Science.gov

Sample records for 10-3 cm h-1

  1. H1 in RSA galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richter, OTTO-G.

    1993-01-01

    The original Revised Shapley-Ames (RSA) galaxy sample of almost 1300 galaxies has been augmented with further bright galaxies from the RSA appendix as well as newer galaxy catalogs. A complete and homogeneous, strictly magnitude-limited all-sky sample of 2345 galaxies brighter than 13.4 in apparent blue magnitude was formed. New 21 cm H1 line observations for more than 600 RSA galaxies have been combined with all previously available H1 data from the literature. This new extentise data act allows detailed tests of widely accepted 'standard' reduction and analysis techniques.

  2. The H1 silicon tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    List, Benno

    2005-09-01

    The H1 experiment at HERA is equipped with a silicon vertex detector, comprising a barrel part and two endcaps with disks. The barrel part uses double-sided, DC-coupled strip sensors, whereas the endcap parts use two types of wedge-shaped sensors, both single-sided and AC-coupled: u/v sensors have strips parallel to one edge of the sensor, r sensors have circular strips. Additional pad detectors provide fast triggering signals in the backward part.

  3. 27 CFR 10.3 - Application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Application. 10.3 Section 10.3 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS COMMERCIAL BRIBERY Scope of Regulations § 10.3 Application. (a) General....

  4. 36 CFR 10.3 - Application; requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Application; requirements. 10.3 Section 10.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR DISPOSAL OF CERTAIN WILD ANIMALS § 10.3 Application; requirements. (a) Applications for animals should be directed to the appropriate...

  5. 10 CFR 10.3 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false 10.3 Section 10.3 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION CRITERIA AND PROCEDURES FOR DETERMINING ELIGIBILITY FOR ACCESS TO RESTRICTED DATA OR NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION OR AN EMPLOYMENT CLEARANCE General Provisions § 10.3...

  6. 1 CFR 10.3 - Format.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true Format. 10.3 Section 10.3 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER SPECIAL EDITIONS OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER PRESIDENTIAL PAPERS Regular Publication § 10.3 Format. The Daily Compilation of Presidential Documents is published online...

  7. 1 CFR 10.3 - Format.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Format. 10.3 Section 10.3 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER SPECIAL EDITIONS OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER PRESIDENTIAL PAPERS Regular Publication § 10.3 Format. The Daily Compilation of Presidential Documents is published online...

  8. 1 CFR 10.3 - Format.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Format. 10.3 Section 10.3 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER SPECIAL EDITIONS OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER PRESIDENTIAL PAPERS Regular Publication § 10.3 Format. The Daily Compilation of Presidential Documents is published online...

  9. 1 CFR 10.3 - Format.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Format. 10.3 Section 10.3 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER SPECIAL EDITIONS OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER PRESIDENTIAL PAPERS Regular Publication § 10.3 Format. The Daily Compilation of Presidential Documents is published online...

  10. 1 CFR 10.3 - Format.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Format. 10.3 Section 10.3 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER SPECIAL EDITIONS OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER PRESIDENTIAL PAPERS Regular Publication § 10.3 Format. The Daily Compilation of Presidential Documents is published online...

  11. The h1 Silicon Tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    List, Benno

    2004-07-01

    The silicon tracker of the H1 experiment at HERA consists of a barrel part and two endcaps with disks. The barrel part has 2 layers of double sided strip sensors with 81920 readout channels. The forward part uses 7 wheels of single sided strip detectors that measure three coordinates (r, u, and v) with 92160 channels. The backward part uses single sided strip detectors in 6 wheels, measuring the u and v coordinates with 84480 channels. These wheels are intersprsed with 4 wheels of pad detectors that provide fast triggering signals.

  12. 21 CFR 10.3 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Definitions. 10.3 Section 10.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE PRACTICES AND PROCEDURES General Provisions § 10.3 Definitions. (a) The following definitions apply in this part and parts 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, and 19: Act...

  13. 42 CFR 52h.1 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Applicability. 52h.1 Section 52h.1 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS SCIENTIFIC PEER REVIEW OF RESEARCH GRANT APPLICATIONS AND RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CONTRACT PROJECTS § 52h.1 Applicability. (a) This...

  14. 42 CFR 52h.1 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Applicability. 52h.1 Section 52h.1 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS SCIENTIFIC PEER REVIEW OF RESEARCH GRANT APPLICATIONS AND RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CONTRACT PROJECTS § 52h.1 Applicability. (a) This...

  15. 42 CFR 52h.1 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Applicability. 52h.1 Section 52h.1 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS SCIENTIFIC PEER REVIEW OF RESEARCH GRANT APPLICATIONS AND RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CONTRACT PROJECTS § 52h.1 Applicability. (a) This...

  16. 42 CFR 52h.1 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Applicability. 52h.1 Section 52h.1 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS SCIENTIFIC PEER REVIEW OF RESEARCH GRANT APPLICATIONS AND RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CONTRACT PROJECTS § 52h.1 Applicability. (a) This...

  17. 42 CFR 52h.1 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Applicability. 52h.1 Section 52h.1 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS SCIENTIFIC PEER REVIEW OF RESEARCH GRANT APPLICATIONS AND RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CONTRACT PROJECTS § 52h.1 Applicability. (a) This...

  18. 36 CFR 10.3 - Application; requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... post office address for Yellowstone National Park is Yellowstone Park, Wyoming, and for Wind Cave National Park is Hot Springs, South Dakota. (b) Applicants desiring animals which are to be held in....3 Section 10.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  19. 36 CFR 10.3 - Application; requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... post office address for Yellowstone National Park is Yellowstone Park, Wyoming, and for Wind Cave National Park is Hot Springs, South Dakota. (b) Applicants desiring animals which are to be held in....3 Section 10.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  20. 36 CFR 10.3 - Application; requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... post office address for Yellowstone National Park is Yellowstone Park, Wyoming, and for Wind Cave National Park is Hot Springs, South Dakota. (b) Applicants desiring animals which are to be held in....3 Section 10.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  1. 44 CFR 10.3 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... acting. (b) The other terms used in this part are defined in the CEQ regulations (40 CFR part 1508). (c) Environmental Officer means the Director, Office of Environmental Planning and Historic Preservation, Mitigation... SECURITY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS General § 10.3 Definitions. (a) Regional Administrator...

  2. H1N1 influenza (Swine flu)

    MedlinePlus

    Swine flu; H1N1 type A influenza ... of the H1N1 virus were found in pigs (swine). Over time, the virus changed (mutated) and infected ... 25654610 . Treanor JJ. Influenza (including avian influenza and swine influenza). In: Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ, ...

  3. Ubiquitous CM and DM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crowley, Sandra L.

    2000-01-01

    Ubiquitous is a real word. I thank a former Total Quality Coach for my first exposure some years ago to its existence. My version of Webster's dictionary defines ubiquitous as "present, or seeming to be present, everywhere at the same time; omnipresent." While I believe that God is omnipresent, I have come to discover that CM and DM are present everywhere. Oh, yes; I define CM as Configuration Management and DM as either Data or Document Management. Ten years ago, I had my first introduction to the CM world. I had an opportunity to do CM for the Space Station effort at the NASA Lewis Research Center. I learned that CM was a discipline that had four areas of focus: identification, control, status accounting, and verification. I was certified as a CMIl graduate and was indoctrinated about clear, concise, and valid. Off I went into a world of entirely new experiences. I was exposed to change requests and change boards first hand. I also learned about implementation of changes, and then of technical and CM requirements.

  4. 21-cm Intensity Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Tzu-Ching; GBT-HIM Team

    2016-01-01

    The redshifted 21-cm emission from neutral hydrogen has emerged as a powerful probe for large-scale structure; a significant fraction of the observable universe can be mapped in the Intensity Mapping regime out to high redshifts. At redshifts around unity, the 21-cm emission traces the matter distribution and can be used to measure the Baryon Acoustic Oscillation (BAO) signature and constrain dark energy properties. I will describe our HI Intensity Mapping program at the Green Bank Telescope (GBT), aiming at measuring the 21cm power spectrum at z=0.8. A 800-MHz multi-beam focal-plane array for the GBT is currently under construction in order to facilitate a large-scale survey for BAO and the redshift-space distortion measurements for cosmological constraints.

  5. Halogens in CM Chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menard, J. M.; Caron, B.; Jambon, A.; Michel, A.; Villemant, B.

    2013-09-01

    We set up an extraction line of halogens (fluorine, chlorine) by pyrohydrolysis with 50 mg of rock. We analyzed 7 CM2 chondrites found in Antarctica and found that the Cl content of meteorites with an intact fusion crust is higher than those without.

  6. Computing at h1 - Experience and Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckerlin, G.; Gerhards, R.; Kleinwort, C.; KrÜNer-Marquis, U.; Egli, S.; Niebergall, F.

    The H1 experiment has now been successfully operating at the electron proton collider HERA at DESY for three years. During this time the computing environment has gradually shifted from a mainframe oriented environment to the distributed server/client Unix world. This transition is now almost complete. Computing needs are largely determined by the present amount of 1.5 TB of reconstructed data per year (1994), corresponding to 1.2 × 107 accepted events. All data are centrally available at DESY. In addition to data analysis, which is done in all collaborating institutes, most of the centrally organized Monte Carlo production is performed outside of DESY. New software tools to cope with offline computing needs include CENTIPEDE, a tool for the use of distributed batch and interactive resources for Monte Carlo production, and H1 UNIX, a software package for automatic updates of H1 software on all UNIX platforms.

  7. The H1 neural network trigger project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiesling, C.; Denby, B.; Fent, J.; Fröchtenicht, W.; Garda, P.; Granado, B.; Grindhammer, G.; Haberer, W.; Janauschek, L.; Kobler, T.; Koblitz, B.; Nellen, G.; Prevotet, J.-C.; Schmidt, S.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Udluft, S.

    2001-08-01

    We present a short overview of neuromorphic hardware and some of the physics projects making use of such devices. As a concrete example we describe an innovative project within the H1-Experiment at the electron-proton collider HERA, instrumenting hardwired neural networks as pattern recognition machines to discriminate between wanted physics and uninteresting background at the trigger level. The decision time of the system is less than 20 microseconds, typical for a modern second level trigger. The neural trigger has been successfully running for the past four years and has turned out new physics results from H1 unobtainable so far with other triggering schemes. We describe the concepts and the technical realization of the neural network trigger system, present the most important physics results, and motivate an upgrade of the system for the future high luminosity running at HERA. The upgrade concentrates on "intelligent preprocessing" of the neural inputs which help to strongly improve the networks' discrimination power.

  8. Histone H1--DNA interaction. On the mechanism of DNA strands crosslinking by histone H1.

    PubMed Central

    Glotov, B O; Nikolaev, L G; Severin, E S

    1978-01-01

    Crosslinking of DNA fibers by histone H1 or phosphorylated on Ser-37 histone H1, and by the individual fragments of the H1 polypeptide chain was studied by the method of turbidimetry. The dependence of the turbidity of DNA-protein complexes on the ionic strength in solution suggests that the condensation of H1.DNA complexes in vitro is apparently due to both specific histone-DNA interactions with the contribution of hydrogen and/or hydrophobic bonds and the formation of polycationic "bridges" fastening the DNA fibers. The effectiveness of the condensation is postulated to be a function of a proportion between the two mechanisms which in turn can be controlled by slight changes in ionic surroundings. The sharp dependence of shrinkage of H1.DNA complexes on ionic strength at "physiological" salt concentrations could provide a mechanism to regulate density and consequently the total activity of chromatin in the cell nuclei. The phosphorylation of histone H1 on Ser-37 by a specific histone kinase does not noticeably affect the pattern of DNA crosslinking by the H1. Images PMID:27766

  9. 39 CFR 10.3 - Post-employment activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Post-employment activities. 10.3 Section 10.3 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE THE BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE U.S. POSTAL SERVICE RULES OF CONDUCT FOR POSTAL SERVICE GOVERNORS (ARTICLE X) § 10.3 Post-employment activities. Governors are...

  10. 46 CFR 76.10-3 - Water availability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Water availability. 76.10-3 Section 76.10-3 Shipping... Fire Main System, Details § 76.10-3 Water availability. (a) On all vessels on an international voyage, regardless of the date of construction, water pressure from the firemain protecting enclosed spaces shall...

  11. 46 CFR 76.10-3 - Water availability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Water availability. 76.10-3 Section 76.10-3 Shipping... Fire Main System, Details § 76.10-3 Water availability. (a) On all vessels on an international voyage, regardless of the date of construction, water pressure from the firemain protecting enclosed spaces shall...

  12. 46 CFR 76.10-3 - Water availability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Water availability. 76.10-3 Section 76.10-3 Shipping... Fire Main System, Details § 76.10-3 Water availability. (a) On all vessels on an international voyage, regardless of the date of construction, water pressure from the firemain protecting enclosed spaces shall...

  13. 46 CFR 76.10-3 - Water availability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Water availability. 76.10-3 Section 76.10-3 Shipping... Fire Main System, Details § 76.10-3 Water availability. (a) On all vessels on an international voyage, regardless of the date of construction, water pressure from the firemain protecting enclosed spaces shall...

  14. 46 CFR 76.10-3 - Water availability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Water availability. 76.10-3 Section 76.10-3 Shipping... Fire Main System, Details § 76.10-3 Water availability. (a) On all vessels on an international voyage, regardless of the date of construction, water pressure from the firemain protecting enclosed spaces shall...

  15. 46 CFR 113.10-3 - Cable runs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cable runs. 113.10-3 Section 113.10-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Fire and Smoke Detecting and Alarm Systems § 113.10-3 Cable runs. Cable runs...

  16. 46 CFR 113.10-3 - Cable runs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cable runs. 113.10-3 Section 113.10-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Fire and Smoke Detecting and Alarm Systems § 113.10-3 Cable runs. Cable runs...

  17. 46 CFR 113.10-3 - Cable runs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cable runs. 113.10-3 Section 113.10-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Fire and Smoke Detecting and Alarm Systems § 113.10-3 Cable runs. Cable runs...

  18. 46 CFR 113.10-3 - Cable runs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cable runs. 113.10-3 Section 113.10-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Fire and Smoke Detecting and Alarm Systems § 113.10-3 Cable runs. Cable runs...

  19. 46 CFR 113.10-3 - Cable runs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cable runs. 113.10-3 Section 113.10-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Fire and Smoke Detecting and Alarm Systems § 113.10-3 Cable runs. Cable runs...

  20. 46 CFR 188.10-3 - Approved container.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Approved container. 188.10-3 Section 188.10-3 Shipping... PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 188.10-3 Approved container. This term means a container which is properly labeled, marked and approved by DOT for the commodity which it contains....

  1. 46 CFR 111.10-3 - Two generating sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Two generating sources. 111.10-3 Section 111.10-3...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Power Supply § 111.10-3 Two generating sources. In addition to the emergency power... drilling unit must have at least two electric generating sources....

  2. 50 CFR 10.3 - Other applicable laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Other applicable laws. 10.3 Section 10.3... GENERAL PROVISIONS Introduction § 10.3 Other applicable laws. No statute or regulation of any State shall..., or customs laws or regulations, or other Service enforced statutes or regulations....

  3. 50 CFR 10.3 - Other applicable laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Other applicable laws. 10.3 Section 10.3... GENERAL PROVISIONS Introduction § 10.3 Other applicable laws. No statute or regulation of any State shall..., or customs laws or regulations, or other Service enforced statutes or regulations....

  4. 15 CFR 10.3 - Development of a proposed standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Development of a proposed standard. 10.3 Section 10.3 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce PROCEDURES FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF VOLUNTARY PRODUCT STANDARDS § 10.3 Development of a proposed standard. (a) A proposed...

  5. 15 CFR 10.3 - Development of a proposed standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Development of a proposed standard. 10.3 Section 10.3 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce PROCEDURES FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF VOLUNTARY PRODUCT STANDARDS § 10.3 Development of a proposed standard. (a) A proposed...

  6. 15 CFR 10.3 - Development of a proposed standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Development of a proposed standard. 10.3 Section 10.3 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce PROCEDURES FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF VOLUNTARY PRODUCT STANDARDS § 10.3 Development of a proposed standard. (a) A proposed...

  7. 15 CFR 10.3 - Development of a proposed standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Development of a proposed standard. 10.3 Section 10.3 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce PROCEDURES FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF VOLUNTARY PRODUCT STANDARDS § 10.3 Development of a proposed standard. (a) A proposed...

  8. 15 CFR 10.3 - Development of a proposed standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Development of a proposed standard. 10.3 Section 10.3 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce PROCEDURES FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF VOLUNTARY PRODUCT STANDARDS § 10.3 Development of a proposed standard. (a) A proposed...

  9. 46 CFR 30.10-3 - Approved-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Approved-TB/ALL. 30.10-3 Section 30.10-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-3 Approved—TB/ALL. The term approved means approved by the Commandant unless otherwise stated....

  10. 46 CFR 39.10-3 - Definitions-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Definitions-TB/ALL. 39.10-3 Section 39.10-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS VAPOR CONTROL SYSTEMS General § 39.10-3 Definitions—TB/ALL. As used in this part: Cargo deck area means that part of the weather deck that is...

  11. 46 CFR 30.10-3 - Approved-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Approved-TB/ALL. 30.10-3 Section 30.10-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-3 Approved—TB/ALL. The term approved means approved by the Commandant unless otherwise stated....

  12. 39 CFR 10.3 - Post-employment activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Post-employment activities. 10.3 Section 10.3... CONDUCT FOR POSTAL SERVICE GOVERNORS (ARTICLE X) § 10.3 Post-employment activities. Governors are subject to the restrictions on the post-employment activities of special Government employees imposed by 18...

  13. Influenza Stigma during the 2009 H1N1 Pandemic

    PubMed Central

    Earnshaw, Valerie A.; Quinn, Diane M.

    2012-01-01

    The current study examines the extent to which H1N1 was stigmatized at the height of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic in the U.S. and explores the role that H1N1 stigma played in people’s desire for physical distance from others with H1N1. H1N1 was the most stigmatized disease, with participants endorsing greater prejudice towards people with H1N1 than people with cancer or HIV/AIDS. Further, H1N1 stigma partially mediated the relationship between participants’ perceptions that H1N1 was threatening and their desire for physical distance from people with H1N1. Therefore, H1N1 stigma played a role in, but was not entirely responsible for, the relationship between perceptions that H1N1 was threatening and desire for distance from others with H1N1. PMID:24244047

  14. Photoperiod-H1 (Ppd-H1) Controls Leaf Size.

    PubMed

    Digel, Benedikt; Tavakol, Elahe; Verderio, Gabriele; Tondelli, Alessandro; Xu, Xin; Cattivelli, Luigi; Rossini, Laura; von Korff, Maria

    2016-09-01

    Leaf size is a major determinant of plant photosynthetic activity and biomass; however, it is poorly understood how leaf size is genetically controlled in cereal crop plants like barley (Hordeum vulgare). We conducted a genome-wide association scan for flowering time, leaf width, and leaf length in a diverse panel of European winter cultivars grown in the field and genotyped with a single-nucleotide polymorphism array. The genome-wide association scan identified PHOTOPERIOD-H1 (Ppd-H1) as a candidate gene underlying the major quantitative trait loci for flowering time and leaf size in the barley population. Microscopic phenotyping of three independent introgression lines confirmed the effect of Ppd-H1 on leaf size. Differences in the duration of leaf growth and consequent variation in leaf cell number were responsible for the leaf size differences between the Ppd-H1 variants. The Ppd-H1-dependent induction of the BARLEY MADS BOX genes BM3 and BM8 in the leaf correlated with reductions in leaf size and leaf number. Our results indicate that leaf size is controlled by the Ppd-H1- and photoperiod-dependent progression of plant development. The coordination of leaf growth with flowering may be part of a reproductive strategy to optimize resource allocation to the developing inflorescences and seeds. PMID:27457126

  15. 46 CFR 111.10-3 - Two generating sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Two generating sources. 111.10-3 Section 111.10-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS... drilling unit must have at least two electric generating sources....

  16. 46 CFR 111.10-3 - Two generating sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Two generating sources. 111.10-3 Section 111.10-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS... drilling unit must have at least two electric generating sources....

  17. 46 CFR 111.10-3 - Two generating sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Two generating sources. 111.10-3 Section 111.10-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS... drilling unit must have at least two electric generating sources....

  18. 46 CFR 111.10-3 - Two generating sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Two generating sources. 111.10-3 Section 111.10-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS... drilling unit must have at least two electric generating sources....

  19. 22 CFR 19.10-3 - Marriage after retirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Marriage after retirement. 19.10-3 Section 19... PARTICIPANTS IN THE FOREIGN SERVICE RETIREMENT AND DISABILITY SYSTEM § 19.10-3 Marriage after retirement. If an... marriage irrevocably elect to receive a reduced annuity and to provide, subject to any obligation...

  20. 22 CFR 19.10-3 - Marriage after retirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Marriage after retirement. 19.10-3 Section 19... PARTICIPANTS IN THE FOREIGN SERVICE RETIREMENT AND DISABILITY SYSTEM § 19.10-3 Marriage after retirement. If an... marriage irrevocably elect to receive a reduced annuity and to provide, subject to any obligation...

  1. 46 CFR 25.10-3 - Navigation light certification requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... stating the following: (i) “USCG Approval 33 CFR 183.810” (ii) “MEETS __.” (Insert the identification name... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Navigation light certification requirements. 25.10-3... Navigation Lights § 25.10-3 Navigation light certification requirements. (a) Except as provided by...

  2. 46 CFR 25.10-3 - Navigation light certification requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... stating the following: (i) “USCG Approval 33 CFR 183.810” (ii) “MEETS __.” (Insert the identification name... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Navigation light certification requirements. 25.10-3... Navigation Lights § 25.10-3 Navigation light certification requirements. (a) Except as provided by...

  3. 46 CFR 25.10-3 - Navigation light certification requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... stating the following: (i) “USCG Approval 33 CFR 183.810” (ii) “MEETS __.” (Insert the identification name... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Navigation light certification requirements. 25.10-3... Navigation Lights § 25.10-3 Navigation light certification requirements. (a) Except as provided by...

  4. 46 CFR 25.10-3 - Navigation light certification requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... stating the following: (i) “USCG Approval 33 CFR 183.810” (ii) “MEETS __.” (Insert the identification name... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Navigation light certification requirements. 25.10-3... Navigation Lights § 25.10-3 Navigation light certification requirements. (a) Except as provided by...

  5. 22 CFR 19.10-3 - Marriage after retirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Marriage after retirement. 19.10-3 Section 19... PARTICIPANTS IN THE FOREIGN SERVICE RETIREMENT AND DISABILITY SYSTEM § 19.10-3 Marriage after retirement. If an... marriage irrevocably elect to receive a reduced annuity and to provide, subject to any obligation...

  6. 22 CFR 19.10-3 - Marriage after retirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Marriage after retirement. 19.10-3 Section 19... PARTICIPANTS IN THE FOREIGN SERVICE RETIREMENT AND DISABILITY SYSTEM § 19.10-3 Marriage after retirement. If an... marriage irrevocably elect to receive a reduced annuity and to provide, subject to any obligation...

  7. 22 CFR 19.10-3 - Marriage after retirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Marriage after retirement. 19.10-3 Section 19... PARTICIPANTS IN THE FOREIGN SERVICE RETIREMENT AND DISABILITY SYSTEM § 19.10-3 Marriage after retirement. If an... marriage irrevocably elect to receive a reduced annuity and to provide, subject to any obligation...

  8. 46 CFR 25.10-3 - Navigation light certification requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... stating the following: (i) “USCG Approval 33 CFR 183.810” (ii) “MEETS __.” (Insert the identification name... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Navigation light certification requirements. 25.10-3... Navigation Lights § 25.10-3 Navigation light certification requirements. (a) Except as provided by...

  9. H1-antihistamines for chronic spontaneous urticaria.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Maulina; Bennett, Cathy; Cohen, Stuart N; Carter, Ben

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) is characterised by the development of crops of red, itchy, raised weals or hives with no identifiable external cause.Objectives To assess the effects of H1-antihistamines for CSU.Search methods We searched the following databases up to June 2014: Cochrane Skin Group Specialised Register, CENTRAL (2014, Issue 5), MEDLINE(from 1946), EMBASE (from 1974) and PsycINFO (from 1806). We searched five trials registers and checked articles for references to relevant randomised controlled trials.Selection criteria We included randomised controlled trials of H1-antihistamines for CSU. Interventions included single therapy or a combination of H1-antihistamines compared with no treatment (placebo) or another active pharmacological compound at any dose.Data collection and analysis We used standard methodological procedures as expected by The Cochrane Collaboration.Our primary outcome measures were proportion of participants with complete suppression of urticaria: 'good or excellent' response,50% or greater improvement in quality of life measures, and adverse events.We present risk ratios (RR) with 95% confidence intervals(CIs). Main results We identified 73 studies (9759 participants); 34 studies provided data for 23 comparisons. The duration of the intervention was up to two weeks (short-term) or longer than two weeks and up to three months (intermediate-term).Cetirizine 10mg once daily in the short term and in the intermediate term led to complete suppression of urticaria by more participants than was seen with placebo (RR 2.72, 95% CI 1.51 to 4.91). For this same outcome, comparison of desloratadine versus placebo in the intermediate term (5 mg) (RR 37.00, 95% CI 2.31 to 593.70) and in the short term (20 mg) (RR 15.97, 95% CI 1.04 to 245.04)favoured desloratadine, but no differences were seen between 5 mg and 10 mg for short-term treatment.Levocetirizine 20 mg per day (short-term) was more effective for complete suppression of

  10. Crystalline 1H-1,2,3-triazol-5-ylidenes

    DOEpatents

    Bertrand, Guy; Gulsado-Barrios, Gregorio; Bouffard, Jean; Donnadieu, Bruno

    2016-08-02

    The present invention provides novel and stable crystalline 1H-1,2,3 triazolium carbenes and metal complexes of 1H-1,2,3 triazolium carbenes. The present invention also provides methods of making 1H-1,2,3 triazolium carbenes and metal complexes of 1H-1,2,3 triazolium carbenes. The present invention also provides methods of using 1H-1,2,3 triazolium carbenes and metal complexes of 1H-1,2,3 triazolium carbenes in catalytic reactions.

  11. Protective efficacy of an inactivated Eurasian avian-like H1N1 swine influenza vaccine against homologous H1N1 and heterologous H1N1 and H1N2 viruses in mice.

    PubMed

    Sui, Jinyu; Yang, Dawei; Qiao, Chuanling; Xu, Huiyang; Xu, Bangfeng; Wu, Yunpu; Yang, Huanliang; Chen, Yan; Chen, Hualan

    2016-07-19

    Eurasian avian-like H1N1 (EA H1N1) swine influenza viruses are prevalent in pigs in Europe and Asia, but occasionally cause human infection, which raises concern about their pandemic potential. Here, we produced a whole-virus inactivated vaccine with an EA H1N1 strain (A/swine/Guangxi/18/2011, SW/GX/18/11) and evaluated its efficacy against homologous H1N1 and heterologous H1N1 and H1N2 influenza viruses in mice. A strong humoral immune response, which we measured by hemagglutination inhibition (HI) and virus neutralization (VN), was induced in the vaccine-inoculated mice upon challenge. The inactivated SW/GX/18/11 vaccine provided complete protection against challenge with homologous SW/GX/18/11 virus in mice and provided effective protection against challenge with heterologous H1N1 and H1N2 viruses with distinctive genomic combinations. Our findings suggest that this EA H1N1 vaccine can provide protection against both homologous H1N1 and heterologous H1N1 or H1N2 virus infection. As such, it is an excellent vaccine candidate to prevent H1N1 swine influenza. PMID:27321744

  12. Histone H1 null vertebrate cells exhibit altered nucleosome architecture

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Hideharu; Takami, Yasunari; Sonoda, Eiichiro; Iwasaki, Tomohito; Iwano, Hidetomo; Tachibana, Makoto; Takeda, Shunichi; Nakayama, Tatsuo; Kimura, Hiroshi; Shinkai, Yoichi

    2010-01-01

    In eukaryotic nuclei, DNA is wrapped around an octamer of core histones to form nucleosomes, and chromatin fibers are thought to be stabilized by linker histones of the H1 type. Higher eukaryotes express multiple variants of histone H1; chickens possess six H1 variants. Here, we generated and analyzed the phenotype of a complete deletion of histone H1 genes in chicken cells. The H1-null cells showed decreased global nucleosome spacing, expanded nuclear volumes, and increased chromosome aberration rates, although proper mitotic chromatin structure appeared to be maintained. Expression array analysis revealed that the transcription of multiple genes was affected and was mostly downregulated in histone H1-deficient cells. This report describes the first histone H1 complete knockout cells in vertebrates and suggests that linker histone H1, while not required for mitotic chromatin condensation, plays important roles in nucleosome spacing and interphase chromatin compaction and acts as a global transcription regulator. PMID:20156997

  13. Histone H1 Limits DNA Methylation in Neurospora crassa

    PubMed Central

    Seymour, Michael; Ji, Lexiang; Santos, Alex M.; Kamei, Masayuki; Sasaki, Takahiko; Basenko, Evelina Y.; Schmitz, Robert J.; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Lewis, Zachary A.

    2016-01-01

    Histone H1 variants, known as linker histones, are essential chromatin components in higher eukaryotes, yet compared to the core histones relatively little is known about their in vivo functions. The filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa encodes a single H1 protein that is not essential for viability. To investigate the role of N. crassa H1, we constructed a functional FLAG-tagged H1 fusion protein and performed genomic and molecular analyses. Cell fractionation experiments showed that H1-3XFLAG is a chromatin binding protein. Chromatin-immunoprecipitation combined with sequencing (ChIP-seq) revealed that H1-3XFLAG is globally enriched throughout the genome with a subtle preference for promoters of expressed genes. In mammals, the stoichiometry of H1 impacts nucleosome repeat length. To determine if H1 impacts nucleosome occupancy or nucleosome positioning in N. crassa, we performed micrococcal nuclease digestion in the wild-type and the ΔhH1 strain followed by sequencing (MNase-seq). Deletion of hH1 did not significantly impact nucleosome positioning or nucleosome occupancy. Analysis of DNA methylation by whole-genome bisulfite sequencing (MethylC-seq) revealed a modest but global increase in DNA methylation in the ΔhH1 mutant. Together, these data suggest that H1 acts as a nonspecific chromatin binding protein that can limit accessibility of the DNA methylation machinery in N. crassa. PMID:27172195

  14. Histone H1 Limits DNA Methylation in Neurospora crassa.

    PubMed

    Seymour, Michael; Ji, Lexiang; Santos, Alex M; Kamei, Masayuki; Sasaki, Takahiko; Basenko, Evelina Y; Schmitz, Robert J; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Lewis, Zachary A

    2016-01-01

    Histone H1 variants, known as linker histones, are essential chromatin components in higher eukaryotes, yet compared to the core histones relatively little is known about their in vivo functions. The filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa encodes a single H1 protein that is not essential for viability. To investigate the role of N. crassa H1, we constructed a functional FLAG-tagged H1 fusion protein and performed genomic and molecular analyses. Cell fractionation experiments showed that H1-3XFLAG is a chromatin binding protein. Chromatin-immunoprecipitation combined with sequencing (ChIP-seq) revealed that H1-3XFLAG is globally enriched throughout the genome with a subtle preference for promoters of expressed genes. In mammals, the stoichiometry of H1 impacts nucleosome repeat length. To determine if H1 impacts nucleosome occupancy or nucleosome positioning in N. crassa, we performed micrococcal nuclease digestion in the wild-type and the [Formula: see text]hH1 strain followed by sequencing (MNase-seq). Deletion of hH1 did not significantly impact nucleosome positioning or nucleosome occupancy. Analysis of DNA methylation by whole-genome bisulfite sequencing (MethylC-seq) revealed a modest but global increase in DNA methylation in the [Formula: see text]hH1 mutant. Together, these data suggest that H1 acts as a nonspecific chromatin binding protein that can limit accessibility of the DNA methylation machinery in N. crassa. PMID:27172195

  15. 2009 H1N1 Flu Vaccine Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Flu 2009 H1N1 Flu Vaccine Facts Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of ... the H1N1 flu vaccine. 1 The 2009 H1N1 flu vaccine is safe and well tested. Clinical trials ...

  16. 26 CFR 1.1033(h)-1 - Effective date.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Effective date. 1.1033(h)-1 Section 1.1033(h)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Common Nontaxable Exchanges § 1.1033(h)-1 Effective date. Except as...

  17. 26 CFR 31.3406(h)-1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Definitions. 31.3406(h)-1 Section 31.3406(h)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND... Income Tax at Source § 31.3406(h)-1 Definitions. (a) In general. For purposes of section 3406 and...

  18. 26 CFR 1.1033(h)-1 - Effective date.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Effective date. 1.1033(h)-1 Section 1.1033(h)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Common Nontaxable Exchanges § 1.1033(h)-1 Effective date. Except as...

  19. 26 CFR 1.1033(h)-1 - Effective date.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Effective date. 1.1033(h)-1 Section 1.1033(h)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Common Nontaxable Exchanges § 1.1033(h)-1 Effective date. Except as...

  20. 26 CFR 31.3406(h)-1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Definitions. 31.3406(h)-1 Section 31.3406(h)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND... Income Tax at Source § 31.3406(h)-1 Definitions. (a) In general. For purposes of section 3406 and...

  1. 26 CFR 31.3406(h)-1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Definitions. 31.3406(h)-1 Section 31.3406(h)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND... Income Tax at Source § 31.3406(h)-1 Definitions. (a) In general. For purposes of section 3406 and...

  2. 2009 H1N1 Flu Vaccine Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Flu 2009 H1N1 Flu Vaccine Facts Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table ... of the H1N1 flu vaccine. 1 The 2009 H1N1 flu vaccine is safe and well tested. Clinical ...

  3. Colds and the Flu: H1N1 Influenza

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Colds and the Flu | H1N1 Influenza What is H1N1 influenza? H1N1 influenza (also known as swine flu) is an infection caused by ... or illness that is more than “just a cold.” When should I see my doctor? If you’ ...

  4. 26 CFR 31.3406(h)-1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Definitions. 31.3406(h)-1 Section 31.3406(h)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND... Income Tax at Source § 31.3406(h)-1 Definitions. (a) In general. For purposes of section 3406 and...

  5. 26 CFR 1.1033(h)-1 - Effective date.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Effective date. 1.1033(h)-1 Section 1.1033(h)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Common Nontaxable Exchanges § 1.1033(h)-1 Effective date. Except as provided otherwise...

  6. 26 CFR 1.1033(h)-1 - Effective date.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Effective date. 1.1033(h)-1 Section 1.1033(h)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Common Nontaxable Exchanges § 1.1033(h)-1 Effective date. Except as...

  7. 26 CFR 31.3406(h)-1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 31.3406(h)-1 Section 31.3406(h)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND... Income Tax at Source § 31.3406(h)-1 Definitions. (a) In general. For purposes of section 3406 and...

  8. 26 CFR 31.3121(h)-1 - American employer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false American employer. 31.3121(h)-1 Section 31.3121(h)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EMPLOYMENT....3121(h)-1 American employer. (a) The term “American employer” means an employer which is (1) the...

  9. 26 CFR 31.3121(h)-1 - American employer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false American employer. 31.3121(h)-1 Section 31.3121(h)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EMPLOYMENT....3121(h)-1 American employer. (a) The term “American employer” means an employer which is (1) the...

  10. 19 CFR 10.3 - Drawback; internal-revenue tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... exempted from duty in accordance with sec. 10.3(c)) 24 cents each. Hosiery, nylon 45 cents per dozen. Lead....03226 per square meter. Piece goods, nylon: Dyed $0.29086 per square meter. Piece goods, rayon:...

  11. 19 CFR 10.3 - Drawback; internal-revenue tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... exempted from duty in accordance with sec. 10.3(c)) 24 cents each. Hosiery, nylon 45 cents per dozen. Lead....03226 per square meter. Piece goods, nylon: Dyed $0.29086 per square meter. Piece goods, rayon:...

  12. 19 CFR 10.3 - Drawback; internal-revenue tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... exempted from duty in accordance with sec. 10.3(c)) 24 cents each. Hosiery, nylon 45 cents per dozen. Lead....03226 per square meter. Piece goods, nylon: Dyed $0.29086 per square meter. Piece goods, rayon:...

  13. 19 CFR 10.3 - Drawback; internal-revenue tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... exempted from duty in accordance with sec. 10.3(c)) 24 cents each. Hosiery, nylon 45 cents per dozen. Lead....03226 per square meter. Piece goods, nylon: Dyed $0.29086 per square meter. Piece goods, rayon:...

  14. 19 CFR 10.3 - Drawback; internal-revenue tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... exempted from duty in accordance with sec. 10.3(c)) 24 cents each. Hosiery, nylon 45 cents per dozen. Lead....03226 per square meter. Piece goods, nylon: Dyed $0.29086 per square meter. Piece goods, rayon:...

  15. 26 CFR 36.3121(l)(10)-3 - Returns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Returns. 36.3121(l)(10)-3 Section 36.3121(l)(10....3121(l)(10)-3 Returns. (a) The forms prescribed for use in making returns of the taxes imposed by the... returns of its liability under an agreement entered into as provided in § 36.3121(l)(1)-1. Returns of...

  16. 26 CFR 36.3121(l)(10)-3 - Returns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Returns. 36.3121(l)(10)-3 Section 36.3121(l)(10....3121(l)(10)-3 Returns. (a) The forms prescribed for use in making returns of the taxes imposed by the... returns of its liability under an agreement entered into as provided in § 36.3121(l)(1)-1. Returns of...

  17. 26 CFR 36.3121(l)(10)-3 - Returns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Returns. 36.3121(l)(10)-3 Section 36.3121(l)(10....3121(l)(10)-3 Returns. (a) The forms prescribed for use in making returns of the taxes imposed by the... returns of its liability under an agreement entered into as provided in § 36.3121(l)(1)-1. Returns of...

  18. 26 CFR 36.3121(l)(10)-3 - Returns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Returns. 36.3121(l)(10)-3 Section 36.3121(l)(10....3121(l)(10)-3 Returns. (a) The forms prescribed for use in making returns of the taxes imposed by the... returns of its liability under an agreement entered into as provided in § 36.3121(l)(1)-1. Returns of...

  19. 26 CFR 36.3121(l)(10)-3 - Returns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Returns. 36.3121(l)(10)-3 Section 36.3121(l)(10....3121(l)(10)-3 Returns. (a) The forms prescribed for use in making returns of the taxes imposed by the... returns of its liability under an agreement entered into as provided in § 36.3121(l)(1)-1. Returns of...

  20. Detailed modelling of the 21-cm forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semelin, B.

    2016-01-01

    The 21-cm forest is a promising probe of the Epoch of Reionization. The local state of the intergalactic medium (IGM) is encoded in the spectrum of a background source (radio-loud quasars or gamma-ray burst afterglow) by absorption at the local 21-cm wavelength, resulting in a continuous and fluctuating absorption level. Small-scale structures (filaments and minihaloes) in the IGM are responsible for the strongest absorption features. The absorption can also be modulated on large scales by inhomogeneous heating and Wouthuysen-Field coupling. We present the results from a simulation that attempts to preserve the cosmological environment while resolving some of the small-scale structures (a few kpc resolution in a 50 h-1 Mpc box). The simulation couples the dynamics and the ionizing radiative transfer and includes X-ray and Lyman lines radiative transfer for a detailed physical modelling. As a result we find that soft X-ray self-shielding, Ly α self-shielding and shock heating all have an impact on the predicted values of the 21-cm optical depth of moderately overdense structures like filaments. A correct treatment of the peculiar velocities is also critical. Modelling these processes seems necessary for accurate predictions and can be done only at high enough resolution. As a result, based on our fiducial model, we estimate that LOFAR should be able to detect a few (strong) absorptions features in a frequency range of a few tens of MHz for a 20 mJy source located at z = 10, while the SKA would extract a large fraction of the absorption information for the same source.

  1. B7-H1 Expression in Vestibular Schwannomas

    PubMed Central

    Archibald, David J.; Neff, Brian A.; Voss, Stephen G.; Splinter, Patrick L.; Driscoll, Colin L. W.; Link, Michael J.; Dong, Haidong; Kwon, Eugene D.

    2014-01-01

    Hypothesis B7-H1 is expressed in vestibular schwannomas. Background Little is known about how benign human vestibular schwannomas interact with antibody-mediated or cell-mediated immunity. We report on the aberrant expression of a novel T-cell coregulatory molecule, B7 homolog 1 (B7-H1), in vestibular schwannomas and discuss the implications of B7-H1 expression and tumor aggressiveness and a potential regulator of B7-H1 expression. Methods Immunohistochemical staining for B7-H1, CD8+, CD3+, and CD4+ lymphocytes were performed on 48 fresh-frozen vestibular schwannoma tissue specimens. A clinical review of patient presenting symptoms and tumor characteristics was performed. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to determine if there was differential expression of B7-H1 messenger RNA and microRNA-513, a known regulator of B7-H1, in several strongly positive and negative B7-H1 vestibular schwannomas. Results Nine (19%) of 48 tumors were negative, 23 (48%) tumors were 1+ mildly positive (<20% section area), and 16 (33%) stained 2+ strongly positive (≥20% section area) for B7-H1. The average number of CD8+ cells per high-power field was 2.1 for positive-staining tumors and 1.0 for negative tumors (p = 0.16). Failure of tumor control with stereotactic radiation (p = 0.029) was significantly greater in the strongly positive B7-H1 tumors. Real-time polymerase chain reaction did not show significant differential expression of microRNA-513 (p = 0.62) or B7-H1 messenger RNA (p = 0.35) between the tumors showing strong and negative immunohistochemical staining for B7-H1 protein. Conclusion Vestibular schwannoma tumors express B7-H1, which has been associated with immune tolerance and adverse disease characteristics in several malignancies. Growing tumors that were surgically removed after failed stereotactic radiation therapy were significantly more likely to strongly express B7-H1 protein, which lends some credibility to the hypothesis that immuno-evasion may play

  2. H1 Antihistamines: Current Status and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    In this review, we compare and contrast the clinical pharmacology, efficacy, and safety of first-generation H1 antihistamines and second-generation H1 antihistamines. First-generation H1 antihistamines cross the blood-brain barrier, and in usual doses, they potentially cause sedation and impair cognitive function and psychomotor performance. These medications, some of which have been in use for more than 6 decades, have never been optimally investigated. Second-generation H1 antihistamines such as cetirizine, desloratadine, fexofenadine, levocetirizine, and loratadine cross the blood-brain barrier to a significantly smaller extent than their predecessors. The clinical pharmacology, efficacy, and safety of these medications have been extensively studied. They are therefore the H1 antihistamines of choice in the treatment of allergic rhinitis, allergic conjunctivitis, and urticaria. In the future, clinically advantageous H1 antihistamines developed with the aid of molecular techniques might be available. PMID:23282578

  3. Serpentine Nanotubes in CM Chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zega, Thomas J.; Garvie, Laurence A. J.; Dodony, Istvan; Buseck, Peter R.

    2004-01-01

    The CM chondrites are primitive meteorites that formed during the early solar system. Although they retain much of their original physical character, their matrices and fine-grained rims (FGRs) sustained aqueous alteration early in their histories [1- 3]. Serpentine-group minerals are abundant products of such alteration, and information regarding their structures, compositions, and spatial relationships is important for determining the reactions that produced them and the conditions under which they formed. Our recent work on FGRs and matrices of the CM chondrites has revealed new information on the structures and compositions of serpentine-group minerals [4,5] and has provided insights into the evolution of these primitive meteorites. Here we report on serpentine nanotubes from the Mighei and Murchison CM chondrites [6].

  4. H1N1 (Originally Referred to As Swine Flu)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Changes H7N9 H3N2v H1N1 - Swine Flu H5N1 - Avian/Bird Flu Planning & Preparedness Business Planning Community Planning School ... Changes H7N9 H3N2v H1N1 - Swine Flu H5N1 - Avian/Bird Flu H1N1 - originally referred to as Swine Flu ...

  5. Efficacy and safety of H1-antihistamines: an update.

    PubMed

    Kalpaklioglu, Fusun; Baccioglu, Ayse

    2012-01-01

    H1-antihistamines are inverse agonists that combine with and stabilize inactive conformation of H1-receptors. Thus they interfere with actions of histamine at H1-receptors. They are widely used for treatment of allergic rhinitis, allergic conjunctivitis, urticaria, coughs, colds and insomnia. H1-antihistamines are classified as older 'first generation' and newer 'second generation'. First generation H1-antihistamines have poor receptor H1-receptor selectivity, and cross blood-brain-barrier. They have a lot of adverse events such as anti-muscarinic, anti-α-adrenergic, anti-serotonin, and sedative effects. In contrast, second generation H1-antihistamines were highly selective for the histamine H1-receptor, do not cross the blood brain barrier, and have minimal adverse events. The risks of first-generation H1-antihistamines have been clearly underestimated, particularly when purchased as nonprescribed over the counter medications by public. This review summarizes current literature to evaluate antihistamines including their mechanism, indications and side-effects. PMID:23173575

  6. 46 CFR 39.10-3 - Definitions-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS VAPOR CONTROL SYSTEMS General § 39.10-3 Definitions—TB/ALL. As used in this part: Cargo deck area means that part of the weather deck that is directly... processing unit. Vapor control system means an arrangement of piping and equipment used to control...

  7. 40 CFR 10.3 - Administrative claims; who may file.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Administrative claims; who may file. 10... CLAIMS UNDER FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS ACT Procedures § 10.3 Administrative claims; who may file. (a) A claim... by any other person legally entitled to assert such a claim under applicable State law. (d) A...

  8. 43 CFR 10.3 - Intentional archaeological excavations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ....3 Section 10.3 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NATIVE AMERICAN GRAVES... for obtaining such permits, see 25 CFR part 262 or contact the Deputy Commissioner of Indian Affairs, Department of the Interior, Washington, DC 20240. Regarding lands administered for the benefit of...

  9. 43 CFR 10.3 - Intentional archaeological excavations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ....3 Section 10.3 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NATIVE AMERICAN GRAVES... for obtaining such permits, see 25 CFR part 262 or contact the Deputy Commissioner of Indian Affairs, Department of the Interior, Washington, DC 20240. Regarding lands administered for the benefit of...

  10. 344 cm x 86 cm low mass vacuum window

    SciTech Connect

    Reimers, R.M.; Porter, J.; Meneghetti, J.; Wilde, S.; Miller, R.

    1983-08-01

    The LBL Heavy Ion Spectrometer System (HISS) superconducting magnet contains a 1 m x 3.45 m x 2 m vacuum tank in its gap. A full aperture thin window was needed to minimize background as the products of nuclear collisions move from upstream targets to downstream detectors. Six windows were built and tested in the development process. The final window's unsupported area is 3m/sup 2/ with a 25 cm inward deflection. The design consists of a .11 mm Nylon/aluminum/polypropylene laminate as a gas seal and .55 mm woven aramid fiber for strength. Total mass is 80 milligrams per cm/sup 2/. Development depended heavily on past experience and testing. Safety considerations are discussed.

  11. 26 CFR 301.6323(h)-1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Definitions. 301.6323(h)-1 Section 301.6323(h... ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Collection General Provisions § 301.6323(h)-1 Definitions. (a... in a quasi-judicial capacity such as the action of State taxing authorities. (h)...

  12. 26 CFR 301.6323(h)-1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Definitions. 301.6323(h)-1 Section 301.6323(h... ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Collection General Provisions § 301.6323(h)-1 Definitions. (a... in a quasi-judicial capacity such as the action of State taxing authorities. (h)...

  13. 26 CFR 301.6323(h)-1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Definitions. 301.6323(h)-1 Section 301.6323(h... ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Collection General Provisions § 301.6323(h)-1 Definitions. (a... in a quasi-judicial capacity such as the action of State taxing authorities. (h)...

  14. Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Encephalitis in Woman, Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Aristine; Kuo, Kuei-Hong

    2011-01-01

    We report an unusual case of pandemic (H1N1) 2009–related encephalitis in an immunocompetent woman. Although rare cases of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 associated with encephalitis have been reported previously, in this patient, direct viral invasion of the central nervous system was shown by simultaneous detection of viral RNA and pleocytosis. PMID:22000373

  15. AMR on the CM-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berger, Marsha J.; Saltzman, Jeff S.

    1992-01-01

    We describe the development of a structured adaptive mesh algorithm (AMR) for the Connection Machine-2 (CM-2). We develop a data layout scheme that preserves locality even for communication between fine and coarse grids. On 8K of a 32K machine we achieve performance slightly less than 1 CPU of the Cray Y-MP. We apply our algorithm to an inviscid compressible flow problem.

  16. Separation of rat tissue histone H1 subtypes by reverse-phase h.p.l.c. Identification and assignment to a standard H1 nomenclature.

    PubMed

    Lindner, H; Helliger, W; Puschendorf, B

    1990-07-15

    H1 histones from rat liver and rat testis were separated by reverse-phase h.p.l.c. Within 40 min six subfractions (H1(0), H1b, H1a, H1d, H1e + H1c and H1c) and seven subfractions (H1(0), H1b, H1a, H1d, H1e + H1c, H1c and H1t) respectively were isolated by using a linear acetonitrile gradient. Each individual H1 subtype was identified either by comparing the H1 variants (contained in both tissues but in different quantities) or by SDS/PAGE and acetic acid/urea/PAGE. Moreover, all H1 variants were characterized by amino acid analyses. The amino acid compositions of rat histone subfractions H1(0), H1b and H1e were determined for the first time. It was possible to classify unambiguously the H1 subfractions obtained by h.p.l.c. by following the standardized H1 nomenclature for electrophoretic systems recommended by Lennox, Oshima & Cohen [(1982) J. Biol. Chem. 257, 5183-5189]. Incorrect assignments that have been made in various publications are discussed. PMID:2386482

  17. H1N1pdm in the Americas

    PubMed Central

    Lessler, Justin; Santos, Thais dos; Aguilera, Ximena; Brookmeyer, Ron; Cummings, Derek AT

    2010-01-01

    In late April 2009 the emergence of 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1pdm) virus was detected in humans. From its detection through July 18th, 2009, confirmed cases of H1N1pdm in the Americas were periodically reported to the Pan-American Health Organization (PAHO) by member states. Because the Americas span much of the world’s latitudes, this data provides an excellent opportunity to examine variation in H1N1pdm transmission by season. Using reports from PAHO member states from April 26th, 2009 through July 18th, 2009, we characterize the early spread of the H1N1 pandemic in the Americas. For a geographically representative sample of member states we estimate the reproductive number (R) of H1N1pdm over the reporting period. The association between these estimates and latitude, temperature, humidity and population age structure was estimated. Estimates of the peak reproductive number of H1N1pdm ranged from 1.3 (for Panama, Colombia) to 2.1 (for Chile). We found that reproductive number estimates were most associated with latitude in both univariate and multivariate analyses. To the extent that latitude is a proxy for seasonal changes in climate and behavior, this association suggests a strong seasonal component to H1N1pdm transmission. However, the reasons for this seasonality remain unclear. PMID:20847900

  18. Histamine and H1-antihistamines: celebrating a century of progress.

    PubMed

    Simons, F Estelle R; Simons, Keith J

    2011-12-01

    In this review we celebrate a century of progress since the initial description of the physiologic and pathologic roles of histamine and 70 years of progress since the introduction of H(1)-antihistamines for clinical use. We discuss histamine and clinically relevant information about the molecular mechanisms of action of H(1)-antihistamines as inverse agonists (not antagonists or blockers) with immunoregulatory effects. Unlike first (old)-generation H(1)-antihistamines introduced from 1942 to the mid-1980s, most of the second (new)-generation H(1)-antihistamines introduced subsequently have been investigated extensively with regard to clinical pharmacology, efficacy, and safety; moreover, they are relatively free from adverse effects and not causally linked with fatalities after overdose. Important advances include improved nasal and ophthalmic H(1)-antihistamines with rapid onset of action (in minutes) for allergic rhinitis and allergic conjunctivitis treatment, respectively, and effective and safe use of high (up to 4-fold) doses of oral second-generation H(1)-antihistamines for chronic urticaria treatment. New H(1)-antihistamines introduced for clinical use include oral formulations (bilastine and rupatadine), and ophthalmic formulations (alcaftadine and bepotastine). Clinical studies of H(3)-antihistamines with enhanced decongestant effects have been conducted in patients with allergic rhinitis. Additional novel compounds being studied include H(4)-antihistamines with anti-inflammatory effects in allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis, and other diseases. Antihistamines have a storied past and a promising future. PMID:22035879

  19. A Set of Novel Monoclonal Antibodies Against Swine-Origin Pandemic H1N1 Differentiate Swine H1N1 and Human Seasonal H1N1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In April 2009, a novel H1N1 influenza virus (S-OIV) emerged in North America and caused the first influenza pandemic of the 21st century. The new pandemic strain is a triple reassortant influenza virus of swine origin containing genes from avian, swine and human influenza viruses. It is genetically ...

  20. Anti-H1 histone antibodies in systemic lupus erythematosus: epitope localization after immunoblotting of chymotrypsin-digested H1.

    PubMed Central

    Costa, O; Tchouatcha-Tchouassom, J C; Roux, B; Monier, J C

    1986-01-01

    Using micro enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (micro-ELISA) anti-H1 antibodies are most frequently seen in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) (61.4% of patients). Positive anti-H1 ELISA reactions are rare in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) (5.8% of cases), melanomas (16.7%), leukaemias (13.6%) and other cancers (5.6%). In SLE, the immunoglobulins (Ig) which constitute anti-H1 antibodies are, by order of importance, IgM, IgG and IgA. By means of immunoblotting using H1 solutions digested by alpha-1-chymotrypsin fixed on collagen membranes, we have shown that all the SLE sera containing anti-H1 antibodies recognize the sequential epitopes that are found on the carboxy terminal tail and, for 28% of anti-H1 sera, also the epitopes present on the aminoterminal half. The technique used did not make it possible to determine with certainty whether anti-H1 autoantibodies are also directed against the conformational epitopes of the globular part of the molecule. Images Fig. 2 PMID:2423279

  1. Heavy flavor identification using multivariate analysis at H1

    SciTech Connect

    Pandurovic, Mila; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, Ivanka; Mudrinic, Mihajlo

    2010-01-21

    We discuss b quark identification in deep inelastic scattering of electron on proton at H1 by applying multivariate analysis method. Separation between heavy and light flavors can be further used to extract proton quark content.

  2. Interplay between histone H1 structure and function.

    PubMed

    Roque, Alicia; Ponte, Inma; Suau, Pedro

    2016-03-01

    H1 linker histones are involved both in the maintenance of higher-order chromatin structure and in gene regulation. Histone H1 exists in multiple isoforms, is evolutionarily variable and undergoes a large variety of post-translational modifications. We review recent progress in the understanding of the folding and structure of histone H1 domains with an emphasis on the interactions with DNA. The importance of intrinsic disorder and hydrophobic interactions in the folding and function of the carboxy-terminal domain (CTD) is discussed. The induction of a molten globule-state in the CTD by macromolecular crowding is also considered. The effects of phosphorylation by cyclin-dependent kinases on the structure of the CTD, as well as on chromatin condensation and oligomerization, are described. We also address the extranuclear functions of histone H1, including the interaction with the β-amyloid peptide. PMID:26415976

  3. H1-antihistamines induce vacuolation in astrocytes through macroautophagy

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Wei-Wei; Yang, Ying; Wang, Zhe; Shen, Zhe; Zhang, Xiang-Nan; Wang, Guang-Hui; Chen, Zhong

    2012-04-15

    H1-antihistamines induce vacuolation in vascular smooth muscle cells, which may contribute to their cardiovascular toxicity. The CNS toxicity of H1-antihistamines may also be related to their non-receptor-mediated activity. The aim of this study was to investigate whether H1-antihistamines induce vacuolation in astrocytes and the mechanism involved. The H1-antihistamines induced large numbers of giant vacuoles in astrocytes. Such vacuoles were marked with both the lysosome marker Lysotracker Red and the alkalescent fluorescence dye monodansylcadaverine, which indicated that these vacuoles were lysosome-like acidic vesicles. Quantitative analysis of monodansylcadaverine fluorescence showed that the effect of H1-antihistamines on vacuolation in astrocytes was dose-dependent, and was alleviated by extracellular acidification, but aggravated by extracellular alkalization. The order of potency to induce vacuolation at high concentrations of H1-antihistamines (diphenhydramine > pyrilamine > astemizole > triprolidine) corresponded to their pKa ranking. Co-treatment with histamine and the histamine receptor-1 agonist trifluoromethyl toluidide did not inhibit the vacuolation. Bafilomycin A1, a vacuolar (V)-ATPase inhibitor, which inhibits intracellular vacuole or vesicle acidification, clearly reversed the vacuolation and intracellular accumulation of diphenhydramine. The macroautophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine largely reversed the percentage of LC3-positive astrocytes induced by diphenhydramine, while only partly reversing the number of monodansylcadaverine-labeled vesicles. In Atg5{sup −/−} mouse embryonic fibroblasts, which cannot form autophagosomes, the number of vacuoles induced by diphenhydramine was less than that in wild-type cells. These results indicated that H1-antihistamines induce V-ATPase-dependent acidic vacuole formation in astrocytes, and this is partly mediated by macroautophagy. The pKa and alkalescent characteristic of H1-antihistamines may be the

  4. 26 CFR 31.3121(h)-1 - American employer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false American employer. 31.3121(h)-1 Section 31.3121....3121(h)-1 American employer. (a) The term “American employer” means an employer which is (1) the United... the United States as an employee for an American employer, see paragraph (c)(3) of § 31.3121(b)-3...

  5. 26 CFR 31.3121(h)-1 - American employer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false American employer. 31.3121(h)-1 Section 31.3121....3121(h)-1 American employer. (a) The term “American employer” means an employer which is (1) the United... the United States as an employee for an American employer, see paragraph (c)(3) of § 31.3121(b)-3...

  6. 26 CFR 31.3121(h)-1 - American employer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false American employer. 31.3121(h)-1 Section 31.3121....3121(h)-1 American employer. (a) The term “American employer” means an employer which is (1) the United... the United States as an employee for an American employer, see paragraph (c)(3) of § 31.3121(b)-3...

  7. Peanut allergen (Ara h 1) detection in foods containing chocolate.

    PubMed

    Pomés, A; Vinton, R; Chapman, M D

    2004-04-01

    Inadvertent exposure to peanut in foods poses health risks for peanut-allergic individuals that can be reduced by improving detection systems for allergen contaminants in food products and manufacturing processes. Detection of peanut in chocolate has been especially difficult. We report the optimization of conditions for measuring a major peanut allergen, Ara h 1, in chocolate with the use of a two-site monoclonal antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Ara h 1 was extracted from peanut in the presence or absence of chocolate with phosphate buffer, salt, and three dried milks (goat, soy, or nonfat) (0 to 25% wt/vol) for 15 min at 60 degrees C or for 2.5 h at room temperature. The best conditions for Ara h 1 extraction in the presence of chocolate were 5% nonfat dry milk for 2.5 h at room temperature. Spiking experiments of chocolate with peanut confirmed improvement of the extraction: Ara h 1 was detected in extractions of 0.16 to 0.33% peanut in chocolate. Interestingly, the best conditions for Ara h 1 extraction were different for peanut alone than with chocolate, regarding time, temperature, and percentage of nonfat dry milk in the extraction buffer. In chocolate with peanut foods, the total Ara h 1 values were 10-fold higher than when products were extracted with phosphate buffer alone and could be up to 400-fold higher for individual foods. The dramatic improvement of Ara h 1 extraction should allow specific allergen monitoring in chocolate-containing food products and assessment of Ara h 1 exposure. PMID:15083733

  8. Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 cases, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Echavarria, Marcela; Querci, Marcia; Marcone, Debora; Videla, Cristina; Martinez, Alfredo; Bonvehi, Pablo; Carballal, Guadalupe

    2010-02-01

    To determine clinical and virologic characteristics of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 in Buenos Aires, Argentina, we conducted real-time reverse transcription-PCR on samples from patients with influenza-like illness, June 11-30, 2009. Of 513 patients tested, 54% were positive for influenza virus subtype H1N1. Infection rate was lowest for patients >or=60 years of age. PMID:20113568

  9. Germline-specific H1 variants: the "sexy" linker histones.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Montero, Salvador; Carbonell, Albert; Azorín, Fernando

    2016-03-01

    The eukaryotic genome is packed into chromatin, a nucleoprotein complex mainly formed by the interaction of DNA with the abundant basic histone proteins. The fundamental structural and functional subunit of chromatin is the nucleosome core particle, which is composed by 146 bp of DNA wrapped around an octameric protein complex formed by two copies of each core histone H2A, H2B, H3, and H4. In addition, although not an intrinsic component of the nucleosome core particle, linker histone H1 directly interacts with it in a monomeric form. Histone H1 binds nucleosomes near the exit/entry sites of linker DNA, determines nucleosome repeat length and stabilizes higher-order organization of nucleosomes into the ∼30 nm chromatin fiber. In comparison to core histones, histone H1 is less well conserved through evolution. Furthermore, histone H1 composition in metazoans is generally complex with most species containing multiple variants that play redundant as well as specific functions. In this regard, a characteristic feature is the presence of specific H1 variants that replace somatic H1s in the germline and during early embryogenesis. In this review, we summarize our current knowledge about their structural and functional properties. PMID:25921218

  10. Crystal structure of the major peanut allergen Ara h 1.

    PubMed

    Cabanos, Cerrone; Urabe, Hiroyuki; Tandang-Silvas, Mary Rose; Utsumi, Shigeru; Mikami, Bunzo; Maruyama, Nobuyuki

    2011-10-01

    Ara h 1, a 7S globulin, is one of the three major peanut allergens. We previously reported the crystallization of the core region of recombinant Ara h 1. Here, we present the crystal structure of the Ara h 1 core at a resolution of 2.43 Å. We also assayed the Ara h 1 core thermal stability and compared its final structure against other 7S globulins. The Ara h 1 core has a thermal denaturation temperature of 88.3°C and a structure that is very similar to other 7S globulins. Previously identified linear IgE epitopes were also mapped on the three-dimensional structure. Most linear epitopes were found in the extended loop domains and the coils between the N- and C-terminal modules, while others were found in the less accessible β-sheets of the C-terminal core β-barrel domain of each monomer. Most of these epitopes become either slightly or significantly buried upon trimer formation, implying that allergen digestion in the gut is required for these epitopes to be accessible to immunoglobulins. Our findings also suggest that both intact and partially degraded allergens should be employed in future diagnostic and immunotherapeutic strategies. PMID:21903274

  11. H1N1 influenza pneumonia and bacterial coinfection.

    PubMed

    Calbo, Esther; Robles, Alejandro; Sangil, Anna; Benet, Susana; Viladot, Maria Eugenia; Pascual, Vanesa; Barreiro, Bienvenido

    2011-12-01

    The model described by Bewick et al seems to be able to distinguish between H1N1 influenza-related pneumonia and non-H1N1 community acquired pneumonia (CAP) based on five criteria. However, bacterial infection in the influenza group has not been accurately excluded. Therefore, this model could misidentify these patients and lead to an inappropriate treatment. We conducted a prospective observational study to compare mixed pneumonia vs viral pneumonia. In the mixed pneumonia group patients were older, had higher levels of procalcitonine and higher scores of severity. In our cohort the model proposed by Bewick et al would not identify patients with coinfection. PMID:21994246

  12. Novel benzothiophene H1-antihistamines for the treatment of insomnia.

    PubMed

    Moree, Wilna J; Jovic, Florence; Coon, Timothy; Yu, Jinghua; Li, Bin-Feng; Tucci, Fabio C; Marinkovic, Dragan; Gross, Raymond S; Malany, Siobhan; Bradbury, Margaret J; Hernandez, Lisa M; O'Brien, Zhihong; Wen, Jianyun; Wang, Hua; Hoare, Samuel R J; Petroski, Robert E; Sacaan, Aida; Madan, Ajay; Crowe, Paul D; Beaton, Graham

    2010-04-01

    SAR of lead benzothiophene H(1)-antihistamine 2 was explored to identify backup candidates with suitable pharmacokinetic profiles for an insomnia program. Several potent and selective H(1)-antihistamines with a range of projected half-lives in humans were identified. Compound 16d had a suitable human half-life as demonstrated in a human microdose study, but variability in pharmacokinetic profile, attributed to metabolic clearance, prevented further development of this compound. Compound 28b demonstrated lower predicted clearance in preclinical studies, and may represent a more suitable backup compound. PMID:20188547

  13. Safing of H-1 second stage after spacecraft separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noda, K.

    At the end of its operation, the H-1 launch vehicle's second stage contains about 1000 l of LH2 and 200 l of LOX; most of this liquid will remain in the tanks, to evaporate and be vented through mechanical, self-regulating relief valves that maintain the pressure differential across the common bulkhead within structural limits. An idle-mode firing of the engine has been incorporated in the schedule of more recent H-1 flights to preclude second-stage structure breakup due to evaporating fuel overpressures.

  14. A Complexation Study of 2,6-Bis(1-(p-tolyl)-1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)pyridine Using Single-Crystal X-ray Diffraction and TRLFS.

    PubMed

    Kiefer, Claude; Wagner, Anna T; Beele, Björn B; Geist, Andreas; Panak, Petra J; Roesky, Peter W

    2015-08-01

    To develop a selective ligand for the separation of lanthanides(III) and actinides(III) the coordination chemistry of the chelating N-donor ligand 2,6-bis(1-(p-tolyl)-1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)pyridine (BTTP) was investigated. The two isostructural lanthanide compounds [Ln(BTTP)3(OTf)3] (Ln = Eu (1), Sm (2); OTf = trifluoromethanesulfonate) were synthesized and fully characterized. The solid-state structures of both compounds were established by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The complexation of Cm(III) and Eu(III) with BTTP in acetonitrile was studied using time-resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopy. With increasing BTTP concentration Cm(III) 1:2 and 1:3 complexes and Eu(III) 1:1 and 1:3 complexes are identified. The conditional stability constants of the 1:3 complex species with BTTP are log β3 = 14.0 for Cm(III) and log β3 = 10.3 for Eu(III). Both M(III) 1:3 complexes are prone to decomplexation with increasing acidity. PMID:26168381

  15. Lessons learned from the H1N1 2009 pandemic

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    On June 11, 2010 approximately 80 delegates drawn from government, industry and academia gathered in Singapore for the first World Influenza Congress Asia held in association with the fourth Annual World Vaccine Congress Asia 2010. A major focus of the meeting was sharing of experiences relating to the recent H1N1 2009 pandemic. PMID:20935468

  16. Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 in captive cheetah.

    PubMed

    Crossley, Beate; Hietala, Sharon; Hunt, Tania; Benjamin, Glenn; Martinez, Marie; Darnell, Daniel; Rubrum, Adam; Webby, Richard

    2012-02-01

    We describe virus isolation, full genome sequence analysis, and clinical pathology in ferrets experimentally inoculated with pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus recovered from a clinically ill captive cheetah that had minimal human contact. Evidence of reverse zoonotic transmission by fomites underscores the substantial animal and human health implications of this virus. PMID:22305505

  17. Extended hopane derivatives in sediments - Identification by H-1 NMR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, J.; Wardroper, A. M. K.; Maxwell, J. R.

    1980-01-01

    Sedimentary C32 hopanoic acid, one of the most abundant in nature and of probable bacterial origin, has been isolated for the first time as a single component and characterized by H-1 NMR. The 17 alpha H, 21 beta H configuration of the C31 alkane has been similarly confirmed.

  18. Genome Distribution of Replication-independent Histone H1 Variants Shows H1.0 Associated with Nucleolar Domains and H1X Associated with RNA Polymerase II-enriched Regions*

    PubMed Central

    Mayor, Regina; Izquierdo-Bouldstridge, Andrea; Millán-Ariño, Lluís; Bustillos, Alberto; Sampaio, Cristina; Luque, Neus; Jordan, Albert

    2015-01-01

    Unlike core histones, the linker histone H1 family is more evolutionarily diverse, and many organisms have multiple H1 variants or subtypes. In mammals, the H1 family includes seven somatic H1 variants; H1.1 to H1.5 are expressed in a replication-dependent manner, whereas H1.0 and H1X are replication-independent. Using ChIP-sequencing data and cell fractionation, we have compared the genomic distribution of H1.0 and H1X in human breast cancer cells, in which we previously observed differential distribution of H1.2 compared with the other subtypes. We have found H1.0 to be enriched at nucleolus-associated DNA repeats and chromatin domains, whereas H1X is associated with coding regions, RNA polymerase II-enriched regions, and hypomethylated CpG islands. Further, H1X accumulates within constitutive or included exons and retained introns and toward the 3′ end of expressed genes. Inducible H1X knockdown does not affect cell proliferation but dysregulates a subset of genes related to cell movement and transport. In H1X-depleted cells, the promoters of up-regulated genes are not occupied specifically by this variant, have a lower than average H1 content, and, unexpectedly, do not form an H1 valley upon induction. We conclude that H1 variants are not distributed evenly across the genome and may participate with some specificity in chromatin domain organization or gene regulation. PMID:25645921

  19. Standardized large-scale H-1PV production process with efficient quality and quantity monitoring.

    PubMed

    Leuchs, Barbara; Roscher, Mandy; Müller, Marcus; Kürschner, Kathrin; Rommelaere, Jean

    2016-03-01

    The promising anticancer properties of rodent protoparvoviruses, notably H-1PV, have led to their clinical testing. This makes it necessary to produce highly pure, well-characterized virus batches in sufficient quantity. The present work focused on developing standardized production, purification, and characterization procedures as a basis for exploiting H-1PV both preclinically and in clinical trials for anticancer virotherapy. Two infection and two virus purification strategies were tested and the resulting virus preparations compared for their purity and full-, infectious-, and empty-particle contents. The adopted production process, which involves culturing and infecting NB-324K cells in 10-layer CellSTACK(®) chambers (1×10(3) infectious units per infected cell), is simple, scalable, and reproducible. Downstream processing to eliminate contaminating DNA and protein includes DNAse treatment, filtration, and two Iodixanol density-gradient centrifugations, the first gradient being a step gradient and the second, either a step (1×10(10) PFU/ml) or a continuous gradient (3×10(11) PFU/ml). A procedure was also developed for obtaining infectious particle-free preparations of empty virions for research purposes: cesium chloride density gradient centrifugation followed by UV irradiation (1×10(14) physical particles/ml). For quick, sensitive determination of physical particles (and hence, particle-to-infectivity ratios), a "Capsid-ELISA" was developed, based on a novel monoclonal antibody that specifically targets assembled capsids. PMID:26658622

  20. [Pharmacological effects of CM6912 and its main metabolites].

    PubMed

    Morishita, H; Kushiku, K; Furukawa, T; Yamaki, Y; Izawa, M; Shibazaki, Y; Shibata, U

    1985-07-01

    Pharmacodynamic effects of ethyl 7-chloro-2,3-dihydro-5-(2-fluorophenyl)-2-oxo-1H-1,4- benzodiazepine-3-carboxylate (CM6912), a new benzodiazepine derivative, and its main metabolites (CM6913 = M1, CM7116 = M2) on the peripheral systems were investigated in several species of animals. In pentobarbital-anesthetized rabbits, CM6912 and M2 (1 or 5 mg/kg, i.v.) had little effect on blood pressure, heart rate and ECG, but it slightly reduced the respiration rate. M1 decreased the heart rate without affecting respiration, blood pressure and ECG. In conscious rabbits, CM6912 and M2 (1 mg/kg, i.v.) did not affect respiration, blood pressure, heart rate and ECG, but M1 (1 mg/kg, i.v.) increased the heart rate. CM6912 (5 or 30 mg/kg), when administered orally, also increased heart rate. In pentobarbital-anesthetized dogs, CM6912 and its metabolites (5 mg/kg, i.v.) decreased respiration and heart rate without affecting blood pressure and ECG. CM 6912 (5 mg/kg, i.v.) did not affect cardiovascular responses to the carotid occlusion, vagus stimulation, and pre- and post-ganglionic stimulation of cardiac ganglion in anesthetized dogs. CM6912 and its metabolites affected neither the spontaneous contraction nor the heart rate of isolated rabbit atria. These compounds also had no action on isolated aortic strips from rabbits. CM6912 and its metabolites did not affect the muscle tone of isolated guinea pig intestine, and it had no effects on the contractile responses to acetylcholine, histamine, serotonin and barium chloride. In isolated rabbit intestine, CM6912 and M2 slightly reduced the amplitude of contraction, while M1 had no effect. CM6912 and its metabolites did not affect the spontaneous motility of isolated non-pregnant and pregnant rat uteri as well as in situ non-pregnant rat uterus and isolated guinea pig vas deferens, including the contractile response to adrenaline. CM6912 and M2 relaxed isolated guinea pig trachea strips only at high concentrations. CM6912 and its

  1. 77 FR 8877 - ICD-9-CM Coordination and Maintenance (C&M) Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ICD-9-CM Coordination and Maintenance (C&M... Standards Staff, announces the following meeting. Name: ICD-9-CM Coordination and Maintenance (C&M... attend the ICD- 9-CM C&M meeting on March 5, 2012, must submit their name and organization by February...

  2. The H1 very forward proton spectrometer at HERA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astvatsatourov, A.; Cerny, K.; Delvax, J.; Favart, L.; Hreus, T.; Janssen, X.; Roosen, R.; Sykora, T.; Van Mechelen, P.

    2014-02-01

    The very forward proton spectrometer, VFPS, is a component of the H1 detector at the HERA collider. Scattered protons emitted with a polar angle less than 1 mrad and carrying a fractional energy 1 -xP, 0.008 H1 interaction point in the cryogenic section of the proton ring are described.

  3. 20 CFR 655.700 - What statutory provisions govern the employment of H-1B, H-1B1, and E-3 nonimmigrants and how do...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... (Public Law 106-95) and the regulations issued thereunder, 20 CFR part 655, subparts L and M. (3) E-3... employment of H-1B, H-1B1, and E-3 nonimmigrants and how do employers apply for H-1B, H-1B1, and E-3 visas... Requirements for Employers Seeking To Employ Nonimmigrants on H-1b Visas in Specialty Occupations and...

  4. 20 CFR 655.700 - What statutory provisions govern the employment of H-1B, H-1B1, and E-3 nonimmigrants and how do...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... (Public Law 106-95) and the regulations issued thereunder, 20 CFR part 655, subparts L and M. (3) E-3... employment of H-1B, H-1B1, and E-3 nonimmigrants and how do employers apply for H-1B, H-1B1, and E-3 visas... Requirements for Employers Seeking To Employ Nonimmigrants on H-1b Visas in Specialty Occupations and...

  5. 20 CFR 655.700 - What statutory provisions govern the employment of H-1B, H-1B1, and E-3 nonimmigrants and how do...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... (Public Law 106-95) and the regulations issued thereunder, 20 CFR part 655, subparts L and M. (3) E-3... employment of H-1B, H-1B1, and E-3 nonimmigrants and how do employers apply for H-1B, H-1B1, and E-3 visas... Requirements for Employers Seeking To Employ Nonimmigrants on H-1b Visas in Specialty Occupations and...

  6. The silicon tracker of the H1 detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    List, Benno

    2006-10-01

    The H1 experiment at HERA is equipped with a silicon vertex detector, comprising a barrel part and two endcaps with disks. The barrel part uses double sided, DC coupled strip sensors, whereas the endcap parts use two types of wedge-shaped sensors, both single sided and AC coupled: u/v-sensors have strips parallel to one edge of the sensor, r-sensors have circular strips. Additional pad detectors provide fast triggering signals in the backward part.

  7. Alterations of Histone H1 Phosphorylation During Bladder Carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Telu, Kelly H.; Abbaoui, Besma; Thomas-Ahner, Jennifer M.; Zynger, Debra L.; Clinton, Steven K.

    2013-01-01

    There is a crucial need for development of prognostic and predictive biomarkers in human bladder carcinogenesis in order to personalize preventive and therapeutic strategies and improve outcomes. Epigenetic alterations, such as histone modifications, are implicated in the genetic dysregulation that is fundamental to carcinogenesis. Here we focus on profiling the histone modifications during the progression of bladder cancer. Histones were extracted from normal human bladder epithelial cells, an immortalized human bladder epithelial cell line (hTERT), and four human bladder cancer cell lines (RT4, J82, T24, and UMUC3) ranging from superficial low-grade to invasive high-grade cancers. Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS) profiling revealed a statistically significant increase in phosphorylation of H1 linker histones from normal human bladder epithelial cells to low-grade superficial to high-grade invasive bladder cancer cells. This finding was further validated by immunohistochemical staining of the normal epithelium and transitional cell cancer from human bladders. Cell cycle analysis of histone H1 phosphorylation by western blotting showed an increase of phosphorylation from G0/G1 phase to M phase, again supporting this as a proliferative marker. Changes in histone H1 phosphorylation status may further clarify epigenetic changes during bladder carcinogenesis and provide diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers or targets for future therapeutic interventions. PMID:23675690

  8. Galaxy Populations and Evolution in Clusters IV Deep H 1 Observations of Dwarf Elliptical Galaxies in the Virgo Cluster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conselice, Christopher J.; ONeil, Karen; Gallagher, John S.; Wyse, Rosemary F. G.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we present deep Arecibo H I and WIYN optical observations of Virgo Cluster dwarf elliptical galaxies. Based on this data we argue that a significant fraction of low-mass galaxies in the Virgo Cluster recently underwent evolution. Our new observations consist of H I 21 cm line observations for 22 classified dE galaxies with optical radial velocities consistent with membership in the Virgo Cluster. Cluster members VCC 390 and VCC 1713 are detected with H 1 masses M H1= 6 x 10 sup 7 and 8 x 10 sup 7 M , respectively, while MH I values in the remaining 20 dE galaxies have upper limits as low as about 5 x 1O sup 5 M. We combine our results with those for 26 other Virgo Cluster dE galaxies with H 1 observations in the literature, seven of which have H I detection claims.

  9. Compositional Homogeneity of CM Parent Bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vernazza, P.; Marsset, M.; Beck, P.; Binzel, R. P.; Birlan, M.; Cloutis, E. A.; DeMeo, F. E.; Dumas, C.; Hiroi, T.

    2016-09-01

    CM chondrites are the most common type of hydrated meteorites, making up ∼1.5% of all falls. Whereas most CM chondrites experienced only low-temperature (∼0°C–120°C) aqueous alteration, the existence of a small fraction of CM chondrites that suffered both hydration and heating complicates our understanding of the early thermal evolution of the CM parent body(ies). Here, we provide new constraints on the collisional and thermal history of CM-like bodies from a comparison between newly acquired spectral measurements of main-belt Ch/Cgh-type asteroids (70 objects) and existing laboratory spectral measurements of CM chondrites. It first appears that the spectral variation observed among CM-like bodies is essentially due to variations in the average regolith grain size. Second, the spectral properties of the vast majority (unheated) of CM chondrites resemble both the surfaces and the interiors of CM-like bodies, implying a “low” temperature (<300°C) thermal evolution of the CM parent body(ies). It follows that an impact origin is the likely explanation for the existence of heated CM chondrites. Finally, similarly to S-type asteroids and (2) Pallas, the surfaces of large (D > 100 km)—supposedly primordial—Ch/Cgh-type main-belt asteroids likely expose the interiors of the primordial CM parent bodies, a possible consequence of impacts by small asteroids (D < 10 km) in the early solar system.

  10. Compositional Homogeneity of CM Parent Bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vernazza, P.; Marsset, M.; Beck, P.; Binzel, R. P.; Birlan, M.; Cloutis, E. A.; DeMeo, F. E.; Dumas, C.; Hiroi, T.

    2016-09-01

    CM chondrites are the most common type of hydrated meteorites, making up ˜1.5% of all falls. Whereas most CM chondrites experienced only low-temperature (˜0°C–120°C) aqueous alteration, the existence of a small fraction of CM chondrites that suffered both hydration and heating complicates our understanding of the early thermal evolution of the CM parent body(ies). Here, we provide new constraints on the collisional and thermal history of CM-like bodies from a comparison between newly acquired spectral measurements of main-belt Ch/Cgh-type asteroids (70 objects) and existing laboratory spectral measurements of CM chondrites. It first appears that the spectral variation observed among CM-like bodies is essentially due to variations in the average regolith grain size. Second, the spectral properties of the vast majority (unheated) of CM chondrites resemble both the surfaces and the interiors of CM-like bodies, implying a “low” temperature (<300°C) thermal evolution of the CM parent body(ies). It follows that an impact origin is the likely explanation for the existence of heated CM chondrites. Finally, similarly to S-type asteroids and (2) Pallas, the surfaces of large (D > 100 km)—supposedly primordial—Ch/Cgh-type main-belt asteroids likely expose the interiors of the primordial CM parent bodies, a possible consequence of impacts by small asteroids (D < 10 km) in the early solar system.

  11. Integrated microfluidic system for rapid detection of influenza H1N1 virus using a sandwich-based aptamer assay.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Yi-Ting; Wang, Chih-Hung; Chang, Chih-Peng; Lee, Gwo-Bin

    2016-08-15

    The rapid spread of influenza-associated H1N1 viruses has caused serious concern in recent years. Therefore, there is an urgent need for the development of automatic, point-of-care devices for rapid diagnosis of the influenza virus. Conventional approaches suffer from several critical issues; notably, they are time-consuming, labor-intensive, and are characterized by relatively low sensitivity. In this work, we present a new approach for fluorescence-based detection of the influenza A H1N1 virus using a sandwich-based aptamer assay that is automatically performed on an integrated microfluidic system. The entire detection process was shortened to 30min using this chip-based system which is much faster than the conventional viral culture method. The limit of detection was significantly improved to 0.032 hemagglutination unit due to the high affinity and high specificity of the H1N1-specific aptamers. The results showed that the two-aptamer microfluidic system had about 10(3) times higher sensitivity than the conventional serological diagnosis. It was demonstrated that the developed microfluidic system may play as a powerful tool in the detection of the H1N1 virus. PMID:27054814

  12. Gas-Phase Oxidation of Cm+ and Cm2+ -- Thermodynamics of neutral and ionized CmO

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, John K; Haire, Richard G.; Santos, Marta; Pires de Matos, Antonio; Marcalo, Joaquim

    2008-12-08

    Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry was employed to study the products and kinetics of gas-phase reactions of Cm+ and Cm2+; parallel studies were carried out with La+/2+, Gd+/2+ and Lu+/2+. Reactions with oxygen-donor molecules provided estimates for the bond dissociation energies, D[M+-O](M = Cm, Gd, Lu). The first ionization energy, IE[CmO], was obtained from the reactivity of CmO+ with dienes, and the second ionization energies, IE[MO+](M = Cm, La, Gd, Lu), from the rates of electron-transfer reactions from neutrals to the MO2+ ions. The following thermodynamic quantities for curium oxide molecules were obtained: IE[CmO]= 6.4+-0.2 eV; IE[CmO+]= 15.8+-0.4 eV; D[Cm-O]= 710+-45 kJ mol-1; D[Cm+-O]= 670+-40 kJ mol-1; and D[Cm2+-O]= 342+-55 kJ mol-1. Estimates for the M2+-O bond energies for M = Cm, La, Gd and Lu are all intermediate between D[N2-O]and D[OC-O]--i.e., 167 kJ mol-1< D[M2+-O]< 532 kJ mol-1 -- such that the four MO2+ ions fulfill the thermodynamic requirement for catalytic O-atom transport from N2O to CO. It was demonstrated that the kinetics are also favorable and that the CmO2+, LaO2+, GdO2+ and LuO2+ dipositive ions each catalyze the gas-phase oxidation of CO to CO2 by N2O. The CmO2+ ion appeared during the reaction of Cm+ with O2 when the intermediate, CmO+, was not collisionally cooled -- although its formation is kinetically and/or thermodynamically unfavorable, CmO2+ is a stable species.

  13. Mapping of six somatic linker histone H1 variants in human breast cancer cells uncovers specific features of H1.2

    PubMed Central

    Millán-Ariño, Lluís; Islam, Abul B. M. M. K.; Izquierdo-Bouldstridge, Andrea; Mayor, Regina; Terme, Jean-Michel; Luque, Neus; Sancho, Mónica; López-Bigas, Núria; Jordan, Albert

    2014-01-01

    Seven linker histone H1 variants are present in human somatic cells with distinct prevalence across cell types. Despite being key structural components of chromatin, it is not known whether the different variants have specific roles in the regulation of nuclear processes or are differentially distributed throughout the genome. Using variant-specific antibodies to H1 and hemagglutinin (HA)-tagged recombinant H1 variants expressed in breast cancer cells, we have investigated the distribution of six H1 variants in promoters and genome-wide. H1 is depleted at promoters depending on its transcriptional status and differs between variants. Notably, H1.2 is less abundant than other variants at the transcription start sites of inactive genes, and promoters enriched in H1.2 are different from those enriched in other variants and tend to be repressed. Additionally, H1.2 is enriched at chromosomal domains characterized by low guanine–cytosine (GC) content and is associated with lamina-associated domains. Meanwhile, other variants are associated with higher GC content, CpG islands and gene-rich domains. For instance, H1.0 and H1X are enriched at gene-rich chromosomes, whereas H1.2 is depleted. In short, histone H1 is not uniformly distributed along the genome and there are differences between variants, H1.2 being the one showing the most specific pattern and strongest correlation with low gene expression. PMID:24476918

  14. Tolerance to daytime sedative effects of H1 antihistamines.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Gary S; Roehrs, Timothy A; Rosenthal, Leon; Koshorek, Gail; Roth, Thomas

    2002-10-01

    Sedation is the principal side effect of first generation H1 antihistamines, and recent studies have suggested that this side effect should limit the clinical application of these drugs. The sedative effect also underlies the use of these first-generation drugs as nonprescriptive remedies for insomnia. In both cases, the potential for tolerance to the sedative effect of these drugs is an important issue for which there are few objective data. In the study reported here, 15 healthy men age 18 to 50 years received either diphenhydramine 50 mg or placebo twice a day for 4 days in a randomized, double-blind, crossover trial design. Dependent measures included objective and subjective assessments of sleepiness and computer-based tests of psychomotor performance. Both objective and subjective measures of sleepiness showed significantly higher levels on day 1 for diphenhydramine compared to placebo. By day 4, however, levels of sleepiness on diphenhydramine were indistinguishable from placebo. Similarly, diphenhydramine produced significant impairment of performance that was completely reversed by day 4. These data provide the first objective confirmation that tolerance develops to the sedative effect of a prototypical first-generation H1 antihistamine, diphenhydramine. On this dosing regimen, tolerance was complete by the end of 3 days of administration. While other antihistamines and dosing regimens may differ, these results suggest that tolerance to the sedation produced by these drugs develops with remarkable rapidity. PMID:12352276

  15. The 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic

    PubMed Central

    Wiringa, Ann E

    2011-01-01

    During the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic nearly every decision associated with new vaccine development and dissemination occurred from the Spring of 2009, when the novel virus first emerged, to the Fall of 2009, when the new vaccines started reaching the thighs, arms and noses of vaccinees. In many ways, 2009 served as a crash course on how mathematical and computational modeling can assist all aspects of vaccine decision-making. Modeling influenced pandemic vaccine decision-making, but not to its fullest potential. The 2009 H1N1 pandemic demonstrated that modeling can help answer questions about new vaccine development, distribution, and administration such as (1) is a vaccine needed, (2) what characteristics should the vaccine have, (3) how should the vaccine be distributed, (4) who should receive the vaccine and in what order and (5) when should vaccination be discontinued? There is no need to wait for another pandemic to enhance the role of modeling, as new vaccine candidates for a variety of infectious diseases are emerging every year. Greater communication between decision makers and modelers can expand the use of modeling in vaccine decision-making to the benefit of all vaccine stakeholders and health around the globe. PMID:21263227

  16. Genetic characterization of influenza A virus subtypes H1N3 and H1N9 isolated from free-grazing ducks in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Chaiyawong, Supassama; Boonyapisitsopa, Supanat; Jairak, Waleemas; Nonthabenjawan, Nutthawan; Tangwangvivat, Ratanaporn; Bunpapong, Napawan; Amonsin, Alongkorn

    2016-10-01

    Influenza A virus (IAV) subtype H1 has been reported to infect birds, pigs and humans. In this study, we characterized IAVs subtype H1N3 and H1N9 isolated from free-grazing ducks in Thailand. Phylogenetic analysis showed that Thai IAV-H1 isolates cluster with avian Eurasian-lineage but not pandemic H1N1 viruses. Analysis of the viruses indicated low-pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) characteristics. This study is the first report of avian H1N3 and H1N9 in Thailand. Although Thai IAV-H1 viruses do not pose a risk of a pandemic, routine surveillance and genetic monitoring of IAVs should be conducted. PMID:27383209

  17. Genetic and Antigenic Characterization of H1 Influenza Viruses from United States Swine Prior to the Emergence of the 2009 Pandemic H1N1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Swine play a role for the evolution of influenza A viruses. Prior to the introduction of the 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus from humans into pigs, four phylogenetic clusters of the hemagglutinin (HA) gene from H1 influenza viruses could be found in U.S. swine. Viruses from the classical H1N1 swine lineage...

  18. Serologic cross reactivity of avian influenza H1 vaccinated commercial U.S. turkeys to the emergent H1N1 influenza virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recently, the 2009 human H1N1 influenza virus was identified in turkey breeders in Chile, Canada and the U.S. resulting in infection and production losses. In these studies sera from turkeys vaccinated against avian influenza H1 were tested against the recent human pandemic H1N1 virus. Genetic ana...

  19. Pathogenesis of pandemic influenza A (H1N1) and triple-reassortant swine influenza A (H1) viruses in mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The pandemic H1N1 virus of 2009 (2009 H1N1) continues to cause illness worldwide, primarily in younger age groups. To better understand the pathogenesis of these viruses in mammals, we used a mouse model to evaluate the relative virulence of selected 2009 H1N1 viruses and compared them to a represe...

  20. Characterization of a newly emerged genetic cluster of H1N1 and H1N2 swine influenza virus in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    H1 influenza A viruses that were distinct from the classical swine H1 lineage were identified in pigs in Canada in 2003-2004; antigenic and genetic characterization identified the hemagglutinin (HA) as human H1 lineage. The viruses identified in Canadian pigs were human lineage in entirety or doubl...

  1. 5 CFR 10.3 - OPM authority to review personnel management programs and practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... management programs and practices. 10.3 Section 10.3 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE RULES AGENCY ACCOUNTABILITY SYSTEMS; OPM AUTHORITY TO REVIEW PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS (RULE X) § 10.3 OPM authority to review personnel management programs and practices. The Office...

  2. 5 CFR 10.3 - OPM authority to review personnel management programs and practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... management programs and practices. 10.3 Section 10.3 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE RULES AGENCY ACCOUNTABILITY SYSTEMS; OPM AUTHORITY TO REVIEW PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS (RULE X) § 10.3 OPM authority to review personnel management programs and practices. The Office...

  3. 5 CFR 10.3 - OPM authority to review personnel management programs and practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... management programs and practices. 10.3 Section 10.3 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE RULES AGENCY ACCOUNTABILITY SYSTEMS; OPM AUTHORITY TO REVIEW PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS (RULE X) § 10.3 OPM authority to review personnel management programs and practices. The Office...

  4. 5 CFR 10.3 - OPM authority to review personnel management programs and practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... management programs and practices. 10.3 Section 10.3 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE RULES AGENCY ACCOUNTABILITY SYSTEMS; OPM AUTHORITY TO REVIEW PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS (RULE X) § 10.3 OPM authority to review personnel management programs and practices. The Office...

  5. 5 CFR 10.3 - OPM authority to review personnel management programs and practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... management programs and practices. 10.3 Section 10.3 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE RULES AGENCY ACCOUNTABILITY SYSTEMS; OPM AUTHORITY TO REVIEW PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS (RULE X) § 10.3 OPM authority to review personnel management programs and practices. The Office...

  6. Globular Head-Displayed Conserved Influenza H1 Hemagglutinin Stalk Epitopes Confer Protection against Heterologous H1N1 Virus

    PubMed Central

    Klausberger, Miriam; Tscheliessnig, Rupert; Neff, Silke; Nachbagauer, Raffael; Wohlbold, Teddy John; Wilde, Monika; Palmberger, Dieter; Krammer, Florian; Jungbauer, Alois; Grabherr, Reingard

    2016-01-01

    Significant genetic variability in the head region of the influenza A hemagglutinin, the main target of current vaccines, makes it challenging to develop a long-lived seasonal influenza prophylaxis. Vaccines based on the conserved hemagglutinin stalk domain might provide broader cross-reactive immunity. However, this region of the hemagglutinin is immunosubdominant to the head region. Peptide-based vaccines have gained much interest as they allow the immune system to focus on relevant but less immunogenic epitopes. We developed a novel influenza A hemagglutinin-based display platform for H1 hemagglutinin stalk peptides that we identified in an epitope mapping assay using human immune sera and synthetic HA peptides. Flow cytometry and competition assays suggest that the identified stalk sequences do not recapitulate the epitopes of already described broadly neutralizing stalk antibodies. Vaccine constructs displaying 25-mer stalk sequences provided up to 75% protection from lethal heterologous virus challenge in BALB/c mice and induced antibody responses against the H1 hemagglutinin. The developed platform based on a vaccine antigen has the potential to be either used as stand-alone or as prime-vaccine in combination with conventional seasonal or pandemic vaccines for the amplification of stalk-based cross-reactive immunity in humans or as platform to evaluate the relevance of viral peptides/epitopes for protection against influenza virus infection. PMID:27088239

  7. Globular Head-Displayed Conserved Influenza H1 Hemagglutinin Stalk Epitopes Confer Protection against Heterologous H1N1 Virus.

    PubMed

    Klausberger, Miriam; Tscheliessnig, Rupert; Neff, Silke; Nachbagauer, Raffael; Wohlbold, Teddy John; Wilde, Monika; Palmberger, Dieter; Krammer, Florian; Jungbauer, Alois; Grabherr, Reingard

    2016-01-01

    Significant genetic variability in the head region of the influenza A hemagglutinin, the main target of current vaccines, makes it challenging to develop a long-lived seasonal influenza prophylaxis. Vaccines based on the conserved hemagglutinin stalk domain might provide broader cross-reactive immunity. However, this region of the hemagglutinin is immunosubdominant to the head region. Peptide-based vaccines have gained much interest as they allow the immune system to focus on relevant but less immunogenic epitopes. We developed a novel influenza A hemagglutinin-based display platform for H1 hemagglutinin stalk peptides that we identified in an epitope mapping assay using human immune sera and synthetic HA peptides. Flow cytometry and competition assays suggest that the identified stalk sequences do not recapitulate the epitopes of already described broadly neutralizing stalk antibodies. Vaccine constructs displaying 25-mer stalk sequences provided up to 75% protection from lethal heterologous virus challenge in BALB/c mice and induced antibody responses against the H1 hemagglutinin. The developed platform based on a vaccine antigen has the potential to be either used as stand-alone or as prime-vaccine in combination with conventional seasonal or pandemic vaccines for the amplification of stalk-based cross-reactive immunity in humans or as platform to evaluate the relevance of viral peptides/epitopes for protection against influenza virus infection. PMID:27088239

  8. Citrullination regulates pluripotency and histone H1 binding to chromatin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christophorou, Maria A.; Castelo-Branco, Gonçalo; Halley-Stott, Richard P.; Oliveira, Clara Slade; Loos, Remco; Radzisheuskaya, Aliaksandra; Mowen, Kerri A.; Bertone, Paul; Silva, José C. R.; Zernicka-Goetz, Magdalena; Nielsen, Michael L.; Gurdon, John B.; Kouzarides, Tony

    2014-03-01

    Citrullination is the post-translational conversion of an arginine residue within a protein to the non-coded amino acid citrulline. This modification leads to the loss of a positive charge and reduction in hydrogen-bonding ability. It is carried out by a small family of tissue-specific vertebrate enzymes called peptidylarginine deiminases (PADIs) and is associated with the development of diverse pathological states such as autoimmunity, cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, prion diseases and thrombosis. Nevertheless, the physiological functions of citrullination remain ill-defined, although citrullination of core histones has been linked to transcriptional regulation and the DNA damage response. PADI4 (also called PAD4 or PADV), the only PADI with a nuclear localization signal, was previously shown to act in myeloid cells where it mediates profound chromatin decondensation during the innate immune response to infection. Here we show that the expression and enzymatic activity of Padi4 are also induced under conditions of ground-state pluripotency and during reprogramming in mouse. Padi4 is part of the pluripotency transcriptional network, binding to regulatory elements of key stem-cell genes and activating their expression. Its inhibition lowers the percentage of pluripotent cells in the early mouse embryo and significantly reduces reprogramming efficiency. Using an unbiased proteomic approach we identify linker histone H1 variants, which are involved in the generation of compact chromatin, as novel PADI4 substrates. Citrullination of a single arginine residue within the DNA-binding site of H1 results in its displacement from chromatin and global chromatin decondensation. Together, these results uncover a role for citrullination in the regulation of pluripotency and provide new mechanistic insights into how citrullination regulates chromatin compaction.

  9. Technicon H*1 Hematology System: Optical Design Considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colella, G. M.; Tycko, D. H.; Groner, W.

    1988-06-01

    The Technicon H*1 systemTM is a clinical laboratory flow cytometer which performs a complete hematology profile, providing quantitative information on the various types of cells in a blood sample. A light-scattering method, using a HeNe laser, determines in a single flow channel the red cell count, platelet count, and the distributions of red cell volume, red cell hemoglobin concentration, and platelet volume. To accomplish this the scattered light from each red cell in the sample is measured in real time at two angular intervals. The cell volume and the hemoglobin concentration within the cell are derived from these two measurements. Severe accuracy and precision specifications are placed on the medically important red cell count (RBC) and the mean red cell volume (MCV). From the point of view of optical system design, the dominant factor is the requirement that RBC and MCV have precision and accuracy of the order of 2%. Signal-to-noise and scattering-angle definition requirements dictated the choice of a HeNe laser light source. The optics includes an illumination system for producing a sharply defined, uniformly illuminated scattering region and a detection system which must accurately define the accepted scattering angles. In previous cytometric methods for determining MCV only a single quantity was measured for each cell. Such methods cannot disentangle the independent effects of cell size and hemoglobin concentration on the measurement, thus compromising MCV accuracy. The present double-angle scattering method overcomes this accuracy problem. The H*1 red cell method, the supporting optical design and data demonstrating that the use of this technique eliminates interference between the observed red cell indices are presented.

  10. A monoclonal antibody-based ELISA for differential diagnosis of 2009 pandemic H1N1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The swine-origin 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus (pdmH1N1) is genetically related to North American swine H1 influenza viruses and unrelated to human seasonal H1 viruses. Currently, specific diagnosis of pdmH1N1 relies on RT-PCR. In order to develop an assay that does not rely in amplification of the viral...

  11. 8-cm mercury ion thruster system technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The technology status of 8-cm diameter electron bombardment ion thrusters is presented. Much of the technology resulting from the 5-cm diameter thruster has been adapted and improved upon to increase the reliability, durability, and efficiency of the 8-cm thruster. Technology discussed includes: dependence of neutralizer tip erosion upon neutralizer flow rate; impregnated and rolled-foil insert cathode performance and life testing; neutralizer position studies; thruster ion beam profile measurements; high voltage pulse ignition; high utilization ion machined accelerator grids; deposition internal and external to the thruster; thruster vectoring systems; thruster cycling life testing and thruster system weights for typical mission applications.

  12. Genetic Characterization of H1N1 and H1N2 Influenza A Viruses Circulating in Ontario Pigs in 2012

    PubMed Central

    Grgić, Helena; Costa, Marcio; Friendship, Robert M.; Carman, Susy; Nagy, Éva; Poljak, Zvonimir

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize H1N1 and H1N2 influenza A virus isolates detected during outbreaks of respiratory disease in pig herds in Ontario (Canada) in 2012. Six influenza viruses were included in analysis using full genome sequencing based on the 454 platform. In five H1N1 isolates, all eight segments were genetically related to 2009 pandemic virus (A(H1N1)pdm09). One H1N2 isolate had hemagglutinin (HA), polymerase A (PA) and non-structural (NS) genes closely related to A(H1N1)pdm09, and neuraminidase (NA), matrix (M), polymerase B1 (PB1), polymerase B2 (PB2), and nucleoprotein (NP) genes originating from a triple-reassortant H3N2 virus (tr H3N2). The HA gene of five Ontario H1 isolates exhibited high identity of 99% with the human A(H1N1)pdm09 [A/Mexico/InDRE4487/09] from Mexico, while one Ontario H1N1 isolate had only 96.9% identity with this Mexican virus. Each of the five Ontario H1N1 viruses had between one and four amino acid (aa) changes within five antigenic sites, while one Ontario H1N2 virus had two aa changes within two antigenic sites. Such aa changes in antigenic sites could have an effect on antibody recognition and ultimately have implications for immunization practices. According to aa sequence analysis of the M2 protein, Ontario H1N1 and H1N2 viruses can be expected to offer resistance to adamantane derivatives, but not to neuraminidase inhibitors. PMID:26030614

  13. Chilled Mirror Dew Point Hygrometer (CM) Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Ritsche, MT

    2005-01-01

    The CM systems have been developed for the ARM Program to act as a moisture standard traceable to National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). There are three CM systems that are each fully portable, self-contained, and require only 110 V AC power. The systems include a CM sensor, air sampling and filtration system, a secondary reference (Rotronic HP043 temperature and relative humidity sensor) to detect system malfunctions, a data acquisition system, and data storage for more than one month of 1-minute data. The CM sensor directly measures dew point temperature at 1 m, air temperature at 2 m, and relative humidity at 2 m. These measurements are intended to represent self-standing data streams that can be used independently or in combinations.

  14. Astrophysics with the 60-cm telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zverko, J.

    2014-03-01

    Observational programs and selection from scientific results with the 60-cm telescope achieved at the Skalnaté Pleso Observatory since its putting into operation is reviewed: novae, eclipsing and interacting binaries, symbiotic stars, cataclysmic variables, chemically peculiar stars, comets. Possible targets among newly detected binaries are proposed for determining orbital parameters using the new spectrograph of the 60-cm telescope at the Stará Lesná Observatory.

  15. Correlated alteration effects in CM carbonaceous chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Browning, Lauren B.; McSween, Harry Y., Jr.; Zolensky, Michael E.

    1996-07-01

    Three parameters are proposed to determine the relative extent of alteration in CM chondrites. The mineralogic alteration index monitors the relative progress of coupled substitutions in the progressive alteration of cronstedtite to Mg-serpentine and increases with increasing alteration. To calculate values of this index, an algorithm has been developed to estimate the average matrix phyllosilicate composition in individual CM chondrites. The second parameter is the volume percent of isolated matrix silicates, which decreases with progressive alteration due to mineral hydration. Finally, the volume percent of chondrule alteration monitors the extent of chondrule phyllosilicate production and increases as alteration proceeds. These parameters define the first CM alteration scale that relies on multiple indicators of progressive alteration. The following relative order of increasing alteration is established by this model: Murchison ≤ Bells < Pollen ≤ Murray < Mighei < Nogoya < Cold Bokkeveld. The relative degree of aqueous processing Cochabamba and Boriskino experienced is less precisely constrained, although both fall near the middle of this sequence. A comparison between the mineralogic alteration index and literature values for the whole-rock chemistry of CM chondrites reveals several correlations. A positive, nearly linear correlation between bulk H content and progressive CM alteration suggests an approximately constant production rate of new phyllosilicates relative to the mineralogical transition from cronstedtite to Mg-serpentine. The abundance of trapped planetary 36Ar decreases systematically in progressively altered CM chondrites, suggesting the wholesale destruction of primary noble gas carrier phase (s) by aqueous reactions. Because low temperature fluid-rock reactions are generally associated with large isotopic mass fractionation factors, we also compared our model predictions with δ18O values for bulk CM samples. Although some of these data are

  16. Viable RNaseH1 knockout mice show RNaseH1 is essential for R loop processing, mitochondrial and liver function

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Walt F.; Murray, Heather M.; Damle, Sagar S.; Hart, Christopher E.; Hung, Gene; De Hoyos, Cheryl Li; Liang, Xue-Hai; Crooke, Stanley T.

    2016-01-01

    Viable constitutive and tamoxifen inducible liver-specific RNase H1 knockout mice that expressed no RNase H1 activity in hepatocytes showed increased R-loop levels and reduced mitochondrial encoded DNA and mRNA levels, suggesting impaired mitochondrial R-loop processing, transcription and mitochondrial DNA replication. These changes resulted in mitochondrial dysfunction with marked changes in mitochondrial fusion, fission, morphology and transcriptional changes reflective of mitochondrial damage and stress. Liver degeneration ensued, as indicated by apoptosis, fibrosis and increased transaminase levels. Antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) designed to serve as substrates for RNase H1 were inactive in the hepatocytes from the RNase H1 knockout mice and in vivo, demonstrating that RNase H1 is necessary for the activity of DNA-like ASOs. During liver regeneration, a clone of hepatocytes that expressed RNase H1 developed and partially restored mitochondrial and liver function. PMID:27131367

  17. Viable RNaseH1 knockout mice show RNaseH1 is essential for R loop processing, mitochondrial and liver function.

    PubMed

    Lima, Walt F; Murray, Heather M; Damle, Sagar S; Hart, Christopher E; Hung, Gene; De Hoyos, Cheryl Li; Liang, Xue-Hai; Crooke, Stanley T

    2016-06-20

    Viable constitutive and tamoxifen inducible liver-specific RNase H1 knockout mice that expressed no RNase H1 activity in hepatocytes showed increased R-loop levels and reduced mitochondrial encoded DNA and mRNA levels, suggesting impaired mitochondrial R-loop processing, transcription and mitochondrial DNA replication. These changes resulted in mitochondrial dysfunction with marked changes in mitochondrial fusion, fission, morphology and transcriptional changes reflective of mitochondrial damage and stress. Liver degeneration ensued, as indicated by apoptosis, fibrosis and increased transaminase levels. Antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) designed to serve as substrates for RNase H1 were inactive in the hepatocytes from the RNase H1 knockout mice and in vivo, demonstrating that RNase H1 is necessary for the activity of DNA-like ASOs. During liver regeneration, a clone of hepatocytes that expressed RNase H1 developed and partially restored mitochondrial and liver function. PMID:27131367

  18. Correlated Alteration Effects in CM Carbonaceous Chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zolensky, Michael E.; Browning, Lauren B.; McSween, Harry Y., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    Three parameters are proposed to determine the relative extent of alteration in CM chondrites. The mineralogic alteration index monitors the relative progress of coupled substitutions in the progressive alteration of cronstedtite to Mg-serpentine, and increases with increasing alteration. To calculate values of this index, an algorithm has been developed to estimate the average matrix phyllosilicate composition in individual CM chondrites. The second parameter is the volume percent of isolated matrix silicates, which decreases with progressive alteration due to mineral hydration. Finally, the volume percent of chondrule alteration monitors the extent of chondrule phyllosilicate production, and increases as alteration proceeds. These parameters define the first CM alteration scale that-relies on multiple indicators of progressive alteration. The following relative order of increasing alteration is established by this model: Murchison less than or equal to Bells less than Pollen less than or equal to Murray less than Mighei less than Nogoya less than Cold Bokkeveld. Bulk delta18O values generally increase with progressive alteration, providing additional support for this sequence. The relative degree of aqueous processing Cochabamba and Boriskino experienced is less precisely constrained, although both fall near the middle of this sequence. A comparison between the mineralogic alteration index and literature values of the whole-rock chemistry of CM chondrites reveals several correlations. For example, a positive, nearly linear correlation between bulk H content and progressive CM alteration suggests an approximately constant production rate of new phyllosilicates relative to the mineralogical transition from cronstedtite to Mg-serpentine. Furthermore, the abundance of trapped planetary Ar-36 decreases systematically in progressively altered CM chondrites, suggesting the wholesale destruction of primary noble gas carrier phase(s) by aqueous reactions. Multiple

  19. Detection of Thermal 2 cm and 1 cm Formaldehyde Emission in NGC 7538

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Liang; Araya, E. D.; Hofner, P.; Kurtz, S.; Pihlstrom, Y.

    2011-05-01

    Formaldehyde is a tracer of high density gas in massive star forming regions. The K-doublet lines from the three lowest rotational energy levels of ortho-formaldehyde correspond to wavelengths of 6, 2 and 1 cm. Thermal emission of these transitions is rare, and maser emission has only been detected in the 6 cm line. NGC 7538 is an active site of massive star formation in the Galaxy, and one of only a few regions known to harbor 6 cm formaldehyde (H2CO) masers. Using the NRAO 100 m Green Bank Telescope (GBT), we detected 2 cm H2CO emission toward NGC 7538 IRS1. The velocity of the 2 cm H2CO line is very similar to the velocity of one of the 6 cm H2CO masers but the linewidth is greater. To investigate the nature of the 2 cm emission, we conducted observations of the 1 cm H2CO transition, and obtained a cross-scan map of the 2 cm line. We detected 1 cm emission and found that the 2 cm emission is extended (greater than 30"), which implies brightness temperatures of ˜0.2 K. Assuming optically thin emission, LTE, and that the 1 cm and 2 cm lines originate from the same volume of gas, both these detections are consistent with thermal emission of gas at ˜30 K. We conclude that the 1 cm and 2 cm H2CO lines detected with the GBT are thermal, which implies molecular densities above ˜105 cm-3. LY acknowledges support from WIU. PH acknowledges partial support from NSF grant AST-0908901.

  20. Aerodynamic Characteristics of a Two-blade NACA 10-(3)(062)-045 Propeller and of a Two-blade NACA 10-(3)(08)-045 Propeller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, William

    1953-01-01

    Characteristics are given for the two-blade NACA 10-(3)(062)-045 propeller and for the two-blade NACA 10-(3)(08)-045 propeller over a range of advance ratio from 0.5 to 3.8, through a blade-angle range from 20 degrees to 55 degrees measured at the 0.75 radius. Maximum efficiencies of the order of 91.5 to 92 percent were obtained for the propellers. The propeller with the thinner airfoil sections over the outboard portion of the blades, the NACA 10-(3)(062)-045 propeller, had lower losses at high tip speeds, the difference amounting to about 5 percent at a helical tip Mach number of 1.10.

  1. Probing lepton asymmetry with 21 cm fluctuations

    SciTech Connect

    Kohri, Kazunori; Oyama, Yoshihiko; Sekiguchi, Toyokazu; Takahashi, Tomo E-mail: oyamayo@post.kek.jp E-mail: tomot@cc.saga-u.ac.jp

    2014-09-01

    We investigate the issue of how accurately we can constrain the lepton number asymmetry ξ{sub ν}=μ{sub ν}/T{sub ν} in the Universe by using future observations of 21 cm line fluctuations and cosmic microwave background (CMB). We find that combinations of the 21 cm line and the CMB observations can constrain the lepton asymmetry better than big-bang nucleosynthesis (BBN). Additionally, we also discuss constraints on ξ{sub ν} in the presence of some extra radiation, and show that the 21 cm line observations can substantially improve the constraints obtained by CMB alone, and allow us to distinguish the effects of the lepton asymmetry from the ones of extra radiation.

  2. CV and CM chondrite impact melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lunning, Nicole G.; Corrigan, Catherine M.; McSween, Harry Y.; Tenner, Travis J.; Kita, Noriko T.; Bodnar, Robert J.

    2016-09-01

    Volatile-rich and typically oxidized carbonaceous chondrites, such as CV and CM chondrites, potentially respond to impacts differently than do other chondritic materials. Understanding impact melting of carbonaceous chondrites has been hampered by the dearth of recognized impact melt samples. In this study we identify five carbonaceous chondrite impact melt clasts in three host meteorites: a CV3red chondrite, a CV3oxA chondrite, and a regolithic howardite. The impact melt clasts in these meteorites respectively formed from CV3red chondrite, CV3oxA chondrite, and CM chondrite protoliths. We identified these impact melt clasts and interpreted their precursors based on their texture, mineral chemistry, silicate bulk elemental composition, and in the case of the CM chondrite impact melt clast, in situ measurement of oxygen three-isotope signatures in olivine. These impact melts typically contain euhedral-subhedral olivine microphenocrysts, sometimes with relict cores, in glassy groundmasses. Based on petrography and Raman spectroscopy, four of the impact melt clasts exhibit evidence for volatile loss: these melt clasts either contain vesicles or are depleted in H2O relative to their precursors. Volatile loss (i.e., H2O) may have reduced the redox state of the CM chondrite impact melt clast. The clasts that formed from the more oxidized precursors (CV3oxA and CM chondrites) exhibit phase and bulk silicate elemental compositions consistent with higher intrinsic oxygen fugacities relative to the clast that formed from a more reduced precursor (CV3red chondrite). The mineral chemistries and assemblages of the CV and CM chondrite impact melt clasts identified here provide a template for recognizing carbonaceous chondrite impact melts on the surfaces of asteroids.

  3. MicroRNA-513 Regulates B7-H1 Translation and Is Involved in IFN-γ-Induced B7-H1 Expression in Cholangiocytes1,2

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Ai-Yu; Zhou, Rui; Hu, Guoku; Li, Xiaoqing; Splinter, Patrick L.; O’Hara, Steven P.; LaRusso, Nicholas F.; Soukup, Garrett A.; Dong, Haidong; Chen, Xian-Ming

    2009-01-01

    Biliary epithelial cells (cholangiocytes) respond to proinflammatory cytokines such as IFN-γ and actively participate in the regulation of biliary inflammatory response in the liver. B7-H1 (also known as CD274 or PD-L1) is a member of the B7 costimu-latory molecules and plays a critical immunoregulatory role in cell-mediated immune responses. In this study, we show that resting human cholangiocytes in culture express B7-H1 mRNA, but not B7-H1 protein. IFN-γ induces B7-H1 protein expression and alters the microRNA (miRNA) expression profile in cholangiocytes. Of those IFN-γ-down-regulated miRNAs, we identified microRNA-513 (miR-513) with complementarity to the 3′-untranslated region of B7-H1 mRNA. Targeting of the B7-H1 3′-untranslated region by miR-513 results in translational repression. Transfection of cholangiocytes with an antisense oligonucleotide to miR-513 induces B7-H1 protein expression. Additionally, transfection of miR-513 precursor decreases IFN-γ-induced B7-H1 protein expression and consequently influences B7-H1-associated apoptotic cell death in cocultured Jurkat cells. Thus, miR-513 regulates B7-H1 translation and is involved in IFN-γ-induced B7-H1 expression in human cholangiocytes, suggesting a role for miRNA-mediated gene silencing in the regulation of cholangiocyte response to IFN-γ. PMID:19155478

  4. Ureteroscopic treatment of larger renal calculi (>2 cm)

    PubMed Central

    Bagley, Demetrius H.; Healy, Kelly A.; Kleinmann, Nir

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the current status of ureteroscopic lithotripsy (UL) for treating renal calculi of >2 cm, as advances in flexible ureteroscope design, accessory instrumentation and lithotrites have revolutionised the treatment of urinary calculi. While previously reserved for ureteric and small renal calculi, UL has gained an increasing role in the selective management of larger renal stone burdens. Methods We searched the available databases, including PubMed, Google Scholar, and Scopus, for relevant reports in English, and the article bibliographies to identify additional relevant articles. Keywords included ureteroscopy, lithotripsy, renal calculi, and calculi >2 cm. Retrieved articles were reviewed to consider the number of patients, mean stone size, success rates, indications and complications. Results In all, nine studies (417 patients) were eligible for inclusion. After one, two or three procedures the mean (range) success rates were 68.2 (23–84)%, 87.1 (79–91)% and 94.4 (90.1–96.7)%, respectively. Overall, the success rate was >90% with a mean of 1.2–2.3 procedures per patient. The overall complication rate was 10.3%, including six (1.4%) intraoperative and 37 (8.9%) postoperative complications, most of which were minor. The most common indications for UL were a failed previous treatment (46%), comorbidities (18.2%), and technical and anatomical factors (12.3%). Conclusions UL is safe and effective for treating large renal calculi. While several procedures might be required for total stone clearance, UL should be considered a standard approach in the urologist’s options treating renal calculi of >2 cm. PMID:26558040

  5. DNA stable pentaploid H1 (ES) cells obtained from an octaploid cell induced from tetraploid cells polyploidized using demecolcine.

    PubMed

    Fujikawa-Yamamoto, Kohzaburo; Luo, Xianwen; Miyagoshi, Minoru; Yamagishi, Hiroko

    2010-05-01

    Pentaploid H1 (ES) cells (5H1 cells) were accidentally obtained through one-cell cloning of octaploid H1 (ES) cells (8H1 cells) that were established from tetraploid H1 (ES) cells (4H1 cells) polyploidized using demecolcine. The number of chromosomes of 5H1 cells was 100, unlike the 40 of diploid H1 (ES) cells (2H1 cells), 80 of 4H1, and 160 of 8H1 cells. The durations of G(1), S, and G(2)/M phases of 5H1 cells were 3, 7, and 6 h, respectively, almost the same as those of 2H1, 4H1, and 8H1 cells. The cell volume of 5H1 cells was half of that of 8H1 cells, suggesting that 5H1 cells were created through abnormal cell divisions of 8H1 cells. The morphology of growing 5H1 cells was a spherical cluster similar to that of 2H1 cells and differing from the flagstone-like shape of 4H1 and 8H1 cells. Pentaploid solid tumors were formed from 5H1 cells after interperitoneal injection into the mouse abdomen, and they contained endodermal, mesodermal, and ectodermal cells as well as undifferentiated cells, suggesting both that the DNA content of 5H1 cells was retained during tumor formation and that the 5H1 cells were pluripotent. The DNA content of 5H1 cells was stable in long-term culturing as 2H1 cells, meaning that 5H1 and 2H1 cells shared similarities in DNA structure. The excellent stability of the DNA content of 5H1 cells was explained using a hypothesis for the DNA structure of polyploid cells because the pairing of homologous chromosomes in 5H1 cells is spatially forbidden. PMID:20082301

  6. 46 CFR 35.10-3 - Display of plans-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Display of plans-TB/ALL. 35.10-3 Section 35.10-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS OPERATIONS Fire and Emergency... booklet or on computer software, provided that the aforementioned details are available to each...

  7. 46 CFR 35.10-3 - Display of plans-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Display of plans-TB/ALL. 35.10-3 Section 35.10-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS OPERATIONS Fire and Emergency... booklet or on computer software, provided that the aforementioned details are available to each...

  8. 46 CFR 35.10-3 - Display of plans-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Display of plans-TB/ALL. 35.10-3 Section 35.10-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS OPERATIONS Fire and Emergency... booklet or on computer software, provided that the aforementioned details are available to each...

  9. 46 CFR 35.10-3 - Display of plans-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Display of plans-TB/ALL. 35.10-3 Section 35.10-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS OPERATIONS Fire and Emergency... booklet or on computer software, provided that the aforementioned details are available to each...

  10. Synthesis and structure of spiro[2-(2-methylphenyl)-4 H-1,3-benzoxazine-4,2'-adamantane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osyanin, V. A.; Ivleva, E. A.; Rybakov, V. B.; Klimochkin, Yu. N.

    2015-01-01

    Synthesis and an X-ray diffraction study of spiro[2-(2-methylphenyl)-4 H-1,3-benzoxazine-4,2'-adamantane] C24H25NO are performed: monoclinic crystal system, space group P21/ c, a = 13.9424(3) Å, b = 7.56554(17) Å, c = 17.0155(3) Å, β = 99.6457(18)°, Z = 4, V = 1769.45(6) Å3. ρcalcd = 1.244 g/cm3, R = 0.0339 [ T = 100(2) K]. The oxazine ring of the molecule adopts the boat conformation. The bond lengths and angles are standard for this class of compounds.

  11. 20 CFR 655.705 - What Federal agencies are involved in the H-1B and H-1B1 programs, and what are the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... CFR 214.2(h)(4)(iii)(B)(2), which specifies the employer will comply with the terms of the LCA for the... Employers Seeking To Employ Nonimmigrants on H-1b Visas in Specialty Occupations and as Fashion Models, and Requirements for Employers Seeking To Employ Nonimmigrants on H-1b1 and E-3 Visas in Specialty...

  12. 20 CFR 655.705 - What Federal agencies are involved in the H-1B and H-1B1 programs, and what are the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What Federal agencies are involved in the H-1B and H-1B1 programs, and what are the responsibilities of those agencies and of employers? 655.705 Section 655.705 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TEMPORARY EMPLOYMENT OF FOREIGN WORKERS IN THE...

  13. The Multidimensional Curriculum Model (MdCM)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vidergor, Hava E.

    2010-01-01

    The multidimensional Curriculum Model (MdCM) helps teachers to better prepare gifted and able students for our changing world, acquiring much needed skills. It is influenced by general learning theory of constructivism, notions of preparing students for 21st century, Teaching the Future Model, and current comprehensive curriculum models for…

  14. The 150/220 cm Schmidt telescope.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Ke-Ren; Li, De-Pei; Yi, Mei-Liang; Zhu, Li-Qing; Li, Chang-Jin; Xu, Jian-Hua; Zhu, Neng-Hong; Wang, Lang-Juan; Zheng, Yi-Jin

    1990-09-01

    This paper deals with the overall design of the 150/220 cm Schmidt telescope. The optics, main structure, main mirror cell and the focus keeping device, achromatic Schmidt control cell, hydrostatic bearing of polar axis, drive, CCD auto-guider, and multi microcomputer control system are discussed in detail.

  15. Characterization of 8-cm engineering model thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williamson, W. S.

    1984-01-01

    Development of 8 cm ion thruster technology which was conducted in support of the Ion Auxiliary Propulsion System (IAPS) flight contract (Contract NAS3-21055) is discussed. The work included characterization of thruster performance, stability, and control; a study of the effects of cathode aging; environmental qualification testing; and cyclic lifetesting of especially critical thruster components.

  16. Anti-Human H1N1pdm09 and swine H1N1 Virus Antibodies among Swine Workers in Guangdong Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jie; Yi, Lina; Ni, Hanzhong; Zou, Lirong; Zhang, Hongbin; Zeng, Xianqiao; Liang, Lijun; Li, Laiqing; Zhong, Haojie; Zhang, Xin; Lin, Jin-yan; Ke, Changwen

    2015-01-01

    To assess the potential transmission for zoonotic influenza, sero-antibodies against two kinds of influenza viruses—classical swine H1N1 and human H1N1pdm09 virus were detected in persons whose profession involved contact with swine in Guangdong province, China. Compared to the non-exposed control group, a significantly higher proportion of subjects with occupational contact to pigs exhibited positive seroreaction against the classical H1N1 SIV. Participants aged 26–50 years were at high risk of classic swine H1N1 infections. Seropositive rate to 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus among swine workers was similar with controls. The major impact of age was apparent for younger populations. Our present study has documented evidence for swine influenza virus infection among persons with occupational swine exposures. The differences of seroreactivity for the two tested influenza subtypes emphasize the necessity of regular surveillance both in pigs and human. PMID:26205221

  17. Fabrication and photocatalytic property of Pt-intercalated layered perovskite niobates H(1-x)LaNb(2-x)Mo(x)O(7) (x=0-0.15).

    PubMed

    Huang, Yunfang; Li, Jing; Wei, Yuelin; Li, Yibin; Lin, Jianmin; Wu, Jihuai

    2009-07-15

    H(1-x)LaNb(2-x)Mo(x)O(7) was prepared by solid-state reaction followed by an ion-exchange reaction. Pt was incorporated in the interlayer of H(1-x)LaNb(2-x)Mo(x)O(7) by the stepwise intercalation reaction. The H(1-x)LaNb(2-x)Mo(x)O(7) showed hydrogen production activity and the activities were greatly enhanced by Pt co-incorporating. The x value in H(1-x)LaNb(2-x)Mo(x)O(7) had an important effect on the photocatalytic activity of the catalyst. When the x=0.05, the H(1-x)LaNb(2-x)Mo(x)O(7)/Pt showed a photocatalytic activity of 80 cm(3)h(-1)g(-1) hydrogen evolution rate in 10 vol.% methanol solution under irradiation from a 100 W mercury lamp at 333K. PMID:19111974

  18. 77 FR 53912 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; H-1B...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-04

    ... the Federal Register on January 23, 2012 (77 FR 3284). Interested parties are encouraged to send...; H-1B Technical Skills Training Grants and H-1B Jobs and Innovation Accelerator Challenge Grants... Training Grants and H-1B Jobs and Innovation Accelerator Challenge Grants,'' to the Office of...

  19. Genetic and antigenic characterization of H1 influenza viruses from United States swine from 2008

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Swine play an important role in the evolution of influenza A viruses. Prior to the introduction of the 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus from humans into pigs, four phylogenetic clusters of the hemagglutinin (HA) gene from H1 influenza viruses could be found in U.S. swine. Viruses from the classical H1N1 sw...

  20. Purification and recombinant expression of major peanut allergen Ara h 1.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhihua; Yan, Fei; Wei, Xiaonan; Li, Xin; Tong, Ping; Yang, Anshu; Tang, Ronghua; Chen, Hongbing

    2015-01-01

    Reaction to peanut, as one of the major food allergens, has become an increasingly common life-threatening disorder. Although peanut allergens have been extensively identified, Ara h 1 is still too expensive to be applied in food safety or clinical utility. In this study, the purification, expression, and immunological analyses of Ara h 1 are investigated. It was shown that a high purity (>95%) of Ara h 1 could be prepared by either purification or expression. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), Western blot, and mass spectroscopy were used to identify the Ara h 1, and it was found that natural Ara h 1 (nAra h 1) and expressed Ara h 1 (rAra h 1) have the same properties, including amino acid sequence. In particular, rAra h 1 reacted positively with anti-nAra h 1 serum, showing their similar immunological property. Thus, by either purification or expression, Ara h 1 could be prepared with low cost, as performed in the present work. SDS-PAGE, mag trix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectroscopy (MALDI-TOF MS), and immunological analysis confirmed that both forms of Ara h 1 had the same properties. PMID:25036339

  1. 26 CFR 1.1402(h)-1 - Members of certain religious groups opposed to insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... insurance. 1.1402(h)-1 Section 1.1402(h)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE...(h)-1 Members of certain religious groups opposed to insurance. (a) In general. An individual—(1) Who... 1402(h) and this section refer does not include liability insurance of a kind that provides only...

  2. 26 CFR 1.1402(h)-1 - Members of certain religious groups opposed to insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... insurance. 1.1402(h)-1 Section 1.1402(h)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE...(h)-1 Members of certain religious groups opposed to insurance. (a) In general. An individual—(1) Who... 1402(h) and this section refer does not include liability insurance of a kind that provides only...

  3. 26 CFR 301.6223(h)-1 - Responsibilities of pass-thru partner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... October 4, 2001. For years beginning prior to October 4, 2001, see § 301.6223(h)-1T contained in 26 CFR...(h)-1 Section 301.6223(h)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Assessment In General §...

  4. 26 CFR 1.167(h)-1 - Life tenants and beneficiaries of trusts and estates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Life tenants and beneficiaries of trusts and estates. 1.167(h)-1 Section 1.167(h)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... and Corporations § 1.167(h)-1 Life tenants and beneficiaries of trusts and estates. (a) Life...

  5. 26 CFR 31.3402(h)(1)-1 - Withholding on basis of average wages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Withholding on basis of average wages. 31.3402(h)(1)-1 Section 31.3402(h)(1)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE Collection of Income Tax at Source § 31.3402(h)(1)-1 Withholding on...

  6. 26 CFR 1.167(h)-1 - Life tenants and beneficiaries of trusts and estates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Life tenants and beneficiaries of trusts and estates. 1.167(h)-1 Section 1.167(h)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... and Corporations § 1.167(h)-1 Life tenants and beneficiaries of trusts and estates. (a) Life...

  7. 26 CFR 31.3402(h)(1)-1 - Withholding on basis of average wages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Withholding on basis of average wages. 31.3402(h)(1)-1 Section 31.3402(h)(1)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE Collection of Income Tax at Source § 31.3402(h)(1)-1 Withholding on...

  8. 26 CFR 301.6501(h)-1 - Net operating loss or capital loss carrybacks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Net operating loss or capital loss carrybacks. 301.6501(h)-1 Section 301.6501(h)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Assessment and Collection § 301.6501(h)-1 Net operating loss or capital loss carrybacks. In the case of...

  9. 26 CFR 301.6501(h)-1 - Net operating loss or capital loss carrybacks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Net operating loss or capital loss carrybacks. 301.6501(h)-1 Section 301.6501(h)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Assessment and Collection § 301.6501(h)-1 Net operating loss or capital loss carrybacks. In the case of...

  10. 26 CFR 301.6223(h)-1 - Responsibilities of pass-thru partner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... October 4, 2001. For years beginning prior to October 4, 2001, see § 301.6223(h)-1T contained in 26 CFR...(h)-1 Section 301.6223(h)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Assessment In General §...

  11. 26 CFR 31.3402(h)(1)-1 - Withholding on basis of average wages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Withholding on basis of average wages. 31.3402(h)(1)-1 Section 31.3402(h)(1)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE Collection of Income Tax at Source § 31.3402(h)(1)-1 Withholding on...

  12. 26 CFR 1.643(h)-1 - Distributions by certain foreign trusts through intermediaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... intermediaries. 1.643(h)-1 Section 1.643(h)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE....643(h)-1 Distributions by certain foreign trusts through intermediaries. (a) In general—(1) Principal... to C on December 1, 2001. (h) Effective date. The rules of this section are applicable to...

  13. 26 CFR 1.1402(h)-1 - Members of certain religious groups opposed to insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... insurance. 1.1402(h)-1 Section 1.1402(h)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE...(h)-1 Members of certain religious groups opposed to insurance. (a) In general. An individual—(1) Who... 1402(h) and this section refer does not include liability insurance of a kind that provides only...

  14. 26 CFR 301.6501(h)-1 - Net operating loss or capital loss carrybacks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Net operating loss or capital loss carrybacks. 301.6501(h)-1 Section 301.6501(h)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Assessment and Collection § 301.6501(h)-1 Net operating loss or capital loss carrybacks. In the case of...

  15. 26 CFR 1.167(h)-1 - Life tenants and beneficiaries of trusts and estates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Life tenants and beneficiaries of trusts and estates. 1.167(h)-1 Section 1.167(h)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... and Corporations § 1.167(h)-1 Life tenants and beneficiaries of trusts and estates. (a) Life...

  16. 26 CFR 48.6416(h)-1 - Accounting procedures for like articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Accounting procedures for like articles. 48.6416(h)-1 Section 48.6416(h)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... Administrative Provisions of Special Application to Retailers and Manufacturers Taxes § 48.6416(h)-1...

  17. Influenza A Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus Infection in Domestic Cat

    PubMed Central

    Strait, Erin; Jergens, Albert; Trujillo, Jessie; Harmon, Karen; Koster, Leo; Jenkins-Moore, Melinda; Killian, Mary; Swenson, Sabrina; Bender, Holly; Waller, Ken; Miles, Kristina; Pearce, Tracy; Yoon, Kyoung-Jin; Nara, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Influenza A pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus continues to rapidly spread worldwide. In 2009, pandemic (H1N1) 2009 infection in a domestic cat from Iowa was diagnosed by a novel PCR assay that distinguishes between Eurasian and North American pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus matrix genes. Human-to-cat transmission is presumed. PMID:20202440

  18. 26 CFR 1.1402(h)-1 - Members of certain religious groups opposed to insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... insurance. 1.1402(h)-1 Section 1.1402(h)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE...(h)-1 Members of certain religious groups opposed to insurance. (a) In general. An individual—(1) Who... 1402(h) and this section refer does not include liability insurance of a kind that provides only...

  19. 26 CFR 301.6223(h)-1 - Responsibilities of pass-thru partner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... October 4, 2001. For years beginning prior to October 4, 2001, see § 301.6223(h)-1T contained in 26 CFR...(h)-1 Section 301.6223(h)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Assessment In General §...

  20. 26 CFR 1.167(h)-1 - Life tenants and beneficiaries of trusts and estates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Life tenants and beneficiaries of trusts and estates. 1.167(h)-1 Section 1.167(h)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... and Corporations § 1.167(h)-1 Life tenants and beneficiaries of trusts and estates. (a) Life...

  1. 26 CFR 1.643(h)-1 - Distributions by certain foreign trusts through intermediaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... intermediaries. 1.643(h)-1 Section 1.643(h)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE....643(h)-1 Distributions by certain foreign trusts through intermediaries. (a) In general—(1) Principal... to C on December 1, 2001. (h) Effective date. The rules of this section are applicable to...

  2. 26 CFR 301.6501(h)-1 - Net operating loss or capital loss carrybacks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Net operating loss or capital loss carrybacks. 301.6501(h)-1 Section 301.6501(h)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Assessment and Collection § 301.6501(h)-1 Net operating loss or capital loss carrybacks. In the case of...

  3. 26 CFR 301.6223(h)-1 - Responsibilities of pass-thru partner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... October 4, 2001. For years beginning prior to October 4, 2001, see § 301.6223(h)-1T contained in 26 CFR...(h)-1 Section 301.6223(h)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Assessment In General §...

  4. 26 CFR 1.1402(h)-1 - Members of certain religious groups opposed to insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... insurance. 1.1402(h)-1 Section 1.1402(h)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Tax on Self-Employment Income § 1.1402(h)-1... 1402(h) and this section refer does not include liability insurance of a kind that provides only...

  5. 26 CFR 1.643(h)-1 - Distributions by certain foreign trusts through intermediaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... intermediaries. 1.643(h)-1 Section 1.643(h)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Estates, Trusts, and Beneficiaries § 1.643(h)-1... section, FT is deemed to have distributed XYZ stock with a value of 85X to C on December 1, 2001....

  6. 26 CFR 1.167(h)-1 - Life tenants and beneficiaries of trusts and estates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Life tenants and beneficiaries of trusts and estates. 1.167(h)-1 Section 1.167(h)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... and Corporations § 1.167(h)-1 Life tenants and beneficiaries of trusts and estates. (a) Life...

  7. 26 CFR 301.6501(h)-1 - Net operating loss or capital loss carrybacks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Net operating loss or capital loss carrybacks. 301.6501(h)-1 Section 301.6501(h)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Assessment and Collection § 301.6501(h)-1 Net operating loss or capital loss carrybacks. In the case of...

  8. 26 CFR 25.2523(h)-1 - Denial of double deduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Denial of double deduction. 25.2523(h)-1 Section 25.2523(h)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ESTATE AND GIFT TAXES GIFT TAX; GIFTS MADE AFTER DECEMBER 31, 1954 Deductions § 25.2523(h)-1 Denial of...

  9. 26 CFR 25.2523(h)-1 - Denial of double deduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Denial of double deduction. 25.2523(h)-1 Section 25.2523(h)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ESTATE AND GIFT TAXES GIFT TAX; GIFTS MADE AFTER DECEMBER 31, 1954 Deductions § 25.2523(h)-1 Denial of...

  10. Characterization of H1N1 swine influenza viruses circulating in Canadian pigs in 2009

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 2009 pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1), of apparent swine origin, may have evolved in pigs unnoticed because of insufficient surveillance. Consequently, the need for surveillance of influenza viruses circulating in pigs has received added attention. In this study we characterized H1N1 viruses isolated from ...

  11. Factors Influencing School Closure and Dismissal Decisions: Influenza A (H1N1), Michigan 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dooyema, Carrie A.; Copeland, Daphne; Sinclair, Julie R.; Shi, Jianrong; Wilkins, Melinda; Wells, Eden; Collins, Jim

    2014-01-01

    Background: In fall 2009, many US communities experienced school closures during the influenza A H1N1 pandemic (pH1N1) and the state of Michigan reported 567 closures. We conducted an investigation in Michigan to describe pH1N1-related school policies, practices, and identify factors related to school closures. Methods: We distributed an online…

  12. 26 CFR 31.3402(h)(1)-1 - Withholding on basis of average wages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...(h)(1)-1 Section 31.3402(h)(1)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE Collection of Income Tax at Source § 31.3402(h)(1)-1 Withholding on basis... basis of average estimated tips—(1) In general. Subject to certain limitations and conditions,...

  13. Health costs from hospitalization with H1N1 infection during the 2009–2010 influenza pandemic compared with non-H1N1 respiratory infections

    PubMed Central

    Zarogoulidis, Paul; Glaros, Dimitrios; Kontakiotis, Theodoros; Froudarakis, Marios; Kioumis, loannis; Kouroumichakis, loannis; Tsiotsios, Anastasios; Kallianos, Anastasios; Steiropoulos, Paschalis; Porpodis, Konstantinos; Nena, Evagelia; Papakosta, Despoina; Rapti, Aggeliki; Constantinidis, Theodoros C; Kerenidi, Theodora; Panopoulou, Maria; Trakada, Georgia; Courcoutsakis, Nikolaos; Fouka, Evangelia; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos; Maltezos, Efstratios

    2012-01-01

    Background The first positive patient with influenza A (H1N1) was recorded in March 2009 and the pandemic continued with new outbreaks throughout 2010. This study’s objective was to quantify the total cost of inpatient care and identify factors associated with the increased cost of the 2009–2010 influenza A pandemic in comparison with nonviral respiratory infection. Methods In total, 133 positive and 103 negative H1N1 patients were included from three tertiary care hospitals during the two waves of H1N1 in 2009 and 2010. The health costs for protective equipment and pharmaceuticals and hospitalization (medications, laboratory, and diagnostic tests) were compared between H1N1 positive and negative patients. Results The objective of the study was to quantify the means of daily and total costs of inpatient care. Overall, cost was higher for H1N1 positive (€61,0117.72) than for H1N1-negative patients (€464,923.59). This was mainly due to the protection measures used and the prolonged hospitalization in intensive care units. In H1N1-negative patients, main contributors to cost included additional diagnostic tests due to concern regarding respiratory capacity and laboratory values, as well as additional radiologic and microbial culture tests. The mean duration of hospitalization was 841 days for H1N1 positive and 829 days for negative patients. Conclusion Cost was higher in H1N1 patients, mainly due to the protection measures used and the increased duration of hospitalization in intensive care units. An automated system to monitor patients would be desirable to reduce cost in H1N1 influenza. PMID:22419882

  14. Hydrogen-Broadened Water from 50 to 300 cm-1 and 1300 to 4000 cm-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, L.; Peterson, D.; Plymate, C.

    1995-01-01

    To support remote sensing of the outer planets, absorption spectra of H2O broadened by H2 were recorded at room temperature using two Fourier transform spectrometers. The data from 1300 to 4000 cm-1 were obtained at 0.012 cm-1 resolution with the McMath FTS located at Kitt Peak National Observatory/National Solar Observatory. The remainder of the spectral data from 55 to 320 cm-1 were taken at 0.0056 cm-1 with the Bruker FTS.

  15. 15 cm multipole gas ion thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Isaacson, G. C.; Kaufman, H. R.

    1976-01-01

    A 15-cm multipole thruster was operated on argon and xenon. The multipole approach used has been shown capable of low discharge losses and flat ion beam profiles with a minimum of redesign. This approach employs low magnetic field strengths and flat or cylindrical sheet-metal parts, hence is suited to rapid optimization and scaling. Only refractory metal cathodes were used in this investigation.

  16. Constraining dark matter through 21-cm observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdés, M.; Ferrara, A.; Mapelli, M.; Ripamonti, E.

    2007-05-01

    Beyond reionization epoch cosmic hydrogen is neutral and can be directly observed through its 21-cm line signal. If dark matter (DM) decays or annihilates, the corresponding energy input affects the hydrogen kinetic temperature and ionized fraction, and contributes to the Lyα background. The changes induced by these processes on the 21-cm signal can then be used to constrain the proposed DM candidates, among which we select the three most popular ones: (i) 25-keV decaying sterile neutrinos, (ii) 10-MeV decaying light dark matter (LDM) and (iii) 10-MeV annihilating LDM. Although we find that the DM effects are considerably smaller than found by previous studies (due to a more physical description of the energy transfer from DM to the gas), we conclude that combined observations of the 21-cm background and of its gradient should be able to put constrains at least on LDM candidates. In fact, LDM decays (annihilations) induce differential brightness temperature variations with respect to the non-decaying/annihilating DM case up to ΔδTb = 8 (22) mK at about 50 (15) MHz. In principle, this signal could be detected both by current single-dish radio telescopes and future facilities as Low Frequency Array; however, this assumes that ionospheric, interference and foreground issues can be properly taken care of.

  17. Mapmaking for precision 21 cm cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dillon, Joshua S.; Tegmark, Max; Liu, Adrian; Ewall-Wice, Aaron; Hewitt, Jacqueline N.; Morales, Miguel F.; Neben, Abraham R.; Parsons, Aaron R.; Zheng, Haoxuan

    2015-01-01

    In order to study the "Cosmic Dawn" and the Epoch of Reionization with 21 cm tomography, we need to statistically separate the cosmological signal from foregrounds known to be orders of magnitude brighter. Over the last few years, we have learned much about the role our telescopes play in creating a putatively foreground-free region called the "EoR window." In this work, we examine how an interferometer's effects can be taken into account in a way that allows for the rigorous estimation of 21 cm power spectra from interferometric maps while mitigating foreground contamination and thus increasing sensitivity. This requires a precise understanding of the statistical relationship between the maps we make and the underlying true sky. While some of these calculations would be computationally infeasible if performed exactly, we explore several well-controlled approximations that make mapmaking and the calculation of map statistics much faster, especially for compact and highly redundant interferometers designed specifically for 21 cm cosmology. We demonstrate the utility of these methods and the parametrized trade-offs between accuracy and speed using one such telescope, the upcoming Hydrogen Epoch of Reionization Array, as a case study.

  18. Polyhedral Serpentine Grains in CM Chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zega, Thomas J.; Garvie, Laurence A. J.; Dodony, Istvan; Stroud, Rhonda M.; Buseck, Peter R.

    2005-01-01

    CM chondrites are primitive rocks that experienced aqueous alteration in the early solar system. Their matrices and fine-grained rims (FGRs) sustained the effects of alteration, and the minerals within them hold clues to the aqueous reactions. Sheet silicates are an important product of alteration, and those of the serpentine group are abundant in the CM2 chondrites. Here we expand on our previous efforts to characterize the structure and chemistry of serpentines in CM chondrites and report results on a polyhedral form that is structurally similar to polygonal serpentine. Polygonal serpentine consists of tetrahedral (T) sheets joined to M(2+)-centered octahedral (O) sheets (where (M2+) is primarily Mg(2+) and Fe(2+)), which give rise to a 1:1 (TO) layered structure with a 0.7-nm layer periodicity. The structure is similar to chrysotile in that it consists of concentric lizardite layers wrapped around the fiber axis. However, unlike the rolled-up chrysotile, the tetrahedral sheets of the lizardite layers are periodically inverted and kinked, producing sectors. The relative angles between sectors result in 15- and 30-sided polygons in terrestrial samples.

  19. Pharmacological profile of astemizole-derived compounds at the histamine H1 and H4 receptor--H1/H4 receptor selectivity.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Eva; Wittmann, Hans-Joachim; Elz, Sigurd; Strasser, Andrea

    2014-03-01

    Astemizole, a H1R antagonist shows high affinity to the histamine H1 receptor but only a moderate affinity to the histamine H4 receptor. This study aims to modify the astemizole to keep high affinity to the histamine H1 receptor and to increase affinity to the histamine H4 receptor. Therefore, 13 astemizole-derived compounds and astemizole-JNJ7777120-derived hybrid compounds were synthesized and pharmacologically characterized at the histamine H1 and H4 receptors. The new compounds show affinity to the histamine H1 receptor in the pK i range from 5.3 to 8.8, whereas the affinity of these compounds to the histamine H4 receptor was surprisingly rather low (pK i from 4.4 to 5.6). Three representative compounds were docked into the histamine H1 receptor and molecular dynamic studies were performed to explain the binding mode and the experimental results on a molecular level. Furthermore, taking into account the binding mode of compounds with high affinity to the histamine H4 receptor, a H1/H4-pharmacophore hypothesis was developed. PMID:24241585

  20. Guanine nucleotide exchange factor H1 can be a new biomarker of melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Jie; Guo, Bingyu; Zhang, Yu; Hui, Qiang; Chang, Peng; Tao, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Guanine nucleotide exchange factor H1 (GEF-H1), which couples microtubule dynamics to RhoA activation, is a microtubule-regulated exchange factor. Studies have shown that GEF-H1 can be involved in various cancer pathways; however, the clinical significance of GEF-H1 expression and functions in melanoma has not been established. In this study, we investigated the relationship between clinical outcomes and GEF-H1 functions in melanoma. A total of 60 cases of different grades of melanoma samples were used to detect the expression of GEF-H1. Results showed that both messenger RNA and protein levels of GEF-H1 were significantly higher in high-grade melanomas. Furthermore, patients with high GEF-H1 expression had a shorter overall survival (22 months) than patients with low level of GEF-H1 expression (33.38 months). We also found that GEF-H1 can promote the proliferation and metastasis of melanoma cells. In summary, these results suggested that GEF-H1 may be a valuable biomarker for assessing the degree and prognosis of melanoma following surgery. PMID:27462139

  1. The N-terminal domain determines the affinity and specificity of H1 binding to chromatin

    SciTech Connect

    Oeberg, Christine; Belikov, Sergey

    2012-04-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer wt Human histone H1.4 and hH1.4 devoid of N-terminal domain, {Delta}N-hH1.4, were compared. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Both histones bind to chromatin, however, {Delta}N-hH1.4 displays lower binding affinity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Interaction of {Delta}N-hH1.4 with chromatin includes a significant unspecific component. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer N-terminal domain is a determinant of specificity of histone H1 binding to chromatin. -- Abstract: Linker histone H1, one of the most abundant nuclear proteins in multicellular eukaryotes, is a key component of the chromatin structure mainly due to its role in the formation and maintenance of the 30 nm chromatin fiber. It has a three-domain structure; a central globular domain flanked by a short N-terminal domain and a long, highly basic C-terminal domain. Previous studies have shown that the binding abilities of H1 are at large determined by the properties of the C-terminal domain; much less attention has been paid to role of the N-terminal domain. We have previously shown that H1 can be reconstituted via cytoplasmic mRNA injection in Xenopus oocytes, cells that lack somatic H1. The heterologously expressed H1 proteins are incorporated into in vivo assembled chromatin at specific sites and the binding event is monitored as an increase in nucleosomal repeat length (NRL). Using this setup we have here compared the binding properties of wt-H1.4 and hH1.4 devoid of its N-terminal domain ({Delta}N-hH1.4). The {Delta}N-hH1.4 displays a drastically lower affinity for chromatin binding as compared to the wild type hH1.4. Our data also indicates that {Delta}N-hH1.4 is more prone to unspecific chromatin binding than the wild type. We conclude that the N-terminal domain of H1 is an important determinant of affinity and specificity of H1-chromatin interactions.

  2. ICD-10-CM/PCS: Transferring Knowledge from ICD-9-CM

    PubMed Central

    Sand, Jaime N.; Elison-Bowers, Patt

    2013-01-01

    The transition to ICD-10-CM/PCS has expanded educational opportunities for educators and trainers who are taking on the responsibility of training coders on the new system. Coding education currently faces multiple challenges in the areas of how to train the new workforce, what might be the most efficient method of providing that training, how much retraining of the current workforce with ICD-9-CM training will be required, and how to meet the national implementation deadline of 2014 in the most efficacious manner. This research sought to identify if there was a difference between a group of participants with no knowledge of ICD-9-CM and those with some knowledge of ICD-9-CM in scores on an ICD-10-CM/PCS quiz. Results indicate a difference, supporting the idea of knowledge transfer between the systems and providing additional insight into coding education. PMID:23861677

  3. A 30-cm diameter argon ion source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sovey, J. S.

    1976-01-01

    A 30 cm diameter argon ion source was evaluated. Ion source beam currents up to 4a were extracted with ion energies ranging from 0.2 to 1.5 KeV. An ion optics scaling relation was developed for predicting ion beam extraction capability as a function of total extraction voltage, gas type, and screen grid open area. Ignition and emission characteristics of several hollow cathode geometries were assessed for purposes of defining discharge chamber and neutralizer cathodes. Also presented are ion beam profile characteristics which exhibit broad beam capability well suited for ion beam sputtering applications.

  4. Isotope shifts in methane near 6000/cm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, K.; Halsey, G. W.; Jennings, D. E.

    1976-01-01

    Isotope shifts for cleanly resolved vibrational-rotational absorption lines of CH4-12 and CH4-13 were measured by a 5-m focal length Littrow spectrometer in the 6000/cm range. The methane isotopes were held in separate absorption cells: 20 torr of CH4-13 in a 1-m cell, and 5 torr of CH4-12 in a White cell of 4-m optical path length. Measured shifts for the cleanly resolved singlets R(0), R(1), Q(1) and P(1) are summarized in tabular form.

  5. An engineering model 30 cm ion thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poeschel, R. L.; King, H. J.; Schnelker, D. E.

    1973-01-01

    Thruster development at Hughes Research Laboratories and NASA Lewis Research Center has brought the 30-cm mercury bombardment ion thruster to the state of an engineering model. This thruster has been designed to have sufficient internal strength for direct mounting on gimbals, to weigh 7.3 kg, to operate with a corrected overall efficiency of 71%, and to have 10,000 hours lifetime. Subassemblies, such as the ion optical system, isolators, etc., have been upgraded to meet launch qualification standards. This paper presents a summary of the design specifications and performance characteristics which define the interface between the thruster module and the remainder of the propulsion system.

  6. 20 CFR 655.700 - What statutory provisions govern the employment of H-1B, H-1B1, and E-3 nonimmigrants and how do...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (Public Law 106-95) and the regulations issued thereunder, 20 CFR part 655, subparts L and M. (3) E-3... U.S.C. 1101(a)(15)(H)(i)(b1)), under the U.S.-Chile and U.S.-Singapore Free Trade Agreements as long... condition application is for an “E-3 Australia,” “H-1B1 Chile,” or “H-1B1 Singapore” nonimmigrant....

  7. H1N1 viral proteome peptide microarray predicts individuals at risk for H1N1 infection and segregates infection versus Pandemrix(®) vaccination.

    PubMed

    Ambati, Aditya; Valentini, Davide; Montomoli, Emanuele; Lapini, Guilia; Biuso, Fabrizio; Wenschuh, Holger; Magalhaes, Isabelle; Maeurer, Markus

    2015-07-01

    A high content peptide microarray containing the entire influenza A virus [A/California/08/2009(H1N1)] proteome and haemagglutinin proteins from 12 other influenza A subtypes, including the haemagglutinin from the [A/South Carolina/1/1918(H1N1)] strain, was used to gauge serum IgG epitope signatures before and after Pandemrix(®) vaccination or H1N1 infection in a Swedish cohort during the pandemic influenza season 2009. A very narrow pattern of pandemic flu-specific IgG epitope recognition was observed in the serum from individuals who later contracted H1N1 infection. Moreover, the pandemic influenza infection generated IgG reactivity to two adjacent epitopes of the neuraminidase protein. The differential serum IgG recognition was focused on haemagglutinin 1 (H1) and restricted to classical antigenic sites (Cb) in both the vaccinated controls and individuals with flu infections. We further identified a novel epitope VEPGDKITFEATGNL on the Ca antigenic site (251-265) of the pandemic flu haemagglutinin, which was exclusively recognized in serum from individuals with previous vaccinations and never in serum from individuals with H1N1 infection (confirmed by RNA PCR analysis from nasal swabs). This epitope was mapped to the receptor-binding domain of the influenza haemagglutinin and could serve as a correlate of immune protection in the context of pandemic flu. The study shows that unbiased epitope mapping using peptide microarray technology leads to the identification of biologically and clinically relevant target structures. Most significantly an H1N1 infection induced a different footprint of IgG epitope recognition patterns compared with the pandemic H1N1 vaccine. PMID:25639813

  8. 2,4-Diaminopyrimidines as dual ligands at the histamine H1 and H4 receptor-H1/H4-receptor selectivity.

    PubMed

    Hammer, Sebastian G; Gobleder, Susanne; Naporra, Franziska; Wittmann, Hans-Joachim; Elz, Sigurd; Heinrich, Markus R; Strasser, Andrea

    2016-01-15

    Distinct diaminopyrimidines, for example, 4-(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)-5,6-dihydrobenzo[h]quinazolin-2-amine are histamine H4 receptor (H4R) antagonists and show high affinity to the H4R, but only a moderate affinity to the histamine H1 receptor (H1R). Within previous studies it was shown that an aromatic side chain with a distinct distance to the basic amine and aromatic core is necessary for affinity to the human H1R (hH1R). Thus, a rigid aminopyrimidine with a tricyclic core was used as a lead structure. There, (1) the flexible aromatic side chain was introduced, (2) the substitution pattern of the pyrimidine core was exchanged and (3) rigidity was decreased by opening the tricyclic core. Within the present study, two compounds with similar affinity in the one digit μM range to the human H1R and H4R were identified. While the affinity at the hH1R increased about 4- to 8-fold compared to the parent diaminopyrimidine, the affinity to the hH4R decreased about 5- to 8-fold. In addition to the parent diaminopyrimidine, two selected compounds were docked into the H1R and H4R and molecular dynamic studies were performed to predict the binding mode and explain the experimental results on a molecular level. The two new compounds may be good lead structures for the development of dual H1/H4 receptor ligands with affinities in the same range. PMID:26718844

  9. Transformation of human cells by oncogenic viruses supports permissiveness for parvovirus H-1 propagation.

    PubMed Central

    Faisst, S; Schlehofer, J R; zur Hausen, H

    1989-01-01

    Parvovirus H-1 has been shown to suppress spontaneous and chemically or virally induced tumorigenesis in hamsters. In human cell culture systems propagation of H-1 is restricted to transformed cells, which are killed by H-1 infection, in contrast to normal diploid cells, which are nonpermissive for H-1. By analyzing the permissiveness of a variety of human cells for H-1, it was determined that the majority of tested transformed or immortalized cells which were permissive for H-1 contained the DNA of oncogenic viruses (human papillomavirus, simian virus 40, adenovirus, hepatitis B virus, Epstein-Barr virus, and human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I). Of six transformed cell lines negative for persisting tumor virus DNA, only two were permissive for H-1, while two were semipermissive and two were nonpermissive. Thus, persistence and expression of tumor virus functions appears to promote full permissiveness for H-1 in human cells. However, neither expression of genes of specific viral genomes nor the transformed state of apparently virus-free cells alone was sufficient to render human cells permissive for H-1. Therefore, the effect of tumor virus functions on H-1 in transformed cells seems to be indirect, probably mediated by cellular factors which are induced or switched off during the transformation process. It appears that similar factors are induced or switched off by 5-azacytidine or calcium phosphate, both known inducers of cellular gene expression. Images PMID:2495371

  10. Independent Biological and Biochemical Functions for Individual Structural Domains of Drosophila Linker Histone H1.

    PubMed

    Kavi, Harsh; Emelyanov, Alexander V; Fyodorov, Dmitry V; Skoultchi, Arthur I

    2016-07-15

    Linker histone H1 is among the most abundant components of chromatin. H1 has profound effects on chromosome architecture. H1 also helps to tether DNA- and histone-modifying enzymes to chromatin. Metazoan linker histones have a conserved tripartite structure comprising N-terminal, globular, and long, unstructured C-terminal domains. Here we utilize truncated Drosophila H1 polypeptides in vitro and H1 mutant transgenes in vivo to interrogate the roles of these domains in multiple biochemical and biological activities of H1. We demonstrate that the globular domain and the proximal part of the C-terminal domain are essential for H1 deposition into chromosomes and for the stability of H1-chromatin binding. The two domains are also essential for fly viability and the establishment of a normal polytene chromosome structure. Additionally, through interaction with the heterochromatin-specific histone H3 Lys-9 methyltransferase Su(var)3-9, the H1 C-terminal domain makes important contributions to formation and H3K9 methylation of heterochromatin as well as silencing of transposons in heterochromatin. Surprisingly, the N-terminal domain does not appear to be required for any of these functions. However, it is involved in the formation of a single chromocenter in polytene chromosomes. In summary, we have discovered that linker histone H1, similar to core histones, exerts its multiple biological functions through independent, biochemically separable activities of its individual structural domains. PMID:27226620

  11. Immune history shapes specificity of pandemic H1N1 influenza antibody responses

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yang; Myers, Jaclyn L.; Bostick, David L.; Sullivan, Colleen B.; Madara, Jonathan; Linderman, Susanne L.; Liu, Qin; Carter, Donald M.; Wrammert, Jens; Esposito, Susanna; Principi, Nicola; Plotkin, Joshua B.; Ross, Ted M.; Ahmed, Rafi; Wilson, Patrick C.

    2013-01-01

    Human antibody responses against the 2009 pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) virus are predominantly directed against conserved epitopes in the stalk and receptor-binding domain of the hemagglutinin (HA) protein. This is in stark contrast to pH1N1 antibody responses generated in ferrets, which are focused on the variable Sa antigenic site of HA. Here, we show that most humans born between 1983 and 1996 elicited pH1N1 antibody responses that are directed against an epitope near the HA receptor–binding domain. Importantly, most individuals born before 1983 or after 1996 did not elicit pH1N1 antibodies to this HA epitope. The HAs of most seasonal H1N1 (sH1N1) viruses that circulated between 1983 and 1996 possess a critical K133 amino acid in this HA epitope, whereas this amino acid is either mutated or deleted in most sH1N1 viruses circulating before 1983 or after 1996. We sequentially infected ferrets with a 1991 sH1N1 virus and then a pH1N1 virus. Sera isolated from these animals were directed against the HA epitope involving amino acid K133. These data suggest that the specificity of pH1N1 antibody responses can be shifted to epitopes near the HA receptor–binding domain after sequential infections with sH1N1 and pH1N1 viruses that share homology in this region. PMID:23857983

  12. Proteomic characterization of the nucleolar linker histone H1 interaction network

    PubMed Central

    Szerlong, Heather J.; Herman, Jacob A.; Krause, Christine M.; DeLuca, Jennifer G.; Skoultchi, Arthur; Winger, Quinton A.; Prenni, Jessica E.; Hansen, Jeffrey C.

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between linker histone H1 and protein-protein interactions in the nucleolus, biochemical and proteomics approaches were used to characterize nucleoli purified from cultured human and mouse cells. Mass spectrometry identified 175 proteins in human T-cell nucleolar extracts that bound to sepharose-immobilized H1 in vitro. Gene ontology analysis found significant enrichment for H1 binding proteins with functions related to nucleolar chromatin structure and RNA polymerase I transcription regulation, rRNA processing, and mRNA splicing. Consistent with the affinity binding results, H1 existed in large (400 to >650 kDa) macromolecular complexes in human T cell nucleolar extracts. To complement the biochemical experiments, the effects of in vivo H1 depletion on protein content and structural integrity of the nucleolus were investigated using the H1 triple isoform knock out (H1ΔTKO) mouse embryonic stem cell (mESC) model system. Proteomic profiling of purified wild type mESC nucleoli identified a total of 613 proteins, only ~60% of which were detected in the H1 mutant nucleoli. Within the affected group, spectral counting analysis quantitated 135 specific nucleolar proteins whose levels were significantly altered in H1ΔTKO mESC. Importantly, the functions of the affected proteins in mESC closely overlapped with those of the human T cell nucleolar H1 binding proteins. Immunofluorescence microscopy of intact H1ΔTKO mESC demonstrated both a loss of nucleolar RNA content and altered nucleolar morphology resulting from in vivo H1 depletion. We conclude that H1 organizes and maintains an extensive protein-protein interaction network in the nucleolus required for nucleolar structure and integrity. PMID:25584861

  13. Fuel elements of research reactor CM

    SciTech Connect

    Kozlov, A.V.; Morozov, A.V.; Vatulin, A.V.; Ershov, S.A.

    2013-07-01

    In 1961 the CM research reactor was commissioned at the Research Institute of Atomic Reactors (Dimitrovgrad, Russia), it was intended to carry on investigations and the production of transuranium nuclides. The reactor is of a tank type. Original fuel assembly contained plate fuels that were spaced with vanes and corrugated bands. Nickel was used as a cladding material, fuel meat was produced from UO{sub 2} + electrolytic nickel composition. Fuel plates have been replaced by self-spacing cross-shaped dispersion fuels clad in stainless steel. In 2005 the reactor was updated. The purpose of this updating was to increase the quantity of irradiation channels in the reactor core and to improve the neutron balance. The updating was implemented at the expense of 20 % reduction in the quantity of fuel elements in the core which released a space for extra channels and decreased the mass of structural materials in the core. The updated reactor is loaded with modified standard fuel elements with 20 % higher uranium masses. At the same time stainless steel in fuel assembly shrouds was substituted by zirconium alloy. Today in progress are investigations and work to promote the second stage of reactor updating that involve developments of cross-shaped fuel elements having low neutron absorption matrix materials. This article gives an historical account of the design and main technical changes that occurred for the CM reactor since its commissioning.

  14. Redundant Array Configurations for 21 cm Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dillon, Joshua S.; Parsons, Aaron R.

    2016-08-01

    Realizing the potential of 21 cm tomography to statistically probe the intergalactic medium before and during the Epoch of Reionization requires large telescopes and precise control of systematics. Next-generation telescopes are now being designed and built to meet these challenges, drawing lessons from first-generation experiments that showed the benefits of densely packed, highly redundant arrays—in which the same mode on the sky is sampled by many antenna pairs—for achieving high sensitivity, precise calibration, and robust foreground mitigation. In this work, we focus on the Hydrogen Epoch of Reionization Array (HERA) as an interferometer with a dense, redundant core designed following these lessons to be optimized for 21 cm cosmology. We show how modestly supplementing or modifying a compact design like HERA’s can still deliver high sensitivity while enhancing strategies for calibration and foreground mitigation. In particular, we compare the imaging capability of several array configurations, both instantaneously (to address instrumental and ionospheric effects) and with rotation synthesis (for foreground removal). We also examine the effects that configuration has on calibratability using instantaneous redundancy. We find that improved imaging with sub-aperture sampling via “off-grid” antennas and increased angular resolution via far-flung “outrigger” antennas is possible with a redundantly calibratable array configuration.

  15. 30-cm electron cyclotron plasma generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goede, Hank

    1987-01-01

    Experimental results on the development of a 30-cm-diam electron cyclotron resonance plasma generator are presented. This plasma source utilizes samarium-cobalt magnets and microwave power at a frequency of 4.9 GHz to produce a uniform plasma with densities of up to 3 x 10 to the 11th/cu cm in a continuous fashion. The plasma generator contains no internal structures, and is thus inherently simple in construction and operation and inherently durable. The generator was operated with two different magnetic geometries. One used the rare-earth magnets arranged in an axial line cusp configuration, which directly showed plasma production taking place near the walls of the generator where the electron temperature was highest but with the plasma density peaking in the central low B-field regions. The second configuration had magnets arranged to form azimuthal line cusps with approximately closed electron drift surfaces; this configuration showed an improved electrical efficiency of about 135 eV/ion.

  16. Combining galaxy and 21-cm surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohn, J. D.; White, Martin; Chang, Tzu-Ching; Holder, Gil; Padmanabhan, Nikhil; Doré, Olivier

    2016-04-01

    Acoustic waves travelling through the early Universe imprint a characteristic scale in the clustering of galaxies, QSOs and intergalactic gas. This scale can be used as a standard ruler to map the expansion history of the Universe, a technique known as baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO). BAO offer a high-precision, low-systematics means of constraining our cosmological model. The statistical power of BAO measurements can be improved if the `smearing' of the acoustic feature by non-linear structure formation is undone in a process known as reconstruction. In this paper, we use low-order Lagrangian perturbation theory to study the ability of 21-cm experiments to perform reconstruction and how augmenting these surveys with galaxy redshift surveys at relatively low number densities can improve performance. We find that the critical number density which must be achieved in order to benefit 21-cm surveys is set by the linear theory power spectrum near its peak, and corresponds to densities achievable by upcoming surveys of emission line galaxies such as eBOSS and DESI. As part of this work, we analyse reconstruction within the framework of Lagrangian perturbation theory with local Lagrangian bias, redshift-space distortions, {k}-dependent noise and anisotropic filtering schemes.

  17. THE METALLICITY OF THE CM DRACONIS SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Terrien, Ryan C.; Fleming, Scott W.; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Deshpande, Rohit; Bender, Chad F.; Ramsey, Lawrence W.; Feiden, Gregory A.

    2012-11-20

    The CM Draconis system comprises two eclipsing mid-M dwarfs of nearly equal mass in a 1.27 day orbit. This well-studied eclipsing binary has often been used for benchmark tests of stellar models, since its components are among the lowest mass stars with well-measured masses and radii ({approx}< 1% relative precision). However, as with many other low-mass stars, non-magnetic models have been unable to match the observed radii and effective temperatures for CM Dra at the 5%-10% level. To date, the uncertain metallicity of the system has complicated comparison of theoretical isochrones with observations. In this Letter, we use data from the SpeX instrument on the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility to measure the metallicity of the system during primary and secondary eclipses, as well as out of eclipse, based on an empirical metallicity calibration in the H and K near-infrared (NIR) bands. We derive an [Fe/H] = -0.30 {+-} 0.12 that is consistent across all orbital phases. The determination of [Fe/H] for this system constrains a key dimension of parameter space when attempting to reconcile model isochrone predictions and observations.

  18. Fission probabilities of 242Am,243Cm , and 244Cm induced by transfer reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kessedjian, G.; Jurado, B.; Barreau, G.; Marini, P.; Mathieu, L.; Tsekhanovich, I.; Aiche, M.; Boutoux, G.; Czajkowski, S.; Ducasse, Q.

    2015-04-01

    We have measured the fission probabilities of 242Am,243Cm , and 244Cm induced by the transfer reactions 243Am(3He,4He) ,243Am(3He,t ) , and 243Am(3He,d ) , respectively. The details of the experimental procedure and a rigorous uncertainty analysis, including a correlation matrix, are presented. For 243Cm our data show clear structures well below the fission threshold. To our knowledge, it is the first time that these structures have been observed for this nucleus. We have compared the measured fission probabilities to calculations based on the statistical model to obtain information on the fission barriers of the produced fissioning nuclei.

  19. Aliphatic amines in Antarctic CR2, CM2, and CM1/2 carbonaceous chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aponte, José C.; McLain, Hannah L.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Elsila, Jamie E.

    2016-09-01

    Meteoritic water-soluble organic compounds provide a unique record of the processes that occurred during the formation of the solar system and the chemistry preceding the origins of life on Earth. We have investigated the molecular distribution, compound-specific δ13C isotopic ratios and enantiomeric compositions of aliphatic monoamines present in the hot acid-water extracts of the carbonaceous chondrites LAP 02342 (CR2), GRA 95229 (CR2), LON 94101 (CM2), LEW 90500 (CM2), and ALH 83100 (CM1/2). Analyses of the concentration of monoamines in these meteorites revealed: (a) the CR2 chondrites studied here contain higher concentrations of monoamines relative to the analyzed CM2 chondrites; (b) the concentration of monoamines decreases with increasing carbon number; and (c) isopropylamine is the most abundant monoamine in these CR2 chondrites, while methylamine is the most abundant amine species in these CM2 and CM1/2 chondrites. The δ13C values of monoamines in CR2 chondrite do not correlate with the number of carbon atoms; however, in CM2 and CM1/2 chondrites, the 13C enrichment decreases with increasing monoamine carbon number. The δ13C values of methylamine in CR2 chondrites ranged from -1 to +10‰, while in CM2 and CM1/2 chondrites the δ13C values of methylamine ranged from +41 to +59‰. We also observed racemic compositions of sec-butylamine, 3-methyl-2-butylamine, and sec-pentylamine in the studied carbonaceous chondrites. Additionally, we compared the abundance and δ13C isotopic composition of monoamines to those of their structurally related amino acids. We found that monoamines are less abundant than amino acids in CR2 chondrites, with the opposite being true in CM2 and CM1/2 chondrites. We used these collective data to evaluate different primordial synthetic pathways for monoamines in carbonaceous chondrites and to understand the potential common origins these molecules may share with meteoritic amino acids.

  20. Galaxy-cluster masses via 21st-century measurements of lensing of 21-cm fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovetz, Ely D.; Kamionkowski, Marc

    2013-03-01

    We discuss the prospects to measure galaxy-cluster properties via weak lensing of 21-cm fluctuations from the dark ages and the epoch of reionization (EOR). We choose as a figure of merit the smallest cluster mass detectable through such measurements. We construct the minimum-variance quadratic estimator for the cluster mass based on lensing of 21-cm fluctuations at multiple redshifts. We discuss the tradeoff among frequency bandwidth, angular resolution, and the number of redshift shells available for a fixed noise level for the radio detectors. Observations of lensing of the 21-cm background from the dark ages will be capable of detecting M≳1012h-1M⊙ mass halos, but will require futuristic experiments to overcome the contaminating sources. Next-generation radio measurements of 21-cm fluctuations from the EOR will, however, have the sensitivity to detect galaxy clusters with halo masses M≳1013h-1M⊙, given enough observation time (for the relevant sky patch) and collecting area to maximize their resolution capabilities.

  1. Overcoming the Challenges of 21cm Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pober, Jonathan

    The highly-redshifted 21cm line of neutral hydrogen is one of the most promising and unique probes of cosmology for the next decade and beyond. The past few years have seen a number of dedicated experiments targeting the 21cm signal from the Epoch of Reionization (EoR) begin operation, including the LOw-Frequency ARray (LOFAR), the Murchison Widefield Array (MWA), and the Donald C. Backer Precision Array for Probing the Epoch of Reionization (PAPER). For these experiments to yield cosmological results, they require new calibration and analysis algorithms which will need to achieve unprecedented levels of separation between the 21cm signal and contaminating foreground emission. Although much work has been spent developing these algorithms over the past decade, their success or failure will ultimately depend on their ability to overcome the complications associated with real-world systems and their inherent complications. The work in this dissertation is closely tied to the late-stage commissioning and early observations with PAPER. The first two chapters focus on developing calibration algorithms to overcome unique problems arising in the PAPER system. To test these algorithms, I rely on not only simulations, but on commissioning observations, ultimately tying the success of the algorithm to its performance on actual, celestial data. The first algorithm works to correct gain-drifts in the PAPER system caused by the heating and cooling of various components (the amplifiers and above ground co-axial cables, in particular). It is shown that a simple measurement of the ambient temperature can remove ˜ 10% gain fluctuations in the observed brightness of calibrator sources. This result is highly encouraging for the ability of PAPER to remove a potentially dominant systematic in its power spectrum and cataloging measurements without resorting to a complicated system overhaul. The second new algorithm developed in this dissertation solves a major calibration challenge not

  2. Functional interplay between histone H1 and HMG proteins in chromatin.

    PubMed

    Postnikov, Yuri V; Bustin, Michael

    2016-03-01

    The dynamic interaction of nucleosome binding proteins with their chromatin targets is an important element in regulating the structure and function of chromatin. Histone H1 variants and High Mobility Group (HMG) proteins are ubiquitously expressed in all vertebrate cells, bind dynamically to chromatin, and are known to affect chromatin condensation and the ability of regulatory factors to access their genomic binding sites. Here, we review the studies that focus on the interactions between H1 and HMGs and highlight the functional consequences of the interplay between these architectural chromatin binding proteins. H1 and HMG proteins are mobile molecules that bind to nucleosomes as members of a dynamic protein network. All HMGs compete with H1 for chromatin binding sites, in a dose dependent fashion, but each HMG family has specific effects on the interaction of H1 with chromatin. The interplay between H1 and HMGs affects chromatin organization and plays a role in epigenetic regulation. PMID:26455954

  3. Interleukin-6 Is a Potential Biomarker for Severe Pandemic H1N1 Influenza A Infection

    PubMed Central

    Paquette, Stéphane G.; Banner, David; Zhao, Zhen; Fang, Yuan; Huang, Stephen S. H.; Leόn, Alberto J.; Ng, Derek C. K.; Almansa, Raquel; Martin-Loeches, Ignacio; Ramirez, Paula; Socias, Lorenzo; Loza, Ana; Blanco, Jesus; Sansonetti, Paola; Rello, Jordi; Andaluz, David; Shum, Bianche; Rubino, Salvatore; de Lejarazu, Raul Ortiz; Tran, Dat; Delogu, Giovanni; Fadda, Giovanni; Krajden, Sigmund; Rubin, Barry B.; Bermejo-Martin, Jesús F.; Kelvin, Alyson A.; Kelvin, David J.

    2012-01-01

    Pandemic H1N1 influenza A (H1N1pdm) is currently a dominant circulating influenza strain worldwide. Severe cases of H1N1pdm infection are characterized by prolonged activation of the immune response, yet the specific role of inflammatory mediators in disease is poorly understood. The inflammatory cytokine IL-6 has been implicated in both seasonal and severe pandemic H1N1 influenza A (H1N1pdm) infection. Here, we investigated the role of IL-6 in severe H1N1pdm infection. We found IL-6 to be an important feature of the host response in both humans and mice infected with H1N1pdm. Elevated levels of IL-6 were associated with severe disease in patients hospitalized with H1N1pdm infection. Notably, serum IL-6 levels associated strongly with the requirement of critical care admission and were predictive of fatal outcome. In C57BL/6J, BALB/cJ, and B6129SF2/J mice, infection with A/Mexico/4108/2009 (H1N1pdm) consistently triggered severe disease and increased IL-6 levels in both lung and serum. Furthermore, in our lethal C57BL/6J mouse model of H1N1pdm infection, global gene expression analysis indicated a pronounced IL-6 associated inflammatory response. Subsequently, we examined disease and outcome in IL-6 deficient mice infected with H1N1pdm. No significant differences in survival, weight loss, viral load, or pathology were observed between IL-6 deficient and wild-type mice following infection. Taken together, our findings suggest IL-6 may be a potential disease severity biomarker, but may not be a suitable therapeutic target in cases of severe H1N1pdm infection due to our mouse data. PMID:22679491

  4. The 30-cm ion thruster power processor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herron, B. G.; Hopper, D. J.

    1978-01-01

    A power processor unit for powering and controlling the 30 cm Mercury Electron-Bombardment Ion Thruster was designed, fabricated, and tested. The unit uses a unique and highly efficient transistor bridge inverter power stage in its implementation. The system operated from a 200 to 400 V dc input power bus, provides 12 independently controllable and closely regulated dc power outputs, and has an overall power conditioning capacity of 3.5 kW. Protective circuitry was incorporated as an integral part of the design to assure failure-free operation during transient and steady-state load faults. The implemented unit demonstrated an electrical efficiency between 91.5 and 91.9 at its nominal rated load over the 200 to 400 V dc input bus range.

  5. 70-cm radar observations of 433 Eros

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, D. B.; Pettengill, G. H.; Shapiro, I. I.

    1976-01-01

    Radar observations of 433 Eros were made at the Arecibo Observatory using a wavelength of 70 cm during the close approach of Eros to earth in mid-January, 1975. A peak radar cross section of plus or minus 15 sq km was observed. The spectral broadening obtained was approximately 30 Hz, which is consistent with a value of 16 km for the maximum radius of the asteroid. The surface of Eros appears to be relatively rough at the scale of a wavelength as compared to the surfaces of the terrestrial planets and the moon. The composition of the surface is not well determined, except that it cannot be a highly conducting metal. A single measurement each of round-trip echo times delay and Doppler shift was made.

  6. NASA 30 Cm Ion Thruster Development Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Michael J.; Haag, Thomas W.; Rawlin, Vincent K.; Kussmaul, Michael T.

    1995-01-01

    A 30 cm diameter xenon ion thruster is under development at NASA to provide an ion propulsion option for missions of national interest and it is an element of the NASA Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Applications Readiness (NSTAR) program established to validate ion propulsion for space flight applications. The thruster has been developed to an engineering model level and it incorporates innovations in design, materials, and fabrication techniques compared to those employed to conventional ion thrusters. The performance of both functional and engineering model thrusters has been assessed including thrust stand measurements, over an input power range of 0.5-2.3 kW. Attributes of the engineering model thruster include an overall mass of 6.4 kg, and an efficiency of 65 percent and thrust of 93 mN at 2.3 kW input power. This paper discusses the design, performance, and lifetime expectations of the functional and engineering model thrusters under development at NASA.

  7. Glutamylation of Nap1 modulates histone H1 dynamics and chromosome condensation in Xenopus.

    PubMed

    Miller, Kelly E; Heald, Rebecca

    2015-04-27

    Linker histone H1 is required for mitotic chromosome architecture in Xenopus laevis egg extracts and, unlike core histones, exhibits rapid turnover on chromatin. Mechanisms regulating the recruitment, deposition, and dynamics of linker histones in mitosis are largely unknown. We found that the cytoplasmic histone chaperone nucleosome assembly protein 1 (Nap1) associates with the embryonic isoform of linker histone H1 (H1M) in egg extracts. Immunodepletion of Nap1 decreased H1M binding to mitotic chromosomes by nearly 50%, reduced H1M dynamics as measured by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching and caused chromosome decondensation similar to the effects of H1M depletion. Defects in H1M dynamics and chromosome condensation were rescued by adding back wild-type Nap1 but not a mutant lacking sites subject to posttranslational modification by glutamylation. Nap1 glutamylation increased the deposition of H1M on sperm nuclei and chromatin-coated beads, indicating that charge-shifting posttranslational modification of Nap1 contributes to H1M dynamics that are essential for higher order chromosome architecture. PMID:25897082

  8. Serological Evidence of Pandemic H1N1 Influenza Virus Infections in Greek Swine.

    PubMed

    Kyriakis, C S; Papatsiros, V G; Athanasiou, L V; Valiakos, G; Brown, I H; Simon, G; Van Reeth, K; Tsiodras, S; Spyrou, V; Billinis, C

    2016-08-01

    The introduction of the 2009 pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) influenza virus in pigs changed the epidemiology of influenza A viruses (IAVs) in swine in Europe and the rest of the world. Previously, three IAV subtypes were found in the European pig population: an avian-like H1N1 and two reassortant H1N2 and H3N2 viruses with human-origin haemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase proteins and internal genes of avian decent. These viruses pose antigenically distinct HAs, which allow the retrospective diagnosis of infection in serological investigations. However, cross-reactions between the HA of pH1N1 and the HAs of the other circulating H1 IAVs complicate serological diagnosis. The prevalence of IAVs in Greek swine has been poorly investigated. In this study, we examined and compared haemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibody titres against previously established IAVs and pH1N1 in 908 swine sera from 88 herds, collected before and after the 2009 pandemic. While we confirmed the historic presence of the three IAVs established in European swine, we also found that 4% of the pig sera examined after 2009 had HI antibodies only against the pH1N1 virus. Our results indicate that pH1N1 is circulating in Greek pigs and stress out the importance of a vigorous virological surveillance programme. PMID:26477456

  9. Depletion of Human Histone H1 Variants Uncovers Specific Roles in Gene Expression and Cell Growth

    PubMed Central

    Sancho, Mónica; Diani, Erika; Beato, Miguel; Jordan, Albert

    2008-01-01

    At least six histone H1 variants exist in somatic mammalian cells that bind to the linker DNA and stabilize the nucleosome particle contributing to higher order chromatin compaction. In addition, H1 seems to be actively involved in the regulation of gene expression. However, it is not well known whether the different variants have distinct roles or if they regulate specific promoters. We have explored this by inducible shRNA-mediated knock-down of each of the H1 variants in a human breast cancer cell line. Rapid inhibition of each H1 variant was not compensated for by changes of expression of other variants. Microarray experiments have shown a different subset of genes to be altered in each H1 knock-down. Interestingly, H1.2 depletion caused specific effects such as a cell cycle G1-phase arrest, the repressed expression of a number of cell cycle genes, and decreased global nucleosome spacing. On its side, H1.4 depletion caused cell death in T47D cells, providing the first evidence of the essential role of an H1 variant for survival in a human cell type. Thus, specific phenotypes are observed in breast cancer cells depleted of individual histone H1 variants, supporting the theory that distinct roles exist for the linker histone variants. PMID:18927631

  10. Phenotypic variation of erythrocyte linker histone H1.c in a pheasant (Phasianus colchicus L.) population.

    PubMed

    Kowalski, Andrzej; Pa Yga, Jan; Górnicka-Michalska, Ewa; Bernacki, Zenon; Adamski, Marek

    2010-07-01

    Our goal was to characterize a phenotypic variation of the pheasant erythrocyte linker histone subtype H1.c. By using two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis three histone H1.c phenotypes were identified. The differently migrating allelic variants H1.c1 and H1.c2 formed either two homozygous phenotypes, c1 and c2, or a single heterozygous phenotype, c1c2. In the pheasant population screened, birds with phenotype c2 were the most common (frequency 0.761) while individuals with phenotype c1 were rare (frequency 0.043). PMID:21637419

  11. Evaluation of Argonne 9-cm and 10-cm Annular Centrifugal Contactors for SHINE Solution Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Wardle, Kent E.; Pereira, Candido; Vandegrift, George

    2015-02-01

    Work is in progress to evaluate the SHINE Medical Technologies process for producing Mo-99 for medical use from the fission of dissolved low-enriched uranium (LEU). This report addresses the use of Argonne annular centrifugal contactors for periodic treatment of the process solution. In a letter report from FY 2013, Pereira and Vandegrift compared the throughput and physical footprint for the two contactor options available from CINC Industries: the V-02 and V-05, which have rotor diameters of 5 cm and 12.7 cm, respectively. They suggested that an intermediately sized “Goldilocks” contactor might provide a better balance between throughput and footprint to meet the processing needs for the uranium extraction (UREX) processing of the SHINE solution to remove undesired fission products. Included with the submission of this letter report are the assembly drawings for two Argonne-design contactors that are in this intermediate range—9-cm and 10-cm rotors, respectively. The 9-cm contactor (drawing number CE-D6973A, stamped February 15, 1978) was designed as a single-stage unit and built and tested in the late 1970s along with other size units, both smaller and larger. In subsequent years, a significant effort to developed annular centrifugal contactors was undertaken to support work at Hanford implementing the transuranic extraction (TRUEX) process. These contactors had a 10-cm rotor diameter and were fully designed as multistage units with four stages per assembly (drawing number CMT-E1104, stamped March 14, 1990). From a technology readiness perspective, these 10-cm units are much farther ahead in the design progression and, therefore, would require significantly less re-working to make them ready for UREX deployment. Additionally, the overall maximum throughput of ~12 L/min is similar to that of the 9-cm unit (10 L/min), and the former could be efficiently operated over much of the same range of throughput. As a result, only the 10-cm units are considered here

  12. Transcriptional repression of the testis-specific histone H1t gene mediated by an element upstream of the H1/AC box.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Steven A; Grimes, Sidney R

    2003-04-10

    The testis-specific histone H1t gene is transcribed exclusively in primary spermatocytes and may be important for chromatin structure, transcription, and DNA repair during this stage of spermatogenesis. Transcriptional repression of the gene in other cell types is mediated in part by specific proximal and distal promoter elements and in some cell types by methylation of CpG dinucleotides within the promoter. Our laboratory identified a distal promoter element located between 948 and 780 bp upstream from the transcription initiation site and another laboratory identified a GC-rich region between the TATA box and transcription initiation site that contribute to repression. In this article we address transcriptional repression of the histone H1t gene by an element within the proximal promoter. We report discovery of an element designated H1t promoter repressor element (RE) located between -130 and -106 bp that contributes to repression. The findings support the hypothesis that multiple mechanisms are involved in transcriptional repression of the H1t gene. Transcriptional repression mediated by the RE element in NIH 3T3 cells appears to differ significantly from the mechanism mediated by the GC-rich region. Furthermore, binding proteins that form the RE complex are not present in rat testis where the gene is actively transcribed. Our findings provide a molecular basis for histone H1t gene repression. PMID:12711397

  13. Specific binding of nuclear proteins to a bifunctional promoter element upstream of the H1/AC box of the testis-specific histone H1t gene.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Steven A; Grimes, Sidney R

    2003-06-01

    The testis-specific histone H1t gene is transcribed exclusively in primary spermatocytes during spermatogenesis. Studies with transgenic mice show that 141 base pairs (bp) of the H1t proximal promoter accompanied with 800 bp of downstream sequence are sufficient for tissue-specific transcription. Nuclear proteins from testis and pachytene spermatocytes produce footprints spanning the region covering the repressor element (RE) from 100 to 125 nucleotides upstream of the H1t transcriptional initiation site. Only testis nuclear proteins bind to the 5'-end of the element and produce a unique, low-mobility complex in electrophoretic mobility shift assays. This testis complex is distinct from the complex formed by a repressor protein derived from several cell lines that binds to the 3'-end of the element. The testis complex band is formed when using nuclear proteins from primary spermatocytes, where the H1t gene is transcribed, and band intensity drops 70%-80% when using nuclear proteins from early spermatids, where H1t gene transcription ceases. Protein-DNA cross-linking experiments using testis nuclear proteins produce electrophoretic bands of 59, 52, and 50 kDa on SDS/PAGE gels. PMID:12606375

  14. Functional pharmacology of H1 histamine receptors expressed in mouse preoptic/anterior hypothalamic neurons

    PubMed Central

    Tabarean, I V

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Histamine H1 receptors are highly expressed in hypothalamic neurons and mediate histaminergic modulation of several brain-controlled physiological functions, such as sleep, feeding and thermoregulation. In spite of the fact that the mouse is used as an experimental model for studying histaminergic signalling, the pharmacological characteristics of mouse H1 receptors have not been studied. In particular, selective and potent H1 receptor agonists have not been identified. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Ca2+ imaging using fura-2 fluorescence signals and whole-cell patch-clamp recordings were carried out in mouse preoptic/anterior hypothalamic neurons in culture. KEY RESULTS The H1 receptor antagonists mepyramine and trans-triprolidine potently antagonized the activation by histamine of these receptors with IC50 values of 0.02 and 0.2 μM respectively. All H1 receptor agonists studied had relatively low potency at the H1 receptors expressed by these neurons. Methylhistaprodifen and 2-(3-trifluoromethylphenyl)histamine had full-agonist activity with potencies similar to that of histamine. In contrast, 2-pyridylethylamine and betahistine showed only partial agonist activity and lower potency than histamine. The histamine receptor agonist, 6-[2-(4-imidazolyl)ethylamino]-N-(4-trifluoromethylphenyl)heptanecarboxamide (HTMT) had no agonist activity at the H1 receptors H1 receptors expressed by mouse preoptic/anterior hypothalamic neurons but displayed antagonist activity. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Methylhistaprodifen and 2-(3-trifluoromethylphenyl)histamine were identified as full agonists of mouse H1 receptors. These results also indicated that histamine H1 receptors in mice exhibited a pharmacological profile in terms of agonism, significantly different from those of H1 receptors expressed in other species. PMID:23808378

  15. Detecting the 21 cm forest in the 21 cm power spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ewall-Wice, Aaron; Dillon, Joshua S.; Mesinger, Andrei; Hewitt, Jacqueline

    2014-07-01

    We describe a new technique for constraining the radio-loud population of active galactic nuclei at high redshift by measuring the imprint of 21 cm spectral absorption features (the 21 cm forest) on the 21 cm power spectrum. Using semi-numerical simulations of the intergalactic medium and a semi-empirical source population, we show that the 21 cm forest dominates a distinctive region of k-space, k ≳ 0.5 Mpc- 1. By simulating foregrounds and noise for current and potential radio arrays, we find that a next-generation instrument with a collecting area of the order of ˜ 0.1 km2 (such as the Hydrogen Epoch of Reionization Array) may separately constrain the X-ray heating history at large spatial scales and radio-loud active galactic nuclei of the model we study at small ones. We extrapolate our detectability predictions for a single radio-loud active galactic nuclei population to arbitrary source scenarios by analytically relating the 21 cm forest power spectrum to the optical depth power spectrum and an integral over the radio luminosity function.

  16. Engineering model 8-cm thruster subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herron, B. G.; Hyman, J.; Hopper, D. J.; Williamson, W. S.; Dulgeroff, C. R.; Collett, C. R.

    1978-01-01

    An Engineering Model (EM) 8 cm Ion Thruster Propulsion Subsystem was developed for operation at a thrust level 5 mN (1.1 mlb) at a specific impulse 1 sub sp = 2667 sec with a total system input power P sub in = 165 W. The system dry mass is 15 kg with a mercury-propellant-reservoir capacity of 8.75 kg permitting uninterrupted operation for about 12,500 hr. The subsystem can be started from a dormant condition in a time less than or equal to 15 min. The thruster has a design lifetime of 20,000 hr with 10,000 startup cycles. A gimbal unit is included to provide a thrust vector deflection capability of + or - 10 degrees in any direction from the zero position. The EM subsystem development program included thruster optimization, power-supply circuit optimization and flight packaging, subsystem integration, and subsystem acceptance testing including a cyclic test of the total propulsion package.

  17. The 15 cm diameter ion thruster research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilbur, P. J.

    1974-01-01

    The startup reliability of a 15 cm diameter mercury bombardment ion thruster which employs a pulsed high voltage tickler electrode on the main and neutralizer cathodes is examined. Startup of the thruster is achieved 100% of the time on the main cathode and 98.7% of the time on the neutralizer cathode over a 3640 cycle test. The thruster was started from a 20 C initial condition and operated for an hour at a 600 mA beam current. An energy efficiency of 75% and a propellant utilization efficiency of 77% was achieved over the complete cycle. The effect of a single cusp magnetic field thruster length on its performance is discussed. Guidelines are formulated for the shaping of magnetic field lines in thrusters. A model describing double ion production in mercury discharges is presented. The production route is shown to occur through the single ionic ground state. Photographs of the interior of an operating-hollow cathode are presented. A cathode spot is shown to be present if the cathode is free of low work-function surfaces. The spot is observed if a low work-function oxide coating is applied to the cathode insert. Results show that low work-function oxide coatings tend to migrate during thruster operation.

  18. 78 FR 5210 - Open Government Initiative: Implementation of the iCERT Labor Certification Registry for the H-1B...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-24

    ... Certification Registry for the H-1B, H-1B1, E-3, H-2A, H-2B and Permanent Labor Certification Employment-Based... to the general public appropriately redacted copies of H-1B, H-1B1, E-3, H-2A, H-2B and permanent... a labor certification or, in the case of an H-1B, H-1B1, or E-3 visa, a labor condition...

  19. Recent developments in nucleon spin structure with focus on h_{1L}^{\\perp} and pretzelosity h_{1T}^\\perp

    SciTech Connect

    Avagyan, Harutyun; Efremov, A.V.; Schweitzer, Peter; Metz, Andreas; Teckentrup, T.

    2008-07-20

    The leading twist transverse momentum dependent parton distribution functions h_{1L}^{\\perp} and h_{1T}^\\perp, which is sometimes called "pretzelosity," are studied. For h_{1L}^{\\perp} we consider a "Wandzura-Wilczek-type" approximation, which follows from QCD equations of motion upon the neglect of pure twist-3 terms and allows to express it in terms of transversity. On the basis of available data from HERMES we test the practical usefulness of this approximation and discuss how it can be further tested by future CLAS and COMPASS data. We review the theoretical properties of retzelosity and observe an interesting relation valid in a large class of relativistic models: The difference between helicity and transversity distributions, which is often said to be a 'measure of relativistic effects' in the nucleon, is nothing but the transverse moment of pretzelosity. We discuss preliminary deuteron target data from COMPASS on the single spin asymmetry (SSA) in semi-incl

  20. Supply of Neuraminidase Inhibitors Related to Reduced Influenza A (H1N1) Mortality during the 2009–2010 H1N1 Pandemic: An Ecological Study

    PubMed Central

    Hubbard, Roderick J.; Li, Jiabai; Meyer, Alison E.; Stephens, Peter; Mounts, Anthony W.; Rolfes, Melissa A.; Penn, Charles R.

    2012-01-01

    Background The influenza A (H1N1) pandemic swept across the globe from April 2009 to August 2010 affecting millions. Many WHO Member States relied on antiviral drugs, specifically neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs) oseltamivir and zanamivir, to treat influenza patients in critical condition. Such drugs have been found to be effective in reducing severity and duration of influenza illness, and likely reduced morbidity during the pandemic. However, it is less clear whether NAIs used during the pandemic reduced H1N1 mortality. Methods Country-level data on supply of oseltamivir and zanamivir were used to predict H1N1 mortality (per 100,000 people) from July 2009 to August 2010 in forty-two WHO Member States. Poisson regression was used to model the association between NAI supply and H1N1 mortality, with adjustment for economic, demographic, and health-related confounders. Results After adjustment for potential confounders, each 10% increase in kilograms of oseltamivir, per 100,000 people, was associated with a 1.6% reduction in H1N1 mortality over the pandemic period (relative rate (RR) = 0.84 per log increase in oseltamivir supply). While the supply of zanamivir was considerably less than that of oseltamivir in each Member State, each 10% increase in kilogram of active zanamivir, per 100,000, was associated with a 0.3% reduction in H1N1 mortality (RR = 0.97 per log increase). Conclusion While there are limitations to the ecologic nature of these data, this analysis offers evidence of a protective relationship between antiviral drug supply and influenza mortality and supports a role for influenza antiviral use in future pandemics. PMID:22984431

  1. Isolation and characterization of pandemic H1N1 influenza viruses in pigs in Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Influenza A virus (IAV) infections are endemic diseases in pork producing countries around the world. The emergence of the pandemic 2009 human H1N1 influenza A virus (pH1N1) raised questions about the occurrence of this virus in Brazilian swine populations. During a 2009-2010 swine influenza virus r...

  2. Absence of Pandemic H1N1 Influenza A Virus in Fresh Pork

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pigs experimentally infected with pandemic 2009 H1N1 influenza A virus developed respiratory disease; however, there was no evidence for systemic disease to suggest that pork from pigs infected with H1N1 influenza would contain infectious virus. These findings support the WHO recommendation that po...

  3. Susceptibility of turkeys to pandemic H1N1 virus by reproductive tract insemination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beginning in April 2009, cases of acute respiratory disease were reported in humans caused by a novel H1N1 influenza A virus (pH1N1) in Mexico which has since spread globally in the human population and been declared a pandemic. Initial studies using intranasal route of inoculation failed to produc...

  4. A cdc2-like kinase phosphorylates histone H1 in the amitotic macronucleus of Tetrahymena.

    PubMed Central

    Roth, S Y; Collini, M P; Draetta, G; Beach, D; Allis, C D

    1991-01-01

    Genetic and biochemical studies have shown that cdc2 protein kinase plays a pivotal role in a highly conserved mechanism controlling the entry of cells into mitosis. It is generally believed that one function of cdc2 kinase is to phosphorylate histone H1 which in turn promotes mitotic chromosome condensation. However, direct evidence linking H1 phosphorylation to mitotic chromatin condensation is limited and the exact cellular function(s) of H1 phosphorylation remains unclear. In this study, we show that mammalian cdc2 kinase phosphorylates H1 from the amitotic macronucleus of Tetrahymena with remarkable fidelity. Furthermore, we demonstrate that macronuclei from Tetrahymena contain a growth-associated H1 kinase activity which closely resembles cdc2 kinase from other eukaryotes. Using polyclonal antibodies raised against yeast p34cdc2, we have detected a 36 kd immunoactive polypeptide in macronuclei which binds to Suc1 (p13)-coated beads and closely follows H1 kinase activity. Since macronuclei divide without mitotic chromosome condensation, these data demonstrate that H1 phosphorylation by cdc2 kinase may be necessary, but is not sufficient to promote mitotic chromatin condensation. The fact that an activity which strongly resembles mammalian cdc2 kinase is active during cell growth in a nucleus which does not undergo mitosis and chromosome condensation suggests that other factors are needed for a true mitotic division to occur. These data also reinforce the notion that H1 phosphorylation has important functions outside mitosis both in Tetrahymena and in mammalian cells. Images PMID:2065655

  5. Novel route of exposure explains outbreaks of pH1N1 influenza in turkeys

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The presence of avian and swine influenza virus genes in the 2009 novel H1N1 pandemic virus (pH1N1) raises the potential for infection in poultry following exposure to infected humans or swine. This is especially true for turkeys because of their known susceptibility to type A influenza viruses and...

  6. Removing Peanut Allergen Ara h 1 from Peanut Extracts Using p-Aminobenzamidine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rationale: Ara h 1 is one of 3 major allergens in peanut. Removing Ara h 1 from a peanut extract may produce a hypoallergenic peanut extract for immunotherapy and other purposes. Methods: Peanut extracts were treated overnight with and without 10 mM p-aminobenzamidine (pABA, a protease inhibitor) i...

  7. The complete genome sequence of the Arcobacter butzleri cattle isolate 7h1h

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Arcobacter butzleri strain 7h1h was isolated in the UK from a clinically healthy dairy cow. The genome of this isolate was sequenced to completion. Here we present the annotation and analysis of the completed 7h1h genome, as well as comparison of this genome to the existing A. butzleri RM4018 and ED...

  8. Antigenic Patterns and Evolution of the Human Influenza A (H1N1) Virus

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Mi; Zhao, Xiang; Hua, Sha; Du, Xiangjun; Peng, Yousong; Li, Xiyan; Lan, Yu; Wang, Dayan; Wu, Aiping; Shu, Yuelong; Jiang, Taijiao

    2015-01-01

    The influenza A (H1N1) virus causes seasonal epidemics that result in severe illnesses and deaths almost every year. A deep understanding of the antigenic patterns and evolution of human influenza A (H1N1) virus is extremely important for its effective surveillance and prevention. Through development of antigenicity inference method for human influenza A (H1N1), named PREDAC-H1, we systematically mapped the antigenic patterns and evolution of the human influenza A (H1N1) virus. Eight dominant antigenic clusters have been inferred for seasonal H1N1 viruses since 1977, which demonstrated sequential replacements over time with a similar pattern in Asia, Europe and North America. Among them, six clusters emerged first in Asia. As for China, three of the eight antigenic clusters were detected in South China earlier than in North China, indicating the leading role of South China in H1N1 transmission. The comprehensive view of the antigenic evolution of human influenza A (H1N1) virus can help formulate better strategy for its prevention and control. PMID:26412348

  9. Histone H1 compacts DNA under force and during chromatin assembly.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Botao; Freedman, Benjamin S; Miller, Kelly E; Heald, Rebecca; Marko, John F

    2012-12-01

    Histone H1 binds to linker DNA between nucleosomes, but the dynamics and biological ramifications of this interaction remain poorly understood. We performed single-molecule experiments using magnetic tweezers to determine the effects of H1 on naked DNA in buffer or during chromatin assembly in Xenopus egg extracts. In buffer, nanomolar concentrations of H1 induce bending and looping of naked DNA at stretching forces below 0.6 pN, effects that can be reversed with 2.7-pN force or in 200 mM monovalent salt concentrations. Consecutive tens-of-nanometer bending events suggest that H1 binds to naked DNA in buffer at high stoichiometries. In egg extracts, single DNA molecules assemble into nucleosomes and undergo rapid compaction. Histone H1 at endogenous physiological concentrations increases the DNA compaction rate during chromatin assembly under 2-pN force and decreases it during disassembly under 5-pN force. In egg cytoplasm, histone H1 protects sperm nuclei undergoing genome-wide decondensation and chromatin assembly from becoming abnormally stretched or fragmented due to astral microtubule pulling forces. These results reveal functional ramifications of H1 binding to DNA at the single-molecule level and suggest an important physiological role for H1 in compacting DNA under force and during chromatin assembly. PMID:23097493

  10. H1N1 Flu (Swine Flu) - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → H1N1 Flu (Swine Flu) URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/ ... XYZ List of All Topics All H1N1 Flu (Swine Flu) - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features ...

  11. H1N1 Flu & U.S. Schools: Answers to Frequently Asked Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    A severe form of influenza known as H1N1, commonly being called swine flu, has health officials around the world concerned. In the United States, the outbreak of H1N1 has prompted school closures and cancellation of school-related events. As the flu spreads, the Department of Education encourages school leaders, parents and students to know how to…

  12. Susceptibility of poultry to pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beginning in April 2009, cases of acute respiratory disease were reported in humans caused by a novel H1N1 influenza A virus in Mexico. The causative agent was complex reassortant influenza A virus with gene segments from North American classic H1N1 swine viruses, North American avian viruses, huma...

  13. 26 CFR 25.2523(h)-1 - Denial of double deduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Denial of double deduction. 25.2523(h)-1 Section 25.2523(h)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED... double deduction. The value of an interest in property may not be deducted for Federal gift tax...

  14. 26 CFR 25.2523(h)-1 - Denial of double deduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Denial of double deduction. 25.2523(h)-1 Section 25.2523(h)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED... double deduction. The value of an interest in property may not be deducted for Federal gift tax...

  15. 26 CFR 25.2523(h)-1 - Denial of double deduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Denial of double deduction. 25.2523(h)-1 Section 25.2523(h)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED... double deduction. The value of an interest in property may not be deducted for Federal gift tax...

  16. Enhanced Pneumonia With Pandemic 2009 A/H1N1 Swine Influenza Virus in Pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction. Swine influenza A viruses (SIV) in the major swine producing regions of North America consist of multiple subtypes of endemic H1N1, H1N2, and H3N2 derived from swine, avian and human influenza viruses with a triple reassortant internal gene (TRIG) constellation (1). Genetic drift and r...

  17. Adoption of Preventive Measures and Attitudes toward the H1N1 Influenza Pandemic in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pérez, Anna; Rodríguez, Tània; López, Maria José; Continente, Xavier; Nebot, Manel

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study describes the perceived impact of H1N1 influenza and the adoption of the recommended measures to address the pandemic in schools. Methods: A cross-sectional self-reported survey was conducted in 433 schools in Barcelona addressed to the school principal or the H1N1 influenza designated person. A descriptive analysis was…

  18. 78 FR 69539 - Removal of Attestation Process for Facilities Using H-1A Registered Nurses

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-20

    ...=FR . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: In 1989, Congress created an H-1A nonimmigrant classification... implemented the H-1A program through regulations at 20 CFR part 655 Subparts D and E. See 55 FR 50500 (Dec. 6, 1990), as amended by 59 FR 874 (Jan. 6, 1994). Because of the expiration of the authorizing...

  19. Detection of H-1 parvovirus and Kilham rat virus by PCR.

    PubMed Central

    Besselsen, D G; Besch-Williford, C L; Pintel, D J; Franklin, C L; Hook, R R; Riley, L K

    1995-01-01

    H-1 virus and Kilham rat virus (KRV) are autonomous parvoviruses which generally cause subclinical infections in rats and can cause persistent infections in cell cultures. In this study, primer sets specific for either H-1 or KRV were designed on the basis of DNA sequence comparisons of the rodent parvoviruses. The specificities of the H-1 and KRV-specific primer sets were determined by testing viral preparations of seven different parvoviruses and nine other viruses known to infect rodents. The H-1-specific PCR assay amplified the expected 254-bp product only in the presence of H-1 viral DNA and was able to detect as little as 100 fg of H-1 viral DNA. The KRV-specific PCR assay generated the expected 281-bp product only when KRV viral DNA was used as the template and was able to detect as little as 10 pg of KRV viral DNA. Each assay was able to detect its respective virus in tissues from rats experimentally infected with H-1 or KRV. In contrast, no product was amplified by either assay with tissues from mock-infected rats. Our findings indicate that these PCR assays provide rapid, specific, and sensitive methods for the detection of H-1 or KRV infection in rats and cell culture systems. PMID:7665631

  20. Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 outbreak on pig farm, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Pereda, Ariel; Cappuccio, Javier; Quiroga, Maria A; Baumeister, Elsa; Insarralde, Lucas; Ibar, Mariela; Sanguinetti, Ramon; Cannilla, Maria L; Franzese, Debora; Escobar Cabrera, Oscar E; Craig, Maria I; Rimondi, Agustina; Machuca, Mariana; Debenedetti, Rosa T; Zenobi, Carlos; Barral, Leonardo; Balzano, Rodrigo; Capalbo, Santiago; Risso, Adriana; Perfumo, Carlos J

    2010-02-01

    In June-July 2009, an outbreak of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 infection occurred on a pig farm in Argentina. Molecular analysis indicated that the virus was genetically related to the pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza virus strain. The outbreak presumably resulted from direct human-to-pig transmission. PMID:20113566

  1. Impairment of histone H1 DNA binding by adduct formation with acetaldehyde

    SciTech Connect

    Niemela, O.; Mannermaa, R.; Oikarinen, J. )

    1990-01-01

    Incubation of histone H1 with pharmacologically relevant concentrations of acetaldehyde resulted in the formation of spontaneously stable acetaldehyde-protein linkages. The reaction of acetaldehyde and H1 purified from rat liver either by a DNA recognition site affinity chromatography or by perchloric acid extraction occurred primarily at the lysine residues in the carboxyterminal tail of H1, which is crucial for its function as a eukaryotic repressor. It was further shown using an H1-lacZ fusion protein produced in E. coli and the protein isolated from rat liver that the formation of acetaldehyde adducts with H1 impair its DNA binding properties. They propose that such a reaction may occur in vivo and lead to an inability to repress genes in the liver upon excessive alcohol consumption. This mechanism may play a role in acetaldehyde-induced collagen synthesis in alcoholics.

  2. A sub-cm micromachined electron microscope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feinerman, A. D.; Crewe, D. A.; Perng, D. C.; Shoaf, S. E.; Crewe, A. V.

    1993-01-01

    A new approach for fabricating macroscopic (approximately 10x10x10 mm(exp 3)) structures with micron accuracy has been developed. This approach combines the precision of semiconductor processing and fiber optic technologies. A (100) silicon wafer is anisotropically etched to create four orthogonal v-grooves and an aperture on each 10x12 mm die. Precision 308 micron optical fibers are sandwiched between the die to align the v-grooves. The fiber is then anodically bonded to the die above and below it. This procedure is repeated to create thick structures and a stack of 5 or 6 die will be used to create a miniature scanning electron microscope (MSEM). Two die in the structure will have a segmented electrode to deflect the beam and correct for astigmatism. The entire structure is UHV compatible. The performance of an SEM improves as its length is reduced and a sub-cm 2 keV MSEM with a field emission source should have approximately 1 nm resolution. A low voltage high resolution MSEM would be useful for the examination of biological specimens and semiconductors with a minimum of damage. The first MSEM will be tested with existing 6 micron thermionic sources. In the future a micromachined field emission source will be used. The stacking technology presented in this paper can produce an array of MSEMs 1 to 30 mm in length with a 1 mm or larger period. A key question being addressed by this research is the optimum size for a low voltage MSEM which will be determined by the required spatial resolution, field of view, and working distance.

  3. 46 CFR 53.10-3 - Inspection and tests (modifies HG-500 through HG-540).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Vessel Code (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 53.01-1). The Authorized Inspector shall hold a valid commission issued by the National Board of Boiler and Pressure Vessel Inspectors. After installation, heating... ENGINEERING HEATING BOILERS Tests, Inspection, Stamping, and Reporting (Article 5) § 53.10-3 Inspection...

  4. 46 CFR 53.10-3 - Inspection and tests (modifies HG-500 through HG-540).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Vessel Code (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 53.01-1). The Authorized Inspector shall hold a valid commission issued by the National Board of Boiler and Pressure Vessel Inspectors. After installation, heating... ENGINEERING HEATING BOILERS Tests, Inspection, Stamping, and Reporting (Article 5) § 53.10-3 Inspection...

  5. 46 CFR 53.10-3 - Inspection and tests (modifies HG-500 through HG-540).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Vessel Code (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 53.01-1). The Authorized Inspector shall hold a valid commission issued by the National Board of Boiler and Pressure Vessel Inspectors. After installation, heating... ENGINEERING HEATING BOILERS Tests, Inspection, Stamping, and Reporting (Article 5) § 53.10-3 Inspection...

  6. 46 CFR 53.10-3 - Inspection and tests (modifies HG-500 through HG-540).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Vessel Code (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 53.01-1). The Authorized Inspector shall hold a valid commission issued by the National Board of Boiler and Pressure Vessel Inspectors. After installation, heating... ENGINEERING HEATING BOILERS Tests, Inspection, Stamping, and Reporting (Article 5) § 53.10-3 Inspection...

  7. 46 CFR 53.10-3 - Inspection and tests (modifies HG-500 through HG-540).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Vessel Code (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 53.01-1). The Authorized Inspector shall hold a valid commission issued by the National Board of Boiler and Pressure Vessel Inspectors. After installation, heating... ENGINEERING HEATING BOILERS Tests, Inspection, Stamping, and Reporting (Article 5) § 53.10-3 Inspection...

  8. Simulating the 21 cm signal from reionization including non-linear ionizations and inhomogeneous recombinations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, Sultan; Davé, Romeel; Finlator, Kristian; Santos, Mario G.

    2016-04-01

    We explore the impact of incorporating physically motivated ionization and recombination rates on the history and topology of cosmic reionization and the resulting 21 cm power spectrum, by incorporating inputs from small-volume hydrodynamic simulations into our semi-numerical code, SIMFAST21, that evolves reionization on large scales. We employ radiative hydrodynamic simulations to parametrize the ionization rate Rion and recombination rate Rrec as functions of halo mass, overdensity and redshift. We find that Rion scales superlinearly with halo mass ({R_ion}∝ M_h^{1.41}), in contrast to previous assumptions. Implementing these scalings into SIMFAST21, we tune our one free parameter, the escape fraction fesc, to simultaneously reproduce recent observations of the Thomson optical depth, ionizing emissivity and volume-averaged neutral fraction by the end of reionization. This yields f_esc=4^{+7}_{-2} per cent averaged over our 0.375 h-1 Mpc cells, independent of halo mass or redshift, increasing to 6 per cent if we also constrain to match the observed z = 7 star formation rate function. Introducing superlinear Rion increases the duration of reionization and boosts small-scale 21 cm power by two to three times at intermediate phases of reionization, while inhomogeneous recombinations reduce ionized bubble sizes and suppress large-scale 21 cm power by two to three times. Gas clumping on sub-cell scales has a minimal effect on the 21 cm power. Superlinear Rion also significantly increases the median halo mass scale for ionizing photon output to ˜ 1010 M⊙, making the majority of reionizing sources more accessible to next-generation facilities. These results highlight the importance of accurately treating ionizing sources and recombinations for modelling reionization and its 21 cm power spectrum.

  9. Prevention of influenza virus shedding and protection from lethal H1N1 challenge using a consensus 2009 H1N1 HA and NA adenovirus vector vaccine.

    PubMed

    Jones, Frank R; Gabitzsch, Elizabeth S; Xu, Younong; Balint, Joseph P; Borisevich, Viktoriya; Smith, Jennifer; Smith, Jeanon; Peng, Bi-Hung; Walker, Aida; Salazar, Magda; Paessler, Slobodan

    2011-09-16

    Vaccines against emerging pathogens such as the 2009 H1N1 pandemic virus can benefit from current technologies such as rapid genomic sequencing to construct the most biologically relevant vaccine. A novel platform (Ad5 [E1-, E2b-]) has been utilized to induce immune responses to various antigenic targets. We employed this vector platform to express hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes from 2009 H1N1 pandemic viruses. Inserts were consensuses sequences designed from viral isolate sequences and the vaccine was rapidly constructed and produced. Vaccination induced H1N1 immune responses in mice, which afforded protection from lethal virus challenge. In ferrets, vaccination protected from disease development and significantly reduced viral titers in nasal washes. H1N1 cell mediated immunity as well as antibody induction correlated with the prevention of disease symptoms and reduction of virus replication. The Ad5 [E1-, E2b-] should be evaluated for the rapid development of effective vaccines against infectious diseases. PMID:21821082

  10. 20 CFR 655.705 - What Federal agencies are involved in the H-1B and H-1B1 programs, and what are the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... CFR 214.2(h)(4)(iii)(B)(2), which specifies the employer will comply with the terms of the LCA for the... petition, whether the occupation named in the labor condition application is a specialty occupation or... § 655.700(d)(4). Each employer seeking an H-1B nonimmigrant in a specialty occupation or as a...

  11. Challenge of Pigs with Natural Immunity to H1 and H3 Swine Influenza Virus with Pandemic 2009 H1N1 Influenza Virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction. The emergence of the pandemic 2009 human H1N1 influenza A virus raised many questions about the implications for this virus in swine (1). One such question is, does prior exposure to influenza virus confer any protection against the new virus? This report describes a study to evaluate ...

  12. Different herd level factors associated with H1N1 or H1N2 influenza virus infections in fattening pigs.

    PubMed

    Fablet, C; Simon, G; Dorenlor, V; Eono, F; Eveno, E; Gorin, S; Quéguiner, S; Madec, F; Rose, N

    2013-11-01

    Herd-level factors associated with European H1N1 or H1N2 swine influenza virus (SIV) infections were assessed by mean of a cross-sectional study carried out in 125 herds in France. Serum samples from 15 fattening pigs in each herd were tested by haemagglutination inhibition. Data related to herd characteristics, biosecurity, management and housing conditions were collected by questionnaire during the farm visit. Climatic conditions in the post-weaning and fattening rooms, where the sampled pigs were housed, were measured over 20 h. Factors associated with H1N1 or H1N2 sero-positive status of the herd were identified by logistic regressions for binary outcome. For both subtypes, the odds for a herd to be SIV sero-positive increased if there were more than two pig herds in the vicinity (OR=3.2, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.4-7.6, p<0.01 and OR=3.5, 95% CI: 1.5-8.1 p<0.01 for H1N1 and H1N2 respectively). Different factors were specifically associated with either H1N1 or H1N2 SIV infections. The odds for a herd to be H1N1 sero-positive were significantly increased by having a large number of pigs per pen in the post-weaning room (OR=3.2, 95% CI: 1.2-8.6, p=0.02), temperature setpoints below 25 °C (OR=2.6, 95% CI: 1.1-6.4, p=0.03) and below 24 °C (OR=2.6, 95% CI: 1.1-6.1, p=0.03) for the heating device in the farrowing room and the ventilation controller, respectively, and moving the pigs to the fattening facility via a room housing older pigs (OR=3.3, 95% CI: 1.1-9.6, p=0.03). A H1N2 sero-positive status was associated with a brief down period in the farrowing room (OR=2.6, 95% CI: 1.1-6.3, p=0.03), small floor area per pig in the post-weaning pen (OR=2.9, 95% CI: 1.2-7.0, p=0.02), large-sized fattening room (OR=2.5, 95% CI: 1.1-5.9, p=0.03), lack of all-in all-out management in the fattening room (OR=2.4, 95% CI: 1.0-5.8, p=0.04) and a temperature range of less than 5 °C controlling ventilation in the fattening facilities (OR=3.2, 95% CI: 1.4-7.4, p<0

  13. Novel nucleosomal particles containing core histones and linker DNA but no histone H1

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Hope A.; Cui, Feng; Ocampo, Josefina; Burke, Tara L.; Nikitina, Tatiana; Nagarajavel, V.; Kotomura, Naoe; Zhurkin, Victor B.; Clark, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Eukaryotic chromosomal DNA is assembled into regularly spaced nucleosomes, which play a central role in gene regulation by determining accessibility of control regions. The nucleosome contains ∼147 bp of DNA wrapped ∼1.7 times around a central core histone octamer. The linker histone, H1, binds both to the nucleosome, sealing the DNA coils, and to the linker DNA between nucleosomes, directing chromatin folding. Micrococcal nuclease (MNase) digests the linker to yield the chromatosome, containing H1 and ∼160 bp, and then converts it to a core particle, containing ∼147 bp and no H1. Sequencing of nucleosomal DNA obtained after MNase digestion (MNase-seq) generates genome-wide nucleosome maps that are important for understanding gene regulation. We present an improved MNase-seq method involving simultaneous digestion with exonuclease III, which removes linker DNA. Remarkably, we discovered two novel intermediate particles containing 154 or 161 bp, corresponding to 7 bp protruding from one or both sides of the nucleosome core. These particles are detected in yeast lacking H1 and in H1-depleted mouse chromatin. They can be reconstituted in vitro using purified core histones and DNA. We propose that these ‘proto-chromatosomes’ are fundamental chromatin subunits, which include the H1 binding site and influence nucleosome spacing independently of H1. PMID:26400169

  14. Tissue-expressed B7-H1 Critically Controls Intestinal Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Scandiuzzi, Lisa; Ghosh, Kaya; Hofmeyer, Kimberly A.; Abadi, Yael M.; Lázár-Molnár, Eszter; Lin, Elaine Y.; Liu, Qiang; Jeon, Hyungjun; Almo, Steven C.; Chen, Lieping; Nathenson, Stanley G.; Zang, Xingxing

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY B7-H1 (PD-L1) on immune cells plays an important role in T cell coinhibition by binding its receptor PD-1. Here we show that both human and mouse intestinal epithelium expressed B7-H1 and that B7-H1-deficient mice were highly susceptible to dextran sodium sulfate- or trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid-induced gut injury. B7-H1 deficiency during intestinal inflammation led to high mortality and morbidity, which were associated with severe pathological manifestations in the colon, including loss of epithelial integrity and overgrowth of commensal bacteria. Results from bone marrow chimeric and knock-out mice showed B7-H1 expressed on intestinal parenchyma, but not on hematopoietic cells, controlled intestinal inflammation in an adaptive immunity-independent fashion. Finally, we demonstrated that B7-H1 dampened intestinal inflammation by inhibiting TNF-α production and by stimulating IL-22 from CD11c+CD11b+ lamina propria cells. Thus, our data uncover a new mechanism by which intestinal tissue-expressed B7-H1 functions as an essential ligand for innate immune cells to prevent gut inflammation. PMID:24529703

  15. Nucleotide sequence and expression of a maize H1 histone cDNA.

    PubMed Central

    Razafimahatratra, P; Chaubet, N; Philipps, G; Gigot, C

    1991-01-01

    The first complete amino acid sequence of a H1 histone of a monocotyledonous plant was deduced from a cDNA isolated from a maize library. The encoded H1 protein is 245 amino acid-long and shows the classical tripartite organization of this class of histones. The central globular region of 76 residues shows 60% sequence homology with H1 proteins from dicots but only 20% with the animal H1 proteins. However, several of the amino acids considered as being important in the structure of the nucleosome are conserved between this protein and its animal counterparts. The N-terminal region contains an equal number of acidic and basic residues which appears as a general feature of plant H1 proteins. The 124 residue long and highly basic C-terminal region contains a 7-fold repeated element KA/PKXA/PAKA/PK. Southern-blot hybridization showed that the H1 protein is encoded by a small multigene family. Highly homologous H1 gene families were also detected in the genomes of several more or less closely related plant species. The general expression pattern of these genes was not significantly different from that of these genes encoding the core-histones neither during germination nor in the different tissues of adult maize. Images PMID:1709276

  16. Influenza vaccination coverage among pregnant women--National 2009 H1N1 Flu Survey (NHFS).

    PubMed

    Ding, Helen; Santibanez, Tammy A; Jamieson, Denise J; Weinbaum, Cindy M; Euler, Gary L; Grohskopf, Lisa A; Lu, Peng-Jun; Singleton, James A

    2011-06-01

    We sought to describe vaccination with influenza A (H1N1) 2009 monovalent (2009 H1N1) and trivalent seasonal (seasonal) vaccines among pregnant women during the 2009 through 2010 influenza season. A national H1N1 flu survey was conducted April through June 2010. The 2009 H1N1 and seasonal vaccination coverage estimates were 45.7% and 32.1%, respectively, among pregnant women aged 18-49 years. Receipt of a health care provider's recommendation for vaccination, perceived effectiveness of influenza vaccinations, and perceived high chance of influenza infection were independently associated with higher 2009 H1N1 and seasonal vaccination coverage. Pregnancy during October 2009 through January 2010 was independently associated with higher 2009 H1N1 vaccination coverage. The 2009 H1N1 vaccination level among pregnant women was higher than the seasonal vaccination level during the 2009 through 2010 season; it was also higher than vaccination among nonpregnant women with and without high-risk conditions. Health care providers and public health messaging played important roles in influencing vaccination behavior. PMID:21640233

  17. Phylogeography of Ustilago maydis virus H1 in the USA and Mexico.

    PubMed

    Voth, Peter D; Mairura, Linah; Lockhart, Ben E; May, Georgiana

    2006-11-01

    Ustilago maydis virus H1 (Umv-H1) is a mycovirus that infects Ustilago maydis, a fungal pathogen of maize. As Zea mays was domesticated, it carried with it many associated symbionts, such that the subsequent range expansion and cultivation of maize should have affected maize symbionts' evolutionary history dramatically. Because transmission of Umv-H1 takes place only through cytoplasmic fusion during mating of U. maydis individuals, the population dynamics of U. maydis and maize are expected to affect the population structure of the viral symbiont strongly. Here, the impact of changes in the evolutionary history of U. maydis on that of Umv-H1 was investigated. The high mutation rate of this virus allows inferences to be made about the evolution and divergence of Umv-H1 lineages as a result of the recent changes in U. maydis geographical and genetic structure. The phylogeographical history and genetic structure of Umv-H1 populations in the USA and Mexico were determined by using analyses of viral nucleotide sequence variation. Infection and recombination frequencies, genetic diversity and rates of neutral evolution were also assessed, to make inferences regarding evolutionary processes underlying the population genetic structure of ancestral and descendent populations. The results suggest that Mexico represents the ancestral population of Umv-H1, from which the virus has been carried with U. maydis populations into the USA. Thus, the population dynamics of one symbiont represent a major evolutionary force on the co-evolutionary dynamics of symbiotic partners. PMID:17030880

  18. Protection against H1N1 influenza challenge by a DNA vaccine expressing H3/H1 subtype hemagglutinin combined with MHC class II-restricted epitopes

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Multiple subtypes of avian influenza viruses have crossed the species barrier to infect humans and have the potential to cause a pandemic. Therefore, new influenza vaccines to prevent the co-existence of multiple subtypes within a host and cross-species transmission of influenza are urgently needed. Methods Here we report a multi-epitope DNA vaccine targeted towards multiple subtypes of the influenza virus. The protective hemagglutinin (HA) antigens from H5/H7/H9 subtypes were screened for MHC II class-restricted epitopes overlapping with predicted B cell epitopes. We then constructed a DNA plasmid vaccine, pV-H3-EHA-H1, based on HA antigens from human influenza H3/H1 subtypes combined with the H5/H7/H9 subtype Th/B epitope box. Results Epitope-specific IFN-γ ELISpot responses were significantly higher in the multi-epitope DNA group than in other vaccine and control groups (P < 0.05). The multi-epitope group significantly enhanced Th2 cell responses as determined by cytokine assays. The survival rate of mice given the multi-epitope vaccine was the highest among the vaccine groups, but it was not significantly different compared to those given single antigen expressing pV-H1HA1 vaccine and dual antigen expressing pV-H3-H1 vaccine (P > 0.05). No measurable virus titers were detected in the lungs of the multi-epitope immunized group. The unique multi-epitope DNA vaccine enhanced virus-specific antibody and cellular immunity as well as conferred complete protection against lethal challenge with A/New Caledonia/20/99 (H1N1) influenza strain in mice. Conclusions This approach may be a promising strategy for developing a universal influenza vaccine to prevent multiple subtypes of influenza virus and to induce long-term protective immune against cross-species transmission. PMID:21134292

  19. Characterization of the promoter region of the rat testis-specific histone H1t gene.

    PubMed

    Clare, S E; Hatfield, W R; Fantz, D A; Kistler, W S; Kistler, M K

    1997-01-01

    Histone H1t is synthesized only in male germ cells during the late pachytene stage of meiosis and is retained in spermatids until the nucleus elongates. Transgenic experiments suggest that spermatocyte-directing sequences lie within 140 base pairs of the cap site. To study the mechanism of this specificity we compared the DNase I footprints made on the immediate promoter regions of H1t and H1d (a typical somatic H1) by testis and liver extracts and observed both common and differentially protected regions. The common footprints of H1t included an Sp1 consensus (GC box 1) and a CCAAT motif. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA) identified ubiquitous binding factors for GC box 1 and a binding factor for the CCAAT element that we identified immunologically as H1TF2. H1t-specific footprints occurred over the palindrome CCTAGG and a GC-rich sequence downstream of the TATA box (GC box 2). EMSA analysis of the palindrome identified testis-specific as well as ubiquitous binding factors. UV irradiation of a palindrome-binding reaction generated a cross-linked doublet of about 50 kDa from both testis and liver. Protein factors that bound to the GC box 2 sequence were similar from testis and liver, and GC box 1 and an Sp1 consensus competed for them. In vitro transcription directed by H1t occurred at comparable levels in testis and liver extracts. The importance of both GC box 1 and CCAAT elements was demonstrated by deletion analysis and by oligonucleotide competition. No dependence on the H1t palindrome was observed for in vitro transcription. PMID:9002635

  20. Involvement of the histamine H1 receptor in the regulation of sympathetic nerve activity.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Manabu; Yoshikawa, Takeo; Nakamura, Tadaho; Ohba, Takayoshi; Matsuzaki, Yasushi; Sawamura, Daisuke; Kuwasako, Kenji; Yanagisawa, Teruyuki; Ono, Kyouichi; Nakaji, Shigeyuki; Yanai, Kazuhiko

    2015-03-13

    The histamine system is involved in the regulation of the autonomic nervous system. We used gene-targeted mice to investigate the role of histamine receptors in the regulation of the sympathetic nervous system. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis revealed histamine H1, H2, and H3 receptor expression in the superior cervical ganglion, which contains sympathetic nerve cell bodies. We measured the heart rate variability (HRV), the changes in the beat-to-beat heart rate, which is widely used to assess autonomic activity in the heart. H1 blockade attenuated the baroreflex-mediated changes in heart rate in wild-type (WT) mice, whereas the heart rate response to H2- and H3-specific blockers was unaffected. l-Histidine decarboxylase (HDC) expression in the superior cervical ganglion of H1R-null mice was higher than that in WT controls, whereas the enzyme levels in H2R- and H3R-null mice were not significantly different from those in the WT. All mutant mice (H1R-, H2R-, and H3R-null mice) showed normal electrocardiogram (ECG) patterns with little modification in ECG parameters and the expected response to the β-adrenergic blocker propranolol. Similar to our findings in WT mice, H1 blockade attenuated the baroreflex-mediated heart rate change in H1R-null mice, whereas the heart rate response was unaffected in H2R- and H3R-null mice. The HRV analysis revealed relatively unstable RR intervals, an increased standard deviation of the interbeat interval (SDNN), and low-frequency (LF) component in H1R-null mice compared with the other groups, suggesting that sympathetic nerve activity was altered in H1R-null mice. Taken together, our findings indicate that H1 receptors play a major role in the regulation of sympathetic nerve activity. PMID:25680462

  1. Augmentation of Antigen Receptor–mediated Responses by Histamine H1 Receptor Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Banu, Yasmin; Watanabe, Takeshi

    1999-01-01

    Histamine is considered one of the important mediators of immediate hypersensitivity and inflammation, and acts via G protein–coupled receptors. Here, we report that histamine may affect antigen receptor–mediated immune responses of T and B cells via a signal(s) from histamine H1 receptors (H1Rs). Histamine exhibited enhancing effects on the in vitro proliferative responses of anti-CD3ε– or anti-IgM–stimulated spleen T and B cells, respectively, at the culture condition that the fetal calf serum was dialyzed before culture and c-kit–positive cells were depleted from the spleen cells. In studies of histamine H1R knockout mice, H1R-deficient T cells had low proliferative responses to anti-CD3ε cross-linking or antigen stimulation in vitro. B cells from H1R-deficient mice were also affected, demonstrating low proliferative responses to B cell receptor cross-linking. Antibody production against trinitrophenyl-Ficoll was reduced in H1R-deficient mice. Other aspects of T and B cell function were normal in the H1R knockout mice. H1R-deficient T and B cells showed normal responses upon stimulation with interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, CD40 ligand, CD40 ligand plus IL-4, and lipopolysaccharide. Collectively, these results imply that the signal generated by histamine through H1R augments antigen receptor–mediated immune responses, suggesting cross-talk between G protein–coupled receptors and antigen receptor–mediated signaling. PMID:9989982

  2. Resonant excitation channels in the 3d10-3d94s and 3d10-3d94p transitions of nickel-like Mo14+ and Zr12+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fournier, K. B.; Goldstein, W. H.; May, M.; Finkenthal, M.; Terry, J. L.

    1996-05-01

    At energies below the threshold for direct electron impact excitation, resonant excitations can make a significant contribution to the total excitation rate of a given energy level. In this paper, the rates of resonant excitation into the levels of the 3d94s and 3d94p configurations of Mo14+ have been calculated using a fully relativistic, multiconfiguration atomic structure code and detailed accounting of energy levels. By including the effects of resonant excitations in collisional-radiative models for the spectrum of Ni I-like Mo14+ and (by isoelectronic scaling) Zr12+, the ratio of the emissivity of the 3d10-4d94s E2 transitions to the emissivity of the 3d10-3d94p E1 transitions is greatly enhanced, and sensitivity to electron temperature in the ratio is introduced. This ratio is density sensitive for ne>=1013 cm-3, and therefore, given knowledge of either local temperature or density conditions, the E2-E1 ratio can serve as a diagnostic for local conditions in magnetically confined fusion plasmas. The current work demonstrates the need to include resonant excitations in collisional-radiative models of the soft x-ray emission of nickel-like ions. Good agreement is found between measurements of E1 and E2 line brightness ratios made in a tokamak plasma, and the predictions of collisional-radiative models in the present work.

  3. Brain-penetrating 2-aminobenzimidazole H(1)-antihistamines for the treatment of insomnia.

    PubMed

    Coon, Timothy; Moree, Wilna J; Li, Binfeng; Yu, Jinghua; Zamani-Kord, Said; Malany, Siobhan; Santos, Mark A; Hernandez, Lisa M; Petroski, Robert E; Sun, Aixia; Wen, Jenny; Sullivan, Sue; Haelewyn, Jason; Hedrick, Michael; Hoare, Samuel J; Bradbury, Margaret J; Crowe, Paul D; Beaton, Graham

    2009-08-01

    The benzimidazole core of the selective non-brain-penetrating H(1)-antihistamine mizolastine was used to identify a series of brain-penetrating H(1)-antihistamines for the potential treatment of insomnia. Using cassette PK studies, brain-penetrating H(1)-antihistamines were identified and in vivo efficacy was demonstrated in a rat EEG/EMG model. Further optimization focused on strategies to attenuate an identified hERG liability, leading to the discovery of 4i with a promising in vitro profile. PMID:19553115

  4. Cyclic sulfoxides-garlicnins K1, K2, and H1-extracted from Allium sativum.

    PubMed

    Nohara, Toshihiro; Fujiwara, Yukio; Komota, Yusuke; Kondo, Yoshihiko; Saku, Taiki; Yamaguchi, Koki; Komohara, Yoshihiro; Takeya, Motohiro

    2015-01-01

    Newly identified cyclic sulfoxides-garlicnins K1 (1), K2 (2), and H1 (3)-were isolated from the acetone extracts of the bulbs of garlic, Allium sativum. Garlicnin H1 (3) demonstrated potential to suppress tumor cell proliferation by regulating macrophage activation. The structures of garlicnins K1 and K2, 3,4-dimethyl-5-allyl-tetrahydrothiophen-2-one-S-oxides, and the structure of garlicnin H1, 3-carboxy-3-hydroxy-4-methyl-5-allylsulfoxide-tetrahydrothiophen-2-(ethane-1,2-diol)-S-oxide were characterized by spectroscopic analysis. PMID:25748782

  5. PROCESS OF PRODUCING Cm$sup 244$ AND Cm$sup 24$$sup 5$

    DOEpatents

    Manning, W.M.; Studier, M.H.; Diamond, H.; Fields, P.R.

    1958-11-01

    A process is presented for producing Cm and Cm/sup 245/. The first step of the process consists in subjecting Pu/sup 2339/ to a high neutron flux and subsequently dissolving the irradiated material in HCl. The plutonium is then oxidized to at least the tetravalent state and the solution is contacted with an anion exchange resin, causing the plutonium values to be absorbed while the fission products and transplutonium elements remain in the effluent solution. The effluent solution is then contacted with a cation exchange resin causing the transplutonium, values to be absorbed while the fission products remain in solution. The cation exchange resin is then contacted with an aqueous citrate solution and tbe transplutonium elements are thereby differentially eluted in order of decreasing atomic weight, allowing collection of the desired fractions.

  6. 26 CFR 1.642(h)-1 - Unused loss carryovers on termination of an estate or trust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... estate or trust. 1.642(h)-1 Section 1.642(h)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF....642(h)-1 Unused loss carryovers on termination of an estate or trust. (a) If, on the final termination...(h)(1) to the beneficiaries succeeding to the property of the estate or trust. See § 1.641(b)-3...

  7. 20 CFR 10.3 - Have the collection of information requirements of this part been approved by the Office of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Have the collection of information requirements of this part been approved by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB)? 10.3 Section 10.3... Provisions Introduction § 10.3 Have the collection of information requirements of this part been approved...

  8. Akt inhibitor MK2206 prevents influenza pH1N1 virus infection in vitro.

    PubMed

    Denisova, Oxana V; Söderholm, Sandra; Virtanen, Salla; Von Schantz, Carina; Bychkov, Dmitrii; Vashchinkina, Elena; Desloovere, Jens; Tynell, Janne; Ikonen, Niina; Theisen, Linda L; Nyman, Tuula A; Matikainen, Sampsa; Kallioniemi, Olli; Julkunen, Ilkka; Muller, Claude P; Saelens, Xavier; Verkhusha, Vladislav V; Kainov, Denis E

    2014-07-01

    The influenza pH1N1 virus caused a global flu pandemic in 2009 and continues manifestation as a seasonal virus. Better understanding of the virus-host cell interaction could result in development of better prevention and treatment options. Here we show that the Akt inhibitor MK2206 blocks influenza pH1N1 virus infection in vitro. In particular, at noncytotoxic concentrations, MK2206 alters Akt signaling and inhibits endocytic uptake of the virus. Interestingly, MK2206 is unable to inhibit H3N2, H7N9, and H5N1 viruses, indicating that pH1N1 evolved specific requirements for efficient infection. Thus, Akt signaling could be exploited further for development of better therapeutics against pH1N1 virus. PMID:24752266

  9. 46. OUTLET WORKS: ELECTRICAL SYSTEM NO. 1. Sheet H1, date ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. OUTLET WORKS: ELECTRICAL SYSTEM NO. 1. Sheet H-1, date stamped May, 1939. File no. SA 342/9. - Prado Dam, Outlet Works, Santa Ana River near junction of State Highways 71 & 91, Corona, Riverside County, CA

  10. Cell Lines Expressing Nuclear and/or Mitochondrial RNAse H1 | NCI Technology Transfer Center | TTC

    Cancer.gov

    The National Institute of Child Health & Human Development (NICHD), Program in Genomics of Differentiation, seeks interested parties to further co-develop small molecule inhibitors of RNase H1, especially in regards to genome instability, transcription, and translation.

  11. Akt Inhibitor MK2206 Prevents Influenza pH1N1 Virus Infection In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Denisova, Oxana V.; Söderholm, Sandra; Virtanen, Salla; Von Schantz, Carina; Bychkov, Dmitrii; Vashchinkina, Elena; Desloovere, Jens; Tynell, Janne; Ikonen, Niina; Theisen, Linda L.; Nyman, Tuula A.; Matikainen, Sampsa; Kallioniemi, Olli; Julkunen, Ilkka; Muller, Claude P.; Saelens, Xavier; Verkhusha, Vladislav V.

    2014-01-01

    The influenza pH1N1 virus caused a global flu pandemic in 2009 and continues manifestation as a seasonal virus. Better understanding of the virus-host cell interaction could result in development of better prevention and treatment options. Here we show that the Akt inhibitor MK2206 blocks influenza pH1N1 virus infection in vitro. In particular, at noncytotoxic concentrations, MK2206 alters Akt signaling and inhibits endocytic uptake of the virus. Interestingly, MK2206 is unable to inhibit H3N2, H7N9, and H5N1 viruses, indicating that pH1N1 evolved specific requirements for efficient infection. Thus, Akt signaling could be exploited further for development of better therapeutics against pH1N1 virus. PMID:24752266

  12. H-1 NMR study of ternary ammonia-alkali metal-graphite intercalation compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsang, T.; Fronko, R. M.; Resing, H. A.; Qian, X. W.; Solin, S. A.

    1987-01-01

    For the first-stage ternary ammonia-alkali metal-graphite intercalation compounds M(NH3)(x)C24(x of about 4, M = K, Rb, Cs), three sets of triplet H-1 NMR spectral lines have been observed at various temperatures and orientations due to the H-1 - H-1 and N-14 - H-1 dipolar interactions. The structures of these compounds have been inferred as mobile (liquid-like) intercalant layers of planar M(NH3)4 ions in between the carbon layers. For the intercalated ammonia molecules, the potential barrier is about 0.2 eV and the molecular geometry is very close to the free NH3 in gas phase.

  13. 9. COLD CALIBRATION TEST STAND (H1) FROM LEFT TO RIGHT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. COLD CALIBRATION TEST STAND (H-1) FROM LEFT TO RIGHT - WORK BENCH, CONTROL PANEL, CHEMICAL TANK. - Marshall Space Flight Center, East Test Area, Cold Calibration Test Stand, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  14. Pediatric Healthcare Response to Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Influenza Stakeholder Meeting - Summary of Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    HCTT CHE

    2010-01-01

    The goal of the meeting was to bring together subject matter experts to develop tools and resources for use by the pediatric healthcare community in response to 2009 (H1N1) pandemic influenza activity during the 2009 influenza season.

  15. Induction of broadly neutralizing H1N1 influenza antibodies by vaccination.

    PubMed

    Wei, Chih-Jen; Boyington, Jeffrey C; McTamney, Patrick M; Kong, Wing-Pui; Pearce, Melissa B; Xu, Ling; Andersen, Hanne; Rao, Srinivas; Tumpey, Terrence M; Yang, Zhi-Yong; Nabel, Gary J

    2010-08-27

    The rapid dissemination of the 2009 pandemic influenza virus underscores the need for universal influenza vaccines that elicit protective immunity to diverse viral strains. Here, we show that vaccination with plasmid DNA encoding H1N1 influenza hemagglutinin (HA) and boosting with seasonal vaccine or replication-defective adenovirus 5 vector encoding HA stimulated the production of broadly neutralizing influenza antibodies. This prime/boost combination increased the neutralization of diverse H1N1 strains dating from 1934 to 2007 as compared to either component alone and conferred protection against divergent H1N1 viruses in mice and ferrets. These antibodies were directed to the conserved stem region of HA and were also elicited in nonhuman primates. Cross-neutralization of H1N1 subtypes elicited by this approach provides a basis for the development of a universal influenza vaccine for humans. PMID:20647428

  16. Structural Basis of Preexisting Immunity to the 2009 H1N1 Pandemic Influenza Virus

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Rui; Ekiert, Damian C.; Krause, Jens C.; Hai, Rong; Crowe, Jr., James E.; Wilson, Ian A.

    2010-05-25

    The 2009 H1N1 swine flu is the first influenza pandemic in decades. The crystal structure of the hemagglutinin from the A/California/04/2009 H1N1 virus shows that its antigenic structure, particularly within the Sa antigenic site, is extremely similar to those of human H1N1 viruses circulating early in the 20th century. The cocrystal structure of the 1918 hemagglutinin with 2D1, an antibody from a survivor of the 1918 Spanish flu that neutralizes both 1918 and 2009 H1N1 viruses, reveals an epitope that is conserved in both pandemic viruses. Thus, antigenic similarity between the 2009 and 1918-like viruses provides an explanation for the age-related immunity to the current influenza pandemic.

  17. Piezoresistive measurement of Swine H1N1 Hemagglutinin peptide binding with microcantilever arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bajwa, N.; Maldonado, C. J.; Thundat, T.; Passian, A.

    2014-03-01

    Effective detection of Swine H1N1 Hemagglutinin peptide is crucial as it could be used as a positive control to screen for highly infectious flu strains such as Swine-Origin Influenza A (H1N1). Piezoresistive microcantilever arrays present a pathway towards highly sensitive and label-free detection of biomolecules by transducing the antigen-antibody binding into change in resistivity via induced surface stress variation. We demonstrate a mechanical transduction of Swine H1N1 Hemagglutinin peptide binding and suggest the employed technique may offer a potential platform for detection of the H1N1 virus, which could be clinically used to diagnose and provide subsequent relief.

  18. 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus replicates in human lung tissues

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jinxia; Zhang, Zengfeng; Fan, Xiaohui; Liu, Yuansheng; Wang, Jia; Zheng, Zuoyi; Chen, Rirong; Wang, Pui; Song, Wenjun; Chen, Honglin; Guan, Yi

    2009-01-01

    Replication activity of 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus in human lung cells was evaluated in this study. Twenty-two surgically removed human lung tissue samples were infected ex vivo with pandemic H1N1, A/California/04/2009, seasonal human H1N1 virus, A/ST/92/2009, or a highly pathogenic H5N1 virus, A/Vietnam/1194/04. Examination of nucleoprotein (NP) protein expression and vRNA replication in infected human lung tissues showed that while CA/04 replication varied between tissue samples, overall, it replicated more efficiently than seasonal H1N1 but less efficiently than H5N1 virus. Double immunostaining for viral antigens and cellular markers indicated that CA/04 replicates in type II alveolar epithelial cells. PMID:20370480

  19. Contextual view showing H1 on left and H270 in background; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Contextual view showing H1 on left and H270 in background; camera facing north. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Hospital Headquarters, Johnson Lane, west side at intersection of Johnson Lane & Cossey Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  20. View looking across to building H1 from third floor porch ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View looking across to building H1 from third floor porch over entrance; camera facing south. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Hospital Headquarters, Johnson Lane, west side at intersection of Johnson Lane & Cossey Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  1. H1N1 infection in emergency surgery: A cautionary tale.

    PubMed

    Galbraith, J G; Butler, J S; Pead, M; Twomey, A

    2010-01-01

    Pandemic 2009 influenza A H1N1 has spread rapidly since its first report in Mexico in March 2009. This is the first influenza pandemic in over 40 years and it atypically affects previously healthy young adults, with higher rates of morbidity and mortality. The medical literature has been inundated with reports of H1N1 infection, the majority found in critical care and internal medicine journals with a relative paucity in the surgical literature. Despite this, it remains an important entity that can impact greatly on acute surgical emergencies. We present a case of previously healthy 31-year-old male who underwent open appendectomy. His post-operative recovery was complicated by acute respiratory distress syndrome secondary to H1N1 infection. This case report highlights the impact that H1N1 virus can have on acute surgical emergencies and how it can complicate the post-operative course. PMID:22096662

  2. Developmental and hormonal regulation of protein H1 degrees in rodents.

    PubMed Central

    Gjerset, R; Gorka, C; Hasthorpe, S; Lawrence, J J; Eisen, H

    1982-01-01

    The tissue and cellular distribution and regulation of the chromatin protein H1 degrees has been examined in developing and adult mouse and in rat. The protein appears in specific cell types of solid tissues only when the cells have terminated their maturation. This was found for brain, retina, striated and cardiac muscle, and liver. In tissues that depend on hormones for their function and maintenance, the expression of H1 degrees is dependent on the continued presence of the specific maintenance hormone. In regenerating rat liver the amount of H1 degrees decreases to one-third after the onset of DNA synthesis. The possible role of H1 degrees is discussed in light of these results. Images PMID:6954544

  3. Clinical aspects and cytokine response in severe H1N1 influenza A virus infection

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction The immune responses in patients with novel A(H1N1) virus infection (nvA(H1N1)) are incompletely characterized. We investigated the profile of Th1 and Th17 mediators and interferon-inducible protein-10 (IP-10) in groups with severe and mild nvA(H1N1) disease and correlated them with clinical aspects. Methods Thirty-two patients hospitalized with confirmed nvA(H1N1) infection were enrolled in the study: 21 patients with nvA(H1N1)-acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and 11 patients with mild disease. One group of 20 patients with bacterial sepsis-ARDS and another group of 15 healthy volunteers were added to compare their cytokine levels with pandemic influenza groups. In the nvA(H1N1)-ARDS group, the serum cytokine samples were obtained on admission and 3 days later. The clinical aspects were recorded prospectively. Results In the nvA(H1N1)-ARDS group, obesity and lymphocytopenia were more common and IP-10, interleukin (IL)-12, IL-15, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-9 were significantly increased versus control. When comparing mild with severe nvA(H1N1) groups, IL-6, IL-8, IL-15 and TNFα were significantly higher in the severe group. In nonsurvivors versus survivors, IL-6 and IL-15 were increased on admission and remained higher 3 days later. A positive correlation of IL-6, IL-8 and IL-15 levels with C-reactive protein and with > 5-day interval between symptom onset and admission, and a negative correlation with the PaO2:FiO2 ratio, were found in nvA(H1N1) groups. In obese patients with influenza disease, a significant increased level of IL-8 was found. When comparing viral ARDS with bacterial ARDS, the level of IL-8, IL-17 and TNFα was significantly higher in bacterial ARDS and IL-12 was increased only in viral ARDS. Conclusions In our critically ill patients with novel influenza A(H1N1) virus infection, the hallmarks of the severity of disease were IL-6, IL-15, IL-8 and TNFα. These cytokines, except TNFα, had a positive

  4. B7-H1 Expression in Wilms Tumor: Correlation With Tumor Biology and Disease Recurrence

    PubMed Central

    Routh, Jonathan C.; Ashley, Richard A.; Sebo, Thomas J.; Lohse, Christine M.; Husmann, Douglas A.; Kramer, Stephen A.; Kwon, Eugene D.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Despite tremendous gains in improving prognosis, 10% of patients with Wilms tumor will ultimately experience disease recurrence. The identification of novel prognostic markers and tumor associated targets for patients at risk could enable clinicians to treat recurrences more aggressively and, thus, optimize outcomes. We have previously shown that tumor expression of the T cell coregulatory ligand B7-H1 portends a poor prognosis for adults with renal cell carcinoma and represents a promising target to improve therapy. We hypothesize that this finding may be true for Wilms tumor. Materials and Methods We identified 81 patients with Wilms tumor treated at 1 institution between 1968 and 2004. Histopathological features, including Wilms tumor B7-H1 expression, were correlated with clinical observations and outcome. Results Tumor recurrences were noted in 22% of patients with Wilms tumor and 14% died. B7-H1 was expressed in 11 tumors (14%) and was more likely to occur in anaplastic Wilms tumor (p = 0.03). Tumor B7-H1 expression was associated with a 2.7-fold increased risk of recurrence, although this difference did not achieve statistical significance (p = 0.06). However, in favorable histology tumors B7-H1 expression was associated with a 3.7-fold increased risk of recurrence (p = 0.03). Conclusions B7-H1 is expressed by Wilms tumor, correlates with tumor biology and is associated with an increased risk of recurrence in patients with favorable histology tumors. B7-H1 may prove useful in identifying high risk patients who could benefit from more aggressive initial treatment regimens, and may represent a promising therapeutic target. Multi-institutional studies to elucidate the role of B7-H1 in the treatment of Wilms tumor are warranted. PMID:18355839

  5. Protection against divergent influenza H1N1 virus by a centralized influenza hemagglutinin.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Eric A; Rubrum, Adam M; Webby, Richard J; Barry, Michael A

    2011-01-01

    Influenza poses a persistent worldwide threat to the human population. As evidenced by the 2009 H1N1 pandemic, current vaccine technologies are unable to respond rapidly to this constantly diverging pathogen. We tested the utility of adenovirus (Ad) vaccines expressing centralized consensus influenza antigens. Ad vaccines were produced within 2 months and protected against influenza in mice within 3 days of vaccination. Ad vaccines were able to protect at doses as low as 10(7) virus particles/kg indicating that approximately 1,000 human doses could be rapidly generated from standard Ad preparations. To generate broadly cross-reactive immune responses, centralized consensus antigens were constructed against H1 influenza and against H1 through H5 influenza. Twenty full-length H1 HA sequences representing the main branches of the H1 HA phylogenetic tree were used to create a synthetic centralized gene, HA1-con. HA1-con minimizes the degree of sequence dissimilarity between the vaccine and existing circulating viruses. The centralized H1 gene, HA1-con, induced stronger immune responses and better protection against mismatched virus challenges as compared to two wildtype H1 genes. HA1-con protected against three genetically diverse lethal influenza challenges. When mice were challenged with 1934 influenza A/PR/8/34, HA1-con protected 100% of mice while vaccine generated from 2009 A/TX/05/09 only protected 40%. Vaccination with 1934 A/PR/8/34 and 2009 A/TX/05/09 protected 60% and 20% against 1947 influenza A/FM/1/47, respectively, whereas 80% of mice vaccinated with HA1-con were protected. Notably, 80% of mice challenged with 2009 swine flu isolate A/California/4/09 were protected by HA1-con vaccination. These data show that HA1-con in Ad has potential as a rapid and universal vaccine for H1N1 influenza viruses. PMID:21464940

  6. 11 CFR 103.2 - Depositories (2 U.S.C. 432(h)(1)).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Depositories (2 U.S.C. 432(h)(1)). 103.2 Section 103.2 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION GENERAL CAMPAIGN DEPOSITORIES (2 U.S.C. 432(h)) § 103.2 Depositories (2 U.S.C. 432(h)(1)). Each political committee shall designate one or more State banks, federally chartered...

  7. Pandemic and post-pandemic Influenza A (H1N1) infection in critically ill patients

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background There is a vast amount of information published regarding the impact of 2009 pandemic Influenza A (pH1N1) virus infection. However, a comparison of risk factors and outcome during the 2010-2011 post-pandemic period has not been described. Methods A prospective, observational, multi-center study was carried out to evaluate the clinical characteristics and demographics of patients with positive RT-PCR for H1N1 admitted to 148 Spanish intensive care units (ICUs). Data were obtained from the 2009 pandemic and compared to the 2010-2011 post-pandemic period. Results Nine hundred and ninety-seven patients with confirmed An/H1N1 infection were included. Six hundred and forty-eight patients affected by 2009 (pH1N1) virus infection and 349 patients affected by the post-pandemic Influenza (H1N1)v infection period were analyzed. Patients during the post-pandemic period were older, had more chronic comorbid conditions and presented with higher severity scores (Acute Physiology And Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA)) on ICU admission. Patients from the post-pandemic Influenza (H1N1)v infection period received empiric antiviral treatment less frequently and with delayed administration. Mortality was significantly higher in the post-pandemic period. Multivariate analysis confirmed that haematological disease, invasive mechanical ventilation and continuous renal replacement therapy were factors independently associated with worse outcome in the two periods. HIV was the only new variable independently associated with higher ICU mortality during the post-pandemic Influenza (H1N1)v infection period. Conclusion Patients from the post-pandemic Influenza (H1N1)v infection period had an unexpectedly higher mortality rate and showed a trend towards affecting a more vulnerable population, in keeping with more typical seasonal viral infection. PMID:22126648

  8. 26 CFR 31.3402(h)(1)-1 - Withholding on basis of average wages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Withholding on basis of average wages. 31.3402(h)(1)-1 Section 31.3402(h)(1)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE Collection of Income...

  9. Adult Patient with Novel H1N1 Infection Presented with Encephalitis, Rhabdomyolysis, Pneumonia and Polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Patel, Ketan K; Patel, Atul K; Shah, Shalin; Ranjan, Rajiv; Shah, Sudhir V

    2012-07-01

    Neurological complications of influenza are well known. Influenza A is commonly associated with neurological complications. Neurological complications especially encephalitis is described in the pediatric age group of patients with current pandemic novel H1N1 infection. We are describing a case of novel H1N1 infection presenting with multi-system involvement (encephalitis, bilateral pneumonia, severe rhabdomyolysis leading to renal failure and polyneuropathy) in adult patient. PMID:23055650

  10. Adult Patient with Novel H1N1 Infection Presented with Encephalitis, Rhabdomyolysis, Pneumonia and Polyneuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Ketan K; Patel, Atul K; Shah, Shalin; Ranjan, Rajiv; Shah, Sudhir V

    2012-01-01

    Neurological complications of influenza are well known. Influenza A is commonly associated with neurological complications. Neurological complications especially encephalitis is described in the pediatric age group of patients with current pandemic novel H1N1 infection. We are describing a case of novel H1N1 infection presenting with multi-system involvement (encephalitis, bilateral pneumonia, severe rhabdomyolysis leading to renal failure and polyneuropathy) in adult patient. PMID:23055650

  11. Relaxed Chromatin Formation and Weak Suppression of Homologous Pairing by the Testis-Specific Linker Histone H1T.

    PubMed

    Machida, Shinichi; Hayashida, Ryota; Takaku, Motoki; Fukuto, Atsuhiko; Sun, Jiying; Kinomura, Aiko; Tashiro, Satoshi; Kurumizaka, Hitoshi

    2016-02-01

    Linker histones bind to nucleosomes and compact polynucleosomes into a higher-order chromatin configuration. Somatic and germ cell-specific linker histone subtypes have been identified and may have distinct functions. In this study, we reconstituted polynucleosomes containing human histones H1.2 and H1T, as representative somatic and germ cell-specific linker histones, respectively, and found that H1T forms less compacted chromatin, as compared to H1.2. An in vitro homologous pairing assay revealed that H1T weakly inhibited RAD51/RAD54-mediated homologous pairing in chromatin, although the somatic H1 subtypes, H1.0, H1.1, H1.2, H1.3, H1.4, and H1.5, substantially suppressed it. An in vivo recombination assay revealed that H1T overproduction minimally affected the recombination frequency, but significant suppression was observed when H1.2 was overproduced in human cells. These results suggested that the testis-specific linker histone, H1T, possesses a specific function to produce the chromatin architecture required for proper chromosome regulation, such as homologous recombination. PMID:26757249

  12. Genetic and antigenic characterization of H1 influenza viruses from United States swine from 2008

    PubMed Central

    Lorusso, Alessio; Vincent, Amy L.; Harland, Michelle L.; Alt, David; Bayles, Darrell O.; Swenson, Sabrina L.; Gramer, Marie R.; Russell, Colin A.; Smith, Derek J.; Lager, Kelly M.; Lewis, Nicola S.

    2011-01-01

    Prior to the introduction of the 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus from humans into pigs, four phylogenetic clusters (α-, β-, γ- and δ) of the haemagglutinin (HA) gene from H1 influenza viruses could be found in US swine. Information regarding the antigenic relatedness of the H1 viruses was lacking due to the dynamic and variable nature of swine lineage H1. We characterized 12 H1 isolates from 2008 by using 454 genome-sequencing technology and phylogenetic analysis of all eight gene segments and by serological cross-reactivity in the haemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay. Genetic diversity was demonstrated in all gene segments, but most notably in the HA gene. The gene segments from the 2009 pandemic H1N1 formed clusters separate from North American swine lineage viruses, suggesting progenitors of the pandemic virus were not present in US pigs immediately prior to 2009. Serological cross-reactivity paired with antigenic cartography demonstrated that the viruses in the different phylogenetic clusters are also antigenically divergent. PMID:21177926

  13. The early diversification of influenza A/H1N1pdm.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Martha; Spiro, David; Wentworth, David; Beck, Eric; Fan, Jiang; Ghedin, Elodie; Halpin, Rebecca; Bera, Jayati; Hine, Erin; Proudfoot, Kathleen; Stockwell, Tim; Lin, Xudong; Griesemer, Sara; Kumar, Swati; Bose, Michael; Viboud, Cecile; Holmes, Edward; Henrickson, Kelly

    2009-01-01

    Background Since its initial detection in April 2009, the A/H1N1pdm influenza virus has spread rapidly in humans, with over 5,700 human deaths. However, little is known about the evolutionary dynamics of H1N1pdm and its geographic and temporal diversification.Methods Phylogenetic analysis was conducted upon the concatenated coding regions of whole-genome sequences from 290 H1N1pdm isolates sampled globally between April 1 - July 9, 2009, including relatively large samples from the US states of Wisconsin and New York. Results At least 7 phylogenetically distinct viral clades have disseminated globally and co-circulated in localities that experienced multiple introductions of H1N1pdm. The epidemics in New York and Wisconsin were dominated by two different clades, both phylogenetically distinct from the viruses first identified in California and Mexico, suggesting an important role for founder effects in determining local viral population structures. Conclusions Determining the global diversity of H1N1pdm is central to understanding the evolution and spatial spread of the current pandemic, and to predict its future impact on human populations. Our results indicate that H1N1pdm has already diversified into distinct viral lineages with defined spatial patterns. PMID:20029664

  14. Mechanisms of triggering H1 helix in prion proteins unfolding revealed by molecular dynamic simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseng, Chih-Yuan; Lee, H. C.

    2006-03-01

    In template-assistance model, normal Prion protein (PrP^C), the pathogen to cause several prion diseases such as Creutzfeldt-Jakob (CJD) in human, Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) in cow, and scrapie in sheep, converts to infectious prion (PrP^Sc) through a transient interaction with PrP^Sc. Furthermore, conventional studies showed S1-H1-S2 region in PrP^C to be the template of S1-S2 β-sheet in PrP^Sc, and Prion protein's conformational conversion may involve an unfolding of H1 and refolding into β-sheet. Here we prepare several mouse prion peptides that contain S1-H1-S2 region with specific different structures, which are corresponding to specific interactions, to investigate possible mechanisms to trigger H1 α-helix unfolding process via molecular dynamic simulation. Three properties, conformational transition, salt-bridge in H1, and hydrophobic solvent accessible surface (SAS) are analyzed. From these studies, we found the interaction that triggers H1 unfolding to be the one that causes dihedral angle at residue Asn^143 changes. Whereas interactions that cause S1 segment's conformational changes play a minor in this process. These studies offers an additional evidence for template-assistance model.

  15. Cryptosporidium parvum Induces B7-H1 Expression in Cholangiocytes by Downregulating MicroRNA-513

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Ai-Yu; Zhou, Rui; Hu, Guoku; Liu, Jun; Sosnowska, Danuta; Drescher, Kristen M.; Dong, Haidong; Chen, Xian-Ming

    2009-01-01

    Expression of B7 costimulatory molecules represents an important compartment of immune response of epithelial cells following microbial infection. We reported here that the protozoan parasite Cryptosporidium parvum induced B7-H1 expression in cultured human cholangiocytes. Induced expression of B7-H1 was identified in cells after exposure to infective C. parvum parasite or parasite lysate. Interestingly, microRNA-513 (miR-513) level was reduced in cells after exposure to C. parvum, resulting in a relief of 3′-untranslated region-mediated translational suppression of B7-H1. Overexpression of miR-513 through transfection of miR-513 precursor inhibited C. parvum-induced B7-H1 protein expression. Moreover, enhanced apoptotic cell death was identified in activated human T cells following co-culture with C. parvum-infected cholangiocytes. The apoptosis of activated T cells was partially blocked by a neutralizing antibody to B7-H1 or transfection of cholangiocytes with miR-513 precursor. These data suggest a role of miR-513 in regulating B7-H1 expression by cholangiocytes in response to C. parvum infection. PMID:19916867

  16. A large-scale purification of recombinant histone H1.5 from Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Pyo, S H; Lee, J H; Park, H B; Hong, S S; Kim, J H

    2001-10-01

    An Escherichia coli expression system has been constructed for production of biologically active recombinant histone H1.5. A process of fermentation and purification method at a large scale has been developed. Recombinant histone H1.5 was released from the high density cultured cells by high-pressure homogenization. For an efficient removal of cell debris and partial purification of basic histone H1.5 in a single step, the whole cell lysates were directly loaded onto an expanded bed column packed with the strong cation exchanger (Streamline SP). Complete removal of various impurities was achieved by a combination of hydroxyapatite chromatography and the following cation exchange chromatography with high grade strong cation exchanger (POROS 20 HS), and finally endotoxins were removed by ultrafiltration using a 100-kDa cut-off membrane, which gave the level of endotoxin below 0.5 EU/mg. The molecular mass of the recombinant histone H1.5 analyzed by MALDI-TOF-MS, and the N-terminal amino acid sequences were in good agreement with the authentic histone H1.5. The whole process gave highly purified recombinant histone H1.5 at a high yield, compared to the conventional process. PMID:11570844

  17. Selective histamine H1 antagonism: novel hypnotic and pharmacologic actions challenge classical notions of antihistamines.

    PubMed

    Stahl, Stephen M

    2008-12-01

    Numerous "antihistamines" as well as various psychotropic medications with antihistamine properties are widely utilized to treat insomnia. Over-the-counter sleep aids usually contain an antihistamine and various antidepressants and antipsychotics with antihistamine properties have sedative-hypnotic actions. Although widely used for the treatment of insomnia, many agents that block the histamine H1 receptor are also widely considered to have therapeutic limitations, including the development of next-day carryover sedation, as well as problems with chronic use, such as the development of tolerance to sedative-hypnotic actions and weight gain. Although these clinical actions are classically attributed to blockade of the H1 receptor, recent findings with H1 selective agents and H1 selective dosing of older agents are challenging these notions and suggest that some of the clinical limitations of current H1-blocking agents at their currently utilized doses could be attributable to other properties of these drugs, especially to their simultaneous actions on muscarinic, cholinergic, and adrenergic receptors. Selective H1 antagonism is emerging as a novel approach to the treatment of insomnia, without tolerance, weight gain, or the need for the restrictive prescription scheduling required of other hypnotics. PMID:19179941

  18. Slow wave sleep-inducing effects of first generation H1-antagonists.

    PubMed

    Saitou, K; Kaneko, Y; Sugimoto, Y; Chen, Z; Kamei, C

    1999-10-01

    The present study was performed to see if first-generation histamine H1-antagonists are useful sedative-hypnotic drugs. Increases in electroencephalogram (EEG) power spectra of the delta band (0-4 Hz) at the frontal cortex and theta band (4-8 Hz) at the hippocampus in rats were used as an indexes of sleep. The H1-antagonists used in this study resulted in a decrease in sleep latency and an increase in sleep duration (slow wave sleep). The rate of REM (rapid eye movement) sleep during slow wave sleep was decreased by H1-antagonists and brotizolam. The order of potency of H1-antagonists for the reduction in sleep latency (from greatest to least) was promethazine>chlorpheniramine>diphenhydramine and pyrilamine, and that for the increase in sleep duration was chlorpheniramine>promethazine>diphenhydramine and pyrilamine. Brotizolam was more potent than these H1-antagonists, with 14-18-fold and 4-14-fold greater effects on sleep latency and duration, respectively. These results clearly show that H1-antagonists are effective in mild to moderate insomnia as sedative-hypnotic drugs. PMID:10549859

  19. QT interval prolongation and torsade de pointes: Synergistic effect of flecainide and H1 receptor antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Acosta-Materán, Carlos; Díaz-Oliva, Eloy; Fernández-Rodríguez, Diego; Hernández-Afonso, Julio

    2016-01-01

    A high percentage of patients having atrial fibrillation (AF) presents with paroxysmal AF. Flecainide, the prototypic class Ic anti-arrhythmic drug is the most effective drug to maintain sinus rhythm in this subgroup of patients, though the drug has potential pro-arrhythmic effects. Furthermore, the H1 receptor antagonists are the most commonly prescribed drugs for the symptomatic treatment of pruritus. Despite having low number of adverse effects, the H1 receptor antagonists have cardiotoxic effects. Flecainide and H1 receptor antagonists present arrhythmic complications including QT interval prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). The case presented here is a 65-year-old female who was diagnosed of atrial fibrillation and presented with rashes in lower extremities. The patient was treated using flecainide and H1 receptor antagonists (loratadine and hydroxyzine) that prolonged QT interval and induced TdP. The concomitant administration of flecainide and H1 receptor antagonists seems to have a synergistic effect in QT interval prolongation and subsequent TdP. The concurrent administration of H1 receptor antagonists to patients receiving class Ic anti-arrhythmic drugs should be avoided in order to reduce arrhythmic risk in this population. PMID:27440957

  20. Ara h 1 protein-antibody dissociation study: evidence for binding inhomogeneities on a molecular scale.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Ruiz, E; Spasic, D; Gils, A; van IJzendoorn, L J; Prins, M W J; Lammertyn, J

    2015-09-25

    The characterization of biomolecular interactions is essential when designing novel biosensors, since the interaction between the bioreceptor and the ligand determines important biosensing parameters such as sensitivity and selectivity. In this paper we study the interaction of the trimeric Ara h 1 protein with a monoclonal anti-Ara h 1 antibody by means of magnetic force-induced dissociation. The proteins were bound to magnetic particles and polystyrene surfaces by EDC/NHS reaction chemistry and by physisorption, respectively. Two different molecular configurations have been investigated, with either the Ara h 1 protein on the particles or the Ara h 1 protein on the polystyrene surface. A model with a Gaussian distribution of energy barriers for dissociation gives an adequate description for the measured multi-exponential decays. We hypothesize that distributions of molecular orientations as well as experimentally induced variations may underlay the observed distributions. The two molecular configurations show a different peak value of the energy distribution. Similarly, SPR experiments for two distinct configurations (either Ara h 1 protein on the surface, or anti-Ara h 1 antibody on the surface) also show clear differences in dissociation behavior. We hypothesize that the multivalency of the involved molecules leads to different modes of binding. The results of this work highlight the importance of molecular inhomogeneities when studying the interaction processes of biomolecular complexes. PMID:25686720

  1. Effectiveness of seasonal influenza vaccine against pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus, Australia, 2010.

    PubMed

    Fielding, James E; Grant, Kristina A; Garcia, Katherine; Kelly, Heath A

    2011-07-01

    To estimate effectiveness of seasonal trivalent and monovalent influenza vaccines against pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 virus, we conducted a test-negative case-control study in Victoria, Australia, in 2010. Patients seen for influenza-like illness by general practitioners in a sentinel surveillance network during 2010 were tested for influenza; vaccination status was recorded. Case-patients had positive PCRs for pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus, and controls had negative influenza test results. Of 319 eligible patients, test results for 139 (44%) were pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus positive. Adjusted effectiveness of seasonal vaccine against pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus was 79% (95% confidence interval 33%-93%); effectiveness of monovalent vaccine was 47% and not statistically significant. Vaccine effectiveness was higher among adults. Despite some limitations, this study indicates that the first seasonal trivalent influenza vaccine to include the pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus strain provided significant protection against laboratory-confirmed pandemic (H1N1) 2009 infection. PMID:21762570

  2. Characteristics and influences of H1N1 communication on college students

    PubMed Central

    Koskan, Alexis; Foster, Caroline; Karlis, Jack; Rose, India; Tanner, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to assess how college students received and responded to H1N1 pandemic emergency preparedness information and to assess college students’ knowledge and attitudes towards H1N1 during the height of the H1N1 epidemic and corresponding public health response to the outbreak. Design/methodology/approach Using a case study approach, the researchers conducted five focus groups at a large Southeastern US university between October 20–29, 2009. Findings In order to effectively communicate emergency preparedness information to college students, universities should rely on interpersonal communication and mediated communication from trusted sources. College students need to understand the health-related emergency, the risk of the emergency, basic steps to avoid it, and only pertinent cues to action. Oversaturation of this information can lead college students to lessen their perceived importance of the disaster prevention information. Research limitations/implications Focus groups were conducted during only two consecutive weeks of the H1N1 epidemic, and snowball sampling may have led to sample bias. Originality/value This research was conducted during the height of the H1N1 pandemic, and is the only study to date that explores college students’ knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors towards H1N1. PMID:25328288

  3. Piwi Modulates Chromatin Accessibility by Regulating Multiple Factors Including Histone H1 to Repress Transposons.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Yuka W; Murano, Kensaku; Ishizu, Hirotsugu; Shibuya, Aoi; Iyoda, Yumiko; Siomi, Mikiko C; Siomi, Haruhiko; Saito, Kuniaki

    2016-08-01

    PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) mediate transcriptional and post-transcriptional silencing of transposable element (TE) in animal gonads. In Drosophila ovaries, Piwi-piRNA complexes (Piwi-piRISCs) repress TE transcription by modifying the chromatin state, such as by H3K9 trimethylation. Here, we demonstrate that Piwi physically interacts with linker histone H1. Depletion of Piwi decreases H1 density at a subset of TEs, leading to their derepression. Silencing at these loci separately requires H1 and H3K9me3 and heterochromatin protein 1a (HP1a). Loss of H1 increases target loci chromatin accessibility without affecting H3K9me3 density at these loci, while loss of HP1a does not impact H1 density. Thus, Piwi-piRISCs require both H1 and HP1a to repress TEs, and the silencing is correlated with the chromatin state rather than H3K9me3 marks. These findings suggest that Piwi-piRISCs regulate the interaction of chromatin components with target loci to maintain silencing of TEs through the modulation of chromatin accessibility. PMID:27425411

  4. A technique for extending by ∼10(3) the dynamic range of compact proton spectrometers for diagnosing ICF implosions on the National Ignition Facility and OMEGA.

    PubMed

    Sio, H; Séguin, F H; Frenje, J A; Gatu Johnson, M; Zylstra, A B; Rinderknecht, H G; Rosenberg, M J; Li, C K; Petrasso, R D

    2014-11-01

    Wedge Range Filter (WRF) proton spectrometers are routinely used on OMEGA and the NIF for diagnosing ρR and ρR asymmetries in direct- and indirect-drive implosions of D(3)He-, D2-, and DT-gas-filled capsules. By measuring the optical opacity distribution in CR-39 due to proton tracks in high-yield applications, as opposed to counting individual tracks, WRF dynamic range can be extended by 10(2) for obtaining the spectral shape, and by 10(3) for mean energy (ρR) measurement, corresponding to proton fluences of 10(8) and 10(9) cm(-2), respectively. Using this new technique, ρR asymmetries can be measured during both shock and compression burn (proton yield ∼10(8) and ∼10(12), respectively) in 2-shock National Ignition Facility implosions with the standard WRF accuracy of ±∼10 mg/cm(2). PMID:25430298

  5. A new atlas of infrared methane spectra between 1120 per cm and 1800 per cm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blatherwick, R. D.; Goldman, A.; Lutz, B. L.; Silvaggio, P. M.; Boese, R. W.

    1979-01-01

    An atlas of 1339 methane absorption lines in the range 1120 to 1800 reciprocal centimeters, including the nu(4) and nu(2) bands, is presented. Laboratory spectra were obtained by a Nicolet Fourier transform Michelson interferometer with a resolution of approximately 0.06 reciprocal cm and a path length of 6.35 m of 0.98, 4.86 and 19.97 torr. Observed spectra are also compared with spectral intensities calculated line-by-line on the basis of tabulated intensities of the observed spectral lines.

  6. Lipopolysaccharide induces H1 receptor expression and enhances histamine responsiveness in human coronary artery endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Raveendran, Vineesh V; Tan, Xiaoyu; Sweeney, Matthew E; Levant, Beth; Slusser, Joyce; Stechschulte, Daniel J; Dileepan, Kottarappat N

    2011-04-01

    Summary Histamine is a well-recognized modulator of vascular inflammation. We have shown that histamine, acting via H1 receptors (H1R), synergizes lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced production of prostaglandin I(2) (PGI(2)), PGE(2) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) by endothelial cells. The synergy between histamine and LPS was partly attributed to histamine -induced expression of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). In this study, we examined whether LPS stimulates the H1R expression in human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAEC) with resultant enhancement of histamine responsiveness. Incubation of HCAEC with LPS (10-1000 ng/ml) resulted in two-fold to fourfold increases in H1R mRNA expression in a time-dependent and concentration-dependent fashion. In contrast, LPS treatment did not affect H2R mRNA expression. The LPS-induced H1R mRNA expression peaked by 4 hr after LPS treatment and remained elevated above the basal level for 20-24 hr. Flow cytometric and Western blot analyses revealed increased expression of H1R protein in LPS-treated cells. The specific binding of [(3)H]pyrilamine to H1R in membrane proteins from LPS-treated HCAEC was threefold higher than the untreated cells. The LPS-induced H1R expression was mediated through TLR4 as gene silencing by TLR4-siRNA and treatment with a TLR4 antagonist inhibited the LPS effect. When HCAEC were pre-treated with LPS for 24 hr, washed and challenged with histamine, 17-, 10- and 15-fold increases in PGI(2), PGE(2) and IL-6 production, respectively, were noted. Histamine-induced enhancement of the synthesis of PGI(2), PGE(2) and IL-6 by LPS-primed HCAEC was completely blocked by an H1R antagonist. The results demonstrate that LPS, through TLR4 activation, up-regulates the expression and function of H1R and amplifies histamine-induced inflammatory responses in HCAEC. PMID:21255012

  7. Escherichia coli Serotype O15:K52:H1 as a Uropathogenic Clone

    PubMed Central

    Prats, Guillem; Navarro, Ferran; Mirelis, Beatriz; Dalmau, David; Margall, Nuria; Coll, Pere; Stell, Adam; Johnson, James R.

    2000-01-01

    To clarify the clinical and bacteriological correlates of urinary-tract infection (UTI) due to Escherichia coli O15:K52:H1, during a 1-year surveillance period we prospectively screened all 1,871 significant E. coli urine isolates at the Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Barcelona, Spain, for this serotype and assessed the epidemiological features of community-acquired UTI due to E. coli O15:K52:H1 versus other E. coli serotypes. We also compared the 25 O15:K52:H1 UTI isolates from the present study with 22 O15:K52:H1 isolates from other, diverse geographic locales and with 23 standard control strains (8 strains from the ECOR reference collection and 15 strains of nonpathogenic O:K:H serotypes) with respect to multiple phenotypic and genotypic traits. Although E. coli O15:K52:H1 caused only 1.4% of community-acquired E. coli UTIs during the surveillance period, these UTIs were more likely to present as pyelonephritis and to occur in younger hosts, with similar risk factors, than were UTIs due to other E. coli serotypes. Irrespective of geographic origin, E. coli O15:K52:H1 strains exhibited a comparatively restricted repertoire of distinctive virulence factor profiles (typically, they were positive for papG allele II, papA allele F16, and aer and negative for sfa, afa, hly, and cnf1), biotypes, ribotypes, and amplotypes, consistent with a common clonal origin. In contrast, their antimicrobial resistance profiles were more extensive and more diverse than those of control strains. These findings indicate that E. coli O15:K52:H1 constitutes a broadly distributed and clinically significant uropathogenic clone with fluid antimicrobial resistance capabilities. PMID:10618088

  8. Helicobacter pylori cag pathogenicity island's role in B7-H1 induction and immune evasion.

    PubMed

    Lina, Taslima T; Alzahrani, Shatha; House, Jennifer; Yamaoka, Yoshio; Sharpe, Arlene H; Rampy, Bill A; Pinchuk, Irina V; Reyes, Victor E

    2015-01-01

    During Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection CD4+ T cells in the gastric lamina propria are hyporesponsive and polarized by Th1/Th17 cell responses controlled by Treg cells. We have previously shown that H. pylori upregulates B7-H1 expression on GEC, which, in turn, suppress T cell proliferation, effector function, and induce Treg cells in vitro. In this study, we investigated the underlying mechanisms and the functional relevance of B7-H1 induction by H. pylori infection to chronic infection. Using H. pylori wild type (WT), cag pathogenicity island (cag PAI-) and cagA- isogenic mutant strains we demonstrated that H. pylori requires its type 4 secretion system (T4SS) as well as its effector protein CagA and peptidoglycan (PG) fragments for B7-H1 upregulation on GEC. Our study also showed that H. pylori uses the p38 MAPK pathway to upregulate B7-H1 expression in GEC. In vivo confirmation was obtained when infection of C57BL/6 mice with H. pylori PMSS1 strain, which has a functional T4SS delivery system, but not with H. pylori SS1 strain lacking a functional T4SS, led to a strong upregulation of B7-H1 expression in the gastric mucosa, increased bacterial load, induction of Treg cells in the stomach, increased IL-10 in the serum. Interestingly, B7-H1-/- mice showed less Treg cells and reduced bacterial loads after infection. These studies demonstrate how H. pylori T4SS components activate the p38 MAPK pathway, upregulate B7-H1 expression by GEC, and cause Treg cell induction; thus, contribute to establishing a persistent infection characteristic of H. pylori. PMID:25807464

  9. Double interpenetration in a chiral three-dimensional magnet with a (10,3)-a structure.

    PubMed

    Grancha, Thais; Mon, Marta; Lloret, Francesc; Ferrando-Soria, Jesús; Journaux, Yves; Pasán, Jorge; Pardo, Emilio

    2015-09-21

    A unique chiral three-dimensional magnet with an overall racemic double-interpenetrated (10,3)-a structure of the formula [(S)-(1-PhEt)Me3N]4[Mn4Cu6(Et2pma)12](DMSO)3]·3DMSO·5H2O (1; Et2pma = N-2,6-diethylphenyloxamate) has been synthesized by the self-assembly of a mononuclear copper(II) complex acting as a metalloligand toward Mn(II) ions in the presence of a chiral cationic auxiliary, constituting the first oxamato-based chiral coordination polymer exhibiting long-range magnetic ordering. PMID:26322529

  10. Reionization on Large Scales. IV. Predictions for the 21 cm Signal Incorporating the Light Cone Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Plante, P.; Battaglia, N.; Natarajan, A.; Peterson, J. B.; Trac, H.; Cen, R.; Loeb, A.

    2014-07-01

    We present predictions for the 21 cm brightness temperature power spectrum during the Epoch of Reionization (EoR). We discuss the implications of the "light cone" effect, which incorporates evolution of the neutral hydrogen fraction and 21 cm brightness temperature along the line of sight. Using a novel method calibrated against radiation-hydrodynamic simulations, we model the neutral hydrogen density field and 21 cm signal in large volumes (L = 2 Gpc h -1). The inclusion of the light cone effect leads to a relative decrease of about 50% in the 21 cm power spectrum on all scales. We also find that the effect is more prominent at the midpoint of reionization and later. The light cone effect can also introduce an anisotropy along the line of sight. By decomposing the 3D power spectrum into components perpendicular to and along the line of sight, we find that in our fiducial reionization model, there is no significant anisotropy. However, parallel modes can contribute up to 40% more power for shorter reionization scenarios. The scales on which the light cone effect is relevant are comparable to scales where one measures the baryon acoustic oscillation. We argue that due to its large comoving scale and introduction of anisotropy, the light cone effect is important when considering redshift space distortions and future application to the Alcock-Paczyński test for the determination of cosmological parameters.

  11. Whole genome characterization of human influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses isolated from Kenya during the 2009 pandemic.

    PubMed

    Gachara, George; Symekher, Samuel; Otieno, Michael; Magana, Japheth; Opot, Benjamin; Bulimo, Wallace

    2016-06-01

    An influenza pandemic caused by a novel influenza virus A(H1N1)pdm09 spread worldwide in 2009 and is estimated to have caused between 151,700 and 575,400 deaths globally. While whole genome data on new virus enables a deeper insight in the pathogenesis, epidemiology, and drug sensitivities of the circulating viruses, there are relatively limited complete genetic sequences available for this virus from African countries. We describe herein the full genome analysis of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses isolated in Kenya between June 2009 and August 2010. A total of 40 influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses isolated during the pandemic were selected. The segments from each isolate were amplified and directly sequenced. The resulting sequences of individual gene segments were concatenated and used for subsequent analysis. These were used to infer phylogenetic relationships and also to reconstruct the time of most recent ancestor, time of introduction into the country, rates of substitution and to estimate a time-resolved phylogeny. The Kenyan complete genome sequences clustered with globally distributed clade 2 and clade 7 sequences but local clade 2 viruses did not circulate beyond the introductory foci while clade 7 viruses disseminated country wide. The time of the most recent common ancestor was estimated between April and June 2009, and distinct clusters circulated during the pandemic. The complete genome had an estimated rate of nucleotide substitution of 4.9×10(-3) substitutions/site/year and greater diversity in surface expressed proteins was observed. We show that two clades of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus were introduced into Kenya from the UK and the pandemic was sustained as a result of importations. Several closely related but distinct clusters co-circulated locally during the peak pandemic phase but only one cluster dominated in the late phase of the pandemic suggesting that it possessed greater adaptability. PMID:26921801

  12. A 1.3 cm line survey toward Orion KL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Y.; Henkel, C.; Thorwirth, S.; Spezzano, S.; Menten, K. M.; Walmsley, C. M.; Wyrowski, F.; Mao, R. Q.; Klein, B.

    2015-09-01

    regions. Elemental and isotopic abundance ratios are also estimated: He/H = (8.7 ± 0.7)% derived from the ratios between helium RRLs and hydrogen RRLs; 12C/13C = 63 ± 17 from 12CH3OH/13CH3OH; 14N/15N =100 ± 51 from 14NH3/15NH3; and D/H = (8.3 ± 4.5) × 10-3 from NH2D/NH3. The dispersion of the He/H ratios derived from Hα/Heα pairs to Hδ/Heδ pairs is very small, which is consistent with theoretical predictions that the departure coefficients bn factors for hydrogen and helium are nearly identical. Based on a non-LTE code that neglects excitation by the infrared radiation field and a likelihood analysis, we find that the denser regions have lower kinetic temperature, which favors an external heating of the hot core. Tables 2 and 4 and appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.orgThe reduced spectra as FITS files are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/581/A48

  13. Reverse bias voltage testing of 8 cm x 8cm silicon solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woike, T.; Stotlar, S.; Lungu, C.

    1991-01-01

    A study is described of the reverse I-V characteristics of the largest space qualified silicon solar cells currently available (8 x 8 cm) and of reverse bias voltage (RBV) testing performed on these cells. This study includes production grade cells, both with and without cover glass. These cells span the typical output range seen in production. Initial characteristics of these cells are measured at both 28 and 60 C. These measurements show weak correlation between cell output and reverse characteristics. Analysis is presented to determine the proper conditions for RBV stress to simulate shadowing effects on a particular array design. After performing the RBV stress the characteristics of the stressed cells are remeasured. The degradation in cell performance is highly variable which exacerbates cell mismatching over time. The effect of this degradation on array lifetime is also discussed. Generalization of these results to other array configurations is also presented.

  14. Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 during air travel

    PubMed Central

    Neatherlin, John; Cramer, Elaine H.; Dubray, Christine; Marienau, Karen J.; Russell, Michelle; Sun, Hong; Whaley, Melissa; Hancock, Kathy; Duong, Krista K.; Kirking, Hannah L.; Schembri, Christopher; Katz, Jacqueline M.; Cohen, Nicole J.; Fishbein, Daniel B.

    2015-01-01

    Summary The global spread of the influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus (pH1N1) associated with travelers from North America during the onset of the 2009 pandemic demonstrates the central role of international air travel in virus migration. To characterize risk factors for pH1N1 transmission during air travel, we investigated travelers and airline employees from four North American flights carrying ill travelers with confirmed pH1N1 infection. Of 392 passengers and crew identified, information was available for 290 (74%) passengers were interviewed. Overall attack rates for acute respiratory infection and influenza-like illness 1–7 days after travel were 5.2% and 2.4% respectively. Of 43 individuals that provided sera, 4 (9.3%) tested positive for pH1N1 antibodies, including 3 with serologic evidence of asymptomatic infection. Investigation of novel influenza aboard aircraft may be instructive. However, beyond the initial outbreak phase, it may compete with community-based mitigation activities, and interpretation of findings will be difficult in the context of established community transmission. PMID:23523241

  15. Histone H1 functions as a stimulatory factor in backup pathways of NHEJ

    PubMed Central

    Rosidi, Bustanur; Wang, Minli; Wu, Wenqi; Sharma, Aparna; Wang, Huichen; Iliakis, George

    2008-01-01

    DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) induced in the genome of higher eukaryotes by ionizing radiation (IR) are predominantly removed by two pathways of non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) termed D-NHEJ and B-NHEJ. While D-NHEJ depends on the activities of the DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) and DNA ligase IV/XRCC4/XLF, B-NHEJ utilizes, at least partly, DNA ligase III/XRCC1 and PARP-1. Using in vitro end-joining assays and protein fractionation protocols similar to those previously applied for the characterization of DNA ligase III as an end-joining factor, we identify here histone H1 as an additional putative NHEJ factor. H1 strongly enhances DNA-end joining and shifts the product spectrum from circles to multimers. While H1 enhances the DNA-end-joining activities of both DNA Ligase IV and DNA Ligase III, the effect on ligase III is significantly stronger. Histone H1 also enhances the activity of PARP-1. Since histone H1 has been shown to counteract D-NHEJ, these observations and the known functions of the protein identify it as a putative alignment factor operating preferentially within B-NHEJ. PMID:18250087

  16. H1foo Has a Pivotal Role in Qualifying Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Kunitomi, Akira; Yuasa, Shinsuke; Sugiyama, Fumihiro; Saito, Yuki; Seki, Tomohisa; Kusumoto, Dai; Kashimura, Shin; Takei, Makoto; Tohyama, Shugo; Hashimoto, Hisayuki; Egashira, Toru; Tanimoto, Yoko; Mizuno, Saori; Tanaka, Shoma; Okuno, Hironobu; Yamazawa, Kazuki; Watanabe, Hideo; Oda, Mayumi; Kaneda, Ruri; Matsuzaki, Yumi; Nagai, Toshihiro; Okano, Hideyuki; Yagami, Ken-Ichi; Tanaka, Mamoru; Fukuda, Keiichi

    2016-06-14

    Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are a hallmark of ideal pluripotent stem cells. Epigenetic reprogramming of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) has not been fully accomplished. iPSC generation is similar to somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) in oocytes, and this procedure can be used to generate ESCs (SCNT-ESCs), which suggests the contribution of oocyte-specific constituents. Here, we show that the mammalian oocyte-specific linker histone H1foo has beneficial effects on iPSC generation. Induction of H1foo with Oct4, Sox2, and Klf4 significantly enhanced the efficiency of iPSC generation. H1foo promoted in vitro differentiation characteristics with low heterogeneity in iPSCs. H1foo enhanced the generation of germline-competent chimeric mice from iPSCs in a manner similar to that for ESCs. These findings indicate that H1foo contributes to the generation of higher-quality iPSCs. PMID:27237376

  17. Illinois department of public health H1N1/A pandemic communications evaluation survey.

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, D.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2010-09-16

    Because of heightened media coverage, a 24-hour news cycle and the potential miscommunication of health messages across all levels of government during the onset of the H1N1 influenza outbreak in spring 2009, the Illinois Department of Public Health (IDPH) decided to evaluate its H1N1 influenza A communications system. IDPH wanted to confirm its disease information and instructions were helping stakeholders prepare for and respond to a novel influenza outbreak. In addition, the time commitment involved in preparing, issuing, monitoring, updating, and responding to H1N1 federal guidelines/updates and media stories became a heavy burden for IDPH staff. The process and results of the H1N1 messaging survey represent a best practice that other health departments and emergency management agencies can replicate to improve coordination efforts with stakeholder groups during both emergency preparedness and response phases. Importantly, the H1N1 survey confirmed IDPH's messages were influencing stakeholders decisions to activate their pandemic plans and initiate response operations. While there was some dissatisfaction with IDPH's delivery of information and communication tools, such as the fax system, this report should demonstrate to IDPH that its core partners believe it has the ability and expertise to issue timely and accurate instructions that can help them respond to a large-scale disease outbreak in Illinois. The conclusion will focus on three main areas: (1) the survey development process, (2) survey results: best practices and areas for improvement and (3) recommendations: next steps.

  18. Paradoxical exacerbation of chronic urticaria by H1-antihistamines and montelukast.

    PubMed

    Tedeschi, A

    2009-12-01

    Histamine is the main mediator of urticaria and H1-receptor antagonists represent the treatment of choice in all patients with chronic urticaria. Leukotriene receptor antagonists as montelukast have also been used in patients with chronic urticaria unresponsive to H1-antihistamines alone. We report a patient with chronic urticaria whose disease was paradoxically exacerbated by H1-antihistamines and montelukast, and controlled by immunosuppressive drugs as ciclosporin and azathioprine. Urticaria exacerbations were caused by different molecules including either piperidine (fexofenadine, desloratadine, ebastine, rupatadine) or piperazine (hydroxyzine, cetirizine) derivatives as well as by montelukast suggesting that an IgE-mediated mechanism was not involved. A possible explanation of the observed urticaria exacerbation is that H1-antihistamines and montelukast may shift the H1 histamine receptor and the leukotriene receptor to the active conformation instead of the inactive state. The beneficial effects of ciclosporin and azathioprine confirm that immunosuppressive drugs have an important role in the treatment of refractory chronic urticaria and back the hypothesis that an autoimmune/autoreactive mechanism often underlies the disease. PMID:20128233

  19. Framing of Influenza A (H1N1) pandemic in a Singaporean newspaper.

    PubMed

    Basnyat, Iccha; Lee, Seow Ting

    2015-12-01

    This study seeks to understand how public health messages provided by the government in Singapore during an Influenza A (H1N1) pandemic were framed by the news media for the public. News articles were analyzed to explore how the global pandemic was framed as a local event, providing a unique exploration of the dynamic involving public health communication, news media and the state. Thematic analysis (n = 309) included the government-issued press releases disseminating public health information about H1N1 that were directly linked to news stories (n = 56) and news stories about H1N1 generated by the newspaper (n = 253). Four themes were found: (i) imported disease, (ii) war/battle metaphors, (iii) social responsibility and (iv) lockdown policies. Frame analysis revealed that the news coverage during the H1N1 pandemic reflected how the newspaper framed and mediated the information flow, amplified a positive tone for the government response, emphasized individual responsibility and utilized gain frames to construct local messages about the global H1N1 pandemic that reified Singapore as a nation-state. PMID:24842078

  20. Outcome of pandemic H1N1 infections in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients

    PubMed Central

    Ljungman, Per; de la Camara, Rafael; Perez-Bercoff, Lena; Abecasis, Manuel; Nieto Campuzano, Jose Bartolo; Cannata-Ortiz, M. Jimena; Cordonnier, Catherine; Einsele, Hermann; Gonzalez-Vicent, Marta; Espigado, Ildefonso; Halter, Jörg; Martino, Rodrigo; Mohty, Bilal; Sucak, Gülsan; Ullmann, Andrew J; Vázquez, Lourdes; Ward, Katherine N.; Engelhard, Dan

    2011-01-01

    During 2009, a new strain of A/H1N1 influenza appeared and became pandemic. A prospective study was performed to collect data regarding risk factors and outcome of A/H1N1 in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. Only verified pandemic A/H1N1 influenza strains were included: 286 patients were reported, 222 allogeneic and 64 autologous recipients. The median age was 38.3 years and the median time from transplant was 19.4 months. Oseltamivir was administered to 267 patients and 15 patients received zanamivir. One hundred and twenty-five patients (43.7%) were hospitalized. Ninety-three patients (32.5%) developed lower respiratory tract disease. In multivariate analysis, risk factors were age (OR 1.025; 1.01–1.04; P=0.002) and lymphopenia (OR 2.49; 1.33–4.67; P<0.001). Thirty-three patients (11.5%) required mechanical ventilation. Eighteen patients (6.3%) died from A/H1N1 infection or its complications. Neutropenia (P=0.03) and patient age (P=0.04) were significant risk factors for death. The 2009 A/H1N1 influenza pandemic caused severe complications in stem cell transplant recipients. PMID:21546495

  1. Outcome of pandemic H1N1 infections in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Ljungman, Per; de la Camara, Rafael; Perez-Bercoff, Lena; Abecasis, Manuel; Nieto Campuzano, Jose Bartolo; Cannata-Ortiz, M Jimena; Cordonnier, Catherine; Einsele, Hermann; Gonzalez-Vicent, Marta; Espigado, Ildefonso; Halter, Jörg; Martino, Rodrigo; Mohty, Bilal; Sucak, Gülsan; Ullmann, Andrew J; Vázquez, Lourdes; Ward, Katherine N; Engelhard, Dan

    2011-08-01

    During 2009, a new strain of A/H1N1 influenza appeared and became pandemic. A prospective study was performed to collect data regarding risk factors and outcome of A/H1N1 in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. Only verified pandemic A/H1N1 influenza strains were included: 286 patients were reported, 222 allogeneic and 64 autologous recipients. The median age was 38.3 years and the median time from transplant was 19.4 months. Oseltamivir was administered to 267 patients and 15 patients received zanamivir. One hundred and twenty-five patients (43.7%) were hospitalized. Ninety-three patients (32.5%) developed lower respiratory tract disease. In multivariate analysis, risk factors were age (OR 1.025; 1.01-1.04; P=0.002) and lymphopenia (OR 2.49; 1.33-4.67; P<0.001). Thirty-three patients (11.5%) required mechanical ventilation. Eighteen patients (6.3%) died from A/H1N1 infection or its complications. Neutropenia (P=0.03) and patient age (P=0.04) were significant risk factors for death. The 2009 A/H1N1 influenza pandemic caused severe complications in stem cell transplant recipients. PMID:21546495

  2. Antigenic and genetic analysis of a recently isolated H1N1 swine influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Olsen, C W; McGregor, M W; Cooley, A J; Schantz, B; Hotze, B; Hinshaw, V S

    1993-10-01

    Hemagglutinins (HA) of H1N1 swine influenza viruses isolated in the United States have remained antigenically and genetically conserved for many years. In contrast to such conservation, the HA of A/Swine/Nebraska/1/92 (Sw/Neb) could readily be distinguished from those of contemporary porcine viruses. Twenty-eight amino acid mutations differentiated the HA of Sw/Neb and A/Swine/Indiana/1726/88, the most recent H1N1 swine influenza virus for which HA sequence data were available. Among these differences were mutations at potential asparagine-linked glycosylation sites and charge changes at many residues. The Sw/Neb virus also could be differentiated from other swine influenza viruses in hemagglutination-inhibition assays with monoclonal antibodies to recent H1 swine HA. Nonetheless, overall sequence analysis of the HA and the nucleoprotein genes of Sw/Neb indicated that this virus was more closely related genetically to classic H1N1 swine influenza viruses than to H1N1 avian or human viruses. Infection of swine with Sw/Neb under experimental conditions induced clinical signs and lesions typical of swine influenza. However, affected swine in the field had high, persistent fevers, but relatively mild signs of respiratory tract disease. This study indicated that an antigenically and genetically novel variant of swine influenza virus was detected in the United States. PMID:8250388

  3. Interaction of chromatin with a histone H1 containing swapped N- and C-terminal domains

    PubMed Central

    Hutchinson, Jordana B.; Cheema, Manjinder S.; Wang, Jason; Missiaen, Krystal; Finn, Ron; Gonzalez Romero, Rodrigo; Th’ng, John P. H.; Hendzel, Michael; Ausió, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Although the details of the structural involvement of histone H1 in the organization of the nucleosome are quite well understood, the sequential events involved in the recognition of its binding site are not as well known. We have used a recombinant human histone H1 (H1.1) in which the N- and C-terminal domains (NTD/CTD) have been swapped and we have reconstituted it on to a 208-bp nucleosome. We have shown that the swapped version of the protein is still able to bind to nucleosomes through its structurally folded wing helix domain (WHD); however, analytical ultracentrifuge analysis demonstrates its ability to properly fold the chromatin fibre is impaired. Furthermore, FRAP analysis shows that the highly dynamic binding association of histone H1 with the chromatin fibre is altered, with a severely decreased half time of residence. All of this suggests that proper binding of histone H1 to chromatin is determined by the simultaneous and synergistic binding of its WHD–CTD to the nucleosome. PMID:26182371

  4. Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 during air travel.

    PubMed

    Neatherlin, John; Cramer, Elaine H; Dubray, Christine; Marienau, Karen J; Russell, Michelle; Sun, Hong; Whaley, Melissa; Hancock, Kathy; Duong, Krista K; Kirking, Hannah L; Schembri, Christopher; Katz, Jacqueline M; Cohen, Nicole J; Fishbein, Daniel B

    2013-01-01

    The global spread of the influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus (pH1N1) associated with travelers from North America during the onset of the 2009 pandemic demonstrates the central role of international air travel in virus migration. To characterize risk factors for pH1N1 transmission during air travel, we investigated travelers and airline employees from four North American flights carrying ill travelers with confirmed pH1N1 infection. Of 392 passengers and crew identified, information was available for 290 (74%) passengers were interviewed. Overall attack rates for acute respiratory infection and influenza-like illness 1-7 days after travel were 5.2% and 2.4% respectively. Of 43 individuals that provided sera, 4 (9.3%) tested positive for pH1N1 antibodies, including 3 with serologic evidence of asymptomatic infection. Investigation of novel influenza aboard aircraft may be instructive. However, beyond the initial outbreak phase, it may compete with community-based mitigation activities, and interpretation of findings will be difficult in the context of established community transmission. PMID:23523241

  5. Predictions for the 21 cm-galaxy cross-power spectrum observable with LOFAR and Subaru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrbanec, Dijana; Ciardi, Benedetta; Jelić, Vibor; Jensen, Hannes; Zaroubi, Saleem; Fernandez, Elizabeth R.; Ghosh, Abhik; Iliev, Ilian T.; Kakiichi, Koki; Koopmans, Léon V. E.; Mellema, Garrelt

    2016-03-01

    The 21 cm-galaxy cross-power spectrum is expected to be one of the promising probes of the Epoch of Reionization (EoR), as it could offer information about the progress of reionization and the typical scale of ionized regions at different redshifts. With upcoming observations of 21 cm emission from the EoR with the Low Frequency Array (LOFAR), and of high-redshift Ly α emitters with Subaru's Hyper Suprime-Cam (HSC), we investigate the observability of such cross-power spectrum with these two instruments, which are both planning to observe the ELAIS-N1 field at z = 6.6. In this paper, we use N-body + radiative transfer (both for continuum and Ly α photons) simulations at redshift 6.68, 7.06 and 7.3 to compute the 3D theoretical 21 cm-galaxy cross-power spectrum and cross-correlation function, as well as to predict the 2D 21 cm-galaxy cross-power spectrum and cross-correlation function expected to be observed by LOFAR and HSC. Once noise and projection effects are accounted for, our predictions of the 21 cm-galaxy cross-power spectrum show clear anti-correlation on scales larger than ˜60 h-1 Mpc (corresponding to k ˜ 0.1 h Mpc-1), with levels of significance p = 0.003 at z = 6.6 and p = 0.08 at z = 7.3. On smaller scales, instead, the signal is completely contaminated. On the other hand, our 21 cm-galaxy cross-correlation function is strongly contaminated by noise on all scales, since the noise is no longer being separated by its k modes.

  6. Influenza A viral loads in respiratory samples collected from patients infected with pandemic H1N1, seasonal H1N1 and H3N2 viruses

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Nasopharyngeal aspirate (NPA), nasal swab (NS), and throat swab (TS) are common specimens used for diagnosis of respiratory virus infections based on the detection of viral genomes, viral antigens and viral isolation. However, there is no documented data regarding the type of specimen that yields the best result of viral detection. In this study, quantitative real time RT-PCR specific for M gene was used to determine influenza A viral loads present in NS, NPA and TS samples collected from patients infected with the 2009 pandemic H1N1, seasonal H1N1 and H3N2 viruses. Various copy numbers of RNA transcripts derived from recombinant plasmids containing complete M gene insert of each virus strain were assayed by RT-PCR. A standard curve for viral RNA quantification was constructed by plotting each Ct value against the log quantity of each standard RNA copy number. Results Copy numbers of M gene were obtained through the extrapolation of Ct values of the test samples against the corresponding standard curve. Among a total of 29 patients with severe influenza enrolled in this study (12 cases of the 2009 pandemic influenza, 5 cases of seasonal H1N1 and 12 cases of seasonal H3N2 virus), NPA was found to contain significantly highest amount of viral loads and followed in order by NS and TS specimen. Viral loads among patients infected with those viruses were comparable regarding type of specimen analyzed. Conclusion Based on M gene copy numbers, we conclude that NPA is the best specimen for detection of influenza A viruses, and followed in order by NS and TS. PMID:20403211

  7. 1H-1,2,4-diazaphospholes: Synthesis, structural characterization, and DFT calculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jun-Wen; Ding, Ling-Yan; Wang, Bing-Qiang; He, Yao-Yun; Guo, Yue; Jia, Xue-Feng; Zheng, Wenjun

    2014-01-01

    A few 1H-1,2,4-diazaphospholes H[3,5-R2dp] (R = methyl (5a), p-tolyl (5b), 1-naphthyl (5c), 2-furanyl (5d), 2-thienyl (5e), and isopropyl (5f)) were prepared and structurally characterized by a substantial experimental modification of the synthetic protocol. The molecules of all compounds are linked into oligomers via the bridges of NH⋯N hydrogen bonds in solid state. The tetrameric feature of 5a, and 5d-f represents a new motif of hydrogen-bonded 1H-1,2,4-diazaphospholes in solid state. The DFT calculation at the B3LYP/6-311++G** level suggested the possible proton disorder with intermolecular solid state proton transfer (ISSPT) between 1H-1,2,4-diazaphosphole rings.

  8. Eukaryotic RNases H1 act processively by interactions through the duplex RNA-binding domain

    PubMed Central

    Gaidamakov, Sergei A.; Gorshkova, Inna I.; Schuck, Peter; Steinbach, Peter J.; Yamada, Hirofumi; Crouch, Robert J.; Cerritelli, Susana M.

    2005-01-01

    Ribonucleases H have mostly been implicated in eliminating short RNA primers used for initiation of lagging strand DNA synthesis. Escherichia coli RNase HI cleaves these RNA–DNA hybrids in a distributive manner. We report here that eukaryotic RNases H1 have evolved to be processive enzymes by attaching a duplex RNA-binding domain to the RNase H region. Highly conserved amino acids of the duplex RNA-binding domain are required for processivity and nucleic acid binding, which leads to dimerization of the protein. The need for a processive enzyme underscores the importance in eukaryotic cells of processing long hybrids, most of which remain to be identified. However, long RNA–DNA hybrids formed during immunoglobulin class-switch recombination are potential targets for RNase H1 in the nucleus. In mitochondria, where RNase H1 is essential for DNA formation during embryogenesis, long hybrids may be involved in DNA replication. PMID:15831789

  9. Metabolism of human gliomas: Assessment with H-1 MR spectroscopy and F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose PET

    SciTech Connect

    Alger, J.R.; Frank, J.A.; Bizzi, A.; Fulham, M.J.; DeSouza, B.X.; Duhaney, M.O.; Inscoe, S.W.; Black, J.L.; van Zijl, P.C.; Moonen, C.T. , Bethesda, MD )

    1990-12-01

    Localized hydrogen-1 magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy and fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) were employed to obtain metabolic information from intracranial gliomas. Advantages and difficulties associated with comparison of results from the two modalities were realized. Forty patients were studied with H-1 MR spectroscopy. MR signal intensities from lactate, N-acetylaspartate (NAA), choline, and creatine from a volume of interest containing the tumor and a contralateral volume were obtained and evaluated. NAA signal intensities were generally decreased in the tumor spectra, and choline signal intensities were elevated. H-1 MR spectroscopy was unsuccessful in eight patients, and FDG PET scans were not obtained in four of the patients with successful MR spectroscopic examinations. Lactate signal intensity was detected in 10 of the 28 patients who had successful H-1 MR spectroscopic and FDG PET studies. Lactate signal intensities were observed in lesions shown at FDG PET to be hypermetabolic, as well as in lesions found to be hypometabolic.

  10. Fatal pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza A virus infection in a Pennsylvania domestic cat.

    PubMed

    Campagnolo, E R; Rankin, J T; Daverio, S A; Hunt, E A; Lute, J R; Tewari, D; Acland, H M; Ostrowski, S R; Moll, M E; Urdaneta, V V; Ostroff, S M

    2011-11-01

    We report the earliest recognized fatality associated with laboratory-confirmed pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) influenza in a domestic cat in the United States. The 12-year old, indoor cat died on 6 November 2009 after exposure to multiple family members who had been ill with influenza-like illness during the peak period of the fall wave of pH1N1 in Pennsylvania during late October 2009. The clinical presentation, history, radiographic, laboratory and necropsy findings are presented to assist veterinary care providers in understanding the features of this disease in cats and the potential for transmission of infection to pets from infected humans. PMID:21824345

  11. Nephrotic Syndrome Following H1N1 Influenza in a 3-Year-Old Boy

    PubMed Central

    Ferrara, Pietro; Gatto, Antonio; Vitelli, Ottavio; Liberatore, Pio; del Bufalo, Francesca; Bottaro, Giorgia

    2012-01-01

    Background The pandemic influenza A/H1N1, spread through the world in 2009, producing a serious epidemic in Italy. Complications are generally limited to patients at the extremes of age (<6 months or >65 years) and those with comorbid medical illness. The most frequent complications of influenza involve the respiratory system. Case Presentation A 3-year-old boy with a recent history of upper respiratory tract infection developed a nephrotic syndrome. Together with prednisone, furosemide and albumin bolus, a therapy with oseltamivir was started since the nasopharyngeal swab resulted positive for influenza A/H1N1. Clinical conditions and laboratory findings progressively improved during hospitalization, becoming normal during a 2 month follow up. Conclusion The possibility of a renal involvement after influenza A/H1N1 infection should be considered. PMID:23056898

  12. Caring from Afar: Asian H1B Migrant Workers and Aging Parents.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yeon-Shim; Chaudhuri, Anoshua; Yoo, Grace J

    2015-09-01

    With the growth in engineering/technology industries, the United States has seen an increase in the arrival of highly skilled temporary migrant workers on H1B visas from various Asian countries. Limited research exists on how these groups maintain family ties from afar including caring for aging parents. This study explores the experiences and challenges that Asian H1B workers face when providing care from a distance. A total of 21 Chinese/Taiwanese, Korean, and Indian H1B workers participated in in-depth qualitative interviews. Key findings indicate that despite distance, caring relationships still continue through regular communications, financial remittances, and return visits, at the same time creating emotional, psychological, and financial challenges for the workers. Findings highlight the need for further research in understanding how the decline of aging parent's health impacts the migrants' adjustment and health in the United States. PMID:26267591

  13. Pandemic influenza A/H1N1 and organ donation.

    PubMed

    Lattes, R; Jacob, N; de la Fuente, J; Fragale, G; Massari, P

    2010-04-01

    One of the concerns regarding the pandemic of novel influenza A/H1N1 virus is its potential to hamper transplant programs if the decision is made that organs from donors with influenza A/H1N1 should not be used. Evidence of transmissibility through organ transplantation is speculative at best. We report the outcome of 2 kidney transplant recipients who received kidneys from the same deceased donor, in whom the diagnosis of infection by the novel virus became available only after engraftment. The donor also had received a complete course of antiviral treatment before donation. The recipients were transplanted at 2 different facilities and were managed differently. Neither recipient developed flu syndrome, and both had an uneventful outcome. It is possible to speculate that kidneys from donors who have had confirmed influenza A/H1N1 and who have received antiviral treatment can be safely used in transplantation. PMID:20180928

  14. Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus in pigs, Togo, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Ducatez, Mariette F.; Awoume, Félix; Webby, Richard J.

    2015-01-01

    We collected 325 nasal swabs from freshly slaughtered previously healthy pigs from October 2012 through January 2014 in a slaughterhouse near Lomé in Togo. Influenza A virus genome was detected by RT-PCR in 2.5% to 12.3% of the pooled samples, and results of hemagglutinin subtyping RT-PCR assays showed the virus in all the positive pools to be A(H1N1)pdm09. Virus was isolated on MDCK cells from a representative specimen, A/swine/Togo/ONA32/2013(H1N1). The isolate was fully sequenced and harbored 8 genes similar to A(H1N1)pdm09 virus genes circulating in humans in 2012–2013, suggesting human-to-swine transmission of the pathogen. PMID:25778544

  15. Role of hippocampal H1 receptors in radial maze performance and hippocampal theta activity in rats.

    PubMed

    Masuoka, Takayoshi; Kamei, Chiaki

    2007-07-12

    Histamine H1 antagonists impaired the spatial memory performance. On the other hand, it is well recognized that the hippocampal theta rhythm plays a critical role in spatial memory. However, little work has been done the effect of H1 antagonists on the hippocampal theta rhythm which was associated with the memory performance. We investigated the effect of pyrilamine, a selective H1 receptor antagonist, on spatial memory performance as well as hippocampal theta rhythm during the memory task in rats. Effect of pyrilamine on spatial memory was measured using eight-arm radial maze with four arms baited. Hippocampal theta rhythm during the radial maze task was recorded with a polygraph system with a telemetric technique. Intraperitoneal injection of pyrilamine resulted in impairments of both reference and working memory on the radial maze task. The working memory deficit induced by pyrilamine was antagonized by the intrahippocampal injection of histamine and 6-[2-(4-imidazolyl)ethylamino]-N-(4-trifluoromethylphenyl)heptanecarboxamide (HTMT), a histamine H1 agonist. Intraperitoneal injection of pyrilamine decreased the hippocampal theta power at a dose that impaired reference and working memory. This effect was antagonized by the intrahippocampal injection of histamine and HTMT at a dose that ameliorated the working memory deficit. Intrahippocampal injection of pyrilamine impaired working memory and simultaneously decreased the hippocampal theta power. These results suggest that: (i) the hippocampal H1 receptors play an important role in the working memory processes on the radial maze performance and (ii) the decrease in the hippocampal theta power is associated with the working memory deficit induced by the blocking of H1 receptors. PMID:17562388

  16. Computational Analysis of Structure-Based Interactions for Novel H1-Antihistamines

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yinfeng; Li, Yan; Pan, Yanqiu; Wang, Jinghui; Lin, Feng; Wang, Chao; Zhang, Shuwei; Yang, Ling

    2016-01-01

    As a chronic disorder, insomnia affects approximately 10% of the population at some time during their lives, and its treatment is often challenging. Since the antagonists of the H1 receptor, a protein prevalent in human central nervous system, have been proven as effective therapeutic agents for treating insomnia, the H1 receptor is quite possibly a promising target for developing potent anti-insomnia drugs. For the purpose of understanding the structural actors affecting the antagonism potency, presently a theoretical research of molecular interactions between 129 molecules and the H1 receptor is performed through three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D-QSAR) techniques. The ligand-based comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA) model (Q2 = 0.525, R2ncv = 0.891, R2pred = 0.807) has good quality for predicting the bioactivities of new chemicals. The cross-validated result suggests that the developed models have excellent internal and external predictability and consistency. The obtained contour maps were appraised for affinity trends for the investigated compounds, which provides significantly useful information in the rational drug design of novel anti-insomnia agents. Molecular docking was also performed to investigate the mode of interaction between the ligand and the active site of the receptor. Furthermore, as a supplementary tool to study the docking conformation of the antagonists in the H1 receptor binding pocket, molecular dynamics simulation was also applied, providing insights into the changes in the structure. All of the models and the derived information would, we hope, be of help for developing novel potent histamine H1 receptor antagonists, as well as exploring the H1-antihistamines interaction mechanism. PMID:26797608

  17. Purification and characterization of Cyclin-H1 from Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yawen; Yang, Yiyi; Xu, Yingwu

    2015-10-01

    Cyclin H (CycH), a member of the large cyclin family, participates in every process of cell division. Its biological functions and importance have received wide attention in mammalians, but not in higher plants. This work reports a protein purification protocol for obtaining Arabidopsis CycH;1 (AtCycH;1) from prokaryotic expression system, followed by characterization of its biophysical properties. The protein was constructed with a His-tag at its N-terminus. One-step nickel-affinity purification yielded high pure target protein, which behaved as a monomer in the testing condition. Circular Dichroism spectrum revealed that AtCycH;1 is a helical protein containing a significant amount of disordered structures. Further assays indicated that AtCycH;1 exhibits poor heat-resistance and can be easily degraded in room temperature, suggesting low stability for the protein. The flexible and unstable properties may be intrinsic to the protein in vivo as it has to bind with different partners during the cell cycle and be promptly degraded to meet the phase transition. The instability, however, can be improved by adding SO4(2-) ion in the protein buffer. The presence of a high concentration of SO4(2-) is capable of increasing the thermal stability and inhibiting the degradation. Irrespective of whether the association of SO4(2-) with AtCycH;1 drives the protein into more compact form or not, the current results may provide clues for a successful crystallization of AtCycH;1 and its subsequent structural analysis in the future. PMID:26073096

  18. Transmission of influenza A(H1N1) 2009 pandemic viruses in Australian swine

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Yi‐Mo; Iannello, Pina; Smith, Ina; Watson, James; Barr, Ian G.; Daniels, Peter; Komadina, Naomi; Harrower, Bruce; Wong, Frank Y. K.

    2012-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Deng et al. (2012). Transmission of influenza A(H1N1) 2009 pandemic viruses in Australian swine. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses 6(3), e42–e47. Background  Swine have receptors for both human and avian influenza viruses and are a natural host for influenza A viruses. The 2009 influenza A(H1N1) pandemic (H1N1pdm) virus that was derived from avian, human and swine influenza viruses has infected pigs in various countries. Objectives  To investigate the relationship between the H1N1pdm viruses isolated from piggery outbreaks in Australia and human samples associated with one of the outbreaks by phylogenetic analysis, and to determine whether there was any reassortment event occurring during the human‐pig interspecies transmission. Methods  Real‐time RT‐PCR and full genome sequencing were carried out on RNA isolated from nasal swabs and/or virus cultures. Phylogenetic analysis was performed using the Geneious package. Results  The influenza H1N1pdm outbreaks were detected in three pig farms located in three different states in Australia. Further analysis of the Queensland outbreak led to the identification of two distinct virus strains in the pigs. Two staff working in the same piggery were also infected with the same two strains found in the pigs. Full genome sequence analysis on the viruses isolated from pigs and humans did not identify any reassortment of these H1N1pdm viruses with seasonal or avian influenza A viruses. Conclusions  This is the first report of swine infected with influenza in Australia and marked the end of the influenza‐free era for the Australian swine industry. Although no reassortment was detected in these cases, the ability of these viruses to cross between pigs and humans highlights the importance of monitoring swine for novel influenza infections. PMID:22336333

  19. Neuronal Antibodies in Children with or without Narcolepsy following H1N1-AS03 Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Thebault, Simon; Waters, Patrick; Snape, Matthew D.; Cottrell, Dominic; Darin, Niklas; Hallböök, Tove; Huutoniemi, Anne; Partinen, Markku; Pollard, Andrew J.; Vincent, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Type 1 narcolepsy is caused by deficiency of hypothalamic orexin/hypocretin. An autoimmune basis is suspected, but no specific antibodies, either causative or as biomarkers, have been identified. However, the AS03 adjuvanted split virion H1N1 (H1N1-AS03) vaccine, created to protect against the 2009 Pandemic, has been implicated as a trigger of narcolepsy particularly in children. Sera and CSFs from 13 H1N1-AS03-vaccinated patients (12 children, 1 young adult) with type 1 narcolepsy were tested for autoantibodies to known neuronal antigens including the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) and contactin-associated protein 2 (CASPR2), both associated with encephalopathies that include disordered sleep, to rodent brain tissue including the lateral hypothalamus, and to live hippocampal neurons in culture. When sufficient sample was available, CSF levels of melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) were measured. Sera from 44 H1N1-ASO3-vaccinated children without narcolepsy were also examined. None of these patients’ CSFs or sera was positive for NMDAR or CASPR2 antibodies or binding to neurons; 4/13 sera bound to orexin-neurons in rat brain tissue, but also to other neurons. MCH levels were a marginally raised (n = 8; p = 0.054) in orexin-deficient narcolepsy patients compared with orexin-normal children (n = 6). In the 44 H1N1-AS03-vaccinated healthy children, there was no rise in total IgG levels or in CASPR2 or NMDAR antibodies three weeks following vaccination. In conclusion, there were no narcolepsy-specific autoantibodies identified in type 1 narcolepsy sera or CSFs, and no evidence for a general increase in immune reactivity following H1N1-AS03 vaccination in the healthy children. Antibodies to other neuronal specific membrane targets, with their potential for directing use of immunotherapies, are still an important goal for future research. PMID:26090827

  20. Histamine H1, H3 and H4 receptors are involved in pruritus.

    PubMed

    Rossbach, K; Nassenstein, C; Gschwandtner, M; Schnell, D; Sander, K; Seifert, R; Stark, H; Kietzmann, M; Bäumer, W

    2011-09-01

    Histamine has long been recognised as a classical inducer of pruritus. However, the specific mechanism of histamine-induced itch has still not been fully understood. The H1 and H4 receptor appear to be key components in the induction of itch. The specific role of the H3 receptor in histamine-induced itch remains unclear. The aim of our study was to investigate the role of the four known histamine receptors (H1-4) in acute itch in mice. Intradermal injection of the selective H3R inverse agonist pitolisant induced strong itch in mice. Pitolisant (50 nmol/injection)-induced pruritus could be completely blocked by a combined treatment with the H1R antagonist cetirizine (15 mg/kg) and the H4R antagonist JNJ 7777120 (15 mg/kg), whereas the H2R antagonist ranitidine (15 mg/kg) failed to inhibit the scratch response. Next, expression and function of histamine receptors on sensory neurons isolated from dorsal root ganglia of mice were investigated. As the itch sensation results from the excitation of sensory nerves in the skin, we further focused on skin specific sensory neurons. Therefore, neurons were retrograde labelled from the skin by means of a fluorescent tracer. Expression of H1R, H3R and H4R on skin innervating sensory neurons was detected. By single-cell calcium imaging, it was demonstrated that histamine induces a calcium increase in a subset of (skin-specific) sensory neurons via activation of the H1R and H4R as well as inhibition of the H3R. It is assumed that the decreased threshold in response to H3R antagonism activates H1R and H4R on sensory neurons, which in turn results in the excitation of histamine-sensitive afferents and therefore elicits the sensation of itch. PMID:21689731

  1. The novel influenza A (H1N1) virus pandemic: An update

    PubMed Central

    Petrosillo, N.; Di Bella, S.; Drapeau, C. M.; Grilli, E.

    2009-01-01

    In the 4 months since it was first recognized, the pandemic strain of a novel influenza A (H1N1) virus has spread to all continents and, after documentation of human-to-human transmission of the virus in at least three countries in two separate World Health Organization (WHO) regions, the pandemic alert was raised to level 6. The agent responsible for this pandemic, a swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus (S-OIV), is characterized by a unique combination of gene segments that has not previously been identified among human or swine influenza A viruses. As of 31th July 2009, 168 countries and overseas territories/communities have each reported at least one laboratory-confirmed case of pandemic H1N1 infection. There have been a total of 162,380 reported cases and 1154 associated deaths. Influenza epidemics usually take off in autumn, and it is important to prepare for an earlier start this season. Estimates from Europe indicate that 230 millions Europe inhabitants will have clinical signs and symptoms of S-OIV this autumn, and 7–35% of the clinical cases will have a fatal outcome, which means that there will be 160,000–750,000 H1N1-related deaths. A vaccine against H1N1 is expected to be the most effective tool for controlling influenza A (H1N1) infection in terms of reducing morbidity and mortality and limiting diffusion. However, there are several issues with regard to vaccine manufacture and approval, as well as production capacity, that remain unsettled. We searched the literature indexed in PubMed as well as the websites of major international health agencies to obtain the material presented in this update on the current S-OIV pandemic. PMID:19881161

  2. Selectivity profiling of novel indene H(1)-antihistamines for the treatment of insomnia.

    PubMed

    Li, Bin-Feng; Moree, Wilna J; Yu, Jinghua; Coon, Timothy; Zamani-Kord, Said; Malany, Siobhan; Jalali, Kayvon; Wen, Jianyun; Wang, Hua; Yang, Chun; Hoare, Samuel R J; Petroski, Robert E; Madan, Ajay; Crowe, Paul D; Beaton, Graham

    2010-04-15

    A series of indene analogs of the H(1)-antihistamine (-)-R-dimethindene was evaluated for selectivity in the search for potentially improved sedative-hypnotics. Variation of the 6-substitutent in the indene core in combination with a pendant electron rich heterocycle led to the identification of several potent H(1)-antihistamines with desirable selectivity over CYP enzymes, the M(1) muscarinic receptor and the hERG channel. These compounds were candidates for further ADME profiling and in vivo evaluation. PMID:20227880

  3. 26 CFR 1.642(h)-1 - Unused loss carryovers on termination of an estate or trust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... estate or trust. 1.642(h)-1 Section 1.642(h)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Beneficiaries § 1.642(h)-1 Unused loss carryovers on termination of an estate or trust. (a) If, on the final... 642(h)(1) to the beneficiaries succeeding to the property of the estate or trust. See § 1.641(b)-3...

  4. 26 CFR 1.642(h)-1 - Unused loss carryovers on termination of an estate or trust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... estate or trust. 1.642(h)-1 Section 1.642(h)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Beneficiaries § 1.642(h)-1 Unused loss carryovers on termination of an estate or trust. (a) If, on the final... 642(h)(1) to the beneficiaries succeeding to the property of the estate or trust. See § 1.641(b)-3...

  5. 26 CFR 1.642(h)-1 - Unused loss carryovers on termination of an estate or trust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... estate or trust. 1.642(h)-1 Section 1.642(h)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Beneficiaries § 1.642(h)-1 Unused loss carryovers on termination of an estate or trust. (a) If, on the final... 642(h)(1) to the beneficiaries succeeding to the property of the estate or trust. See § 1.641(b)-3...

  6. 26 CFR 1.642(h)-1 - Unused loss carryovers on termination of an estate or trust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... estate or trust. 1.642(h)-1 Section 1.642(h)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Beneficiaries § 1.642(h)-1 Unused loss carryovers on termination of an estate or trust. (a) If, on the final... 642(h)(1) to the beneficiaries succeeding to the property of the estate or trust. See § 1.641(b)-3...

  7. Safety and efficacy of a novel live attenuated influenza vaccine against pandemic H1N1 in swine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    On June 11, 2009 the World Health Organization (WHO) declared that the outbreaks caused by novel swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus had reached pandemic proportions. The pandemic H1N1 (H1N1pdm) is the predominant influenza strain in the human population. It has also crossed the species barriers a...

  8. Brief report: molecular characterization of a novel reassorted pandemic H1N1 2009 in Thai pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For the past 10 years, endemic swine influenza H1 viruses in Thailand have been characterized as reassortants of swine virus genes from swine influenza viruses (SIV) in US and European pigs. Here the authors report the emergence of a novel reassorted H1N1 (rH1N1) virus consisted of human, avian, and...

  9. 26 CFR 1.168(h)-1 - Like-kind exchanges involving tax-exempt use property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... property. 1.168(h)-1 Section 1.168(h)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... and Corporations § 1.168(h)-1 Like-kind exchanges involving tax-exempt use property. (a) Scope. (1... property (as defined in section 168(h)) at the time of the transfer; and (ii) Property that does not...

  10. 26 CFR 1.501(h)-1 - Application of the expenditure test to expenditures to influence legislation; introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... expenditures to influence legislation; introduction. 1.501(h)-1 Section 1.501(h)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL...) Exempt Organizations § 1.501(h)-1 Application of the expenditure test to expenditures to influence..., (except as otherwise provided in subsection (h)).” This requirement is called the substantial part...

  11. 26 CFR 1.168(h)-1 - Like-kind exchanges involving tax-exempt use property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... property. 1.168(h)-1 Section 1.168(h)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... and Corporations § 1.168(h)-1 Like-kind exchanges involving tax-exempt use property. (a) Scope. (1... property (as defined in section 168(h)) at the time of the transfer; and (ii) Property that does not...

  12. 26 CFR 1.501(h)-1 - Application of the expenditure test to expenditures to influence legislation; introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... expenditures to influence legislation; introduction. 1.501(h)-1 Section 1.501(h)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL...) Exempt Organizations § 1.501(h)-1 Application of the expenditure test to expenditures to influence..., (except as otherwise provided in subsection (h)).” This requirement is called the substantial part...

  13. 26 CFR 1.501(h)-1 - Application of the expenditure test to expenditures to influence legislation; introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... expenditures to influence legislation; introduction. 1.501(h)-1 Section 1.501(h)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL...) Exempt Organizations § 1.501(h)-1 Application of the expenditure test to expenditures to influence..., (except as otherwise provided in subsection (h)).” This requirement is called the substantial part...

  14. 26 CFR 1.168(h)-1 - Like-kind exchanges involving tax-exempt use property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... property. 1.168(h)-1 Section 1.168(h)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... and Corporations § 1.168(h)-1 Like-kind exchanges involving tax-exempt use property. (a) Scope. (1... property (as defined in section 168(h)) at the time of the transfer; and (ii) Property that does not...

  15. Comparative virulence of wild-type H1N1pdm09 influenza A isolates in swine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2009, a novel swine-origin H1N1 (H1N1pdm09) influenza A virus (IAV) reached pandemic status and was soon after detected in pigs worldwide. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether differences in the HA protein can affect pathogenicity and antigenicity of H1N1pdm09 in swine. We compared...

  16. Epitope analysis of peanut allergen Ara h1 with oligoclonal IgM antibody from human B-lymphoblastoid cells.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To analyze epitopes of peanut allergen Ara h1, Epstein-Barr virus-transformed human peripheral oligoclonal B-cells were cultured to obtain antibodies to Ara h1. The combined reaction pattern with six oligoclonal antibodies showed there were six antibody binding areas named a to f in Ara h1. We found...

  17. 26 CFR 1.501(h)-1 - Application of the expenditure test to expenditures to influence legislation; introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... expenditures to influence legislation; introduction. 1.501(h)-1 Section 1.501(h)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL...) Exempt Organizations § 1.501(h)-1 Application of the expenditure test to expenditures to influence..., (except as otherwise provided in subsection (h)).” This requirement is called the substantial part...

  18. 26 CFR 1.168(h)-1 - Like-kind exchanges involving tax-exempt use property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... property. 1.168(h)-1 Section 1.168(h)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... and Corporations § 1.168(h)-1 Like-kind exchanges involving tax-exempt use property. (a) Scope. (1... property (as defined in section 168(h)) at the time of the transfer; and (ii) Property that does not...

  19. 26 CFR 1.168(h)-1 - Like-kind exchanges involving tax-exempt use property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... property. 1.168(h)-1 Section 1.168(h)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... and Corporations § 1.168(h)-1 Like-kind exchanges involving tax-exempt use property. (a) Scope. (1... property (as defined in section 168(h)) at the time of the transfer; and (ii) Property that does not...

  20. 26 CFR 1.501(h)-1 - Application of the expenditure test to expenditures to influence legislation; introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... expenditures to influence legislation; introduction. 1.501(h)-1 Section 1.501(h)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL...) Exempt Organizations § 1.501(h)-1 Application of the expenditure test to expenditures to influence..., (except as otherwise provided in subsection (h)).” This requirement is called the substantial part...

  1. 17 CFR 240.17h-1T - Risk assessment recordkeeping requirements for associated persons of brokers and dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Risk assessment recordkeeping requirements for associated persons of brokers and dealers. 240.17h-1T Section 240.17h-1T Commodity and... Statistical Rating Organizations § 240.17h-1T Risk assessment recordkeeping requirements for...

  2. 17 CFR 240.17h-1T - Risk assessment recordkeeping requirements for associated persons of brokers and dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Risk assessment recordkeeping requirements for associated persons of brokers and dealers. 240.17h-1T Section 240.17h-1T Commodity and... Statistical Rating Organizations § 240.17h-1T Risk assessment recordkeeping requirements for...

  3. 17 CFR 240.17h-1T - Risk assessment recordkeeping requirements for associated persons of brokers and dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Risk assessment recordkeeping requirements for associated persons of brokers and dealers. 240.17h-1T Section 240.17h-1T Commodity and... Statistical Rating Organizations § 240.17h-1T Risk assessment recordkeeping requirements for...

  4. A novel algorithm to define infection tendencies in H1N1 cases in mainland China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    : Incidences of H1N1 viral infections in Mainland China are collected by the Ministry of Health, the People’s Republic of China. The number of confirmed cases and the timing of these outbreaks from May 13 to July 22, 2009 were obtained and subjected to a novel mathematical model to simulate the infe...

  5. Invasive group A streptococcal infection concurrent with 2009 H1N1 influenza.

    PubMed

    Jean, Cynthia; Louie, Janice K; Glaser, Carol A; Harriman, Kathleen; Hacker, Jill K; Aranki, Faisal; Bancroft, Elizabeth; Farley, Susan; Ginsberg, Michele; Hernandez, Lisa B; Sallenave, Catherine S; Radner, Allen B

    2010-05-15

    We describe 10 patients with 2009 H1N1 influenza and concurrent invasive group A streptococcal infection with marked associated morbidity and mortality. Seven patients required intensive care, 8 required mechanical ventilation, and 7 died. Five of the patients, including 4 of the fatalities, were previously healthy. PMID:20377405

  6. The resurgence of swine-origin influenza A (H1N1).

    PubMed

    Mossad, Sherif Beniameen

    2009-06-01

    Unexpectedly, swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus (S-OIV, informally known as swine flu) appeared in North America at the very end of the 2008-2009 influenza season and began to spread internationally. As the world mobilizes for a potential pandemic, this article summarizes the developments in diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. PMID:19487554

  7. 17 CFR 240.6h-1 - Settlement and regulatory halt requirements for security futures products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Settlement and regulatory halt... § 240.6h-1 Settlement and regulatory halt requirements for security futures products. (a) For the... exchange or national securities association that lists the security. (3) Regulatory halt means a...

  8. 17 CFR 240.6h-1 - Settlement and regulatory halt requirements for security futures products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Settlement and regulatory halt... § 240.6h-1 Settlement and regulatory halt requirements for security futures products. (a) For the... exchange or national securities association that lists the security. (3) Regulatory halt means a...

  9. 17 CFR 240.6h-1 - Settlement and regulatory halt requirements for security futures products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Settlement and regulatory halt... § 240.6h-1 Settlement and regulatory halt requirements for security futures products. (a) For the... exchange or national securities association that lists the security. (3) Regulatory halt means a...

  10. 17 CFR 240.6h-1 - Settlement and regulatory halt requirements for security futures products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Settlement and regulatory halt... § 240.6h-1 Settlement and regulatory halt requirements for security futures products. (a) For the... exchange or national securities association that lists the security. (3) Regulatory halt means a...

  11. 17 CFR 240.6h-1 - Settlement and regulatory halt requirements for security futures products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Settlement and regulatory halt... § 240.6h-1 Settlement and regulatory halt requirements for security futures products. (a) For the... exchange or national securities association that lists the security. (3) Regulatory halt means a...

  12. Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus infection in giant pandas, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Desheng; Zhu, Ling; Cui, Hengmin; Ling, Shanshan; Fan, Shengtao; Yu, Zhijun; Zhou, Yuancheng; Wang, Tiecheng; Qian, Jun; Xia, Xianzhu; Xu, Zhiwen; Gao, Yuwei; Wang, Chengdong

    2014-03-01

    We confirmed infection with influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 in giant pandas in China during 2009 by using virus isolation and serologic analysis methods. This finding extends the host range of influenza viruses and indicates a need for increased surveillance for and control of influenza viruses among giant pandas. PMID:24565026

  13. Canada in the face of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic

    PubMed Central

    Moghadas, Seyed M.; Pizzi, Nick J.; Wu, Jianhong; Tamblyn, Susan E.; Fisman, David N.

    2010-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Moghadas et al. (2011) Canada in the face of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses 5(2), 83–88. Background  Initial public health responses to the 2009 influenza H1N1 pandemic were based on difficult decisions in the face of substantial uncertainty. Policy effectiveness depends critically on such decisions, and future planning for maximum protection of community health requires understanding of the impact of public health responses in observed scenarios. Objectives  In alignment with the objectives of the Pandemic Influenza Outbreak Research Modelling Team (Pan‐InfORM) and the Centre for Disease Modelling (CDM), a focused workshop was organized to: (i) evaluate Canada's response to the spring and autumn waves of the novel H1N1 pandemic; (ii) learn lessons from public health responses, and identify challenges that await public health planners and decision‐makers; and (iii) understand how best to integrate resources to overcome these challenges. Main outcome measures  We report on key presentations and discussions that took place to achieve the objectives of the workshop. Conclusions  Future emerging infectious diseases are likely to bring far greater challenges than those imposed by the 2009 H1N1 pandemic. Canada must address these challenges and enhance its capacity for emergency responses by integrating modelling, surveillance, planning, and decision‐making. PMID:21306571

  14. Molecular characterization of Ara h 1 before and after thermal processing.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heating and other processing techniques can alter food allergens depending upon the method and matrix involved. The increased allergenicity of Ara h 1 protein isolated from roasted peanuts is thought to be caused, at least in part, by chemical modifications. To identify what specific modifications a...

  15. Zoonoses: USDA ARS Lessons Learned During Novel Influenza H1N1 Investigations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Influenza illness was first recognized in pigs during the 1918 human Spanish flu pandemic, and influenza A virus has since remained of importance to the swine industry as a primary respiratory pathogen. Influenza virus H1N1 remained relatively stable in U.S. swine for nearly 80 years following 1918...

  16. In silico binding characteristics between human histamine H1 receptor and antagonists.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaojian; Yang, Qian; Li, Minyong; Yin, Dali; You, Qidong

    2010-09-01

    It is widely acknowledged that the H(1) receptor antagonists have important therapeutic significance in the treatment of various allergic disorders, but little was known about the binding mode between the receptor and antagonists since the crystal structure of G-protein coupling receptors (GPCRs) were hard to obtain. In this paper, a theoretical three-dimensional model of human histamine H(1) receptor (HHR1) was developed on the basis of recently reported high resolution structures of human A(2A) adenosine receptor, human beta(2)-adrenoceptor and turkey beta(1)-adrenoceptor. Furthermore, three representative H(1) receptor antagonists were chosen for docking studies. Subsequently, a qualitative pharmacophore model was developed by Hiphop algorithm based on the docking conformations of these three antagonists. In this paper, active environment, certain key residues, and the corresponding pharmacophore features of H(1) receptor were identified by such combinations of receptor-based and ligand-based approaches, which would give sufficient guidance for the rational design of novel antihistamine agents. PMID:20179978

  17. Information Entropy Analysis of the H1N1 Genetic Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martwick, Andy

    2010-03-01

    During the current H1N1 pandemic, viral samples are being obtained from large numbers of infected people world-wide and are being sequenced on the NCBI Influenza Virus Resource Database. The information entropy of the sequences was computed from the probability of occurrence of each nucleotide base at every position of each set of sequences using Shannon's definition of information entropy, [ H=∑bpb,2( 1pb ) ] where H is the observed information entropy at each nucleotide position and pb is the probability of the base pair of the nucleotides A, C, G, U. Information entropy of the current H1N1 pandemic is compared to reference human and swine H1N1 entropy. As expected, the current H1N1 entropy is in a low entropy state and has a very large mutation potential. Using the entropy method in mature genes we can identify low entropy regions of nucleotides that generally correlate to critical protein function.

  18. The hemagglutinin structure of an avian H1N1 influenza A virus

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Tianwei; Wang, Gengyan; Li, Anzhang; Zhang, Qian; Wu, Caiming; Zhang, Rongfu; Cai, Qixu; Song, Wenjun; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2009-09-15

    The interaction between hemagglutinin (HA) and receptors is a kernel in the study of evolution and host adaptation of H1N1 influenza A viruses. The notion that the avian HA is associated with preferential specificity for receptors with Sia{alpha}2,3Gal glycosidic linkage over those with Sia{alpha}2,6Gal linkage is not all consistent with the available data on H1N1 viruses. By x-ray crystallography, the HA structure of an avian H1N1 influenza A virus, as well as its complexes with the receptor analogs, was determined. The structures revealed no preferential binding of avian receptor analogs over that of the human analog, suggesting that the HA/receptor binding might not be as stringent as is commonly believed in determining the host receptor preference for some subtypes of influenza viruses, such as the H1N1 viruses. The structure also showed difference in glycosylation despite the preservation of related sequences, which may partly contribute to the difference between structures of human and avian origin.

  19. Rural Responses to H1N1: A Flexible Model for Community Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Farrell, Denise; Aubrey, Debra Larsen

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines a regional 2009 H1N1 rural response model, which utilises community partnerships with local government, county emergency management, public health, private healthcare, Medical Reserve Corps volunteers, and other organisations in rural Southeast Idaho. Unique aspects of the collaborative use of federal, state, county, and…

  20. MELATONIN ENHANCES JUNCTIONAL TRANSFER IN NORMAL C3H/1OT1/2 CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is strong evidence that pineal melatonin is involved in controlling neoplastic processes. e have reported that physiological, but not pharmacological or subphysiological, concentrations of melatonin enhance intercellular communication in normal C3H/1OT1/2 fibroblasts. ap ju...

  1. Community transmission of pandemic influenza A (H1N1) in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Jiang, Tao; Li, Xiao-Feng; Tang, Fang; Wei, Mao-Ti; Yu, Man; Zhao, Hui; Yu, Xue-Dong; Liu, Li-Juan; Qin, Cheng-Feng; Cao, Wu-Chun

    2010-09-01

    Prophylaxis and treatment with oseltamivir effectively controlled a community outbreak of pandemic influenza A (H1N1) in China. The genetic makeup of strains of different generations seemed to be stable. Travel in confined settings might accelerate the transmission of pandemic influenza in a community outbreak. PMID:20636129

  2. Research Updates: Experimental Evaluation of 2009 Pandemic A/H1N1 in Pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction: In March 2009, a novel pandemic A/H1N1 emerged in the human population in North America (2). The gene constellation of the emerging virus was demonstrated to be a combination of genes from swine influenza A viruses (SIV) of North American and Eurasian lineages that had never before be...

  3. Experimental Challenge with Two Isolates of 2009 A/H1N1 in Weaned Pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction. The gene constellation of the 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus is a unique combination from swine influenza A viruses (SIV) of North American and Eurasian lineages, but prior to April 2009 had never before been identified in swine or other species (1). Although the hemagglutinin gene is relate...

  4. New H1/H3 antagonists for treating allergic rhinitis: WO2010094643.

    PubMed

    Norman, Peter

    2011-03-01

    This application claims dual receptor specificity antihistamines, active as H(1) and H(3) antagonists, which additionally have a long duration of action that renders them suitable for once daily administration via inhalation for the treatment of allergic rhinitis. The compounds lack CNS penetration and have a high affinity for both histamine receptors. PMID:21342057

  5. Sensitive and selective magnetoimmunosensing platform for determination of the food allergen Ara h 1.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Valdepeñas Montiel, V; Campuzano, S; Pellicanò, A; Torrente-Rodríguez, R M; Reviejo, A J; Cosio, M S; Pingarrón, J M

    2015-06-23

    A highly sensitive disposable amperometric immunosensor based on the use of magnetic beads (MBs) is described for determination of Ara h 1, the major peanut allergen, in only 2h. The approach uses a sandwich configuration involving selective capture and biotinylated detector antibodies and carboxylic acid-modified MBs (HOOC-MBs). The MBs bearing the immunoconjugates are captured by a magnet placed under the surface of a disposable screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE) and the affinity reactions are monitored amperometrically at -0.20 V (vs a Ag pseudo-reference electrode) in the presence of hydroquinone (HQ) as electron transfer mediator and upon addition of H2O2 as the enzyme substrate. The developed immunosensor exhibits a wide range of linearity between 20.8 and 1000.0 ng mL(-1) Ara h 1, a detection limit of 6.3 ng mL(-1), a great selectivity, a good reproducibility with a RSD of 6.3% for six different immunosensors and a useful lifetime of 25 days. The usefulness of the immunosensor was demonstrated by determining Ara h 1 in different matrices (food extracts and saliva). The results correlated properly with those provided by a commercial ELISA method offering a reliable and promising analytical screening tool in the development of user-friendly devices for on-site determination of Ara h 1. PMID:26092337

  6. 1918 and 2009 H1N1 influenza viruses are not pathogenic in birds.

    PubMed

    Babiuk, Shawn; Albrecht, Randy; Berhane, Yohannes; Marszal, Peter; Richt, Jürgen A; García-Sastre, Adolfo; Pasick, John; Weingartl, Hana

    2010-02-01

    The susceptibility of chickens to both 1918 and 2009 H1N1 influenza virus was evaluated. The intravenous pathogenicity index of 1918 and 2009 H1N1 viruses in chickens was 0. Chickens did not develop clinical signs following experimental inoculation simulating natural infection. No gross pathological changes were observed in any tissues of chickens between 2 and 18 days post-infection (p.i.) and viral RNA was not detected by real-time RT-PCR in mucosal secretions or tissues. Seroconversion was not detected in any of the chickens following inoculation with H1N1 2009 virus, whereas half the chickens developed influenza-specific antibodies at 28 days p.i. with 1918 influenza, suggesting limited infection. Viral RNA was detected by real-time RT-PCR in mallard ducks following inoculation with 1918 influenza virus at 3 days p.i. in cloacal swabs, but not in tissues, and all ducks seroconverted by 28 days p.i. Both 1918 and 2009 H1N1 influenza viruses behave as LPAI in gallinaceous poultry. PMID:19889930

  7. Mutation screen reveals novel variants and expands the phenotypes associated with DYNC1H1.

    PubMed

    Strickland, Alleene V; Schabhüttl, Maria; Offenbacher, Hans; Synofzik, Matthis; Hauser, Natalie S; Brunner-Krainz, Michaela; Gruber-Sedlmayr, Ursula; Moore, Steven A; Windhager, Reinhard; Bender, Benjamin; Harms, Matthew; Klebe, Stephan; Young, Peter; Kennerson, Marina; Garcia, Avencia Sanchez Mejias; Gonzalez, Michael A; Züchner, Stephan; Schule, Rebecca; Shy, Michael E; Auer-Grumbach, Michaela

    2015-09-01

    Dynein, cytoplasmic 1, heavy chain 1 (DYNC1H1) encodes a necessary subunit of the cytoplasmic dynein complex, which traffics cargo along microtubules. Dominant DYNC1H1 mutations are implicated in neural diseases, including spinal muscular atrophy with lower extremity dominance (SMA-LED), intellectual disability with neuronal migration defects, malformations of cortical development, and Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, type 2O. We hypothesized that additional variants could be found in these and novel motoneuron and related diseases. Therefore, we analyzed our database of 1024 whole exome sequencing samples of motoneuron and related diseases for novel single nucleotide variations. We filtered these results for significant variants, which were further screened using segregation analysis in available family members. Analysis revealed six novel, rare, and highly conserved variants. Three of these are likely pathogenic and encompass a broad phenotypic spectrum with distinct disease clusters. Our findings suggest that DYNC1H1 variants can cause not only lower, but also upper motor neuron disease. It thus adds DYNC1H1 to the growing list of spastic paraplegia related genes in microtubule-dependent motor protein pathways. PMID:26100331

  8. H(1)-Receptor activation triggers the endogenous nitric oxide signalling system in the rat submandibular gland.

    PubMed Central

    Borda, Enri; Stranieri, Graciela; Sterin-Borda, Leonor

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Histamine is released from mast cells by immunologic and non-immunologic stimuli during salivary gland inflammation, regulating salivary secretion. The receptor-secretory mechanism has not been studied in detail. AIMS: The studies reported were directed toward elucidating signal transduction/second messenger pathways within the rat submandibular gland associated with 2-thiazolylethylamine (ThEA)-induced H(1)-receptor responses. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To assess the H(1) receptor subtype expression in the rat submandibular gland, a radioligand binding assay was performed. The study also included inositolphosphates and cyclic GMP accumulation, protein kinase C and nitric oxide synthase activities, and amylase release. RESULTS: The histamine H(1) receptor subtype is expressed on the rat submandibular gland with high-affinity binding sites. The ThEA effect was associated with activation of phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C, translocation of protein kinase C, stimulation of nitric oxide synthase activity and increased production of cyclic GMP. ThEA stimulation of nitric oxide synthase and cyclic GMP was blunted by agents able to interfere with calcium movilization, while a protein kinase C inhibitor was able to stimulate ThEA action. On the other hand, ThEA stimulation evoked amylase release via the H1 receptor but was not followed by the L-arginine/nitric oxide pathway activation. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that, apart from the effect of ThEA on amylase release, it also appears to be a vasoactive chemical mediator that triggers vasodilatation, modulating the course of inflammation. PMID:12581497

  9. Structural and immunologic characterization of Ara h 1 – a major peanut allergen

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Allergic reactions to peanut and tree nuts is the major cause of anaphylaxis in the U.S. In this report; structural, immunologic, and bioinformatics analysis of natural, and a recombinant variant of the major peanut allergen Ara h 1 is presented. Small angle X-ray scattering studies show that natura...

  10. Determinants of Parental Acceptance of the H1N1 Vaccine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilyard, Karen M.; Quinn, Sandra Crouse; Kim, Kevin H.; Musa, Don; Freimuth, Vicki S.

    2014-01-01

    Although designated as a high-risk group during the 2009-2010 H1N1 pandemic, only about 40% of U.S. children received the vaccine, a relatively low percentage compared with high-risk groups in seasonal influenza, such as the elderly, whose vaccine rates typically top 70%. To better understand parental decision making and predictors of acceptance…

  11. Correlates of 2009 H1N1 Influenza Vaccine Acceptability among Parents and Their Adolescent Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Painter, Julia E.; Gargano, Lisa M.; Sales, Jessica M.; Morfaw, Christopher; Jones, LaDawna M.; Murray, Dennis; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Hughes, James M.

    2011-01-01

    School-aged children were a priority group for receipt of the pandemic (2009) H1N1 influenza vaccine. Both parental and adolescent attitudes likely influence vaccination behaviors. Data were collected from surveys distributed to middle- and high-school students and their parents in two counties in rural Georgia. Multivariable logistic regression…

  12. Learning from Successful School-based Vaccination Clinics during 2009 pH1N1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klaiman, Tamar; O'Connell, Katherine; Stoto, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The 2009 H1N1 vaccination campaign was the largest in US history. State health departments received vaccines from the federal government and sent them to local health departments (LHDs) who were responsible for getting vaccines to the public. Many LHD's used school-based clinics to ensure children were the first to receive limited…

  13. H1N1 Preventive Health Behaviors in a University Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Rebecca; May, Larissa; Sanza, Megan; Johnston, Lindsay; Petinaux, Bruno

    2012-01-01

    Background: When H1N1 emerged in 2009, institutions of higher education were immediately faced with questions about how best to protect their community from the virus, yet limited information existed to help predict student preventive behaviors. Methods: The authors surveyed students at a large urban university in November 2009 to better…

  14. Was Mandatory Quarantine Necessary in China for Controlling the 2009 H1N1 Pandemic?

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xinhai; Geng, Wenjun; Tian, Huidong; Lai, Dejian

    2013-01-01

    The Chinese government enforced mandatory quarantine for 60 days (from 10 May to 8 July 2009) as a preventative strategy to control the spread of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic. Such a prevention strategy was stricter than other non-pharmaceutical interventions that were carried out in many other countries. We evaluated the effectiveness of the mandatory quarantine and provide suggestions for interventions against possible future influenza pandemics. We selected one city, Beijing, as the analysis target. We reviewed the epidemiologic dynamics of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic and the implementation of quarantine measures in Beijing. The infectious population was simulated under two scenarios (quarantined and not quarantined) using a deterministic Susceptible-Exposed-Infectious-Recovered (SEIR) model. The basic reproduction number R0 was adjusted to match the epidemic wave in Beijing. We found that mandatory quarantine served to postpone the spread of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic in Beijing by one and a half months. If mandatory quarantine was not enforced in Beijing, the infectious population could have reached 1,553 by 21 October, i.e., 5.6 times higher than the observed number. When the cost of quarantine is taken into account, mandatory quarantine was not an economically effective intervention approach against the 2009 H1N1 pandemic. We suggest adopting mitigation methods for an influenza pandemic with low mortality and morbidity. PMID:24084677

  15. Spatial dynamics of human-origin H1 influenza A v irus in North American swine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The emergence and rapid global spread of the swine-origin H1N1/09 pandemic influenza A virus in humans underscores the importance of swine populations as reservoirs for genetically diverse influenza viruses with the potential to infect humans. However, despite their significance for animal and human...

  16. Four enzymes cooperate to displace histone H1 during the first minute of hormonal gene activation

    PubMed Central

    Vicent, Guillermo Pablo; Nacht, A. Silvina; Font-Mateu, Jofre; Castellano, Giancarlo; Gaveglia, Laura; Ballaré, Cecilia; Beato, Miguel

    2011-01-01

    Gene regulation by external signals requires access of transcription factors to DNA sequences of target genes, which is limited by the compaction of DNA in chromatin. Although we have gained insight into how core histones and their modifications influence this process, the role of linker histones remains unclear. Here we show that, within the first minute of progesterone action, a complex cooperation between different enzymes acting on chromatin mediates histone H1 displacement as a requisite for gene induction and cell proliferation. First, activated progesterone receptor (PR) recruits the chromatin remodeling complexes NURF and ASCOM (ASC-2 [activating signal cointegrator-2] complex) to hormone target genes. The trimethylation of histone H3 at Lys 4 by the MLL2/MLL3 subunits of ASCOM, enhanced by the hormone-induced displacement of the H3K4 demethylase KDM5B, stabilizes NURF binding. NURF facilitates the PR-mediated recruitment of Cdk2/CyclinA, which is required for histone H1 displacement. Cooperation of ATP-dependent remodeling, histone methylation, and kinase activation, followed by H1 displacement, is a prerequisite for the subsequent displacement of histone H2A/H2B catalyzed by PCAF and BAF. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and sequencing (ChIP-seq) and expression arrays show that H1 displacement is required for hormone induction of most hormone target genes, some of which are involved in cell proliferation. PMID:21447625

  17. Pandemic H1N1 influenza virus infection in a Canadian cat.

    PubMed

    Knight, Cameron G; Davies, Jennifer L; Joseph, Tomy; Ondrich, Sarah; Rosa, Brielle V

    2016-05-01

    A cat was presented for necropsy after being found dead at home. Histologic findings suggested viral pneumonia. Polymerase chain reaction and viral typing revealed influenza A(H1N1)pdm09. This is the first report of influenza in a Canadian cat and highlights the importance of considering influenza virus in the differential diagnosis for feline respiratory distress. PMID:27152036

  18. Risk factors for pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus seroconversion among hospital staff, Singapore.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mark I C; Lee, Vernon J M; Barr, Ian; Lin, Cui; Goh, Rachelle; Lee, Caroline; Singh, Baldev; Tan, Jessie; Lim, Wei Yen; Cook, Alex R; Ang, Brenda; Chow, Angela; Tan, Boon Huan; Loh, Jimmy; Shaw, Robert; Chia, Kee Seng; Lin, Raymond T P; Leo, Yee Sin

    2010-10-01

    We describe incidence and risk factors for pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus infection in healthcare personnel during the June-September 2009 epidemic in Singapore. Personnel contributed 3 serologic samples during June-October 2009, with seroconversion defined as a ≥4-fold increase in hemagglutination inhibition titers to pandemic (H1N1) 2009. Of 531 participants, 35 showed evidence of seroconversion. Seroconversion rates were highest in nurses (28/290) and lowest in allied health staff (2/116). Significant risk factors on multivariate analysis were being a nurse (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 4.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.0-19.6) and working in pandemic (H1N1) 2009 isolation wards (aOR 4.5, 95% CI 1.3-15.6). Contact with pandemic (H1N1) 2009-infected colleagues (aOR 2.5, 95% CI 0.9-6.6) and larger household size (aOR 1.2, 95% CI 1.0-1.4) were of borderline significance. Our study suggests that seroconversion was associated with occupational and nonoccupational risk factors. PMID:20875280

  19. Functional Modulation of the Metastatic Suppressor Nm23-H1 by Oncogenic Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Abhik; Robertson, Erle S.

    2014-01-01

    Evidence over the last two decades from a number of disciplines has solidified some fundamental concepts in metastasis, a major contributor to cancer associated deaths. However, significant advances have been made in controlling this critical cellular process by focusing on targeted therapy. A key set of factors associated with this invasive phenotype is the nm23 family of over twenty metastasis-associated genes. Among the eight known isoforms, Nm23-H1 is the most studied potential anti-metastatic factor associated with human cancers. Importantly, a growing body of work has clearly suggested a critical role for Nm23-H1 in limiting tumor cell motility and progression induced by several tumor viruses, including Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), Kaposi’s sarcoma associated herpes virus (KSHV) and human papilloma virus (HPV). A more in depth understanding of the interactions between tumor viruses encoded antigens and Nm23-H1 will facilitate the elucidation of underlying mechanism(s) which contribute to virus-associated cancers. Here, we review recent studies to explore the molecular links between human oncogenic viruses and progression of metastasis, in particular the deregulation of Nm23-H1 mediated suppression. PMID:21846466

  20. [Genetic factors in severe cases of (H1N1) 2009 influenza].

    PubMed

    Calafell i Majó, Francesc; González Candelas, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    The pandemic influenza (H1N1) 2009 raised a number of issues, of which we address the following: Why did between 25 and 30% of severe influenza cases show no obvious risk factor? We hypothesize that an element that can contribute to the answer are host genetic risk factors involved in poor disease progression. Several indications led us to this hypothesis: i) studies of familial aggregation in Iceland and Utah Mormons show some heritability of influenza mortality; ii) nearly 300 known human genes are necessary for the replication of the influenza virus, and iii) the most severe cases of influenza A (H1N1) 2009 showed a deregulation of the adaptive immune system. We are addressing this problem through a case-control design (hospitalized cases of influenza (H1N1) 2009 confirmed against outpatient cases, also confirmed for (H1N1) 2009), which will be genotyped for more than a million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and copy number variations (CNVs). PMID:21750840

  1. Severe novel influenza A (H1N1) infection in cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Hajjar, L. A.; Mauad, T.; Galas, F. R. B. G.; Kumar, A.; da Silva, L. F. F.; Dolhnikoff, M.; Trielli, T.; Almeida, J. P.; Borsato, M. R. L.; Abdalla, E.; Pierrot, L.; Kalil Filho, R.; Auler, J. O. C.; Saldiva, P. H. N.; Hoff, P. M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The natural history and consequences of severe H1N1 influenza infection among cancer patients are not yet fully characterized. We describe eight cases of H1N1 infection in cancer patients admitted to the intensive care unit of a referral cancer center. Patients and methods: Clinical data from all patients admitted with acute respiratory failure due to novel viral H1N1 infection were reviewed. Lung tissue was submitted for viral and bacteriological analyses by real-time RT-PCR, and autopsy was conducted on all patients who died. Results: Eight patients were admitted, with ages ranging from 55 to 65 years old. There were five patients with solid organ tumors (62.5%) and three with hematological malignancies (37.5%). Five patients required mechanical ventilation and all died. Four patients had bacterial bronchopneumonia. All deaths occurred due to multiple organ failure. A milder form of lung disease was present in the three cases who survived. Lung tissue analysis was performed in all patients and showed diffuse alveolar damage in most patients. Other lung findings were necrotizing bronchiolitis or extensive hemorrhage. Conclusions: H1N1 viral infection in patients with cancer can cause severe illness, resulting in acute respiratory distress syndrome and death. More data are needed to identify predictors of unfavorable evolution in these patients. PMID:20511340

  2. 20 CFR 655.736 - What are H-1B-dependent employers and willful violators?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What are H-1B-dependent employers and willful violators? 655.736 Section 655.736 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TEMPORARY EMPLOYMENT OF FOREIGN WORKERS IN THE UNITED STATES Labor Condition Applications and Requirements for Employers Seeking...

  3. The discovery of CCR3/H1 dual antagonists with reduced hERG risk.

    PubMed

    Bahl, Ash; Barton, Patrick; Bowers, Keith; Brough, Steven; Evans, Richard; Luckhurst, Christopher A; Mochel, Tobias; Perry, Matthew W D; Rigby, Aaron; Riley, Robert J; Sanganee, Hitesh; Sisson, Adam; Springthorpe, Brian

    2012-11-01

    A series of dual CCR3/H(1) antagonists based on a bispiperidine scaffold were discovered. Introduction of an acidic group overcame hERG liability. Bioavailability was optimised by modulation of physico-chemical properties and physical form to deliver a compound suitable for clinical evaluation. PMID:23031591

  4. 20 CFR 10.3 - Have the collection of information requirements of this part been approved by the Office of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Have the collection of information requirements of this part been approved by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB)? 10.3 Section 10.3 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FEDERAL...

  5. 20 CFR 10.3 - Have the collection of information requirements of this part been approved by the Office of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Have the collection of information requirements of this part been approved by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB)? 10.3 Section 10.3... the Office of Management and Budget (OMB)? The collection of information requirements in this...

  6. Communicating uncertainty - how Australian television reported H1N1 risk in 2009: a content analysis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Health officials face particular challenges in communicating with the public about emerging infectious diseases of unknown severity such as the 2009 H1N1(swine 'flu) pandemic (pH1N1). Statements intended to create awareness and convey the seriousness of infectious disease threats can draw accusations of scare-mongering, while officials can be accused of complacency if such statements are not made. In these communication contexts, news journalists, often reliant on official sources to understand issues are pivotal in selecting and emphasising aspects of official discourse deemed sufficiently newsworthy to present to the public. This paper presents a case-study of news communication regarding the emergence of pH1N1. Methods We conducted a content analysis of all television news items about pH1N1. We examined news and current affairs items broadcast on 5 free-to-air Sydney television channels between April 25 2009 (the first report) and October 9 (prior to the vaccine release) for statements about [1] the seriousness of the disease [2] how the public could minimise contagion [3] government responses to emerging information. Results pH1N1 was the leading health story for eight of 24 weeks and was in the top 5 for 20 weeks. 353 news items were identified, yielding 3086 statements for analysis, with 63.4% related to the seriousness of the situation, 12.9% providing advice for viewers and 23.6% involving assurances from government. Coverage focused on infection/mortality rates, the spread of the virus, the need for public calm, the vulnerability of particular groups, direct and indirect advice for viewers, and government reassurances about effective management. Conclusions Overall, the reporting of 2009 pH1N1 in Sydney, Australia was generally non-alarmist, while conveying that pH1N1 was potentially serious. Daily infection rate tallies and commentary on changes in the pandemic alert level were seldom contextualised to assist viewers in understanding personal

  7. Neutralization and Binding Profile of Monoclonal Antibodies Generated Against Influenza A H1N1 Viruses.

    PubMed

    Shembekar, Nachiket; Mallajosyula, Vamsee V Aditya; Malik, Ankita; Saini, Ashok; Varadarajan, Raghavan; Gupta, Satish Kumar

    2016-08-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) provide scope for the development of better therapeutics and diagnostic tools. Herein, we describe the binding and neutralization profile(s) for a panel of murine MAbs generated against influenza A H1N1 viruses elicited by immunization with pandemic H1 recombinant hemagglutinin (rHA)/whole virus or seasonal H1 rHA. Neutralizing MAbs, MA-2070 and MA-M, were obtained after pandemic A/California/07/2009 (H1N1) virus/rHA immunization(s). Both MAbs reacted specifically with rHA from A/California/07/2009 and A/England/195/2009 in ELISA. MA-2070 bound rHA of A/California/07/2009 with high affinity (KD = 51.36 ± 9.20 nM) and exhibited potent in vitro neutralization (IC50 = 2.50 μg/mL). MA-2070 bound within the stem domain of HA. MA-M exhibited both hemagglutination inhibition (HI, 1.50 μg/mL) and in vitro neutralization (IC50 = 0.66 μg/mL) activity against the pandemic A/California/07/2009 virus and showed higher binding affinity (KD = 9.80 ± 0.67 nM) than MA-2070. MAb, MA-H generated against the seasonal A/Solomon Islands/03/2006 (H1N1) rHA binds within the head domain and bound the seasonal H1N1 (A/Solomon Islands/03/2006 and A/New Caledonia/20/1990) rHAs with high affinity (KD; 0.72-8.23 nM). MA-H showed high HI (2.50 μg/mL) and in vitro neutralization (IC50 = 2.61 μg/mL) activity against the A/Solomon Islands/03/2006 virus. All 3 MAbs failed to react in ELISA with rHA from various strains of H2N2, H3N2, H5N1, H7N9, and influenza virus B, suggesting their specificity for either pandemic or seasonal H1N1 influenza virus. The MAbs reported here may be useful in developing diagnostic assays. PMID:27463230

  8. A factor from Actinomyces viscosus T14V that specifically aggregates Streptococcus sanguis H1.

    PubMed Central

    Mizuno, J; Cisar, J O; Vatter, A E; Fennessey, P V; McIntire, F C

    1983-01-01

    A highly specific aggregation factor for Streptococcus sanguis H1 (AFH1) was obtained by lysozyme treatment of Actinomyces viscosus T14V. At 1 micrograms/ml, AFH1 aggregated a suspension of S. sanguis H1, with which A. viscosus T14V coaggregates by a mechanism not inhibited by lactose: even at much higher levels AFH1 caused little or no aggregation of streptococci from other coaggregation groups (J. O. Cisar et al., Infect. Immun. 24:742-752, 1979). The most active fraction of AFH1 obtained by gel chromatography (near the void volume of Bio-Gel A1.5 m) reacted as a single antigen with anti-A. viscosus T14V serum and was unrelated to the fimbrial antigens of A. viscosus T14V. Smaller molecular fractions, at high levels, inhibited aggregation of S. sanguis H1 by high-molecular-weight AFH1 as well as coaggregation of S. sanguis H1 with A. viscosus T14V. The AFH1 fraction with high aggregating activity was composed of approximately 53% cell wall components (alanine, glutamine, lysine, N-acetylglucosamine, and N-acetylmuramic acid). 40% polysaccharide (N-acetylgalactosamine, rhamnose, and 6-deoxytalose), and 7% protein; teichoic acid was not detected. The fraction which inhibited aggregation and coaggregation contained much less of the cell wall constituents and more of the polysaccharide than the fraction with potent aggregating activity. Aggregation was completely prevented either by treating AFH1 with 0.01 M periodate at 25 degrees C for 4 h or by treating S. sanguis H1 with heat or pronase. A role for electrostatic forces in the aggregation was indicated by: (i) NaCl inhibition of aggregation, and (ii) a great decrease in aggregation potency as a result of chemical modification of either cationic or anionic groups of AFH1. On the other hand, NaCl reversed the aggregation only very weakly. The overall data suggest that a carbohydrate-protein interaction may be dominant in the aggregation of S. sanguis H1 by AFH1 and in the coaggregation of S. sanguis H1 with A

  9. Predicting psychological responses to influenza A, H1N1 ("swine flu"): the role of illness perceptions.

    PubMed

    Williams, Lynn; Regagliolo, Anna; Rasmussen, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Previous research on H1N1 ("Swine flu") has demonstrated that although the public reported concern about H1N1, knowledge levels were low, as were reports of behavioural changes aimed at minimising the spread of H1N1. The current study had two main aims; (i) to ascertain levels of state anxiety and knowledge about H1N1, and (ii) to examine if illness perceptions predict anxiety about H1N1, perceived risk of contracting H1N1, and knowledge about H1N1. The study was cross-sectional in design, and involved 235 participants (100 males, 135 females, mean age 22.48 years) completing self-report measures of knowledge, anxiety, and perceived risk about H1N1, and illness perceptions (BIPQ). Analyses revealed low levels of knowledge about H1N1, 37.4% of participants could not identify any of the causes of H1N1. Correlation and multiple regression analyses demonstrated that illness perceptions were associated with responses to H1N1, with negative illness perceptions predicting state anxiety (β = 0.498, p < 0.01) and perceived risk of contracting H1N1 (β = 0.346, p < 0.01). In addition, females (M = 10.07, SD = 2.68) were found to have higher levels of knowledge about H1N1, compared to males (M = 8.29, SD = 2.65), t(233) = -5.08, p < 0.001. These findings suggest low levels of knowledge about the causes, symptoms and possible preventive measures associated with H1N1. In addition, the current study points to a key role for illness perceptions in predicting psychological responses to H1N1. PMID:22111915

  10. The Genomic Contributions of Avian H1N1 Influenza A Viruses to the Evolution of Mammalian Strains

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Gang; Zhang, Jinghui; Webster, Robert G.

    2015-01-01

    Among the influenza A viruses (IAVs) in wild aquatic birds, only H1, H2, and H3 subtypes have caused epidemics in humans. H1N1 viruses of avian origin have also caused 3 of 5 pandemics. To understand the reappearance of H1N1 in the context of pandemic emergence, we investigated whether avian H1N1 IAVs have contributed to the evolution of human, swine, and 2009 pandemic H1N1 IAVs. On the basis of phylogenetic analysis, we concluded that the polymerase gene segments (especially PB2 and PA) circulating in North American avian H1N1 IAVs have been reintroduced to swine multiple times, resulting in different lineages that led to the emergence of the 2009 pandemic H1N1 IAVs. Moreover, the similar topologies of hemagglutinin and nucleoprotein and neuraminidase and matrix gene segments suggest that each surface glycoprotein coevolved with an internal gene segment within the H1N1 subtype. The genotype of avian H1N1 IAVs of Charadriiformes origin isolated in 2009 differs from that of avian H1N1 IAVs of Anseriformes origin. When the antigenic sites in the hemagglutinin of all 31 North American avian H1N1 IAVs were considered, 60%-80% of the amino acids at the antigenic sites were identical to those in 1918 and/or 2009 pandemic H1N1 viruses. Thus, although the pathogenicity of avian H1N1 IAVs could not be inferred from the phylogeny due to the small dataset, the evolutionary process within the H1N1 IAV subtype suggests that the circulation of H1N1 IAVs in wild birds poses a continuous threat for future influenza pandemics in humans. PMID:26208281

  11. Academics and competing interests in H1N1 influenza media reporting

    PubMed Central

    Mandeville, Kate L; O'Neill, Sam; Brighouse, Andrew; Walker, Alice; Yarrow, Kielan; Chan, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Background Concerns have been raised over competing interests (CoI) among academics during the 2009 to 2010 A/H1N1 pandemic. Media reporting can influence public anxiety and demand for pharmaceutical products. We assessed CoI of academics providing media commentary during the early stages of the pandemic. Methods We performed a retrospective content analysis of UK newspaper articles on A/H1N1 influenza, examining quoted sources. We noted when academics made a risk assessment of the pandemic and compared this with official estimations. We also looked for promotion or rejection of the use of neuraminidase inhibitors or H1N1-specific vaccine. We independently searched for CoI for each academic. Results Academics were the second most frequently quoted source after Ministers of Health. Where both academics and official agencies estimated the risk of H1N1, one in two academics assessed the risk as higher than official predictions. For academics with CoI, the odds of a higher risk assessment were 5.8 times greater than those made by academics without CoI (Wald p value=0.009). One in two academics commenting on the use of neuraminidase inhibitors or vaccine had CoI. The odds of CoI in academics promoting the use of neuraminidase inhibitors were 8.4 times greater than for academics not commenting on their use (Fisher's exact p=0.005). Conclusions There is evidence of CoI among academics providing media commentary during the early H1N1 pandemic. Heightened risk assessments, combined with advocacy for pharmaceutical products to counter this risk, may lead to increased public anxiety and demand. Academics should declare, and journalists report, relevant CoI for media interviews. PMID:24218071

  12. Inside the Outbreak of the 2009 Influenza A (H1N1)v Virus in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Zepeda-Lopez, Hector M.; Perea-Araujo, Lizbeth; Miliar-García, Angel; Dominguez-López, Aarón; Xoconostle-Cázarez, Beatriz; Lara-Padilla, Eleazar; Ramírez Hernandez, Jorge A.; Sevilla-Reyes, Edgar; Orozco, Maria Esther; Ahued-Ortega, Armando; Villaseñor-Ruiz, Ignacio; Garcia-Cavazos, Ricardo J.; Teran, Luis M.

    2010-01-01

    Background Influenza viruses pose a threat to human health because of their potential to cause global disease. Between mid March and mid April a pandemic influenza A virus emerged in Mexico. This report details 202 cases of infection of humans with the 2009 influenza A virus (H1N1)v which occurred in Mexico City as well as the spread of the virus throughout the entire country. Methodology and Findings From May 1st to May 5th nasopharyngeal swabs, derived from 751 patients, were collected at 220 outpatient clinics and 28 hospitals distributed throughout Mexico City. Analysis of samples using real time RT-PCR revealed that 202 patients out of the 751 subjects (26.9%) were confirmed to be infected with the new virus. All confirmed cases of human infection with the strain influenza (H1N1)v suffered respiratory symptoms. The greatest number of confirmed cases during the outbreak of the 2009 influenza A (H1N1)v were seen in neighbourhoods on the northeast side of Mexico City including Iztapalapa, Gustavo A. Madero, Iztacalco, and Tlahuac which are the most populated areas in Mexico City. Using these data, together with data reported by the Mexican Secretariat of Health (MSH) to date, we plot the course of influenza (H1N1)v activity throughout Mexico. Conclusions Our data, which is backed up by MSH data, show that the greatest numbers of the 2009 influenza A (H1N1) cases were seen in the most populated areas. We speculate on conditions in Mexico which may have sparked this flu pandemic, the first in 41 years. We accept the hypothesis that high population density and a mass gathering which took in Iztapalapa contributed to the rapid spread of the disease which developed in three peaks of activity throughout the Country. PMID:20949040

  13. Monte Carlo Production on the Grid by the H1 Collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bystritskaya, E.; Fomenko, A.; Gogitidze, N.; Lobodzinski, B.

    2012-12-01

    The High Energy Physics Experiment H1 [1] at Hadron-Electron Ring Accelerator (HERA) at DESY [2] is now in the era of high precision analyses based on the final and complete data sample. A natural consequence of this is the huge increase in the requirement for simulated Monte Carlo (MC) events. As a response to this increase, a framework for large scale MC production using the LCG Grid Infrastructure was developed. After 3 years of development the H1 MC Computing Framework has become a platform of high performance, reliability and robustness, operating on the top of the gLite infrastructure. The original framework has been expanded into a tool which can handle 600 million simulated MC events per month and 20,000 simultaneously supported jobs on the LHC Grid, at the same time decreasing operator effort to a minimum. An annual MC event production rate of over 2.5 billion events has been achieved, and the project is integral to the physics analysis performed by H1. Tools have also been developed, which allow modifications both of the H1 detector details, of the different levels of the MC production steps and which permit full monitoring of the jobs on the Grid sites. Based on the experience gained during the successful MC simulation, the H1 MC Framework is described. Also addressed are reasons for failures, deficiencies, bottlenecks and scaling boundaries as observed during this full scale physics analysis endeavor. The found solutions can easily be implemented by other experiments, and not necessarily only those devoted to HEP.

  14. Pediatric Neurological Complications of 2009 Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1)

    PubMed Central

    Kedia, Sita; Stroud, Britt; Parsons, Julie; Schreiner, Teri; Curtis, Donna J.; Bagdure, Dayanand; Brooks-Kayal, Amy R.; Glode, Mary P.; Dominguez, Samuel R.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To analyze the spectrum of neurological manifestations in children hospitalized with pandemic influenza A H1N1 virus of 2009 (pH1N1). Design Retrospective case series of children hospitalized from May 1, 2009, through November 30, 2009. Setting Tertiary-care children’s hospital in Colorado. Patients All hospitalized patients with pH1N1 with neurological consult or diagnosis, lumbar puncture, electroencephalogram, or neuroimaging were selected as suspected cases. These were systematically reviewed and selected for final analysis if confirmed by pre-established definitions as a neurological complication. Results Of 307 children with pH1N1, 59 were selected as having suspected cases of neurological complications. Twenty-three children were confirmed to have a neurological complication. Of these 23, 15 (65%) required intensive care monitoring. The median length of stay was 4 days. Seventeen (74%) had a preexisting neurological diagnosis. The most common manifestation was seizure with underlying neurological disease (in 62% of cases) followed by encephalopathy with or without neuroimaging changes (in 26% of cases). Results from a lumbar puncture showed elevated protein levels in 3 of 6 patients but no significant pleocytosis. Seven of the 9 electroencephalograms showed diffuse slowing, and findings from magnetic resonance imaging were abnormal in 5 of 6 children. Deaths occurred in 13% of patients, and short-term disability in 22%. Conclusions Children infected with pH1N1 presented with a wide spectrum of neurological manifestations, which occurred primarily in individuals with preexisting neurological conditions. These individuals had a severe disease course, evidenced by need for intensive care services and relatively high rates of mortality or neurological disability. Children with underlying neurological conditions should be particularly targeted for influenza prevention and aggressive supportive treatment at the onset of influenzalike symptoms. PMID

  15. Trust During the Early Stages of the 2009 H1N1 Pandemic

    PubMed Central

    FREIMUTH, VICKI S.; MUSA, DON; HILYARD, KAREN; QUINN, SANDRA CROUSE; KIM, KEVIN

    2013-01-01

    Distrust of the government often stands in the way of cooperation with public health recommendations in a crisis. The purpose of this paper is to describe the public’s trust in government recommendations during the early stages of the H1N1 pandemic and identify factors that might account for these trust levels. We surveyed 1543 respondents about their experiences and attitudes related to H1N1 influenza between June 3, 2009 and July 6, 2009, during the first wave of the pandemic using the Knowledge Networks (KN) online panel. This panel is representative of the US population, and uses a combination of random-digit dial and address-based probability sampling frames covering 99% of the US household population to recruit participants. To ensure participation of low-income individuals and those without Internet access, KN provides hardware and access to the Internet if needed. Measures included standard demographics, a trust scale, trust ratings for individual spokespersons, involvement with H1N1, experience with H1N1, and past discrimination in health care. We found that trust of government was low (2.3 out of 4) and varied across demographic groups. Blacks and Hispanics reported higher trust in government than did Whites. Of the spokespersons included, personal health professionals received the highest trust ratings and religious leaders the lowest. Attitudinal and experience variables predicted trust better than demographic characteristics. Closely following the news about the flu virus, having some self-reported knowledge about H1N1, self-reporting of local cases and previously experiencing discrimination were the significant attitudinal and experience predictors of trust. Using a second longitudinal survey, trust in the early stages of the pandemic did predict vaccine acceptance later but only for white, non-Hispanic individuals. PMID:24117390

  16. Mutations in the tail domain of DYNC1H1 cause dominant spinal muscular atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Harms, M.B.; Ori-McKenney, K.M.; Scoto, M.; Tuck, E.P.; Bell, S.; Ma, D.; Masi, S.; Allred, P.; Al-Lozi, M.; Reilly, M.M.; Miller, L.J.; Jani-Acsadi, A.; Pestronk, A.; Shy, M.E.; Muntoni, F.; Vallee, R.B.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To identify the gene responsible for 14q32-linked dominant spinal muscular atrophy with lower extremity predominance (SMA-LED, OMIM 158600). Methods: Target exon capture and next generation sequencing was used to analyze the 73 genes in the 14q32 linkage interval in 3 SMA-LED family members. Candidate gene sequencing in additional dominant SMA families used PCR and pooled target capture methods. Patient fibroblasts were biochemically analyzed. Results: Regional exome sequencing of all candidate genes in the 14q32 interval in the original SMA-LED family identified only one missense mutation that segregated with disease state—a mutation in the tail domain of DYNC1H1 (I584L). Sequencing of DYNC1H1 in 32 additional probands with lower extremity predominant SMA found 2 additional heterozygous tail domain mutations (K671E and Y970C), confirming that multiple different mutations in the same domain can cause a similar phenotype. Biochemical analysis of dynein purified from patient-derived fibroblasts demonstrated that the I584L mutation dominantly disrupted dynein complex stability and function. Conclusions: We demonstrate that mutations in the tail domain of the heavy chain of cytoplasmic dynein (DYNC1H1) cause spinal muscular atrophy and provide experimental evidence that a human DYNC1H1 mutation disrupts dynein complex assembly and function. DYNC1H1 mutations were recently found in a family with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (type 2O) and in a child with mental retardation. Both of these phenotypes show partial overlap with the spinal muscular atrophy patients described here, indicating that dynein dysfunction is associated with a range of phenotypes in humans involving neuronal development and maintenance. PMID:22459677

  17. Aminoadamantanes with persistent in vitro efficacy against H1N1 (2009) influenza A.

    PubMed

    Kolocouris, Antonios; Tzitzoglaki, Christina; Johnson, F Brent; Zell, Roland; Wright, Anna K; Cross, Timothy A; Tietjen, Ian; Fedida, David; Busath, David D

    2014-06-12

    A series of 2-adamantanamines with alkyl adducts of various lengths were examined for efficacy against strains of influenza A including those having an S31N mutation in M2 proton channel that confer resistance to amantadine and rimantadine. The addition of as little as one CH2 group to the methyl adduct of the amantadine/rimantadine analogue, 2-methyl-2-aminoadamantane, led to activity in vitro against two M2 S31N viruses A/Calif/07/2009 (H1N1) and A/PR/8/34 (H1N1) but not to a third A/WS/33 (H1N1). Solid state NMR of the transmembrane domain (TMD) with a site mutation corresponding to S31N shows evidence of drug binding. But electrophysiology using the full length S31N M2 protein in HEK cells showed no blockade. A wild type strain, A/Hong Kong/1/68 (H3N2) developed resistance to representative drugs within one passage with mutations in M2 TMD, but A/Calif/07/2009 S31N was slow (>8 passages) to develop resistance in vitro, and the resistant virus had no mutations in M2 TMD. The results indicate that 2-alkyl-2-aminoadamantane derivatives with sufficient adducts can persistently block p2009 influenza A in vitro through an alternative mechanism. The observations of an HA1 mutation, N160D, near the sialic acid binding site in both 6-resistant A/Calif/07/2009(H1N1) and the broadly resistant A/WS/33(H1N1) and of an HA1 mutation, I325S, in the 6-resistant virus at a cell-culture stable site suggest that the drugs tested here may block infection by direct binding near these critical sites for virus entry to the host cell. PMID:24793875

  18. Modulation of GEF-H1 Induced Signaling by Heparanase in Brain Metastatic Melanoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ridgway, Lon D.; Wetzel, Michael D.; Marchetti, Dario

    2010-01-01

    Mechanisms of brain metastatic melanoma (BMM) remain largely unknown. Understanding the modulation of signaling pathways that alter BMM cell invasion and metastasis is critical to develop new therapies for BMM. Heparanase has been widely implicated in cancer and is the dominant mammalian endoglycosidase which degrades heparan sulfate chains of proteoglycans (HSPG) including syndecans (SDCs). Recent findings also indicate that heparanase possesses non-enzymatic functions in its latent form. We hypothesized that extracellular heparanase modulates BMM cell signaling by involving SDC1/4 carboxy terminal—associated proteins and downstream targets. We digested BMM cell surface HS with human recombinant active or latent heparanase to delineate their effects on cytoskeletal dynamics and cell invasiveness. We identified the small GTPase guanine nucleotide exchange factor-H1 (GEF-H1) as a new component of a SDC signaling complex that is differentially expressed in BMM cells compared to corresponding non-metastatic counterparts. Second, knockdown of GEF-H1, SDC1, or SDC4 decreased BMM cell invasiveness and GEF-H1 modulated small GTPase activity of Rac1 and RhoA in conjunction with heparanase treatment. Third, both active and latent forms of heparanase affected Rac1 and RhoA activity; notably increasing RhoA activity. Both forms of heparanase were found to mediate the expression and subcellular localization of GEF-H1, and treatment of BMM with latent heparanase modulated SDC1/4 gene expression. Finally, treatment with exogenous heparanase downregulated BMM cell invasion. These studies indicate the relevance of heparanase signaling pathways in BMM progression, and provide insights into the molecular mechanisms regulating HSPG signaling in response to exogenous heparanase. PMID:20803552

  19. Challenge of N95 Filtering Facepiece Respirators with Viable H1N1 Influenza Aerosols

    PubMed Central

    Harnish, Delbert A.; Heimbuch, Brian K.; Husband, Michael; Lumley, April E.; Kinney, Kimberly; Shaffer, Ronald E.; Wander, Joseph D.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Specification of appropriate personal protective equipment for respiratory protection against influenza is somewhat controversial. In a clinical environment, N95 filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs) are often recommended for respiratory protection against infectious aerosols. This study evaluates the ability of N95 FFRs to capture viable H1N1 influenza aerosols. METHODS Five N95 FFR models were challenged with aerosolized viable H1N1 influenza and inert polystyrene latex particles at continuous flow rates of 85 and 170 liters per minute. Virus was assayed using Madin-Darby canine kidney cells to determine the median tissue culture infective dose (TCID50). Aerosols were generated using a Collison nebulizer containing H1N1 influenza virus at 1 × 108 TCID50/mL. To determine filtration efficiency, viable sampling was performed upstream and downstream of the FFR. RESULTS N95 FFRs filtered 0.8-µm particles of both H1N1 influenza and inert origins with more than 95% efficiency. With the exception of 1 model, no statistically significant difference in filtration performance was observed between influenza and inert particles of similar size. Although statistically significant differences were observed for 2 models when comparing the 2 flow rates, the differences have no significance to protection. CONCLUSIONS This study empirically demonstrates that a National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health–approved N95 FFR captures viable H1N1 influenza aerosols as well as or better than its N95 rating, suggesting that a properly fitted FFR reduces inhalation exposure to airborne influenza virus. This study also provides evidence that filtration efficiency is based primarily on particle size rather than the nature of the particle’s origin. PMID:23571366

  20. Structural Characterization of H-1 Parvovirus: Comparison of Infectious Virions to Empty Capsids

    PubMed Central

    Halder, Sujata; Nam, Hyun-Joo; Govindasamy, Lakshmanan; Vogel, Michèle; Dinsart, Christiane; Salomé, Nathalie; McKenna, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The structure of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) packaging H-1 parvovirus (H-1PV), which is being developed as an antitumor gene delivery vector, has been determined for wild-type (wt) virions and noninfectious (empty) capsids to 2.7- and 3.2-Å resolution, respectively, using X-ray crystallography. The capsid viral protein (VP) structure consists of an α-helix and an eight-stranded anti-parallel β-barrel with large loop regions between the strands. The β-barrel and loops form the capsid core and surface, respectively. In the wt structure, 600 nucleotides are ordered in an interior DNA binding pocket of the capsid. This accounts for ∼12% of the H-1PV genome. The wt structure is identical to the empty capsid structure, except for side chain conformation variations at the nucleotide binding pocket. Comparison of the H-1PV nucleotides to those observed in canine parvovirus and minute virus of mice, two members of the genus Parvovirus, showed both similarity in structure and analogous interactions. This observation suggests a functional role, such as in capsid stability and/or ssDNA genome recognition for encapsulation. The VP structure differs from those of other parvoviruses in surface loop regions that control receptor binding, tissue tropism, pathogenicity, and antibody recognition, including VP sequences reported to determine tumor cell tropism for oncotropic rodent parvoviruses. These structures of H-1PV provide insight into structural features that dictate capsid stabilization following genome packaging and three-dimensional information applicable for rational design of tumor-targeted recombinant gene delivery vectors. PMID:23449783

  1. Immunochemical studies on the specific agglutinogens of Staphylococcus aureus. I. Isolation and characterization of antigen h1.

    PubMed

    Grov, A; Flandrois, J P; Fleurette, J; Oeding, P

    1978-06-01

    The specific Staphylococcus aureus agglutinogen h1 has been purified and shown to be a protein with a molecular weight of about 95,000. Chemical analysis revealed all the common amino acids, except tyrosine and the sulphur-containing ones. The purified h1 antigen was strongly immunogenic in rabbits. The antiserum produced one precipitation line on double diffusion in agar against a suspension of bacteria. It also agglutinated bacteria of the h1-containing strains, as well as tanned sheep erythrocytes sensitized with h1, in high dilutions. Antibodies to other known staphylococcal antigens were not detected. The identity between h1 and Pillet's type 9 antigen was confirmed. PMID:102107

  2. Lessons Learned From CM-2 Modal Testing and Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McNelis, Mark E.; Goodnight, Thomas W.; Carney, Kelly S.; Otten, Kim D.

    2002-01-01

    The Combustion Module-2 (CM-2) is a space experiment that launches on Shuttle mission STS-107 in the SPACEHAB Double Research Module. The CM-2 flight hardware is installed into SPACEHAB single and double racks. The CM-2 flight hardware was vibration tested in the launch configuration to characterize the structure's modal response. Cross-orthogonality between test and analysis mode shapes were used to assess model correlation. Lessons learned for pre-test planning and model verification are discussed.

  3. Visualization on massively parallel computers using CM/AVS

    SciTech Connect

    Krogh, M.F.; Hansen, C.D.

    1993-09-01

    CM/AVS is a visualization environment for the massively parallel CM-5 from Thinking Machines. It provides a backend to the standard commercially available AVS visualization product. At the Advanced Computing Laboratory at Los Alamos National Laboratory, we have been experimenting and utilizing this software within our visualization environment. This paper describes our experiences with CM/AVS. The conclusions reached are applicable to any implimentation of visualization software within a massively parallel computing environment.

  4. Energy Levels of the Nitrate Radical Below 2000 CM-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanton, J. F.; Simmons, C. S.

    2012-06-01

    Highly sophisticated quantum chemistry techniques have been employed to build a three-state diabatic Hamiltonian for the nitrate radical (NO_3). Eigenvalues of this Hamiltonian (which includes effects beyond the Born-Oppenheimer approximation) are consistent with the known ``vibrational'' levels of NO_3 up to ca. 2100 cm-1 above the zero-point level; with a small empirical adjustment of the diabatic coupling strength, calculated levels are within 20 cm-1 of the measured level positions for those that have been observed experimentally. Of the eleven states with e' symmetry calculated below 2000 cm-1, nine of these have been observed either in the gas phase by Hirota and collaborators as well as Neumark and Johnston, or in frozen argon by Jacox. However, the Hamiltonian produces two levels that have not been seen experimentally: one calculated to lie at 1075 cm-1 (which is the third e' state, above ν_4 and 2ν_4) and another at 1640 cm-1 which is best assigned as one of the two e' sublevels of 4ν_4. A significant result is that the state predicted at 1075 cm-1 is not far enough above the predicted 2ν_4 level (777 cm-1 v. ca. 760 cm-1 from experiment) to be plausibly assigned as 3ν_4 (which is at 1155 cm-1: experimental position: 1173 cm-1), nor is its nodal structure consistent with such an idea. Rather, it is quite unambiguously the ν_3 level. Given the fidelity of the results generated by this model Hamiltonian as compared to experiment, it can safely be concluded that the prominent infrared band seen at 1492 cm-1 (corresponding to a calculated level at 1500 cm-1) is not ν_3, but rather a multiquantum state best viewed as a sublevel of the ν_3 + ν_4 combination.

  5. Bioavailability, Biodistribution, and CNS Toxicity of Clinical-Grade Parvovirus H1 after Intravenous and Intracerebral Injection in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Geletneky, Karsten; Leoni, Anne-Laure; Pohlmeyer-Esch, Gabriele; Loebhard, Stephanie; Leuchs, Barbara; Hoefer, Constance; Jochims, Karin; Dahm, Michael; Huber, Bernard; Rommelaere, Jean; Krebs, Ottheinz; Hajda, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    The autonomous parvovirus H1 (H1PV) is transmitted in rodent populations. The natural host is the rat, in which H1PV infection is pathogenic only in fetuses and newborns. H1PV infection of human cancer cells leads to strong oncolytic effects in preclinical models. In preparation for a clinical trial of H1PV injection in patients with malignant brain tumors, H1PV had to be prepared to Good Manufacturing Practice standards, including extensive toxicology testing in rats. Because the trial involves direct intracerebral injection of H1PV into the tumor and around the resection cavity, possible toxicity to CNS tissue had to be investigated. In addition, quantitative blood levels and the tissue distribution of H1PV after single intracerebral or intravenous injection were measured. Direct injection of H1PV into rat brain at 3 dose levels (maximum, 7.96 × 107 pfu) did not cause any macroscopic or histologic pathology. Furthermore, H1PV infection of the brain did not alter central or autonomous nervous system function. H1PV DNA was detected in almost all organs at 6 h, 48 h, and 14 d after intravenous and intracerebral injection, with the highest levels in liver and spleen. H1PV concentrations in most organs were similar after intravenous and intracerebral injection, indicating high permeability of the blood–brain barrier for this small virus. The current results demonstrate wide organ distribution of H1PV after intravenous or intracerebral injection, confirm that H1PV is nonpathogenic in adult rats even after direct injection into the brain, and form the basis for the ongoing ParvOryx01 clinical trial. PMID:25730755

  6. Bioavailability, biodistribution, and CNS toxicity of clinical-grade parvovirus H1 after intravenous and intracerebral injection in rats.

    PubMed

    Geletneky, Karsten; Leoni, Anne-Laure; Pohlmeyer-Esch, Gabriele; Loebhard, Stephanie; Leuchs, Barbara; Hoefer, Constance; Jochims, Karin; Dahm, Michael; Huber, Bernard; Rommelaere, Jean; Krebs, Ottheinz; Hajda, Jacek

    2015-02-01

    The autonomous parvovirus H1 (H1PV) is transmitted in rodent populations. The natural host is the rat, in which H1PV infection is pathogenic only in fetuses and newborns. H1PV infection of human cancer cells leads to strong oncolytic effects in preclinical models. In preparation for a clinical trial of H1PV injection in patients with malignant brain tumors, H1PV had to be prepared to Good Manufacturing Practice standards, including extensive toxicology testing in rats. Because the trial involves direct intracerebral injection of H1PV into the tumor and around the resection cavity, possible toxicity to CNS tissue had to be investigated. In addition, quantitative blood levels and the tissue distribution of H1PV after single intracerebral or intravenous injection were measured. Direct injection of H1PV into rat brain at 3 dose levels (maximum, 7.96 × 107 pfu) did not cause any macroscopic or histologic pathology. Furthermore, H1PV infection of the brain did not alter central or autonomous nervous system function. H1PV DNA was detected in almost all organs at 6 h, 48 h, and 14 d after intravenous and intracerebral injection, with the highest levels in liver and spleen. H1PV concentrations in most organs were similar after intravenous and intracerebral injection, indicating high permeability of the blood-brain barrier for this small virus. The current results demonstrate wide organ distribution of H1PV after intravenous or intracerebral injection, confirm that H1PV is nonpathogenic in adult rats even after direct injection into the brain, and form the basis for the ongoing ParvOryx01 clinical trial. PMID:25730755

  7. Synthesis and anti-cancer screening of novel heterocyclic-(2H)-1,2,3-triazoles as potential anti-cancer agents

    PubMed Central

    Penthala, Narsimha Reddy; Madhukuri, Leena; Thakkar, Shraddha; Madadi, Nikhil Reddy; Lamture, Gauri; Eoff, Robert L.; Crooks, Peter A.

    2015-01-01

    trans-Cyanocombretastatin A-4 (trans-CA-4) analogues have been structurally modified to afford their more stable CA-4-(2H)-1,2,3-triazole analogues. Fifteen novel, stable 4-heteroaryl-5-aryl-(2H)-1,2,3-triazole CA-4 analogues (8a–i, 9 and 11a–e) were evaluated for anti-cancer activity against a panel of 60 human cancer cell lines. These analogues displayed potent cytotoxic activity against both hematological and solid tumor cell lines with GI50 values in the low nanomolar range. The most potent compound, 8a, was a benzothiophen-2-yl analogue that incorporated a 3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl moiety connected to the (2H)-1,2,3-triazole ring system. Compound 8a exhibited GI50 values of <10 nM against 80% of the cancer cell lines in the panel. Three triazole analogues, 8a, 8b and 8g, showed particularly potent growth inhibition against the triple negative Hs578T breast cancer cell line with GI50 values of 10.3 nM, 66.5 nM and 20.3 nM, respectively. Molecular docking studies suggest that these compounds bind to the same hydrophobic pocket at the interface of α- and β-tubulin that is occupied by colchicine and cis-CA-4, and are stabilized by Van der Waals’ interactions with surrounding amino acid residues. Compound 8a was found to inhibit tubulin polymerization in vitro with an IC50 value of 1.7 µM. The potent cytotoxicity of these novel compounds and their inhibition of tubulin dynamics make these triazole analogues promising candidates for development as anti-cancer drugs. PMID:27066215

  8. "The 5 cm Rule": Biopower, Sexuality and Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Louisa

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores "the 5 cm rule", a regulation around student contact discovered during an investigation of the sexual culture of schooling with 16-19-year-olds in New Zealand. Implemented to stem "inappropriate and unwanted" touching, it stipulates that students must maintain a physical distance of 5 cm at all times. It is argued this rule…

  9. Design and Performance of 40 cm Ion Optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soulas, George C.

    2001-01-01

    A 40 cm ion thruster is being developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center to obtain input power and propellant throughput capabilities of 10 kW and 550 kg. respectively. The technical approach here is a continuation of the "derating" technique used for the NSTAR ion thruster. The 40 cm ion thruster presently utilizes the NSTAR ion optics aperture geometry to take advantage of the large database of lifetime and performance data already available. Dome-shaped grids were chosen for the design of the 40 cm ion optics because this design is naturally suited for large-area ion optics. Ion extraction capabilities and electron backstreaming limits for the 40 cm ion optics were estimated by utilizing NSTAR 30 cm ion optics data. A preliminary service life assessment showed that the propellant throughput goal of 550 kg of xenon may be possible with molybdenum 40 cm ion optics. One 40 cm ion optics' set has been successfully fabricated to date. Additional ion optics' sets are presently being fabricated. Preliminary performance tests were conducted on a laboratory model 40 cm ion thruster.

  10. Photofraction of a 5 cm x 2 cm BGO scintillator. [bismuth germanate crystal for use in cosmic gamma ray detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunphy, P. P.; Forrest, D. J.

    1985-01-01

    The photofraction of a 5.1 cm x 2.0 cm bismuth germanate (BGO) scintillator was measured over a gamma-ray energy range of 0.2 to 6.1 MeV. Several methods, used to minimize the effect of room scattering on the measurement, are discussed. These include a gamma-gamma coincidence technique, a beta-gamma coincidence technique, and the use of sources calibrated with a standard 7.6 cm x 7.6 cm sodium iodide scintillator.

  11. Nosocomial Pandemic (H1N1) 2009, United Kingdom, 2009–2010

    PubMed Central

    Myles, Puja R.; Openshaw, Peter J.M.; Gadd, Elaine M.; Lim, Wei Shen; Semple, Malcolm G.; Read, Robert C.; Taylor, Bruce L.; McMenamin, James; Armstrong, Colin; Bannister, Barbara; Nicholson, Karl G.; Nguyen-Van-Tam, Jonathan S.

    2011-01-01

    To determine clinical characteristics of patients hospitalized in the United Kingdom with pandemic (H1N1) 2009, we studied 1,520 patients in 75 National Health Service hospitals. We characterized patients who acquired influenza nosocomially during the pandemic (H1N1) 2009 outbreak. Of 30 patients, 12 (80%) of 15 adults and 14 (93%) of 15 children had serious underlying illnesses. Only 12 (57%) of 21 patients who received antiviral therapy did so within 48 hours after symptom onset, but 53% needed escalated care or mechanical ventilation; 8 (27%) of 30 died. Despite national guidelines and standardized infection control procedures, nosocomial transmission remains a problem when influenza is prevalent. Health care workers should be routinely offered influenza vaccine, and vaccination should be prioritized for all patients at high risk. Staff should remain alert to the possibility of influenza in patients with complex clinical problems and be ready to institute antiviral therapy while awaiting diagnosis during influenza outbreaks. PMID:21470446

  12. Course of pandemic influenza A(H1N1) 2009 virus infection in Dutch patients

    PubMed Central

    Friesema, Ingrid H. M.; Meijer, Adam; van Gageldonk‐Lafeber, Arianne B.; van der Lubben, Mariken; van Beek, Janko; Donker, Gé A.; Prins, Jan M.; de Jong, Menno D.; Boskamp, Simone; Isken, Leslie D.; Koopmans, Marion P. G.; van der Sande, Marianne A. B.

    2012-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Friesema et al. (2012). Course of pandemic influenza A(H1N1) 2009 virus infection in Dutch patients. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses 6(3), e16–e20. The clinical dynamics of influenza A(H1N1) 2009 infections in 61 laboratory‐confirmed Dutch cases were examined. An episode lasted a median of 7·5 days of which 2 days included fever. Respiratory symptoms resolved slowly, while systemic symptoms peaked early in the episode and disappeared quickly. Severity of each symptom was rated highest in the first few days. Furthermore, diarrhoea was negatively associated with viral load, but not with faecal excretion of influenza virus. Cases with comorbidities appeared to have higher viral loads than the cases without, suggesting a less effective immune response. These results complement information obtained through traditional surveillance. PMID:22372759

  13. Degradation study of the ZrNiH_1.5 system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prina, M.; Kulleck Bowman, J. G., Jr.

    2001-03-01

    The ZrNi hydride has been assessed as reversible hydrogen storage material in actuators of gas gap heat switches for applications involving hydride compressors in closed-cycle Joule-Thomson sorption cryocoolers. Three ZrNiHx samples have been cycled between 280 K (ZrNiH_1.5) and 450 K (ZrNiH_1.47) for more than 20,000 cycles to evaluate the hydride phase stability and durability for conditions simulating device operation. Changes in the hydrogen absorption and desorption were evaluated by measuring the pressure and temperature dynamic relationship during each cycle and by x-ray diffraction methods. No significant traces of degradation were observed although disproportionation had been seen previously for ZrNiHx heated above 570 K. The resistance of the present samples to degradation is primarily attributed to the lower desorption temperature during cycling.

  14. Flavonoids from Matteuccia struthiopteris and Their Anti-influenza Virus (H1N1) Activity.

    PubMed

    Li, Bo; Ni, Yang; Zhu, Ling-Juan; Wu, Feng-Bo; Yan, Fei; Zhang, Xue; Yao, Xin-Sheng

    2015-05-22

    Seven new flavonoid glycosides (1-7), matteflavosides A-G, together with 12 known flavonoids (8-19) were isolated from the rhizomes of Matteuccia struthiopteris (L.) Todar. Their structures were established via the analyses of extensive spectroscopic data. All compounds were evaluated for their anti-influenza virus (H1N1) activity using the neuraminidase inhibition assay. The results showed that compound 7 exhibited significant inhibitory activity against the H1N1 influenza virus neuraminidase with an EC50 value of 6.8 ± 1.1 μM and an SI value of 34.4, and compounds 8 and 17 showed moderate inhibitory activity. PMID:25927664

  15. Cytotoxic responses in BC3H1 myoblast cell lines exposed to 1-desulfoyessotoxin.

    PubMed

    Korsnes, Mónica Suárez; Espenes, Arild; Hermansen, Lene C; Loader, Jared I; Miles, Christopher O

    2013-09-01

    1-Desulfoyessotoxin (1-dsYTX) is a desulfated polyether compound belonging to the yessotoxin group of marine toxins. This analogue has been detected in mussels. There are so far no reports on the mechanisms of action of 1-dsYTX in in vitro cell systems. This work evaluates cytotoxic responses in BC3H1 cells exposed to 100 nM 1-dsYTX. The toxicity of 1-dsYTX seems to be similar to that of yessotoxin (YTX). 1-Desulfoyessotoxin induced morphological and biochemical traits typical of a non-apoptotic form of cell death resembling paraptosis. Treated BC3H1 cells showed extensive cytoplasmic vacuolation, enlargement of mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum and lack of DNA fragmentation. Western blotting analysis revealed phosphorylation of the protein kinase p38 and involvement of the heat shock protein Hsp70. This activation suggests involvement of different signalling pathways for programmed cell death. PMID:23851005

  16. Vaccine Narratives and Public Health: Investigating Criticisms of H1N1 Pandemic Vaccination.

    PubMed

    Abeysinghe, Sudeepa

    2015-01-01

    Vaccine hesitancy is often understood and explored on the level of individual decision-making. However, questions surrounding the risk and efficacy of vaccination are evident in wider public discourse; social narratives of vaccination inform and impact on the individual level. This paper takes a narrative analysis approach from the sociology of health to examine data drawn from a wider study on global public health responses to the H1N1 pandemic. The paper concentrates upon criticisms to mass vaccination as recounted within the Council of Europe's debate of the handling of H1N1. It shows that three narratives were particularly dominant: problematizing the use of vaccination as a public health response; criticising the efficacy of the vaccines; and, questioning the safety of the strategy. This debate presents an important case study in understanding the way in which vaccines are problematized within the public discourse. PMID:25789204

  17. Molecular docking of selected phytocompounds with H1N1 Proteins.

    PubMed

    Alhazmi, Mohammed I

    2015-01-01

    The H1N1 influenza virus is a serious threat to human population. Oseltamivir and Zanamivir are known antiviral drugs for swine flu with observed side effects. These drugs are viral neuraminidase and hemagglutinin inhibitor prevents early virus multiplication by blocking sialic acid cleavage on host cells. Therefore, it is of interest to identify naturally occurring novel compounds to control viral growth. Thus, H1N1 proteins (neuraminidase and hemagglutinin) were screened with phytocompounds isolated from Tulsi plant (Ocimum sanctum L.) using molecular docking tools. This identified Apigenin as an alternative to Oseltamivir and Zanamivir with improved predicted binding properties. Hence, it is of interest to consider this compound for further in vitro and in vivo evaluation. PMID:26124560

  18. Molecular docking of selected phytocompounds with H1N1 Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Alhazmi, Mohammed I

    2015-01-01

    The H1N1 influenza virus is a serious threat to human population. Oseltamivir and Zanamivir are known antiviral drugs for swine flu with observed side effects. These drugs are viral neuraminidase and hemagglutinin inhibitor prevents early virus multiplication by blocking sialic acid cleavage on host cells. Therefore, it is of interest to identify naturally occurring novel compounds to control viral growth. Thus, H1N1 proteins (neuraminidase and hemagglutinin) were screened with phytocompounds isolated from Tulsi plant (Ocimum sanctum L.) using molecular docking tools. This identified Apigenin as an alternative to Oseltamivir and Zanamivir with improved predicted binding properties. Hence, it is of interest to consider this compound for further in vitro and in vivo evaluation. PMID:26124560

  19. Identification of small molecules acting against H1N1 influenza A virus.

    PubMed

    Agamennone, Mariangela; Pietrantoni, Agostina; Superti, Fabiana

    2016-01-15

    Influenza virus represents a serious threat to public health. The lack of effective drugs against flu prompted researchers to identify more promising viral target. In this respect hemagglutinin (HA) can represent an interesting option because of its pivotal role in the infection process. With this aim we collected a small library of commercially available compounds starting from a large database and performing a diversity-based selection to reduce the number of screened compounds avoiding structural redundancy of the library. Selected compounds were tested for their hemagglutination-inhibiting (HI) ability against two different A/H1N1 viral strains (one of which is oseltamivir sensitive), and 17 of them showed the ability to interact with HA. Five drug-like molecules, in particular, were able to impair hemagglutination of both A/H1N1 viral strains under study and to inhibit cytopathic effect and hemolysis at sub-micromolar level. PMID:26655243

  20. Blood libel rebooted: traditional scapegoats, online media, and the H1N1 epidemic.

    PubMed

    Atlani-Duault, L; Mercier, A; Rousseau, C; Guyot, P; Moatti, J P

    2015-03-01

    This study of comments posted on major French print and TV media websites during the H1N1 epidemic illustrates the relationship between the traditional media and social media in responding to an emerging disease. A disturbing "geography of blame" was observed suggesting the metamorphosis of the folk-devil phenomenon to the Internet. We discovered a subterranean discourse about the putative origins and "objectives" of the H1N1 virus, which was absent from the discussions in mainstream television channels and large-circulation print media. These online rumours attributed hidden motives to governments, pharmaceutical companies, and figures of Otherness that were scapegoated in the social history of previous European epidemics, notably Freemasons and Jews. PMID:25304396