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Sample records for 10-5 cm2 s-1

  1. Spin-Hall-Effect-Assisted Electroresistance in Antiferromagnets via 10(5) A/cm(2) dc Current.

    PubMed

    Han, Jiahao; Wang, Yuyan; Pan, Feng; Song, Cheng

    2016-08-22

    Antiferromagnet (AFM) spintronics with reduced electrical current is greatly expected to process information with high integration and low power consumption. In Pt/FeMn and Ta/FeMn hybrids, we observe significant resistance variation (up to 7% of the total resistance) manipulated by 10(5) A/cm(2) dc current. We have excluded the contribution of isotropic structural effects, and confirmed the critical role of the spin Hall injection from Pt (or Ta) to FeMn. This electrical current-manipulated resistance (i.e. electroresistance) is proposed to be attributed to the spin-Hall-effect-induced spin-orbit torque in FeMn. Similar results have also been detected in plain IrMn films, where the charge current generates spin current via the spin Hall effect with the existence of Ir atoms. All the measurements are free from external magnetic fields and ferromagnets. Our findings present an interesting step towards high-efficiency spintronic devices.

  2. Epitaxial SrTiO3 films with electron mobilities exceeding 30,000cm2V-1s-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, Junwoo; Moetakef, Pouya; Jalan, Bharat; Bierwagen, Oliver; Wright, Nicholas J.; Engel-Herbert, Roman; Stemmer, Susanne

    2010-06-01

    The study of quantum phenomena in semiconductors requires epitaxial structures with exceptionally high charge-carrier mobilities. Furthermore, low-temperature mobilities are highly sensitive probes of the quality of epitaxial layers, because they are limited by impurity and defect scattering. Unlike many other complex oxides, electron-doped SrTiO3 single crystals show high (~104cm2V-1s-1) electron mobilities at low temperatures. High-mobility, epitaxial heterostructures with SrTiO3 have recently attracted attention for thermoelectric applications, field-induced superconductivity and two-dimensional (2D) interface conductivity. Epitaxial SrTiO3 thin films are often deposited by energetic techniques, such as pulsed laser deposition. Electron mobilities in such films are lower than those of single crystals. In semiconductor physics, molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) is widely established as the deposition method that produces the highest mobility structures. It is a low-energetic, high-purity technique that allows for low defect densities and precise control over doping concentrations and location. Here, we demonstrate controlled doping of epitaxial SrTiO3 layers grown by MBE. Electron mobilities in these films exceed those of single crystals. At low temperatures, the films show Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations. These high-mobility SrTiO3 films allow for the study of the intrinsic physics of SrTiO3 and can serve as building blocks for high-mobility oxide heterostructures.

  3. High Mobility Exceeding 80 cm2 V-1 s-1 in Polycrystalline Ta-Doped SnO2 Thin Films on Glass Using Anatase TiO2 Seed Layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakao, Shoichiro; Yamada, Naoomi; Hitosugi, Taro; Hirose, Yasushi; Shimada, Toshihiro; Hasegawa, Tetsuya

    2010-03-01

    High-mobility Ta-doped SnO2 (TTO) thin films were grown on glass substrates by pulsed laser deposition using a seed-layer technique. The use of 10-nm-thick polycrystalline anatase TiO2 seed layers was found to lead to the preferred growth of (200)-oriented TTO films, resulting in a 30% increase in the carrier density and a more than two times increase in mobility, compared to films grown directly on the glass substrates. The highest mobility obtained was 83 cm2 V-1 s-1 with a resistivity of 2.8×10-4 Ω cm, whereas the film with the lowest resistivity of 1.8×10-4 Ω cm had a mobility of 60 cm2 V-1 s-1.

  4. Design of a 10**36 CM-2 S-1 Super-B Factory

    SciTech Connect

    Biagini, M.E.; Boni, R.; Boscolo, M.; Demma, T.; Drago, A.; Guiducci, S.; Raimondi, P.; Tomassini, S.; Zobov, M.; Bertsche, Kirk J.; Novokhatski, A.; Seeman, J.; Sullivan, M.; Wienands, U.; Wittmer, W.; Bettoni, S.; Paoloni, E.; Marchiori, G.; Bogomyagkov, A.; Koop, I.; Levichev, E.; /Novosibirsk, IYF

    2011-10-24

    Parameters have been studied for a high luminosity e{sup +}e{sup -} collider operating at the Upsilon 4S that would deliver a luminosity of 1 to 4 x 10{sup 36}/cm{sup 2}/s. This collider, called a Super-B Factory, would use a combination of linear collider and storage ring techniques. In this scheme an electron beam and a positron beam are stored in low-emittance damping rings similar to those designed for a Linear Collider (LC) or the next generation light source. A LC style interaction region is included in the ring to produce sub-millimeter vertical beta functions at the collision point. A large crossing angle (+/- 24 mrad) is used at the collision point to allow beam separation. A crab-waist scheme is used to reduce the hourglass effect and restore peak luminosity. Beam currents of 1.8 A at 4 x 7 GeV in 1251 bunches can produce a luminosity of 10{sup 36}/cm{sup 2}/s with upgrade possibilities. Such a collider would produce an integrated luminosity of about 10,000 fb{sup -1} (10 ab{sup -1}) in a running year (10{sup 7} sec) at the {gamma}(4S) resonance. Further possibilities include having longitudinally polarized e- at the IR and operating at the J/Psi and Psi beam energies.

  5. Sayama CM2 Chondrite: Fresh but Heavily Altered

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takaoka, N.; Nakamura, T.; Noguchi, T.; Tonui, E.; Gounelle, M.; Zolensky, M. E.; Ebisawa, N.; Osawa, T.; Okazaki, R.; Nagao, K.; Yoneda, S.

    2001-01-01

    Noble gas composition and mineralogy of Sayama meteorite, that fell in Japan and recently identified as a CM2 chondrite, revealed many unique features, indicating that it experienced extensive aqueous alteration under highly oxidized condition compared with typical CMs. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  6. Organic Matter Inclusions in CM2 Chondrite Murchison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peeters, Z.; Liebig, B.; Lee, T.

    2015-07-01

    Large (~10 μm) inclusions of pure organic carbon exist in carbonaceous chondrites. We extracted organic inclusions from Murchison, a CM2, and analyzed the sections using XANES, TEM, and nanoSIMS. The results are compared to previous results of CRs.

  7. Benchmarking and performance analysis of the CM-2. [SIMD computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, David W.; Adams, George B., II

    1988-01-01

    A suite of benchmarking routines testing communication, basic arithmetic operations, and selected kernel algorithms written in LISP and PARIS was developed for the CM-2. Experiment runs are automated via a software framework that sequences individual tests, allowing for unattended overnight operation. Multiple measurements are made and treated statistically to generate well-characterized results from the noisy values given by cm:time. The results obtained provide a comparison with similar, but less extensive, testing done on a CM-1. Tests were chosen to aid the algorithmist in constructing fast, efficient, and correct code on the CM-2, as well as gain insight into what performance criteria are needed when evaluating parallel processing machines.

  8. Organic Power Electronics: Transistor Operation in the kA/cm(2) Regime.

    PubMed

    Klinger, Markus P; Fischer, Axel; Kaschura, Felix; Widmer, Johannes; Kheradmand-Boroujeni, Bahman; Ellinger, Frank; Leo, Karl

    2017-03-17

    In spite of interesting features as flexibility, organic thin-film transistors have commercially lagged behind due to the low mobilities of organic semiconductors associated with hopping transport. Furthermore, organic transistors usually have much larger channel lengths than their inorganic counterparts since high-resolution structuring is not available in low-cost production schemes. Here, we present an organic permeable-base transistor (OPBT) which, despite extremely simple processing without any high-resolution structuring, achieve a performance beyond what has so far been possible using organic semiconductors. With current densities above 1 kA cm(-2) and switching speeds towards 100 MHz, they open the field of organic power electronics. Finding the physical limits and an effective mobility of only 0.06 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1), this OPBT device architecture has much more potential if new materials optimized for its geometry will be developed.

  9. Direct particle simulation on the Connection Machine CM-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dagum, L.

    1992-01-01

    Particle simulation is a useful technique for analyzing low density flows. The Connection Machine CM-2 is a useful test bed for studying the fine-grain data objects decomposition and the coarse-grain domain decomposition single instruction multiple datastream (SIMD) approaches to particle simulation. Both approaches are investigated for the model problem of uniform flow through a channel and the algorithms required for the SIMD domain decomposition approach are presented. An unresolved issue with the domain decomposition approach is the effect of a poor partitioning on flows with real geometries. Initial results with the channel flow problem indicate that a poor partitioning has only a small detrimental effect on the overall performance.

  10. Presolar grains in the CM2 chondrite Sutter's Mill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xuchao; Lin, Yangting; Yin, Qing-Zhu; Zhang, Jianchao; Hao, Jialong; Zolensky, Michael; Jenniskens, Peter

    2014-11-01

    The Sutter's Mill (SM) carbonaceous chondrite is a regolith breccia, composed predominantly of CM2 clasts with varying degrees of aqueous alteration and thermal metamorphism. An investigation of presolar grains in four Sutter's Mill sections, SM43, SM51, SM2-4, and SM18, was carried out using NanoSIMS ion mapping technique. A total of 37 C-anomalous grains and one O-anomalous grain have been identified, indicating an abundance of 63 ppm for presolar C-anomalous grains and 2 ppm for presolar oxides. Thirty-one silicon carbide (SiC), five carbonaceous grains, and one Al-oxide (Al2O3) were confirmed based on their elemental compositions determined by C-N-Si and O-Si-Mg-Al isotopic measurements. The overall abundance of SiC grains in Sutter's Mill (55 ppm) is consistent with those in other CM chondrites. The absence of presolar silicates in Sutter's Mill suggests that they were destroyed by aqueous alteration on the parent asteroid. Furthermore, SM2-4 shows heterogeneous distributions of presolar SiC grains (12-54 ppm) in different matrix areas, indicating that the fine-grained matrix clasts come from different sources, with various thermal histories, in the solar nebula.

  11. Microbiological study of the Murchison CM2 meteorite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pikuta, Elena V.; Hoover, Richard B.

    2012-10-01

    In 1864, Louis Pasteur attempted to cultivate living microorganisms from pristine samples of the Orgueil CI1 carbonaceous meteorite. His results were negative and never published, but recorded it in his laboratory notebooks. At that time, only aerobic liquid or agar-based organic reach media were used, as his research on anaerobes had just started. In our laboratory the Murchison CM2 carbonaceous meteorite was selected to expand on these studies for microbiological study by cultivation on anaerobic mineral media. Since the surface could have been more easily contaminated, interior fragments of a sample of the Murchison meteorite were extracted and crushed under sterile conditions. The resulting powder was then mixed in anoxic medium and injected into Hungate tubes containing anaerobic media with various growth substrates at different pH and salinity and incubated at different temperatures. The goal of the experiments was to determine if living cells would grow from the material of freshly fractured interior fragments of the stone. If any growth occurred, work could then be carried out to assess the nature of the environmental contamination by observations of the culture growth (rates of speed and biodiversity); live/dead fluorescent staining to determine contamination level and DNA analysis to establish the microbial species present. In this paper we report the results of that study.

  12. 46 CFR 59.10-5 - Cracks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cracks. 59.10-5 Section 59.10-5 Shipping COAST GUARD... APPURTENANCES Welding Repairs to Boilers and Pressure Vessels in -Service § 59.10-5 Cracks. (a) Cracks extending... cracks are veed out so that complete penetration of the weld metal is secured. (b) Circumferential...

  13. 46 CFR 105.10-5 - Approved.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Approved. 105.10-5 Section 105.10-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS COMMERCIAL FISHING VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Definition of Terms Used in This Part § 105.10-5 Approved. (a) The...

  14. 10 CFR 10.5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Definitions. 10.5 Section 10.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION CRITERIA AND PROCEDURES FOR DETERMINING ELIGIBILITY FOR ACCESS TO RESTRICTED DATA OR NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION OR AN EMPLOYMENT CLEARANCE General Provisions § 10.5 Definitions. Access...

  15. 10 CFR 10.5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 10.5 Section 10.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION CRITERIA AND PROCEDURES FOR DETERMINING ELIGIBILITY FOR ACCESS TO RESTRICTED DATA OR NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION OR AN EMPLOYMENT CLEARANCE General Provisions § 10.5 Definitions. Access...

  16. 10 CFR 10.5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Definitions. 10.5 Section 10.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION CRITERIA AND PROCEDURES FOR DETERMINING ELIGIBILITY FOR ACCESS TO RESTRICTED DATA OR NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION OR AN EMPLOYMENT CLEARANCE General Provisions § 10.5 Definitions. Access...

  17. 10 CFR 10.5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Definitions. 10.5 Section 10.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION CRITERIA AND PROCEDURES FOR DETERMINING ELIGIBILITY FOR ACCESS TO RESTRICTED DATA OR NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION OR AN EMPLOYMENT CLEARANCE General Provisions § 10.5 Definitions. Access...

  18. 10 CFR 10.5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Definitions. 10.5 Section 10.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION CRITERIA AND PROCEDURES FOR DETERMINING ELIGIBILITY FOR ACCESS TO RESTRICTED DATA OR NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION OR AN EMPLOYMENT CLEARANCE General Provisions § 10.5 Definitions. Access...

  19. 44 CFR 10.5 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Responsibilities. 10.5 Section... SECURITY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS Agency Implementing Procedures § 10.5 Responsibilities. (a... impact statements and assign lead agency responsibility when more than one FEMA office or...

  20. 43 CFR 10.5 - Consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Consultation. 10.5 Section 10.5 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NATIVE AMERICAN GRAVES PROTECTION AND REPATRIATION REGULATIONS Human Remains, Funerary Objects, Sacred Objects, or Objects of Cultural Patrimony...

  1. 43 CFR 10.5 - Consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Consultation. 10.5 Section 10.5 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NATIVE AMERICAN GRAVES PROTECTION AND REPATRIATION REGULATIONS Human Remains, Funerary Objects, Sacred Objects, or Objects of Cultural Patrimony...

  2. 43 CFR 10.5 - Consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Consultation. 10.5 Section 10.5 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NATIVE AMERICAN GRAVES PROTECTION AND REPATRIATION REGULATIONS Human Remains, Funerary Objects, Sacred Objects, or Objects of Cultural Patrimony...

  3. 43 CFR 10.5 - Consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Consultation. 10.5 Section 10.5 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NATIVE AMERICAN GRAVES PROTECTION AND REPATRIATION REGULATIONS Human Remains, Funerary Objects, Sacred Objects, or Objects of Cultural Patrimony...

  4. 43 CFR 10.5 - Consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Consultation. 10.5 Section 10.5 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NATIVE AMERICAN GRAVES PROTECTION AND REPATRIATION REGULATIONS Human Remains, Funerary Objects, Sacred Objects, or Objects of Cultural Patrimony...

  5. Multielectron ultrastrong laser field ionization of Arn+, Krm+ and Xel+ (n <= 9, m <= 9, l <= 12) at intensities from 1015 W cm-2 to 1018 W cm-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palaniyappan, S.; Di Chiara, A.; Ghebregziabher, I.; Huskins, E. L.; Falkowski, A.; Pajerowski, D.; Walker, B. C.

    2006-07-01

    Ionization yields are reported for Ar, Kr and Xe in ultrastrong fields from 1015 W cm-2 to 1018 W cm-2. Non-sequential ionization (NSI) is shown to be a robust and general feature in ultrahigh field ionization. NSI yields measured are consistent with the trends predicted by a rescattering model, but as one proceeds to higher Z atoms more NSI is observed than predicted theoretically. Additional recollision mechanisms that may need to be considered in future theories of ultrastrong field-atom interactions include 'chain' NSI, NSI from excited states of the atom (e.g. Rydberg states or inner-shell holes) and the possibility of ultrastrong field enhanced recollision/impact processes.

  6. 44 CFR 10.5 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Responsibilities. 10.5... Responsibilities. (a) The Regional Administrators shall, for each action not categorically excluded from this... impact statements and assign lead agency responsibility when more than one FEMA office or...

  7. 46 CFR 59.10-5 - Cracks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... APPURTENANCES Welding Repairs to Boilers and Pressure Vessels in -Service § 59.10-5 Cracks. (a) Cracks extending... corrugated furnaces may be repaired by welding provided any one crack does not exceed 20 inches in length. (e... any direction, nor more than a total of four cracks in a drum, and further provided the welding...

  8. Compositions of Partly Altered Olivine and Replacement Serpentine in the CM2 Chondrite QUE 93005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velbel, M. A.; Tonui, E. K.; Zolensky, M. E.

    2013-09-01

    Serpentine replacing olivine in QUE 93005 has a narrow range of compositions, regardless of the reactant olivine’s composition. Homogeneity of replacement serpentines in QUE 93005 and other CM2s favors homogeneity of aqueous solutions on >cm scales.

  9. Magnesium isotopic fractionation in chondrules from the Murchison and Murray CM2 carbonaceous chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouvier, Audrey; Wadhwa, Meenakshi; Simon, Steven B.; Grossman, Lawrence

    2013-03-01

    We present high-precision measurements of the Mg isotopic compositions of a suite of types I and II chondrules separated from the Murchison and Murray CM2 carbonaceous chondrites. These chondrules are olivine- and pyroxene-rich and have low 27Al/24Mg ratios (0.012-0.316). The Mg isotopic compositions of Murray chondrules are on average lighter (δ26Mg ranging from -0.95‰ to -0.15‰ relative to the DSM-3 standard) than those of Murchison (δ26Mg ranging from -1.27‰ to +0.77‰). Taken together, the CM2 chondrules exhibit a narrower range of Mg isotopic compositions than those from CV and CB chondrites studied previously. The least-altered CM2 chondrules are on average lighter (average δ26Mg = -0.39 ± 0.30‰, 2SE) than the moderately to heavily altered CM2 chondrules (average δ26Mg = -0.11 ± 0.21‰, 2SE). The compositions of CM2 chondrules are consistent with isotopic fractionation toward heavy Mg being associated with the formation of secondary silicate phases on the CM2 parent body, but were also probably affected by volatilization and recondensation processes involved in their original formation. The low-Al CM2 chondrules analyzed here do not exhibit any mass-independent variations in 26Mg from the decay of 26Al, with the exception of two chondrules that show only small variations just outside of the analytical error. In the case of the chondrule with the highest Al/Mg ratio (a type IAB chondrule from Murchison), the lack of resolvable 26Mg excess suggests that it either formed >1 Ma after calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions, or that its Al-Mg isotope systematics were reset by secondary alteration processes on the CM2 chondrite parent body after the decay of 26Al.

  10. GFDL's CM2 global coupled climate models. Part I: Formulation and simulation characteristics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Delworth, T.L.; Broccoli, A.J.; Rosati, A.; Stouffer, R.J.; Balaji, V.; Beesley, J.A.; Cooke, W.F.; Dixon, K.W.; Dunne, J.; Dunne, K.A.; Durachta, J.W.; Findell, K.L.; Ginoux, P.; Gnanadesikan, A.; Gordon, C.T.; Griffies, S.M.; Gudgel, R.; Harrison, M.J.; Held, I.M.; Hemler, R.S.; Horowitz, L.W.; Klein, S.A.; Knutson, T.R.; Kushner, P.J.; Langenhorst, A.R.; Lee, H.-C.; Lin, S.-J.; Lu, J.; Malyshev, S.L.; Milly, P.C.D.; Ramaswamy, V.; Russell, J.; Schwarzkopf, M.D.; Shevliakova, E.; Sirutis, J.J.; Spelman, M.J.; Stern, W.F.; Winton, M.; Wittenberg, A.T.; Wyman, B.; Zeng, F.; Zhang, R.

    2006-01-01

    The formulation and simulation characteristics of two new global coupled climate models developed at NOAA's Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) are described. The models were designed to simulate atmospheric and oceanic climate and variability from the diurnal time scale through multicentury climate change, given our computational constraints. In particular, an important goal was to use the same model for both experimental seasonal to interannual forecasting and the study of multicentury global climate change, and this goal has been achieved. Tw o versions of the coupled model are described, called CM2.0 and CM2.1. The versions differ primarily in the dynamical core used in the atmospheric component, along with the cloud tuning and some details of the land and ocean components. For both coupled models, the resolution of the land and atmospheric components is 2?? latitude ?? 2.5?? longitude; the atmospheric model has 24 vertical levels. The ocean resolution is 1?? in latitude and longitude, with meridional resolution equatorward of 30?? becoming progressively finer, such that the meridional resolution is 1/3?? at the equator. There are 50 vertical levels in the ocean, with 22 evenly spaced levels within the top 220 m. The ocean component has poles over North America and Eurasia to avoid polar filtering. Neither coupled model employs flux adjustments. The co ntrol simulations have stable, realistic climates when integrated over multiple centuries. Both models have simulations of ENSO that are substantially improved relative to previous GFDL coupled models. The CM2.0 model has been further evaluated as an ENSO forecast model and has good skill (CM2.1 has not been evaluated as an ENSO forecast model). Generally reduced temperature and salinity biases exist in CM2.1 relative to CM2.0. These reductions are associated with 1) improved simulations of surface wind stress in CM2.1 and associated changes in oceanic gyre circulations; 2) changes in cloud tuning and

  11. Impact-Induced Chondrule Deformation and Aqueous Alteration of CM2 Murchison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanna, R. D.; Zolensky, M.; Ketcham, R. A.; Behr, W. M.; Martinez, J. E.

    2014-01-01

    Deformed chondrules in CM2 Murchison have been found to define a prominent foliation [1,2] and lineation [3] in 3D using X-ray computed tomography (XCT). It has been hypothesized that chondrules in foliated chondrites deform by "squeezing" into surrounding pore space [4,5], a process that also likely removes primary porosity [6]. However, shock stage classification based on olivine extinction in Murchison is consistently low (S1-S2) [4-5,7] implying that significant intracrystalline plastic deformation of olivine has not occurred. One objective of our study is therefore to determine the microstructural mechanisms and phases that are accommodating the impact stress and resulting in relative displacements within the chondrules. Another question regarding impact deformation in Murchison is whether it facilitated aqueous alteration as has been proposed for the CMs which generally show a positive correlation between degree of alteration and petrofabric strength [7,2]. As pointed out by [2], CM Murchison represents a unique counterpoint to this correlation: it has a strong petrofabric but a relatively low degree of aqueous alteration. However, Murchison may not represent an inconsistency to the proposed causal relationship between impact and alteration, if it can be established that the incipient aqueous alteration post-dated chondrule deformation. Methods: Two thin sections from Murchison sample USNM 5487 were cut approximately perpendicular to the foliation and parallel to lineation determined by XCT [1,3] and one section was additionally polished for EBSD. Using a combination of optical petrography, SEM, EDS, and EBSD several chondrules were characterized in detail to: determine phases, find microstructures indicative of strain, document the geometric relationships between grain-scale microstructures and the foliation and lineation direction, and look for textural relationships of alteration minerals (tochilinite and Mg-Fe serpentine) that indicate timing of their

  12. Aliphatic Amines in Antarctic CR2, CM2, and CM1/2 Carbonaceous Chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aponte, Jose C.; McLain, Hannah L.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Elsila, Jamie E.

    2016-01-01

    Meteoritic water-soluble organic compounds provide a unique record of the processes that occurred during the formation of the solar system and the chemistry preceding the origins of life on Earth. We have investigated the molecular distribution, compound-specific delta13C isotopic ratios and enantiomeric compositions of aliphatic monoamines present in the hot acid-water extracts of the carbonaceous chondrites LAP 02342 (CR2), GRA 95229 (CR2), LON 94101 (CM2), LEW 90500 (CM2), and ALH 83100 (CM1/2). Analyses of the concentration of monoamines in these meteorites revealed: (a) the CR2 chondrites studied here contain higher concentrations of monoamines relative to the analyzed CM2 chondrites; (b) the concentration of monoamines decreases with increasing carbon number; and (c) isopropylamine is the most abundant monoamine in these CR2 chondrites, while methylamine is the most abundant amine species in these CM2 and CM1/2 chondrites. The delta13C values of monoamines in CR2 chondrite do not correlate with the number of carbon atoms; however, in CM2 and CM1/2 chondrites, the 13C enrichment decreases with increasing monoamine carbon number. The delta13C values of methylamine in CR2 chondrites ranged from -1 to +10per mille, while in CM2 and CM1/2 chondrites the delta13C values of methylamine ranged from +41 to +59per mille. We also observed racemic compositions of sec-butylamine, 3-methyl-2-butylamine, and sec-pentylamine in the studied carbonaceous chondrites. Additionally, we compared the abundance and delta13C isotopic composition of monoamines to those of their structurally related amino acids. We found that monoamines are less abundant than amino acids in CR2 chondrites, with the opposite being true in CM2 and CM1/2 chondrites. We used these collective data to evaluate different primordial synthetic pathways for monoamines in carbonaceous chondrites and to understand the potential common origins these molecules may share with meteoritic amino acids.

  13. Aliphatic amines in Antarctic CR2, CM2, and CM1/2 carbonaceous chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aponte, José C.; McLain, Hannah L.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Elsila, Jamie E.

    2016-09-01

    Meteoritic water-soluble organic compounds provide a unique record of the processes that occurred during the formation of the solar system and the chemistry preceding the origins of life on Earth. We have investigated the molecular distribution, compound-specific δ13C isotopic ratios and enantiomeric compositions of aliphatic monoamines present in the hot acid-water extracts of the carbonaceous chondrites LAP 02342 (CR2), GRA 95229 (CR2), LON 94101 (CM2), LEW 90500 (CM2), and ALH 83100 (CM1/2). Analyses of the concentration of monoamines in these meteorites revealed: (a) the CR2 chondrites studied here contain higher concentrations of monoamines relative to the analyzed CM2 chondrites; (b) the concentration of monoamines decreases with increasing carbon number; and (c) isopropylamine is the most abundant monoamine in these CR2 chondrites, while methylamine is the most abundant amine species in these CM2 and CM1/2 chondrites. The δ13C values of monoamines in CR2 chondrite do not correlate with the number of carbon atoms; however, in CM2 and CM1/2 chondrites, the 13C enrichment decreases with increasing monoamine carbon number. The δ13C values of methylamine in CR2 chondrites ranged from -1 to +10‰, while in CM2 and CM1/2 chondrites the δ13C values of methylamine ranged from +41 to +59‰. We also observed racemic compositions of sec-butylamine, 3-methyl-2-butylamine, and sec-pentylamine in the studied carbonaceous chondrites. Additionally, we compared the abundance and δ13C isotopic composition of monoamines to those of their structurally related amino acids. We found that monoamines are less abundant than amino acids in CR2 chondrites, with the opposite being true in CM2 and CM1/2 chondrites. We used these collective data to evaluate different primordial synthetic pathways for monoamines in carbonaceous chondrites and to understand the potential common origins these molecules may share with meteoritic amino acids.

  14. The EET87513 clast N: A CM2 fragment in an HED polymict breccia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchanan, P. C.; Zolensky, M. E.; Reid, A. M.; Barrett, R. A.

    1993-01-01

    Xenoliths of material resembling carbonaceous chondrites have been found in several HED polymict breccias. Most workers concluded that these clasts are related to CM2 meteorites on the basis of texture, bulk composition, and mineralogy. Data on clast N, a carbonaceous chondrite fragment from the howardite EET87513 large enough (approximately 4x5mm on the surface of the slab from which it was separated) to extract bulk samples for INAA and oxygen isotope analysis and to provide a thin section for electron microprobe, SEM, and TEM analysis is reported. Preliminary data for this clast were previously reported. INAA was performed at Oregon State University and bulk oxygen isotopic composition was determined at the University of Chicago. These data confirm that EET87513 clast N is a fragment of CM2 material.

  15. Relativistic Electron Accleration by a Laser of Intensity in Excess of 1020 W cm-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangles, S. P. D.; Walton, B.; Wei, M. S.; Clarke, R. J.; Fritzler, S.; Gopal, A.; Hernandez-Gomez, C.; Krushelnick, K.; Najmudin, Z.; Dangor, A. E.

    Relativistic electrons with energies in excess of 300 MeV have been observed resulting from the interaction of a 0.3 PW laser beam focused to intensities of around 3 × 1020 W cm-2 interacting with an underdense plasma. Two dimensional particle in cell simulation of the interaction show that an interaction directly between preheated electrons and the intense laser field is responsible for the maximum acceleration.

  16. Investigation of pyridine carboxylic acids in CM2 carbonaceous chondrites: Potential precursor molecules for ancient coenzymes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Karen E.; Callahan, Michael P.; Gerakines, Perry A.; Dworkin, Jason P.; House, Christopher H.

    2014-07-01

    The distribution and abundances of pyridine carboxylic acids (including nicotinic acid) in eight CM2 carbonaceous chondrites (ALH 85013, DOM 03183, DOM 08003, EET 96016, LAP 02333, LAP 02336, LEW 85311, and WIS 91600) were investigated by liquid chromatography coupled to UV detection and high resolution Orbitrap mass spectrometry. We find that pyridine monocarboxylic acids are prevalent in CM2-type chondrites and their abundance negatively correlates with the degree of pre-terrestrial aqueous alteration that the meteorite parent body experienced. We also report the first detection of pyridine dicarboxylic acids in carbonaceous chondrites. Additionally, we carried out laboratory studies of proton-irradiated pyridine in carbon dioxide-rich ices (a 1:1 mixture) to serve as a model of the interstellar ice chemistry that may have led to the synthesis of pyridine carboxylic acids. Analysis of the irradiated ice residue shows that a comparable suite of pyridine mono- and dicarboxylic acids was produced, although aqueous alteration may still play a role in the synthesis (and ultimate yield) of these compounds in carbonaceous meteorites. Nicotinic acid is a precursor to nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, a likely ancient molecule used in cellular metabolism in all of life, and its common occurrence in CM2 chondrites may indicate that meteorites may have been a source of molecules for the emergence of more complex coenzymes on the early Earth.

  17. Investigation of Pyridine Carboxylic Acids in CM2 Carbonaceous Chondrites: Potential Precursor Molecules for Ancient Coenzymes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Karen E.; Callahan, Michael P.; Gerakines, Perry A.; Dworkin, Jason P.; House, Christopher H.

    2014-01-01

    The distribution and abundances of pyridine carboxylic acids (including nicotinic acid) in eight CM2 carbonaceous chondrites (ALH 85013, DOM 03183, DOM 08003, EET 96016, LAP 02333, LAP 02336, LEW 85311, and WIS 91600) were investigated by liquid chromatography coupled to UV detection and high resolution Orbitrap mass spectrometry. We find that pyridine monocarboxylic acids are prevalent in CM2-type chondrites and their abundance negatively correlates with the degree of pre-terrestrial aqueous alteration that the meteorite parent body experienced. We also report the first detection of pyridine dicarboxylic acids in carbonaceous chondrites. Additionally, we carried out laboratory studies of proton-irradiated pyridine in carbon dioxide-rich ices (a 1:1 mixture) to serve as a model of the interstellar ice chemistry that may have led to the synthesis of pyridine carboxylic acids. Analysis of the irradiated ice residue shows that a comparable suite of pyridine mono- and dicarboxylic acids was produced, although aqueous alteration may still play a role in the synthesis (and ultimate yield) of these compounds in carbonaceous meteorites. Nicotinic acid is a precursor to nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, a likely ancient molecule used in cellular metabolism in all of life, and its common occurrence in CM2 chondrites may indicate that meteorites may have been a source of molecules for the emergence of more complex coenzymes on the early Earth.

  18. Investigation of Pyridine Carboxylic Acids in CM2 Carbonaceous Chondrites: Potential Precursor Molecules for Ancient Coenzymes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Karen E.; Callahan, Michael P.; Gerakines, Perry A.; Dworkin, Jason P.; House, Christopher H.

    2014-01-01

    The distribution and abundances of pyridine carboxylic acids (including nicotinic acid) in eight CM2 carbonaceous chondrites (ALH 85013, DOM 03183, DOM 08003, EET 96016, LAP 02333, LAP 02336, LEW 85311, and WIS 91600) were investigated by liquid chromatography coupled to UV detection and high resolution Orbitrap mass spectrometry. We find that pyridine monocarboxylic acids are prevalent in CM2-type chondrites and their abundance negatively correlates with the degree of pre-terrestrial aqueous alteration that the meteorite parent body experienced. We lso report the first detection of pyridine dicarboxylic acids in carbonaceous chondrites. Additionally, we carried out laboratory studies of proton-irradiated pyridine in carbon dioxide-rich ices (a 1:1 mixture) to serve as a model of the interstellar ice chemistry that may have led to the synthesis of pyridine carboxylic acids. Analysis of the irradiated ice residue shows that a comparable suite of pyridine mono- and dicarboxylic acids was produced, although aqueous alteration may still play a role in the synthesis (and ultimate yield) of these compounds in carbonaceous meteorites. Nicotinic acid is a precursor to nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, a likely ancient molecule used in cellular metabolism in all of life, and its common occurrence in CM2 chondrites may indicate that meteorites may have been a source of molecules for the emergence of more complex coenzymes on the early Earth.

  19. Wide-Pulse Evaluation of 0.5 CM2 Silicon Carbide SGTO

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    the surface of the chip. Figure 3. SGTO packaged at ARL using power package, AuSn die attach, 5-mil wire bonds, and silicone -based potting. Figure 5...WIDE-PULSE EVALUATION OF 0.5 CM2 SILICON CARBIDE SGTO Heather O’Brien, Aderinto Ogunniyi, Charles J. Scozzie U.S. Army Research Laboratory, 2800...3026 E. Cornwallis Rd Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 USA Victor Temple Silicon Power Corp., 958 Main St., Suite A Clifton Park, NY 12065 USA

  20. 46 CFR 193.10-5 - Fire pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fire pumps. 193.10-5 Section 193.10-5 Shipping COAST... EQUIPMENT Fire Main System, Details § 193.10-5 Fire pumps. (a) Vessels shall be equipped with independently driven fire pumps in accordance with Table 193.10-5(a). Table 193.10-5(a) Gross tons Over Not...

  1. 46 CFR 193.10-5 - Fire pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire pumps. 193.10-5 Section 193.10-5 Shipping COAST... EQUIPMENT Fire Main System, Details § 193.10-5 Fire pumps. (a) Vessels shall be equipped with independently driven fire pumps in accordance with Table 193.10-5(a). Table 193.10-5(a) Gross tons Over Not...

  2. Organic Power Electronics: Transistor Operation in the kA/cm2 Regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klinger, Markus P.; Fischer, Axel; Kaschura, Felix; Widmer, Johannes; Kheradmand-Boroujeni, Bahman; Ellinger, Frank; Leo, Karl

    2017-03-01

    In spite of interesting features as flexibility, organic thin-film transistors have commercially lagged behind due to the low mobilities of organic semiconductors associated with hopping transport. Furthermore, organic transistors usually have much larger channel lengths than their inorganic counterparts since high-resolution structuring is not available in low-cost production schemes. Here, we present an organic permeable-base transistor (OPBT) which, despite extremely simple processing without any high-resolution structuring, achieve a performance beyond what has so far been possible using organic semiconductors. With current densities above 1 kA cm‑2 and switching speeds towards 100 MHz, they open the field of organic power electronics. Finding the physical limits and an effective mobility of only 0.06 cm2 V‑1 s‑1, this OPBT device architecture has much more potential if new materials optimized for its geometry will be developed.

  3. Organic Power Electronics: Transistor Operation in the kA/cm2 Regime

    PubMed Central

    Klinger, Markus P.; Fischer, Axel; Kaschura, Felix; Widmer, Johannes; Kheradmand-Boroujeni, Bahman; Ellinger, Frank; Leo, Karl

    2017-01-01

    In spite of interesting features as flexibility, organic thin-film transistors have commercially lagged behind due to the low mobilities of organic semiconductors associated with hopping transport. Furthermore, organic transistors usually have much larger channel lengths than their inorganic counterparts since high-resolution structuring is not available in low-cost production schemes. Here, we present an organic permeable-base transistor (OPBT) which, despite extremely simple processing without any high-resolution structuring, achieve a performance beyond what has so far been possible using organic semiconductors. With current densities above 1 kA cm−2 and switching speeds towards 100 MHz, they open the field of organic power electronics. Finding the physical limits and an effective mobility of only 0.06 cm2 V−1 s−1, this OPBT device architecture has much more potential if new materials optimized for its geometry will be developed. PMID:28303924

  4. Compositions of Partly Altered Olivine and Replacement Serpentine in the CM2 Chondrite QUE93005

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Velbel, M. A.; Tonui, E. K.; Zolensky, M. E.

    2005-01-01

    Some phyllosilicates in CM carbonaceous chondrites formed by aqueous alteration of anhydrous precursor phases. Although broad trends in the compositions of hydrous phyllosilicates are recognized and believed to be related to trends in degree of aqueous alteration, details of the reactions that formed specific secondary minerals remain obscure. This paper reports compositional relationships between remnants of partially pseudomorphically (or alteromorphically) replaced silicates and their alteration products (serpentine) in the CM2 chondrite QUE93005 and compares it with previously published results for ALH81002. Reactants and products were characterized by optical petrography, backscattered scanning electron microscopy (BSEM), and electron microprobe. By focusing on serpentine formed from known reactants (olivines), and on only those instances in which some of the reactant silicate remains, direct compositional relationships between reactants and products, and the elemental mobility required by the reactions, can be established. Additional information is included in the original extended abstract.

  5. Spectral content of buried Ag foils at 1016 W/cm2 laser illuminationa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huntington, C. M.; Maddox, B. R.; Park, H.-S.; Prisbrey, S.; Remington, B. A.

    2014-11-01

    Sources of 5-12 keV thermal Heα x-rays are readily generated by laser irradiation of mid-Z foils at intensities >1014 W/cm2, and are widely used as probes for inertial confinement fusion and high-energy-density experiments. Higher energy 17-50 keV x-ray sources are efficiently produced from "cold" Kα emission using short pulse, petawatt lasers at intensities >1018 W/cm2 [H.-S. Park, B. R. Maddox et al., "High-resolution 17-75 keV backlighters for high energy density experiments," Phys. Plasmas 15(7), 072705 (2008); B. R. Maddox, H. S. Park, B. A. Remington et al., "Absolute measurements of x-ray backlighter sources at energies above 10 keV," Phys. Plasmas 18(5), 056709 (2011)]. However, when long pulse (>1 ns) lasers are used with Z > 30 elements, the spectrum contains contributions from both K shell transitions and from ionized atomic states. Here we show that by sandwiching a silver foil between layers of high-density carbon, the ratio of Kα:Heα in the x-ray spectrum is significant increased over directly illuminated Ag foils, with narrower lines from K-shell transitions. Additionally, the emission volume is more localized for the sandwiched target, producing a more planar x-ray sheet. This technique may be useful for generating probes requiring spectral purity and a limited spatial extent, for example, in incoherent x-ray Thomson scattering experiments.

  6. The amino acid composition of the Sutter's Mill CM2 carbonaceous chondrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burton, Aaron S.; Glavin, Daniel P.; Elsila, Jamie E.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Jenniskens, Peter; Yin, Qing-Zhu

    2014-11-01

    We determined the abundances and enantiomeric compositions of amino acids in Sutter's Mill fragment #2 (designated SM2) recovered prior to heavy rains that fell April 25-26, 2012, and two other meteorite fragments, SM12 and SM51, that were recovered postrain. We also determined the abundance, enantiomeric, and isotopic compositions of amino acids in soil from the recovery site of fragment SM51. The three meteorite stones experienced terrestrial amino acid contamination, as evidenced by the low D/L ratios of several proteinogenic amino acids. The D/L ratios were higher in SM2 than in SM12 and SM51, consistent with rain introducing additional L-amino acid contaminants to SM12 and SM51. Higher percentages of glycine, β-alanine, and γ-amino-n-butyric acid were observed in free form in SM2 and SM51 compared with the soil, suggesting that these free amino acids may be indigenous. Trace levels of D+L-β-aminoisobutyric acid (β-AIB) observed in all three meteorites are not easily explained as terrestrial contamination, as β-AIB is rare on Earth and was not detected in the soil. Bulk carbon and nitrogen and isotopic ratios of the SM samples and the soil also indicate terrestrial contamination, as does compound-specific isotopic analysis of the amino acids in the soil. The amino acid abundances in SM2, the most pristine SM meteorite analyzed here, are approximately 20-fold lower than in the Murchison CM2 carbonaceous chondrite. This may be due to thermal metamorphism in the Sutter's Mill parent body at temperatures greater than observed for other aqueously altered CM2 meteorites.

  7. Organic blend semiconductors and transistors with hole mobility exceeding 10 cm2/Vs (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paterson, Alexandra F.; Anthopoulos, Thomas D.

    2015-10-01

    Plastic electronics that can be manufactured using solution-based methods are the subject of great research interest due to their potential for low-cost, large-area electronic applications. The interest in this field has led to considerable research and subsequent advances in device performance. To this end solution-processed organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) have shown impressive improvements in recent years through the increasing values of charge carrier mobility. Here we report the development of next generation organic blend materials for OTFTs with hole mobilities of 10 cm2/Vs. These high performance devices have been achieved using a novel semiconducting blend system comprising of an amorphous-like conjugated polymer and a high mobility small molecule. The combination of a highly crystalline small molecule with the polymer binder aids the formation of uniform films as well as enables an element of control over the nucleation and growth of the small molecule. The polymer binders investigated belongs to the family of indacenodithiophene-based copolymers which are renowned for their high carrier mobilities regardless of their apparent structural disorder. The addition of the polymer with carefully chosen small molecules is found to further increase the hole mobility of the resulting blend OTFT to over 10 cm2/Vs. These organic devices provide an interesting insight into this rather complex blend system, highlighting the correlation between the morphology developed following solution processing and device performance, as well as exploring the role of each of the two components in the blend in terms of their contribution to charge transport.

  8. 46 CFR 111.10-5 - Multiple energy sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Multiple energy sources. 111.10-5 Section 111.10-5...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Power Supply § 111.10-5 Multiple energy sources. Failure of any single generating set energy source such as a boiler, diesel, gas turbine, or steam turbine must not cause all generating...

  9. 46 CFR 111.10-5 - Multiple energy sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Multiple energy sources. 111.10-5 Section 111.10-5...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Power Supply § 111.10-5 Multiple energy sources. Failure of any single generating set energy source such as a boiler, diesel, gas turbine, or steam turbine must not cause all generating...

  10. Registration of cotton germplasm line md 10-5

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    MD 10-5 (Reg. No. ______, PI 675077) is a noncommercial breeding line of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) released by the USDA-ARS at Stoneville, MS in 2015. MD 10-5 was selected in F4 progenies from a cross between MD 15 (PI 642769) and JJ 1145ne. MD 10-5 has a desirable combination between lint yi...

  11. 46 CFR 61.10-5 - Pressure vessels in service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pressure vessels in service. 61.10-5 Section 61.10-5... INSPECTIONS Tests and Inspections of Pressure Vessels § 61.10-5 Pressure vessels in service. (a) Basic requirements. Each pressure vessel must be examined or tested every 5 years. The extent of the test...

  12. 46 CFR 61.10-5 - Pressure vessels in service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pressure vessels in service. 61.10-5 Section 61.10-5... INSPECTIONS Tests and Inspections of Pressure Vessels § 61.10-5 Pressure vessels in service. (a) Basic requirements. Each pressure vessel must be examined or tested every 5 years. The extent of the test...

  13. 46 CFR 61.10-5 - Pressure vessels in service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pressure vessels in service. 61.10-5 Section 61.10-5... INSPECTIONS Tests and Inspections of Pressure Vessels § 61.10-5 Pressure vessels in service. (a) Basic requirements. Each pressure vessel must be examined or tested every 5 years. The extent of the test...

  14. 46 CFR 61.10-5 - Pressure vessels in service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pressure vessels in service. 61.10-5 Section 61.10-5... INSPECTIONS Tests and Inspections of Pressure Vessels § 61.10-5 Pressure vessels in service. (a) Basic requirements. Each pressure vessel must be examined or tested every 5 years. The extent of the test...

  15. 46 CFR 61.10-5 - Pressure vessels in service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pressure vessels in service. 61.10-5 Section 61.10-5... INSPECTIONS Tests and Inspections of Pressure Vessels § 61.10-5 Pressure vessels in service. (a) Basic requirements. Each pressure vessel must be examined or tested every 5 years. The extent of the test...

  16. 46 CFR 111.10-5 - Multiple energy sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Multiple energy sources. 111.10-5 Section 111.10-5...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Power Supply § 111.10-5 Multiple energy sources. Failure of any single generating set energy source such as a boiler, diesel, gas turbine, or steam turbine must not cause all generating...

  17. 46 CFR 111.10-5 - Multiple energy sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Multiple energy sources. 111.10-5 Section 111.10-5...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Power Supply § 111.10-5 Multiple energy sources. Failure of any single generating set energy source such as a boiler, diesel, gas turbine, or steam turbine must not cause all generating...

  18. 46 CFR 111.10-5 - Multiple energy sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Multiple energy sources. 111.10-5 Section 111.10-5...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Power Supply § 111.10-5 Multiple energy sources. Failure of any single generating set energy source such as a boiler, diesel, gas turbine, or steam turbine must not cause all generating...

  19. 46 CFR 30.10-5 - Cargo-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo-TB/ALL. 30.10-5 Section 30.10-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-5 Cargo—TB/ALL. The term cargo means combustible liquid, flammable liquid, or liquefied flammable gas...

  20. 46 CFR 30.10-5 - Cargo-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cargo-TB/ALL. 30.10-5 Section 30.10-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-5 Cargo—TB/ALL. The term cargo means combustible liquid, flammable liquid, or liquefied flammable gas...

  1. 46 CFR 113.10-5 - Common return.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Common return. 113.10-5 Section 113.10-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Fire and Smoke Detecting and Alarm Systems § 113.10-5 Common return. A...

  2. 46 CFR 113.10-5 - Common return.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Common return. 113.10-5 Section 113.10-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Fire and Smoke Detecting and Alarm Systems § 113.10-5 Common return. A...

  3. 46 CFR 113.10-5 - Common return.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Common return. 113.10-5 Section 113.10-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Fire and Smoke Detecting and Alarm Systems § 113.10-5 Common return. A...

  4. 46 CFR 113.10-5 - Common return.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Common return. 113.10-5 Section 113.10-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Fire and Smoke Detecting and Alarm Systems § 113.10-5 Common return. A...

  5. 33 CFR 66.10-5-66.10-10 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false 66.10-5-66.10-10 Section 66.10-5-66.10-10 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Uniform State Waterway Marking System §§ 66.10-5—66.10-10...

  6. 33 CFR 66.10-5-66.10-10 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false 66.10-5-66.10-10 Section 66.10-5-66.10-10 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Uniform State Waterway Marking System §§ 66.10-5—66.10-10...

  7. 46 CFR 113.10-5 - Common return.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Common return. 113.10-5 Section 113.10-5 Shipping COAST... SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Fire and Smoke Detecting and Alarm Systems § 113.10-5 Common return. A conductor must not be used as a common return from more than one zone....

  8. Evaporation of metals by high-density (107 A · cm-2) electrical currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakhel, A. D.

    1996-09-01

    In the present work, the problem of time evolution of pressure and temperature profiles across a wire through which an electrical current with a density of the order of 107 A · cm-2 flows is solved. The correct boundary conditions for a metal surface are obtained for the case when this metal is rapidly evaporated as a result of high-power Joule heating. The pressure profile appears under these conditions due to pinch-effect and inertia of thermal expansion of the metal; the temperature profile arises because of intensive evaporation from the surface of the wire. The conditions under which a liquid metal is superheated are formulated. On the basis of the analysis of the experimental results on exploding wires, the conclusion is drawn that decay of the metastable state takes place near the binodal. It is shown that the distribution of fine dispersed vapor bubbles is strongly nonuniform across the wire and the process of expansion of the two-phase mixture is very similar to the motion of a wave.

  9. On the Behavior of Phosphorus During the Aqueous Alteration of CM2 Carbonaceous Chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brearley, Adrian J.; Chizmadia, Lysa J.

    2005-01-01

    During the earliest period of solar system formation, water played an important role in the evolution of primitive dust, both after accretion of planetesimals and possible before accretion within the protoplanetary disk. Many chondrites show evidence of variable degrees of aqueous alteration, the CM2 chondrites being among the most studied [1]. This group of chondrites is characterized by mineral assemblages of both primary and secondary alteration phases. Hence, these meteorites retain a particularly important record of the reactions that occurred between primary high temperature nebular phases and water. Studies of these chondrites can provide information on the conditions and environments of aqueous alteration and the mobility of elements during alteration. This latter question is at the core of a debate concerning the location of aqueous alteration, i.e. whether alteration occurred predominantly within a closed system after accretion (parent body alteration) or whether some degree of alteration occurred within the solar nebula or on ephemeral protoplanetary bodies prior to accretion. At the core of the parent body alteration model is the hypothesis that elemental exchange between different components, principally chondrules and matrix, must have occurred. chondrules and matrix, must have occurred. In this study, we focus on the behavior of the minor element, phosphorus. This study was stimulated by observations of the behavior of P during the earliest stages of alteration in glassy mesostasis in type II chondrules in CR chondrites and extends the preliminary observations of on Y791198 to other CM chondrites.

  10. Murchison CM2 chondrite at nanoscale: evidence for hydrated minerals in the protoplanetary disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trigo, J. M.; Vila-Ruaix, A.; Alonso-Azcárate, J.; Abad, M. M.

    2017-03-01

    The most pristine chondrites are undifferentiated meteorites with highly unequilibrated mineral grains that accreted from the protoplanetary disk about 4.6 Gyrs ago. Here we focus our attention in the study of Murchison, one of the most primitive carbonaceous chondrites belonging to the CM2 group. Despite of being aqueously altered, Murchison matrix is extraordinarily complex at nanoscale, and its study can hold clues to understand the origin of the water incorporated in the parent bodies of carbonaceous chondrites. Murchison comes from an undifferentiated carbon-rich asteroid which formed from the accretion of solid particles formed in the outer protoplanetary disk. Their rock-forming materials felt into the plane of the system where they mixed with organics, and probably with hydrated minerals. Our UHRTEM (ultra-high resolution transmission electron microscopy) data demonstrate that Murchison fine-grained matrix consists of a complex mixture of many ingredients, including chondrule and CAI fragments, stellar grains, phyllosilicates and organic compounds. We describe here some mineral and textural features that exemplify how pristine, and diverse is Murchison matrix. Our results indicate that the study of carbonaceous chondrites at nanoscale can provide a significant progress in our understanding of the accretion of materials and the preservation of presolar grains in the outer regions of the protoplanetary disk.

  11. A minimum column density of 1 g cm(-2) for massive star formation.

    PubMed

    Krumholz, Mark R; McKee, Christopher F

    2008-02-28

    Massive stars are very rare, but their extreme luminosities make them both the only type of young star we can observe in distant galaxies and the dominant energy sources in the Universe today. They form rarely because efficient radiative cooling keeps most star--forming gas clouds close to isothermal as they collapse, and this favours fragmentation into stars of one solar mass or lower. Heating of a cloud by accreting low-mass stars within it can prevent fragmentation and allow formation of massive stars, but the necessary properties for a cloud to form massive stars-and therefore where massive stars form in a galaxy--have not yet been determined. Here we show that only clouds with column densities of at least 1 g cm(-2) can avoid fragmentation and form massive stars. This threshold, and the environmental variation of the stellar initial mass function that it implies, naturally explain the characteristic column densities associated with massive star clusters and the difference between the radial profiles of Halpha and ultraviolet emission in galactic disks. The existence of a threshold also implies that the initial mass function should show detectable variation with environment within the Galaxy, that the characteristic column densities of clusters containing massive stars should vary between galaxies, and that star formation rates in some galactic environments may have been systematically underestimated.

  12. N-15-Rich Organic Globules in a Cluster IDP and the Bells CM2 Chondrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Messenger, S.; Nakamura-Messenger, K.; Keller, Lindsay P.

    2008-01-01

    Organic matter in primitive meteorites and chondritic porous interplanetary dust particles (CP IDPs) is commonly enriched in D/H and 15N/14N relative to terrestrial values [1-3]. These anomalies are ascribed to the partial preservation of presolar cold molecular cloud material [1]. Some meteorites and IDPs contain m-size inclusions with extreme H and N isotopic anomalies [2-4], possibly due to preserved pristine primordial organic grains. We recently showed that the in the Tagish Lake meteorite, the principle carriers of these anomalies are sub- m, hollow organic globules [5]. The globules likely formed by photochemical processing of organic ices in a cold molecular cloud or the outermost regions of the protosolar disk [5]. We proposed that similar materials should be common among primitive meteorites, IDPs, and comets. Similar objects have been observed in organic extracts of carbonaceous chondrites [6-8], however their N and H isotopic compositions are generally unknown. Bulk H and N isotopic compositions may indicate which meteorites best preserve interstellar organic compounds. Thus, we selected the Bells CM2 carbonaceous chondrites for study based on its large bulk 15N (+335 %) and D (+990 %) [9].

  13. A Comparison Between Silicon Carbide from Indarch (EH4) and CM2 Meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, S. S.; Alexander, C. M. O'd.; Ott, U.; Zinner, E. K.; Arden, J. W.; Pillinger, C. T.

    1993-07-01

    A light-element stepped-combustion, noble-gas, ion-probe, and SEM study of interstellar SiC from Indarch has been undertaken in order to compare SiC isolated from enstatite chondrites with SiC from the more extensively studied CM2 carbonaceous chondrites. Eighty-five grams of Indarch were etched in HF/HCl, crushed and treated with 9MHF/1MHCl + 1M HCl, Cr(sub)2O(sub)7^2- in H(sub)2SO(sub)4, and then HClO(sub)4, leaving an acid-resistant residue equivalent to 42 ppm of the whole rock. Carbon, nitrogen, and noble-gas data were acquired by stepped combustion and pyrolysis after precombusting the samples to 600 degrees C to oxidize nanometer-sized diamond. The presence of isotopically anomalous SiC in the Indarch residue is indicated by the isotopically heavy CO2 released at high temperature during stepped combustion, with a maximum delta ^13C value of +1420 per mil (^12C/^13C = 36.2), identical to results obtained for typical CM2 samples [1]. In contrast to CM meteorites, however, the peak release of heavy carbon occurs at 1200 degrees C, some 200 degrees C higher than the peak release temperatures of Murchison and Cold Bokkeveld. A similarly high release temperature was seen in the stepped-combustion analysis of the noble gas in the Indarch residue. This suggests a morphological and/or size difference between the SiC present in the two types of meteorites. The nitrogen stepped-combustion profile of the Indarch residue is dominated by the presence of Si(sub)3N(sub)4 of unremarkable isotopic composition (delta ^15N = -56 per mil) that could not be resolved from nitrogen released from SiC. The abundance of SiC in Indarch is estimated, from the stepped combustion data, to be about 1.4 ppm (or 14 ppm SiC in the matrix, not dissimilar to values obtained for CM2 meteorites). A comparison of the noble-gas data from grain-size fractions of Murchison [2] and the bulk Indarch residue data, particularly the Ne-E/Xe-s ratio, suggests that Indarch is enriched in fine-grained Si

  14. Characterizing unforced multi-decadal variability of ENSO: a case study with the GFDL CM2.1 coupled GCM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atwood, A. R.; Battisti, D. S.; Wittenberg, A. T.; Roberts, W. H. G.; Vimont, D. J.

    2016-12-01

    Large multi-decadal fluctuations of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) variability simulated in a 4000-year pre-industrial control run of GFDL CM2.1 have received considerable attention due to implications for constraining the causes of past and future changes in ENSO. We evaluated the mechanisms of this low-frequency ENSO modulation through analysis of the extreme epochs of CM2.1 as well as through the use of a linearized intermediate-complexity model of the tropical Pacific, which produces reasonable emulations of observed ENSO variability. We demonstrate that the low-frequency ENSO modulation can be represented by the simplest model of a linear, stationary process, even in the highly nonlinear CM2.1. These results indicate that CM2.1's ENSO modulation is driven by transient processes that operate at interannual or shorter time scales. Nonlinearities and/or multiplicative noise in CM2.1 likely exaggerate the ENSO modulation by contributing to the overly active ENSO variability. In contrast, simulations with the linear model suggest that intrinsically-generated tropical Pacific decadal mean state changes do not contribute to the extreme-ENSO epochs in CM2.1. Rather, these decadal mean state changes actually serve to damp the intrinsically-generated ENSO modulation, primarily by stabilizing the ENSO mode during strong-ENSO epochs. Like most coupled General Circulation Models, CM2.1 suffers from large biases in its ENSO simulation, including ENSO variance that is nearly twice that seen in the last 50 years of observations. We find that CM2.1's overly strong ENSO variance directly contributes to its strong multi-decadal modulation through broadening the distribution of epochal variance, which increases like the square of the long-term variance. These results suggest that the true spectrum of unforced ENSO modulation is likely substantially narrower than that in CM2.1. However, relative changes in ENSO modulation are similar between CM2.1, the linear model tuned to

  15. Fe and O EELS Studies of Ion Irradiated Murchison CM2 Carbonaceous Chondrite Matrix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, L. P.; Christofferson, R.; Dukes, C. A.; Baragiola, R. A.; Rahman, Z.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The physical and chemical response of hydrated carbonaceous chondrite materials to space weathering processes is poorly understood. Improving this understanding is a key part of establishing how regoliths on primitive carbonaceous asteroids respond to space weathering processes, knowledge that supports future sample return missions (Hayabusa 2 and OSIRISREx) that are targeting objects of this type. We previously reported on He+ irradiation of Murchison matrix and showed that the irradiation resulted in amorphization of the matrix phyllosilicates, loss of OH, and surface vesiculation. Here, we report electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) measurements of the irradiated material with emphasis on the Fe and O speciation. Sample and Methods: A polished thin section of the Murchison CM2 carbonaceous chondrite was irradiated with 4 kilovolts He(+) (normal incidence) to a total dose of 1 x 10(exp 18) He(+) per square centimeter. We extracted thin sections from both irradiated and unirradiated regions in matrix using focused ion beam (FIB) techniques with electron beam deposition for the protective carbon strap to minimize surface damage artifacts from the FIB milling. The FIB sections were analyzed using a JEOL 2500SE scanning and transmission electron microscope (STEM) equipped with a Gatan Tridiem imaging filter. EELS spectra were collected from 50 nanometer diameter regions with an energy resolution of 0.7 electronvolts FWHM at the zero loss. EELS spectra were collected at low electron doses to minimize possible artifacts from electron-beam irradiation damage. Results and Discussion: Fe L (sub 2,3) EELS spectra from matrix phyllosilicates in CM chondrites show mixed Fe(2+)/Fe(3+) oxidation states with Fe(3+)/Sigma Fe approximately 0.5. Fe L(sub 2,3) spectra from the irradiated/ amorphized matrix phyllosilicates show higher Fe(2+)/Fe(3+) ratios compared to spectra obtained from pristine material at depths beyond the implantation/amorphization layer. We

  16. Formation of spinel-, hibonite-rich inclusions found in CM2 carbonaceous chrondrites

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, S B; Grossman, L; Hutcheon, I D; Phinney, D L; Weber, P K; Fallon, S J

    2005-11-03

    We report petrography, mineral chemistry, bulk chemistry, and bulk isotopic compositions of a suite of 40 spinel-rich inclusions from the Murchison (CM2) carbonaceous chondrite. Seven types of inclusions are identified based on mineralogy: spinel-hibonite-perovskite; spinel-perovskite-pyroxene; spinel-perovskite-melilite; spinel-hibonite-perovskite-melilite; spinel-hibonite; spinel-pyroxene; and spinel-melilite-anorthite. Hibonite-bearing inclusions have Ti-poor spinel compared to the hibonite-free ones, and spinel-hibonite-perovskite inclusions have the highest average bulk TiO{sub 2} contents (7.8 wt%). The bulk CaO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ratios of the inclusions range from 0.005-0.21, well below the solar value of 0.79. Hibonite-, spinel-rich inclusions consist of phases that are not predicted by condensation calculations to coexist; in the equilibrium sequence, hibonite is followed by melilite, which is followed by spinel. Therefore, hibonite-melilite or melilite-spinel inclusions should be dominant instead. One explanation for the 'missing melilite' is that it condensed as expected but was lost due to evaporation of Mg and Ca during heating and melting of spherule precursors. If this theory were correct, melilite-poor spherules would have isotopically heavy Mg and Ca. Except for one inclusion with F{sub Mg} = 4.3 {+-} 2.6{per_thousand}/amu and another with isotopically light Ca (F{sub Ca} = 3.4 {+-} 2.0{per_thousand}/amu), however, all the inclusions we analyzed have normal isotopic compositions within their 2{sigma} uncertainties. Thus, we found no evidence for significant mass-dependent fractionation. Our preferred explanation for the general lack of melilite among hibonite-, spinel-bearing inclusions is kinetic inhibition of melilite condensation relative to spinel. Because of similarities between the crystal structures of hibonite and spinel, it should be easier for spinel to form from hibonite than for melilite to do so.

  17. 33 CFR 49.10-5 - Payment of moneys due.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Payment of moneys due. 49.10-5... PAYMENT OF AMOUNTS DUE MENTALLY INCOMPETENT COAST GUARD PERSONNEL Reports and Moneys § 49.10-5 Payment of moneys due. Upon the appointment of a trustee or trustees to receive moneys due an incompetent,...

  18. 33 CFR 49.10-5 - Payment of moneys due.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Payment of moneys due. 49.10-5... PAYMENT OF AMOUNTS DUE MENTALLY INCOMPETENT COAST GUARD PERSONNEL Reports and Moneys § 49.10-5 Payment of moneys due. Upon the appointment of a trustee or trustees to receive moneys due an incompetent,...

  19. 33 CFR 49.10-5 - Payment of moneys due.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Payment of moneys due. 49.10-5... PAYMENT OF AMOUNTS DUE MENTALLY INCOMPETENT COAST GUARD PERSONNEL Reports and Moneys § 49.10-5 Payment of moneys due. Upon the appointment of a trustee or trustees to receive moneys due an incompetent,...

  20. 33 CFR 49.10-5 - Payment of moneys due.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Payment of moneys due. 49.10-5... PAYMENT OF AMOUNTS DUE MENTALLY INCOMPETENT COAST GUARD PERSONNEL Reports and Moneys § 49.10-5 Payment of moneys due. Upon the appointment of a trustee or trustees to receive moneys due an incompetent,...

  1. 33 CFR 49.10-5 - Payment of moneys due.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Payment of moneys due. 49.10-5... PAYMENT OF AMOUNTS DUE MENTALLY INCOMPETENT COAST GUARD PERSONNEL Reports and Moneys § 49.10-5 Payment of moneys due. Upon the appointment of a trustee or trustees to receive moneys due an incompetent,...

  2. 46 CFR 58.10-5 - Gasoline engine installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Internal Combustion Engine Installations § 58.10-5 Gasoline engine installations. (a) Engine design. All installations shall be of marine type engines suitable for the intended... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Gasoline engine installations. 58.10-5 Section...

  3. 46 CFR 58.10-5 - Gasoline engine installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Internal Combustion Engine Installations § 58.10-5 Gasoline engine installations. (a) Engine design. All installations shall be of marine type engines suitable for the intended... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Gasoline engine installations. 58.10-5 Section...

  4. 46 CFR 58.10-5 - Gasoline engine installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Internal Combustion Engine Installations § 58.10-5 Gasoline engine installations. (a) Engine design. All installations shall be of marine type engines suitable for the intended... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gasoline engine installations. 58.10-5 Section...

  5. 46 CFR 58.10-5 - Gasoline engine installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Internal Combustion Engine Installations § 58.10-5 Gasoline engine installations. (a) Engine design. All installations shall be of marine type engines suitable for the intended... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Gasoline engine installations. 58.10-5 Section...

  6. 46 CFR 58.10-5 - Gasoline engine installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Internal Combustion Engine Installations § 58.10-5 Gasoline engine installations. (a) Engine design. All installations shall be of marine type engines suitable for the intended... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Gasoline engine installations. 58.10-5 Section...

  7. 33 CFR 67.10-5 - Location requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Location requirements. 67.10-5 Section 67.10-5 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION AIDS TO NAVIGATION ON ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS AND FIXED STRUCTURES General Requirements for...

  8. 33 CFR 67.10-5 - Location requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Location requirements. 67.10-5 Section 67.10-5 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION AIDS TO NAVIGATION ON ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS AND FIXED STRUCTURES General Requirements for...

  9. 33 CFR 67.10-5 - Location requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Location requirements. 67.10-5 Section 67.10-5 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION AIDS TO NAVIGATION ON ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS AND FIXED STRUCTURES General Requirements for...

  10. 33 CFR 67.10-5 - Location requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Location requirements. 67.10-5 Section 67.10-5 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION AIDS TO NAVIGATION ON ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS AND FIXED STRUCTURES General Requirements for...

  11. 33 CFR 67.10-5 - Location requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Location requirements. 67.10-5 Section 67.10-5 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION AIDS TO NAVIGATION ON ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS AND FIXED STRUCTURES General Requirements for...

  12. 46 CFR 193.10-5 - Fire main system, details.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... equipped with independently driven fire pumps in accordance with Table 193.10-5(a). Table 193.10-5(a) Gross tons Over Not over Minimum number of pumps Hose and hydrant size, inches Nozzle orifice size, inches... together with a commercial garden hose nozzle may be used. The pump may be hand operated and the length...

  13. 46 CFR 193.10-5 - Fire main system, details.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... equipped with independently driven fire pumps in accordance with Table 193.10-5(a). Table 193.10-5(a) Gross tons Over Not over Minimum number of pumps Hose and hydrant size, inches Nozzle orifice size, inches... together with a commercial garden hose nozzle may be used. The pump may be hand operated and the length...

  14. 46 CFR 193.10-5 - Fire main system, details.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... equipped with independently driven fire pumps in accordance with Table 193.10-5(a). Table 193.10-5(a) Gross tons Over Not over Minimum number of pumps Hose and hydrant size, inches Nozzle orifice size, inches... together with a commercial garden hose nozzle may be used. The pump may be hand operated and the length...

  15. 46 CFR 95.10-5 - Fire pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... on an international voyage, each required fire pump, while delivering water thru the fire main system... pumps shall be fitted with a pressure gage on the discharge side of the pumps. (f) Fire pumps may be... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fire pumps. 95.10-5 Section 95.10-5 Shipping COAST...

  16. 46 CFR 95.10-5 - Fire pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... on an international voyage, each required fire pump, while delivering water thru the fire main system... pumps shall be fitted with a pressure gage on the discharge side of the pumps. (f) Fire pumps may be... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fire pumps. 95.10-5 Section 95.10-5 Shipping COAST...

  17. 46 CFR 95.10-5 - Fire pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... on an international voyage, each required fire pump, while delivering water thru the fire main system... pumps shall be fitted with a pressure gage on the discharge side of the pumps. (f) Fire pumps may be... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fire pumps. 95.10-5 Section 95.10-5 Shipping COAST...

  18. Nanoimprinted polymer lasers with threshold below 100 W/cm2 using mixed-order distributed feedback resonators.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yue; Tsiminis, Georgios; Kanibolotsky, Alexander L; Skabara, Peter J; Samuel, Ifor D W; Turnbull, Graham A

    2013-06-17

    Organic semiconductor lasers were fabricated by UV-nanoimprint lithography with thresholds as low as 57 W/cm(2) under 4 ns pulsed operation. The nanoimprinted lasers employed mixed-order distributed feedback resonators, with second-order gratings surrounded by first-order gratings, combined with a light-emitting conjugated polymer. They were pumped by InGaN LEDs to produce green-emitting lasers, with thresholds of 208 W/cm(2) (102 nJ/pulse). These hybrid lasers incorporate a scalable UV-nanoimprint lithography process, compatible with high-performance LEDs, therefore we have demonstrated a coherent, compact, low-cost light source.

  19. Successful Capture, Extraction and Identification of Hypervelocity CM2 Meteorite Fragments Shot by Light-Gas Gun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snead, C.; Westphal, A. J.; Dominguez, G.; Zolensky, M. E.

    2003-01-01

    Here we report the successful capture, extraction and identification of two fragments of a CM2 meteorite (ALH83100) into lowdensity aerogel. The shot was carried out at the AVGR at NASAARC. A mixture of powdered ALH83100 and borosilicate glass microspheres was shot at 4.55.0 km/sec into 50 mg cm silicate aerogel.

  20. Comparison of visible and near-infrared reflectance spectra of CM2 carbonaceous chondrites and primitive asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vilas, F.; Hiroi, T.; Zolensky, M. E.

    1993-01-01

    Spectra of primitive asteroids (defined as C, P, and D classes and associated subclasses) were compared to the limited number of spectra of CM2 carbonaceous chondrites. An absorption feature located at 0.7 microns attributed to an Fe(+2) - Fe(+3) charge transfer absorption in iron oxides in phyllosilicates is apparent in some of the CM2 carbonaceous chondrite spectra and many of the asteroid spectra. Sawyer found a correlation between the area of the 0.7 micron feature and the mean semimajor axis of the asteroids. Spectra of a larger sample of carbonaceous chondrites, including 7 CM2 chondrites, covering a spectral interval of 0.30-2.5 microns were recently obtained using the Relab instrument at Brown University. These spectra were compared with spectrophotometric asteroid observations in a separate abstract. Those spectra of CM2 chondrites were isolated into the UV, visible and near-infrared spectral regions in order to compare them with high-quality narrowband reflectance spectra.

  1. Adiabatic quantum-flux-parametron cell library designed using a 10 kA cm-2 niobium fabrication process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeuchi, Naoki; Nagasawa, Shuichi; China, Fumihiro; Ando, Takumi; Hidaka, Mutsuo; Yamanashi, Yuki; Yoshikawa, Nobuyuki

    2017-03-01

    Adiabatic quantum-flux-parametron (AQFP) logic is an energy-efficient superconductor logic with zero static power consumption and very small switching energy. In this paper, we report a new AQFP cell library designed using the AIST 10 kA cm-2 Nb high-speed standard process (HSTP), which is a high-critical-current-density version of the AIST 2.5 kA cm-2 Nb standard process (STP2). Since the intrinsic damping of the Josephson junction (JJ) of HSTP is relatively strong, shunt resistors for JJs were removed and the energy efficiency improved significantly. Also, excitation transformers in the new cells were redesigned so that the cells can operate in a four-phase excitation mode. We described the detail of HSTP and the AQFP cell library designed using HSTP, and showed experimental results of cell test circuits.

  2. 28 CFR 10.5 - Incorporation of papers previously filed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Incorporation of papers previously filed... CARRYING ON ACTIVITIES WITHIN THE UNITED STATES Registration Statement § 10.5 Incorporation of papers previously filed. Papers and documents already filed with the Attorney General pursuant to the said act...

  3. 28 CFR 10.5 - Incorporation of papers previously filed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Incorporation of papers previously filed... CARRYING ON ACTIVITIES WITHIN THE UNITED STATES Registration Statement § 10.5 Incorporation of papers previously filed. Papers and documents already filed with the Attorney General pursuant to the said act...

  4. 28 CFR 10.5 - Incorporation of papers previously filed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Incorporation of papers previously filed... CARRYING ON ACTIVITIES WITHIN THE UNITED STATES Registration Statement § 10.5 Incorporation of papers previously filed. Papers and documents already filed with the Attorney General pursuant to the said act...

  5. 28 CFR 10.5 - Incorporation of papers previously filed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Incorporation of papers previously filed... CARRYING ON ACTIVITIES WITHIN THE UNITED STATES Registration Statement § 10.5 Incorporation of papers previously filed. Papers and documents already filed with the Attorney General pursuant to the said act...

  6. 28 CFR 10.5 - Incorporation of papers previously filed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Incorporation of papers previously filed... CARRYING ON ACTIVITIES WITHIN THE UNITED STATES Registration Statement § 10.5 Incorporation of papers previously filed. Papers and documents already filed with the Attorney General pursuant to the said act...

  7. Polarization-entangled light pulses of 10(5) photons.

    PubMed

    Iskhakov, Timur Sh; Agafonov, Ivan N; Chekhova, Maria V; Leuchs, Gerd

    2012-10-12

    We experimentally demonstrate polarization entanglement for squeezed vacuum pulses containing more than 10(5) photons. We also study photon-number entanglement by calculating the Schmidt number and measuring its operational counterpart. Theoretically, our pulses are the more entangled the brighter they are. This promises important applications in quantum technologies, especially photonic quantum gates and quantum memories.

  8. 15 CFR 10.5 - Development of a recommended standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Development of a recommended standard... DEVELOPMENT OF VOLUNTARY PRODUCT STANDARDS § 10.5 Development of a recommended standard. (a) The Standard... proposal, after consulting with the proponent group, so that these requirements are met,...

  9. Generation and diagnostics of pulsed intense ion beams with an energy density of 10 J/cm2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isakova, Yu.; Pushkarev, A.; Khailov, I.; Zhong, H.

    2015-07-01

    The paper presents the results of a study on transportation and focusing of a pulsed ion beam at gigawatt power level, generated by a diode with explosive-emission cathode. The experiments were carried out with the TEMP-4M accelerator operating in double-pulse mode: the first pulse is of negative polarity (500 ns, 100-150 kV), and this is followed by a second pulse of positive polarity (120 ns, 200-250 kV). To reduce the beam divergence, we modified the construction of the diode. The width of the anode was increased compared to that of the cathode. We studied different configurations of planar and focusing strip diodes. It was found that the divergence of the ion beam formed by a planar strip diode, after construction modification, does not exceed 3° (half-angle). Modification to the construction of a focusing diode made it possible to reduce the beam divergence from 8° to 4°-5°, as well as to increase the energy density at the focus up to 10-12 J/cm2, and decrease the shot to shot variation in the energy density from 10%-15% to 5%-6%. When measuring the ion beam energy density above the ablation threshold of the target material (3.5-4 J/cm2), we used a metal mesh with 50% transparency to lower the energy density. The influence of the metal mesh on beam transport has been studied.

  10. Advanced polymer targets for TNSA regime producing 6 MeV protons at 1016 W/cm2 laser intensity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torrisi, L.

    2017-02-01

    High intensity laser pulses, at an intensity of the order of 1016 W/cm2, are employed to irradiate in vacuum polyethylene terephthalate thin foils in the target normal sheath acceleration (TNSA) regime. The plasma obtained in the forward emission is investigated using ion collectors and semiconductor detectors connected in a time-of-flight configuration, Thomson parabola spectrometer, and X-ray streak camera. The results indicate that the foil thickness of 1 micron is optimal to accelerate protons of up to 6.5 MeV. The high ion acceleration can be due to different effects such as the high absorption in the advanced semicrystalline polymer containing spherulite centers, the high resonant absorption in gold nanoparticles embedded in the polymer, the optimal thickness of the used polymer to enhance the electron density in the forward plasma, and the self-focusing effect induced by preplasma created in front of the irradiated target.

  11. Xenoliths in the CM2 Carbonaceous Chondrite LON 94101: Implications for Complex Mixing on the Asteroidal Parent Body

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindgren, P.; Lee, M. R.; Sofe, M.; Zolensky, M. E.

    2011-01-01

    Xenoliths are foreign clasts that oc-cur in various classes of meteorites, e.g. [1,2,3]. A re-cent study reveals the presence of several distinct classes of xenoliths in regolith-bearing meteorites, in-cluding in over 20 different carbonaceous chondrites [4]. The most common types of xenoliths are fine-grained hydrous clasts, often referred to as C1 or CI clasts in the literature, although their mineralogy is actually more similar to hydrous micrometeorites [5,6]. Xenoliths in meteorites present an opportunity to study material not yet classified or available as separate meteorites, and can provide additional information on processes in the dynamic early history of the Solar Sys-tem. Here we have performed chemical and mineralogi-cal analyses of xenoliths in the CM2 carbonaceous chondrite LON 94101, using scanning electron micro-scopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM).

  12. Gas-Phase Oxidation of Cm+ and Cm2+ -- Thermodynamics of neutral and ionized CmO

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, John K; Haire, Richard G.; Santos, Marta; Pires de Matos, Antonio; Marcalo, Joaquim

    2008-12-08

    Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry was employed to study the products and kinetics of gas-phase reactions of Cm+ and Cm2+; parallel studies were carried out with La+/2+, Gd+/2+ and Lu+/2+. Reactions with oxygen-donor molecules provided estimates for the bond dissociation energies, D[M+-O](M = Cm, Gd, Lu). The first ionization energy, IE[CmO], was obtained from the reactivity of CmO+ with dienes, and the second ionization energies, IE[MO+](M = Cm, La, Gd, Lu), from the rates of electron-transfer reactions from neutrals to the MO2+ ions. The following thermodynamic quantities for curium oxide molecules were obtained: IE[CmO]= 6.4+-0.2 eV; IE[CmO+]= 15.8+-0.4 eV; D[Cm-O]= 710+-45 kJ mol-1; D[Cm+-O]= 670+-40 kJ mol-1; and D[Cm2+-O]= 342+-55 kJ mol-1. Estimates for the M2+-O bond energies for M = Cm, La, Gd and Lu are all intermediate between D[N2-O]and D[OC-O]--i.e., 167 kJ mol-1< D[M2+-O]< 532 kJ mol-1 -- such that the four MO2+ ions fulfill the thermodynamic requirement for catalytic O-atom transport from N2O to CO. It was demonstrated that the kinetics are also favorable and that the CmO2+, LaO2+, GdO2+ and LuO2+ dipositive ions each catalyze the gas-phase oxidation of CO to CO2 by N2O. The CmO2+ ion appeared during the reaction of Cm+ with O2 when the intermediate, CmO+, was not collisionally cooled -- although its formation is kinetically and/or thermodynamically unfavorable, CmO2+ is a stable species.

  13. Perovskite solar cells with 18.21% efficiency and area over 1 cm2 fabricated by heterojunction engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yongzhen; Yang, Xudong; Chen, Wei; Yue, Youfeng; Cai, Molang; Xie, Fengxian; Bi, Enbing; Islam, Ashraful; Han, Liyuan

    2016-11-01

    Perovskite solar cells (PSCs) are promising low-cost photovoltaic technologies with high solar-to-electric power conversion efficiency (PCE). The heterojunction structure between perovskite and charge extraction layers is crucial to the photovoltaic performance of PSCs. Here, we report efficient inverted-structured PSCs with a perovskite-fullerene graded heterojunction (GHJ), in which the electron-accepting material is distributed in the perovskite layer with a gradient. This structure can enhance the PCE as it improves the photoelectron collection and reduces recombination loss, especially for the formamidinium cation-based perovskite. The conformal fullerene coating on perovskite during the GHJ deposition achieves a full coverage with reduced layer thickness, thus minimizing the resistive loss in larger sized devices. Our strategy enables the fabrication of centimetre-scale PSCs showing high efficiency with small hysteresis and good stability. A PCE of 18.21% was certified by an independent institution for cells with an aperture area of 1.022 cm2.

  14. Clasts in the CM2 carbonaceous chondrite Lonewolf Nunataks 94101: Evidence for aqueous alteration prior to complex mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindgren, Paula; Lee, Martin R.; Sofe, Mahmood R.; Zolensky, Michael E.

    2013-06-01

    Clasts in the CM2 carbonaceous chondrite Lonewolf Nunataks (LON) 94101 have been characterized using scanning and transmission electron microscopy and electron microprobe analysis to determine their degrees of aqueous alteration, and the timing of alteration relative to incorporation of clasts into the host. The provenance of the clasts, and the mechanism by which they were incorporated and mixed with their host material are also considered. Results show that at least five distinct types of clasts occur in LON 94101, of which four have been aqueously altered to various degrees and one is largely anhydrous. The fact that they have had different alteration histories implies that the main part of aqueous activity occurred prior to the mixing and assimilation of the clasts with their host. Further, the presence of such a variety of clasts suggests complex mixing in a dynamic environment involving material from various sources. Two of the clasts, one containing approximately 46 vol% carbonate and the other featuring crystals of pyrrhotite up to approximately 1 mm in size, are examples of unusual lithologies and indicate concentration of chemical elements in discrete areas of the parent body(ies), possibly by flow of aqueous solutions.

  15. Spin-Hall-Effect-Assisted Electroresistance in Antiferromagnets via 105 A/cm2 dc Current

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jiahao; Wang, Yuyan; Pan, Feng; Song, Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Antiferromagnet (AFM) spintronics with reduced electrical current is greatly expected to process information with high integration and low power consumption. In Pt/FeMn and Ta/FeMn hybrids, we observe significant resistance variation (up to 7% of the total resistance) manipulated by 105 A/cm2 dc current. We have excluded the contribution of isotropic structural effects, and confirmed the critical role of the spin Hall injection from Pt (or Ta) to FeMn. This electrical current-manipulated resistance (i.e. electroresistance) is proposed to be attributed to the spin-Hall-effect-induced spin-orbit torque in FeMn. Similar results have also been detected in plain IrMn films, where the charge current generates spin current via the spin Hall effect with the existence of Ir atoms. All the measurements are free from external magnetic fields and ferromagnets. Our findings present an interesting step towards high-efficiency spintronic devices. PMID:27546199

  16. Improved Reproducibility for Perovskite Solar Cells with 1 cm(2) Active Area by a Modified Two-Step Process.

    PubMed

    Shen, Heping; Wu, Yiliang; Peng, Jun; Duong, The; Fu, Xiao; Barugkin, Chog; White, Thomas P; Weber, Klaus; Catchpole, Kylie R

    2017-02-22

    With rapid progress in recent years, organohalide perovskite solar cells (PSC) are promising candidates for a new generation of highly efficient thin-film photovoltaic technologies, for which up-scaling is an essential step toward commercialization. In this work, we propose a modified two-step method to deposit the CH3NH3PbI3 (MAPbI3) perovskite film that improves the uniformity, photovoltaic performance, and repeatability of large-area perovskite solar cells. This method is based on the commonly used two-step method, with one additional process involving treating the perovskite film with concentrated methylammonium iodide (MAI) solution. This additional treatment is proved to be helpful for tailoring the residual PbI2 level to an optimal range that is favorable for both optical absorption and inhibition of recombination. Scanning electron microscopy and photoluminescence image analysis further reveal that, compared to the standard two-step and one-step methods, this method is very robust for achieving uniform and pinhole-free large-area films. This is validated by the photovoltaic performance of the prototype devices with an active area of 1 cm(2), where we achieved the champion efficiency of ∼14.5% and an average efficiency of ∼13.5%, with excellent reproducibility.

  17. Extended chronologies of aqueous alteration in the CM2 carbonaceous chondrites: Evidence from carbonates in Queen Alexandra Range 93005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, M. R.; Lindgren, P.; Sofe, M. R.; O'D Alexander, C. M.; Wang, J.

    2012-09-01

    The Antarctic CM2 carbonaceous chondrite QUE 93005 contains four compositionally distinct carbonates, namely breunnerite, calcite, dolomite and a Ca-poor dolomite. These carbonates can form monomineralic grains, or may be intergrown as bimineralic grains consisting of dolomite plus breunnerite and dolomite plus calcite, or polymineralic grains containing an intergrowth of breunnerite, Ca-poor dolomite and calcite. Carbonates in all grain types have inclusions of Fe-Ni sulphides and/or Mg-Fe phyllosilicates. In the bimineralic grains, dolomite crystallised first to be overgrown by breunnerite or partially replaced by calcite. Polymineralic grains are concentrically layered, with breunnerite crystallising first on pore margins to be later etched, then overgrown and partially replaced by Ca-poor dolomite that was itself partly dissolved prior to being overgrown by calcite. Calcite and dolomite have also cemented fractures that cross-cut the fine-grained rims to aqueously altered chondrules and were formed by expansion of the chondrules during their hydration. Overall, the sequence of mineralisation in QUE 93005 was: (1) dolomite, (2) breunnerite, (3) Ca-poor dolomite then (4) calcite. This secular change in carbonate composition and mineralogy reflects changing solution composition and probably also provenance. Mg-Fe phyllosilicates replaced dolomite, breunnerite and Ca-poor dolomite prior to calcite crystallisation, and most or all of the sulphides formed after both the phyllosilicates and calcite. Following sulphide crystallisation, the edges of carbonate grains were abraded, either by impact 'gardening' or as a consequence of fluidisation of the matrix during rapid loss of gas or vapour. Determination of the crystallisation age of dolomite via the Mn-Cr system indicates that aqueous alteration of QUE 93005 began on or before 3.93 ± 0.23 Ma after the formation of the oldest solar system solids. Overall, the water/rock ratio and fO2 during alteration of QUE 93005

  18. Changes in storm tracks and energy transports in a warmer climate simulated by the GFDL CM2.1 model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yutian; Ting, Mingfang; Seager, Richard; Huang, Huei-Ping; Cane, Mark A.

    2011-07-01

    Storm tracks play a major role in regulating the precipitation and hydrological cycle in midlatitudes. The changes in the location and amplitude of the storm tracks in response to global warming will have significant impacts on the poleward transport of heat, momentum and moisture and on the hydrological cycle. Recent studies have indicated a poleward shift of the storm tracks and the midlatitude precipitation zone in the warming world that will lead to subtropical drying and higher latitude moistening. This study agrees with this key feature for not only the annual mean but also different seasons and for the zonal mean as well as horizontal structures based on the analysis of Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) CM2.1 model simulations. Further analyses show that the meridional sensible and latent heat fluxes associated with the storm tracks shift poleward and intensify in both boreal summer and winter in the late twenty-first century (years 2081-2100) relative to the latter half of the twentieth century (years 1961-2000). The maximum dry Eady growth rate is examined to determine the effect of global warming on the time mean state and associated available potential energy for transient growth. The trend in maximum Eady growth rate is generally consistent with the poleward shift and intensification of the storm tracks in the middle latitudes of both hemispheres in both seasons. However, in the lower troposphere in northern winter, increased meridional eddy transfer within the storm tracks is more associated with increased eddy velocity, stronger correlation between eddy velocity and eddy moist static energy, and longer eddy length scale. The changing characteristics of baroclinic instability are, therefore, needed to explain the storm track response as climate warms. Diagnosis of the latitude-by-latitude energy budget for the current and future climate demonstrates how the coupling between radiative and surface heat fluxes and eddy heat and moisture

  19. Newly Installed S-1 Truss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Launched October 7, 2002 aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis, the STS-112 mission lasted 11 days and performed three sessions of Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA). Its primary mission was to install the Starboard (S1) Integrated Truss Structure and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart to the International Space Station (ISS). The S1 truss provides structural support for the orbiting research facility's radiator panels, which use ammonia to cool the Station's complex power system. The S1 truss, attached to the S0 (S Zero) truss installed by the previous STS-110 mission, flows 637 pounds of anhydrous ammonia through three heat rejection radiators. The truss is 45-feet long, 15-feet wide, 10-feet tall, and weighs approximately 32,000 pounds. The CETA is the first of two human-powered carts that will ride along the International Space Station's railway providing a mobile work platform for future extravehicular activities by astronauts. This is a view of the newly installed S1 Truss as photographed during the mission's first scheduled EVA. The Station's Canadarm2 is in the foreground. Visible are astronauts Piers J. Sellers (lower left) and David A. Wolf (upper right), both STS-112 mission specialists.

  20. Ageing studies on CuInS2/In2S3 junction (2.5×2cm2) deposited using automated spray machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santhosh, M. V.; Kartha, C. Sudha; Vijayakumar, K. P.

    2014-04-01

    CuInS2/In2S3 heterojunction photovoltaic device was realized in an area of 2.5 × 2 cm2 using automated spray pyrolysis machine which shows an open-circuit voltage of 432mV, short circuit current density of 6.33mA/cm2, fill factor of 34% and efficiency of 0.94%. Performance of the device was monitored up to 100 days and it was working quite well without the application of any protective coatings. The device maintains a fill factor of around 32% up to 80 days but other photovoltaic parameters had slight decrease.

  1. 46 CFR 3.10-5 - Renewal of letter of designation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Renewal of letter of designation. 3.10-5 Section 3.10-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC DESIGNATION OF OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS Designation § 3.10-5 Renewal of letter of designation. At least 60 days prior...

  2. 46 CFR 38.10-5 - Filling and discharge pipes-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Filling and discharge pipes-TB/ALL. 38.10-5 Section 38.10-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS LIQUEFIED FLAMMABLE GASES Piping, Valves, Fittings, and Accessory Equipment § 38.10-5 Filling and discharge pipes—TB/ALL....

  3. 46 CFR 30.10-5b - Cargo control station-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cargo control station-TB/ALL. 30.10-5b Section 30.10-5b Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-5b Cargo control station—TB/ALL. The term cargo control station means a location that is...

  4. 46 CFR 50.10-5 - Coast Guard District Commander or District Commander.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Coast Guard District Commander or District Commander. 50.10-5 Section 50.10-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 50.10-5 Coast Guard...

  5. 46 CFR 50.10-5 - Coast Guard District Commander or District Commander.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Coast Guard District Commander or District Commander. 50.10-5 Section 50.10-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 50.10-5 Coast Guard...

  6. 46 CFR 50.10-5 - Coast Guard District Commander or District Commander.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Coast Guard District Commander or District Commander. 50.10-5 Section 50.10-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 50.10-5 Coast Guard...

  7. 46 CFR 50.10-5 - Coast Guard District Commander or District Commander.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Coast Guard District Commander or District Commander. 50.10-5 Section 50.10-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 50.10-5 Coast Guard...

  8. 46 CFR 50.10-5 - Coast Guard District Commander or District Commander.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Coast Guard District Commander or District Commander. 50.10-5 Section 50.10-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 50.10-5 Coast Guard...

  9. 46 CFR 34.10-5 - Fire pumps-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire pumps-T/ALL. 34.10-5 Section 34.10-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT Fire Main System, Details § 34.10-5 Fire pumps—T/ALL. (a) Tankships shall be equipped with independently driven fire pumps...

  10. Solution-processed small molecule-polymer blend organic thin-film transistors with hole mobility greater than 5 cm2/Vs.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jeremy; Zhang, Weimin; Sougrat, Rachid; Zhao, Kui; Li, Ruipeng; Cha, Dongkyu; Amassian, Aram; Heeney, Martin; McCulloch, Iain; Anthopoulos, Thomas D

    2012-05-08

    Using phase-separated organic semiconducting blends containing a small molecule, as the hole transporting material, and a conjugated amorphous polymer, as the binder material, we demonstrate solution-processed organic thin-film transistors with superior performance characteristics that include; hole mobility >5 cm(2) /Vs, current on/off ratio ≥10(6) and narrow transistor parameter spread. These exceptional characteristics are attributed to the electronic properties of the binder polymer and the advantageous nanomorphology of the blend film.

  11. New narrow infrared absorption features in the spectrum of Io between 3600 and 3100 cm (2.8-3.2 micrometers)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandford, Scott A.; Geballe, Thomas R.; Salama, Farid; Goorvitch, David

    1994-01-01

    We report the discovery of a series of infrared absorption bands between 3600 and 3100/cm (2.8-3.2 micrometers) in the spectrum of Io. Individual narrow bands are detected at 3553, 3514.5, 3438, 3423, 3411.5, and 3401/cm (2.815, 2.845, 2.909, 2.921, 2.931, and 2.940 micrometers, respectively). The positions and relative strengths of these bands, and the difference of their absolute strengths between the leading and trailing faces of Io, indicate that they are due to SO2. The band at 3438/cm (2.909 micrometers) could potentially have a contribution from an additional molecular species. The existence of these bands in the spectrum of Io indicates that a substantial fraction of the SO2 on Io must reside in transparent ices having relatively large crystal sizes. The decrease in the continuum observed at the high frequency ends of the spectra is probably due to the low frequency side of the recently detected, strong 3590/cm (2.79 micrometer) feature. This band is likely due to the combination of a moderately strong SO2 band and an additional absorption from another molecular species, perhaps H2O isolated in SO2 at low concentrations. A broad (FWHM approximately = 40-60/cm), weak band is seen near 3160/cm (3.16 micrometers) and is consistent with the presence of small quantities of H2O isolated in SO2-rich ices. There is no evidence in the spectra for the presence of H2O vapor on Io. Thus, the spectra presented here neither provide unequivocal evidence for the presence of H2O on Io nor preclude it at the low concentrations suggested by past studies.

  12. Feasibility Study for Implementing Magnetic Suspension in the Glenn Research Center 225 cm2 Supersonic Wind Tunnel for Testing the Dynamic Stability of Blunt Bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sevier, Abigail; Davis, David O.; Schoenenberger, Mark; Barnhart, Paul

    2016-01-01

    The implementation of a magnetic suspension system in the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) 225 cm2 Supersonic Wind Tunnel would be a powerful test technique that could accurately determine the dynamic stability of blunt body entry vehicles with no sting interference. This paper explores initial design challenges to be evaluated before implementation, including defining the lowest possible operating dynamic pressure and corresponding model size, developing a compatible video analysis technique, and incorporating a retractable initial support sting.

  13. 46 CFR 35.10-5 - Muster lists, emergency signals, and manning-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Muster lists, emergency signals, and manning-T/ALL. 35.10-5 Section 35.10-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS OPERATIONS Fire and Emergency Requirements § 35.10-5 Muster lists, emergency signals, and manning—T/ALL. The requirements for muster lists, emergency signals,...

  14. 46 CFR 35.10-5 - Muster lists, emergency signals, and manning-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Muster lists, emergency signals, and manning-T/ALL. 35.10-5 Section 35.10-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS OPERATIONS Fire and Emergency Requirements § 35.10-5 Muster lists, emergency signals, and manning—T/ALL. The requirements for muster lists, emergency signals,...

  15. 46 CFR 35.10-5 - Muster lists, emergency signals, and manning-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Muster lists, emergency signals, and manning-T/ALL. 35.10-5 Section 35.10-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS OPERATIONS Fire and Emergency Requirements § 35.10-5 Muster lists, emergency signals, and manning—T/ALL. The requirements for muster lists, emergency signals,...

  16. 46 CFR 35.10-5 - Muster lists, emergency signals, and manning-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Muster lists, emergency signals, and manning-T/ALL. 35.10-5 Section 35.10-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS OPERATIONS Fire and Emergency Requirements § 35.10-5 Muster lists, emergency signals, and manning—T/ALL. The requirements for muster lists, emergency signals,...

  17. 46 CFR 35.10-5 - Muster lists, emergency signals, and manning-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Muster lists, emergency signals, and manning-T/ALL. 35.10-5 Section 35.10-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS OPERATIONS Fire and Emergency Requirements § 35.10-5 Muster lists, emergency signals, and manning—T/ALL. The requirements for muster lists, emergency signals,...

  18. 46 CFR 30.10-5a - Cargo area-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cargo area-TB/ALL. 30.10-5a Section 30.10-5a Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-5a Cargo area—TB/ALL. The term cargo area means that part of a vessel that includes the cargo tanks...

  19. 46 CFR 30.10-5a - Cargo area-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo area-TB/ALL. 30.10-5a Section 30.10-5a Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-5a Cargo area—TB/ALL. The term cargo area means that part of a vessel that includes the cargo tanks...

  20. 46 CFR 12.10-5 - Examination and demonstration of ability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Examination and demonstration of ability. 12.10-5 Section 12.10-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MERCHANT MARINE OFFICERS AND SEAMEN..., whether administered orally or by other means, must be conducted only in the English language and...

  1. 41 CFR 302-10.5 - May I transport a mobile home over water?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May I transport a mobile home over water? 302-10.5 Section 302-10.5 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel... transport a mobile home over water? Yes, you may transport a mobile home over water when both the points...

  2. 46 CFR 30.10-5b - Cargo control station-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo control station-TB/ALL. 30.10-5b Section 30.10-5b...-5b Cargo control station—TB/ALL. The term cargo control station means a location that is manned during cargo transfer operations for the purpose of directing or controlling the loading or unloading...

  3. 41 CFR 302-10.5 - May I transport a mobile home over water?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true May I transport a mobile home over water? 302-10.5 Section 302-10.5 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel... transport a mobile home over water? Yes, you may transport a mobile home over water when both the points...

  4. 41 CFR 302-10.5 - May I transport a mobile home over water?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false May I transport a mobile home over water? 302-10.5 Section 302-10.5 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel... transport a mobile home over water? Yes, you may transport a mobile home over water when both the points...

  5. Dynamics of cell and tissue growth acquired by means of 25 mm2 to 10 cm2 lens-free imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Momey, F.; Coutard, J.-G.; Bordy, T.; Navarro, F.; Menneteau, M.; Dinten, J.-M.; Allier, C.

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we discuss a new methodology based on lens-free imaging to perform wound healing assay with unprecedented statistics. Our video lens-free microscopy setup is a simple optical system featuring only a CMOS sensor and a semi coherent illumination system. Yet it is a powerful means for the real-time monitoring of cultivated cells. It presents several key advantages, e.g., integration into standard incubator, compatibility with standard cell culture protocol, simplicity and ease of use. It can perform the follow-up in a large field of view (25 mm2) of several crucial parameters during the culture of cells i.e. their motility, their proliferation rate or their death. Consequently the setup can gather large statistics both in space and time. But in the case of tissue growth experiments, the field of view of 25 mm2 remains not sufficient and results can be biased depending on the position of the device with respect to the recipient of the cell culture. Hence, to conduct exhaustive wound healing assay, here we propose to enlarge the field of view up to 10 cm2 through two different approaches. The first method consists in performing a scan of the cell culture by moving the source/sensor couple and then stitch the stack of images. The second is to make an acquisition by scanning with a line scan camera. The two approaches are compared in term of resolution, complexity and acquisition time. Next we have performed acquisitions of wound healing assay (keratinocytes HaCaT) both in real-time (25 mm2) and in final point (10 cm2) to assess the combination of these two complementary modalities. In the future, we aim at combining directly super wide field of view acquisitions (>10 cm2) with real time ability inside the incubator.

  6. Absence of ocular effects after either single or repeated exposure to 10 mW/cm(2) from a 60 GHz CW source.

    PubMed

    Kues, H A; D'Anna, S A; Osiander, R; Green, W R; Monahan, J C

    1999-12-01

    This study was designed to examine ocular effects associated with exposure to millimeter waves (60 GHz). Rabbits served as the primary experimental subjects. To confirm the results of the rabbit experiments in a higher species, the second phase of the study used nonhuman primates (Macaca mulatta). First, this study used time-resolved infrared radiometry to assess the field distribution patterns produced by different antennas operating at 60 GHz. These results allowed us to select an antenna that produced a uniform energy distribution and the best distance at which to expose our experimental subjects. The study then examined ocular changes after exposure at an incident power density of 10 mW/cm(2). Acute exposure of both rabbits and nonhuman primates consisted of a single 8 h exposure, and the repeated exposure protocol consisted of five separate 4 h exposures on consecutive days. One eye in each animal was exposed and the contralateral eye served as the sham-exposed control. After postexposure diagnostic examinations, animals were euthanized and the eyes were removed. Ocular tissue was examined by both light and transmission electron microscopy. Neither microscopic examinations nor the diagnostic procedures performed on the eyes of acute and repeatedly exposed rabbits found any ocular changes that could be attributed to millimeter-wave exposure at 10 mW/cm(2). Examination of the primates after comparable exposures also failed to detect any ocular changes due to exposure. On the basis of our results, we conclude that single or repeated exposure to 60 GHz CW radiation at 10 mW/cm(2) does not result in any detectable ocular damage.

  7. Laser Driven Compression Equations of State and Hugoniot Pressure Measurements in Thick Solid Metallic Targets at ˜0.17-13 TW/cm2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remo, John L.

    2010-10-01

    An electro-optic laser probe was developed to obtain parameters for high energy density equations of state (EoS), Hugoniot pressures (PH), and strain rates for high energy density laser irradiation intensity, I, experiments at ˜170 GW/cm2 (λ = 1064 nm) to ˜13 TW/cm2 (λ = 527 nm) on Al, Cu, Ti, Fe, Ni metal targets in a vacuum. At I ˜7 TW/cm2 front surface plasma pressures and temperatures reached 100's GPa and over two million K. Rear surface PH ranged from 7-120 GPa at average shock wave transit velocities 4.2-8.5 km/s, depending on target thickness and I. A surface plasma compression ˜100's GPa generated an impulsive radial expanding shock wave causing compression, rarefactions, and surface elastic and plastic deformations depending on I. A laser/fiber optic system measured rear surface shock wave emergence and particle velocity with ˜3 GHz resolution by monitoring light deflection from diamond polished rear surfaces of malleable metallic targets, analogous to an atomic force microscope. Target thickness, ˜0.5-2.9 mm, prevented front surface laser irradiation penetration, due to low radiation skin depth, from altering rear surface reflectivity (refractive index). At ˜10 TW electromagnetic plasma pulse noise generated from the target chamber overwhelmed detector signals. Pulse frequency analysis using Moebius loop antennae probed transient noise characteristics. Average shock (compression) and particle (rear surface displacement) velocity measurements determined rear surface PH and GPa) EoS that are compared with gas guns.

  8. 4H-SiC Power Bipolar Junction Transistor with a Very Low Specific On-resistance of 2.9 mOmega.cm2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-04-12

    pp1381-1382, 2004. [2] C.-F. Huang and J. A. Cooper, Jr., “High current gain 4H-SiC NPN Bipolar Junction Transistors ,” IEEE Electron Device Lett...4H-SiC Power Bipolar Junction Transistor with a Very Low Specific On-resistance of 2.9 mΩ.cm2 Jianhui Zhang, member, IEEE, Petre Alexandrov...specific on-resistance (Rsp,on) of power 4H-SiC bipolar junction transistors (BJT). A 4H-SiC BJT based on a 12 um drift-layer shows a record low

  9. Giant Field Localization in 2-D Photonic Crystal Cavities with Defect Resonances: Bringing Nonlinear Optics to the W/cm2 Level

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) AEgis Tech,Nanogenesis Division ,410 Jan Davis Dr,Huntsville,AL,35806 8...cm2 level Nadia Mattiucci,1 Mark J. Bloemer,2 and Giuseppe D’Aguanno1,a 1AEgis Tech., Nanogenesis Division 410 Jan Davis Dr, Huntsville, AL 35806, USA...Opt. Comm. 285, 1945 (2012). 24 N. Hô, J. M. Laniel, R. Valée, and A. Villeneuve, “ Photosensitivity of As2S3 chalcogenide thin films at 1.5μm

  10. MgZnO/ZnO heterostructures with electron mobility exceeding 1 × 106 cm2/Vs

    PubMed Central

    Falson, Joseph; Kozuka, Yusuke; Uchida, Masaki; Smet, Jurgen H.; Arima, Taka-hisa; Tsukazaki, Atsushi; Kawasaki, Masashi

    2016-01-01

    The inherently complex chemical and crystallographic nature of oxide materials has suppressed the purities achievable in laboratory environments, obscuring the rich physical degrees of freedom these systems host. In this manuscript we provide a systematic approach to defect identification and management in oxide molecular beam epitaxy grown MgZnO/ZnO heterostructures which host two-dimensional electron systems. We achieve samples displaying electron mobilities in excess of 1 × 106 cm2/Vs. This data set for the MgZnO/ZnO system firmly establishes that the crystalline quality has become comparable to traditional semiconductor materials. PMID:27229479

  11. S1P control of endothelial integrity.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Yuquan; Hla, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), a lipid mediator produced by sphingolipid metabolism, promotes endothelial cell spreading, vascular maturation/stabilization, and barrier function. S1P is present at high concentrations in the circulatory system, whereas in tissues its levels are low. This so-called vascular S1P gradient is essential for S1P to regulate much physiological and pathophysiological progress such as the modulation of vascular permeability. Cellular sources of S1P in blood has only recently begun to be identified. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of S1P in regulating vascular integrity. In particular, we discuss the recent discovery of the endothelium-protective functions of HDL-bound S1P which is chaperoned by apolipoprotein M.

  12. Performance of n-in-p Pixel Detectors Irradiated at Fluences up to 5x1015 neq/cm2 for the Future ATLAS Upgrades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macchiolo, A.; Gallrapp, C.; La Rosa, A.; Nisius, R.; Pernegger, H.; Richter, R. H.; Weigell, P.

    We present the results of the characterization of novel n-in-p planar pixel detectors, designed for the future upgrades of the ATLAS pixel system. N-in-p silicon devices are a promising candidate to replace the n-in-n sensors thanks to their radiation hardness and cost effectiveness, that allow for enlarging the area instrumented with pixel detectors. The n-in-p modules presented here are composed of pixel sensors produced by CiS connected by bump-bonding to the ATLAS readout chip FE-I3. The characterization of these devices has been performed with the ATLAS pixel read-out systems, TurboDAQ and USBPIX, before and after irradiation with 25 MeV protons and neutrons up to a fluence of 5x1015 neq/cm2. The charge collection measurements carried out with radioactive sources have proven the feasibility of employing this kind of detectors up to these particle fluences. The collected charge has been measured to be for any fluence in excess of twice the value of the FE-I3 threshold, tuned to 3200 e. The first results from beam test data with 120 GeV pions at the CERN-SPS are also presented, demonstrating a high tracking efficiency before irradiation and a high collected charge for a device irradiated at 1015 neq/cm2. This work has been performed within the framework of the RD50 Collaboration.

  13. 5 × 5 cm2 silicon photonic crystal slabs on glass and plastic foil exhibiting broadband absorption and high-intensity near-fields

    PubMed Central

    Becker, C.; Wyss, P.; Eisenhauer, D.; Probst, J.; Preidel, V.; Hammerschmidt, M.; Burger, S.

    2014-01-01

    Crystalline silicon photonic crystal slabs are widely used in various photonics applications. So far, the commercial success of such structures is still limited owing to the lack of cost-effective fabrication processes enabling large nanopatterned areas (≫ 1 cm2). We present a simple method for producing crystalline silicon nanohole arrays of up to 5 × 5 cm2 size with lattice pitches between 600 and 1000 nm on glass and flexible plastic substrates. Exclusively up-scalable, fast fabrication processes are applied such as nanoimprint-lithography and silicon evaporation. The broadband light trapping efficiency of the arrays is among the best values reported for large-area experimental crystalline silicon nanostructures. Further, measured photonic crystal resonance modes are in good accordance with light scattering simulations predicting strong near-field intensity enhancements greater than 500. Hence, the large-area silicon nanohole arrays might become a promising platform for ultrathin solar cells on lightweight substrates, high-sensitive optical biosensors, and nonlinear optics. PMID:25073935

  14. Tailoring gadolinium-doped ceria-based solid oxide fuel cells to achieve 2 W cm(-2) at 550 °C.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jin Goo; Park, Jeong Ho; Shul, Yong Gun

    2014-06-04

    Low-temperature operation is necessary for next-generation solid oxide fuel cells due to the wide variety of their applications. However, significant increases in the fuel cell losses appear in the low-temperature solid oxide fuel cells, which reduce the cell performance. To overcome this problem, here we report Gd0.1Ce0.9O1.95-based low-temperature solid oxide fuel cells with nanocomposite anode functional layers, thin electrolytes and core/shell fibre-structured Ba0.5Sr0.5Co0.8Fe0.2O3-δ-Gd0.1Ce0.9O1.95 cathodes. In particular, the report describes the use of the advanced electrospinning and Pechini process in the preparation of the core/shell-fibre-structured cathodes. The fuel cells show a very high performance of 2 W cm(-2) at 550 °C in hydrogen, and are stable for 300 h even under the high current density of 1 A cm(-2). Hence, the results suggest that stable and high-performance solid oxide fuel cells at low temperatures can be achieved by modifying the microstructures of solid oxide fuel cell components.

  15. AMINO ACID ANALYSES OF THE ANTARCTIC CM2 METEORITES ALH 83100 AND LEW 90500 USING LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY-TIME OF FLIGHT-MASS SPECTROMETRY

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glavin, D. P.; Dworkin, J. P.; Aubrey, A.; Botta, O.; Doty, J. H., III; Bada, J. L.

    2001-01-01

    The investigation of organic compounds in primitive carbonaceous meteorites provides a record of the chemical processes that occurred in the early solar system. In particular, amino acids have been shown to be potential indicators in tracing the nature of carbonaceous chondrite parent bodies [ 13. The delivery of amino acids by carbonaceous chondrites to the early Earth could have been any important source of the Earth's prebiotic organic inventory [2]. Over 80 different amino acids have been detected in the Murchison CM2 meteorite, most of them completely non-existent in the terrestrial biosphere [3]. We have optimized a new liquid chromatography-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (LC-ToF-MS) technique coupled with OPAMAC derivatization in order to detect amino acids in meteorite extracts by UV fluorescence and exact mass simultaneously. The detection limit of the LC-ToF-MS instrument for amino acids is at least 3 orders of magnitude lower than traditional GC-MS techniques. Here we report on the first analyses of amino acids and their enantiomeric abundances in the CM2 carbonaceous meteorites ALH 83100, LEW 90500, and Murchison using this new LC-ToF-MS instrument configuration. Amino acid analyses of any kind for the CM meteorite ALH 83100 have not previously been reported.

  16. Current density and catalyst-coated membrane resistance distribution of hydro-formed metallic bipolar plate fuel cell short stack with 250 cm2 active area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haase, S.; Moser, M.; Hirschfeld, J. A.; Jozwiak, K.

    2016-01-01

    An automotive fuel cell with an active area of 250 cm2 is investigated in a 4-cell short stack with a current and temperature distribution device next to the bipolar plate with 560 current and 140 temperature segments. The electrical conductivities of the bipolar plate and gas diffusion layer assembly are determined ex-situ with this current scan shunt module. The applied fuel cell consists of bipolar plates constructed of 75-μm-thick, welded stainless-steel foils and a graphitic coating. The electrical conductivities of the bipolar plate and gas diffusion layer assembly are determined ex-situ with this module with a 6% deviation in in-plane conductivity. The current density distribution is evaluated up to 2.4 A cm-2. The entire cell's investigated volumetric power density is 4.7 kW l-1, and its gravimetric power density is 4.3 kW kg-1 at an average cell voltage of 0.5 V. The current density distribution is determined without influencing the operating cell. In addition, the current density distribution in the catalyst-coated membrane and its effective resistivity distribution with a finite volume discretisation of Ohm's law are evaluated. The deviation between the current density distributions in the catalyst-coated membrane and the bipolar plate is determined.

  17. Hyperfine polarization and its normal gradient coefficient of (87)Rb atoms in the vicinity (approximately 10(-5) cm) of coated and uncoated Pyrex glass surfaces.

    PubMed

    Zhao, K; Wu, Z

    2003-09-12

    We have made regionally specific measurement of the hyperfine polarization of 87Rb atoms in the vicinity ( approximately 10(-5) cm) of coated and uncoated Pyrex glass surfaces. We find that the polarization near an uncoated surface decreases rapidly with decreasing distance from the surface whereas for a silicone-coated surface the polarization is independent of the distance from the surface. We have also determined the normal gradient coefficient micro (S.I) of the hyperfine polarization in uncoated cells. In a representative uncoated cell, at a Rb density 7.35 x 10(13) cm(-3) and a pump beam intensity 1.3 W/cm(2), we find micro(S.I)=24+/-7 microm(-1).

  18. 46 CFR 54.10-5 - Maximum allowable working pressure (reproduces UG-98).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ENGINEERING PRESSURE VESSELS Inspection, Reports, and Stamping § 54.10-5 Maximum allowable working pressure...) that are likely to occur, or the designated coincident operating temperature, excluding any...

  19. The oxygen isotope evolution of parent body aqueous solutions as recorded by multiple carbonate generations in the Lonewolf Nunataks 94101 CM2 carbonaceous chondrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, M. R.; Sofe, M. R.; Lindgren, P.; Starkey, N. A.; Franchi, I. A.

    2013-11-01

    The CM2 carbonaceous chondrite LON 94101 contains aragonite and two generations of calcite that provide snapshots of the chemical and isotopic evolution of aqueous solutions during parent body alteration. Aragonite was the first carbonate to crystallize. It is rare, heterogeneously distributed within the meteorite matrix, and its mean oxygen isotope values are δ18O 39.9 ± 0.6‰, Δ17O -0.3 ± 1.0‰ (1σ). Calcite precipitated soon afterwards, and following a fall in solution Mg/Ca ratios, to produce small equant grains with a mean oxygen isotope value of δ18O 37.5 ± 0.7‰, Δ17O 1.4 ± 1.1‰ (1σ). These grains were partially or completely replaced by serpentine and tochilinite prior to precipitation of the second generation of calcite, which occluded an open fracture to form a millimetre-sized vein, and replaced anhydrous silicates within chondrules and the matrix. The vein calcite has a mean composition of δ18O 18.4 ± 0.3‰, Δ17O -0.5 ± 0.5‰ (1σ). Petrographic and isotopic results therefore reveal two discrete episodes of mineralisation that produced calcite generations with contrasting δ18O, and mean Δ17O values. The aragonite and equant calcite crystallized over a relatively brief period early in the aqueous alteration history of the parent body, and from static fluids that were evolving chemically in response to mineral dissolution and precipitation. The second calcite generation crystallized from solutions of a lower Δ17O, and a lower δ18O and/or higher temperature. As two generations of calcite whose petrographic characteristics and oxygen isotopic compositions are similar to those in LON 94101 occur in at least one other CM2, multiphase carbonate mineralisation could be the typical outcome of the sequence of chemical reactions during parent body aqueous alteration. It is equally possible however that the second generation of calcite formed in response to an event such as impact fracturing and concomitant fluid mobilisation that affected

  20. CYP2S1: A short review

    SciTech Connect

    Saarikoski, Sirkku T. . E-mail: sirkku.saarikoski@ktl.fi; Rivera, Steven P.; Hankinson, Oliver; Husgafvel-Pursiainen, Kirsti

    2005-09-01

    A new member of the cytochrome P450 superfamily, CYP2S1, has recently been identified in human and mouse. In this paper, we review the data currently available for CYP2S1. The human CYP2S1 gene is located in chromosome 19q13.2 within a cluster including CYP2 family members CYP2A6, CYP2A13, CYP2B6, and CYP2F1. These genes also show the highest homology to the human CYP2S1. The gene has recently been found to harbor genetic polymorphism. CYP2S1 is inducible by dioxin, the induction being mediated by the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor (AHR) and Aryl Hydrocarbon Nuclear Translocator (ARNT) in a manner typical for CYP1 family members. In line with this, CYP2S1 has been shown to be inducible by coal tar, an abundant source of PAHs, and it was recently reported to metabolize naphthalene. This points to the involvement of CYP2S1 in the metabolism of toxic and carcinogenic compounds, similar to other dioxin-inducible CYPs. CYP2S1 is expressed in epithelial cells of a wide variety of extrahepatic tissues. The highest expression levels have been observed in the epithelial tissues frequently exposed to xenobiotics, e.g., the respiratory, gastrointestinal, and urinary tracts, and in the skin. The observed ubiquitous tissue distribution, as well as the expression of CYP2S1 throughout embryogenesis suggest that CYP2S1 is likely to metabolize important endogenous substrates; thus far, retinoic acid has been identified. In conclusion, CYP2S1 exhibits many features of interest for human health and thus warrants further investigation.

  1. Three-dimensional nanostructured bilayer solid oxide fuel cell with 1.3 W/cm(2) at 450 °C.

    PubMed

    An, Jihwan; Kim, Young-Beom; Park, Joonsuk; Gür, Turgut M; Prinz, Fritz B

    2013-09-11

    Obtaining high power density at low operating temperatures has been an ongoing challenge in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), which are efficient engines to generate electrical energy from fuels. Here we report successful demonstration of a thin-film three-dimensional (3-D) SOFC architecture achieving a peak power density of 1.3 W/cm(2) obtained at 450 °C. This is made possible by nanostructuring of the ultrathin (60 nm) electrolyte interposed with a nanogranular catalytic interlayer at the cathode/electrolyte interface. We attribute the superior cell performance to significant reduction in both the ohmic and the polarization losses due to the combined effects of employing an ultrathin film electrolyte, enhancement of effective area by 3-D architecture, and superior catalytic activity by the ceria-based interlayer at the cathode. These insights will help design high-efficiency SOFCs that operate at low temperatures with power densities that are of practical significance.

  2. Compositions of Partly Altered Olivine and Replacement Serpentine in the CM2 Chondrites QUE93005 and Nogoya: Implications for Scales of Elemental Redistribution During Aqueous Alteration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Velbel, M. A.; Tonui, E. K.; Zolensky, M. E.

    2003-01-01

    Some phyllosilicates in CM carbonaceous chondrites formed by aqueous alteration of anhydrous precursor phases. Although broad trends in the compositions of hydrous phyllosilicates are recognized and believed to be related to trends in degree of aqueous alteration, details of the reactions that formed specific secondary minerals remain obscure. This paper reports compositional relationships between remnants of partially pseudomorphically replaced silicates and their alteration products (serpentine) in the CM2 chondrites QUE93005 and Nogoya and compares both with previously published results for Allan Hills 81002. By focusing on serpentine formed from known reactants (olivines), and on only those instances in which some of the reactant silicate remains, direct compositional relationships between reactants and products, and the elemental mobility required by the reactions, can be established.

  3. Safety assessment for the S-1 Spheromak

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, R. Jr.; Stencel, J.R.

    1984-02-01

    The S-1 machine is part of the Magnetic Fusion Program. The goal of the Magnetic Fusion Program is to develop and demonstrate the practical application of fusion. S-1 is an experimental device which will provide an essential link in the research effort aiming at the realization of fusion power.

  4. Modified MBE hardware and techniques and role of gallium purity for attainment of two dimensional electron gas mobility >35×106 cm2/V s in AlGaAs/GaAs quantum wells grown by MBE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, Geoffrey C.; Fallahi, Saeed; Watson, John D.; Manfra, Michael J.

    2016-05-01

    We provide evidence that gallium purity is the primary impediment to attainment of ultra-high mobility in a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in AlGaAs/GaAs heterostructures grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). The purity of gallium can be enhanced dramatically by in-situ high temperature outgassing within an operating MBE. Based on analysis of data from an initial growth campaign in a new MBE system and modifications employed for a 2nd growth campaign, we have produced 2DEGs with low temperature mobility μ in excess of 35×106 cm2/V s at density n=3.0×1011/cm2 and μ=18×106 cm2/V s at n=1.1×1011/cm2. Our 2nd campaign data indicate that gallium purity remains the factor currently limiting μ<40×106 cm2/V s. We describe strategies to overcome this limitation.

  5. Ion acceleration in electrostatic field of charged cavity created by ultra-short laser pulses of 1020-1021 W/cm2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bychenkov, V. Yu.; Singh, P. K.; Ahmed, H.; Kakolee, K. F.; Scullion, C.; Jeong, T. W.; Hadjisolomou, P.; Alejo, A.; Kar, S.; Borghesi, M.; Ter-Avetisyan, S.

    2017-01-01

    Ion acceleration resulting from the interaction of ultra-high intensity and ultra-high contrast (˜10-10) laser pulses with thin A l foil targets at 30° angle of laser incidence is studied. Proton maximum energies of 30 and 18 MeV are measured along the target normal rear and front sides, respectively, showing intensity scaling as Ib . For the target front bf r o n t= 0.5-0.6 and for the target rear br e a r= 0.7-0.8 is observed in the intensity range 1020-1021 W/cm2. The fast scaling from the target rear ˜I0.75 can be attributed enhancement of laser energy absorption as already observed at relatively low intensities. The backward acceleration of the front side protons with intensity scaling as ˜I0.5 can be attributed to the to the formation of a positively charged cavity at the target front via ponderomotive displacement of the target electrons at the interaction of relativistic intense laser pulses with a solid target. The experimental results are in a good agreement with theoretical predictions.

  6. Aging characteristics of blue InGaN micro-light emitting diodes at an extremely high current density of 3.5 kA cm-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Pengfei; Althumali, Ahmad; Gu, Erdan; Watson, Ian M.; Dawson, Martin D.; Liu, Ran

    2016-04-01

    The aging characteristics of blue InGaN micro-light emitting diodes (micro-LEDs) with different sizes have been studied at an extremely high current density 3.5 kA cm-2 for emerging micro-LED applications including visible light communication (VLC), micro-LED pumped organic lasers and optogenetics. The light output power of micro-LEDs first increases and then decreases due to the competition of Mg activation in p-GaN layer and defect generation in the active region. The smaller micro-LEDs show less light output power degradation compared with larger micro-LEDs, which is attributed to the lower junction temperature of smaller micro-LEDs. It is found that the high current density without additional junction temperature cannot induce significant micro-LED degradation at room temperature but the combination of the high current density and high junction temperature leads to strong degradation. Furthermore, the cluster LEDs, composed of a micro-LED array, have been developed with both high light output power and less light output degradation for micro-LED applications in solid state lighting and VLC.

  7. First operation and performance of a 200 lt double phase LAr LEM-TPC with a 40 × 76 cm2 readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badertscher, A.; Curioni, A.; Degunda, U.; Epprecht, L.; Gendotti, A.; Horikawa, S.; Knecht, L.; Lussi, D.; Natterer, G.; Nguyen, K.; Resnati, F.; Rubbia, A.; Viant, T.

    2013-04-01

    In this paper we describe the design, construction, and operation of a first large area double-phase liquid argon Large Electron Multiplier Time Projection Chamber (LAr LEM-TPC). The detector has a maximum drift length of 60 cm and the readout consists of a 40 × 76 cm2 LEM and 2D projective anode to multiply and collect drifting charges. Scintillation light is detected by means of cryogenic PMTs positioned below the cathode. To record both charge and light signals, we have developed a compact acquisition system, which is scalable up to ton-scale detectors with thousands of charge readout channels. The acquisition system, as well as the design and the performance of custom-made charge sensitive preamplifiers, are described. The complete experimental setup has been operated for a first time during a period of four weeks at CERN in the cryostat of the ArDM experiment, which was equipped with liquid and gas argon purification systems. The detector, exposed to cosmic rays, recorded events with a single-channel signal-to-noise ratio in excess of 30 for minimum ionising particles. Cosmic muon tracks and their δ-rays were used to assess the performance of the detector, and to estimate the liquid argon purity and the gain at different amplification fields.

  8. Nanostructured multielement (TiHfZrNbVTa)N coatings before and after implantation of N+ ions (1018 cm-2): Their structure and mechanical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pogrebnjak, A. D.; Bondar, O. V.; Borba, S. O.; Abadias, G.; Konarski, P.; Plotnikov, S. V.; Beresnev, V. M.; Kassenova, L. G.; Drodziel, P.

    2016-10-01

    Multielement high entropy alloy (HEA) nitride (TiHfZrNbVTa)N coatings were deposited by vacuum arc and their structural and mechanical stability after implantation of high doses of N+ ions, 1018 cm-2, were investigated. The crystal structure and phase composition were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Transmission Electron Microscopy, while depth-resolved nanoindentation tests were used to determine the evolution of hardness and elastic modulus along the implantation depth. XRD patterns show that coatings exhibit a main phase with fcc structure, which preferred orientation varies from (1 1 1) to (2 0 0), depending on the deposition conditions. First-principles calculations reveal that the presence of Nb atoms could favor the formation of solid solution with fcc structure in multielement HEA nitride. TEM results showed that amorphous and nanostructured phases were formed in the implanted coating sub-surface layer (∼100 nm depth). Concentration of nitrogen reached 90 at% in the near-surface layer after implantation, and decreased at higher depth. Nanohardness of the as-deposited coatings varied from 27 to 38 GPa depending on the deposition conditions. Ion implantation led to a significant decrease of the nanohardness to 12 GPa in the implanted region, while it reaches 24 GPa at larger depths. However, the H/E ratio is ⩾0.1 in the sub-surface layer due to N+ implantation, which is expected to have beneficial effect on the wear properties.

  9. Performance of a 64-channel, 3.2×3.2 cm2 SiPM tile for TOF-PET application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferri, Alessandro; Acerbi, Fabio; Gola, Alberto; Piemonte, Claudio; Paternoster, Giovanni; Zorzi, Nicola

    2016-07-01

    In this work, we present a new 3.2×3.2 cm2 detector tile, composed of 8×8 single SiPMs, having a regular 4 mm pitch in both the X and Y directions. The tile fill factor is 85%. We produced two versions of the tile with different SiPM technologies: RGB-HD and NUV. The first one features square micro-cells with 25 μm pitch, a PDE peaked at 550 nm and a DCR of 300 kHz/mm2, at 20 °C and at maximum detection efficiency. The second one features micro-cells with 40 μm pitch and a PDE peaked in the blue part of the spectrum. The dark count rate at 20 °C and at maximum PDE is 100 kHz/mm2. In this work, we show the energy and timing resolution measurements at 511 keV obtained coupling the two tiles to an 8×8 LYSO array with a pixel size of 4×4×22 mm3, perfectly matching the photo-detector array.

  10. Predicting the optimal process window for the coating of single-crystalline organic films with mobilities exceeding 7 cm2/Vs.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janneck, Robby; Vercesi, Federico; Heremans, Paul; Genoe, Jan; Rolin, Cedric

    2016-09-01

    Organic thin film transistors (OTFTs) based on single crystalline thin films of organic semiconductors have seen considerable development in the recent years. The most successful method for the fabrication of single crystalline films are solution-based meniscus guided coating techniques such as dip-coating, solution shearing or zone casting. These upscalable methods enable rapid and efficient film formation without additional processing steps. The single-crystalline film quality is strongly dependent on solvent choice, substrate temperature and coating speed. So far, however, process optimization has been conducted by trial and error methods, involving, for example, the variation of coating speeds over several orders of magnitude. Through a systematic study of solvent phase change dynamics in the meniscus region, we develop a theoretical framework that links the optimal coating speed to the solvent choice and the substrate temperature. In this way, we can accurately predict an optimal processing window, enabling fast process optimization. Our approach is verified through systematic OTFT fabrication based on films grown with different semiconductors, solvents and substrate temperatures. The use of best predicted coating speeds delivers state of the art devices. In the case of C8BTBT, OTFTs show well-behaved characteristics with mobilities up to 7 cm2/Vs and onset voltages close to 0 V. Our approach also explains well optimal recipes published in the literature. This route considerably accelerates parameter screening for all meniscus guided coating techniques and unveils the physics of single crystalline film formation.

  11. 19 CFR 10.5 - Shooks and staves; cloth boards; port director's account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Shooks and staves; cloth boards; port director's... Provisions Articles Exported and Returned § 10.5 Shooks and staves; cloth boards; port director's account. (a... record of cloth boards of domestic manufacture exported to be wrapped with foreign textiles shall be...

  12. 19 CFR 10.5 - Shooks and staves; cloth boards; port director's account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Shooks and staves; cloth boards; port director's... Provisions Articles Exported and Returned § 10.5 Shooks and staves; cloth boards; port director's account. (a... record of cloth boards of domestic manufacture exported to be wrapped with foreign textiles shall be...

  13. 19 CFR 10.5 - Shooks and staves; cloth boards; port director's account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Shooks and staves; cloth boards; port director's... Provisions Articles Exported and Returned § 10.5 Shooks and staves; cloth boards; port director's account. (a... record of cloth boards of domestic manufacture exported to be wrapped with foreign textiles shall be...

  14. 19 CFR 10.5 - Shooks and staves; cloth boards; port director's account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Shooks and staves; cloth boards; port director's... Provisions Articles Exported and Returned § 10.5 Shooks and staves; cloth boards; port director's account. (a... record of cloth boards of domestic manufacture exported to be wrapped with foreign textiles shall be...

  15. 33 CFR 1.10-5 - Public availability of records and documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... written request to the Chief, Office of Information Management (CG-61), U.S. Coast Guard Headquarters... of Information Management (CG-61), at the address in paragraph (a) of this section. ... HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL GENERAL PROVISIONS Public Availability of Information § 1.10-5...

  16. 33 CFR 1.10-5 - Public availability of records and documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... written request to the Chief, Office of Information Management (CG-61), U.S. Coast Guard Headquarters... of Information Management (CG-61), at the address in paragraph (a) of this section. ... HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL GENERAL PROVISIONS Public Availability of Information § 1.10-5...

  17. 33 CFR 1.10-5 - Public availability of records and documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... written request to the Chief, Office of Information Management (CG-61), U.S. Coast Guard Headquarters... of Information Management (CG-61), at the address in paragraph (a) of this section. ... HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL GENERAL PROVISIONS Public Availability of Information § 1.10-5...

  18. 33 CFR 1.10-5 - Public availability of records and documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... written request to the Chief, Office of Information Management (CG-61), U.S. Coast Guard Headquarters... of Information Management (CG-61), at the address in paragraph (a) of this section. ... HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL GENERAL PROVISIONS Public Availability of Information § 1.10-5...

  19. 33 CFR 1.10-5 - Public availability of records and documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... written request to the Chief, Office of Information Management (CG-61), U.S. Coast Guard Headquarters... of Information Management (CG-61), at the address in paragraph (a) of this section. ... HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL GENERAL PROVISIONS Public Availability of Information § 1.10-5...

  20. 46 CFR 31.10-5 - Inspection of new tank vessels-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... district in which the vessel is to be built; and one set shall be retained at the Marine Safety Center. If... such tank vessel is classed by the American Bureau of Shipping or other recognized classification... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Inspection of new tank vessels-TB/ALL. 31.10-5...

  1. 46 CFR 31.10-5 - Inspection of new tank vessels-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... district in which the vessel is to be built; and one set shall be retained at the Marine Safety Center. If... such tank vessel is classed by the American Bureau of Shipping or other recognized classification... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Inspection of new tank vessels-TB/ALL. 31.10-5...

  2. The Global S$_1$ Ocean Tide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Richard D.; Egbert, G. D.

    2003-01-01

    The small S$_1$ ocean tide is caused primarily by diurnal atmospheric pressure loading. Its excitation is therefore unlike any other diurnal tide. The global character of $S-1$ is here determined by numerical modeling and by analysis of Topex/Poseidon satellite altimeter data. The two approaches yield reasonably consistent results, and large ( $ greater than $l\\cm) amplitudes in several regions are further confirmed by comparison with coastal tide gauges. Notwithstanding their excitation differences, S$-1$ and other diurnal tides are found to share several common features, such as relatively large amplitudes in the Arabian Sea, the Sea of Okhotsk, and the Gulf of Alaska. The most noticeable difference is the lack of an S$-1$ Antarctic Kelvin wave. These similarities and differences can be explained in terms of the coherences between near-diurnal oceanic normal modes and the underlying tidal forcings. While gravitational diurnal tidal forces excite primarily a 28-hour Antarctic-Pacific mode, the S$_1$ air tide excites several other near-diurnal modes, none of which has large amplitudes near Antarctica.

  3. Aqueous Alteration of Carbonaceous Chondrites: New Insights from Comparative Studies of Two Unbrecciated CM2 Chondrites, Y 791198 and ALH 81002

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chizmadia, L. J.; Brearley, A. J.

    2004-01-01

    Carbonaceous chondrites are an important resource for understanding the physical and chemical conditions in the early solar system. In particular, a long-standing question concerns the role of water in the cosmochemical evolution of carbonaceous chondrites. It is well established that extensive hydration of primary nebular phases occurred in the CM and CI chondrites, but the location where this alteration occurred remains controversial. In the CM2 chondrites, hydration formed secondary phases such as serpentine, tochilinite, pentlandite, carbonate and PCP. There are several textural observations which suggest that alteration occurred before the accretion of the final CM parent asteroid, i.e. preaccretionary alteration. Conversely, there is a significant body of evidence that supports parent-body alteration. In order to test these two competing hypotheses further, we studied two CM chondrites, Y-791198 and ALH81002, two meteorites that exhibit widely differing degrees of aqueous alteration. In addition, both meteorites have primary accretionary textures, i.e. experienced minimal asteroidal brecciation. Brecciation significantly complicates the task of unraveling alteration histories, mixing components that have been altered to different degrees from different locations on the same asteroidal parent body. Alteration in Y-791198 is mostly confined to chondrule mesostases, FeNi metal and fine-grained matrix and rims. In comparison, the primary chondrule silicates in ALH81002 have undergone extensive replacement by secondary hydrous phases. This study focuses on compositional and textural relationships between chondrule mesostasis and the associated rim materials. Our hypothesis is: both these components are highly susceptible to aqueous alteration and should be sensitive recorders of the alteration process. For parent body alteration, we expect systematic coupled mineralogical and compositional changes in rims and altered mesostasis, as elemental exchange between these

  4. Investigation of rat bone fracture healing using pulsed 1.5 MHz, 30 mW/cm(2) burst ultrasound--axial distance dependency.

    PubMed

    Fung, Chak-Hei; Cheung, Wing-Hoi; Pounder, Neill M; de Ana, F Javier; Harrison, Andrew; Leung, Kwok-Sui

    2014-03-01

    This study investigated the effect of LIPUS on fracture healing when fractures were exposed to ultrasound at three axial distances: z=0 mm, 60 mm, and 130 mm. We applied LIPUS to rat fracture at these three axial distances mimicking the exposure condition of human fractures at different depths under the soft tissue. Measurement of LIPUS shows pressure variations in near field (nearby transducer); uniform profile was found beyond it (far field). We asked whether different positions of the fracture within the ultrasound field cause inconsistent biological effect during the healing process. Closed femoral fractured Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into control, near-field (0mm), mid-near field (60 mm) or far-field (130 mm) groups. Daily LIPUS treatment (plane, but apodized source, see details in the text; 2.2 cm in diameter; 1.5 MHz sine waves repeating at 1 kHz PRF; spatial average temporal average intensity, ISATA=30 mW/cm(2)) was given to fracture site at the three axial distances. Weekly radiographs and endpoint microCT, histomorphometry, and mechanical tests were performed. The results showed that the 130 mm group had the highest tissue mineral density; and significantly higher mechanical properties than control at week 4. The 60 mm and 0 mm groups had significantly higher (i.e. p<0.05) woven bone percentage than control group in radiological, microCT and histomorphometry measurements. In general, LIPUS at far field augmented callus mineralization and mechanical properties; while near field and mid-near field enhanced woven bone formation. Our results indicated the therapeutic effect of LIPUS is dependent on the axial distance of the ultrasound beam. Therefore, the depth of fracture under the soft tissue affects the biological effect of LIPUS. Clinicians have to be aware of the fracture depth when LIPUS is applied transcutaneously.

  5. Chloromethane Utilization Gene Cluster from Hyphomicrobium chloromethanicum Strain CM2T and Development of Functional Gene Probes To Detect Halomethane-Degrading Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    McAnulla, Craig; Woodall, Claire A.; McDonald, Ian R.; Studer, Alex; Vuilleumier, Stephane; Leisinger, Thomas; Murrell, J. Colin

    2001-01-01

    Hyphomicrobium chloromethanicum CM2T, an aerobic methylotrophic member of the α subclass of the class proteobacteria, can grow with chloromethane as the sole carbon and energy source. H. chloromethanicum possesses an inducible enzyme system for utilization of chloromethane, in which two polypeptides (67-kDa CmuA and 35-kDa CmuB) are expressed. Previously, four genes, cmuA, cmuB, cmuC, and purU, were shown to be essential for growth of Methylobacterium chloromethanicum on chloromethane. The cmuA and cmuB genes were used as probes to identify homologs in H. chloromethanicum. A cmu gene cluster (9.5 kb) in H. chloromethanicum contained 10 open reading frames: folD (partial), pduX, orf153, orf207, orf225, cmuB, cmuC, cmuA, fmdB, and paaE (partial). CmuA from H. chloromethanicum (67 kDa) showed high identity to CmuA from M. chloromethanicum and contains an N-terminal methyltransferase domain and a C-terminal corrinoid-binding domain. CmuB from H. chloromethanicum is related to a family of methyl transfer proteins and to the CmuB methyltransferase from M. chloromethanicum. CmuC from H. chloromethanicum shows identity to CmuC from M. chloromethanicum and is a putative methyltransferase. folD codes for a methylene-tetrahydrofolate cyclohydrolase, which may be involved in the C1 transfer pathway for carbon assimilation and CO2 production, and paaE codes for a putative redox active protein. Molecular analyses and some preliminary biochemical data indicated that the chloromethane utilization pathway in H. chloromethanicum is similar to the corrinoid-dependent methyl transfer system in M. chloromethanicum. PCR primers were developed for successful amplification of cmuA genes from newly isolated chloromethane utilizers and enrichment cultures. PMID:11133460

  6. Hydrogen and carbon isotopic ratios of polycyclic aromatic compounds in two CM2 carbonaceous chondrites and implications for prebiotic organic synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yongsong; Aponte, José C.; Zhao, Jiaju; Tarozo, Rafael; Hallmann, Christian

    2015-09-01

    Study of meteoritic organic compounds offers a unique opportunity to understand the origins of the organic matter in the early Solar System. Meteoritic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heteropolycyclic aromatic compounds (HACs) have been studied for over fifty years, however; their hydrogen stable isotopic ratios (δD) have never been reported. Compound-specific δD measurements of PAHs and HACs are important, in part because the carbon isotopic ratios (δ13C) of various meteoritic PAHs cannot be readily distinguished from their terrestrial counterparts and it is difficult to rule out terrestrial contamination based on carbon isotopic ratios alone. In this study, we have extracted and identified more than sixty PAHs and HACs present in two CM2 carbonaceous chondrites Murchison and LON 94101. Their carbon and hydrogen stable isotopic ratios (δ13C and δD) were measured and used to discuss about their synthetic environments and formation mechanisms. The concentration of aromatic compounds is ∼30% higher in Murchison than in the Antarctic meteorite LON 94101, but both samples contained similar suites of PAHs and HACs. All PAHs and HACs found exhibited positive δD values (up to 1100‰) consistent with an extraterrestrial origin, indicating the relatively low δ13C values are indeed an inherent feature of the meteoritic aromatic compounds. The hydrogen isotopic data suggest aromatic compounds in carbonaceous chondrites were mainly formed in the cold interstellar environments. Molecular level variations in hydrogen and carbon isotopic values offer new insights to the formation pathways for the aromatic compounds in carbonaceous chondrites.

  7. One-year Outcomes of Pachymetry and Epithelium Thicknesses after Accelerated (45 mW/cm2) Transepithelial Corneal Collagen Cross-linking for Keratoconus Patients

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaoyu; Sun, Ling; Chen, Yingjun; Li, Meiyan; Tian, Mi; Zhou, Xingtao

    2016-01-01

    The thickness of corneal pachymetry and the epithelium after accelerated (45 mW/cm2) transepithelial corneal collagen cross-linking (CXL) for keratoconus were assessed in this prospective case series study. Twenty-eight patients were treated for keratoconus. The mean Kmax was 56.18 ± 7.90. The thinnest point, as assessed by optical coherence tomography (OCT), was 443.18 ± 39.75 μm. Accelerated transepithelial CXL was performed, and corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA), corneal topography, and OCT were recorded at 1 week postoperatively as well as at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months. The surgery was uneventful in all eyes. Postoperative epithelial edema was observed and faded in 3 days. The postoperative Kmax was 54.56 ± 8.81, 55.78 ± 8.11, 56.37 ± 8.71, 55.80 ± 7.92, and 55.47 ± 8.24 at 1 week, 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months, respectively (all, P > 0.05). The thinnest postoperative corneal point, 439.04 ± 44.99 μm, was observed at 12 months (P = 0.109). The epithelial thickness decreased during the first postoperative week then showed a gradual recovery. Postoperative pachymetry thickness showed no significant changes for up to 12 months. Postoperative epithelial thickness decreased temporarily, then stabilized at month 12. Accelerated transepithelial CXL was shown to be effective and safe for the treatment of keratoconus. PMID:27597655

  8. Effect of Tube-Based X-Ray Microtomography Imaging on the Amino Acid and Amine Content of the Murchison CM2 Chondrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glavin, D. P.; Friedrich, J. M.; Aponte, J. C.; Dworkin, J. P.; Ebel, D. S.; Elsila, J. E.; Hill, M.; McLain, H. L.; Towbin, W. H.

    2017-01-01

    X-ray and synchrotron X-ray micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) are increasingly being used for three dimensional reconnaissance imaging of chondrites and returned extraterrestrial material prior to detailed chemical and mineralogical analyses. Although micro-CT imaging is generally considered to be a non-destructive technique since silicate and metallic minerals in chondrites are not affected by X-ray exposures at the intensities and wavelengths typically used, there are concerns that the use of micro-CT could be detrimental to the organics in carbonaceous chondrites. We recently conducted a synchrotron micro-CT experiment on a powdered sample of the Murchison CM2 carbonaceous chondrite exposed to a monochromatic high energy (approximately 48 kiloelectronvolts) total X-ray radiation dose of approximately 1 kilogray (kGy) using the Advanced Photon Source beamline 13-BMD (13-Bending Magnet-D Beamline) at Argonne National Laboratory and found that there were no detectable changes in the amino acid abundances or enantiomeric compositions in the chondrite after exposure relative to a Murchison control sample that was not exposed. However, lower energy bremsstrahlung X-rays could interact more with amino acids and other lower molecular weight amines in meteorites. To test for this possibility, three separate micro-CT imaging experiments of the Murchison meteorite using the GE Phoenix v/tome/x s 240 kilovolt microfocus high resolution tungsten target X-ray tube instrument at the American Museum of Natural History (AMNH) were conducted and the amino acid abundances and enantiomeric compositions were determined. We also investigated the abundances of the C1-C5 amines in Murchison which were not analyzed in the first study.

  9. Measurements of charm meson production in 10.5 GeV electron-positron annihilations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Edward Eric

    A study of charm meson production in e+ e- γ* --> cc¯ events at s = 10.5 GeV is presented. Included are measurements of the fragmentation distributions of D+s and D*+s , the vector to pseudoscalar production ratio for Ds, and the D*+ spin alignment. A description of the new trigger designed for the CLEO III detector is also provided.

  10. Optical characterizations and electronic devices of nearly pure (10,5) single-walled carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Tu, Xiaomin; Welsher, Kevin; Wang, Xinran; Zheng, Ming; Dai, Hongjie

    2009-02-25

    It remains an elusive goal to achieve high-performance single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) field-effect transistors (FETs) composed of only single-chirality SWNTs. Many separation mechanisms have been devised and various degrees of separation demonstrated, yet it is still difficult to reach the goal of total fractionation of a given nanotube mixture into its single-chirality components. Chromatography has been reported to separate small SWNTs (diameter < or = 0.9 nm) according to their diameter, chirality, and length. The separation efficiency decreased with increasing tube diameter when the ssDNA sequence d(GT)(n) (n = 10-45) was used. Here we report our results on the separation of single-chirality (10,5) SWNTs (diameter = 1.03 nm) from HiPco tubes using ion-exchange chromatography. The separation efficiency was improved by using the new DNA sequence (TTTA)(3)T, which can recognize SWNTs with the specific chirality (10,5). The chirality of the separated tubes was examined by optical absorption, Raman, photoluminescence excitation/emission, and electrical transport measurements. All of the spectroscopic methods gave a single peak of (10,5) tubes. The purity was 99% according to the electrical measurement. The FETs composed of separated SWNTs in parallel gave an I(on)/I(off) ratio up to 10(6) due to the single-chirality-enriched (10,5) tubes. This is the first time that SWNT FETs with single-chirality SWNTs have been achieved. The chromatography method has the potential to separate even larger diameter semiconducting SWNTs from other starting materials to further improve the performance of the SWNT FETs.

  11. Defective transient endogenous spleen colony formation in S1/S1d mice.

    PubMed

    Wiktor-Jedrzejczak, W; Ahmed, A; Sharkis, S J; McKee, A; Sell, K W

    1979-04-01

    WCB6F1 mice of the genotype S1/S1d did not form transient 5-day endogenous spleen colonies following midlethal irradiation, either spontaneously or in response to postirradiation bleeding. Their hematologically normal (+/+) littermates produced colonies equivalent in number and morphologic type to a normal strain (D2B6F1), as evaluated by both macroscopic and microscopic criteria. Bone marrow cells from S1/S1d mice, when transplanted into lethally irradiated +/+ mice, were able to generate equivalent numbers of transient endogenous spleen colonies (TE-CFUs), as compared to that obtained when syngeneic +/+ marrow cells were injected into lethally irradiated +/+ recipients. A defective growth of an early class of hematopoietic progenitor cells, resulting in the clinical course of the S1/S1d anemia is suggested and confirms previous reports on the microenvironmental nature of this abnormality.

  12. Determining temperature distribution in tissue in the focal plane of the high (>100 W/cm(2)) intensity focused ultrasound beam using phase shift of ultrasound echoes.

    PubMed

    Karwat, Piotr; Kujawska, Tamara; Lewin, Peter A; Secomski, Wojciech; Gambin, Barbara; Litniewski, Jerzy

    2016-02-01

    In therapeutic applications of High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) the guidance of the HIFU beam and especially its focal plane is of crucial importance. This guidance is needed to appropriately target the focal plane and hence the whole focal volume inside the tumor tissue prior to thermo-ablative treatment and beginning of tissue necrosis. This is currently done using Magnetic Resonance Imaging that is relatively expensive. In this study an ultrasound method, which calculates the variations of speed of sound in the locally heated tissue volume by analyzing the phase shifts of echo-signals received by an ultrasound scanner from this very volume is presented. To improve spatial resolution of B-mode imaging and minimize the uncertainty of temperature estimation the acoustic signals were transmitted and received by 8 MHz linear phased array employing Synthetic Transmit Aperture (STA) technique. Initially, the validity of the algorithm developed was verified experimentally in a tissue-mimicking phantom heated from 20.6 to 48.6 °C. Subsequently, the method was tested using a pork loin sample heated locally by a 2 MHz pulsed HIFU beam with focal intensity ISATA of 129 W/cm(2). The temperature calibration of 2D maps of changes in the sound velocity induced by heating was performed by comparison of the algorithm-determined changes in the sound velocity with the temperatures measured by thermocouples located in the heated tissue volume. The method developed enabled ultrasound temperature imaging of the heated tissue volume from the very inception of heating with the contrast-to-noise ratio of 3.5-12 dB in the temperature range 21-56 °C. Concurrently performed, conventional B-mode imaging revealed CNR close to zero dB until the temperature reached 50 °C causing necrosis. The data presented suggest that the proposed method could offer an alternative to MRI-guided temperature imaging for prediction of the location and extent of the thermal lesion prior to applying the

  13. NBC's ``10.5'' May Answer An Age-Old Seismologic Question

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, Andrew V.

    2004-04-01

    There is a new NBC 4-hour miniseries set to air during the May sweeps period (2-3 May) titled simply enough ``10.5.'' No, this is not a sequel to ``9 and ½ weeks'', nor is it a mini-sequel to ``10''. This number instead refers to a mega-earthquake that rocks the west coast of the United States. One may think that the network writers have done their homework and have consulted a geophysicist or two regarding the realism of their program, let alone the title. This is just a short note to comment on their potential folly. I would like to clarify to the network writers, as well as to the non-seismologists in the Earth science community what exactly a magnitude 10.5 earthquake could be, and why, if such were to occur, it may be more than just a west coast problem. Alternatively, NBC may just soon answer an age-old seismologic question...

  14. Restless legs syndrome mimicking S1 radiculopathy.

    PubMed

    Zambelis, Th; Wolgamuth, B R; Papoutsi, S N; Economou, N T

    2016-01-01

    Α case of a chronic idiopathic form of a severe type of Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS), which developed during pregnancy and persisted after this, misdiagnosed for 34 years as radiculopathy S1, is reported. In spite of the thorough clinical and laboratory investigation, in addition to constant changes of the therapeutic approach, the diagnosis of S1 radiculopathy could not be confirmed, resulting in a chronic clinical course; the latter was characterized by relapses and remissions not attributed or linked in any way to the treatment (various types of). In fact, it was due to a routine workup in a sleep clinic, where the patient was referred because of a coincident chronic insomnia (Restless Legs Syndrome is a known and important cause of insomnia/chronic insomnia), which resulted in a proper diagnosis and treatment of this case. With the use of Restless Legs Syndrome appropriate treatment (Pramipexole 0.18 mg taken at bedtime, a dopaminergic agent and Level A recommended drug for Restless Legs Syndrome) an excellent response and immediate elimination of symptoms was achieved. Restless Legs Syndrome may present with a variety of symptoms (with the most prominent shortly being reported with the acronym URGE: Urge to move the legs usually associated with unpleasant leg sensations, Rest induces symptoms, Getting active brings relief, Evening and night deteriorate symptoms); given the fact that Restless Legs Syndrome presents with a great variety and heterogeneity of symptoms (mostly pain, dysesthesia and paresthesia), which may occur in several other diseases (the so called "RLS mimics"), proper diagnosis of Restless Legs Syndrome usually fails. Restless Legs Syndrome misinterpreted as S1 radiculopathy, to the best of our knowledge, has not been reported yet in the literature. Here, case history, clinical course and common RLS mimics are presented. Different forms of Restless Legs Syndrome manifestations, which are commonly -as in this case- misinterpreted due to their

  15. Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) displays sustained S1P1 receptor agonism and signaling through S1P lyase-dependent receptor recycling.

    PubMed

    Gatfield, John; Monnier, Lucile; Studer, Rolf; Bolli, Martin H; Steiner, Beat; Nayler, Oliver

    2014-07-01

    The sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) type 1 receptor (S1P1R) is a novel therapeutic target in lymphocyte-mediated autoimmune diseases. S1P1 receptor desensitization caused by synthetic S1P1 receptor agonists prevents T-lymphocyte egress from secondary lymphoid organs into the circulation. The selective S1P1 receptor agonist ponesimod, which is in development for the treatment of autoimmune diseases, efficiently reduces peripheral lymphocyte counts and displays efficacy in animal models of autoimmune disease. Using ponesimod and the natural ligand S1P, we investigated the molecular mechanisms leading to different signaling, desensitization and trafficking behavior of S1P1 receptors. In recombinant S1P1 receptor-expressing cells, ponesimod and S1P triggered Gαi protein-mediated signaling and β-arrestin recruitment with comparable potency and efficiency, but only ponesimod efficiently induced intracellular receptor accumulation. In human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), ponesimod and S1P triggered translocation of the endogenous S1P1 receptor to the Golgi compartment. However, only ponesimod treatment caused efficient surface receptor depletion, receptor accumulation in the Golgi and degradation. Impedance measurements in HUVEC showed that ponesimod induced only short-lived Gαi protein-mediated signaling followed by resistance to further stimulation, whereas S1P induced sustained Gαi protein-mediated signaling without desensitization. Inhibition of S1P lyase activity in HUVEC rendered S1P an efficient S1P1 receptor internalizing compound and abrogated S1P-mediated sustained signaling. This suggests that S1P lyase - by facilitating S1P1 receptor recycling - is essential for S1P-mediated sustained signaling, and that synthetic agonists are functional antagonists because they are not S1P lyase substrates.

  16. The functional roles of S1P in immunity.

    PubMed

    Hisano, Yu; Nishi, Tsuyoshi; Kawahara, Atsuo

    2012-10-01

    The lipid mediator sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is generated within cells from sphingosine by two sphingosine kinases (SPHK1 and SPHK2). Intracellularly synthesized S1P is released into the extracellular fluid by S1P transporters, including SPNS2. Released S1P binds specifically to the G protein-coupled S1P receptors (S1PR1/S1P(1)-S1PR5/S1P(5)), which activate a diverse range of downstream signalling pathways. Recent studies have proposed that one of the central physiological functions of intercellular S1P signalling is in lymphocyte trafficking in vivo because genetic disruption of SPHK1/2, SPNS2 or S1PR1/S1P(1) in mice induces a lymphopenia phenotype. In this review, we discuss the current understanding of intercellular S1P signalling in the context of immunity.

  17. The rise and fall of Lake Bonneville between 45 and 10.5 ka

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benson, L.V.; Lund, S.P.; Smoot, J.P.; Rhode, D.E.; Spencer, R.J.; Verosub, K.L.; Louderback, L.A.; Johnson, C.A.; Rye, R.O.; Negrini, R.M.

    2011-01-01

    A sediment core taken from the western edge of the Bonneville Basin has provided high-resolution proxy records of relative lake-size change for the period 45.1-10.5 calendar ka (hereafter ka). Age control was provided by a paleomagnetic secular variation (PSV)-based age model for Blue Lake core BL04-4. Continuous records of ??18O and total inorganic carbon (TIC) generally match an earlier lake-level envelope based on outcrops and geomorphic features, but with differences in the timing of some hydrologic events/states. The Stansbury Oscillation was found to consist of two oscillations centered on 25 and 24 ka. Lake Bonneville appears to have reached its geomorphic highstand and began spilling at 18.5 ka. The fall from the highstand to the Provo level occurred at 17.0 ka and the lake intermittently overflowed at the Provo level until 15.2 ka, at which time the lake fell again, bottoming out at ~14.7 ka. The lake also fell briefly below the Provo level at ~15.9 ka. Carbonate and ??18O data indicate that between 14.7 and 13.1 ka the lake slowly rose to the Gilbert shoreline and remained at about that elevation until 11.6 ka, when it fell again. Chemical and sedimentological data indicate that a marsh formed in the Blue Lake area at 10.5 ka.Relatively dry periods in the BL04-4 records are associated with Heinrich events H1-H4, suggesting that either the warming that closely followed a Heinrich event increased the evaporation rate in the Bonneville Basin and (or) that the core of the polar jet stream (PJS) shifted north of the Bonneville Basin in response to massive losses of ice from the Laurentide Ice Sheet (LIS) during the Heinrich event. The second Stansbury Oscillation occurred during Heinrich event H2, and the Gilbert wet event occurred during the Younger Dryas cold interval. Several relatively wet events in BL04-4 occur during Dansgaard-Oeschger (DO) warm events.The growth of the Bear River glacier between 32 and 17 ka paralleled changes in the values of proxy

  18. 10.5% efficient polymer and amorphous silicon hybrid tandem photovoltaic cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jeehwan; Hong, Ziruo; Li, Gang; Song, Tze-Bin; Chey, Jay; Lee, Yun Seog; You, Jingbi; Chen, Chun-Chao; Sadana, Devendra K.; Yang, Yang

    2015-03-01

    Thin-film solar cells made with amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) or organic semiconductors are considered as promising renewable energy sources due to their low manufacturing cost and light weight. However, the efficiency of single-junction a-Si:H or organic solar cells is typically <10%, insufficient for achieving grid parity. Here we demonstrate an efficient double-junction photovoltaic cell by employing an a-Si:H film as a front sub-cell and a low band gap polymer:fullerene blend film as a back cell on planar glass substrates. Monolithic integration of 6.0% efficienct a-Si:H and 7.5% efficient polymer:fullerene blend solar cells results in a power conversion efficiency of 10.5%. Such high-efficiency thin-film tandem cells can be achieved by optical management and interface engineering of fully optimized high-performance front and back cells without sacrificing photovoltaic performance in both cells.

  19. Pion interference correlations in pion-nucleus collisions at 10. 5 GeV/c

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, R.

    1983-01-01

    Inclusive reactions of pion, Ne collisions at 10.5 GeV/c have been studied. The pion intensity interference effect has been observed in identical pion (..pi../sup +/, ..pi../sup -/, and ..pi../sup -/, ..pi../sup -/) as well as non-identical (..pi../sup +/, ..pi../sup -/) pion pair correlations. A momentum dependence is observed in the interference correlation function at small momentum differences. Previously only the identical pion interference correlations have been reported. In this thesis, the non-identical pion pair correlation is also studied. The momentum dependence is also new. For (..pi../sup -/,..pi../sup +/) and (..pi../sup -/,..pi../sup -/) pairs, the enhancement is due mostly to pions with mom/sup */>600 MeV/c. However for (..pi../sup +/, ..pi../sup +/) pairs, the peak is due primarily to pions with mom<200 MeV/c. Using the method of Kopylov and Podgoretsky the identical pion source region is determined to be 4.1 +/- 2.3 fermis. Also the influence on the final state correlations by the Bose statistics, Coulomb, and nuclear forces is observed. The possibility of using the (..pi../sup +/,..pi../sup -/) pion pair correlations to examine the pions produced in the quark-gluon perturbative vacuum of high-energy nucleus-nucleus collisions is suggested.

  20. 10.5% efficient polymer and amorphous silicon hybrid tandem photovoltaic cell.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeehwan; Hong, Ziruo; Li, Gang; Song, Tze-bin; Chey, Jay; Lee, Yun Seog; You, Jingbi; Chen, Chun-Chao; Sadana, Devendra K; Yang, Yang

    2015-03-04

    Thin-film solar cells made with amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) or organic semiconductors are considered as promising renewable energy sources due to their low manufacturing cost and light weight. However, the efficiency of single-junction a-Si:H or organic solar cells is typically <10%, insufficient for achieving grid parity. Here we demonstrate an efficient double-junction photovoltaic cell by employing an a-Si:H film as a front sub-cell and a low band gap polymer:fullerene blend film as a back cell on planar glass substrates. Monolithic integration of 6.0% efficienct a-Si:H and 7.5% efficient polymer:fullerene blend solar cells results in a power conversion efficiency of 10.5%. Such high-efficiency thin-film tandem cells can be achieved by optical management and interface engineering of fully optimized high-performance front and back cells without sacrificing photovoltaic performance in both cells.

  1. Diverse Anhydrous Silicates in a Fine-Grained Rim in the Weakly Altered CM2 Chondrite Queen Elizabeth Range 97990: Evidence for the Localized Preservation of Pristine Nebular Dust in CM Chondrites.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brearley, A. J.

    2016-08-01

    A fine-grained rim the QUE 97990 CM2 chondrite contains diverse submicron crystalline anhydrous silicates, including olivines, low-Ca and high Ca pyroxenes and represents a more pristine sample of nebular dust than is present in most CM chondrites.

  2. Effect of 10.5 M Aqueous Urea on Helicobacter pylori Urease: A Molecular Dynamics Study.

    PubMed

    Minkara, Mona S; Weaver, Michael N; Merz, Kenneth M

    2015-07-07

    The effects of a 10.5 M solution of aqueous urea on Helicobacter pylori urease were investigated over the course of a 500 ns molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. The enzyme was solvated by 25321 water molecules, and additionally, 4788 urea molecules were added to the solution. Although concentrated urea solutions are known laboratory denaturants, the protein secondary structure is retained throughout the simulation largely because of the short simulation time (urea denaturation occurs on the millisecond time scale). The relatively constant solvent accessible surface area over the last 400 ns of the simulation further confirms the overall lack of denaturation. The wide-open flap state observed previously in Klebsiella areogenes urease [Roberts, B. P., et al. (2012) J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134, 9934] and H. pylori [Minkara, M. S., et al. (2014) J. Chem. Theory Comput. 10, 1852-1862] was also identified in this aqueous urea simulation. Over the course of the trajectory, we were able to observe urea molecules entering the active site in proportions related to the extent of opening of the active site-covering flap. Furthermore, urea molecules were observed to approach the pentacoordinate Ni(2+) ion in position to bind in a manner consistent with the proposed initial coordination step of the hydrolysis mechanism. We also observed a specific and unique pattern in the regions of the protein with a high root-mean-square fluctuation (rmsf). The high-rmsf regions in the β-chain form a horseshoelike arrangement surrounding the active site-covering flap on the surface of the protein. We hypothesize that the function of these regions is to both attract and shuttle urea toward the loop of the active site-covering flap before entry into the cavity. Indeed, urea is observed to interact with these regions for extended periods of simulation time before active site ingress.

  3. Picosecond transient gratings in CdS1- xSex mixed crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dörnfeld, C.; Noll, G.; Schwab, H.; Hvam, J. M.; Weber, Ch.; Renner, R.; Göbel, E. O.; Reznitsky, A.; Lyssenko, V.; Pendjur, S. A.; Talensky, O. N.; Klingshirn, C.

    1990-04-01

    We performed transient grating experiments to study various relaxation processes of localized excitons in CdS1 xSex mixed crystals. At low temperatures we observe a strong nonlinear response, spectrally in the localized states. We measured the phase relaxation time of localized excitons with a correlation technique. At low excitation levels we found long phase relaxation times of 75 ps. In a three beam configuration of a transient grating experiment we investigated the recombination as well as the diffusion of excitons within the localized states. We observed a reduced mobility compared to the mobility of free excitons in the pure compounds and found diffusion coefficients D < 2 cm2/ s.

  4. Isolation of new Stenotrophomonas bacteriophages and genomic characterization of temperate phage S1.

    PubMed

    García, Pilar; Monjardín, Cristina; Martín, Rebeca; Madera, Carmen; Soberón, Nora; Garcia, Eva; Meana, Alvaro; Suárez, Juan E

    2008-12-01

    Twenty-two phages that infect Stenotrophomonas species were isolated through sewage enrichment and prophage induction. Of them, S1, S3, and S4 were selected due to their wide host ranges compared to those of the other phages. S1 and S4 are temperate siphoviruses, while S3 is a virulent myovirus. The genomes of S3 and S4, about 33 and 200 kb, were resistant to restriction digestion. The lytic cycles lasted 30 min for S3 and about 75 min for S1 and S4. The burst size for S3 was 100 virions/cell, while S1 and S4 produced about 75 virus particles/cell. The frequency of bacteriophage-insensitive host mutants, calculated by dividing the number of surviving colonies by the bacterial titer of a parallel, uninfected culture, ranged between 10(-5) and 10(-6) for S3 and 10(-3) and 10(-4) for S1 and S4. The 40,287-bp genome of S1 contains 48 open reading frames (ORFs) and 12-bp 5' protruding cohesive ends. By using a combination of bioinformatics and experimental evidence, functions were ascribed to 21 ORFs. The morphogenetic and lysis modules are well-conserved, but no lysis-lysogeny switch or DNA replication gene clusters were recognized. Two major clusters of genes with respect to transcriptional orientation were observed. Interspersed among them were lysogenic conversion genes encoding phosphoadenosine phosphosulfate reductase and GspM, a protein involved in the general secretion system II. The attP site of S1 may be located within a gene that presents over 75% homology to a Stenotrophomonas chromosomal determinant.

  5. Exit Strategies: S1P Signaling and T Cell Migration.

    PubMed

    Baeyens, Audrey; Fang, Victoria; Chen, Cynthia; Schwab, Susan R

    2015-12-01

    Whereas the role of sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 1 (S1PR1) in T cell egress and the regulation of S1P gradients between lymphoid organs and circulatory fluids in homeostasis are increasingly well understood, much remains to be learned about S1P signaling and distribution during an immune response. Recent data suggest that the role of S1PR1 in directing cells from tissues into circulatory fluids is reprised again and again, particularly in guiding activated T cells from non-lymphoid tissues into lymphatics. Conversely, S1P receptor 2 (S1PR2), which antagonizes migration towards chemokines, confines cells within tissues. Here we review the current understanding of the roles of S1P signaling in activated T cell migration. In this context, we outline open questions, particularly regarding the shape of S1P gradients in different tissues in homeostasis and inflammation, and discuss recent strategies to measure S1P.

  6. Exogenous S1P Exposure Potentiates Ischemic Stroke Damage That Is Reduced Possibly by Inhibiting S1P Receptor Signaling.

    PubMed

    Moon, Eunjung; Han, Jeong Eun; Jeon, Sejin; Ryu, Jong Hoon; Choi, Ji Woong; Chun, Jerold

    2015-01-01

    Initial and recurrent stroke produces central nervous system (CNS) damage, involving neuroinflammation. Receptor-mediated S1P signaling can influence neuroinflammation and has been implicated in cerebral ischemia through effects on the immune system. However, S1P-mediated events also occur within the brain itself where its roles during stroke have been less well studied. Here we investigated the involvement of S1P signaling in initial and recurrent stroke by using a transient middle cerebral artery occlusion/reperfusion (M/R) model combined with analyses of S1P signaling. Gene expression for S1P receptors and involved enzymes was altered during M/R, supporting changes in S1P signaling. Direct S1P microinjection into the normal CNS induced neuroglial activation, implicating S1P-initiated neuroinflammatory responses that resembled CNS changes seen during initial M/R challenge. Moreover, S1P microinjection combined with M/R potentiated brain damage, approximating a model for recurrent stroke dependent on S1P and suggesting that reduction in S1P signaling could ameliorate stroke damage. Delivery of FTY720 that removes S1P signaling with chronic exposure reduced damage in both initial and S1P-potentiated M/R-challenged brain, while reducing stroke markers like TNF-α. These results implicate direct S1P CNS signaling in the etiology of initial and recurrent stroke that can be therapeutically accessed by S1P modulators acting within the brain.

  7. Metal Acetylacetonate Series in Interface Engineering for Full Low-Temperature-Processed, High-Performance, and Stable Planar Perovskite Solar Cells with Conversion Efficiency over 16% on 1 cm(2) Scale.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Xu, Leiming; Feng, Xiyuan; Jie, Jiansheng; He, Zhubing

    2017-02-14

    A series of metal acetylacetonates produced by a full low-temperature (below 100 °C) process are successfully employed to obtain both "multistable" and high-performance planar-inverted perovskite solar cells. All the three kinds of champion cells in small area exhibit over 18% in conversion-efficiency with negligible hysteresis, along with above 16% in conversion-efficiency for planar PSCs in an aperture area of over 1 cm(2) .

  8. S1-equivariant Chern-Weil constructions on loop space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCauley, Thomas

    2017-02-01

    We study the existence of S1-equivariant characteristic classes on certain natural infinite rank bundles over the loop space LM of a manifold M. We discuss the different S1-equivariant cohomology theories in the literature and clarify their relationships. We attempt to use S1-equivariant Chern-Weil techniques to construct S1-equivariant characteristic classes. The main result is the construction of a sequence of S1-equivariant characteristic classes on the total space of the bundles, but these classes do not descend to the base LM. Nevertheless, we conclude by identifying a class of bundles for which the S1-equivariant first Chern class does descend to LM.

  9. Study of EWS/FLI-1 rearrangement in 18 cases of CK20+/CM2B4+ Merkel cell carcinoma using FISH and correlation to the differential diagnosis of Ewing sarcoma/peripheral neuroectodermal tumor.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Flores, Angel; Suarez-Peñaranda, Jose M; Alonso, Soledad

    2013-10-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) and primary cutaneous Ewing sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PCES/PNET) pose a challenging morphologic differential diagnosis. Approximately 90% of Ewing sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs) have a specific translocation, t(11;22) (q24;q12). The EWS-friend leukemia integration-1 (FLI-1) fusion results in FLI-1 overexpression. EWS/FLI-1 rearrangement has been suggested as a useful tool in the diagnosis of PCES/PNET. In contrast, Merkel cell polyomavirus was found to be an infective agent related to the pathogenesis of MCC. Merkel cell polyomavirus can be immunohistochemically detected with the antibody CM2B4. To the best of our knowledge, there is no case of any cytokeratin (CK)20-/CM2B4+ PNET. The goal of our study was to investigate whether EWS/FLI-1 rearrangement was present in cases of MCC. We have studied 18 cases of MCC. To make sure that the cases investigated by fluorescent in situ hybridization were genuine MCC, we considered only CK20+/CM2B4+ cases. Six cases met this criterion. EWS/FLI-1 rearrangement was not evidenced in any of the 18 cases (including the 6 "genuine" cases of MCC). Although our findings were somewhat expected, we think that they fill a gap in the literature: the confirmation that MCC is devoid of the EWS/FLI-1 rearrangement.

  10. Blocking S1P interaction with S1P{sub 1} receptor by a novel competitive S1P{sub 1}-selective antagonist inhibits angiogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Fujii, Yasuyuki; Ueda, Yasuji; Ohtake, Hidenori; Ono, Naoya; Takayama, Tetsuo; Nakazawa, Kiyoshi; Igarashi, Yasuyuki; Goitsuka, Ryo

    2012-03-23

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effect of a newly developed S1P{sub 1}-selective antagonist on angiogenic responses. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer S1P{sub 1} is a critical component of VEGF-related angiogenic responses. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer S1P{sub 1}-selective antagonist showed in vitro activity to inhibit angiogenesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer S1P{sub 1}-selective antagonist showed in vivo activity to inhibit angiogenesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The efficacy of S1P{sub 1}-selective antagonist for anti-cancer therapies. -- Abstract: Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor type 1 (S1P{sub 1}) was shown to be essential for vascular maturation during embryonic development and it has been demonstrated that substantial crosstalk exists between S1P{sub 1} and other pro-angiogenic growth factors, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor. We developed a novel S1P{sub 1}-selective antagonist, TASP0277308, which is structurally unrelated to S1P as well as previously described S1P{sub 1} antagonists. TASP0277308 inhibited S1P- as well as VEGF-induced cellular responses, including migration and proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Furthermore, TASP0277308 effectively blocked a VEGF-induced tube formation in vitro and significantly suppressed tumor cell-induced angiogenesis in vivo. These findings revealed that S1P{sub 1} is a critical component of VEGF-related angiogenic responses and also provide evidence for the efficacy of TASP0277308 for anti-cancer therapies.

  11. Conformationally Constrained, Stable, Triplet Ground State (S = 1) Nitroxide Diradicals. Antiferromagnetic Chains of S = 1 Diradicals

    SciTech Connect

    Rajca, Andrzej; Takahashi, Masahiro; Pink, Maren; Spagnol, Gaelle; Rajca, Suchada

    2008-06-30

    Nitroxide diradicals, in which nitroxides are annelated to m-phenylene forming tricyclic benzobisoxazine-like structures, have been synthesized and characterized by X-ray crystallography, magnetic resonance (EPR and {sup 1}H NMR) spectroscopy, as well as magnetic studies in solution and in solid state. For the octamethyl derivative of benzobisoxazine nitroxide diradical, the conformationally constrained nitroxide moieties are coplanar with the m-phenylene, leading to large values of 2J (2J/k > 200 K in solution and 2J/k >> 300 K in the solid state). For the diradical, in which all ortho and para positions of the m-phenylene are sterically shielded, distortion of the nitroxide moieties from coplanarity is moderate, such that the singlet-triplet gaps remain large in both solution (2J/k > 200 K) and the solid state (2J/k {approx} 400-800 K), though an onset of thermal depopulation of the triplet ground state is detectable near room temperature. These diradicals have robust triplet ground states with strong ferromagnetic coupling and good stability at ambient conditions. Magnetic behavior of the nitroxide diradicals at low temperature is best fit to the model of one-dimensional S = 1 Heisenberg chains with intrachain antiferromagnetic coupling. The antiferromagnetic coupling between the S = 1 diradicals may be associated with the methyl nitroxide C-H {hor_ellipsis} O contacts, including nonclassical hydrogen bonds. These unprecedented organic S = 1 antiferromagnetic chains are highly isotropic, compared to those of the extensively studied Ni(II)-based chains.

  12. S1P in HDL promotes interaction between SR-BI and S1PR1 and activates S1PR1-mediated biological functions: calcium flux and S1PR1 internalization.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mi-Hye; Appleton, Kathryn M; El-Shewy, Hesham M; Sorci-Thomas, Mary G; Thomas, Michael J; Lopes-Virella, Maria F; Luttrell, Louis M; Hammad, Samar M; Klein, Richard L

    2017-02-01

    HDL normally transports about 50-70% of plasma sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), and the S1P in HDL reportedly mediates several HDL-associated biological effects and signaling pathways. The HDL receptor, SR-BI, as well as the cell surface receptors for S1P (S1PRs) may be involved partially and/or completely in these HDL-induced processes. Here we investigate the nature of the HDL-stimulated interaction between the HDL receptor, SR-BI, and S1PR1 using a protein-fragment complementation assay and confocal microscopy. In both primary rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells and HEK293 cells, the S1P content in HDL particles increased intracellular calcium concentration, which was mediated by S1PR1. Mechanistic studies performed in HEK293 cells showed that incubation of cells with HDL led to an increase in the physical interaction between the SR-BI and S1PR1 receptors that mainly occurred on the plasma membrane. Model recombinant HDL (rHDL) particles formed in vitro with S1P incorporated into the particle initiated the internalization of S1PR1, whereas rHDL without supplemented S1P did not, suggesting that S1P transported in HDL can selectively activate S1PR1. In conclusion, these data suggest that S1P in HDL stimulates the transient interaction between SR-BI and S1PRs that can activate S1PRs and induce an elevation in intracellular calcium concentration.

  13. Chemical and genetic tools to explore S1P biology.

    PubMed

    Cahalan, Stuart M

    2014-01-01

    The zwitterionic lysophospholipid Sphingosine 1-Phosphate (S1P) is a pleiotropic mediator of physiology and pathology. The synthesis, transport, and degradation of S1P are tightly regulated to ensure that S1P is present in the proper concentrations in the proper location. The binding of S1P to five G protein-coupled S1P receptors regulates many physiological systems, particularly the immune and vascular systems. Our understanding of the functions of S1P has been aided by the tractability of the system to both chemical and genetic manipulation. Chemical modulators have been generated to affect most of the known components of S1P biology, including agonists of S1P receptors and inhibitors of enzymes regulating S1P production and degradation. Genetic knockouts and manipulations have been similarly engineered to disrupt the functions of individual S1P receptors or enzymes involved in S1P metabolism. This chapter will focus on the development and utilization of these chemical and genetic tools to explore the complex biology surrounding S1P and its receptors, with particular attention paid to the in vivo findings that these tools have allowed for.

  14. 26 CFR 1.414(s)-1 - Definition of compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definition of compensation. 1.414(s)-1 Section 1.414(s)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.414(s)-1 Definition...

  15. Sphingosine-1-Phosphate (S1P) Lyase Inhibition Causes Increased Cardiac S1P Levels and Bradycardia in Rats.

    PubMed

    Harris, Christopher M; Mittelstadt, Scott; Banfor, Patricia; Bousquet, Peter; Duignan, David B; Gintant, Gary; Hart, Michelle; Kim, Youngjae; Segreti, Jason

    2016-10-01

    Inhibition of the sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P)-catabolizing enzyme S1P lyase (S1PL) elevates the native ligand of S1P receptors and provides an alternative mechanism for immune suppression to synthetic S1P receptor agonists. S1PL inhibition is reported to preferentially elevate S1P in lymphoid organs. Tissue selectivity could potentially differentiate S1PL inhibitors from S1P receptor agonists, the use of which also results in bradycardia, atrioventricular block, and hypertension. But it is unknown if S1PL inhibition would also modulate cardiac S1P levels or cardiovascular function. The S1PL inhibitor 6-[(2R)-4-(4-benzyl-7-chlorophthalazin-1-yl)-2-methylpiperazin-1-yl]pyridine-3-carbonitrile was used to determine the relationship in rats between drug concentration, S1P levels in select tissues, and circulating lymphocytes. Repeated oral doses of the S1PL inhibitor fully depleted circulating lymphocytes after 3 to 4 days of treatment in rats. Full lymphopenia corresponded to increased levels of S1P of 100- to 1000-fold in lymph nodes, 3-fold in blood (but with no change in plasma), and 9-fold in cardiac tissue. Repeated oral dosing of the S1PL inhibitor in telemeterized, conscious rats resulted in significant bradycardia within 48 hours of drug treatment, comparable in magnitude to the bradycardia induced by 3 mg/kg fingolimod. These results suggest that S1PL inhibition modulates cardiac function and does not provide immune suppression with an improved cardiovascular safety profile over fingolimod in rats.

  16. Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM), Investment & Planing Version 3.10.5.m

    SciTech Connect

    2014-04-01

    Version 3.10.5 is a multi-year Decision Support tool for Distributed Generation (DG). DER-CAM was initially created as an exclusively economic energy model, able to find the cost minimizing combination and operation profile of a set of DER technologies that meet heat and electric loads of a single building or microgrid for a typical test year. Now, version 3.10.5.m solves for a multiple-year horizon the technology choice question, the appropriate capacity for each selected technology as well as the operational and investment schedule. Optimized investment decisions are based on techno-economic criteria, along with site information such as energy loads, economic forecast, and technology characterization. Version 3.10.5 contains: 1. a PV and battery degradation model and 2. variable performance for technologies. Efficiency, investment costs, etc. can vary over time and model technology breakthroughs and advancements.

  17. Vacuum ultraviolet photoionization mass spectra and cross-sections for volatile organic compounds at 10.5 eV.

    PubMed

    Kanno, Nozomu; Tonokura, Kenichi

    2007-08-01

    Vacuum ultraviolet single-photon ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (VUV-SPI-TOFMS) has been applied to the detection of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including aromatic, chlorinated, and oxygenated compounds. Photoionization mass spectra of 23 VOCs were measured using SPI-TOFMS at 10.5 eV (118 nm). The limits of detection of VOCs using SPI-TOFMS at 10.5 eV were estimated to be a few ppbv. The mass spectra of 20 VOCs exhibit only the parent ion and its isotopes' signals. The ionization processes of the VOCs were discussed on the basis of the reaction enthalpies predicted by the quantum chemical calculations. Absolute photoionization cross-sections for 23 VOCs, including 12 newly measured VOCs, at 10.5 eV were determined in comparison to the reported absolute photoionization cross-section of NO.

  18. Targeting sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) levels and S1P receptor functions for therapeutic immune interventions.

    PubMed

    Gräler, Markus H

    2010-01-01

    Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) is an important regulator of many different immune functions including lymphocyte circulation, antigen presentation, and T cell development. It stimulates five G protein-coupled receptors designated S1P(1-5), which are also expressed by immune cells. S1P receptors couple to different heterotrimeric G proteins including G alpha i, q, and 12/13, and elicit cellular signalling events by activating the small GTPases Rac and Rho and protein kinases Akt, ERK, and JNK, and by inducing cellular calcium flux and inhibiting cAMP accumulation, amongst others. S1P is the exit signal for lymphocytes leaving lymphoid organs and present in blood and lymph at high nanomolar concentrations due to the S1P-producing activity of sphingosine kinases (SK). The S1P-degrading enzyme S1P-lyase maintains low amounts of S1P in lymphoid organs. Disrupting this concentration difference by S1P receptor agonists and antagonists like FTY720, SEW2871, and VPC23019, by an anti-S1P antibody, or by inhibiting the S1P-lyase has therapeutic potential for autoimmune diseases like multiple sclerosis (MS) and rheumatoid arthritis and for many other disorders like cancer, fibrosis, inflammation, macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, and glaucoma. This report aims to provide a brief overview of concepts, approaches, pharmaceutical compounds, and targets that are currently used to modulate S1P-driven immune functions.

  19. Fully Enzymatic Membraneless Glucose|Oxygen Fuel Cell That Provides 0.275 mA cm(-2) in 5 mM Glucose, Operates in Human Physiological Solutions, and Powers Transmission of Sensing Data.

    PubMed

    Ó Conghaile, Peter; Falk, Magnus; MacAodha, Domhnall; Yakovleva, Maria E; Gonaus, Christoph; Peterbauer, Clemens K; Gorton, Lo; Shleev, Sergey; Leech, Dónal

    2016-02-16

    Coimmobilization of pyranose dehydrogenase as an enzyme catalyst, osmium redox polymers [Os(4,4'-dimethoxy-2,2'-bipyridine)2(poly(vinylimidazole))10Cl](+) or [Os(4,4'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridine)2(poly(vinylimidazole))10Cl](+) as mediators, and carbon nanotube conductive scaffolds in films on graphite electrodes provides enzyme electrodes for glucose oxidation. The recombinant enzyme and a deglycosylated form, both expressed in Pichia pastoris, are investigated and compared as biocatalysts for glucose oxidation using flow injection amperometry and voltammetry. In the presence of 5 mM glucose in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) (50 mM phosphate buffer solution, pH 7.4, with 150 mM NaCl), higher glucose oxidation current densities, 0.41 mA cm(-2), are obtained from enzyme electrodes containing the deglycosylated form of the enzyme. The optimized glucose-oxidizing anode, prepared using deglycosylated enzyme coimmobilized with [Os(4,4'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridine)2(poly(vinylimidazole))10Cl](+) and carbon nanotubes, was coupled with an oxygen-reducing bilirubin oxidase on gold nanoparticle dispersed on gold electrode as a biocathode to provide a membraneless fully enzymatic fuel cell. A maximum power density of 275 μW cm(-2) is obtained in 5 mM glucose in PBS, the highest to date under these conditions, providing sufficient power to enable wireless transmission of a signal to a data logger. When tested in whole human blood and unstimulated human saliva maximum power densities of 73 and 6 μW cm(-2) are obtained for the same fuel cell configuration, respectively.

  20. Integrated Assessment of Hadley Centre (HadCM2) Climate-Change Impacts on Agricultural Productivity and Irrigation Water Supply in the Conterminous United States. Part II. Regional Agricultural Production in 2030 and 2095.

    SciTech Connect

    Izaurralde, R Cesar C.; Rosenberg, Norman J.; Brown, Robert A.; Thomson, Allison M.

    2003-06-30

    This study used scenarios of the HadCM2 GCM and the EPIC agroecosystem model to evaluate climate change impacts on crop yields and ecosystem processes. Baseline climate data were obtained from records for 1961-1990. The scenario runs for 2025-2034 and 2090-2099 were extracted from a HadCM2 run. EPIC was run on 204 representative farms under current climate and two 10-y periods centered on 2030 and 2095, each at CO2 concentrations of 365 and 560 ppm. Texas, New Mexico, Colorado, Utah, Arizona, and California are projected to experience significant temperature increases by 2030. Slight cooling is expected by 2030 in Alabama, Florida, Maine, Montana, Idaho, and Utah. Larger areas are projected to experience increased warming by 2095. Uniform precipitation increases are expected by 2030 in the NE. These increases are predicted to expand to the eastern half of the country by 2095. EPIC simulated yield increases for the Great Lakes, Corn Belt and Northeast regions. Simulated yields of irrigated corn yields were predicted to increase in almost all regions. Soybean yields could decrease in the Northern and Southern Plains, the Corn Belt, Delta, Appalachian, and Southeast regions and increase in the Lakes and Northeast regions. Simulated wheat yields exhibited upward yield trends under scenarios of climate change. National corn production in 2030 and 2095 could be affected by changes in three major producing regions. In 2030, corn production could increase in the Corn Belt and Lakes regions but decrease in the Northern Plains leading to an overall decrease in national production. National wheat production is expected to increase during both future periods. A proxy indicator was developed to provide a sense of where in the country, and when water would be available to satisfy change in irrigation demand for corn and alfalfa production as these are influenced by the HadCM2 scenarios and CO2-fertilization.

  1. Sphingosine-1-Phosphate (S1P) and S1P Signaling Pathway: Therapeutic Targets in Autoimmunity and Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Hsing-Chuan; Han, May H

    2016-07-01

    Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) and S1P receptors (S1PR) are ubiquitously expressed. S1P-S1PR signaling has been well characterized in immune trafficking and activation in innate and adaptive immune systems. However, the full extent of its involvement in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases is not well understood. FTY720 (fingolimod), a non-selective S1PR modulator, significantly decreased annualized relapse rates in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS). FTY720, which primarily targets S1P receptor 1 as a functional antagonist, arrests lymphocyte egress from secondary lymphoid tissues and reduces neuroinflammation in the central nervous system (CNS). Recent studies suggest that FTY720 also decreases astrogliosis and promotes oligodendrocyte differentiation within the CNS and may have therapeutic benefit to prevent brain atrophy. Since S1P signaling is involved in multiple immune functions, therapies targeting S1P axis may be applicable to treat autoimmune diseases other than MS. Currently, over a dozen selective S1PR and S1P pathway modulators with potentially superior therapeutic efficacy and better side-effect profiles are in the pipeline of drug development. Furthermore, newly characterized molecules such as apolipoprotein M (ApoM) (S1P chaperon) and SPNS2 (S1P transporter) are also potential targets for treatment of autoimmune diseases. Finally, the application of therapies targeting S1P and S1P signaling pathways may be expanded to treat several other immune-mediated disorders (such as post-infectious diseases, post-stroke and post-stroke dementia) and inflammatory conditions beyond their application in primary autoimmune diseases.

  2. Low level laser therapy (AlGaInP) applied at 5J/cm2 reduces the proliferation of Staphylococcus aureus MRSA in infected wounds and intact skin of rats*

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Daniela Conceição Gomes Gonçalves e; Plapler, Helio; da Costa, Mateus Matiuzzi; Silva, Silvio Romero Gonçalves e; de Sá, Maria da Conceição Aquino; Silva, Benedito Sávio Lima e

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Laser therapy is a low cost, non-invasive procedure with good healing results. Doubts exist as to whether laser therapy action on microorganisms can justify research aimed at investigating its possible effects on bacteria-infected wounds. OBJECTIVE To assess the effect of low intensity laser on the rate of bacterial contamination in infected wounds in the skin of rats. METHODS An experimental study using 56 male Wistar rats. The animals were randomly divided into eight groups of seven each. Those in the "infected" groups were infected by Staphylococcus aureus MRSA in the dorsal region. Red laser diode (AlGaInP) 658nm, 5J/cm2 was used to treat the animals in the "treated" groups in scan for 3 consecutive days. Samples were drawn before inoculating bacteria and following laser treatment. For statistical analysis we used the nonparametric Wilcoxon (paired data) method with a significance level of p <0.05. RESULTS The statistical analysis of median values showed that the groups submitted to laser treatment had low bacterial proliferation. CONCLUSION The laser (AlGaInP), with a dose of 5J/cm2 in both intact skin and in wounds of rats infected with Staphylococcus aureus MRSA, is shown to reduce bacterial proliferation. PMID:23539003

  3. S1P and the birth of platelets.

    PubMed

    Hla, Timothy; Galvani, Sylvain; Rafii, Shahin; Nachman, Ralph

    2012-11-19

    Recent work has highlighted the multitude of biological functions of sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), which include roles in hematopoietic cell trafficking, organization of immune organs, vascular development, and neuroinflammation. Indeed, a functional antagonist of S1P(1) receptor, FTY720/Gilenya, has entered the clinic as a novel therapeutic for multiple sclerosis. In this issue of the JEM, Zhang et al. highlight yet another function of this lipid mediator: thrombopoiesis. The S1P(1) receptor is required for the growth of proplatelet strings in the bloodstream and the shedding of platelets into the circulation. Notably, the sharp gradient of S1P between blood and the interstitial fluids seems to be essential to ensure the production of platelets, and S1P appears to cooperate with the CXCL12-CXCR4 axis. Pharmacologic modulation of the S1P(1) receptor altered circulating platelet numbers acutely, suggesting a potential therapeutic strategy for controlling thrombocytopenic states. However, the S1P(4) receptor may also regulate thrombopoiesis during stress-induced accelerated platelet production. This work reveals a novel physiological action of the S1P/S1P(1) duet that could potentially be harnessed for clinical translation.

  4. Single mode operation with mid-IR hollow fibers in the range 5.1-10.5 µm.

    PubMed

    Sampaolo, Angelo; Patimisco, Pietro; Kriesel, Jason M; Tittel, Frank K; Scamarcio, Gaetano; Spagnolo, Vincenzo

    2015-01-12

    Single mode beam delivery in the mid-infrared spectral range 5.1-10.5 μm employing flexible hollow glass waveguides of 15 cm and 50 cm lengths, with metallic/dielectric internal layers and a bore diameter of 200 μm were demonstrated. Three quantum cascade lasers were coupled with the hollow core fibers. For a fiber length of 15 cm, we measured losses down to 1.55 dB at 5.4 μm and 0.9 dB at 10.5 μm. The influence of the launch conditions in the fiber on the propagation losses and on the beam profile at the waveguide exit was analyzed. At 10.5 µm laser wavelength we found near perfect agreement between measured and theoretical losses, while at ~5 µm and ~6 µm wavelengths the losses were higher than expected. This discrepancy can be explained considering an additional scattering loss effect, which scales as 1/λ(2) and is due to surface roughness of the metallic layer used to form the high-reflective internal layer structure of the hollow core waveguide.

  5. Phase-matched four-wave mixing of sub-100-TW/ cm2 femtosecond laser pulses in isolated air-guided modes of a hollow photonic-crystal fiber.

    PubMed

    Konorov, S O; Serebryannikov, E E; Akimov, D A; Ivanov, A A; Alfimov, M V; Zheltikov, A M

    2004-12-01

    Hollow-core photonic-crystal fibers are shown to allow propagation and nonlinear-optical frequency conversion of high-intensity ultrashort laser pulses in the regime of isolated guided modes confined in the hollow gas-filled fiber core. With a specially designed dispersion of such modes, the 3omega=2omega+2omega-omega four-wave mixing of fundamental (omega) and second-harmonic (2omega) sub-100- TW/ cm(2) femtosecond pulses of a Cr:forsterite laser can be phase matched in a hollow photonic-crystal fiber within a spectral band of more than 10 nm, resulting in the efficient generation of femtosecond pulses in a well-resolved higher-order air-guided mode of 417-nm radiation.

  6. Prenatal and postnatal manganese teeth levels and neurodevelopment at 7, 9, and 10.5 years in the CHAMACOS cohort

    PubMed Central

    Mora, Ana M.; Arora, Manish; Harley, Kim G.; Kogut, Katherine; Parra, Kimberly; Hernández-Bonilla, David; Gunier, Robert B.; Bradman, Asa; Smith, Donald R.; Eskenazi, Brenda

    2015-01-01

    Background Numerous cross-sectional studies of school-age children have observed that exposure to manganese (Mn) adversely affects neurodevelopment. However, few prospective studies have looked at the effects of both prenatal and postnatal Mn exposure on child neurodevelopment. Methods We measured Mn levels in prenatal and early postnatal dentine of shed teeth and examined their association with behavior, cognition, memory, and motor functioning in 248 children aged 7, 9, and/or 10.5 years living near agricultural fields treated with Mn-containing fungicides in California. We used generalized linear models and generalized additive models to test for linear and nonlinear associations, and generalized estimating equation models to assess longitudinal effects. Results We observed that higher prenatal and early postnatal Mn levels in dentine of deciduous teeth were adversely associated with behavioral outcomes, namely internalizing, externalizing, and hyperactivity problems, in boys and girls at 7 and 10.5 years. In contrast, higher Mn levels in prenatal and postnatal dentine were associated with better memory abilities at ages 9 and 10.5, and better cognitive and motor outcomes at ages 7 and 10.5 years, among boys only. Higher prenatal dentine Mn levels were also associated with poorer visuospatial memory outcomes at 9 years and worse cognitive scores at 7 and 10.5 years in children with higher prenatal lead levels (≥0.8 μg/dL). All these associations were linear and were consistent with findings from longitudinal analyses. Conclusions We observed that higher prenatal and early postnatal Mn levels measured in dentine of deciduous teeth, a novel biomarker that provides reliable information on the developmental timing of exposures to Mn, were associated with poorer behavioral outcomes in school-age boys and girls and better motor function, memory, and/or cognitive abilities in school-age boys. Additional research is needed to understand the inconsistencies in the

  7. Current Development of Anti-Cancer Drug S-1

    PubMed Central

    Giri, Anil; Shakya, Suraj; Shakya, Sujana; Sapkota, Binaya; Pramod, KC

    2016-01-01

    S-1 is a novel oral fluoropyrimidine derivative, widely used for treating gastric, pancreatic, lung, head, neck and breast carcinomas. It is designed to enhance the clinical utility of an oral fluoropyrimidine and is associated with low gastrointestinal toxicity. S-1 consists of three pharmacological agents (at a molar ratio of 1:0.4:1)-Tegafur (FT), a prodrug of 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU), 5-Chloro-2-4-Dihydroxypyridine (CDHP), which inhibits the activity of Dihydropyrimidine Dehydrogenase (DPD) and Oxonic Acid (Oxo), which reduces Gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity of 5-FU. The present article reviews the current development of clinical study of S-1. PMID:28050491

  8. Apparatus to measure the vapor pressure of slowly decomposing compounds from 1 Pa to 10(5) Pa.

    PubMed

    Berg, Robert F

    2015-11-01

    This article describes an apparatus and method for measuring vapor pressures in the range from 1 Pa to 10(5) Pa. Its three distinctive elements are : (1) the static pressure measurements were made with only a small temperature difference between the vapor and the condensed phase, (2) the sample was degassed in situ, and (3) the temperature range extended up to 200 °C. The apparatus was designed to measure metal-organic precursors, which often are toxic, pyrophoric, or unstable. Vapor pressures are presented for naphthalene, ferrocene, diethyl phthalate, and TEMAH (tetrakisethylmethylaminohafnium). Also presented are data for the temperature-dependent decomposition rate of TEMAH.

  9. Enhanced low-temperature CO oxidation on a stepped platinum surface for oxygen pressures above 10(-5) Torr.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Henry D; Burnett, Daniel J; Gabelnick, Aaron M; Fischer, Daniel A; Gland, John L

    2005-11-24

    The rate of CO oxidation has been characterized on the stepped Pt(411) surface for oxygen pressures up to 0.002 Torr, over the 100-1000 K temperature range. CO oxidation was characterized using both temperature-programmed reaction spectroscopy (TPRS) and in situ soft X-ray fluorescence yield near-edge spectroscopy (FYNES). New understanding of the important role surface defects play in accelerating CO oxidation for oxygen pressure above 10(-5) Torr is presented in this paper for the first time. For saturated monolayers of CO, the oxidation rate increases and the activation energy decreases significantly for oxygen pressures above 10(-5) Torr. This enhanced CO oxidation rate is caused by a change in the rate-limiting step to a surface reaction limited process above 10(-5) Torr oxygen from a CO desorption limited process at lower oxygen pressure. For example, in oxygen pressures above 0.002 Torr, CO(2) formation begins at 275 K even for the CO saturated monolayer, which is well below the 350 K onset temperature for CO desorption. Isothermal kinetic measurements in flowing oxygen for this stepped surface indicate that activation energies and preexponential factors depend strongly on oxygen pressure, a factor that has not previously been considered critical for CO oxidation on platinum. As oxygen pressure is increased from 10(-6) to 0.002 Torr, the oxidation activation energies for the saturated CO monolayer decrease from 24.1 to 13.5 kcal/mol for reaction over the 0.95-0.90 ML CO coverage range. This dramatic decrease in activation energy is associated with a simple increase in oxygen pressure from 10(-5) to 10(-3) Torr. Activation energies as low as 7.8 kcal/mol were observed for oxidation of an initially saturated CO layer reacting over the 0.4-0.25 ML coverage range in oxygen pressure of 0.002 Torr. These dramatic changes in reaction mechanism with oxygen pressure for stepped surfaces are consistent with mechanistic models involving transient low activation energy

  10. Replacement of olivine by serpentine in the Queen Alexandra Range 93005 carbonaceous chondrite (CM2): Reactant-product compositional relations, and isovolumetric constraints on reaction stoichiometry and elemental mobility during aqueous alteration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velbel, Michael A.; Tonui, Eric K.; Zolensky, Michael E.

    2015-01-01

    Isovolumetric replacement of euhedral and anhedral olivine by serpentine produced both centripetal and meshwork textures in the CM2 chondrites ALH 81002 and Nogoya. The compositions of these textural varieties of serpentine are uniform within narrow limits within each previously studied meteorite, independent of the composition of olivine being replaced, and different between the two meteorites. In QUE 93005 (CM2), coarse olivines of widely varying compositions (Fo<76-99) are replaced in a texturally similar manner by compositionally uniform serpentine (Mg0.73±0.05Fe0.27±0.05)3Si2O5(OH)4. The narrow compositional range of serpentine replacing coarse olivine indicates that the aqueous solution from which the serpentine formed was compositionally uniform on scales at least as large as the meteorite (∼2.5 cm in longest dimension). Isovolumetric textures and compositional observations constrain elemental redistribution from coarse olivine to serpentine and to surrounding phases during serpentinization. Regardless of olivine's composition, isovolumetric replacement of coarse olivines by serpentine of the observed composition released more Mg and Si from olivine than was required to form the serpentine. Excess Mg and Si released by olivine destruction and not retained in serpentine were exported from the replaced volume. Olivines with different Fa/Fo proportions contributed different amounts of Fe and Mg to the serpentine. Ferroan olivines released more Fe than required to form the serpentines replacing them, so some of the Fe released from ferroan olivine was exported from the replaced volumes. Forsteritic olivines released less Fe than required to form the serpentines replacing them, so some Fe was imported into the replaced volumes augmenting the small amount of Fe released from forsteritic olivine. In QUE 93005 Fo83.8 is the threshold composition between Fe-exporting and Fe-importing behavior in individual olivine-serpentine pairs, which released exactly the

  11. 7S(1/2) ? 9S(1/2) two-photon spectroscopy of trapped francium.

    PubMed

    Simsarian, J E; Shi, W; Orozco, L A; Sprouse, G D; Zhao, W Z

    1996-12-01

    We report on the spectroscopic measurement of the (210)Fr 9S(1/2) energy obtained by two-photon excitation of atoms confined and cooled in a magneto-optic trap. The resonant intermediate level 7P(3/2) is the upper state of the trapping transition. We have measured the energy difference between the 9S(1/2) state and the 7S(1/2) ground state to be 25 671.021 +/- 0.006 cm(-1).

  12. Key comparison BIPM.RI(I)-K6 of the standards for absorbed dose to water at 10 g cm-2 of the NPL, United Kingdom and the BIPM in accelerator photon beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picard, S.; Burns, D. T.; Roger, P.; Duane, S.; Bass, G. A.; Manning, J. W.; Shipley, D. R.

    2015-01-01

    A comparison of the dosimetry for accelerator photon beams was carried out between the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) and the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) from 23 September to 7 October 2014. The comparison was based on the determination of absorbed dose to water at 10 g cm-2 for three radiation qualities at the NPL. The results, reported as ratios of the NPL and the BIPM evaluations (and with the combined standard uncertainties given in parentheses), are 1.0000(62) at 6 MV, 0.9999(70) at 10 MV and 0.9993(80) at 25 MV. This result is the seventh in the on-going BIPM.RI(I)-K6 series of comparisons. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCRI, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  13. Key comparison BIPM.RI(I)-K6 of the standards for absorbed dose to water at 10 g cm-2 of the NMIJ, Japan and the BIPM in accelerator photon beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picard, S.; Burns, D. T.; Roger, P.; Shimizu, M.; Morishita, Y.; Kato, M.; Tanaka, T.; Kurosawa, T.; Saito, N.

    2016-01-01

    A comparison of the dosimetry for accelerator photon beams was carried out between the National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ) and the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) from 9 to 23 April 2015. The comparison was based on the determination of absorbed dose to water at 10 g cm-2 for three radiation qualities at the NMIJ. The results, reported as ratios of the NMIJ and the BIPM evaluations (and with the combined standard uncertainties given in parentheses), are 0.9966 (47) at 6 MV, 0.9965 (60) at 10 MV and 0.9953 (50) at 15 MV. This result is the eighth in the on-going BIPM.RI(I)-K6 series of comparisons. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCRI, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  14. Enhanced therapeutic anti-inflammatory effect of betamethasone upon topical administration with low frequency, low intensity (20 kHz, 100 mW/cm2) ultrasound exposure on carrageenan-induced arthritis in mice model

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Gadi; Natsheh, Hiba; Sunny, Youhan; Bawiec, Christopher R.; Touitou, Elka; Lerman, Melissa A.; Lazarovici, Philip; Lewin, Peter A.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to investigate whether low frequency, low intensity (LFLI, 20 kHz, <100 mW/cm2, spatial-peak, temporal-peak) ultrasound (US), delivered by a light-weight (<100g), tether-free, fully wearable, battery powered applicator is capable of reducing inflammation in a mouse model of Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA). The therapeutic, acute, anti-inflammatory effect was estimated by the relative swelling induced in mice hind limb paws. In an independent, indirect approach, the inflammation was bio-imaged by measuring glycolytic activity with near infrared labeled 2-deoxy-glucose (2DG). The outcome of the experiments indicated that the combination of US exposure with topical application of 0.1% w/w betamethasone gel, exhibited statistically significant (p<0.05) enhanced anti-inflammatory properties in comparison with the drug or US treatment alone. The present study underscores the potential benefits of LFLI US assisted drug delivery. However, the proof of concept presented indicates the need for additional experiments to systematically evaluate and optimize the potential of, and the conditions for, safe, LFLI ultrasound promoted non-invasive drug delivery. PMID:26003010

  15. Vortex pinning properties in Co-doped BaFe2As2 thin films with a high critical current density over 2 MA cm-2 at 9 T

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Pusheng; Xu, Zhongtang; Wang, Dongliang; Zhang, Ming; Li, Jianqi; Ma, Yanwei

    2017-02-01

    Similar to other high-temperature superconductors, the pinning centers largely determine the critical current density (J c) in Co-doped BaFe2As2 (Ba122:Co). Therefore, understanding the vortex pinning mechanism of high-J c Ba122:Co thin films is important for the applications of Ba122:Co. Herein we report the pinning of the naturally grown defects in Ba122:Co thin films with a high critical current density. The transport J c of thin films is up to 2.6 MA cm-2 in 9 T at 4.2 K, which is the highest value in iron-based superconductors. Microstructure investigations reveal a high density of ab-planar defects (stacking faults) and localized vertical defects present in the sample. The Dew-Hughes mode analyses prove that pinning centers by surface defects and by point defects are responsible for H//ab and H//c, respectively. Therefore, the high J c in strong magnetic field for both H//ab and H//c are related to surface and point defects which act as the pinning centers in Ba122:Co films.

  16. [Evaluation of Drug Interaction between S-1 and Warfarin].

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Kaori; Suzuki, Shinya; Ikegawa, Kiwako; Nomura, Hisanaga; Fuse, Nozomu; Saito, Shinichiro

    2016-01-01

    Prolonged prothrombin time is observed in patients taking warfarin (WF) with a fluoropyrimidine, such as S-1. When WF is combined with S-1, the prothrombin time-international normalized ratio (PT-INR) and dose adjustment of WF should be closely monitored. To date, no clinical data have been reported in terms of the relation between temporal variation of PT-INR and its therapeutic range. In this study, we retrospectively collected patients' clinical data including PT-INR. We identified 21 patients receiving WF therapy before the start of S-1 treatment. Patient characteristics were male/female: 18/3, median age: 69 (range 48-81) years old, cancer of gastric/lung/pancreatic/other: 8/5/4/4, and history of deep vein thrombosis (DVT)/atrial fibrillation (AF)/cerebral infarction (CI)/other: 11/6/2/2. The PT-INR of 16 patients exceeded normal upper limits after taking S-1 with WF. The median time to exceed the PT-INR upper therapeutic range is 25 (range 3-77) days. Patients receiving WF anticoagulant therapy concomitant with S-1 should have their PT-INR closely monitored and WF doses adjusted accordingly.

  17. Quartz-enhanced photoacoustic detection of ethylene using a 10.5 μm quantum cascade laser.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhen; Li, Zhili; Ren, Wei

    2016-02-22

    A quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS) sensor has been developed for the sensitive detection of ethylene (C2H4) at 10.5 µm using a continuous-wave distributed-feedback quantum cascade laser. At this long-wavelength infrared, the key acoustic elements of quartz tuning fork and micro-resonators were optimized to improve the detection signal-to-noise ratio by a factor of >4. The sensor calibration demonstrated an excellent linear response (R2>0.999) to C2H4 concentration at the selected operating pressure of 500 and 760 Torr. With a minimum detection limit of 50 parts per billion (ppb) achieved at an averaging time of 70 s, the sensor has been deployed for measuring the C2H4 efflux during the respiration of biological samples in an agronomic environment.

  18. Monitoring stress related velocity variation in concrete with a 2 x 10(-5) relative resolution using diffuse ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Larose, Eric; Hall, Stephen

    2009-04-01

    Ultrasonic waves propagating in solids have stress-dependent velocities. The relation between stress (or strain) and velocity forms the basis of non-linear acoustics. In homogeneous solids, conventional time-of-flight techniques have measured this dependence with spectacular precision. In heterogeneous media such as concrete, the direct (ballistic) wave around 500 kHz is strongly attenuated and conventional techniques are less efficient. In this manuscript, the effect of weak stress changes on the late arrivals constituting the acoustic diffuse coda is tracked. A resolution of 2 x 10(-5) in relative velocity change is attained which corresponds to a sensitivity to stress change of better than 50 kPa. Therefore, the technique described here provides an original way to measure the non-linear parameter with stress variations on the order of tens of kPa.

  19. Design note of an air-cooled 2 ft x 2 ft x 10. 5 ft long muon spoiler

    SciTech Connect

    Visser, A.; Pathiyil, J.

    1988-01-06

    This note describes the construction of a muon spoiler (magnetized steel assembly) with a cross section of 2 ft by 2 ft and a length of 10.5 ft. Two such spoilers are operated in series at an average field of about 15 kGauss, from one 100 ADC, 40 V power supply. The purpose of the spoilers is to prevent muons from easily escaping beyond the muon laboratory experimental area by bending them down so that they have to pass through more earth. The spoilers reduce the muon dose rate beyond the experimental area by about a factor of 15 to 20. These types of spoilers are not precision devices. They were inexpensive to build from scrap materials using rough flame cutting methods. It took about 14 days to fabricate them.

  20. High-Performance, Air-Stable Field-Effect Transistors Based on Heteroatom-Substituted Naphthalenediimide-Benzothiadiazole Copolymers Exhibiting Ultrahigh Electron Mobility up to 8.5 cm V(-1) s(-1).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhiyuan; Yin, Zhihong; Chen, Huajie; Zheng, Liping; Zhu, Chunguang; Zhang, Long; Tan, Songting; Wang, Hanlin; Guo, Yunlong; Tang, Qingxin; Liu, Yunqi

    2017-01-01

    Rational heteroatom engineering is applied to develop high-performance electron-transporting naphthalenediimide copolymers. Top-gate field-effect transistors fabricated from selenophene-containing polymers achieve an ultrahigh electron mobility of 8.5 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) and excellent air-stability. The results demonstrate that the incorporation of selenophene heterocycles into the polymers can improve the film-forming ability, intermolecular interaction, and carrier transport significantly.

  1. The S=1 Underscreened Anderson Lattice model for Uranium compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, C.; Simões, A. S. R.; Iglesias, J. R.; Lacroix, C.; Perkins, N. B.; Coqblin, B.

    2011-01-01

    Magnetic properties of uranium and neptunium compounds showing coexistence of the Kondo effect and ferromagnetic order are investigated within the degenerate Anderson Lattice Hamiltonian, describing a 5f2 electronic configuration with S = 1 spins. Through the Schrieffer-Wolff transformation, both an exchange Kondo interaction for the S = 1 f-spins and an effective f-band term are obtained, allowing to describe the coexistence of Kondo effect and ferromagnetic ordering and a weak delocalization of the 5f-electrons. We calculate the Kondo and Curie temperatures and we can account for the pressure dependence of the Curie temperature of UTe.

  2. U.S. Regional Agricultural Production in 2030 and 2095: Response to CO2 Fertilization and Hadley Climate Model (HadCM2) Projections of Greenhouse-Forced Climatic Change

    SciTech Connect

    NJ Rosenberg; RC Izaurralde: RA Brown

    1999-11-19

    Research activities underway to evaluate potential consequences of climate change and variability on the agriculture, water resources, and other U.S. sectors were mandated by the Global Change Research Act of 1990. These activities are being carried out in a public-private partnership under the guidance of the U.S. Global Change Research Program. Researchers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) have been using integrated assessment methodologies to appraise the possible impacts of global warming and climatic variability on the behavior of managed and natural systems. This interim PNNL report contributes to the U.S. National Assessment process with an analysis of the modeled impacts of climatic changes projected by the Hadley/UKMO (HadCM2) general circulation model on agricultural productivity and selected environmental variables. The construction of climatic data for the simulation runs followed general guidelines established by the U.S. National Assessment Synthesis Team. The baseline climate data were obtained from national records for the period 1961 - 1990. The scenario runs for two future periods (2025 - 2030 and 2090 - 2099) were extracted from results of a HadCM2 run distributed at a half-degree spatial resolution. The Erosion Productivity Impact Calculator (EPIC) was used to simulate the behavior of 204 "representative farms" (i.e., soil-climate-management combinations) under baseline climate, the two future periods and their combinations with two levels of atmospheric C02 concentrations (365 and 560 ppm). Analysis of simulation results identified areas in Texas, New Mexico, Colorado, Utah, Arizona, and California that would experience large temperature increases by 2030. Slight cooling is expected by 2030 in parts of Alabama, Florida, Maine, Montana, Idaho, and Utah. Larger areas will experience increased warming by 2095. Uniform precipitation increases are expected by 2030 in the north eastern quarter of the country. These uniform precipitation

  3. Low-voltage back-gated atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition based graphene-striped channel transistor with high-κ dielectric showing room-temperature mobility > 11,000 cm(2)/V·s.

    PubMed

    Smith, Casey; Qaisi, Ramy; Liu, Zhihong; Yu, Qingkai; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2013-07-23

    Utilization of graphene may help realize innovative low-power replacements for III-V materials based high electron mobility transistors while extending operational frequencies closer to the THz regime for superior wireless communications, imaging, and other novel applications. Device architectures explored to date suffer a fundamental performance roadblock due to lack of compatible deposition techniques for nanometer-scale dielectrics required to efficiently modulate graphene transconductance (gm) while maintaining low gate capacitance-voltage product (CgsVgs). Here we show integration of a scaled (10 nm) high-κ gate dielectric aluminum oxide (Al2O3) with an atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD)-derived graphene channel composed of multiple 0.25 μm stripes to repeatedly realize room-temperature mobility of 11,000 cm(2)/V·s or higher. This high performance is attributed to the APCVD graphene growth quality, excellent interfacial properties of the gate dielectric, conductivity enhancement in the graphene stripes due to low tox/Wgraphene ratio, and scaled high-κ dielectric gate modulation of carrier density allowing full actuation of the device with only ±1 V applied bias. The superior drive current and conductance at Vdd = 1 V compared to other top-gated devices requiring undesirable seed (such as aluminum and poly vinyl alcohol)-assisted dielectric deposition, bottom gate devices requiring excessive gate voltage for actuation, or monolithic (nonstriped) channels suggest that this facile transistor structure provides critical insight toward future device design and process integration to maximize CVD-based graphene transistor performance.

  4. L5 – S1 Segmental Kinematics After Facet Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Voronov, Leonard I.; Havey, Robert M.; Rosler, David M.; Sjovold, Simon G.; Rogers, Susan L.; Carandang, Gerard; Ochoa, Jorge A.; Yuan, Hansen; Webb, Scott

    2009-01-01

    Background Facet arthroplasty is a motion restoring procedure. It is normally suggested as an alternative to rigid fixation after destabilizing decompression procedures in the posterior lumbar spine. While previous studies have reported successful results in reproducing normal spine kinematics after facet replacement at L4-5 and L3-4, there are no data on the viability of facet replacement at the lumbosacral joint. The anatomy of posterior elements and the resulting kinematics at L5-S1 are distinctly different from those at superior levels, making the task of facet replacement at the lumbosacral level challenging. This study evaluated the kinematics of facet replacement at L5-S1. Methods Six human cadaveric lumbar spines (L1-S1, 46.7 ± 13.0 years) were tested in the following sequence: (1) intact (L1-S1), (2) complete laminectomy and bilateral facetectomy at L5-S1, and (3) implantation of TFAS-LS (Lumbosacral Total Facet Arthroplasty System, Archus Orthopedics, Redmond, Washington) at L5-S1 using pedicle screws. Specimens were tested in flexion (8Nm), extension (6Nm), lateral bending (LB, ± 6Nm), and axial rotation (AR, ± 5Nm). The level of significance was α = .017 after Bonferroni correction for three comparisons: (1) intact vs. destabilized, (2) destabilized vs. reconstructed, and (3) intact vs. reconstructed. Results Laminectomy-facetectomy at L5-S1 increased the L5-S1 angular range of motion (ROM) in all directions. Flexion-extension (F-E) ROM increased from 15.3 ± 2.9 to 18.7 ± 3.5 degrees (P < .017), LB from 8.2 ± 1.8 to 9.3 ± 1.6 degrees (P < .017), and AR from 3.7 ± 2.0 to 5.9 ± 1.8 degrees (P < .017). The facet arthroplasty system decreased ROM compared to the laminectomy-facetectomy condition in all tested directions (P < .017). The facet arthroplasty system restored the L5-S1 ROM to its intact levels in LB and AR (P > .017). F-E ROM after the facet arthroplasty system implantation was smaller than the intact value (10.1 ± 2.2 vs. 15.3 ± 2

  5. Excitation of nutation by the global radiational S1 tide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schindelegger, M.; Salstein, D. A.; Einspigel, D.; Boehm, J.

    2014-12-01

    Cyclic mass redistributions in the atmosphere and oceans related to the global radiational S1 tide elicit seasonal perturbations of Earth's nutation at a level of 0.1 mas (milliarcseconds). The present study provides an up-to-date assessment of these excitation effects on the basis of 10-year surface and isobaric level data from three, previously unavailable global atmospheric reanalysis systems. We retrieve numerical values of in- and out-of-phase nutation corrections for seasonally modulated S1 variations and indicate how model improvements, specifically in terms of the representation of tidal oscillations, lead to different estimates with respect to earlier reanalyses. Motion term signals in nutation display a close agreement across all probed datasets, whereas larger disparities remain among mass term excitation estimates due to their dependency on small-scale diurnal surface pressure oscillations. A simple time-stepping model for barotropic ocean dynamics, based on the shallow water equations and driven by air pressure tide climatologies, represents an appropriate means to determine global S1 estimates of sea level heights and currents that are consistent with the respective forcing fields from each reanalysis. We address the intricacies of constructing such a model and compare our preliminary oceanic angular momentum solutions to those from more established hydrodynamic forward integrations. The combined influence of the S1 tide on Earth's nutation, associated with both atmosphere and ocean dynamics, is found to yield a rough agreement with observations from geodetic VLBI (Very Long Baseline Interferometry) measurements.

  6. Late-stage optimization of a tercyclic class of S1P3-sparing, S1P1 receptor agonists.

    PubMed

    Horan, Joshua C; Kuzmich, Daniel; Liu, Pingrong; DiSalvo, Darren; Lord, John; Mao, Can; Hopkins, Tamara D; Yu, Hui; Harcken, Christian; Betageri, Raj; Hill-Drzewi, Melissa; Patenaude, Lori; Patel, Monica; Fletcher, Kimberly; Terenzzio, Donna; Linehan, Brian; Xia, Heather; Patel, Mita; Studwell, Debbie; Miller, Craig; Hickey, Eugene; Levin, Jeremy I; Smith, Dustin; Kemper, Raymond A; Modis, Louise K; Bannen, Lynne C; Chan, Diva S; Mac, Morrison B; Ng, Stephanie; Wang, Yong; Xu, Wei; Lemieux, René M

    2016-01-15

    Poor solubility and cationic amphiphilic drug-likeness were liabilities identified for a lead series of S1P3-sparing, S1P1 agonists originally developed from a high-throughput screening campaign. This work describes the subsequent optimization of these leads by balancing potency, selectivity, solubility and overall molecular charge. Focused SAR studies revealed favorable structural modifications that, when combined, produced compounds with overall balanced profiles. The low brain exposure observed in rat suggests that these compounds would be best suited for the potential treatment of peripheral autoimmune disorders.

  7. Thermal emission spectra of Mars (5.4-10.5 microns) - Evidence for sulfates, carbonates, and hydrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollack, James B.; Roush, Ted; Witteborn, Fred; Bregman, Jesse; Wooden, Diane; Stoker, Carol; Toon, Owen B.

    1990-01-01

    Spectra of the Martian thermal emission in the 5.4-10.5 micron region are reported. Emission features at 7.8 and 9.7 microns are attributed to surface silicates, and an emission feature at 6.1 micron is attributed to a molecular water component of the surface material. An absorption band at 8.7 micron and a possible one at 9.8 microns is attributed to sulfate or bisulfate anions probably located at a distorted crystalline site, and an absorption band at 6.7 microns is attributed to carbonate or bicarbonate anions located in a distorted crystalline site. Spectral simulations indicate that the sulfate- and carbonate-bearing minerals are contained in the same particles of airborne dust as the dominant silicate minerals, that the dust optical depth is about 0.6 at a reference wavelength of 0.3 micron over the area of the observed spots, and that sulfates and carbonates constitute 10-15 percent and 1-3 percent by volume of the airborne dust, respectively.

  8. A trapped-ion-based quantum byte with 10(-5) next-neighbour cross-talk.

    PubMed

    Piltz, C; Sriarunothai, T; Varón, A F; Wunderlich, C

    2014-08-19

    The addressing of a particular qubit within a quantum register is a key pre-requisite for scalable quantum computing. In general, executing a quantum gate with a single qubit, or a subset of qubits, affects the quantum states of all other qubits. This reduced fidelity of the whole-quantum register could prevent the application of quantum error correction protocols and thus preclude scalability. Here we demonstrate addressing of individual qubits within a quantum byte (eight qubits) and measure the error induced in all non-addressed qubits (cross-talk) associated with the application of single-qubit gates. The quantum byte is implemented using microwave-driven hyperfine qubits of (171)Yb(+) ions confined in a Paul trap augmented with a magnetic gradient field. The measured cross-talk is on the order of 10(-5) and therefore below the threshold commonly agreed sufficient to efficiently realize fault-tolerant quantum computing. Hence, our results demonstrate how this threshold can be overcome with respect to cross-talk.

  9. Thermal emission spectra of Mars (5.4-10.5 microns) - Evidence for sulfates, carbonates, and hydrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollack, James B.; Roush, Ted; Witteborn, Fred; Bregman, Jesse; Wooden, Diane; Stoker, Carol; Toon, Owen B.

    1990-08-01

    Spectra of the Martian thermal emission in the 5.4-10.5 micron region are reported. Emission features at 7.8 and 9.7 microns are attributed to surface silicates, and an emission feature at 6.1 micron is attributed to a molecular water component of the surface material. An absorption band at 8.7 micron and a possible one at 9.8 microns is attributed to sulfate or bisulfate anions probably located at a distorted crystalline site, and an absorption band at 6.7 microns is attributed to carbonate or bicarbonate anions located in a distorted crystalline site. Spectral simulations indicate that the sulfate- and carbonate-bearing minerals are contained in the same particles of airborne dust as the dominant silicate minerals, that the dust optical depth is about 0.6 at a reference wavelength of 0.3 micron over the area of the observed spots, and that sulfates and carbonates constitute 10-15 percent and 1-3 percent by volume of the airborne dust, respectively.

  10. The Global S_1 Tide in Earth's Nutation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schindelegger, Michael; Einšpigel, David; Salstein, David; Böhm, Johannes

    2016-05-01

    Diurnal S_1 tidal oscillations in the coupled atmosphere-ocean system induce small perturbations of Earth's prograde annual nutation, but matching geophysical model estimates of this Sun-synchronous rotation signal with the observed effect in geodetic Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) data has thus far been elusive. The present study assesses the problem from a geophysical model perspective, using four modern-day atmospheric assimilation systems and a consistently forced barotropic ocean model that dissipates its energy excess in the global abyssal ocean through a parameterized tidal conversion scheme. The use of contemporary meteorological data does, however, not guarantee accurate nutation estimates per se; two of the probed datasets produce atmosphere-ocean-driven S_1 terms that deviate by more than 30 μ as (microarcseconds) from the VLBI-observed harmonic of -16.2+i113.4 μ as. Partial deficiencies of these models in the diurnal band are also borne out by a validation of the air pressure tide against barometric in situ estimates as well as comparisons of simulated sea surface elevations with a global network of S_1 tide gauge determinations. Credence is lent to the global S_1 tide derived from the Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) and the operational model of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). When averaged over a temporal range of 2004 to 2013, their nutation contributions are estimated to be -8.0+i106.0 μ as (MERRA) and -9.4+i121.8 μ as (ECMWF operational), thus being virtually equivalent with the VLBI estimate. This remarkably close agreement will likely aid forthcoming nutation theories in their unambiguous a priori account of Earth's prograde annual celestial motion.

  11. The global S1 tide and Earth's nutation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schindelegger, M.; Böhm, J.; Salstein, D. A.

    2015-08-01

    Diurnal S1 tidal atmospheric oscillations induced by the cyclic heating of air masses through solar radiation elicit a small contribution to Earth's prograde annual nutation at a level of 100 μas (microarcseconds). Previously published estimates of this Sun-synchronous perturbation based on angular momentum series from global geophysical fluid models have however diverged, and within the present conventional nutation theory, the effect has been instead accounted for in an empirical manner based on analyzing residual spectra of observed celestial pole offsets. This study constitutes a first, tentative reassessment of the S1 signal in nutation by resorting to modern-day atmospheric reanalyses as well as available hydrodynamic solutions for diurnal oceanic angular momentum changes that are driven by daily air pressure variations at the water surface. We elucidate the global character of the S1 tide with particular regard to Earth rotation variations and investigate to which extent atmospheric and oceanic excitation terms from various sources can be superimposed. The combined influence of the principal diurnal tide on Earth's nutation, associated with both atmosphere and ocean dynamics, is found to yield a sound agreement with its observational evidence from geodetic VLBI (Very Long Baseline Interferometry) measurements.

  12. Angular momentum budget of the radiational S1 ocean tide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schindelegger, Michael; Dobslaw, Henryk; Poropat, Lea; Salstein, David; Böhm, Johannes

    2016-04-01

    The balance of diurnal S1 oceanic angular momentum (OAM) variations through torques at the sea surface and the bottom topography is validated using both a barotropic and a baroclinic numerical tide model. This analysis discloses the extent to which atmosphere-driven S1 forward simulations are reliable for use in studies of high-frequency polar motion and changes in length-of-day. Viscous and dissipative torques associated with wind stress, bottom friction, as well as internal tidal energy conversion are shown to be small, and they are overshadowed by gravitational and pressure-related interaction forces. In particular, the zonal OAM variability of S1 is almost completely balanced by the water pressure torque on the local bathymetry, whereas in the prograde equatorial case also the air pressure torque on the seafloor as well as ellipsoidal contributions from the non-spherical atmosphere and solid Earth must be taken into account. Overall, the OAM budget is well closed in both the axial and the equatorial directions, thus allowing for an identification of the main diurnal angular momentum sinks in the ocean. The physical interaction forces are found to be largest at shelf breaks and continental slopes in low latitudes, with the most dominant contribution coming from the Indonesian archipelago.

  13. Search for ammonia in comet C/2012 S1 (ISON)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faggi, S.; Codella, C.; Tozzi, G. P.; Comoretto, G.; Crovisier, J.; Nesti, R.; Panella, D.; Boissier, J.; Brucato, J. R.; Bolli, P.; Massi, F.; Tofani, G.

    2015-12-01

    Comets are uniquely pristine bodies providing unique insights about the formation of our Solar System. In this work, we focus on a dynamically new comet as it enters the inner Solar System for the first time after residing for billion of years in the Oort Cloud. Such comets are particularly important because they are thought to be not differentiated by solar radiation and they are supposed to have a large quantity of organic matter close to the surface. Here we report the results of a search for NH3(1,1) emission at 23.7 GHz towards comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) using a new dual-feed K band receiver mounted on the Medicina 32-m antenna. We observed the comet close to its perihelion, from 25 to 29 November 2013, when its heliocentric distance changed from 0.25 AU to 0.03 AU. We derive an upper limit of Q(NH3) of about 2.5×1029 mol s-1 on 26 November, that is consistent with the last peak of water production rate of ∼2×1030 mol s-1 within the last few days before the perihelion.

  14. Osmo-, Thermo- and Ethanol- Tolerances of Saccharomyces cerevisiae S1

    PubMed Central

    Balakumar, Sandrasegarampillai; Arasaratnam, Vasanthy

    2012-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae S1, which is a locally isolated and improved strain showed viability at 40, 45 and 50°C and produced ethanol at 40, 43 and 45°C. When the cells were given heat shock at 45°C for 30min and grown at 40°C, 100% viability was observed for 60h, and addition of 200gL−1 ethanol has led to complete cell death at 30h. Heat shock given at 45°C (for 30min) has improved the tolerance to temperature induced ethanol shock leading to 37% viability at 30h. When the cells were subjected to ethanol (200gL−1 for 30 min) and osmotic shock (sorbitol 300gL−1), trehalose contents in the cells were increased. The heat shocked cells showed better viability in presence of added ethanol. Soy flour supplementation has improved the viability of S. cerevisiae S1 to 80% in presence of 100gL−1 added ethanol and to 60% in presence of 300gL−1sorbitol. In presence of sorbitol (200gL−1) and ethanol (50gL−1) at 40°C, 46% viability was retained by S. cerevisiae S1 at 48h and it was improved to 80% by soy flour supplementation. PMID:24031814

  15. Extrasolar Giant Magnetospheric Response to Steady-state Stellar Wind Pressure at 10, 5, 1, and 0.2 au

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilley, Matt A.; Harnett, Erika M.; Winglee, Robert M.

    2016-08-01

    A three-dimensional, multifluid simulation of a giant planet’s magnetospheric interaction with steady-state stellar wind from a Sun-like star was performed for four different orbital semimajor axes—10, 5, 1, and 0.2 au. We simulate the effect of the increasing, steady-state stellar wind pressure related to the planetary orbital semimajor axis on the global magnetospheric dynamics for a Saturn-like planet, including an Enceladus-like plasma torus. Mass-loss processes are shown to vary with orbital distance, with the centrifugal interchange instability displayed only in the 10 and 5 au cases, which reach a state of mass-loss equilibrium more slowly than the 1 or 0.2 au cases. The compression of the magnetosphere in the 1 and 0.2 au cases contributes to the quenching of the interchange process by increasing the ratio of total plasma thermal energy to corotational energy. The strength of field-aligned currents, associated with auroral radio emissions, is shown to increase in magnitude and latitudinal coverage with a corresponding shift equatorward from increased dynamic ram pressure experienced in the hotter orbits. Similar to observed hot Jovian planets, the warm exo-Saturn simulated in the current work shows enhanced ion density in the magnetosheath and magnetopause regions, as well as the plasma torus, which could contribute to altered transit signals, suggesting that for planets in warmer (>0.1 au) orbits, planetary magnetic field strengths and possibly exomoons—via the plasma torus—could be observable with future missions.

  16. Extrasolar giant magnetospheric response to steady-state stellar wind pressure at 10, 5, 1, and 0.2 AU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilley, Matt; Harnett, Erika; Winglee, Robert

    2016-10-01

    A three-dimensional, multifluid simulation of a giant planet's magnetospheric interaction with steady-state stellar wind from a Sun-like star was performed for four different orbital semi-major axes - 10, 5, 1 and 0.2 AU. We simulate the effect of the increasing, steady-state stellar wind pressure related to the planetary orbital semi-major axis on the global magnetospheric dynamics for a Saturn-like planet, including an Enceladus-like plasma torus. Mass loss processes are shown to vary with orbital distance, with the centrifugal interchange instability displayed only in the 10 AU and 5 AU cases which reach a state of mass loss equilibrium more slowly than the 1 AU or 0.2 AU cases. The compression of the magnetosphere in the 1 AU and 0.2 AU cases contributes to the quenching of the interchange process by increasing the ratio of total plasma thermal energy to corotational energy. The strength of field-aligned currents (FAC), associated with auroral radio emissions, are shown to increase in magnitude and latitudinal coverage with a corresponding shift equatorward from increased dynamic ram pressure experienced in the hotter orbits. Similar to observed hot Jovian planets, the warm exo-Saturn simulated in the current work shows enhanced ion density in the magnetosheath and magnetopause regions, as well as the plasma torus which could contribute to altered transit signals, suggesting that for planets in warmer (> 0.1 AU) orbits, planetary magnetic field strengths and possibly exomoons - via the plasma torus - could be observable with future missions.

  17. Interaction of integrin β4 with S1P receptors in S1P- and HGF-induced endothelial barrier enhancement.

    PubMed

    Ni, Xiuqin; Epshtein, Yulia; Chen, Weiguo; Zhou, Tingting; Xie, Lishi; Garcia, Joe G N; Jacobson, Jeffrey R

    2014-06-01

    We previously reported sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) augment endothelial cell (EC) barrier function and attenuate murine acute lung inury (ALI). While the mechanisms underlying these effects are not fully understood, S1P and HGF both transactivate the S1P receptor, S1PR1 and integrin β4 (ITGB4) at membrane caveolin-enriched microdomains (CEMs). In the current study, we investigated the roles of S1PR2 and S1PR3 in S1P/HGF-mediated EC signaling and their associations with ITGB4. Our studies confirmed ITGB4 and S1PR2/3 are recruited to CEMs in human lung EC in response to either S1P (1 µM, 5 min) or HGF (25 ng/ml, 5 min). Co-immunoprecipitation experiments identified an S1P/HGF-mediated interaction of ITGB4 with both S1PR2 and S1PR3. We then employed an in situ proximity ligation assay (PLA) to confirm a direct ITGB4-S1PR3 association induced by S1P/HGF although a direct association was not detectable between S1PR2 and ITGB4. S1PR1 knockdown (siRNA), however, abrogated S1P/HGF-induced ITGB4-S1PR2 associations while there was no effect on ITGB4-S1PR3 associations. Moreover, PLA confirmed a direct association between S1PR1 and S1PR2 induced by S1P and HGF. Finally, silencing of S1PR2 significantly attenuated S1P/HGF-induced EC barrier enhancement as measured by transendothelial resistance while silencing of S1PR3 significantly augmented S1P/HGF-induced barrier enhancement. These results confirm an important role for S1PR2 and S1PR3 in S1P/HGF-mediated EC barrier responses that are associated with their complex formation with ITGB4. Our findings elucidate novel mechanisms of EC barrier regulation that may ultimately lead to new therapeutic targets for disorders characterized by increased vascular permeability including ALI.

  18. High-pressure synthesis, structure, and photoluminescence of a new KSbO3-type bismuth germanate Bi3Ge3O10.5.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jinguang; Rettie, Alexander J E; Suchomel, Matthew R; Zhou, Haidong; Yan, Jiaqiang; Song, Jie; Marshall, Luke G; Larregola, Sebastian A; Zhou, Jianshi; Goodenough, John B

    2013-02-18

    A new Bi(3)Ge(3)O(10.5) compound has been synthesized under high pressure, P = 7 GPa, and 700 °C. Instead of the pyrochlore that is normally stabilized under high pressure, the Bi(3)Ge(3)O(10.5) crystallizes in a KSbO(3)-ype crystal structure. The crystal structure has been refined by the Rietveld method from synchrotron X-ray diffraction data. Moreover, we have also characterized the Bi(3)Ge(3)O(10.5) by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, photoluminescence, and specific heat.

  19. Lama glama αS1-casein: Identification of new polymorphisms in the CSN1S1 gene.

    PubMed

    Pauciullo, A; Gauly, M; Cosenza, G; Wagner, H; Erhardt, G

    2017-02-01

    South American camelids have been poorly genetically investigated and little information is available in llamas (Lama glama) regarding the diversity of the caseins at the protein and gene level. Exon skipping and duplication events previously reported in the αS1-casein gene (CSN1S1) led us to investigate the genetic variability at this locus. Seventy-two positive clones for the αS1-casein transcripts were analyzed and randomly sequenced. The comparative analysis of the sequences revealed 2 transitions, c.366A>G and c.690T>C, at the 10th nucleotide of exon 12 and 94 bp of exon 19, respectively. These SNP are responsible for 2 amino acid changes, Ile→Val in position 86 and Tyr→His in position 194 of the mature protein. Both polymorphisms clarify the genetic events behind the protein variants A and B. This result was confirmed by isoelectric focusing analysis of llama milk samples. Quick methods based on PCR-RFLP and allele-specific PCR were set up for allelic discrimination in a population of 128 animals. Based on genotyping results, 4 haplotypes were observed and the estimated frequencies indicated B as the most common haplotype (0.629) in the investigated population. These data add knowledge to the genetic variability of a species little investigated, and open opportunity for new investigation in the field of milk protein for South American camelids, including the possibility, in the future, to select alleles with favorable characteristics.

  20. Highly selective and potent agonists of sphingosine-1-phosphate 1 (S1P1) receptor.

    PubMed

    Vachal, Petr; Toth, Leslie M; Hale, Jeffrey J; Yan, Lin; Mills, Sander G; Chrebet, Gary L; Koehane, Carol A; Hajdu, Richard; Milligan, James A; Rosenbach, Mark J; Mandala, Suzanne

    2006-07-15

    Novel series of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptor agonists were developed through a systematic SAR aimed to achieve high selectivity for a single member of the S1P family of receptors, S1P1. The optimized structure represents a highly S1P1-selective and efficacious agonist: S1P1/S1P2, S1P1/S1P3, S1P1/S1P4>10,000-fold, S1P1/S1P5>600-fold, while EC50 (S1P1) <0.2 nM. In vivo experiments are consistent with S1P1 receptor agonism alone being sufficient for achieving desired lymphocyte-lowering effect.

  1. Complete genome sequence of Rhodospirillum rubrum type strain (S1).

    PubMed

    Munk, A Christine; Copeland, Alex; Lucas, Susan; Lapidus, Alla; Del Rio, Tijana Glavina; Barry, Kerrie; Detter, John C; Hammon, Nancy; Israni, Sanjay; Pitluck, Sam; Brettin, Thomas; Bruce, David; Han, Cliff; Tapia, Roxanne; Gilna, Paul; Schmutz, Jeremy; Larimer, Frank; Land, Miriam; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Richardson, Paul; Rohde, Manfred; Göker, Markus; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Zhang, Yaoping; Roberts, Gary P; Reslewic, Susan; Schwartz, David C

    2011-07-01

    Rhodospirillum rubrum (Esmarch 1887) Molisch 1907 is the type species of the genus Rhodospirillum, which is the type genus of the family Rhodospirillaceae in the class Alphaproteobacteria. The species is of special interest because it is an anoxygenic phototroph that produces extracellular elemental sulfur (instead of oxygen) while harvesting light. It contains one of the most simple photosynthetic systems currently known, lacking light harvesting complex 2. Strain S1(T) can grow on carbon monoxide as sole energy source. With currently over 1,750 PubMed entries, R. rubrum is one of the most intensively studied microbial species, in particular for physiological and genetic studies. Next to R. centenum strain SW, the genome sequence of strain S1(T) is only the second genome of a member of the genus Rhodospirillum to be published, but the first type strain genome from the genus. The 4,352,825 bp long chromosome and 53,732 bp plasmid with a total of 3,850 protein-coding and 83 RNA genes were sequenced as part of the DOE Joint Genome Institute Program DOEM 2002.

  2. Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P)/S1P receptor 1 signaling regulates receptor activator of NF-{kappa}B ligand (RANKL) expression in rheumatoid arthritis

    SciTech Connect

    Takeshita, Harunori; Kitano, Masayasu; Iwasaki, Tsuyoshi; Kitano, Sachie; Tsunemi, Sachi; Sato, Chieri; Sekiguchi, Masahiro; Azuma, Naoto; Miyazawa, Keiji; Hla, Timothy; Sano, Hajime

    2012-03-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MH7A cells and CD4{sup +} T cells expressed S1P1 and RANKL. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer S1P increased RANKL expression in MH7A cells and CD4{sup +} T cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effect of S1P in MH7A cells was inhibited by specific Gi/Go inhibitors. -- Abstract: Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P)/S1P receptor 1 (S1P1) signaling plays an important role in synovial cell proliferation and inflammatory gene expression by rheumatoid arthritis (RA) synoviocytes. The purpose of this study is to clarify the role of S1P/S1P1 signaling in the expression of receptor activator of NF-{kappa}B ligand (RANKL) in RA synoviocytes and CD4{sup +} T cells. We demonstrated MH7A cells, a human RA synovial cell line, and CD4{sup +} T cells expressed S1P1 and RANKL. Surprisingly, S1P increased RANKL expression in MH7A cells and CD4{sup +} T cells in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, S1P enhanced RANKL expression induced by stimulation with TNF-{alpha} in MH7A cells and CD4{sup +} T cells. These effects of S1P in MH7A cells were inhibited by pretreatment with PTX, a specific Gi/Go inhibitor. These findings suggest that S1P/S1P1 signaling may play an important role in RANKL expression by MH7A cells and CD4{sup +} T cells. S1P/S1P1 signaling of RA synoviocytes is closely connected with synovial hyperplasia, inflammation, and RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis in RA. Thus, regulation of S1P/S1P1 signaling may become a novel therapeutic target for RA.

  3. Effect of anisotropy in the S=1 underscreened Kondo lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Christopher; da Rosa Simões, Acirete S.; Lacroix, Claudine; Iglesias, José Roberto; Coqblin, Bernard

    2014-12-01

    We study the effect of crystal field anisotropy in the underscreened S=1 Kondo lattice model. Starting from the two orbital Anderson lattice model and including a local anisotropy term, we show, through Schrieffer-Wolff transformation, that local anisotropy is equivalent to an anisotropic Kondo interaction (J∥≠J⊥). The competition and coexistence between ferromagnetism and Kondo effect in this effective model is studied within a generalized mean-field approximation. Several regimes are obtained, depending on the parameters, exhibiting or not coexistence of magnetic order and Kondo effect. Particularly, we show that a re-entrant Kondo phase at low temperature can be obtained. We are also able to describe phases where the Kondo temperature is smaller than the Curie temperature (TK

  4. Confinement and power balance in the S-1 spheromak

    SciTech Connect

    Levinton, F.M.; Meyerhofer, D.D.; Mayo, R.M.; Janos, A.C.; Ono, Y.; Ueda, Y.; Yamada, M.

    1989-07-01

    The confinement and scaling features of the S-1 spheromak have been investigated using magnetic, spectroscopic, and Thomson scattering data in conjunction with numerical modeling. Results from the multipoint Thomson scattering diagnostic shows that the central beta remains constant (/beta//sub to/ /approximately/ 5%) as the plasma current density increases from 0.68--2.1 MA/m/sup 2/. The density is observed to increase slowly over this range, while the central electron temperature increases much more rapidly. Analysis of the global plasma parameters shows a decrease in the volume average beta and energy confinement as the total current is increased. The power balance has been modeled numerically with a 0-D non-equilibrium time-dependent coronal model and is consistent with the experimental observations. 20 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Transitive Lie groups on S^1\\times S^{2m}

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorbatsevich, Vladimir V.

    2007-10-01

    The structure of Lie groups acting transitively on the direct product of a circle and an even-dimensional sphere is described. For products of two spheres of dimension >1 a similar problem has already been solved by other authors. The minimal transitive Lie groups on S^1 and S^{2m} are also indicated. As an application of these results, the structure of the automorphism group of one class of geometric structures, generalized quadrangles (a special case of Tits buildings) is considered. A conjecture put forward by Kramer is proved: the automorphism group of a connected generalized quadrangle of type (1,2m) always contains a transitive subgroup that is the direct product of a compact simple Lie group and a one-dimensional Lie group. Bibliography: 16 titles.

  6. Magnetoelectric Behavior from S =1 /2 Asymmetric Square Cupolas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Yasuyuki; Kimura, Kenta; Miyake, Atsushi; Tokunaga, Masashi; Matsuo, Akira; Kindo, Koichi; Akaki, Mitsuru; Hagiwara, Masayuki; Sera, Masakazu; Kimura, Tsuyoshi; Motome, Yukitoshi

    2017-03-01

    Magnetoelectric properties are studied by a combined experimental and theoretical study of a quasi-two-dimensional material composed of square cupolas, Ba(TiO )Cu4(PO4 ) 4 . The magnetization is measured up to the field above the saturation, and several anomalies are observed depending on the field directions. We propose a S =1 /2 spin model with Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interactions, which reproduces the full magnetization curves well. Elaborating the phase diagram of the model, we show that the anomalies are explained by magnetoelectric phase transitions. Our theory also accounts for the scaling of the dielectric anomaly observed in the experiments. The results elucidate the crucial role of the in-plane component of Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interactions, which is induced by the noncoplanar buckling of a square cupola. We also predict a "hidden" phase and another magnetoelectric response, both of which appear in a nonzero magnetic field.

  7. Comparisons of absolute gravimeters (COOMET.M.G-S1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinnichenko, Mr Alexander; Germak, Alessandro, Dr

    2017-01-01

    This report describes the results of the RMO supplementary comparison COOMET.M.G-S1 (also known as bilateral comparison COOMET 634/UA/14). The comparison measurements between the two participants NSC 'IM' (pilot laboratory) and INRIM were started in December 2015 and finished in January 2016. Participants of comparisons were conducted at their national standards the measurements of the free fall acceleration in gravimetric point laboratory of absolute gravimetry of INRIM named INRiM.2. Absolute measurements of gravimetric acceleration were conducted by ballistic gravimeters. The agreement between the two participants is good. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  8. Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) induces COX-2 expression and PGE2 formation via S1P receptor 2 in renal mesangial cells.

    PubMed

    Völzke, Anja; Koch, Alexander; Meyer Zu Heringdorf, Dagmar; Huwiler, Andrea; Pfeilschifter, Josef

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms of sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P)-induced cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 expression and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) formation in renal mesangial cells may provide potential therapeutic targets to treat inflammatory glomerular diseases. Thus, we evaluated the S1P-dependent signaling mechanisms which are responsible for enhanced COX-2 expression and PGE2 formation in rat mesangial cells under basal conditions. Furthermore, we investigated whether these mechanisms are operative in the presence of angiotensin II (Ang II) and of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β (IL-1β). Treatment of rat and human mesangial cells with S1P led to concentration-dependent enhanced expression of COX-2. Pharmacological and molecular biology approaches revealed that the S1P-dependent increase of COX-2 mRNA and protein expression was mediated via activation of S1P receptor 2 (S1P2). Further, inhibition of Gi and p42/p44 MAPK signaling, both downstream of S1P2, abolished the S1P-induced COX-2 expression. In addition, S1P/S1P2-dependent upregulation of COX-2 led to significantly elevated PGE2 levels, which were further potentiated in the presence of Ang II and IL-1β. A functional consequence downstream of S1P/S1P2 signaling is mesangial cell migration that is stimulated by S1P. Interestingly, inhibition of COX-2 by celecoxib and SC-236 completely abolished the migratory response. Overall, our results demonstrate that extracellular S1P induces COX-2 expression via activation of S1P2 and subsequent Gi and p42/p44 MAPK-dependent signaling in renal mesangial cells leading to enhanced PGE2 formation and cell migration that essentially requires COX-2. Thus, targeting S1P/S1P2 signaling pathways might be a novel strategy to treat renal inflammatory diseases.

  9. Selective coupling of the S1P3 receptor subtype to S1P-mediated RhoA activation and cardioprotection.

    PubMed

    Yung, Bryan S; Brand, Cameron S; Xiang, Sunny Y; Gray, Charles B B; Means, Christopher K; Rosen, Hugh; Chun, Jerold; Purcell, Nicole H; Brown, Joan Heller; Miyamoto, Shigeki

    2017-02-01

    Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), a bioactive lysophospholipid, is generated and released at sites of tissue injury in the heart and can act on S1P1, S1P2, and S1P3 receptor subtypes to affect cardiovascular responses. We established that S1P causes little phosphoinositide hydrolysis and does not induce hypertrophy indicating that it does not cause receptor coupling to Gq. We previously demonstrated that S1P confers cardioprotection against ischemia/reperfusion by activating RhoA and its downstream effector PKD. The S1P receptor subtypes and G proteins that regulate RhoA activation and downstream responses in the heart have not been determined. Using siRNA or pertussis toxin to inhibit different G proteins in NRVMs we established that S1P regulates RhoA activation through Gα13 but not Gα12, Gαq, or Gαi. Knockdown of the three major S1P receptors using siRNA demonstrated a requirement for S1P3 in RhoA activation and subsequent phosphorylation of PKD, and this was confirmed in studies using isolated hearts from S1P3 knockout (KO) mice. S1P treatment reduced infarct size induced by ischemia/reperfusion in Langendorff perfused wild-type (WT) hearts and this protection was abolished in the S1P3 KO mouse heart. CYM-51736, an S1P3-specific agonist, also decreased infarct size after ischemia/reperfusion to a degree similar to that achieved by S1P. The finding that S1P3 receptor- and Gα13-mediated RhoA activation is responsible for protection against ischemia/reperfusion suggests that selective targeting of S1P3 receptors could provide therapeutic benefits in ischemic heart disease.

  10. Regulation of human cerebro-microvascular endothelial baso-lateral adhesion and barrier function by S1P through dual involvement of S1P1 and S1P2 receptors.

    PubMed

    Wiltshire, Rachael; Nelson, Vicky; Kho, Dan Ting; Angel, Catherine E; O'Carroll, Simon J; Graham, E Scott

    2016-01-27

    Herein we show that S1P rapidly and acutely reduces the focal adhesion strength and barrier tightness of brain endothelial cells. xCELLigence biosensor technology was used to measure focal adhesion, which was reduced by S1P acutely and this response was mediated through both S1P1 and S1P2 receptors. S1P increased secretion of several pro-inflammatory mediators from brain endothelial cells. However, the magnitude of this response was small in comparison to that mediated by TNFα or IL-1β. Furthermore, S1P did not significantly increase cell-surface expression of any key cell adhesion molecules involved in leukocyte recruitment, included ICAM-1 and VCAM-1. Finally, we reveal that S1P acutely and dynamically regulates microvascular endothelial barrier tightness in a manner consistent with regulated rapid opening followed by closing and strengthening of the barrier. We hypothesise that the role of the S1P receptors in this process is not to cause barrier dysfunction, but is related to controlled opening of the endothelial junctions. This was revealed using real-time measurement of barrier integrity using ECIS ZΘ TEER technology and endothelial viability using xCELLigence technology. Finally, we show that these responses do not occur simply though the pharmacology of a single S1P receptor but involves coordinated action of S1P1 and S1P2 receptors.

  11. Regulation of human cerebro-microvascular endothelial baso-lateral adhesion and barrier function by S1P through dual involvement of S1P1 and S1P2 receptors

    PubMed Central

    Wiltshire, Rachael; Nelson, Vicky; Kho, Dan Ting; Angel, Catherine E.; O’Carroll, Simon J.; Graham, E. Scott

    2016-01-01

    Herein we show that S1P rapidly and acutely reduces the focal adhesion strength and barrier tightness of brain endothelial cells. xCELLigence biosensor technology was used to measure focal adhesion, which was reduced by S1P acutely and this response was mediated through both S1P1 and S1P2 receptors. S1P increased secretion of several pro-inflammatory mediators from brain endothelial cells. However, the magnitude of this response was small in comparison to that mediated by TNFα or IL-1β. Furthermore, S1P did not significantly increase cell-surface expression of any key cell adhesion molecules involved in leukocyte recruitment, included ICAM-1 and VCAM-1. Finally, we reveal that S1P acutely and dynamically regulates microvascular endothelial barrier tightness in a manner consistent with regulated rapid opening followed by closing and strengthening of the barrier. We hypothesise that the role of the S1P receptors in this process is not to cause barrier dysfunction, but is related to controlled opening of the endothelial junctions. This was revealed using real-time measurement of barrier integrity using ECIS ZΘ TEER technology and endothelial viability using xCELLigence technology. Finally, we show that these responses do not occur simply though the pharmacology of a single S1P receptor but involves coordinated action of S1P1 and S1P2 receptors. PMID:26813587

  12. S1P lyase in thymic perivascular spaces promotes egress of mature thymocytes via up-regulation of S1P receptor 1.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Yasuhiro; Yagi, Hideki; Takemoto, Kana; Utsumi, Hiroyuki; Fukunari, Atsushi; Sugahara, Kunio; Masuko, Takashi; Chiba, Kenji

    2014-05-01

    Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) and S1P receptor 1 (S1P1) play an important role in the egress of mature CD4 or CD8 single-positive (SP) thymocytes from the thymus. Fingolimod hydrochloride (FTY720), an S1P1 functional antagonist, induced significant accumulation of CD62L(high)CD69(low) mature SP thymocytes in the thymic medulla. Immunohistochemical staining using anti-S1P1 antibody revealed that S1P1 is predominantly expressed on thymocytes in the thymic medulla and is strongly down-regulated even at 3h after FTY720 administration. 2-Acetyl-4-tetrahydroxybutylimidazole (THI), an S1P lyase inhibitor, also induced accumulation of mature SP thymocytes in the thymic medulla with an enlargement of the perivascular spaces (PVS). At 6h after THI administration, S1P1-expressing thymocytes reduced partially as if to form clusters and hardly existed in the proximity of CD31-expressing blood vessels in the thymic medulla, suggesting S1P lyase expression in the cells constructing thymic medullary PVS. To determine the cells expressing S1P lyase in the thymus, we newly established a mAb (YK19-2) specific for mouse S1P lyase. Immunohistochemical staining with YK19-2 revealed that S1P lyase is predominantly expressed in non-lymphoid thymic stromal cells in the thymic medulla. In the thymic medullary PVS, S1P lyase was expressed in ER-TR7-positive cells (reticular fibroblasts and pericytes) and CD31-positive vascular endothelial cells. Our findings suggest that S1P lyase expressed in the thymic medullary PVS keeps the tissue S1P concentration low around the vessels and promotes thymic egress via up-regulation of S1P1.

  13. Phase II multi-institutional prospective randomised trial comparing S-1+paclitaxel with S-1+cisplatin in patients with unresectable and/or recurrent advanced gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mochiki, E; Ogata, K; Ohno, T; Toyomasu, Y; Haga, N; Fukai, Y; Aihara, R; Ando, H; Uchida, N; Asao, T; Kuwano, H

    2012-01-01

    Background: A combination of S-1 and cisplatin has been shown to be effective with acceptable safety for the first-line treatment of far-advanced gastric cancer in Japan. This is the first randomised phase II trial to compare S-1+paclitaxel with S-1+cisplatin in this setting. Methods: Patients with unresectable and/or recurrent advanced gastric cancer were randomly assigned to receive one of the two regimens: S-1 (40 mg m−2 twice daily) on days 1–14 plus paclitaxel (60 mg m−2) on days 1, 8, and 15 of a 4-week cycle (S-1+paclitaxel) or S-1 (40 mg m−2 twice daily) on days 1–21 plus cisplatin (60 mg m−2) on day 8 of a 5-week cycle (S-1+cisplatin). The primary end point was the response rate (RR). Secondary end points included progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and safety. Results: A total of 83 patients were eligible for safety and efficacy analyses. In the S-1+paclitaxel and S-1+cisplatin groups, RRs (52.3% vs 48.7% P=0.74) and median PFS (9 vs 6 months; P=0.50) were similar. The median OS was similar in the S-1+paclitaxel and S-1+cisplatin groups (16 vs 17 months; P=0.84). The incidence of grade 3 or higher haematological toxicity was 19.0% with S-1+paclitaxel and 19.5% with S-1+cisplatin. The incidence of grade 3 or higher non-haematological toxicity was 14.2% with S-1+paclitaxel and 17.1% with S-1+cisplatin. Conclusion: S-1+paclitaxel was suggested to be a feasible and effective non-platinum-based regimen for chemotherapy in patients with advanced gastric cancer. Our results should be confirmed in multicenter, phase III-controlled clinical trials. PMID:22617130

  14. Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 1 (S1P(1)) upregulation and amelioration of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by an S1P(1) antagonist.

    PubMed

    Cahalan, Stuart M; Gonzalez-Cabrera, Pedro J; Nguyen, Nhan; Guerrero, Miguel; Cisar, Elizabeth A George; Leaf, Nora B; Brown, Steven J; Roberts, Edward; Rosen, Hugh

    2013-02-01

    Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 1 (S1P(1)) is a G protein-coupled receptor that is critical for proper lymphocyte development and recirculation. Agonists to S1P(1) are currently in use clinically for the treatment of multiple sclerosis, and these drugs may act on both S1P(1) expressed on lymphocytes and S1P(1) expressed within the central nervous system. Agonists to S1P(1) and deficiency in S1P(1) both cause lymphocyte sequestration in the lymph nodes. In the present study, we show that S1P(1) antagonism induces lymphocyte sequestration in the lymph nodes similar to that observed with S1P(1) agonists while upregulating S1P(1) on lymphocytes and endothelial cells. Additionally, we show that S1P(1) antagonism reverses experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in mice without acting on S1P(1) expressed within the central nervous system, demonstrating that lymphocyte sequestration via S1P(1) antagonism is sufficient to alleviate autoimmune pathology.

  15. Hyperoxia-induced p47phox activation and ROS generation is mediated through S1P transporter Spns2, and S1P/S1P1&2 signaling axis in lung endothelium.

    PubMed

    Harijith, Anantha; Pendyala, Srikanth; Ebenezer, David L; Ha, Alison W; Fu, Panfeng; Wang, Yue-Ting; Ma, Ke; Toth, Peter T; Berdyshev, Evgeny V; Kanteti, Prasad; Natarajan, Viswanathan

    2016-08-01

    Hyperoxia-induced lung injury adversely affects ICU patients and neonates on ventilator assisted breathing. The underlying culprit appears to be reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced lung damage. The major contributor of hyperoxia-induced ROS is activation of the multiprotein enzyme complex NADPH oxidase. Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) signaling is known to be involved in hyperoxia-mediated ROS generation; however, the mechanism(s) of S1P-induced NADPH oxidase activation is unclear. Here, we investigated various steps in the S1P signaling pathway mediating ROS production in response to hyperoxia in lung endothelium. Of the two closely related sphingosine kinases (SphKs)1 and 2, which synthesize S1P from sphingosine, only Sphk1(-/-) mice conferred protection against hyperoxia-induced lung injury. S1P is metabolized predominantly by S1P lyase and partial deletion of Sgpl1 (Sgpl1(+/-)) in mice accentuated lung injury. Hyperoxia stimulated S1P accumulation in human lung microvascular endothelial cells (HLMVECs), and downregulation of S1P transporter spinster homolog 2 (Spns2) or S1P receptors S1P1&2, but not S1P3, using specific siRNA attenuated hyperoxia-induced p47(phox) translocation to cell periphery and ROS generation in HLMVECs. These results suggest a role for Spns2 and S1P1&2 in hyperoxia-mediated ROS generation. In addition, p47(phox) (phox:phagocyte oxidase) activation and ROS generation was also reduced by PF543, a specific SphK1 inhibitor in HLMVECs. Our data indicate a novel role for Spns2 and S1P1&2 in the activation of p47(phox) and production of ROS involved in hyperoxia-mediated lung injury in neonatal and adult mice.

  16. Possible Dust Models for C/2012 S1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanamandra-Fisher, P. A.

    2014-12-01

    Comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) provided a great opportunity to study a dynamically new Oort-cloud comet on its initial and only passage through the inner solar system. Contrary to expectations, the comet's activity fluctuated from high through a quiescent phase, and a major outburst days before its perihelion passage, ending in a dramatic race to complete disintegration on perihelion day, 28 November 2013. Amateur observations to professional ground-based, sub-orbital telescopes indicate the various changes of visible factors such as Afrho, a proxy for dust activity, and the measured production rates for water, consistent with the disintegration of the nucleus. Hines et al. (2013; ApJ Lett. 780) detected positive polarization in the inner coma and negative polarization in the outer coma, indicative of a jet, independently confirmed by Li et al. (2013, ApJ Lett., 779). Thermal emission observations of the comet pre-perihelion from NAOJ/Subaru/COMICS, a mid-infrared spectrometer, indicated a body with an equivalent brightness temperature of 265K (Ootsubo et al., 2013, ACM, Helsinki,FI); thermal observations acquired at the NASA/Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) with The Aerospace Corporation spectrometer (BASS, PI. R. Russell), before and after the November 12, 2013 outburst observed by the CIOC_ISON amateur network, indicates a brightness temperature of 330K and the presence, albeit weak, of the 11.3-micron crystalline silicate feature (Sitko et al., 2014, LPI abstract 1537). A Monte Carlo comet dust tail model, applied to extract the dust environment parameters of comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) from both Earth-based and Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) calibrated observations, performed from about 6 AU (inbound), to right after perihelion passage, when just a small portion of the original comet nucleus survived in the form of a cloud of tiny particles, indicates that particles underwent disintegration and fragmentation (Moreno et al., 2014, ApJ Lett., 791). Ongoing work

  17. Measurements of exciton diffusion by degenerate four-wave mixing in CdS1-xSex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwab, H.; Pantke, K.-H.; Hvam, J. M.; Klingshirn, C.

    1992-09-01

    We performed transient-grating experiments to study the diffusion of excitons in CdS1-xSex mixed crystals. The decay of the initially created exciton density grating is well described for t<=1 ns by a stretched-exponential function. For later times this decay changes over to a behavior that is well fitted by a simple exponential function. During resonant excitation of the localized states, we find the diffusion coefficient (D) to be considerably smaller than in the binary compounds CdSe and CdS. At 4.2 K, D is below our experimental resolution which is about 0.025 cm2/s. With increasing lattice temperature (Tlattice) the diffusion coefficient increases. It was therefore possible to prove, in a diffusion experiment, that at Tlattice<=5 K the excitons are localized, while the exciton-phonon interaction leads to a delocalization and thus to the onset of diffusion. It was possible to deduce the diffusion coefficient of the extended excitons as well as the energetic position of the mobility edge.

  18. Sphingosine kinase-1, S1P transporter spinster homolog 2 and S1P2 mRNA expressions are increased in liver with advanced fibrosis in human.

    PubMed

    Sato, Masaya; Ikeda, Hitoshi; Uranbileg, Baasanjav; Kurano, Makoto; Saigusa, Daisuke; Aoki, Junken; Maki, Harufumi; Kudo, Hiroki; Hasegawa, Kiyoshi; Kokudo, Norihiro; Yatomi, Yutaka

    2016-08-26

    The role of sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) in liver fibrosis or inflammation was not fully examined in human. Controversy exists which S1P receptors, S1P1 and S1P3 vs S1P2, would be importantly involved in its mechanism. To clarify these matters, 80 patients who received liver resection for hepatocellular carcinoma and 9 patients for metastatic liver tumor were enrolled. S1P metabolism was analyzed in background, non-tumorous liver tissue. mRNA levels of sphingosine kinase 1 (SK1) but not SK2 were increased in livers with fibrosis stages 3-4 compared to those with 0-2 and to normal liver. However, S1P was not increased in advanced fibrotic liver, where mRNA levels of S1P transporter spinster homolog 2 (SPNS2) but not S1P-degrading enzymes were enhanced. Furthermore, mRNA levels of S1P2 but not S1P1 or S1P3 were increased in advanced fibrotic liver. These increased mRNA levels of SK1, SPNS2 and S1P2 in fibrotic liver were correlated with α-smooth muscle actin mRNA levels in liver, and with serum ALT levels. In conclusion, S1P may be actively generated, transported to outside the cells, and bind to its specific receptor in human liver to play a role in fibrosis or inflammation. Altered S1P metabolism in fibrotic liver may be their therapeutic target.

  19. Outgassing and chemical evolution of C/2012 S1 (ISON)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dello Russo, Neil; Vervack, Ronald J.; Kawakita, Hideyo; Cochran, Anita; McKay, Adam J.; Harris, Walter M.; Weaver, Harold A.; Lisse, Carey M.; DiSanti, Michael A.; Kobayashi, Hitomi; Biver, Nicolas; Bockelée-Morvan, Dominique; Crovisier, Jacques; Opitom, Cyrielle; Jehin, Emmanuel

    2015-11-01

    Volatile production rates, relative abundances, rotational temperatures, and spatial distributions in the coma were measured in C/2012 S1 (ISON) using long-slit high-dispersion (λ/Δλ ~ 25,000) infrared spectroscopy as part of a worldwide observing campaign. Spectra were obtained on UT 2013 October 26 and 28 with NIRSPEC at the W. M. Keck Observatory, and UT 2013 November 19 and 20 with CSHELL at the NASA IRTF. H2O was detected on all dates, with production rates increasing by about a factor of 40 between October 26 (Rh = 1.12 AU) and November 20 (Rh = 0.43 AU). Short-term variability of H2O was also seen as the production rate increased by nearly a factor of two during observations obtained over a period of about six hours on November 19. C2H6, CH3OH and CH4 abundances were slightly depleted relative to H2O in ISON compared to mean values for comets measured at infrared wavelengths. On the November dates, C2H2, HCN and OCS abundances relative to H2O appear to be close to the range of mean values, whereas H2CO and NH3 were significantly enhanced. We will compare derived chemical abundances in ISON to other comets measured with infrared spectroscopy.

  20. Downregulation of sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) receptor 1 by dexamethasone inhibits S1P-induced mesangial cell migration.

    PubMed

    Koch, Alexander; Jäger, Manuel; Völzke, Anja; Grammatikos, Georgios; Zu Heringdorf, Dagmar Meyer; Huwiler, Andrea; Pfeilschifter, Josef

    2015-06-01

    Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) is generated by sphingosine kinase (SK)-1 and -2 and acts mainly as an extracellular ligand at five specific receptors, denoted S1P1-5. After activation, S1P receptors regulate important processes in the progression of renal diseases, such as mesangial cell migration and survival. Previously, we showed that dexamethasone enhances SK-1 activity and S1P formation, which protected mesangial cells from stress-induced apoptosis. Here we demonstrate that dexamethasone treatment lowered S1P1 mRNA and protein expression levels in rat mesangial cells. This effect was abolished in the presence of the glucocorticoid receptor antagonist RU-486. In addition, in vivo studies showed that dexamethasone downregulated S1P1 expression in glomeruli isolated from mice treated with dexamethasone (10 mg/kg body weight). Functionally, we identified S1P1 as a key player mediating S1P-induced mesangial cell migration. We show that dexamethasone treatment significantly lowered S1P-induced migration of mesangial cells, which was again reversed in the presence of RU-486. In summary, we suggest that dexamethasone inhibits S1P-induced mesangial cell migration via downregulation of S1P1. Overall, these results demonstrate that dexamethasone has functional important effects on sphingolipid metabolism and action in renal mesangial cells.

  1. Epigenetic regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion by sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) in acute lung injury: Role of S1P lyase.

    PubMed

    Ebenezer, David L; Fu, Panfeng; Suryadevara, Vidyani; Zhao, Yutong; Natarajan, Viswanathan

    2017-01-01

    Cellular level of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), the simplest bioactive sphingolipid, is tightly regulated by its synthesis catalyzed by sphingosine kinases (SphKs) 1 & 2 and degradation mediated by S1P phosphatases, lipid phosphate phosphatases, and S1P lyase. The pleotropic actions of S1P are attributed to its unique inside-out (extracellular) signaling via G-protein-coupled S1P1-5 receptors, and intracellular receptor independent signaling. Additionally, S1P generated in the nucleus by nuclear SphK2 modulates HDAC1/2 activity, regulates histone acetylation, and transcription of pro-inflammatory genes. Here, we present data on the role of S1P lyase mediated S1P signaling in regulating LPS-induced inflammation in lung endothelium. Blocking S1P lyase expression or activity attenuated LPS-induced histone acetylation and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Degradation of S1P by S1P lyase generates Δ2-hexadecenal and ethanolamine phosphate and the long-chain fatty aldehyde produced in the cytoplasmic compartment of the endothelial cell seems to modulate histone acetylation pattern, which is different from the nuclear SphK2/S1P signaling and inhibition of HDAC1/2. These in vitro studies suggest that S1P derived long-chain fatty aldehyde may be an epigenetic regulator of pro-inflammatory genes in sepsis-induced lung inflammation. Trapping fatty aldehydes and other short chain aldehydes such as 4-hydroxynonenal derived from S1P degradation and lipid peroxidation, respectively by cell permeable agents such as phloretin or other aldehyde trapping agents may be useful in treating sepsis-induced lung inflammation via modulation of histone acetylation. .

  2. ApoA-I/SR-BI modulates S1P/S1PR2-mediated inflammation through the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in HUVECs.

    PubMed

    Ren, Kun; Lu, Yan-Ju; Mo, Zhong-Cheng; -Liu, Xing; Tang, Zhen-Li; Jiang, Yue; Peng, Xiao-Shan; Li, Li; Zhang, Qing-Hai; Yi, Guang-Hui

    2017-02-08

    Endothelial dysfunction plays a vital role during the initial stage of atherosclerosis. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) induces vascular endothelial injury and vessel wall inflammation. Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) exerts numerous vasoprotective effects by binding to diverse S1P receptors (S1PRs; S1PR1-5). A number of studies have shown that in endothelial cells (ECs), S1PR2 acts as a pro-atherosclerotic mediator by stimulating vessel wall inflammation through the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway. Scavenger receptor class B member I (SR-BI), a high-affinity receptor for apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I)/high-density lipoprotein (HDL), inhibits nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) translocation and decreases the plasma levels of inflammatory mediators via the PI3K/Akt pathway. We hypothesized that the inflammatory effects of S1P/S1PR2 on ECs may be regulated by apoA-I/SR-BI. The results showed that ox-LDL, a pro-inflammatory factor, augmented the S1PR2 level in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in a dose- and time-dependent manner. In addition, S1P/S1PR2 signaling influenced the levels of inflammatory factors, including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and IL-10, aggravating inflammation in HUVECs. Moreover, the pro-inflammatory effects induced by S1P/S1PR2 were attenuated by SR-BI overexpression and enhanced by an SR-BI inhibitor, BLT-1. Further experiments showed that the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway was involved in this process. Taken together, these results demonstrate that apoA-I/SR-BI negatively regulates S1P/S1PR2-mediated inflammation in HUVECs by activating the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.

  3. Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) receptor agonists mediate pro-fibrotic responses in normal human lung fibroblasts via S1P2 and S1P3 receptors and Smad-independent signaling.

    PubMed

    Sobel, Katrin; Menyhart, Katalin; Killer, Nina; Renault, Bérengère; Bauer, Yasmina; Studer, Rolf; Steiner, Beat; Bolli, Martin H; Nayler, Oliver; Gatfield, John

    2013-05-24

    Synthetic sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 1 modulators constitute a new class of drugs for the treatment of autoimmune diseases. Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) signaling, however, is also involved in the development of fibrosis. Using normal human lung fibroblasts, we investigated the induction of fibrotic responses by the S1P receptor (S1PR) agonists S1P, FTY720-P, ponesimod, and SEW2871 and compared them with the responses induced by the known fibrotic mediator TGF-β1. In contrast to TGF-β1, S1PR agonists did not induce expression of the myofibroblast marker α-smooth muscle actin. However, TGF-β1, S1P, and FTY720-P caused robust stimulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) synthesis and increased pro-fibrotic marker gene expression including connective tissue growth factor. Ponesimod showed limited and SEW2871 showed no pro-fibrotic potential in these readouts. Analysis of pro-fibrotic signaling pathways showed that in contrast to TGF-β1, S1PR agonists did not activate Smad2/3 signaling but rather activated PI3K/Akt and ERK1/2 signaling to induce ECM synthesis. The strong induction of ECM synthesis by the nonselective agonists S1P and FTY720-P was due to the stimulation of S1P2 and S1P3 receptors, whereas the weaker induction of ECM synthesis at high concentrations of ponesimod was due to a low potency activation of S1P3 receptors. Finally, in normal human lung fibroblast-derived myofibroblasts that were generated by TGF-β1 pretreatment, S1P and FTY720-P were effective stimulators of ECM synthesis, whereas ponesimod was inactive, because of the down-regulation of S1P3R expression in myofibroblasts. These data demonstrate that S1PR agonists are pro-fibrotic via S1P2R and S1P3R stimulation using Smad-independent pathways.

  4. The turbomachine blading design using S2-S1 approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luu, T. S.; Bencherif, L.; Viney, B.; Duc, J. M. Nguyen

    1991-01-01

    The boundary conditions corresponding to the design problem when the blades being simulated by the bound vorticity distribution are presented. The 3D flow is analyzed by the two steps S2 - S1 approach. In the first step, the number of blades is supposed to be infinite, the vortex distribution is transformed into an axisymmetric one, so that the flow field can be analyzed in a meridional plane. The thickness distribution of the blade producing the flow channel striction is taken into account by the modification of metric tensor in the continuity equation. Using the meridional stream function to define the flow field, the mass conservation is satisfied automatically. The governing equation is deduced from the relation between the azimuthal component of the vorticity and the meridional velocity. The value of the azimuthal component of the vorticity is provided by the hub to shroud equilibrium condition. This step leads to the determination of the axisymmetric stream sheets as well as the approximate camber surface of the blade. In the second step, the finite number of blades is taken into account, the inverse problem corresponding to the blade to blade flow confined in each stream sheet is analyzed. The momentum equation implies that the free vortex of the absolute velocity must be tangential to the stream sheet. The governing equation for the blade to blade flow stream function is deduced from this condition. At the beginning, the upper and the lower surfaces of the blades are created from the camber surface obtained from the first step with the assigned thickness distribution. The bound vorticity distribution and the penetrating flux conservation applied on the presumed blade surface constitute the boundary conditions of the inverse problem. The detection of this flux leads to the rectification of the geometry of the blades.

  5. Search for ammonia in comet C/2012 S1 (ISON)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faggi, S.; Codella, C.; Tozzi, G.; Comoretto, G.; Crovisier, J.; Nesti, R.; Panella, D.; Boissier, J.; Bolli, P.; Brucato, J.; Massi, F.; Tofani, G.

    2014-07-01

    Comets are pristine bodies of the Solar System and their studies can give precious hints on the formation of the Solar System itself. New comets, coming form the Oort Colud at their first passage close to the Sun, are particularly important, because they are not differentiated by the Solar radiation and they are supposed to have a large quantity of organic matter close to the surface. Here we report the results of a search for NH_3(1,1) emission at 23.7 GHz in comet C/2012 S1 ISON using a new dual-feed K-band receiver mounted on the Medicina 32-m antenna. We observed the comet once close to its perihelion, from 2013 Nov. 25 to Nov. 28, when its heliocentric distance changed from 0.25 au to 0.03 au. We integrated about 6 hrs per day, obtaining high-spectral-resolution (1 km/s) spectra with a typical rms noise of 10 mK. Such sensitivity allowed us to derive an upper limit of Q(NH_3) of about 2.5 ×10^{29} mol/s on November 26. This upper limit would correspond to a Q(H_2O) of about 2.5 ×10^{31} mol/s, assuming the typical Q(H_2O)/Q(NH_3) ratio of 100. These findings confirm that no significant Q(H_2O) enhancement happened near the perihelion, consistent with a definitive decrease of molecules production rate.

  6. WILL COMET ISON (C/2012 S1) SURVIVE PERIHELION?

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, Matthew M.; Walsh, Kevin J.

    2013-10-10

    On 2013 November 28 Comet ISON (C/2012 S1) will pass by the Sun with a perihelion distance of 2.7 solar radii. Understanding the possible outcomes for the comet's response to such a close passage by the Sun is important for planning observational campaigns and for inferring ISON's physical properties. We present new numerical simulations and interpret them in context with the historical track record of comet disruptions and of sungrazing comet behavior. Historical data suggest that sizes below ∼200 m are susceptible to destruction by sublimation driven mass loss, while we find that for ISON's perihelion distance, densities lower than 0.1 g cm{sup –3} are required to tidally disrupt a retrograde or non-spinning body. Such low densities are substantially below the range of the best-determined comet nucleus densities, though dynamically new comets such as ISON have few measurements of physical properties. Disruption may occur for prograde rotation at densities up to 0.7 g cm{sup –3}, with the chances of disruption increasing for lower density, faster prograde rotation, and increasing elongation of the nucleus. Given current constraints on ISON's nucleus properties and the typically determined values for these properties among all comets, we find tidal disruption to be unlikely unless other factors (e.g., spin-up via torquing) affect ISON substantially. Whether or not disruption occurs, the largest remnant must be big enough to survive subsequent mass loss due to sublimation in order for ISON to remain a viable comet well after perihelion.

  7. Synthesis of CeFe10.5Mo1.5 with ThMn12-type structure by melt spinning

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, C; Tessema, M; Meyer, MS; Pinkerton, FE

    2013-06-01

    Rare earth compounds RFe12_xMx with tetragonal ThMn12-type structure are of great research interest for potential applications as permanent magnets. These materials are known to serve as the precursors for nitriding and hydriding processes which in certain conditions can dramatically increase the Curie temperature, spontaneous magnetization, and affect the magnetic anisotropy. In this paper, we report the phase study of CeFe10.5Mo1.5 samples melt spun at various surface wheel speeds vs between 5 m/s and 60 m/s. The results from quantitative Rietveld analysis indicate that the as-spun ribbons are a mixture of primary CeFe10.5Mo1.5 phase with impurity phases such as Ce2Fe17, Fe-Mo alloy and CeFe2. When the wheel speed vs is below 25 m/s, CeFe10.5Mo1.5 phase accounts for greater than 85 wt% in the as-spun ribbons, while the Fe-Mo alloy is the only detectable impurity phase. Above v(s)=25 m/s, as the wheel speed increases, CeFe10.5Mo1.5 phase decreases monotonically to about 60 wt% at v(s)=6O m/s while the amounts of impurity phases increase. Thermogravimetric measurement indicates that the Curie temperature T-c. corresponding to CeFe10.5Mo1.5 phase is 341 K. As a result, the best performing sample melt spun at v(s),=15 m/s only exhibits an energy product BHmax=0.121 MGOe at room temperature. Although such a number is modest for a permanent magnet, further nitriding is expected to greatly enhance the Curie temperature, and hence the magnetic performance. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. 10/20, 10/10, and 10/5 systems revisited: their validity as relative head-surface-based positioning systems.

    PubMed

    Jurcak, Valer; Tsuzuki, Daisuke; Dan, Ippeita

    2007-02-15

    With the advent of multi-channel EEG hardware systems and the concurrent development of topographic and tomographic signal source localization methods, the international 10/20 system, a standard system for electrode positioning with 21 electrodes, was extended to higher density electrode settings such as 10/10 and 10/5 systems, allowing more than 300 electrode positions. However, their effectiveness as relative head-surface-based positioning systems has not been examined. We previously developed a virtual 10/20 measurement algorithm that can analyze any structural MR head and brain image. Extending this method to the virtual 10/10 and 10/5 measurement algorithms, we analyzed the MR images of 17 healthy subjects. The acquired scalp positions of the 10/10 and 10/5 systems were normalized to the Montreal Neurological Institute (MNI) stereotactic coordinates and their spatial variability was assessed. We described and examined the effects of spatial variability due to the selection of positioning systems and landmark placement strategies. As long as a detailed rule for a particular system was provided, it yielded precise landmark positions on the scalp. Moreover, we evaluated the effective spatial resolution of 329 scalp landmark positions of the 10/5 system for multi-subject studies. As long as a detailed rule for landmark setting was provided, 241 scalp positions could be set effectively when there was no overlapping of two neighboring positions. Importantly, 10/10 positions could be well separated on a scalp without overlapping. This study presents a referential framework for establishing the effective spatial resolutions of 10/20, 10/10, and 10/5 systems as relative head-surface-based positioning systems.

  9. A role of the sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P)-S1P receptor 2 pathway in epithelial defense against cancer (EDAC).

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Sayaka; Yako, Yuta; Fujioka, Yoichiro; Kajita, Mihoko; Kameyama, Takeshi; Kon, Shunsuke; Ishikawa, Susumu; Ohba, Yusuke; Ohno, Yusuke; Kihara, Akio; Fujita, Yasuyuki

    2016-02-01

    At the initial step of carcinogenesis, transformation occurs in single cells within epithelia, where the newly emerging transformed cells are surrounded by normal epithelial cells. A recent study revealed that normal epithelial cells have an ability to sense and actively eliminate the neighboring transformed cells, a process named epithelial defense against cancer (EDAC). However, the molecular mechanism of this tumor-suppressive activity is largely unknown. In this study, we investigated a role for the sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P)-S1P receptor 2 (S1PR2) pathway in EDAC. First, we show that addition of the S1PR2 inhibitor significantly suppresses apical extrusion of RasV12-transformed cells that are surrounded by normal cells. In addition, knockdown of S1PR2 in normal cells induces the same effect, indicating that S1PR2 in the surrounding normal cells plays a positive role in the apical elimination of the transformed cells. Of importance, not endogenous S1P but exogenous S1P is involved in this process. By using FRET analyses, we demonstrate that S1PR2 mediates Rho activation in normal cells neighboring RasV12-transformed cells, thereby promoting accumulation of filamin, a crucial regulator of EDAC. Collectively these data indicate that S1P is a key extrinsic factor that affects the outcome of cell competition between normal and transformed epithelial cells.

  10. Sphingosine-1-phosphate promotes extravillous trophoblast cell invasion by activating MEK/ERK/MMP-2 signaling pathways via S1P/S1PR1 axis activation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Weiwei; Li, Qinghua; Pan, Zhifang

    2014-01-01

    Successful placentation depends on the proper invasion of extravillous trophoblast (EVT) cells into maternal tissues. Previous reports demonstrated that S1P receptors are expressed in the EVT cells and S1P could regulate migration and function of trophoblast cells via S1P receptors. However, little is known about roles of S1P in the invasion of EVT cells. Our study was performed to investigate S1P effect on the invasion of EVT cells. We used the extravillous trophoblast cell line HTR8/SVneo cells to evaluate the effect. In vitro invasion assay was employed to determine the invasion of HTR8/SVneo cells induced by S1P. MMP-2 enzyme activity and relative level in the supernatants of HTR8/SVneo was assessed by gelatin zymography and western blot. Based on the above, siRNA and specific inhibitors were used for the intervention and study of potential signal pathways, and Real-time qPCR and western blot were used to test the mRNA and protein level of potential signal targets. We found that S1P could promote HTR8/SVneo cell invasion and upregulates activity and level of MMP-2. The promotion requires activation of MEK-ERK and is dependent on the axis of S1P/S1PR1. Our investigation of S1P may provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms of EVT invasion.

  11. Novel selective allosteric and bitopic ligands for the S1P(3) receptor.

    PubMed

    Jo, Euijung; Bhhatarai, Barun; Repetto, Emanuela; Guerrero, Miguel; Riley, Sean; Brown, Steven J; Kohno, Yasushi; Roberts, Edward; Schürer, Stephan C; Rosen, Hugh

    2012-12-21

    Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) is a lysophospholipid signaling molecule that regulates important biological functions, including lymphocyte trafficking and vascular development, by activating G protein-coupled receptors for S1P, namely, S1P(1) through S1P(5). Here, we map the S1P(3) binding pocket with a novel allosteric agonist (CYM-5541), an orthosteric agonist (S1P), and a novel bitopic antagonist (SPM-242). With a combination of site-directed mutagenesis, ligand competition assay, and molecular modeling, we concluded that S1P and CYM-5541 occupy different chemical spaces in the ligand binding pocket of S1P(3). CYM-5541 allowed us to identify an allosteric site where Phe263 is a key gate-keeper residue for its affinity and efficacy. This ligand lacks a polar moiety, and the novel allosteric hydrophobic pocket permits S1P(3) selectivity of CYM-5541 within the highly similar S1P receptor family. However, a novel S1P(3)-selective antagonist, SPM-242, in the S1P(3) pocket occupies the ligand binding spaces of both S1P and CYM-5541, showing its bitopic mode of binding. Therefore, our coordinated approach with biochemical data and molecular modeling, based on our recently published S1P(1) crystal structure data in a highly conserved set of related receptors with a shared ligand, provides a strong basis for the successful optimization of orthosteric, allosteric, and bitopic modulators of S1P(3).

  12. Identification of similarity of skeletal structures in the range 10-5 cm - 1023 cm and the probable role of skeletal assemblies of carbon nanotube-like dust in the large-scale structure of the Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukushkin, A. B.; Rantsev-Kartinov, V. A.

    The role of the dust in astrophysics is analyzed from viewpoint of the hypothesis [1] (and respective proof-of-concept studies [2]) for the self-assembling of a fractal dust in laboratory electric discharges. The presence of skeletal structures of the same distinctive topology (namely, tubules and cartwheels, and their simple combinations) in the range 10-5cm - 1023cm, and a trend toward self-similarity (i.e. assembling of bigger structures from similar smaller ones), are found [3]. These evidences come from the electron micrography of dust deposits in tokamak (10-6cm - 10-3cm) [4], the images of plasma taken in laboratory electric discharges -- tokamaks, Z-pinches, plasma focus and vacuum spark (10-2cm - 10 cm) [2], hail particles (1cm - 10cm), the images of tornado (103cm - 105cm) and of a wide class of objects in space (1011cm - 1023 cm), including the solar coronal mass ejection, supernova remnants, and some galaxies [3]. The similarity of, and a trend toward self-similarity in, these skeletal structures (especially, cartwheels as the structures of essentially non-hydrodynamic nature) suggest all them to possess, similarly to skeletons in the particles of dust and hail, a fractal condensed matter of particular topology of the fractal. Specifically, this matter may be assembled from nanotubular blocks in a way similar to that in the skeletons found [4] in the submicron dust particles. An analysis of the redshift surveys of galaxies and quasars suggests the possibility to draw the above similarity up to 1026cm. This hints at the presence of a baryonic cold dark skeleton (BCDS) of the Universe [5]. The hypothesis of BCDS is shown to have no conflict with major cosmological facts (Hubble expansion and cosmic microwave background's isotropy). REFERENCES: [1] Fusion Energy 1998 (IAEA, Vienna, 1999), Vol. 3, p. 1131. [2] Advances in Plasma Phys. Research, Vol. 2 (Ed. F. Gerard, Nova Science Publishers, New York, 2002), pp. 1-22. [3] Phys. Lett. A 306, 175 (2002). [4

  13. Smad3 deficiency leads to mandibular condyle degradation via the sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P)/S1P3 signaling axis.

    PubMed

    Mori, Hiroki; Izawa, Takashi; Tanaka, Eiji

    2015-10-01

    Temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis is a degenerative disease that is characterized by permanent cartilage destruction. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β is one of the most abundant cytokines in the bone matrix and is shown to regulate the migration of osteoprogenitor cells. It is hypothesized that TGF-β/Smad3 signaling affects cartilage homeostasis by influencing sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P)/S1P receptor signaling and chondrocyte migration. We therefore investigated the molecular mechanisms by which crosstalk may occur between TGF-β/Smad3 and S1P/S1P receptor signaling to maintain condylar cartilage and to prevent temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis. Abnormalities in the condylar subchondral bone, including dynamic changes in bone mineral density and microstructure, were observed in Smad3(-/-) mice by microcomputed tomography. Cell-free regions and proteoglycan loss characterized the cartilage degradation present, and increased numbers of apoptotic chondrocytes and matrix metalloproteinase 13(+) chondrocytes were also detected. Furthermore, expression of S1P receptor 3 (S1P3), but not S1P1 or S1P2, was significantly down-regulated in the condylar cartilage of Smad3(-/-) mice. By using RNA interference technology and pharmacologic tools, S1P was found to transactivate Smad3 in an S1P3/TGF-β type II receptor-dependent manner, and S1P3 was found to be required for TGF-β-induced migration of chondrocyte cells and downstream signal transduction via Rac1, RhoA, and Cdc42. Taken together, these results indicate that the Smad3/S1P3 signaling pathway plays an important role in the pathogenesis of temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis.

  14. The SphKs/S1P/S1PR1 axis in immunity and cancer: more ore to be mined.

    PubMed

    Jin, Lei; Liu, Wei-Ren; Tian, Meng-Xin; Fan, Jia; Shi, Ying-Hong

    2016-04-29

    Over the past two decades, huge amounts of research were launched to understand the functions of sphingosine. Many pathways were uncovered that convey the relative functions of biomacromolecules. In this review, we discuss the recent advances of the role of the SphKs/S1P/S1PR1 axis in immunity and cancer. Finally, we investigate the therapeutic potential of new drugs that target S1P signaling in cancer therapy.

  15. Oncogenic S1P signalling in EBV-associated nasopharyngeal carcinoma activates AKT and promotes cell migration through S1P receptor 3.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hui Min; Lo, Kwok-Wai; Wei, Wenbin; Tsao, Sai Wah; Chung, Grace Tin Yun; Ibrahim, Maha Hafez; Dawson, Christopher W; Murray, Paul G; Paterson, Ian C; Yap, Lee Fah

    2017-02-27

    Undifferentiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a cancer with high metastatic potential that is consistently associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. In this study, we have investigated the functional contribution of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) signalling to the pathogenesis of NPC. We show that EBV infection or ectopic expression of the EBV-encoded latent genes (EBNA1, LMP1 and LMP2A) can up-regulate sphingosine kinase 1 (SPHK1), the key enzyme that produces S1P, in NPC cell lines. Exogenous addition of S1P promotes the migration of NPC cells through the activation of AKT; shRNA knockdown of SPHK1 resulted in a reduction in the levels of activated AKT and inhibition of cell migration. We also show that S1P receptor 3 (S1PR3) mRNA is over-expressed in EBV-positive NPC patient-derived xenografts and a subset of primary NPC tissues, and that knockdown of S1PR3 suppressed the activation of AKT and the S1P-induced migration of NPC cells. Taken together, our data point to a central role for EBV in mediating the oncogenic effects of S1P in NPC and identify S1P signalling as a potential therapeutic target in this disease.

  16. Aberrant expression of the S1P regulating enzymes, SPHK1 and SGPL1, contributes to a migratory phenotype in OSCC mediated through S1PR2.

    PubMed

    Patmanathan, Sathya Narayanan; Johnson, Steven P; Lai, Sook Ling; Panja Bernam, Suthashini; Lopes, Victor; Wei, Wenbin; Ibrahim, Maha Hafez; Torta, Federico; Narayanaswamy, Pradeep; Wenk, Markus R; Herr, Deron R; Murray, Paul G; Yap, Lee Fah; Paterson, Ian C

    2016-05-10

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a lethal disease with a 5-year mortality rate of around 50%. Molecular targeted therapies are not in routine use and novel therapeutic targets are required. Our previous microarray data indicated sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) metabolism and signalling was deregulated in OSCC. In this study, we have investigated the contribution of S1P signalling to the pathogenesis of OSCC. We show that the expression of the two major enzymes that regulate S1P levels were altered in OSCC: SPHK1 was significantly upregulated in OSCC tissues compared to normal oral mucosa and low levels of SGPL1 mRNA correlated with a worse overall survival. In in vitro studies, S1P enhanced the migration/invasion of OSCC cells and attenuated cisplatin-induced death. We also demonstrate that S1P receptor expression is deregulated in primary OSCCs and that S1PR2 is over-expressed in a subset of tumours, which in part mediates S1P-induced migration of OSCC cells. Lastly, we demonstrate that FTY720 induced significantly more apoptosis in OSCC cells compared to non-malignant cells and that FTY720 acted synergistically with cisplatin to induce cell death. Taken together, our data show that S1P signalling promotes tumour aggressiveness in OSCC and identify S1P signalling as a potential therapeutic target.

  17. Full pharmacological efficacy of a novel S1P1 agonist that does not require S1P-like head-group interactions

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Cabrera, Pedro J.; Jo, Euijung; Sanna, M. Germana; Brown, Steven; Leaf, Nora; Marsolais, David; Schaeffer, Marie-Therese; Chapman, Jacqueline; Cameron, Michael; Guerrero, Miguel; Roberts, Edward; Rosen, Hugh

    2008-01-01

    Strong evidence exists for interactions of zwitterionic phosphate and amine groups in Sphingosine-1 phosphate (S1P) to conserved R and E residues present at the extracellular face of transmembrane-3 (TM3) of S1P receptors. The contribution of R120 and E121 for high affinity ligand-receptor interactions is essential, as single-point R120A or E121A S1P1 mutants neither bind S1P nor transduce S1P function. Because S1P receptors are therapeutically interesting, identifying potent selective agonists with different binding modes and in vivo efficacy is of pharmacological importance. Here we describe a modestly water-soluble highly-selective S1P1 agonist (CYM-5442) that does not require R120 or E121 residues for activating S1P1-dependent p42/p44 MAPK phosphorylation, which defines a new hydrophobic pocket in S1P1. CYM-5442 is a full agonist in vitro for S1P1 internalization, phosphorylation and ubiquitination. Importantly, CYM-5442 was a full agonist for induction and maintenance of S1P1-dependent lymphopenia, decreasing B-lymphocytes by 65% and T-lymphocytes by 85% of vehicle. Induction of CYM-5442 lymphopenia was dose and time-dependent, requiring serum concentrations in the 50 nM range. In vitro measures of S1P1 activation by CYM-5442 were non-competitively inhibited by a specific S1P1 antagonist (W146), competitive for S1P, FTY720-P and SEW2871. In addition, lymphopenia by CYM-5442 was reversed by W146 administration or upon pharmacokinetic agonist clearance. Pharmacokinetics in mice also indicated that CYM-5442 partitions significantly in central nervous tissue. These data show that CYM-5442 activates S1P1-dependent pathways in vitro and to levels of full efficacy in vivo through a hydrophobic pocket, separable from the orthosteric site of S1P binding that is headgroup dependent. PMID:18708635

  18. Hypothalamic S1P/S1PR1 axis controls energy homeostasis in Middle-Aged Rodents: the reversal effects of physical exercise

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Vagner Ramon Rodrigues; Katashima, Carlos Kiyoshi; Bueno Silva, Carla G.; Lenhare, Luciene; Micheletti, Thayana Oliveira; Camargo, Rafael Ludemann; Ghezzi, Ana Carolina; Camargo, Juliana Alves; Assis, Alexandre Moura; Tobar, Natalia; Morari, Joseane; Razolli, Daniela S.; Moura, Leandro Pereira; Pauli, José Rodrigo; Cintra, Dennys Esper; Velloso, Lício Augusto; Saad, Mario J.A; Ropelle, Eduardo Rochete

    2017-01-01

    Recently, we demonstrated that the hypothalamic S1PR1/STAT3 axis plays a critical role in the control of food consumption and energy expenditure in rodents. Here, we found that reduction of hypothalamic S1PR1 expression occurs in an age-dependent manner, and was associated with defective thermogenic signaling and weight gain. To address the physiological relevance of these findings, we investigated the effects of chronic and acute exercise on the hypothalamic S1PR1/STAT3 axis. Chronic exercise increased S1PR1 expression and STAT3 phosphorylation in the hypothalamus, restoring the anorexigenic and thermogenic signals in middle-aged mice. Acutely, exercise increased sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) levels in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of young rats, whereas the administration of CSF from exercised young rats into the hypothalamus of middle-aged rats at rest was sufficient to reduce the food intake. Finally, the intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of S1PR1 activators, including the bioactive lipid molecule S1P, and pharmacological S1PR1 activator, SEW2871, induced a potent STAT3 phosphorylation and anorexigenic response in middle-aged rats. Overall, these results suggest that hypothalamic S1PR1 is important for the maintenance of energy balance and provide new insights into the mechanism by which exercise controls the anorexigenic and thermogenic signals in the central nervous system during the aging process. PMID:28039439

  19. Ligand-binding pocket shape differences between S1P1 and S1P3 determine efficiency of chemical probe identification by uHTS

    PubMed Central

    Schürer, Stephan C.; Brown, Steven J.; Cabrera, Pedro Gonzales; Schaeffer, Marie-Therese; Chapman, Jacqueline; Jo, Euijung; Chase, Peter; Spicer, Tim; Hodder, Peter; Rosen, Hugh

    2008-01-01

    We have studied the Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) receptor system to better understand why certain molecular targets within a closely related family are much more tractable when identifying compelling chemical leads. Five medically important G protein-coupled receptors for S1P regulate heart rate, coronary artery caliber, endothelial barrier integrity, and lymphocyte trafficking. Selective S1P receptor agonist probes would be of great utility to study receptor subtype-specific function. Through systematic screening of the same libraries, we identified novel selective agonists chemotypes for each of the S1P1 and S1P3 receptors. uHTS for S1P1 was more effective than for S1P3, with many selective, low nanomolar hits of proven mechanism emerging for. Receptor structure modeling and ligand docking reveal differences between the receptor binding pockets, which are the basis for sub-type selectivity. Novel selective agonists interact primarily in the hydrophobic pocket of the receptor in the absence of head-group interactions. Chemistry-space and shape-based analysis of the screening libraries in combination with the binding models explain the observed differential hit rates and enhanced efficiency for lead discovery for S1P1 vs. S1P3 in this closely related receptor family. PMID:18590333

  20. Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) carrier-dependent regulation of endothelial barrier: high density lipoprotein (HDL)-S1P prolongs endothelial barrier enhancement as compared with albumin-S1P via effects on levels, trafficking, and signaling of S1P1.

    PubMed

    Wilkerson, Brent A; Grass, G Daniel; Wing, Shane B; Argraves, W Scott; Argraves, Kelley M

    2012-12-28

    Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) is a blood-borne lysosphingolipid that acts to promote endothelial cell (EC) barrier function. In plasma, S1P is associated with both high density lipoproteins (HDL) and albumin, but it is not known whether the carriers impart different effects on S1P signaling. Here we establish that HDL-S1P sustains EC barrier longer than albumin-S1P. We showed that the sustained barrier effects of HDL-S1P are dependent on signaling by the S1P receptor, S1P1, and involve persistent activation of Akt and endothelial NOS (eNOS), as well as activity of the downstream NO target, soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC). Total S1P1 protein levels were found to be higher in response to HDL-S1P treatment as compared with albumin-S1P, and this effect was not associated with increased S1P1 mRNA or dependent on de novo protein synthesis. Several pieces of evidence indicate that long term EC barrier enhancement activity of HDL-S1P is due to specific effects on S1P1 trafficking. First, the rate of S1P1 degradation, which is proteasome-mediated, was slower in HDL-S1P-treated cells as compared with cells treated with albumin-S1P. Second, the long term barrier-promoting effects of HDL-S1P were abrogated by treatment with the recycling blocker, monensin. Finally, cell surface levels of S1P1 and levels of S1P1 in caveolin-enriched microdomains were higher after treatment with HDL-S1P as compared with albumin-S1P. Together, the findings reveal S1P carrier-specific effects on S1P1 and point to HDL as the physiological mediator of sustained S1P1-PI3K-Akt-eNOS-sGC-dependent EC barrier function.

  1. Deposition of calcium phosphate coatings using condensed phosphates (P2O7(4-) and P3O10(5-)) as phosphate source through induction heating.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Huan; Hou, Saisai; Zhang, Mingjie; Yang, Mengmeng; Deng, Linhong; Xiong, Xinbo; Ni, Xinye

    2016-12-01

    In present work condensed phosphates (P2O7(4-) and P3O10(5-)) were used as phosphate source in induction heating to deposit calcium phosphate coatings. The phase, morphology, and composition of different phosphate-related coatings were characterized and compared using XRD, FTIR, and SEM analyses. Results showed that P2O7(4-)formed calcium pyrophosphate hydrate coatings with interconnected cuboid-like particles. The as-deposited calcium tripolyphosphate hydrate coating with P3O10(5-) was mainly composed of flower-like particles assembled by plate-like crystals. The bioactivity and cytocompatibility of the coatings were also studied. Moreover, the feasibility of using hybrid phosphate sources for preparing and depositing coatings onto magnesium alloy was investigated.

  2. Heat transfer investigation of two Langley Research Center delta wing configurations at a Mach number of 10.5, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eaves, R. H.; Buchanan, T. D.; Warmbrod, J. D.; Johnson, C. B.

    1972-01-01

    Heat transfer tests for two delta wing configurations were conducted in the hypervelocity wind tunnel. The 24-inch long models were tested at a Mach number of approximately 10.5 and at angles of attack of 20, 40, and 60 degrees over a length Reynolds number range from 5 million to 23 million on 4 May to 4 June 1971. Heat transfer results were obtained from model surface heat gage measurements and thermographic phosphor paint.

  3. A Prokaryotic S1P Lyase Degrades Extracellular S1P In Vitro and In Vivo: Implication for Treating Hyperproliferative Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Huwiler, Andrea; Bourquin, Florence; Kotelevets, Nataliya; Pastukhov, Oleksandr; Capitani, Guido; Grütter, Markus G.; Zangemeister-Wittke, Uwe

    2011-01-01

    Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) regulates a broad spectrum of fundamental cellular processes like proliferation, death, migration and cytokine production. Therefore, elevated levels of S1P may be causal to various pathologic conditions including cancer, fibrosis, inflammation, autoimmune diseases and aberrant angiogenesis. Here we report that S1P lyase from the prokaryote Symbiobacterium thermophilum (StSPL) degrades extracellular S1P in vitro and in blood. Moreover, we investigated its effect on cellular responses typical of fibrosis, cancer and aberrant angiogenesis using renal mesangial cells, endothelial cells, breast (MCF-7) and colon (HCT 116) carcinoma cells as disease models. In all cell types, wild-type StSPL, but not an inactive mutant, disrupted MAPK phosphorylation stimulated by exogenous S1P. Functionally, disruption of S1P receptor signaling by S1P depletion inhibited proliferation and expression of connective tissue growth factor in mesangial cells, proliferation, migration and VEGF expression in carcinoma cells, and proliferation and migration of endothelial cells. Upon intravenous injection of StSPL in mice, plasma S1P levels rapidly declined by 70% within 1 h and then recovered to normal 6 h after injection. Using the chicken chorioallantoic membrane model we further demonstrate that also under in vivo conditions StSPL, but not the inactive mutant, inhibited tumor cell-induced angiogenesis as an S1P-dependent process. Our data demonstrate that recombinant StSPL is active under extracellular conditions and holds promise as a new enzyme therapeutic for diseases associated with increased levels of S1P and S1P receptor signaling. PMID:21829623

  4. Genetic characterization of three qnrS1-harbouring multidrug-resistance plasmids and qnrS1-containing transposons circulating in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Le, Vien; Nhu, Nguyen Thi Khanh; Cerdeno-Tarraga, Ana; Campbell, James I.; Tuyen, Ha Thanh; Nhu, Tran Do Hoang; Tam, Pham Thi Thanh; Schultsz, Constance; Thwaites, Guy; Thomson, Nicholas R.

    2015-01-01

    Plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) refers to a family of closely related genes that confer decreased susceptibility to fluoroquinolones. PMQR genes are generally associated with integrons and/or plasmids that carry additional antimicrobial resistance genes active against a range of antimicrobials. In Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Vietnam, we have previously shown a high frequency of PMQR genes within commensal Enterobacteriaceae. However, there are limited available sequence data detailing the genetic context in which the PMQR genes reside, and a lack of understanding of how these genes spread across the Enterobacteriaceae. Here, we aimed to determine the genetic background facilitating the spread and maintenance of qnrS1, the dominant PMQR gene circulating in HCMC. We sequenced three qnrS1-carrying plasmids in their entirety to understand the genetic context of these qnrS1-embedded plasmids and also the association of qnrS1-mediated quinolone resistance with other antimicrobial resistance phenotypes. Annotation of the three qnrS1-containing plasmids revealed a qnrS1-containing transposon with a closely related structure. We screened 112 qnrS1-positive commensal Enterobacteriaceae isolated in the community and in a hospital in HCMC to detect the common transposon structure. We found the same transposon structure to be present in 71.4 % (45/63) of qnrS1-positive hospital isolates and in 36.7 % (18/49) of qnrS1-positive isolates from the community. The resulting sequence analysis of the qnrS1 environment suggested that qnrS1 genes are widely distributed and are mobilized on elements with a common genetic background. Our data add additional insight into mechanisms that facilitate resistance to multiple antimicrobials in Gram-negative bacteria in Vietnam. PMID:26272054

  5. Cation movement and phase transitions in KTP isostructures; X-ray study of sodium-doped KTP at 10.5 K.

    PubMed

    Norberg, Stefan T; Sobolev, Alexander N; Streltsov, Victor A

    2003-06-01

    An accurate structure model of sodium-doped potassium titanyl phosphate, (Na(0.114)K(0.886))K(TiO)(2)(PO(4))(2), has been determined at 10.5 K by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. In addition to the low-temperature data, X-ray intensities have been collected at room temperature. When the temperature was decreased from room temperature to 10.5 K, both potassium cations moved 0.033 (2) A along the c-axis, i.e. in the polar direction within the rigid Ti-O-P network. This alkaline metal ion displacement can be related to the Abrahams-Jamieson-Kurtz T(C) criteria for oxygen framework ferroelectrics. Potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP) is a well known material for second harmonic generation (SHG), and the influence of sodium dopant on the TiO(6) octahedral geometry and SHG is discussed. The material studied crystallizes in the space group Pna2(1) with Z = 4, a = 12.7919 (5), b = 6.3798 (4), c = 10.5880 (7) A, V = 864.08 (9) A(3), T = 10.5 (3) K and R = 0.023.

  6. Study on the anatomy of the lumbosacral anterior great vessels pertinent to L5/S1 anterior interbody surgery with computer tomography angiography.

    PubMed

    Liu, Liehua; Liang, Yong; Zhou, Qiang; Zhang, Hong; Wang, Haoming; Li, Songtao; Zhao, Chen; Hou, Tianyong; Liu, Ling

    2014-12-01

    We investigate the anatomy of the lumbosacral anterior great vessels using computer tomography (CT) angiography before L5/S1 anterior interbody surgery. Sixty-two adult patients were selected. The location of the abdominal aortic bifurcation and common iliac venous confluence in the lumbar vertebrae and the anatomic parameters of the iliac vascular space (e.g., distances from the included angle vertex of the iliac vascular space to the median sagittal plane and to the inferior boundary of L5 and distances between the left and right iliac vessels on the inferior boundary of L5 and on the superior boundary of S1) were analysed. Overall, 67.73% of the 62 cases had an abdominal aortic bifurcation located at L4 and L4/5 intervertebral disc; 61.29%, the common iliac venous confluence located at L5. The four distances mentioned above were 0.98 cm ± 0.38 cm, 2.01 cm ± 1.26 cm, 3.11 cm ± 1.35 cm and 4.34 cm ± 1.10 cm, respectively. A classification system of types A, B and C was developed. The calculated L5/S1 intervertebral space exposure percentages of types A, B and C were 32.21%, 82.58% and 54.68%, respectively. During L5/S1 anterior interbody surgery, type B intervertebral discs can be exposed conveniently, preventing injury of the iliac vessels, which was also observed in 54.68% and 32.21% of the type C and type A discs, respectively. Because the type A intervertebral disc has minimal exposure, the risk of iliac vascular injury is relatively high in these patients.

  7. Tank testing of a 2500-cm2 solar panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bever, R. S.; Staskus, J.

    1981-01-01

    A 50 cm by 50 cm solar array panel test patch was investigated for spacecraft charging and arcing effects. Bombardment with monochromatic electron was carried out. Some objectives of the test were: (1) to estimate at what voltage of electron bombardment arcing would be probable; (2) to find whether the arc's energy would be tolerable or damagingly large; (3) to try and separate thermal and photoeffects; and, (4) to see whether materials used were such as to minimize arcing. Some conclusions were: In sunlight the tracking data relay satellite's solar panel which has ceria glass on the front and conductive paint on the backside is probably a good design for reducing charge-up. In a geomagnetic substorm simulated in testing there will be arcing at the interconnects during eclipse and transitions into and out of eclipse in testing especially in view of the very cold temperatures that will be reached by this lightweight array. Ceria-doped glass is preferred to fused silica glass for reducing charge build up. The Kapton bare patch should still be conductively painted. The differential voltages on the panel determine when arcing first begins, and the electron beam voltages vary depending upon whether the metallic structure is directly grounded or semifloating.

  8. Tank testing of a 2500-cm2 solar panel

    SciTech Connect

    Bever, R.S.; Staskus, J.

    1981-10-01

    A 50 cm by 50 cm solar array panel test patch was investigated for spacecraft charging and arcing effects. Bombardment with monochromatic electron was carried out. Some objectives of the test were: (1) to estimate at what voltage of electron bombardment arcing would be probable (2) to find whether the arc's energy would be tolerable or damagingly large (3) to try and separate thermal and photoeffects and, (4) to see whether materials used were such as to minimize arcing. Some conclusions were: In sunlight the tracking data relay satellite's solar panel which has ceria glass on the front and conductive paint on the backside is probably a good design for reducing charge-up. In a geomagnetic substorm simulated in testing there will be arcing at the interconnects during eclipse and transitions into and out of eclipse in testing especially in view of the very cold temperatures that will be reached by this lightweight array. Ceria-doped glass is preferred to fused silica glass for reducing charge build up. The Kapton bare patch should still be conductively painted. The differential voltages on the panel determine when arcing first begins, and the electron beam voltages vary depending upon whether the metallic structure is directly grounded or semifloating.

  9. Amorphous nanostructuralization in HOPG by 1014 W cm-2 laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    NISHIMURA, Yasuhiko; KITAGAWA, Yoneyoshi; MORI, Yoshitaka; ISHII, Katsuhiro; HANAYAMA, Ryohei; AZUMA, Hirozumi; HIOKI, Tatsumi; NISHI, Teppei; MOTOHIRO, Tomoyoshi; KOMEDA, Osamu; SEKINE, Takashi; SATO, Nakahiro; KURITA, Takashi; KAWASHIMA, Toshiyuki; KAN, Hirofumi; SUNAHARA, Atsushi; SENTOKU, Yasuhiko; MIURA, Eisuke

    2016-05-01

    This reports provide an amorphous nanostructuralization technique on the surface modification in Highly Oriented Pyrolytic Graphite (HOPG) by using a femtosecond laser. We showed, for the first time, that the surface of HOPG is changed to the amorphous nanostructuralization graphite by using a femtosecond laser-driven compression technique. Our results also suggest that the HOPG surface is changed until the deeper area from the surface by the laser-driven shock wave. A single shot of a femtosecond laser beam (1.27 ∼ 1.33×1014 Wcm∼2 in intensity, with 2 mm-diameter, and 110 fs in pulse width) is irradiated under the vacuum ambience onto a 2 mm-thick of HOPG. The calculated impact pressures on a sample was 8.3 ∼ 8.7 GPa. Crystal structure in the HOPG were analyzed using a Raman spectroscopy and an X-ray diffraction, those analyzing depth from the surface were 50 nm and 350 μm, respectively.

  10. HDL-S1P: cardiovascular functions, disease-associated alterations, and therapeutic applications.

    PubMed

    Levkau, Bodo

    2015-01-01

    Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive sphingolipid contained in High-density lipoproteins (HDL) and has drawn considerable attention in the lipoprotein field as numerous studies have demonstrated its contribution to several functions inherent to HDL. Some of them are partly and some entirely due to the S1P contained in HDL (HDL-S1P). Despite the presence of over 1000 different lipids in HDL, S1P stands out as it possesses its own cell surface receptors through which it exercises key physiological functions. Most of the S1P in human plasma is associated with HDL, and the amount of HDL-S1P influences the quality and quantity of HDL-dependent functions. The main binding partner of S1P in HDL is apolipoprotein M but others may also exist particularly under conditions of acute S1P elevations. HDL not only exercise functions through their S1P content but have also an impact on genuine S1P signaling by influencing S1P bioactivity and receptor presentation. HDL-S1P content is altered in human diseases such as atherosclerosis, coronary artery disease, myocardial infarction, renal insufficiency and diabetes mellitus. Low HDL-S1P has also been linked to impaired HDL functions associated with these disorders. Although the pathophysiological and molecular reasons for such disease-associated shifts in HDL-S1P are little understood, there have been successful approaches to circumvent their adverse implications by pharmacologically increasing HDL-S1P as means to improve HDL function. This mini-review will cover the current understanding of the contribution of HDL-S1P to physiological HDL function, its alteration in disease and ways for its restoration to correct HDL dysfunction.

  11. Moesin Controls Clathrin-Mediated S1PR1 Internalization in T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Nomachi, Akira; Yoshinaga, Masanori; Liu, Jaron; Kanchanawong, Pakorn; Tohyama, Kiyoshi; Thumkeo, Dean; Watanabe, Takeshi; Narumiya, Shuh; Hirata, Takako

    2013-01-01

    The lipid mediator sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) regulates a wide range of cellular activities, including vascular maturation, angiogenesis, and immune-cell trafficking. Among the five known receptors for S1P (S1PR1-S1PR5), S1PR1 is a critical regulator of lymphocyte trafficking: its signaling is required for lymphocyte egress from lymphoid organs, while its down-modulation by agonist-induced internalization is a prerequisite for lymphocyte entry into lymphoid organs from the bloodstream. Despite the importance of S1PR1 down-regulation in determining lymphocyte behavior, the molecular mechanism of its internalization in lymphocytes has not been defined. Here we show that agonist-induced S1PR1 internalization in T cells occurs via clathrin-mediated endocytosis and is regulated by moesin, an ezrin-radixin-moesin (ERM) family member. In S1P-stimulated T cells, S1PR1 relocalized within clathrin-coated vesicles (CCVs) and early endosomes, and S1PR1 internalization was blocked when clathrin was pharmacologically inhibited. Stimulating moesin-deficient T cells with S1P failed to induce S1PR1 internalization and CCV formation. Furthermore, treating moesin-deficient mice with FTY720, an S1P receptor agonist known to internalize S1PR1, caused delayed lymphopenia, and lymphocytes isolated from FTY720-treated moesin-deficient mice still responded to S1P ex vivo in chemotaxis assays. These results reveal a novel role for moesin in regulating clathrin-dependent S1PR1 internalization through CCV formation. PMID:24358210

  12. 26 CFR 31.3121(s)-1 - Concurrent employment by related corporations with common paymaster.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... with common paymaster. 31.3121(s)-1 Section 31.3121(s)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... Revenue Code of 1954) General Provisions § 31.3121(s)-1 Concurrent employment by related corporations with... this section. Section 3121(s) and this section apply only to remuneration disbursed in the form...

  13. Progress toward measuring the 6S1/2 <--> 5D3/2 magnetic-dipole transition moment in Ba+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Spencer; Jayakumar, Anupriya; Hoffman, Matthew; Blinov, Boris; Fortson, Norval

    2015-05-01

    We report the latest results from our effort to measure the magnetic-dipole transition moment (M1) between the 6S1 / 2 and 5D3 / 2 manifolds in Ba+. We describe a new technique for calibrating view-port birefringence and how we will use it to enhance the M1 signal. To access the transition moment we use a variation of a previously proposed technique that allows us to isolate the magnetic-dipole coupling from the much larger electric-quadrupole coupling in the transition rates between particular Zeeman sub-levels. Knowledge of M1 is crucial for a parity-nonconservation experiment in the ion where M1 will be a leading source of systematic errors. No measurement of this M1 has been made in Ba+, however, there are three calculations that predict it to be 80 ×10-5μB, 22 ×10-5μB, and 17 ×10-5μB. A precise measurement may help resolve this theoretical discrepancy which originates from their different estimations of many-body effects. Supported by NSF Grant No. 09-06494F.

  14. Therapeutic efficacy and safety of S-1-based combination therapy compare with S-1 monotherapy following gemcitabine failure in pancreatic cancer: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Sinan; Zhang, Yuan; Zhou, Xiaohu; Zhou, Dongkai; Yang, Qifan; Ju, Bingjie; Zhao, Xinyi; Hu, Zhenhua; Xie, Haiyang; Zhou, Lin; Zheng, Shusen; Wang, Weilin

    2016-01-01

    S-1 monotherapy is widely used following gemcitabine failure in pancreatic cancer, especially in East Asia. We performed a meta-analysis to determine whether S-1-based combination therapy had better efficacy and safety compared with S-1 monotherapy. We searched Pubmed, Web of Science, ClinicalTrials.gov, and Cochrane CENTRAL and subsequently included five trials with a total of 690 patients. The combined hazard ratio (HR) or risk ratio; the corresponding 95% confidence intervals of progression-free survival, overall survival, and overall response rate; and grade 3–4 adverse events were examined. Five randomized controlled trials were included. Meta-analysis demonstrated S-1-based combination therapy significantly increased progression-free survival (HR = 0.78, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.67–0.90, p = 0.0009) and overall response rate (HR = 1.74, 95% CI: 1.20–2.52, p = 0.003). Evidence was insufficient to confirm that S-1-based combined regimens improved overall survival (HR = 0.87, 95% CI: 0.75–1.00, p = 0.05). There was no significant difference in adverse events between the two treatment arms. In conclusion, S-1-based combination therapy improved progression-free survival and overall response rate compared to S-1 monotherapy with acceptable toxicity. PMID:27833144

  15. Therapeutic efficacy and safety of S-1-based combination therapy compare with S-1 monotherapy following gemcitabine failure in pancreatic cancer: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Lu, Sinan; Zhang, Yuan; Zhou, Xiaohu; Zhou, Dongkai; Yang, Qifan; Ju, Bingjie; Zhao, Xinyi; Hu, Zhenhua; Xie, Haiyang; Zhou, Lin; Zheng, Shusen; Wang, Weilin

    2016-11-11

    S-1 monotherapy is widely used following gemcitabine failure in pancreatic cancer, especially in East Asia. We performed a meta-analysis to determine whether S-1-based combination therapy had better efficacy and safety compared with S-1 monotherapy. We searched Pubmed, Web of Science, ClinicalTrials.gov, and Cochrane CENTRAL and subsequently included five trials with a total of 690 patients. The combined hazard ratio (HR) or risk ratio; the corresponding 95% confidence intervals of progression-free survival, overall survival, and overall response rate; and grade 3-4 adverse events were examined. Five randomized controlled trials were included. Meta-analysis demonstrated S-1-based combination therapy significantly increased progression-free survival (HR = 0.78, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.67-0.90, p = 0.0009) and overall response rate (HR = 1.74, 95% CI: 1.20-2.52, p = 0.003). Evidence was insufficient to confirm that S-1-based combined regimens improved overall survival (HR = 0.87, 95% CI: 0.75-1.00, p = 0.05). There was no significant difference in adverse events between the two treatment arms. In conclusion, S-1-based combination therapy improved progression-free survival and overall response rate compared to S-1 monotherapy with acceptable toxicity.

  16. S1P3 confers differential S1P migration by autoreactive and non-autoreactive immature B cells and is required for normal B cell development

    PubMed Central

    Donovan, Erin E.; Pelanda, Roberta; Torres, Raul M.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY During B cell development, immature B cell fate is determined by whether the B cell antigen receptor is engaged in the bone marrow. Immature B cells that are non-autoreactive continue maturation and emigrate from the marrow whereas autoreactive immature B cells remain and are tolerized. However, the microenvironment where these events occur and the chemoattractants responsible for immature B cell trafficking within and out of the bone marrow remain largely undefined. Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) is a chemoattractant that directs lymphocyte trafficking and thymocyte egress and in this study we investigated whether S1P contributed to B cell development, egress and positioning within the bone marrow. Our findings show that immature B cells are chemotactic towards S1P but that this response is dependent on antigen receptor specificity: non-autoreactive, but not autoreactive, immature B cells migrate towards S1P and are shown to require S1P3 receptor for this response. Despite this response, S1P3 is shown not to facilitate immature B cell egress but is required for normal B cell development including the positioning of transitional B cells within bone marrow sinusoids. These data indicate that S1P3 signaling directs immature B cells to a bone marrow microenvironment important for both tolerance induction and maturation. PMID:20039302

  17. The phylogeny of C/S1 bZIP transcription factors reveals a shared algal ancestry and the pre-angiosperm translational regulation of S1 transcripts

    PubMed Central

    Peviani, Alessia; Lastdrager, Jeroen; Hanson, Johannes; Snel, Berend

    2016-01-01

    Basic leucine zippers (bZIPs) form a large plant transcription factor family. C and S1 bZIP groups can heterodimerize, fulfilling crucial roles in seed development and stress response. S1 sequences also harbor a unique regulatory mechanism, termed Sucrose-Induced Repression of Translation (SIRT). The conservation of both C/S1 bZIP interactions and SIRT remains poorly characterized in non-model species, leaving their evolutionary origin uncertain and limiting crop research. In this work, we explored recently published plant sequencing data to establish a detailed phylogeny of C and S1 bZIPs, investigating their intertwined role in plant evolution, and the origin of SIRT. Our analyses clarified C and S1 bZIP orthology relationships in angiosperms, and identified S1 sequences in gymnosperms. We experimentally showed that the gymnosperm orthologs are regulated by SIRT, tracing back the origin of this unique regulatory mechanism to the ancestor of seed plants. Additionally, we discovered an earlier S ortholog in the charophyte algae Klebsormidium flaccidum, together with a C ortholog. This suggests that C and S groups originated by duplication from a single algal proto-C/S ancestor. Based on our observations, we propose a model wherein the C/S1 bZIP dimer network evolved in seed plants from pre-existing C/S bZIP interactions. PMID:27457880

  18. S1P differentially regulates migration of human ovarian cancer and human ovarian surface epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dongmei; Zhao, Zhenwen; Caperell-Grant, Andrea; Yang, Gong; Mok, Samuel C.; Liu, Jinsong; Bigsby, Robert M.; Xu, Yan

    2009-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) arises from the epithelial layer covering the surface of ovaries and intra-peritoneal metastasis is commonly observed at diagnosis. Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), a bioactive lipid signaling molecule, is potentially involved in EOC tumorigenesis. We have found that S1P is elevated in human EOC ascites. We show that physiologically relevant concentrations of S1P stimulate migration and invasion of EOC cells, but inhibit migration of human ovarian surface epithelial (HOSE) cells. In addition, S1P inhibits lysophosphatidic acid (LPA)-induced cell migration in HOSE, but not in EOC cells. We have provided the first line of evidence that the expression levels of S1P receptor subtypes are not the only determinants for how cells respond to S1P. Even though S1P1 is expressed and functional in HOSE cells, the inhibitory effect mediated by S1P2 is dominant in those cells. The cellular pre-existing stress fibers are also important determinants for the migratory response to S1P. Differential S1P-induced morphology changes are noted in EOC and HOSE cells. Pre-existing stress fibers in HOSE cells are further enhanced by S1P treatment, resulting in the negative migratory response to S1P. By contrast, EOC cells lost stress fibers and S1P treatment induces filopodium-like structures at cell edges, which correlates with increased cell motility. In addition, inhibition of the protein kinase C pathway is likely to be involved in the inhibitory effect of S1P on LPA-induced cell migration in HOSE cells. These findings are important for the development of new therapeutics targeting S1P and LPA in EOC. PMID:18645009

  19. Milliwatt-level mid-infrared (10.5-16.5 μm) difference frequency generation with a femtosecond dual-signal-wavelength optical parametric oscillator.

    PubMed

    Hegenbarth, Robin; Steinmann, Andy; Sarkisov, Sergey; Giessen, Harald

    2012-09-01

    We demonstrate the generation of mid-infrared radiation using a femtosecond dual-signal-wavelength optical parametric oscillator and difference frequency generation in an extracavity gallium selenide or silver gallium diselenide crystal. This system generates up to 4.3 mW of average mid-infrared power. Its spectra can be tuned to between 10.5 μm and 16.5 μm wavelength (952  cm(-1)-606  cm(-1)) with more than 50  cm(-1) spectral bandwidth. We demonstrate that the power and spectra of this system are temporally very stable.

  20. Space shuttle: Heat transfer investigation of the McDonnell-Douglas delta wing orbiter at a nominal Mach number of 10.5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eaves, R. H.; Buchanan, T. D.

    1972-01-01

    Heat transfer tests for the delta wing orbiter were conducted in a hypervelocity wind tunnel. A 1.1 percent scale model was tested at a Mach number of approximately 10.5 over an angle of attack range from 10 to 60 degrees over a length Reynolds number range from 5 times 10 to the 6th power to 24 times 10 to the 6th power. Heat transfer results were obtained from model surface heat gage measurements and thermographic phosphor paint. Limited pressure measurements were obtained.

  1. Phytosphingosine 1-phosphate: a high affinity ligand for the S1P(4)/Edg-6 receptor.

    PubMed

    Candelore, Mari Rios; Wright, Michael J; Tota, Laurie M; Milligan, James; Shei, Gan-ju; Bergstrom, James D; Mandala, Suzanne M

    2002-09-27

    It has been reported recently that the phosphorylated form of the immunomodulator FTY720 activates sphingosine 1-phosphate G protein-coupled receptors. Therefore, understanding the biology of this new class of receptors will be important in clarifying the immunological function of bioactive lysosphingolipid ligands. The S1P(4) receptor has generated interest due to its lymphoid tissue distribution. While the S1P(4) receptor binds the prototypical ligand, S1P, a survey of other lysosphingolipids demonstrated that 4D-hydroxysphinganine 1-phosphate, more commonly known as phytosphingosine 1-phosphate (PhS1P), binds to S1P(4) with higher affinity. Using radiolabeled S1P (S133P), the affinity of PhS1P for the S1P(4) receptor is 1.6nM, while that of S1P is nearly 50-fold lower (119+/-20nM). Radiolabeled PhS1P proved to be superior to S133P in routine binding assays due to improved signal-to-noise ratio. The present study demonstrates the utility of a novel radiolabeled probe, PhS133P, for in vitro studies of the S1P(4) receptor pharmacology.

  2. Synthesis and SAR studies of benzyl ether derivatives as potent orally active S1P₁ agonists.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Takashi; Suzuki, Keisuke; Nakamura, Tsuyoshi; Goto, Taiji; Sekiguchi, Yukiko; Ikeda, Takuya; Fukuda, Takeshi; Takemoto, Toshiyasu; Mizuno, Yumiko; Kimura, Takako; Kawase, Yumi; Nara, Futoshi; Kagari, Takashi; Shimozato, Takaichi; Yahara, Chizuko; Inaba, Shinichi; Honda, Tomohiro; Izumi, Takashi; Tamura, Masakazu; Nishi, Takahide

    2014-08-01

    We report herein the synthesis and structure-activity relationships (SAR) of a series of benzyl ether compounds as an S1P₁ receptor modulator. From our SAR studies, the installation of substituents onto the central benzene ring of 2a was revealed to potently influence the S1P₁ and S1P₃ agonistic activities, in particular, an ethyl group on the 2-position afforded satisfactory S1P₁/S1P₃ selectivity. These changes of the S1P₁ and S1P₃ agonistic activities caused by the alteration of substituents on the 2-position were reasonably explained by a docking study using an S1P₁ X-ray crystal structure and S1P₃ homology modeling. We found that compounds 2b and 2e had a potent in vivo immunosuppressive efficacy along with acceptable S1P₁/S1P₃ selectivity, and confirmed that these compounds had less in vivo bradycardia risk through the evaluation of heart rate change after oral administration of the compounds (30 mg/kg, p.o.) in rats.

  3. S1P lyase in skeletal muscle regeneration and satellite cell activation: exposing the hidden lyase.

    PubMed

    Saba, Julie D; de la Garza-Rodea, Anabel S

    2013-01-01

    Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive sphingolipid whose actions are essential for many physiological processes including angiogenesis, lymphocyte trafficking and development. In addition, S1P serves as a muscle trophic factor that enables efficient muscle regeneration. This is due in part to S1P's ability to activate quiescent muscle stem cells called satellite cells (SCs) that are needed for muscle repair. However, the molecular mechanism by which S1P activates SCs has not been well understood. Further, strategies for harnessing S1P signaling to recruit SCs for therapeutic benefit have been lacking. S1P is irreversibly catabolized by S1P lyase (SPL), a highly conserved enzyme that catalyzes the cleavage of S1P at carbon bond C(2-3), resulting in formation of hexadecenal and ethanolamine-phosphate. SPL enhances apoptosis through substrate- and product-dependent events, thereby regulating cellular responses to chemotherapy, radiation and ischemia. SPL is undetectable in resting murine skeletal muscle. However, we recently found that SPL is dynamically upregulated in skeletal muscle after injury. SPL upregulation occurred in the context of a tightly orchestrated genetic program that resulted in a transient S1P signal in response to muscle injury. S1P activated quiescent SCs via a sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 2 (S1P2)/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3)-dependent pathway, thereby facilitating skeletal muscle regeneration. Mdx mice, which serve as a model for muscular dystrophy (MD), exhibited skeletal muscle SPL upregulation and S1P deficiency. Pharmacological SPL inhibition raised skeletal muscle S1P levels, enhanced SC recruitment and improved mdx skeletal muscle regeneration. These findings reveal how S1P can activate SCs and indicate that SPL suppression may provide a therapeutic strategy for myopathies. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Advances in Lysophospholipid Research.

  4. Ribosome-messenger recognition: mRNA target sites for ribosomal protein S1.

    PubMed Central

    Boni, I V; Isaeva, D M; Musychenko, M L; Tzareva, N V

    1991-01-01

    Ribosomal protein S1 is known to play an important role in translational initiation, being directly involved in recognition and binding of mRNAs by 30S ribosomal particles. Using a specially developed procedure based on efficient crosslinking of S1 to mRNA induced by UV irradiation, we have identified S1 binding sites on several phage RNAs in preinitiation complexes. Targets for S1 on Q beta and fr RNAs are localized upstream from the coat protein gene and contain oligo(U)-sequences. In the case of Q beta RNA, this S1 binding site overlaps the S-site for Q beta replicase and the site for S1 binding within a binary complex. It is reasonable that similar U-rich sequences represent S1 binding sites on bacterial mRNAs. To test this idea we have used E. coli ssb mRNA prepared in vitro with the T7 promoter/RNA polymerase system. By the methods of toeprinting, enzymatic footprinting, and UV crosslinking we have shown that binding of the ssb mRNA to 30S ribosomes is S1-dependent. The oligo(U)-sequence preceding the SD domain was found to be the target for S1. We propose that S1 binding sites, represented by pyrimidine-rich sequences upstream from the SD region, serve as determinants involved in recognition of mRNA by the ribosome. Images PMID:2011495

  5. Discovery of a novel series of potent S1P1 agonists.

    PubMed

    Crosignani, Stefano; Bombrun, Agnes; Covini, David; Maio, Maurizio; Marin, Delphine; Quattropani, Anna; Swinnen, Dominique; Simpson, Don; Sauer, Wolfgang; Françon, Bernard; Martin, Thierry; Cambet, Yves; Nichols, Anthony; Martinou, Isabelle; Burgat-Charvillon, Fabienne; Rivron, Delphine; Donini, Cristina; Schott, Olivier; Eligert, Valerie; Novo-Perez, Laurence; Vitte, Pierre-Alain; Arrighi, Jean-François

    2010-03-01

    The discovery of a novel series of S1P1 agonists is described. Starting from a micromolar HTS positive, iterative optimization gave rise to several single-digit nanomolar S1P1 agonists. The compounds were able to induce internalization of the S1P1 receptor, and a selected compound was shown to be able to induce lymphopenia in mice after oral dosing.

  6. Synthesis and photoluminescence control of Ca10.5-1.5xLax(PO4)7:Eu2+ phosphors by aliovalent cation substitution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Yanting; Tang, Miao; Qiu, Zhongxian; Zhang, Jilin; Yu, Liping; Li, Chengzhi; Lian, Shixun; Zhou, Wenli

    2017-02-01

    A range of Ca10.5-1.5xLax(PO4)7:Eu2+phosphors were synthesized by high temperature solid state method. Subsequently we studied the crystal structures and luminescent properties through X-ray diffraction, photoluminescence and photoluminescence excitation, diffuse reflection spectra, Raman spectra and decay curves systematically. Based on the special crystal structure ofβ-Ca3(PO4)2:Eu2+, its emission undergoes a variation from violet-blue to cyan through introducing La3+. The substitution of La3+ for Ca2+ could form some cation vacancies in Ca(4) sites according to the scheme 3Ca2+= 2La3++ □ due to the different ion valence, which compels Eu2+ to migrate from Ca(4) site to other sites. Additionally, the formation of the cation vacancies can further reduce the thermal stability of phosphors.

  7. Bilateral perisylvian polymicrogyria, periventricular nodular heterotopia, and left ventricular noncompaction in a girl with 10.5-11.1 Mb terminal deletion of 1p36.

    PubMed

    Saito, Shoji; Kawamura, Rie; Kosho, Tomoki; Shimizu, Takashi; Aoyama, Koki; Koike, Kenichi; Wada, Takahito; Matsumoto, Naomichi; Kato, Mitsuhiro; Wakui, Keiko; Fukushima, Yoshimitsu

    2008-11-15

    Monosomy 1p36 is a common subtelomeric microdeletion syndrome, characterized by craniofacial dysmorphisms, developmental delay, mental retardation, hypotonia, epilepsy, cardiovascular complications, and hearing impairment; deleted regions have been mapped within 10.0 Mb from the telomere in most documented cases. We report on a girl with a 10.5-11.1 Mb terminal deletion of 1p36 shown by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). She had three distinct structural abnormalities: bilateral perisylvian polymicrogyria, periventricular nodular heterotopia, and left ventricular noncompaction. She died in early infancy with intractable epilepsy, progressive congestive heart failure and pulmonary hypertension. To date, this is the first case with monosomy 1p36, complicated by this combination of manifestations; she is also the first who had possibly a simple terminal deletion of 1p36 and died in early infancy. An atypically large deletion in this patient might be the basis for the development of these features and the severe clinical course.

  8. Flow-regulated endothelial S1P receptor-1 signaling sustains vascular development

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Bongnam; Obinata, Hideru; Galvani, Sylvain; Mendelson, Karen; Ding, Bisen; Skoura, Athanasia; Kinzel, Bernd; Brinkmann, Volker; Rafii, Shahin; Evans, Todd; Hla, Timothy

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY During angiogenesis, nascent vascular sprouts fuse to form vascular networks enabling efficient circulation. Mechanisms that stabilize the vascular plexus are not well understood. Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) is a blood-borne lipid mediator implicated in the regulation of vascular and immune systems. Here we describe a mechanism by which the G protein-coupled S1P receptor-1 (S1P1) stabilizes the primary vascular network. A gradient of S1P1 expression from the mature regions of the vascular network to the growing vascular front was observed. In the absence of endothelial S1P1, adherens junctions are destabilized, barrier function is breached, and flow is perturbed resulting in abnormal vascular hypersprouting. Interestingly, S1P1 responds to S1P as well as laminar shear stress to transduce flow-mediated signaling in endothelial cells both in vitro and in vivo. These data demonstrate that blood flow and circulating S1P activate endothelial S1P1 to stabilize blood vessels in development and homeostasis. PMID:22975328

  9. Intersystem crossing rates of S1 state keto-amino cytosine at low excess energy.

    PubMed

    Lobsiger, Simon; Etinski, Mihajlo; Blaser, Susan; Frey, Hans-Martin; Marian, Christel; Leutwyler, Samuel

    2015-12-21

    The amino-keto tautomer of supersonic jet-cooled cytosine undergoes intersystem crossing (ISC) from the v = 0 and low-lying vibronic levels of its S1((1)ππ(∗)) state. We investigate these ISC rates experimentally and theoretically as a function of S1 state vibrational excess energy Eexc. The S1 vibronic levels are pumped with a ∼5 ns UV laser, the S1 and triplet state ion signals are separated by prompt or delayed ionization with a second UV laser pulse. After correcting the raw ISC yields for the relative S1 and T1 ionization cross sections, we obtain energy dependent ISC quantum yields QISC (corr)=1%-5%. These are combined with previously measured vibronic state-specific decay rates, giving ISC rates kISC = 0.4-1.5 ⋅ 10(9) s(-1), the corresponding S1⇝S0 internal conversion (IC) rates are 30-100 times larger. Theoretical ISC rates are computed using SCS-CC2 methods, which predict rapid ISC from the S1; v = 0 state with kISC = 3 ⋅ 10(9) s(-1) to the T1((3)ππ(∗)) triplet state. The surprisingly high rate of this El Sayed-forbidden transition is caused by a substantial admixture of (1)nOπ(∗) character into the S1((1)ππ(∗)) wave function at its non-planar minimum geometry. The combination of experiment and theory implies that (1) below Eexc = 550 cm(-1) in the S1 state, S1⇝S0 internal conversion dominates the nonradiative decay with kIC ≥ 2 ⋅ 10(10) s(-1), (2) the calculated S1⇝T1 ((1)ππ(∗)⇝(3)ππ(∗)) ISC rate is in good agreement with experiment, (3) being El-Sayed forbidden, the S1⇝T1 ISC is moderately fast (kISC = 3 ⋅ 10(9) s(-1)), and not ultrafast, as claimed by other calculations, and (4) at Eexc ∼ 550 cm(-1) the IC rate increases by ∼50 times, probably by accessing the lowest conical intersection (the C5-twist CI) and thereby effectively switching off the ISC decay channels.

  10. S1P₁ localizes to the colonic vasculature in ulcerative colitis and maintains blood vessel integrity.

    PubMed

    Montrose, David C; Scherl, Ellen J; Bosworth, Brian P; Zhou, Xi Kathy; Jung, Bongnam; Dannenberg, Andrew J; Hla, Timothy

    2013-03-01

    Signaling through sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor₁ (S1P₁) promotes blood vessel barrier function. Degradation of S1P₁ results in increased vascular permeability in the lung and may explain side effects associated with administration of FTY720, a functional antagonist of the S1P₁ receptor that is currently used to treat multiple sclerosis. Ulcerative colitis (UC) is characterized by an increased density of abnormal vessels. The expression or role of S1P₁ in blood vessels in the colon has not been investigated. In the present study, we show that S1P₁ is overexpressed in the colonic mucosa of UC patients. This increase in S1P₁ levels reflects increased vascular density in the inflamed mucosa. Genetic deletion of S1pr1 in mice increases colonic vascular permeability under basal conditions and increases bleeding in experimental colitis. In contrast, neither FTY720 nor AUY954, two S1P receptor-targeting agents, increases bleeding in experimental colitis. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that S1P₁ is critical to maintaining colonic vascular integrity and may play a role in UC pathogenesis.

  11. S1←S0 vibronic spectra and structure of cyclopropanecarboxaldehyde molecule in the S1 lowest excited singlet electronic state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godunov, I. A.; Yakovlev, N. N.; Terentiev, R. V.; Maslov, D. V.; Bataev, V. A.; Abramenkov, A. V.

    2016-11-01

    The S1←S0 vibronic spectra of gas-phase absorption at room temperature and fluorescence excitation of jet-cooled cyclopropanecarboxaldehyde (CPCA, c-C3H5CHO)were obtained and analyzed. In addition, the quantum chemical calculation (CASPT2/cc-pVTZ)was carried out for CPCA in the ground (S0) and lowest excited singlet (S1) electronic states. As a result, it was proved that the S1←S0 electronic excitation of the CPCA conformers (syn and anti) causes (after geometrical relaxation) significant structural changes, namely, the carbonyl fragments become non-planar and the cyclopropyl groups rotate around the central C-C bond. As a consequence, the potential energy surface of CPCA in the S1 state has six minima, 1ab, 2ab, and 3ab, corresponding to three pairs of mirror symmetry conformers: a and b. It was shown that vibronic bands of experimental spectra can be assigned to the 2(S1)←syn(S0) electronic transition with the origin at 30,481 cm-1. A number of fundamental vibrational frequencies for the 2 conformer of CPCA were assigned. In addition, several inversional energy levels for the 2 conformer were found and the 2a↔2b potential function of inversion was determined. The experimental barrier to inversion and the equilibrium angle between the CH bond and the CCO plane were calculated as 570 cm-1 and 28°, respectively.

  12. Femoral impaction bone allografting with an Exeter cemented collarless, polished, tapered stem in revision hip replacement: a mean follow-up of 10.5 years.

    PubMed

    Wraighte, P J; Howard, P W

    2008-08-01

    Femoral impaction bone allografting has been developed as a means of restoring bone stock in revision total hip replacement. We report the results of 75 consecutive patients (75 hips) with a mean age of 68 years (35 to 87) who underwent impaction grafting using the Exeter collarless, polished, tapered femoral stem between 1992 and 1998. The mean follow-up period was 10.5 years (6.3 to 14.1). The median pre-operative bone defect score was 3 (interquartile range (IQR) 2 to 3) using the Endo-Klinik classification. The median subsidence at one year post-operatively was 2 mm (IQR 1 to 3). At the final review the median Harris hip score was 80.6 (IQR 67.6 to 88.9) and the median subsidence 2 mm (IQR 1 to 4). Incorporation of the allograft into trabecular bone and secondary remodelling were noted radiologically at the final follow-up in 87% (393 of 452 zones) and 40% (181 of 452 zones), respectively. Subsidence of the Exeter stem correlated with the pre-operative Endo-Klinik bone loss score (p = 0.037). The degree of subsidence at one year had a strong association with long-term subsidence (p < 0.001). There was a significant correlation between previous revision surgery and a poor Harris Hip score (p = 0.028), and those who had undergone previous revision surgery for infection had a higher risk of complications (p = 0.048). Survivorship at 10.5 years with any further femoral operation as the end-point was 92% (95% confidence interval 82 to 97).

  13. Blocking peptides against HBV: PreS1 protein selected from a phage display library

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Wei; Liu, Yang; Zu, Xiangyang; Jin, Rui; Xiao, Gengfu

    2011-09-09

    Highlights: {yields} Successfully selected specific PreS1-interacting peptides by using phage displayed library. {yields} Alignment of the positive phage clones revealed a consensus PreS1 binding motif. {yields} A highly enriched peptide named P7 had a strong binding ability for PreS1. {yields} P7 could block PreS1 attachment. -- Abstract: The PreS1 protein is present on the outermost part of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) surface and has been shown to have a pivotal function in viral infectivity and assembly. The development of reagents with high affinity and specificity for PreS1 is of great significance for early diagnosis and treatment of HBV infection. A phage display library of dodecapeptide was screened for interactions with purified PreS1 protein. Alignment of the positive phage clones revealed a putative consensus PreS1 binding motif of HX{sub n}HX{sub m}HP/R. Moreover, a peptide named P7 (KHMHWHPPALNT) was highly enriched and occurred with a surprisingly high frequency of 72%. A thermodynamic study revealed that P7 has a higher binding affinity to PreS1 than the other peptides. Furthermore, P7 was able to abrogate the binding of HBV virions to the PreS1 antibody, suggesting that P7 covers key functional sites on the native PreS1 protein. This newly isolated peptide may, therefore, be a new therapeutic candidate for the treatment of HBV. The consensus motif could be modified to deliver imaging, diagnostic, and therapeutic agents to tissues affected by HBV.

  14. Effects of α s1-casein (CSN1S1) and κ-casein (CSN3) genotypes on milk coagulation properties in Murciano-Granadina goats.

    PubMed

    Caravaca, Francisco; Ares, José Luis; Carrizosa, Juan; Urrutia, Baltasar; Baena, Francisca; Jordana, Jordi; Badaoui, Bouabid; Sànchez, Armand; Angiolillo, Antonella; Amills, Marcel; Serradilla, Juan Manuel

    2011-02-01

    The effects of the caprine α s1-casein (CSN1S1) polymorphisms on milk quality and cheese yield have been widely studied in French and Italian goat breeds. Much less is known about the consequences of κ-casein (CSN3) genotype on the technological and coagulation properties of goat milk. In the current study, we have performed an association analysis between polymorphisms at the goat CSN1S1 and CSN3 genes and milk coagulation (rennet coagulation time, curdling rate and curd firmness) and technological (time to cutting of curd and cheese yield) properties. In this analysis, we have included 193 records from 74 Murciano-Granadina goats (with genotypes constituted by different combinations of alleles B, E and F of the gene CSN1S1 and alleles A and B of the gene CSN3) distributed in three herds, which were collected bimonthly during a whole lactation. Data analysis, using a linear mixed model for repeated observations, revealed significant associations between CSN1S1 genotypes and the rate of the curdling process. In this way, milk from EE goats had a significantly higher curdling rate than milk from BB individuals (P<0·05). Contrary to previous experiments performed in French breeds, cheese yield was not significantly different in BB, EE and EF goats. Moreover, we have shown that CSN3 genotype has a significant effect on the rennet coagulation time (BB>AB, P<0·05) but not on cheese yield. No interaction between the CSN1S1 and CSN3 genotypes was observed.

  15. Pathophysiological Consequences of a Break in S1P1-Dependent Homeostasis of Vascular Permeability Revealed by S1P1 Competitive Antagonism

    PubMed Central

    Bigaud, Marc; Dincer, Zuhal; Bollbuck, Birgit; Dawson, Janet; Beckmann, Nicolau; Beerli, Christian; Fishli-Cavelti, Gina; Nahler, Michaela; Angst, Daniela; Janser, Philipp; Otto, Heike; Rosner, Elisabeth; Hersperger, Rene; Bruns, Christian; Quancard, Jean

    2016-01-01

    Rational Homeostasis of vascular barriers depends upon sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) signaling via the S1P1 receptor. Accordingly, S1P1 competitive antagonism is known to reduce vascular barrier integrity with still unclear pathophysiological consequences. This was explored in the present study using NIBR-0213, a potent and selective S1P1 competitive antagonist. Results NIBR-0213 was tolerated at the efficacious oral dose of 30 mg/kg BID in the rat adjuvant-induced arthritis (AiA) model, with no sign of labored breathing. However, it induced dose-dependent acute vascular pulmonary leakage and pleural effusion that fully resolved within 3–4 days, as evidenced by MRI monitoring. At the supra-maximal oral dose of 300 mg/kg QD, NIBR-0213 impaired lung function (with increased breathing rate and reduced tidal volume) within the first 24 hrs. Two weeks of NIBR-0213 oral dosing at 30, 100 and 300 mg/kg QD induced moderate pulmonary changes, characterized by alveolar wall thickening, macrophage accumulation, fibrosis, micro-hemorrhage, edema and necrosis. In addition to this picture of chronic inflammation, perivascular edema and myofiber degeneration observed in the heart were also indicative of vascular leakage and its consequences. Conclusions Overall, these observations suggest that, in the rat, the lung is the main target organ for the S1P1 competitive antagonism-induced acute vascular leakage, which appears first as transient and asymptomatic but could lead, upon chronic dosing, to lung remodeling with functional impairments. Hence, this not only raises the question of organ specificity in the homeostasis of vascular barriers, but also provides insight into the pre-clinical evaluation of a potential safety window for S1P1 competitive antagonists as drug candidates. PMID:28005953

  16. Synthesis and evaluation of CS-2100, a potent, orally active and S1P(3)- sparing S1P(1) agonist.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Tsuyoshi; Asano, Masayoshi; Sekiguchi, Yukiko; Mizuno, Yumiko; Tamaki, Kazuhiko; Nara, Futoshi; Kawase, Yumi; Yabe, Yoshiyuki; Nakai, Daisuke; Kamiyama, Emi; Urasaki-Kaneno, Yoko; Shimozato, Takaichi; Doi-Komuro, Hiromi; Kagari, Takashi; Tomisato, Wataru; Inoue, Ryotaku; Nagasaki, Miyuki; Yuita, Hiroshi; Oguchi-Oshima, Keiko; Kaneko, Reina; Nishi, Takahide

    2012-05-01

    Modulators of sphingosine phosphate receptor-1 (S1P(1)) have recently been focused as a suppressant of autoimmunity. We have discovered a 4-ethylthiophene-based S1P(1) agonist 1-({4-Ethyl-5-[5-(4-phenoxyphenyl)-1,2,4-oxadiazol-3-yl]-2-thienyl}methyl)azetidine-3-carboxylic acid (CS-2100, 8) showing potent S1P(1) agonist activity against S1P(3) and an excellent in vivo potency. We report herein the synthesis of CS-2100 (8) and pharmacological effects such as S1P(1) and S1P(3) agonist activity in vitro, peripheral blood lymphocyte lowering effects and the suppressive effects on adjuvant-induced arthritis and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in animal models. The pharmacokinetic data were also reported. CS-2100 (8) had >5000-fold greater agonist activity for human S1P(1) (EC(50); 4.0 nM) relative to S1P(3) (EC(50); >20,000 nM). Following administration of single oral doses of 0.1 and 1 mg/kg of CS-2100 (8) in rats, lymphocyte counts decreased significantly, with a nadir at 8 and/or 12 h post-dose and recovery to vehicle control levels by 24-48 h post-dose. CS-2100 (8) is efficacious in the adjuvant-induced arthritis model in rats (ID(50); 0.44 mg/kg). In the EAE model compared to the vehicle-treated group, significant decreases in the cumulative EAE scores were observed for 0.3 and 1 mg/kg CS-2100 (8) groups in mice. While CS-2100 (8) showed potent efficacy in various animal disease models, it was also revealed that the central 1,2,4-oxadiazole ring of CS-2100 (8) was decomposed by enterobacteria in intestine of rats and monkeys, implicating the latent concern about an external susceptibility in its metabolic process in the upcoming clinical studies.

  17. To stay or to leave: Stem cells and progenitor cells navigating the S1P gradient.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jingjing; Hsu, Andrew; Lee, Jen-Fu; Cramer, Daniel E; Lee, Menq-Jer

    2011-01-26

    Most hematopoietic stem progenitor cells (HSPCs) reside in bone marrow (BM), but a small amount of HSPCs have been found to circulate between BM and tissues through blood and lymph. Several lines of evidence suggest that sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) gradient triggers HSPC egression to blood circulation after mobilization from BM stem cell niches. Stem cells also visit certain tissues. After a temporary 36 h short stay in local tissues, HSPCs go to lymph in response to S1P gradient between lymph and tissue and eventually enter the blood circulation. S1P also has a role in the guidance of the primitive HSPCs homing to BM in vivo, as S1P analogue FTY720 treatment can improve HSPC BM homing and engraftment. In stress conditions, various stem cells or progenitor cells can be attracted to local injured tissues and participate in local tissue cell differentiation and tissue rebuilding through modulation the expression level of S1P(1), S1P(2) or S1P(3) receptors. Hence, S1P is important for stem cells circulation in blood system to accomplish its role in body surveillance and injury recovery.

  18. Mechanism of the S1 excited state internal conversion in vitamin B12.

    PubMed

    Lodowski, Piotr; Jaworska, Maria; Andruniów, Tadeusz; Garabato, Brady D; Kozlowski, Pawel M

    2014-09-21

    To explain the photostability of vitamin B12, internal conversion of the S1 state was investigated using TD-DFT. The active coordinates for radiationless deactivation were determined to be elongated axial bonds, overcoming a 5.0 kcal mol(-1) energy barrier between the relaxed ligand-to-metal charge transfer (S1), and the ground (S0) states.

  19. To fingolimod and beyond: The rich pipeline of drug candidates that target S1P signaling.

    PubMed

    Chew, Wee Siong; Wang, Wei; Herr, Deron R

    2016-11-01

    Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) is an extracellular lipid signaling molecule that acts as a selective, high-affinity ligand for a family of five G protein-coupled receptors. This signaling system was first identified twenty years ago, and has since been shown to regulate a diverse range of physiological processes and disease states, such as cardiovascular development, immune function, hypoxic responses, and cancer. The therapeutic potential of targeting this system took center stage when it was demonstrated that the immune modulator, fingolimod (FTY720/Gilenya), exerts it lymphopenic effect by acting on S1P receptors, primarily on S1P receptor 1 (S1P1). In 2010, fingolimod became the first oral medication approved for the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS). Since then, second-generation S1P receptor modulators have been under development in an effort to provide improved safety and efficacy profiles for MS, and to broaden their use to other autoimmune indications. Beyond the development of S1P1-modulators, there has been considerable effort in targeting other components of the S1P signaling pathway for the treatment of other diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, sepsis, and cancer. This manuscript provides an overview of the clinical and preclinical development of drugs targeting S1P signaling.

  20. Genome sequence of Bacillus pumilus S-1, an efficient isoeugenol-utilizing producer for natural vanillin.

    PubMed

    Su, Fei; Hua, Dongliang; Zhang, Zhaobin; Wang, Xiaoyu; Tang, Hongzhi; Tao, Fei; Tai, Cui; Wu, Qiulin; Wu, Geng; Xu, Ping

    2011-11-01

    Bacillus pumilus S-1 is an efficient isoeugenol-utilizing producer of natural vanillin. The genome of B. pumilus S-1 contains the epoxide hydrolase and six candidate monooxygenases that make it possible to explore the mechanism involved in conversion of isoenguenol to vanillin in the B. pumilus strain.

  1. VIEW OF THE FROM SIDE OF WHARF S1 FROM WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF THE FROM SIDE OF WHARF S1 FROM WEST END OF QUARRY LOCK, FACING NORTHWEST - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Naval Submarine Base, Berthing Wharf S1, South Waterfront Road along north side of Quarry Loch, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  2. Enhanced Raman scattering from cesium suboxides on silver particles and the structure of S-1 photocathodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bates, C. W., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    An explanation is given for the results of recent enhanced Raman scattering studies of photomultiplier tubes with S-1 photocathode surfaces which indicated the presence of Cs11O3 but not Cs2O. The reason for the discrepancy between the currently accepted model of the S-1 and this recent result is discussed.

  3. Regulation of S1P receptors and sphingosine kinases expression in acute pulmonary endothelial cell injury

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Huiying; Zhang, Zili; Li, Puyuan; Yuan, Xin; Zheng, Jing; Liu, Jinwen

    2016-01-01

    Background Acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS) is a severe clinical syndrome with mortality rate as high as 30–40%. There is no treatment yet to improve pulmonary endothelial barrier function in patients with severe pulmonary edema. Developing therapies to protect endothelial barrier integrity and stabilizing gas exchange is getting more and more attention. Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is able to enhance the resistance of endothelial cell barrier. S1P at physiological concentrations plays an important role in maintaining endothelial barrier function. Proliferation, regeneration and anti-inflammatory activity that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) exhibit make it possible to regulate the homeostatic control of S1P. Methods By building a pulmonary endothelial cell model of acute injury, we investigated the regulation of S1P receptors and sphingosine kinases expression by MSCs during the treatment of acute lung injury using RT-PCR, and investigated the HPAECs Micro-electronics impedance using Real Time Cellular Analysis. Results It was found that the down-regulation of TNF-α expression was more significant when MSC was used in combination with S1P. The combination effection mainly worked on S1PR2, S1PR3 and SphK2. The results show that when MSCs were used in combination with S1P, the selectivity of S1P receptors was increased and the homeostatic control of S1P concentration was improved through regulation of expression of S1P metabolic enzymes. Discussions The study found that, as a potential treatment, MSCs could work on multiple S1P related genes simultaneously. When it was used in combination with S1P, the expression regulation result of related genes was not simply the superposition of each other, but more significant outcome was obtained. This study establishes the experimental basis for further exploring the efficacy of improving endothelial barrier function in acute lung injury, using MSCs in combination with S1P and their

  4. Short communication: Carora cattle show high variability in alpha(s1)-casein.

    PubMed

    Caroli, A; Chessa, S; Chiatti, F; Rignanese, D; Meléndez, B; Rizzi, R; Ceriotti, G

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the genetic variability of milk proteins of the Carora, a shorthorned Bos taurus cattle breed in Venezuela and in other Southern American countries that is primarily used for milk production. A total of 184 individual milk samples were collected from Carora cattle in 5 herds in Venezuela. The milk protein genes alpha(s1)-casein (CN) (CSN1S1), beta-CN (CSN2), kappa-CN (CSN3), and beta-lactoglobulin (LGB) were typed at the protein level by isoelectrofocusing. It was necessary to further analyze CSN1S1 at the DNA level by a PCR-based method to distinguish CSN1S1*G from B. Increased variation was found in particular at the CSN1S1 gene, where 4 variants were identified. The predominant variant was CSN1S1*B (frequency = 0.8). The second most common CSN1S1 variant was CSN1S1*G (0.101), followed by CSN1S1*C (0.082). Moreover, a new isoelectrofocusing pattern was identified, which may result from a novel CSN1S1 variant, named CSN1S1*I, migrating at an intermediate position between CSN1S1*B and CSN1S1*C. Six cows carried the variant at the heterozygous condition. For the other loci, predominance of CSN2*A2 (0.764), CSN3*B (0.609), and LGB*B (0.592) was observed. Haplotype frequencies (AF) at the CSN1S1-CSN2-CSN3 complex were also estimated by taking association into account. Only 7 haplotypes showed AF values >0.05, accounting for a cumulative frequency of 0.944. The predominant haplotype was B-A2-B (frequency = 0.418), followed by B-A2-A (0.213). The occurrence of the G variant is at a rather high frequency, which is of interest for selection within the Carora breed because of the negative association of this variant with the synthesis of the specific protein. From a cheese-making point of view, this variant is associated with improved milk-clotting parameters but is negatively associated with cheese ripening. Thus, milk protein typing should be routinely carried out in the breed, with particular emphasis on using a DNA test to

  5. Local Equivalence of Representations of {Diff^+(S^1)} Corresponding to Different Highest Weights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiner, Mihály

    2017-01-01

    Let c, h and {c,tilde{h}} be two admissible pairs of central charge and highest weight for {Diff^+(S^1)} . It is shown here that the positive energy irreducible projective unitary representations {U_{c,h}} and {U_{c,tilde{h}}} of the group {Diff^+(S^1)} are locally equivalent. This means that for any {ISubset S^1} open proper interval, there exists a unitary operator W I such that {W_I U_{c,h}(γ)W_I^* = U_{c,tilde{h}}(γ)} for all {γ in Diff^+(S^1)} which act identically on {I^c≡ S^1{setminus} I} (i.e., which can "displace" or "move" points only in I). This result extends and completes earlier ones that dealt with only certain regions of the "c, h-plane", and closes the gap in the full classification of superselection sectors of Virasoro nets.

  6. SUSY structures, representations and Peter-Weyl theorem for S 1 | 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmeli, C.; Fioresi, R.; Kwok, S.

    2015-09-01

    The real compact supergroup S 1 | 1 is analysed from different perspectives and its representation theory is studied. We prove it is the only (up to isomorphism) supergroup, which is a real form of (C 1 | 1) × with reduced Lie group S1, and a link with SUSY structures on C 1 | 1 is established. We describe a large family of complex semisimple representations of S 1 | 1 and we show that any S 1 | 1-representation whose weights are all nonzero is a direct sum of members of our family. We also compute the matrix elements of the members of this family and we give a proof of the Peter-Weyl theorem for S 1 | 1.

  7. Epitaxial growth and photoluminescence of hexagonal CdS 1- xSe x alloy films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grün, M.; Gerlach, H.; Breitkopf, Th.; Hetterich, M.; Reznitsky, A.; Kalt, H.; Klingshirn, C.

    1995-01-01

    CdSSe ternary alloy films were grown on GaAs(111) by hot-wall beam epitaxy. The hexagonal crystal phase is obtained. The composition varies from 0 to 40% selenium. Luminescence spectroscopy at low temperatures shows a dominant effect by alloy disorder. Localization of carriers, for example, is still observed at a pulsed optical excitation density of 6 mJ/cm 2. The overall quality of the CdSSe films is sufficient to use them as buffer layers for the growth of hexagonal superlattices.

  8. Coupled anion and cation ordering in Sr{sub 3}RFe{sub 4}O{sub 10.5} (R=Y, Ho, Dy) anion-deficientperovskites

    SciTech Connect

    Abakumov, Artem M.; D'Hondt, Hans; Rossell, Marta D.; Tsirlin, Alexander A.; Gutnikova, Olga; Filimonov, Dmitry S.; Schnelle, Walter; Rosner, Helge; Hadermann, Joke; Van Tendeloo, Gustaaf; Antipov, Evgeny V.

    2010-12-15

    The Sr{sub 3}RFe{sub 4}O{sub 10.5} (R=Y, Ho, Dy) anion-deficient perovskites were prepared using a solid-state reaction in evacuated sealed silica tubes. Transmission electron microscopy and {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy evidenced a complete A-cations and oxygen vacancies ordering. The structure model was further refined by ab initio structure relaxation, based on density functional theory calculations. The compounds crystallize in a tetragonal a{approx}2{radical}2a{sub p{approx}}11.3 A, c{approx}4c{sub p{approx}}16 A unit cell (a{sub p}: parameter of the perovskite subcell) with the P4{sub 2}/mnm space group. Oxygen vacancies reside in the (FeO{sub 5/4{open_square}3/4}) layers, comprising corner-sharing FeO{sub 4} tetrahedra and FeO{sub 5} tetragonal pyramids, which are sandwiched between the layers of the FeO{sub 6} octahedra. Smaller R atoms occupy the 9-fold coordinated position, whereas the 10-fold coordinated positions are occupied by larger Sr atoms. The Fe sublattice is ordered aniferromagnetically up to at least 500 K, while the rare-earth sublattice remains disordered down to 2 K. -- Graphical abstract: The Sr{sub 3}RFe{sub 4}O{sub 10.5} (R=Y, Ho, Dy) anion-deficient perovskites with a complete ordering of the A-cations and oxygen vacancies have been prepared using a solid-state reaction in evacuated sealed silica tubes. Oxygen vacancies reside in the (FeO{sub 5/43/4}) layers, comprising corner-sharing FeO{sub 4} tetrahedra and FeO{sub 5} tetragonal pyramids, which are sandwiched between the layers of the FeO{sub 6} octahedra. Smaller R atoms occupy the 9-fold coordinated position, whereas the 10-fold coordinated positions are occupied by larger Sr atoms.

  9. Evolution and CNO yields of Z = 10-5 stars and possible effects on carbon-enhanced metal-poor production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil-Pons, P.; Doherty, C. L.; Lau, H.; Campbell, S. W.; Suda, T.; Guilani, S.; Gutiérrez, J.; Lattanzio, J. C.

    2013-09-01

    Aims: Our main goals are to get a deeper insight into the evolution and final fates of intermediate-mass, extremely metal-poor (EMP) stars. We also aim to investigate the C, N, and O yields of these stars. Methods: Using the Monash University Stellar Evolution code MONSTAR we computed and analysed the evolution of stars of metallicity Z = 10-5 and masses between 4 and 9 M⊙, from their main sequence until the late thermally pulsing (super) asymptotic giant branch, TP-(S)AGB phase. Results: Our model stars experience a strong C, N, and O envelope enrichment either due to the second dredge-up process, the dredge-out phenomenon, or the third dredge-up early during the TP-(S)AGB phase. Their late evolution is therefore similar to that of higher metallicity objects. When using a standard prescription for the mass loss rates during the TP-(S)AGB phase, the computed stars are able to lose most of their envelopes before their cores reach the Chandrasekhar mass (mCh), so our standard models do not predict the occurrence of SNI1/2 for Z = 10-5 stars. However, we find that the reduction of only one order of magnitude in the mass-loss rates, which are particularly uncertain at this metallicity, would prevent the complete ejection of the envelope, allowing the stars to either explode as an SNI1/2 or become an electron-capture SN. Our calculations stop due to an instability near the base of the convective envelope that hampers further convergence and leaves remnant envelope masses between 0.25 M⊙ for our 4 M⊙ model and 1.5 M⊙ for our 9 M⊙ model. We present two sets of C, N, and O yields derived from our full calculations and computed under two different assumptions, namely, that the instability causes a practically instant loss of the remnant envelope or that the stars recover and proceed with further thermal pulses. Conclusions: Our results have implications for the early chemical evolution of the Universe and might provide another piece for the puzzle of the carbon

  10. Estimates of epistatic and pleiotropic effects of casein alpha s1 (CSN1S1) and thyroglobulin (TG) genetic markers on beef heifer performance traits enhanced by selection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic marker effects and type of inheritance are estimated with poor precision when minor marker allele frequencies are low. A stable composite population (MARC II) was subjected to marker assisted selection for two years to equalize CSN1S1 and TG genetic marker frequencies to evaluate the epista...

  11. Characterization of neutron and photon sources from a 10.5 MeV proton beam on [18O] enriched water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, L. F.; Townsend, L. W.; Alvord, C. W.

    2001-07-01

    The production of F-18 from a 10.5 MeV proton beam on oxygen-18 results in significant yields of neutrons and photons. In order to optimize personnel shielding that satisfies regulatory requirements, it is essential that both the intensity of both neutrons and of photons be determined as a function of energy and angle, which was accomplished by combining results from measurements and from calculations. Energy dependence for neutrons was estimated as a function by unfolding Bonner ball measurements, a hyper-pure germanium detector was used to obtain measurements of the photon spectra, and a well established computer program was used to obtain the calculated values. The radiation intensity was determined from calibrated survey meters for neutrons and for photons. The energy and angular dependence obtained from measurements and calculations agree within the uncertainty of the measurements, but calculated results, scaled by measurements, were used for input to radiation shield design studies. The neutron yield is sufficiently high to be of interest for several applications.

  12. Molecular simulation of fluids with non-identical intermolecular potentials: Thermodynamic properties of 10-5 + 12-6 Mie potential binary mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Stiegler, Thomas; Sadus, Richard J.

    2015-02-28

    General methods for combining interactions between particles characterised by non-identical intermolecular potentials are investigated. The combination methods are tested by performing molecular dynamics simulations to determine the pressure, energy, isochoric and isobaric heat capacities, thermal expansion coefficient, isothermal compressibility, Joule-Thomson coefficient, and speed of sound of 10-5 + 12-6 Mie potential binary mixtures. In addition to the two non-identical Mie potentials, mixtures are also studied with non-identical intermolecular parameters. The combination methods are compared with results obtained by simply averaging the Mie exponents. When either the energy or size parameters are non-identical, very significant differences emerge in the thermodynamic properties predicted by the alternative combination methods. The isobaric heat capacity is the thermodynamic property that is most affected by the relative magnitude of the intermolecular potential parameters and the method for combining non-identical potentials. Either the arithmetic or geometric combination of potentials provides a simple and effective way of performing simulations involving mixtures of components characterised by non-identical intermolecular potentials, which is independent of their functional form.

  13. On the physics of the bimodal coherent dynamics of the turbulent horseshoe vortex at Re=1.16x10^5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paik, Joongcheol; Escauriaza, Cristian; Sotiropoulos, Fotis

    2006-11-01

    Due to the strong adverse pressure gradients, the boundary layer approaching a wall-mounted obstacle undergoes a three-dimensional separation with horseshoe vortices which wrap around the obstacle like necklace. Devenport and Simpson (J Fluid Mech., Vol. 210, P. 23 1990) reported the large scale unsteady bimodal nature of the horseshoe vortex system in the leading edge region of a wing at Re=1.16x10^5 which switches aperiodically from one mode to another at time intervals and accounts for turbulent energy production and turbulent stresses an order of magnitude higher than those from conventional shear mechanism in the upstream boundary layer. We carried out detached eddy simulations of the flow past a wing experimentally investigated by Devenport and Simpson and for the first time numerically confirmed the experimental finding of the bimodal velocity probability phenomenon in the horseshoe vortex region. Detailed quantitative comparisons with the measurements and analysis of the 3D nature of large scale coherent vortical structures in the wing-body junction flow will be present in the presentation.

  14. Molecular simulation of fluids with non-identical intermolecular potentials: Thermodynamic properties of 10-5 + 12-6 Mie potential binary mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stiegler, Thomas; Sadus, Richard J.

    2015-02-01

    General methods for combining interactions between particles characterised by non-identical intermolecular potentials are investigated. The combination methods are tested by performing molecular dynamics simulations to determine the pressure, energy, isochoric and isobaric heat capacities, thermal expansion coefficient, isothermal compressibility, Joule-Thomson coefficient, and speed of sound of 10-5 + 12-6 Mie potential binary mixtures. In addition to the two non-identical Mie potentials, mixtures are also studied with non-identical intermolecular parameters. The combination methods are compared with results obtained by simply averaging the Mie exponents. When either the energy or size parameters are non-identical, very significant differences emerge in the thermodynamic properties predicted by the alternative combination methods. The isobaric heat capacity is the thermodynamic property that is most affected by the relative magnitude of the intermolecular potential parameters and the method for combining non-identical potentials. Either the arithmetic or geometric combination of potentials provides a simple and effective way of performing simulations involving mixtures of components characterised by non-identical intermolecular potentials, which is independent of their functional form.

  15. Molecular simulation of fluids with non-identical intermolecular potentials: thermodynamic properties of 10-5 + 12-6 Mie potential binary mixtures.

    PubMed

    Stiegler, Thomas; Sadus, Richard J

    2015-02-28

    General methods for combining interactions between particles characterised by non-identical intermolecular potentials are investigated. The combination methods are tested by performing molecular dynamics simulations to determine the pressure, energy, isochoric and isobaric heat capacities, thermal expansion coefficient, isothermal compressibility, Joule-Thomson coefficient, and speed of sound of 10-5 + 12-6 Mie potential binary mixtures. In addition to the two non-identical Mie potentials, mixtures are also studied with non-identical intermolecular parameters. The combination methods are compared with results obtained by simply averaging the Mie exponents. When either the energy or size parameters are non-identical, very significant differences emerge in the thermodynamic properties predicted by the alternative combination methods. The isobaric heat capacity is the thermodynamic property that is most affected by the relative magnitude of the intermolecular potential parameters and the method for combining non-identical potentials. Either the arithmetic or geometric combination of potentials provides a simple and effective way of performing simulations involving mixtures of components characterised by non-identical intermolecular potentials, which is independent of their functional form.

  16. Externally applied electric fields up to 1.6 × 10(5) V/m do not affect the homogeneous nucleation of ice in supercooled water.

    PubMed

    Stan, Claudiu A; Tang, Sindy K Y; Bishop, Kyle J M; Whitesides, George M

    2011-02-10

    The freezing of water can initiate at electrically conducting electrodes kept at a high electric potential or at charged electrically insulating surfaces. The microscopic mechanisms of these phenomena are unknown, but they must involve interactions between water molecules and electric fields. This paper investigates the effect of uniform electric fields on the homogeneous nucleation of ice in supercooled water. Electric fields were applied across drops of water immersed in a perfluorinated liquid using a parallel-plate capacitor; the drops traveled in a microchannel and were supercooled until they froze due to the homogeneous nucleation of ice. The distribution of freezing temperatures of drops depended on the rate of nucleation of ice, and the sensitivity of measurements allowed detection of changes by a factor of 1.5 in the rate of nucleation. Sinusoidal alternation of the electric field at frequencies from 3 to 100 kHz prevented free ions present in water from screening the electric field in the bulk of drops. Uniform electric fields in water with amplitudes up to (1.6 ± 0.4) × 10(5) V/m neither enhanced nor suppressed the homogeneous nucleation of ice. Estimations based on thermodynamic models suggest that fields in the range of 10(7)-10(8) V/m might cause an observable increase in the rate of nucleation.

  17. An experimental setup for high resolution 10.5 eV laser-based angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy using a time-of-flight electron analyzer.

    PubMed

    Berntsen, M H; Götberg, O; Tjernberg, O

    2011-09-01

    We present an experimental setup for laser-based angle-resolved time-of-flight photoemission. Using a picosecond pulsed laser, photons of energy 10.5 eV are generated through higher harmonic generation in xenon. The high repetition rate of the light source, variable between 0.2 and 8 MHz, enables high photoelectron count rates and short acquisition times. By using a time-of-flight analyzer with angle-resolving capabilities, electrons emitted from the sample within a circular cone of up to ±15° can be collected. Hence, simultaneous acquisition of photoemission data for a complete area of the Brillouin zone is possible. The current photon energy enables bulk sensitive measurements, high angular resolution, and the resulting covered momentum space is large enough to enclose the entire Brillouin zone in cuprate high-T(c) superconductors. Fermi edge measurements on polycrystalline Au shows an energy resolution better than 5 meV. Data from a test measurement of the Au(111) surface state are presented along with measurements of the Fermi surface of the high-T(c) superconductor Bi(2)Sr(2)CaCu(2)O(8 + δ) (Bi2212).

  18. Phosphorylation of αS1-casein is regulated by different genes.

    PubMed

    Bijl, E; van Valenberg, H J F; Huppertz, T; van Hooijdonk, A C M; Bovenhuis, H

    2014-11-01

    Casein phosphorylation is a posttranslational modification catalyzed by kinase enzymes that attach phosphate groups to specific AA in the protein sequence. This modification is one of the key factors responsible for the stabilization of calcium phosphate nanoclusters in casein micelles and for the internal structure of the casein micelles. α(S1)-Casein (α(s1)-CN) is of special interest because it constitutes up to 40% of the total casein fraction in milk, and it has 2 common phosphorylation states, with 8 (α(S1)-CN-8P) and 9 (α(S1)-CN-9P) phosphorylated serine residues. Factors affecting this variation in the degree of phosphorylation are not currently known. The objective of this research was to determine the genetic background of α(S1)-CN-8P and α(S1)-CN-9P. The genetic and phenotypic correlation between α(S1)-CN-8P and α(S1)-CN-9P was low (0.18 and 0.19, respectively). This low genetic correlation suggests a different genetic background. These differences were further investigated by means of a genome-wide association study, which showed that both α(S1)-CN-8P and α(S1)-CN-9P were affected by a region on Bos taurus autosome (BTA) 6, but only α(S1)-CN-8P was affected by a region on BTA11 that contains the gene that encodes for β-lactoglobulin (β-LG), and only α(S1)-CN-9P was affected by a region on BTA14 that contains the diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1) gene. Estimated effects of β-LG protein genotypes showed that only α(S1)-CN-8P was associated with the β-LG A/B polymorphism (g.1772G>A and g.3054C>T); the AA genotype of β-LG was associated with a lower concentration of α(S1)-CN-8P (-0.32% wt/wt) than the BB genotype (+0.41% wt/wt). Estimated effects of DGAT1 K232A genotypes showed that only α(S1)-CN-9P was associated with the DGAT1 gene polymorphism; DGAT1 AA genotype was associated with a higher α(S1)-CN-9P concentration (+0.53% wt/wt) than the DGAT1 KK genotype (-0.44% wt/wt). The results give insight in phosphorylation of α(S1

  19. One-stage surgery through posterior approach-for L5-S1 spondyloptosis

    PubMed Central

    Suslu, Hikmet Turan; Celikoglu, Erhan; Borekcı, Ali; Hıcdonmez, Tufan; Suslu, Hüsnü

    2011-01-01

    Grade 5 spondylolisthesis or spondyloptosis is a rare condition. Generally, the surgical management of spondyloptosis includes multi-staged procedures instead of one-staged procedures. One-stage treatment for spondyloptosis is very rare. A 15-year-old girl with L5-S1 spondyloptosis was admitted with severe low back pain. There was no history of trauma. The patient underwent L5 laminectomy, L5-S1 discectomy, resection of sacral dome, reduction, L3-L4-L5-S1 pedicular screw fixation, and interbody-posterolateral fusion through the posterior approach. The reduction was maintained with bilateral L5-S1 discectomy, resection of the sacral dome, and transpedicular instrumentation from L3 to S1. In this particular case, one-staged approach was adequate for the treatment of L5-S1 spondyloptosis. One-staged surgery using the posterior approach may be adequate for the treatment of L5-S1 spondyloptosis while avoiding the risks inherent in anterior approaches. PMID:23125496

  20. S1PR1 expression correlates with inflammatory responses to Newcastle disease virus infection.

    PubMed

    Li, Yaling; Xie, Peng; Sun, Minhua; Xiang, Bin; Kang, Yinfeng; Gao, Pei; Zhu, Wenxian; Ning, Zhangyong; Ren, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is the causative agent of Newcastle disease, which is characterized by inflammatory pathological changes in the organs of chickens. The inflammatory response to this disease has not been well characterized. Previous reports showed that the sphingosine-1-phosphate-1 receptor (S1PR1), a G protein-coupled receptor, is important to the activation of inflammatory responses. To understand better the viral pathogenesis and host inflammatory response, we analyzed S1PR1 expression during NDV infection. We observed a direct correlation between chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF) cellular inflammatory responses and S1PR1 expression. Virulent NDV-infected CEF cells also had elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-18). When S1PR1 was inhibited by using the specific antagonist W146, pro-inflammatory cytokine production declined. Overexpression of S1PR1 resulted in increased virus-induced IL-1β production. S1PR1 expression levels did not impact significantly NDV replication. These findings highlight the important role of S1PR1 in inflammatory responses in NDV infection.

  1. Identification of a pepducin acting as S1P3 receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Severino, Beatrice; Incisivo, Giuseppina Maria; Fiorino, Ferdinando; Bertolino, Antonio; Frecentese, Francesco; Barbato, Francesco; Manganelli, Serena; Maggioni, Giada; Capasso, Domenica; Caliendo, Giuseppe; Santagada, Vincenzo; Sorrentino, Raffaella; Roviezzo, Fiorentina; Perissutti, Elisa

    2013-11-01

    Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive lipid with key functions in the immune, inflammatory, and cardiovascular systems. S1P exerts its action through the interaction with a family of five known G protein-coupled receptors, named S1P(1-5). Among them, S1P(3) has been implicated in the pathological processes of a number of diseases, including sepsis and cancer. KRX-725 (compound 1) is a pepducin that mimics the effects of S1P by triggering specifically S1P(3). Here, aiming to identify novel S1P(3) antagonists, we carried out an alanine scanning analysis to address the contribution of the side chains of each amino acid residue to the peptide function. Then, deleted peptides from both the C- and N-terminus were prepared in order to determine the minimal sequence for activity and to identify the structural requirements for agonistic and, possibly, antagonistic behaviors. The pharmacological results of the Ala-scan derived compounds (2-10) suggested a high tolerance of the pepducin 1 to amino acid substitutions. Importantly, the deleted peptide 16 has the ability to inhibit, in a dose-dependent manner, both pepducin 1-induced vasorelaxation and fibroblast proliferation. Finally, a computational analysis was performed on the prepared compounds, showing that the supposed antagonists 16 and 17 appeared to be aligned with each other but not with the others. These results suggested a correlation between specific conformations and activities.

  2. Decorin in human oral cancer: A promising predictive biomarker of S-1 neoadjuvant chemosensitivity

    SciTech Connect

    Kasamatsu, Atsushi; Uzawa, Katsuhiro; Minakawa, Yasuyuki; Ishige, Shunsaku; Kasama, Hiroki; Endo-Sakamoto, Yosuke; Ogawara, Katsunori; Shiiba, Masashi; Takiguchi, Yuichi; Tanzawa, Hideki

    2015-01-30

    Highlights: • DCN is significantly up-regulated in chemoresistant cancer cell lines. • DCN is a key regulator for chemoresistant mechanisms in vitro and in vivo. • DCN predicts the clinical responses to S-1 NAC for patients with oral cancer. - Abstract: We reported previously that decorin (DCN) is significantly up-regulated in chemoresistant cancer cell lines. DCN is a small leucine-rich proteoglycan that exists and functions in stromal and epithelial cells. Accumulating evidence suggests that DCN affects the biology of several types of cancer by directly/indirectly targeting the signaling molecules involved in cell growth, survival, metastasis, and angiogenesis, however, the molecular mechanisms of DCN in chemoresistance and its clinical relevance are still unknown. Here we assumed that DCN silencing cells increase chemosusceptibility to S-1, consisted of tegafur, prodrug of 5-fluorouracil. We first established DCN knockdown transfectants derived from oral cancer cells for following experiments including chemosusceptibility assay to S-1. In addition to the in vitro data, DCN knockdown zenografting tumors in nude mice demonstrate decreasing cell proliferation and increasing apoptosis with dephosphorylation of AKT after S-1 chemotherapy. We also investigated whether DCN expression predicts the clinical responses of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) using S-1 (S-1 NAC) for oral cancer patients. Immunohistochemistry data in the preoperative biopsy samples was analyzed to determine the cut-off point for status of DCN expression by receiver operating curve analysis. Interestingly, low DCN expression was observed in five (83%) of six cases with complete responses to S-1 NAC, and in one (10%) case of 10 cases with stable/progressive disease, indicating that S-1 chemosensitivity is dramatically effective in oral cancer patients with low DCN expression compared with high DCN expression. Our findings suggest that DCN is a key regulator for chemoresistant mechanisms, and

  3. Autosomal-Recessive Hearing Impairment Due to Rare Missense Variants within S1PR2

    PubMed Central

    Santos-Cortez, Regie Lyn P.; Faridi, Rabia; Rehman, Atteeq U.; Lee, Kwanghyuk; Ansar, Muhammad; Wang, Xin; Morell, Robert J.; Isaacson, Rivka; Belyantseva, Inna A.; Dai, Hang; Acharya, Anushree; Qaiser, Tanveer A.; Muhammad, Dost; Ali, Rana Amjad; Shams, Sulaiman; Hassan, Muhammad Jawad; Shahzad, Shaheen; Raza, Syed Irfan; Bashir, Zil-e-Huma; Smith, Joshua D.; Nickerson, Deborah A.; Bamshad, Michael J.; Riazuddin, Sheikh; Ahmad, Wasim; Friedman, Thomas B.; Leal, Suzanne M.

    2016-01-01

    The sphingosine-1-phosphate receptors (S1PRs) are a well-studied class of transmembrane G protein-coupled sphingolipid receptors that mediate multiple cellular processes. However, S1PRs have not been previously reported to be involved in the genetic etiology of human traits. S1PR2 lies within the autosomal-recessive nonsyndromic hearing impairment (ARNSHI) locus DFNB68 on 19p13.2. From exome sequence data we identified two pathogenic S1PR2 variants, c.323G>C (p.Arg108Pro) and c.419A>G (p.Tyr140Cys). Each of these variants co-segregates with congenital profound hearing impairment in consanguineous Pakistani families with maximum LOD scores of 6.4 for family DEM4154 and 3.3 for family PKDF1400. Neither S1PR2 missense variant was reported among ∼120,000 chromosomes in the Exome Aggregation Consortium database, in 76 unrelated Pakistani exomes, or in 720 Pakistani control chromosomes. Both DNA variants affect highly conserved residues of S1PR2 and are predicted to be damaging by multiple bioinformatics tools. Molecular modeling predicts that these variants affect binding of sphingosine-1-phosphate (p.Arg108Pro) and G protein docking (p.Tyr140Cys). In the previously reported S1pr2−/− mice, stria vascularis abnormalities, organ of Corti degeneration, and profound hearing loss were observed. Additionally, hair cell defects were seen in both knockout mice and morphant zebrafish. Family PKDF1400 presents with ARNSHI, which is consistent with the lack of gross malformations in S1pr2−/− mice, whereas family DEM4154 has lower limb malformations in addition to hearing loss. Our findings suggest the possibility of developing therapies against hair cell damage (e.g., from ototoxic drugs) through targeted stimulation of S1PR2. PMID:26805784

  4. Components-dependent optical nonlinearity in a series of CdSexS1-x and CdSexS1-x/ZnS QDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Shunlong; Wu, Feng; Zhang, Siwen; Wang, Qian; Li, Songtao; Cheng, Xiaoman

    2016-08-01

    The different compositions of the ternary alloyed CdSexS1-x and CdSexS1-x/ZnS core/shell quantum dots(CSQDs) have been synthesized by the chemical routes. The nonlinear optical properties of these QDs were investigated using Z-scan technique under the excitation of the 1064 nm picosecond laser pulse. The Z-scan results reveal that the nonlinear refractive indices of these QDs can be tuned by changing the ratio of Se and S components. Nonlinear optical (NLO) properties have been shown to be enhanced in CSQDs as compared to their core semiconductor counterparts. These QDs exhibit the components-tuned nonlinear refraction indices, which lead to a wide application in the photonic field.

  5. Heart Disease Could Cost U.S. $1 Trillion Per Year by 2035: Report

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163587.html Heart Disease Could Cost U.S. $1 Trillion Per Year By ... estimates that nearly half of Americans will have heart disease in less than 20 years To use the ...

  6. Preparation of (S)-1-Halo-2-octanols Using Ionic Liquids and Biocatalysts.

    PubMed

    Oromí-Farrús, Mireia; Eras, Jordi; Sala, Núria; Torres, Mercè; Canela, Ramon

    2009-10-23

    Preparation of (S)-1-chloro-2-octanol and (S)-1-bromo-2-octanol was carried out by the enzymatic hydrolysis of halohydrin palmitates using biocatalysts. Halohydrin palmitates were prepared by various methods from palmitic acid and 1,2-octanediol. A tandem hydrolysis was carried out using lipases from Candida antarctica (Novozym 435), Rhizomucor miehei (Lipozyme IM), and "resting cells" from a Rhizopus oryzae strain that was not mycotoxigenic. The influence of the enzyme and the reaction medium on the selective hydrolysis of isomeric mixtures of halohydrin esters is described. Novozym 435 allowed preparation of (S)-1-chloro-2-octanol and (S)-1-bromo-2-octanol after 1-3 h of reaction at 40 degrees C in [BMIM][PF(6)].

  7. PMMA Cementoplasty in Symptomatic Metastatic Lesions of the S1 Vertebral Body

    SciTech Connect

    Dehdashti, Amir R.; Martin, Jean-Baptiste; Jean, Beatrix; Ruefenacht, Daniel A.

    2000-03-15

    We describe a lateral transiliac direct puncture approach to the S1 vertebral body for polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) cementoplasty of painful metastatic lesions. This approach was performed using a 15-cm-long trocar needle with 3-mm outer diameter, introduced under general anesthesia and fluoroscopic control. A lateral projection was used to center the needle just in front of the spinal canal and subjacent to the superior plate of the S1 vertebral body. Needle progression was controlled using anteroposterior and lateral fluoroscopic projections alternately with a needle course parallel to an axial plane, avoiding conflict with the S1 foramen. After needle tip placement in the center of the S1 vertebral body, diluted PMMA with a setting time of 8 min was delivered. Ipsilateral lesions of the lateral sacral compartment were filled with the same needle by stepwise withdrawal and continuous PMMA injection.

  8. Second generation S1P pathway modulators: research strategies and clinical developments.

    PubMed

    Bigaud, Marc; Guerini, Danilo; Billich, Andreas; Bassilana, Frederic; Brinkmann, Volker

    2014-05-01

    Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a chronic autoimmune disorder affecting the central nervous system (CNS) through demyelination and neurodegeneration. Until recently, major therapeutic treatments have relied on agents requiring injection delivery. In September 2010, fingolimod/FTY720 (Gilenya, Novartis) was approved as the first oral treatment for relapsing forms of MS. Fingolimod causes down-modulation of S1P1 receptors on lymphocytes which prevents the invasion of autoaggressive T cells into the CNS. In astrocytes, down-modulation of S1P1 by the drug reduces astrogliosis, a hallmark of MS, thereby allowing restoration of productive astrocyte communication with other neural cells and the blood brain barrier. Animal data further suggest that the drug directly supports the recovery of nerve conduction and remyelination. In human MS, such mechanisms may explain the significant decrease in the number of inflammatory markers on brain magnetic resonance imaging in recent clinical trials, and the reduction of brain atrophy by the drug. Fingolimod binds to 4 of the 5 known S1P receptor subtypes, and significant efforts were made over the past 5 years to develop next generation S1P receptor modulators and determine the minimal receptor selectivity needed for maximal therapeutic efficacy in MS patients. Other approaches considered were competitive antagonists of the S1P1 receptor, inhibitors of the S1P lyase to prevent S1P degradation, and anti-S1P antibodies. Below we discuss the current status of the field, and the functional properties of the most advanced compounds. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled New Frontiers in Sphingolipid Biology.

  9. Characterization of the L4-L5-S1 motion segment using the stepwise reduction method.

    PubMed

    Jaramillo, Héctor Enrique; Puttlitz, Christian M; McGilvray, Kirk; García, José J

    2016-05-03

    The two aims of this study were to generate data for a more accurate calibration of finite element models including the L5-S1 segment, and to find mechanical differences between the L4-L5 and L5-S1 segments. Then, the range of motion (ROM) and facet forces for the L4-S1 segment were measured using the stepwise reduction method. This consists of sequentially testing and reducing each segment in nine stages by cutting the ligaments, facet capsules, and removing the nucleus. Five L4-S1 human segments (median: 65 years, range: 53-84 years, SD=11.0 years) were loaded under a maximum pure moment of 8Nm. The ROM was measured using stereo-photogrammetry via tracking of three markers and the facet contact forces (CF) were measured using a Tekscan system. The ROM for the L4-L5 segment and all stages showed good agreement with published data. The major differences in ROM between the L4-L5 and L5-S1 segments were found for lateral bending and all stages, for which the L4-L5 ROM was about 1.5-3 times higher than that of the L5-S1 segment, consistent with L5-S1 facet CF about 1.3 to 4 times higher than those measured for the L4-L5 segment. For the other movements and few stages, the L4-L5 ROM was significantly lower that of the L5-S1 segment. ROM and CF provide important baseline data for more accurate calibration of FE models and to understand the role that their structures play in lower lumbar spine mechanics.

  10. Critical role of alkyl chain branching of organic semiconductors in enabling solution-processed N-channel organic thin-film transistors with mobility of up to 3.50 cm² V(-1) s(-1).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fengjiao; Hu, Yunbin; Schuettfort, Torben; Di, Chong-an; Gao, Xike; McNeill, Christopher R; Thomsen, Lars; Mannsfeld, Stefan C B; Yuan, Wei; Sirringhaus, Henning; Zhu, Daoben

    2013-02-13

    Substituted side chains are fundamental units in solution processable organic semiconductors in order to achieve a balance of close intermolecular stacking, high crystallinity, and good compatibility with different wet techniques. Based on four air-stable solution-processed naphthalene diimides fused with 2-(1,3-dithiol-2-ylidene)malononitrile groups (NDI-DTYM2) that bear branched alkyl chains with varied side-chain length and different branching position, we have carried out systematic studies on the relationship between film microstructure and charge transport in their organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs). In particular synchrotron measurements (grazing incidence X-ray diffraction and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure) are combined with device optimization studies to probe the interplay between molecular structure, molecular packing, and OTFT mobility. It is found that the side-chain length has a moderate influence on thin-film microstructure but leads to only limited changes in OTFT performance. In contrast, the position of branching point results in subtle, yet critical changes in molecular packing and leads to dramatic differences in electron mobility ranging from ~0.001 to >3.0 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1). Incorporating a NDI-DTYM2 core with three-branched N-alkyl substituents of C(11,6) results in a dense in-plane molecular packing with an unit cell area of 127 Å(2), larger domain sizes of up to 1000 × 3000 nm(2), and an electron mobility of up to 3.50 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1), which is an unprecedented value for ambient stable n-channel solution-processed OTFTs reported to date. These results demonstrate that variation of the alkyl chain branching point is a powerful strategy for tuning of molecular packing to enable high charge transport mobilities.

  11. π-Electron ring-currents and bond-currents in [10,5]-Coronene and related structures conforming to the 'Annulene-Within-an-Annulene' model.

    PubMed

    Dickens, T K; Mallion, R B

    2013-06-07

    A series of hypothetical conjugated structures is defined; the series is called the p-Coronenes and the first four members of it are shown to respect the 'Annulene-Within-an-Annulene' (AWA) model when tested by means of Hückel-London-Pople-McWeeny (HLPM) π-electron ring-current and bond-current calculations. The first member of this series, 5-Coronene, is also a member of the regular [r,s]-Coronene series, where it is known as [10,5]-Coronene. It is shown that, as p is varied (with p always odd, and with p > 3) through the values 5, 7, 9, 11, etc., the resulting structures alternate between a '[4n + 2]-Annulene-Within-a-[4m]-Annulene' (if (p- 1) is divisible by 4) and a '[4n]-Annulene-Within-a-[4m + 2]-Annulene' (if (p- 1) is not divisible by 4). It is therefore claimed that the p-Coronenes constitute an ideal series for testing the AWA model. It is also remarked that each member of the p-Coronene series has only four Kekulé structures, and that the 'spokes' or 'transverse' bonds connecting the central [p(p- 3)]-membered ring to the outer [p(p- 1)]-membered periphery always have a Pauling bond-order of zero, ensuring that the outer and inner rings are 'decoupled'; such bonds also bear zero bond-current, by symmetry. It is argued that the former property of these transverse bonds, rather than the latter, determines that the p-Coronenes obey the AWA rule-which is in fact an exception, rather than a 'rule'per se. The paper concludes by explicitly stating our philosophy that a conceptually simple model depending on no subjective (or any other) parameters whatsoever can give intuitive chemical insight for certain systems equal to that available from far-more complex methods such as ab initio calculations-what Coulson once famously called 'primitive patterns of understanding'.

  12. SIRT1 mediates Sphk1/S1P-induced proliferation and migration of endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhan; Wang, Hua; Xiao, Feng-Jun; Shi, Xue-Feng; Zhang, Yi-Kun; Xu, Qin Qin; Zhang, Xiao-Yan; Ha, Xiao-Qin; Wang, Li-Sheng

    2016-05-01

    Angiogenesis is one of the most important components of embryonic organ formation and vessel growth after birth. Sphingosine kinase 1 (Sphk1) and S1P has been confirmed to participate in various cell signaling pathways and physiological processes including neovascularisation. However, the mechanisms that Sphk1/S1P regulates neovascularisation remain unclear. In this study, we elucidated that Sphk1/S1P upregulates sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), a NAD+ dependent deacetylases protease which exerts multiple cellular functions, to regulate the proliferation and migration of endothelial cells. By using CCK8 and Transwell assays, we demonstrated that Sphk1 and SIRT1 knockdown could significantly decrease proliferation and migration of HUVEC cells. Sphk1 inhibition results in SIRT1 downregulation which could be reversed by exogenous S1P in HUVEC cells. Treatment of HUVECs with S1P reverses the impaired proliferation and migration caused by SIRT1 knockdown. Furthermore, Sphk1 knockdown inhibits the phosphorylation of P38 MAPK, ERK and AKT. Treatment of HUVECs with PD98059, SB203580 and Wortmannin, which are the inhibitors of ERK, P38 MAPK and AKT respectively, resulted in decreased SIRT1 expression and reduced migration of HUVEC cells. Thus, we conclude that Sphk1/S1P induces SIRT1 upregulation through multiple pathways including P38 MAPK, ERK and AKT signals. This is the first report to disclose the existence and roles of Sphk1/S1P/SIRT1 axis in regulation of endothelial cell proliferation and migration, which may provide a theoretical basis for angiogenesis.

  13. The Effects of Spinopelvic Parameters and Paraspinal Muscle Degeneration on S1 Screw Loosening

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin-Bum; Lee, Young-Seok; Nam, Taek-Kyun; Park, Yong-Sook; Kim, Young-Baeg

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate risk factors for S1 screw loosening after lumbosacral fusion, including spinopelvic parameters and paraspinal muscles. Methods We studied with 156 patients with degenerative lumbar disease who underwent lumbosacral interbody fusion and pedicle screw fixation including the level of L5-S1 between 2005 and 2012. The patients were divided into loosening and non-loosening groups. Screw loosening was defined as a halo sign larger than 1 mm around a screw. We checked cross sectional area of paraspinal muscles, mean signal intensity of the muscles on T2 weight MRI as a degree of fatty degeneration, spinopelvic parameters, bone mineral density, number of fusion level, and the characteristic of S1 screw. Results Twenty seven patients showed S1 screw loosening, which is 24.4% of total. The mean duration for S1 screw loosening was 7.3±4.1 months after surgery. Statistically significant risk factors were increased age, poor BMD, 3 or more fusion levels (p<0.05). Among spinopelvic parameters, a high pelvic incidence (p<0.01), a greater difference between pelvic incidence and lumbar lordotic angle preoperatively (p<0.01) and postoperatively (p<0.05). Smaller cross-sectional area and high T2 signal intensity in both multifidus and erector spinae muscles were also significant muscular risk factors (p<0.05). Small converging angle (p<0.001) and short intraosseous length (p<0.05) of S1 screw were significant screw related risk factors (p<0.05). Conclusion In addition to well known risk factors, spinopelvic parameters and the degeneration of paraspinal muscles also showed significant effects on the S1 screw loosening. PMID:26587190

  14. Effects of S1P on skeletal muscle repair/regeneration during eccentric contraction.

    PubMed

    Sassoli, Chiara; Formigli, Lucia; Bini, Francesca; Tani, Alessia; Squecco, Roberta; Battistini, Chiara; Zecchi-Orlandini, Sandra; Francini, Fabio; Meacci, Elisabetta

    2011-11-01

    Skeletal muscle regeneration is severely compromised in the case of extended damage. The current challenge is to find factors capable of limiting muscle degeneration and/or potentiating the inherent regenerative program mediated by a specific type of myoblastic cells, the satellite cells. Recent studies from our groups and others have shown that the bioactive lipid, sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), promotes myoblast differentiation and exerts a trophic action on denervated skeletal muscle fibres. In the present study, we examined the effects of S1P on eccentric contraction (EC)-injured extensor digitorum longus muscle fibres and resident satellite cells. After EC, skeletal muscle showed evidence of structural and biochemical damage along with significant electrophysiological changes, i.e. reduced plasma membrane resistance and resting membrane potential and altered Na(+) and Ca(2+) current amplitude and kinetics. Treatment with exogenous S1P attenuated the EC-induced tissue damage, protecting skeletal muscle fibre from apoptosis, preserving satellite cell viability and affecting extracellular matrix remodelling, through the up-regulation of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) expression. S1P also promoted satellite cell renewal and differentiation in the damaged muscle. Notably, EC was associated with the activation of sphingosine kinase 1 (SphK1) and with increased endogenous S1P synthesis, further stressing the relevance of S1P in skeletal muscle protection and repair/regeneration. In line with this, the treatment with a selective SphK1 inhibitor during EC, caused an exacerbation of the muscle damage and attenuated MMP-9 expression. Together, these findings are in favour for a role of S1P in skeletal muscle healing and offer new clues for the identification of novel therapeutic approaches to counteract skeletal muscle damage and disease.

  15. Roles of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptors in malignant behavior of glioma cells. Differential effects of S1P{sub 2} on cell migration and invasiveness

    SciTech Connect

    Young, Nicholas; Van Brocklyn, James R. . E-mail: james.vanbrocklyn@osumc.edu

    2007-05-01

    Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive lipid that signals through a family of five G-protein-coupled receptors, termed S1P{sub 1-5}. S1P stimulates growth and invasiveness of glioma cells, and high expression levels of the enzyme that forms S1P, sphingosine kinase-1, correlate with short survival of glioma patients. In this study we examined the mechanism of S1P stimulation of glioma cell proliferation and invasion by either overexpressing or knocking down, by RNA interference, S1P receptor expression in glioma cell lines. S1P{sub 1}, S1P{sub 2} and S1P{sub 3} all contribute positively to S1P-stimulated glioma cell proliferation, with S1P{sub 1} being the major contributor. Stimulation of glioma cell proliferation by these receptors correlated with activation of ERK MAP kinase. S1P{sub 5} blocks glioma cell proliferation, and inhibits ERK activation. S1P{sub 1} and S1P{sub 3} enhance glioma cell migration and invasion. S1P{sub 2} inhibits migration through Rho activation, Rho kinase signaling and stress fiber formation, but unexpectedly, enhances glioma cell invasiveness by stimulating cell adhesion. S1P{sub 2} also potently enhances expression of the matricellular protein CCN1/Cyr61, which has been implicated in tumor cell adhesion, and invasion as well as tumor angiogenesis. A neutralizing antibody to CCN1 blocked S1P{sub 2}-stimulated glioma invasion. Thus, while S1P{sub 2} decreases glioma cell motility, it may enhance invasion through induction of proteins that modulate glioma cell interaction with the extracellular matrix.

  16. Combined gemcitabine and S-1 chemotherapy for treating unresectable hilar cholangiocarcinoma: a randomized open-label clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zun-Qiang; Guan, Jiao; Tong, Da-Nian; Zhou, Guang-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Although the combination of cisplatin and gemcitabine (GEM) is considered the standard first-line chemotherapy against unresectable hilar cholangiocarcinoma (HC), its efficacy is discouraging. The present randomized open-label clinical trial aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the GEM plus S-1 (GEM-S-1) combination against unresectable HC. Twenty-five patients per group were randomly assigned to receive GEM, S-1 or GEM-S-1. Neutropenia (56%) and leukopenia (40%) were the most common chemotherapy-related toxicities in the GEM-S-1 group. Median overall survival (OS) in the GEM-S-1, GEM and S-1 groups was 11, 10 and 6 months, respectively. GEM plus S-1 significantly improved OS compared to S-1 monotherapy (OR=0.68; 95%CI, 0.50–0.90; P=0.008). Median progression-free survival (PFS) times in the GEM-S-1, GEM and S-1 groups were 4.90, 3.70 and 1.60 months, respectively. GEM plus S-1 significantly improved PFS compared to S-1 monotherapy (OR=0.50; 95%CI, 0.27–0.91; P=0.024). Response rates were 36%, 24% and 8% in the GEM-S-1, GEM and S-1 groups, respectively. A statistically significant difference was found in response rates between the gemcitabine-S-1 and S-1 groups (36% vs 8%, P=0.017). Patients with CA19-9<466 U/ml were more responsive to chemotherapeutic agents than those with CA19-9≥571 U/ml (88.9% vs 0%, P<0.001). We conclude that the combination of GEM plus S-1 provides a better OS, PFS and response rate than S-1 monotherapy, but it did not significantly differ from GEM monotherapy. (ChiCTR-TRC-14004733). PMID:27058753

  17. Arthrodesis to L5 versus S1 in long instrumentation and fusion for degenerative lumbar scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Cho, Kyu-Jung; Suk, Se-Il; Park, Seung-Rim; Kim, Jin-Hyok; Choi, Sung-Wook; Yoon, Young-Hyun; Won, Man-Hee

    2009-04-01

    There is a debate regarding the distal fusion level for degenerative lumbar scoliosis. Whether a healthy L5-S1 motion segment should be included or not in the fusion remains controversial. The purpose of this study was to determine the optimal indication for the fusion to the sacrum, and to compare the results of distal fusion to L5 versus the sacrum in the long instrumented fusion for degenerative lumbar scoliosis. A total of 45 patients who had undergone long instrumentation and fusion for degenerative lumbar scoliosis were evaluated with a minimum 2 year follow-up. Twenty-four patients (mean age 63.6) underwent fusion to L5 and 21 patients (mean age 65.6) underwent fusion to the sacrum. Supplemental interbody fusion was performed in 12 patients in the L5 group and eleven patients in the sacrum group. The number of levels fused was 6.08 segments (range 4-8) in the L5 group and 6.09 (range 4-9) in the sacrum group. Intraoperative blood loss (2,754 ml versus 2,938 ml) and operative time (220 min versus 229 min) were similar in both groups. The Cobb angle changed from 24.7 degrees before surgery to 6.8 degrees after surgery in the L5 group, and from 22.8 degrees to 7.7 degrees in the sacrum group without statistical difference. Correction of lumbar lordosis was statistically better in the sacrum group (P = 0.03). Less correction of lumbar lordosis in the L5 group seemed to be associated with subsequent advanced L5-S1 disc degeneration. The change of coronal and sagittal imbalance was not different in both groups. Subsequent advanced L5-S1 disc degeneration occurred in 58% of the patients in the L5 group. Symptomatic adjacent segment disease at L5-S1 developed in five patients. Interestingly, the development of adjacent segment disease was not related to the preoperative grade of disc degeneration, which proved minimal degeneration in the five patients. In the L5 group, there were nine patients of complications at L5-S1 segment, including adjacent segment disease at

  18. Improvement of intratumor microdistribution of PEGylated liposome via tumor priming by metronomic S-1 dosing

    PubMed Central

    Doi, Yusuke; Abu Lila, Amr S; Matsumoto, Haruna; Okada, Tomoko; Shimizu, Taro; Ishida, Tatsuhiro

    2016-01-01

    The efficient delivery of nanocarrier-based cancer therapeutics into tumor tissue is problematic. Structural abnormalities, tumor vasculature heterogeneity, and elevated intratumor pressure impose barriers against the preferential accumulation of nanocarrier-based cancer therapeutics within tumor tissues and, consequently, compromise their therapeutic efficacy. Recently, we have reported that metronomic S-1, orally available tegafur formulation, dosing synergistically augmented the therapeutic efficacy of oxaliplatin (l-OHP)-containing PEGylated liposome without increasing the toxicity in animal model. However, the exact mechanism behind such synergistic effect was not fully elucidated. In this study, therefore, we tried to shed the light on the contributions of metronomic S-1 dosing to the enhanced accumulation and/or spatial distribution of PEGylated liposome within tumor tissue. Tumor priming with metronomic S-1 treatment induced a potent apoptotic response against both angiogenic endothelial cells and tumor cells adjacent to tumor blood vessels, resulting in enhanced tumor blood flow via transient normalization of tumor vasculature, along with alleviation of intratumor pressure. Such a change in the tumor microenvironment imparted by S-1 treatment allows efficient delivery of PEGylated liposome to tumor tissue and permits their deep penetration/distribution into the tumor mass. Such a priming effect of S-1 dosing can be exploited as a promising strategy to enhance the therapeutic efficacy of nanocarrier-based cancer therapeutics suffering from inadequate/heterogeneous delivery to tumor tissues. PMID:27822036

  19. Ultrasound and electrical nerve stimulation-guided S1 nerve root block.

    PubMed

    Sato, Masaki; Mikawa, Yasuhito; Matuda, Akiko

    2013-10-01

    A selective lumbosacral nerve root block is generally is performed under X-ray fluoroscopy, which has the disadvantage of radiation exposure and the need for fluoroscopy equipment. In this study, we assessed the effectiveness of ultrasound and nerve stimulation-guided S1 nerve root block on 37 patients with S1 radicular syndrome. With the patient in a prone position, an ultrasound scan was performed by placing the probe parallel to the body axis. The needle was pointed slightly medial from the lateral side of the probe and advanced toward a hyperechoic area in the sacral foramina with ultrasound guidance. Contrast medium was then injected and its dispersion confirmed by fluoroscopy. The acquired contrast images were classified into intraneural, perineural, and paraneural patterns. The significance of differences in the effect of the block among the contrast image patterns was analyzed. After nerve block, decreased sensation at the S1 innervated region and pain relief was achieved in all patients. No significant difference was noted in the effect of the block between perineural and paraneural patterns. In conclusion, this technique provided reliable S1 nerve root block in patients with S1 radicular syndrome and minimized radiation exposure.

  20. Far-ultraviolet Observations of Comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) from FORTIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCandliss, Stephan R.; Feldman, Paul D.; Weaver, Harold; Fleming, Brian; Redwine, Keith; Li, Mary J.; Kutyrev, Alexander; Moseley, S. Harvey

    2016-09-01

    We have used the unique far-UV imaging capability offered by a sounding-rocket-borne instrument to acquire observations of C/2012 S1 (ISON) when its angular separation with respect to the Sun was 26.°3 on 2013 November 20.49. At the time of observation, the comet’s heliocentric distance and velocity relative to the Sun were r h = 0.43 au and {\\dot{r}}h = -62.7 km s-1. Images dominated by C i λ1657 and H i λ1216 were acquired over a 106 × 106 km2 region. The water production rate implied by the Lyα observations is constrained to be {Q}{{{H}}2{{O}}}≈ 8 × 1029 s-1 while the neutral carbon production rate was {Q}C ≈ 4 ×1028 s-1. The radial profile of C i was consistent with it being a dissociation product of a parent molecule with a lifetime τ ˜ 5 × 104 s, favoring a parent other than CO. We constrain the Q CO production rate to {5}-7.5+1.5 × 1028 s-1 with 1σ errors derived from photon statistics. The upper limit on the Q CO/{Q}{{{H}}2{{O}}} is ≲6%.

  1. Corneal Limbal Stem Cell Deficiency Associated with the Anticancer Drug S-1

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyeong Hwan; Kim, Wan Soo

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose An oral antineoplastic drug, S-1, is known to be more effective with less toxicity and fewer gastrointestinal side effects than the conventional intravenous 5-fluorouracil. We report a case of limbal stem cell deficiency that occurred in a patient receiving chemotherapy using S-1 alone for gastric cancer. Case Report A 65-year-old woman with symptoms of grittiness and epiphora in both eyes for several months was referred to the ophthalmology clinic. She had been receiving S-1 orally after total gastrectomy for advanced gastric cancer. Slit lamp examination revealed an irregular hazy corneal epithelium in both eyes that extended to the center of the cornea overlying the pupil and showed late staining with fluorescein dye. Palisades of Vogt at the superior limbus were absent in both eyes. Best-corrected distance vision was 20/50 in both eyes with all other structures of the anterior and posterior segment unremarkable including a patent lacrimal drainage system. There was no change in the corneal lesions of either eye despite 3 months of topical therapy. The lesions did resolve in 4 months after discontinuation of S-1 therapy owing to acute renal failure. Conclusions Early detection of this adverse reaction before significant visual loss through regular follow-up appears to be important in patients receiving S-1 therapy. PMID:25756340

  2. PPARγ agonists upregulate sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) receptor 1 expression, which in turn reduces S1P-induced [Ca(2+)]i increases in renal mesangial cells.

    PubMed

    Koch, Alexander; Völzke, Anja; Puff, Bianca; Blankenbach, Kira; Meyer Zu Heringdorf, Dagmar; Huwiler, Andrea; Pfeilschifter, Josef

    2013-11-01

    We previously identified peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) agonists (thiazolidinediones, TZDs) as modulators of the sphingolipid metabolism in renal mesangial cells. TZDs upregulated sphingosine kinase 1 (SK-1) and increased the formation of intracellular sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), which in turn reduced the expression of pro-fibrotic connective tissue growth factor. Since S1P also acts as extracellular ligand at specific S1P receptors (S1PR, S1P1-5), we investigated here the effect of TZDs on S1PR expression in mesangial cells and evaluated the functional consequences by measuring S1P-induced increases in intracellular free Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i). Treatment with two different TZDs, troglitazone and rosiglitazone, enhanced S1P1 mRNA and protein expression in rat mesangial cells, whereas S1P2-5 expression levels were not altered. Upregulation of S1P1 mRNA upon TZD treatment was also detected in human mesangial cells and mouse glomeruli. PPARγ antagonism and promoter studies revealed that the TZD-dependent S1P1 mRNA induction involved a functional PPAR response element in the S1P1 promoter. Pharmacological approaches disclosed that S1P-induced [Ca(2+)]i increases in rat mesangial cells were predominantly mediated by S1P2 and S1P3. Interestingly, the transcriptional upregulation of S1P1 by TZDs resulted in a reduction of S1P-induced [Ca(2+)]i increases, which was reversed by the S1P1/3 antagonist VPC-23019, the protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor PKC-412, and by S1P1 siRNA. These data suggest that PPARγ-dependent upregulation of S1P1 leads to an inhibition of S1P-induced Ca(2+) signaling in a PKC-dependent manner. Overall, these results reveal that TZDs not only modulate intracellular S1P levels but also regulate S1PR signaling by increasing S1P1 expression in mesangial cells.

  3. Sphingosine-1-phosphate promotes lymphangiogenesis by stimulating S1P1/Gi/PLC/Ca2+ signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Chang Min; Hong, Bok Sil; Moon, Hyung Geun; Lim, Seyoung; Suh, Pann-Ghill; Kim, Yoon-Keun; Chae, Chi-Bom; Gho, Yong Song

    2008-08-15

    The lymphatic system plays pivotal roles in mediating tissue fluid homeostasis and immunity, and excessive lymphatic vessel formation is implicated in many pathological conditions, which include inflammation and tumor metastasis. However, the molecular mechanisms that regulate lymphatic vessel formation remain poorly characterized. Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a potent bioactive lipid that is implicated in a variety of biologic processes such as inflammatory responses and angiogenesis. Here, we first report that S1P acts as a lymphangiogenic mediator. S1P induced migration, capillary-like tube formation, and intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization, but not proliferation, in human lymphatic endothelial cells (HLECs) in vitro. Moreover, a Matrigel plug assay demonstrated that S1P promoted the outgrowth of new lymphatic vessels in vivo. HLECs expressed S1P1 and S1P3, and both RNA interference-mediated down-regulation of S1P1 and an S1P1 antagonist significantly blocked S1P-mediated lymphangiogenesis. Furthermore, pertussis toxin, U73122, and BAPTA-AM efficiently blocked S1P-induced in vitro lymphangiogenesis and intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization of HLECs, indicating that S1P promotes lymphangiogenesis by stimulating S1P1/G(i)/phospholipase C/Ca(2+) signaling pathways. Our results suggest that S1P is the first lymphangiogenic bioactive lipid to be identified, and that S1P and its receptors might serve as new therapeutic targets against inflammatory diseases and lymphatic metastasis in tumors.

  4. [A Case of Local Recurrence of Bile Duct Cancer Completely Responding to Chemoradiotherapy with S-1].

    PubMed

    Yamamichi, Keigo; Sueyoshi, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Yoshito; Sakaguchi, Tatsuma; Hishikawa, Hidehiko; Ueda, Aiko; Matsuura, Takashi; Ozaki, Takashi; Saito, Takuya

    2015-11-01

    An 80-year-old man with common bile duct cancer was treated by pancreaticoduodenectomy with D2 lymph node dissection in October 2005. The patient presented with frequent episodes of bloody-mucous rectal discharge in July 2009. An abdominal CT demonstrated local recurrence at the hepatoduodenal ligament. We treated him with concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CRT) with single-dose S-1 chemotherapy. After 6 months, we diagnosed a complete response (CR) by follow-up CT. The patient was treated with S-1 for 3 years after the diagnosis of a CR. He is alive without disease 6 years after the diagnosis of the recurrence. Concurrent CRT with S-1 chemotherapy may be the therapy of choice for recurrence of bile duct cancer.

  5. The 2(2S + 1)-formalism and its connection with other descriptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvoeglazov, Valeriy V.

    2016-02-01

    In the framework of the Joos-Weinberg 2(2S + 1)-theory for massless particles, the dynamical invariants have been derived from the Lagrangian density which is considered to be a 4-vector. A la Majorana interpretation of the 6-component “spinors”, the field operators of S = 1 particles, as the left- and right-circularly polarized radiation, leads us to the conserved quantities which are analogous to those obtained by Lipkin and Sudbery. The scalar Lagrangian of the Joos-Weinberg theory is shown to be equivalent to the Lagrangian of a free massless field, introduced by Hayashi. As a consequence of a new “gauge” invariance this skew-symmetric field describes physical particles with the longitudinal components only. The interaction of the spinor field with the Weinberg’s 2(2S + 1)-component massless field is considered. New interpretation of the Weinberg field function is proposed.

  6. Molecular and immunological characterisation of the glycosylated orange allergen Cit s 1

    PubMed Central

    Pöltl, Gerald; Ahrazem, Oussama; Paschinger, Katharina; Ibañez, M. Dolores; Salcedo, Gabriel; Wilson, Iain B. H.

    2010-01-01

    The IgE of sera from patients with a history of allergy to oranges (Citrus sinensis) bind a number of proteins in orange extract, including Cit s 1, a germin-like protein. In the present study, we have analysed its immunological cross-reactivity and its molecular nature. Sera from many of the patients examined recognise a range of glycoproteins and neoglycoconjugates containing β1,2-xylose and core α1,3-fucose on their N-glycans. These reagents also inhibited the interaction of Cit s 1 with patients’ sera, thus underlining the critical role of glycosylation in the recognition of this protein by patients’ IgE and extending previous data showing that deglycosylated Cit s 1 does not possess IgE epitopes. In parallel, we examined the peptide sequence and glycan structure of Cit s 1 using mass spectrometric techniques. Indeed, we achieved complete sequence coverage of the mature protein as compared to the translation of an expressed sequence tag cDNA clone and demonstrated that the single N-glycosylation site of this protein carries oligosaccharides with xylose and fucose residues. Due to the presumed requirement for multivalency for in vivo allergenicity, our molecular data showing that Cit s 1 is monovalent as regards glycosylation and that the single N-glycan is the target of the IgE response to this protein, therefore, explain the immunological cross-reactive properties of Cit s 1 as well as its equivocal nature as a clinically-relevant allergen. PMID:17095532

  7. Doubled haploid versus S1 family recurrent selection for testcross performance in a maize population.

    PubMed

    Bordes, J; Charmet, G; de Vaulx, R Dumas; Pollacsek, M; Beckert, M; Gallais, A

    2006-04-01

    Theoretically, in a recurrent selection program, the use of doubled haploids (DH) can increase genetic advance per unit of time. To evaluate the efficiency expected from the use of DH for the improvement of grain yield in a maize (Zea mays L.) population, two recurrent selection programs for testcross performance were initiated using testcross progenies from DH lines and S1 families. In 4 years one selection cycle using DH and two selection cycles using S1 families were carried out with the same selection intensity for both methods. As expected, testcross genetic variance was twice as high among DH lines as among S1 families. The predicted genetic gain was 8.2% for the DH selection cycle, and 10.6% for the two S1 selection cycles, giving a per year advantage of 29% for the S1 family method over the DH method with a cycle of 4 years. With a 3-year cycle for the DH method, both methods were expected to be equivalent. Using a tester related to the one used for selection, the genetic gains obtained were equivalent for both methods: 6.6% for the DH cycle and 7.0% for the two S1 cycles. With a 3-year cycle for the DH method, the advantage would have been in favor of DH method. Furthermore, the DH method has the advantage of simultaneously producing lines that are directly usable as parents of a hybrid. Thus, if the genetic advance per unit of time is evaluated at the level of developed varieties even with the same or with a lower genetic advance in population improvement, the DH method appears to be the most efficient.

  8. 11-cis retinal torsion: A QTAIM and stress tensor analysis of the S1 excited state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maza, Julio R.; Jenkins, Samantha; Kirk, Steven R.

    2016-05-01

    We investigate torsion about the C11-C12 bond mid-point for the S1 state of 11-cis retinal, using a QTAIM and stress tensor analysis. The QTAIM and stress tensor responses to a torsion ±α increase at a faster rate for the preferred direction of torsion though the CI seam. A QTAIM and stress tensor vector-based analysis provides an alternative way of characterising the asymmetry of the S1 potential energy surface. In the vicinity of the CI seam the ellipticity ε attained minimum values. The application of this analysis to molecular rotary motors is briefly discussed.

  9. Biochemical regulation of breast cancer cell expression of S1P2 (Edg-5) and S1P3 (Edg-3) G protein-coupled receptors for sphingosine 1-phosphate.

    PubMed

    Dolezalova, Hana; Shankar, Geetha; Huang, Mei-Chuan; Bikle, Daniel D; Goetzl, Edward J

    2003-03-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) for lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) transduce signals to many functions of normal cells. Most human cancer cells upregulate S1P and LPA GPCRs, in patterns distinctive for each type of tumor. The findings that 1-alpha, 25-dihydroxy-vitamin D(3) (VD3) and all-trans retinoic acid (RA) differentially alter expression of the predominant S1P(3) (Edg-3) R and S1P(2) (Edg-5) R in human breast cancer cells (BCCs) permitted analyses of their individual activities, despite a lack of selective pharmacological probes. S1P-evoked increases in [Ca(2+)](i) in S1P(3) R-predominant BCCs were suppressed by concentrations of VD3 and RA which decreased expression of S1P(3) Rs, despite RA-induced increases in S1P(2) Rs. S1P-elicited chemokinetic migration of S1P(3) R-predominant BCCs across a type IV collagen-coated micropore filter also was inhibited by concentrations of VD3 and RA which decreased expression of S1P(3) Rs. The RA-induced increase in expression of S1P(2) Rs did not prevent suppression by RA of S1P-elicited chemokinesis, which appears to be mediated by S1P(3) Rs, but instead exposed S1P(2) R-mediated inhibition of epidermal growth factor-stimulated chemotaxis of BCCs. In contrast, expression of the predominant LPA(2) Rs, LPA-evoked increase in [Ca(2+)](i) and LPA-stimulated chemokinetic migration were suppressed concomitantly by RA but not VD3. Thus two structurally-homologous S1P Rs of BCCs differ in coupling to [Ca(2+)](i) signaling and have opposite effects on protein growth factor-stimulated chemotaxis.

  10. Effect of Self-Regulated Learning and Motivation to Achieve against Teacher Professional Capability for Student S1 PGSD of Science Field Compared with Regular Student S1 PGSD at UPBJJ Serang

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prayekti

    2015-01-01

    This study is to know effect of self-regulated learning and motivation to achieve against teacher professional capability for student S1 PGSD of science field compared with regular student S1 PGSD. The student uses grades of Classroom Action Research (CAR) and Stabilization of Professional Capability (SPC) on curriculum of S1 PGSD to see…

  11. Molecular basis of reovirus virulence: Role of the S1 gene

    PubMed Central

    Weiner, Howard L.; Drayna, Dennis; Averill, Damon R.; Fields, Bernard N.

    1977-01-01

    A genetic approach has been used to define the molecular basis for the different patterns of virulence and central nervous system cell tropism exhibited by reovirus types 1 and 3. Intracerebral inoculation of reovirus type 3 into newborn mice causes a necrotizing encephalitis (without ependymal damage) that is uniformly fatal. Animal inoculated with reovirus type 1 generally survive and may develop epedymal cell damage (without neuronal necrosis) and hydrocephalus. Using recombinant clones derived from crosses between reovirus types 1 and 3, we have been able to determine that the S1 genome segment is responsible for the differing cell tropism of reovirus serotypes and is the major determinant of neurovirulence. The type 1 S1 genome segment is responsible for ependymal damage with subsequent hydrocephalus; the type 3 S1 genome segment is responsible for neuronal necrosis and neurovirulence. We postulate that these differences are due to the specific interaction of the σ1 outer capsid polypeptide (the protein coded for by the S1 genome segment) with receptors on the surface of either ependymal cells or neuronal cells. Images PMID:271999

  12. SKI-1/S1P inhibitor PF-429242 impairs the onset of HCV infection.

    PubMed

    Blanchet, Matthieu; Sureau, Camille; Guévin, Carl; Seidah, Nabil G; Labonté, Patrick

    2015-03-01

    Worldwide, approximately 170 million individuals are afflicted with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. To prevent the development of inherent diseases such as cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, tremendous efforts have been made, leading to the development of promising new treatments. However, their efficiency is still dependent on the viral genotype. Additionally, these treatments that target the virus directly can trigger the emergence of resistant variants. In a previous study, we have demonstrated that a long-term (72h) inhibition of SKI-1/S1P, a master lipogenic pathway regulator through activation of SREBP, resulted in impaired HCV genome replication and infectious virion secretion. In the present study, we sought to investigate the antiviral effect of the SKI-1/S1P small molecule inhibitor PF-429242 at the early steps of the HCV lifecycle. Our results indicate a very potent antiviral effect of the inhibitor early in the viral lifecycle and that the overall action of the compound relies on two different contributions. The first one is SREBP/SKI-1/S1P dependent and involves LDLR and NPC1L1 proteins, while the second one is SREBP independent. Overall, our study confirms that SKI-1/S1P is a relevant target to impair HCV infection and that PF-429242 could be a promising candidate in the field of HCV infection treatment.

  13. Universality of the Ising and the S=1 model on Archimedean lattices: a Monte Carlo determination.

    PubMed

    Malakis, A; Gulpinar, G; Karaaslan, Y; Papakonstantinou, T; Aslan, G

    2012-03-01

    The Ising models S=1/2 and S=1 are studied by efficient Monte Carlo schemes on the (3,4,6,4) and the (3,3,3,3,6) Archimedean lattices. The algorithms used, a hybrid Metropolis-Wolff algorithm and a parallel tempering protocol, are briefly described and compared with the simple Metropolis algorithm. Accurate Monte Carlo data are produced at the exact critical temperatures of the Ising model for these lattices. Their finite-size analysis provide, with high accuracy, all critical exponents which, as expected, are the same with the well-known 2D Ising model exact values. A detailed finite-size scaling analysis of our Monte Carlo data for the S=1 model on the same lattices provides very clear evidence that this model obeys, also very well, the 2D Ising model critical exponents. As a result, we find that recent Monte Carlo simulations and attempts to define effective dimensionality for the S=1 model on these lattices are misleading. Accurate estimates are obtained for the critical amplitudes of the logarithmic expansions of the specific heat for both models on the two Archimedean lattices.

  14. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic study of the yeast Malassezia sympodialis allergen Mala s 1

    SciTech Connect

    Vilhelmsson, Monica; Hallberg, B. Martin; Rasool, Omid; Zargari, Arezou; Scheynius, Annika; Achour, Adnane

    2006-02-01

    Crystals of the M. sympodialis allergen Mala s 1 have been obtained using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. A diffraction data set has been collected from native crystals to 1.35 Å resolution. The opportunistic yeast Malassezia sympodialis can act as an allergen and elicit specific IgE- and T-cell reactivity in patients with atopic eczema. The first identified major allergen from M. sympodialis, Mala s 1, is present on the cell surface of the yeast. Recombinant Mala s 1 was expressed in Escherichia coli, purified and refolded in a soluble form. Crystals of Mala s 1 were obtained in 25% PEG 8K, 0.2 M (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4}. Crystals belong to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2, with unit-cell parameters a = 44.4, b = 163.7, c = 50.6 Å, and diffract to 1.35 Å resolution.

  15. Creation of a S1P Lyase bacterial surrogate for structure-based drug design.

    PubMed

    Argiriadi, Maria A; Banach, David; Radziejewska, Elzbieta; Marchie, Susan; DiMauro, Jennifer; Dinges, Jurgen; Dominguez, Eric; Hutchins, Charles; Judge, Russell A; Queeney, Kara; Wallace, Grier; Harris, Christopher M

    2016-05-01

    S1P Lyase (SPL) has been described as a drug target in the treatment of autoimmune diseases. It plays an important role in maintaining intracellular levels of S1P thereby affecting T cell egress from lymphoid tissues. Several groups have already published approaches to inhibit S1P Lyase with small molecules, which in turn increase endogenous S1P concentrations resulting in immunosuppression. The use of structural biology has previously aided SPL inhibitor design. Novel construct design is at times necessary to provide a reagent for protein crystallography. Here we present a chimeric bacterial protein scaffold used for protein X-ray structures in the presence of early small molecule inhibitors. Mutations were introduced to the bacterial SPL from Symbiobacterium thermophilum which mimic the human enzyme. As a result, two mutant StSPL crystal structures resolved to 2.8Å and 2.2Å resolutions were solved and provide initial structural hypotheses for an isoxazole chemical series, whose optimization is discussed in the accompanying paper.

  16. Conversion therapy for pancreatic cancer with peritoneal metastases using intravenous and intraperitoneal paclitaxel with S-1

    PubMed Central

    Kitayama, Hiromitsu; Tsuji, Yasushi; Kondo, Tomohiro; Sugiyama, Junko; Hirayama, Michiaki; Yamamoto, Kazuyuki; Kawarada, You; Oyamada, Yumiko; Hirano, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    Combination chemotherapy consisting of systemic and intraperitoneal agents against peritoneal metastases from several types of cancer has shown promising results. We herein report a case in which combination therapy with intravenous and intraperitoneal paclitaxel with S-1 converted an unresectable pancreatic cancer with peritoneal metastases into a resectable one. The patient was a 65-year old woman with recurrent pancreatitis for 5 months. Endoscopic ultrasonography-guided fine-needle aspiration revealed minute epithelial masses composed of cells with irregular nuclei in the pancreatic body. The patient underwent abdominal surgery, but no excision was performed, as two peritoneal metastases in the bursa omentalis were detected. Combination therapy was initiated, consisting of intravenous and intraperitoneal paclitaxel with S-1 as a single-center clinical trial. The regimen consisted with 2-week administration of S-1 (80 mg per day) followed by 1 week of rest, intravenous paclitaxel 50 mg/m2, and intraperitoneal paclitaxel 20 mg/m2 by a peritoneal access device on days 1 and 8. Over the seven cycles of the chemotherapy, the primary lesion did not change in size, and peritoneal lavage cytology remained negative. After confirming the disappearance of the peritoneal lesions by exploratory laparoscopy, the patient underwent distal pancreatectomy combined with resection of the transverse mesocolon and stomach wall. Thus, the 2-way chemotherapy of intravenous and intraperitoneal paclitaxel with S-1 was well-tolerated and was able to convert pancreatic cancer with peritoneal metastases to resectable disease. PMID:28105356

  17. Fundamental linewidth in solitary, ultranarrow output PbS(1-x)Se(x) diode lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freed, C.; Bielinski, J. W.; Lo, W.

    1983-01-01

    The fundamental, quantum phase noise limited Lorentzian linewidth was directly measured from the beat-note spectra generated by heterodyning PbS(1-x)Se(x) diode lasers with a stable CO gas laser. The experimental results were matched by calculated theoretical line profiles. Linewidths as narrow as 22 kHz full width at half-maximum power were observed.

  18. Robustness of S1 statistic with Hodges-Lehmann for skewed distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahad, Nor Aishah; Yahaya, Sharipah Soaad Syed; Yin, Lee Ping

    2016-10-01

    Analysis of variance (ANOVA) is a common use parametric method to test the differences in means for more than two groups when the populations are normally distributed. ANOVA is highly inefficient under the influence of non- normal and heteroscedastic settings. When the assumptions are violated, researchers are looking for alternative such as Kruskal-Wallis under nonparametric or robust method. This study focused on flexible method, S1 statistic for comparing groups using median as the location estimator. S1 statistic was modified by substituting the median with Hodges-Lehmann and the default scale estimator with the variance of Hodges-Lehmann and MADn to produce two different test statistics for comparing groups. Bootstrap method was used for testing the hypotheses since the sampling distributions of these modified S1 statistics are unknown. The performance of the proposed statistic in terms of Type I error was measured and compared against the original S1 statistic, ANOVA and Kruskal-Wallis. The propose procedures show improvement compared to the original statistic especially under extremely skewed distribution.

  19. Bioremediation of wastewater from edible oil refinery factory using oleaginous microalga Desmodesmus sp. S1.

    PubMed

    Mar, Cho Cho; Fan, Yong; Li, Fu-Li; Hu, Guang-Rong

    2016-12-01

    Edible oil industry produced massive wastewater, which requires extensive treatment to remove pungent smell, high phosphate, carbon oxygen demand (COD), and metal ions prior to discharge. Traditional anaerobic and aerobic digestion could mainly reduce COD of the wastewater from oil refinery factories (WEORF). In this study, a robust oleaginous microalga Desmodesmus sp. S1 was adapted to grow in WEORF. The biomass and lipid content of Desmodesmus sp. S1 cultivated in the WEORF supplemented with sodium nitrate were 5.62 g·L(-1) and 14.49%, whereas those in the WEORF without adding nitrate were 2.98 g·L(-1) and 21.95%. More than 82% of the COD and 53% of total phosphorous were removed by Desmodesmus sp. S1. In addition, metal ions, including ferric, aluminum, manganese and zinc were also diminished significantly in the WEORF after microalgal growth, and pungent smell vanished as well. In comparison with the cells grown in BG-11 medium, the cilia-like bulges and wrinkles on the cell surface of Desmodesmus sp. S1 grown in WEORF became out of order, and more polyunsaturated fatty acids were detected due to stress derived from the wastewater. The study suggests that growing microalgae in WEORF can be applied for the dual roles of nutrient removal and biofuel feedstock production.

  20. High-Dispersion Spectroscopic Observations of Comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) with the Subaru Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinnaka, Yoshiharu; Kawakita, Hideyo; Nagashima, Masayoshi; Hitomi, Kobayashi; Decock, Alice; Jehin, Emmanuel; Boice, Daniel C.

    2014-11-01

    Comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) was one of the Oort cloud comets and dynamically new. This comet was broken at its perihelion passage on UT 2013 November 28.1 (at Rh ~ 17 solar radius). We observed the comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) on UT 2013 November 15 with the High Dispersion Spectrograph (HDS) mounted on the Subaru Telescope atop Mauna Kea, Hawaii. Its heliocentric and geocentric distances were 0.601 and 0.898 AU, respectively. We selected the slit size of 0”.5 x 9”.0 on the sky to achieve the spectral resolution of R = 72,000 from 550 to 830 nm. The total exposure time of comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) was 1200 seconds. We detected many emission lines caused from radicals (e.g., CN, C2, NH2), ions (H2O+), atoms ([OI] and Na I) and also many unidentified lines in the spectra. We report the (1) the ortho-to-para abundance ratios (OPRs) of water and ammonia estimated from the high-dispersion spectra of H2O+ and NH2, (2) the green-to-red line ratio of forbidden oxygen emissions, (3) the isotopic ratios of C2 (the carbon isotopic ratio from Swan band) and CN (the carbon and nitrogen isotopic ratios from red band), (4) the sodium-to-continuum ratio of comet C/2012 S1 (ISON).

  1. Determination of the hyperfine coupling constant of the cesium 7S1/2 state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Guang; Wang, Jie; Yang, Baodong; Wang, Junmin

    2016-08-01

    We report the hyperfine splitting (HFS) measurement of the cesium (Cs) 7S1/2 state by optical-optical double-resonance spectroscopy with the Cs 6S1/2-6P3/2-7S1/2 (852 nm  +  1470 nm) ladder-type system. The HFS frequency calibration is performed by employing a phase-type waveguide electro-optic modulator together with a stable confocal Fabry-Perot cavity. From the measured HFS between the F″  =  3 and F″  =  4 manifolds of the Cs 7S1/2 state (HFS  =  2183.273  ±  0.062 MHz), we have determined the magnetic dipole hyperfine coupling constant (A  =  545.818  ±  0.016 MHz), which is in good agreement with the previous work but much more precise.

  2. Universality of the Ising and the S=1 model on Archimedean lattices: A Monte Carlo determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malakis, A.; Gulpinar, G.; Karaaslan, Y.; Papakonstantinou, T.; Aslan, G.

    2012-03-01

    The Ising models S=1/2 and S=1 are studied by efficient Monte Carlo schemes on the (3,4,6,4) and the (3,3,3,3,6) Archimedean lattices. The algorithms used, a hybrid Metropolis-Wolff algorithm and a parallel tempering protocol, are briefly described and compared with the simple Metropolis algorithm. Accurate Monte Carlo data are produced at the exact critical temperatures of the Ising model for these lattices. Their finite-size analysis provide, with high accuracy, all critical exponents which, as expected, are the same with the well-known 2D Ising model exact values. A detailed finite-size scaling analysis of our Monte Carlo data for the S=1 model on the same lattices provides very clear evidence that this model obeys, also very well, the 2D Ising model critical exponents. As a result, we find that recent Monte Carlo simulations and attempts to define effective dimensionality for the S=1 model on these lattices are misleading. Accurate estimates are obtained for the critical amplitudes of the logarithmic expansions of the specific heat for both models on the two Archimedean lattices.

  3. 75 FR 7027 - Airworthiness Directives; Turbomeca Arriel 2S1 Turboshaft Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-16

    ... applies to Turbomeca Arriel 2S1 turboshaft engines that have not incorporated Modification TU 109. These...) software to version 11.01, to implement modification TU 109. (2) Guidance on implementing TU 109 can be... twin-engine helicopter with one engine upgraded to modification TU 109 if the other engine is...

  4. Pan-STARRS 1 observations of the unusual active Centaur P/2011 S1(Gibbs)

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, H. W.; Ip, W. H.; Chen, W. P.; Chen, Y. T.; Lacerda, P.; Holman, M.; Protopapas, P.; Burgett, W. S.; Chambers, K. C.; Flewelling, H.; Huber, M. E.; Jedicke, R.; Kaiser, N.; Magnier, E. A.; Metcalfe, N.; Price, P. A.

    2014-05-01

    P/2011 S1 (Gibbs) is an outer solar system comet or active Centaur with a similar orbit to that of the famous 29P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1. P/2011 S1 (Gibbs) has been observed by the Pan-STARRS 1 (PS1) sky survey from 2010 to 2012. The resulting data allow us to perform multi-color studies of the nucleus and coma of the comet. Analysis of PS1 images reveals that P/2011 S1 (Gibbs) has a small nucleus <4 km radius, with colors g {sub P1} – r {sub P1} = 0.5 ± 0.02, r {sub P1} – i {sub P1} = 0.12 ± 0.02, and i {sub P1} – z {sub P1} = 0.46 ± 0.03. The comet remained active from 2010 to 2012, with a model-dependent mass-loss rate of ∼100 kg s{sup –1}. The mass-loss rate per unit surface area of P/2011 S1 (Gibbs) is as high as that of 29P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1, making it one of the most active Centaurs. The mass-loss rate also varies with time from ∼40 kg s{sup –1} to 150 kg s{sup –1}. Due to its rather circular orbit, we propose that P/2011 S1 (Gibbs) has 29P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1-like outbursts that control the outgassing rate. The results indicate that it may have a similar surface composition to that of 29P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1. Our numerical simulations show that the future orbital evolution of P/2011 S1 (Gibbs) is more similar to that of the main population of Centaurs than to that of 29P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1. The results also demonstrate that P/2011 S1 (Gibbs) is dynamically unstable and can only remain near its current orbit for roughly a thousand years.

  5. The S1 Truss Prior to Installation on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Being attached to the Canadarm2 on the International Space Station (ISS), the Remote Manipulator System arm built by the Canadian Space Agency, the Integrated Truss Assembly (S1) Truss is suspended over the Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis' cargo bay. Astronauts Sandra H. Magnus, STS-112 mission specialist, and Peggy A. Whitson, Expedition Five flight engineer, used the Canadarm2 from inside the Destiny laboratory on the ISS to lift the S1 truss out of the orbiter's cargo bay and move it into position prior to its installation on the ISS. The primary payloads of this mission, ISS Assembly Mission 9A, were the Integrated Truss Assembly S1 (S One), the starboard side thermal radiator truss, and the Crew Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) cart to the ISS. The S1 truss provides structural support for the orbiting research facility's radiator panels, which use ammonia to cool the Station's complex power system. The S1 truss was attached to the S0 (S Zero) truss, which was launched on April 8, 2002 aboard the STS-110, and flows 637 pounds of anhydrous ammonia through three heat-rejection radiators. The truss is 45-feet long, 15-feet wide, 10-feet tall, and weighs approximately 32,000 pounds. The CETA cart was attached to the Mobil Transporter and will be used by assembly crews on later missions. Manufactured by the Boeing Company in Huntington Beach, California, the truss primary structure was transferred to the Marshall Space Flight Center in February 1999 for hardware installations and manufacturing acceptance testing. The launch of the STS-112 mission occurred on October 7, 2002, and its 11-day mission ended on October 18, 2002.

  6. Centennial-scale paleoceanography during sapropel S1 deposition in the NE Aegean (Mediterranean Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Triantaphyllou, Maria; Gogou, Alexandra; Dimiza, Margarita; Kostopoulou, Sofia; Parinos, Constantine; Roussakis, Grigoris; Geraga, Maria; Skampa, Elisavet; Bouloubassi, Ioanna; Fleitmann, Dominik; Zervakis, Vassilis; Velaoras, Dimitris; Diamantopoulou, Antonia; Sampatakaki, Angeliki; Lykousis, Vassilis

    2016-04-01

    Combined micropaleontological and geochemical analyses in the high-sedimentation gravity core M-4G, provided new centennial scale paleoceanographic data for the sapropel S1 deposition in the NE Aegean Sea. Sapropel layer S1a (10.2-8.0 ka) is deposited in dysoxic to oxic bottom waters; sediments are characterized by the high abundance of benthic foraminifers Chilostomella mediterranensis and Globobulimina affinis that are able to tolerate surface sediment and/or pore water oxygen depletion and the presence of the oxic mesotrophic-eutrophic U. mediterranea. Adequate preservation of organic matter is proven by the high organic carbon and loliolide and isololiolide contents, whereas the biomarker record and the abundances of eutrophic planktonic foraminifera document enhanced productivity. Both alkenone-based SSTs and δO18 G. bulloides records indicate coolings at 8.2 ka (S1a) and at ~7.8 ka (S1 interruption). Sapropelic layer S1b (7.7-6.4 ka) is characterized by rather oxic conditions marked by the prominent increase of U. mediterranea. The highly fluctuating SSTs demonstrate repeated coolings and associated dense water formation; major event at 7.4 ka, followed by cold spells at 7.0, 6.8, 6.5 ka. Besides, the increase of algal biomarkers, labile organic matter-feeding foraminifera and eutrophic planktonic species pinpoints rise in in situ marine productivity, which is enhanced by more efficient vertical convection due to repeated cold events. The associated contributions of labile marine organic matter (OM) along with fresher terrestrial OM inputs after ~7.7 ka BP imply alternative/ additional than the north Aegean riverine borderland sources for the influx of organic matter at the south Limnos Basin, also related to the inflow of highly productive Marmara/Black Sea waters

  7. Index theorem for topological excitations on R3 × S1 and Chern-Simons theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poppitz, Erich; Ünsal, Mithat

    2009-03-01

    We derive an index theorem for the Dirac operator in the background of various topological excitations on an R3 × S1 geometry. The index theorem provides more refined data than the APS index for an instanton on R4 and reproduces it in decompactification limit. In the R3 limit, it reduces to the Callias index theorem. The index is expressed in terms of topological charge and the η-invariant associated with the boundary Dirac operator. Neither topological charge nor η-invariant is typically an integer, however, the non-integer parts cancel to give an integer-valued index. Our derivation is based on axial current non-conservation — an exact operator identity valid on any four-manifold — and on the existence of a center symmetric, or approximately center symmetric, boundary holonomy (Wilson line). We expect the index theorem to usefully apply to many physical systems of interest, such as low temperature (large S1, confined) phases of gauge theories, center stabilized Yang-Mills theories with vector-like or chiral matter (at S1 of any size), and supersymmetric gauge theories with supersymmetry-preserving boundary conditions (also at any S1). In QCD-like and chiral gauge theories, the index theorem should shed light into the nature of topological excitations responsible for chiral symmetry breaking and the generation of mass gap in the gauge sector. We also show that imposing chirally-twisted boundary condition in gauge theories with fermions induces a Chern-Simons term in the infrared. This suggests that some QCD-like gauge theories should possess components with a topological Chern-Simons phase in the small S1 regime.

  8. Expression of S1P metabolizing enzymes and receptors correlate with survival time and regulate cell migration in glioblastoma multiforme.

    PubMed

    Bien-Möller, Sandra; Lange, Sandra; Holm, Tobias; Böhm, Andreas; Paland, Heiko; Küpper, Johannes; Herzog, Susann; Weitmann, Kerstin; Havemann, Christoph; Vogelgesang, Silke; Marx, Sascha; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Schroeder, Henry W S; Rauch, Bernhard H

    2016-03-15

    A signaling molecule which is involved in proliferation and migration of malignant cells is the lipid mediator sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P). There are hints for a potential role of S1P signaling in malignant brain tumors such as glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) which is characterized by a poor prognosis. Therefore, a comprehensive expression analysis of S1P receptors (S1P1-S1P5) and S1P metabolizing enzymes in human GBM (n = 117) compared to healthy brain (n = 10) was performed to evaluate their role for patient´s survival. Furthermore, influence of S1P receptor inhibition on proliferation and migration were studied in LN18 GBM cells. Compared to control brain, mRNA levels of S1P1, S1P2, S1P3 and S1P generating sphingosine kinase-1 were elevated in GBM. Kaplan-Meier analyses demonstrated an association between S1P1 and S1P2 with patient´s survival times. In vitro, an inhibitory effect of the SphK inhibitor SKI-II on viability of LN18 cells was shown. S1P itself had no effect on viability but stimulated LN18 migration which was blocked by inhibition of S1P1 and S1P2. The participation of S1P1 and S1P2 in LN18 migration was further supported by siRNA-mediated silencing of these receptors. Immunoblots and inhibition experiments suggest an involvement of the PI3-kinase/AKT1 pathway in the chemotactic effect of S1P in LN18 cells.In summary, our data argue for a role of S1P signaling in proliferation and migration of GBM cells. Individual components of the S1P pathway represent prognostic factors for patients with GBM. Perspectively, a selective modulation of S1P receptor subtypes could represent a therapeutic approach for GBM patients and requires further evaluation.

  9. Investigating the molecular mechanisms through which FTY720-P causes persistent S1P1 receptor internalization

    PubMed Central

    Sykes, David A; Riddy, Darren M; Stamp, Craig; Bradley, Michelle E; McGuiness, Neil; Sattikar, Afrah; Guerini, Danilo; Rodrigues, Ines; Glaenzel, Albrecht; Dowling, Mark R; Mullershausen, Florian; Charlton, Steven J

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose The molecular mechanism underlying the clinical efficacy of FTY720-P is thought to involve persistent internalization and enhanced degradation of the S1P1 receptor subtype (S1P1R). We have investigated whether receptor binding kinetics and β-arrestin recruitment could play a role in the persistent internalization of the S1P1R by FTY720-P. Experimental Approach [3H]-FTY720-P and [33P]-S1P were used to label CHO-S1P1/3Rs for binding studies. Ligand efficacy was assessed through [35S]-GTPγS binding and β-arrestin recruitment. Metabolic stability was evaluated using a bioassay measuring intracellular Ca2+ release. CHO-S1P1/3R numbers were determined, following FTY720-P treatment using flow cytometry. Key Results The kinetic off-rate of [3H]-FTY720-P from the S1P1R was sixfold slower than from the S1P3R, and comparable to [33P]-S1P dissociation from S1P1/3Rs. S1P and FTY720-P stimulated [35S]-GTPγS incorporation to similar degrees, but FTY720-P was over 30-fold less potent at S1P3Rs. FTY720-P stimulated a higher level of β-arrestin recruitment at S1P1Rs, 132% of the total recruited by S1P. In contrast, FTY720-P was a weak partial agonist at S1P3R, stimulating just 29% of the total β-arrestin recruited by S1P. Internalization experiments confirmed that cell surface expression of the S1P1R but not the S1P3R was reduced following a pulse exposure to FTY720-P, which is metabolically stable unlike S1P. Conclusions and Implications FTY720-P and S1P activation of the S1P1R results in receptor internalization as a consequence of an efficient recruitment of β-arrestin. The combination of slow off-rate, efficacious β-arrestin recruitment and metabolic stability all contribute to FTY720-P's ability to promote prolonged S1P1R internalization and may be critical factors in its efficacy in the clinic. PMID:24641481

  10. 40 CFR Table S-1 to Subpart S of... - Basic Parameters for the Calculation of Emission Factors for Lime Production

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Basic Parameters for the Calculation of Emission Factors for Lime Production S Table S-1 to Subpart S of Part 98 Protection of Environment... Manufacturing Pt. 98, Subpt. S, Table S-1 Table S-1 to Subpart S of Part 98—Basic Parameters for the...

  11. Air-stable PbSe/PbS and PbSe/PbSexS1-x core-shell nanocrystal quantum dots and their applications.

    PubMed

    Lifshitz, E; Brumer, M; Kigel, A; Sashchiuk, A; Bashouti, M; Sirota, M; Galun, E; Burshtein, Z; Le Quang, A Q; Ledoux-Rak, I; Zyss, J

    2006-12-21

    The optical properties and functionality of air-stable PbSe/PbS core-shell and PbSe/PbSexS1-x core-alloyed shell nanocrystal quantum dots (NQDs) are presented. These NQDs showed chemical robustness over months and years and band-gap tunability in the near infrared spectral regime, with a reliance on the NQD size and composition. Furthermore, these NQDs exhibit high emission quantum efficiencies of up to 65% and an exciton emission band that is narrower than that of the corresponding PbSe NQDs. In addition, the emission bands showed a peculiar energy shift with respect to the relevant absorption band, changing from a Stokes shift to an anti-Stokes shift, with an increase of the NQD diameter. The described core-shell structures and the corresponding PbSe core NQDs were used as passive Q-switches in eye-safe lasers of Er:glass, where they act as saturable absorbers. The absorber saturation investigations revealed a relatively large ground-state cross-section of absorption (sigma gs = 10(-16) - 10(-15) cm2) and a behavior of a "fast" absorber with an effective lifetime of tau eff approximately 4.0 ps is proposed. This lifetime is associated with the formation of multiple excitons at the measured pumping power. The product of sigma gs and tau eff enables sufficient Q-switching performance and tunability in the near infrared spectral regime. The amplified spontaneous emission properties of PbSe NQDs were examined under continuous illumination by a diode laser at room temperature, suitable for standard device conditions. The results revealed a relatively large gain parameter (g = 2.63 - 6.67 cm-1). The conductivity properties of PbSe NQD self-assembled solids, annealed at 200 degrees C, showed an Ohmic behavior at the measured voltages (up to 30 V), which is governed by a variable-range-hopping charge transport mechanism.

  12. The Character of the Long-Lived State Formed from S_1 of Phenylacetylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Philip M.; Sears, Trevor J.

    2013-06-01

    Compared to other small aromatic molecules, phenylacetylene (PA) and benzonitrile exhibit strikingly anomalous photophysics on excitation to the S_1 state. Firstly, products are formed on S_1 excitation of a beam-cooled sample that seem to live indefinitely (as defined by the flight time through the apparatus), while action spectra of their formation mirror the rotationally-resolved absorption spectrum of the monomer. Secondly, the long lived products appear immediately during the nsec. laser pulse rather than build up during the lifetime of the singlet level, as is seen in benzene, for example. The question has therefore arisen: is the long lived product of the S_1 excitation the triplet state, as is assumed in all previous work on other molecules, or is it an isomer of some sort? New pump-probe ionization mass spectroscopy experiments have been performed to study the distribution of fragments and metastable ions produced by PA cation derived from the neutral S_1 state, and from the long-lived species. These combined with other experimental results showing weak long-lived components in both the S_1 fluorescence and pump-probe photoelectron spectra that we interpret as recurrence behavior, definitively show the long-lived state is a triplet state of PA, not an isomer. PA with a singlet-triplet gap of 10000 cm^{-1} is acting like intermediate case molecules with much smaller singlet-triplet gaps such as pyrazine and pyrimidine. Calculations point to the existence of four triplet states of PA at or below the energy of S_1 providing a very large density of vibronic states in which to distribute the energy from singlet-triplet crossing. PA T_1 is calculated to be non-planar, in contrast to what is found in benzene, possibly helping to explain the different photophysics. Acknowledgments: We gratefully acknowledge G. V. Lopez for his contributions to some of the experimental masurements. Work at Brookhaven National Laboratory was carried out under Contract No. DE-AC02

  13. [Side effects analyses in consideration of renal function for S-1-administered patients].

    PubMed

    Iwai, Mina; Kimura, Michio; Yoshimura, Tomoaki; Yasuda, Tadashi

    2011-06-01

    Although many analyses of S-1 side effects are reported, there are no reports where the analyses of side effects were performed in consideration of renal function, which is an important index of medication dose. Therefore, we investigated side effects in consideration of renal function. The subjects were 163 patients administered S-1 at the Department of Surgery of Ogaki Municipal Hospital, between October 2008 and December 2009. The frequency and severity of side effects were high and serious in the groupwhose creatinine clearance was low. A significant difference was observed among 3 groups with regard to thrombocytopenia and dehydration. In conclusion, we think that pharmacists must take renal function into consideration when administering medication, to keepclose medicinal guidance, and to actively observe progress.

  14. Raman spectrum of bacteriochlorophyll a in the S1 state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishizawa, Ei-ichi; Hashimoto, Hideki; Koyama, Yasushi

    1991-07-01

    The S 1 Raman spectrum of bacteriochlorophyll a is reported for the first time. A one-color experiment using the 351 nm picosecond pulses (duration 50 ps and repetition 1 kHz) for tetrahydrofuran solution detected a transient species, which showed distinct Raman lines at 1567, 1409 and 1320 cm -1 and weak profiles around 1169, 1092, 1051 and 794 cm -1. The other one-color experiment using the 355 nm nanosecond pulses (duration 12 ns and repetition 10 Hz) detected the T 1 species reported previously showing Raman lines at 1578 and 1330 cm -1. Thus, the newly identified transient species, which was pumped and probed within 50 ps, is assigned to S 1.

  15. Physical Contact between the +20 km s-1 Cloud and the Galactic Circumnuclear Disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takekawa, Shunya; Oka, Tomoharu; Tanaka, Kunihiko

    2017-01-01

    We report the discovery of physical contact between the Galactic circumnuclear disk (CND) and an adjacent giant molecular cloud. The central 10 pc of our Galaxy has been imaged in molecular lines at millimeter wavelength using the Nobeyama Radio Observatory 45 m radio telescope. In the position-velocity maps of several high-density probe lines, we have found an emission ``bridge'' connecting the +20 km s-1 cloud (M-0.13-0.08) and the negative longitude extension of the CND. The collision between the +20 km s-1 cloud and the CND may be responsible for the formation of the bridge. This event can promote mass accretion onto the CND and/or into the inner cavity.

  16. Structural deformation of the S =1 kagome-lattice compound KV3Ge2O9

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takagi, Eigo; Aoyama, Takuya; Hara, Shigeo; Sato, Hirohiko; Kimura, Tsuyoshi; Wakabayashi, Yusuke

    2017-03-01

    The dielectric and structural properties of the S =1 kagome antiferromagnet KV3Ge2O9 are examined. The low-temperature structure below 50 K is orthorhombic with a typical correlation length of 8 nm. While the high-temperature hexagonal phase can be considered C -centered orthorhombic, the C -centered symmetry is broken below 50 K. The low-temperature symmetry does not support the simplex solid state, which is the theoretically expected ground state for the S =1 kagome lattice. Above 60 K, incommensurate lattice modulation is observed. The lock-in transition suggests that the origin of the orthorhombic deformation is the development of a short-range magnetic ordering.

  17. Mapping of Epitopes Occurring in Bovine α(s1)-Casein Variants by Peptide Microarray Immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Lisson, Maria; Erhardt, Georg

    2016-01-01

    Immunoglobulin E epitope mapping of milk proteins reveals important information about their immunologic properties. Genetic variants of αS1-casein, one of the major allergens in bovine milk, are until now not considered when discussing the allergenic potential. Here we describe the complete procedure to assess the allergenicity of αS1-casein variants B and C, which are frequent in most breeds, starting from milk with identification and purification of casein variants by isoelectric focusing (IEF) and anion-exchange chromatography, followed by in vitro gastrointestinal digestion of the casein variants, identification of the resulting peptides by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS), in silico analysis of the variant-specific peptides as allergenic epitopes, and determination of their IgE-binding properties by microarray immunoassay with cow's milk allergic human sera.

  18. Superconformal index on R P2×S1 and mirror symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Akinori; Mori, Hironori; Morita, Takeshi

    2015-05-01

    We study N =2 supersymmetric gauge theories on RP 2×S1 and compute the superconformal index by using the localization technique. We consider not only the round real projective plane RP 2 but also the squashed real projective plane RPb 2 which turns back to RP 2 by taking a squashing parameter b as 1. In addition, we find that the result is independent of the squashing parameter b . We apply our new superconformal index to check the simplest case of 3D mirror symmetry, i.e., the equivalence between the N =2 supersymmetric quantum electrodynamics (SQED) and the X Y Z model on RP 2×S1. We prove it by using a mathematical formula called the q -binomial theorem. We also comment on the N =4 version of mirror symmetry, mirror symmetry via generalized indices, and possibilities of generalizations from mathematical viewpoints.

  19. Ising Model Spin S = 1 ON Directed BARABÁSI-ALBERT Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, F. W. S.

    On directed Barabási-Albert networks with two and seven neighbours selected by each added site, the Ising model with spin S = 1/2 was seen not to show a spontaneous magnetisation. Instead, the decay time for flipping of the magnetisation followed an Arrhenius law for Metropolis and Glauber algorithms, but for Wolff cluster flipping the magnetisation decayed exponentially with time. On these networks the Ising model spin S = 1 is now studied through Monte Carlo simulations. However, in this model, the order-disorder phase transition is well defined in this system. We have obtained a first-order phase transition for values of connectivity m = 2 and m = 7 of the directed Barabási-Albert network.

  20. Ceramide synthase 2 facilitates S1P-dependent egress of thymocytes into the circulation in mice.

    PubMed

    Rieck, Michael; Kremser, Christiane; Jobin, Katarzyna; Mettke, Elisabeth; Kurts, Christian; Gräler, Markus; Willecke, Klaus; Kolanus, Waldemar

    2017-02-15

    Well-defined gradients of the lipid mediator sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) direct chemotactic egress of mature thymocytes from the thymus into the circulation. Although it is known that these gradients result from low S1P levels in the thymic parenchyma and high S1P concentrations at the exit sites and in the plasma, the biochemical mechanisms that regulate these differential S1P levels remain unclear. Several studies demonstrated that ceramide synthase 2 (Cers2) regulates the levels of the S1P precursor sphingosine. We, therefore, investigated whether Cers2 is involved in the regulation of S1P gradients and S1P-dependent egress into the circulation. By analyzing Cers2-deficient mice, we demonstrate that Cers2 limits the levels of S1P in thymus and blood to maintain functional S1P gradients that mediate thymocyte emigration into the circulation. This function is specific for Cers2, as we also show that Cers4 is not involved in the regulation of thymic egress. Our study identified Cers2 as an important regulator of S1P-dependent thymic egress, and thus contributes to the understanding of how S1P gradients are maintained in vivo.

  1. Edg8/S1P5: an oligodendroglial receptor with dual function on process retraction and cell survival.

    PubMed

    Jaillard, C; Harrison, S; Stankoff, B; Aigrot, M S; Calver, A R; Duddy, G; Walsh, F S; Pangalos, M N; Arimura, N; Kaibuchi, K; Zalc, B; Lubetzki, C

    2005-02-09

    Endothelial differentiation gene (Edg) proteins are G-protein-coupled receptors activated by lysophospholipid mediators: sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) or lysophosphatidic acid. We show that in the CNS, expression of Edg8/S1P5, a high-affinity S1P receptor, is restricted to oligodendrocytes and expressed throughout development from the immature stages to the mature myelin-forming cell. S1P activation of Edg8/S1P5 on O4-positive pre-oligodendrocytes induced process retraction via a Rho kinase/collapsin response-mediated protein signaling pathway, whereas no retraction was elicited by S1P on these cells derived from Edg8/S1P5-deficient mice. Edg8/S1P5-mediated process retraction was restricted to immature cells and was no longer observed at later developmental stages. In contrast, S1P activation promoted the survival of mature oligodendrocytes but not of pre-oligodendrocytes. The S1P-induced survival of mature oligodendrocytes was mediated through a pertussis toxin-sensitive, Akt-dependent pathway. Our data demonstrate that Edg8/S1P5 activation on oligodendroglial cells modulates two distinct functional pathways mediating either process retraction or cell survival and that these effects depend on the developmental stage of the cell.

  2. Complete Measurement of S(1D2) Photofragment Alignment from Abel-Invertible Ion Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakitzis, T. Peter; Samartzis, Peter C.; Kitsopoulos, Theofanis N.

    2001-09-01

    A novel method to measure directly the photofragment alignment from Abel-invertible two-dimensional ion images, as a function of photofragment recoil velocity, is demonstrated for S(1D2) atoms from the photodissociation of carbonyl sulfide at 223 nm. The results are analyzed in terms of coherent and incoherent contributions from two dissociative states, showing that the phase differences of the asymptotic wave functions of the fast and slow recoil-velocity channel are approximately π/2 and 0, respectively.

  3. Room for an S=+1 pentaquark in K+-nucleus phenomenology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gal, A.; Friedman, E.

    2006-01-01

    Evidence for excitation of exotic S=+1 pentaquark degrees of freedom is presented by studying optical-potential fits to K+-nucleus total, reaction and elastic-differential cross section data at plab~500-700 MeV/c. Estimates of the underlying two-nucleon absorption K+nN→Θ+N reaction cross section are made and are used for discussing the anticipated cross section of the strangeness exchange reaction K+N→πΘ+.

  4. Regarding the Charmed-Strange Member of the 23S1 Meson State

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Xue-Chao; Chen, Jing

    2013-01-01

    By employing the mass relations derived from the mass matrix and Regge trajectory, we investigate the masses of charmed and charmed-strange members of the 23S1 meson. The masses are compared with the values predicted by other theoretical approaches and experimental data. The results may be useful for the discovery of the unobserved meson and the determination of the quantum number of the newly discovered states. PMID:24250272

  5. Electroluminescence spectra of rare-earth-doped ZnS 1-XSe X thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miura, Noboru; Ogawa, Kiyoshi; Kobayashi, Shuko; Matsumoto, Hironaga; Nakano, Ryotaro

    1994-04-01

    Electroluminescence has been measured for ZnS 1- XSe X thin films doped with rare-earth ions. As X increases the band-gap energy of the host decreases. The emission levels of trivalent rare-earth ions are not observed when the band-gap energy is narrower than the excitation levels. This is because of the energy transfer between the host and the emission center.

  6. Application of the S=1 underscreened Anderson lattice model to Kondo uranium and neptunium compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Christopher; da Rosa Simões, Acirete S.; Iglesias, J. R.; Lacroix, C.; Perkins, N. B.; Coqblin, B.

    2011-01-01

    Magnetic properties of uranium and neptunium compounds showing the coexistence of the Kondo screening effect and ferromagnetic order are investigated within the Anderson lattice Hamiltonian with a two-fold degenerate f level in each site, corresponding to 5f2 electronic configuration with S=1 spins. A derivation of the Schrieffer-Wolff transformation is presented and the resulting Hamiltonian has an effective f-band term, in addition to the regular exchange Kondo interaction between the S=1 f spins and the s=1/2 spins of the conduction electrons. The resulting effective Kondo lattice model can describe both the Kondo regime and a weak delocalization of the 5f electrons. Within this model we compute the Kondo and Curie temperatures as a function of model parameters, namely the Kondo exchange interaction constant JK, the magnetic intersite exchange interaction JH, and the effective f bandwidth. We deduce, therefore, a phase diagram of the model which yields the coexistence of the Kondo effect and ferromagnetic ordering and also accounts for the pressure dependence of the Curie temperature of uranium compounds such as UTe.

  7. Synchronous Basin-Wide Formation and Redox-Controled Preservation of Mediterranean s1 Sapropel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Lange, G. J.; Slomp, C. P.; Corselli, C.; Erba, E.; Thomson, J.; Reitz, A.

    2012-12-01

    Deposition of distinct organic-rich units (sapropels) in eastern Mediterraneran sediments is precession-related and associated with humid climate conditions. The last of such 'humid periods' occurred from 11 - 5 kyr 14C ago, simultaneous with a sustained circum-Mediterranean wet period. The end of this period coincides with a high manganeseoxide peak in all 30 studied cores and concurs with an abrupt re-ventilation event at 5.7 kyr. We demonstrate that the most recent sapropel (S1) formed synchronously between 9.8 and 5.7 14C ky BP at all water depths greater than a few hundred metres. As a consequence of increased fresh water (monsoon) input, surface waters had a reduced salinity and concomitantly the deep (> 1.8 km) eastern Mediterranean Sea was devoid of oxygen during 4,000 years of S1 formation (De Lange ea., 2008). This has resulted in a differential basin-wide preservation of S1 determined by water depth, as a result of different ventilation/climate-related redox conditions above and below 1.8 km. Climate-induced stratification of the ocean may thus contribute to enhanced preservation of organic matter, ie formation of sapropels (and potentially black shales)

  8. S-1 monotherapy in a patient with cholangiolocellular carcinoma: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, Takashi; Seki, Toshihito; Inokuchi, Ryosuke; Kawamura, Rinako; Murata, Miki; Matsuzaki, Koichi; Nakashima, Osamu; Kumabe, Tsutomu; Okazaki, Kazuichi

    2016-01-01

    A 71-year-old man with alcoholic cirrhosis was found to have multiple hypervascular lesions in the liver on enhanced computed tomography. An ultrasound-guided biopsy of the lesion was performed. Immunohistochemical analysis for hepatocyte paraffin 1 expression was negative; cytokeratin (CK) 7, CK19, epithelial cell adhesion molecule and epithelial membrane antigens were positive; mucicarmine staining was negative. The tumor was thus histologically diagnosed as cholangiolocellular carcinoma (CoCC). The tumor was inoperable due to the associated advanced liver disease. In addition, the patient preferred systemic chemotherapy using only orally administered agents. Thus, S-1 monotherapy was recommended. S-1 was initially administered orally at a dose of 80 mg/day. Although the levels of tumor marker (prothrombin induced by vitamin K absence/antagonist-II and carbohydrate antigen 19-9) levels were marginally elevated, their values did not change over the entire course. The patient achieved a partial response according to the Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors (RECIST) and modified RECIST 1 year after chemotherapy initiation. In conclusion, S-1 monotherapy exhibited promising efficacy against unresectable CoCC. PMID:28105354

  9. Alternative nonallelic deletion is constitutive of ruminant alpha(s1)-casein.

    PubMed

    Ferranti, P; Lilla, S; Chianese, L; Addeo, F

    1999-07-01

    Multiple forms of alpha(s1)-casein were identified in the four major ruminant species by structural characterization of the protein fraction. While alpha(s1)-casein phenotypes were constituted by a mixture of at least seven molecular forms in ovine and caprine species, there were only two forms in bovine and water buffalo species. In ovine and caprine forms the main component corresponded to the 199-residue-long form, and the deleted proteins differed from the complete one by the absence of peptides 141-148, 110-117, or Gln78, or a combination of such deletions. The deleted segments corresponded to the sequence regions encoded by exons 13 and 16, and by the first triplet of exon 11 (CAG), suggesting that the occurrence of the short protein forms is due to alternative skipping, as previously demonstrated for some caprine and ovine phenotypes. The alternative deletion of Gln78 in alpha(s1)-casein, the only form common to the milk of all the species examined and located in a sequence region joining the polar phosphorylation cluster and the hydrophobic C-terminal domain of the protein, may play a functional role in the stabilization of the milk micelle structure.

  10. On the Absence of EUV Emission from Comet C/2012 S1 (ISON)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryans, Paul; Pesnell, W. Dean

    2016-05-01

    When the sungrazing comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) made its perihelion passage within two solar radii of the Sun’s surface, it was expected to be a bright emitter at extreme ultraviolet (EUV) wavelengths. However, despite solar EUV telescopes repointing to track the orbit of the comet, no emission was detected. This “null result” is interesting in its own right, offering the possibility of placing limits on the size and composition of the nucleus. We explain the lack of detection by considering the properties of the comet and the solar atmosphere that determine the intensity of EUV emission from sungrazing comets. By comparing these properties with those of sungrazing comet C/2011 W3 (Lovejoy), which did emit in the EUV, we conclude that the primary factor resulting in non-detectable EUV emission from C/2012 S1 (ISON) was an insufficiently large nucleus. We conclude that the radius of C/2012 S1 (ISON) was at least a factor of four less than that of C/2011 W3 (Lovejoy). This is consistent with white-light observations in the days before perihelion that suggested the comet was dramatically reducing in size on approach.

  11. Short Time-Scale Sensory Coding in S1 during Discrimination of Whisker Vibrotactile Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Miyashita, Toshio; Lee, Daniel J.; Smith, Katherine A.; Feldman, Daniel E.

    2016-01-01

    Rodent whisker input consists of dense microvibration sequences that are often temporally integrated for perceptual discrimination. Whether primary somatosensory cortex (S1) participates in temporal integration is unknown. We trained rats to discriminate whisker impulse sequences that varied in single-impulse kinematics (5–20-ms time scale) and mean speed (150-ms time scale). Rats appeared to use the integrated feature, mean speed, to guide discrimination in this task, consistent with similar prior studies. Despite this, 52% of S1 units, including 73% of units in L4 and L2/3, encoded sequences at fast time scales (≤20 ms, mostly 5–10 ms), accurately reflecting single impulse kinematics. 17% of units, mostly in L5, showed weaker impulse responses and a slow firing rate increase during sequences. However, these units did not effectively integrate whisker impulses, but instead combined weak impulse responses with a distinct, slow signal correlated to behavioral choice. A neural decoder could identify sequences from fast unit spike trains and behavioral choice from slow units. Thus, S1 encoded fast time scale whisker input without substantial temporal integration across whisker impulses. PMID:27574970

  12. Identification of New {CIS} Vibrational Levels in the S1 State of C2H2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baraban, J. H.; Changala, P. B.; Shaver, R. G.; Field, R. W.; Stanton, J. F.; Merer, A. J.

    2012-06-01

    Although the S_1 (tilde{A} ^1A_u) state of the trans conformer of acetylene has been known for many years, the corresponding S_1 (tilde{A} ^1A_2) state of the cis conformer was only discovered recently. Transitions to it from the ground state are electronically forbidden, but its vibrational levels acquire intensity by tunneling through the isomerization barrier and interacting with levels of the trans conformer. We have recently identified two new vibrational levels (32 and 41 61) of the {cis} conformer of S1 C2H2, bringing the total number of levels observed to six out of an expected ten up to the energies studied in this work. The appearance of these levels in IR-UV double resonance LIF spectra will be discussed, along with their vibrational assignments. Experimentally determined vibrational parameters and {ab initio} anharmonic force fields for both the {trans} and {cis} conformers will be presented as part of the evidence supporting these assignments. These results shed new light on the vibrational level structure of both conformers in this isomerizing system. A. J. Merer, A. H. Steeves, J. H. Baraban, H. A. Bechtel, and R. W. Field. J. Chem. Phys., 134(24):244310, 2011.

  13. Hyperconjugation in the S1 State of Substituted Toluene Probed by Infrared Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiba, Takashi; Okuyama, Katsuhiko; Fujii, Asuka

    2016-06-01

    Internal rotation of the methyl group in substituted toluenes is one of prototypes of large amplitude motions in polyatomic molecules. The internal rotation of o-fluorotoluene is strongly hindered in the S0 state, but that of m-fluorotoluene is almost free. For the S1 state, however, the substantial changes of the internal rotation potentials have been reported; while the potential barrier in the o-isomer drastically decreases and the methyl group becomes almost a free rotor, the barrier in the m-isomer largely increases. These surprising barrier changes have been attributed to the methyl conformation-dependent stabilization in the S1 state by the π*-σ* hyperconjugation. In the present study, to test this interpretation, we observed infrared spectra of o- and m-fluorotoluenes in the S0 and S1 states. Both the isomers showed decrease of the methyl CH stretch frequencies upon the electronic excitation. We concluded that this frequency decrease is the evidence of the π*-σ* hyperconjugation. K,Okuyama.;N,Mikami.;M,Ito. J.Phys.Chem. 1985, 89, 5617 H,Nakai.;M,Kawai. Chem.Phys.Lett 1999, 307, 272

  14. Correlation of charge, hydrophobicity, and structure with antimicrobial activity of S1 and MIRIAM peptides.

    PubMed

    Leptihn, Sebastian; Har, Jia Yi; Wohland, Thorsten; Ding, Jeak Ling

    2010-11-02

    Antimicrobial peptides are key elements of the innate immune system. Many of them interact with membranes of bacteria leading to perturbation of the lipid bilayer and eventually to inactivation of the pathogen. The emergence of multidrug-resistant bacteria has necessitated innovations of new and more powerful classes of antimicrobials. Here we present the in-depth study of an antimicrobial peptide, MIRIAM, derived from Sushi1 (S1), a well-characterized peptide from the horseshoe crab. MIRIAM interacts strongly with negatively charged lipids, forming an α-helical structure. MIRIAM was found to neutralize LPS and kill Gram-negative bacteria with high efficiency, while not releasing LPS. The promising therapeutic potential of MIRIAM is shown by hemolytic assays, which demonstrate that eukaryotic membranes are unaffected at bactericidal concentrations. Nanoparticle-conjugated MIRIAM used in single-molecule fluorescence and electron microscopy experiments showed that MIRIAM targets bacterial membranes to kill bacteria similarly to parental S1. Furthermore, fragments derived from MIRIAM and S1 provided insights on their molecular mechanisms of action, in particular, the relationships of functional motifs comprised by charge, hydrophobicity, and structure within each peptide. We conclude that the combination of charge, hydrophobicity, and length of the peptide is important. A close interaction of amino acids in a single molecule in a carefully balanced ensemble of sequence position and secondary structure is crucial.

  15. Cloning and characterization of a gene from Rhizobium melilotii 2011 coding for ribosomal protein S1.

    PubMed Central

    Schnier, J; Thamm, S; Lurz, R; Hussain, A; Faist, G; Dobrinski, B

    1988-01-01

    A 7 kb chromosomal DNA fragment from R. melilotii was cloned, which complemented temperature-sensitivity of an E. coli amber mutant in rpsA, the gene for ribosomal protein S1 (ES1). From complementation and maxicell analysis a 58 kd protein was identified as the homolog of protein S1 (RS1). DNA sequence analysis of the R. melilotii rpsA gene identified a protein of 568 amino acids, which showed 47% identical amino acid homology to protein S1 from E. coli. The RS1 protein lacked the two Cys residues which had been reported to play an important role for the function of ES1. Two repeats containing Shine-Dalgarno sequences were identified upstream of the structural gene. Binding studies with RNA polymerase from E. coli and Pseudomonas putida located one RNA-polymerase binding site close to the RS1 gene and another one several hundred basepairs upstream. One possible promoter was also identified by DNA sequence comparison with the corresponding E. coli promoter. Images PMID:3368316

  16. Analysing the New Saturnian Rings, R/2004 S1 and R/2004 S2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, S. M. Giuliatti; Sfair, R.; Mourão, D. C.; Bastos, T. A.

    2005-12-01

    The Cassini-Huygens arrival into the Saturnian system brought a large amount of data about the satellites and rings. Two diffuse rings were found in the region between the A ring and Prometheus. R/2004 S1 is coorbital to Atlas and R/2004 S2 is close to Prometheus. In this work we analysed the closest approach between Prometheus and both rings. As a result we found that the satellite removes particles from R/2004 S2 ring. Long-term numerical simulations showed that some particles can cross the F ring region . The well known region of the F ring, where small satellites are present and particles are being taking from the ring, gains a new insight with the presence of particles from R/2004 S2 ring. The computation of the Lyapunov Characteristic Exponent reveled that the R/2004 S2 ring lies in a chaotic region while R/2004 S1 ring and Atlas are in a stable region. Atlas is responsible for the formation of three regimes in the R/2004 S1 ring, as expected for a satellite embedded in a ring.

  17. Sphingosine 1-phosphate protects primary human keratinocytes from apoptosis via nitric oxide formation through the receptor subtype S1P₃.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Elisabeth I; Potteck, Henrik; Schüppel, Melanie; Manggau, Marianti; Wahydin, Elly; Kleuser, Burkhard

    2012-12-01

    Although the lipid mediator sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) has been identified to induce cell growth arrest of human keratinocytes, the sphingolipid effectively protects these epidermal cells from apoptosis. The molecular mechanism of the anti-apoptotic action induced by S1P is less characterized. Apart from S1P, endogenously produced nitric oxide (NO•) has been recognized as a potent modulator of apoptosis in keratinocytes. Therefore, it was of great interest to elucidate whether S1P protects human keratinocytes via a NO•-dependent signalling pathway. Indeed, S1P induced an activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in human keratinocytes leading to an enhanced formation of NO•. Most interestingly, the cell protective effect of S1P was almost completely abolished in the presence of the eNOS inhibitor L-NAME as well as in eNOS-deficient keratinocytes indicating that the sphingolipid metabolite S1P protects human keratinocytes from apoptosis via eNOS activation and subsequent production of protective amounts of NO•. It is well established that most of the known actions of S1P are mediated by a family of five specific G protein-coupled receptors. Therefore, the involvement of S1P-receptor subtypes in S1P-mediated eNOS activation has been examined. Indeed, this study clearly shows that the S1P(3) is the exclusive receptor subtype in human keratinocytes which mediates eNOS activation and NO• formation in response to S1P. In congruence, when the S1P(3) receptor subtype is abrogated, S1P almost completely lost its ability to protect human keratinocytes from apoptosis.

  18. Differential S1P Receptor Profiles on M1- and M2-Polarized Macrophages Affect Macrophage Cytokine Production and Migration

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Jan; von Bernstorff, Wolfram; Heidecke, Claus-Dieter

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. Macrophages are key players in complex biological processes. In response to environmental signals, macrophages undergo polarization towards a proinflammatory (M1) or anti-inflammatory (M2) phenotype. Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive lysophospholipid that acts via 5 G-protein coupled receptors (S1P1–5) in order to influence a broad spectrum of biological processes. This study assesses S1P receptor expression on macrophages before and after M1 and M2 polarization and performs a comparative analysis of S1P signalling in the two activational states of macrophages. Methods. Bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDM) from C57 BL/6 mice were cultured under either M1- or M2-polarizing conditions. S1P-receptor expression was determined by quantitative RT-PCR. Influence of S1P on macrophage activation, migration, phagocytosis, and cytokine secretion was assessed in vitro. Results. All 5 S1P receptor subclasses were expressed in macrophages. Culture under both M1- and M2-polarizing conditions led to significant downregulation of S1P1. In contrast, M1-polarized macrophages significantly downregulated S1P4. The expression of the remaining three S1P receptors did not change. S1P increased expression of iNOS under M2-polarizing conditions. Furthermore, S1P induced chemotaxis in M1 macrophages and changed cytokine production in M2 macrophages. Phagocytosis was not affected by S1P-signalling. Discussion. The expression of different specific S1P receptor profiles may provide a possibility to selectively influence M1- or M2-polarized macrophages. PMID:28367448

  19. Facile construction of pyrrolo[1,2-b]isoquinolin-10(5H)-ones via a redox-amination-aromatization-Friedel-Crafts acylation cascade reaction and discovery of novel topoisomerase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shanchao; Liu, Na; Dong, Guoqiang; Ma, Lin; Wang, Shengzheng; Shi, Wencai; Fang, Kun; Chen, Shuqiang; Li, Jian; Zhang, Wannian; Sheng, Chunquan; Wang, Wei

    2016-07-21

    An efficient redox-amination-aromatization-Friedel-Crafts acylation cascade process from trans-4-hydroxyproline and 2-formylbenzoic acids has been developed for the synthesis of pyrrolo[1,2-b]isoquinolin-10(5H)-ones. Compound 3h was identified as a new potent dual topoisomerase I/II inhibitor.

  20. Effect of combined treatment with micelle-incorporated cisplatin (NC-6004) and S-1 on human gastric cancer xenografts

    PubMed Central

    Kudo, Masahisa; Yamamoto, Yoshiyuki; Koga, Yoshikatsu; Hamaguchi, Tetsuya; Akimoto, Tetsuo; Yasunaga, Masahiro; Matsumura, Yasuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Combination therapy with S-1 and cisplatin (CDDP) is the standard chemotherapy for advanced gastric cancer in Japan; however, its administration requires hospitalization for hydration to prevent nephrotoxicity from CDDP. By contrast, NC-6004 appears to reduce the renal toxicity of CDDP and may be used on an outpatient basis. Thus, the effects of combined treatment with S-1 and NC-6004 were compared with those of S-1 and CDDP in a human gastric cancer model. In vitro cytotoxic effects were investigated in 44As3Luc, MKN45 and MKN74 human gastric cancer cell lines. The effects of NC-6004 and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) were compared with the effects of CDDP and 5-FU using the combination index method. The in vivo antitumor effects of S-1/NC-6004 and S-1/CDDP were evaluated in mice bearing 44As3Luc xenografts. Both combinations exhibited synergistic activity in MKN45 and MKN74 cells and additive effects in 44As3Luc cells. Moreover, the in vivo antitumor effects did not differ between the S-1/NC-6004 and S-1/CDDP treatment groups. However, a significantly lower body weight loss was observed in S-1/NC-6004-treated mice compared with the S-1/CDDP-treated mice. Our data warrant a clinical evaluation of S-1/NC-6004 combination therapy. PMID:28101359

  1. Assay to measure the secretion of sphingosine-1-phosphate from cells induced by S1P lyase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Loetscher, Erika; Schneider, Karolina; Beerli, Christian; Billich, Andreas

    2013-04-12

    Inhibitors of the sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) degrading enzyme S1P lyase (SPL) may be useful in the therapy of inflammatory diseases by preventing lymphocyte recruitment to diseased tissues. Here we describe a cellular assay for such inhibitors, which takes advantage of the observation that a fraction of the intracellular S1P accumulated in the presence of SPL inhibitors is secreted into the medium of cultured cells. The secreted S1P is then quantified using an S1P-sensitive reporter cell line. In the routine assay protocol, human HEK293T cells are treated with SPL inhibitors in the presence of phosphatase inhibitors and sphingosine; while the phosphatase inhibitors are included to prevent the degradation of S1P secreted from the cells, sphingosine is added as source for intracellular S1P that is prone to SPL degradation. The secreted S1P in the supernatant of the cell cultures is then quantified by measuring calcium flux induced in CHO-K1 cells expressing the human S1P3 receptor. Using this method SPL inhibitors were shown to induce a concentration-dependent increase of extracellular S1P under the conditions used; thus, the assay allows for the ranking of SPL inhibitors according to their potency on living cells.

  2. MMP2 and MMP9 participate in S1P-induced invasion of follicular ML-1 thyroid cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kalhori, Veronica; Törnquist, Kid

    2015-03-15

    The bioactive lipid sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) has emerged as a potent inducer of cancer cell migration and invasion. Previously, we have shown that S1P induces invasion of ML-1 follicular thyroid cancer cells via S1P receptors 1 and 3 (S1P1,3). Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are zinc-dependent proteolytic enzymes used by cells for degradation of the extracellular matrix during invasion and migration. In the present study, we examined the role of MMP2 and MMP9 for S1P-induced invasion of ML-1 cells, and found that S1P regulates the secretion and activity of MMP2 and MMP9 via S1P1,3. Both pharmacological inhibitors and siRNA knockdown of MMP2 and MMP9 could attenuate S1P-induced invasion. Additionally, we show that calpains and Rac1 mediate S1P-induced secretion of MMP2 and MMP9. In conclusion, MMP2 and MMP9 participate in S1P-evoked follicular ML-1 thyroid cancer cell invasion.

  3. Effect of combined treatment with micelle-incorporated cisplatin (NC-6004) and S-1 on human gastric cancer xenografts.

    PubMed

    Kudo, Masahisa; Yamamoto, Yoshiyuki; Koga, Yoshikatsu; Hamaguchi, Tetsuya; Akimoto, Tetsuo; Yasunaga, Masahiro; Matsumura, Yasuhiro

    2016-12-01

    Combination therapy with S-1 and cisplatin (CDDP) is the standard chemotherapy for advanced gastric cancer in Japan; however, its administration requires hospitalization for hydration to prevent nephrotoxicity from CDDP. By contrast, NC-6004 appears to reduce the renal toxicity of CDDP and may be used on an outpatient basis. Thus, the effects of combined treatment with S-1 and NC-6004 were compared with those of S-1 and CDDP in a human gastric cancer model. In vitro cytotoxic effects were investigated in 44As3Luc, MKN45 and MKN74 human gastric cancer cell lines. The effects of NC-6004 and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) were compared with the effects of CDDP and 5-FU using the combination index method. The in vivo antitumor effects of S-1/NC-6004 and S-1/CDDP were evaluated in mice bearing 44As3Luc xenografts. Both combinations exhibited synergistic activity in MKN45 and MKN74 cells and additive effects in 44As3Luc cells. Moreover, the in vivo antitumor effects did not differ between the S-1/NC-6004 and S-1/CDDP treatment groups. However, a significantly lower body weight loss was observed in S-1/NC-6004-treated mice compared with the S-1/CDDP-treated mice. Our data warrant a clinical evaluation of S-1/NC-6004 combination therapy.

  4. Bitopic Sphingosine 1-Phosphate Receptor 3 (S1P3) Antagonist Rescue from Complete Heart Block: Pharmacological and Genetic Evidence for Direct S1P3 Regulation of Mouse Cardiac Conduction

    PubMed Central

    Sanna, M. Germana; Vincent, Kevin P.; Repetto, Emanuela; Nguyen, Nhan; Brown, Steven J.; Abgaryan, Lusine; Riley, Sean W.; Leaf, Nora B.; Cahalan, Stuart M.; Kiosses, William B.; Kohno, Yasushi; Brown, Joan Heller; McCulloch, Andrew D.

    2016-01-01

    The molecular pharmacology of the G protein–coupled receptors for sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) provides important insight into established and new therapeutic targets. A new, potent bitopic S1P3 antagonist, SPM-354, with in vivo activity, has been used, together with S1P3-knockin and S1P3-knockout mice to define the spatial and functional properties of S1P3 in regulating cardiac conduction. We show that S1P3 is a key direct regulator of cardiac rhythm both in vivo and in isolated perfused hearts. 2-Amino-2-[2-(4-octylphenyl)ethyl]propane-1,3-diol in vivo and S1P in isolated hearts induced a spectrum of cardiac effects, ranging from sinus bradycardia to complete heart block, as measured by a surface electrocardiogram in anesthetized mice and in volume-conducted Langendorff preparations. The agonist effects on complete heart block are absent in S1P3-knockout mice and are reversed in wild-type mice with SPM-354, as characterized and described here. Homologous knockin of S1P3-mCherry is fully functional pharmacologically and is strongly expressed by immunohistochemistry confocal microscopy in Hyperpolarization Activated Cyclic Nucleotide Gated Potassium Channel 4 (HCN4)-positive atrioventricular node and His-Purkinje fibers, with relative less expression in the HCN4-positive sinoatrial node. In Langendorff studies, at constant pressure, SPM-354 restored sinus rhythm in S1P-induced complete heart block and fully reversed S1P-mediated bradycardia. S1P3 distribution and function in the mouse ventricular cardiac conduction system suggest a direct mechanism for heart block risk that should be further studied in humans. A richer understanding of receptor and ligand usage in the pacemaker cells of the cardiac system is likely to be useful in understanding ventricular conduction in health, disease, and pharmacology. PMID:26494861

  5. Unusual Water Production Activity of Comet C/2012 S1 (ISON): Outbursts and Continuous Fragmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Combi, M. R.; Fougere, N.; Mäkinen, J. T. T.; Bertaux, J.-L.; Quémerais, E.; Ferron, S.

    2014-06-01

    The Solar Wind ANisotropies (SWAN) all-sky hydrogen Lyα camera on the SOlar and Heliospheric Observer (SOHO) satellite observed the hydrogen coma of comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) for most of the last month of its activity from 2013 October 24 to November 24, ending just 4 days before perihelion and its final disruption. The water production rate of the comet was determined from these observations. SOHO has been operating in a halo orbit around the Earth-Sun L1 Lagrange point since its launch in late 1995. Most water vapor produced by comets is ultimately photodissociated into two H atoms and one O atom producing a huge hydrogen coma that is routinely observed in the daily SWAN images in comets of sufficient brightness. Water production rates were calculated from 22 images over most of the last month of the pre-perihelion apparition. The water production rate increased very slowly on average from October 24.9 until November 12.9, staying between 1.8 and 3.4 × 1028 s-1, after which it increased dramatically, reaching 1.6 to 2 × 1030 s-1 from November 21.6 to 23.6. It was not detected after perihelion on December 3.7 when it should have been visible. We examine the active surface area necessary to explain the water production rate and its variation and are able to place constraints on the physical size of the original nucleus necessary to account for the large amount of activity from November 12.9 and until just before perihelion.

  6. Synchronous basin-wide Mediterranean Sapropel S1 formation; Preservation versus Productivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Lange, Gert J.; Slomp, Caroline; Corselli, Cesare; Erba, Elisabetta; Thomson, John; Reitz, Anja

    2013-04-01

    The timing of deposition of all distinct organic-rich units (sapropels) in eastern Mediterraneran sediments is precession-related and is associated with humid climate conditions. The last of such 'humid periods' occurred from 11 - 5 kyr 14C ago, simultaneous with a sustained circum-Mediterranean wet period including a vegetated Sahara. The end of this period coincides with a high manganese-oxide peak in all 30 studied cores and concurs with an abrupt re-ventilation event at 5.7 kyr for the deep-water. We demonstrate that the most recent sapropel (S1) formed synchronously between 9.8 and 5.7 14C ky BP at all water depths greater than a few hundred metres. As a consequence of increased fresh water (monsoon) input, surface waters had a reduced salinity and concomitantly the deep (> 1.8 km) eastern Mediterranean Sea was devoid of oxygen during 4,000 years of S1 formation (De Lange ea., 2008). This has resulted in a differential basin-wide preservation of S1 determined by water depth, as a result of different ventilation/climate-related redox conditions above and below 1.8 km. Climate-induced stratification of the ocean may thus contribute to enhanced preservation of organic matter, i.e. formation of sapropels (and potentially black shales). Reference De Lange G.J., Thomson J., Reitz A., Slomp C.P., Principato M.S., Erba E., and Corselli C. (2008) Synchronous basin-wide formation and redox-controlled preservation of a Mediterranean sapropel. Nature Geo 1, 606-610.

  7. Experimental design and environmental parameters affect Rhodospirillum rubrum S1H response to space flight.

    PubMed

    Mastroleo, Felice; Van Houdt, Rob; Leroy, Baptiste; Benotmane, M Abderrafi; Janssen, Ann; Mergeay, Max; Vanhavere, Filip; Hendrickx, Larissa; Wattiez, Ruddy; Leys, Natalie

    2009-12-01

    In view of long-haul space exploration missions, the European Space Agency initiated the Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative (MELiSSA) project targeting the total recycling of organic waste produced by the astronauts into oxygen, water and food using a loop of bacterial and higher plant bioreactors. In that purpose, the alpha-proteobacterium, Rhodospirillum rubrum S1H, was sent twice to the International Space Station and was analyzed post-flight using a newly developed R. rubrum whole genome oligonucleotide microarray and high throughput gel-free proteomics with Isotope-Coded Protein Label technology. Moreover, in an effort to identify a specific response of R. rubrum S1H to space flight, simulation of microgravity and space-ionizing radiation were performed on Earth under identical culture set-up and growth conditions as encountered during the actual space journeys. Transcriptomic and proteomic data were integrated and permitted to put forward the importance of medium composition and culture set-up on the response of the bacterium to space flight-related environmental conditions. In addition, we showed for the first time that a low dose of ionizing radiation (2 mGy) can induce a significant response at the transcriptomic level, although no change in cell viability and only a few significant differentially expressed proteins were observed. From the MELiSSA perspective, we could argue the effect of microgravity to be minimized, whereas R. rubrum S1H could be more sensitive to ionizing radiation during long-term space exploration mission.

  8. Source and development of large manganese enrichments above eastern Mediterranean sapropel S1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reitz, Anja; Thomson, John; de Lange, Gert J.; Hensen, Christian

    2006-09-01

    The residual dark unit of the most recent eastern Mediterranean sapropel (S1) is usually overlain by sediments with enhanced concentrations of MnOx in two separated layers. The variability and magnitude of the Mn enrichment at different locations and water depths indicate that Mn must have been added preferentially to sediments at intermediate (1-2 km) water depths. We propose a two-stage mechanism for the Mn enrichment that involves decreasing oxygenation with increasing water depth. This mechanism involves the loss of reduced Mn2+ from the deepest sediments (>2 km water depth) into overlying anoxic waters and a variable gain of MnOx in sediments in contact with oxygenated waters at shallower depth. In the S1 unit that receives the extra MnOx input, an upper higher Mn-enriched zone (>3 wt %) is maintained continuously at the top of the accumulating S1 unit because the pore waters are anoxic at shallow sediment depth while bottom waters are oxic to some degree. In a reactive-transport model, the Mn enrichment in the upper zone could not be supported by normal sediment diagenesis. Thus the MnOx in the upper Mn horizon must have formed mainly in the water column. The MnOx in the upper Mn-enriched zone adsorbed Mo and Li from seawater in a similar manner as other Mn-enriched oxic sediments, nodules, and crusts, with a Mn:Mo ratio of ˜600:1, a Mn:Li ratio of ˜750:1, and a δ98/95MoMOMO of -2.5 ‰.

  9. Numerical modeling of the oceanic S1 tide for Earth rotation studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schindelegger, Michael; Einspigel, David

    2015-04-01

    Diurnal S1 oceanic oscillations induced by atmospheric pressure loading elicit small but measurable perturbations of universal time, polar motion, and the prograde annual component of nutation. In a priori models of Earth rotation variations, these signals are as-yet unconsidered'partly due to the fact that the underlying globally-gridded S1 harmonics can only be inferred from purely hydrodynamic ocean models which lack the reliable elevation constraints from satellite altimetry. Such free-running forward integrations of the shallow water equations usually overestimate tidal energies and therefore also OAM (oceanic angular momentum), unless the model formulation allows for significant dissipation in the deep ocean. For practical purposes, abyssal energy flux and hence the accuracy of tidal elevations can be controlled by a tunable but inordinately high viscosity value or by evoking additional quadratic wave drag when surface heights change rapidly. A third and physically plausible modeling route is to parametrize the sub-grid scale conversion of barotropic currents into small internal tides by aid of a linear drag term. In the present paper, we study the impact of these different dissipation schemes on the fidelity of surface elevations in a simple barotropic time-stepping model forced by selected gravitational equilibrium tides as well as diurnal air pressure variations. After determining the optimal drag formulation through validation runs with the well-known principal gravitational K1 tide, the OAM values for each of the hydrodynamic S1 solutions are documented and discussed in the specific context of their contribution to the prograde annual signal in Earth's nutation.

  10. Odin observations of ammonia in the Sgr A +50 km s-1 cloud and circumnuclear disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandqvist, Aa.; Hjalmarson, Å.; Frisk, U.; Lundin, S.; Nordh, L.; Olberg, M.; Olofsson, G.

    2017-03-01

    Context. The Odin satellite is now into its sixteenth year of operation, much surpassing its design life of two years. One of the sources which Odin has observed in great detail is the Sgr A complex in the centre of the Milky Way. Aims: To study the presence of NH3 in the Galactic centre and spiral arms. Methods: Recently, Odin has made complementary observations of the 572 GHz NH3 line towards the Sgr A +50 km s-1 cloud and circumnuclear disk (CND). Results: Significant NH3 emission has been observed in both the +50 km s-1 cloud and the CND. Clear NH3 absorption has also been detected in many of the spiral arm features along the line of sight from the Sun to the core of our Galaxy. Conclusions: The very large velocity width (80 km s-1) of the NH3 emission associated with the shock region in the southwestern part of the CND may suggest a formation/desorption scenario similar to that of gas-phase H2O in shocks/outflows. Odin is a Swedish-led satellite project funded jointly by the Swedish National Space Board (SNSB), the Canadian Space Agency (CSA), the National Technology Agency of Finland (Tekes), the Centre National d'Études Spatiales (CNES), France, and the European Space Agency (ESA). The former Space division of the Swedish Space Corporation, today OHB Sweden, is the prime contractor, also responsible for Odin operations.The reduced spectra are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/599/A135

  11. Cloning and characterization of monofunctional catalase from photosynthetic bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum S1.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong-Heon; Oh, Duck-Chul; Oh, You-Sung; Malinverni, Juliana C; Kukor, Jerome J; Kahng, Hyung-Yeel

    2007-09-01

    In this study, an approx. 2.5-kb gene fragment including the catalase gene from Rhodospirillum rubrum S1 was cloned and characterized. The determination of the complete nucleotide sequence revealed that the cloned DNA fragment was organized into three open reading frames, designated as ORF1, catalase, and ORF3 in that order. The catalase gene consisted of 1,455 nucleotides and 484 amino acids, including the initiation and stop codons, and was located 326 bp upstream in the opposite direction of ORF1. The catalase was overproduced in Escherichia coli UM255, a catalase-deficient mutant, and then purified for the biochemical characterization of the enzyme. The purified catalase had an estimated molecular mass of 189 kDa, consisting of four identical subunits of 61 kDa. The enzyme exhibited activity over a broad pH range from pH 5.0 to pH 11.0 and temperature range from 20 degrees C to 60 degrees C. The catalase activity was inhibited by 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole, cyanide, azide, and hydroxylamine. The enzyme's K(m) value and V(max) of the catalase for H2O2 were 21.8 mM and 39,960 U/mg, respectively. Spectrophotometric analysis revealed that the ratio of A406 to A280 for the catalase was 0.97, indicating the presence of a ferric component. The absorption spectrum of catalase-4 exhibited a Soret band at 406 nm, which is typical of a heme-containing catalase. Treatment of the enzyme with dithionite did not alter the spectral shape and revealed no peroxidase activity. The combined results of the gene sequence and biochemical characterization proved that the catalase cloned from strain S1in this study was a typical monofunctional catalase, which differed from the other types of catalases found in strain S1.

  12. Toxicogenomic Response of Rhodospirillum rubrum S1H to the Micropollutant Triclosan▿

    PubMed Central

    Pycke, Benny F. G.; Vanermen, Guido; Monsieurs, Pieter; De Wever, Heleen; Mergeay, Max; Verstraete, Willy; Leys, Natalie

    2010-01-01

    In the framework of the Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative (MELiSSA) project, a pilot study was performed to identify the effects of triclosan on the MELiSSA carbon-mineralizing microorganism Rhodospirillum rubrum S1H. Triclosan is a biocide that is commonly found in human excrement and is considered an emerging pollutant in wastewater and the environment. Chronic exposure to MELiSSA-relevant concentrations (≥25 μg liter−1) of triclosan resulted in a significant extension of the lag phase of this organism but hardly affected the growth rate. Analytical determinations gave no indication of triclosan biodegradation during the growth experiment, and flow cytometric viability analyses revealed that triclosan is bacteriostatic and only slightly toxic to R. rubrum S1H. Using microarray analyses, the genetic mechanisms supporting the reversibility of triclosan-induced inhibition were scrutinized. An extremely triclosan-responsive cluster of four small adjacent genes was identified, for which there was up to 34-fold induction with 25 μg liter−1 triclosan. These four genes, for which the designation muf (micropollutant-upregulated factor) is proposed, appear to be unique to R. rubrum and are shown here for the first time to be involved in the response to stress. Moreover, numerous other systems that are associated with the proton motive force were shown to be responsive to triclosan, but they were never as highly upregulated as the muf genes. In response to triclosan, R. rubrum S1H induced transcription of the phage shock protein operon (pspABC), numerous efflux systems, cell envelope consolidation mechanisms, the oxidative stress response, beta-oxidation, and carbonic anhydrase, while there was downregulation of bacterial conjugation and carboxysome synthesis genes. The muf genes and three efflux-related genes showed the most potential to be low-dose biomarkers. PMID:20363786

  13. Properties of digital 1/3-octave filters implemented according to ANSI S1.11

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geras, Antonina; Starecki, Tomasz

    The paper presents results of investigation into properties of digital filters implemented in compliance with ANSI S1.11 Standard: Octave-Band and Fractional-Octave Band Analog and Digital Filters. The discussed solutions are digital one-third-octave IIR filters with Direct Form I topology. Performed simulations showed that the filters exhibit strong problems with stability, especially in the case of low center frequency filters. Another problem clearly visible in all investigated structures was poor attenuation at the frequencies above the passband. Although the filters were implemented according to the ANSI standard, none of them met all of the requirements of the standard.

  14. Observation of an Exotic S = +1 Baryon in Exclusive Photoproduction from the Deuteron

    SciTech Connect

    Stepan Stepanyan; Kenneth Hicks; Daniel Carman; Evgueni Pasyuk; Reinhard Schumacher; Elton Smith; David Tedeschi; Luminita Todor

    2003-12-19

    In an exclusive measurement of the reaction {gamma}d {yields} K{sup +} K{sup -} p n, a narrow peak that can be attributed to an exotic baryon with strangeness S = +1 is seen in the K{sup +}n invariant mass spectrum. The peak is at 1542 {+-} 5 MeV/c{sup 2} with a measured width of 21 MeV/c{sup 2} FWHM, equivalent to the experimental invariant mass resolution. The statistical significance of the peak is 5.3 {+-} 0.5 {sigma} for a Gaussian peak shape on top of a smooth background.

  15. Mechanisms for spin supersolidity in S=(1/2) spin-dimer antiferromagnets

    SciTech Connect

    Picon, J.-D.; Albuquerque, A. F.; Schmidt, K. P.; Laflorencie, N.; Troyer, M.; Mila, F.

    2008-11-01

    Using perturbative expansions and the contractor renormalization (CORE) algorithm, we obtain effective hard-core bosonic Hamiltonians describing the low-energy physics of S=1/2 spin-dimer antiferromagnets known to display supersolid phases under an applied magnetic field. The resulting effective models are investigated by means of mean-field analysis and quantum Monte Carlo simulations. A 'leapfrog mechanism,' through means of which extra singlets delocalize in a checkerboard-solid environment via correlated hoppings, is unveiled that accounts for the supersolid behavior.

  16. Strangeness S =-1 hyperon-nucleon scattering in covariant chiral effective field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Kai-Wen; Ren, Xiu-Lei; Geng, Li-Sheng; Long, Bingwei

    2016-07-01

    Motivated by the successes of covariant baryon chiral perturbation theory in one-baryon systems and in heavy-light systems, we study relevance of relativistic effects in hyperon-nucleon interactions with strangeness S =-1 . In this exploratory work, we follow the covariant framework developed by Epelbaum and Gegelia to calculate the Y N scattering amplitude at leading order. By fitting the five low-energy constants to the experimental data, we find that the cutoff dependence is mitigated, compared with the heavy-baryon approach. Nevertheless, the description of the experimental data remains quantitatively similar at leading order.

  17. SU(2s+1) symmetry and nonlinear dynamics of high spin magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Kovalevsky, M.Y. Glushchenko, A.V.

    2014-10-15

    The article is devoted to the description of dynamics of magnets with arbitrary spin on the basis of the Hamiltonian formalism. The relationship of quantum states and magnetic degrees of freedom has been considered. Subalgebras of Poisson bracket of magnetic values for spin s=1/2; 1; 3/2 have been established. We have obtained non-linear dynamic equations for the normal and degenerate non-equilibrium states of high-spin magnets with the SO(3), SU(4), SU(2)×SU(2), SU(3), SO(4), SO(5) symmetries of exchange interaction. The connection between models of magnetic exchange energy and the Casimir invariants has been discussed.

  18. φ meson production frompbar p collisions atsqrt s = 1.8 TeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexopoulos, T.; Allen, C.; Anderson, E. W.; Balamurali, V.; Banerjee, S.; Beery, P. D.; Bhat, P.; Bishop, J. M.; Biswas, N. N.; Bujak, A.; Carmony, D. D.; Carter, T.; Cole, P.; Choi, Y.; Debonte, R.; Decarlo, V.; Erwin, A. R.; Findeisen, C.; Goshaw, A. T.; Gutay, L. J.; Hirsch, A. S.; Hojvat, C.; Jennings, J. R.; Kenney, V. P.; Lindsey, C. S.; Loomis, C.; Losecco, J. M.; McMahon, T.; McManus, A. P.; Morgan, N.; Nelson, K.; Oh, S. H.; Porile, N. T.; Rimai, A.; Reeves, D.; Robertson, W. J.; Scharenberg, R. P.; Stringfellow, B. C.; Stampke, S. R.; Thompson, M.; Turkot, F.; Walker, W. D.; Wang, C. H.; Warchol, J.; Wesson, D. K.; Zhan, Y.

    1995-09-01

    Fermilab experiment E735 located at the CO intersection region of thesqrt s = 1.8 TeVpbar p collider analysed over 900 Φ→ K + K - events. Measured were the transverse momentum spectrum, the correlation between the average transverse momentum < pt> and the charged particle multiphcity N c , as well as the probability of Φ production per charged track, N Φ / N c , versus N c . We have also made an estinate of the total inclusive cross section for Φ mesons,σ (pbar p to φ X) = 7.3 ± 2.2 mb.

  19. Amplification of S-1 Spheromak current by an inductive current transformer

    SciTech Connect

    Jardin, S.C.; Janos, A.; Yamada, M.

    1985-11-01

    We attempt to predict the consequences of adding an inductive current transformer (OH Transformer) to the present S-1 Spheromak experiment. Axisymmetric modeling with only classical dissipation shows an increase of toroidal current and a shrinking and hollowing of the current channel, conserving toroidal flux. These unstable profiles will undergo helical reconnection, conserving helicity K = ..integral.. A-vector x B-vector d tau while increasing the toroidal flux and decreasing the poloidal flux so that the plasma relaxes toward the Taylor state. This flux rearrangement is modeled by a new current viscosity term in the mean-field Ohm's law which conserves helicity and dissipates energy.

  20. QCD Results from the CDF Experiment at squareroot s = 1.96 TeV

    SciTech Connect

    Michele Gallinaro

    2003-05-19

    First QCD results obtained from the CDF experiment using Run II data are reported. The Run II physics program at the Tevatron started in the spring of 2001, with protons and anti-protons colliding at an energy of {radical}s = 1.96 TeV. The size of the data sample already compares to that of Run I. Results presented here include the measurement of the inclusive jet cross section, a search for new particles decaying to dijets, and a study of diffractive dijet events.

  1. Exciton mobility edge in CdS 1-xSe x solid solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Permogorov, S.; Reznitsky, A.; Verbin, S.; Lysenko, V.

    1983-07-01

    Low temperature emission spectra of localized excitons in CdS 1-xSe x solid solutions under the monochromatic excitation with tunable laser have been studied. It has been found that the luminescence of localized excitons has a high degree of linear polarization with respect to the polarization direction of exciting light. This polarization reflects the "hidden" anisotropy of macroscopically isotropic localized exciton system and strongly depends on the frequency of exciting light. Study of this dependence has permitted for the first time a determination of position of the "mobility edge" for exciton migration in disordered semiconductor solid solution.

  2. Redox-Controled Preservation of Mediterranean Sapropel S1 deposits during Formation and Interruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Lange, Gert J.; Filippidi, Amalia; Goudeau, Marie-Louise; Hennekam, Rick

    2016-04-01

    Organic-rich units (sapropels) occur in Mediterraneran sediments in a repetitive, climate-controled way. Their deposition is thought to be precession-related and to be associated with humid climate conditions. The last humid period from 11 - 5 kyr 14C ago, occurred simultaneous with a sustained circum-Mediterranean wet period and vegetated Sahara. Within that period, the most recent sapropel (S1) formed synchronously between 9.8 and 5.7 14C ky BP at all water depths greater than a few hundred metres. As a consequence of increased fresh water (monsoon) input, surface waters had a reduced salinity and concomitantly the deep (> 1.8 km) eastern Mediterranean Sea was devoid of oxygen during 4,000 years of S1 formation. This has resulted in a differential basin-wide preservation of S1sediments determined by water depth, as a result of different ventilation/climate-related redox conditions above and below 1.8 km. The end of this period is marked by a basin-wide high sedimentary manganese-oxide peak that represents an abrupt re-ventilation of the deep-water at 5.7 kyr. The sustaining oxic conditions thereafter have resulted in a downward progressing oxidation-front that is not only characterized by the degradation of most organic matter over its active pathway, but also by the built-up of manganese oxide. The latter has resulted in a secondary diagenetic Mn-peak below the first, upper, ventilation Mn-peak. Apart from the major re-ventilation event at the end of sapropel S1 formation, also other, short-term ventilation events appear to have occurred during its formation, notably during the 8.2 ka event. This potentially basin-wide event is particularly noticeable at relatively shallow near-coastal sites of high sedimentation rates. It marks a brief episode of not only re-oxygenated deep water thus reduced preservation, but also decreased primary productivity thus nutrient supply. This 8.2 cal ka BP interruption event is thought to be related to enhanced deep water formation

  3. Ligand-induced expansion of the S1' site in the anthrax toxin lethal factor

    SciTech Connect

    Maize, Kimberly M.; Kurbanov, Elbek K.; Johnson, Rodney L.; Amin, Elizabeth Ambrose; Finzel, Barry C.

    2016-07-05

    The Bacillus anthracis lethal factor (LF) is one component of a tripartite exotoxin partly responsible for persistent anthrax cytotoxicity after initial bacterial infection. Inhibitors of the zinc metalloproteinase have been investigated as potential therapeutic agents, but LF is a challenging target because inhibitors lack sufficient selectivity or possess poor pharmaceutical properties. These structural studies reveal an alternate conformation of the enzyme, induced upon binding of specific inhibitors, that opens a previously unobserved deep pocket termed S1'* which might afford new opportunities to design selective inhibitors that target this subsite.

  4. Phospholipid transfer protein deficiency decreases the content of S1P in HDL via the loss of its transfer capability.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yang; Guo, Shoudong; Feng, Yumei; Feng, Lei; Cui, Yingjie; Song, Guohua; Luo, Tian; Zhang, Ke; Wang, Yiwei; Jiang, Xian-Cheng; Qin, Shucun

    2014-02-01

    Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is an amphiphilic signaling molecule, which is enriched in functional high density lipoprotein (HDL) and shows arterial protection. The distribution of S1P is changed with increased plasma phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) activity and impaired HDL function in patients with coronary heart diseases. Therefore, we hypothesized that PLTP might transfer S1P among cells or lipoproteins. We found that plasma S1P contents were decreased by 60.1 % in PLTP knockout mice (PLTP-/-, N = 5) compared with their wild type littermates (WT, N = 5) (151.70 ± 38.59 vs. 379.32 ± 59.90 nmol/l, P<0.01). S1P content in HDL fraction (HDL-S1P) from PLTP-/- was decreased by 64.7 % compared with WT (49.36 ± 1.49 vs. 139.76 ± 2.94 nmol/l, P<0.01). The results of the S1P transfer assay indicated that PLTP could facilitate S1P transport from erythrocytes to HDL at 37 °C in D-Hanks buffer. Plasma content of apolipoprotein M, a specific adaptor of S1P, was not changed in PLTP-/- compared with WT. Therefore, we concluded that PLTP was a key factor to maintain plasma HDL-S1P, and PLTP deficiency could decrease the S1P content in plasma lipoproteins, which involves its capability of transferring S1P from erythrocyte to HDL.

  5. ClpS1 Is a Conserved Substrate Selector for the Chloroplast Clp Protease System in Arabidopsis[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Nishimura, Kenji; Asakura, Yukari; Friso, Giulia; Kim, Jitae; Oh, Soo-hyun; Rutschow, Heidi; Ponnala, Lalit; van Wijk, Klaas J.

    2013-01-01

    Whereas the plastid caseinolytic peptidase (Clp) P protease system is essential for plant development, substrates and substrate selection mechanisms are unknown. Bacterial ClpS is involved in N-degron substrate selection and delivery to the ClpAP protease. Through phylogenetic analysis, we show that all angiosperms contain ClpS1 and some species also contain ClpS1-like protein(s). In silico analysis suggests that ClpS1 is the functional homolog of bacterial ClpS. We show that Arabidopsis thaliana ClpS1 interacts with plastid ClpC1,2 chaperones. The Arabidopsis ClpS1 null mutant (clps1) lacks a visible phenotype, and no genetic interactions with ClpC/D chaperone or ClpPR core mutants were observed. However, clps1, but not clpc1-1, has increased sensitivity to the translational elongation inhibitor chloramphenicol suggesting a link between translational capacity and ClpS1. Moreover, ClpS1 was upregulated in clpc1-1, and quantitative proteomics of clps1, clpc1, and clps1 clpc1 showed specific molecular phenotypes attributed to loss of ClpC1 or ClpS1. In particular, clps1 showed alteration of the tetrapyrrole pathway. Affinity purification identified eight candidate ClpS1 substrates, including plastid DNA repair proteins and Glu tRNA reductase, which is a control point for tetrapyrrole synthesis. ClpS1 interaction with five substrates strictly depended on two conserved ClpS1 residues involved in N-degron recognition. ClpS1 function, substrates, and substrate recognition mechanisms are discussed. PMID:23898032

  6. Sphingosine-1-phosphate enhances satellite cell activation in dystrophic muscles through a S1PR2/STAT3 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Loh, Kenneth C; Leong, Weng-In; Carlson, Morgan E; Oskouian, Babak; Kumar, Ashok; Fyrst, Henrik; Zhang, Meng; Proia, Richard L; Hoffman, Eric P; Saba, Julie D

    2012-01-01

    Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) activates a widely expressed family of G protein-coupled receptors, serves as a muscle trophic factor and activates muscle stem cells called satellite cells (SCs) through unknown mechanisms. Here we show that muscle injury induces dynamic changes in S1P signaling and metabolism in vivo. These changes include early and profound induction of the gene encoding the S1P biosynthetic enzyme SphK1, followed by induction of the catabolic enzyme sphingosine phosphate lyase (SPL) 3 days later. These changes correlate with a transient increase in circulating S1P levels after muscle injury. We show a specific requirement for SphK1 to support efficient muscle regeneration and SC proliferation and differentiation. Mdx mice, which serve as a model for muscular dystrophy (MD), were found to be S1P-deficient and exhibited muscle SPL upregulation, suggesting that S1P catabolism is enhanced in dystrophic muscle. Pharmacological SPL inhibition increased muscle S1P levels, improved mdx muscle regeneration and enhanced SC proliferation via S1P receptor 2 (S1PR2)-dependent inhibition of Rac1, thereby activating Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3), a central player in inflammatory signaling. STAT3 activation resulted in p21 and p27 downregulation in a S1PR2-dependent fashion in myoblasts. Our findings suggest that S1P promotes SC progression through the cell cycle by repression of cell cycle inhibitors via S1PR2/STAT3-dependent signaling and that SPL inhibition may provide a therapeutic strategy for MD.

  7. The effect of low levels of lead (Pb) in the blood on levels of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) and expression of S1P receptor 1 in the brain of the rat in the perinatal period.

    PubMed

    Łukomska, A; Baranowska-Bosiacka, I; Budkowska, M; Pilutin, A; Tarnowski, M; Dec, K; Dołęgowska, B; Metryka, E; Chlubek, D; Gutowska, I

    2017-01-01

    Sphingolipids are the main components of the lipid membrane. They also perform structural functions and participate in many signal transmission processes. One of the bioactive sphingolipids is sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), a ligand for five G protein-coupled receptors (S1PRs1-5), which can also act as an intracellular second messenger. S1P is responsible for the stimulation of progenitor cells in the brain, but it can also induce apoptosis of mature neurons. This study is aimed at assessing the effect of pre- and neonatal exposure to permissible Pb concentrations on S1P levels and S1PR1 (EDG1) expression in the prefrontal cortex, cerebellum, and hippocampus of rats. The concentrations of S1P were determined by RP-HPLC, S1PR1 expression was determined by RT PCR and Western Blot, and receptor immunolocalization was determined by immunohistochemistry method. Our results showed that even low blood Pb concentrations, i.e. within the acceptable limit of 10 μg/dL caused changes in the concentration of S1P in the cerebellum, prefrontal cortex, and hippocampus. Our data also showed a significant decrease in the level of S1PR1 in all studied part of brain, without significant changes in S1PR1 gene expression. Pre- and neonatal exposure to Pb also resulted in a decrease in the expression of S1PR1 in glial cells in all regions of the Cornu Ammonis (CA1-CA4) and Dentate Gyrus in the hippocampus, as well as in all layers of the cerebellum and prefrontal cortex, compared to the unexposed control group.

  8. Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P): A Potential Biomarker and Therapeutic Target for Endothelial Dysfunction and Sepsis?

    PubMed

    Winkler, Martin S; Nierhaus, Axel; Poppe, Annika; Greiwe, Gillis; Gräler, Markus; Daum, Guenter

    2016-12-02

    Sepsis is an acute life-threatening multiple organ failure caused by a dysregulated host response to infection. Endothelial dysfunction, particularly barrier disruption leading to increased vascular permeability, edema and insufficient tissue oxygenation is critical to sepsis pathogenesis. Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a signaling lipid that regulates important pathophysiological processes including vascular endothelial cell permeability, inflammation and coagulation. It is present at high concentrations in blood and lymph and at very low concentrations in tissues due to the activity of the S1P-degrading enzyme S1P-lyase in tissue cells. Recently, four preclinical observational studies determined S1P levels in serum or plasma of sepsis patients, and all found reduced S1P levels associated with the disease. Based on these findings, this review summarizes S1P-regulated processes pertaining to endothelial functions, discusses the possible use of S1P as a marker and possibilities how to manipulate S1P levels and S1P receptor activation to restore endothelial integrity, dampen the inflammatory host response, and improve organ function in sepsis.

  9. Dynamics of vibrational relaxation in the S 1 state of carotenoids having 11 conjugated CC bonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hörvin Billsten, Helena; Zigmantas, Donatas; Sundström, Villy; Polívka, Tomáš

    2002-04-01

    Transient absorption spectra and kinetics in the 470-650 nm region were recorded for lycopene, β-carotene and zeaxanthin, all carotenoids with 11 conjugated double bonds, in two solvents with different polarity. Analysis of the red wing of the carotenoid S 1-S n transition revealed presence of a pronounced shoulder at early delay times. The kinetics recorded at this low-energy shoulder of the S 1-S n transition yields an additional decay component of 500-800 fs in addition to the main S 1 decay. This dynamics is ascribed to a vibrational relaxation in the S 1 state of the carotenoids.

  10. T-bet–dependent S1P5 expression in NK cells promotes egress from lymph nodes and bone marrow

    PubMed Central

    Jenne, Craig N.; Enders, Anselm; Rivera, Richard; Watson, Susan R.; Bankovich, Alexander J.; Pereira, Joao P.; Xu, Ying; Roots, Carla M.; Beilke, Joshua N.; Banerjee, Arnob; Reiner, Steven L.; Miller, Sara A.; Weinmann, Amy S.; Goodnow, Chris C.

    2009-01-01

    During a screen for ethylnitrosourea-induced mutations in mice affecting blood natural killer (NK) cells, we identified a strain, designated Duane, in which NK cells were reduced in blood and spleen but increased in lymph nodes (LNs) and bone marrow (BM). The accumulation of NK cells in LNs reflected a decreased ability to exit into lymph. This strain carries a point mutation within Tbx21 (T-bet), which generates a defective protein. Duane NK cells have a 30-fold deficiency in sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 5 (S1P5) transcript levels, and S1P5-deficient mice exhibit an egress defect similar to Duane. Chromatin immunoprecipitation confirms binding of T-bet to the S1pr5 locus. S1P-deficient mice exhibit a more severe NK cell egress block, and the FTY720-sensitive S1P1 also plays a role in NK cell egress from LNs. S1P5 is not inhibited by CD69, a property that may facilitate trafficking of activated NK cells to effector sites. Finally, the accumulation of NK cells within BM of S1P-deficient mice was associated with reduced numbers in BM sinusoids, suggesting a role for S1P in BM egress. In summary, these findings identify S1P5 as a T-bet–induced gene that is required for NK cell egress from LNs and BM. PMID:19808259

  11. Protein crystallography beamline BL2S1 at the Aichi synchrotron

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, Nobuhisa; Nagae, Takayuki; Yamada, Yusuke; Tomita, Ayana; Matsugaki, Naohiro; Tabuchi, Masao

    2017-01-01

    The protein crystallography beamline BL2S1, constructed at one of the 5 T superconducting bending-magnet ports of the Aichi synchrotron, is available to users associated with academic and industrial organizations. The beamline is mainly intended for use in X-ray diffraction measurements of single-crystals of macromolecules such as proteins and nucleic acids. Diffraction measurements for crystals of other materials are also possible, such as inorganic and organic compounds. BL2S1 covers the energy range 7–17 keV (1.8–0.7 Å) with an asymmetric-cut curved single-crystal monochromator [Ge(111) or Ge(220)], and a platinum-coated Si mirror is used for vertical focusing and as a higher-order cutoff filter. The beamline is equipped with a single-axis goniometer, a CCD detector, and an open-flow cryogenic sample cooler. Lastly, high-pressure protein crystallography with a diamond anvil cell can also be performed using this beamline.

  12. S1 gene-based phylogeny of infectious bronchitis virus: An attempt to harmonize virus classification.

    PubMed

    Valastro, Viviana; Holmes, Edward C; Britton, Paul; Fusaro, Alice; Jackwood, Mark W; Cattoli, Giovanni; Monne, Isabella

    2016-04-01

    Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is the causative agent of a highly contagious disease that results in severe economic losses to the global poultry industry. The virus exists in a wide variety of genetically distinct viral types, and both phylogenetic analysis and measures of pairwise similarity among nucleotide or amino acid sequences have been used to classify IBV strains. However, there is currently no consensus on the method by which IBV sequences should be compared, and heterogeneous genetic group designations that are inconsistent with phylogenetic history have been adopted, leading to the confusing coexistence of multiple genotyping schemes. Herein, we propose a simple and repeatable phylogeny-based classification system combined with an unambiguous and rationale lineage nomenclature for the assignment of IBV strains. By using complete nucleotide sequences of the S1 gene we determined the phylogenetic structure of IBV, which in turn allowed us to define 6 genotypes that together comprise 32 distinct viral lineages and a number of inter-lineage recombinants. Because of extensive rate variation among IBVs, we suggest that the inference of phylogenetic relationships alone represents a more appropriate criterion for sequence classification than pairwise sequence comparisons. The adoption of an internationally accepted viral nomenclature is crucial for future studies of IBV epidemiology and evolution, and the classification scheme presented here can be updated and revised novel S1 sequences should become available.

  13. Quantum vs Classical Magnetization Plateaus of S=1/2 Frustrated Heisenberg Chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hida, Kazuo; Affleck, Ian

    2005-06-01

    The competition between quantum and classical magnetization plateaus of S=1/2 frustrated Heisenberg chains with modified exchange couplings is investigated. The conventional S=1/2 frustrated Heisenberg chain is known to exhibit a 3-fold degenerate \\uparrow\\downarrow\\uparrow-type classical plateau at 1/3 of the saturation magnetization accompanied by the spontaneous Z3 translational symmetry breakdown. The stability of this plateau phase against period 3 exchange modulation which favors the \\bullet\\hskip -1pt-\\hskip -1pt\\bullet \\uparrow-type quantum plateau state (\\bullet\\hskip -1pt-\\hskip -1pt\\bullet = singlet dimer) is studied by bosonization, renormalization group and numerical diagonalization methods. The ground state phase diagram and the spin configuration in each phase are numerically determined. The translationally invariant Valence Bond Solid-type model with 4-spin and third neighbor interactions, which has the exact \\bullet\\hskip -1pt-\\hskip -1pt\\bullet \\uparrow-type quantum plateau state, is also presented. The phase transition to the classical \\uparrow\\downarrow\\uparrow-type ground state is also observed by varying the strength of 4-spin and third neighbor interactions. The relation between these two types of models with quantum plateau states is discussed.

  14. Synthesis, characterization and chemical stability of silicon dichalcogenides, Si(SexS1-x)2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chen; Zhang, Xiaotian; Krishna, Lakshmi; Kendrick, Chito; Shang, Shun-Li; Toberer, Eric; Liu, Zi-Kui; Tamboli, Adele; Redwing, Joan M.

    2016-10-01

    Silicon dichalcogenides have an intriguing crystal structure consisting of long tetrahedral chains held together by van der Waals forces but the electronic and optical properties have been less explored. In the present work, bulk SiSe2, SiS2, and Si(SexS1-x)2 were synthesized by the congruent melt growth method and characterized by Raman spectroscopy, X-ray Diffraction and UV/visible/IR transmission measurements supported by first-principles calculations. First-principles calculations reveal a nearly linear decrease of band gap energy in Si(SexS1-x)2 with increasing Se content, i.e., from SiS2 to SiSe2 which corresponds with a blue-shift in the transmission spectra from bulk SiSe2 to Si(Se0.6S0.4)2, and to SiS2. Air stability tests demonstrate the formation of toxic H2Se/H2S gas from sample oxidation at room temperature upon exposure to ambient air, and great care should be paid when handling these materials.

  15. Benthic foraminiferal stable isotope record of organic carbon fluxes during deposition of Mediterranean sapropel S1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theodor, Marc; Schmiedl, Gerhard; Mackensen, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    We integrated Late Glacial to Holocene stable isotope records for different epi- and endobenthic foraminifera from the Mediterranean Sea in order to document the sequence of environmental changes across formation of the most recent sapropel S1. The stable carbon isotope record of epibenthic taxa corroborates results from model experiments indicating a Late Glacial onset of deep-water stagnation with short-term reventilation events during cold intervals of the Heinrich event 1, the Younger Dryas, and the 8.2 event. The stable carbon isotope difference between epi- and shallow endobenthic foraminifera exhibits marked temporal fluctuations linked to microhabitat shifts and changes in organic matter fluxes. We generated a transfer function for organic carbon fluxes based on a correlation between the stable carbon isotope signature of modern benthic foraminifera and observed organic carbon flux rates from different Mediterranean basins. Application of this transfer function to the down-core data reveals generally elevated organic matter fluxes during the Last Glacial Maximum and the Younger Dryas, while values drop significantly during the Bølling-Allerød interstadial and with onset of the Holocene. Our results support a scenario where average organic matter fluxes in the eastern Mediterranean Sea were not significantly enhanced during formation of sapropel S1. Instead, our data corroborate earlier results from benthic foraminiferal faunal successions and model experiments suggesting that sufficient amounts of organic matter are buried under oligotrophic conditions in an intermittently hypoxic water column.

  16. Isomerization, Perturbations, Calculations and the S_{1} State of C_{2}H_{2}

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baraban, J. H.; Changala, P. B.; Berk, J. R. P.; Field, R. W.; Stanton, J. F.; Merer, A. J.

    2013-06-01

    Preliminary analysis of the energy region of the cis-trans isomerization transition state on the S_{1} surface of C_{2}H_{2} has revealed novel patterns and surprising perturbations, including unusually large (and high-order) anharmonicities, as well as K-staggerings of several vibrational levels. These effects complicate the analysis considerably, and require new models and calculations to account for and predict features of the observed spectra. The ˜{A}-˜{X} spectrum of acetylene has been studied both experimentally and theoretically for almost a century, and this cycle of unexpected phenomena eliciting innovative responses is found throughout its history. Especially in the last ten years, progress in understanding the S_{1} state rovibrational level structure and cis-trans isomerization has been accelerated by combining the information available from both ab initio computation and spectroscopic observations. The resulting dialogue has then frequently suggested fruitful avenues for further experiments and calculations. Current challenges and recent results in understanding the cis-trans isomerization transition state region will be discussed in this context.

  17. Targeted Proteomics-Driven Computational Modeling of Macrophage S1P Chemosensing.

    PubMed

    Manes, Nathan P; Angermann, Bastian R; Koppenol-Raab, Marijke; An, Eunkyung; Sjoelund, Virginie H; Sun, Jing; Ishii, Masaru; Germain, Ronald N; Meier-Schellersheim, Martin; Nita-Lazar, Aleksandra

    2015-10-01

    Osteoclasts are monocyte-derived multinuclear cells that directly attach to and resorb bone. Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P)(1) regulates bone resorption by functioning as both a chemoattractant and chemorepellent of osteoclast precursors through two G-protein coupled receptors that antagonize each other in an S1P-concentration-dependent manner. To quantitatively explore the behavior of this chemosensing pathway, we applied targeted proteomics, transcriptomics, and rule-based pathway modeling using the Simmune toolset. RAW264.7 cells (a mouse monocyte/macrophage cell line) were used as model osteoclast precursors, RNA-seq was used to identify expressed target proteins, and selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mass spectrometry using internal peptide standards was used to perform absolute abundance measurements of pathway proteins. The resulting transcript and protein abundance values were strongly correlated. Measured protein abundance values, used as simulation input parameters, led to in silico pathway behavior matching in vitro measurements. Moreover, once model parameters were established, even simulated responses toward stimuli that were not used for parameterization were consistent with experimental findings. These findings demonstrate the feasibility and value of combining targeted mass spectrometry with pathway modeling for advancing biological insight.

  18. Protein crystallography beamline BL2S1 at the Aichi synchrotron

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Nobuhisa; Nagae, Takayuki; Yamada, Yusuke; Tomita, Ayana; Matsugaki, Naohiro; Tabuchi, Masao

    2017-01-01

    The protein crystallography beamline BL2S1, constructed at one of the 5 T superconducting bending-magnet ports of the Aichi synchrotron, is available to users associated with academic and industrial organizations. The beamline is mainly intended for use in X-ray diffraction measurements of single-crystals of macromolecules such as proteins and nucleic acids. Diffraction measurements for crystals of other materials are also possible, such as inorganic and organic compounds. BL2S1 covers the energy range 7–17 keV (1.8–0.7 Å) with an asymmetric-cut curved single-crystal monochromator [Ge(111) or Ge(220)], and a platinum-coated Si mirror is used for vertical focusing and as a higher-order cutoff filter. The beamline is equipped with a single-axis goniometer, a CCD detector, and an open-flow cryogenic sample cooler. High-pressure protein crystallography with a diamond anvil cell can also be performed using this beamline. PMID:28009576

  19. [Combination Chemotherapy Using Oxaliplatin plus S-1 for Well-Advanced Gastric Cancer].

    PubMed

    Saito, Hiroyuki; Suematsu, Yuki; Yamagishi, Shunsuke; Takahashi, Miyuki; Nakayama, Mao; Fukabori, Michiko; Morita, Akihiko; Wakabayashi, Kazuhiko; Itoh, Yutaka

    2016-11-01

    We studied the clinical efficacy of pre-operative combination chemotherapy using S-1 plus oxaliplatin for advanced gastric cancer. Four patients hadclinical Stage IV disease, 1 patient had clinical Stage III C disease, 2 patients had clinical Stage III B disease, and 1 patient had clinical Stage III A disease. The patients received 2-8 courses of oxaliplatin(130mg/m2)on day 1, andS -1 on days 1-14 every 3 weeks. The response rate was 56%(5 PR, 1 PD, and2 SD), andthe disease control rate was 88%. Toxicities were Grade 2 anemia, Grade 1 peripheral neuropathy, Grade 1 fatigue, and anorexia. Five of the 8 patients underwent R0 surgery after SOX chemotherapy, and no severe complications occurred. Histological responses were Grade 3 for 2 cases, Grade 2 for 2 cases, andGrad e 1a for 1 case. The SOX regimen showeda high objective tumor response, andis one of the promising regimens in the neoadjuvant setting for well-advanced gastric cancer.

  20. Photolabeling of Glu-129 of the S-1 subunit of pertussis toxin with NAD

    SciTech Connect

    Barbieri, J.T.; Mende-Mueller, L.M.; Rappuoli, R.; Collier, R.J. )

    1989-11-01

    UV irradiation was shown to induce efficient transfer of radiolabel from nicotinamide-labeled NAD to a recombinant protein (C180 peptide) containing the catalytic region of the S-1 subunit of pertussis toxin. Incorporation of label from (3H-nicotinamide)NAD was efficient (0.5 to 0.6 mol/mol of protein) relative to incorporation from (32P-adenylate)NAD (0.2 mol/mol of protein). Label from (3H-nicotinamide)NAD was specifically associated with Glu-129. Replacement of Glu-129 with glycine or aspartic acid made the protein refractory to photolabeling with (3H-nicotinamide)NAD, whereas replacement of a nearby glutamic acid, Glu-139, with serine did not. Photolabeling of the C180 peptide with NAD is similar to that observed with diphtheria toxin and exotoxin A of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, in which the nicotinamide portion of NAD is transferred to Glu-148 and Glu-553, respectively, in the two toxins. These results implicate Glu-129 of the S-1 subunit as an active-site residue and a potentially important site for genetic modification of pertussis toxin for development of an acellular vaccine against Bordetella pertussis.

  1. The chiral S = -1 meson-baryon interaction with new constraints on the NLO contributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, A.; Feijoo, A.; Magas, V. K.

    2016-10-01

    We present a study of the S = - 1 meson-baryon interaction, employing a chiral SU(3) Lagrangian up to next-to-leading order (NLO) and implementing unitarization in coupled channels. The parameters of the model have been fitted to a large set of experimental scattering data in different two-body channels, to threshold branching ratios, and to the precise SIDDHARTA value of the energy shift and width of kaonic hidrogen. In contrast to other groups, we have taken into consideration the K- p →K+Ξ- ,K0Ξ0 reaction data, since we found in a previous work to be especially sensitive to the NLO parameters of the chiral Lagrangian. In the present work we also include the Born terms, which usually have very little effect, and find them to be non-negligible in the K- p → KΞ channels, correspondingly causing significant modifications to the NLO parameters. We furthermore show that the importance of the Born terms becomes more visible in the isospin projected amplitudes of the K- p → KΞ reactions. The measurement of processes that filter single isospin components, like the KL0 p →K+Ξ0 reaction that could be measured at the proposed secondary KL0 beam at Jlab, would put valuable constraints on the chiral models describing the meson-baryon interaction in the S = - 1 sector.

  2. Optical Parameters of Spray-Deposited CdS1- y Te y Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikhmayies, Shadia J.

    2017-02-01

    CdS x Te1- x and CdS1- y Te y solid solutions are usually formed in the interfacial region in CdS/CdTe solar cells during the deposition of the CdTe layer and/or the processing steps of the device. In this work, indium-doped CdS1- y Te y thin films were prepared by first producing CdS:In thin films by the spray pyrolysis technique on glass substrates, then annealing the films in nitrogen atmosphere in the presence of elemental tellurium. The films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, and transmittance measurements. The transmittance was used to deduce the reflectance from which the optical parameters were computed. The extinction coefficient, refractive index, the real and imaginary parts of the dielectric constant, optical conductivity, and energy loss were computed, and their dependence on the composition was investigated. In addition, the dispersion of the refractive index was analyzed by the single oscillator model, and dispersion parameters were investigated.

  3. Complete genome sequence of Rhodospirillum rubrum type strain (S1T)

    SciTech Connect

    Munk, Christine; Copeland, A; Lucas, Susan; Lapidus, Alla L.; Glavina Del Rio, Tijana; Barry, Kerrie; Detter, J. Chris; Hammon, Nancy; Israni, Sanjay; Pitluck, Sam; Brettin, Thomas S; Bruce, David; Han, Cliff; Tapia, Roxanne; Gilna, Paul; Schmutz, Jeremy; Larimer, Frank W; Land, Miriam L; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Mavromatis, K; Richardson, P M; Rohde, Manfred; Goker, Markus; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Zhang, Yaoping; Roberts, Gary P.; Reslewic, Susan; Schwartz, David C.

    2011-01-01

    Rhodospirillum rubrum (Esmarch 1887) Molisch 1907 is the type species of the genus Rho- dospirillum, which is the type genus of the family Rhodospirillaceae in the class Alphaproteo- bacteria. The species is of special interest because it is an anoxygenic phototroph that pro- duces extracellular elemental sulfur (instead of oxygen) while harvesting light. It contains one of the most simple photosynthetic systems currently known, lacking light harvesting complex 2. Strain S1T can grow on carbon monoxide as sole energy source. With currently over 1,750 PubMed entries, R. rubrum is one of the most intensively studied microbial species, in partic- ular for physiological and genetic studies. Next to R. centenum strain SW, the genome se- quence of strain S1T is only the second genome of a member of the genus Rhodospirillum to be published, but the first type strain genome from the genus. The 4,352,825 bp long chro- mosome and 53,732 bp plasmid with a total of 3,850 protein-coding and 83 RNA genes were sequenced as part of the DOE Joint Genome Institute Program DOEM 2002.

  4. Efficacy and safety of oxaliplatin, bevacizumab and oral S-1 for advanced recurrent colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Shuji; Shimazaki, Jiro; Morishita, Keiichi; Koike, Nobusada; Harada, Nobuhiko; Hayashi, Tsuneo; Suzuki, Mamoru

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of co-administration of oral S-1 and oxaliplatin (SOX) in combination with bevacizumab (bev) in patients with advanced recurrent colorectal cancer. A retrospective study of 36 patients with advanced recurrent colorectal cancer was performed, of whom 27 received first-line and 9 received second-line SOX+bev chemotherapy between 2010 and 2013 at the Hachioji Digestive Disease Hospital (Hachioji, Japan). The SOX+bev regimen consisted of administration of intravenous oxaliplatin (85 mg/m(2)) on days 1 and 14, bevacizumab (5 mg/kg) on day 1, and co-administration of oral S-1 twice daily on days 1-14. The drug regimen was repeated every 4 weeks. SOX+bev treatment was associated with a response rate of 45.2%, a disease control rate of 71%, and a median progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) of 9.9 and 21.9 months, respectively. Patients who received first-line chemotherapy benefited from treatment in terms of prolonged PFS (13.8 months) and OS (28.2 months). Grade 3/4 adverse events were infrequent and included anaemia, thrombocytopenia, anorexia, diarrhea, sensory neuropathy, increased aspartate aminotransferase level and skin rash. In conclusion, SOX+bev therapy was found to be feasible and safe for patients with advanced and recurrent colorectal cancer.

  5. Electronic and vibrational structures in the S0 and S1 states of coronene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunishige, Sachi; Kanaoka, Ayumi; Katori, Toshiharu; Kawabata, Megumi; Baba, Masaaki; Yamanaka, Takaya; Higashibayashi, Shuhei; Sakurai, Hidehiro

    2017-01-01

    We observed the fluorescence excitation spectra and dispersed fluorescence spectra of jet-cooled coronene-h12 and coronene-d12. We analyzed the vibronic structures, assuming a planar and sixfold symmetric molecular structure (D6 h). The S1 state was identified to be 2u1B. The S12u1B ←S01g1A transition is symmetry forbidden, so the 000 band is missing in the fluorescence excitation spectrum. We found a number of vibronic bands that were assigned to the e2 g fundamental bands and their combination bands with totally symmetric a1 g vibrations. This spectral feature is similar to that of benzene although several strong e2 g bands are seen in coronene. The band shape (rotational envelope) was significantly different in each e2 g mode. It was shown that degenerate rotational levels were shifted and split by the Coriolis interaction. We calculated the Coriolis parameter using the molecular structure in the S1 state and the normal coordinate of each e2 g vibrational mode, which were obtained by theoretical calculations. The calculated band shapes well reproduced the observed ones, suggesting that the isolated coronene molecule has D6 h symmetry.

  6. Experimental signatures of spin liquid physics on the S=1/2 kagom'e lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Young

    2012-02-01

    I will describe our recent experimental progress on the quest to study novel ground states in frustrated magnets. New states of matter may be produced if quantum effects and frustration conspire to prevent the ground state from achieving classical order. Materials based on the kagom'e lattice appear to be ideal hosts for the possibility of a quantum spin liquid ground state in two-dimensions. I will discuss our work which includes single crystal growth, bulk characterization, and neutron scattering measurements of the S=1/2 kagom'e lattice material ZnCu3(OH)6Cl2 (also known as herbertsmithite). Recent susceptibility measurements on single crystals yield valuable information on the additional terms in the spin Hamiltonian beyond nearest neighbor Heisenberg exchange, and anomalous x-ray diffraction yields detailed information on the presence of a small amount of atomic impurities. Most interestingly, inelastic neutron scattering measurements of the spin correlations in a single crystal sample reveal a continuum of spinon excitations in this two-dimensional insulating magnet. We will discuss our results in relation to recent theories for spin liquid physics on the S=1/2 kagom'e lattice.

  7. Synthesis, characterization and thermoluminescence studies of (ZnS)1-x (MnTe)x nanophosphors.

    PubMed

    Pateria, Deepti; Baghel, R N; Bisen, D P; Jha, Piyush; Chandra, V K; Chandra, B P

    2017-05-01

    The present paper reports the thermoluminescence (TL) of (ZnS)1-x (MnTe)x nanophosphors that were prepared by a wet chemical synthesis method. The structure investigated by X-ray diffraction patterns confirms the formation of a sphalerite phase whose space group was found to be F 4¯3m. From XRD, TEM and SEM analyses the average sizes of the particles were found to be 12 nm, 11 nm and 15 nm, respectively. Initially the TL intensity increased with increasing values of x because the number of luminescence centres increased; however, for higher values of x the TL intensity decreased because of the concentration quenching. Thus the TL, mechanoluminescence and photoluminescence intensities are optimum for a particular value of x, that is for x = 0.05. Thermoluminescence of the (ZnS)1-x (MnTe)x nanophosphor has not been reported previously. There were two peaks seen in the thermoluminescence glow curves in which the first peak lay at 105-100 °C and the second peak lay at 183.5-178.5 °C. The activation energies for the first and second peaks were found to be 0.45 eV and 0.75 eV, respectively.

  8. S1 nuclease definition of highly repeated DNA sequences in the Guinea pig, Cavia porcellus.

    PubMed Central

    Hubbell, H R; Robberson, D L; Hsu, T C

    1979-01-01

    Native DNA of the Guinea pig, Cavia porcellus, purified from liver or tissue culture cells, was heat denatured and reassociated to a Cot value of 0.01 (equivalent Cot value of 7.2 x 10(-2)). The reassociated DNA was isolated by digestion with the single-strand DNA specific enzyme S1 nuclease. Spectrophotometric and radioactivity assays demonstrated that 24% of the total DNA was resistant to S1 nuclease treatment. Zero-time reassociation indicated that approximately 3% of the DNA was inverted repeat sequences. Thus, highly repeated sequences comprised 21% of the total genome. CsCl buoyant density ultracentrifugation indicated that this fraction was composed of both main band and satellite sequences. Although actinomycin D - CsCl density gradients failed to give significant separation of the repetitive sequences, distamycin A - CsCl gradients were able to fractionate the DNA into several overlapping bands. The heterogeneity of the repetitive DNA was further demonstrated by the first derivative plots calculated from their thermal denaturation profiles. This analysis revealed six major thermalytes which indicate that there may be at least six discrete components in the repetitive DNA. Images PMID:523322

  9. Yielding of tantalum at strain rates up to 109 s-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowhurst, Jonathan C.; Armstrong, Michael R.; Gates, Sean D.; Zaug, Joseph M.; Radousky, Harry B.; Teslich, Nick E.

    2016-08-01

    We have used a 45 μJ laser pulse to accelerate the free surface of fine-grained tantalum films up to peak velocities of ˜1.2 km s-1. The films had thicknesses of ˜1-2 μm and in-plane grain widths of ˜75-150 nm. Using ultrafast interferometry, we have measured the time history of the velocity of the surface at different spatial positions across the accelerated region. The initial part of the histories (assumed to correspond to the "elastic precursor" observed previously) exhibited measured strain rates of ˜0.6 to ˜3.2 × 109 s-1 and stresses of ˜4 to ˜22 GPa. Importantly, we find that elastic amplitudes exhibit little variation with strain rate for a constant peak surface velocity, even though, via covariation of the strain rate with peak surface velocity, they vary with strain rate. Furthermore, by comparison with data obtained at lower strain rates, we find that amplitudes are much better predicted by peak velocities rather than by either strain rate or sample thickness.

  10. Epidermal surface antigen (MS17S1) is highly conserved between mouse and human

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Y.J.; Chema, D.; Cho, M.

    1995-05-20

    A mouse monoclonal antibody ECS-1 raised to human keratinocytes detects a 35-kDa epidermal surface antigen (ESA) and causes keratinocyte dissociation in vitro. ECS-1 stains skin of 16-day mouse embryo and 8- to 9-week human fetus. Mouse Esa cDNA encodes a 379-amino-acid protein that is 99.2% identical to the human, differing at only 3 amino acids. The gene (M17S1) was mapped to mouse chromosome 11, highlighting the conserved linkage synteny existing between human chromosome 17 and mouse chromosome 11. Although the nude locus has been mapped to the same region of chromosome 11, no abnormalities in protein, mRNA, or cDNA or genomic sequences were detected in nude mice. However, both nude and control mice were found to have a second Esa mRNA transcript that conserves amino acid sequence and molecular weight. The mouse and human 5{prime} and 3{prime} untranslated sequences are conserved. Similar RNA folding patterns of the 5{prime} untranslated region are predicted despite a 91-bp insertion in the mouse. These data suggest that both the function and the regulation of ESA protein are of importance and that Esa (M17S1) is not the nude locus gene. 42 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Targeted Proteomics-Driven Computational Modeling of Macrophage S1P Chemosensing*

    PubMed Central

    Manes, Nathan P.; Angermann, Bastian R.; Koppenol-Raab, Marijke; An, Eunkyung; Sjoelund, Virginie H.; Sun, Jing; Ishii, Masaru; Germain, Ronald N.; Meier-Schellersheim, Martin; Nita-Lazar, Aleksandra

    2015-01-01

    Osteoclasts are monocyte-derived multinuclear cells that directly attach to and resorb bone. Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P)1 regulates bone resorption by functioning as both a chemoattractant and chemorepellent of osteoclast precursors through two G-protein coupled receptors that antagonize each other in an S1P-concentration-dependent manner. To quantitatively explore the behavior of this chemosensing pathway, we applied targeted proteomics, transcriptomics, and rule-based pathway modeling using the Simmune toolset. RAW264.7 cells (a mouse monocyte/macrophage cell line) were used as model osteoclast precursors, RNA-seq was used to identify expressed target proteins, and selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mass spectrometry using internal peptide standards was used to perform absolute abundance measurements of pathway proteins. The resulting transcript and protein abundance values were strongly correlated. Measured protein abundance values, used as simulation input parameters, led to in silico pathway behavior matching in vitro measurements. Moreover, once model parameters were established, even simulated responses toward stimuli that were not used for parameterization were consistent with experimental findings. These findings demonstrate the feasibility and value of combining targeted mass spectrometry with pathway modeling for advancing biological insight. PMID:26199343

  12. Low-energy spin dynamics of the s = 1/2 kagome system herbertsmithite.

    PubMed

    Nilsen, G J; de Vries, M A; Stewart, J R; Harrison, A; Rønnow, H M

    2013-03-13

    The low-energy (ε = ħω < 1 meV), low-temperature (T = 0.05 K) spin dynamics of the s = 1/2 kagome candidate herbertsmithite are probed in the presence of magnetic fields up to 2.5 T. The zero-field spectra reveal a very weak continuum of scattering at T = 10 K and a broad inelastic peak centred at ε(max) = 0.2 meV at lower temperatures, T < 1 K. The broad peak is found to be strongly damped, with a liquid-like structure factor implying correlations at length scales up to r = 6 Å. The field dependence of the peak appears to follow the Zeeman splitting of s = 1/2 excitations, consistent with the weakly split 'doublets' observed in low-temperature specific heat. A possible explanation of these observations is a short-range correlated state involving defect spins between the kagome planes and moments in the kagome layers.

  13. Dynamics of S 1 acetone studied with single rotorvibronic level resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bitto, H.

    1994-08-01

    The spectroscopy and dynamics of selected vibronic bands of the S 1(nπ *) ← S 0 transition of acetone and acetone- d6 were studied with single rotational-torsional-vibronic (rotorvibronic) level resolution in a jet up to an S 1 excess energy of 1300 cm -1. Using clean coherent excitation with Fourier transform-limited nanosecond laser pulses quantum beats were observed in the time-resolved fluorescence and were attributed to coherently excited siglet-triplet eigenstates as identified by their magnetic properties. In the 8 123 0- and the 8 1 23 0+I(2,1) state of acetone, and the 7 1I(1,0) state of aceton- d6, lifetimes increase with the rotational quantum number of the excited state N due to a breakdown of K selection rules for the spin-orbit interaction in this very asymmetric rotor. In the 8 123 0- state, the rotorvibronic levels of the methyl torsion tunnelling component with G symmetry exhibit the longest lifetimes among the tunnelling components. Vibrational coupling of G torsional levels in the triplet manifold favoured by symmetry is proposed to selectively increase the density of coupling triplet states and, hence, the lifetime of the eigenstates.

  14. 49 CFR 10.5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... its own Privacy Act regulations (49 CFR Part 1007), except to the extent that any system of records... Technology Administration. (10) Maritime Administration. General Counsel means the General Counsel of...

  15. 46 CFR 59.10-5 - Cracks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING REPAIRS TO BOILERS, PRESSURE VESSELS AND... particle, dye penetrant, or other acceptable test method. When the reverse side of the weld is accessible... weld cannot be back chipped because the reverse side is inaccessible, a backing strip or other...

  16. 49 CFR 10.5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... including, but not limited to, education, financial transactions, medical history, and criminal or... determination about an identifiable individual, except as provided by section 8 of title 13, United States...

  17. 44 CFR 10.5 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... required, or whether a finding of no significant impact shall be prepared; (2) Review all proposed changes... their respective organizational units; (2) Prepare and process environmental assessments and...) Review all proposed changes or additions to the list of categorical exclusions; (3) Review all...

  18. 46 CFR 56.10-5 - Pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... found from Table 56.60-1(a). (3) Copper-nickel alloys may be used for water and steam service within the... specifically permitted by this part. (6) Aluminum-alloy pipe or tube along with similar junction equipment...

  19. 46 CFR 56.10-5 - Pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... found from Table 56.60-1(a). (3) Copper-nickel alloys may be used for water and steam service within the... specifically permitted by this part. (6) Aluminum-alloy pipe or tube along with similar junction equipment...

  20. 46 CFR 56.10-5 - Pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... found from table 56.60-1(a). (3) Copper-nickel alloys may be used for water and steam service within the... specifically permitted by this part. (6) Aluminum-alloy pipe or tube along with similar junction equipment...