen-printed ZnSb films were investigated in an effort to develop a thermoelectric module with low cost per watt. The screen-printed Zn x Sb1- x films showed a low carrier concentration and high Seebeck coefficient when x was in the range of 0.5 to 0.57 and the annealing temperature was kept below 550°C. When the annealing temperature was higher than 550°C, the carrier concentration of the Zn x Sb1- x films reached that of a metal, leading to a decrease of the Seebeck coefficient. In the present experiment, the optimized carrier concentration of screen-printed ZnSb was 7 × 1018/cm3. The output voltage and power density of the ZnSb film were 10 mV and 0.17 mW/cm2, respectively, at Δ T = 50 K. A thermoelectric module was produced using the proposed screen-printing approach with ZnSb and CoSb3 as p-type and n-type thermoelectric materials, respectively, and copper as the pad metal.

  18. Design and development of a linear Fresnel lens air-cooled photovoltaic module and a stand-alone photovoltaic collector array

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    A summary description of the design development of a linear Fresnel lens air-cooled photovoltaic collector and a stand-alone photovoltaic collector array is presented. Module performance is characterized by 12.9% electrical efficiency under operational conditions (800 w/m/sup 2/, 20/sup 0/C ambient temperature) and 14.2% electrical efficiency at 28/sup 0/C cell reference temperature. The stand-alone photovoltaic collector array design utilizes eight air-cooled photovoltaic modules and produces a peak output of 2680 watts at 20/sup 0/C ambient temperature and 1000 w/m/sup 2/ direct normal insolation. This corresponds to an overall array electrical efficiency of 12%. A prototype subscale array was fabricated and performance tested and verified the stand-alone array concept.

  19. Frequency Modulation Spectroscopy Modeling for Remote Chemical Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Sheen, David M.

    2000-09-30

    Frequency modulation (FM) spectroscopy techniques show promise for active infrared remote chemical sensing. FM spectroscopy techniques have reduced sensitivity to optical and electronic noise, and are relatively immune to the effects of various electronic and mechanical drifts. FM systems are responsive to sharp spectral features and can therefore reduce the effects of spectral clutter due to interfering chemicals in the plume or in the atmosphere. The relatively high modulation frequencies used for FM also reduces the effects of albedo (reflectance) and plume variations. Conventional differential absorption lidar (DIAL) systems are performance limited by the noise induced by speckle. Analysis presented in this report shows that FM based sensors may reduce the effects of speckle by one to two orders of magnitude. This can result in reduced dwell times and faster area searches, as well as reducing various forms of spatial clutter. FM systems will require a laser system that is continuously tunable at relatively high frequencies (0.1 to 20 MHz). One promising candidate is the quantum-cascade (QC) laser [1, 2]. The QC laser is potentially capable of power levels on the order of 1 Watt and frequency tuning on the order of 3 - 6 GHz, which is the performance level required for FM spectroscopy based remote sensing. In this report we describe a high-level numerical model for an FM spectroscopy based remote sensing system, and application to two unmanned airborne vehicle (UAV) scenarios. A Predator scenario operating at a slant range of 6.5 km with a 10 cm diameter telescope, and a Global Hawk scenario operating at a range of 30 km with a 20 cm diameter telescope, has been assumed to allow estimation of the performance of potential FM systems.

  20. Membrane module assembly

    DOEpatents

    Kaschemekat, J.

    1994-03-15

    A membrane module assembly is described which is adapted to provide a flow path for the incoming feed stream that forces it into prolonged heat-exchanging contact with a heating or cooling mechanism. Membrane separation processes employing the module assembly are also disclosed. The assembly is particularly useful for gas separation or pervaporation. 2 figures.

  1. Lunar Module Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Interbartolo, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the Apollo lunar module communications. It describes several changes in terminology from the Apollo era to more recent terms. It reviews: (1) Lunar Module Antennas and Functions (2). Earth Line of Sight Communications Links (3) No Earth Line of Sight Communications Links (4) Lunar Surface Communications Links (5) Signal-Processing Assembly (6) Instrumentation System (7) Some Communications Problems Encountered

  2. Modules in Death Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCartney, K. Ann; And Others

    Designed for use with accompanying videotapes as single presentations or as a series for professionals or laypeople, or as supplementary modules in academic courses in psychology, marriage and family, health occupations, etc., these four learning modules focus on common phases of dying and grief as part of the normal cycle of living. The modules…

  3. Water electrolysis module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, F. H.

    1971-01-01

    Module utilizes static water-feed electrolysis system and air-cooled fins to remove heat generated by cell inefficiencies. Module generates 0.15 pounds of oxygen and 0.0188 pounds of hydrogen at current density of 100 amps per square foot. Generator operates in aircraft, spacecraft, or submarine cabins.

  4. Logs Perl Module

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, R. K.

    2007-04-04

    A perl module designed to read and parse the voluminous set of event or accounting log files produced by a Portable Batch System (PBS) server. This module can filter on date-time and/or record type. The data can be returned in a variety of formats.

  5. Human Development Student Modules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

    This set of 61 student learning modules deals with various topics pertaining to human development. The modules, which are designed for use in performance-based vocational education programs, each contain the following components: an introduction for the student, a performance objective, a variety of learning activities, content information, a…

  6. Rescue Manual. Module 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Instructional Materials Lab.

    This learner manual for rescuers covers the current techniques or practices required in the rescue service. The seventh of 10 modules contains information on extrication from vehicles. Key points, an introduction, and conclusion accompany substantive material in this module. In addition, suggested tools and equipment for extrication procedures are…

  7. Module Safety Issues (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Wohlgemuth, J.

    2012-02-01

    Description of how to make PV modules so that they are less likely to turn into safety hazards. Making modules inherently safer with minimum additional cost is the preferred approach for PV. Safety starts with module design to ensure redundancy within the electrical circuitry to minimize open circuits and proper mounting instructions to prevent installation related ground faults. Module manufacturers must control the raw materials and processes to ensure that that every module is built like those qualified through the safety tests. This is the reason behind the QA task force effort to develop a 'Guideline for PV Module Manufacturing QA'. Periodic accelerated stress testing of production products is critical to validate the safety of the product. Combining safer PV modules with better systems designs is the ultimate goal. This should be especially true for PV arrays on buildings. Use of lower voltage dc circuits - AC modules, DC-DC converters. Use of arc detectors and interrupters to detect arcs and open the circuits to extinguish the arcs.

  8. Membrane module assembly

    DOEpatents

    Kaschemekat, Jurgen

    1994-01-01

    A membrane module assembly adapted to provide a flow path for the incoming feed stream that forces it into prolonged heat-exchanging contact with a heating or cooling mechanism. Membrane separation processes employing the module assembly are also disclosed. The assembly is particularly useful for gas separation or pervaporation.

  9. Applied Algebra Curriculum Modules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas State Technical Coll., Marshall.

    This collection of 11 applied algebra curriculum modules can be used independently as supplemental modules for an existing algebra curriculum. They represent diverse curriculum styles that should stimulate the teacher's creativity to adapt them to other algebra concepts. The selected topics have been determined to be those most needed by students…

  10. Cosmetology. Computerized Learning Modules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finnerty, Kathy, Ed.

    Intended to help reading-limited students meet course objectives, these 11 modules are based on instructional materials in cosmetology that have a higher readability equivalent. Modules cover bacteriology, chemical waving, scalp and hair massage, chemistry, hair shaping, hairstyling, chemical hair relaxing, hair coloring, skin and scalp,…

  11. Solar energy modulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hale, R. R. (Inventor); Mcdougal, A. R.

    1984-01-01

    A module is described with a receiver having a solar energy acceptance opening and supported by a mounting ring along the optic axis of a parabolic mirror in coaxial alignment for receiving solar energy from the mirror, and a solar flux modulator plate for varying the quantity of solar energy flux received by the acceptance opening of the module. The modulator plate is characterized by an annular, plate-like body, the internal diameter of which is equal to or slightly greater than the diameter of the solar energy acceptance opening of the receiver. Slave cylinders are connected to the modulator plate for supporting the plate for axial displacement along the axis of the mirror, therby shading the opening with respect to solar energy flux reflected from the surface of the mirror to the solar energy acceptance opening.

  12. Japanese Experiment Module (JEM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) pressure module is removed from its shipping crate and moved across the floor of the Space Station Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) to a work stand. A research laboratory, the pressurized module is the first element of the JEM, named 'Kibo' (Hope) to arrive at KSC. Japan's primary contribution to the International Space Station, the module will enhance unique research capabilities of the orbiting complex by providing an additional environment in which astronauts will conduct experiments. The JEM also includes an exposed facility or platform for space environment experiments, a robotic manipulator system, and two logistics modules. The various JEM components will be assembled in space over the course of three Shuttle missions.

  13. 16th Workshop on Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells and Modules: Materials and Processes; Program, Extended Abstracts, and Papers

    SciTech Connect

    Sopori, B. L.

    2006-08-01

    The National Center for Photovoltaics sponsored the 16th Workshop on Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells and Modules: Materials and Processes held August 6-9, 2006 in Denver, Colorado. The workshop addressed the fundamental properties of PV-Si, new solar cell designs, and advanced solar cell processing techniques. It provided a forum for an informal exchange of technical and scientific information between international researchers in the photovoltaic and relevant non-photovoltaic fields. The Workshop Theme was: "Getting more (Watts) for Less ($i)". A combination of oral presentations by invited speakers, poster sessions, and discussion sessions reviewed recent advances in crystal growth, new cell structures, new processes and process characterization techniques, and cell fabrication approaches suitable for future manufacturing demands. The special sessions included: Feedstock Issues: Si Refining and Purification; Metal-impurity Engineering; Thin Film Si; and Diagnostic Techniques.

  14. Investigation of a GaAlAs Mach-Zehnder electro-optic modulator. M.S. Thesis. Final Contractor Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Materna, David M.

    1987-01-01

    A GaAs modulator operating at 0.78 to 0.88 micron wavelength has the potential to be integrated with a GaAs/GaAlAs laser diode for an integrated fiber-optic transmitter. A travelling-wave Mach-Zehnder modulator using the electro-optic effect of GaAs and operating at a wavelength of 0.82 microns has been investigated for the first time. A four layer Strip-loaded ridge optical waveguide has been analyzed using the effective index method and single mode waveguides have been designed. The electro-optic effect of GaAs has also been analyzed and a modulator using the geometry producing the maximum phase shift has been designed. A coplanar transmission line structure is used in an effort to tap the potentially higher bandwidth of travelling-wave electrodes. The modulator bandwidth has been calculated at 11.95 GHz with a required drive power of 2.335 Watts for full intensity modulation. Finally, some preliminary experiments were performed to characterize a fabrication process for the modulator.

  15. Low voltage drop plasma switch for inverter and modulator applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goebel, D. M.; Poeschel, R. L.; Schumacher, R. W.

    1993-08-01

    A low forward voltage drop plasma switch has been developed for high-efficiency inverter and modulator applications. The switch, called the HOLLOTRON, is based on a grid-controlled, thermionic hollow-cathode discharge. A low forward voltage drop (10-20 V) is achieved by operating the hollow-cathode discharge in a static gas pressure of xenon. The dense plasma generated in the Ba-oxide dispenser hollow cathode is spread over a relatively large control grid area by a diverging magnetic field superimposed on the discharge. Interruption of the discharge current at high current densities (≳4 A/cm2) over the grid area is achieved by biasing the control grid sufficiently negative with respect to the plasma. The HOLLOTRON switch has demonstrated voltage stand-off of up to 20 kV, switching times of ≤0.3 μs, and pulse repetition frequencies of 20 kHz at 50% duty.

  16. Photovoltaic module and interlocked stack of photovoltaic modules

    DOEpatents

    Wares, Brian S.

    2014-09-02

    One embodiment relates to an arrangement of photovoltaic modules configured for transportation. The arrangement includes a plurality of photovoltaic modules, each photovoltaic module including a frame. A plurality of individual male alignment features and a plurality of individual female alignment features are included on each frame. Adjacent photovoltaic modules are interlocked by multiple individual male alignment features on a first module of the adjacent photovoltaic modules fitting into and being surrounded by corresponding individual female alignment features on a second module of the adjacent photovoltaic modules. Other embodiments, features and aspects are also disclosed.

  17. Optical modulator system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brand, J.

    1972-01-01

    The fabrication, test, and delivery of an optical modulator system which will operate with a mode-locked Nd:YAG laser indicating at either 1.06 or 0.53 micrometers is discussed. The delivered hardware operates at data rates up to 400 Mbps and includes a 0.53 micrometer electrooptic modulator, a 1.06 micrometer electrooptic modulator with power supply and signal processing electronics with power supply. The modulators contain solid state drivers which accept digital signals with MECL logic levels, temperature controllers to maintain a stable thermal environment for the modulator crystals, and automatic electronic compensation to maximize the extinction ratio. The modulators use two lithium tantalate crystals cascaded in a double pass configuration. The signal processing electronics include encoding electronics which are capable of digitizing analog signals between the limit of + or - 0.75 volts at a maximum rate of 80 megasamples per second with 5 bit resolution. The digital samples are serialized and made available as a 400 Mbps serial NRZ data source for the modulators. A pseudorandom (PN) generator is also included in the signal processing electronics. This data source generates PN sequences with lengths between 31 bits and 32,767 bits in a serial NRZ format at rates up to 400 Mbps.

  18. Evaluation of an 18-couple module composed of improved performance SiGe unicouples

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, C.E.; Klee, P.M.; Nakahara, J.F.; Hartman, R.F.

    1995-12-31

    Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) have played a major role in providing spacecraft electrical power for interplanetary exploration. Silicon Germanium alloys are the thermoelectric material employed in RTGs. Over the past several years a number of investigations have reported improvements in the figure of merit of these alloys. These improvements are attractive to mission planners because they result in enhanced RTG specific power (watts/lb) and improved efficiency which leads to lower fuel costs. This paper describes the fabrication and testing of an 18-couple module device utilizing unicouples with improved SiGe alloys. The unicouples were fabricated using materials with over a 10% improvement in the 573 to 1,273 K integrated average figure-of-merit over Cassini materials. The p-type material was fabricated by the standard vacuum casting and hot pressing method while the n-type material containing GaP was fabricated by a new method of mechanical alloying and hot isostatic pressing. The unicouples were fabricated in a similar fashion to standard unicouples except that the thermoelectric materials were bonded to the SiMo hot shoe in two thermal cycles due to the disparity of the melting points. A sufficient quantity of unicouples was fabricated to assemble an 18-couple module to evaluate the thermoelectric performance of the improved SiGe materials. The module was brought up to operating temperature following the same heatup rate as previous modules. The module was stabilized at a hot shoe temperature of 1,308 K. Initial performance was compared to the established SiGe database and found to show no improvement thermally or electrically.

  19. Autonomous cotton module forming system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton producers often have difficulty finding adequate labor during harvest. Module builder operators are often inexperienced and may build poorly shaped modules. Equipment manufacturers have recently introduced harvesters with on-board module building capabilities to reduce labor requirements; h...

  20. Amplitude Modulator Chassis

    SciTech Connect

    Erbert, G

    2009-09-01

    The Amplitude Modulator Chassis (AMC) is the final component in the MOR system and connects directly to the PAM input through a 100-meter fiber. The 48 AMCs temporally shape the 48 outputs of the MOR using an arbitrary waveform generator coupled to an amplitude modulator. The amplitude modulation element is a two stage, Lithium Niobate waveguide device, where the intensity of the light passing through the device is a function of the electrical drive applied. The first stage of the modulator is connected to a programmable high performance Arbitrary Waveform Generator (AWG) consisting of 140 impulse generators space 250 ps apart. An arbitrary waveform is generated by independently varying the amplitude of each impulse generator and then summing the impulses together. In addition to the AWG a short pulse generator is also connected to the first stage of the modulator to provide a sub 100-ps pulse used for timing experiments. The second stage of the modulator is connect to a square pulse generator used to further attenuate any pre or post pulse light passing through the first stage of the modulator. The fast rise and fall time of the square pulse generator is also used to produce fast rise and fall times of the AWG by clipping the AWG pulse. For maximum extinction, a pulse bias voltage is applied to each stage of the modulator. A pulse voltage is applied as opposed to a DC voltage to prevent charge buildup on the modulator. Each bias voltage is adjustable to provide a minimum of 50-dB extinction. The AMC is controlled through ICCS to generate the desired temporal pulse shape. This process involves a closed-loop control algorithm, which compares the desired temporal waveform to the produced optical pulse, and iterates the programming of the AWG until the two waveforms agree within an allowable tolerance.

  1. DOT Transmit Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quirk, Kevin J.; Gin, Jonathan W.; Sahasrabudhe, Adit; Patawaran, Ferze D.; Nguyen, Danh H.; Nguyen, Huy

    2013-01-01

    The Deep Space Optical Terminal (DOT) transmit module demonstrates the DOT downlink signaling in a flight electronics assembly that can be qualified for deep space. The assembly has the capability to generate an electronic pulse-position modulation (PPM) waveform suitable for driving a laser assembly to produce the optical downlink signal. The downlink data enters the assembly through a serializer/ deserializer (SERDES) interface, and is encoded using a serially concatenated PPM (SCPPM) forward error correction code. The encoded data is modulated using PPM with an inter-symbol guard time to aid in receiver synchronization. Monitor and control of the assembly is via a low-voltage differential signal (LVDS) interface

  2. Optimized solar module design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santala, T.; Sabol, R.; Carbajal, B. G.

    1978-01-01

    The minimum cost per unit of power output from flat plate solar modules can most likely be achieved through efficient packaging of higher efficiency solar cells. This paper outlines a module optimization method which is broadly applicable, and illustrates the potential results achievable from a specific high efficiency tandem junction (TJ) cell. A mathematical model is used to assess the impact of various factors influencing the encapsulated cell and packing efficiency. The optimization of the packing efficiency is demonstrated. The effect of encapsulated cell and packing efficiency on the module add-on cost is shown in a nomograph form.

  3. Optical modulator including grapene

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Ming; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-06-07

    The present invention provides for a one or more layer graphene optical modulator. In a first exemplary embodiment the optical modulator includes an optical waveguide, a nanoscale oxide spacer adjacent to a working region of the waveguide, and a monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to the spacer. In a second exemplary embodiment, the optical modulator includes at least one pair of active media, where the pair includes an oxide spacer, a first monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a first side of the spacer, and a second monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a second side of the spacer, and at least one optical waveguide adjacent to the pair.

  4. Water heater control module

    SciTech Connect

    Hammerstrom, Donald J

    2013-11-26

    An advanced electric water heater control system that interfaces with a high temperature cut-off thermostat and an upper regulating thermostat. The system includes a control module that is electrically connected to the high-temperature cut-off thermostat and the upper regulating thermostat. The control module includes a switch to open or close the high-temperature cut-off thermostat and the upper regulating thermostat. The control module further includes circuitry configured to control said switch in response to a signal selected from the group of an autonomous signal, a communicated signal, and combinations thereof.

  5. Sonication standard laboratory module

    DOEpatents

    Beugelsdijk, Tony; Hollen, Robert M.; Erkkila, Tracy H.; Bronisz, Lawrence E.; Roybal, Jeffrey E.; Clark, Michael Leon

    1999-01-01

    A standard laboratory module for automatically producing a solution of cominants from a soil sample. A sonication tip agitates a solution containing the soil sample in a beaker while a stepper motor rotates the sample. An aspirator tube, connected to a vacuum, draws the upper layer of solution from the beaker through a filter and into another beaker. This beaker can thereafter be removed for analysis of the solution. The standard laboratory module encloses an embedded controller providing process control, status feedback information and maintenance procedures for the equipment and operations within the standard laboratory module.

  6. The ANTARES optical module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ANTARES Collaboration; Amram, P.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anvar, S.; Ardellier-Desages, F. E.; Aslanides, E.; Aubert, J.-J.; Azoulay, R.; Bailey, D.; Basa, S.; Battaglieri, M.; Bellotti, R.; Benhammou, Y.; Bernard, F.; Berthier, R.; Bertin, V.; Billault, M.; Blaes, R.; Bland, R. W.; Blondeau, F.; de Botton, N.; Boulesteix, J.; Brooks, C. B.; Brunner, J.; Cafagna, F.; Calzas, A.; Capone, A.; Caponetto, L.; Cârloganu, C.; Carmona, E.; Carr, J.; Carton, P.-H.; Cartwright, S. L.; Cassol, F.; Cecchini, S.; Ciacio, F.; Circella, M.; Compère, C.; Cooper, S.; Coyle, P.; Croquette, J.; Cuneo, S.; Danilov, M.; van Dantzig, R.; De Marzo, C.; DeVita, R.; Deck, P.; Destelle, J.-J.; Dispau, G.; Drougou, J. F.; Druillole, F.; Engelen, J.; Feinstein, F.; Festy, D.; Fopma, J.; Gallone, J.-M.; Giacomelli, G.; Goret, P.; Gosset, L.; Gournay, J.-F.; Heijboer, A.; Hernández-Rey, J. J.; Herrouin, G.; Hubbard, J. R.; Jaquet, M.; de Jong, M.; Karolak, M.; Kooijman, P.; Kouchner, A.; Kudryavtsev, V. A.; Lachartre, D.; Lafoux, H.; Lamare, P.; Languillat, J.-C.; Laubier, L.; Laugier, J.-P.; Le Guen, Y.; Le Provost, H.; Le Van Suu, A.; Lemoine, L.; Lo Nigro, L.; Lo Presti, D.; Loucatos, S.; Louis, F.; Lyashuk, V.; Magnier, P.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Massol, A.; Masullo, R.; Mazéas, F.; Mazeau, B.; Mazure, A.; McMillan, J. E.; Michel, J. L.; Migneco, E.; Millot, C.; Mols, P.; Montanet, F.; Montaruli, T.; Morel, J. P.; Moscoso, L.; Musumeci, M.; Navas, S.; Nezri, E.; Nooren, G. J.; Oberski, J.; Olivetto, C.; Oppelt-Pohl, A.; Palanque-Delabrouille, N.; Papaleo, R.; Payre, P.; Perrin, P.; Petruccetti, M.; Petta, C.; Piattelli, P.; Poinsignon, J.; Potheau, R.; Queinec, Y.; Racca, C.; Raia, G.; Randazzo, N.; Rethore, F.; Riccobene, G.; Ricol, J.-S.; Ripani, M.; Roca-Blay, V.; Rolin, J. F.; Rostovstev, A.; Russo, G. V.; Sacquin, Y.; Salusti, E.; Schuller, J.-P.; Schuster, W.; Soirat, J.-P.; Souvorova, O.; Spooner, N. J. C.; Spurio, M.; Stolarczyk, T.; Stubert, D.; Taiuti, M.; Tao, C.; Tayalati, Y.; Thompson, L. F.; Tilav, S.; Triay, R.; Valente, V.; Varlamov, I.; Vaudaine, G.; Vernin, P.; de Witt Huberts, P.; de Wolf, E.; Zakharov, V.; Zavatarelli, S.; de D. Zornoza, J.; Zún~iga, J.

    2002-05-01

    The ANTARES collaboration is building a deep sea neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean Sea. This detector will cover a sensitive area of typically 0.1km2 and will be equipped with about 1000 optical modules. Each of these optical modules consists of a large area photomultiplier and its associated electronics housed in a pressure resistant glass sphere. The design of the ANTARES optical module, which is a key element of the detector, has been finalized following extensive R&D studies and is reviewed here in detail.

  7. ‘The Trial the World is Watching’: The 1972 Prosecution of Derk Crichton and James Watts, Abortion, and the Regulation of the Medical Profession in Apartheid South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Klausen, Susanne M.

    2014-01-01

    After its formation in 1910 as a self-governing dominion within the British empire, the Union of South Africa followed a combination of English and Roman-Dutch common laws on abortion that decreed the procedure permissible only when necessary to save a woman’s life. The government continued doing so after South Africa withdrew from the Commonwealth and became a republic in 1961. In 1972 a sensational trial took place in the South African Supreme Court that for weeks placed clandestine abortion on the front pages of the country’s newspapers. Two men, one an eminent doctor and the other a self-taught abortionist, were charged with conspiring to perform illegal abortions on twenty-six white teenagers and young unmarried women. The prosecution of Dr Derk Crichton and James Watts occurred while the National Party government was in the process of drafting abortion legislation and was perceived by legal experts as another test of the judiciary’s stance on the common law on abortion. The trial was mainly intended to regulate the medical profession and ensure doctors ceased helping young white women evade their ‘duty’ to procreate within marriage. Ultimately, the event encapsulated a great deal about elites’ attempt to buttress apartheid culture and is significant for, among other reasons, contributing to the production of South Africa’s extremely restrictive Abortion and Sterilisation Act (1975). PMID:24775430

  8. HIGHER FREQUENCY ULTRASONIC LIGHT MODULATORS.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    LIGHT ), (*MODULATORS, (*ULTRASONIC RADIATION, MODULATORS), OPTICAL COMMUNICATIONS, BANDWIDTH, TRANSDUCERS, HIGH FREQUENCY, VERY HIGH FREQUENCY, ATTENUATION, DATA PROCESSING, OPTICAL EQUIPMENT, ANALOG COMPUTERS, THEORY.

  9. Module bay with directed flow

    DOEpatents

    Torczynski, John R.

    2001-02-27

    A module bay requires less cleanroom airflow. A shaped gas inlet passage can allow cleanroom air into the module bay with flow velocity preferentially directed toward contaminant rich portions of a processing module in the module bay. Preferential gas flow direction can more efficiently purge contaminants from appropriate portions of the module bay, allowing a reduced cleanroom air flow rate for contaminant removal. A shelf extending from an air inlet slit in one wall of a module bay can direct air flowing therethrough toward contaminant-rich portions of the module bay, such as a junction between a lid and base of a processing module.

  10. TRANSIMS environmental module

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, M.D.; Thayer, G.R.; Brown, M.J.

    1996-09-01

    The purpose of the environmental module is to translate traveler behavior into consequent air quality, energy consumption, watershed nitrate deposition, and carbon dioxide emissions. The TRANSIMS environmental module is composed of a system of environmental modules which can describe both the average conditions and the fluctuations about the averages. It uses a prognostic meteorological model, HOTMAC, to describe the atmospheric conditions. The environmental module will use modal emissions models to define the emissions. Transport and dispersion of conservative pollutants will be described with a Monte-Carlo Kernel model (RAPTAD). Air chemistry will be described by an airshed model with the current choice being the CIT model developed at the California Institute of Technology and the Carnegie Mellon Institute of Technology.

  11. Silicon optical modulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, G. T.; Mashanovich, G.; Gardes, F. Y.; Thomson, D. J.

    2010-08-01

    Optical technology is poised to revolutionize short-reach interconnects. The leading candidate technology is silicon photonics, and the workhorse of such an interconnect is the optical modulator. Modulators have been improved dramatically in recent years, with a notable increase in bandwidth from the megahertz to the multigigahertz regime in just over half a decade. However, the demands of optical interconnects are significant, and many questions remain unanswered as to whether silicon can meet the required performance metrics. Minimizing metrics such as the device footprint and energy requirement per bit, while also maximizing bandwidth and modulation depth, is non-trivial. All of this must be achieved within an acceptable thermal tolerance and optical spectral width using CMOS-compatible fabrication processes. This Review discusses the techniques that have been (and will continue to be) used to implement silicon optical modulators, as well as providing an outlook for these devices and the candidate solutions of the future.

  12. Autonomous Module Builder

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conventional cotton harvesting requires many seasonal laborers. To reduce labor requirements, equipment manufacturers have recently introduced harvesters with on-board module building capabilities; however, this feature is only available on pickers and these machines are expensive. Conventional mo...

  13. Digital optical conversion module

    DOEpatents

    Kotter, Dale K.; Rankin, Richard A.

    1991-02-26

    A digital optical conversion module used to convert an analog signal to a computer compatible digital signal including a voltage-to-frequency converter, frequency offset response circuitry, and an electrical-to-optical converter. Also used in conjunction with the digital optical conversion module is an optical link and an interface at the computer for converting the optical signal back to an electrical signal. Suitable for use in hostile environments having high levels of electromagnetic interference, the conversion module retains high resolution of the analog signal while eliminating the potential for errors due to noise and interference. The module can be used to link analog output scientific equipment such as an electrometer used with a mass spectrometer to a computer.

  14. Digital optical conversion module

    DOEpatents

    Kotter, D.K.; Rankin, R.A.

    1988-07-19

    A digital optical conversion module used to convert an analog signal to a computer compatible digital signal including a voltage-to-frequency converter, frequency offset response circuitry, and an electrical-to-optical converter. Also used in conjunction with the digital optical conversion module is an optical link and an interface at the computer for converting the optical signal back to an electrical signal. Suitable for use in hostile environments having high levels of electromagnetic interference, the conversion module retains high resolution of the analog signal while eliminating the potential for errors due to noise and interference. The module can be used to link analog output scientific equipment such as an electrometer used with a mass spectrometer to a computer. 2 figs.

  15. Module encapsulation technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, P.

    1986-01-01

    The identification and development techniques for low-cost module encapsulation materials were reviewed. Test results were displayed for a variety of materials. The improved prospects for modeling encapsulation systems for life prediction were reported.

  16. Evidence that activation of nuclear peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) modulates sleep homeostasis in rats.

    PubMed

    Murillo-Rodríguez, Eric; Guzmán, Khalil; Arankowsky-Sandoval, Gloria; Salas-Crisóstomo, Mireille; Jiménez-Moreno, Ramsés; Arias-Carrión, Oscar

    2016-10-01

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily that has been suggested as a modulator of several physiological functions. The PPARα recognizes as an endogenous ligand the anorexic lipid mediator oleoylethanolamide (OEA) which displays wake-inducing properties. Despite that recent evidence indicates that activation of PPARα by synthetic agonists such as Wy14643 enhances waking as well as the extracellular contents of wake-related neurotransmitters, the role of PPARα in sleep recovery after prolonged waking has not been fully described. Thus, the aim of this study was to characterize if PPARα regulates sleep rebound after total sleep deprivation (TSD). We report that after 6h of TSD activation of PPARα by pharmacological systemic administration of OEA (10, 20 or 30mg/Kg, i.p.) promoted alertness by blocking the sleep rebound after TSD. Besides, wake-linked compounds such as dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin, or adenosine collected from nucleus accumbens were enhanced after TSD in OEA-treated animals. These sleep and neurochemical results were mimicked after injection of PPARα agonist Wy14643 (10, 20, 30mg/Kg, i.p.). However, similar findings from the sham of vehicle groups were observed if PPARα antagonist MK-886 was administered to rats (10, 20, 30mg/Kg, i.p.). Our results strengthened the hypothesis that PPARα might modulate sleep and neurochemical homeostasis after sleep deprivation.

  17. Investigating Quantum Modulation States

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-01

    INVESTIGATING QUANTUM MODULATION STATES MARCH 2016 FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED STINFO COPY AIR...3. DATES COVERED (From - To) OCT 2012 – SEP 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE INVESTIGATING QUANTUM MODULATION STATES 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER IN-HOUSE 5b...NOTES 14. ABSTRACT This effort was primarily concerned with quantum aspects of optical communications. Two quantum communications technologies were

  18. Firefighting module development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, R. A.

    1981-01-01

    The firefighting module is a lightweight, compact, self contained, helicopter-transportable unit for fighting harbor and other specialty fires as well as for use in emergency water pumping applications. Units were fabricated and tested. A production type unit is undergoing an inservice evaluation and demonstration program at the port of St Louis. The primary purpose is to promote enhanced harbor fire protection at inland and coastal ports. The module and its development are described.

  19. Extended Range Support Module

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-07

    missions requiring enhanced navigational support to allow Attorney Docket No. 300077 3 of 12 navigation of the vehicles in the open ocean. It is...capable of accommodating the undersea vehicle therein. A navigation module is positioned on the outer hull and capable of being joined to the...undersea vehicle. Controllable fins are provided on the outer hull and joined to allow control by the navigation module. A buoyancy control system is

  20. Columbus pressurized module verification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Messidoro, Piero; Comandatore, Emanuele

    1986-01-01

    The baseline verification approach of the COLUMBUS Pressurized Module was defined during the A and B1 project phases. Peculiarities of the verification program are the testing requirements derived from the permanent manned presence in space. The model philosophy and the test program have been developed in line with the overall verification concept. Such critical areas as meteoroid protections, heat pipe radiators and module seals are identified and tested. Verification problem areas are identified and recommendations for the next development are proposed.

  1. Photovoltaic module reliability workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Mrig, L.

    1990-01-01

    The paper and presentations compiled in this volume form the Proceedings of the fourth in a series of Workshops sponsored by Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI/DOE) under the general theme of photovoltaic module reliability during the period 1986--1990. The reliability Photo Voltaic (PV) modules/systems is exceedingly important along with the initial cost and efficiency of modules if the PV technology has to make a major impact in the power generation market, and for it to compete with the conventional electricity producing technologies. The reliability of photovoltaic modules has progressed significantly in the last few years as evidenced by warranties available on commercial modules of as long as 12 years. However, there is still need for substantial research and testing required to improve module field reliability to levels of 30 years or more. Several small groups of researchers are involved in this research, development, and monitoring activity around the world. In the US, PV manufacturers, DOE laboratories, electric utilities and others are engaged in the photovoltaic reliability research and testing. This group of researchers and others interested in this field were brought together under SERI/DOE sponsorship to exchange the technical knowledge and field experience as related to current information in this important field. The papers presented here reflect this effort.

  2. Photovoltaic module reliability workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mrig, L.

    The paper and presentations compiled in this volume form the Proceedings of the fourth in a series of Workshops sponsored by Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI/DOE) under the general theme of photovoltaic module reliability during the period 1986 to 1990. The reliability photovoltaic (PV) modules/systems is exceedingly important along with the initial cost and efficiency of modules if the PV technology has to make a major impact in the power generation market, and for it to compete with the conventional electricity producing technologies. The reliability of photovoltaic modules has progressed significantly in the last few years as evidenced by warrantees available on commercial modules of as long as 12 years. However, there is still need for substantial research and testing required to improve module field reliability to levels of 30 years or more. Several small groups of researchers are involved in this research, development, and monitoring activity around the world. In the U.S., PV manufacturers, DOE laboratories, electric utilities and others are engaged in the photovoltaic reliability research and testing. This group of researchers and others interested in this field were brought together under SERI/DOE sponsorship to exchange the technical knowledge and field experience as related to current information in this important field. The papers presented here reflect this effort.

  3. Binaural modulation detection interference.

    PubMed

    Sheft, S; Yost, W A

    1997-09-01

    The ability to detect amplitude modulation (AM) of a tonal probe can be disrupted by the presence of modulated masking tones. Two experiments examined whether a disparity in the interaural parameters of the probe and masker can reduce the amount of interference. In the first experiment, the effects of interaural time and intensity differences were studied in separate sets of conditions. With low-frequency carriers, the detection of 10-Hz probe modulation in the presence of 10-Hz masker modulation was not significantly affected by interaural time differences. With higher-frequency carriers, dichotic stimuli were generated through combinations of diotic, dichotic, or monotic probe and masker presentations in which the probe and masker did not share a common interaural intensity difference. In these conditions, the amount of interference was affected by the interaural configuration. However, monotic level differences between the probe and masker may have contributed to the effect of interaural configuration. In the second experiment, the probe and masker were presented through separate speakers in an enclosed listening environment. Spatial separation between the sources for the probe and masker led to a small reduction in the amount of interference. When the masker modulation rate was varied with the probe AM rate fixed at 10 Hz, the extent of tuning in the modulation domain in the sound-field conditions was similar to that obtained with diotic stimulus presentation over headphones.

  4. "Smart" Sensor Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahajan, Ajay

    2007-01-01

    An assembly that contains a sensor, sensor-signal-conditioning circuitry, a sensor-readout analog-to-digital converter (ADC), data-storage circuitry, and a microprocessor that runs special-purpose software and communicates with one or more external computer(s) has been developed as a prototype of "smart" sensor modules for monitoring the integrity and functionality (the "health") of engineering systems. Although these modules are now being designed specifically for use on rocket-engine test stands, it is anticipated that they could also readily be designed to be incorporated into health-monitoring subsystems of such diverse engineering systems as spacecraft, aircraft, land vehicles, bridges, buildings, power plants, oilrigs, and defense installations. The figure is a simplified block diagram of the "smart" sensor module. The analog sensor readout signal is processed by the ADC, the digital output of which is fed to the microprocessor. By means of a standard RS-232 cable, the microprocessor is connected to a local personal computer (PC), from which software is downloaded into a randomaccess memory in the microprocessor. The local PC is also used to debug the software. Once the software is running, the local PC is disconnected and the module is controlled by, and all output data from the module are collected by, a remote PC via an Ethernet bus. Several smart sensor modules like this one could be connected to the same Ethernet bus and controlled by the single remote PC. The software running in the microprocessor includes driver programs for operation of the sensor, programs that implement self-assessment algorithms, programs that implement protocols for communication with the external computer( s), and programs that implement evolutionary methodologies to enable the module to improve its performance over time. The design of the module and of the health-monitoring system of which it is a part reflects the understanding that the main purpose of a health

  5. Universal enveloping crossed module of Leibniz crossed modules and representations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casado, Rafael F.; García-Martínez, Xabier; Ladra, Manuel

    2016-03-01

    The universal enveloping algebra functor UL: Lb → Alg, defined by Loday and Pirashvili [1], is extended to crossed modules. Then we construct an isomorphism between the category of representations of a Leibniz crossed module and the category of left modules over its universal enveloping crossed module of algebras. Note that the procedure followed in the proof for the Lie case cannot be adapted, since the actor in the category of Leibniz crossed modules does not always exist.

  6. Optical modulation goes external

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loni, A.

    1995-02-01

    Digital or analog modulation of continuous-wave laser sources forms the basis of encoding and transmitting of information through optical fiber link systems. In digital systems, data are formatted in a simple periodic two-bit configuration, represented by high or low light intensities, whereas in analog systems data are represented by selective portions of a time-varying electronic waveform applied to the optical carrier. High speed optical communications and the distribution of cable television (CATV) signals are just two examples of digital and analog systems, respectively, that involve the transmission of data, voice and video over fiber networks. The basic layout of a fiber-optic link system is presented. The optical source wavelength is determined by the characteristics of the optical fiber. If the optical sources used is a semiconductor laser diode, information can be imprinted on the optical output by directly modulating the laser drive current with a radio frequency (RF) signal. In digital systems, the low (off) state generally corresponds to a position just below the lasing threshold on the characteristic intensity-current curve of the diode. This position is preferred to the zero current locus because the turn-on delays are then minimized. Analog systems require a bias current in addition to the threshold current in order to push the modulation into the linear region of the power-current curve. The main disadvantages associated with the direct modulation approach are discussed. The main disadvantage of the solid-state approach is its inability to modulate directly the laser at the data rates nominally entailed in optical communications. This inability causes further limitations associated with the inherently long excited state lifetime of the lasing species. External modulation overcomes this drawback by modulating the optical output from the laser rather than the material properties of the laser itself, and consequently, is set to play an increasingly

  7. Experimental studies for improvement of thermal effects in a high-power fiber-coupled diode laser module operating at 808 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Sherif, Ashraf F.; Hussein, Khalid; Hassan, Mahmoud F.; Talat, Mahmoud M.

    2012-03-01

    High power diode laser module operating at 808 nm is required for different applications, such as developing an efficient high power Nd3+-doped solid state laser and Tm3+ -doped silica fiber laser, industrial, medical and military applications. Optical and thermal images characterization for a fiber-coupled high power diode laser module is presented experimentally for 6.6 Watt output optical power .An external temperature controller system was designed, which stabilizes the central wavelength at 808 nm at 25°C over a wide range of diode laser driving current from 1A to 6 A. without this cooling system, the wavelength changes by 0.35nm/°C for temperature changes from 20°C to 40°C at the same range of the driving current. In this paper we have present a methodology for temperature reduction of a 808 nm high power diode laser module, based on dynamically thermal control, which is known as dynamic thermal management. Stabilization of the output wavelength has been done by using proportional speed control (PSC) of a CPU cooling fan with certain scheme of straight fins heat sink. Two electronic circuits based on pulse width modulation (PWM) in microcontroller and comparators IC have been used. This technique can be considered as an effective mechanism for reducing temperature and power dissipation to make stabilization of the diode laser output wavelength by preventing heat accumulation from the thermo electric cooling (TEC) inside the diode laser module confirmed by thermal images.

  8. Intensity modulated proton therapy

    PubMed Central

    Grassberger, C

    2015-01-01

    Intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) implies the electromagnetic spatial control of well-circumscribed “pencil beams” of protons of variable energy and intensity. Proton pencil beams take advantage of the charged-particle Bragg peak—the characteristic peak of dose at the end of range—combined with the modulation of pencil beam variables to create target-local modulations in dose that achieves the dose objectives. IMPT improves on X-ray intensity modulated beams (intensity modulated radiotherapy or volumetric modulated arc therapy) with dose modulation along the beam axis as well as lateral, in-field, dose modulation. The clinical practice of IMPT further improves the healthy tissue vs target dose differential in comparison with X-rays and thus allows increased target dose with dose reduction elsewhere. In addition, heavy-charged-particle beams allow for the modulation of biological effects, which is of active interest in combination with dose “painting” within a target. The clinical utilization of IMPT is actively pursued but technical, physical and clinical questions remain. Technical questions pertain to control processes for manipulating pencil beams from the creation of the proton beam to delivery within the patient within the accuracy requirement. Physical questions pertain to the interplay between the proton penetration and variations between planned and actual patient anatomical representation and the intrinsic uncertainty in tissue stopping powers (the measure of energy loss per unit distance). Clinical questions remain concerning the impact and management of the technical and physical questions within the context of the daily treatment delivery, the clinical benefit of IMPT and the biological response differential compared with X-rays against which clinical benefit will be judged. It is expected that IMPT will replace other modes of proton field delivery. Proton radiotherapy, since its first practice 50 years ago, always required the

  9. Superconducting optical modulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunt, Patricia S.; Ference, Thomas G.; Puzey, Kenneth A.; Tanner, David B.; Tache, Nacira; Varhue, Walter J.

    2000-12-01

    An optical modulator based on the physical properties of high temperature superconductors has been fabricated and tested. The modulator was constructed form a film of Yttrium Barium Copper Oxide (YBCO) grown on undoped silicon with a buffer layer of Yttria Stabilized Zirconia. Standard lithographic procedures were used to pattern the superconducting film into a micro bridge. Optical modulation was achieved by passing IR light through the composite structure normal to the micro bridge and switching the superconducting film in the bridge region between the superconducting and non-superconducting states. In the superconducting state, IR light reflects from the superconducting film surface. When a critical current is passed through the micro bridge, it causes the film in this region to switch to the non-superconducting state allowing IR light to pass through it. Superconducting materials have the potential to switch between these two states at speeds up to 1 picosecond using electrical current. Presently, fiber optic transmission capacity is limited by the rate at which optical data can be modulated. The superconducting modulator, when combined with other components, may have the potential to increase the transmission capacity of fiber optic lines.

  10. Bunch identification module

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, J.D.

    1981-01-01

    This module provides bunch identification and timing signals for the PEP Interaction areas. Timing information is referenced to the PEP master oscillator, and adjusted in phase as a function of region. Identification signals are generated in a manner that allows observers in all interaction regions to agree on an unambiguous bunch identity. The module provides bunch identification signals via NIM level logic, upon CAMAC command, and through LED indicators. A front panel ''region select'' switch allows the same module to be used in all regions. The module has two modes of operation: a bunch identification mode and a calibration mode. In the identification mode, signals indicate which of the three bunches of electrons and positrons are interacting, and timing information about beam crossing is provided. The calibration mode is provided to assist experimenters making time of flight measurements. In the calibration mode, three distinct gating signals are referenced to a selected bunch, allowing three timing systems to be calibrated against a common standard. Physically, the bunch identifier is constructed as a single width CAMAC module. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  11. NREL module energy rating methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Whitaker, C.; Newmiller, J.; Kroposki, B.

    1995-11-01

    The goals of this project were to develop a tool for: evaluating one module in different climates; comparing different modules; provide a Q&D method for estimating periodic energy production; provide an achievable module rating; provide an incentive for manufacturers to optimize modules to non-STC conditions; and to have a consensus-based, NREL-sponsored activity. The approach taken was to simulate module energy for five reference days of various weather conditions. A performance model was developed.

  12. NLO production of W± and Z0 vector bosons via hadron collisions in the frameworks of Kimber-Martin-Ryskin and Martin-Ryskin-Watt unintegrated parton distribution functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modarres, M.; Masouminia, M. R.; Aminzadeh Nik, R.; Hosseinkhani, H.; Olanj, N.

    2016-10-01

    In a series of papers, we have investigated the compatibility of the Kimber-Martin-Ryskin (KMR) and Martin-Ryskin-Watt (MRW) unintegrated parton distribution functions (UPDFs) as well as the description of the experimental data on the proton structure functions. The present work is a sequel to that survey, via calculation of the transverse-momentum distribution of the electroweak gauge vector bosons in the kt-factorization scheme, by the means of the KMR, the leading-order (LO) MRW, and the next-to-leading-order (NLO) MRW UPDF, in the NLO. To this end, we have calculated and aggregated the invariant amplitudes of the corresponding involved diagrams in the NLO and counted the individual contributions in different frameworks. The preparation process for the UPDF utilizes the parton distribution functions of Martin et al., MSTW2008-LO, MSTW2008-NLO, MMHT2014-LO, and MMHT2014-NLO, as the inputs. Afterward, the results have been analyzed against each other as well as the existing experimental data, i.e., D0, CDF, ATLAS, and CMS collaborations. Our calculations show excellent agreement with the experiment data. It is, however, interesting to point out that the calculation using the KMR framework illustrates a stronger agreement with the experimental data, despite the fact that the LO MRW and the NLO MRW formalisms employ a better theoretical description of the Dokshitzer-Gribov-Lipatov-Altarelli-Parisi evolution equation. This is of course due to the use of the different implementation of the angular ordering constraint in the KMR approach, which automatically includes the resummation of ln (1 /x ) , Balitski-Fadin-Kuraev-Lipatov logarithms, in the LO Dokshitzer-Gribov-Lipatov-Altarelli-Parisi evolution equation.

  13. Photodynamic Effect of Modulated and Continuous LASER Radiation on Cancerous Cells Cultivated In Vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamora-Juárez, Y.; Pérez-Zapata, A. J.; Solano Rodriguez, L.; Ramón-Gallegos, E.; Cruz-Orea, A.

    2005-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a cancer therapy that uses nonionizing photons and a photosensitizer to treat solid tumors and surface malignancies. Experiments with cells in vitro have been useful in order to investigate cellular effects due to PDT. In this work, we study the photodynamic effect of modulated and continuous laser radiation on cancerous cells cultivated in vitro. Three experiments were performed for this study. For the first one, HeLa cells were exposed to δ-Aminolevulinic acid (ALA) at concentrations of 0, 10, 20, 40, 80 and 160 µg of ALA/ml of Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM) and were irradiated at total light dose of 80 J/cm2 by using continuous and modulated argon laser light. In the case of modulated radiation, at 1000 Hz, we observed more cellular death (20%) than those produced by continuous light (0%) when these cells were exposed at 20 µg of ALA/ml of DMEM. For other ALA doses cellular deaths were similar in both irradiation types. The death percentage in cancerous cell, after application of PDT with continuous and modulated irradiation, was determined by means of the neutral-red spectrophotometric assay. In the second experiment HeLa cells were exposed only at 20 µg of ALA/ml of DMEM and irradiated with argon laser at total light dose of 80 J/cm2 but using different light modulation frequencies: 100, 160, 600, 1250, 1500, 1850 Hz. Finally in the third experiment, where the HeLa cells were exposed in the same conditions of second experiment, the modulation frequencies used to irradiate the cell were: 10, 20, 40, 80 Hz. It was observed that light modulation frequency at 40 Hz produces maximum cellular death (36%). These results showed that modulated light used in PDT, for low ALA doses in HeLa cells, is more efficient than continuous light irradiation. Modulated irradiation in PDT could reduce the quantity of required ALA, and in consequence to reduce possible collateral damage, for application of this therapy.

  14. Autonomous radar pulse modulation classification using modulation components analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Pei; Qiu, Zhaoyang; Zhu, Jun; Tang, Bin

    2016-12-01

    An autonomous method for recognizing radar pulse modulations based on modulation components analysis is introduced in this paper. Unlike the conventional automatic modulation classification methods which extract modulation features based on a list of known patterns, this proposed method classifies modulations by the existence of basic modulation components including continuous frequency modulations, discrete frequency codes and discrete phase codes in an autonomous way. A feasible way to realize this method is using the features of abrupt changes in the instantaneous frequency rate curve which derived by the short-term general representation of phase derivative. This method is suitable not only for the basic radar modulations but also for complicated and hybrid modulations. The theoretical result and two experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  15. Deep frequency modulation interferometry.

    PubMed

    Gerberding, Oliver

    2015-06-01

    Laser interferometry with pm/Hz precision and multi-fringe dynamic range at low frequencies is a core technology to measure the motion of various objects (test masses) in space and ground based experiments for gravitational wave detection and geodesy. Even though available interferometer schemes are well understood, their construction remains complex, often involving, for example, the need to build quasi-monolithic optical benches with dozens of components. In recent years techniques have been investigated that aim to reduce this complexity by combining phase modulation techniques with sophisticated digital readout algorithms. This article presents a new scheme that uses strong laser frequency modulations in combination with the deep phase modulation readout algorithm to construct simpler and easily scalable interferometers.

  16. Power module assembly

    DOEpatents

    Campbell, Jeremy B [Torrance, CA; Newson, Steve [Redondo Beach, CA

    2011-11-15

    A power module assembly of the type suitable for deployment in a vehicular power inverter, wherein the power inverter has a grounded chassis, is provided. The power module assembly comprises a conductive base layer electrically coupled to the chassis, an insulating layer disposed on the conductive base layer, a first conductive node disposed on the insulating layer, a second conductive node disposed on the insulating layer, wherein the first and second conductive nodes are electrically isolated from each other. The power module assembly also comprises a first capacitor having a first electrode electrically connected to the conductive base layer, and a second electrode electrically connected to the first conductive node, and further comprises a second capacitor having a first electrode electrically connected to the conductive base layer, and a second electrode electrically connected to the second conductive node.

  17. GREET Pretreatment Module

    SciTech Connect

    Adom, Felix K.; Dunn, Jennifer B.; Han, Jeongwoo

    2014-09-01

    A wide range of biofuels and biochemicals can be produced from cellulosic biomass via different pretreatment technologies that yield sugars. Process simulations of dilute acid and ammonia fiber expansion pretreatment processes and subsequent hydrolysis were developed in Aspen Plus for four lignocellulosic feedstocks (corn stover, miscanthus, switchgrass, and poplar). This processing yields sugars that can be subsequently converted to biofuels or biochemical. Material and energy consumption data from Aspen Plus were then compiled in a new Greenhouses Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREETTM) pretreatment module. The module estimates the cradle-to-gate fossil energy consumption (FEC) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with producing fermentable sugars. This report documents the data and methodology used to develop this module and the cradle-to-gate FEC and GHG emissions that result from producing fermentable sugars.

  18. Adaptive modulations of martensites.

    PubMed

    Kaufmann, S; Rössler, U K; Heczko, O; Wuttig, M; Buschbeck, J; Schultz, L; Fähler, S

    2010-04-09

    Modulated phases occur in numerous functional materials like giant ferroelectrics and magnetic shape-memory alloys. To understand the origin of these phases, we employ and generalize the concept of adaptive martensite. As a starting point, we investigate the coexistence of austenite, adaptive 14M phase, and tetragonal martensite in Ni-Mn-Ga magnetic shape-memory alloy epitaxial films. We show that the modulated martensite can be constructed from nanotwinned variants of the tetragonal martensite phase. By combining the concept of adaptive martensite with branching of twin variants, we can explain key features of modulated phases from a microscopic view. This includes metastability, the sequence of 6M-10M-14M-NM intermartensitic transitions, and the magnetocrystalline anisotropy.

  19. Waveform Sampler CAMAC Module

    SciTech Connect

    Freytag, D.R.; Haller, G.M.; Kang, H.; Wang, J.

    1985-09-01

    A Waveform Sampler Module (WSM) for the measurement of signal shapes coming from the multi-hit drift chambers of the SLAC SLC detector is described. The module uses a high speed, high resolution analog storage device (AMU) developed in collaboration between SLAC and Stanford University. The AMU devices together with high speed TTL clocking circuitry are packaged in a hybrid which is also suitable for mounting on the detector. The module is in CAMAC format and provides eight signal channels, each recording signal amplitude versus time in 512 cells at a sampling rate of up to 360 MHz. Data are digitized by a 12-bit ADC with a 1 ..mu..s conversion time and stored in an on-board memory accessible through CAMAC.

  20. Modulated infrared radiant source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, W. F.; Edwards, S. F.; Vann, D. S.; Mccormick, R. F.

    1981-01-01

    A modulated, infrared radiant energy source was developed to calibrate an airborne nadir-viewing pressure modulated radiometer to be used to detect from Earth orbit trace gases in the troposphere. The technique used an 8 cm long, 0.005 cm diameter platinum-iridium wire as an isothermal, thin line radiant energy source maintained at 1200 K. A + or - 20 K signal, oscillating at controllable frequencies from dc to 20 Hz, was superimposed on it. This periodic variation of the line source energy was used to verify the pressure modulated radiometer's capability to distinguish between the signal variations caused by the Earth's background surface and the signal from the atmospheric gases of interest.

  1. Microchannel spatial light modulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warde, C.

    1981-01-01

    The Microchannel Spatial Light Modulator (MSLM), a versatile, highly sensitive, and optically addressed device being developed for real time optical information processing is discussed. The MSLM operates by converting an input optical image into a charge distribution at the surface of an electro-optic crystal. The charge distribution generates an electric field which modulates the refractive index of the crystal and thereby the phase or intensity of an image readout beam. Prototype devices employing 250 micron thick crystals exhibited a spatial resolution of 5 cycles/mm at 50% contrast, an exposure sensitivity of 2.2 nJ/cu cm and framing rates of 40 Hz with full modulation depth. The image processing operations that have been achieved using the internal processing mode of the MSLM include contrast reversal, contrast enhancement, edge enhancement, image addition and subtraction, analog and digital intensity thresholding, and binary level logic operations such as AND, OR, EXCLUSIVE OR, and NOR.

  2. Printed Module Interconnects

    SciTech Connect

    Stockert, Talysa R.; Fields, Jeremy D.; Pach, Gregory F.; Mauger, Scott A.; van Hest, Maikel F. A. M.

    2015-06-14

    Monolithic interconnects in photovoltaic modules connect adjacent cells in series, and are typically formed sequentially involving multiple deposition and scribing steps. Interconnect widths of 500 um every 10 mm result in 5% dead area, which does not contribute to power generation in an interconnected solar panel. This work expands on previous work that introduced an alternative interconnection method capable of producing interconnect widths less than 100 um. The interconnect is added to the module in a single step after deposition of the photovoltaic stack, eliminating the need for scribe alignment. This alternative method can be used for all types of thin film photovoltaic modules. Voltage addition with copper-indium-gallium-diselenide (CIGS) solar cells using a 2-scribe printed interconnect approach is demonstrated. Additionally, interconnect widths of 250 um are shown.

  3. Space Experiment Module (SEM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brodell, Charles L.

    1999-01-01

    The Space Experiment Module (SEM) Program is an education initiative sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Shuttle Small Payloads Project. The program provides nationwide educational access to space for Kindergarten through University level students. The SEM program focuses on the science of zero-gravity and microgravity. Within the program, NASA provides small containers or "modules" for students to fly experiments on the Space Shuttle. The experiments are created, designed, built, and implemented by students with teacher and/or mentor guidance. Student experiment modules are flown in a "carrier" which resides in the cargo bay of the Space Shuttle. The carrier supplies power to, and the means to control and collect data from each experiment.

  4. Solar site test module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kissel, R. R.; Scott, D. R.

    1980-01-01

    A solar site test module using the Rockwell AIM 65microcomputer is described. The module is designed to work at any site where an IBM site data acquisition system (SDAS) is installed and is intended primarily as a troubleshooting tool. It collects sensor information (temperatures, flow rates, etc.) and displays or prints it immediately in calibrated engineering units. It will read one sensor on demand, periodically read up to 10sensors or periodically read all sensors. Performance calculations can also be included with sensor data. Unattended operation is possible to, e.g., monitor a group of sensors once per hour. Work is underway to add a data acquisition system to the test module so that it can be used at sites which have no SDAS.

  5. Thin film module development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jester, T.

    1985-01-01

    The design of ARCO Solar, Inc.'s Genesis G100 photovoltaic module was driven by several criteria, including environmental stability (both electrical and mechanical), consumer aesthetics, low materials costs, and manufacturing ease. The module circuitry is designed as a 12 volt battery charger, using monolithic patterning techniques on a glass superstrate. This patterning and interconnect method proves amenable to high volume, low cost production throughput, and the use of glass serves the dual role of handling ease and availability. The mechanical design of the module centers on environmental stability. Packaging of the glass superstrate circuit must provide good resistance to thermal and humidity exposure along with hi-pot insulation and hailstone impact resistance. The options considered are given. Ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) is chosen as the pottant material for its excellent weatherability.

  6. Electro-Optic Modulator.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    An electro - optic modulator is used to modulate coherent light beams by the application of an electric potential. It combines a Fabry-Perot etalon and...a diffraction grating in a single unit. An etalon is constructed with an electro - optic material between reflecting surfaces. A voltage applied...between alternate, spaced-apart electrodes of a metal grid attached to one reflecting surface induces a diffraction grating in the electro optic material. Light entering the etalon is diffracted, reflected and efficiently coupled out.

  7. Lunar Module Illustration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    This concept is a cutaway illustration of the Lunar Module (LM) with detailed callouts. The LM was a two part spacecraft. Its lower or descent stage had the landing gear, engines, and fuel needed for the landing. When the LM blasted off the Moon, the descent stage served as the launching pad for its companion ascent stage, which was also home for the two astronauts on the surface of the Moon. The LM was full of gear with which to communicate, navigate, and rendezvous. It also had its own propulsion system, and an engine to lift it off the Moon and send it on a course toward the orbiting Command Module.

  8. Lunar Module Illustration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1967-01-01

    This illustration is the Lunar Module (LM) configuration. The LM was a two part spacecraft. Its lower or descent stage had the landing gear, engines, and fuel needed for the landing. When the LM blasted off the Moon, the descent stage served as the launching pad for its companion ascent stage, which was also home for the two astronauts on the surface of the Moon. The LM was full of gear with which to communicate, navigate, and rendezvous. It also had its own propulsion system, and an engine to lift it off the Moon and send it on a course toward the orbiting Command Module.

  9. Flexible programmable logic module

    DOEpatents

    Robertson, Perry J.; Hutchinson, Robert L.; Pierson, Lyndon G.

    2001-01-01

    The circuit module of this invention is a VME board containing a plurality of programmable logic devices (PLDs), a controlled impedance clock tree, and interconnecting buses. The PLDs are arranged to permit systolic processing of a problem by offering wide data buses and a plurality of processing nodes. The board contains a clock reference and clock distribution tree that can drive each of the PLDs with two critically timed clock references. External clock references can be used to drive additional circuit modules all operating from the same synchronous clock reference.

  10. Air modulation apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lenahan, D. T.; Corsmeier, R. J.; Sterman, A. P. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    An air modulation apparatus, such as for use in modulating cooling air to the turbine section of a gas turbine engine is described. The apparatus includes valve means disposed around an annular conduit, such as a nozzle, in the engine cooling air circuit. The valve means, when in a closed position, blocks a portion of the conduit, and thus reduces the amount and increases the velocity of cooling air flowing through the nozzle. The apparatus also includes actuation means, which can operate in response to predetermined engine conditions, for enabling opening and closing of the valve means.

  11. The laboratory module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Of the five modules comprising the Orbiting Quarantine Facility, the Laboratory Module must provide not only an extensive research capability to permit execution of the protocol, but also the flexibility to accommodate second-order testing if nonterrestrial life is discovered in the sample. The biocontainment barriers that protect the sample and the researchers from cross contamination are described. Specifically, the laboratory layout, laboratory equipment, the environmental control and life support system, and containment assurance procedures are discussed. The metal manipulation arm proposed for use within the biocontainment cabinets is described. Sample receipt and processing procedures are outlined.

  12. The laboratory module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Of the five modules comprising the Orbiting Quarantine Facility, the Laboratory Module must provide not only an extensive research capability to permit execution of the protocol, but also the flexibility to accommodate second-order testing if nonterrestrial life is discovered in the sample. The biocontainment barriers that protect the sample and the researchers from cross contamination are described. Specifically, the laboratory layout, laboratory equipment, the environmental control and life support system, and containment assurance procedures are discussed. The metal manipulation arm proposed for use within the biocontainment cabinets is described. Sample receipt and processing procedures are outlined.

  13. Stirling Module Development Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Livingston, F. R.

    1984-01-01

    The solar parabolic dish Stirling engine electrically generating module consists of a solar collector coupled to a Stirling engine powered electrical generator. The module is designed to convert solar power to electrical power in parallel with numerous identical units coupled to an electrical utility power grid. The power conversion assembly generates up to 25 kilowatts at 480 volts potential/3 phase/alternating current. Piston rings and seals with gas leakage have not occurred, however, operator failures resulted in two burnt out receivers, while material fatigue resulted in a broken piston rod between the piston rod seal and cap seal.

  14. Differentiating spatial light modulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armitage, D.

    1985-04-01

    A differentiating spatial light modulator device in which a photoreceptor and an electro-optic crystal are isolated by a dielectric mirror is discussed. The electro-optic crystal is configured to have low or zero longitudinal response, yet is sensitive to transverse electric fields. The fringe field generated by the photoreceptor (photodiode) modulates the crystal birefringence. Readout via a polarizing beamsplitter gives an output light related to the spatial gradient of the input light. In a liquid crystal embodiment of the invention, reversal of the applied voltage gives a driven off state which speeds the erasure. Storage is possible in the smectic liquid crystal phase.

  15. Avionic standard module development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maki, Stanley C.; Cormier, Edmond P.; Piszkin, Thomas A.

    Avionics standard modules with redundancy offer substantial economic benefits compared to special-purpose processor units for the orbital transfer vehicle and advanced launch vehicle programs. A fiber optic, serial vehicle bus provides high throughput with modest hardware. A bistage, split tapered, star optical coupler uses a token-pass/token-demand protocol. It is reported that a standard module implementation of the above is a feasible, cost-effective approach to avionics design using standard buses and standard packaging. The VHSIC integrated package readily accommodates higher-speed VLSI chips as they become available.

  16. Modulation of lymphopoiesis

    SciTech Connect

    Rosse, C.

    1989-01-01

    We examined the effects of progressive growth of CE 1460 on natural killer (NK) cell activity both in the bone marrow, the site of primary NK cell production, and in a peripheral site, the spleen. (BALB/c {times} CE)F{sub 1} mice were injected subcutaneously with trypsinized cells from in vivo passaged CE1460 or from B66, a BALB/c mammary carcinoma that does not induce neutrophilia. 3 days post-tumor implantation, NK activity in bone marrow cells or spleen cells was greatly enhanced compared to normal controls. In B66 tumor-bearing mice, NK activity returned to normal by Day 7 and remained there through Day 14. In contrast, however, NK activity in CE1460 tumor-bearing mice decreased to only to 10-20% of normal by Day 14. Excision of the tumor on Day 14, when WBC counts were three times normal, was followed by a rapid return of the WBC count to the normal range. NK activity in bone marrow and in spleen cells recovered somewhat but was still significantly suppressed 7 days after tumor excision. Limiting dilution analysis revealed a 3-5-fold decrease in frequency of NK precursors in bone marrow cells of mice bearing CE1460 for 7 to 14 days. The dramatic changes in NK activity observed in these experiments may reflect perturbation in production as well as an initial activation and subsequent suppression of mature NK cells.

  17. Photovoltaic module and interlocked stack of photovoltaic modules

    DOEpatents

    Wares, Brian S.

    2012-09-04

    One embodiment relates to an arrangement of photovoltaic modules configured for transportation. The arrangement includes a plurality of photovoltaic modules, each photovoltaic module including a frame having at least a top member and a bottom member. A plurality of alignment features are included on the top member of each frame, and a plurality of alignment features are included on the bottom member of each frame. Adjacent photovoltaic modules are interlocked by the alignment features on the top member of a lower module fitting together with the alignment features on the bottom member of an upper module. Other embodiments, features and aspects are also disclosed.

  18. Applied Physics at Heriot-Watt.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colles, M. J.

    1979-01-01

    Describes a course in applied physics with solid state electronics, aimed at providing a continuing broad background in general physics while allowing for the gradual development of an emphasis on applications, engineering expertise, and relevant industrial experience. (Author/GA)

  19. Watts Bar Nuclear Plant Title V Applicability

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the Title V air operating permit regulations. This document is part of the Title V Policy and Guidance Database available at www2.epa.gov/title-v-operating-permits/title-v-operating-permit-policy-and-guidance-document-index. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  20. Watts Bar Nuclear Plant Title V Applicability

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  1. Watts Bar Lock Valve Model Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-01

    challenges. ERDC develops innovative solutions in civil and military engineering, geospatial sciences, water resources, and environmental sciences for the...stream of the valve, and cavitation potential for various valve openings. Design modifications to improve performance were to be recommended. The...with rod hoist: 740-ft upper pool, 692-ft CWSEL, 8.0-ft valve opening .......... 13  Figure 17. Chamber water -surface elevation vs. Hydraulic load

  2. Development of an aerosol microphysical module: Aerosol Two-dimensional bin module for foRmation and Aging Simulation (ATRAS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsui, H.; Koike, M.; Kondo, Y.; Fast, J. D.; Takigawa, M.

    2014-09-01

    Number concentrations, size distributions, and mixing states of aerosols are essential parameters for accurate estimations of aerosol direct and indirect effects. In this study, we develop an aerosol module, designated the Aerosol Two-dimensional bin module for foRmation and Aging Simulation (ATRAS), that can explicitly represent these parameters by considering new particle formation (NPF), black carbon (BC) aging, and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) processes. A two-dimensional bin representation is used for particles with dry diameters from 40 nm to 10 μm to resolve both aerosol sizes (12 bins) and BC mixing states (10 bins) for a total of 120 bins. The particles with diameters between 1 and 40 nm are resolved using additional eight size bins to calculate NPF. The ATRAS module is implemented in the WRF-Chem model and applied to examine the sensitivity of simulated mass, number, size distributions, and optical and radiative parameters of aerosols to NPF, BC aging, and SOA processes over East Asia during the spring of 2009. The BC absorption enhancement by coating materials is about 50% over East Asia during the spring, and the contribution of SOA processes to the absorption enhancement is estimated to be 10-20% over northern East Asia and 20-35% over southern East Asia. A clear north-south contrast is also found between the impacts of NPF and SOA processes on cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrations: NPF increases CCN concentrations at higher supersaturations (smaller particles) over northern East Asia, whereas SOA increases CCN concentrations at lower supersaturations (larger particles) over southern East Asia. The application of ATRAS in East Asia also shows that the impact of each process on each optical and radiative parameter depends strongly on the process and the parameter in question. The module can be used in the future as a benchmark model to evaluate the accuracy of simpler aerosol models and examine interactions between NPF, BC aging, and SOA

  3. Development of an aerosol microphysical module: Aerosol Two-dimensional bin module for foRmation and Aging Simulation (ATRAS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsui, H.; Koike, M.; Kondo, Y.; Fast, J. D.; Takigawa, M.

    2014-04-01

    Number concentrations, size distributions, and mixing states of aerosols are essential parameters for accurate estimation of aerosol direct and indirect effects. In this study, we develop an aerosol module, designated Aerosol Two-dimensional bin module for foRmation and Aging Simulation (ATRAS), that can represent these parameters explicitly by considering new particle formation (NPF), black carbon (BC) aging, and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) processes. A two-dimensional bin representation is used for particles with dry diameters from 40 nm to 10 μm to resolve both aerosol size (12 bins) and BC mixing state (10 bins) for a total of 120 bins. The particles with diameters from 1 to 40 nm are resolved using an additional 8 size bins to calculate NPF. The ATRAS module is implemented in the WRF-chem model and applied to examine the sensitivity of simulated mass, number, size distributions, and optical and radiative parameters of aerosols to NPF, BC aging and SOA processes over East Asia during the spring of 2009. BC absorption enhancement by coating materials is about 50% over East Asia during the spring, and the contribution of SOA processes to the absorption enhancement is estimated to be 10-20% over northern East Asia and 20-35% over southern East Asia. A clear north-south contrast is also found between the impacts of NPF and SOA processes on cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrations: NPF increases CCN concentrations at higher supersaturations (smaller particles) over northern East Asia, whereas SOA increases CCN concentrations at lower supersaturations (larger particles) over southern East Asia. Application of ATRAS to East Asia also shows that the impact of each process on each optical and radiative parameter depends strongly on the process and the parameter in question. The module can be used in the future as a benchmark model to evaluate the accuracy of simpler aerosol models and examine interactions between NPF, BC aging, and SOA processes under

  4. Rescue Manual. Module 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Instructional Materials Lab.

    This learner manual for rescuers covers the current techniques or practices required in the rescue service. The eighth of 10 modules contains 6 chapters: (1) trench rescue; (2) shoring and tunneling techniques; (3) farm accident rescue; (4) wilderness search and rescue; (5) aircraft rescue; and (6) helicopter information. Key points, an…

  5. Evolutionary and Developmental Modules

    PubMed Central

    Lacquaniti, Francesco; Ivanenko, Yuri P.; d’Avella, Andrea; Zelik, Karl E.; Zago, Myrka

    2013-01-01

    The identification of biological modules at the systems level often follows top-down decomposition of a task goal, or bottom-up decomposition of multidimensional data arrays into basic elements or patterns representing shared features. These approaches traditionally have been applied to mature, fully developed systems. Here we review some results from two other perspectives on modularity, namely the developmental and evolutionary perspective. There is growing evidence that modular units of development were highly preserved and recombined during evolution. We first consider a few examples of modules well identifiable from morphology. Next we consider the more difficult issue of identifying functional developmental modules. We dwell especially on modular control of locomotion to argue that the building blocks used to construct different locomotor behaviors are similar across several animal species, presumably related to ancestral neural networks of command. A recurrent theme from comparative studies is that the developmental addition of new premotor modules underlies the postnatal acquisition and refinement of several different motor behaviors in vertebrates. PMID:23730285

  6. Rescue Manual. Module 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Instructional Materials Lab.

    This learner manual for rescuers covers the current techniques or practices required in the rescue service. The third of 10 modules contains 4 chapters: (1) forcible entry; (2) structure search and rescue; (3) rescue operations involving electricity; and (4) cutting torches. Key points, an introduction, and conclusion accompany substantive…

  7. Rescue Manual. Module 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Instructional Materials Lab.

    This learner manual for rescuers covers the current techniques or practices required in the rescue service. The first of 10 modules contains 9 chapters: (1) introduction; (2) occupational stresses in rescue operations; (3) size-up; (4) critique; (5) reports and recordkeeping; (6) tools and equipment for rescue operations; (7) planning for…

  8. Rescue Manual. Module 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Instructional Materials Lab.

    This learner manual for rescuers covers the current techniques or practices required in the rescue service. The sixth of 10 modules contains 4 chapters: (1) industrial rescue; (2) rescue from a confined space; (3) extrication from heavy equipment; and (4) rescue operations involving elevators. Key points, an introduction, and conclusion accompany…

  9. Rescue Manual. Module 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Instructional Materials Lab.

    This learner manual for rescuers covers the current techniques or practices required in the rescue service. The fourth of 10 modules contains 8 chapters: (1) construction and characteristics of rescue rope; (2) knots, bends, and hitches; (3) critical angles; (4) raising systems; (5) rigging; (6) using the brake-bar rack for rope rescue; (7) rope…

  10. Rescue Manual. Module 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Instructional Materials Lab.

    This learner manual for rescuers covers the current techniques or practices required in the rescue service. The 10th of 10 modules contains a 16-page glossary of rescue terms and 3 appendices: (1) 4 computer programs and 32 other technical assistance materials available for hazardous materials; (2) hazardous materials resources--60 phone numbers,…

  11. Rescue Manual. Module 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Instructional Materials Lab.

    This learner manual for rescuers covers the current techniques or practices required in the rescue service. The second of 10 modules contains 5 chapters: (1) patient care and handling techniques; (2) rescue carries and drags; (3) emergency vehicle operations; (4) self-contained breathing apparatus; and (5) protective clothing. Key points, an…

  12. Rescue Manual. Module 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Instructional Materials Lab.

    This learner manual for rescuers covers the current techniques or practices required in the rescue service. The ninth of 10 modules contains 7 chapters: (1) ice characteristics; (2) river characteristics and tactics for rescue; (3) water rescue techniques; (4) water rescue/recovery operations; (5) dive operations; (6) water rescue equipment; and…

  13. Drupal Contributed Modules

    SciTech Connect

    Fries, Samuel B.; French, Shelane

    2014-10-01

    These Drupal Modules extend the functionality of Drupal by including specific styles for dates and tabs, publishing options for scheduled and immediate publication of content modes, field visibility in content forms, keyword block filters (taxonomy based), adding content nodes to a specified queue for display in views, and status display of workflow settings.

  14. An Integrated Teaching Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuel, Marie R.; Seiferth, Berniece B.

    This integrated teaching module provides elementary and junior high school teachers with a "hands-on" approach to studying the Anasazi Indian. Emphasis is on creative exploration that focuses on integrating art, music, poetry, writing, geography, dance, history, anthropology, sociology, and archaeology. Replicas of artifacts,…

  15. Paratransit: An Instructional Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scalici, Anthony

    A concept-based introduction to paratransit is provided in this instructional module for undergraduate and graduate transportation-related courses for disciplines such as engineering, business, marketing, and technology. The concept of paratransit generally refers to modes of transportation other than mass transit and solo-driven automobiles. The…

  16. SPACE: Intermediate Level Modules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana State Dept. of Education, Indianapolis. Center for School Improvement and Performance.

    These modules were developed to assist teachers at the intermediate level to move away from extensive skill practice and toward more meaningful interdisciplinary learning. This packet, to be used by teachers in the summer Extended Learning Program, provides detailed thematic lesson plans matched to the Indiana Curriculum Proficiency Guide. The…

  17. Modulation Characterization Techniques

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-04-01

    34energy-detection" class of rules. The focus of this paper is on the detection of Quadrature digital modulations, such as QPSK, Offset-QPSK ( OQPSK ... OQPSK retains only the even harmonics at baseband and the odd harmonics around 2/c. The optimal delay A and the resulting maximum SNRout are also

  18. Linear Phase Modulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hesse, R. H.

    1986-01-01

    Circuit suppresses AM component while providing matched input impedance. Phase modulation uses reflective properties of series resonant tank to reflect all of signal except for small amount in unloaded Q of coils and varactor diode. Circuit used in payload integrator of Space Shuttle S-band communications and tracking equipment, has applications in other communications and tracking equipment.

  19. Coplanar interconnection module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steward, R. D.; Windsor, H. F.

    1970-01-01

    Module for interconnecting a semiconductor array to external leads or components incorporates a metal external heat sink for cooling the array. Heat sink, extending down from the molded block that supports the array, is immersed in a liquid nitrogen bath which is designed to maintain the desired array temperature.

  20. Coast Guard Firefighting Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    NASA and the U.S. Coast Guard are jointly developing a lightweight, helicopter-transportable, completely self-contained firefighting module for combating shipboard and dockside fires. The project draws upon NASA technology in high-capacity rocket engine pumps, lightweight materials and compact packaging.

  1. Crew Module Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redifer, Matthew E.

    2011-01-01

    The presentation presents an overview of the Crew Module development for the Pad Abort 1 flight test. The presentation describes the integration activity from the initial delivery of the primary structure through the installation of vehicle subsystems, then to flight test. A brief overview of flight test results is given.

  2. Transparent solar cell module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antonides, G. J.; Dillard, P. A.; Fritz, W. M.; Lott, D. P.

    1979-01-01

    Modified solar cell module uses high transmission glass and adhesives, and heat dissipation to boost power per unit area by 25% (9.84% efficiency based on cell area at 60 C and 100 mW/sq cm flux). Design is suited for automatic production and is potentially more cost effective.

  3. Scaling: An Items Module

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tong, Ye; Kolen, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    "Scaling" is the process of constructing a score scale that associates numbers or other ordered indicators with the performance of examinees. Scaling typically is conducted to aid users in interpreting test results. This module describes different types of raw scores and scale scores, illustrates how to incorporate various sources of…

  4. COMIT English Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beam, Paul

    This COMIT English module used most of the interrelated devices of sound, sonic pen, keyboard, slide, and terminal display in a lesson which, depending on the student's interest and ability, might last from four to ten hours and formed an integral part of a second year course in critical analysis. Four contexts were included in the subject of…

  5. Multiple trellis coded modulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Marvin K. (Inventor); Divsalar, Dariush (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A technique for designing trellis codes to minimize bit error performance for a fading channel. The invention provides a criteria which may be used in the design of such codes which is significantly different from that used for average white Gaussian noise channels. The method of multiple trellis coded modulation of the present invention comprises the steps of: (a) coding b bits of input data into s intermediate outputs; (b) grouping said s intermediate outputs into k groups of s.sub.i intermediate outputs each where the summation of all s.sub.i,s is equal to s and k is equal to at least 2; (c) mapping each of said k groups of intermediate outputs into one of a plurality of symbols in accordance with a plurality of modulation schemes, one for each group such that the first group is mapped in accordance with a first modulation scheme and the second group is mapped in accordance with a second modulation scheme; and (d) outputting each of said symbols to provide k output symbols for each b bits of input data.

  6. Formed photovoltaic module busbars

    DOEpatents

    Rose, Douglas; Daroczi, Shan; Phu, Thomas

    2015-11-10

    A cell connection piece for a photovoltaic module is disclosed herein. The cell connection piece includes an interconnect bus, a plurality of bus tabs unitarily formed with the interconnect bus, and a terminal bus coupled with the interconnect bus. The plurality of bus tabs extend from the interconnect bus. The terminal bus includes a non-linear portion.

  7. Bubble Memory Module.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    104 7-13 Four switch drive hybrid ........................................................................ 104 7-14...operation. Address Ready. - This signal is an output signal to the user which acknowledges that the module is busy. Input address is latched in the...expandable in 6.55 M bit increments. Detector noise is minimized by locating sense circuits, cell select switches , and memory cells on the same board

  8. Discovering modulators of gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Babur, Özgün; Demir, Emek; Gönen, Mithat; Sander, Chris; Dogrusoz, Ugur

    2010-01-01

    Proteins that modulate the activity of transcription factors, often called modulators, play a critical role in creating tissue- and context-specific gene expression responses to the signals cells receive. GEM (Gene Expression Modulation) is a probabilistic framework that predicts modulators, their affected targets and mode of action by combining gene expression profiles, protein–protein interactions and transcription factor–target relationships. Using GEM, we correctly predicted a significant number of androgen receptor modulators and observed that most modulators can both act as co-activators and co-repressors for different target genes. PMID:20466809

  9. Method of monolithic module assembly

    DOEpatents

    Gee, James M.; Garrett, Stephen E.; Morgan, William P.; Worobey, Walter

    1999-01-01

    Methods for "monolithic module assembly" which translate many of the advantages of monolithic module construction of thin-film PV modules to wafered c-Si PV modules. Methods employ using back-contact solar cells positioned atop electrically conductive circuit elements affixed to a planar support so that a circuit capable of generating electric power is created. The modules are encapsulated using encapsulant materials such as EVA which are commonly used in photovoltaic module manufacture. The methods of the invention allow multiple cells to be electrically connected in a single encapsulation step rather than by sequential soldering which characterizes the currently used commercial practices.

  10. Modulated Elliptical Slot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abou-Khousa, M. A.

    2009-01-01

    A novel modulated slot design has been proposed and tested. The proposed slot is aimed to replace the inefficient small dipoles used in conventional MST-based imaging systems. The developed slot is very attractive as MST array element due to its small size and high efficiency/modulation depth. In fact, the developed slot has been successfully used to implement the first prototype of a microwave camera operating at 24 GHZ. It is also being used in the design of the second generation of the camera. Finally, the designed elliptical slot can be used as an electronically controlled waveguide iris for many other purposes (for instance in constructing waveguide reflective phase shifters and multiplexers/switches).

  11. VERDE Analytic Modules

    SciTech Connect

    2008-01-15

    The Verde Analytic Modules permit the user to ingest openly available data feeds about phenomenology (storm tracks, wind, precipitation, earthquake, wildfires, and similar natural and manmade power grid disruptions and forecast power outages, restoration times, customers outaged, and key facilities that will lose power. Damage areas are predicted using historic damage criteria of the affected area. The modules use a cellular automata approach to estimating the distribution circuits assigned to geo-located substations. Population estimates served within the service areas are located within 1 km grid cells and converted to customer counts by conversion through demographic estimation of households and commercial firms within the population cells. Restoration times are estimated by agent-based simulation of restoration crews working according to utility published prioritization calibrated by historic performance.

  12. Silicon Optical Modulator Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LIM, Soon; Sun, Min Jie; Png, Ching

    2015-04-01

    We developed a way of predicting and analyzing high speed optical modulator. Our research adopted a bottom-up approach to consider high-speed optical links using an eye diagram. Our method leverages on modular “mapping” of electrical characteristics to optical characteristics, while attaining the required accuracy necessary for device footprint approaching sub-micron scales where electrical data distribution varies drastically. We calculate for the bias dependent phase shift (2pi/mm) and loss (dB/mm) for the optical modulator based on the real and imaginary part of complex effective indices. Subsequently, combine effectively both the electrical and optical profiles to construct the optical eye diagram which is the essential gist of signal integrity of such devices.

  13. Module isolation devices

    DOEpatents

    Carolan, Michael Francis; Cooke, John Albert; Buzinski, Michael David

    2010-04-27

    A gas flow isolation device includes a gas flow isolation valve movable from an opened condition to a closed condition. The module isolation valve in one embodiment includes a rupture disk in flow communication with a flow of gas when the module isolation valve is in an opened condition. The rupture disk ruptures when a predetermined pressure differential occurs across it causing the isolation valve to close. In one embodiment the valve is mechanically linked to the rupture disk to maintain the valve in an opened condition when the rupture disk is intact, and which permits the valve to move into a closed condition when the rupture disk ruptures. In another embodiment a crushable member maintains the valve in an open condition, and the flow of gas passed the valve upon rupturing of the rupture disk compresses the crushable member to close the isolation valve.

  14. Modulation instability: The beginning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noskov, Roman; Belov, Pavel; Kivshar, Yuri

    2012-11-01

    The study of metal nanoparticles plays a central role in the emerging novel technologies employing optics beyond the diffraction limit. Combining strong surface plasmon resonances, high intrinsic nonlinearities and deeply subwavelength scales, arrays of metal nanoparticles offer a unique playground to develop novel concepts for light manipulation at the nanoscale. Here we suggest a novel principle to control localized optical energy in chains of nonlinear subwavelength metal nanoparticles based on the fundamental nonlinear phenomenon of modulation instability. In particular, we demonstrate that modulation instability can lead to the formation of long-lived standing and moving nonlinear localized modes of several distinct types such as bright and dark solitons, oscillons, and domain walls. We analyze the properties of these nonlinear localized modes and reveal different scenarios of their dynamics including transformation of one type of mode to another. We believe this work paves a way towards the development of nonlinear nanophotonics circuitry.

  15. Vapor compression distillation module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nuccio, P. P.

    1975-01-01

    A Vapor Compression Distillation (VCD) module was developed and evaluated as part of a Space Station Prototype (SSP) environmental control and life support system. The VCD module includes the waste tankage, pumps, post-treatment cells, automatic controls and fault detection instrumentation. Development problems were encountered with two components: the liquid pumps, and the waste tank and quantity gauge. Peristaltic pumps were selected instead of gear pumps, and a sub-program of materials and design optimization was undertaken leading to a projected life greater than 10,000 hours of continuous operation. A bladder tank was designed and built to contain the waste liquids and deliver it to the processor. A detrimental pressure pattern imposed upon the bladder by a force-operated quantity gauge was corrected by rearranging the force application, and design goals were achieved. System testing has demonstrated that all performance goals have been fulfilled.

  16. Axially Modulated Plasma Waveguides

    SciTech Connect

    Layer, B. D.; York, A. G.; Varma, S.; Chen, Y.-H.; Milchberg, H. M.

    2009-01-22

    We demonstrate two techniques for making periodically modulated plasma waveguides-one with sharp, stable voids as short as 50 {mu}m with a period as small as 200 {mu}m, and another which modulates the waveguide diameter with a corrugation period as short as 35 {mu}m[1]. These features persist as the plasma expands for the full lifetime of the waveguide (>6 ns). The waveguides were made using the hydrodynamic shock method in a cluster jet using hydrogen, nitrogen, and argon. We demonstrate guided propagation at intensities up to 2x10{sup 17} W/cm{sup 2}, limited by our laser energy currently available. This technique is useful for quasi-phase matching to allow efficient coupling of laser energy to acceleration of relativistic electrons or generation of coherent electromagnetic radiation at selected frequencies.

  17. Selective Glucocorticoid Receptor modulators.

    PubMed

    De Bosscher, Karolien

    2010-05-31

    The ancient two-faced Roman god Janus is often used as a metaphor to describe the characteristics of the Glucocorticoid Receptor (NR3C1), which exhibits both a beneficial side, that serves to halt inflammation, and a detrimental side responsible for undesirable effects. However, recent developments suggest that the Glucocorticoid Receptor has many more faces with the potential to express a range of different functionalities, depending on factors that include the tissue type, ligand type, receptor variants, cofactor surroundings and target gene promoters. This behavior of the receptor has made the development of safer ligands, that trigger the expression program of only a desirable subset of genes, a real challenge. Thus more knowledge-based fundamental research is needed to ensure the design and development of selective Glucocorticoid Receptor modulators capable of reaching the clinic. Recent advances in the characterization of novel selective Glucocorticoid Receptor modulators, specifically in the context of anti-inflammatory strategies, will be described in this review.

  18. Acupuncture and immune modulation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun Kwang; Bae, Hyunsu

    2010-10-28

    Acupuncture is probably the most popular alternative therapy practiced in the United States, Europe and many Asian countries. It has been applied clinically for more than 5 thousand years according to the ancient oriental medical theory. A great deal of acupuncture research has been achieved, with particular efforts toward understanding the pain control effects. In addition to the analgesic effect of acupuncture, an increasing number of studies have demonstrated that acupuncture treatment can control autonomic nerve system functions such as blood pressure regulation, sphincter Oddi relaxation, and immune modulation. Although only a limited number of controlled studies have assessed the efficacy of acupuncture, increasing clinical evidences support that EA treatment is effective for various immunological diseases including allergic disorders, infections, autoimmune diseases and immunodifficiency-syndromes. This review will address the mechanism of acupuncture in modulating various immune responses and the relationship between acupuncture mediated immune regulation and neurological involvement.

  19. Stable local oscillator module.

    SciTech Connect

    Brocato, Robert Wesley

    2007-11-01

    This report gives a description of the development of a Stable Local Oscillator (StaLO) multi-chip module (MCM). It is a follow-on report to SAND2006-6414, Stable Local Oscillator Microcircuit. The StaLO accepts a 100MHz input signal and produces output signals at 1.2, 3.3, and 3.6 GHz. The circuit is built as a multi-chip module (MCM), since it makes use of integrated circuit technologies in silicon and lithium niobate as well as discrete passive components. This report describes the development of an MCM-based version of the complete StaLO, fabricated on an alumina thick film hybrid substrate.

  20. Lightweight Trauma Module - LTM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hatfield, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Current patient movement items (PMI) supporting the military's Critical Care Air Transport Team (CCATT) mission as well as the Crew Health Care System for space (CHeCS) have significant limitations: size, weight, battery duration, and dated clinical technology. The LTM is a small, 20 lb., system integrating diagnostic and therapeutic clinical capabilities along with onboard data management, communication services and automated care algorithms to meet new Aeromedical Evacuation requirements. The Lightweight Trauma Module is an Impact Instrumentation, Inc. project with strong Industry, DoD, NASA, and Academia partnerships aimed at developing the next generation of smart and rugged critical care tools for hazardous environments ranging from the battlefield to space exploration. The LTM is a combination ventilator/critical care monitor/therapeutic system with integrated automatic control systems. Additional capabilities are provided with small external modules.

  1. All-digital QPSK modulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burgess, R. W.; Julian, R. L.

    1980-01-01

    Circuit consisting to only four components (2 IC chips and 2 time delay devices) modulates RF signal with 2 asynchronous digital data signals. Digital modulator is virtually free of amplitude modulation, is not subject to temperature effects from other components, dissipates less power, and is far simpler than its analog predecessors.

  2. Thermal modulation for gas chromatography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasselbrink, Ernest F. (Inventor); Libardoni, Mark (Inventor); Stewart, Kristine (Inventor); Waite, J. Hunter (Inventor); Block, Bruce P. (Inventor); Sacks, Richard D. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A thermal modulator device for gas chromatography and associated methods. The thermal modulator device includes a recirculating fluid cooling member, an electrically conductive capillary in direct thermal contact with the cooling member, and a power supply electrically coupled to the capillary and operable for controlled resistive heating of the capillary. The capillary can include more than one separate thermally modulated sections.

  3. Headstart German Program. Module 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    This is the eighth module of 10 in the German Headstart program. Each of the 2 units in the module contains objectives, exercises, and a self-evaluation quiz. In addition, there are several supplementary exercises and self-evaluations. This module deals with a single situation, visiting a German family in their home. The exercises are intended to…

  4. Modulation instability: The beginning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharov, V. E.; Ostrovsky, L. A.

    2009-03-01

    We discuss the early history of an important field of “sturm and drang” in modern theory of nonlinear waves. It is demonstrated how scientific demand resulted in independent and almost simultaneous publications by many different authors on modulation instability, a phenomenon resulting in a variety of nonlinear processes such as envelope solitons, envelope shocks, freak waves, etc. Examples from water wave hydrodynamics, electrodynamics, nonlinear optics, and convection theory are given.

  5. Tandem resonator reflectance modulator

    DOEpatents

    Fritz, I.J.; Wendt, J.R.

    1994-09-06

    A wide band optical modulator is grown on a substrate as tandem Fabry-Perot resonators including three mirrors spaced by two cavities. The absorption of one cavity is changed relative to the absorption of the other cavity by an applied electric field, to cause a change in total reflected light, as light reflecting from the outer mirrors is in phase and light reflecting from the inner mirror is out of phase with light from the outer mirrors. 8 figs.

  6. Tandem resonator reflectance modulator

    DOEpatents

    Fritz, Ian J.; Wendt, Joel R.

    1994-01-01

    A wide band optical modulator is grown on a substrate as tandem Fabry-Perot resonators including three mirrors spaced by two cavities. The absorption of one cavity is changed relative to the absorption of the other cavity by an applied electric field, to cause a change in total reflected light, as light reflecting from the outer mirrors is in phase and light reflecting from the inner mirror is out of phase with light from the outer mirrors.

  7. Modulated imaging polarimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaCasse, Charles Fredrick, IV

    In this work, image processing algorithms are presented for an advanced sensor classification known collectively as imaging modulated polariemtry. The image processing algorithms presented are novel in that they use frequency domain based approaches, in comparison to the data domain based approaches that all previous algorithms have employed. Under the conditions on the data and imaging device derived in this work, the frequency domain based demodulation algorithms will optimally reduced reconstruction artifacts in a least squared sense. This work provides a framework for objectively comparing polarimeters that modulate in different domains (i.e. time vs. space), referred to as the spectral density response function. The spectral density response function is created as an analog to the modulation transfer function (or the more general transfer function for temporal devices) employed in the design of conventional imaging devices. The framework considers the total bandwidth of the object to be measured, and then can consider estimation artifacts that arise in both time and space due to the measurement modality that has been chosen. Using the framework for objectively comparing different modulated polarimeters (known as the spectral density response function), a method of developing a Wiener filter for multi-signal demodulation is developed, referred to as the polarimetric Wiener filter. This filter is then shown to be optimal for one extensive test case. This document provides one extensive example of implementing the algorithms and spectral density response calculations on a real system, known as the MSPI polariemter. The MSPI polarimeter has been published extensively elsewhere, so only a basic system description here is used as necessary to describe how the methods presented here can be implemented on this system.

  8. Improved bunch spreader modules

    SciTech Connect

    Ieiri, Takao

    1989-07-20

    In order to raise the threshold beam current of instabilities in the fixed target run, it is required to increase the longitudinal emittance, and hence the bunch length. The bunch spreader used a noise generator through a sharp-cut ban pass filter (BPF) instead of a coherent signal. In that filter, the pass band frequency was near twice the synchrotron frequency 2f/sub s/. The bandwidth of the filter was fixed between 350Hz and 600Hz, though twice the synchrotron frequency changed from 500Hz to 300Hz after transition in Main Ring. The noise through the filter is applied to an RF amplitude modulator. In the Tevatron, where the synchrotron frequency f/sub s/ varies from 120Hz to 40Hz during acceleration, the noise is applied to a phase shifter at the frequency of f/sub s/. So, we need a tunable filter which tracks 2f/sub s/ in the Main Ring and f/sub s/ in the Tevatron. This note describes details of improved bunch spreader modules using a tunable filter used in both the Main Ring and the Tevatron. A brief description about this module along with a beam test done in the Main Ring is shown. 3 refs., 6 figs.

  9. Accumulate Repeat Accumulate Coded Modulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbasfar, Aliazam; Divsalar, Dariush; Yao, Kung

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we propose an innovative coded modulation scheme called 'Accumulate Repeat Accumulate Coded Modulation' (ARA coded modulation). This class of codes can be viewed as serial turbo-like codes, or as a subclass of Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes that are combined with high level modulation. Thus at the decoder belief propagation can be used for iterative decoding of ARA coded modulation on a graph, provided a demapper transforms the received in-phase and quadrature samples to reliability of the bits.

  10. AC photovoltaic module magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Jennings, C.; Chang, G.J.; Reyes, A.B.; Whitaker, C.M.

    1997-12-31

    Implementation of alternating current (AC) photovoltaic (PV) modules, particularly for distributed applications such as PV rooftops and facades, may be slowed by public concern about electric and magnetic fields (EMF). This paper documents magnetic field measurements on an AC PV module, complementing EMF research on direct-current PV modules conducted by PG and E in 1993. Although not comprehensive, the PV EMF data indicate that 60 Hz magnetic fields (the EMF type of greatest public concern) from PV modules are comparable to, or significantly less than, those from household appliances. Given the present EMF research knowledge, AC PV module EMF may not merit considerable concern.

  11. Space Station Photovoltaic power modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tatro, Charles A.

    1988-01-01

    Silicon cell Photovoltaic (PV) power modules are key components of the Space Station Electrical Power System (EPS) scheduled to begin deployment in 1994. Four PV power modules, providing 75 KWe of user ac power, form the cornerstone of the EPS; which is comprised of Photovoltaic (PV) power modules, Solar Dynamic (SD) power modules, and the Power Management and Distribution (PMAD) system. The PV modules are located on rotating outboard sections of the Space Station (SS) structure and each module incorporates its own nickel-hydrogen energy storage batteries, its own thermal control system, and some autonomous control features. The PV modules are a cost-effective and technologically mature approach for providing reliable SS electrical power and are a solid base for EPS growth, which is expected to reach 300 KWe by the end of the Space Station's 30-year design lifetime.

  12. Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) uses linear ... and after this procedure? What is Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy and how is it used? Intensity-modulated ...

  13. On staggered indecomposable Virasoro modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kytölä, Kalle; Ridout, David

    2009-12-01

    In this article, certain indecomposable Virasoro modules are studied. Specifically, the Virasoro mode L0 is assumed to be nondiagonalizable, possessing Jordan blocks of rank 2. Moreover, the module is further assumed to have a highest weight submodule, the "left module," and that the quotient by this submodule yields another highest weight module, the "right module." Such modules, which have been called staggered, have appeared repeatedly in the logarithmic conformal field theory literature, but their theory has not been explored in full generality. Here, such a theory is developed for the Virasoro algebra using rather elementary techniques. The focus centers on two different but related questions typically encountered in practical studies: How can one identify a given staggered module, and how can one demonstrate the existence of a proposed staggered module. Given just the values of the highest weights of the left and right modules, themselves subject to simple necessary conditions, invariants are defined which together with the knowledge of the left and right modules uniquely identify a staggered module. The possible values of these invariants form a vector space of dimension 0, 1, or 2, and the structures of the left and right modules limit the isomorphism classes of the corresponding staggered modules to an affine subspace (possibly empty). The number of invariants and affine restrictions is purely determined by the structures of the left and right modules. Moreover, in order to facilitate applications, the expressions for the invariants and restrictions are given by formulas as explicit as possible (they generally rely on expressions for Virasoro singular vectors). Finally, the text is liberally peppered throughout with examples illustrating the general concepts. These have been carefully chosen for their physical relevance or for the novel features they exhibit.

  14. DEMODULATION OF FREQUENCY OR SPACE MODULATED LIGHT.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    LIGHT , DEMODULATION), (*OPTICAL COMMUNICATIONS, FREQUENCY MODULATION), (*FREQUENCY MODULATION, LIGHT ), OPTICAL TRACKING, BEAMS(ELECTROMAGNETIC), DEFLECTION, MICROWAVE FREQUENCY, ELECTRON BEAMS, PHOTOCATHODES

  15. Doppler modulation and Zeeman modulation: laser frequency stabilization without direct frequency modulation.

    PubMed

    Weis, A; Derler, S

    1988-07-01

    We discuss two methods (Zeeman modulation and Doppler modulation) for locking the frequency of a singlemode cw laser to an atomic absorption line. These methods do not require the laser frequency to be modulated directly. In the first scheme the absorption frequency of the atom is modulated via the Zeeman effect; in the second scheme the laser frequency is modulated indirectly via the Doppler effect in an atomic beam. We used the two methods successfully to lock two dye lasers to the transitions 6S((1/2)) ? 7S((1/2)) and 7S((1/2)) ? 15P(?) in atomic cesium.

  16. Modulation of whistlers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivokon', V. P.; Bogdanov, V. V.; Druzhin, G. I.; Cherneva, N. V.; Kubyshkin, A. V.; Sannikov, D. V.; Agranat, I. V.

    2014-11-01

    Analysis of the experimental data obtained at Paratunka observatory (53.02° N, 158.65° E; L = 2.3) has revealed a nonstandard form of whistlers involving spectral lines that are symmetric with respect to the whistler. We have shown that this form is most likely due to the amplitude modulation of whistlers by electromagnetic pulses with a length of around 1 s and carrier frequency of around 1.1 kHz. We have suggested that these pulses could be emitted by the auroral electrojet modified by heating radiation from the HAARP facility (62.30° N, 145.30° W; L > 4.2).

  17. TASMANIAN Sparse Grids Module

    SciTech Connect

    and Drayton Munster, Miroslav Stoyanov

    2013-09-20

    Sparse Grids are the family of methods of choice for multidimensional integration and interpolation in low to moderate number of dimensions. The method is to select extend a one dimensional set of abscissas, weights and basis functions by taking a subset of all possible tensor products. The module provides the ability to create global and local approximations based on polynomials and wavelets. The software has three components, a library, a wrapper for the library that provides a command line interface via text files ad a MATLAB interface via the command line tool.

  18. Processing module operating methods, processing modules, and communications systems

    DOEpatents

    McCown, Steven Harvey; Derr, Kurt W.; Moore, Troy

    2014-09-09

    A processing module operating method includes using a processing module physically connected to a wireless communications device, requesting that the wireless communications device retrieve encrypted code from a web site and receiving the encrypted code from the wireless communications device. The wireless communications device is unable to decrypt the encrypted code. The method further includes using the processing module, decrypting the encrypted code, executing the decrypted code, and preventing the wireless communications device from accessing the decrypted code. Another processing module operating method includes using a processing module physically connected to a host device, executing an application within the processing module, allowing the application to exchange user interaction data communicated using a user interface of the host device with the host device, and allowing the application to use the host device as a communications device for exchanging information with a remote device distinct from the host device.

  19. Phase modulation in RF tag

    DOEpatents

    Carrender, Curtis Lee; Gilbert, Ronald W.

    2007-02-20

    A radio frequency (RF) communication system employs phase-modulated backscatter signals for RF communication from an RF tag to an interrogator. The interrogator transmits a continuous wave interrogation signal to the RF tag, which based on an information code stored in a memory, phase-modulates the interrogation signal to produce a backscatter response signal that is transmitted back to the interrogator. A phase modulator structure in the RF tag may include a switch coupled between an antenna and a quarter-wavelength stub; and a driver coupled between the memory and a control terminal of the switch. The driver is structured to produce a modulating signal corresponding to the information code, the modulating signal alternately opening and closing the switch to respectively decrease and increase the transmission path taken by the interrogation signal and thereby modulate the phase of the response signal. Alternatively, the phase modulator may include a diode coupled between the antenna and driver. The modulating signal from the driver modulates the capacitance of the diode, which modulates the phase of the response signal reflected by the diode and antenna.

  20. View of Apollo 13 Lunar Module from the Command Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    This view of the Apollo 13 Lunar Module (LM) was photographed from the Command Module (CM) just after the LM had been jettisoned. The jettisoning occurred a few minutes after 11 a.m., April 17, 1970, just over an hour prior to splashdown of the CM in the South Pacific Ocean. The apparent explosion of oxygen tank number two in the Apoll 13 Service Module caused the Apollo 13 crewmen to rely on the LM as a 'lifeboat'.

  1. Demazure Modules, Chari-Venkatesh Modules and Fusion Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravinder, Bhimarthi

    2014-12-01

    Let g be a finite-dimensional complex simple Lie algebra with highest root θ. Given two non-negative integers m, n, we prove that the fusion product of m copies of the level one Demazure module D(1,θ) with n copies of the adjoint representation ev_0 V(θ) is independent of the parameters and we give explicit defining relations. As a consequence, for g simply laced, we show that the fusion product of a special family of Chari-Venkatesh modules is again a Chari-Venkatesh module. We also get a description of the truncated Weyl module associated to a multiple of θ.

  2. Whole Module Offgas Test Report: Space-Xl Dragon Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.

    2012-01-01

    On September 26 and September 28,2012 a chemist from the JSC Toxicology Group acquired samples of air in 500 m1 evacuated canisters from the sealed Space-Xl Dragon Module. One sample was also acquired from Space-X Facility near the module at the start of the test. Samples of the module air were taken in triplicate once the module had been sealed, and then taken again in triplicate 1.98 days later. Ofthe triplicate samples, the first served as a line purge, and the last two were analyzed. The results of 5 samples are reported.

  3. Integrated organic photovoltaic modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potscavage, William J.; Yoo, Seunghyup; Domercq, Benoit; Kim, Jungbae; Holt, Joe; Kippelen, Bernard

    2007-09-01

    Methods for scalable output voltage and encapsulation of organic photovoltaic cells are addressed in this paper. To obtain scalable output voltages, integrated photovoltaic modules comprised of a bulk heterojunction of poly(3- hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and a soluble C 70 derivative, [6,6]-phenyl C 71 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM-70), were fabricated. Power conversion efficiency of individual P3HT/PCBM-70 cells was estimated to be 4.1 % for AM1.5 G illumination. Modules of one to four cells connected in series produced open-circuit voltages V OC that linearly depend on the number of cells N as V OC = N × 0.621 V with a nearly constant short-circuit current of 1.4 +/- 0.1 mA. Separately, shelf lifetimes of more than one year were achieved for pentacene/C 60 solar cells by encapsulation with a 200-nm-thick layer of Al IIO 3 deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD). In addition, the ALD process improved the open-circuit voltage and power conversion efficiency of the solar cells by thermal annealing that occurs during the process.

  4. Photodynamic immune modulation (PIM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    North, John R.; Hunt, David W. C.; Simkin, Guillermo O.; Ratkay, Leslie G.; Chan, Agnes H.; Lui, Harvey; Levy, Julia G.

    1999-09-01

    Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) is accepted for treatment of superficial and lumen-occluding tumors in regions accessible to activating light and is now known to be effective in closure of choroidal neovasculature in Age Related Macular Degeneration. PDT utilizes light absorbing drugs (photosensitizers) that generate the localized formation of reactive oxygen species after light exposure. In a number of systems, PDT has immunomodulatory effects; Photodynamic Immune Modulation (PIM). Using low- intensity photodynamic regimens applied over a large body surface area, progression of mouse autoimmune disease could be inhibited. Further, this treatment strongly inhibited the immunologically- medicated contact hypersensitivity response to topically applied chemical haptens. Immune modulation appears to result from selective targeting of activated T lymphocytes and reduction in immunostimulation by antigen presenting cells. Psoriasis, an immune-mediated skin condition, exhibits heightened epidermal cell proliferation, epidermal layer thickening and plaque formation at different body sites. In a recent clinical trial, approximately one-third of patients with psoriasis and arthritis symptoms (psoriatic arthritis) displayed a significant clinical improvement in several psoriasis-related parameters after four weekly whole-body PIM treatments with verteporfin. The safety profile was favorable. The capacity of PIM to influence other human immune disorders including rheumatoid arthritis is under extensive evaluation.

  5. Externally modulated theranostic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Urban, Cordula; Urban, Alexander S; Charron, Heather; Joshi, Amit

    2013-08-01

    Externally modulated nanoparticles comprise a rapidly advancing class of cancer nanotherapeutics, which combine the favorable tumor accumulation of nanoparticles, with external spatio-temporal control on therapy delivery via optical, magnetic, or ultrasound modalities. The local control on therapy enables higher tumor treatment efficacy, while simultaneously reducing off-target effects. The nanoparticle interactions with external fields have an additional advantage of frequently generating an imaging signal, and thus such agents provide theranostic (both diagnostic and therapeutic) capabilities. In this review, we classify the emerging externally modulated theranostic nanoparticles according to the mode of external control and describe the physiochemical mechanisms underlying the external control of therapy, and illustrate the major embodiments of nanoparticles in each class with proven biological efficacy: (I) electromagnetic radiation in visible and near-infrared range is being exploited for gold based and carbon nanostructures with tunable surface plasmon resonance (SPR) for imaging and photothermal therapy (PTT) of cancer, photochemistry based manipulations are employed for light sensitive liposomes and porphyrin based nanoparticles; (II) Magnetic field based manipulations are being developed for iron-oxide based nanostructures for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetothermal therapy; (III) ultrasound based methods are primarily being employed to increase delivery of conventional drugs and nanotherapeutics to tumor sites.

  6. Externally modulated theranostic nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Urban, Cordula; Urban, Alexander S.; Charron, Heather; Joshi, Amit

    2013-01-01

    Externally modulated nanoparticles comprise a rapidly advancing class of cancer nanotherapeutics, which combine the favorable tumor accumulation of nanoparticles, with external spatio-temporal control on therapy delivery via optical, magnetic, or ultrasound modalities. The local control on therapy enables higher tumor treatment efficacy, while simultaneously reducing off-target effects. The nanoparticle interactions with external fields have an additional advantage of frequently generating an imaging signal, and thus such agents provide theranostic (both diagnostic and therapeutic) capabilities. In this review, we classify the emerging externally modulated theranostic nanoparticles according to the mode of external control and describe the physiochemical mechanisms underlying the external control of therapy, and illustrate the major embodiments of nanoparticles in each class with proven biological efficacy: (I) electromagnetic radiation in visible and near-infrared range is being exploited for gold based and carbon nanostructures with tunable surface plasmon resonance (SPR) for imaging and photothermal therapy (PTT) of cancer, photochemistry based manipulations are employed for light sensitive liposomes and porphyrin based nanoparticles; (II) Magnetic field based manipulations are being developed for iron-oxide based nanostructures for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetothermal therapy; (III) ultrasound based methods are primarily being employed to increase delivery of conventional drugs and nanotherapeutics to tumor sites. PMID:24834381

  7. ADAM -- Interface Module Reference Manual

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chipperfield, A. J.; Kelly, B. D.; Wright, S. L.

    ADAM Interface Modules provide an interface between ADAM application programs and the rest of the system. This document describes in detail the facilities available with ADAM Interface Modules and the rules for using them. It is intended as a reference manual and should shed light on some of the finer points of the ADAM parameter system. Readers requiring an introduction to Interface Modules should read SG/4.

  8. Reliability Research for Photovoltaic Modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Ronald J., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Report describes research approach used to improve reliability of photovoltaic modules. Aimed at raising useful module lifetime to 20 to 30 years. Development of cost-effective solutions to module-lifetime problem requires compromises between degradation rates, failure rates, and lifetimes, on one hand, and costs of initial manufacture, maintenance, and lost energy, on other hand. Life-cycle costing integrates disparate economic terms, allowing cost effectiveness to be quantified, allowing comparison of different design alternatives.

  9. Qualification and testing of modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, D. B.

    1983-11-01

    The experience gained in procuring solar modules soon to be installed on the Photovoltaic Higher Education National Exemplar Facility (PHENEF) at Georgetown University is discussed. The 300 KE Photovoltaic Array consists of 4464, 2' X 4', polycrystalline solar cell modules. The performance requirements for the modules are described in a detailed procurement specification which defines physical and electrical characteristics and extensive quality assurance provisions including requirements for an interface control drawing and qualification and acceptance testing.

  10. Qualification and testing of modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, D. B.

    1983-01-01

    The experience gained in procuring solar modules soon to be installed on the Photovoltaic Higher Education National Exemplar Facility (PHENEF) at Georgetown University is discussed. The 300 KE Photovoltaic Array consists of 4464, 2' X 4', polycrystalline solar cell modules. The performance requirements for the modules are described in a detailed procurement specification which defines physical and electrical characteristics and extensive quality assurance provisions including requirements for an interface control drawing and qualification and acceptance testing.

  11. International Energy Module - NEMS Documentation

    EIA Publications

    2014-01-01

    Summarizes the overall structure of the International Energy Model and its interface with other NEMS modules, mathematical specifications of behavioral relationships, and data sources and estimation methods.

  12. Hybrid grapheme plasmonic waveguide modulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansell, D.; Thackray, B. D.; Aznakayeva, D. E.; Thomas, P.; Auton, G. H.; Marshall, O. P.; Rodriguez, F. J.; Radko, I. P.; Han, Z.; Bozhevolnyi, S. I.; Grigorenko, A. N.

    2016-03-01

    The unique optical and electronic properties of graphene allow one to realize active optical devices. While several types of graphene-based photonic modulators have already been demonstrated, the potential of combining the versatility of graphene with sub-wavelength field confinement of plasmonic/metallic structures is not fully realized. Here we report fabrication and study of hybrid graphene-plasmonic modulators. We consider several types of modulators and identify the most promising one for light modulation at telecom and near-infrared. Our proof-of-concept results pave the way towards on-chip realization of efficient graphene-based active plasmonic waveguide devices for optical communications.

  13. Adjustable extender for instrument module

    DOEpatents

    Sevec, J.B.; Stein, A.D.

    1975-11-01

    A blank extender module used to mount an instrument module in front of its console for repair or test purposes has been equipped with a rotatable mount and means for locking the mount at various angles of rotation for easy accessibility. The rotatable mount includes a horizontal conduit supported by bearings within the blank module. The conduit is spring-biased in a retracted position within the blank module and in this position a small gear mounted on the conduit periphery is locked by a fixed pawl. The conduit and instrument mount can be pulled into an extended position with the gear clearing the pawl to permit rotation and adjustment of the instrument.

  14. Water-module interaction studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mon, G.; Wen, L.; Ross, R., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Mechanisms by which moisture enters photovoltaic modules and techniques for reducing such interactions are reported. Results from a study of the effectiveness of various module sealants are given. Techniques for measuring the rate and quantity of moisture ingress are discussed. It is shown that scribe lines and porous frit bridging conductors provide preferential paths for moisture ingress and that moisture diffusion by surface/interfacial paths is considerably more rapid than diffusion by bulk paths, which implies that thin-film substrate and supersubstrate modules are much more vulnerable to moist environments than are bulk-encapsulated crystalline-silicon modules. Design approaches that reduce moisture entry are discussed.

  15. Light modulating device

    DOEpatents

    Rauh, R. David; Goldner, Ronald B.

    1989-01-01

    In a device for transmitting light, means for controlling the transmissivity of the device, including a ceramic, reversibly electrochromic, crystalline element having a highly reflective state when injected with electrons and charge compensating ions and a highly transmissive state when the electrons and ions are removed, the crystalline element being characterized as having a reflectivity of at least 50% in the reflective state and not greater than 10% in the transmissive state, and means for modulating the crystalline element between the reflective and transmissive states by injecting ions into the crystalline element in response to an applied electrical current of a first polarity and removing the ions in response to an applied electrical current of a second polarity.

  16. Light modulating device

    DOEpatents

    Rauh, R.D.; Goldner, R.B.

    1989-12-26

    In a device for transmitting light, means for controlling the transmissivity of the device, including a ceramic, reversibly electrochromic, crystalline element having a highly reflective state when injected with electrons and charge compensating ions and a highly transmissive state when the electrons and ions are removed, the crystalline element being characterized as having a reflectivity of at least 50% in the reflective state and not greater than 10% in the transmissive state, and means for modulating the crystalline element between the reflective and transmissive states by injecting ions into the crystalline element in response to an applied electrical current of a first polarity and removing the ions in response to an applied electrical current of a second polarity are disclosed. 1 fig.

  17. Automatic routing module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Janice A.

    1987-01-01

    Automatic Routing Module (ARM) is a tool to partially automate Air Launched Cruise Missile (ALCM) routing. For any accessible launch point or target pair, ARM creates flyable routes that, within the fidelity of the models, are optimal in terms of threat avoidance, clobber avoidance, and adherence to vehicle and planning constraints. Although highly algorithmic, ARM is an expert system. Because of the heuristics applied, ARM generated routes closely resemble manually generated routes in routine cases. In more complex cases, ARM's ability to accumulate and assess threat danger in three dimensions and trade that danger off with the probability of ground clobber results in the safest path around or through difficult areas. The tools available prior to ARM did not provide the planner with enough information or present it in such a way that ensured he would select the safest path.

  18. TASSRAP Input Module

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-07-29

    retrieve data necessary for the other modules to function. Initially there are 13 inputs, with the CRT dis - playing the information to be entered...id 46aý .0sso somma % 4bt--f. ft Aa W #4t - lQ *a - 4 c ,0 45 40 aK 43 ’ C = 04 ZSC 0 de *020.4 %- li’l ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ & 1&.1 gol~ -,.-’ ow. -6 -N*4••1L...tv Z (𔃽 - C- ft %- ftb 0*4 *- -1 *4* (30 w ag &h 𔃾 0 a _6a .N I 0 A. 6.2 IL ILN ’ S MS 6C 0 to ~ 0 " di a S 0 m J *- -j f’ md op9 -9 $-. -6 = -A U .Af

  19. Photovoltaic module mounting system

    SciTech Connect

    Miros, Robert H. J.; Mittan, Margaret Birmingham; Seery, Martin N; Holland, Rodney H

    2012-04-17

    A solar array mounting system having unique installation, load distribution, and grounding features, and which is adaptable for mounting solar panels having no external frame. The solar array mounting system includes flexible, pedestal-style feet and structural links connected in a grid formation on the mounting surface. The photovoltaic modules are secured in place via the use of attachment clamps that grip the edge of the typically glass substrate. The panel mounting clamps are then held in place by tilt brackets and/or mid-link brackets that provide fixation for the clamps and align the solar panels at a tilt to the horizontal mounting surface. The tilt brackets are held in place atop the flexible feet and connected link members thus creating a complete mounting structure.

  20. Photovoltaic module mounting system

    SciTech Connect

    Miros, Robert H. J.; Mittan, Margaret Birmingham; Seery, Martin N; Holland, Rodney H

    2012-09-18

    A solar array mounting system having unique installation, load distribution, and grounding features, and which is adaptable for mounting solar panels having no external frame. The solar array mounting system includes flexible, pedestal-style feet and structural links connected in a grid formation on the mounting surface. The photovoltaic modules are secured in place via the use of attachment clamps that grip the edge of the typically glass substrate. The panel mounting clamps are then held in place by tilt brackets and/or mid-link brackets that provide fixation for the clamps and align the solar panels at a tilt to the horizontal mounting surface. The tilt brackets are held in place atop the flexible feet and connected link members thus creating a complete mounting structure.