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Sample records for 10-5 m2 s-3

  1. 10 CFR 10.5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Definitions. 10.5 Section 10.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION CRITERIA AND PROCEDURES FOR DETERMINING ELIGIBILITY FOR ACCESS TO RESTRICTED DATA OR NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION OR AN EMPLOYMENT CLEARANCE General Provisions § 10.5 Definitions. Access authorization means an administrative...

  2. 10 CFR 10.5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Definitions. 10.5 Section 10.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION CRITERIA AND PROCEDURES FOR DETERMINING ELIGIBILITY FOR ACCESS TO RESTRICTED DATA OR NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION OR AN EMPLOYMENT CLEARANCE General Provisions § 10.5 Definitions. Access authorization means an administrative...

  3. 10 CFR 10.5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Definitions. 10.5 Section 10.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION CRITERIA AND PROCEDURES FOR DETERMINING ELIGIBILITY FOR ACCESS TO RESTRICTED DATA OR NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION OR AN EMPLOYMENT CLEARANCE General Provisions § 10.5 Definitions. Access authorization means an administrative...

  4. 46 CFR 56.10-5 - Pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pipe. 56.10-5 Section 56.10-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PIPING SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Components... design limits of stress and temperature indicated in ASME B31.1 (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR...

  5. 46 CFR 56.10-5 - Pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pipe. 56.10-5 Section 56.10-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PIPING SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Components... design limits of stress and temperature indicated in ASME B31.1 (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR...

  6. 44 CFR 10.5 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Responsibilities. 10.5 Section... SECURITY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS Agency Implementing Procedures § 10.5 Responsibilities. (a... impact statements and assign lead agency responsibility when more than one FEMA office or...

  7. 10 CFR 10.5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 10.5 Section 10.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION CRITERIA AND PROCEDURES FOR DETERMINING ELIGIBILITY FOR ACCESS TO RESTRICTED DATA OR NATIONAL... Information Officer, is eligible for a security clearance for access to Restricted Data or National...

  8. 32 CFR 10.5 - Construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... with 32 CFR part 9, and Military Order of November 13, 2001, “Detention, Treatment, and Trial of... event of an inconsistency, the provisions of 32 CFR part 9, and Military Order of November 13, 2001... 32 National Defense 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Construction. 10.5 Section 10.5 National...

  9. 32 CFR 10.5 - Construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... with 32 CFR part 9, and Military Order of November 13, 2001, “Detention, Treatment, and Trial of... event of an inconsistency, the provisions of 32 CFR part 9, and Military Order of November 13, 2001... 32 National Defense 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Construction. 10.5 Section 10.5 National...

  10. 44 CFR 10.5 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Responsibilities. 10.5... Responsibilities. (a) The Regional Administrators shall, for each action not categorically excluded from this... impact statements and assign lead agency responsibility when more than one FEMA office or...

  11. 44 CFR 10.5 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Responsibilities. 10.5... Responsibilities. (a) The Regional Administrators shall, for each action not categorically excluded from this... impact statements and assign lead agency responsibility when more than one FEMA office or...

  12. 46 CFR 59.10-5 - Cracks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... CFR 59.01-2). For thicknesses exceeding three-fourths inch, suitable U grooves should be employed. A... APPURTENANCES Welding Repairs to Boilers and Pressure Vessels in -Service § 59.10-5 Cracks. (a) Cracks extending... corrugated furnaces may be repaired by welding provided any one crack does not exceed 20 inches in length....

  13. 46 CFR 59.10-5 - Cracks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... CFR 59.01-2). For thicknesses exceeding three-fourths inch, suitable U grooves should be employed. A... APPURTENANCES Welding Repairs to Boilers and Pressure Vessels in -Service § 59.10-5 Cracks. (a) Cracks extending... corrugated furnaces may be repaired by welding provided any one crack does not exceed 20 inches in length....

  14. 46 CFR 59.10-5 - Cracks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CFR 59.01-2). For thicknesses exceeding three-fourths inch, suitable U grooves should be employed. A... APPURTENANCES Welding Repairs to Boilers and Pressure Vessels in -Service § 59.10-5 Cracks. (a) Cracks extending... corrugated furnaces may be repaired by welding provided any one crack does not exceed 20 inches in length....

  15. 46 CFR 59.10-5 - Cracks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... CFR 59.01-2). For thicknesses exceeding three-fourths inch, suitable U grooves should be employed. A... APPURTENANCES Welding Repairs to Boilers and Pressure Vessels in -Service § 59.10-5 Cracks. (a) Cracks extending... corrugated furnaces may be repaired by welding provided any one crack does not exceed 20 inches in length....

  16. 46 CFR 59.10-5 - Cracks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... CFR 59.01-2). For thicknesses exceeding three-fourths inch, suitable U grooves should be employed. A... APPURTENANCES Welding Repairs to Boilers and Pressure Vessels in -Service § 59.10-5 Cracks. (a) Cracks extending... corrugated furnaces may be repaired by welding provided any one crack does not exceed 20 inches in length....

  17. M2-F1 cockpit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    This photo shows the cockpit configuration of the M2-F1 wingless lifting body. With a top speed of about 120 knots, the M2-F1 had a simple instrument panel. Besides the panel itself, the ribs of the wooden shell (left) and the control stick (center) are also visible. The wingless, lifting body aircraft design was initially conceived as a means of landing an aircraft horizontally after atmospheric reentry. The absence of wings would make the extreme heat of re-entry less damaging to the vehicle. In 1962, Dryden management approved a program to build a lightweight, unpowered lifting body as a prototype to flight test the wingless concept. It would look like a 'flying bathtub,' and was designated the M2-F1, the 'M' referring to 'manned' and 'F' referring to 'flight' version. It featured a plywood shell placed over a tubular steel frame crafted at Dryden. Construction was completed in 1963. The first flight tests of the M2-F1 were over Rogers Dry Lake at the end of a tow rope attached to a hopped-up Pontiac convertible driven at speeds up to about 120 mph. This vehicle needed to be able to tow the M2-F1 on the Rogers Dry Lakebed adjacent to NASA's Flight Research Center (FRC) at a minimum speed of 100 miles per hour. To do that, it had to handle the 400-pound pull of the M2-F1. Walter 'Whitey' Whiteside, who was a retired Air Force maintenance officer working in the FRC's Flight Operations Division, was a dirt-bike rider and hot-rodder. Together with Boyden 'Bud' Bearce in the Procurement and Supply Branch of the FRC, Whitey acquired a Pontiac Catalina convertible with the largest engine available. He took the car to Bill Straup's renowned hot-rod shop near Long Beach for modification. With a special gearbox and racing slicks, the Pontiac could tow the 1,000-pound M2-F1 110 miles per hour in 30 seconds. It proved adequate for the roughly 400 car tows that got the M2-F1 airborne to prove it could fly safely and to train pilots before they were towed behind a C-47

  18. 46 CFR 61.10-5 - Pressure vessels in service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pressure vessels in service. 61.10-5 Section 61.10-5... INSPECTIONS Tests and Inspections of Pressure Vessels § 61.10-5 Pressure vessels in service. (a) Basic requirements. Each pressure vessel must be examined or tested every 5 years. The extent of the test...

  19. 46 CFR 61.10-5 - Pressure vessels in service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pressure vessels in service. 61.10-5 Section 61.10-5... INSPECTIONS Tests and Inspections of Pressure Vessels § 61.10-5 Pressure vessels in service. (a) Basic requirements. Each pressure vessel must be examined or tested every 5 years. The extent of the test...

  20. 46 CFR 61.10-5 - Pressure vessels in service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pressure vessels in service. 61.10-5 Section 61.10-5... INSPECTIONS Tests and Inspections of Pressure Vessels § 61.10-5 Pressure vessels in service. (a) Basic requirements. Each pressure vessel must be examined or tested every 5 years. The extent of the test...

  1. 46 CFR 61.10-5 - Pressure vessels in service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pressure vessels in service. 61.10-5 Section 61.10-5... INSPECTIONS Tests and Inspections of Pressure Vessels § 61.10-5 Pressure vessels in service. (a) Basic requirements. Each pressure vessel must be examined or tested every 5 years. The extent of the test...

  2. 46 CFR 61.10-5 - Pressure vessels in service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pressure vessels in service. 61.10-5 Section 61.10-5... INSPECTIONS Tests and Inspections of Pressure Vessels § 61.10-5 Pressure vessels in service. (a) Basic requirements. Each pressure vessel must be examined or tested every 5 years. The extent of the test...

  3. 46 CFR 113.10-5 - Common return.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Common return. 113.10-5 Section 113.10-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Fire and Smoke Detecting and Alarm Systems § 113.10-5 Common return. A...

  4. 46 CFR 113.10-5 - Common return.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Common return. 113.10-5 Section 113.10-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Fire and Smoke Detecting and Alarm Systems § 113.10-5 Common return. A...

  5. 46 CFR 113.10-5 - Common return.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Common return. 113.10-5 Section 113.10-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Fire and Smoke Detecting and Alarm Systems § 113.10-5 Common return. A...

  6. 46 CFR 113.10-5 - Common return.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Common return. 113.10-5 Section 113.10-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Fire and Smoke Detecting and Alarm Systems § 113.10-5 Common return. A...

  7. 46 CFR 113.10-5 - Common return.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Common return. 113.10-5 Section 113.10-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Fire and Smoke Detecting and Alarm Systems § 113.10-5 Common return. A...

  8. 46 CFR 92.10-5 - Two means required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Two means required. 92.10-5 Section 92.10-5 Shipping... AND ARRANGEMENT Means of Escape § 92.10-5 Two means required. (a) There shall be at least two means of... quartered or normally employed. At least one of these two means of escape shall be independent of...

  9. 46 CFR 76.10-5 - Fire pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fire pumps. 76.10-5 Section 76.10-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fire Main System, Details § 76.10-5 Fire pumps. (a) Vessels shall be equipped with independently driven fire pumps...

  10. 46 CFR 95.10-5 - Fire pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire pumps. 95.10-5 Section 95.10-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fire Main System, Details § 95.10-5 Fire pumps. (a) Vessels shall be equipped with independently driven...

  11. 46 CFR 95.10-5 - Fire pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fire pumps. 95.10-5 Section 95.10-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fire Main System, Details § 95.10-5 Fire pumps. (a) Vessels shall be equipped with independently driven...

  12. 46 CFR 95.10-5 - Fire pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fire pumps. 95.10-5 Section 95.10-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fire Main System, Details § 95.10-5 Fire pumps. (a) Vessels shall be equipped with independently driven...

  13. 46 CFR 193.10-5 - Fire pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fire pumps. 193.10-5 Section 193.10-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fire Main System, Details § 193.10-5 Fire pumps. (a) Vessels shall be equipped with...

  14. 46 CFR 76.10-5 - Fire pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fire pumps. 76.10-5 Section 76.10-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fire Main System, Details § 76.10-5 Fire pumps. (a) Vessels shall be equipped with independently driven fire pumps...

  15. 46 CFR 76.10-5 - Fire pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fire pumps. 76.10-5 Section 76.10-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fire Main System, Details § 76.10-5 Fire pumps. (a) Vessels shall be equipped with independently driven fire pumps...

  16. 46 CFR 95.10-5 - Fire pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fire pumps. 95.10-5 Section 95.10-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fire Main System, Details § 95.10-5 Fire pumps. (a) Vessels shall be equipped with independently driven...

  17. 46 CFR 95.10-5 - Fire pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fire pumps. 95.10-5 Section 95.10-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fire Main System, Details § 95.10-5 Fire pumps. (a) Vessels shall be equipped with independently driven...

  18. 46 CFR 30.10-5 - Cargo-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cargo-TB/ALL. 30.10-5 Section 30.10-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-5 Cargo—TB/ALL. The term cargo means combustible liquid, flammable liquid, or liquefied flammable gas...

  19. 46 CFR 30.10-5 - Cargo-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cargo-TB/ALL. 30.10-5 Section 30.10-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-5 Cargo—TB/ALL. The term cargo means combustible liquid, flammable liquid, or liquefied flammable gas...

  20. 46 CFR 30.10-5 - Cargo-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cargo-TB/ALL. 30.10-5 Section 30.10-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-5 Cargo—TB/ALL. The term cargo means combustible liquid, flammable liquid, or liquefied flammable gas...

  1. 46 CFR 97.10-5 - Persons excluded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Persons excluded. 97.10-5 Section 97.10-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS OPERATIONS Persons Allowed in Pilothouse and on Navigation Bridge § 97.10-5 Persons excluded. Masters and pilots...

  2. 46 CFR 97.10-5 - Persons excluded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Persons excluded. 97.10-5 Section 97.10-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS OPERATIONS Persons Allowed in Pilothouse and on Navigation Bridge § 97.10-5 Persons excluded. Masters and pilots...

  3. 46 CFR 97.10-5 - Persons excluded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Persons excluded. 97.10-5 Section 97.10-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS OPERATIONS Persons Allowed in Pilothouse and on Navigation Bridge § 97.10-5 Persons excluded. Masters and pilots...

  4. 46 CFR 97.10-5 - Persons excluded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Persons excluded. 97.10-5 Section 97.10-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS OPERATIONS Persons Allowed in Pilothouse and on Navigation Bridge § 97.10-5 Persons excluded. Masters and pilots...

  5. 33 CFR 66.10-5-66.10-10 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false 66.10-5-66.10-10 Section 66.10-5-66.10-10 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Uniform State Waterway Marking System §§ 66.10-5—66.10-10...

  6. 33 CFR 66.10-5-66.10-10 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false 66.10-5-66.10-10 Section 66.10-5-66.10-10 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Uniform State Waterway Marking System §§ 66.10-5—66.10-10...

  7. 46 CFR 111.10-5 - Multiple energy sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Multiple energy sources. 111.10-5 Section 111.10-5...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Power Supply § 111.10-5 Multiple energy sources. Failure of any single generating set energy source such as a boiler, diesel, gas turbine, or steam turbine must not cause all generating...

  8. 46 CFR 111.10-5 - Multiple energy sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Multiple energy sources. 111.10-5 Section 111.10-5...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Power Supply § 111.10-5 Multiple energy sources. Failure of any single generating set energy source such as a boiler, diesel, gas turbine, or steam turbine must not cause all generating...

  9. 46 CFR 111.10-5 - Multiple energy sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Multiple energy sources. 111.10-5 Section 111.10-5...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Power Supply § 111.10-5 Multiple energy sources. Failure of any single generating set energy source such as a boiler, diesel, gas turbine, or steam turbine must not cause all generating...

  10. 46 CFR 111.10-5 - Multiple energy sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Multiple energy sources. 111.10-5 Section 111.10-5...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Power Supply § 111.10-5 Multiple energy sources. Failure of any single generating set energy source such as a boiler, diesel, gas turbine, or steam turbine must not cause all generating...

  11. 46 CFR 111.10-5 - Multiple energy sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Multiple energy sources. 111.10-5 Section 111.10-5...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Power Supply § 111.10-5 Multiple energy sources. Failure of any single generating set energy source such as a boiler, diesel, gas turbine, or steam turbine must not cause all generating...

  12. 46 CFR 30.10-5 - Cargo-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cargo-TB/ALL. 30.10-5 Section 30.10-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-5 Cargo—TB/ALL. The term cargo means combustible liquid, flammable liquid, or liquefied flammable gas...

  13. 46 CFR 168.10-5 - Civilian nautical school.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Civilian nautical school. 168.10-5 Section 168.10-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS CIVILIAN NAUTICAL SCHOOL VESSELS Definitions of Terms Used in This Part § 168.10-5 Civilian nautical school. The term...

  14. 46 CFR 72.10-5 - Two means required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Two means required. 72.10-5 Section 72.10-5 Shipping... Means of Escape § 72.10-5 Two means required. (a) There shall be at least two means of escape from all... least one of these two means of escape shall be independent of watertight doors. For stairway...

  15. 46 CFR 92.10-5 - Two means required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Two means required. 92.10-5 Section 92.10-5 Shipping... AND ARRANGEMENT Means of Escape § 92.10-5 Two means required. (a) There shall be at least two means of... quartered or normally employed. At least one of these two means of escape shall be independent of...

  16. 46 CFR 190.10-5 - Two means required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Two means required. 190.10-5 Section 190.10-5 Shipping... ARRANGEMENT Means of Escape § 190.10-5 Two means required. (a) There shall be at least two means of escape... least one of these two means of escape shall be independent of watertight doors and hatches, except...

  17. 46 CFR 190.10-5 - Two means required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Two means required. 190.10-5 Section 190.10-5 Shipping... ARRANGEMENT Means of Escape § 190.10-5 Two means required. (a) There shall be at least two means of escape... least one of these two means of escape shall be independent of watertight doors and hatches, except...

  18. 46 CFR 72.10-5 - Two means required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Two means required. 72.10-5 Section 72.10-5 Shipping... Means of Escape § 72.10-5 Two means required. (a) There shall be at least two means of escape from all... least one of these two means of escape shall be independent of watertight doors. For stairway...

  19. 46 CFR 190.10-5 - Two means required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Two means required. 190.10-5 Section 190.10-5 Shipping... ARRANGEMENT Means of Escape § 190.10-5 Two means required. (a) There shall be at least two means of escape... least one of these two means of escape shall be independent of watertight doors and hatches, except...

  20. 46 CFR 92.10-5 - Two means required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Two means required. 92.10-5 Section 92.10-5 Shipping... AND ARRANGEMENT Means of Escape § 92.10-5 Two means required. (a) There shall be at least two means of... quartered or normally employed. At least one of these two means of escape shall be independent of...

  1. 46 CFR 72.10-5 - Two means required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Two means required. 72.10-5 Section 72.10-5 Shipping... Means of Escape § 72.10-5 Two means required. (a) There shall be at least two means of escape from all... least one of these two means of escape shall be independent of watertight doors. For stairway...

  2. 46 CFR 190.10-5 - Two means required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Two means required. 190.10-5 Section 190.10-5 Shipping... ARRANGEMENT Means of Escape § 190.10-5 Two means required. (a) There shall be at least two means of escape... least one of these two means of escape shall be independent of watertight doors and hatches, except...

  3. 46 CFR 72.10-5 - Two means required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Two means required. 72.10-5 Section 72.10-5 Shipping... Means of Escape § 72.10-5 Two means required. (a) There shall be at least two means of escape from all... least one of these two means of escape shall be independent of watertight doors. For stairway...

  4. 46 CFR 72.10-5 - Two means required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Two means required. 72.10-5 Section 72.10-5 Shipping... Means of Escape § 72.10-5 Two means required. (a) There shall be at least two means of escape from all... least one of these two means of escape shall be independent of watertight doors. For stairway...

  5. 46 CFR 92.10-5 - Two means required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Two means required. 92.10-5 Section 92.10-5 Shipping... AND ARRANGEMENT Means of Escape § 92.10-5 Two means required. (a) There shall be at least two means of... quartered or normally employed. At least one of these two means of escape shall be independent of...

  6. 46 CFR 190.10-5 - Two means required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Two means required. 190.10-5 Section 190.10-5 Shipping... ARRANGEMENT Means of Escape § 190.10-5 Two means required. (a) There shall be at least two means of escape... least one of these two means of escape shall be independent of watertight doors and hatches, except...

  7. 46 CFR 30.10-5 - Cargo-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo-TB/ALL. 30.10-5 Section 30.10-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-5 Cargo—TB/ALL. The term cargo means combustible liquid, flammable liquid, or liquefied flammable gas...

  8. 46 CFR 193.10-5 - Fire main system, details.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... of a total flooding system using carbon dioxide or a clean agent complying with 46 CFR subpart 95.16... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fire main system, details. 193.10-5 Section 193.10-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS...

  9. 46 CFR 58.10-5 - Gasoline engine installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Internal Combustion Engine Installations § 58.10-5 Gasoline engine installations. (a) Engine design. All installations shall be of marine type engines suitable for the intended... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gasoline engine installations. 58.10-5 Section...

  10. 46 CFR 151.10-5 - Subdivision and stability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Subdivision and stability. 151.10-5 Section 151.10-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES BARGES... and stability. Each barge must meet the applicable requirements in subchapter S of this chapter....

  11. 46 CFR 151.10-5 - Subdivision and stability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Subdivision and stability. 151.10-5 Section 151.10-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES BARGES... and stability. Each barge must meet the applicable requirements in subchapter S of this chapter....

  12. 46 CFR 151.10-5 - Subdivision and stability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Subdivision and stability. 151.10-5 Section 151.10-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES BARGES... and stability. Each barge must meet the applicable requirements in subchapter S of this chapter....

  13. 46 CFR 151.10-5 - Subdivision and stability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Subdivision and stability. 151.10-5 Section 151.10-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES BARGES... and stability. Each barge must meet the applicable requirements in subchapter S of this chapter....

  14. 46 CFR 151.10-5 - Subdivision and stability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Subdivision and stability. 151.10-5 Section 151.10-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES BARGES... and stability. Each barge must meet the applicable requirements in subchapter S of this chapter....

  15. 33 CFR 49.10-5 - Payment of moneys due.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Payment of moneys due. 49.10-5... PAYMENT OF AMOUNTS DUE MENTALLY INCOMPETENT COAST GUARD PERSONNEL Reports and Moneys § 49.10-5 Payment of moneys due. Upon the appointment of a trustee or trustees to receive moneys due an incompetent,...

  16. 33 CFR 49.10-5 - Payment of moneys due.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Payment of moneys due. 49.10-5... PAYMENT OF AMOUNTS DUE MENTALLY INCOMPETENT COAST GUARD PERSONNEL Reports and Moneys § 49.10-5 Payment of moneys due. Upon the appointment of a trustee or trustees to receive moneys due an incompetent,...

  17. 33 CFR 49.10-5 - Payment of moneys due.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Payment of moneys due. 49.10-5... PAYMENT OF AMOUNTS DUE MENTALLY INCOMPETENT COAST GUARD PERSONNEL Reports and Moneys § 49.10-5 Payment of moneys due. Upon the appointment of a trustee or trustees to receive moneys due an incompetent,...

  18. 33 CFR 49.10-5 - Payment of moneys due.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Payment of moneys due. 49.10-5... PAYMENT OF AMOUNTS DUE MENTALLY INCOMPETENT COAST GUARD PERSONNEL Reports and Moneys § 49.10-5 Payment of moneys due. Upon the appointment of a trustee or trustees to receive moneys due an incompetent,...

  19. 33 CFR 49.10-5 - Payment of moneys due.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Payment of moneys due. 49.10-5... PAYMENT OF AMOUNTS DUE MENTALLY INCOMPETENT COAST GUARD PERSONNEL Reports and Moneys § 49.10-5 Payment of moneys due. Upon the appointment of a trustee or trustees to receive moneys due an incompetent,...

  20. 33 CFR 67.10-5 - Location requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Location requirements. 67.10-5 Section 67.10-5 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION AIDS TO NAVIGATION ON ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS AND FIXED STRUCTURES General Requirements for...

  1. 27 CFR 10.5 - Delegations of the Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Administrator's Authorities in 27 CFR Part 10, Commercial Bribery. You may obtain a copy of this order by..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS COMMERCIAL BRIBERY Scope of Regulations § 10.5 Delegations of...

  2. 28 CFR 10.5 - Incorporation of papers previously filed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Incorporation of papers previously filed... CARRYING ON ACTIVITIES WITHIN THE UNITED STATES Registration Statement § 10.5 Incorporation of papers previously filed. Papers and documents already filed with the Attorney General pursuant to the said act...

  3. 15 CFR 10.5 - Development of a recommended standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT OF VOLUNTARY PRODUCT STANDARDS § 10.5 Development of a recommended standard. (a) The Standard... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Development of a recommended standard... proposal meets the requirements set forth in § 10.3(a), it may recommend to the Department that...

  4. 15 CFR 10.5 - Development of a recommended standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Development of a recommended standard... DEVELOPMENT OF VOLUNTARY PRODUCT STANDARDS § 10.5 Development of a recommended standard. (a) The Standard... Department or the chairman of this committee. If conducted by the chairman, a report of the vote shall...

  5. 28 CFR 10.5 - Incorporation of papers previously filed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Incorporation of papers previously filed... CARRYING ON ACTIVITIES WITHIN THE UNITED STATES Registration Statement § 10.5 Incorporation of papers previously filed. Papers and documents already filed with the Attorney General pursuant to the said act...

  6. 46 CFR 194.10-5 - Type and location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... requirements of 49 CFR part 176. (c) Magazine chests. (1) Magazine chests shall be located on the weather decks... utilized shall not be used for stowage of other hazardous materials covered by 49 CFR parts 171-179. The..., AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Magazines § 194.10-5 Type and location....

  7. 46 CFR 194.10-5 - Type and location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... requirements of 49 CFR part 176. (c) Magazine chests. (1) Magazine chests shall be located on the weather decks... utilized shall not be used for stowage of other hazardous materials covered by 49 CFR parts 171-179. The..., AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Magazines § 194.10-5 Type and location....

  8. 46 CFR 194.10-5 - Type and location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... requirements of 49 CFR part 176. (c) Magazine chests. (1) Magazine chests shall be located on the weather decks... utilized shall not be used for stowage of other hazardous materials covered by 49 CFR parts 171-179. The..., AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Magazines § 194.10-5 Type and location....

  9. 28 CFR 10.5 - Incorporation of papers previously filed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Incorporation of papers previously filed... CARRYING ON ACTIVITIES WITHIN THE UNITED STATES Registration Statement § 10.5 Incorporation of papers previously filed. Papers and documents already filed with the Attorney General pursuant to the said act...

  10. 28 CFR 10.5 - Incorporation of papers previously filed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Incorporation of papers previously filed... CARRYING ON ACTIVITIES WITHIN THE UNITED STATES Registration Statement § 10.5 Incorporation of papers previously filed. Papers and documents already filed with the Attorney General pursuant to the said act...

  11. 28 CFR 10.5 - Incorporation of papers previously filed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Incorporation of papers previously filed... CARRYING ON ACTIVITIES WITHIN THE UNITED STATES Registration Statement § 10.5 Incorporation of papers previously filed. Papers and documents already filed with the Attorney General pursuant to the said act...

  12. Present and Future of M2M

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ono, Satoru; Watanabe, Takashi

    In recent years, the rapid progress in the development of hardware and software technologies enables tiny and low cost information devices hereinafter referred to as Machine to be widely available. M2M (Machine to Machine) has been of much attention where many tiny machines are connected to each other through networks with minimal human intervention to provide smooth and intelligent management. M2M is a promising core technology providing timely, flexible, efficient and comprehensive service at low cost. M2M has wide variety of applications including energy management system, environmental monitoring system, intelligent transport system, industrial automation system and other applications. M2M consists of terminals and networks that connect them. In this paper, we mainly focus on M2M networking and mention the future direction of the technology.

  13. Serum Stability and Affinity Optimization of an M2 Macrophage-Targeting Peptide (M2pep).

    PubMed

    Ngambenjawong, Chayanon; Gustafson, Heather H; Pineda, Julio M; Kacherovsky, Nataly A; Cieslewicz, Maryelise; Pun, Suzie H

    2016-01-01

    Tumor associated macrophages (TAMs) are a major stromal component of the tumor microenvironment in several cancers. TAMs are a potential target for adjuvant cancer therapies due to their established roles in promoting proliferation of cancer cells, angiogenesis, and metastasis. We previously discovered an M2 macrophage-targeting peptide (M2pep) which was successfully used to target and deliver a pro-apoptotic KLA peptide to M2-like TAMs in a CT-26 colon carcinoma model. However, the effectiveness of in vivo TAM-targeting using M2pep is limited by its poor serum stability and low binding affinity. In this study, we synthesized M2pep derivatives with the goals of increasing serum stability and binding affinity. Serum stability evaluation of M2pepBiotin confirmed its rapid degradation attributed to exolytic cleavage from the N-terminus and endolytic cleavages at the W10/W11 and S16/K17 sites. N-terminal acetylation of M2pepBiotin protected the peptide against the exolytic degradation while W10w and K(17,18,19)k substitutions were able to effectively protect endolytic degradation at their respective cleavage sites. However, no tested amino acid changes at the W10 position resulted in both protease resistance at that site and retention of binding activity. Therefore, cyclization of M2pep was investigated. Cyclized M2pep better resisted serum degradation without compromising binding activity to M2 macrophages. During the serum stability optimization process, we also discovered that K9R and W10Y substitutions significantly enhanced binding affinity of M2pep. In an in vitro binding study of different M2pep analogs pre-incubated in mouse serum, cyclic M2pep with K9R and W10Y modifications (cyclic M2pep(RY)) retained the highest binding activity to M2 macrophages over time due to its improved serum stability. Finally, we evaluated the in vivo accumulation of sulfo-Cy5-labeled M2pep and cyclic M2pep(RY) in both the CT-26 and 4T1 breast carcinoma models. Cyclic M2pep

  14. Serum Stability and Affinity Optimization of an M2 Macrophage-Targeting Peptide (M2pep)

    PubMed Central

    Ngambenjawong, Chayanon; Gustafson, Heather H.; Pineda, Julio M.; Kacherovsky, Nataly A.; Cieslewicz, Maryelise; Pun, Suzie H.

    2016-01-01

    Tumor associated macrophages (TAMs) are a major stromal component of the tumor microenvironment in several cancers. TAMs are a potential target for adjuvant cancer therapies due to their established roles in promoting proliferation of cancer cells, angiogenesis, and metastasis. We previously discovered an M2 macrophage-targeting peptide (M2pep) which was successfully used to target and deliver a pro-apoptotic KLA peptide to M2-like TAMs in a CT-26 colon carcinoma model. However, the effectiveness of in vivo TAM-targeting using M2pep is limited by its poor serum stability and low binding affinity. In this study, we synthesized M2pep derivatives with the goals of increasing serum stability and binding affinity. Serum stability evaluation of M2pepBiotin confirmed its rapid degradation attributed to exolytic cleavage from the N-terminus and endolytic cleavages at the W10/W11 and S16/K17 sites. N-terminal acetylation of M2pepBiotin protected the peptide against the exolytic degradation while W10w and K(17,18,19)k substitutions were able to effectively protect endolytic degradation at their respective cleavage sites. However, no tested amino acid changes at the W10 position resulted in both protease resistance at that site and retention of binding activity. Therefore, cyclization of M2pep was investigated. Cyclized M2pep better resisted serum degradation without compromising binding activity to M2 macrophages. During the serum stability optimization process, we also discovered that K9R and W10Y substitutions significantly enhanced binding affinity of M2pep. In an in vitro binding study of different M2pep analogs pre-incubated in mouse serum, cyclic M2pep with K9R and W10Y modifications (cyclic M2pep(RY)) retained the highest binding activity to M2 macrophages over time due to its improved serum stability. Finally, we evaluated the in vivo accumulation of sulfo-Cy5-labeled M2pep and cyclic M2pep(RY) in both the CT-26 and 4T1 breast carcinoma models. Cyclic M2pep

  15. Anti-influenza M2e antibody

    DOEpatents

    Bradbury, Andrew M.

    2011-12-20

    Humanized recombinant and monoclonal antibodies specific for the ectodomain of the influenza virus M2 ion channel protein are disclosed. The antibodies of the invention have anti-viral activity and may be useful as anti-viral therapeutics and/or prophylactic/vaccine agents for inhibiting influenza virus replication and for treating individuals infected with influenza.

  16. Anti-influenza M2e antibody

    DOEpatents

    Bradbury, Andrew M.

    2013-04-16

    Humanized recombinant and monoclonal antibodies specific for the ectodomain of the influenza virus M2 ion channel protein are disclosed. The antibodies of the invention have anti-viral activity and may be useful as anti-viral therapeutics and/or prophylactic/vaccine agents for inhibiting influenza virus replication and for treating individuals infected with influenza.

  17. M2-F1 simulator cockpit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    This early simulator of the M2-F1 lifting body was used for pilot training, to test landing techniques before the first ground tow attempts, and to test new control configurations after the first tow attempts and wind-tunnel tests. The M2-F1 simulator was limited in some ways by its analog simulator. It had only limited visual display for the pilot, as well. The wingless, lifting body aircraft design was initially conceived as a means of landing an aircraft horizontally after atmospheric reentry. The absence of wings would make the extreme heat of re-entry less damaging to the vehicle. In 1962, Dryden management approved a program to build a lightweight, unpowered lifting body as a prototype to flight test the wingless concept. It would look like a 'flying bathtub,' and was designated the M2-F1, the 'M' referring to 'manned' and 'F' referring to 'flight' version. It featured a plywood shell placed over a tubular steel frame crafted at Dryden. Construction was completed in 1963. The first flight tests of the M2-F1 were over Rogers Dry Lake at the end of a tow rope attached to a hopped-up Pontiac convertible driven at speeds up to about 120 mph. This vehicle needed to be able to tow the M2-F1 on the Rogers Dry Lakebed adjacent to NASA's Flight Research Center (FRC) at a minimum speed of 100 miles per hour. To do that, it had to handle the 400-pound pull of the M2-F1. Walter 'Whitey' Whiteside, who was a retired Air Force maintenance officer working in the FRC's Flight Operations Division, was a dirt-bike rider and hot-rodder. Together with Boyden 'Bud' Bearce in the Procurement and Supply Branch of the FRC, Whitey acquired a Pontiac Catalina convertible with the largest engine available. He took the car to Bill Straup's renowned hot-rod shop near Long Beach for modification. With a special gearbox and racing slicks, the Pontiac could tow the 1,000-pound M2-F1 110 miles per hour in 30 seconds. It proved adequate for the roughly 400 car tows that got the M2-F1 airborne

  18. What is $$\\Delta m^2_{ee}$$ ?

    DOE PAGES

    Parke, Stephen

    2016-03-09

    Here, the current short baseline reactor experiments, Daya Bay and RENO (Double Chooz) have measured (or are capable of measuring) an effective Δm2 associated with the atmospheric oscillation scale of 0.5 km/MeV in electron antineutrino disappearance. In this paper, I compare and contrast the different definitions of such an effective Δm2 and argue that the simple, L/E independent definition given by Δmee2≡cos2θ12Δm312+sin2θ12Δm322, i.e. “the νe weighted average of Δm312 and Δm322,” is superior to all other definitions and is useful for both short baseline experiments mentioned above and for the future medium baseline experiments JUNO and RENO-50.

  19. COSTAR GHRS m2 Mirror Arm Deployment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troeltzsch, John

    1994-01-01

    The following activities will take place during this proposal. 1. Deploy the GHRS M2 Mirror Arm. This test requires a mix of real-time activities performed by the STOCC and stored command activities performed by the STSCI via SMS commanding. The activities in this proposal involve many COSTAR CARD items. This proposal requires careful attention during proposal implementation and execution to ensure the CARD is correctly implemented.

  20. Superconformal indices and M2-branes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eager, Richard; Schmude, Johannes

    2015-12-01

    We derive the superconformal index of the world-volume theory on M2-branes probing the cone over an arbitrary Sasaki-Einstein seven-manifold. The index is expressed in terms of the cohomology groups of the cone. We match our supergravity results with known results from gauge theory. Along the way we derive the spectrum of short Kaluza-Klein multiplets on generic Sasaki-Einstein seven-manifolds.

  1. M2-F1 in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    This 25-second clip shows Milt Thompson being towed in the M2-F1 behind a C-47 aircraft. The M2-F1 lifting body, dubbed the 'flying bathtub' by the media, was the precursor of a remarkable series of wingless flying vehicles that contributed data used in the Space Shuttles, the X-33 Advanced Technology Demonstrator for the next century's Reusable Launch Vehicle, and the X-38 Technology Demonstrator for crew return from the International Space Station. Based on the ideas and basic design of Alfred J. Eggers and others at the Ames Aeronautical Laboratory (now the Ames Research Center), Mountain View, California, in the mid-1950's, the M2-F1 was built in 1962-63 over a four-month period for a cost of only about $30,000, plus an additional $8,000-$10,000 for an ejection seat. Engineers and technicians at the NASA Flight Research Center (now NASA Dryden) kept costs low by designing and fabricating it partly in-house, with the plywood shell constructed by a local sailplane builder. Someone at the time estimated that it would have cost a major aircraft company $150,000 to build the same vehicle. Unlike the later lifting bodies, the M2-F1 was unpowered and was initially towed by a souped-up Pontiac convertible until it was airborne. Later a C-47 took over the towing duties. Flown by such famous research pilots as Milt Thompson, Bruce Peterson, Chuck Yeager, and Bill Dana, the lightweight flying bathtub demonstrated that a wingless vehicle shaped for reentry into the Earth's atmosphere from space could be flown and landed safely. Flown from 1963 to 1966, the lightweight M2-F1 paved the way for the heavyweight M2-F2, M2-F3, HL-10, X-24A, and X-24B lifting bodies that flew under rocket power after launch from a B-52 mothership. The heavyweights flew from 1966 to 1975, demonstrating the viability and versatility of the wingless configuration and the ability of a vehicle with low lift-over-drag characteristics to fly to high altitudes and then to land precisely with their rocket

  2. LOSA-M2 aerosol Raman lidar

    SciTech Connect

    Balin, Yu S; Bairashin, G S; Kokhanenko, G P; Penner, I E; Samoilova, S V

    2011-10-31

    The scanning LOSA-M2 aerosol Raman lidar, which is aimed at probing atmosphere at wavelengths of 532 and 1064 nm, is described. The backscattered light is received simultaneously in two regimes: analogue and photon-counting. Along with the signals of elastic light scattering at the initial wavelengths, a 607-nm Raman signal from molecular nitrogen is also recorded. It is shown that the height range of atmosphere probing can be expanded from the near-Earth layer to stratosphere using two (near- and far-field) receiving telescopes, and analogue and photon-counting lidar signals can be combined into one signal. Examples of natural measurements of aerosol stratification in atmosphere along vertical and horizontal paths during the expeditions to the Gobi Desert (Mongolia) and Lake Baikal areas are presented.

  3. Exoplanets in the M2K Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyajian, Tabetha; Fischer, Debra; Gaidos, Eric; Giguere, Matt

    2013-07-01

    Late type stars are ideal targets for the detection of low-mass planets residing in habitable zones. In such systems, not only is the stellar noise a minimum, but the lower stellar mass affords larger reflex velocities and the lower stellar luminosity moves the habitable zone inward. The M2K program is a high precision Doppler survey monitoring a couple hundred late-type stars over the past few years in search for such important exoplanetary systems. We present updated orbits of known exoplanet systems and newly detected exoplanet systems that have resulted from this program. We also advertise the Planethunters.org "Guest Scientist" program as well as our survey to measure stellar diameters and temperatures with long baseline optical interferometry.

  4. The (178m2)Hf Controversy

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, J A; Gemmell, D S; Schiffer, J P; Wilhelmy, J B

    2003-07-24

    Since its discovery in the 1960's the {sup 178m2}Hf isomer has garnered high attention from both the basic and applied communities in nuclear science. It's combination of high spin (16+), long half life (31 yrs), and high excitation energy (2.446 MeV) offer unique possibilities as an energy storage medium. Interest in the isomer was rekindled beginning in 1999 when a series of publications began to appear from a group (referred to here as the ''Texas collaboration'') primarily based at the University of Texas, Dallas [1]. They reported observations that some of the stored energy could be released (''triggered'') when the isomer was exposed to a fluence of photons in the energy range {approx}10 to {approx}60 keV. The implications of this observation are profound. Even though the claimed cross section for the process was {approx}7 orders of magnitude greater than would be predicted from the known systematics of photon absorption by nuclei in this mass range [2], such a highly efficient method for triggering the isomeric deexcitation immediately suggested applications utilizing the explosive or the controlled gradual energy release from a very compact source. The prospect of such applications has focused considerable interest on realizing the promise that is implicit in the reported observations. However, two experiments performed by a group from ANL/LANL/LLNL at the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne (the ''APS collaboration'') reported negative results for the observation of any photon-triggered deexcitation of the {sup 178m2}Hf isomer [3]. This has led to a continued controversy, where both sides have adamantly defended their observations. At this point an outsider has difficulty determining whether there is indeed a triggering effect that should be pursued energetically with substantial resources, or whether the phenomenon consists of overly optimistic interpretation of data.

  5. Compilation, design tests: Energetic particles Satellite S-3 including design tests for S-3A, S-3B and S-3C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ledoux, F. N.

    1973-01-01

    A compilation of engineering design tests which were conducted in support of the Energetic Particle Satellite S-3, S-3A, and S-3b programs. The purpose for conducting the tests was to determine the adequacy and reliability of the Energetic Particles Series of satellites designs. The various tests consisted of: (1) moments of inertia, (2) functional reliability, (3) component and structural integrity, (4) initiators and explosives tests, and (5) acceptance tests.

  6. Throughput vs. the M2 quality factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alda, Javier; Alonso, Jose; Bernabeu, Eusebio

    1998-10-01

    The quality parameter M2 has been accepted as an useful averaged magnitude for comparing and classify laser beams with respect to their behavior in their propagation. Its definition is based on the product of two magnitudes: (the spatial size of the laser beam) X (the angular size of the laser beam). This product resembles very much a characteristic magnitude used in radiometry: the throughput, or etendue. In this work we will relate both concepts in order to identify one to the other. From a radiometry point of view the laser beam propagation can be seen as the transportation of light flux from a given source plane to a receiving plane. In most of the cases the practical situation involving laser beam propagation requires this kind of radiometric calculation for safety and energy delivery purposes. On the other hand the radiance of a laser source has been formally related with the Wigner distribution what show up some close relations between moment parametrization of laser beams and radiometric magnitudes. The description of the laser beam in terms of the moments of its amplitude distribution works very well in the formalism but it finds some difficulties to be reached in an experimental setup. Otherwise, the measurement of the energy of the beam can be easily obtained by several methods, such as the knife edge technique and some other related procedures. Our goal is find out the intrinsic relations between the easy to measure radiometric quantities and the easy to calculate generalized parameters. We will focus our attention in the relation between quality factor and throughput.

  7. 46 CFR 34.10-5 - Fire pumps-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire pumps-T/ALL. 34.10-5 Section 34.10-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT Fire Main System, Details § 34.10-5 Fire pumps—T/ALL. (a) Tankships shall be equipped with independently driven fire pumps...

  8. 46 CFR 34.10-5 - Fire pumps-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fire pumps-T/ALL. 34.10-5 Section 34.10-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT Fire Main System, Details § 34.10-5 Fire pumps—T/ALL. (a) Tankships shall be equipped with independently driven fire pumps...

  9. 46 CFR 34.10-5 - Fire pumps-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fire pumps-T/ALL. 34.10-5 Section 34.10-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT Fire Main System, Details § 34.10-5 Fire pumps—T/ALL. (a) Tankships shall be equipped with independently driven fire pumps...

  10. 46 CFR 31.10-5 - Inspection of new tank vessels-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inspection of new tank vessels-TB/ALL. 31.10-5 Section 31.10-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspections § 31.10-5 Inspection of new tank vessels—TB/ALL. (a) Plans. Triplicate copies...

  11. 33 CFR 1.10-5 - Public availability of records and documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... and documents. 1.10-5 Section 1.10-5 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL GENERAL PROVISIONS Public Availability of Information § 1.10-5 Public..., 2100 2nd St. SW., Stop 7101, Washington, DC 20593-7101. (b) Each person desiring to inspect a record...

  12. 46 CFR 30.10-5b - Cargo control station-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cargo control station-TB/ALL. 30.10-5b Section 30.10-5b Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-5b Cargo control station—TB/ALL. The term cargo control station means a location that is...

  13. 46 CFR 30.10-5b - Cargo control station-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cargo control station-TB/ALL. 30.10-5b Section 30.10-5b Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-5b Cargo control station—TB/ALL. The term cargo control station means a location that is...

  14. 46 CFR 30.10-5b - Cargo control station-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cargo control station-TB/ALL. 30.10-5b Section 30.10-5b Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-5b Cargo control station—TB/ALL. The term cargo control station means a location that is...

  15. 46 CFR 30.10-5b - Cargo control station-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cargo control station-TB/ALL. 30.10-5b Section 30.10-5b Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-5b Cargo control station—TB/ALL. The term cargo control station means a location that is...

  16. 46 CFR 50.10-5 - Coast Guard District Commander or District Commander.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Coast Guard District Commander or District Commander. 50.10-5 Section 50.10-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 50.10-5 Coast Guard...

  17. 46 CFR 50.10-5 - Coast Guard District Commander or District Commander.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Coast Guard District Commander or District Commander. 50.10-5 Section 50.10-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 50.10-5 Coast Guard...

  18. 46 CFR 50.10-5 - Coast Guard District Commander or District Commander.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Coast Guard District Commander or District Commander. 50.10-5 Section 50.10-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 50.10-5 Coast Guard...

  19. 46 CFR 50.10-5 - Coast Guard District Commander or District Commander.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Coast Guard District Commander or District Commander. 50.10-5 Section 50.10-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 50.10-5 Coast Guard...

  20. 46 CFR 50.10-5 - Coast Guard District Commander or District Commander.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Coast Guard District Commander or District Commander. 50.10-5 Section 50.10-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 50.10-5 Coast Guard...

  1. 46 CFR 30.10-5b - Cargo control station-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo control station-TB/ALL. 30.10-5b Section 30.10-5b Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-5b Cargo control station—TB/ALL. The term cargo control station means a location that is...

  2. Motion-to-Energy (M2E) Power Generation Technology

    ScienceCinema

    INL

    2016-07-12

    INL researchers developed M2E, a new technology that converts motion to energy. M2E uses an innovative, optimized microgenerator with power management circuitry that kinetically charges mobile batteries from natural motion such as walking.

  3. 26 CFR 1.401(m)-2 - ACP test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... determined under § 1.401(m)-2(b)(2)(iv) (as it appeared in the April 1, 2007, edition of 26 CFR part 1). (E... determined under § 1.401(m)-2(b)(2)(vi) (as it appeared in the April 1, 2007, edition of 26 CFR Part 1). If... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false ACP test. 1.401(m)-2 Section 1.401(m)-2...

  4. 46 CFR 38.10-5 - Filling and discharge pipes-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Filling and discharge pipes-TB/ALL. 38.10-5 Section 38.10-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS LIQUEFIED FLAMMABLE GASES Piping, Valves, Fittings, and Accessory Equipment § 38.10-5 Filling and discharge pipes—TB/ALL. (a) Filling and discharge connections shall be...

  5. 46 CFR 38.10-5 - Filling and discharge pipes-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Filling and discharge pipes-TB/ALL. 38.10-5 Section 38.10-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS LIQUEFIED FLAMMABLE GASES Piping, Valves, Fittings, and Accessory Equipment § 38.10-5 Filling and discharge pipes—TB/ALL. (a) Filling and discharge connections shall be...

  6. 46 CFR 30.10-5a - Cargo area-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cargo area-TB/ALL. 30.10-5a Section 30.10-5a Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-5a Cargo area—TB/ALL. The term cargo area means that part of a vessel that includes the cargo tanks...

  7. 46 CFR 30.10-5a - Cargo area-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cargo area-TB/ALL. 30.10-5a Section 30.10-5a Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-5a Cargo area—TB/ALL. The term cargo area means that part of a vessel that includes the cargo tanks...

  8. 46 CFR 30.10-5a - Cargo area-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cargo area-TB/ALL. 30.10-5a Section 30.10-5a Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-5a Cargo area—TB/ALL. The term cargo area means that part of a vessel that includes the cargo tanks...

  9. 46 CFR 30.10-5a - Cargo area-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cargo area-TB/ALL. 30.10-5a Section 30.10-5a Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-5a Cargo area—TB/ALL. The term cargo area means that part of a vessel that includes the cargo tanks...

  10. 46 CFR 38.10-5 - Filling and discharge pipes-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Filling and discharge pipes-TB/ALL. 38.10-5 Section 38.10-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS LIQUEFIED FLAMMABLE GASES Piping, Valves, Fittings, and Accessory Equipment § 38.10-5 Filling and discharge pipes—TB/ALL. (a) Filling and discharge connections shall be...

  11. 46 CFR 38.10-5 - Filling and discharge pipes-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Filling and discharge pipes-TB/ALL. 38.10-5 Section 38.10-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS LIQUEFIED FLAMMABLE GASES Piping, Valves, Fittings, and Accessory Equipment § 38.10-5 Filling and discharge pipes—TB/ALL. (a) Filling and discharge connections shall be...

  12. 46 CFR 35.10-5 - Muster lists, emergency signals, and manning-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Muster lists, emergency signals, and manning-T/ALL. 35.10-5 Section 35.10-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS OPERATIONS Fire and Emergency Requirements § 35.10-5 Muster lists, emergency signals, and manning—T/ALL. The requirements for muster lists, emergency signals,...

  13. 46 CFR 35.10-5 - Muster lists, emergency signals, and manning-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Muster lists, emergency signals, and manning-T/ALL. 35.10-5 Section 35.10-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS OPERATIONS Fire and Emergency Requirements § 35.10-5 Muster lists, emergency signals, and manning—T/ALL. The requirements for muster lists, emergency signals,...

  14. 46 CFR 35.10-5 - Muster lists, emergency signals, and manning-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Muster lists, emergency signals, and manning-T/ALL. 35.10-5 Section 35.10-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS OPERATIONS Fire and Emergency Requirements § 35.10-5 Muster lists, emergency signals, and manning—T/ALL. The requirements for muster lists, emergency signals,...

  15. 46 CFR 35.10-5 - Muster lists, emergency signals, and manning-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Muster lists, emergency signals, and manning-T/ALL. 35.10-5 Section 35.10-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS OPERATIONS Fire and Emergency Requirements § 35.10-5 Muster lists, emergency signals, and manning—T/ALL. The requirements for muster lists, emergency signals,...

  16. 46 CFR 35.10-5 - Muster lists, emergency signals, and manning-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Muster lists, emergency signals, and manning-T/ALL. 35.10-5 Section 35.10-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS OPERATIONS Fire and Emergency Requirements § 35.10-5 Muster lists, emergency signals, and manning—T/ALL. The requirements for muster lists, emergency signals,...

  17. 46 CFR 30.10-5a - Cargo area-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo area-TB/ALL. 30.10-5a Section 30.10-5a Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-5a Cargo area—TB/ALL. The term cargo area means that part of a vessel that includes the cargo tanks...

  18. Segmented strings in AdS 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callebaut, Nele; Gubser, Steven S.; Samberg, Andreas; Toldo, Chiara

    2015-11-01

    We study segmented strings in flat space and in AdS 3. In flat space, these well known classical motions describe strings which at any instant of time are piecewise linear. In AdS 3, the worldsheet is composed of faces each of which is a region bounded by null geodesics in an AdS 2 subspace of AdS 3. The time evolution can be described by specifying the null geodesic motion of kinks in the string at which two segments are joined. The outcome of collisions of kinks on the worldsheet can be worked out essentially using considerations of causality. We study several examples of closed segmented strings in AdS 3 and find an unexpected quasi-periodic behavior. We also work out a WKB analysis of quantum states of yo-yo strings in AdS 5 and find a logarithmic term reminiscent of the logarithmic twist of string states on the leading Regge trajectory.

  19. 41 CFR 302-10.5 - May I transport a mobile home over water?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May I transport a mobile home over water? 302-10.5 Section 302-10.5 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES TRANSPORTATION AND STORAGE OF PROPERTY 10-ALLOWANCES FOR TRANSPORTATION OF MOBILE HOMES AND BOATS USED AS...

  20. 41 CFR 302-10.5 - May I transport a mobile home over water?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false May I transport a mobile home over water? 302-10.5 Section 302-10.5 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES TRANSPORTATION AND STORAGE OF PROPERTY 10-ALLOWANCES...

  1. 41 CFR 302-10.5 - May I transport a mobile home over water?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false May I transport a mobile home over water? 302-10.5 Section 302-10.5 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES TRANSPORTATION AND STORAGE OF PROPERTY 10-ALLOWANCES FOR TRANSPORTATION OF MOBILE HOMES AND BOATS USED AS...

  2. Studies on sprayed lanthanum sulphide (La 2S 3) thin films from non-aqueous medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagde, G. D.; Pathan, H. M.; Lokhande, C. D.; Patil, S. A.; Muller, M.

    2005-12-01

    Thin films of lanthanum sulphide (La 2S 3) have been deposited onto glass substrates by spray pyrolysis technique from non-aqueous (methanol) medium. The structural, morphological, optical, dielectric, electric and thermoemf properties were studied. The films were polycrystalline with an irregular shaped particles present over the porous structure within a fibrous network structure. The optical band gap was estimated to be 2.50 eV. The dielectric properties were measured in the range 100 Hz-1 MHz. The electrical resistivity was of the order of 10 4 to 10 5 Ω cm. Thermoemf study revealed that the La 2S 3 films exhibit p-type electrical conductivity.

  3. Methods of using (1S,3S)-3-amino-4-difluoromethylenyl-1-cyclopentanoic acid

    DOEpatents

    Silverman, Richard B; Dewey, Stephen L; Miller, Steven

    2015-03-03

    (1S,3S)-3-amino-4-difluoromethylenyl-1-cyclopentanoic acid also known as CPP-115 or its pharmaceutically acceptable salts can be used to treat addiction and neurological disorders such as epilepsy without side effects such as visual field defects caused by vigabatrin (Sabril).

  4. AdS3: the NHEK generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bena, Iosif; Heurtier, Lucien; Puhm, Andrea

    2016-05-01

    It was argued in [1] that the five-dimensional near-horizon extremal Kerr (NHEK) geometry can be embedded in String Theory as the infrared region of an infinite family of non-supersymmetric geometries that have D1, D5, momentum and KK monopole charges. We show that there exists a method to embed these geometries into asymptotically- {AdS}_3× {S}^3/{{Z}}_N solutions, and hence to obtain infinite families of flows whose infrared is NHEK. This indicates that the CFT dual to the NHEK geometry is the IR fixed point of a Renormalization Group flow from a known local UV CFT and opens the door to its explicit construction.

  5. On circular strings in (AdS3 × S 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Aritra; Panigrahi, Kamal L.

    2016-09-01

    The so called one-parameter (often called ϰ) deformed AdS string sigma models have attracted a lot of attention lately in the study of integrability in string theory. We construct various circular string solutions in the (AdS3 × S 3) ϰ background and describe the characteristics of such solutions qualitatively. We study the Bohr-Sommerfeld like quantization for these string states to characterise the motion. Further we find a `long' string limit of such circular strings in the ϰ-deformed AdS3 and find a novel dependence of the oscillation number on the energy in the next to leading order expansion.

  6. Supergravity background of the λ-deformed AdS3 × S3 supercoset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chervonyi, Yuri; Lunin, Oleg

    2016-09-01

    We construct the solution of type IIB supergravity describing the integrable λ-deformation of the AdS3 ×S3 supercoset. While the geometry corresponding to the deformation of the bosonic coset has been found in the past, our background is more natural for studying superstrings, and several interesting features distinguish our solution from its bosonic counterpart. We also report progress towards constructing the λ-deformation of the AdS5 ×S5 supercoset.

  7. The fuzzy S2 structure of M2-M5 systems in ABJM membrane theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nastase, Horatiu; Papageorgakis, Constantinos; Ramgoolam, Sanjaye

    2009-05-01

    We analyse the fluctuations of the ground-state/funnel solutions proposed to describe M2-M5 systems in the level-k mass-deformed/pure Chern-Simons-matter ABJM theory of multiple membranes. We show that in the large N limit the fluctuations approach the space of functions on the 2-sphere rather than the naively expected 3-sphere. This is a novel realisation of the fuzzy 2-sphere in the context of Matrix Theories, which uses bifundamental instead of adjoint scalars. Starting from the multiple M2-brane action, a U(1) Yang-Mills theory on Bbb R2,1 × S2 is recovered at large N, which is consistent with a single D4-brane interpretation in Type IIA string theory. This is as expected at large k, where the semiclassical analysis is valid. Several aspects of the fluctuation analysis, the ground-state/funnel solutions and the mass-deformed/pure ABJM equations can be understood in terms of a discrete noncommutative realisation of the Hopf fibration. We discuss the implications for the possibility of finding an M2-brane worldvolume derivation of the classical S3 geometry of the M2-M5 system. Using a rewriting of the equations of the SO(4)-covariant fuzzy 3-sphere construction, we also directly compare this fuzzy 3-sphere against the ABJM ground-state/funnel solutions and show them to be different.

  8. Reverse saturable absorption and nonlinear refraction of ultrathin ZrS3 nanobelts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jia-Jing; Tao, You-Rong; Wang, Jia-Nan; Wu, Zhong-Yu; Fan, Lei; Wu, Xing-Cai

    2016-05-01

    The nonlinear optical (NLO) properties of a ZrS3 nanobelt were measured with a 6.5 ns pulse laser at 532 nm. Its optical response to the incident light exhibits good optical absorptive and refractive effects, with the nonlinear absorption coefficient β = 4.42 × 10-10 m W-1 and the nonlinear refraction coefficient γ = 5.86 × 10-17 m2 W-1 for the ZrS3 nanobelt in ethanol dispersions at an input energy of 34.25 μJ. In addition, the β values and γ values have dependence on input energy. Results show that the ZrS3 nanobelts have an excellent reverse saturable absorption (RSA) performance in nanosecond pulses, demonstrating that ZrS3 nanobelts are an extraordinarily promising novel optical power limiting material. Meanwhile, compared to the pure ZrS3, graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (RGO), composites (ZrS3/GRO) exhibit an enhanced nonlinear absorption response at the same input energy.The nonlinear optical (NLO) properties of a ZrS3 nanobelt were measured with a 6.5 ns pulse laser at 532 nm. Its optical response to the incident light exhibits good optical absorptive and refractive effects, with the nonlinear absorption coefficient β = 4.42 × 10-10 m W-1 and the nonlinear refraction coefficient γ = 5.86 × 10-17 m2 W-1 for the ZrS3 nanobelt in ethanol dispersions at an input energy of 34.25 μJ. In addition, the β values and γ values have dependence on input energy. Results show that the ZrS3 nanobelts have an excellent reverse saturable absorption (RSA) performance in nanosecond pulses, demonstrating that ZrS3 nanobelts are an extraordinarily promising novel optical power limiting material. Meanwhile, compared to the pure ZrS3, graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (RGO), composites (ZrS3/GRO) exhibit an enhanced nonlinear absorption response at the same input energy. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr09268j

  9. On elliptic string solutions in AdS3 and dS3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakas, Ioannis; Pastras, Georgios

    2016-07-01

    Classical string actions in AdS3 and dS3 can be connected to the sinh-Gordon and cosh-Gordon equations through Pohlmeyer reduction. We show that the problem of constructing a classical string solution with a given static or translationally invariant Pohlmeyer counterpart is equivalent to solving four pairs of effective Schrödinger problems. Each pair consists of a flat potential and an n = 1 Lamé potential whose eigenvalues are connected, and, additionally, the four solutions satisfy a set of constraints. An approach for solving this system is developed by employing an interesting connection between the specific class of classical string solutions and the band structure of the Lamé potential. This method is used for the construction of several families of classical string solutions, one of which turns out to be the spiky strings in AdS3. New solutions include circular rotating strings in AdS3 with singular time evolution of their radius and angular velocity as well as classical string solutions in dS3.

  10. Theoretical Assessment of 178m2Hf De-Excitation

    SciTech Connect

    Hartouni, E P; Chen, M; Descalle, M A; Escher, J E; Loshak, A; Navratil, P; Ormand, W E; Pruet, J; Thompson, I J; Wang, T F

    2008-10-06

    This document contains a comprehensive literature review in support of the theoretical assessment of the {sup 178m2}Hf de-excitation, as well as a rigorous description of controlled energy release from an isomeric nuclear state.

  11. 26 CFR 1.401(m)-2 - ACP test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... be distributed under the plan. Second, the plan must apportion the total amount of excess aggregate... determined under § 1.401(m)-2(b)(2)(iv) (as it appeared in the April 1, 2007, edition of 26 CFR part 1). (E... determined under § 1.401(m)-2(b)(2)(vi) (as it appeared in the April 1, 2007, edition of 26 CFR Part 1)....

  12. 26 CFR 1.401(m)-2 - ACP test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... employee contributions under Plan S and Plan T, two calendar-year profit-sharing plans of Employer H. Plan... determined under § 1.401(m)-2(b)(2)(iv) (as it appeared in the April 1, 2007, edition of 26 CFR part 1). (E... determined under § 1.401(m)-2(b)(2)(vi) (as it appeared in the April 1, 2007, edition of 26 CFR Part 1)....

  13. 26 CFR 1.401(m)-2 - ACP test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... employee contributions under Plan S and Plan T, two calendar-year profit-sharing plans of Employer H. Plan... determined under § 1.401(m)-2(b)(2)(iv) (as it appeared in the April 1, 2007, edition of 26 CFR part 1). (E... determined under § 1.401(m)-2(b)(2)(vi) (as it appeared in the April 1, 2007, edition of 26 CFR Part 1)....

  14. M2 polarization enhances silica nanoparticle uptake by macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Hoppstädter, Jessica; Seif, Michelle; Dembek, Anna; Cavelius, Christian; Huwer, Hanno; Kraegeloh, Annette; Kiemer, Alexandra K.

    2015-01-01

    While silica nanoparticles have enabled numerous industrial and medical applications, their toxicological safety requires further evaluation. Macrophages are the major cell population responsible for nanoparticle clearance in vivo. The prevailing macrophage phenotype largely depends on the local immune status of the host. Whereas M1-polarized macrophages are considered as pro-inflammatory macrophages involved in host defense, M2 macrophages exhibit anti-inflammatory and wound-healing properties, but also promote tumor growth. We employed different models of M1 and M2 polarization: granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor/lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/interferon (IFN)-γ was used to generate primary human M1 cells and macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF)/interleukin (IL)-10 to differentiate M2 monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM). PMA-differentiated THP-1 cells were polarized towards an M1 type by LPS/IFN-γ and towards M2 by IL-10. Uptake of fluorescent silica nanoparticles (Ø26 and 41 nm) and microparticles (Ø1.75 μm) was quantified. At the concentration used (50 μg/ml), silica nanoparticles did not influence cell viability as assessed by MTT assay. Nanoparticle uptake was enhanced in M2-polarized primary human MDM compared with M1 cells, as shown by flow cytometric and microscopic approaches. In contrast, the uptake of microparticles did not differ between M1 and M2 phenotypes. M2 polarization was also associated with increased nanoparticle uptake in the macrophage-like THP-1 cell line. In accordance, in vivo polarized M2-like primary human tumor-associated macrophages obtained from lung tumors took up more nanoparticles than M1-like alveolar macrophages isolated from the surrounding lung tissue. In summary, our data indicate that the M2 polarization of macrophages promotes nanoparticle internalization. Therefore, the phenotypical differences between macrophage subsets should be taken into consideration in future investigations on nanosafety, but

  15. Three dimensional mirror symmetry and partition function on S 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dey, Anindya; Distler, Jacques

    2013-10-01

    We provide non-trivial checks of = 4 , D = 3 mirror symmetry in a large class of quiver gauge theories whose Type IIB (Hanany-Witten) descriptions involve D3 branes ending on orbifold/orientifold 5-planes at the boundary. From the M-theory perspective, such theories can be understood in terms of coincident M2 branes sitting at the origin of a product of an A-type and a D-type ALE (Asymtotically Locally Euclidean) space with G-fluxes. Families of mirror dual pairs, which arise in this fashion, can be labeled as ( A m-1 , D n ), where m and n are integers. For a large subset of such infinite families of dual theories, corresponding to generic values of n ≥ 4, arbitrary ranks of the gauge groups and varying m, we test the conjectured duality by proving the precise equality of the S 3 partition functions for dual gauge theories in the IR as functions of masses and FI parameters. The mirror map for a given pair of mirror dual theories can be read off at the end of this computation and we explicitly present these for the aforementioned examples. The computation uses non-trivial identities of hyperbolic functions including certain generalizations of Cauchy determinant identity and Schur's Pfaffian identity, which are discussed in the paper.

  16. Non-vanishing U e3 under S 3 symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siyeon, Kim

    2012-07-01

    This work proposes two models of neutrino masses that predict non-zero θ 13 under the non-Abelian discrete flavor symmetry {S}3⊗{Z}2. We advocate that the size of θ 13 is understood as a group theoretical consequence rather than a perturbed effect from the tri-bi-maximal mixing. So, the difference of two models is designed only in terms of the flavor symmetry, by changing the charge assignment of right-handed neutrinos. The PMNS matrix in the first model is obtained from both mass matrices, charged leptons giving rise to non-zero θl_{13} and neutrino masses giving rise to tri-bi-maximal mixing. The physical mixing angles are expressed by a simple relation between θl_{13} and tri-bi-maximal angles to fit the recent experimental results. The other model generates PMNS matrix with non-zero θ 13, only from the neutrino mass transformation. The 5-dimensional effective theory of Majorana neutrinos obtained in this framework is tested with phenomenological bounds in the parametric spaces sin θ 23,sin θ 12 and m 2/ m 3 vs. sin θ 13.

  17. Computational discovery of stable M2A X phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashton, Michael; Hennig, Richard G.; Broderick, Scott R.; Rajan, Krishna; Sinnott, Susan B.

    2016-08-01

    The family of layered Mn +1A Xn compounds provides a large class of materials with applications ranging from magnets to high-temperature coatings to nuclear cladding. In this work, we employ a density-functional-theory-based discovery approach to identify a large number of thermodynamically stable Mn +1A Xn compounds, where n =1 , M =Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Zr, Nb, Mo, Hf, Ta; A =Al, Si, P, S, Ga, Ge, As, Cd, In, Sn, Tl, Pb; and X =C, N. We calculate the formation energy for 216 pure M2A X compounds and 10 314 solid solutions, (MM') 2(A A') (X X') , relative to their competing phases. We find that the 49 experimentally known M2A X phases exhibit formation energies of less than 30 meV/atom. Among the 10 530 compositions considered, 3140 exhibit formation energies below 30 meV/atom, most of which have yet to be experimentally synthesized. A significant subset of 301 compositions exhibits strong exothermic stability in excess of 100 meV/atom, indicating favorable synthesis conditions. We identify empirical design rules for stable M2A X compounds. Among the metastable M2A X compounds are two Cr-based compounds with ferromagnetic ordering and expected Curie temperatures around 75 K. These results can serve as a map for the experimental design and synthesis of different M2A X compounds.

  18. Anatomy of a Discovery: M1 and M2 Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Charles Dudley

    2015-01-01

    M1 and M2 macrophage-type responses kill or repair in vivo. The unique ability of macrophages to make these polar opposite type of responses provides primary host protection and maintains tissue homeostasis throughout the animal kingdom. In humans and other higher animals, M1 and M2-type macrophage responses also initiate and direct T cells/adaptive immunity to provide additional protection such as Th1 (cytotoxic) or Th2 (antibody-mediated) type responses. Hence, macrophages were renamed M1 and M2 to indicate the central role of macrophages/innate immunity in immune systems. These findings indicate that the long held notion that adaptive immunity controls innate immunity was backward: a sea change in understanding how immune responses occur. The clinical impact of M1/kill and M2/repair responses is immense playing pivotal roles in curing (or causing) many diseases including infections, cancer, autoimmunity, and atherosclerosis. How M1/M2 came to be is an interesting story that, like life, involved Direction, Determination, Discouragement, and Discovery. PMID:25999950

  19. Reverse saturable absorption and nonlinear refraction of ultrathin ZrS3 nanobelts.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jia-Jing; Tao, You-Rong; Wang, Jia-Nan; Wu, Zhong-Yu; Fan, Lei; Wu, Xing-Cai

    2016-05-21

    The nonlinear optical (NLO) properties of a ZrS3 nanobelt were measured with a 6.5 ns pulse laser at 532 nm. Its optical response to the incident light exhibits good optical absorptive and refractive effects, with the nonlinear absorption coefficient β = 4.42 × 10(-10) m W(-1) and the nonlinear refraction coefficient γ = 5.86 × 10(-17) m(2) W(-1) for the ZrS3 nanobelt in ethanol dispersions at an input energy of 34.25 μJ. In addition, the β values and γ values have dependence on input energy. Results show that the ZrS3 nanobelts have an excellent reverse saturable absorption (RSA) performance in nanosecond pulses, demonstrating that ZrS3 nanobelts are an extraordinarily promising novel optical power limiting material. Meanwhile, compared to the pure ZrS3, graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (RGO), composites (ZrS3/GRO) exhibit an enhanced nonlinear absorption response at the same input energy. PMID:27139247

  20. 33 CFR 1.10-5 - Public availability of records and documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... written request to the Chief, Office of Information Management (CG-61), U.S. Coast Guard Headquarters... of Information Management (CG-61), at the address in paragraph (a) of this section. ... HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL GENERAL PROVISIONS Public Availability of Information § 1.10-5...

  1. 46 CFR 54.10-5 - Maximum allowable working pressure (reproduces UG-98).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... reference; see 46 CFR 54.01-1.) (b) The maximum allowable working pressure for a vessel part is the maximum... loadings listed in UG-22 of section VIII of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (see 46 CFR 54.01-30... ENGINEERING PRESSURE VESSELS Inspection, Reports, and Stamping § 54.10-5 Maximum allowable working...

  2. 33 CFR 1.10-5 - Public availability of records and documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... written request to the Chief, Office of Information Management (CG-61), U.S. Coast Guard Headquarters... of Information Management (CG-61), at the address in paragraph (a) of this section. ... HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL GENERAL PROVISIONS Public Availability of Information § 1.10-5...

  3. 33 CFR 1.10-5 - Public availability of records and documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... written request to the Chief, Office of Information Management (CG-61), U.S. Coast Guard Headquarters... of Information Management (CG-61), at the address in paragraph (a) of this section. ... HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL GENERAL PROVISIONS Public Availability of Information § 1.10-5...

  4. 33 CFR 1.10-5 - Public availability of records and documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... written request to the Chief, Office of Information Management (CG-61), U.S. Coast Guard Headquarters... of Information Management (CG-61), at the address in paragraph (a) of this section. ... HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL GENERAL PROVISIONS Public Availability of Information § 1.10-5...

  5. Polarized M2 macrophages in dogs with visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Pamela Rodrigues Reina; Fernando, Filipe Santos; Montassier, Hélio José; André, Marcos Rogério; de Oliveira Vasconcelos, Rosemeri

    2016-08-15

    The objective of the present study was to analyze the skin (nasal surface and ear regions), lymph nodes (popliteal and pre-scapular), spleen and liver of dogs with visceral leishmaniasis (VL), in order to investigate the relationship between the parasite load measured as DNA copy number of Alpha gene of DNA polymerase of Leishmania infantum by quantitative PCR and the number of M2 macrophages by immunohistochemistry. A set of 29 naturally infected dogs from an endemic area for VL were sampled and another set of six dogs negative for VL and from a non-endemic area were analyzed as the control group (C). The spleen presented the highest number of Leishmania DNA copies, with significant differences between the groups G1 and G2 (with and without skin lesions, respectively). The M2 phenotype immunostaining predominated among the macrophages in granulomas and inflammatory infiltrates of samples from the skin, lymph nodes and spleens examined. The presence of M2 macrophages in dogs from infected group differed significantly from the control group, in all organs analyzed, excepted liver. The highest proportion of M2 macrophages coincided with the highest parasitism loads found in more susceptible organs of VL dogs, even in the skin, considered a more resistant organ, while the liver showed low parasitism load and low immunostaining for M2 macrophages with no significant differences between infected and negative groups. It was concluded that the predominance of M2 phenotype in VL dogs favored the multiplication of Leishmania infantum in organs of dogs that are more susceptible to Leishmania infection, as skin, lymph nodes and spleen. PMID:27514887

  6. M2-F1 on lakebed with pilot Milt Thompson

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    NASA Flight Research Pilot Milt Thompson, shown here on the lakebed with the M2-F1 lifting body, was an early backer of R. Dale Reed's lifting-body proposal. He urged Flight Research Center director Paul Bikle to approve the M2-F1's construction. Thompson also made the first glide flights in both the M2-F1 and its successor, the heavyweight M2-F2. The wingless, lifting body aircraft design was initially conceived as a means of landing an aircraft horizontally after atmospheric reentry. The absence of wings would make the extreme heat of re-entry less damaging to the vehicle. In 1962, NASA Flight Research Center (later Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, CA) management approved a program to build a lightweight, unpowered lifting body as a prototype to flight test the wingless concept. It would look like a 'flying bathtub,' and was designated the M2-F1, the 'M' referring to 'manned' and 'F' referring to 'flight' version. It featured a plywood shell placed over a tubular steel frame crafted at Dryden. Construction was completed in 1963. The first flight tests of the M2-F1 were over Rogers Dry Lake at the end of a tow rope attached to a hopped-up Pontiac convertible driven at speeds up to about 120 mph. This vehicle needed to be able to tow the M2-F1 on the Rogers Dry Lakebed adjacent to NASA's Flight Research Center (FRC) at a minimum speed of 100 miles per hour. To do that, it had to handle the 400-pound pull of the M2-F1. Walter 'Whitey' Whiteside, who was a retired Air Force maintenance officer working in the FRC's Flight Operations Division, was a dirt-bike rider and hot-rodder. Together with Boyden 'Bud' Bearce in the Procurement and Supply Branch of the FRC, Whitey acquired a Pontiac Catalina convertible with the largest engine available. He took the car to Bill Straup's renowned hot-rod shop near Long Beach for modification. With a special gearbox and racing slicks, the Pontiac could tow the 1,000-pound M2-F1 110 miles per hour in 30 seconds. It proved

  7. M2-branes and the (2, 0) superalgebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambert, N.; Sacco, D.

    2016-09-01

    We present a generalization of the six-dimensional (2, 0) system of arXiv:1007.2982 to include a constant abelian 3-form. For vanishing 3-form this system is known to provide a variety descriptions of parallel M5-branes. For a particular choice of 3-form the system is shown to reduce to that of two M2-branes. Thus this generalised (2, 0) system provides a unified description of two parallel M2-branes or M5-branes.

  8. COSTAR FOC M1/M2 Mirror Arm Deployment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacinski, John

    1997-07-01

    The COSTAR's FOC M1/M2 arms will be returned to their pre-servicing mission positions. WFPC-2's shutter is required to remain closed during and for 30 minutes after the deployment of the FOC COSTAR arms. The FOC arm deployment activities will be executed with a combinations of R/T and SPC commanding. FOC M1/M2 arm deployments will not be executed until FOC baseline observations have been performed. The activities in this proposal involve many COSTAR CARD items. This proposal requires careful attention during proposal implementation and execution to ensure the CARD is correctly implemented.

  9. M2-F1 ejection seat test at South Edwards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    The M2-F1 was fitted with an ejection seat before the airtow flights began. The project selected the seat used in the T-37 as modified by the Weber Company to use a rocket rather than a ballistic charge for ejection. To test the ejection seat, the Flight Research Center's Dick Klein constructed a plywood mockup of the M2-F1's top deck and canopy. On the first firings, the test was unsuccessful, but on the final test the dummy in the seat landed safely. The M2-F1 ejection seat was later used in the two Lunar Landing Research Vehicles and the three Lunar Landing Training Vehicles. Three of them crashed, but in each case the pilot ejected from the vehicle successfully. The wingless, lifting body aircraft design was initially conceived as a means of landing an aircraft horizontally after atmospheric reentry. The absence of wings would make the extreme heat of re-entry less damaging to the vehicle. In 1962, Dryden management approved a program to build a lightweight, unpowered lifting body as a prototype to flight test the wingless concept. It would look like a 'flying bathtub,' and was designated the M2-F1, the 'M' referring to 'manned' and 'F' referring to 'flight' version. It featured a plywood shell placed over a tubular steel frame crafted at Dryden. Construction was completed in 1963. The first flight tests of the M2-F1 were over Rogers Dry Lake at the end of a tow rope attached to a hopped-up Pontiac convertible driven at speeds up to about 120 mph. This vehicle needed to be able to tow the M2-F1 on the Rogers Dry Lakebed adjacent to NASA's Flight Research Center (FRC) at a minimum speed of 100 miles per hour. To do that, it had to handle the 400-pound pull of the M2-F1. Walter 'Whitey' Whiteside, who was a retired Air Force maintenance officer working in the FRC's Flight Operations Division, was a dirt-bike rider and hot-rodder. Together with Boyden 'Bud' Bearce in the Procurement and Supply Branch of the FRC, Whitey acquired a Pontiac Catalina convertible with

  10. M2FS: the Michigan/Magellan Fiber System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mateo, Mario; Bailey, John I.; Crane, Jeffrey; Shectman, Stephen; Thompson, Ian; Roederer, Ian; Bigelow, Bruce; Gunnels, Steve

    2012-09-01

    We describe the Michigan/Magellan Fiber System (M2FS) under construction for use on the Magellan/Clay telescope. M2FS consists of four primary components including: (1) A fiber-fed double spectrograph (MSPec) in which each spectrograph is fed by 128 fibers (for a total multiplexing factor of 256) and each is optimized in to operate from 370- 950 nm; (2) A fiber mounting system (MFib) that supports the fibers and fiber plug plates at the telescope f/11 Nasmyth focal surface and organizes the fibers into `shoes' that are used to place the fibers at the image surface of the MSpec spectrographs;, (3) A new wide-field corrector (WFC) that produces high-quality images over a 30 arcmin diameter field; (4) A unit (MCal) mounted near the telescope secondary that provides wavelength and continuum calibration and that supports a key component in a novel automated fiber identification system. We describe the opto-mechanical properties of M2FS, its modes of operation, and its anticipated performance, as well as potential upgrades including the development of a robotic fiber positioner and an atmospheric dispersion corrector. We describe how the M2FS design could serve as the basis of a powerful wide-field, massively multiplexed spectroscopic survey facility.

  11. M2e-Based Universal Influenza A Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Lei; Cho, Ki Joon; Fiers, Walter; Saelens, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    The successful isolation of a human influenza virus in 1933 was soon followed by the first attempts to develop an influenza vaccine. Nowadays, vaccination is still the most effective method to prevent human influenza disease. However, licensed influenza vaccines offer protection against antigenically matching viruses, and the composition of these vaccines needs to be updated nearly every year. Vaccines that target conserved epitopes of influenza viruses would in principle not require such updating and would probably have a considerable positive impact on global human health in case of a pandemic outbreak. The extracellular domain of Matrix 2 (M2e) protein is an evolutionarily conserved region in influenza A viruses and a promising epitope for designing a universal influenza vaccine. Here we review the seminal and recent studies that focused on M2e as a vaccine antigen. We address the mechanism of action and the clinical development of M2e-vaccines. Finally, we try to foresee how M2e-based vaccines could be implemented clinically in the future. PMID:26344949

  12. M2-branes, Einstein Manifolds and Triple Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Figueroa-O'Farrill, Jose Miguel

    2009-12-15

    This is the written version of a talk given on 1 July 2009 at the XXV Max Born Symposium: the Planck Scale, held in Wroclaw, Poland. I review the possible transverse geometries to supersymmetric M2-brane configurations and discuss the representation-theoretic description of their conjectured dual superconformal Chern-Simons theories.

  13. M2-F1 in hangar with Pontiac tow vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    The M2-F1 Lifting Body is seen here in a hangar with its hotrod Pontiac convertible tow vehicle at the Flight Research Center (later the Dryden Flight Research Center), Edwards, California. The car was a 1963 Pontiac Catalina convertible, fitted with a 421-cubic-inch tripower engine like those being run at the Daytona 500 auto race. The vehicle also had a four-speed transmission and a heavy-duty suspension and cooling system. A roll bar was also added and the passenger seat turned around so an observer could watch the M2-F1 while it was being towed. The rear seat was removed and a second, side-facing seat installed. The lifting-body team used the Pontiac for all the ground-tow flights over the next three years. The wingless, lifting body aircraft design was initially conceived as a means of landing an aircraft horizontally after atmospheric reentry. The absence of wings would make the extreme heat of re-entry less damaging to the vehicle. In 1962, Dryden management approved a program to build a lightweight, unpowered lifting body as a prototype to flight test the wingless concept. It would look like a 'flying bathtub,' and was designated the M2-F1, the 'M' referring to 'manned' and 'F' referring to 'flight' version. It featured a plywood shell placed over a tubular steel frame crafted at Dryden. Construction was completed in 1963. The first flight tests of the M2-F1 were over Rogers Dry Lake at the end of a tow rope attached to a hopped-up Pontiac convertible driven at speeds up to about 120 mph. This vehicle needed to be able to tow the M2-F1 on the Rogers Dry Lakebed adjacent to NASA's Flight Research Center (FRC) at a minimum speed of 100 miles per hour. To do that, it had to handle the 400-pound pull of the M2-F1. Walter 'Whitey' Whiteside, who was a retired Air Force maintenance officer working in the FRC's Flight Operations Division, was a dirt-bike rider and hot-rodder. Together with Boyden 'Bud' Bearce in the Procurement and Supply Branch of the FRC, Whitey

  14. Perivascular M2 Macrophages Stimulate Tumor Relapse after Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Russell; Qian, Bin-Zhi; Rowan, Charlotte; Muthana, Munitta; Keklikoglou, Ioanna; Olson, Oakley C.; Tazzyman, Simon; Danson, Sarah; Addison, Christina; Clemons, Mark; Gonzalez-Angulo, Ana Maria; Joyce, Johanna A.; De Palma, Michele; Pollard, Jeffrey W.; Lewis, Claire E.

    2016-01-01

    Tumor relapse after chemotherapy-induced regression is a major clinical problem, because it often involves inoperable metastatic disease. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) are known to limit the cytotoxic effects of chemotherapy in preclinical models of cancer. Here, we report that an alternatively activated (M2) subpopulation of TAMs (MRC1+TIE2HiCXCR4Hi) accumulate around blood vessels in tumors after chemotherapy, where they promote tumor revascularization and relapse, in part, via VEGF-A release. A similar perivascular, M2-related TAM subset was present in human breast carcinomas and bone metastases after chemotherapy. Although a small proportion of M2 TAMs were also present in hypoxic tumor areas, when we genetically ablated their ability to respond to hypoxia via hypoxia-inducible factors 1 and 2, tumor relapse was unaffected. TAMs were the predominant cells expressing immunoreactive CXCR4 in chemotherapy-treated mouse tumors, with the highest levels expressed by MRC1+ TAMs clustering around the tumor vasculature. Furthermore, the primary CXCR4 ligand, CXCL12, was upregulated in these perivascular sites after chemotherapy, where it was selectively chemotactic for MRC1+ TAMs. Interestingly, HMOX-1, a marker of oxidative stress, was also upregulated in perivascular areas after chemotherapy. This enzyme generates carbon monoxide from the breakdown of heme, a gas known to upregulate CXCL12. Finally, pharmacologic blockade of CXCR4 selectively reduced M2-related TAMs after chemotherapy, especially those in direct contact with blood vessels, thereby reducing tumor revascularization and regrowth. Our studies rationalize a strategy to leverage chemotherapeutic efficacy by selectively targeting this perivascular, relapse-promoting M2-related TAM cell population. PMID:26269531

  15. Internal steel structure of M2-F1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    The internal steel structure for the M2-F1 was built at the Flight Research Center (predecessor of the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, CA) in a section of the calibration hangar dubbed 'Wright Bicycle Shop.' Visible are the stick, rudder pedals, and ejection seat. The external wooden shell was attached to the steel structure. The wingless, lifting body aircraft design was initially conceived as a means of landing an aircraft horizontally after atmospheric reentry. The absence of wings would make the extreme heat of re-entry less damaging to the vehicle. In 1962, Dryden management approved a program to build a lightweight, unpowered lifting body as a prototype to flight test the wingless concept. It would look like a 'flying bathtub,' and was designated the M2-F1, the 'M' referring to 'manned' and 'F' referring to 'flight' version. It featured a plywood shell placed over a tubular steel frame crafted at Dryden. Construction was completed in 1963. The first flight tests of the M2-F1 were over Rogers Dry Lake at the end of a tow rope attached to a hopped-up Pontiac convertible driven at speeds up to about 120 mph. This vehicle needed to be able to tow the M2-F1 on the Rogers Dry Lakebed adjacent to NASA's Flight Research Center (FRC) at a minimum speed of 100 miles per hour. To do that, it had to handle the 400-pound pull of the M2-F1. Walter 'Whitey' Whiteside, who was a retired Air Force maintenance officer working in the FRC's Flight Operations Division, was a dirt-bike rider and hot-rodder. Together with Boyden 'Bud' Bearce in the Procurement and Supply Branch of the FRC, Whitey acquired a Pontiac Catalina convertible with the largest engine available. He took the car to Bill Straup's renowned hot-rod shop near Long Beach for modification. With a special gearbox and racing slicks, the Pontiac could tow the 1,000-pound M2-F1 110 miles per hour in 30 seconds. It proved adequate for the roughly 400 car tows that got the M2-F1 airborne to prove it could fly

  16. M2-F2 flight preparation and launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    This movie clip runs about 27 seconds and shows the cockpit canopy close-out by the ground crew, the aircraft hanging from the NB-52B wing pylon, and the M2-F2 being dropped away from the mothership. A fleet of lifting bodies flown at the NASA Flight Research Center (FRC), Edwards, California, from 1963 to l975 demonstrated the ability of pilots to maneuver (in the atmosphere) and safely land a wingless vehicle. These lifting bodies were basically designed so they could fly back to Earth from space and be landed like an aircraft at a pre-determined site. They served as precursors of today's Space Shuttle, the X-33, and the X-38, providing technical and operational engineering data that shaped all three space vehicles. (In 1976 NASA renamed the FRC as the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC) in honor of Hugh L. Dryden.) In 1962, FRC Director Paul Bikle approved a program to build a lightweight, unpowered lifting body as a prototype to flight test the wingless concept. It would look like a 'flying bathtub,' and was designated the M2-F1. Built by Gus Briegleb, a sailplane builder from El Mirage, California, it featured a plywood shell, placed over a tubular steel frame crafted at the FRC. Construction was completed in 1963. The success of Dryden's M2-F1 program led to NASA's development and construction of two heavyweight lifting bodies based on studies at NASA Ames Research Center and NASA and Langley Research Center -- the M2-F2 and the HL-10, both built by the Northrop Corporation, Los Angeles, California. The 'M' refers to 'manned' and 'F' refers to 'flight' version. 'HL' comes from 'horizontal landing' and '10' is for the tenth lifting body model to be investigated by Langley. The first flight of the M2-F2 -- which looked much like the M2-F1 -- occurred on July 12, 1966. Thompson was the pilot. By then, the same B-52 used to air launch the famed X-15 rocket research aircraft had been modified to also carry the lifting bodies into the air and Thompson was

  17. Tyrosine 129 of the Murine Gammaherpesvirus M2 Protein Is Critical for M2 Function In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Rangaswamy, Udaya S.; O’Flaherty, Brigid M.; Speck, Samuel H.

    2014-01-01

    A common strategy shared by all known gammaherpesviruses is their ability to establish a latent infection in lymphocytes – predominantly in B cells. In immunocompromised patients, such as transplant recipients or AIDS patients, gammaherpesvirus infections can lead to the development of lymphoproliferative disease and lymphoid malignancies. The human gamma-herpesviruses, EBV and KSHV, encode proteins that are capable of modulating the host immune signaling machinery, thereby subverting host immune responses. Murine gamma-herpesvirus 68 (MHV68) infection of laboratory strains of mice has proven to be useful small-animal model that shares important pathogenic strategies with the human gamma-herpesviruses. The MHV68 M2 protein is known to manipulate B cell signaling and, dependent on route and dose of virus inoculation, plays a role in both the establishment of latency and virus reactivation. M2 contains two tyrosines that are targets for phosphorylation, and have been shown to interact with the B cell signaling machinery. Here we describe in vitro and in vivo studies of M2 mutants which reveals that while both tyrosines Y120 and Y129 are required for M2 induction of IL-10 expression from primary murine B cells in vitro, only Y129 is critical for reactivation from latency and plasma cell differentiation in vivo. PMID:25122496

  18. Tyrosine 129 of the murine gammaherpesvirus M2 protein is critical for M2 function in vivo.

    PubMed

    Rangaswamy, Udaya S; O'Flaherty, Brigid M; Speck, Samuel H

    2014-01-01

    A common strategy shared by all known gammaherpesviruses is their ability to establish a latent infection in lymphocytes--predominantly in B cells. In immunocompromised patients, such as transplant recipients or AIDS patients, gammaherpesvirus infections can lead to the development of lymphoproliferative disease and lymphoid malignancies. The human gamma-herpesviruses, EBV and KSHV, encode proteins that are capable of modulating the host immune signaling machinery, thereby subverting host immune responses. Murine gamma-herpesvirus 68 (MHV68) infection of laboratory strains of mice has proven to be useful small-animal model that shares important pathogenic strategies with the human gamma-herpesviruses. The MHV68 M2 protein is known to manipulate B cell signaling and, dependent on route and dose of virus inoculation, plays a role in both the establishment of latency and virus reactivation. M2 contains two tyrosines that are targets for phosphorylation, and have been shown to interact with the B cell signaling machinery. Here we describe in vitro and in vivo studies of M2 mutants which reveals that while both tyrosines Y120 and Y129 are required for M2 induction of IL-10 expression from primary murine B cells in vitro, only Y129 is critical for reactivation from latency and plasma cell differentiation in vivo.

  19. Evidence for upper Great Lakes waters in the Erie Basin until 10. 5 ka

    SciTech Connect

    Tinkler, K.J. . Dept. of Geology) Lewis, C.F.M. ); Anderson, T.W. ); Cameron, G.D.M.

    1992-01-01

    Modern recession at Niagara Falls suggests that Erie basin flow alone produces a narrower gorge with recession reduced by an order of magnitude. Gorge interpretations relate dimensions to stages of Great Lakes evolution. A published date of 9.8 ka, for upper river shells at Whirlpool State Park favors an interpretation implying 3.5 kilometers of gorge were cut in the period 12.5 ka to 10.5 ka at a rate of 1.75 m/a, a value consistent with the pre-twentieth century rate of 1.37--1.52 m/a. Erie basin discharge alone would be insufficient to excavate the length of gorge seen. Stratigraphic studies of offshore sediments in lake Erie north-east of Long Point based on seismic profiles and core samples show evidence of lake level change. Following decline of the post-Whittlesey (< 13 ka) southwestward-draining proglacial lakes in the Erie basin and the establishment of Lake Iroquois at about 12.5 ka water levels fell to a control on the Niagara Peninsula. Glacial meltwater continued to pass through the Erie basin until 10.5 ka. Negative shifts in delta O-18 suggest increased meltwater flow through the Erie basin and increased lake level between 11 ka and 10.5 ka. An erosional unconformity, lag sediments, and a distinct former shoreface suggest that lake level subsequently fell in the Long Point area of eastern Lake Erie to about 30m below present by about 10.5 ka when meltwater runoff from the upper Great Lakes by-passed Erie basin. Both the lake cores and the gorge recession are consistent with a computational model of flow out to the Erie basin. According to the model great Lakes outflow, augmented by inflow from Lake Agassiz between 11 to 10.5 ka, would yield shorelines at the height attributed to Lake Tonawanda (180--182m), the immediate source of the Niagara River.

  20. A new potassium ion current induced by stimulation of M2 cholinoreceptors in fish atrial myocytes.

    PubMed

    Abramochkin, Denis V; Tapilina, Svetlana V; Vornanen, Matti

    2014-05-15

    A novel potassium ion current induced by muscarinic stimulation (IKACh2) is characterized in atrial cardiomyocytes of teleost fishes (crucian carp, Carassius carassius; rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss) by means of the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. The current is elicited in atrial, but not ventricular, cells by application of carbamylcholine (CCh) in moderate to high concentrations (10(-7)-10(-4) mol l(-1)). It can be distinguished from the classic IKACh, activated by the βγ-subunit of the Gi-protein, because of its low sensitivity to Ba(2+) ions and distinct current-voltage relationship with a very small inward current component. Ni(2+) ions (5 mmol l(-1)) and KB-R7943 (10(-5) mol l(-1)), non-selective blockers of the sodium-calcium exchange current (INCX), strongly reduced and completely abolished, respectively, the IKACh2. Therefore, IKACh2 was initially regarded as a CCh-induced outward component of the INCX. However, the current is not affected by either exclusion of intracellular Na(+) or extracellular Ca(2+), but is completely abolished by intracellular perfusion with K(+)-free solution. Atropine (10(-6) mol l(-1)), a non-selective muscarinic blocker, completely eliminated the IKACh2. A selective antagonist of M2 cholinoreceptors, AF-DX 116 (2×10(-7) mol l(-1)) and an M3 antagonist, 4-DAMP (10(-9) mol l(-1)), decreased IKACh2 by 84.4% and 16.6%, respectively. Pertussis toxin, which irreversibly inhibits Gi-protein coupled to M2 receptors, reduced the current by 95%, when applied into the pipette solution. It is concluded that IKACh2, induced by stimulation of M2 cholinoceptors and subsequent Gi-protein activation, represents a new molecular target for the cardiac parasympathetic innervation. PMID:24526726

  1. IUE observations of the 'Butterfly' Nebula M2-9

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feibelman, W. A.

    1984-01-01

    IUE observations of the peculiar 'Butterfy' nebula M2-9 indicate that it is not a normal planetary nebula. The ultraviolet spectrum is characterized by few emission lines and a weak continuum. Mg II 2800 A is the strongest emission line present and may be indicative of a binary nucleus. Lines of N v, Q I, N III, N IV, Si III, and C III are seen, but C IV and O III are conspicuous by their absence. T(e) = 10,250 + or - 400 K was determined for the core. Nitrogen in the core is found to be overabundant by about a factor of 5 over the solar value. M2-9 may be an object in the early stages of becoming a planetary nebula.

  2. On relating multiple M2 and D2-branes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gran, U.; Nilsson, B. E. W.; Petersson, C.

    2008-10-01

    Due to the difficulties of finding superconformal Lagrangian theories for multiple M2-branes, we will in this paper instead focus on the field equations. By relaxing the requirement of a Lagrangian formulation we can explore the possibility of having structure constants fABCD satisfying the fundamental identity but which are not totally antisymmetric. We exemplify this discussion by making use of an explicit choice of a non-antisymmetric fABCD constructed from the Lie algebra structure constants fabc of an arbitrary gauge group. Although this choice of fABCD does not admit an obvious Lagrangian description, it does reproduce the correct SYM theory for a stack of N D2-branes to leading order in gYM-1 upon reduction and, moreover, it sheds new light on the centre of mass coordinates for multiple M2-branes.

  3. M2 world ocean tide from tide gauge measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Francis, O.; Mazzega, P. )

    1991-06-01

    An empirical model of the M2 oceanic tide has been computed form the harmonic constants of a subset of deep sea and coastal tide gauge measurements. The optimal interpolation of these data based on inverse theory' uses a priori covariance functions deduced from a global hydrodynamical model. The inverse solution, produced with its associated error maps and samples of error spectra, is surprisingly good when compared to in situ data and to a hydrodynamical model.

  4. COSTAR FOC M1/M2 Mirror Arm Deployment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troeltzsch, John

    1994-01-01

    The following activities will take place during this proposal. 1. Deploy the FOC M2 Mirror Arm. 2. Deploy the FOC M1 Mirror Arm. This test requires a mix of real-time activities performed by the STOCC and stored command activities performed by the STSCI via SMS commanding. The activities in this proposal involve many COSTAR CARD items. This proposal requires careful attention during proposal implementation and execution to ensure the CARD is correctly implemented.

  5. Kinetics of bainite transformation in carburized 4317 M2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chupatanakul, Smati

    The bainite transformation in steels has become increasingly important for industry in recent years. Nevertheless certain aspects the bainite transformation are still not fully understood. Understanding the bainite transformation in 4317 M2 type steels requires a thorough knowledge of the bainite transformation kinetics, the effect of carbon concentration to the kinetics and the understanding of carbon partitioning during the bainite transformation. Austempering experiments were performed in order to study the bainite transformation kinetics in three steels based on 4317 M2 with different carbon contents. The dilatometry technique was used to obtain the dilation as a function of transformation time and temperature. The fraction transformed ( f) was determined as a function of transformation time to generate a TTT diagram. The relationship of Ms temperature as a function of carbon content was determined. For the first time carbon partitioning during the bainite transformation was deduced from the change in Ms as a function of austempering holding time and temperature. The maximum values of carbon content achieved in the residual austenite were determined and compared to the T0 carbon composition calculated from Thermocalc(TM) for each austempering temperature. Excellent agreement was found and the experimental results therefore support the bainite transformation model of shear displacement followed by carbon partitioning. X-ray diffraction, microstructure examination and hardness analysis were used in order to understand the transformation kinetics and optimize processing for case carburized 4317 M2. All the results were compared and analyzed in terms of the carbon concentration gradient in case carburized 4317 M2 steel.

  6. COSTAR Dob/fos m2 Mirror Arm Deployment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troeltzsch, John

    1994-01-01

    This proposal describes the activities needed to deploy the Deployable Optical Bench (DOB) from its stowed position to its operational position and verify that the deployment will not cause damage to the other instruments. The deployment of the DOB is done in two stages in order to prevent contact between the FOS M2 mirror arm and the other structures within the Hub region. If the DOB was deployed directly to the operational position, the FOS M2 mirror could not be deployed safely. An intermediate position is used to allow the arm to clear both the COSTAR enclosure and the other structures within the Hub region. As it is critical that the arm be completely deployed before moving the DOB to the operational position, a set of check images are taken with the FOS just before and after the arm deployment. If the deployment was successful, the FOS will show no signal in the after image. This proposal requires a mix of real-time activities performed by the STOCC and stored command activities performed by the STScI SMS. The implementation of this proposal requires careful attention to the implementation details as deployment of the FOS M2 mirror could result in physical damage to the HST instruments as defined in the CARD.

  7. Photoinducing the hidden M2 phase in VO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walko, D. A.; Smith, R. K.; Wen, Haidan; Dichiara, A. D.; Jeong, Jaewoo; Samant, Mahensh G.; Parkin, Stuart S. P.

    We used time-resolved x-ray diffraction to study photoinduced structural phase transitions in a 170-nm-thick VO2 film grown on sapphire (1,0,-1,0). Heating the unstrained film from room temperature induces the well-known phase transition from the monoclinic (M1) phase directly to the high-temperature tetragonal rutile (R) phase. In contrast, upon ultrafast optical excitation, the phase transition depends strongly on the laser intensity. At low fluences, the film is partially transformed into the monoclinic M2 phase, a phase which generally is observed only in doped or strained materials. Above a threshold at higher fluences, a small portion of the film is transformed into the M2 phase, decaying on a time scale of a few nanoseconds, while the majority of the film is transformed into the R phase which can persist for tens of nanoseconds. We further discuss the effects of laser wavelength on the efficiency of producing the M2 phase. Work at the Advanced Photon Source supported by DOE Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357.

  8. State-of-the-art Model M-2 Maintenance System

    SciTech Connect

    Herndon, J.N.; Martin, H.L.; Satterlee, P.E. Jr.; Jelatis, D.G.; Jennrich, C.E.

    1984-04-01

    The Model M-2 Maintenance System is part of an ongoing program within the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program (CFRP) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to improve remote manipulation technology for future nuclear fuel reprocessing and other remote applications. Techniques, equipment, and guidelines which can improve the efficiency of remote maintenance are being developed. The Model M-2 Maintenance System, installed in the Integrated Equipment Test (IET) Facility at ORNL, provides a complete, integrated remote maintenance system for the demonstration and development of remote maintenance techniques. The system comprises a pair of force-reflecting servomanipulator arms, television viewing, lighting, and auxiliary lifting capabilities, thereby allowing manlike maintenance operations to be executed remotely within the remote cell mockup area in the IET. The Model M-2 Maintenance System incorporates an upgraded version of the proven Central Research Laboratories' Model M servomanipulator. Included are state-of-the-art brushless dc servomotors for improved performance, remotely removable wrist assemblies, geared azimuth drive, and a distributed microprocessor-based digital control system. 5 references, 8 figures.

  9. M2-F1 under tow across lakebed by car

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    This 20-second clip shows the M2-F1 being towed by the Pontiac across Rogers Dry Lakebed. The M2-F1 lifting body, dubbed the 'flying bathtub' by the media, was the precursor of a remarkable series of wingless flying vehicles that contributed data used in the Space Shuttles, the X-33 Advanced Technology Demonstrator for the next century's Reusable Launch Vehicle, and the X-38 Technology Demonstrator for crew return from the International Space Station. Based on the ideas and basic design of Alfred J. Eggers and others at the Ames Aeronautical Laboratory (now the Ames Research Center), Mountain View, California, in the mid-1950's, the M2-F1 was built in 1962-63 over a four-month period for a cost of only about $30,000, plus an additional $8,000-$10,000 for an ejection seat. Engineers and technicians at the NASA Flight Research Center (now NASA Dryden) kept costs low by designing and fabricating it partly in-house, with the plywood shell constructed by a local sailplane builder. Someone at the time estimated that it would have cost a major aircraft company $150,000 to build the same vehicle. Unlike the later lifting bodies, the M2-F1 was unpowered and was initially towed by a souped-up Pontiac convertible until it was airborne. Later a C-47 took over the towing duties. Flown by such famous research pilots as Milt Thompson, Bruce Peterson, Chuck Yeager, and Bill Dana, the lightweight flying bathtub demonstrated that a wingless vehicle shaped for reentry into the Earth's atmosphere from space could be flown and landed safely. Flown from 1963 to 1966, the lightweight M2-F1 paved the way for the heavyweight M2-F2, M2`F3, HL-10, X-24A, and X-24B lifting bodies that flew under rocket power after launch from a B-52 mothership. The heavyweights flew from 1966 to 1975, demonstrating the viability and versatility of the wingless configuration and the ability of a vehicle with low lift-over-drag characteristics to fly to high altitudes and then to land precisely with their

  10. NBC's ``10.5'' May Answer An Age-Old Seismologic Question

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, Andrew V.

    2004-04-01

    There is a new NBC 4-hour miniseries set to air during the May sweeps period (2-3 May) titled simply enough ``10.5.'' No, this is not a sequel to ``9 and ½ weeks'', nor is it a mini-sequel to ``10''. This number instead refers to a mega-earthquake that rocks the west coast of the United States. One may think that the network writers have done their homework and have consulted a geophysicist or two regarding the realism of their program, let alone the title. This is just a short note to comment on their potential folly. I would like to clarify to the network writers, as well as to the non-seismologists in the Earth science community what exactly a magnitude 10.5 earthquake could be, and why, if such were to occur, it may be more than just a west coast problem. Alternatively, NBC may just soon answer an age-old seismologic question...

  11. Regulation of drug sensitivity by ribosomal protein S3a.

    PubMed

    Hu, Z B; Minden, M D; McCulloch, E A; Stahl, J

    2000-02-01

    When bcl-2 is immunoprecipitated from (32)P-labeled cell extracts of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA)-treated acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML) blasts, a phosphorylated protein of approximately 30 kd is coprecipitated. This protein has been identified as ribosomal protein S3a. The biologic effects of S3a include favoring apoptosis and enhancing the malignant phenotype. We sought to determine whether S3a, like bcl-2, influenced the response of cells to chemotherapeutic drugs and ATRA. Cell lines were studied in which S3a was genetically increased or disrupted; increased S3a was regularly associated with increased plating efficiency and increased sensitivity to either cytosine arabinoside (ara-C) or doxorubicin (DNR). S3a did not affect the sensitivity of cells to paclitaxel. Pulse exposures to either (3)HTdR or ara-C showed a greater percentage of clonogenic cells in the S phase of the cell cycle in cells with increased S3a than in controls. Cells with increased S3a responded to ATRA by increased ara-C or DNR sensitivity, whereas cells with reduced S3a protein were either protected by ATRA or not affected. We studied cryopreserved blast cells from patients with AML or chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML). S3a protein levels were heterogeneous in these populations. In 32 cryopreserved blast populations, S3a levels were significantly correlated with both bcl-2 and with cell growth in culture. As in cell lines, high S3a in cryopreserved blasts was associated with ATRA-induced sensitization to ara-C. No significant association was seen between S3a levels and response to treatment. PMID:10648421

  12. Microglial M1/M2 polarization and metabolic states.

    PubMed

    Orihuela, Ruben; McPherson, Christopher A; Harry, Gaylia Jean

    2016-02-01

    Microglia are critical nervous system-specific immune cells serving as tissue-resident macrophages influencing brain development, maintenance of the neural environment, response to injury and repair. As influenced by their environment, microglia assume a diversity of phenotypes and retain the capability to shift functions to maintain tissue homeostasis. In comparison with peripheral macrophages, microglia demonstrate similar and unique features with regards to phenotype polarization, allowing for innate immunological functions. Microglia can be stimulated by LPS or IFN-γ to an M1 phenotype for expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines or by IL-4/IL-13 to an M2 phenotype for resolution of inflammation and tissue repair. Increasing evidence suggests a role of metabolic reprogramming in the regulation of the innate inflammatory response. Studies using peripheral immune cells demonstrate that polarization to an M1 phenotype is often accompanied by a shift in cells from oxidative phosphorylation to aerobic glycolysis for energy production. More recently, the link between polarization and mitochondrial energy metabolism has been considered in microglia. Under these conditions, energy demands would be associated with functional activities and cell survival and thus, may serve to influence the contribution of microglia activation to various neurodegenerative conditions. This review examines the polarization states of microglia and their relationship to mitochondrial metabolism. Additional supporting experimental data are provided to demonstrate mitochondrial metabolic shifts in primary microglia and the BV-2 microglia cell line induced under LPS (M1) and IL-4/IL-13 (M2) polarization.

  13. KIT oncogene inhibition drives intratumoral macrophage M2 polarization

    PubMed Central

    Cavnar, Michael J.; Zeng, Shan; Kim, Teresa S.; Sorenson, Eric C.; Ocuin, Lee M.; Balachandran, Vinod P.; Seifert, Adrian M.; Greer, Jonathan B.; Popow, Rachel; Crawley, Megan H.; Cohen, Noah A.; Green, Benjamin L.; Rossi, Ferdinand; Besmer, Peter; Antonescu, Cristina R.

    2013-01-01

    Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are a major component of the cancer microenvironment. Modulation of TAMs is under intense investigation because they are thought to be nearly always of the M2 subtype, which supports tumor growth. Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) is the most common human sarcoma and typically results from an activating mutation in the KIT oncogene. Using a spontaneous mouse model of GIST and 57 freshly procured human GISTs, we discovered that TAMs displayed an M1-like phenotype and function at baseline. In both mice and humans, the KIT oncoprotein inhibitor imatinib polarized TAMs to become M2-like, a process which involved TAM interaction with apoptotic tumor cells leading to the induction of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP) transcription factors. In human GISTs that eventually developed resistance to imatinib, TAMs reverted to an M1-like phenotype and had a similar gene expression profile as TAMs from untreated human GISTs. Therefore, TAM polarization depends on tumor cell oncogene activity and has important implications for immunotherapeutic strategies in human cancers. PMID:24323358

  14. M2K Planet Search: Spectroscopic Screening and Transit Photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, Andrew; Gaidos, E.; Fischer, D.; Lepine, S.

    2010-10-01

    The M2K project is a search for planets orbiting nearby early M and late K dwarf drawn from the SUPERBLINK catalog. M and K dwarfs are highly attractive targets for finding low-mass and habitable planets because (1) close-in planets are more likely to orbit within their habitable zone, (2) planets orbiting them induce a larger Doppler signal and have deeper transits than similar planets around F, G, and early K type stars, (3) planet formation models predict they hold an abundance of super-Earth sized planets, and (4) they represent the vast majority of the stars close enough for direct imaging techniques. In spite of this, only 10% of late K and early M dwarfs are being monitored by current Doppler surveys. As part of the M2K project we have obtained low-resolution spectra for more than 2000 of our sample of 10,000 M and K dwarfs. We vet our sample by screening these stars for high metallicity and low chromospheric activity. We search for transits on targets showing high RMS Doppler signal and photometry candidates provided by SuperWASP project. By using "snapshot” photometry have been able to achieve sub-millimag photometry on numerous transit targets in the same night. With further follow-up observations we will be able to detect planets smaller than 10 Earth masses.

  15. Vortex loop operators, M2-branes and holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drukker, Nadav; Gomis, Jaume; Young, Donovan

    2009-03-01

    We construct vortex loop operators in the three-dimensional Script N = 6 supersymmetric Chern-Simons theory recently constructed by Aharony, Bergman, Jafferis and Maldacena. These disorder loop operators are specified by a vortex-like singularity for the scalar and gauge fields along a one dimensional curve in spacetime. We identify the 1/2, 1/3 and 1/6 BPS loop operators in the Chern-Simons theory with excitations of M-theory corresponding to M2-branes ending along a curve on the boundary of AdS4 × S7/Bbb Zk. The vortex loop operators can also be given a purely geometric description in terms of regular ``bubbling'' solutions of eleven dimensional supergravity which are asymptotically AdS4 × S7/Bbb Zk.

  16. Astrometry and photometry in the globular cluster M2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cudworth, Kyle M.; Rauscher, Bernard J.

    1987-04-01

    Proper motions and photometry have been obtained for 301 stars down to V = about 16 in the region of the globular cluster M2. Membership probabilities derived from the proper motions show that over 200 of these stars are highly probable cluster members, including a number of UV-bright stars. A few stars suspected of being field stars in a recent dynamical study of the cluster of Pryor et al. (1986) are confirmed to be nonmembers. The internal proper-motion dispersion has been detected and is clearly isotropic out to about 3 arcmin from the cluster center. The proper-motion and radial-velocity dispersions have been equated to yield a distance of 11.0 + or - 1.7 kpc independent of any standard-candle assumptions. An accurate position of the cluster center has been measured that differs markedly from that found by Shawl and White (1986). A large space velocity has been derived for the cluster.

  17. Polarimetry of R Aqr and PN M2-9

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarro, Silvana G.; Sabin, Laurence; Ramírez Vélez; , Julio; Hiriart, David

    2014-08-01

    The bipolar or more complex morphology observed in planetary nebulae have been explained by two principal hypothesis: by the existence of a companion and an accreting disk or by the effects of magnetic field, (or a combination of both). Symbiotics are binary systems and some of them show morphologies similar to those observed on planetary nebulae. This fact could support the binary hypothesis for PNe. We have therefore performed polarimetric observations of symbiotic systems and some planetary nebulae in order, first to detect linear polarisation with POLIMA at the San Pedro Mártir observatory, and ultimately to prove the existence and physical properties of those disks. We present here the first results of a project dedicated to the analysis of the polarisation observed in evolved objects starting with the PN M2-9 and R Aqr.

  18. Parkin Regulates the Activity of Pyruvate Kinase M2*

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Kun; Li, Fanzhou; Han, Haichao; Chen, Yue; Mao, Zebin; Luo, Jianyuan; Zhao, Yingming; Zheng, Bin; Gu, Wei; Zhao, Wenhui

    2016-01-01

    Parkin, a ubiquitin E3 ligase, is mutated in most cases of autosomal recessive early onset Parkinson disease. It was discovered that Parkin is also mutated in glioblastoma and other human malignancies and that it inhibits tumor cell growth. Here, we identified pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) as a unique substrate for parkin through biochemical purification. We found that parkin interacts with PKM2 both in vitro and in vivo, and this interaction dramatically increases during glucose starvation. Ubiquitylation of PKM2 by parkin does not affect its stability but decreases its enzymatic activity. Parkin regulates the glycolysis pathway and affects the cell metabolism. Our studies revealed the novel important roles of parkin in tumor cell metabolism and provided new insight for therapy of Parkinson disease. PMID:26975375

  19. Amino acid motifs in natural products: synthesis of O-acylated derivatives of (2S,3S)-3-hydroxyleucine

    PubMed Central

    Ries, Oliver; Büschleb, Martin; Granitzka, Markus; Stalke, Dietmar

    2014-01-01

    Summary (2S,3S)-3-Hydroxyleucine can be found in an increasing number of bioactive natural products. Within the context of our work regarding the total synthesis of muraymycin nucleoside antibiotics, we have developed a synthetic approach towards (2S,3S)-3-hydroxyleucine building blocks. Application of different protecting group patterns led to building blocks suitable for C- or N-terminal derivatization as well as for solid-phase peptide synthesis. With respect to according motifs occurring in natural products, we have converted these building blocks into 3-O-acylated structures. Utilizing an esterification and cross-metathesis protocol, (2S,3S)-3-hydroxyleucine derivatives were synthesized, thus opening up an excellent approach for the synthesis of bioactive natural products and derivatives thereof for structure activity relationship (SAR) studies. PMID:24991264

  20. Discrete functions of M2a and M2c macrophage subsets determine their relative efficacy in treating chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Lu, Junyu; Cao, Qi; Zheng, Dong; Sun, Yan; Wang, Changqi; Yu, Xiao; Wang, Ya; Lee, Vincent W S; Zheng, Guoping; Tan, Thian K; Wang, Xin; Alexander, Stephen I; Harris, David C H; Wang, Yiping

    2013-10-01

    Two types of alternatively activated macrophages, M(2a) induced by IL-4/IL-13 and M(2c) by IL-10/TGF-β, exhibit anti-inflammatory functions in vitro and protect against renal injury in vivo. Since their relative therapeutic efficacy is unclear, we compared the effects of these two macrophage subsets in murine adriamycin nephrosis. Both subsets significantly reduced renal inflammation and renal injury; however, M(2c) macrophages more effectively reduced glomerulosclerosis, tubular atrophy, interstitial expansion, and proteinuria than M(2a) macrophages. The M(2c) macrophages were also more effective than M(2a) in reduction of macrophage and CD4(+) T-cell infiltration in kidney. Moreover, nephrotic mice treated with M(2c) had a greater reduction in renal fibrosis than those treated with M(2a). M(2c) but not M(2a) macrophages induced regulatory T cells (Tregs) from CD4(+)CD25(-) T cells in vitro, and increased Treg numbers in local draining lymph nodes of nephrotic mice. To determine whether the greater protection with M(2c) was due to their capability to induce Tregs, the Tregs were depleted by PC61 antibody in nephrotic mice treated with M(2a) or M(2c). Treg depletion diminished the superior effects of M(2c) compared to M(2a) in protection against renal injury, inflammatory infiltrates, and renal fibrosis. Thus, M(2c) are more potent than M(2a) macrophages in protecting against renal injury due to their ability to induce Tregs.

  1. Two Virasoro symmetries in stringy warped AdS3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Compère, Geoffrey; Guica, Monica; Rodriguez, Maria J.

    2014-12-01

    We study three-dimensional consistent truncations of type IIB supergravity which admit warped AdS3 solutions. These theories contain subsectors that have no bulk dynamics. We show that the symplectic form for these theories, when restricted to the non-dynamical subsectors, equals the symplectic form for pure Einstein gravity in AdS3. Consequently, for each consistent choice of boundary conditions in AdS3, we can define a consistent phase space in warped AdS3 with identical conserved charges. This way, we easily obtain a Virasoro × Virasoro asymptotic symmetry algebra in warped AdS3; two different types of Virasoro × Kač-Moody symmetries are also consistent alternatives.

  2. Annexin A5 Promoter Haplotype M2 Is Not a Risk Factor for Recurrent Pregnancy Loss in Northern Europe

    PubMed Central

    Rull, Kristiina; Christiansen, Ole B.; Nielsen, Henriette S.; Laan, Maris

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Annexin A5 is an essential component of placental integrity that may potentially mediate susceptibility to phenotypes of compromised pregnancy. A promoter haplotype termed M2 of the coding gene ANXA5 has been implicated in various pregnancy complications such as preeclampsia and recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL), however with inconclusive results. Study subjects and methods A retrospective case-control study combining resequencing and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis was undertaken in 313 women with unexplained RPL and 214 fertile women from Estonia and Denmark to estimate the RPL disease risk of the M2 haplotype in Northern Europe. Comparative prevalence of the studied ANXA5 genetic variants in human populations was estimated based on the 1000 Genomes Project (n = 675, whole-genome sequencing data) and the KORA S3 500K dataset of South German samples (n = 1644, genome-wide genotyping data). Results Minor allele frequency of common polymorphisms in ANXA5 promoter was up to two-fold lower among Estonian RPL subjects than fertile controls. The M2 haplotype was not associated with RPL and a trend for decreased prevalence was observed among RPL patients compared to controls both in Estonia (8.1% vs 15.2%, respectively) and Denmark (9.7% vs 12.6%). The high M2 prevalence in fertile controls was consistent with estimations for European and East Asian populations (9.6%-16.0%). Conclusions This study cautions to consider the M2 haplotype as a deterministic factor in early pregnancy success because: i) no RPL disease risk was associated with the haplotype in two clinically well-characterized RPL case-control study samples, ii) high prevalence of the haplotype among fertile controls and world-wide populations is inconsistent with the previously proposed severe impact on early pregnancy success, iii) weak impact of M2 haplotype on the production of ANXA5 protein has been established by others. PMID:26135579

  3. The rise and fall of Lake Bonneville between 45 and 10.5 ka

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benson, L.V.; Lund, S.P.; Smoot, J.P.; Rhode, D.E.; Spencer, R.J.; Verosub, K.L.; Louderback, L.A.; Johnson, C.A.; Rye, R.O.; Negrini, R.M.

    2011-01-01

    A sediment core taken from the western edge of the Bonneville Basin has provided high-resolution proxy records of relative lake-size change for the period 45.1-10.5 calendar ka (hereafter ka). Age control was provided by a paleomagnetic secular variation (PSV)-based age model for Blue Lake core BL04-4. Continuous records of ??18O and total inorganic carbon (TIC) generally match an earlier lake-level envelope based on outcrops and geomorphic features, but with differences in the timing of some hydrologic events/states. The Stansbury Oscillation was found to consist of two oscillations centered on 25 and 24 ka. Lake Bonneville appears to have reached its geomorphic highstand and began spilling at 18.5 ka. The fall from the highstand to the Provo level occurred at 17.0 ka and the lake intermittently overflowed at the Provo level until 15.2 ka, at which time the lake fell again, bottoming out at ~14.7 ka. The lake also fell briefly below the Provo level at ~15.9 ka. Carbonate and ??18O data indicate that between 14.7 and 13.1 ka the lake slowly rose to the Gilbert shoreline and remained at about that elevation until 11.6 ka, when it fell again. Chemical and sedimentological data indicate that a marsh formed in the Blue Lake area at 10.5 ka.Relatively dry periods in the BL04-4 records are associated with Heinrich events H1-H4, suggesting that either the warming that closely followed a Heinrich event increased the evaporation rate in the Bonneville Basin and (or) that the core of the polar jet stream (PJS) shifted north of the Bonneville Basin in response to massive losses of ice from the Laurentide Ice Sheet (LIS) during the Heinrich event. The second Stansbury Oscillation occurred during Heinrich event H2, and the Gilbert wet event occurred during the Younger Dryas cold interval. Several relatively wet events in BL04-4 occur during Dansgaard-Oeschger (DO) warm events.The growth of the Bear River glacier between 32 and 17 ka paralleled changes in the values of proxy

  4. 10.5% efficient polymer and amorphous silicon hybrid tandem photovoltaic cell.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeehwan; Hong, Ziruo; Li, Gang; Song, Tze-bin; Chey, Jay; Lee, Yun Seog; You, Jingbi; Chen, Chun-Chao; Sadana, Devendra K; Yang, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Thin-film solar cells made with amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) or organic semiconductors are considered as promising renewable energy sources due to their low manufacturing cost and light weight. However, the efficiency of single-junction a-Si:H or organic solar cells is typically <10%, insufficient for achieving grid parity. Here we demonstrate an efficient double-junction photovoltaic cell by employing an a-Si:H film as a front sub-cell and a low band gap polymer:fullerene blend film as a back cell on planar glass substrates. Monolithic integration of 6.0% efficienct a-Si:H and 7.5% efficient polymer:fullerene blend solar cells results in a power conversion efficiency of 10.5%. Such high-efficiency thin-film tandem cells can be achieved by optical management and interface engineering of fully optimized high-performance front and back cells without sacrificing photovoltaic performance in both cells. PMID:25736823

  5. Pyruvate kinase M2 is a phosphotyrosine-binding protein

    SciTech Connect

    Christofk, H.R.; Vander Heiden, M.G.; Wu, N.; Asara, J.M.; Cantley, L.C.

    2008-06-03

    Growth factors stimulate cells to take up excess nutrients and to use them for anabolic processes. The biochemical mechanism by which this is accomplished is not fully understood but it is initiated by phosphorylation of signalling proteins on tyrosine residues. Using a novel proteomic screen for phosphotyrosine-binding proteins, we have made the observation that an enzyme involved in glycolysis, the human M2 (fetal) isoform of pyruvate kinase (PKM2), binds directly and selectively to tyrosine-phosphorylated peptides. We show that binding of phosphotyrosine peptides to PKM2 results in release of the allosteric activator fructose-1,6-bisphosphate, leading to inhibition of PKM2 enzymatic activity. We also provide evidence that this regulation of PKM2 by phosphotyrosine signalling diverts glucose metabolites from energy production to anabolic processes when cells are stimulated by certain growth factors. Collectively, our results indicate that expression of this phosphotyrosine-binding form of pyruvate kinase is critical for rapid growth in cancer cells.

  6. Sum rules for M2 and other cases

    SciTech Connect

    Kurath, D.

    1995-08-01

    Sum rules were derived for parity-changing operators consisting of an odd-l spherical harmonic coupled to the spin operator sigma. The conditions are that the valence nucleons are in the oscillator shell with Q quanta and the shell with Q-1 quanta is full and the shell with Q+1 quanta is empty. Thus this applies to the 1p, 2sd and 3pf as valence shells, where the sum rules would be useful for inelastic electron scattering and other reactions. In particular a complete M2 sum rule was derived including the weak contribution from the orbital operator. The contribution from the spurious center-of-mass motion was also derived. The expression was tested by comparing to summations of transition strengths given by shell-model calculations. For nuclei with mass greater than {approximately}A = 70 one would need to include the effect of the intruding level with Q+1 quanta and J = Q+3/2. This problem will be considered in the coming year.

  7. Elastic and electronic properties of select M2AX phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lofland, S. E.; Hettinger, J. D.; Harrell, K.; Finkel, P.; Gupta, S.; Barsoum, M. W.; Hug, G.

    2004-01-01

    In this letter we report on the low-temperature specific heat of several M2AX phases: Ti2AlC, V2AlC, V2AsC, Nb2SnC, Ti2AlN, Hf2InC, Nb2AlC, and Cr2AlC. The Debye temperatures are quite high. The density of states at the Fermi level, N(EF) varies from ≈1.4 (eV formula unit)-1 to 6 (eV formula unit)-1. Ab initio calculations show that N(EF) is dictated by the transition metal d-d bands; the A-group element has little effect. We also measured the velocity of sound in V2AlC, V2AsC, Ti2AlC, and Ti2AlN. The average bulk modulus of these materials is over 100 GPa, with a high of ≈140 GPa for Ti2AlN. Our theoretical calculations correctly predict the trend in both the density of states and the bulk modulus, although there is some disagreement in the actual values.

  8. Human pyruvate kinase M2: a multifunctional protein.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Vibhor; Bamezai, Rameshwar N K

    2010-11-01

    Glycolysis, a central metabolic pathway, harbors evolutionary conserved enzymes that modulate and potentially shift the cellular metabolism on requirement. Pyruvate kinase, which catalyzes the last but rate-limiting step of glycolysis, is expressed in four isozymic forms, depending on the tissue requirement. M2 isoform (PKM2) is exclusively expressed in embryonic and adult dividing/tumor cells. This tetrameric allosterically regulated isoform is intrinsically designed to downregulate its activity by subunit dissociation (into dimer), which results in partial inhibition of glycolysis at the last step. This accumulates all upstream glycolytic intermediates as an anabolic feed for synthesis of lipids and nucleic acids, whereas reassociation of PKM2 into active tetramer replenishes the normal catabolism as a feedback after cell division. In addition, involvement of this enzyme in a variety of pathways, protein-protein interactions, and nuclear transport suggests its potential to perform multiple nonglycolytic functions with diverse implications, although multidimensional role of this protein is as yet not fully explored. This review aims to provide an overview of the involvement of PKM2 in various physiological pathways with possible functional implications. PMID:20857498

  9. S3D: An interactive surface grid generation tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luh, Raymond Ching-Chung; Pierce, Lawrence E.; Yip, David

    1992-01-01

    S3D, an interactive software tool for surface grid generation, is described. S3D provides the means with which a geometry definition based either on a discretized curve set or a rectangular set can be quickly processed towards the generation of a surface grid for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) applications. This is made possible as a result of implementing commonly encountered surface gridding tasks in an environment with a highly efficient and user friendly graphical interface. Some of the more advanced features of S3D include surface-surface intersections, optimized surface domain decomposition and recomposition, and automated propagation of edge distributions to surrounding grids.

  10. Exact relations between M2-brane theories with and without orientifolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honda, Masazumi

    2016-06-01

    We study partition functions of low-energy effective theories of M2-branes, whose type IIB brane constructions include orientifolds. We mainly focus on circular quiver superconformal Chern-Simons theory on S 3, whose gauge group is O(2 N + 1) × USp(2 N ) × ···× O(2 N +1)×USp(2 N). This theory is the natural generalization of the mathcal{N} = 5 ABJM theory with the gauge group O(2 N + 1)2 k × USp(2 N )- k . We find that the partition function of this type of theory has a simple relation to the one of the M2-brane theory without the orientifolds, whose gauge group is U( N ) × · · · × U( N ). By using this relation, we determine an exact form of the grand partition function of the O(2 N +1)2 ×USp(2 N )-1 ABJM theory, where its supersymmetry is expected to be enhanced to mathcal{N} = 6. As another interesting application, we discuss that our result gives a natural physical interpretation of a relation between the grand partition functions of the U( N + 1)4 × U( N )-4 ABJ theory and U( N )2 × U( N )-2 ABJM theory, recently conjectured by Grassi-Hatsuda-Mariño. We also argue that partition functions of  3 quiver theories have representations in terms of an ideal Fermi gas systems associated with widehat{D} -type quiver theories and this leads an interesting relation between certain U( N ) and USp(2 N ) supersymmetric gauge theories.

  11. Effect of 10.5 M Aqueous Urea on Helicobacter pylori Urease: A Molecular Dynamics Study.

    PubMed

    Minkara, Mona S; Weaver, Michael N; Merz, Kenneth M

    2015-07-01

    The effects of a 10.5 M solution of aqueous urea on Helicobacter pylori urease were investigated over the course of a 500 ns molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. The enzyme was solvated by 25321 water molecules, and additionally, 4788 urea molecules were added to the solution. Although concentrated urea solutions are known laboratory denaturants, the protein secondary structure is retained throughout the simulation largely because of the short simulation time (urea denaturation occurs on the millisecond time scale). The relatively constant solvent accessible surface area over the last 400 ns of the simulation further confirms the overall lack of denaturation. The wide-open flap state observed previously in Klebsiella areogenes urease [Roberts, B. P., et al. (2012) J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134, 9934] and H. pylori [Minkara, M. S., et al. (2014) J. Chem. Theory Comput. 10, 1852-1862] was also identified in this aqueous urea simulation. Over the course of the trajectory, we were able to observe urea molecules entering the active site in proportions related to the extent of opening of the active site-covering flap. Furthermore, urea molecules were observed to approach the pentacoordinate Ni(2+) ion in position to bind in a manner consistent with the proposed initial coordination step of the hydrolysis mechanism. We also observed a specific and unique pattern in the regions of the protein with a high root-mean-square fluctuation (rmsf). The high-rmsf regions in the β-chain form a horseshoelike arrangement surrounding the active site-covering flap on the surface of the protein. We hypothesize that the function of these regions is to both attract and shuttle urea toward the loop of the active site-covering flap before entry into the cavity. Indeed, urea is observed to interact with these regions for extended periods of simulation time before active site ingress.

  12. Superstring theory in AdS(3) and plane waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, John Sang Won

    This thesis is devoted to the study of string theory in AdS 3 and its applications to recent developments in string theory. The difficulties associated with formulating a consistent string theory in AdS3 and its underlying SL(2, R) WZW model are explained. We describe how these difficulties can be overcome by assuming that the SL(2, R) WZW model contains spectral flow symmetry. The existence of spectral flow symmetry in the fully quantum treatment is proved by a calculation of the one-loop string partition function. We consider Euclidean AdS 3 with the time direction periodically identified, and compute the torus partition function in this background. The string spectrum can be reproduced by viewing the one-loop calculation as the free energy of a gas of strings, thus providing a rigorous proof of the results based on spectral flow arguments. Next, we turn to spacetimes that are quotients of AdS 3, which include the BTZ black hole and conical spaces. Strings propagating in the conical space are described by taking an orbifold of strings in AdS3. We show that the twisted states of these orbifolds can be obtained by fractional spectral flow. We show that the shift in the ground state energy usually associated with orbifold twists is absent in this case, and offer a unified framework in which to view spectral flow. Lastly, we consider the RNS superstrings in AdS 3 x S3 x M , where M may be K3 or T 4, based on supersymmetric extensions of SL(2, R) and SU(2) WZW models. We construct the physical states and calculate the spectrum. A subsector of this theory describes strings propagating in the six dimensional plane wave obtained by the Penrose limit of AdS3 x S3 x M . We reproduce the plane wave spectrum by taking J and the radius to infinity. We show that the plane wave spectrum actually coincides with the large J spectrum at fixed radius, i.e. in AdS3 x S3. Relation to some recent topics of interest such as the Frolov-Tseytlin string and strings with critical tension

  13. 12 CFR Appendix M2 to Part 226 - Actual Repayment Disclosures

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Actual Repayment Disclosures M2 Appendix M2 to Part 226 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM TRUTH IN LENDING (REGULATION Z) Pt. 226, App. M2 Appendix M2 to Part 226—Actual...

  14. Rates of E1, E2, M1, and M2 transitions in Ni II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassidy, C. M.; Hibbert, A.; Ramsbottom, C. A.

    2016-03-01

    Aims: We present rates for all E1, E2, M1, and M2 transitions among the 295 fine-structure levels of the configurations 3d9, 3d84s, 3d74s2, 3d84p, and 3d74s4p, determined through an extensive configuration interaction calculation. Methods: The CIV3 code developed by Hibbert and coworkers is used to determine for these levels configuration interaction wave functions with relativistic effects introduced through the Breit-Pauli approximation. Results: Two different sets of calculations have been undertaken with different 3d and 4d functions to ascertain the effect of such variation. The main body of the text includes a representative selection of data, chosen so that key points can be discussed. Some analysis to assess the accuracy of the present data has been undertaken, including comparison with earlier calculations and the more limited range of experimental determinations. The full set of transition data is given in the supplementary material as it is very extensive. Conclusions: We believe that the present transition data are the best currently available. Full Table 4 and Tables 5-8 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/587/A107

  15. Mitochondrial Ultrastructural Alterations and Declined M2 Receptor Density Were Involved in Cardiac Dysfunction in Rats after Long Term Treatment with Autoantibodies against M2 Muscarinic Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jin; Wang, Li; Wu, Ye; Wang, Jie; Lv, Tingting; Liu, Huirong

    2015-01-01

    Background Previous studies showed that autoantibodies (M2-AA) against the second extracellular loop of M2 muscarinic receptor (M2AChR-el2) from dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) serum could induce DCM-like morphological changes in mice hearts. However, the effects of M2-AA on the cardiac function during the process of DCM and the potential mechanisms are not fully known. The present study was designed to dynamically observe the cardiac function, mitochondrial changes, and M2 receptor binding characteristics in rats long-term stimulated with M2-AA in vivo. Methods M2-AA-positive model was established by actively immunizing healthy male Wistar rats with synthetic M2AChR-el2 peptide for 18 months. Meanwhile, vehicle group rats were administrated with physiological saline. The change of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) was detected by radionuclide imaging. The ultrastructure of mitochondria was observed under electron microscopy. The M2 receptor binding characteristics were determined by radioactive ligand binding assay. Results After immunization for 12 months, compared with vehicle group, M2AChR-el2-immunized rats showed decreased myocardial contractility and cardiac diastolic function evidenced by declined maximal rate of rise of ventricular pressure and increased left ventricular end-diastolic pressure, respectively. Additionally, mitochondrial swelling and vacuolation were observed. At 18 months, M2AChR-el2-immunized rats manifested significant decreased cardiac systolic and diastolic function and pathological changes such as enlargement of right ventricular cavity and wall thinning; and the mitochondrial damage was aggravated. Furthermore, the M2 receptor maximum binding capacity (Bmax) of the M2AChR-el2-immunized rats significantly decreased, while the M2 receptor dissociation constant (Kd) was increased. Conclusions Our study suggested that long-term stimulation with M2-AA leaded to the ventricular dilatation and gradual deterioration of cardiac dysfunction

  16. Dressing phases of AdS3/CFT2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borsato, Riccardo; Ohlsson Sax, Olof; Sfondrini, Alessandro; Stefański, Bogdan, Jr.; Torrielli, Alessandro

    2013-09-01

    We determine the all-loop dressing phases of the AdS3/CFT2 integrable system related to type IIB string theory on AdS3×S3×T4 by solving the recently found crossing relations and studying their singularity structure. The two resulting phases present a novel structure with respect to the ones appearing in AdS5/CFT4 and AdS4/CFT3. In the strongly coupled regime, their leading order reduces to the universal Arutyunov-Frolov-Staudacher phase as expected. We also compute their subleading order and compare it with recent one-loop perturbative results and comment on their weak-coupling expansion.

  17. Crystal splitting in the growth of Bi2S3.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jing; Alivisatos, A Paul

    2006-12-01

    Bi2S3 nanostructures with a sheaflike morphology are obtained via reaction of bismuth acetate-oleic acid complex with elemental sulfur in 1-octadecence. These structures may form by the splitting crystal growth mechanism, which is known to account for the morphology some mineral crystals assume in nature. By control of the synthetic parameters, different shapes are obtained, analogous to those which have been observed to occur by crystal splitting in minerals. These new and complex Bi2S3 nanostructures are characterized by transmission and scanning electron microscopy, and electron and X-ray diffraction.

  18. Photocatalytic Au-Bi2S3 heteronanostructures.

    PubMed

    Manna, Goutam; Bose, Riya; Pradhan, Narayan

    2014-06-23

    Au-Bi2S3 heteronanostructure photocatalysts were designed in which the coupling of a metal plasmon and a semiconductor exciton aids the absorption of solar light, enhances charge separation, and results in improved catalytic activity. Furthermore, these nanostructures show a unique pattern of structural combination, with Au nanoparticles positioned at the center of Bi2S3 nanorods. The chemistry of formation of these nanostructures, their epitaxy at the junction, and their photoconductance were studied, as well as their photoresponse properties. PMID:24844409

  19. Passive permeability of salicylic acid in renal proximal S2 and S3 tubules

    SciTech Connect

    Chatton, J.Y.; Roch-Ramel, F. )

    1991-03-01

    The role of nonionic diffusion in the transport of salicylic acid across rabbit proximal S2 and S3 segments was investigated using the in vitro isolated perfused tubule technique. The ({sup 14}C) salicylic acid apparent reabsorptive permeability (P'I-b, 10(-5) cm/s) was measured at 19 degrees C with luminal solutions kept at different pH and bath maintained at pH 7.4. In S2 tubules, P'I-b was 25.0 +/- 3.5 when luminal pH was 6.0; P'I-b decreased to 8.1 +/- 1.4 and to 4.4 +/- 1.2 at a luminal pH of 6.5 and 7.0, respectively. In S3 tubules, P'I-b was 17.6 +/- 2.4, 5.3 +/- 1.1 and 3.4 +/- 1.1 at a luminal pH of 6.0, 6.5 and 7.0, respectively. There was a close correlation between P'I-b and the calculated proportion of nonionized salicylic acid present at each pH, indicating that only the nonionized molecule could diffuse in our conditions. We calculated the apparent permeability of nonionic salicylic acid and found 0.248 +/- 0.032 cm/s for S2 and 0.176 +/- 0.022 cm/s for S3 tubules. These calculated permeabilities were independent of pH.

  20. Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM), Investment & Planing Version 3.10.5.m

    2014-04-01

    Version 3.10.5 is a multi-year Decision Support tool for Distributed Generation (DG). DER-CAM was initially created as an exclusively economic energy model, able to find the cost minimizing combination and operation profile of a set of DER technologies that meet heat and electric loads of a single building or microgrid for a typical test year. Now, version 3.10.5.m solves for a multiple-year horizon the technology choice question, the appropriate capacity for each selected technology asmore » well as the operational and investment schedule. Optimized investment decisions are based on techno-economic criteria, along with site information such as energy loads, economic forecast, and technology characterization. Version 3.10.5 contains: 1. a PV and battery degradation model and 2. variable performance for technologies. Efficiency, investment costs, etc. can vary over time and model technology breakthroughs and advancements.« less

  1. Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM), Investment & Planing Version 3.10.5.m

    SciTech Connect

    2014-04-01

    Version 3.10.5 is a multi-year Decision Support tool for Distributed Generation (DG). DER-CAM was initially created as an exclusively economic energy model, able to find the cost minimizing combination and operation profile of a set of DER technologies that meet heat and electric loads of a single building or microgrid for a typical test year. Now, version 3.10.5.m solves for a multiple-year horizon the technology choice question, the appropriate capacity for each selected technology as well as the operational and investment schedule. Optimized investment decisions are based on techno-economic criteria, along with site information such as energy loads, economic forecast, and technology characterization. Version 3.10.5 contains: 1. a PV and battery degradation model and 2. variable performance for technologies. Efficiency, investment costs, etc. can vary over time and model technology breakthroughs and advancements.

  2. Conserved charges in timelike warped AdS3 spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donnay, L.; Fernández-Melgarejo, J. J.; Giribet, G.; Goya, A.; Lavia, E.

    2015-06-01

    We consider the timelike version of warped anti-de Sitter space (WAdS), which corresponds to the three-dimensional section of the Gödel solution of four-dimensional cosmological Einstein equations. This geometry presents closed timelike curves (CTCs), which are inherited from its four-dimensional embedding. In three dimensions, this type of solution can be supported without matter provided the graviton acquires mass. Here, among the different ways to consistently give mass to the graviton in three dimensions, we consider the parity-even model known as new massive gravity (NMG). In the bulk of timelike WAdS3 space, we introduce defects that, from the three-dimensional point of view, represent spinning massive particlelike objects. For this type of source, we investigate the definition of quasilocal gravitational energy as seen from infinity, far beyond the region where the CTCs appear. We also consider the covariant formalism applied to NMG to compute the mass and the angular momentum of spinning particlelike defects and compare the result with the one obtained by means of the quasilocal stress tensor. We apply these methods to special limits in which the WAdS3 solutions coincide with locally AdS3 and locally AdS2×R spaces. Finally, we make some comments about the asymptotic symmetry algebra of asymptotically WAdS3 spaces in NMG.

  3. Superconductivity in semimetallic Bi3O2S3

    DOE PAGES

    Li, L.; Parker, D.; Babkevich, P.; Yang, L.; Ronnow, H. M.; Sefat, A. S.

    2015-03-12

    We report in this paper a further investigation on the thermodynamic and transport properties, and an assessment of theoretical calculations, for the BiS2-layered Bi3O2S3 superconductor. The polycrystalline sample is synthesized with a superconducting transition temperature of Tconset=5.75K and Tczero=4.03K (≈Tcmag) that drops to 3.3 K by applying a hydrostatic pressure of 6 kbar. Density-of-states (DOS) calculations give substantial hybridization between Bi, O, and S, with Bi the largest component of DOS, which supports the idea that the BiS2 layer is relevant for producing electron-phonon coupling. An analysis of previously published specific heat data for Bi3O2S3 is additionally suggestive of amore » strong electron-phonon interaction in the Bi-O-S system. The analysis of the Seebeck coefficient results strongly suggests that Bi3O2S3 is a semimetal. In fact, we found the semimetallic or narrow band gap behavior may occur in certain other materials in the BiS2-layered class of materials, such as Bi4O4S3.« less

  4. Motion-to-Energy (M2Eâ„¢) Power Generation Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Idaho National Laboratory

    2008-05-30

    INL researchers developed M2E, a new technology that converts motion to energy. M2E uses an innovative, optimized microgenerator with power management circuitry that kinetically charges mobile batteries from natural motion such as walking. To learn more,

  5. Novel Randall-Sundrum model with S3 flavor symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández, A. E. Cárcamo; Varzielas, I. de Medeiros; Neill, Nicolás A.

    2016-08-01

    We propose a simple and predictive model of fermion masses and mixing in a warped extra dimension, with the smallest discrete non-Abelian group S3 and the discrete symmetries Z2⊗Z4 . Standard Model fields propagate in the bulk, and the mass hierarchies and mixing angles are accounted for the fermion zero modes localization profiles, similar to the Randall-Sundrum model. To the best of our knowledge, this model is the first implementation of an S3 flavor symmetry in this type of warped extra dimension framework. Our model successfully describes the fermion masses and mixing pattern and is consistent with the current low energy fermion flavor data. The discrete flavor symmetry in our model leads to predictive mixing inspired textures, where the Cabibbo mixing arises from the down-type quark sector, whereas the up-type quark sector contributes to the remaining mixing angles.

  6. Semiclassical Virasoro blocks from AdS3 gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hijano, Eliot; Kraus, Per; Perlmutter, Eric; Snively, River

    2015-12-01

    We present a unified framework for the holographic computation of Virasoro conformal blocks at large central charge. In particular, we provide bulk constructions that correctly reproduce all semiclassical Virasoro blocks that are known explicitly from conformal field theory computations. The results revolve around the use of geodesic Witten diagrams, recently introduced in [1], evaluated in locally AdS3 geometries generated by backreaction of heavy operators. We also provide an alternative computation of the heavy-light semiclassical block — in which two external operators become parametrically heavy — as a certain scattering process involving higher spin gauge fields in AdS3; this approach highlights the chiral nature of Virasoro blocks. These techniques may be systematically extended to compute corrections to these blocks and to interpolate amongst the different semiclassical regimes.

  7. On information loss in AdS3/CFT2

    DOE PAGES

    Fitzpatrick, A. Liam; Kaplan, Jared; Li, Daliang; Wang, Junpu

    2016-05-18

    We discuss information loss from black hole physics in AdS3, focusing on two sharp signatures infecting CFT2 correlators at large central charge c: ‘forbidden singularities’ arising from Euclidean-time periodicity due to the effective Hawking temperature, and late-time exponential decay in the Lorentzian region. We study an infinite class of examples where forbidden singularities can be resolved by non-perturbative effects at finite c, and we show that the resolution has certain universal features that also apply in the general case. Analytically continuing to the Lorentzian regime, we find that the non-perturbative effects that resolve forbidden singularities qualitatively change the behavior ofmore » correlators at times t ~SBH, the black hole entropy. This may resolve the exponential decay of correlators at late times in black hole backgrounds. By Borel resumming the 1/c expansion of exact examples, we explicitly identify ‘information-restoring’ effects from heavy states that should correspond to classical solutions in AdS3. Lastly, our results suggest a line of inquiry towards a more precise formulation of the gravitational path integral in AdS3.« less

  8. Automatic detection of artifacts in converted S3D video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bokov, Alexander; Vatolin, Dmitriy; Zachesov, Anton; Belous, Alexander; Erofeev, Mikhail

    2014-03-01

    In this paper we present algorithms for automatically detecting issues specific to converted S3D content. When a depth-image-based rendering approach produces a stereoscopic image, the quality of the result depends on both the depth maps and the warping algorithms. The most common problem with converted S3D video is edge-sharpness mismatch. This artifact may appear owing to depth-map blurriness at semitransparent edges: after warping, the object boundary becomes sharper in one view and blurrier in the other, yielding binocular rivalry. To detect this problem we estimate the disparity map, extract boundaries with noticeable differences, and analyze edge-sharpness correspondence between views. We pay additional attention to cases involving a complex background and large occlusions. Another problem is detection of scenes that lack depth volume: we present algorithms for detecting at scenes and scenes with at foreground objects. To identify these problems we analyze the features of the RGB image as well as uniform areas in the depth map. Testing of our algorithms involved examining 10 Blu-ray 3D releases with converted S3D content, including Clash of the Titans, The Avengers, and The Chronicles of Narnia: The Voyage of the Dawn Treader. The algorithms we present enable improved automatic quality assessment during the production stage.

  9. Influenza M2 Transmembrane Domain Senses Membrane Heterogeneity and Enhances Membrane Curvature.

    PubMed

    Ho, Chian Sing; Khadka, Nawal K; She, Fengyu; Cai, Jianfeng; Pan, Jianjun

    2016-07-01

    Targeting host cell membranes by M2 of influenza A virus is important for virus invasion and replication. We study the transmembrane domain of M2 (M2TM) interacting with mica-supported planar bilayers and free-standing giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs). Using solution atomic force microscopy (AFM), we show that the size of M2TM oligomers is dependent on lipid composition. The addition of M2TM to lipid bilayers containing liquid-ordered (Lo) and liquid-disordered (Ld) phases reveals that M2TM preferentially partitions into the Ld phase; phase-dependent partitioning results in a larger rigidity of the Ld phase. We next use fluorescence microscopy to study the effects of M2TM on phase-coexisting GUVs. In particular, M2TM is found to increase GUVs' miscibility transition temperature Tmix. The augmented thermodynamic stability can be accounted for by considering an enhanced energy barrier of lipid mixing between coexisting phases. Our GUV study also shows that M2TM can elicit an array of vesicle shapes mimicking virus budding. M2TM enhanced membrane curvature is consistent with our AFM data, which show altered membrane rigidity and consequently line tension at domain edges. Together, our results highlight that in addition to conducting protons, M2TM can actively regulate membrane heterogeneity and augment membrane curvature. PMID:27285399

  10. Understanding the Mysterious M2 Macrophage through Activation Markers and Effector Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Rőszer, Tamás

    2015-01-01

    The alternatively activated or M2 macrophages are immune cells with high phenotypic heterogeneity and are governing functions at the interface of immunity, tissue homeostasis, metabolism, and endocrine signaling. Today the M2 macrophages are identified based on the expression pattern of a set of M2 markers. These markers are transmembrane glycoproteins, scavenger receptors, enzymes, growth factors, hormones, cytokines, and cytokine receptors with diverse and often yet unexplored functions. This review discusses whether these M2 markers can be reliably used to identify M2 macrophages and define their functional subdivisions. Also, it provides an update on the novel signals of the tissue environment and the neuroendocrine system which shape the M2 activation. The possible evolutionary roots of the M2 macrophage functions are also discussed. PMID:26089604

  11. Effects of bimetallic doping on small cyclic and tubular boron clusters: B7M2 and B14M2 structures with M = Fe, Co.

    PubMed

    Pham, Hung Tan; Nguyen, Minh Tho

    2015-07-14

    Using density functional theory with the TPSSh functional and the 6-311+G(d) basis set, we extensively searched for the global minima of two metallic atoms doped boron clusters B6M2, B7M2, B12M2 and B14M2 with transition metal element M being Co and Fe. Structural identifications reveal that B7Co2, B7Fe2 and B7CoFe clusters have global minima in a B-cyclic motif, in which a perfectly planar B7 is coordinated with two metallic atoms placed along the C7 axis. The B6 cluster is too small to form a cycle with the presence of two metals. Similarly, the B12 cluster is not large enough to stabilize the metallic dimer within a double ring 2 × B6 tube. The doped B14M2 clusters including B14Co2, B14Fe2 and B14CoFe have a double ring 2 × B7 tubular shape in which one metal atom is encapsulated by the B14 tube and the other is located at an exposed position. Dissociation energies demonstrate that while bimetallic cyclic cluster B7M2 prefers a fragmentation channel that generates the B7 global minimum plus metallic dimer, the tubular structure B14M2 tends to dissociate giving a bimetallic cyclic structure B7M2 and a B@B6 cluster. The enhanced stability of the bimetallic doped boron clusters considered can be understood from the stabilizing interactions between the anti-bonding MOs of metal-metal dimers and the levels of a disk aromatic configuration (for bimetallic cyclic structures), or the eigenstates of the B14 tubular form (in case of bimetallic tubular structure).

  12. Magellan/M2FS Spectroscopy of the Reticulum 2 Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Matthew G.; Mateo, Mario; Olszewski, Edward W.; Bailey, John I., III; Koposov, Sergey E.; Belokurov, Vasily; Evans, N. Wyn

    2015-08-01

    We present results from spectroscopic observations with the Michigan/Magellan Fiber System (M2FS) of 182 stellar targets along the line of sight (LOS) to the newly discovered “ultrafaint” object Reticulum 2 (Ret 2). For 37 of these targets, the spectra are sufficient to provide simultaneous estimates of LOS velocity ({v}{los}, median random error {δ }{v{los}}=1.4 km s‑1), effective temperature ({T}{eff}, {δ }{T{eff}}=478 K), surface gravity ({log}g, {δ }{logg}=0.63 dex), and iron abundance ([{Fe}/{{H}}], {δ }[{Fe/{{H}}]}=0.47 dex). We use these results to confirm 17 stars as members of Ret 2. From the member sample we estimate a velocity dispersion of {σ }{v{los}}= {3.6}-0.7+1.0 km s‑1 about a mean of < {v}{los}> = {64.3}-1.2+1.2 km s‑1 in the solar rest frame (∼ -90.9 km s‑1 in the Galactic rest frame), and a metallicity dispersion of {σ }[{Fe/{{H}}]} = {0.49}-0.14+0.19 dex about a mean of < [{Fe}/{{H}}]> = -{2.58}-0.33+0.34. These estimates marginalize over possible velocity and metallicity gradients, which are consistent with zero. Our results place Ret 2 on chemodynamical scaling relations followed by the Milky Way’s dwarf-galactic satellites. Under assumptions of dynamic equilibrium and negligible contamination from binary stars—both of which must be checked with deeper imaging and repeat spectroscopic observations—the estimated velocity dispersion suggests a dynamical mass of M({R}{{h}})≈ 5{R}{{h}}{σ }{v{los}}{}2/(2G) = {2.4}-0.8+1.4× {10}5 {M}ȯ enclosed within projected halflight radius {R}{{h}}∼ 32 pc, with mass-to-light ratio ≈ 2M({R}{{h}})/{L}V = {467}-168+286 in solar units. This paper presents data gathered with the Magellan Telescopes at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile.

  13. Secret symmetries of type IIB superstring theory on Ad{{S}_{3}} × {{S}^{3}} × {{M}^{4}}

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pittelli, Antonio; Torrielli, Alessandro; Wolf, Martin

    2014-11-01

    We establish features of so-called Yangian secret symmetries for AdS3 type IIB superstring backgrounds, thus verifying the persistence of such symmetries to this new instance of the AdS/CFT correspondence. Specifically, we find two a priori different classes of secret symmetry generators. One class of generators, anticipated from the previous literature, is more naturally embedded in the algebra governing the integrable scattering problem. The other class of generators is more elusive and somewhat closer in its form to its higher-dimensional AdS5 counterpart. All of these symmetries respect left-right crossing. In addition, by considering the interplay between left and right representations, we gain a new perspective on the AdS5 case. We also study the RTT-realisation of the Yangian in AdS3 backgrounds, thus establishing a new incarnation of the Beisert-de Leeuw construction.

  14. On the spectrum of AdS3 × S 3 × T 4 strings with Ramond-Ramond flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borsato, Riccardo; Ohlsson Sax, Olof; Sfondrini, Alessandro; Stefański, Bogdan, Jr.

    2016-10-01

    We analyze the spectrum of perturbative closed strings on {{AdS}}3× {S}3× {T}4 with Ramond-Ramond flux using integrable methods. By solving the crossing equations we determine the massless and mixed-mass dressing factors of the worldsheet S matrix and derive the Bethe equations. Using these, we construct the underlying integrable spin chain and show that it reproduces the reducible spin chain conjectured at weak coupling in Olof Ohlsson S, Bogdan S Jr and Torrielli A 2013 (arXiv:1211.1952). We find that the string-theory massless modes are described by gapless excitations of the spin chain. The resulting degeneracy of vacua matches precisely the protected supergravity spectrum found by de Boer.

  15. Novel Markers to Delineate Murine M1 and M2 Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Jablonski, Kyle A.; Amici, Stephanie A.; Webb, Lindsay M.; Ruiz-Rosado, Juan de Dios; Popovich, Phillip G.; Partida-Sanchez, Santiago; Guerau-de-Arellano, Mireia

    2015-01-01

    Classically (M1) and alternatively activated (M2) macrophages exhibit distinct phenotypes and functions. It has been difficult to dissect macrophage phenotypes in vivo, where a spectrum of macrophage phenotypes exists, and also in vitro, where low or non-selective M2 marker protein expression is observed. To provide a foundation for the complexity of in vivo macrophage phenotypes, we performed a comprehensive analysis of the transcriptional signature of murine M0, M1 and M2 macrophages and identified genes common or exclusive to either subset. We validated by real-time PCR an M1-exclusive pattern of expression for CD38, G-protein coupled receptor 18 (Gpr18) and Formyl peptide receptor 2 (Fpr2) whereas Early growth response protein 2 (Egr2) and c-Myc were M2-exclusive. We further confirmed these data by flow cytometry and show that M1 and M2 macrophages can be distinguished by their relative expression of CD38 and Egr2. Egr2 labeled more M2 macrophages (~70%) than the canonical M2 macrophage marker Arginase-1, which labels 24% of M2 macrophages. Conversely, CD38 labeled most (71%) in vitro M1 macrophages. In vivo, a similar CD38+ population greatly increased after LPS exposure. Overall, this work defines exclusive and common M1 and M2 signatures and provides novel and improved tools to distinguish M1 and M2 murine macrophages. PMID:26699615

  16. β-Adrenergic-stimulated macrophages: Comprehensive localization in the M1-M2 spectrum.

    PubMed

    Lamkin, Donald M; Ho, Hsin-Yun; Ong, Tiffany H; Kawanishi, Carly K; Stoffers, Victoria L; Ahlawat, Nivedita; Ma, Jeffrey C Y; Arevalo, Jesusa M G; Cole, Steve W; Sloan, Erica K

    2016-10-01

    β-Adrenergic signaling can regulate macrophage involvement in several diseases and often produces anti-inflammatory properties in macrophages, which are similar to M2 properties in a dichotomous M1 vs. M2 macrophage taxonomy. However, it is not clear that β-adrenergic-stimulated macrophages may be classified strictly as M2. In this in vitro study, we utilized recently published criteria and transcriptome-wide bioinformatics methods to map the relative polarity of murine β-adrenergic-stimulated macrophages within a wider M1-M2 spectrum. Results show that β-adrenergic-stimulated macrophages did not fit entirely into any one pre-defined category of the M1-M2 spectrum but did express genes that are representative of some M2 side categories. Moreover, transcript origin analysis of genome-wide transcriptional profiles located β-adrenergic-stimulated macrophages firmly on the M2 side of the M1-M2 spectrum and found active suppression of M1 side gene transcripts. The signal transduction pathways involved were mapped through blocking experiments and bioinformatics analysis of transcription factor binding motifs. M2-promoting effects were mediated specifically through β2-adrenergic receptors and were associated with CREB, C/EBPβ, and ATF transcription factor pathways but not with established M1-M2 STAT pathways. Thus, β-adrenergic-signaling induces a macrophage transcriptome that locates on the M2 side of the M1-M2 spectrum but likely accomplishes this effect through a signaling pathway that is atypical for M2-spectrum macrophages. PMID:27485040

  17. Lie algebra extensions of current algebras on S3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kori, Tosiaki; Imai, Yuto

    2015-06-01

    An affine Kac-Moody algebra is a central extension of the Lie algebra of smooth mappings from S1 to the complexification of a Lie algebra. In this paper, we shall introduce a central extension of the Lie algebra of smooth mappings from S3 to the quaternization of a Lie algebra and investigate its root space decomposition. We think this extension of current algebra might give a mathematical tool for four-dimensional conformal field theory as Kac-Moody algebras give it for two-dimensional conformal field theory.

  18. Single mode operation with mid-IR hollow fibers in the range 5.1-10.5 µm.

    PubMed

    Sampaolo, Angelo; Patimisco, Pietro; Kriesel, Jason M; Tittel, Frank K; Scamarcio, Gaetano; Spagnolo, Vincenzo

    2015-01-12

    Single mode beam delivery in the mid-infrared spectral range 5.1-10.5 μm employing flexible hollow glass waveguides of 15 cm and 50 cm lengths, with metallic/dielectric internal layers and a bore diameter of 200 μm were demonstrated. Three quantum cascade lasers were coupled with the hollow core fibers. For a fiber length of 15 cm, we measured losses down to 1.55 dB at 5.4 μm and 0.9 dB at 10.5 μm. The influence of the launch conditions in the fiber on the propagation losses and on the beam profile at the waveguide exit was analyzed. At 10.5 µm laser wavelength we found near perfect agreement between measured and theoretical losses, while at ~5 µm and ~6 µm wavelengths the losses were higher than expected. This discrepancy can be explained considering an additional scattering loss effect, which scales as 1/λ(2) and is due to surface roughness of the metallic layer used to form the high-reflective internal layer structure of the hollow core waveguide. PMID:25835666

  19. Trends in M2M Application Services Based on a Smart Phone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Jae Young; Song, Jae-Gu; Hwang, Dae-Joon; Kim, Seoksoo

    M2M, which stands for communications between machines, offers various services today thanks to advanced communication networks and sensor systems. Also, a powerful terminal such as a smart phone provides sufficient physical environments, not requiring a special device for the services. However, the smart phone M2M environment involves various complex technologies, and there have been no clear policies or standards for the technology. This study, therefore, analyzes the current status of M2M service introduction and the trends in M2M application services using a smart phone.

  20. MicroRNA-720 suppresses M2 macrophage polarization by targeting GATA3.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Yan; Yi, Chun

    2016-08-01

    Macrophages are highly plastic cells with the ability to differentiate into both M1- and M2-polarized phenotypes. As a distinct M2-polarized population, tumour-associated macrophages (TAMs) promote tumorigenesis owing to their pro-angiogenic and immune-suppressive functions in tumour microenvironment. In the present study, we found that the microRNA-720 (miR-720) was down-regulated in TAMs isolated from breast carcinomas and M2-polarization macrophages. Overexpression of miR-720 attenuated M2 phenotype expression and thus inhibited M2 polarization. We further identified GATA binding protein 3 (GATA3), a transcriptional factor that plays an important role in M2 macrophage polarization, was the downstream target of miR-720 Ectopic expression of GATA3 restored the M2 phenotype in miR-720 overexpressed macrophages. Importantly, overexpression of miR-720 inhibited pro-migration behaviour and phagocytic ability of M2-polarized macrophages. Thus, our data suggest that miR-720 plays an important role in regulating M2 macrophage polarization and function.

  1. MicroRNA-720 suppresses M2 macrophage polarization by targeting GATA3

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Yan; Yi, Chun

    2016-01-01

    Macrophages are highly plastic cells with the ability to differentiate into both M1- and M2-polarized phenotypes. As a distinct M2-polarized population, tumour-associated macrophages (TAMs) promote tumorigenesis owing to their pro-angiogenic and immune-suppressive functions in tumour microenvironment. In the present study, we found that the microRNA-720 (miR-720) was down-regulated in TAMs isolated from breast carcinomas and M2-polarization macrophages. Overexpression of miR-720 attenuated M2 phenotype expression and thus inhibited M2 polarization. We further identified GATA binding protein 3 (GATA3), a transcriptional factor that plays an important role in M2 macrophage polarization, was the downstream target of miR-720. Ectopic expression of GATA3 restored the M2 phenotype in miR-720 overexpressed macrophages. Importantly, overexpression of miR-720 inhibited pro-migration behaviour and phagocytic ability of M2-polarized macrophages. Thus, our data suggest that miR-720 plays an important role in regulating M2 macrophage polarization and function. PMID:27354564

  2. Protection against Influenza A Virus Challenge with M2e-Displaying Filamentous Escherichia coli Phages

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Lei; Ibañez, Lorena Itatí; Van den Bossche, Veronique; Roose, Kenny; Youssef, Sameh A.; de Bruin, Alain; Fiers, Walter; Saelens, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Human influenza viruses are responsible for annual epidemics and occasional pandemics that cause severe illness and mortality in all age groups worldwide. Matrix protein 2 (M2) of influenza A virus is a tetrameric type III membrane protein that functions as a proton-selective channel. The extracellular domain of M2 (M2e) is conserved in human and avian influenza A viruses and is being pursued as a component for a universal influenza A vaccine. To develop a M2e vaccine that is economical and easy to purify, we genetically fused M2e amino acids 2–16 to the N-terminus of pVIII, the major coat protein of filamentous bacteriophage f88. We show that the resulting recombinant f88−M2e2-16 phages are replication competent and display the introduced part of M2e on the phage surface. Immunization of mice with purified f88−M2e2-16 phages in the presence of incomplete Freund’s adjuvant, induced robust M2e-specific serum IgG and protected BALB/c mice against challenge with human and avian influenza A viruses. Thus, replication competent filamentous bacteriophages can be used as efficient and economical carriers to display conserved B cell epitopes of influenza A. PMID:25973787

  3. Serum from patients with systemic vasculitis induces alternatively activated macrophage M2c polarization.

    PubMed

    Ohlsson, Susanne M; Linge, Carl Petrus; Gullstrand, Birgitta; Lood, Christian; Johansson, Asa; Ohlsson, Sophie; Lundqvist, Andrea; Bengtsson, Anders A; Carlsson, Fredric; Hellmark, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody associated vasculitides (AAV) are conditions defined by an autoimmune small vessel inflammation. Dying neutrophils are found around the inflamed vessels and the balance between infiltrating neutrophils and macrophages is important to prevent autoimmunity. Here we investigate how sera from AAV patients may regulate macrophage polarization and function. Macrophages from healthy individuals were differentiated into M0, M1, M2a, M2b or M2c macrophages using a standardized protocol, and phenotyped according to their expression surface markers and cytokine production. These phenotypes were compared with those of macrophages stimulated with serum from AAV patients or healthy controls. While the healthy control sera induced a M0 macrophage, AAV serum promoted polarization towards the M2c subtype. No sera induced M1, M2a or M2b macrophages. The M2c subtype showed increased phagocytosis capacity compared with the other subtypes. The M2c polarization found in AAV is consistent with previous reports of increased levels of M2c-associated cytokines.

  4. Doxycycline inhibits polarization of macrophages to the proangiogenic M2-type and subsequent neovascularization.

    PubMed

    He, Lizhi; Marneros, Alexander G

    2014-03-21

    Macrophages occur along a continuum of functional states between M1-type polarized macrophages with antiangiogenic and antitumor activity and M2-type polarized macrophages, which have been implicated to promote angiogenesis and tumor growth. Proangiogenic M2-type macrophages promote various pathologic conditions, including choroidal neovascularization in models of neovascular age-related macular degeneration, or certain cancers, such as glioblastoma multiforme. Thus, a potential novel therapeutic approach to target pathological angiogenesis in these conditions would be to inhibit the polarization of macrophages toward the proangiogenic M2-type. However, no pharmacological inhibitors of M2-type macrophage polarization have been identified yet. Here we performed an unbiased pharmacological and small chemical screen to identify drugs that inhibit proangiogenic M2-type macrophage polarization and block pathologic macrophage-driven neovascularization. We identified the well tolerated and commonly used antibiotic doxycycline as a potent inhibitor of M2-type polarization of macrophages. Doxycycline inhibited, in a dose-dependent manner, M2-type polarization of human and bone marrow-derived mouse macrophages without affecting cell viability. Furthermore, doxycycline inhibited M2-type macrophage polarization and subsequent neovascularization in vivo in a laser injury model of choroidal neovascularization. Thus, doxycycline could be used to enhance current antiangiogenic treatment approaches in various conditions that are promoted by proangiogenic M2-type macrophages, including neovascular age-related macular degeneration and certain cancers.

  5. A Novel Vaccine Using Nanoparticle Platform to Present Immunogenic M2e against Avian Influenza Infection

    PubMed Central

    Babapoor, Sankhiros; Neef, Tobias; Mittelholzer, Christian; Girshick, Theodore; Garmendia, Antonio; Shang, Hongwei; Khan, Mazhar I.; Burkhard, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Using peptide nanoparticle technology, we have designed two novel vaccine constructs representing M2e in monomeric (Mono-M2e) and tetrameric (Tetra-M2e) forms. Groups of specific pathogen free (SPF) chickens were immunized intramuscularly with Mono-M2e or Tetra-M2e with and without an adjuvant. Two weeks after the second boost, chickens were challenged with 107.2 EID50 of H5N2 low pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) virus. M2e-specific antibody responses to each of the vaccine constructs were tested by ELISA. Vaccinated chickens exhibited increased M2e-specific IgG responses for each of the constructs as compared to a non-vaccinated group. However, the vaccine construct Tetra-M2e elicited a significantly higher antibody response when it was used with an adjuvant. On the other hand, virus neutralization assays indicated that immune protection is not by way of neutralizing antibodies. The level of protection was evaluated using quantitative real time PCR at 4, 6, and 8 days post-challenge with H5N2 LPAI by measuring virus shedding from trachea and cloaca. The Tetra-M2e with adjuvant offered statistically significant (P < 0.05) protection against subtype H5N2 LPAI by reduction of the AI virus shedding. The results suggest that the self-assembling polypeptide nanoparticle shows promise as a potential platform for a development of a vaccine against AI. PMID:23074652

  6. Electrical conductivity studies in (Ag3AsS3)x(As2S3)1-x superionic glasses and composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Studenyak, I. P.; Neimet, Yu. Yu.; Kranjčec, M.; Solomon, A. M.; Orliukas, A. F.; Kežionis, A.; Kazakevičius, E.; Šalkus, T.

    2014-01-01

    Compositional, frequency, and temperature studies of impedance and electrical conductivity in (Ag3AsS3)x(As2S3)1-x superionic glasses and composites were performed. Frequency range from 10 Hz to 3 × 109 Hz and temperature interval 300-400 K were used for the measurements. Compositional dependences of electrical conductivity and activation energy are analyzed; the most substantial changes are observed with the transition from (Ag3AsS3)0.4(As2S3)0.6 glass to (Ag3AsS3)0.5(As2S3)0.5 composite. With increase of Ag3AsS3 content, the investigated materials are found to have crystalline inclusions and show the two-phase composite nature. Addition of Ag3AsS3 leads to the increase of electrical conductivity whereas the activation energy decreases.

  7. Entanglement temperature and perturbed AdS3 geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levine, G. C.; Caravan, B.

    2016-06-01

    Generalizing the first law of thermodynamics, the increase in entropy density δ S (x ) of a conformal field theory (CFT) is proportional to the increase in energy density, δ E (x ) , of a subsystem divided by a spatially dependent entanglement temperature, TE(x ) , a fixed parameter determined by the geometry of the subsystem, crossing over to thermodynamic temperature at high temperatures. In this paper we derive a generalization of the thermodynamic Clausius relation, showing that deformations of the CFT by marginal operators are associated with spatial temperature variations, δ TE(x ) , and spatial energy correlations play the role of specific heat. Using AdS/CFT duality we develop a relationship between a perturbation in the local entanglement temperature of the CFT and the perturbation of the bulk AdS metric. In two dimensions, we demonstrate a method through which direct diagonalizations of the boundary quantum theory may be used to construct geometric perturbations of AdS3 .

  8. Accelerating S3D: A GPGPU case study

    SciTech Connect

    Spafford, Kyle L; Meredith, Jeremy S; Vetter, Jeffrey S; Chen, Jackie; Grout, Ray W; Sankaran, Ramanan

    2009-01-01

    The graphics processor (GPU) has evolved into an appealing choice for high performance computing due to its superior memory bandwidth, raw processing power, and flexible programmability. As such, GPUs represent an excellent platform for accelerating scientific applications. This paper explores a methodology for identifying applications which present significant potential for acceleration. In particular, this work focuses on experiences from accelerating S3D, a high-fidelity turbulent reacting flow solver. The acceleration process is examined from a holistic viewpoint, and includes details that arise from different phases of the conversion. This paper also addresses the issue of floating point accuracy and precision on the GPU, a topic of immense importance to scientific computing. Several performance experiments are conducted, and results are presented from the NVIDIA Tesla C1060 GPU. We generalize from our experiences to provide a roadmap for deploying existing scientific applications on heterogeneous GPU platforms.

  9. Superconformal algebras on the boundary of AdS3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasmussen, Jørgen

    1999-07-01

    Motivated by recent progress on the correspondence between string theory on nti-de Sitter space and conformal field theory, we provide an explicit construction of an infinite dimensional class of superconformal algebras on the boundary of AdS3. These space-time algebras are N extended superconformal algebras of the kind obtainable by hamiltonian reduction of affine SL(2|N/2) current superalgebras for N even, and are induced by the same current superalgebras residing on the world sheet. Thus, such an extended superconformal algebra is generated by N supercurrents and an SL(N/2) current algebra in addition to a U(1) current algebra. The results are obtained within the framework of free field realizations.

  10. Field theory on R× S 3 topology. VI: Gravitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmeli, M.; Malin, S.

    1987-04-01

    We extend to curved space-time the field theory on R×S3 topology in which field equations were obtained for scalar particles, spin one-half particles, the electromagnetic field of magnetic moments, an SU2 gauge theory, and a Schrödinger-type equation, as compared to ordinary field equations that are formulated on a Minkowskian metric. The theory obtained is an angular-momentum representation of gravitation. Gravitational field equations are presented and compared to the Einstein field equations, and the mathematical and physical similarity and differences between them are pointed out. The problem of motion is discussed, and the equations of motion of a rigid body are developed and given explicitly. One result which is worth emphazing is that while general relativity theory yields Newton's law of motion in the lowest approximation, our theory gives Euler's equations of motion for a rigid body in its lowest approximation.

  11. Phonological Substitution Errors in L2 ASL Sentence Processing by Hearing M2L2 Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Joshua; Newman, Sharlene

    2016-01-01

    In the present study we aimed to investigate phonological substitution errors made by hearing second language (M2L2) learners of American Sign Language (ASL) during a sentence translation task. Learners saw sentences in ASL that were signed by either a native signer or a M2L2 learner. Learners were to simply translate the sentence from ASL to…

  12. A Study on M2M-based System for Hygienic Meteorology Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Jae-Gu; Ahn, Jae Young; Kim, Seoksoo

    M2M proposes a standardized communications technology between network and devices. This study has designed an M2M-based system to smoothly deliver information between devices which were required to provide hygienic meteorology services. Especially, an efficient plan for service provision has been studied, by classifying the types of information at each stage of user, EM, SM, HSM and SPM.

  13. Identity Crisis: CD301b(+) Mononuclear Phagocytes Blur the M1-M2 Macrophage Line.

    PubMed

    Knudsen, Nelson H; Lee, Chih-Hao

    2016-09-20

    Obesity shifts the immune phenotype from M2 macrophage polarization to M1, which causes metabolic dysfunction. In this issue of Immunity, Kumamoto et al. (2016) identify a tissue-resident mononuclear phagocyte population that promotes weight gain and glucose intolerance but are defined by the M2 marker CD301b. PMID:27653596

  14. Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibition attenuates hypoxic cancer cells induced m2-polarization of macrophages.

    PubMed

    Dubey, P; Shrivastava, R; Tripathi, C; Jain, N K; Tewari, B N; Lone, M-U-D; Baghel, K S; Kumar, V; Misra, S; Bhadauria, S; Bhatt, M L B

    2014-09-12

    Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs), represent a major subpopulation of tumor infiltrating immune cells. These alternatively activated M2-polarized macrophages are well known for their pro-tumor functions. Owing to their established role in potentiating tumor-neovasculogenesis and metastasis, TAMs have emerged as promising target for anti-cancer immunotherapy. One of the key TAMs related phenomenon that is amenable to therapeutic intervention is their phenotype switching into alternatively activated M2-polarized macrophages. Hindering macrophage polarization towards a pro-tumor M2 phenotype, or better still reprogramming the M2 like TAMs towards M1 subtype is being considered a beneficial anti-cancer strategy. Hypoxic tumor milieu has been proposed as one of the most plausible factor governing M2-polarization of macrophages. We recently demonstrated that hypoxic tumor cells imparted a pro—angiogenic M2 skewed phenotype to macrophages. Furthermore, sizeable body of data indicates for participation of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in macrophage polarization. Concordantly, inhibition of COX-2 is associated with impaired macrophage polarization. Prompted by this in the current study we decided to explore if inhibition of COX-2 activity via chemical inhibitors may prevent hypoxic cancer cell induced M2-polarization of macrophages. We observed that treatment with Flunixin meglumine, an established preferential inhibitor of COX-2 activity markedly inhibited hypoxic cancer cell induced of M2-polarization of macrophages thereby indicating for usage of COX-2 inhibition as possible anti-cancer treatment modality.

  15. Identity Crisis: CD301b(+) Mononuclear Phagocytes Blur the M1-M2 Macrophage Line.

    PubMed

    Knudsen, Nelson H; Lee, Chih-Hao

    2016-09-20

    Obesity shifts the immune phenotype from M2 macrophage polarization to M1, which causes metabolic dysfunction. In this issue of Immunity, Kumamoto et al. (2016) identify a tissue-resident mononuclear phagocyte population that promotes weight gain and glucose intolerance but are defined by the M2 marker CD301b.

  16. Inhibition of Influenza M2-Induced Cell Death Alleviates Its Negative Contribution to Vaccination Efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Ilyinskii, Petr O.; Gambaryan, Alexandra S.; Meriin, Anatoli B.; Gabai, Vladimir; Kartashov, Alex; Thoidis, Galini; Shneider, Alexander M.

    2008-01-01

    The effectiveness of recombinant vaccines encoding full-length M2 protein of influenza virus or its ectodomain (M2e) have previously been tested in a number of models with varying degrees of success. Recently, we reported a strong cytotoxic effect exhibited by M2 on mammalian cells in vitro. Here we demonstrated a decrease in protection when M2 was added to a DNA vaccination regimen that included influenza NP. Furthermore, we have constructed several fusion proteins of conserved genes of influenza virus and tested their expression in vitro and protective potential in vivo. The four-partite NP-M1-M2-NS1 fusion antigen that has M2 sequence engineered in the middle part of the composite protein was shown to not be cytotoxic in vitro. A three-partite fusion protein (consisting of NP, M1 and NS1) was expressed much more efficiently than the four-partite protein. Both of these constructs provided statistically significant protection upon DNA vaccination, with construct NP-M1-M2-NS1 being the most effective. We conclude that incorporation of M2 into a vaccination regimen may be beneficial only when its apparent cytotoxicity-linked negative effects are neutralized. The possible significance of this data for influenza vaccination regimens and preparations is discussed. PMID:18197240

  17. Establishing a Research Center: The Minority Male Community College Collaborative (M2C3)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, J. Luke; Urias, Marissa Vasquez; Harris, Frank, III

    2016-01-01

    This chapter describes the establishment of the Minority Male Community College Collaborative (M2C3), a research and practice center at San Diego State University. M2C3 partners with community colleges across the United States to enhance access, achievement, and success among men of color. This chapter begins with a description of the national…

  18. Notch signaling regulates M2 type macrophage polarization during the development of proliferative vitreoretinopathy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingjing; Zhou, Qingjun; Yuan, Gongqiang; Dong, Muchen; Shi, Weiyun

    2015-01-01

    Macrophages play an important role in the pathogenesis of proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR). M2 macrophages can promote tissue remodeling and repair. In this study, CD206 positive M2 type macrophages were found in preretinal fibrous membranes of the mouse model of PVR induced by the intravitreal injection of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells. Notch signaling determines M2 macrophage polarization. The specific inhibition of Notch signaling pathway by the intravitreal injection of γ-secretase inhibitor DAPT attenuated RPE cells-induced PVR formation as demonstrated by the decreased expression of α-SMA, and inhibited M2 type macrophage infiltation as demonstrated by the decreased expression of Arg-1. Notch signaling may modulate PVR formation by regulating M2 type macrophage polarization. PMID:26410397

  19. Bilayer Incorporated Influenza A M2 Single Molecule Time-Dependent AFM Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Travis; Bradley, Strongin; Davis, Robert; Vijayvergiya, Viksita; Busath, David

    2004-03-01

    We report the observation of Influenza A M2 incorporated in a DPPC supported planar bilayer (SPB) on mica, formed by use of a modified vesicle fusion method from proteoliposomes using contact mode Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Incubation of proteoliposomes in a hypertonic solution and increased DPPC:M2 weight ratios improved SPB formation by M2/DPPC proteoliposomes. M2's extra-bilayer domains were observed as particles estimated to protrude 1-1.5 nm above the bilayer surface and < 4nm in diameter. Movement of M2 independent of the probe tip was observed with a calculated lateral diffusion coefficient of ˜5 × 10-14cm2/s and a mobile fraction of ˜80%. Protein- protein interaction was also observed.

  20. Regional distribution of M1, M2 and non-M1, non-M2 subtypes of muscarinic binding sites in rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Ehlert, F.J.; Tran, L.P. )

    1990-12-01

    The distribution of subtypes of the muscarinic receptor in homogenates of the rat brain was investigated by measuring the competitive inhibition of the binding (3H)N-methylscopolamine by pirenzepine and AF-DX 116 (11((2-((diethylamino)methyl)-1-piperidinyl)acetyl)-5, 11-dihydro-6H-pyrido(2,3-b)(1,4)benzodiazepine-6-one). In most brain regions, the competitive binding curves for AF-DX 116 and pirenzepine were consistent with a two-site model. The dissociation constant of pirenzepine for its high-affinity site (M1 receptor) was approximately 10(-8) M, whereas the dissociation constant of AF-DX 116 for its high affinity site (M2 receptor) was approximately 10(-7) M. In many regions, particularly those in the forebrain, the sum of the densities of the M1 and M2 binding sites was substantially less than 100% of the total sites, indicating the existence of a third population of sites lacking high affinity for both pirenzepine and AF-DX 116. We have designated these latter sites as non-M1, non-M2 muscarinic receptors. In general, the densities of the M1 and non-M1, non-M2 binding sites were highest in cerebral cortex, corpus striatum and hippocampus, intermediate in thalamus and hypothalamus, and lowest in midbrain, medulla-pons and cerebellum, whereas the M2 binding site had a relatively low, uniform density throughout the brain. The binding capacity of (3H)N-methylquinuclidinyl benzilate was estimated to be 20 to 30% lower than that of (3H)quinuclidinyl benzilate in various regions of the forebrain, but not in more caudal regions of the brain where the two radioligands had approximately the same binding capacities.

  1. [Characterization of M2 gene of H3N2 subtype swine influenza virus].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaodu; Chen, Peijun; Shen, Yang; Qiu, Yafeng; Deng, Xufang; Shi, Zixue; Peng, Lina; Luo, Jinyan; Liu, Chao; Ma, Zhiyong

    2010-01-01

    M2 protein of influenza A virus is encoded by a spliced mRNA derived from RNA segment 7 and plays an important role in influenza virus replication. It is also a target molecule of anti-virus drugs. We extracted the viral genome RNAs from MDCK cells infected with swine influenza A virus (SIV) H3N2 subtype and amplified the SIV M2 gene by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction using the isloated viral genome RNAs as template. The amplified cDNA was cloned into a prokaryotic expression vector pET-28a(+) (designated pET-28a(+)-M2) and a eukaryotic expression vector p3xFLAG-CMV-7.1 (designated p3xFLAG-CMV-7.1-M2), respectively. The resulted constructs were confirmed by restriction enzyme digestion and DNA sequencing analysis. We then transformed the plasmid pET-28a(+)-M2 into Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) strain and expressed it by adding 1 mmol/L of IPTG (isopropyl-beta-D-thiogalactopyranoside). The recombinant M2 protein was purified from the induced bacterial cells using Ni(2+) affinity chromatography. Wistar rats were immunized with the purified M2 protein for producing polyclonal antibodies specific for it. Western blotting analysis and immunofluorescence analysis showed that the produced antibodies were capable of reacting with M2 protein expressed in p3xFLAG-CMV-7.1-M2-transfected cells as well as that synthesized in SIV-infected cells. We also transfected plasmid p3xFLAG-CMV-7.1-M2 into Vero cells and analyzed its subcellular localization by immunofluorescence. The M2 protein expressed in the Vero cells was 20 kDa in size and dominantly localized in the cytoplasm, showing a similar distribution to that in SIV-infected cells. Western blotting analysis of SIV-infected cells suggested that M2 was a late phase protein, which was detectable 12 h post-infection, later than NS1, NP and M1 proteins. It would be a potential molecular indicator of late phases replication of virus. Our results would be useful for studying the biological function of M2 protein in SIV

  2. Search of S3 LIGO data for gravitational wave signals from spinning black hole and neutron star binary inspirals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbott, B.; Abbott, R.; Adhikari, R.; Agresti, J.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Amin, R.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arain, M.; Araya, M.; Armandula, H.; Ashley, M.; Aston, S.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Babak, S.; Ballmer, S.; Bantilan, H.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, C.; Barker, D.; Barr, B.; Barriga, P.; Barton, M. A.; Bayer, K.; Betzwieser, J.; Beyersdorf, P. T.; Bhawal, B.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Biswas, R.; Black, E.; Blackburn, K.; Blackburn, L.; Blair, D.; Bland, B.; Bogenstahl, J.; Bogue, L.; Bork, R.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Brau, J. E.; Brinkmann, M.; Brooks, A.; Brown, D. A.; Bullington, A.; Bunkowski, A.; Buonanno, A.; Burmeister, O.; Busby, D.; Byer, R. L.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Camp, J. B.; Cannizzo, J.; Cannon, K.; Cantley, C. A.; Cao, J.; Cardenas, L.; Castaldi, G.; Cepeda, C.; Chalkley, E.; Charlton, P.; Chatterji, S.; Chelkowski, S.; Chen, Y.; Chiadini, F.; Christensen, N.; Clark, J.; Cochrane, P.; Cokelaer, T.; Coldwell, R.; Conte, R.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T.; Coyne, D.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Croce, R. P.; Crooks, D. R. M.; Cruise, A. M.; Cumming, A.; Dalrymple, J.; D'Ambrosio, E.; Danzmann, K.; Davies, G.; Debra, D.; Degallaix, J.; Degree, M.; Demma, T.; Dergachev, V.; Desai, S.; Desalvo, R.; Dhurandhar, S.; Díaz, M.; Dickson, J.; di Credico, A.; Diederichs, G.; Dietz, A.; Doomes, E. E.; Drever, R. W. P.; Dumas, J.-C.; Dupuis, R. J.; Dwyer, J. G.; Ehrens, P.; Espinoza, E.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, Y.; Fazi, D.; Fejer, M. M.; Finn, L. S.; Fiumara, V.; Fotopoulos, N.; Franzen, A.; Franzen, K. Y.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Fricke, T.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fyffe, M.; Galdi, V.; Garofoli, J.; Gholami, I.; Giaime, J. A.; Giampanis, S.; Giardina, K. D.; Goda, K.; Goetz, E.; Goggin, L. M.; González, G.; Gossler, S.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Gray, M.; Greenhalgh, J.; Gretarsson, A. M.; Grosso, R.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Guenther, M.; Gustafson, R.; Hage, B.; Hammer, D.; Hanna, C.; Hanson, J.; Harms, J.; Harry, G.; Harstad, E.; Hayler, T.; Heefner, J.; Heng, I. S.; Heptonstall, A.; Heurs, M.; Hewitson, M.; Hild, S.; Hirose, E.; Hoak, D.; Hosken, D.; Hough, J.; Hoyland, D.; Huttner, S. H.; Ingram, D.; Innerhofer, E.; Ito, M.; Itoh, Y.; Ivanov, A.; Johnson, B.; Johnson, W. W.; Jones, D. I.; Jones, G.; Jones, R.; Ju, L.; Kalmus, P.; Kalogera, V.; Kasprzyk, D.; Katsavounidis, E.; Kawabe, K.; Kawamura, S.; Kawazoe, F.; Kells, W.; Keppel, D. G.; Khalili, F. Ya.; Kim, C.; King, P.; Kissel, J. S.; Klimenko, S.; Kokeyama, K.; Kondrashov, V.; Kopparapu, R. K.; Kozak, D.; Krishnan, B.; Kwee, P.; Lam, P. K.; Landry, M.; Lantz, B.; Lazzarini, A.; Lei, M.; Leiner, J.; Leonhardt, V.; Leonor, I.; Libbrecht, K.; Lindquist, P.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Longo, M.; Lormand, M.; Lubiński, M.; Lück, H.; Machenschalk, B.; Macinnis, M.; Mageswaran, M.; Mailand, K.; Malec, M.; Mandic, V.; Marano, S.; Márka, S.; Markowitz, J.; Maros, E.; Martin, I.; Marx, J. N.; Mason, K.; Matone, L.; Matta, V.; Mavalvala, N.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McGuire, S. C.; McHugh, M.; McKenzie, K.; McWilliams, S.; Meier, T.; Melissinos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mercer, R. A.; Meshkov, S.; Messaritaki, E.; Messenger, C. J.; Meyers, D.; Mikhailov, E.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Miyakawa, O.; Mohanty, S.; Moreno, G.; Mossavi, K.; Mowlowry, C.; Moylan, A.; Mudge, D.; Mueller, G.; Mukherjee, S.; Müller-Ebhardt, H.; Munch, J.; Murray, P.; Myers, E.; Myers, J.; Nash, T.; Newton, G.; Nishizawa, A.; Numata, K.; O'Reilly, B.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Ottaway, D. J.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Pan, Y.; Papa, M. A.; Parameshwaraiah, V.; Patel, P.; Pedraza, M.; Penn, S.; Pierro, V.; Pinto, I. M.; Pitkin, M.; Pletsch, H.; Plissi, M. V.; Postiglione, F.; Prix, R.; Quetschke, V.; Raab, F.; Rabeling, D.; Radkins, H.; Rahkola, R.; Rainer, N.; Rakhmanov, M.; Ramsunder, M.; Ray-Majumder, S.; Re, V.; Rehbein, H.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Ribichini, L.; Riesen, R.; Riles, K.; Rivera, B.; Robertson, N. A.; Robinson, C.; Robinson, E. L.; Roddy, S.; Rodriguez, A.; Rogan, A. M.; Rollins, J.; Romano, J. D.; Romie, J.; Route, R.; Rowan, S.; Rüdiger, A.; Ruet, L.; Russell, P.; Ryan, K.; Sakata, S.; Samidi, M.; Sancho de La Jordana, L.; Sandberg, V.; Sannibale, V.; Saraf, S.; Sarin, P.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.; Sato, S.; Saulson, P. R.; Savage, R.; Savov, P.; Schediwy, S.; Schilling, R.; Schnabel, R.; Schofield, R.; Schutz, B. F.; Schwinberg, P.; Scott, S. M.; Searle, A. C.; Sears, B.; Seifert, F.; Sellers, D.; Sengupta, A. S.; Shawhan, P.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Sibley, A.; Sidles, J. A.; Siemens, X.; Sigg, D.; Sinha, S.; Sintes, A. M.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Slutsky, J.; Smith, J. R.; Smith, M. R.; Somiya, K.; Strain, K. A.; Strom, D. M.; Stuver, A.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sun, K.-X.; Sung, M.; Sutton, P. J.; Takahashi, H.; Tanner, D. B.; Taylor, R.; Taylor, R.; Thacker, J.; Thorne, K. A.; Thorne, K. S.; Thüring, A.; Tokmakov, K. V.; Torres, C.; Torrie, C.; Traylor, G.; Trias, M.; Tyler, W.; Ugolini, D.; Urbanek, K.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vallisneri, M.; van den Broeck, C.; Varvella, M.; Vass, S.; Vecchio, A.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P.; Villar, A.; Vorvick, C.; Vyachanin, S. P.; Waldman, S. J.; Wallace, L.; Ward, H.; Ward, R.; Watts, K.; Weidner, A.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A.; Weiss, R.; Wen, S.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; Whitcomb, S. E.; Whiting, B. F.; Wilkinson, C.; Willems, P. A.; Williams, L.; Willke, B.; Wilmut, I.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wise, S.; Wiseman, A. G.; Woan, G.; Woods, D.; Wooley, R.; Worden, J.; Wu, W.; Yakushin, I.; Yamamoto, H.; Yan, Z.; Yoshida, S.; Yunes, N.; Zanolin, M.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhao, C.; Zotov, N.; Zucker, M.; Zur Mühlen, H.; Zweizig, J.

    2008-08-01

    We report on the methods and results of the first dedicated search for gravitational waves emitted during the inspiral of compact binaries with spinning component bodies. We analyze 788 hours of data collected during the third science run (S3) of the LIGO detectors. We searched for binary systems using a detection template family specially designed to capture the effects of the spin-induced precession of the orbital plane. We present details of the techniques developed to enable this search for spin-modulated gravitational waves, highlighting the differences between this and other recent searches for binaries with nonspinning components. The template bank we employed was found to yield high matches with our spin-modulated target waveform for binaries with masses in the asymmetric range 1.0M⊙m2<20.0M⊙ which is where we would expect the spin of the binary’s components to have a significant effect. We find that our search of S3 LIGO data has good sensitivity to binaries in the Milky Way and to a small fraction of binaries in M31 and M33 with masses in the range 1.0M⊙m2<20.0M⊙. No gravitational wave signals were identified during this search. Assuming a binary population with spinning components and Gaussian distribution of masses representing a prototypical neutron star black hole system with m1≃1.35M⊙ and m2≃5M⊙, we calculate the 90%-confidence upper limit on the rate of coalescence of these systems to be 15.9yr-1L10-1, where L10 is 1010 times the blue light luminosity of the Sun.

  3. Growth rate controlled synthesis of hierarchical Bi2S3/In2S3 core/shell microspheres with enhanced photocatalytic activity

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Juan; Tian, Guohui; Chen, Yajie; Shi, Yunhan; Tian, Chungui; Pan, Kai; Fu, Honggang

    2014-01-01

    Core/shell heterostructure composite has great potential applications in photocatalytic field because the introduction of core can remarkably improve charge transport and enhance the electron-hole separation. Herein, hierarchical Bi2S3/In2S3 core/shell structured microspheres were prepared via a simple one-pot hydrothermal process based on different growth rate of the two kinds of sulphides. The results showed that, the as-prepared hierarchical Bi2S3/In2S3 core/shell heterostructure exhibits significant visible light photocatalytic activity for degradation of 2, 4-dichlorophenol. The introduction of Bi2S3 core can not only improve charge transport and enhance the electron-hole separation, but also broaden the visible light response. The hierarchical porous folwer-like shell of In2S3 could increase the specific surface area and remarkably enhanced the chemical stability of Bi2S3 against oxidation. PMID:24504084

  4. M2BP inhibits HIV-1 virion production in a vimentin filaments-dependent manner

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qin; Zhang, Xiaolin; Han, Yuling; Wang, Xinlu; Gao, Guangxia

    2016-01-01

    M2BP (also called 90K) is an interferon-stimulated gene product that is upregulated in HIV-1 infection. A recent study revealed that M2BP reduces the infectivity of HIV-1 by inhibiting the processing of the viral envelope protein. Here we report that in addition to reducing viral infectivity, M2BP inhibits HIV-1 virion production. We provide evidence showing that M2BP inhibits HIV-1 Gag trafficking to the plasma membrane in a vimentin-dependent manner. When vimentin filaments were collapsed by treating cells with acrylamide or by overexpression of a dominant-negative mutant of vimentin, M2BP inhibition of HIV-1 virion production was significantly relieved. We further show that M2BP interacts with both HIV-1 Gag and vimentin and thereby mediates their interactions. We propose that M2BP traps HIV-1 Gag to vimentin filaments to inhibit the transportation of HIV-1 Gag to the plasma membrane. These findings uncover a novel mechanism by which a host antiviral factor inhibits HIV-1 virion production. PMID:27604950

  5. M2BP inhibits HIV-1 virion production in a vimentin filaments-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qin; Zhang, Xiaolin; Han, Yuling; Wang, Xinlu; Gao, Guangxia

    2016-01-01

    M2BP (also called 90K) is an interferon-stimulated gene product that is upregulated in HIV-1 infection. A recent study revealed that M2BP reduces the infectivity of HIV-1 by inhibiting the processing of the viral envelope protein. Here we report that in addition to reducing viral infectivity, M2BP inhibits HIV-1 virion production. We provide evidence showing that M2BP inhibits HIV-1 Gag trafficking to the plasma membrane in a vimentin-dependent manner. When vimentin filaments were collapsed by treating cells with acrylamide or by overexpression of a dominant-negative mutant of vimentin, M2BP inhibition of HIV-1 virion production was significantly relieved. We further show that M2BP interacts with both HIV-1 Gag and vimentin and thereby mediates their interactions. We propose that M2BP traps HIV-1 Gag to vimentin filaments to inhibit the transportation of HIV-1 Gag to the plasma membrane. These findings uncover a novel mechanism by which a host antiviral factor inhibits HIV-1 virion production. PMID:27604950

  6. A unique role for p53 in the regulation of M2 macrophage polarization.

    PubMed

    Li, L; Ng, D S W; Mah, W-C; Almeida, F F; Rahmat, S A; Rao, V K; Leow, S C; Laudisi, F; Peh, M T; Goh, A M; Lim, J S Y; Wright, G D; Mortellaro, A; Taneja, R; Ginhoux, F; Lee, C G; Moore, P K; Lane, D P

    2015-07-01

    P53 is critically important in preventing oncogenesis but its role in inflammation in general and in the function of inflammatory macrophages in particular is not clear. Here, we show that bone marrow-derived macrophages exhibit endogenous p53 activity, which is increased when macrophages are polarized to the M2 (alternatively activated macrophage) subtype. This leads to reduced expression of M2 genes. Nutlin-3a, which destabilizes the p53/MDM2 (mouse double minute 2 homolog) complex, promotes p53 activation and further downregulates M2 gene expression. In contrast, increased expression of M2 genes was apparent in M2-polarized macrophages from p53-deficient and p53 mutant mice. Furthermore, we show, in mice, that p53 also regulates M2 polarization in peritoneal macrophages from interleukin-4-challenged animals and that nutlin-3a retards the development of tolerance to Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide. P53 acts via transcriptional repression of expression of c-Myc (v-myc avian myelocytomatosis viral oncogene homolog) gene by directly associating with its promoter. These data establish a role for the p53/MDM2/c-MYC axis as a physiological 'brake' to the M2 polarization process. This work reveals a hitherto unknown role for p53 in macrophages, provides further insight into the complexities of macrophage plasticity and raises the possibility that p53-activating drugs, many of which are currently being trialled clinically, may have unforeseen effects on macrophage function. PMID:25526089

  7. Respiratory syncytial virus M2-1 protein induces the activation of nuclear factor kappa B

    SciTech Connect

    Reimers, Kerstin . E-mail: reimers.kerstin@mh-hannover.de; Buchholz, Katja; Werchau, Hermann

    2005-01-20

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) induces the production of a number of cytokines and chemokines by activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-{kappa}B). The activation of NF-{kappa}B has been shown to depend on viral replication in the infected cells. In this study, we demonstrate that expression of RSV M2-1 protein, a transcriptional processivity and anti-termination factor, is sufficient to activate NF-{kappa}B in A549 cells. Electromobility shift assays show increased NF-{kappa}B complexes in the nuclei of M2-1-expressing cells. M2-1 protein is found in nuclei of M2-1-expressing cells and in RSV-infected cells. Co-immunoprecipitations of nuclear extracts of M2-1-expressing cells and of RSV-infected cells revealed an association of M2-1 with Rel A protein. Furthermore, the activation of NF-{kappa}B depends on the C-terminus of the RSV M2-1 protein, as shown by NF-{kappa}B-induced gene expression of a reporter gene construct.

  8. A unique role for p53 in the regulation of M2 macrophage polarization.

    PubMed

    Li, L; Ng, D S W; Mah, W-C; Almeida, F F; Rahmat, S A; Rao, V K; Leow, S C; Laudisi, F; Peh, M T; Goh, A M; Lim, J S Y; Wright, G D; Mortellaro, A; Taneja, R; Ginhoux, F; Lee, C G; Moore, P K; Lane, D P

    2015-07-01

    P53 is critically important in preventing oncogenesis but its role in inflammation in general and in the function of inflammatory macrophages in particular is not clear. Here, we show that bone marrow-derived macrophages exhibit endogenous p53 activity, which is increased when macrophages are polarized to the M2 (alternatively activated macrophage) subtype. This leads to reduced expression of M2 genes. Nutlin-3a, which destabilizes the p53/MDM2 (mouse double minute 2 homolog) complex, promotes p53 activation and further downregulates M2 gene expression. In contrast, increased expression of M2 genes was apparent in M2-polarized macrophages from p53-deficient and p53 mutant mice. Furthermore, we show, in mice, that p53 also regulates M2 polarization in peritoneal macrophages from interleukin-4-challenged animals and that nutlin-3a retards the development of tolerance to Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide. P53 acts via transcriptional repression of expression of c-Myc (v-myc avian myelocytomatosis viral oncogene homolog) gene by directly associating with its promoter. These data establish a role for the p53/MDM2/c-MYC axis as a physiological 'brake' to the M2 polarization process. This work reveals a hitherto unknown role for p53 in macrophages, provides further insight into the complexities of macrophage plasticity and raises the possibility that p53-activating drugs, many of which are currently being trialled clinically, may have unforeseen effects on macrophage function.

  9. Inference of genetic diversity in popcorn S3 progenies.

    PubMed

    Pena, G F; do Amaral, A T; Ribeiro, R M; Ramos, H C C; Boechat, M S B; Santos, J S; Mafra, G S; Kamphorst, S H; de Lima, V J; Vivas, M; de Souza Filho, G A

    2016-01-01

    Molecular markers are a useful tool for identification of complementary heterotic groups in breeding programs aimed at the production of superior hybrids, particularly for crops such as popcorn in which heterotic groups are not well-defined. The objective of the present study was to analyze the genetic diversity of 47 genotypes of tropical popcorn to identify possible heterotic groups for the development of superior hybrids. Four genotypes of high genetic value were studied: hybrid IAC 125, strain P2, and varieties UENF 14 and BRS Angela. In addition, 43 endogamous S3 progenies obtained from variety UENF 14 were used. Twenty-five polymorphic SSR-EST markers were analyzed. A genetic distance matrix was obtained and the following molecular diversity parameters were estimated: number of alleles, number of effective alleles, polymorphism information content (PIC), observed and expected heterozygosities, Shannon diversity index, and coefficient of inbreeding. We found a moderate PIC and high diversity index, indicating that the studied population presents both good discriminatory ability and high informativeness for the utilized markers. The dendrogram built based on the dissimilarity matrix indicated six distinct groups. Our findings demonstrate the genetic diversity among the evaluated genotypes and provide evidence for heterotic groups in popcorn. Furthermore, the functional genetic diversity indicates that there are informative genetic markers for popcorn. PMID:27173336

  10. Inference of genetic diversity in popcorn S3 progenies.

    PubMed

    Pena, G F; do Amaral, A T; Ribeiro, R M; Ramos, H C C; Boechat, M S B; Santos, J S; Mafra, G S; Kamphorst, S H; de Lima, V J; Vivas, M; de Souza Filho, G A

    2016-05-09

    Molecular markers are a useful tool for identification of complementary heterotic groups in breeding programs aimed at the production of superior hybrids, particularly for crops such as popcorn in which heterotic groups are not well-defined. The objective of the present study was to analyze the genetic diversity of 47 genotypes of tropical popcorn to identify possible heterotic groups for the development of superior hybrids. Four genotypes of high genetic value were studied: hybrid IAC 125, strain P2, and varieties UENF 14 and BRS Angela. In addition, 43 endogamous S3 progenies obtained from variety UENF 14 were used. Twenty-five polymorphic SSR-EST markers were analyzed. A genetic distance matrix was obtained and the following molecular diversity parameters were estimated: number of alleles, number of effective alleles, polymorphism information content (PIC), observed and expected heterozygosities, Shannon diversity index, and coefficient of inbreeding. We found a moderate PIC and high diversity index, indicating that the studied population presents both good discriminatory ability and high informativeness for the utilized markers. The dendrogram built based on the dissimilarity matrix indicated six distinct groups. Our findings demonstrate the genetic diversity among the evaluated genotypes and provide evidence for heterotic groups in popcorn. Furthermore, the functional genetic diversity indicates that there are informative genetic markers for popcorn.

  11. Expression of the human muscarinic receptor gene m2 in Dictyostelium discoideum

    SciTech Connect

    Voith, G.; Dingermann, T.

    1995-11-01

    We have expressed a functional human muscarinic M2 receptor, under the control of the homologous discoidin I{gamma} promoter, in the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum. The use of a contact site A leader peptide ensured insertion of the newly synthesized receptor protein into the plasma membrane. Due to the characteristics of the discoidin I{gamma} promoter, the M2 receptor is expressed during late growth and early development. The heterologously expressed M2 receptors show binding characteristics similar to authentic receptors. Membranes as well as whole cells can be used in ligand binding assays. 36 refs., 4 figs.

  12. A humanized anti-M2 scFv shows protective in vitro activity against influenza

    SciTech Connect

    Bradbury, Andrew M; Velappan, Nileena; Schmidt, Jurgen G

    2008-01-01

    M2 is one of the most conserved influenza proteins, and has been widely prospected as a potential universal vaccine target, with protection predominantly mediated by antibodies. In this paper we describe the creation of a humanized single chain Fv from 14C2, a potent monoclonal antibody against M2. We show that the humanized scFv demonstrates similar activity to the parental mAb: it is able to recognize M2 in its native context on cell surfaces and is able to show protective in vitro activity against influenza, and so represents a potential lead antibody candidate for universal prophylactic or therapeutic intervention in influenza.

  13. Investigation of M2 factor influence for paraxial computer generated hologram reconstruction using a statistical method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flury, M.; Gérard, P.; Takakura, Y.; Twardworski, P.; Fontaine, J.

    2005-04-01

    In this paper, we study the influence of the M2 quality factor of an incident beam on the reconstruction performance of a computer generated hologram (CGH). We use a statistical method to analyze the evolution of different quality criteria such as diffraction efficiency, root mean square error, illumination uniformity or correlation coefficient calculated in the numerical reconstruction versus the increasing M2 quality factor. The simulation results show us that this factor must always be taken into account in the CGH design when the M2 value is bigger than 2.

  14. Expression of the human muscarinic receptor gene m2 in Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Voith, G; Dingermann, T

    1995-11-01

    We have expressed a functional human muscarinic M2 receptor, under the control of the homologous discoidin I gamma promoter, in the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum. The use of a contact site A leader peptide ensured insertion of the newly synthesized receptor protein into the plasma membrane. Due to the characteristics of the discoidin I gamma promoter, the M2 receptor is expressed during late growth and early development. The heterologously expressed M2 receptors show binding characteristics similar to authentic receptors. Membranes as well as whole cells can be used in ligand binding assays. PMID:9636297

  15. From a 32 m2 system with 90 CPV modules to a 105 m2 system with 12 CPV modules - Soitec's new CPV system CX-S530

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gombert, Andreas; Wanka, Sven; Gerster, Eckart; van Riesen, Sascha; Neubauer, Martin; Lange, Gerrit; Hamidi, Amir; Burke, Thomas; Stör, Jakob; Aipperspach, Wolfgang; Taliercio, Cecile; Mader, Lucas; Valli, Alessandro; Ziegler, Martin; Hepp, Stefan; Heile, Inka; Gerstmaier, Tobias; Haarburger, Karl-Friedrich

    2012-10-01

    In 2008, Soitec started to launch a 32m2 CPV system which included 90 modules per tracker. In order to realize the fast installation of multi-MW power plants the CPV module CX-M500 with an aperture area of 7,84 m2 was developed together with the new tracker CX-T030 which is optimized for carrying 12 of the new modules. This paper gives an overview over the evolution of this CPV system. The module is based on components of the field proven earlier Concentrix module generations. The tracker is a classical pylon type with two AC motor powered slewing ring drives. A new control device was developed which uses the power-optimized sun tracking algorithm. The major development steps and their results are presented.

  16. Quartz-enhanced photoacoustic detection of ethylene using a 10.5 μm quantum cascade laser.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhen; Li, Zhili; Ren, Wei

    2016-02-22

    A quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS) sensor has been developed for the sensitive detection of ethylene (C2H4) at 10.5 µm using a continuous-wave distributed-feedback quantum cascade laser. At this long-wavelength infrared, the key acoustic elements of quartz tuning fork and micro-resonators were optimized to improve the detection signal-to-noise ratio by a factor of >4. The sensor calibration demonstrated an excellent linear response (R2>0.999) to C2H4 concentration at the selected operating pressure of 500 and 760 Torr. With a minimum detection limit of 50 parts per billion (ppb) achieved at an averaging time of 70 s, the sensor has been deployed for measuring the C2H4 efflux during the respiration of biological samples in an agronomic environment.

  17. Development of transgenic lines of Eimeria tenella expressing M2e-enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (M2e-EYFP).

    PubMed

    Liu, Xianyong; Zou, Jun; Yin, Guangwen; Su, Huali; Huang, Xiaoxi; Li, Jianan; Xie, Li; Cao, Yingqiong; Cui, Yujuan; Suo, Xun

    2013-03-31

    Eimeria parasites are obligate intracellular apicomplexan protists that can cause coccidiosis, resulting in substantial economic losses in the poultry industry annually. As the component of anticoccidial vaccines, seven Eimeria spp. of chickens are characterized with potent immunogenicity. Whether genetically modified Eimeria spp. maintains this property or not needs to be verified. In this study, two identical transgenic lines of Eimeria tenella were developed by virtue of single sporocyst isolation from a stably transfected population expressing fused protein of M2 ectodomain of avian influenza virus (M2e) and enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (EYFP). The chromosomal integration and expression of M2e-EYFP were confirmed by Southern blot, plasmid rescue and Western blot analysis. We found that the reproduction of transgenic parasites was higher than that of the parental strain. Chickens challenged with wild type E. tenella after immunization with 200 oocysts of transgenic parasites had similar performance compared to those in non-immunized and non-challenged group. In another trial, the performance of transgenic parasite-immunized birds was also comparable to that of the Decoquinate Premix-treated chickens. These results suggest that this transgenic line of E. tenella is capable of inducing potent protection against homologous challenge as a live anticoccidial vaccine. Taking together, our study indicates that transgenic eimerian parasites have the potential to be developed as a vaccine vehicle for animal use in the future.

  18. Hydrogeophysical investigations of the former S-3 ponds contaminant plumes

    SciTech Connect

    Revil, Andre; Skold, Magnus E; Karaoulis, Marios; Schmutz, Myriam; Hubbard, Susan S; Mehlhorn, Tonia L; Watson, David B

    2013-01-01

    At the Oak Ridge Integrated Field Research Challenge site, near Oak Ridge, Tennessee, contaminants from the former S-3 ponds have infiltrated the shallow saprolite for over 60 years. Two- and three-dimensional DC-resistivity tomography is used to characterize the number and location of the main contaminant plumes, which include high concentration of nitrate. These contaminant plumes have typically an electrical resistivity in the range 2 20 ohm-m while the background saprolite resistivity is in the range 60 120 ohm-m, so the difference of resistivity can be easily mapped using DC-resistivity tomography to locate the contaminant pathways. We develop a relationship to derive the in situ nitrate concentrations from the 3D resistivity tomograms accounting for the effect of surface conductivity. The footprint of the contamination upon the resistivity is found to be much stronger than the local variations associated with changes in the porosity and the clay content. With this method, we identified a total of five main plumes (termed CP1 to CP5). Plume CP2 corresponds to the main plume in terms of nitrate concentration ( 50,000 ). We also used an active time constrained approach to perform time-lapse resistivity tomography over a section crossing the plumes CP1 and CP2. The sequence of tomograms is used to determine the changes in the nitrate concentrations associated with infiltration of fresh (meteoritic) water from a perched aquifer. This study highlights the importance of accounting for surface conductivity when characterizing plume distributions in clay-rich subsurface systems.

  19. Secular changes of the M2 tide in the Gulf of Maine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Richard D.

    2005-01-01

    Analyses of long time series of hourly tide-gauge data at four stations in the Gulf of Maine reveal that the amplitude of the M2 tide underwent a nearly linear secular increase throughout most of the twentieth century. In the early 1980s, however, the amplitude of M2 abruptly dropped. Sea level changes alone appear inadequate to explain either the long-term trend or the recent trend discontinuity. Tidal models that account for Holocene sea level rise do predict an amplification of M2, but much smaller than the currently observed trends. Nor do recent annual mean sea levels correlate with the recent trend discontinuity. Some unknown fraction of the open Atlantic may be similarly affected, since the M2 discontinuity, but not the long-term secular increase in the tide, is evident also at Halifax.

  20. MIS M2 initiation and termination link to the shallow CAS open and close?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Ning; Ramstein, Gilles; Dumas, Christophe; Contoux, Camille

    2016-04-01

    The Marine Isotope Stage M2 (3.264 -3.312 Ma) occurred just prior to the well documented warm mid-Pliocene (mPWP). With a 0.5‰ benthic foraminiferal δ180 shift (Lisiecki and Raymo, 2005), MIS M2 is thought to be a glacial comparable period associated with huge but uncertain sea-level records of 20-60m below present levels (Naish et al. 2009; Miller et al. 2012; Dwyer et al. 2009). However, the mechanism of M2 initiation and termination are still an enigma, since CO2 records were relatively higher than the Quaternary glaciation period and the minima summer insolation during M2 was stronger than other glacial periods. By inferring from data records, De Schepper (2013) proposed that the shallow open Central American Seaway (CAS) observed during M2 could play as a trigger in M2 initiation, then the closure of this shallow CAS resulted from M2 large ice sheet build-up terminates this glacial period. But this assumption has not been test by the model. In this study, we apply IPSL-CM5A Atmosphere-Ocean coupled General Circulation Model (AOGCM) and GRISLI ice sheet model to investigate mechanisms of M2 initiation and termination. We firstly investigate the role of "shallow open CAS" (De Schepper et al. 2013) on M2 initiation. In the mean time we also take into account the main forcing during M2, which includes astronomical parameters, Greenhouse gases and vegetation. Our results show that shallow open CAS plays an important role in reducing northward heat transport in Atlantic low latitudes by 0.05 - 0.1 PW, but it is not a key factor in NH ice sheet build-up; Astronomical parameters and CO2 concentration are essential to create a basic global cooling environment for M2 (cooling by ~3.65 K than mPWP); Cold vegetation replacement amplifies the cooling in north high latitudes by ~ 8 K, which finally allows large ice sheet building up in Northern Hemisphere (12.25 m sea level drop is simulated with considering ice sheet feedback on the climate). The simulated ice sheet

  1. Effects of orbital and spin current interference in E1 and M2 nuclear excitations

    SciTech Connect

    Goncharova, N. G.

    2015-12-15

    The interference of contributions from the orbital and spin currents to the E1 and M2 resonances is investigated. The results of the current interference analysis within the shell model are compared with the experimental data.

  2. Marine microbial biodiversity, bioinformatics and biotechnology (M2B3) data reporting and service standards.

    PubMed

    Ten Hoopen, Petra; Pesant, Stéphane; Kottmann, Renzo; Kopf, Anna; Bicak, Mesude; Claus, Simon; Deneudt, Klaas; Borremans, Catherine; Thijsse, Peter; Dekeyzer, Stefanie; Schaap, Dick Ma; Bowler, Chris; Glöckner, Frank Oliver; Cochrane, Guy

    2015-01-01

    Contextual data collected concurrently with molecular samples are critical to the use of metagenomics in the fields of marine biodiversity, bioinformatics and biotechnology. We present here Marine Microbial Biodiversity, Bioinformatics and Biotechnology (M2B3) standards for "Reporting" and "Serving" data. The M2B3 Reporting Standard (1) describes minimal mandatory and recommended contextual information for a marine microbial sample obtained in the epipelagic zone, (2) includes meaningful information for researchers in the oceanographic, biodiversity and molecular disciplines, and (3) can easily be adopted by any marine laboratory with minimum sampling resources. The M2B3 Service Standard defines a software interface through which these data can be discovered and explored in data repositories. The M2B3 Standards were developed by the European project Micro B3, funded under 7(th) Framework Programme "Ocean of Tomorrow", and were first used with the Ocean Sampling Day initiative. We believe that these standards have value in broader marine science.

  3. Trypsin, Tryptase, and Thrombin Polarize Macrophages towards a Pro-Fibrotic M2a Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    White, Michael J. V.; Gomer, Richard H.

    2015-01-01

    For both wound healing and the formation of a fibrotic lesion, circulating monocytes enter the tissue and differentiate into fibroblast-like cells called fibrocytes and pro-fibrotic M2a macrophages, which together with fibroblasts form scar tissue. Monocytes can also differentiate into classically activated M1 macrophages and alternatively activated M2 macrophages. The proteases thrombin, which is activated during blood clotting, and tryptase, which is released by activated mast cells, potentiate fibroblast proliferation and fibrocyte differentiation, but their effect on macrophages is unknown. Here we report that thrombin, tryptase, and the protease trypsin bias human macrophage differentiation towards a pro-fibrotic M2a phenotype expressing high levels of galectin-3 from unpolarized monocytes, or from M1 and M2 macrophages, and that these effects appear to operate through protease-activated receptors. These results suggest that proteases can initiate scar tissue formation by affecting fibroblasts, fibrocytes, and macrophages. PMID:26407067

  4. M2 Polarization of Human Macrophages Favors Survival of the Intracellular Pathogen Chlamydia pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Buchacher, Tanja; Ohradanova-Repic, Anna; Stockinger, Hannes; Fischer, Michael B; Weber, Viktoria

    2015-01-01

    Intracellular pathogens have developed various strategies to escape immunity to enable their survival in host cells, and many bacterial pathogens preferentially reside inside macrophages, using diverse mechanisms to penetrate their defenses and to exploit their high degree of metabolic diversity and plasticity. Here, we characterized the interactions of the intracellular pathogen Chlamydia pneumoniae with polarized human macrophages. Primary human monocytes were pre-differentiated with granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor or macrophage colony-stimulating factor for 7 days to yield M1-like and M2-like macrophages, which were further treated with interferon-γ and lipopolysaccharide or with interleukin-4 for 48 h to obtain fully polarized M1 and M2 macrophages. M1 and M2 cells exhibited distinct morphology with round or spindle-shaped appearance for M1 and M2, respectively, distinct surface marker profiles, as well as different cytokine and chemokine secretion. Macrophage polarization did not influence uptake of C. pneumoniae, since comparable copy numbers of chlamydial DNA were detected in M1 and M2 at 6 h post infection, but an increase in chlamydial DNA over time indicating proliferation was only observed in M2. Accordingly, 72±5% of M2 vs. 48±7% of M1 stained positive for chlamydial lipopolysaccharide, with large perinuclear inclusions in M2 and less clearly bordered inclusions for M1. Viable C. pneumoniae was present in lysates from M2, but not from M1 macrophages. The ability of M1 to restrict chlamydial replication was not observed in M1-like macrophages, since chlamydial load showed an equal increase over time for M1-like and M2-like macrophages. Our findings support the importance of macrophage polarization for the control of intracellular infection, and show that M2 are the preferred survival niche for C. pneumoniae. M1 did not allow for chlamydial proliferation, but failed to completely eliminate chlamydial infection, giving further evidence

  5. Development of live attenuated Bordetella pertussis strains expressing the universal influenza vaccine candidate M2e.

    PubMed

    Li, Rui; Lim, Annabelle; Ow, Stephanie T L; Phoon, Meng Chee; Locht, Camille; Chow, Vincent T; Alonso, Sylvie

    2011-07-26

    The attenuated Bordetella pertussis BPZE1 vaccine strain represents an attractive platform for the delivery of heterologous vaccine candidates via the nasal route. The filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA) has been used to secrete or expose the foreign antigens at the bacterial surface. In this study, one, two and three copies of the Cys-containing ectodomain of matrix protein 2 (M2e) from influenza A virus were genetically fused to full length FHA and expressed in BPZE1. The secretion efficacy of the FHA-(M2e)(1,2,3) chimera in the extracellular milieu and the ability of the recombinant bacteria to colonize the mouse lungs inversely correlated with the number of M2e copies fused to FHA. Nevertheless FHA-(M2e)(3)-producing bacteria (BPLR3) triggered the highest systemic anti-M2e antibody response upon nasal administration to BALB/c mice. Nasal immunization with BPLR3 bacteria resulted in a significant reduction in the viral loads upon challenge with H1N1/PR8 influenza A virus, but did not improve the survival rate compared to BPZE1-immunized mice. Furthermore, since previous work reported that disulfide bond formation in Cys-containing passenger antigens affects the secretion efficacy of the FHA chimera, the dsbA gene encoding a periplasmic disulfide isomerase was deleted in the FHA-(M2e)(3)-producing strain. Despite improving significantly the secretion efficacy of the FHA-(M2e)(3) chimera, the dsbA deletion did not result in higher anti-M2e antibody titers in mice, due to impaired bacterial fitness and colonization ability.

  6. Fourier transform infrared double-flash experiments resolve bacteriorhodopsin's M1 to M2 transition.

    PubMed Central

    Hessling, B; Herbst, J; Rammelsberg, R; Gerwert, K

    1997-01-01

    The orientation of the central proton-binding site, the protonated Schiff base, away from the proton release side to the proton uptake side is crucial for the directionality of the proton pump bacteriorhodopsin. It has been proposed that this movement, called the reprotonation switch, takes place in the M1 to M2 transition. To resolve the molecular events in this M1 to M2 transition, we performed double-flash experiments. In these experiments a first pulse initiates the photocycle and a second pulse selectively drives bR molecules in the M intermediate back into the BR ground state. For short delay times between initiating and resetting pulses, most of the M molecules being reset are in the M1 intermediate, and for longer delay times most of the reset M molecules are in the M2 intermediate. The BR-M1 and BR-M2 difference spectra are monitored with nanosecond step-scan Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Because the Schiff base reprotonation rate is kM1 = 0.8 x 10(7) s(-1) in the light-induced M1 back-reaction and kM2 = 0.36 x 10(7) s(-1) in the M2 back-reaction, the two different M intermediates represent two different proton accessibility configurations of the Schiff base. The results show only a minute movement of one or two peptide bonds in the M1 to M2 transition that changes the interaction of the Schiff base with Y185. This backbone movement is distinct from the larger one in the subsequent M to N transition. No evidence of a chromophore isomerization is seen in the M1 to M2 transition. Furthermore, the results show time-resolved reprotonation of the Schiff base from D85 in the M photo-back-reaction, instead of from D96, as in the conventional cycle. Images Scheme 2 PMID:9336202

  7. M1/M2-macrophage phenotypes regulate renal calcium oxalate crystal development

    PubMed Central

    Taguchi, Kazumi; Okada, Atsushi; Hamamoto, Shuzo; Unno, Rei; Moritoki, Yoshinobu; Ando, Ryosuke; Mizuno, Kentaro; Tozawa, Keiichi; Kohri, Kenjiro; Yasui, Takahiro

    2016-01-01

    In our previous report, M2-macrophage (Mφs) deficient mice showed increased renal calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystal formation; however, the role of Mφs-related-cytokines and chemokines that affect kidney stone formation remains unknown. Here, we investigated the role of M1/M2s in crystal development by using in vitro and in vivo approaches. The crystal phagocytic rate of bone marrow-derived M2Mφs was higher than that of bone marrow-derived Mφs and M1Mφs and increased on co-culture with renal tubular cells (RTCs). However, the amount of crystal attachment on RTCs reduced on co-culture with M2Mφs. In six hyperoxaluric C57BL/6J mice, M1Mφ transfusion and induction by LPS and IFN-γ facilitated renal crystal formation, whereas M2Mφ transfusion and induction by IL-4 and IL-13 suppressed renal crystal formation compared with the control. These M2Mφ treatments reduced the expression of crystal-related genes, such as osteopontin and CD44, whereas M1Mφ treatment increased the expression of pro-inflammatory and adhesion-related genes such as IL-6, inducible NOS, TNF-α, C3, and VCAM-1. The expression of M2Mφ-related genes was lower whereas that of M1Mφ-related genes was higher in papillary tissue of CaOx stone formers. Overall, our results suggest that renal crystal development is facilitated by M1Mφs, but suppressed by M2Mφs. PMID:27731368

  8. Immunization with the MAEBL M2 Domain Protects against Lethal Plasmodium yoelii Infection.

    PubMed

    Leite, Juliana A; Bargieri, Daniel Y; Carvalho, Bruna O; Albrecht, Letusa; Lopes, Stefanie C P; Kayano, Ana Carolina A V; Farias, Alessandro S; Chia, Wan Ni; Claser, Carla; Malleret, Benoit; Russell, Bruce; Castiñeiras, Catarina; Santos, Leonilda M B; Brocchi, Marcelo; Wunderlich, Gerhard; Soares, Irene S; Rodrigues, Mauricio M; Rénia, Laurent; Costa, Fabio T M

    2015-10-01

    Malaria remains a world-threatening disease largely because of the lack of a long-lasting and fully effective vaccine. MAEBL is a type 1 transmembrane molecule with a chimeric cysteine-rich ectodomain homologous to regions of the Duffy binding-like erythrocyte binding protein and apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA1) antigens. Although MAEBL does not appear to be essential for the survival of blood-stage forms, ectodomains M1 and M2, homologous to AMA1, seem to be involved in parasite attachment to erythrocytes, especially M2. MAEBL is necessary for sporozoite infection of mosquito salivary glands and is expressed in liver stages. Here, the Plasmodium yoelii MAEBL-M2 domain was expressed in a prokaryotic vector. C57BL/6J mice were immunized with doses of P. yoelii recombinant protein rPyM2-MAEBL. High levels of antibodies, with balanced IgG1 and IgG2c subclasses, were achieved. rPyM2-MAEBL antisera were capable of recognizing the native antigen. Anti-MAEBL antibodies recognized different MAEBL fragments expressed in CHO cells, showing stronger IgM and IgG responses to the M2 domain and repeat region, respectively. After a challenge with P. yoelii YM (lethal strain)-infected erythrocytes (IE), up to 90% of the immunized animals survived and a reduction of parasitemia was observed. Moreover, splenocytes harvested from immunized animals proliferated in a dose-dependent manner in the presence of rPyM2-MAEBL. Protection was highly dependent on CD4(+), but not CD8(+), T cells toward Th1. rPyM2-MAEBL antisera were also able to significantly inhibit parasite development, as observed in ex vivo P. yoelii erythrocyte invasion assays. Collectively, these findings support the use of MAEBL as a vaccine candidate and open perspectives to understand the mechanisms involved in protection. PMID:26169268

  9. Enhanced M1/M2 macrophage ratio promotes orthodontic root resorption.

    PubMed

    He, D; Kou, X; Luo, Q; Yang, R; Liu, D; Wang, X; Song, Y; Cao, H; Zeng, M; Gan, Y; Zhou, Y

    2015-01-01

    Mechanical force-induced orthodontic root resorption is a major clinical challenge in orthodontic treatment. Macrophages play an important role in orthodontic root resorption, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we examined the mechanism by which the ratio of M1 to M2 macrophage polarization affects root resorption during orthodontic tooth movement. Root resorption occurred when nickel-titanium coil springs were applied on the upper first molars of rats for 3 to 14 d. Positively stained odontoclasts or osteoclasts with tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase were found in resorption areas. Meanwhile, M1-like macrophages positive for CD68 and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) persistently accumulated on the compression side of periodontal tissues. In addition, the expressions of the M1 activator interferon-γ and the M1-associated pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were upregulated on the compression side of periodontal tissues. When the coil springs were removed at the 14th day after orthodontic force application, root resorption was partially rescued. The number of CD68(+)CD163(+) M2-like macrophages gradually increased on the compression side of periodontal tissues. The levels of M2 activator interleukin (IL)-4 and the M2-associated anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 also increased. Systemic injection of the TNF-α inhibitor etanercept or IL-4 attenuated the severity of root resorption and decreased the ratio of M1 to M2 macrophages. These data imply that the balance between M1 and M2 macrophages affects orthodontic root resorption. Root resorption was aggravated by an enhanced M1/M2 ratio but was partially rescued by a reduced M1/M2 ratio.

  10. Immunization with the MAEBL M2 Domain Protects against Lethal Plasmodium yoelii Infection

    PubMed Central

    Leite, Juliana A.; Bargieri, Daniel Y.; Carvalho, Bruna O.; Albrecht, Letusa; Lopes, Stefanie C. P.; Kayano, Ana Carolina A. V.; Farias, Alessandro S.; Chia, Wan Ni; Claser, Carla; Malleret, Benoit; Russell, Bruce; Castiñeiras, Catarina; Santos, Leonilda M. B.; Brocchi, Marcelo; Wunderlich, Gerhard; Soares, Irene S.; Rodrigues, Mauricio M.; Rénia, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    Malaria remains a world-threatening disease largely because of the lack of a long-lasting and fully effective vaccine. MAEBL is a type 1 transmembrane molecule with a chimeric cysteine-rich ectodomain homologous to regions of the Duffy binding-like erythrocyte binding protein and apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA1) antigens. Although MAEBL does not appear to be essential for the survival of blood-stage forms, ectodomains M1 and M2, homologous to AMA1, seem to be involved in parasite attachment to erythrocytes, especially M2. MAEBL is necessary for sporozoite infection of mosquito salivary glands and is expressed in liver stages. Here, the Plasmodium yoelii MAEBL-M2 domain was expressed in a prokaryotic vector. C57BL/6J mice were immunized with doses of P. yoelii recombinant protein rPyM2-MAEBL. High levels of antibodies, with balanced IgG1 and IgG2c subclasses, were achieved. rPyM2-MAEBL antisera were capable of recognizing the native antigen. Anti-MAEBL antibodies recognized different MAEBL fragments expressed in CHO cells, showing stronger IgM and IgG responses to the M2 domain and repeat region, respectively. After a challenge with P. yoelii YM (lethal strain)-infected erythrocytes (IE), up to 90% of the immunized animals survived and a reduction of parasitemia was observed. Moreover, splenocytes harvested from immunized animals proliferated in a dose-dependent manner in the presence of rPyM2-MAEBL. Protection was highly dependent on CD4+, but not CD8+, T cells toward Th1. rPyM2-MAEBL antisera were also able to significantly inhibit parasite development, as observed in ex vivo P. yoelii erythrocyte invasion assays. Collectively, these findings support the use of MAEBL as a vaccine candidate and open perspectives to understand the mechanisms involved in protection. PMID:26169268

  11. Organophosphorus Pesticides Decrease M2 Muscarinic Receptor Function in Guinea Pig Airway Nerves via Indirect Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Proskocil, Becky J.; Bruun, Donald A.; Thompson, Charles M.; Fryer, Allison D.; Lein, Pamela J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Epidemiological studies link organophosphorus pesticide (OP) exposures to asthma, and we have shown that the OPs chlorpyrifos, diazinon and parathion cause airway hyperreactivity in guinea pigs 24 hr after a single subcutaneous injection. OP-induced airway hyperreactivity involves M2 muscarinic receptor dysfunction on airway nerves independent of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition, but how OPs inhibit neuronal M2 receptors in airways is not known. In the central nervous system, OPs interact directly with neurons to alter muscarinic receptor function or expression; therefore, in this study we tested whether the OP parathion or its oxon metabolite, paraoxon, might decrease M2 receptor function on peripheral neurons via similar direct mechanisms. Methodology/Principal Findings Intravenous administration of paraoxon, but not parathion, caused acute frequency-dependent potentiation of vagally-induced bronchoconstriction and increased electrical field stimulation (EFS)-induced contractions in isolated trachea independent of AChE inhibition. However, paraoxon had no effect on vagally-induced bradycardia in intact guinea pigs or EFS-induced contractions in isolated ileum, suggesting mechanisms other than pharmacologic antagonism of M2 receptors. Paraoxon did not alter M2 receptor expression in cultured cells at the mRNA or protein level as determined by quantitative RT-PCR and radio-ligand binding assays, respectively. Additionally, a biotin-labeled fluorophosphonate, which was used as a probe to identify molecular targets phosphorylated by OPs, did not phosphorylate proteins in guinea pig cardiac membranes that were recognized by M2 receptor antibodies. Conclusions/Significance These data indicate that neither direct pharmacologic antagonism nor downregulated expression of M2 receptors contributes to OP inhibition of M2 function in airway nerves, adding to the growing evidence of non-cholinergic mechanisms of OP neurotoxicity. PMID:20479945

  12. The M2 phase of vanadium dioxide: a view from infrared and optical spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huffman, T. J.; Xu, Peng; Qazilbash, M. M.; Yoon, Joonseok; Ju, Honglyoul; Smith, R.; Carr, G. L.

    2014-03-01

    Bulk single crystalline vanadium dioxide (VO2) undergoes a metal-insulator transition (MIT) at 340K. This thermally-driven MIT is accompanied by a structural phase transition that results in pairing of all vanadium ions in the insulating, monoclinic M1 phase. However, there also exists an insulating monoclinic M2 phase, usually only accessible via external strain or chemical doping, in which only half of the vanadium chains exhibit pairing. The M2 phase of VO2 is vital for understanding the roles of electronic correlations and vanadium pairing to the MIT. Recent x-ray diffraction studies show that small pure VO2 crystals can exhibit an M2 phase below 318K, likely due to internal strain.[1] These crystals undergo phase transitions from M2 to M1 and from M1 to rutile metal upon heating. We have performed reflectance micro-spectroscopy with polarized light and generalized spectroscopic micro-ellipsometry between 12 meV and 5.5 eV on these VO2 crystals as a function of temperature, uncomplicated by external strain or chemical doping. We report infrared and optical data on the M1, M2 and rutile phases and compare electronic and phonon properties of M1 and M2 phases.

  13. The common Cryptococcus neoformans glucuronoxylomannan M2 motif elicits non-protective antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Nakouzi, Antonio; Zhang, Tong; Oscarson, Stefan; Casadevall, Arturo

    2009-01-01

    The Cryptococcus neoformans capsular glucuronoxylomannan (GXM) is a potential vaccine antigen that can elicit protective and non-protective antibodies. In an attempt to focus the immune response on a single antigenic component, a heptasaccharide oligosaccharide representing the major structural motif (M2) of the most common clinical isolate was synthesized and conjugated to Human serum albumin (HSA). Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) generated from mice immunized with M2-HSA produced the characteristic punctuate immunofluorescence associated with non-protective mAbs. None of the mAbs elicited by M2 immunization were opsonic. Passive administration of mAbs elicited by M2-HSA was not protective and there was no difference in the survival of mice immunized with M2-HSA and HSA. Hence, we conclude that the M2 motif represents an antigenic determinant in C. neoformans GXM that elicits non-protective responses and is not a suitable vaccine candidate. Furthermore, the results illustrate the first molecular assignment of a C. neoformans polysaccharide epitope and suggest a general strategy for the identification of GXM epitopes. PMID:19464529

  14. Tumor M2 pyruvate kinase: a tumor marker and its clinical application in gastrointestinal malignancy.

    PubMed

    Hardt, Philip D; Ewald, Nils

    2008-09-01

    Proliferating cells, in particular tumor cells, express a dimeric isoenzyme of pyruvate kinase, termed Tumor M2 pyruvate kinase. In the last few years, much attention has been paid to this novel tumor marker that can be determined in EDTA-plasma and in the feces. It has been used in diagnosis and surveillance of a variety of malignant diseases. As compared with the established tumor markers, Tumor M2-PK in EDTA-plasma proves to have at least equal sensitivity in pancreatic, gastric, esophageal, colorectal and cholangiocellular cancer. In combination with established tumor markers, EDTA-plasma M2-PK is a useful tool in diagnosis and surveillance of gastrointestinal tumors. In colorectal cancer, M2-PK in EDTA-plasma even proves superiority as compared with CEA. Fecal Tumor M2-PK testing resembles a good noninvasive screening parameter for colorectal cancer with a reported sensitivity of 68.8-91.0% and a specificity of 71.9-100%. It is superior to fecal occult blood testing in colorectal cancer screening. Since it is effective, easy to handle and bears rather low costs, fecal Tumor M2-PK testing is recommended for large-scale CRC screening.

  15. Quantification and localization of M2 macrophages in human kidneys with acute tubular injury

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Matthew B; Vichot, Alfred A; Cantley, Lloyd G; Moeckel, Gilbert W

    2014-01-01

    This study addresses for the first time the question whether there is significant macrophage population in human kidney sections from patients with acute tubular injury (ATI). We examined therefore the interstitial macrophage population in human kidney tissue with biopsy-proven diagnosis of ATI, minimal change disease (MCD), and MCD with ATI. Kidney biopsies from patients with the above diagnoses were stained with antibodies directed against CD68 (general macrophage marker), CD163 (M2 marker), and HLA-DR (M1 marker) and their respective electron microscopy samples were evaluated for the presence of interstitial macrophages. Our study shows that patients with ATI have significantly increased numbers of interstitial CD68+ macrophages, with an increase in both HLA-DR+ M1 macrophages and CD163+ M2 macrophages as compared to patients with MCD alone. Approximately 75% of macrophages were M2 (CD163+) whereas only 25% were M1 (HLA-DR+). M2 macrophages, which are believed to be critical for wound healing, were found to localize close to the tubular basement membrane of injured proximal tubule cells. Ultra structural examination showed close adherence of macrophages to the basement membrane of injured tubular epithelial cells. We conclude that macrophages accumulate around injured tubules following ATI and exhibit predominantly an M2 phenotype. We further speculate that macrophage-mediated repair may involve physical contact between the M2 macrophage and the injured tubular epithelial cell. PMID:25404860

  16. Mechanism of influenza A M2 transmembrane domain assembly in lipid membranes

    PubMed Central

    Georgieva, Elka R.; Borbat, Peter P.; Norman, Haley D.; Freed, Jack H.

    2015-01-01

    M2 from influenza A virus functions as an oligomeric proton channel essential for the viral cycle, hence it is a high-priority pharmacological target whose structure and functions require better understanding. We studied the mechanism of M2 transmembrane domain (M2TMD) assembly in lipid membranes by the powerful biophysical technique of double electron-electron resonance (DEER) spectroscopy. By varying the M2TMD-to-lipid molar ratio over a wide range from 1:18,800 to 1:160, we found that M2TMD exists as monomers, dimers, and tetramers whose relative populations shift to tetramers with the increase of peptide-to-lipid (P/L) molar ratio. Our results strongly support the tandem mechanism of M2 assembly that is monomers-to-dimer then dimers-to-tetramer, since tight dimers are abundant at small P/L’s, and thereafter they assemble as dimers of dimers in weaker tetramers. The stepwise mechanism found for a single-pass membrane protein oligomeric assembly should contribute to the knowledge of the association steps in membrane protein folding. PMID:26190831

  17. M2-polarized macrophages in keratocystic odontogenic tumor: relation to tumor angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Wen-Qun; Chen, Gang; Zhang, Wei; Xiong, Xue-Peng; Zhao, Yi; Liu, Bing; Zhao, Yi-Fang

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the presence of M2-polarized macrophages and their relationships to angiogenesis in keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT). M2-polarized macrophages were detected in KCOT samples by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence. Meanwhile, microvessel density measured with antibody against CD31 was closely correlated with the presence of M2-polarized macrophages. In addition, macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) significantly contributed to the activation of M2-polarized macrophages. Moreover, the results of in vitro wound healing, cell migration and tube formation assays further revealed the pro-angiogenic function of M2-polarized macrophage-like cells. This function might be associated with secretion of angiogenic cytokines, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and matrix metalloprotein-9 (MMP-9). This study demonstrates for the first time that M2-polarized macrophages are prevalent in KCOT, and their presence is dependent on M-CSF expression. More importantly, these tumor-supportive cells can also promote tumor angiogenesis by secreting angiogenic cytokines. PMID:26508096

  18. Opposite Effects of M1 and M2 Macrophage Subtypes on Lung Cancer Progression

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Ang; Hsiao, Yi-Jing; Chen, Hsuan-Yu; Chen, Huei-Wen; Ho, Chao-Chi; Chen, Yu-Yun; Liu, Yi-Chia; Hong, Tsai-Hsia; Yu, Sung-Liang; Chen, Jeremy J.W.; Yang, Pan-Chyr

    2015-01-01

    Macrophages in a tumor microenvironment have been characterized as M1- and M2-polarized subtypes. Here, we discovered the different macrophages’ impacts on lung cancer cell A549. The M2a/M2c subtypes promoted A549 invasion and xenograft tumor growth. The M1 subtype suppressed angiogenesis. M1 enhanced the sensitivity of A549 to cisplatin and decreased the tube formation activity and cell viability of A549 cells by inducing apoptosis and senescence. Different macrophage subtypes regulated genes involved in the immune response, cytoskeletal remodeling, coagulation, cell adhesion, and apoptosis pathways in A549 cells, which was a pattern that correlated with the altered behaviors of the A549 cells. Furthermore, we found that the identified M1/M2 gene signatures were significantly correlated with the extended overall survival of lung cancer patients. These results suggest that M1/M2 gene expression signature may be used as a prognostic indicator for lung cancer patients, and M1/M2 polarization may be a target of investigation of immune-modulating therapies for lung cancer in the future. PMID:26399191

  19. Monocyte Differentiation towards Protumor Activity Does Not Correlate with M1 or M2 Phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Chimal-Ramírez, G. Karina; Espinoza-Sánchez, Nancy Adriana; Chávez-Sánchez, Luis; Arriaga-Pizano, Lourdes

    2016-01-01

    Macrophages facilitate breast cancer progression. Macrophages were initially classified as M1 or M2 based on their distinct metabolic programs and then expanded to include antitumoral (M1) and protumoral (M2) activities. However, it is still uncertain what markers define the pro- and antitumoral phenotypes and what conditions lead to their formation. In this study, monocytic cell lines and primary monocytes were subjected to commonly reported protocols of M1/M2 polarization and conditions known to engage monocytes into protumoral functions. The results showed that only IDO enzyme and CD86 M1 markers were upregulated correlating with M1 polarization. TNF-α, CCR7, IL-10, arginase I, CD36, and CD163 were expressed indistinguishably from M1 or M2 polarization. Similarly, protumoral engaging resulted in upregulation of both M1 and M2 markers, with conditioned media from the most aggressive breast cancer cell line promoting the greatest changes. In spite of the mixed phenotype, M1-polarized macrophages exhibited the highest expression/secretion of inflammatory mediators, many of which have previously been associated with breast cancer aggressiveness. These data argue that although the existence of protumoral macrophages is unquestionable, their associated phenotypes and the precise conditions driving their formation are still unclear, and those conditions may need both M1 and M2 stimuli. PMID:27376091

  20. The MHV68 M2 protein drives IL-10 dependent B cell proliferation and differentiation.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Andrea M; Herskowitz, Jeremy H; Speck, Samuel H

    2008-04-01

    Murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV68) establishes long-term latency in memory B cells similar to the human gammaherpesvirus Epstein Barr Virus (EBV). EBV encodes an interleukin-10 (IL-10) homolog and modulates cellular IL-10 expression; however, the role of IL-10 in the establishment and/or maintenance of chronic EBV infection remains unclear. Notably, MHV68 does not encode an IL-10 homolog, but virus infection has been shown to result in elevated serum IL-10 levels in wild-type mice, and IL-10 deficiency results in decreased establishment of virus latency. Here we show that a unique MHV68 latency-associated gene product, the M2 protein, is required for the elevated serum IL-10 levels observed at 2 weeks post-infection. Furthermore, M2 protein expression in primary murine B cells drives high level IL-10 expression along with increased secretion of IL-2, IL-6, and MIP-1alpha. M2 expression was also shown to significantly augment LPS driven survival and proliferation of primary murine B cells. The latter was dependent on IL-10 expression as demonstrated by the failure of IL10-/- B cells to proliferate in response to M2 protein expression and rescue of M2-associated proliferation by addition of recombinant murine IL-10. M2 protein expression in primary B cells also led to upregulated surface expression of the high affinity IL-2 receptor (CD25) and the activation marker GL7, along with down-regulated surface expression of B220, MHC II, and sIgD. The cells retained CD19 and sIgG expression, suggesting differentiation to a pre-plasma memory B cell phenotype. These observations are consistent with previous analyses of M2-null MHV68 mutants that have suggested a role for the M2 protein in expansion and differentiation of MHV68 latently infected B cells-perhaps facilitating the establishment of virus latency in memory B cells. Thus, while the M2 protein is unique to MHV68, analysis of M2 function has revealed an important role for IL-10 in MHV68 pathogenesis-identifying a

  1. M2 macrophage polarization modulates epithelial-mesenchymal transition in cisplatin-induced tubulointerstitial fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chia-Cherng; Chien, Chiang-Ting; Chang, Tzu-Ching

    2016-03-01

    Cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity leaded to apoptosis of tubular epithelial cells (ECs) and tubulointerstitial fibrosis through ROS stress and inflammatory cytokines. Tubulointerstitial fibrosis caused by cisplatin might be via activation of resident fibroblasts and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of tubular ECs. Inflammatory niche was crucial for progression of fibroblast activation or EMT. It had been reported that M1/M2 macrophage polarization regulated pro-inflammation or pro-resolving phase in damage repairing. However, the role of macrophage polarization on cisplatin-induced EMT of tubular ECs had not been well elucidated. In this study, we used co-cultured cell model and condition medium to examine the interaction between tubular ECs, fibroblasts and M1/M2 macrophages. Our data showed that cisplatin alone induced incomplete EMT of tubular ECs, whereas fibroblasts co-cultured with cisplatin-treated ECs could lead to fibroblast activation by detection of α-SMA and collagen-1. Moreover, decrease of iNOS and increase of argenase-1 and CD206 expression indicated that macrophages co-cultured with cisplatin-treated ECs would turn to M2 phenotype. Finally, we found that condition medium of M2 macrophages could promote complete EMT of cisplatin-treated ECs. Taken together, cisplatin created an inflammatory niche via tubular ECs to activate fibroblasts and stimulated M2 macrophage polarization. M2 macrophages could turn back to promote EMT of cisplatin-treated ECs. These results revealed the cooperative roles of tubular ECs, fibroblast and M2 macrophages to facilitate the progression of renal fibroblasis.

  2. Lipopolysaccharide preconditioning facilitates M2 activation of resident microglia after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Hayakawa, Kentaro; Okazaki, Rentaro; Morioka, Kazuhito; Nakamura, Kozo; Tanaka, Sakae; Ogata, Toru

    2014-12-01

    The inflammatory response following spinal cord injury (SCI) has both harmful and beneficial effects; however, it can be modulated for therapeutic benefit. Endotoxin/lipopolysaccharide (LPS) preconditioning, a well-established method for modifying the immune reaction, has been shown to attenuate damage induced by stroke and brain trauma in rodent models. Although such effects likely are conveyed by tissue-repairing functions of the inflammatory response, the mechanisms that control the effects have not yet been elucidated. The present study preconditioned C57BL6/J mice with 0.05 mg/kg of LPS 48 hr before inducing contusion SCI to investigate the effect of LPS preconditioning on the activation of macrophages/microglia. We found that LPS preconditioning promotes the polarization of M1/M2 macrophages/microglia toward an M2 phenotype in the injured spinal cord on quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and immunohistochemical analyses. Flow cytometric analyses reveal that LPS preconditioning facilitates M2 activation in resident microglia but not in infiltrating macrophages. Augmented M2 activation was accompanied by vascularization around the injured lesion, resulting in improvement in both tissue reorganization and functional recovery. Furthermore, we found that M2 activation induced by LPS preconditioning is regulated by interleukin-10 gene expression, which was preceded by the transcriptional activation of interferon regulatory factor (IRF)-3, as demonstrated by Western blotting and an IRF-3 binding assay. Altogether, our findings demonstrate that LPS preconditioning has a therapeutic effect on SCI through the modulation of M1/M2 polarization of resident microglia. The present study suggests that controlling M1/M2 polarization through endotoxin signal transduction could become a promising therapeutic strategy for various central nervous system diseases. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. A novel M2e-multiple antigenic peptide providing heterologous protection in mice.

    PubMed

    Wen, Feng; Ma, Ji-Hong; Yu, Hai; Yang, Fu-Ru; Huang, Meng; Zhou, Yan-Jun; Li, Ze-Jun; Wang, Xiu-Hui; Li, Guo-Xin; Jiang, Yi-Feng; Tong, Wu; Tong, Guang-Zhi

    2016-03-01

    Swine influenza viruses (SwIVs) cause considerable morbidity and mortality in domestic pigs, resulting in a significant economic burden. Moreover, pigs have been considered to be a possible mixing vessel in which novel strains loom. Here, we developed and evaluated a novel M2e-multiple antigenic peptide (M2e-MAP) as a supplemental antigen for inactivated H3N2 vaccine to provide cross-protection against two main subtypes of SwIVs, H1N1 and H3N2. The novel tetra-branched MAP was constructed by fusing four copies of M2e to one copy of foreign T helper cell epitopes. A high-yield reassortant H3N2 virus was generated by plasmid based reverse genetics. The efficacy of the novel H3N2 inactivated vaccines with or without M2e-MAP supplementation was evaluated in a mouse model. M2e-MAP conjugated vaccine induced strong antibody responses in mice. Complete protection against the heterologous swine H1N1 virus was observed in mice vaccinated with M2e-MAP combined vaccine. Moreover, this novel peptide confers protection against lethal challenge of A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (H1N1). Taken together, our results suggest the combined immunization of reassortant inactivated H3N2 vaccine and the novel M2e-MAP provided cross-protection against swine and human viruses and may serve as a promising approach for influenza vaccine development. PMID:27051342

  4. A novel M2e-multiple antigenic peptide providing heterologous protection in mice

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Feng; Ma, Ji-Hong; Yang, Fu-Ru; Huang, Meng; Zhou, Yan-Jun; Li, Ze-Jun; Wang, Xiu-Hui; Li, Guo-Xin; Jiang, Yi-Feng; Tong, Wu

    2016-01-01

    Swine influenza viruses (SwIVs) cause considerable morbidity and mortality in domestic pigs, resulting in a significant economic burden. Moreover, pigs have been considered to be a possible mixing vessel in which novel strains loom. Here, we developed and evaluated a novel M2e-multiple antigenic peptide (M2e-MAP) as a supplemental antigen for inactivated H3N2 vaccine to provide cross-protection against two main subtypes of SwIVs, H1N1 and H3N2. The novel tetra-branched MAP was constructed by fusing four copies of M2e to one copy of foreign T helper cell epitopes. A high-yield reassortant H3N2 virus was generated by plasmid based reverse genetics. The efficacy of the novel H3N2 inactivated vaccines with or without M2e-MAP supplementation was evaluated in a mouse model. M2e-MAP conjugated vaccine induced strong antibody responses in mice. Complete protection against the heterologous swine H1N1 virus was observed in mice vaccinated with M2e-MAP combined vaccine. Moreover, this novel peptide confers protection against lethal challenge of A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (H1N1). Taken together, our results suggest the combined immunization of reassortant inactivated H3N2 vaccine and the novel M2e-MAP provided cross-protection against swine and human viruses and may serve as a promising approach for influenza vaccine development. PMID:27051342

  5. Rac2 Controls Tumor Growth, Metastasis and M1-M2 Macrophage Differentiation In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Shweta; Singh, Alok R.; Zulcic, Muamera; Bao, Lei; Messer, Karen; Ideker, Trey; Dutkowski, Janusz; Durden, Donald L.

    2014-01-01

    Although it is well-established that the macrophage M1 to M2 transition plays a role in tumor progression, the molecular basis for this process remains incompletely understood. Herein, we demonstrate that the small GTPase, Rac2 controls macrophage M1 to M2 differentiation and the metastatic phenotype in vivo. Using a genetic approach, combined with syngeneic and orthotopic tumor models we demonstrate that Rac2-/- mice display a marked defect in tumor growth, angiogenesis and metastasis. Microarray, RT-PCR and metabolomic analysis on bone marrow derived macrophages isolated from the Rac2-/- mice identify an important role for Rac2 in M2 macrophage differentiation. Furthermore, we define a novel molecular mechanism by which signals transmitted from the extracellular matrix via the α4β1 integrin and MCSF receptor lead to the activation of Rac2 and potentially regulate macrophage M2 differentiation. Collectively, our findings demonstrate a macrophage autonomous process by which the Rac2 GTPase is activated downstream of the α4β1 integrin and the MCSF receptor to control tumor growth, metastasis and macrophage differentiation into the M2 phenotype. Finally, using gene expression and metabolomic data from our Rac2-/- model, and information related to M1-M2 macrophage differentiation curated from the literature we executed a systems biologic analysis of hierarchical protein-protein interaction networks in an effort to develop an iterative interactome map which will predict additional mechanisms by which Rac2 may coordinately control macrophage M1 to M2 differentiation and metastasis. PMID:24770346

  6. π-Electron ring-currents and bond-currents in [10,5]-Coronene and related structures conforming to the 'Annulene-Within-an-Annulene' model.

    PubMed

    Dickens, T K; Mallion, R B

    2013-06-01

    A series of hypothetical conjugated structures is defined; the series is called the p-Coronenes and the first four members of it are shown to respect the 'Annulene-Within-an-Annulene' (AWA) model when tested by means of Hückel-London-Pople-McWeeny (HLPM) π-electron ring-current and bond-current calculations. The first member of this series, 5-Coronene, is also a member of the regular [r,s]-Coronene series, where it is known as [10,5]-Coronene. It is shown that, as p is varied (with p always odd, and with p > 3) through the values 5, 7, 9, 11, etc., the resulting structures alternate between a '[4n + 2]-Annulene-Within-a-[4m]-Annulene' (if (p- 1) is divisible by 4) and a '[4n]-Annulene-Within-a-[4m + 2]-Annulene' (if (p- 1) is not divisible by 4). It is therefore claimed that the p-Coronenes constitute an ideal series for testing the AWA model. It is also remarked that each member of the p-Coronene series has only four Kekulé structures, and that the 'spokes' or 'transverse' bonds connecting the central [p(p- 3)]-membered ring to the outer [p(p- 1)]-membered periphery always have a Pauling bond-order of zero, ensuring that the outer and inner rings are 'decoupled'; such bonds also bear zero bond-current, by symmetry. It is argued that the former property of these transverse bonds, rather than the latter, determines that the p-Coronenes obey the AWA rule-which is in fact an exception, rather than a 'rule'per se. The paper concludes by explicitly stating our philosophy that a conceptually simple model depending on no subjective (or any other) parameters whatsoever can give intuitive chemical insight for certain systems equal to that available from far-more complex methods such as ab initio calculations-what Coulson once famously called 'primitive patterns of understanding'.

  7. Modulation of the Shaker K+Channel Gating Kinetics by the S3–S4 Linker

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Carlos; Rosenman, Eduardo; Bezanilla, Francisco; Alvarez, Osvaldo; Latorre, Ramon

    2000-01-01

    In Shaker K+ channels depolarization displaces outwardly the positively charged residues of the S4 segment. The amount of this displacement is unknown, but large movements of the S4 segment should be constrained by the length and flexibility of the S3–S4 linker. To investigate the role of the S3–S4 linker in the ShakerH4Δ(6–46) (ShakerΔ) K+ channel activation, we constructed S3–S4 linker deletion mutants. Using macropatches of Xenopus oocytes, we tested three constructs: a deletion mutant with no linker (0 aa linker), a mutant containing a linker 5 amino acids in length, and a 10 amino acid linker mutant. Each of the three mutants tested yielded robust K+ currents. The half-activation voltage was shifted to the right along the voltage axis, and the shift was +45 mV in the case of the 0 aa linker channel. In the 0 aa linker, mutant deactivation kinetics were sixfold slower than in ShakerΔ. The apparent number of gating charges was 12.6 ± 0.6 eo in ShakerΔ, 12.7 ± 0.5 in 10 aa linker, and 12.3 ± 0.9 in 5 aa linker channels, but it was only 5.6 ± 0.3 eo in the 0 aa linker mutant channel. The maximum probability of opening (Pomax) as measured using noise analysis was not altered by the linker deletions. Activation kinetics were most affected by linker deletions; at 0 mV, the 5 and 0 aa linker channels' activation time constants were 89× and 45× slower than that of the ShakerΔ K+ channel, respectively. The initial lag of ionic currents when the prepulse was varied from −130 to −60 mV was 0.5, 14, and 2 ms for the 10, 5, and 0 aa linker mutant channels, respectively. These results suggest that: (a) the S4 segment moves only a short distance during activation since an S3–S4 linker consisting of only 5 amino acid residues allows for the total charge displacement to occur, and (b) the length of the S3–S4 linker plays an important role in setting ShakerΔ channel activation and deactivation kinetics. PMID:10653896

  8. Spin-Hall-Effect-Assisted Electroresistance in Antiferromagnets via 10(5) A/cm(2) dc Current.

    PubMed

    Han, Jiahao; Wang, Yuyan; Pan, Feng; Song, Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Antiferromagnet (AFM) spintronics with reduced electrical current is greatly expected to process information with high integration and low power consumption. In Pt/FeMn and Ta/FeMn hybrids, we observe significant resistance variation (up to 7% of the total resistance) manipulated by 10(5) A/cm(2) dc current. We have excluded the contribution of isotropic structural effects, and confirmed the critical role of the spin Hall injection from Pt (or Ta) to FeMn. This electrical current-manipulated resistance (i.e. electroresistance) is proposed to be attributed to the spin-Hall-effect-induced spin-orbit torque in FeMn. Similar results have also been detected in plain IrMn films, where the charge current generates spin current via the spin Hall effect with the existence of Ir atoms. All the measurements are free from external magnetic fields and ferromagnets. Our findings present an interesting step towards high-efficiency spintronic devices. PMID:27546199

  9. Thermal emission spectra of Mars (5.4-10.5 microns) - Evidence for sulfates, carbonates, and hydrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollack, James B.; Roush, Ted; Witteborn, Fred; Bregman, Jesse; Wooden, Diane; Stoker, Carol; Toon, Owen B.

    1990-01-01

    Spectra of the Martian thermal emission in the 5.4-10.5 micron region are reported. Emission features at 7.8 and 9.7 microns are attributed to surface silicates, and an emission feature at 6.1 micron is attributed to a molecular water component of the surface material. An absorption band at 8.7 micron and a possible one at 9.8 microns is attributed to sulfate or bisulfate anions probably located at a distorted crystalline site, and an absorption band at 6.7 microns is attributed to carbonate or bicarbonate anions located in a distorted crystalline site. Spectral simulations indicate that the sulfate- and carbonate-bearing minerals are contained in the same particles of airborne dust as the dominant silicate minerals, that the dust optical depth is about 0.6 at a reference wavelength of 0.3 micron over the area of the observed spots, and that sulfates and carbonates constitute 10-15 percent and 1-3 percent by volume of the airborne dust, respectively.

  10. Smart Screening System (S3) In Taconite Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Daryoush Allaei; Asim Syed Mohammed; David Tarnowski; Angus Morison

    2005-03-01

    components include smart motor and associated electronics, resonators, and supporting structural elements. It is shown that the smart motors have an acceptable life and performance. Resonator (or motion amplifier) designs are selected based on the final system requirement and vibration characteristics. All the components for a fully functional prototype are fabricated. The development program is on schedule. The last semi-annual report described the need and the work accomplished to design a supporting structure. The modified supporting structure design improved system rigidity and integrity and helped improve overall system performance. Lab test results showed a significant improvement in reducing undesired supporting structure vibration, better system performance and ease of installation. However the system performance suffered severe losses due to installation requirement. Since then significant work was completed both in terms of analysis and experimentation to minimize system installation sensitivity and to relax plant structure foundation requirement. Lab test on the modified system are near completion and we plan to test the system in field in early next quarter. With the assistance of Albany Research center, strain measurements were successfully completed on the S3i-101 unit. This report also includes the work initiated to investigate feasibility of inserting SmartScreens{trademark} technology in the field of dry applications.

  11. The m2 form of the Helicobacter pylori cytotoxin has cell type-specific vacuolating activity

    PubMed Central

    Pagliaccia, Cristina; de Bernard, Marina; Lupetti, Pietro; Ji, Xuhuai; Burroni, Daniela; Cover, Timothy L.; Papini, Emanuele; Rappuoli, Rino; Telford, John L.; Reyrat, Jean-Marc

    1998-01-01

    The Helicobacter pylori toxin VacA causes vacuolar degeneration in mammalian cell lines in vitro and plays a key role in peptic ulcer disease. Two alleles, m1 and m2, of the mid-region of the vacA gene have been described, and the m2 cytotoxin always has been described as inactive in the in vitro HeLa cell assay. However, the m2 allele is associated with peptic ulcer and is prevalent in populations in which peptic ulcer and gastric cancer have high incidence. In this paper, we show that, despite the absence of toxicity on HeLa cells, the m2 cytotoxin is able to induce vacuolization in primary gastric cells and in other cell lines such as RK-13. The absence of Hela cell activity is due to an inability to interact with the cell surface, suggesting a receptor-mediated interaction. This result is consistent with the observation that the m2 allele is found in a population that has a high prevalence of peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer. VacA is the first bacterial toxin described for which the same active subunit can be delivered by different receptor binding domains. PMID:9707626

  12. Quantitative changes in tumor-associated M2 macrophages characterize cholangiocarcinoma and their association with metastasis.

    PubMed

    Thanee, Malinee; Loilome, Watcharin; Techasen, Anchalee; Namwat, Nisana; Boonmars, Thidarut; Pairojkul, Chawalit; Yongvanit, Puangrat

    2015-01-01

    The tumor microenvironment (TME) includes numerous non-neoplastic cells such as leukocytes and fibroblasts that surround the neoplasm and influence its growth. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) and cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are documented as key players in facilitating cancer appearance and progression. Alteration of the macrophage (CD68, CD163) and fibroblast (α-SMA, FSP-1) cells in Opisthorchis viverrini (Ov)-induced cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) was here assessed using liver tissues from an established hamster model and from 43 human cases using immunohistochemistry. We further investigated whether M2-activated TAMs influence CCA cell migration ability by wound healing assay and Western blot analysis. Macrophages and fibroblasts change their phenotypes to M2-TAMs (CD68+, CD163+) and CAFs (α-SMA+, FSP-1+), respectively in the early stages of carcinogenesis. Interestingly, a high density of the M2-TAMs CCA in patients is significantly associated with the presence of extrahepatic metastases (p=0.021). Similarly, CD163+ CCA cells are correlated with metastases (p=0.002), and they may be representative of an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) with increased metastatic activity. We further showed that M2-TAM conditioned medium can induce CCA cell migration as well as increase N-cadherin expression (mesenchymal marker). The present work revealed that significant TME changes occur at an early stage of Ov-induced carcinogenesis and that M2-TAMs are key factors contributing to CCA metastasis, possibly via EMT processes. PMID:25854403

  13. Xuebijing Injection Promotes M2 Polarization of Macrophages and Improves Survival Rate in Septic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yan-Cun; Yao, Feng-Hua; Chai, Yan-Fen; Dong, Ning; Sheng, Zhi-Yong; Yao, Yong-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Xuebijing (XBJ) injection, a concoction of several Chinese herbs, has been widely used as an immunomodulator for the treatment of severe sepsis in China. However, the precise mechanisms responsible for its efficacy have not been fully elucidated. In our study, we determined the flow cytometry markers (F4/80, CD11c, and CD206), the levels of secreted cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-10), and the expression of specific proteins of M2 (Ym1, Fizz1, and Arg1) to assess macrophage polarization. Treatment with XBJ lowered M1 associated cytokine levels and increased the level of M2 associated cytokine level. The percentage of M2 phenotype cells of XBJ group was much higher than that of the control group. Expressions of phosphorylated Janus kinase 1 (JAK1) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (STAT6) were markedly enhanced after the administration of XBJ; on the other hand, the M2 associated cytokines and proteins were decreased following treatment with JAK1 or STAT6 inhibitor. In addition, the treatment of XBJ significantly improved the survival rate of septic mice. These studies demonstrate that XBJ can markedly promote M2 polarization and improve the survival rate of septic mice, thereby contributing to therapeutic effect in the treatment of septic complications. PMID:26064161

  14. Large-Scale Mini-Magnetosphere Plasma Propulsion (M2P2) Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winglee, R. M.; Slough, J.; Ziemba, T.; Euripides, P.; Adrian, M. L.; Gallagher, D.; Craven, P.; Tomlinson, W.; Cravens, J.; Burch, J.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Mini-Magnetosphere Plasma Propulsion (M2P2) is an innovative plasma propulsion system that has the potential to propel spacecraft at unprecedented speeds of 50 to 80 km per second with a low-power requirement of approx. 1 kW per 100 kg of payload and approx. 1 kg of neutral gas [fuel] consumption per day of acceleration. Acceleration periods from several days to a few months are envisioned. High specific impulse and efficiency are achieved through coupling of the spacecraft to the 400 km per second solar wind through an artificial magnetosphere. The mini-magnetosphere or inflated magnetic bubble is produced by the injection of cold dense plasma into a spacecraft-generated magnetic field envelope. Magnetic bubble inflation is driven by electromagnetic processes thereby avoiding the material and deployment problems faced by mechanical solar sail designs, Here, we present the theoretical design of M2P2 as well as initial results from experimental testing of an M2P2 prototype demonstrating: 1) inflation of the dipole magnetic field geometry through the internal injection of cold plasma; and 2) deflection of and artificial solar wind by the prototype M2P2 system. In addition, we present plans for direct laboratory measurement of thrust imparted to a prototype M2P2 by an artificial solar wind during the summer of 2001.

  15. Free-energy profiles for ions in the influenza M2-TMD channel.

    PubMed

    Mustafa, Morad; Henderson, Douglas J; Busath, David D

    2009-09-01

    M(2) transmembrane domain channel (M(2)-TMD) permeation properties are studied using molecular dynamics simulations of M(2)-TMD (1NYJ) embedded in a lipid bilayer (DMPC) with 1 mol/kg NaCl or KCl saline solution. This study allows examination of spontaneous cation and anion entry into the selectivity filter. Three titration states of the M(2)-TMD tetramer are modeled for which the four His(37) residues, forming the selectivity filter, are net uncharged, +2 charged, or +3 charged. M(2)-TMD structural properties from our simulations are compared with the properties of other models extracted from NMR and X-ray studies. During 10 ns simulations, chloride ions occasionally occupy the positively-charged selectivity filter region, and from umbrella sampling simulations, Cl(-) has a lower free-energy barrier in the selectivity-filter region than either Na(+) or NH(4) (+), and NH(4) (+) has a lower free-energy barrier than Na(+). For Na(+) and Cl(-), the free-energy barriers are less than 5 kcal/mol, suggesting that the 1NYJ conformation would probably not be exquisitely proton selective. We also point out a rotameric configuration of Trp(41) that could fully occlude the channel.

  16. Wireless Access Control with Smart Antenna for M2M Communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Bandai, Masaki; Watanabe, Takashi

    Machine to machine (M2M) is a promising technology to achieve an ubiquitous environment by uniting machines and machines over the Internet. The network used for M2M consists of core network and access network. This paper discusses effective controls of the wireless access network for M2M. Among typical examples of the wireless access network for M2M is a wireless sensor network (WSN). WSN for M2M may require energy efficiency, high reliability and throughput. For these requirements, in this paper, we propose a scheme to build a hierarchical sensor network using smart antenna. The proposed scheme uses omni-directional antennas together with smart antennas. Since smart antennas can extend communications distance, the proposed scheme enables reduction of number of hops to reduce the traffic load on relay nodes. As a result, the energy consumption, data collection ratio and throughput can be improved. We implement the proposed scheme on a real testbed. The testbed uses UNAGI as smart antenna nodes and Mica Mote as sensor nodes. In addition to the fundamental evaluation on the testbed, we simulate large-scale sensor networks. The results show the effectiveness of the proposed hierarchical sensor network with smart antennas.

  17. Differences in forward angular light scattering distributions between M1 and M2 macrophages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halaney, David L.; Zahedivash, Aydin; Phipps, Jennifer E.; Wang, Tianyi; Dwelle, Jordan; Saux, Claude Jourdan Le; Asmis, Reto; Milner, Thomas E.; Feldman, Marc D.

    2015-11-01

    The ability to distinguish macrophage subtypes noninvasively could have diagnostic potential in cancer, atherosclerosis, and diabetes, where polarized M1 and M2 macrophages play critical and often opposing roles. Current methods to distinguish macrophage subtypes rely on tissue biopsy. Optical imaging techniques based on light scattering are of interest as they can be translated into biopsy-free strategies. Because mitochondria are relatively strong subcellular light scattering centers, and M2 macrophages are known to have enhanced mitochondrial biogenesis compared to M1, we hypothesized that M1 and M2 macrophages may have different angular light scattering profiles. To test this, we developed an in vitro angle-resolved forward light scattering measurement system. We found that M1 and M2 macrophage monolayers scatter relatively unequal amounts of light in the forward direction between 1.6 deg and 3.2 deg with M2 forward scattering significantly more light than M1 at increasing angles. The ratio of forward scattering can be used to identify the polarization state of macrophage populations in culture.

  18. Large-Scale Mini-Magnetosphere Plasma Propulsion (M2P2) Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winglee, R. M.; Slough, J.; Ziemba, T.; Euripides, P.; Gallagher, D.; Craven, P.; Adrian, M. L.; Tomlinson, W.; Cravens, J.; Burch, J.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Mini-Magnetosphere Plasma Propulsion (M2P2) is an innovative plasma propulsion system that has the potential to propel spacecraft at unprecedented speeds of 50 to 80 km/s, with a low power requirement of approx. 1 kW per 100 kg of payload and -1 kg of neutral gas [fuel] consumption per day of acceleration. Acceleration periods from several days to a few months are envisioned. High specific impulse and efficiency are achieved through coupling of the spacecraft to the 400 km/s. solar wind through an artificial magnetosphere. The mini-magnetosphere or inflated magnetic bubble is produced by the injection of cold dense plasma into a spacecraft-generated magnetic field envelope. Magnetic bubble inflation is driven by electromagnetic processes thereby avoiding the material and deployment problems faced by mechanical solar sail designs. Here, we present the theoretical design of M2P2 as well as initial results from experimental testing of an M2P2 prototype demonstrating: 1) inflation of the dipole magnetic field geometry through the internal injection of cold plasma; and 2) deflection of and artificial solar wind by the prototype M2P2 system. In addition, we present plans for direct laboratory measurement of thrust imparted to a prototype M2P2 by an artificial solar wind during the summer of 2001.

  19. Differences in forward angular light scattering distributions between M1 and M2 macrophages.

    PubMed

    Halaney, David L; Zahedivash, Aydin; Phipps, Jennifer E; Wang, Tianyi; Dwelle, Jordan; Saux, Claude Jourdan Le; Asmis, Reto; Milner, Thomas E; Feldman, Marc D

    2015-11-01

    The ability to distinguish macrophage subtypes noninvasively could have diagnostic potential in cancer, atherosclerosis, and diabetes, where polarized M1 and M2 macrophages play critical and often opposing roles. Current methods to distinguish macrophage subtypes rely on tissue biopsy. Optical imaging techniques based on light scattering are of interest as they can be translated into biopsy-free strategies. Because mitochondria are relatively strong subcellular light scattering centers, and M2 macrophages are known to have enhanced mitochondrial biogenesis compared to M1, we hypothesized that M1 and M2 macrophages may have different angular light scattering profiles. To test this, we developed an in vitro angle-resolved forward light scattering measurement system. We found that M1 and M2 macrophage monolayers scatter relatively unequal amounts of light in the forward direction between 1.6 deg and 3.2 deg with M2 forward scattering significantly more light than M1 at increasing angles. The ratio of forward scattering can be used to identify the polarization state of macrophage populations in culture. PMID:26538329

  20. MMP28 promotes macrophage polarization toward M2 cells and augments pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Gharib, Sina A; Johnston, Laura K; Huizar, Isham; Birkland, Timothy P; Hanson, Josiah; Wang, Ying; Parks, William C; Manicone, Anne M

    2014-01-01

    Members of the MMP family function in various processes of innate immunity, particularly in controlling important steps in leukocyte trafficking and activation. MMP28 (epilysin) is a member of this family of proteinases, and we have found that MMP28 is expressed by macrophages and regulates their recruitment to the lung. We hypothesized that MMP28 regulates other key macrophage responses, such as macrophage polarization. Furthermore, we hypothesized that these MMP28-dependent changes in macrophage polarization would alter fibrotic responses in the lung. We examined the gene expression changes in WT and Mmp28-/- BMDMs, stimulated with LPS or IL-4/IL-13 to promote M1 and M2 cells, respectively. We also collected macrophages from the lungs of Pseudomonas aeruginosa-exposed WT and Mmp28-/- mice to evaluate changes in macrophage polarization. Lastly, we evaluated the macrophage polarization phenotypes during bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in WT and Mmp28-/- mice and assessed mice for differences in weight loss and total collagen levels. We found that MMP28 dampens proinflammatory macrophage function and promots M2 programming. In both in vivo models, we found deficits in M2 polarization in Mmp28-/- mice. In bleomycin-induced lung injury, these changes were associated with reduced fibrosis. MMP28 is an important regulator of macrophage polarization, promoting M2 function. Loss of MMP28 results in reduced M2 polarization and protection from bleomycin-induced fibrosis. These findings highlight a novel role for MMP28 in macrophage biology and pulmonary disease.

  1. M2 muscarinic receptor activation regulates Schwann cell differentiation and myelin organization.

    PubMed

    Uggenti, Carolina; De Stefano, M Egle; Costantino, Michele; Loreti, Simona; Pisano, Annalinda; Avallone, Bice; Talora, Claudio; Magnaghi, Valerio; Tata, Ada Maria

    2014-07-01

    Glial cells express acetylcholine receptors. In particular, rat Schwann cells express different muscarinic receptor subtypes, the most abundant of which is the M2 subtype. M2 receptor activation causes a reversible arrest of the cell cycle. This negative effect on Schwann cell proliferation suggests that these cells may possibly progress into a differentiating program. In this study we analyzed the in vitro modulation, by the M2 agonist arecaidine, of transcription factors and specific signaling pathways involved in Schwann cell differentiation. The arecaidine-induced M2 receptor activation significantly upregulates transcription factors involved in the promyelinating phase (e.g., Sox10 and Krox20) and downregulates proteins involved in the maintenance of the undifferentiated state (e.g., c-jun, Notch-1, and Jagged-1). Furthermore, arecaidine stimulation significantly increases the expression of myelin proteins, which is accompanied by evident changes in cell morphology, as indicated by electron microscopy analysis, and by substantial cellular re-distribution of actin and cell adhesion molecules. Moreover, ultrastructural and morphometric analyses on sciatic nerves of M2/M4 knockout mice show numerous degenerating axons and clear alterations in myelin organization compared with wild-type mice. Therefore, our data demonstrate that acetylcholine mediates axon-glia cross talk, favoring Schwann cell progression into a differentiated myelinating phenotype and contributing to compact myelin organization.

  2. M2 receptor activation inhibits cell cycle progression and survival in human glioblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Ferretti, Michela; Fabbiano, Cinzia; Di Bari, Maria; Conte, Claudia; Castigli, Emilia; Sciaccaluga, Miriam; Ponti, Donatella; Ruggieri, Paola; Raco, Antonino; Ricordy, Ruggero; Calogero, Antonella; Tata, Ada Maria

    2013-04-01

    Muscarinic receptors, expressed in several primary and metastatic tumours, appear to be implicated in their growth and propagation. In this work we have demonstrated that M2 muscarinic receptors are expressed in glioblastoma human specimens and in glioblastoma cell lines. Moreover, we have characterized the effects of the M2 agonist arecaidine on cell growth and survival both in two different glioblastoma cell lines (U251MG and U87MG) and in primary cultures obtained from different human biopsies. Cell growth analysis has demonstrated that the M2 agonist arecaidine strongly decreased cell proliferation in both glioma cell lines and primary cultures. This effect was dose and time dependent. FACS analysis has confirmed cell cycle arrest at G1/S and at G2/M phase in U87 cells and U251 respectively. Cell viability analysis has also shown that arecaidine induced severe apoptosis, especially in U251 cells. Chemosensitivity assays have, moreover, shown arecaidine and temozolomide similar effects on glioma cell lines, although IC50 value for arecaidine was significantly lower than temozolomide. In conclusion, we report for the first time that M2 receptor activation has a relevant role in the inhibition of glioma cell growth and survival, suggesting that M2 may be a new interesting therapeutic target to investigate for glioblastoma therapy.

  3. Dynamic Changes of Microglia/Macrophage M1 and M2 Polarization in Theiler's Murine Encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Herder, Vanessa; Iskandar, Cut Dahlia; Kegler, Kristel; Hansmann, Florian; Elmarabet, Suliman Ahmed; Khan, Muhammad Akram; Kalkuhl, Arno; Deschl, Ulrich; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang; Ulrich, Reiner; Beineke, Andreas

    2015-11-01

    Microglia and macrophages play a central role for demyelination in Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis (TME) virus infection, a commonly used infectious model for chronic-progressive multiple sclerosis. In order to determine the dynamic changes of microglia/macrophage polarization in TME, the spinal cord of Swiss Jim Lambert (SJL) mice was investigated by gene expression profiling and immunofluorescence. Virus persistence and demyelinating leukomyelitis were confirmed by immunohistochemistry and histology. Electron microscopy revealed continuous myelin loss together with abortive myelin repair during the late chronic infection phase indicative of incomplete remyelination. A total of 59 genes out of 151 M1- and M2-related genes were differentially expressed in TME virus-infected mice over the study period. The onset of virus-induced demyelination was associated with a dominating M1 polarization, while mounting M2 polarization of macrophages/microglia together with sustained prominent M1-related gene expression was present during the chronic-progressive phase. Molecular results were confirmed by immunofluorescence, showing an increased spinal cord accumulation of CD16/32(+) M1-, arginase-1(+) M2- and Ym1(+) M2-type cells associated with progressive demyelination. The present study provides a comprehensive database of M1-/M2-related gene expression involved in the initiation and progression of demyelination supporting the hypothesis that perpetuating interaction between virus and macrophages/microglia induces a vicious circle with persistent inflammation and impaired myelin repair in TME.

  4. Identification of Aquifex aeolicus tRNA (m2(2G26) methyltransferase gene.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Hiroshi; Hori, Hiroyuki; Endo, Yaeta

    2002-01-01

    The modifications of N2,N2-dimethylguanine (m2(2)G) are found in tRNAs and rRNAs from eukarya and archaea. In tRNAs, modification at position G26 is generated by tRNA (m2(2)G26) methyltransferase, which is encoded by the corresponding gene, trm1. This enzyme catalyzes the methyl-transfer from S-adenosyl-L-methionine to the semi-conserved residue, G26, via the intermediate modified base, m2G26. Recent genome sequencing project has been reported that the putative trm1 is encoded in the genome of Aquifex aeolicus, a hyper-thermophilic eubacterium as only one exception among eubacteria. In order to confirm whether this bacterial trm1 gene product is a real tRNA (m2(2)G26) methyltransferase or not, we expressed this protein by wheat germ in vitro cell-free translation system. Our biochemical analysis clearly showed that this gene product possessed tRNA (m2(2)G26) methyltransferase activity.

  5. M2 tidal parameter modulation revealed by superconducting gravimeter time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meurers, Bruno; Van Camp, Michel; Francis, Olivier; Pálinkáš, Vojtech

    2016-04-01

    Analyzing consecutive and independent 1-yr data sets of 10 European superconducting gravimeters (SG) reveals statistically significant temporal variations of M2 tidal parameters. Both common short-term (< 2 yr) and long-term (> 2 yr) features are identified in all SG time series but one. The averaged variations of the amplitude factor are about 0.2 per mille. The path of load vector variations equivalent to the temporal changes of tidal parameters suggests the presence of an 8.85 yr modulation (lunar perigee). The tidal waves having the potential to modulate M2 with this period belong to the 3rd degree constituents. Their amplitude factors turn out to be much closer to body tide model predictions than that of the main 2nd degree M2, which indicates ocean loading for 3rd degree waves to be less prominent than for 2nd degree waves within the M2 group. These two different responses to the loading suggest that the observed long-term modulation is more due to insufficient frequency resolution of limited time series rather than to time variable loading. Presently, SG gravity time series are still too short to prove if time variable loading processes are involved too as in case of the annual M2 modulation known to appear for analysis intervals of less than 1 yr. The observed variations provide an upper accuracy limit for Earth model validation and permit estimating the temporal stability of SG scale factors and assessing the quality of gravity time series.

  6. Temperature behaviour of optical parameters in (Ag3AsS3)0.3(As2S3)0.7 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutsyk, Mykhailo M.; Ráti, Yosyp Y.; Izai, Vitalii Y.; Makauz, Ivan I.; Studenyak, Ihor P.; Kökényesi, Sandor; Komada, Paweł; Zhailaubayev, Yerkin; Smailov, Nurzhigit

    2015-12-01

    (Ag3AsS3)0.3(As2S3)0.7 thin films were deposited onto a quartz substrate by rapid thermal evaporation. The optical transmission spectra of thin films were measured in the temperature range 77-300 K. It is shown that the absorption edge spectra are described by the Urbach rule. The temperature behaviour of absorption spectra was studied, the temperature dependences of energy position of absorption edge and Urbach energy were investigated. The influence of transition from three-dimensional glass to the two-dimensional thin film as well as influence of Ag3AsS3 introduction into As2S3 on the optical parameters of (Ag3AsS3)0.3(As2S3)0.7 were analysed. The spectral and temperature behaviour or refractive index for (Ag3AsS3)0.3(As2S3)0.7 thin film were studied.

  7. Structural and electrical investigation of (Ag3AsS3) x (As2S3)1- x superionic glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Studenyak, Ihor; Neimet, Yuriy; Cserháti, Csaba; Kökényesi, Sándor; Kazakevičius, Edvardas; Šalkus, Tomas; Kežionis, Algimantas; Orliukas, Antanas

    2012-02-01

    Structural studies of (Ag3AsS3) x (As2S3)1- x chalcogenide superionic glasses in the compositional range x = 0.3-0.9 were performed by scanning electron microscopy. Temperature and compositional dependences of transmission coefficient, electrical conductivity, and activation energy were investigated

  8. Tensionless supersymmetric M2 branes in AdS4 × S7 and giant diabolo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López Carballo, Jaume; Lugo, Adrián R.; Russo, Jorge G.

    2009-11-01

    We find various supersymmetric configurations of toroidal M2 brane solutions in AdS4 × S7 or, more generally, in AdS4 × S7/Bbb Zk. In this class we identify solutions preserving 1/4 and 1/8 supersymmetries of the background. The supersymmetric M2 branes have angular momenta and winding on S7, and null world-volumes. In certain cases they collapse to string-like configurations. These configurations can be viewed as a higher-dimensional (membrane) analog of BMN states. We compute the energy and angular momenta, showing that all supersymmetric configurations obey the BPS relation E = J/R, J≡∑i = 14|Ji| with E,J → ∞. Finally, we also study another class of supersymmetric M2-branes, including uncompact rotating membranes of ``diabolo'' shape.

  9. Holographic cosmology from a system of M2-M5 branes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sepehri, Alireza; Faizal, Mir; Setare, Mohammad Reza; Ali, Ahmed Farag

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we analyze the holographic cosmology using a M2-M5 brane configuration. In this configuration, a M2-brane will be placed in between a M5-brane and an anti-M5-brane. The M2-brane will act as a channel for energy to flow from an anti-M5-brane to a M5-brane, and this will increase the degrees of freedom on the M5-brane causing inflation. The inflation will end when the M5-brane and anti-M5-brane get separated. However, at a later stage the distance between the M5-brane and the anti-M5-bran can reduce and this will cause the formation of tachyonic states. These tachyonic states will again open a bridge between the M5-branes and the anti-M5-branes, which will cause further acceleration of the universe.

  10. Purinergic signaling during macrophage differentiation results in M2 alternative activated macrophages.

    PubMed

    Barberà-Cremades, Maria; Baroja-Mazo, Alberto; Pelegrín, Pablo

    2016-02-01

    Macrophages represent a highly heterogenic cell population of the innate immune system, with important roles in the initiation and resolution of the inflammatory response. Purinergic signaling regulates both M1 and M2 macrophage function at different levels by controlling the secretion of cytokines, phagocytosis, and the production of reactive oxygen species. We found that extracellular nucleotides arrest macrophage differentiation from bone marrow precursors via adenosine and P2 receptors. This results in a mature macrophage with increased expression of M2, but not M1, genes. Similar to adenosine and ATP, macrophage growth arrested with LPS treatment resulted in an increase of the M2-related marker Ym1. Recombinant Ym1 was able to affect macrophage proliferation and could, potentially, be involved in the arrest of macrophage growth during hematopoiesis.

  11. Test Pilot John A. Manke and M2-F3 Lifting Body

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    NASA research pilot John A. Manke is seen here in front of the M2-F3 lifting body. Manke was hired by NASA on May 25, 1962, as a flight research engineer. He was later assigned to the pilot's office and flew various support aircraft including the F-104, F-5D, F-111 and C-47. The M2-F3 reached a top speed of l,064 mph (Mach 1.6). Highest altitude reached by the vehicle was 7l,500 feet on December 21, 1972, the date of its last flight with NASA pilot John Manke at the controls. The information the lifting body program generated contributed to the data base that led to development of today's Space Shuttle program. NASA donated The M2-F3 vehicle to the Smithsonian Institution in December 1973.

  12. Structure of the atypical bacteriocin pectocin M2 implies a novel mechanism of protein uptake.

    PubMed

    Grinter, Rhys; Josts, Inokentijs; Zeth, Kornelius; Roszak, Aleksander W; McCaughey, Laura C; Cogdell, Richard J; Milner, Joel J; Kelly, Sharon M; Byron, Olwyn; Walker, Daniel

    2014-07-01

    The colicin-like bacteriocins are potent protein antibiotics that have evolved to efficiently cross the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria by parasitizing nutrient uptake systems. We have structurally characterized the colicin M-like bacteriocin, pectocin M2, which is active against strains of Pectobacterium spp. This unusual bacteriocin lacks the intrinsically unstructured translocation domain that usually mediates translocation of these bacteriocins across the outer membrane, containing only a single globular ferredoxin domain connected to its cytotoxic domain by a flexible α-helix, which allows it to adopt two distinct conformations in solution. The ferredoxin domain of pectocin M2 is homologous to plant ferredoxins and allows pectocin M2 to parasitize a system utilized by Pectobacterium to obtain iron during infection of plants. Furthermore, we identify a novel ferredoxin-containing bacteriocin pectocin P, which possesses a cytotoxic domain homologous to lysozyme, illustrating that the ferredoxin domain acts as a generic delivery module for cytotoxic domains in Pectobacterium.

  13. Differential Binding of Rimantadine Enantiomers to Influenza A M2 Proton Channel.

    PubMed

    Wright, Anna K; Batsomboon, Paratchata; Dai, Jian; Hung, Ivan; Zhou, Huan-Xiang; Dudley, Gregory B; Cross, Timothy A

    2016-02-10

    Rimantadine hydrochloride (α-methyl-1-adamantane-methalamine hydrochloride) is a chiral compound which exerts antiviral activity against the influenza A virus by inhibiting proton conductance of the M2 ion channel. In complex with M2, rimantadine has always been characterized as a racemic mixture. Here, we report the novel enantioselective synthesis of deuterium-labeled (R)- and (S)-rimantadine and the characterization of their protein-ligand interactions using solid-state NMR. Isotropic chemical shift changes strongly support differential binding of the enantiomers to the proton channel. Position restrained simulations satisfying distance restraints from (13)C-(2)H rotational-echo double-resonance NMR show marked differences in the hydrogen-bonding pattern of the two enantiomers at the binding site. Together these results suggest a complex set of interactions between (R)-rimantadine and the M2 proton channel, leading to a higher stability for this enantiomer of the drug in the channel pore. PMID:26804976

  14. Internal friction in silver-containing (Ag3AsS3) x (As2S3)100 - x superionic glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilanych, V. S.; Buchuk, R. Yu.; Skubenych, K. V.; Makauz, I. I.; Studenyak, I. P.

    2012-12-01

    The mechanical properties of glasses in the Ag3AsS3-As2S3 system have been studied by the internal friction method. Measurements of internal friction and shear modulus have been carried out in the temperature interval 80-300 K at deformation frequencies of 10-50 mHz. Relaxation-type maxima of internal friction have been revealed. It has been shown that the concentration-induced variations in the parameters of the mechanical relaxation process in (Ag3AsS3) x (As2S3)100 - x glasses observed in the region of 20 at % Ag3AsS3 are of the threshold character. It has been established that this feature can be associated with the variation in the structural unit, which accounts for the process of mechanical energy dissipation within the temperature interval 150-250 K.

  15. Critical illness induces alternative activation of M2 macrophages in adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction We recently reported macrophage accumulation in adipose tissue of critically ill patients. Classically activated macrophage accumulation in adipose tissue is a known feature of obesity, where it is linked with increasing insulin resistance. However, the characteristics of adipose tissue macrophage accumulation in critical illness remain unknown. Methods We studied macrophage markers with immunostaining and gene expression in visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue from healthy control subjects (n = 20) and non-surviving prolonged critically ill patients (n = 61). For comparison, also subcutaneous in vivo adipose tissue biopsies were studied from 15 prolonged critically ill patients. Results Subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue biopsies from non-surviving prolonged critically ill patients displayed a large increase in macrophage staining. This staining corresponded with elevated gene expression of "alternatively activated" M2 macrophage markers arginase-1, IL-10 and CD163 and low levels of the "classically activated" M1 macrophage markers tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and inducible nitric-oxide synthase (iNOS). Immunostaining for CD163 confirmed positive M2 macrophage staining in both visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsies from critically ill patients. Surprisingly, circulating levels and tissue gene expression of the alternative M2 activators IL-4 and IL-13 were low and not different from controls. In contrast, adipose tissue protein levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ), a nuclear receptor required for M2 differentiation and acting downstream of IL-4, was markedly elevated in illness. In subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue biopsies from surviving critically ill patients, we could confirm positive macrophage staining with CD68 and CD163. We also could confirm elevated arginase-1 gene expression and elevated PPARγ protein levels. Conclusions Unlike obesity, critical illness evokes adipose tissue

  16. Proton and cation transport activity of the M2 proton channel from influenza A virus.

    PubMed

    Leiding, Thom; Wang, Jun; Martinsson, Jonas; DeGrado, William F; Arsköld, Sindra Peterson

    2010-08-31

    The M2 protein is a small, single-span transmembrane (TM) protein from the influenza A virus. This virus enters cells via endosomes; as the endosomes mature and become more acidic M2 facilitates proton transport into the viral interior, thereby disrupting matrix protein/RNA interactions required for infectivity. A mystery has been how protons can accumulate in the viral interior without developing a large electrical potential that impedes further inward proton translocation. Progress in addressing this question has been limited by the availability of robust methods of unidirectional insertion of the protein into virus-like vesicles. Using an optimized procedure for reconstitution, we show that M2 has antiporter-like activity, facilitating K(+) or Na(+) efflux when protons flow down a concentration gradient into the vesicles. Cation efflux is very small except under conditions mimicking those encountered by the endosomally entrapped virus, in which protons are flowing through the channel. This proton/cation exchange function is consistent with the known high proton selectivity of the channel. Thus, M2 acts as a proton uniporter that occasionally allows K(+) to flow to maintain electrical neutrality. Remarkably, as the pH inside M2-containing vesicles (pH(in)) decreases, the proton channel activity of M2 is inhibited, but its cation transport activity is activated. This reciprocal inhibition of proton flux and activation of cation flux with decreasing pH(in) first allows accumulation of protons in the early stages of acidification, then trapping of protons within the virus when low pH(in) is achieved.

  17. Sphingosine 1-phosphate induced anti-atherogenic and atheroprotective M2 macrophage polarization through IL-4.

    PubMed

    Park, Soo-Jin; Lee, Kyoung-Pil; Kang, Saeromi; Lee, Jaewon; Sato, Koichi; Chung, Hae Young; Okajima, Fumikazu; Im, Dong-Soon

    2014-10-01

    Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) has been implicated in anti-atherogenic properties of high-density lipoproteins. However, the roles and signaling of S1P in macrophages, the main contributor to atherosclerosis, have not been well studied. Furthermore, pro-inflammatory M1 and anti-inflammatory M2 macrophage phenotypes may influence the development of atherosclerosis. Therefore, we investigated the effects of S1P on macrophage phenotypes, especially on M2 polarization and its signaling in relation to the anti-atherogenic properties of S1P. It was found that S1P induced anti-inflammatory M2 polarization via IL-4 secretion and its signaling, and induced IL-4Rα and IL-2Rγ. In addition, down-stream signalings, such as, stat-6 phosphorylation, SOCS1 induction, and SOCS3 suppression were also observed in macrophages in response to S1P. Furthermore, S1P-induced ERK activation, and the inhibitions of p38 MAPK and JNK were found to be key signals for IL-4 induction. Moreover, the anti-atherogenic effect of S1P in HDL was confirmed by the observation that oxidized LDL-induced lipid accumulation was attenuated in S1P-treated M2 macrophages. Furthermore, the atheroprotective effect of S1P was demonstrated by its anti-apoptotic effect on S1P-treated macrophages. The present study shows that S1P-induced M2 polarization of macrophages could be mediated via IL-4 signaling, and suggests that M2 polarization by S1P is responsible for the anti-atherogenic and atheroprotective properties of high-density lipoproteins in vivo.

  18. Ovarian cancer stem-like cells elicit the polarization of M2 macrophages.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qing; Cai, Da-Jun; Li, Bin

    2015-06-01

    Ovarian cancer is a life‑threatening disease in females worldwide. The polarization of macrophages is crucial in oncogenesis and the development of ovarian cancer. Increasing evidence has supported the correlation between ovarian cancer stem‑like cells (OCSCs) and macrophages, however, whether OCSCs can affect the polarization of macrophages and the underlying mechanisms involved remain to be elucidated. To examine the interplay between OCSCs and macrophages, a co‑culture system was used to detect the effect of OCSCs on macrophage polarization. The expression of cluster of differentiation 206+ and the secretion of interleukin‑10 were significantly increased and the production of tumor necrosis factor‑α was suppressed, confirming macrophage polarization to M2 macrophages. Further investigation of the macrophages in a Transwell culture system with OCSCs revealed polarization to the M2 macrophages to a similar extent, indicating that the cytokines of the OCSCs, rather than direct cell‑cell contact, are important for the polarization of M2 macrophages. Furthermore, the expression levels of chemokine (C‑C motif) ligand (CCL)2, cyclooxygenase (COX)‑2 and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) were increased in the Transwell system and the inhibition of COX‑2, but not CCL2, significantly decreased the polarization of the M2 macrophages. In addition, mechanistic analysis revealed the importance of the COX‑2/PGE2 pathway in OCSCs to activate Janus kinase (JAK) signaling in macrophages to elicit M2 polarization. These findings provided the first evidence, to the best of our knowledge, that OCSCs are capable of altering macrophages into the M2 phenotype via the overexpression of COX‑2 and the increased production of PGE2 cytokines and that the JAK signaling pathway in macrophages is important for this alteration. The present study provided evidence supporting possible molecular targets for cancer treatment.

  19. Ixmyelocel-T, an expanded multicellular therapy, contains a unique population of M2-like macrophages

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction M2 macrophages promote tissue repair and regeneration through various mechanisms including immunomodulation and scavenging of tissue debris. Delivering increased numbers of these cells to ischemic tissues may limit tissue injury and promote repair. Ixmyelocel-T is an expanded, autologous multicellular therapy cultured from bone-marrow mononuclear cells (BMMNCs). The purpose of this study was to characterize further a unique expanded population of M2-like macrophages, generated in ixmyelocel-T therapy. Methods Approximately 50 ml of whole bone marrow was obtained from healthy donors and shipped overnight. BMMNCs were produced by using density-gradient separation and cultured for approximately 12 days to generate ixmyelocel-T. CD14+ cells were isolated from ixmyelocel-T with positive selection for analysis. Cell-surface phenotype was examined with flow cytometry and immunofluorescence, and expression of cytokines and chemokines was analyzed with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Quantitative real-time PCR was used to analyze expression of genes in BMMNCs, ixmyelocel-T, the CD14+ population from ixmyelocel-T, and M1 and M2 macrophages. Ixmyelocel-T was cultured with apoptotic BMMNCs, and then visualized under fluorescence microscopy to assess efferocytosis. Results Macrophages in ixmyelocel-T therapy expressed surface markers of M2 macrophages, CD206, and CD163. These cells were also found to express several M2 markers, and few to no M1 markers. After stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), they showed minimal secretion of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-12 (IL-12) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) compared with M1 and M2 macrophages. Ixmyelocel-T macrophages efficiently ingested apoptotic BMMNCs. Conclusions Ixmyelocel-T therapy contains a unique population of M2-like macrophages that are characterized by expression of M2 markers, decreased secretion of proinflammatory cytokines after inflammatory stimuli, and efficient

  20. Search for variability in the kinematics of the ionised circumstellar region of M2-9

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres-Peimbert, S.; Arrieta, A.; Georgiev, L.

    In our previous study of M2-9 we found that the radial velocities of the forbidden lines of the ionized species in the nuclear spectra show a negative gradient which correlates with density, electron temperature and electron pressure. The size of the ionized region is relatively small and the travel time with the observed velocities is of order of decades. In an attempt to reveal the nature of the unusual velocity gradient, we present second epoch observational spectral data of the nucleus of M2-9.

  1. Modelling the enigmatic Late Pliocene Glacial Event - Marine Isotope Stage M2

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dolan, Aisling M.; Haywood, Alan M.; Hunter, Stephen J.; Tindall, Julia C.; Dowsett, Harry J.; Hill, Daniel J.; Pickering, Steven J.

    2015-01-01

    The Pliocene Epoch (5.2 to 2.58 Ma) has often been targeted to investigate the nature of warm climates. However, climate records for the Pliocene exhibit significant variability and show intervals that apparently experienced a cooler than modern climate. Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) M2 (~ 3.3 Ma) is a globally recognisable cooling event that disturbs an otherwise relatively (compared to present-day) warm background climate state. It remains unclear whether this event corresponds to significant ice sheet build-up in the Northern and Southern Hemisphere. Estimates of sea level for this interval vary, and range from modern values to estimates of 65 m sea level fall with respect to present day. Here we implement plausible M2 ice sheet configurations into a coupled atmosphere–ocean climate model to test the hypothesis that larger-than-modern ice sheet configurations may have existed at M2. Climate model results are compared with proxy climate data available for M2 to assess the plausibility of each ice sheet configuration. Whilst the outcomes of our data/model comparisons are not in all cases straight forward to interpret, there is little indication that results from model simulations in which significant ice masses have been prescribed in the Northern Hemisphere are incompatible with proxy data from the North Atlantic, Northeast Arctic Russia, North Africa and the Southern Ocean. Therefore, our model results do not preclude the possibility of the existence of larger ice masses during M2 in the Northern or Southern Hemisphere. Specifically they are not able to discount the possibility of significant ice masses in the Northern Hemisphere during the M2 event, consistent with a global sea-level fall of between 40 m and 60 m. This study highlights the general need for more focused and coordinated data generation in the future to improve the coverage and consistency in proxy records for M2, which will allow these and future M2 sensitivity tests to be interrogated

  2. Pharmacokinetics of PEGylated recombinant human endostatin (M2ES) in rats

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zuo-gang; Jia, Lin; Guo, Li-fang; Yu, Min; Sun, Xu; Nie, Wen; Fu, Yan; Rao, Chun-ming; Wang, Jun-zhi; Luo, Yong-zhang

    2015-01-01

    Aim: M2ES is PEGylated recombinant human endostatin. In this study we investigated the pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution, and excretion of M2ES in rats. Methods: 125I-radiolabeled M2ES was administered to rats by intravenous bolus injection at 3 mg/kg. The pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution and excretion of M2ES were investigated using the trichloroacetic acid (TCA) precipitation method. Results: The serum M2ES concentration-time curve after a single intravenous dose of 3 mg/kg in rats was fitted with a non-compartment model. The pharmacokinetic parameters were evaluated as follows: Cmax=28.3 μg·equ/mL, t1/2=71.5 h, AUC(0–∞)=174.6 μg·equ·h/mL, Cl=17.2 mL·h−1·kg−1, MRT=57.6 h, and Vss=989.8 mL/kg for the total radioactivity; Cmax=30.3 μg·equ/mL, t1/2=60.1 h, AUC(0–∞)=146.2 μg·equ·h/mL, Cl=20.6 mL·h−1·kg−1, MRT=47.4 h, and Vss=974.6 mL/kg for the TCA precipitate radioactivity. M2ES was rapidly and widely distributed in various tissues and showed substantial deposition in kidney, adrenal gland, lung, spleen, bladder and liver. The radioactivity recovered in the urine and feces by 432 h post-dose was 71.3% and 8.3%, respectively. Only 0.98% of radioactivity was excreted in the bile by 24 h post-dose. Conclusion: PEG modification substantially prolongs the circulation time of recombinant human endostatin and effectively improves its pharmacokinetic behavior. M2ES is extensively distributed in most tissues of rats, including kidney, adrenal gland, lung, spleen, bladder and liver. Urinary excretion was the major elimination route for M2ES. PMID:26027657

  3. Extrasolar Giant Magnetospheric Response to Steady-state Stellar Wind Pressure at 10, 5, 1, and 0.2 au

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilley, Matt A.; Harnett, Erika M.; Winglee, Robert M.

    2016-08-01

    A three-dimensional, multifluid simulation of a giant planet’s magnetospheric interaction with steady-state stellar wind from a Sun-like star was performed for four different orbital semimajor axes—10, 5, 1, and 0.2 au. We simulate the effect of the increasing, steady-state stellar wind pressure related to the planetary orbital semimajor axis on the global magnetospheric dynamics for a Saturn-like planet, including an Enceladus-like plasma torus. Mass-loss processes are shown to vary with orbital distance, with the centrifugal interchange instability displayed only in the 10 and 5 au cases, which reach a state of mass-loss equilibrium more slowly than the 1 or 0.2 au cases. The compression of the magnetosphere in the 1 and 0.2 au cases contributes to the quenching of the interchange process by increasing the ratio of total plasma thermal energy to corotational energy. The strength of field-aligned currents, associated with auroral radio emissions, is shown to increase in magnitude and latitudinal coverage with a corresponding shift equatorward from increased dynamic ram pressure experienced in the hotter orbits. Similar to observed hot Jovian planets, the warm exo-Saturn simulated in the current work shows enhanced ion density in the magnetosheath and magnetopause regions, as well as the plasma torus, which could contribute to altered transit signals, suggesting that for planets in warmer (>0.1 au) orbits, planetary magnetic field strengths and possibly exomoons—via the plasma torus—could be observable with future missions.

  4. Extrasolar giant magnetospheric response to steady-state stellar wind pressure at 10, 5, 1, and 0.2 AU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilley, Matt; Harnett, Erika; Winglee, Robert

    2016-10-01

    A three-dimensional, multifluid simulation of a giant planet's magnetospheric interaction with steady-state stellar wind from a Sun-like star was performed for four different orbital semi-major axes - 10, 5, 1 and 0.2 AU. We simulate the effect of the increasing, steady-state stellar wind pressure related to the planetary orbital semi-major axis on the global magnetospheric dynamics for a Saturn-like planet, including an Enceladus-like plasma torus. Mass loss processes are shown to vary with orbital distance, with the centrifugal interchange instability displayed only in the 10 AU and 5 AU cases which reach a state of mass loss equilibrium more slowly than the 1 AU or 0.2 AU cases. The compression of the magnetosphere in the 1 AU and 0.2 AU cases contributes to the quenching of the interchange process by increasing the ratio of total plasma thermal energy to corotational energy. The strength of field-aligned currents (FAC), associated with auroral radio emissions, are shown to increase in magnitude and latitudinal coverage with a corresponding shift equatorward from increased dynamic ram pressure experienced in the hotter orbits. Similar to observed hot Jovian planets, the warm exo-Saturn simulated in the current work shows enhanced ion density in the magnetosheath and magnetopause regions, as well as the plasma torus which could contribute to altered transit signals, suggesting that for planets in warmer (> 0.1 AU) orbits, planetary magnetic field strengths and possibly exomoons - via the plasma torus - could be observable with future missions.

  5. Anomalies of The Moon's Thermal Emission In The Ir Spectral Range (10,5-12,5 Micron).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pugacheva, S. G.; Shevchenko, V. V.

    New satellite measurements of the lunar surface radiation temperature were used to construct the spatial angular function of thermal radiation of the Moon in the infrared (10.5-12.5micron) spectral range. The basic material for investigations is the scanned cosmic spectrozonal images of the lunar surface transmitted by the first Russian geo- stationary artificial meteorological satellite "GOMS". In this paper I describe an ana- lytic model for the lunar thermal field, which is realized as an angular function of the thermal infrared radiation emitted by the lunar surface and analyse thermal anomalies of the lunar surface.A comparison of the regression dependence with radiation tem- peratures measured at some points of the lunar surface shows a systematic departure of the measured values from the average values. These deviations, depending on the surface albedo, characterize the photometric inhomogeneity of the lunar surface layer. On the lunar surface four groups of thermal anomalies are chosen: the thermal anoma- lies at the expense of different heat conduction of the lunar ground, thermal anomalies on the edge of the Moon's limb, "hot spots" - sites of the surface, which area are less than the sanction of the detector, anomalies stipulated by the relief of the surface. On detail study of large-scale photographs some anomalies are identified with small-sized craters, others with separate clusters of stones. The difference in temperature of the surface of the thermal anomalies can exceed 20 deg. The differences of temperature of the lunar surface layer indicate the extremely low heat conduction and high porosity of the material. Major factors of the photometric inhomogeneity are strong irregularities of the relief and the varied heat conduction of the lunar ground. The thermal anomalies for highland regions and for mare regions are shown in figure.

  6. M2-F1 in flight over lakebed on tow line

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    Following the first M2-F1 airtow flight on 16 August 1963, the Flight Research Center used the vehicle for both research flights and to check out new lifting-body pilots. These included Bruce Peterson, Don Mallick, Fred Haise, and Bill Dana from NASA. Air Force pilots who flew the M2-F1 included Chuck Yeager, Jerry Gentry, Joe Engle, Jim Wood, and Don Sorlie, although Wood, Haise, and Engle only flew on car tows. In the three years between the first and last flights of the M2-F1, it made about 400 car tows and 77 air tows. The wingless, lifting body aircraft design was initially concieved as a means of landing an aircraft horizontally after atmospheric reentry. The absence of wings would make the extreme heat of re-entry less damaging to the vehicle. In 1962, Dryden management approved a program to build a lightweight, unpowered lifting body as a prototype to flight test the wingless concept. It would look like a 'flying bathtub,' and was designated the M2-F1, the 'M' referring to 'manned' and 'F' referring to 'flight' version. It featured a plywood shell placed over a tubular steel frame crafted at Dryden. Construction was completed in 1963. The first flight tests of the M2-F1 were over Rogers Dry Lake at the end of a tow rope attached to a hopped-up Pontiac convertible driven at speeds up to about 120 mph. This vehicle needed to be able to tow the M2-F1 on the Rogers Dry Lakebed adjacent to NASA's Flight Research Center (FRC) at a minimum speed of 100 miles per hour. To do that, it had to handle the 400-pound pull of the M2-F1. Walter 'Whitey' Whiteside, who was a retired Air Force maintenance officer working in the FRC's Flight Operations Division, was a dirt-bike rider and hot-rodder. Together with Boyden 'Bud' Bearce in the Procurement and Supply Branch of the FRC, Whitey acquired a Pontiac Catalina convertible with the largest engine available. He took the car to Bill Straup's renowned hot-rod shop near Long Beach for modification. With a special gearbox and

  7. M2-F1 lifting body aircraft on a flatbed truck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    After the grounding of the M2-F1 in 1966, it was kept in outside storage on the Dryden complex. After several years, its fabric and plywood structure was damaged by the sun and weather. Restoration of the vehicle began in February 1994 under the leadership of NASA retiree Dick Fischer, with other retirees who had originally worked on the M2-F1's construction and flight research three decades before also participating. The photo shows the now-restored M2-F1 returning to the site of its flight research, now called the Dryden Flight Research Center, on 22 August 1997. The wingless, lifting body aircraft design was initially conceived as a means of landing an aircraft horizontally after atmospheric reentry. The absence of wings would make the extreme heat of re-entry less damaging to the vehicle. In 1962, NASA Flight Research Center (later Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, CA) management approved a program to build a lightweight, unpowered lifting body as a prototype to flight test the wingless concept. It would look like a 'flying bathtub,' and was designated the M2-F1, the 'M' referring to 'manned' and 'F' referring to 'flight' version. It featured a plywood shell placed over a tubular steel frame crafted at Dryden. Construction was completed in 1963. The first flight tests of the M2-F1 were over Rogers Dry Lake at the end of a tow rope attached to a hopped-up Pontiac convertible driven at speeds up to about 120 mph. This vehicle needed to be able to tow the M2-F1 on the Rogers Dry Lakebed adjacent to NASA's Flight Research Center (FRC) at a minimum speed of 100 miles per hour. To do that, it had to handle the 400-pound pull of the M2-F1. Walter 'Whitey' Whiteside, who was a retired Air Force maintenance officer working in the FRC's Flight Operations Division, was a dirt-bike rider and hot-rodder. Together with Boyden 'Bud' Bearce in the Procurement and Supply Branch of the FRC, Whitey acquired a Pontiac Catalina convertible with the largest engine available

  8. Transport of coenzyme M (2-mercaptoethanesulfonic acid) and methylcoenzyme M [(2-methylthio)ethanesulfonic acid] in Methanococcus voltae: identification of specific and general uptake systems.

    PubMed Central

    Dybas, M; Konisky, J

    1989-01-01

    A transport system for coenzyme M (2-mercaptoethanesulfonic acid [HS-CoM]) and methylcoenzyme M [(2-(methylthio)ethanesulfonic acid (CH3-S-CoM)] in Methanococcus voltae required energy, showed saturation kinetics, and concentrated both forms of coenzyme M against a concentration gradient. Transport required hydrogen and carbon dioxide for maximal uptake. CH3-S-CoM uptake was inhibited by N-ethylmaleimide and monensin. Both HS-CoM and CH3-S-CoM uptake showed sodium dependence. In wild-type M. voltae, HS-CoM uptake was concentration dependent, with a Vmax of 960 pmol/min per mg of protein and an apparent Km of 61 microM. Uptake of CH3-S-CoM showed a Vmax of 88 pmol/min per mg of protein and a Km of 53 microM. A mutant of M. voltae resistant to the coenzyme M analog 2-bromoethanesulfonic acid (BES) showed no uptake of CH3-S-CoM but accumulated HS-CoM at the wild-type rate. While the higher-affinity uptake system was specific for HS-CoM, the lower-affinity system mediated uptake of HS-CoM, CH3-S-CoM, and BES. Analysis of the intracellular coenzyme M pools in metabolizing cells showed an intracellular HS-CoM concentration of 14.8 mM and CH3-S-CoM concentration of 0.21 mM. PMID:2509421

  9. Bone morphogenetic protein 7 polarizes THP-1 cells into M2 macrophages.

    PubMed

    Rocher, Crystal; Singla, Reetu; Singal, Pawan K; Parthasarathy, Sampath; Singla, Dinender K

    2012-07-01

    It was hypothesized that monocyte treatment with bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP7) would significantly enhance monocyte polarization into M2 macrophages as well as increasing the levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines. In a cell culture system using monocytes (human acute monocytic leukemia cell line THP-1), we studied the effects of BMP7 on monocytes polarizing into M2 macrophages. The data demonstrate that THP-1 cells contain a BMP type II receptor (BMPR2), and that its activation is significantly (p < 0.05) increased following treatment with BMP7. Furthermore, there was an increase of M2 macrophages, BMPR2, and anti-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-10 and IL-1ra compared with the respective controls. Moreover, treatment with BMP7 caused a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6, tumour necrosis factor (TNF-α), and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), compared with the controls. In conclusion, we suggest for the first time that BMP7 has a unique potential to polarize monocytes into M2 macrophages, required for tissue repair, which will have significant applications for the treatment of atherosclerosis. PMID:22720873

  10. On bistochastic Kadison-Schwarz operators on M2(Bbb C)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhamedov, Farrukh; Abduganiev, Abduaziz

    2013-04-01

    In this paper we describe bistochastic Kadison-Schawrz operators acting on M2(Bbb C). Such a description allows us to find positive, but not Kadison-Schwarz operators. Moreover, by means of that characterization we are able to construct Kadison-Schawrz operators, which are not completely positive.

  11. Proposed Ames M2-F1, M1-L half-cone, and Langley lenticular bodies.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1962-01-01

    Dale Reed, who inaugurated the lifting-body flight research at NASA's Flight Research Center (later, Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, CA), originally proposed that three wooden outer shells be built. These would then be attached to the single internal steel structure. The three shapes were (viewer's left to right) the M2-F1, the M1-L, and a lenticular shape. Milt Thompson, who supported Reed's advocacy for a lifting-body research project, recommended that only the M2-F1 shell be built, believing that the M1-L shape was 'too radical,' while the lenticular one was 'too exotic.' Although the lenticular shape was often likened to that of a flying saucer, Reed's wife Donna called it the 'powder puff.' The wingless, lifting body aircraft design was initially conceived as a means of landing an aircraft horizontally after atmospheric reentry. The absence of wings would make the extreme heat of re-entry less damaging to the vehicle. In 1962, Dryden management approved a program to build a lightweight, unpowered lifting body as a prototype to flight test the wingless concept. It would look like a 'flying bathtub,' and was designated the M2-F1, the 'M' referring to 'manned' and 'F' referring to 'flight' version. It featured a plywood shell placed over a tubular steel frame crafted at Dryden. Construction was completed in 1963. The first flight tests of the M2-F1 were over Rogers Dry Lake at the end of a tow rope attached to a hopped-up Pontiac convertible driven at speeds up to about 120 mph. This vehicle needed to be able to tow the M2-F1 on the Rogers Dry Lakebed adjacent to NASA's Flight Research Center (FRC) at a minimum speed of 100 miles per hour. To do that, it had to handle the 400-pound pull of the M2-F1. Walter 'Whitey' Whiteside, who was a retired Air Force maintenance officer working in the FRC's Flight Operations Division, was a dirt-bike rider and hot-rodder. Together with Boyden 'Bud' Bearce in the Procurement and Supply Branch of the FRC, Whitey

  12. M2-F1 mounted in NASA Ames Research Center 40x80 foot wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1962-01-01

    After the first attempted ground-tow tests of the M2-F1 in March 1963, the vehicle was taken to the Ames Research Center, Mountain View, CA, for wind-tunnel testing. During these tests, Milt Thompson and others were in the M2-F1 to position the control surfaces for each test. The wingless, lifting body aircraft design was initially conceived as a means of landing an aircraft horizontally after atmospheric reentry. The absence of wings would make the extreme heat of re-entry less damaging to the vehicle. In 1962, Dryden management approved a program to build a lightweight, unpowered lifting body as a prototype to flight test the wingless concept. It would look like a 'flying bathtub,' and was designated the M2-F1, the 'M' referring to 'manned' and 'F' referring to 'flight' version. It featured a plywood shell placed over a tubular steel frame crafted at Dryden. Construction was completed in 1963. The first flight tests of the M2-F1 were over Rogers Dry Lake at the end of a tow rope attached to a hopped-up Pontiac convertible driven at speeds up to about 120 mph. This vehicle needed to be able to tow the M2-F1 on the Rogers Dry Lakebed adjacent to NASA's Flight Research Center (FRC) at a minimum speed of 100 miles per hour. To do that, it had to handle the 400-pound pull of the M2-F1. Walter 'Whitey' Whiteside, who was a retired Air Force maintenance officer working in the FRC's Flight Operations Division, was a dirt-bike rider and hot-rodder. Together with Boyden 'Bud' Bearce in the Procurement and Supply Branch of the FRC, Whitey acquired a Pontiac Catalina convertible with the largest engine available. He took the car to Bill Straup's renowned hot-rod shop near Long Beach for modification. With a special gearbox and racing slicks, the Pontiac could tow the 1,000-pound M2-F1 110 miles per hour in 30 seconds. It proved adequate for the roughly 400 car tows that got the M2-F1 airborne to prove it could fly safely and to train pilots before they were towed behind a C

  13. M2-F1 in flight over lakebed on tow line

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    After initial ground-tow flights of the M2-F1 using the Pontiac as a tow vehicle, the way was clear to make air tows behind a C-47. The first air tow took place on 16 August 1963. Pilot Milt Thompson found that the M2-F1 flew well, with good control. This first flight lasted less than two minutes from tow-line release to touchdown. The descent rate was 4,000 feet per minute. The wingless, lifting body aircraft design was initially concieved as a means of landing an aircraft horizontally after atmospheric reentry. The absence of wings would make the extreme heat of re-entry less damaging to the vehicle. In 1962, Dryden management approved a program to build a lightweight, unpowered lifting body as a prototype to flight test the wingless concept. It would look like a 'flying bathtub,' and was designated the M2-F1, the 'M' referring to 'manned' and 'F' referring to 'flight' version. It featured a plywood shell placed over a tubular steel frame crafted at Dryden. Construction was completed in 1963. The first flight tests of the M2-F1 were over Rogers Dry Lake at the end of a tow rope attached to a hopped-up Pontiac convertible driven at speeds up to about 120 mph. This vehicle needed to be able to tow the M2-F1 on the Rogers Dry Lakebed adjacent to NASA's Flight Research Center (FRC) at a minimum speed of 100 miles per hour. To do that, it had to handle the 400-pound pull of the M2-F1. Walter 'Whitey' Whiteside, who was a retired Air Force maintenance officer working in the FRC's Flight Operations Division, was a dirt-bike rider and hot-rodder. Together with Boyden 'Bud' Bearce in the Procurement and Supply Branch of the FRC, Whitey acquired a Pontiac Catalina convertible with the largest engine available. He took the car to Bill Straup's renowned hot-rod shop near Long Beach for modification. With a special gearbox and racing slicks, the Pontiac could tow the 1,000-pound M2-F1 110 miles per hour in 30 seconds. It proved adequate for the roughly 400 car tows that got

  14. Wooden shell of M2-F1 being assembled at El Mirage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1962-01-01

    Wooden shell of the M2-F1 being assembled at El Mirage, CA. While Flight Research Center technicians built the internal steel structure of the M2-F1, sailplane builder Gus Briegleb built the vehicle's outer wooden shell. Its skin was 3/32-inch mahogany plywood, with 1/8-inch mahogany rib sections reinforced with spruce. The wingless, lifting body aircraft design was initially conceived as a means of landing an aircraft horizontally after atmospheric reentry. The absence of wings would make the extreme heat of re-entry less damaging to the vehicle. In 1962, Dryden management approved a program to build a lightweight, unpowered lifting body as a prototype to flight test the wingless concept. It would look like a 'flying bathtub,' and was designated the M2-F1, the 'M' referring to 'manned' and 'F' referring to 'flight' version. It featured a plywood shell placed over a tubular steel frame crafted at Dryden. Construction was completed in 1963. The first flight tests of the M2-F1 were over Rogers Dry Lake at the end of a tow rope attached to a hopped-up Pontiac convertible driven at speeds up to about 120 mph. This vehicle needed to be able to tow the M2-F1 on the Rogers Dry Lakebed adjacent to NASA's Flight Research Center (FRC) at a minimum speed of 100 miles per hour. To do that, it had to handle the 400-pound pull of the M2-F1. Walter 'Whitey' Whiteside, who was a retired Air Force maintenance officer working in the FRC's Flight Operations Division, was a dirt-bike rider and hot-rodder. Together with Boyden 'Bud' Bearce in the Procurement and Supply Branch of the FRC, Whitey acquired a Pontiac Catalina convertible with the largest engine available. He took the car to Bill Straup's renowned hot-rod shop near Long Beach for modification. With a special gearbox and racing slicks, the Pontiac could tow the 1,000-pound M2-F1 110 miles per hour in 30 seconds. It proved adequate for the roughly 400 car tows that got the M2-F1 airborne to prove it could fly safely and to

  15. M2-polarized macrophages contribute to neovasculogenesis, leading to relapse of oral cancer following radiation

    PubMed Central

    Okubo, Makiko; Kioi, Mitomu; Nakashima, Hideyuki; Sugiura, Kei; Mitsudo, Kenji; Aoki, Ichiro; Taniguchi, Hideki; Tohnai, Iwai

    2016-01-01

    Despite the fact that radiation is one of the standard therapies in the treatment of patients with oral cancer, tumours can recur even in the early stages of the disease, negatively impacting prognosis and quality of life. We previously found that CD11b+ bone marrow-derived cells (BMDCs) were recruited into human glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), leading to re-organization of the vasculature and tumour regrowth. However, it is not yet known how these cells contribute to tumour vascularization. In the present study, we investigated the role of infiltrating CD11b+ myeloid cells in the vascularization and recurrence of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). In a xenograft mouse model, local irradiation caused vascular damage and hypoxia in the tumour and increased infiltration of CD11b+ myeloid cells. These infiltrating cells showed characteristics of M2 macrophages (M2Mφs) and are associated with the promotion of vascularization. M2Mφs promoted tumour progression in recurrence after irradiation compared to non-irradiated tumours. In addition, we found that CD11b+ myeloid cells, as well as CD206+ M2Mφs, are increased during recurrence after radiotherapy in human OSCC specimens. Our findings may lead to the development of potential clinical biomarkers or treatment targets in irradiated OSCC patients. PMID:27271009

  16. Structure of the human M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor bound to an antagonist

    SciTech Connect

    Haga, Kazuko; Kruse, Andrew C.; Asada, Hidetsugu; Yurugi-Kobayashi, Takami; Shiroishi, Mitsunori; Zhang, Cheng; Weis, William I.; Okada, Tetsuji; Kobilka, Brian K.; Haga, Tatsuya; Kobayashi, Takuya

    2012-03-15

    The parasympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system regulates the activity of multiple organ systems. Muscarinic receptors are G-protein-coupled receptors that mediate the response to acetylcholine released from parasympathetic nerves. Their role in the unconscious regulation of organ and central nervous system function makes them potential therapeutic targets for a broad spectrum of diseases. The M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (M2 receptor) is essential for the physiological control of cardiovascular function through activation of G-protein-coupled inwardly rectifying potassium channels, and is of particular interest because of its extensive pharmacological characterization with both orthosteric and allosteric ligands. Here we report the structure of the antagonist-bound human M2 receptor, the first human acetylcholine receptor to be characterized structurally, to our knowledge. The antagonist 3-quinuclidinyl-benzilate binds in the middle of a long aqueous channel extending approximately two-thirds through the membrane. The orthosteric binding pocket is formed by amino acids that are identical in all five muscarinic receptor subtypes, and shares structural homology with other functionally unrelated acetylcholine binding proteins from different species. A layer of tyrosine residues forms an aromatic cap restricting dissociation of the bound ligand. A binding site for allosteric ligands has been mapped to residues at the entrance to the binding pocket near this aromatic cap. The structure of the M2 receptor provides insights into the challenges of developing subtype-selective ligands for muscarinic receptors and their propensity for allosteric regulation.

  17. A survey on M2M systems for mHealth: a wireless communications perspective.

    PubMed

    Kartsakli, Elli; Lalos, Aris S; Antonopoulos, Angelos; Tennina, Stefano; Renzo, Marco Di; Alonso, Luis; Verikoukis, Christos

    2014-09-26

    In the new era of connectivity, marked by the explosive number of wireless electronic devices and the need for smart and pervasive applications, Machine-to-Machine (M2M) communications are an emerging technology that enables the seamless device interconnection without the need of human interaction. The use of M2M technology can bring to life a wide range of mHealth applications, with considerable benefits for both patients and healthcare providers. Many technological challenges have to be met, however, to ensure the widespread adoption of mHealth solutions in the future. In this context, we aim to provide a comprehensive survey on M2M systems for mHealth applications from a wireless communication perspective. An end-to-end holistic approach is adopted, focusing on different communication aspects of the M2M architecture. Hence, we first provide a systematic review ofWireless Body Area Networks (WBANs), which constitute the enabling technology at the patient's side, and then discuss end-to-end solutions that involve the design and implementation of practical mHealth applications. We close the survey by identifying challenges and open research issues, thus paving the way for future research opportunities.

  18. Polarization of M2 macrophages requires Lamtor1 that integrates cytokine and amino-acid signals

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Tetsuya; Nada, Shigeyuki; Takegahara, Noriko; Okuno, Tatsusada; Nojima, Satoshi; Kang, Sujin; Ito, Daisuke; Morimoto, Keiko; Hosokawa, Takashi; Hayama, Yoshitomo; Mitsui, Yuichi; Sakurai, Natsuki; Sarashina-Kida, Hana; Nishide, Masayuki; Maeda, Yohei; Takamatsu, Hyota; Okuzaki, Daisuke; Yamada, Masaki; Okada, Masato; Kumanogoh, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    Macrophages play crucial roles in host defence and tissue homoeostasis, processes in which both environmental stimuli and intracellularly generated metabolites influence activation of macrophages. Activated macrophages are classified into M1 and M2 macrophages. It remains unclear how intracellular nutrition sufficiency, especially for amino acid, influences on macrophage activation. Here we show that a lysosomal adaptor protein Lamtor1, which forms an amino-acid sensing complex with lysosomal vacuolar-type H+-ATPase (v-ATPase), and is the scaffold for amino acid-activated mTORC1 (mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1), is critically required for M2 polarization. Lamtor1 deficiency, amino-acid starvation, or inhibition of v-ATPase and mTOR result in defective M2 polarization and enhanced M1 polarization. Furthermore, we identified liver X receptor (LXR) as the downstream target of Lamtor1 and mTORC1. Production of 25-hydroxycholesterol is dependent on Lamtor1 and mTORC1. Our findings demonstrate that Lamtor1 plays an essential role in M2 polarization, coupling immunity and metabolism. PMID:27731330

  19. Marine microbial biodiversity, bioinformatics and biotechnology (M2B3) data reporting and service standards

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Contextual data collected concurrently with molecular samples are critical to the use of metagenomics in the fields of marine biodiversity, bioinformatics and biotechnology. We present here Marine Microbial Biodiversity, Bioinformatics and Biotechnology (M2B3) standards for “Reporting” and “Serving” data. The M2B3 Reporting Standard (1) describes minimal mandatory and recommended contextual information for a marine microbial sample obtained in the epipelagic zone, (2) includes meaningful information for researchers in the oceanographic, biodiversity and molecular disciplines, and (3) can easily be adopted by any marine laboratory with minimum sampling resources. The M2B3 Service Standard defines a software interface through which these data can be discovered and explored in data repositories. The M2B3 Standards were developed by the European project Micro B3, funded under 7th Framework Programme “Ocean of Tomorrow”, and were first used with the Ocean Sampling Day initiative. We believe that these standards have value in broader marine science. PMID:26203332

  20. M2-F1 lifting body and Paresev 1B on ramp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    In this photo of the M2-F1 lifting body and the Paresev 1B on the ramp, the viewer sees two vehicles representing different approaches to building a research craft to simulate a spacecraft able to land on the ground instead of splashing down in the ocean as the Mercury capsules did. The M2-F1 was a lifting body, a shape able to re-enter from orbit and land. The Paresev (Paraglider Research Vehicle) used a Rogallo wing that could be (but never was) used to replace a conventional parachute for landing a capsule-type spacecraft, allowing it to make a controlled landing on the ground. The wingless, lifting body aircraft design was initially conceived as a means of landing an aircraft horizontally after atmospheric reentry. The absence of wings would make the extreme heat of re-entry less damaging to the vehicle. In 1962, Dryden management approved a program to build a lightweight, unpowered lifting body as a prototype to flight test the wingless concept. It would look like a 'flying bathtub,' and was designated the M2-F1, the 'M' referring to 'manned' and 'F' referring to 'flight' version. It featured a plywood shell placed over a tubular steel frame crafted at Dryden. Construction was completed in 1963. The first flight tests of the M2-F1 were over Rogers Dry Lake at the end of a tow rope attached to a hopped-up Pontiac convertible driven at speeds up to about 120 mph. This vehicle needed to be able to tow the M2-F1 on the Rogers Dry Lakebed adjacent to NASA's Flight Research Center (FRC) at a minimum speed of 100 miles per hour. To do that, it had to handle the 400-pound pull of the M2-F1. Walter 'Whitey' Whiteside, who was a retired Air Force maintenance officer working in the FRC's Flight Operations Division, was a dirt-bike rider and hot-rodder. Together with Boyden 'Bud' Bearce in the Procurement and Supply Branch of the FRC, Whitey acquired a Pontiac Catalina convertible with the largest engine available. He took the car to Bill Straup's renowned hot-rod shop

  1. LTE-advanced random access mechanism for M2M communication: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustafa, Rashid; Sarowa, Sandeep; Jaglan, Reena Rathee; Khan, Mohammad Junaid; Agrawal, Sunil

    2016-03-01

    Machine Type Communications (MTC) enables one or more self-sufficient machines to communicate directly with one another without human interference. MTC applications include smart grid, security, e-Health and intelligent automation system. To support huge numbers of MTC devices, one of the challenging issues is to provide a competent way for numerous access in the network and to minimize network overload. In this article, the different control mechanisms for overload random access are reviewed to avoid congestion caused by random access channel (RACH) of MTC devices. However, past and present wireless technologies have been engineered for Human-to-Human (H2H) communications, in particular, for transmission of voice. Consequently the Long Term Evolution (LTE) -Advanced is expected to play a central role in communicating Machine to Machine (M2M) and are very optimistic about H2H communications. Distinct and unique characteristics of M2M communications create new challenges from those in H2H communications. In this article, we investigate the impact of massive M2M terminals attempting random access to LTE-Advanced all at once. We discuss and review the solutions to alleviate the overload problem by Third Generation Partnership Project (3GPP). As a result, we evaluate and compare these solutions that can effectively eliminate the congestion on the random access channel for M2M communications without affecting H2H communications.

  2. A Survey on M2M Systems for mHealth: A Wireless Communications Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Kartsakli, Elli; Lalos, Aris S.; Antonopoulos, Angelos; Tennina, Stefano; Di Renzo, Marco; Alonso, Luis; Verikoukis, Christos

    2014-01-01

    In the new era of connectivity, marked by the explosive number of wireless electronic devices and the need for smart and pervasive applications, Machine-to-Machine (M2M) communications are an emerging technology that enables the seamless device interconnection without the need of human interaction. The use of M2M technology can bring to life a wide range of mHealth applications, with considerable benefits for both patients and healthcare providers. Many technological challenges have to be met, however, to ensure the widespread adoption of mHealth solutions in the future. In this context, we aim to provide a comprehensive survey on M2M systems for mHealth applications from a wireless communication perspective. An end-to-end holistic approach is adopted, focusing on different communication aspects of the M2M architecture. Hence, we first provide a systematic review of Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs), which constitute the enabling technology at the patient's side, and then discuss end-to-end solutions that involve the design and implementation of practical mHealth applications. We close the survey by identifying challenges and open research issues, thus paving the way for future research opportunities. PMID:25264958

  3. Molecular Mechanisms That Influence the Macrophage M1–M2 Polarization Balance

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Nan; Liang, Hongwei; Zen, Ke

    2014-01-01

    As an essential component of innate immunity, macrophages have multiple functions in both inhibiting or promoting cell proliferation and tissue repair. Diversity and plasticity are hallmarks of macrophages. Classical M1 and alternative M2 activation of macrophages, mirroring the Th1–Th2 polarization of T cells, represent two extremes of a dynamic changing state of macrophage activation. M1-type macrophages release cytokines that inhibit the proliferation of surrounding cells and damage contiguous tissue, and M2-type macrophages release cytokines that promote the proliferation of contiguous cells and tissue repair. M1–M2 polarization of macrophage is a tightly controlled process entailing a set of signaling pathways, transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulatory networks. An imbalance of macrophage M1–M2 polarization is often associated with various diseases or inflammatory conditions. Therefore, identification of the molecules associated with the dynamic changes of macrophage polarization and understanding their interactions is crucial for elucidating the molecular basis of disease progression and designing novel macrophage-mediated therapeutic strategies. PMID:25506346

  4. Embryonic stem cell-derived M2-like macrophages delay cutaneous wound healing.

    PubMed

    Dreymueller, Daniela; Denecke, Bernd; Ludwig, Andreas; Jahnen-Dechent, Willi

    2013-01-01

    In adults, repair of deeply injured skin wounds results in the formation of scar tissue, whereas in embryos wounds heal almost scar-free. Macrophages are important mediators of wound healing and secrete cytokines and tissue remodeling enzymes. In contrast to host defense mediated by inflammatory M1 macrophages, wound healing and tissue repair involve regulatory M2/M2-like macrophages. Embryonic/fetal macrophages are M2-like, and this may promote scar-free wound healing. In the present study, we asked whether atopical application of ex vivo generated, embryonic stem cell-derived macrophages (ESDM) improve wound healing in mice. ESDM were tested side by side with bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM). Compared to BMDM, ESDM resembled a less inflammatory and more M2-like macrophage subtype as indicated by their reduced responsiveness to lipopolysaccharide, reduced expression of Toll-like receptors, and reduced bacterial phagocytosis. Despite this anti-inflammatory phenotype in cell culture, ESDM prolonged the healing of deep skin wounds even more than BMDM. Healed wounds had more scar formation compared to wounds receiving BMDM or cell-free treatment. Our data indicate that atopical application of ex vivo generated macrophages is not a suitable cell therapy of dermal wounds.

  5. M2-F1 on lakebed with Pontiac convertible tow vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    The M2-F1 lifting body, dubbed the 'flying bathtub' by the media, was the precursor of a remarkable series of wingless flying vehicles that contributed data used in the space shuttle and the X-38 Technology Demonstrator for crew return from the International Space Station. The early tow tests were done using the 1963 Pontiac Catalina convertible modified for the purpose. The first flight attempt occurred on 1 March 1963 but was unsuccessful due to control-system problems. It was not until 5 April 1963, after tests in the Ames Research Center wind tunnel, that Milt Thompson made the first M2-F1 tow flight. Based on the ideas and basic design of Alfred J. Eggers and others at the Ames Aeronautical Laboratory (now the Ames Research Center), Mountain View, Calif., in the mid-1950s, the M2-F1 came to be built over a four-month period in 1962-63 for a cost of only about $30,000 plus perhaps an additional $8,000-$10,000 for an ejection seat and $10,000 for solid-propellant rockets to add time to the landing flare. Engineers and technicians at the NASA Flight Research Center (now NASA Dryden) kept costs low by designing and fabricating it partly in-house, with the plywood shell constructed by a local sailplane builder. Someone at the time estimated that it would have cost a major aircraft company $150,000 to build the same vehicle. Unlike the later lifting bodies, the M2-F1 was unpowered and was initially towed until it was airborne by a souped-up Pontiac convertible. This vehicle needed to be able to tow the M2-F1 on the Rogers Dry Lakebed adjacent to NASA's Flight Research Center (FRC) at a minimum speed of 100 miles per hour. To do that, it had to handle the 400-pound pull of the M2-F1. Walter 'Whitey' Whiteside, who was a retired Air Force maintenance officer working in the FRC's Flight Operations Division, was a dirt-bike rider and hot-rodder. Together with Boyden 'Bud' Bearce in the Procurement and Supply Branch of the FRC, Whitey acquired a Pontiac Catalina

  6. Unprimed, M1 and M2 Macrophages Differentially Interact with Porphyromonas gingivalis.

    PubMed

    Lam, Roselind S; O'Brien-Simpson, Neil M; Holden, James A; Lenzo, Jason C; Fong, Shao B; Reynolds, Eric C

    2016-01-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis is a keystone pathogen in the development of chronic periodontitis. Tissue macrophages are amongst the first immune cells to respond to bacteria and depending on the cytokine profile at the infection site, macrophages are primed to react to infection in different ways. Priming of naive macrophages with IFN-γ produces a classical pro-inflammatory, antibacterial M1 macrophage after TLR ligation, whereas priming with IL-4 induces an anti-inflammatory tissue-repair M2 phenotype. Previous work has shown that M1 are preferentially generated in gingival tissue following infection with P. gingivalis. However, few studies have investigated the interactions of macrophage subsets with P. gingivalis cells. The aim of this study was to determine the ability of naive, M1 and M2 macrophages to phagocytose P. gingivalis and investigate how this interaction affects both the bacterial cell and the macrophage. M1 and M2 macrophages were both found to have enhanced phagocytic capacity compared with that of naive macrophages, however only the naive and M1 macrophages were able to produce a respiratory burst in order to clear the bacteria from the phagosome. P. gingivalis was found to persist in naive and M2, but not M1 macrophages for 24 hours. Phagocytosis of P. gingivalis also induced high levels of TNF-α, IL-12 and iNOS in M1 macrophages, but not in naive or M2 macrophages. Furthermore, infection of macrophages with P. gingivalis at high bacteria to macrophage ratios, while inducing an inflammatory response, was also found to be deleterious to macrophage longevity, with high levels of apoptotic cell death found in macrophages after infection. The activation of M1 macrophages observed in this study may contribute to the initiation and maintenance of a pro-inflammatory state during chronic periodontitis. PMID:27383471

  7. Unprimed, M1 and M2 Macrophages Differentially Interact with Porphyromonas gingivalis

    PubMed Central

    Lenzo, Jason C.; Fong, Shao B.; Reynolds, Eric C.

    2016-01-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis is a keystone pathogen in the development of chronic periodontitis. Tissue macrophages are amongst the first immune cells to respond to bacteria and depending on the cytokine profile at the infection site, macrophages are primed to react to infection in different ways. Priming of naive macrophages with IFN-γ produces a classical pro-inflammatory, antibacterial M1 macrophage after TLR ligation, whereas priming with IL-4 induces an anti-inflammatory tissue-repair M2 phenotype. Previous work has shown that M1 are preferentially generated in gingival tissue following infection with P. gingivalis. However, few studies have investigated the interactions of macrophage subsets with P. gingivalis cells. The aim of this study was to determine the ability of naive, M1 and M2 macrophages to phagocytose P. gingivalis and investigate how this interaction affects both the bacterial cell and the macrophage. M1 and M2 macrophages were both found to have enhanced phagocytic capacity compared with that of naive macrophages, however only the naive and M1 macrophages were able to produce a respiratory burst in order to clear the bacteria from the phagosome. P. gingivalis was found to persist in naive and M2, but not M1 macrophages for 24 hours. Phagocytosis of P. gingivalis also induced high levels of TNF-α, IL-12 and iNOS in M1 macrophages, but not in naive or M2 macrophages. Furthermore, infection of macrophages with P. gingivalis at high bacteria to macrophage ratios, while inducing an inflammatory response, was also found to be deleterious to macrophage longevity, with high levels of apoptotic cell death found in macrophages after infection. The activation of M1 macrophages observed in this study may contribute to the initiation and maintenance of a pro-inflammatory state during chronic periodontitis. PMID:27383471

  8. Structure and Mechanism of the M2 Proton Channel of Influenza A Virus

    PubMed Central

    Schnell, Jason R.; Chou, James J.

    2011-01-01

    The integral membrane protein, M2, of influenza virus forms pH-gated proton channels in the viral lipid envelope1. The low pH of an endosome activates the M2 channel prior to hemagglutinin-mediated fusion. Conductance of protons acidifies the viral interior and thereby facilitates dissociation of the matrix protein from the viral nucleoproteins – a required process for unpacking of the viral genome2. In addition to its role in release of viral nucleoproteins, M2 in the trans-Golgi network (TGN) membrane prevents premature conformational rearrangement of newly synthesized hemagglutinin during transport to the cell surface by equilibrating the pH of the TGN with that of the host cell cytoplasm3. Inhibitng the proton conductance of M2 with the anti-viral drug amantadine or rimantadine inhibits viral replication4–7. We have determined by NMR the structure of the tetrameric M2 channel in complex with rimantadine. In the closed state, four tightly packed transmembrane (TM) helices define a narrow channel, in which a “tryptophan gate” is locked by inter-molecular interactions with aspartic acid. A C-terminal, amphipathic (AP) helix oriented nearly perpendicular to the TM helix, forms an inward facing base. Lowering the pH destabilizes the TM helical packing and unlocks the gate, admitting water to conduct protons, while the C-terminal base remains intact, preventing dissociation of the tetramer. Rimantadine binds at four equivalent sites near the gate on the lipid facing side of the channel and stabilizes the closed conformation of the pore. Drug-resistance mutations are predicted to counter the effect of drug binding by either increasing the hydrophilicity of the pore or weakening helix-helix packing, thus facilitating channel opening. PMID:18235503

  9. Neisseria gonorrhoeae Modulates Immunity by Polarizing Human Macrophages to a M2 Profile.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, María Carolina; Lefimil, Claudia; Rodas, Paula I; Vernal, Rolando; Lopez, Mercedes; Acuña-Castillo, Claudio; Imarai, Mónica; Escobar, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    Current data suggest that Neisseria gonorrhoeae is able to suppress the protective immune response at different levels, such as B and T lymphocytes and antigen-presenting cells. The present report is focused on gonococcus evasion mechanism on macrophages (MФ) and its impact in the subsequent immune response. In response to various signals MФ may undergo classical-M1 (M1-MФ) or alternative-M2 (M2-MФ) activation. Until now there are no reports of the gonococcus effects on human MФ polarization. We assessed the phagocytic ability of monocyte-derived MФ (MDM) upon gonococcal infection by immunofluorescence and gentamicin protection experiments. Then, we evaluated cytokine profile and M1/M2 specific-surface markers on MФ challenged with N. gonorrhoeae and their proliferative effect on T cells. Our findings lead us to suggest N. gonorrhoeae stimulates a M2-MФ phenotype in which some of the M2b and none of the M1-MФ-associated markers are induced. Interestingly, N. gonorrhoeae exposure leads to upregulation of a Programmed Death Ligand 1 (PD-L1), widely known as an immunosuppressive molecule. Moreover, functional results showed that N. gonorrhoeae-treated MФ are unable to induce proliferation of human T-cells, suggesting a more likely regulatory phenotype. Taken together, our data show that N. gonorroheae interferes with MФ polarization. This study has important implications for understanding the mechanisms of clearance versus long-term persistence of N. gonorroheae infection and might be applicable for the development of new therapeutic strategies. PMID:26125939

  10. Neisseria gonorrhoeae Modulates Immunity by Polarizing Human Macrophages to a M2 Profile

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz, María Carolina; Lefimil, Claudia; Rodas, Paula I.; Vernal, Rolando; Lopez, Mercedes; Acuña-Castillo, Claudio; Imarai, Mónica; Escobar, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    Current data suggest that Neisseria gonorrhoeae is able to suppress the protective immune response at different levels, such as B and T lymphocytes and antigen-presenting cells. The present report is focused on gonococcus evasion mechanism on macrophages (MФ) and its impact in the subsequent immune response. In response to various signals MФ may undergo classical-M1 (M1-MФ) or alternative-M2 (M2-MФ) activation. Until now there are no reports of the gonococcus effects on human MФ polarization. We assessed the phagocytic ability of monocyte-derived MФ (MDM) upon gonococcal infection by immunofluorescence and gentamicin protection experiments. Then, we evaluated cytokine profile and M1/M2 specific-surface markers on MФ challenged with N. gonorrhoeae and their proliferative effect on T cells. Our findings lead us to suggest N. gonorrhoeae stimulates a M2-MФ phenotype in which some of the M2b and none of the M1-MФ-associated markers are induced. Interestingly, N. gonorrhoeae exposure leads to upregulation of a Programmed Death Ligand 1 (PD-L1), widely known as an immunosuppressive molecule. Moreover, functional results showed that N. gonorrhoeae-treated MФ are unable to induce proliferation of human T-cells, suggesting a more likely regulatory phenotype. Taken together, our data show that N. gonorroheae interferes with MФ polarization. This study has important implications for understanding the mechanisms of clearance versus long-term persistence of N. gonorroheae infection and might be applicable for the development of new therapeutic strategies. PMID:26125939

  11. Electrical and optical characterization of green synthesized Gd2S3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Somnath; Sarkar, A.

    2016-05-01

    Gadolinium sulphide (Gd2S3) is a magnetic semiconductor with large band gap. Gd2S3 was synthesized following chemical and green techniques. Later process provides good stability of the nano clusters (NC) due to in-situ capping of Gd2S3 NC. It has been found that the optical band gap in Gd2S3 developed by green synthesis is lowered considerably over that in chemically synthesized Gd2S3. The green agencies used in this work are Jatropha Latex and dilute Garlic extract; both are enriched in sulphur and other organic polymer molecules. Simple observation shows that Gd2S3 NC retains residual magnetization. In this work optical and electrical characterization of the developed Gd2S3 specimens are carried out. The overall results obtained are good.

  12. M2-F1 in flight during low-speed car tow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    The M2-F1 shown in flight during a low-speed car tow runs across the lakebed. Such tests allowed about two minutes to test the vehicle's handling in flight. NASA Flight Research Center (later redesignated the Dryden Flight Research Center) personnel conducted as many as 8 to 14 ground-tow flights in a single day either to test the vehicle in preparation for air tows or to train pilots to fly the vehicle before they undertook air tows. The wingless, lifting body aircraft design was initially concieved as a means of landing an aircraft horizontally after atmospheric reentry. The absence of wings would make the extreme heat of re-entry less damaging to the vehicle. In 1962, Dryden management approved a program to build a lightweight, unpowered lifting body as a prototype to flight test the wingless concept. It would look like a 'flying bathtub,' and was designated the M2-F1, the 'M' referring to 'manned' and 'F' referring to 'flight' version. It featured a plywood shell placed over a tubular steel frame crafted at Dryden. Construction was completed in 1963. The first flight tests of the M2-F1 were over Rogers Dry Lake at the end of a tow rope attached to a hopped-up Pontiac convertible driven at speeds up to about 120 mph. This vehicle needed to be able to tow the M2-F1 on the Rogers Dry Lakebed adjacent to NASA's Flight Research Center (FRC) at a minimum speed of 100 miles per hour. To do that, it had to handle the 400-pound pull of the M2-F1. Walter 'Whitey' Whiteside, who was a retired Air Force maintenance officer working in the FRC's Flight Operations Division, was a dirt-bike rider and hot-rodder. Together with Boyden 'Bud' Bearce in the Procurement and Supply Branch of the FRC, Whitey acquired a Pontiac Catalina convertible with the largest engine available. He took the car to Bill Straup's renowned hot-rod shop near Long Beach for modification. With a special gearbox and racing slicks, the Pontiac could tow the 1,000-pound M2-F1 110 miles per hour in 30

  13. M2-F1 fabrication by Grierson Hamilton, Bob Green, and Ed Browne

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1962-01-01

    Flight Research Center discretionary funds paid for the M2-F-1's construction. NASA mechanics, sheet-metal smiths, and technicians did much of the work in a curtained-off area of a hangar called the 'Wright Bicycle Shop.' The wingless, lifting body aircraft design was initially conceived as a means of landing an aircraft horizontally after atmospheric reentry. The absence of wings would make the extreme heat of re-entry less damaging to the vehicle. In 1962, Dryden management approved a program to build a lightweight, unpowered lifting body as a prototype to flight test the wingless concept. It would look like a 'flying bathtub,' and was designated the M2-F1, the 'M' referring to 'manned' and 'F' referring to 'flight' version. It featured a plywood shell placed over a tubular steel frame crafted at Dryden. Construction was completed in 1963. The first flight tests of the M2-F1 were over Rogers Dry Lake at the end of a tow rope attached to a hopped-up Pontiac convertible driven at speeds up to about 120 mph. This vehicle needed to be able to tow the M2-F1 on the Rogers Dry Lakebed adjacent to NASA's Flight Research Center (FRC) at a minimum speed of 100 miles per hour. To do that, it had to handle the 400-pound pull of the M2-F1. Walter 'Whitey' Whiteside, who was a retired Air Force maintenance officer working in the FRC's Flight Operations Division, was a dirt-bike rider and hot-rodder. Together with Boyden 'Bud' Bearce in the Procurement and Supply Branch of the FRC, Whitey acquired a Pontiac Catalina convertible with the largest engine available. He took the car to Bill Straup's renowned hot-rod shop near Long Beach for modification. With a special gearbox and racing slicks, the Pontiac could tow the 1,000-pound M2-F1 110 miles per hour in 30 seconds. It proved adequate for the roughly 400 car tows that got the M2-F1 airborne to prove it could fly safely and to train pilots before they were towed behind a C-47 aircraft and released. These initial car-tow tests

  14. Motion-to-Energy (M2Eâ„¢) Power Generation Technology

    ScienceCinema

    Idaho National Laboratory

    2016-07-12

    INL researchers developed M2E, a new technology that converts motion to energy. M2E uses an innovative, optimized microgenerator with power management circuitry that kinetically charges mobile batteries from natural motion such as walking. To learn more,

  15. Fabrication and characterization of a nanostructured TiO2/In2S3-Sb2S3/CuSCN extremely thin absorber (eta) solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huerta-Flores, Alí M.; García-Gómez, Nora A.; de la Parra-Arciniega, Salomé M.; Sánchez, Eduardo M.

    2016-08-01

    In this work we report the successful assembly and characterization of a TiO2/In2S3-Sb2S3/CuSCN extremely thin absorber solar cell. Nanostructured TiO2 deposited by screen printing on an ITO substrate was used as an n-type electrode. An ∼80 nm extremely thin layer of the system In2S3-Sb2S3 deposited by successive ionic layer adsorption and a reaction (silar) method was used as an absorber. The voids were filled with p-type CuSCN and the entire assembly was completed with a gold contact. The solar cell fabricated with this heterostructure showed an energy conversion efficiency of 4.9%, which is a promising result in the development of low cost and simple fabrication of solar cells.

  16. The modulatory role of M2 muscarinic receptor on apomorphine-induced yawning and genital grooming.

    PubMed

    Gamberini, Maria Thereza; Bolognesi, Maria Laura; Nasello, Antonia Gladys

    2012-12-01

    The interaction between dopaminergic and cholinergic pathways in the induction of behavioral responses has been previously established. In the brain, M2 receptors are found predominantly in presynaptic cholinergic neurons as autoreceptors, and in dopaminergic neurons as heteroceptors, suggesting a control role of acetylcholine and dopamine release, respectively. Our aim was to investigate the role of M2 receptors on the yawning and genital grooming of rats induced by apomorphine, a dopaminergic receptor agonist, focusing on the interaction between cholinergic and dopaminergic pathways. Initially, the effect of atropine, a non-selective muscarinic antagonist, on yawning and genital grooming induced by apomorphine (100 μg/kg s.c.) was analyzed. Atropine doses of 0.5, 1 and 2 mg/kg i.p. were administered to Wistar rats 30 min before induction of the behavioral responses by apomorphine. Number of yawns and time spent genital grooming were quantified over a 60 min period. Apomorphine-induced yawning was increased by low dose (0.5 mg/kg i.p.) but not by high doses (1 and 2 mg/kg, i.p.) of atropine. Genital grooming was antagonized by 2 mg/kg i.p. of atropine and showed no changes at the other doses tested. Tripitramine, a selective M2 cholinergic antagonist, was used as a tool for distinguishing between M2 and all other muscarinic receptor subtypes in yawning and genital grooming. Tripitramine doses of 0.01, 0.02 and 0.04 μmol/kg i.p. were administered to Wistar rats 30 min before apomorphine (100 μg/kg s.c.). Number of yawns and time spent genital grooming were also quantified over a 60 min period. Tripitramine 0.01 μmol/kg increased all parameters. Higher doses, which possibly block all subtypes of muscarinic receptor, did not modify the response of apomorphine, suggesting a non-selective effect of tripitramine at these doses. Given that low doses of tripitramine increased the behavioral responses induced by apomorphine and that the main distribution of the M2

  17. Macrophage Polarisation: an Immunohistochemical Approach for Identifying M1 and M2 Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Barros, Mário Henrique M.; Hauck, Franziska; Dreyer, Johannes H.; Kempkes, Bettina; Niedobitek, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    Macrophage polarization is increasingly recognised as an important pathogenetic factor in inflammatory and neoplastic diseases. Proinflammatory M1 macrophages promote T helper (Th) 1 responses and show tumoricidal activity. M2 macrophages contribute to tissue repair and promote Th2 responses. CD68 and CD163 are used to identify macrophages in tissue sections. However, characterisation of polarised macrophages in situ has remained difficult. Macrophage polarisation is regulated by transcription factors, pSTAT1 and RBP-J for M1, and CMAF for M2. We reasoned that double-labelling immunohistochemistry for the detection of macrophage markers together with transcription factors may be suitable to characterise macrophage polarisation in situ. To test this hypothesis, we have studied conditions associated with Th1- and Th2-predominant immune responses: infectious mononucleosis and Crohn’s disease for Th1 and allergic nasal polyps, oxyuriasis, wound healing and foreign body granulomas for predominant Th2 response. In all situations, CD163+ cells usually outnumbered CD68+ cells. Moreover, CD163+ cells, usually considered as M2 macrophages, co-expressing pSTAT1 and RBP-J were found in all conditions examined. The numbers of putative M1 macrophages were higher in Th1- than in Th2-associated diseases, while more M2 macrophages were seen in Th2- than in Th1 related disorders. In most Th1-related diseases, the balance of M1 over M2 cells was shifted towards M1 cells, while the reverse was observed for Th2-related conditions. Hierarchical cluster analysis revealed two distinct clusters: cluster I included Th1 diseases together with cases with high numbers of CD163+pSTAT1+, CD68+pSTAT1+, CD163+RBP-J+ and CD68+RBP-J+ macrophages; cluster II comprised Th2 conditions together with cases displaying high numbers of CD163+CMAF+ and CD68+CMAF+ macrophages. These results suggest that the detection of pSTAT1, RBP-J, and CMAF in the context of CD68 or CD163 expression is a suitable tool

  18. Foton-M2 Russian/US Biology Experiments - Development, Implementation, and Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ilyin, Eugene A.; Tairbekov, Murad G.; Vasques, Marilyn F.; Skidmore, Michael G.

    2006-01-01

    The Russian Foton-M2 unmanned research satellite launched from Baikonur, Kazakhstan on May 31, 2005. The satellite was recovered 16 days later in northern Kazakhstan near Kustanay. Prior to this mission, the long history of joint NASA/IMBP research using Russian unmanned spacecraft was in danger of withering due to inactivity. This cooperative history included 9 Bion Russian spaceflights in the period from 1975 to 1997 where NASA had participated first as a guest and finally as a contractual partner. In an effort to reinvigorate this long-standing collaboration, the Institute for Biomedical Problems (IMBP) invited NASA participation in Russian experiments that had been manifested to fly on the Foton-M2 mission.

  19. The Construction of M2M System with Sensor Networks Using Digital Plethysmograph Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segawa, Norihisa; Asakawa, Kazuhisa; Takahashi, Yoshitsugu; Yamada, Tomoko; Togashi, Atsushi; Sawamoto, Jun

    In recent years, the research of sensor networks advances and it is expected to be used in a wide variety of fields such as traceability system of products, environmental monitoring, health care, etc. We develop a M2M system with the sensor network technology for collection and analysis of the state of health and feedback of advices for better physical activity without human intervention. The system detects abnormality from pulse wave data from pulse wave sensor attached to the user. In this paper, we construct M2M sensor network system with continuous monitoring of arterial pulse wave and an advice generation function based on pr-installed rules, then we evaluate the usefulness of the system through experiment.

  20. M2-brane surface operators and gauge theory dualities in Toda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomis, Jaume; Le Floch, Bruno

    2016-04-01

    We give a microscopic two dimensional {N} = (2, 2) gauge theory description of arbitrary M2-branes ending on N f M5-branes wrapping a punctured Riemann surface. These realize surface operators in four dimensional {N} = 2 field theories. We show that the expectation value of these surface operators on the sphere is captured by a Toda CFT correlation function in the presence of an additional degenerate vertex operator labelled by a representation {R} of SU( N f ), which also labels M2-branes ending on M5-branes. We prove that symmetries of Toda CFT correlators provide a geometric realization of dualities between two dimensional gauge theories, including {N} = (2, 2) analogues of Seiberg and Kutasov-Schwimmer dualities. As a bonus, we find new explicit conformal blocks, braiding matrices, and fusion rules in Toda CFT.

  1. Stability of the M2 phase of vanadium dioxide induced by coherent epitaxial strain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quackenbush, N. F.; Paik, H.; Wahila, M. J.; Sallis, S.; Holtz, M. E.; Huang, X.; Ganose, A.; Morgan, B. J.; Scanlon, D. O.; Gu, Y.; Xue, F.; Chen, L.-Q.; Sterbinsky, G. E.; Schlueter, C.; Lee, T.-L.; Woicik, J. C.; Guo, J.-H.; Brock, J. D.; Muller, D. A.; Arena, D. A.; Schlom, D. G.; Piper, L. F. J.

    2016-08-01

    Tensile strain along the cR axis in epitaxial VO2 films raises the temperature of the metal insulator transition and is expected to stabilize the intermediate monoclinic M2 phase. We employ surface-sensitive x-ray spectroscopy to distinguish from the TiO2 substrate and identify the phases of VO2 as a function of temperature in epitaxial VO2/TiO2 thin films with well-defined biaxial strain. Although qualitatively similar to our Landau-Ginzburg theory predicted phase diagrams, the M2 phase is stabilized by nearly an order of magnitude more strain than expected for the measured temperature window. Our results reveal that the elongation of the cR axis is insufficient for describing the transition pathway of VO2 epitaxial films and that a strain induced increase of electron correlation effects must be considered.

  2. M2 Proton Channel: Toward a Model of a Primitive Proton Pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Chenyu; Pohorille, Andrew

    2015-06-01

    Transmembrane proton transfer was essential to early cellular systems in order to transduce energy for metabolic functions. The reliable, efficient and controlled generation of proton gradients became possible only with the emergence of active proton pumps. On the basis of features shared by most modern proton pumps we identify the essential mechanistic steps in active proton transport. Further, we discuss the mechanism of action of a small, transmembrane M2 proton channel from influenza A virus as a model for proton transport in protocells. The M2 channel is a 94-residue long, α-helical tetramer that is activated at low pH and exhibits high selectivity and directionality. A shorter construct, built of transmembrane fragments that are only 24 amino acids in length, exhibits very similar proton transport properties. Molecular dynamics simulations on the microsecond time-scale carried out for the M2 channel provided atomic level details on the activation of the channel in response to protonation of the histidine residue, His37. The pathway of proton conduction is mediated by His37, which accepts and donates protons at different interconverting conformation states when pH is lower than 6.5. The Val27 and Trp41 gates and the salt bridge between Asp44 and Arg45 further enhance the directionality of proton transport. It is argued that the architecture and the mechanism of action similar to that found in the M2 channel might have been the perfect starting point for evolution towards the earliest proton pumps, indicating that active proton transport could have readily emerged from simple, passive proton channels.

  3. Spreading depression requires microglia and is decreased by their M2a polarization from environmental enrichment.

    PubMed

    Pusic, Kae M; Pusic, Aya D; Kemme, Jordan; Kraig, Richard P

    2014-07-01

    Microglia play an important role in fine-tuning neuronal activity. In part, this involves their production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα), which increases neuronal excitability. Excessive synaptic activity is necessary to initiate spreading depression (SD). Increased microglial production of proinflammatory cytokines promotes initiation of SD, which, when recurrent, may play a role in conversion of episodic to high frequency and chronic migraine. Previous work shows that this potentiation of SD occurs through increased microglial production of TNFα and reactive oxygen species, both of which are associated with an M1-skewed microglial population. Hence, we explored the role of microglia and their M1 polarization in SD initiation. Selective ablation of microglia from rat hippocampal slice cultures confirmed that microglia are essential for initiation of SD. Application of minocycline to dampen M1 signaling led to increased SD threshold. In addition, we found that SD threshold was increased in rats exposed to environmental enrichment. These rats had increased neocortical levels of interleukin-11 (IL-11), which decreases TNFα signaling and polarized microglia to an M2a-dominant phenotype. M2a microglia reduce proinflammatory signaling and increase production of anti-inflammatory cytokines, and therefore may protect against SD. Nasal administration of IL-11 to mimic effects of environmental enrichment likewise increased M2a polarization and increased SD threshold, an effect also seen in vitro. Similarly, application of conditioned medium from M2a polarized primary microglia to slice cultures also increased SD threshold. Thus, microglia and their polarization state play an essential role in SD initiation, and perhaps by extension migraine with aura and migraine.

  4. Spreading Depression Requires Microglia and is Decreased by their M2a Polarization from Environmental Enrichment

    PubMed Central

    Pusic, Kae M.; Pusic, Aya D.; Kemme, Jordan; Kraig, Richard P.

    2014-01-01

    Microglia play an important role in fine-tuning neuronal activity. In part, this involves their production of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), which increases neuronal excitability. Excessive synaptic activity is necessary to initiate spreading depression (SD). Increased microglial production of pro-inflammatory cytokines promotes initiation of SD, which, when recurrent, may play a role in conversion of episodic to high frequency and chronic migraine. Previous work shows that this potentiation of SD occurs through increased microglial production of TNFα and reactive oxygen species, both of which are associated with an M1-skewed microglial population. Hence, we explored the role of microglia and their M1 polarization in SD initiation. Selective ablation of microglia from rat hippocampal slice cultures confirmed that microglia are essential for initiation of SD. Application of minocycline to dampen M1 signaling led to increased SD threshold. In addition, we found that SD threshold was increased in rats exposed to environmental enrichment. These rats had increased neocortical levels of interleukin-11 (IL-11), which decreases TNFα signaling and polarized microglia to an M2a-dominant phenotype. M2a microglia reduce pro-inflammatory signaling and increase production of anti-inflammatory cytokines, and therefore may protect against SD. Nasal administration of IL-11 to mimic effects of environmental enrichment likewise increased M2a polarization and increased SD threshold, an effect also seen in vitro. Similarly, application of conditioned medium from M2a polarized primary microglia to slice cultures also increased SD threshold. Thus, microglia and their polarization state play an essential role in SD initiation, and perhaps by extension migraine with aura and migraine. PMID:24723305

  5. Industry 4.0, M2m, Iot&S - All Equal?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrin, Carmen

    2014-11-01

    Similarity between Industry 4.0, M2M, IOT&S. Advantages and disadvantages obtained using this three important methods. Decreasing costs while components are getting smaller and smaller in a world with better networking. Influence of business management applications integrated in smart factory logistic. The most important impacts in merging virtual and real production world, with the improvement of best processes having the same goal: creating value by open innovation

  6. Epitope Mapping of Avian Influenza M2e Protein: Different Species Recognise Various Epitopes

    PubMed Central

    Hasan, Noor Haliza; Ignjatovic, Jagoda; Tarigan, Simson; Peaston, Anne; Hemmatzadeh, Farhid

    2016-01-01

    A common approach for developing diagnostic tests for influenza virus detection is the use of mouse or rabbit monoclonal and/or polyclonal antibodies against a target antigen of the virus. However, comparative mapping of the target antigen using antibodies from different animal sources has not been evaluated before. This is important because identification of antigenic determinants of the target antigen in different species plays a central role to ensure the efficiency of a diagnostic test, such as competitive ELISA or immunohistochemistry-based tests. Interest in the matrix 2 ectodomain (M2e) protein of avian influenza virus (AIV) as a candidate for a universal vaccine and also as a marker for detection of virus infection in vaccinated animals (DIVA) is the rationale for the selection of this protein for comparative mapping evaluation. This study aimed to map the epitopes of the M2e protein of avian influenza virus H5N1 using chicken, mouse and rabbit monoclonal or monospecific antibodies. Our findings revealed that rabbit antibodies (rAbs) recognized epitope 6EVETPTRN13 of the M2e, located at the N-terminal of the protein, while mouse (mAb) and chicken antibodies (cAbs) recognized epitope 10PTRNEWECK18, located at the centre region of the protein. The findings highlighted the difference between the M2e antigenic determinants recognized by different species that emphasized the importance of comparative mapping of antibody reactivity from different animals to the same antigen, especially in the case of multi-host infectious agents such as influenza. The findings are of importance for antigenic mapping, as well as diagnostic test and vaccine development. PMID:27362795

  7. Flowing to higher dimensions: a new strongly-coupled phase on M2 branes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilch, Krzysztof; Tyukov, Alexander; Warner, Nicholas P.

    2015-11-01

    We describe a one-parameter family of new holographic RG flows that start from AdS 4 × S 7 and go to widehat{Ad{S}_5}× {B}6 , where {B}6 is conformal to a Kähler manifold and widehat{Ad{S}_5} is Poincaré AdS 5 with one spatial direction compactified and fibered over {B}6 . The new solutions "flow up dimensions," going from the (2 + 1)-dimensional conformal field theory on M2 branes in the UV to a (3 + 1)-dimensional field theory on intersecting M5 branes in the infra-red. The M2 branes completely polarize into M5 branes along the flow and the Poincaré sections of the widehat{Ad{S}_5} are the (3 + 1)-dimensional common intersection of the M5 branes. The emergence of the extra dimension in the infra-red suggests a new strongly-coupled phase of the M2 brane and ABJM theories in which charged solitons are becoming massless. The flow solution is first analyzed by finding a four-dimensional {N}=2 supersymmetric flow in {N}=8 gauged supergravity. This is then generalized to a one parameter family of non-supersymmetric flows. The infra-red limit of the solutions appears to be quite singular in four dimensions but the uplift to eleven-dimensional supergravity is remarkable and regular (up to orbifolding). Our construction is a non-trivial application of the recently derived uplift formulae for fluxes, going well beyond the earlier constructions of stationary points solutions. The eleven-dimensional supersymmetry is also analyzed and shows how, for the supersymmetric flow, the M2-brane supersymmetry in the UV is polarized entirely into M5-brane supersymmetry in the infra-red.

  8. Chemerin aggravates DSS-induced colitis by suppressing M2 macrophage polarization.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yuli; Yang, Xuguang; Yue, Wenjie; Xu, Xiaofei; Li, Bingji; Zou, Linlin; He, Rui

    2014-07-01

    Chemerin is present in various inflammatory sites and is closely involved in tissue inflammation. Recent studies have demonstrated that chemerin treatment can cause either anti-inflammatory or pro-inflammatory effects according to the disease model being investigated. Elevated circulating chemerin was recently found in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD); however, the role of chemerin in intestinal inflammation remains unknown. In this study, we demonstrated that the administration of exogenous chemerin (aa17-156) aggravated the severity of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis, which was characterized by higher clinical scores, extensive mucosal damage and significantly increased local and systemic production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including IL-6, TNF-α and interferon (IFN-γ). Interestingly, chemerin did not appear to influence the magnitudes of inflammatory infiltrates in the colons, but did result in significantly decreased colonic expression of M2 macrophage-associated genes, including Arginase 1 (Arg-1), Ym1, FIZZ1 and IL-10, following DSS exposure, suggesting an impaired M2 macrophage skewing in vivo. Furthermore, an in vitro experiment showed that the addition of chemerin directly suppressed M2 macrophage-associated gene expression and STAT6 phosphorylation in IL-4-stimulated macrophages. Significantly elevated chemerin levels were found in colons from DSS-exposed mice and from ulcerative colitis (UC) patients and appeared to positively correlate with disease severity. Moreover, the in vivo administration of neutralizing anti-chemerin antibody significantly improved intestinal inflammation following DSS exposure. Taken together, our findings reveal a pro-inflammatory role for chemerin in DSS-induced colitis and the ability of chemerin to suppress the anti-inflammatory M2 macrophage response. Our study also suggests that upregulated chemerin in inflamed colons may contribute to the pathogenesis of IBD.

  9. Agonists with supraphysiological efficacy at the muscarinic M2 ACh receptor

    PubMed Central

    Schrage, R; Seemann, WK; Klöckner, J; Dallanoce, C; Racké, K; Kostenis, E; De Amici, M; Holzgrabe, U; Mohr, K

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose Artificial agonists may have higher efficacy for receptor activation than the physiological agonist. Until now, such ‘superagonism’ has rarely been reported for GPCRs. Iperoxo is an extremely potent muscarinic receptor agonist. We hypothesized that iperoxo is a ‘superagonist’. Experimental Approach Signalling of iperoxo and newly synthesized structural analogues was compared with that of ACh at label-free M2 muscarinic receptors applying whole cell dynamic mass redistribution, measurement of G-protein activation, evaluation of cell surface agonist binding and computation of operational efficacies. Key Results In CHO-hM2 cells, iperoxo significantly exceeds ACh in Gi/Gs signalling competence. In the orthosteric loss-of-function mutant M2-Y1043.33A, the maximum effect of iperoxo is hardly compromised in contrast to ACh. ‘Superagonism’ is preserved in the physiological cellular context of MRC-5 human lung fibroblasts. Structure–signalling relationships including iperoxo derivatives with either modified positively charged head group or altered tail suggest that ‘superagonism’ of iperoxo is mechanistically based on parallel activation of the receptor protein via two orthosteric interaction points. Conclusion and Implications Supraphysiological agonist efficacy at muscarinic M2 ACh receptors is demonstrated for the first time. In addition, a possible underlying molecular mechanism of GPCR ‘superagonism’ is provided. We suggest that iperoxo-like orthosteric GPCR activation is a new avenue towards a novel class of receptor activators. Linked Article This article is commented on by Langmead and Christopoulos, pp. 353–356 of this issue. To view this commentary visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.12142 PMID:23062057

  10. Immunization with M2e-Displaying T7 Bacteriophage Nanoparticles Protects against Influenza A Virus Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Hashemi, Hamidreza; Pouyanfard, Somayeh; Bandehpour, Mojgan; Noroozbabaei, Zahra; Kazemi, Bahram; Saelens, Xavier; Mokhtari-Azad, Talat

    2012-01-01

    Considering the emergence of highly pathogenic influenza viruses and threat of worldwide pandemics, there is an urgent need to develop broadly-protective influenza vaccines. In this study, we demonstrate the potential of T7 bacteriophage-based nanoparticles with genetically fused ectodomain of influenza A virus M2 protein (T7-M2e) as a candidate universal flu vaccine. Immunization of mice with non-adjuvanted T7-M2e elicited M2e-specific serum antibody responses that were similar in magnitude to those elicited by M2e peptide administered in Freund’s adjuvant. Comparable IgG responses directed against T7 phage capsomers were induced following vaccination with wild type T7 or T7-M2e. T7-M2e immunization induced balanced amounts of IgG1 and IgG2a antibodies and these antibodies specifically recognized native M2 on the surface of influenza A virus-infected mammalian cells. The frequency of IFN-γ-secreting T cells induced by T7-M2e nanoparticles was comparable to those elicited by M2e peptide emulsified in Freund’s adjuvant. Emulsification of T7-M2e nanoparticles in Freund’s adjuvant, however, induced a significantly stronger T cell response. Furthermore, T7-M2e-immunized mice were protected against lethal challenge with an H1N1 or an H3N2 virus, implying the induction of hetero-subtypic immunity in our mouse model. T7-M2e-immunized mice displayed considerable weight loss and had significantly reduced viral load in their lungs compared to controls. We conclude that display of M2e on the surface of T7 phage nanoparticles offers an efficient and economical opportunity to induce cross-protective M2e-based immunity against influenza A. PMID:23029232

  11. The catalytic role of the M2 metal ion in PP2Cα.

    PubMed

    Pan, Chang; Tang, Jun-yi; Xu, Yun-fei; Xiao, Peng; Liu, Hong-da; Wang, Hao-an; Wang, Wen-bo; Meng, Fan-guo; Yu, Xiao; Sun, Jin-peng

    2015-01-01

    PP2C family phosphatases (the type 2C family of protein phosphatases; or metal-dependent phosphatase, PPM) constitute an important class of signaling enzymes that regulate many fundamental life activities. All PP2C family members have a conserved binuclear metal ion active center that is essential for their catalysis. However, the catalytic role of each metal ion during catalysis remains elusive. In this study, we discovered that mutations in the structurally buried D38 residue of PP2Cα (PPM1A) redefined the water-mediated hydrogen network in the active site and selectively disrupted M2 metal ion binding. Using the D38A and D38K mutations of PP2Cα as specific tools in combination with enzymology analysis, our results demonstrated that the M2 metal ion determines the rate-limiting step of substrate hydrolysis, participates in dianion substrate binding and stabilizes the leaving group after P-O bond cleavage. The newly characterized catalytic role of the M2 metal ion in this family not only provides insight into how the binuclear metal centers of the PP2C phosphatases are organized for efficient catalysis but also helps increase our understanding of the function and substrate specificity of PP2C family members. PMID:25708299

  12. RESTful M2M gateway for remote wireless monitoring for district central heating networks.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Bo; Wei, Zesan

    2014-11-27

    In recent years, the increased interest in energy conservation and environmental protection, combined with the development of modern communication and computer technology, has resulted in the replacement of distributed heating by central heating in urban areas. This paper proposes a Representational State Transfer (REST) Machine-to-Machine (M2M) gateway for wireless remote monitoring for a district central heating network. In particular, we focus on the resource-oriented RESTful M2M gateway architecture, and present an uniform devices abstraction approach based on Open Service Gateway Initiative (OSGi) technology, and implement the resource mapping mechanism between resource address mapping mechanism between RESTful resources and the physical sensor devices, and present the buffer queue combined with polling method to implement the data scheduling and Quality of Service (QoS) guarantee, and also give the RESTful M2M gateway open service Application Programming Interface (API) set. The performance has been measured and analyzed. Finally, the conclusions and future work are presented.

  13. M1 and M2 Macrophages: The Chicken and the Egg of Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Charles D.; Ley, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this perspective is to describe a critical advance in understanding how immune responses work. Macrophages are required for all animal life: ‘Inhibit’ type macrophages in all animals (called M1) can rapidly kill pathogens, and are thus the primary host defense, and ‘Heal’ type macrophages (M2) routinely repair and maintain tissue integrity. Macrophages perform these activities in all animals without T cells, and also in T cell-deficient vertebrates. Although adaptive immunity can amplify macrophage polarization, the long-held notion that macrophages need to be ‘activated’ or ‘alternatively activated’ by T cells is incorrect; indeed, immunology has had it backward. M1/M2-type macrophages necessarily direct T cells toward Th1- or Th2-like activities, respectively. That such macrophage-innate activities are the central directing element in immune responses is a dramatic change in understanding how immune systems operate. Most important, this revelation is opening up whole new approaches to immunotherapy. For example, many modern diseases, such as cancer and atherosclerosis, may not display ‘foreign’ antigens. However, there are clear imbalances in M1/M2-type responses. Correcting such innate imbalances can result in better health. Macrophages are the chicken and the egg of immunity. PMID:25138714

  14. RESTful M2M Gateway for Remote Wireless Monitoring for District Central Heating Networks

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Bo; Wei, Zesan

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the increased interest in energy conservation and environmental protection, combined with the development of modern communication and computer technology, has resulted in the replacement of distributed heating by central heating in urban areas. This paper proposes a Representational State Transfer (REST) Machine-to-Machine (M2M) gateway for wireless remote monitoring for a district central heating network. In particular, we focus on the resource-oriented RESTful M2M gateway architecture, and present an uniform devices abstraction approach based on Open Service Gateway Initiative (OSGi) technology, and implement the resource mapping mechanism between resource address mapping mechanism between RESTful resources and the physical sensor devices, and present the buffer queue combined with polling method to implement the data scheduling and Quality of Service (QoS) guarantee, and also give the RESTful M2M gateway open service Application Programming Interface (API) set. The performance has been measured and analyzed. Finally, the conclusions and future work are presented. PMID:25436650

  15. Dynamic RACH Partition for Massive Access of Differentiated M2M Services.

    PubMed

    Du, Qinghe; Li, Wanyu; Liu, Lingjia; Ren, Pinyi; Wang, Yichen; Sun, Li

    2016-01-01

    In machine-to-machine (M2M) networks, a key challenge is to overcome the overload problem caused by random access requests from massive machine-type communication (MTC) devices. When differentiated services coexist, such as delay-sensitive and delay-tolerant services, the problem becomes more complicated and challenging. This is because delay-sensitive services often use more aggressive policies, and thus, delay-tolerant services get much fewer chances to access the network. To conquer the problem, we propose an efficient mechanism for massive access control over differentiated M2M services, including delay-sensitive and delay-tolerant services. Specifically, based on the traffic loads of the two types of services, the proposed scheme dynamically partitions and allocates the random access channel (RACH) resource to each type of services. The RACH partition strategy is thoroughly optimized to increase the access performances of M2M networks. Analyses and simulation demonstrate the effectiveness of our design. The proposed scheme can outperform the baseline access class barring (ACB) scheme, which ignores service types in access control, in terms of access success probability and the average access delay. PMID:27043568

  16. RESTful M2M gateway for remote wireless monitoring for district central heating networks.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Bo; Wei, Zesan

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the increased interest in energy conservation and environmental protection, combined with the development of modern communication and computer technology, has resulted in the replacement of distributed heating by central heating in urban areas. This paper proposes a Representational State Transfer (REST) Machine-to-Machine (M2M) gateway for wireless remote monitoring for a district central heating network. In particular, we focus on the resource-oriented RESTful M2M gateway architecture, and present an uniform devices abstraction approach based on Open Service Gateway Initiative (OSGi) technology, and implement the resource mapping mechanism between resource address mapping mechanism between RESTful resources and the physical sensor devices, and present the buffer queue combined with polling method to implement the data scheduling and Quality of Service (QoS) guarantee, and also give the RESTful M2M gateway open service Application Programming Interface (API) set. The performance has been measured and analyzed. Finally, the conclusions and future work are presented. PMID:25436650

  17. Dynamic RACH Partition for Massive Access of Differentiated M2M Services.

    PubMed

    Du, Qinghe; Li, Wanyu; Liu, Lingjia; Ren, Pinyi; Wang, Yichen; Sun, Li

    2016-03-30

    In machine-to-machine (M2M) networks, a key challenge is to overcome the overload problem caused by random access requests from massive machine-type communication (MTC) devices. When differentiated services coexist, such as delay-sensitive and delay-tolerant services, the problem becomes more complicated and challenging. This is because delay-sensitive services often use more aggressive policies, and thus, delay-tolerant services get much fewer chances to access the network. To conquer the problem, we propose an efficient mechanism for massive access control over differentiated M2M services, including delay-sensitive and delay-tolerant services. Specifically, based on the traffic loads of the two types of services, the proposed scheme dynamically partitions and allocates the random access channel (RACH) resource to each type of services. The RACH partition strategy is thoroughly optimized to increase the access performances of M2M networks. Analyses and simulation demonstrate the effectiveness of our design. The proposed scheme can outperform the baseline access class barring (ACB) scheme, which ignores service types in access control, in terms of access success probability and the average access delay.

  18. Dynamic RACH Partition for Massive Access of Differentiated M2M Services

    PubMed Central

    Du, Qinghe; Li, Wanyu; Liu, Lingjia; Ren, Pinyi; Wang, Yichen; Sun, Li

    2016-01-01

    In machine-to-machine (M2M) networks, a key challenge is to overcome the overload problem caused by random access requests from massive machine-type communication (MTC) devices. When differentiated services coexist, such as delay-sensitive and delay-tolerant services, the problem becomes more complicated and challenging. This is because delay-sensitive services often use more aggressive policies, and thus, delay-tolerant services get much fewer chances to access the network. To conquer the problem, we propose an efficient mechanism for massive access control over differentiated M2M services, including delay-sensitive and delay-tolerant services. Specifically, based on the traffic loads of the two types of services, the proposed scheme dynamically partitions and allocates the random access channel (RACH) resource to each type of services. The RACH partition strategy is thoroughly optimized to increase the access performances of M2M networks. Analyses and simulation demonstrate the effectiveness of our design. The proposed scheme can outperform the baseline access class barring (ACB) scheme, which ignores service types in access control, in terms of access success probability and the average access delay. PMID:27043568

  19. Characterization of the hrpZ gene from Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicolaM2

    PubMed Central

    Álvarez-Mejía, César; Rodríguez-Ríos, Dalia; Hernández-Guzmán, Gustavo; López-Ramírez, Varinia; Valenzuela-Soto, Humberto; Marsch, Rodolfo

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola is a natural pathogen of members of the Brassicaceae plant family. Using a transposon-based mutagenesis strategy in Pseudomonas syringaepv. maculicola M2 (PsmM2), we conducted a genetic screen to identify mutants that were capable of growing in M9 medium supplemented with a crude extract from the leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana. A mutant containing a transposon insertion in the hrpZ gene (PsmMut8) was unable to infect adult plants from Arabidopsis thaliana or Brassica oleracea, suggesting a loss of pathogenicity. The promotorless cat reporter present in the gene trap was expressed if PsmMut8 was grown in minimal medium (M9) supplemented with the leaf extract but not if grown in normal rich medium (KB). We conducted phylogenetic analysis using hrpAZB genes, showing the classical 5-clade distribution, and nucleotide diversity analysis, showing the putative position for selective pressure in this operon. Our results indicate that the hrpAZB operon from Pseudomonas syringaepv. maculicola M2 is necessary for its pathogenicity and that its diversity would be under host-mediated diversifying selection. PMID:26413080

  20. The outer envelopes of globular clusters - I. NGC 7089 (M2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzma, P. B.; Da Costa, G. S.; Mackey, A. D.; Roderick, T. A.

    2016-10-01

    We present the results of a wide-field imaging survey of the periphery of the Milky Way globular cluster NGC 7089 (M2). Data were obtained with MegaCam on the Magellan Clay Telescope and the Dark Energy Camera on the Blanco Telescope. We find that M2 is embedded in a diffuse stellar envelope extending to a radial distance of at least ˜60 arcmin (˜210 pc) - five times the nominal tidal radius of the cluster. The envelope appears nearly circular in shape, has a radial density decline well described by a power law of index γ = -2.2 ± 0.2, and contains approximately 1.6 per cent of the luminosity of the entire system. While the origin of the envelope cannot be robustly identified using the presently available data, the fact that M2 also hosts stellar populations exhibiting a broad dispersion in the abundances of both iron and a variety of neutron capture elements suggests that this object might plausibly constitute the stripped nucleus of a dwarf galaxy that was long ago accreted and destroyed by the Milky Way.

  1. M2 Macrophage Polarization Mediates Anti-inflammatory Effects of Endothelial Nitric Oxide Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Woo Je; Tateya, Sanshiro; Cheng, Andrew M.; Rizzo-DeLeon, Norma; Wang, Nicholas F.; Handa, Priya; Wilson, Carole L.; Clowes, Alexander W.; Sweet, Ian R.; Bomsztyk, Karol; Schwartz, Michael W.

    2015-01-01

    Endothelial nitric oxide (NO) signaling plays a physiological role in limiting obesity-associated insulin resistance and inflammation. This study was undertaken to investigate whether this NO effect involves polarization of macrophages toward an anti-inflammatory M2 phenotype. Mice with transgenic endothelial NO synthase overexpression were protected against high-fat diet (HFD)-induced hepatic inflammation and insulin resistance, and this effect was associated with reduced proinflammatory M1 and increased anti-inflammatory M2 activation of Kupffer cells. In cell culture studies, exposure of macrophages to endothelial NO similarly reduced inflammatory (M1) and increased anti-inflammatory (M2) gene expression. Similar effects were induced by macrophage overexpression of vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP), a key downstream mediator of intracellular NO signaling. Conversely, VASP deficiency induced proinflammatory M1 macrophage activation, and the transplantation of bone marrow from VASP-deficient donor mice into normal recipients caused hepatic inflammation and insulin resistance resembling that induced in normal mice by consumption of an HFD. These data suggest that proinflammatory macrophage M1 activation and macrophage-mediated inflammation are tonically inhibited by NO → VASP signal transduction, and that reduced NO → VASP signaling is involved in the effect of HFD feeding to induce M1 activation of Kupffer cells and associated hepatic inflammation. Our data implicate endothelial NO → VASP signaling as a physiological determinant of macrophage polarization and show that signaling via this pathway is required to prevent hepatic inflammation and insulin resistance. PMID:25845662

  2. Determination of Foton M-2 satellite attitude motion by the data of microacceleration measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beuselinck, T.; van Bavinchove, C.; Sazonov, V. V.; Chebukov, S. Yu.

    2009-12-01

    The results of reconstruction of uncontrolled attitude motion of the Foton M-2 satellite using measurements with the accelerometer TAS-3 are presented. The attitude motion of this satellite has been previously determined by the measurement data of the Earth’s magnetic field and the angular velocity. The TAS-3 data for this purpose are used for the first time. These data contain a well-pronounced additional component which made impossible their direct employment for the reconstruction of the attitude motion and whose origin was unknown several years ago. Later it has become known that the additional component is caused by the influence of the Earth’s magnetic field. The disclosure of this fact allowed us to take into account a necessary correction in processing of TAS-3 data and to use them for the reconstruction of the attitude motion of Foton M-2. Here, a modified method of processing TAS-3 data is described, as well as results of its testing and employing. The testing consisted in the direct comparison of the motion reconstructed by the new method with the motion constructed by the magnetic measurements. The new method allowed us to find the actual motion of Foton M-2 in the period June 9, 2005-June 14, 2005, when no magnetic measurements were carried out.

  3. Conformational variability of the glycine receptor M2 domain in response to activation by different agonists.

    PubMed

    Pless, Stephan A; Dibas, Mohammed I; Lester, Henry A; Lynch, Joseph W

    2007-12-01

    Models describing the structural changes mediating Cys loop receptor activation generally give little attention to the possibility that different agonists may promote activation via distinct M2 pore-lining domain structural rearrangements. We investigated this question by comparing the effects of different ligands on the conformation of the external portion of the homomeric alpha1 glycine receptor M2 domain. Conformational flexibility was assessed by tethering a rhodamine fluorophore to cysteines introduced at the 19' or 22' positions and monitoring fluorescence and current changes during channel activation. During glycine activation, fluorescence of the label attached to R19'C increased by approximately 20%, and the emission peak shifted to lower wavelengths, consistent with a more hydrophobic fluorophore environment. In contrast, ivermectin activated the receptors without producing a fluorescence change. Although taurine and beta-alanine were weak partial agonists at the alpha1R19'C glycine receptor, they induced large fluorescence changes. Propofol, which drastically enhanced these currents, did not induce a glycine-like blue shift in the spectral emission peak. The inhibitors strychnine and picrotoxin elicited fluorescence and current changes as expected for a competitive antagonist and an open channel blocker, respectively. Glycine and taurine (or beta-alanine) also produced an increase and a decrease, respectively, in the fluorescence of a label attached to the nearby L22'C residue. Thus, results from two separate labeled residues support the conclusion that the glycine receptor M2 domain responds with distinct conformational changes to activation by different agonists. PMID:17911099

  4. Structure of the atypical bacteriocin pectocin M2 implies a novel mechanism of protein uptake

    PubMed Central

    Grinter, Rhys; Josts, Inokentijs; Zeth, Kornelius; Roszak, Aleksander W; McCaughey, Laura C; Cogdell, Richard J; Milner, Joel J; Kelly, Sharon M; Byron, Olwyn; Walker, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The colicin-like bacteriocins are potent protein antibiotics that have evolved to efficiently cross the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria by parasitizing nutrient uptake systems. We have structurally characterized the colicin M-like bacteriocin, pectocin M2, which is active against strains of Pectobacterium spp. This unusual bacteriocin lacks the intrinsically unstructured translocation domain that usually mediates translocation of these bacteriocins across the outer membrane, containing only a single globular ferredoxin domain connected to its cytotoxic domain by a flexible α-helix, which allows it to adopt two distinct conformations in solution. The ferredoxin domain of pectocin M2 is homologous to plant ferredoxins and allows pectocin M2 to parasitize a system utilized by Pectobacterium to obtain iron during infection of plants. Furthermore, we identify a novel ferredoxin-containing bacteriocin pectocin P, which possesses a cytotoxic domain homologous to lysozyme, illustrating that the ferredoxin domain acts as a generic delivery module for cytotoxic domains in Pectobacterium. PMID:24865810

  5. The catalytic role of the M2 metal ion in PP2Cα

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Chang; Tang, Jun-Yi; Xu, Yun-Fei; Xiao, Peng; Liu, Hong-Da; Wang, Hao-An; Wang, Wen-Bo; Meng, Fan-Guo; Yu, Xiao; Sun, Jin-Peng

    2015-02-01

    PP2C family phosphatases (the type 2C family of protein phosphatases; or metal-dependent phosphatase, PPM) constitute an important class of signaling enzymes that regulate many fundamental life activities. All PP2C family members have a conserved binuclear metal ion active center that is essential for their catalysis. However, the catalytic role of each metal ion during catalysis remains elusive. In this study, we discovered that mutations in the structurally buried D38 residue of PP2Cα (PPM1A) redefined the water-mediated hydrogen network in the active site and selectively disrupted M2 metal ion binding. Using the D38A and D38K mutations of PP2Cα as specific tools in combination with enzymology analysis, our results demonstrated that the M2 metal ion determines the rate-limiting step of substrate hydrolysis, participates in dianion substrate binding and stabilizes the leaving group after P-O bond cleavage. The newly characterized catalytic role of the M2 metal ion in this family not only provides insight into how the binuclear metal centers of the PP2C phosphatases are organized for efficient catalysis but also helps increase our understanding of the function and substrate specificity of PP2C family members.

  6. TPL-2 Regulates Macrophage Lipid Metabolism and M2 Differentiation to Control TH2-Mediated Immunopathology

    PubMed Central

    Entwistle, Lewis J.; Khoury, Hania; Papoutsopoulou, Stamatia; Mahmood, Radma; Mansour, Nuha R.; Ching-Cheng Huang, Stanley; Pearce, Edward J.; Pedro S. de Carvalho, Luiz; Ley, Steven C.

    2016-01-01

    Persistent TH2 cytokine responses following chronic helminth infections can often lead to the development of tissue pathology and fibrotic scarring. Despite a good understanding of the cellular mechanisms involved in fibrogenesis, there are very few therapeutic options available, highlighting a significant medical need and gap in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of TH2-mediated immunopathology. In this study, we found that the Map3 kinase, TPL-2 (Map3k8; Cot) regulated TH2-mediated intestinal, hepatic and pulmonary immunopathology following Schistosoma mansoni infection or S. mansoni egg injection. Elevated inflammation, TH2 cell responses and exacerbated fibrosis in Map3k8–/–mice was observed in mice with myeloid cell-specific (LysM) deletion of Map3k8, but not CD4 cell-specific deletion of Map3k8, indicating that TPL-2 regulated myeloid cell function to limit TH2-mediated immunopathology. Transcriptional and metabolic assays of Map3k8–/–M2 macrophages identified that TPL-2 was required for lipolysis, M2 macrophage activation and the expression of a variety of genes involved in immuno-regulatory and pro-fibrotic pathways. Taken together this study identified that TPL-2 regulated TH2-mediated inflammation by supporting lipolysis and M2 macrophage activation, preventing TH2 cell expansion and downstream immunopathology and fibrosis. PMID:27487182

  7. Comparing the computational complexity of the PNN, the PDM, and the MMNN (M2N2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chettri, Samir R.; Murakami, Yoshimichi; Nagano, Isamu; Garegnani, Jerry

    1998-03-01

    In classification, the goal is to assign an input vector to a discrete number of output classes. Classifier design has a long history and they have been put to a large number of uses. In this paper we continue the task of categorizing classifiers by their computational complexity as begun. In particular, we derive analytical formulas for the number of arithmetic operations in the probabilistic neural network (PNN) and its polynomial expansion, also known as the polynomial discriminant method (PDM) and the mixture model neural network (M2N2). In addition we perform tests of the classification accuracy of the PDM with respect to the PNN and the M2N2 find that all three are close in accuracy. Based on this research we now have the ability to choose one or the other based on the computational complexity, the memory requirements and the size of the training set. This is a great advantage in an operational environment. We also discus the extension of such methods to hyperspectral data and find that only the M2N2 is suitable for application to such data.

  8. Fasciola hepatica tegumental antigens indirectly induce an M2 macrophage-like phenotype in vivo.

    PubMed

    Adams, P N; Aldridge, A; Vukman, K V; Donnelly, S; O'Neill, S M

    2014-10-01

    The M2 subset of macrophages has a critical role to play in host tissue repair, tissue fibrosis and modulation of adaptive immunity during helminth infection. Infection with the helminth, Fasciola hepatica, is associated with M2 macrophages in its mammalian host, and this response is mimicked by its excretory-secretory products (FhES). The tegumental coat of F. hepatica (FhTeg) is another major source of immune-modulatory molecules; we have previously shown that FhTeg can modulate the activity of both dendritic cells and mast cells inhibiting their ability to prime a Th1 immune response. Here, we report that FhTeg does not induce Th2 immune responses but can induce M2-like phenotype in vivo that modulates cytokine production from CD4(+) cells in response to anti-CD3 stimulation. FhTeg induces a RELMα expressing macrophage population in vitro, while in vivo, the expression of Arg1 and Ym-1/2 but not RELMα in FhTeg-stimulated macrophages was STAT6 dependent. To support this finding, FhTeg induces RELMα expression in vivo prior to the induction of IL-13. FhTeg can induce IL-13-producing peritoneal macrophages following intraperitoneal injection This study highlights the important role of FhTeg as an immune-modulatory source during F. hepatica infection and sheds further light on helminth-macrophage interactions.

  9. TPL-2 Regulates Macrophage Lipid Metabolism and M2 Differentiation to Control TH2-Mediated Immunopathology.

    PubMed

    Kannan, Yashaswini; Perez-Lloret, Jimena; Li, Yanda; Entwistle, Lewis J; Khoury, Hania; Papoutsopoulou, Stamatia; Mahmood, Radma; Mansour, Nuha R; Ching-Cheng Huang, Stanley; Pearce, Edward J; Pedro S de Carvalho, Luiz; Ley, Steven C; Wilson, Mark S

    2016-08-01

    Persistent TH2 cytokine responses following chronic helminth infections can often lead to the development of tissue pathology and fibrotic scarring. Despite a good understanding of the cellular mechanisms involved in fibrogenesis, there are very few therapeutic options available, highlighting a significant medical need and gap in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of TH2-mediated immunopathology. In this study, we found that the Map3 kinase, TPL-2 (Map3k8; Cot) regulated TH2-mediated intestinal, hepatic and pulmonary immunopathology following Schistosoma mansoni infection or S. mansoni egg injection. Elevated inflammation, TH2 cell responses and exacerbated fibrosis in Map3k8-/-mice was observed in mice with myeloid cell-specific (LysM) deletion of Map3k8, but not CD4 cell-specific deletion of Map3k8, indicating that TPL-2 regulated myeloid cell function to limit TH2-mediated immunopathology. Transcriptional and metabolic assays of Map3k8-/-M2 macrophages identified that TPL-2 was required for lipolysis, M2 macrophage activation and the expression of a variety of genes involved in immuno-regulatory and pro-fibrotic pathways. Taken together this study identified that TPL-2 regulated TH2-mediated inflammation by supporting lipolysis and M2 macrophage activation, preventing TH2 cell expansion and downstream immunopathology and fibrosis. PMID:27487182

  10. Human mesenchymal stromal cell-secreted lactate induces M2-macrophage differentiation by metabolic reprogramming

    PubMed Central

    Civini, Sara; Pacelli, Consiglia; Dieng, Mame Massar; Lemieux, William; Jin, Ping; Bazin, Renée; Patey, Natacha; Marincola, Francesco M.; Moldovan, Florina; Zaouter, Charlotte; Trudeau, Louis-Eric; Benabdhalla, Basma; Louis, Isabelle; Beauséjour, Christian; Stroncek, David; Le Deist, Françoise; Haddad, Elie

    2016-01-01

    Human mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) have been shown to dampen immune response and promote tissue repair, but the underlying mechanisms are still under investigation. Herein, we demonstrate that umbilical cord-derived MSC (UC-MSC) alter the phenotype and function of monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DC) through lactate-mediated metabolic reprogramming. UC-MSC can secrete large quantities of lactate and, when present during monocyte-to-DC differentiation, induce instead the acquisition of M2-macrophage features in terms of morphology, surface markers, migratory properties and antigen presentation capacity. Microarray expression profiling indicates that UC-MSC modify the expression of metabolic-related genes and induce a M2-macrophage expression signature. Importantly, monocyte-derived DC obtained in presence of UC-MSC, polarize naïve allogeneic CD4+ T-cells into Th2 cells. Treatment of UC-MSC with an inhibitor of lactate dehydrogenase strongly decreases lactate concentration in culture supernatant and abrogates the effect on monocyte-to-DC differentiation. Metabolic analysis further revealed that UC-MSC decrease oxidative phosphorylation in differentiating monocytes while strongly increasing the spare respiratory capacity proportional to the amount of secreted lactate. Because both MSC and monocytes are recruited in vivo at the site of tissue damage and inflammation, we propose the local increase of lactate concentration induced by UC-MSC and the consequent enrichment in M2-macrophage generation as a mechanism to achieve immunomodulation. PMID:27070086

  11. M2-F3 and project personnel after the 100th flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The 100th flight of the heavy-weight lifting bodies was completed on October 5, 1972, with pilot Bill Dana soaring to an altitude of 66,300 feet and a Mach number of 1.370 (about 904 miles per hour) in the M2-F3. This was call for a celebration as the crew responsible for maintaining and operating the vehicle, the engineers who requested the flight, the pilots who flew the M2, and the Director of the NASA Flight Research Center gather in front of the M2-F3 lifting body for a photograph. Kneeling left to right are Bill Dana, (unknown person),* Jay King, and Herb Anderson. In the cockpit is Bill Szuwalski. Standing left to right are: Dale Reed, Robert Kempel, Milt Thompson, Bill Clifton, an Air Force fire fighter, Jerry Brandt, Johnny Armstrong, an Air Force fire fighter, Gary Layton, Jack Kolf, Ming Tang, (unknown person),* Byron Gibbs, Joe Huxman, (unknown person)*, Bill Mersereau, Bill Arnold, John Manke, Dr. Bill Winters, (unknown person)*, Bill LePage, Glenn Ford, Lee Scherer, Director of Center, (two unknown people),* Stan Butchart, and Berwin Kock. *=Identification incomplete at this time.)

  12. Characterization of the hrpZ gene from Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola M2.

    PubMed

    Álvarez-Mejía, César; Rodríguez-Ríos, Dalia; Hernández-Guzmán, Gustavo; López-Ramírez, Varinia; Valenzuela-Soto, Humberto; Marsch, Rodolfo

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola is a natural pathogen of members of the Brassicaceae plant family. Using a transposon-based mutagenesis strategy in Pseudomonas syringaepv. maculicola M2 (PsmM2), we conducted a genetic screen to identify mutants that were capable of growing in M9 medium supplemented with a crude extract from the leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana. A mutant containing a transposon insertion in the hrpZ gene (PsmMut8) was unable to infect adult plants from Arabidopsis thaliana or Brassica oleracea, suggesting a loss of pathogenicity. The promotorless cat reporter present in the gene trap was expressed if PsmMut8 was grown in minimal medium (M9) supplemented with the leaf extract but not if grown in normal rich medium (KB). We conducted phylogenetic analysis using hrpAZB genes, showing the classical 5-clade distribution, and nucleotide diversity analysis, showing the putative position for selective pressure in this operon. Our results indicate that the hrpAZB operon from Pseudomonas syringaepv. maculicola M2 is necessary for its pathogenicity and that its diversity would be under host-mediated diversifying selection. PMID:26413080

  13. SULFUR- AND SILICON-BEARING MOLECULES IN PLANETARY NEBULAE: THE CASE OF M2-48

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, J. L.; Ziurys, L. M.

    2014-10-20

    Molecular-line observations of the bipolar planetary nebula (PN) M2-48 have been conducted using the Sub-Millimeter Telescope and the 12 m antenna of the Arizona Radio Observatory at 1, 2, and 3 mm. M2-48 is estimated to be ∼4800 yr old, midway through the PN evolutionary track. SiO and SO{sub 2} were detected in this source—the first identification of either molecule in a PN. CN, HCN, HNC, CS, SO, HCO{sup +}, N{sub 2}H{sup +}, and several {sup 13}C isotopologues such as {sup 13}CN, H{sup 13}CN, and H{sup 13}CO{sup +} were also observed toward this object. A radiative transfer analysis of multiple SiO transitions indicates a gas kinetic temperature of T {sub K} ∼ 55 K and a density of n(H{sub 2}) ∼ 9 × 10{sup 5} cm{sup –3} in M2-48, in agreement with previous CS and CO modeling. After CO, CN, and SO were found to be the most prevalent molecules in this nebula, with fractional abundances, relative to H{sub 2}, of f ∼ 3.8 × 10{sup –7} and 2.4 × 10{sup –7}, respectively. SO{sub 2} and HCN are also abundant, with f ∼ 1.2 × 10{sup –7}, indicating an [SO]/[SO{sub 2}] ratio of ∼2. Relatively high ion abundances were measured in M2-48 as well, with f ∼ 10{sup –7} for both HCO{sup +} and N{sub 2}H{sup +}. An [HCN]/[HNC] ratio of ∼2 was determined, as typically observed in other PNe, independent of age. The high abundances of SO and SO{sub 2}, along with the presence of SiO with f ∼ 2.9 × 10{sup –8}, suggest O/C > 1 in this source; furthermore, the prevalence of CN and N{sub 2}H{sup +} indicates nitrogen enrichment. The {sup 12}C/{sup 13}C ratio of ∼3 in the nebula was also established. These factors indicate hot-bottom burning occurred in the progenitor star of M2-48, suggesting an initial mass > 4 M {sub ☉}.

  14. Cross Protection against Influenza A Virus by Yeast-Expressed Heterologous Tandem Repeat M2 Extracellular Proteins.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yu-Na; Kim, Min-Chul; Lee, Young-Tae; Hwang, Hye Suk; Lee, Jongsang; Kim, Cheol; Kang, Sang-Moo

    2015-01-01

    The influenza M2 ectodomain (M2e) is well conserved across human influenza A subtypes, but there are few residue changes among avian and swine origin influenza A viruses. We expressed a tandem repeat construct of heterologous M2e sequences (M2e5x) derived from human, swine, and avian origin influenza A viruses using the yeast expression system. Intramuscular immunization of mice with AS04-adjuvanted M2e5x protein vaccines was effective in inducing M2e-specific antibodies reactive to M2e peptide and native M2 proteins on the infected cells with human, swine, or avian influenza virus, mucosal and systemic memory cellular immune responses, and cross-protection against H3N2 virus. Importantly, M2e5x immune sera were found to confer protection against different subtypes of H1N1 and H5N1 influenza A viruses in naïve mice. Also, M2e5x-immune complexes of virus-infected cells stimulated macrophages to secrete cytokines via Fc receptors, indicating a possible mechanism of protection. The present study provides evidence that M2e5x proteins produced in yeast cells could be developed as a potential universal influenza vaccine. PMID:26366729

  15. Characterization of photovoltaics with In2S3 nanoflakes/p-Si heterojunction

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate that heterojunction photovoltaics based on hydrothermal-grown In2S3 on p-Si were fabricated and characterized in the paper. An n-type In2S3 nanoflake-based film with unique 'cross-linked network’ structure was grown on the prepared p-type silicon substrate. It was found that the bandgap energy of such In2S3 film is 2.5 eV by optical absorption spectra. This unique nanostructure significantly enhances the surface area of the In2S3 films, leading to obtain lower reflectance spectra as the thickness of In2S3 film was increased. Additionally, such a nanostructure resulted in a closer spacing between the cross-linked In2S3 nanostructures and formed more direct conduction paths for electron transportation. Thus, the short-circuit current density (Jsc) was effectively improved by using a suitable thickness of In2S3. The power conversion efficiency (PCE, η) of the AZO/In2S3/textured p-Si heterojunction solar cell with 100-nm-thick In2S3 film was 2.39%. PMID:24428954

  16. An improved AFS phase for AdS3 string integrability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbott, Michael C.; Aniceto, Inês

    2015-04-01

    We propose a number of modifications to the classical term in the dressing phase for integrable strings in AdS3 ×S3 ×S3 ×S1, and check these against existing perturbative calculations, crossing symmetry, and the semiclassical limit of the Bethe equations. The principal change is that the phase for different masses should start with a term Q1Q2, like the one-loop AdS3 dressing phase, rather than Q2Q3 as for the original AdS5 AFS phase.

  17. Dale Reed with model in front of M2-F1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1967-01-01

    Dale Reed with a model of the M2-F1 in front of the actual lifting body. Reed used the model to show the potential of the lifting bodies. He first flew it into tall grass to test stability and trim, then hand-launched it from buildings for longer flights. Finally, he towed the lifting-body model aloft using a powered model airplane known as the 'Mothership.' A timer released the model and it glided to a landing. Dale's wife Donna used a 9 mm. camera to film the flights of the model. Its stability as it glided--despite its lack of wings--convinced Milt Thompson and some Flight Research Center engineers including the center director, Paul Bikle, that a piloted lifting body was possible. The lifting body concept evolved in the mid-1950s as researchers considered alternatives to ballistic reentries of piloted space capsules. The designs for hypersonic, wingless vehicles were on the boards at NASA Ames and NASA Langley facilities, while the US Air Force was gearing up for its Dyna-Soar program, which defined the need for a spacecraft that would land like an airplane. Despite favorable research on lifting bodies, there was little support for a flight program. Dryden engineer R. Dale Reed was intrigued with the lifting body concept, and reasoned that some sort of flight demonstration was needed before wingless aircraft could be taken seriously. In February 1962, he built a model lifting body based upon the Ames M2 design, and air-launched it from a radio controlled 'mothership.' Home movies of these flights, plus the support of research pilot Milt Thompson, helped pursuade the facilities director, Paul Bikle, to give the go-ahead for the construction of a full-scale version, to be used as a wind-tunnel model and possibly flown as a glider. Comparing lifting bodies to space capsules, an unofficial motto of the project was, 'Don't be Rescued from Outer Space--Fly Back in Style.' The construction of the M2-F1 was a joint effort by Dryden and a local glider manufacturer, the

  18. Distinct interneuron types express m2 muscarinic receptor immunoreactivity on their dendrites or axon terminals in the hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Hájos, N; Papp, E C; Acsády, L; Levey, A I; Freund, T F

    1998-01-01

    In previous studies m2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor-immunoreactive interneurons and various types of m2-positive axon terminals have been described in the hippocampal formation. The aim of the present study was to identify the types of interneurons expressing m2 receptor and to examine whether the somadendritic and axonal m2 immunostaining labels the same or distinct cell populations. In the CA1 subfield, neurons immunoreactive for m2 have horizontal dendrites, they are located at the stratum oriens/alveus border and have an axon that project to the dendritic region of pyramidal cells. In the CA3 subfield and the hilus, m2-positive neurons are multipolar and are scattered in all layers except stratum lacunosum-moleculare. In stratum pyramidale of the CA1 and CA3 regions, striking axon terminal staining for m2 was observed, surrounding the somata and axon initial segments of pyramidal cells in a basket-like manner. The co-localization of m2 with neurochemical markers and GABA was studied using the "mirror" technique and fluorescent double-immunostaining at the light microscopic level and with double-labelling using colloidal gold-conjugated antisera and immunoperoxidase reaction (diaminobenzidine) at the electron microscopic level. GABA was shown to be present in the somata of most m2-immunoreactive interneurons, as well as in the majority of m2-positive terminals in all layers. The calcium-binding protein parvalbumin was absent from practically all m2-immunoreactive cell bodies and dendrites. In contrast, many of the terminals synapsing on pyramidal cell somata and axon initial segments co-localized parvalbumin and m2, suggesting a differential distribution of m2 receptor immunoreactivity on the axonal and somadendritic membrane of parvalbumin-containing basket and axo-axonic cells. The co-existence of m2 receptors with the calcium-binding protein calbindin and the neuropeptides cholecystokinin and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide was rare throughout the

  19. Baicalin ameliorates experimental inflammatory bowel disease through polarization of macrophages to an M2 phenotype.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wei; Jin, Zaishun; Yu, Jianbo; Liang, Jun; Yang, Qingdong; Li, Fujuan; Shi, Xuekui; Zhu, Xiaodong; Zhang, Xiaoli

    2016-06-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are chronic inflammatory disorders of the intestinal tract. Baicalin, originally isolated from the root of the Chinese herb Huangqin (Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi) and its main active ingredient, has a protective effect against inflammatory responses in several diseases. The present study investigated the effects of baicalin on macrophage polarization and its therapeutic role in IBD. Murine peritoneal macrophages and mice with colitis were treated with baicalin. Macrophage subset distribution, M1 and M2 macrophage-associated mRNA expression, and interferon regulatory factor 4 and 5 (IRF4 and IRF5) expression were analyzed. siRNA transfection into mouse peritoneal macrophages was utilized to suppress IRF4. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting, western blot, and real-time PCR analyses were performed. Baicalin (50μM) limited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced M1 macrophage polarization; decreased LPS-induced tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin (IL)-23, and IRF5 expression; and increased IL-10, arginase-1 (Arg-1), and IRF4 expression. siRNA-mediated IRF4 silencing significantly impaired baicalin activity. Furthermore, pretreatment with baicalin (100mg/kg) in mice with dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis ameliorated the severity of colitis and significantly decreased the disease activity index (baicalin group, 3.33±0.52 vs. DSS group, 5.67±1.03). Baicalin (100mg/kg) also repressed IRF5 protein expression and promoted IRF4 protein expression in the lamina propria mononuclear cells, and induced macrophage polarization to the M2 phenotype. In summary, our results showed that baicalin upregulates IRF4 protein expression and reverses LPS-induced macrophage subset redistribution. Thus, baicalin alleviates DSS-induced colitis by modulating macrophage polarization to the M2 phenotype.

  20. Towards Efficient Mobile M2M Communications: Survey and Open Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Carlos; Aguiar, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Machine-to-Machine (M2M) communications enable networked devices and services to exchange information and perform actions seamlessly without the need for human intervention. They are viewed as a key enabler of the Internet of Things (IoT) and ubiquitous applications, like mobile healthcare, telemetry, or intelligent transport systems. We survey existing work on mobile M2M communications, we identify open challenges that have a direct impact on performance and resource usage efficiency, especially the impact on energy efficiency, and we review techniques to improve communications. We review the ETSI standard and application protocols, and draw considerations on the impact of their use in constrained mobile devices. Nowadays, smartphones are equipped with a wide range of embedded sensors, with varied local and wide area connectivity capabilities, and thus they offer a unique opportunity to serve as mobile gateways for other more constrained devices with local connectivity. At the same time, they can gather context data about users and environment from the embedded sensors. These capabilities may be crucial for mobile M2M applications. Finally, in this paper, we consider a scenario where smartphones are used as gateways that collect and aggregate data from sensors in a cellular network. We conclude that, in order for their use to the feasible in terms of a normal depletion time of a smartphone's battery, it is a good advice to maximize the collection of data necessary to be transmitted from nearby sensors, and maximize the intervals between transmissions. More research is required to devise energy efficient transmission methods that enable the use of smartphones as mobile gateways. PMID:25333291

  1. Towards efficient mobile M2M communications: survey and open challenges.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Carlos; Aguiar, Ana

    2014-10-20

    Machine-to-Machine (M2M) communications enable networked devices and services to exchange information and perform actions seamlessly without the need for human intervention. They are viewed as a key enabler of the Internet of Things (IoT) and ubiquitous applications, like mobile healthcare, telemetry, or intelligent transport systems. We survey existing work on mobile M2M communications, we identify open challenges that have a direct impact on performance and resource usage efficiency, especially the impact on energy efficiency, and we review techniques to improve communications. We review the ETSI standard and application protocols, and draw considerations on the impact of their use in constrained mobile devices. Nowadays, smartphones are equipped with a wide range of embedded sensors, with varied local and wide area connectivity capabilities, and thus they offer a unique opportunity to serve as mobile gateways for other more constrained devices with local connectivity. At the same time, they can gather context data about users and environment from the embedded sensors. These capabilities may be crucial for mobile M2M applications. Finally, in this paper, we consider a scenario where smartphones are used as gateways that collect and aggregate data from sensors in a cellular network. We conclude that, in order for their use to the feasible in terms of a normal depletion time of a smartphone's battery, it is a good advice to maximize the collection of data necessary to be transmitted from nearby sensors, and maximize the intervals between transmissions. More research is required to devise energy efficient transmission methods that enable the use of smartphones as mobile gateways.

  2. Extended culture of macrophages from different sources and maturation results in a common M2 phenotype.

    PubMed

    Chamberlain, Lisa M; Holt-Casper, Dolly; Gonzalez-Juarrero, Mercedes; Grainger, David W

    2015-09-01

    Inflammatory responses to biomaterials heavily influence the environment surrounding implanted devices, often producing foreign-body reactions. The macrophage is a key immunomodulatory cell type consistently associated with implanted biomaterials and routinely used in short-term in vitro cell studies of biomaterials aiming to reproduce host responses. Inconsistencies within these studies, including differently sourced cells, different durations of culture, and assessment of different activation markers, lead to many conflicting results in vitro that confound consistency and conclusions. We hypothesize that different experimentally popular monocyte-macrophage cell types have intrinsic in vitro culture-specific differences that yield conflicting results. Recent studies demonstrate changes in cultured macrophage cytokine expression over time, leading to the hypothesis that changes in macrophage phenotype also occur in response to extended culture. Here, macrophage cells of different transformed and primary-derived origins were cultured for 21 days on model polymer biomaterials. Cell type-based differences in morphology and cytokine/chemokine expression as well as changes in cell surface biomarkers associated with differentiation stage, activation state, and adhesion were compared. Results reflect consistent macrophage development toward an M2 phenotype via up-regulation of the macrophage mannose receptor for all cell types following 21-day extended culture. Significantly, implanted biomaterials experiencing the foreign-body response and encapsulation in vivo often elicit a shift toward an analogous M2 macrophage phenotype. In vitro "default" of macrophage cultures, regardless of lineage, to this M2 state in the presence of biomaterials at long culture periods is not recognized, but has important implications to in vitro modeling of in vivo host response.

  3. EXTENDED CULTURE OF MACROPHAGES FROM DIFFERENT SOURCES AND MATURATION RESULTS IN A COMMON M2 PHENOTYPE

    PubMed Central

    Chamberlain, Lisa M.; Holt-Casper, Dolly; Gonzalez-Juarrero, Mercedes; Grainger, David W.

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory responses to biomaterials heavily influence the environment surrounding implanted devices, often producing foreign body reactions. The macrophage is a key immunomodulatory cell type consistently associated with implanted biomaterials and routinely employed in short term in vitro cell studies of biomaterials aiming to reproduce host responses. Inconsistencies within these studies, including differently sourced cells, different durations of culture, and assessment of different activation markers, lead to many conflicting results in vitro that confound consistency and conclusions. We hypothesize that different experimentally popular monocyte-macrophage cell types have intrinsic in vitro culture-specific differences that yield conflicting results. Recent studies demonstrate changes in cultured macrophage cytokine expression over time, leading to the hypothesis that changes in macrophage phenotype also occur in response to extended culture. Here, macrophage cells of different transformed and primary-derived origins were cultured for 21 days on model polymer biomaterials. Cell type-based differences in morphology and cytokine/chemokine expression as well as changes in cell surface biomarkers associated with differentiation stage, activation state, and adhesion were compared. Results reflect consistent macrophage development towards an M2 phenotype via up-regulation of the macrophage mannose receptor for all cell types following 21-day extended culture. Significantly, implanted biomaterials experiencing the foreign body response and encapsulation in vivo often elicit a shift towards an analogous M2 macrophage phenotype. In vitro “default” of macrophage cultures, regardless of lineage, to this M2 state in the presence of biomaterials at long culture periods is not recognized but has important implications to in vitro modeling of in vivo host response. PMID:25684281

  4. Optical trapping with superfocused high-M2 laser diode beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolovskii, G. S.; Dudelev, V. V.; Melissinaki, V.; Losev, S. N.; Soboleva, K. K.; Deryagin, A. G.; Kuchinskii, V. I.; Farsari, M.; Sibbett, W.; Rafailov, E. U.

    2015-03-01

    Many applications of high-power laser diodes demand tight focusing. This is often not possible due to the multimode nature of semiconductor laser radiation possessing beam propagation parameter M2 values in double-digits. We propose a method of `interference' superfocusing of high-M2 diode laser beams with a technique developed for the generation of Bessel beams based on the employment of an axicon fabricated on the tip of a 100 μm diameter optical fiber with high-precision direct laser writing. Using axicons with apex angle 1400 and rounded tip area as small as ~10 μm diameter, we demonstrate 2-4 μm diameter focused laser `needle' beams with approximately 20 μm propagation length generated from multimode diode laser with beam propagation parameter M2=18 and emission wavelength of 960 nm. This is a few-fold reduction compared to the minimal focal spot size of ~11 μm that could be achieved if focused by an `ideal' lens of unity numerical aperture. The same technique using a 1600 axicon allowed us to demonstrate few-μm-wide laser `needle' beams with nearly 100 μm propagation length with which to demonstrate optical trapping of 5-6 μm rat blood red cells in a water-heparin solution. Our results indicate the good potential of superfocused diode laser beams for applications relating to optical trapping and manipulation of microscopic objects including living biological objects with aspirations towards subsequent novel lab-on-chip configurations.

  5. Atmospheric Turbulence Measurements With the Automatic Mini UAV 'M2AV Carolo'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bange, J.; van den Kroonenberg, A. C.; Spieß, T.; Buschmann, M.; Krüger, L.; Heindorf, A.; Vörsmann, P.

    2007-05-01

    The limitations of manned airborne meteorological measurements led to the development of an autonomously operating mini aircraft, the Meteorological Mini-UAV (M2AV), at the Institute of Aerospace Systems, Technical University of Braunschweig, Germany. The task was to develop, test and verify a meteorological sensor package as payload for an already available automatic carrier aircraft, the UAV 'Carolo T200', which operates autonomously i.e. without remote control. The M2AV is a self constructed model aircraft with two electrically powered engines and a wingspan of two meters. The maximum take-off weight is 4.5~kg (the M2AV is therefore classified as an model plane which simplifies authority issues), including 1.5~kg of payload. It is hand-launched which makes operation of the aircraft easy. With an endurance of approximately 50 minutes, the range accounts for 60 km at a cruising speed of 20~m/s. The M2AV is capable of performing turbulence measurements (wind vector, temperature and humidity) within the troposphere and offers an economic component during meteorological campaigns. The meteorological sensors are mounted on a noseboom to minimise the aircraft's influence on the measurements and to position the sensors closely to each other. Wind is measured via a small five-hole probe, an inertia measurement unit and GPS. The flight mission (waypoints, altitudes, airspeed) is planned and assigned to the aircraft before the semi- automatic launch. The flight is only controlled by the on-board autopilot system which only communicates with a ground station (laptop PC) for the exchange of measured data and command updates like new waypoints etc. The talk gives details on the technical items, calibration and first missions. Results from first field experiments like the LAUNCH-2005 campaign near Berlin are used for data quality assessment by comparison with simultaneous lidar and sodar measurements. An in situ comparison with the highly accurate helicopter-borne turbulence

  6. The r-step Fibonacci-Hurwitz sequences in the binary polyhedral group <2, m, 2>

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deveci, Ömür; Ćiçekci, Deniz

    2016-04-01

    In [1], Deveci et al. defined the r-step Fibonacci-Hurwitz sequences from the Hurwitz matrices obtained from the characteristic polynomial of the k-step Fibonacci sequence. Also, they extended the r-step Fibonacci-Hurwitz sequences to groups. In this work, we obtain the periods of the r-step Fibonacci-Hurwitz sequences in the binary polyhedral group <2, m, 2> for generating triple {x, y, z} and generating pair {y, z} by the aid of the periods of the r-step Fibonacci-Hurwitz sequences according to modulo m.

  7. 10 CFR 51.51 - Uranium fuel cycle environmental data-Table S-3.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Uranium fuel cycle environmental data-Table S-3. 51.51... cycle environmental data—Table S-3. (a) Under § 51.50, every environmental report prepared for the construction permit stage or early site permit stage or combined license stage of a light-water-cooled...

  8. 10 CFR 51.51 - Uranium fuel cycle environmental data-Table S-3.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Uranium fuel cycle environmental data-Table S-3. 51.51... cycle environmental data—Table S-3. (a) Under § 51.50, every environmental report prepared for the construction permit stage or early site permit stage or combined license stage of a light-water-cooled...

  9. Concurrent Validity of the Polar s3 Stride Sensor for Measuring Walking Stride Velocity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grigg, Nicole; Smeathers, James; Wearing, Scott

    2011-01-01

    With this research, we sought to establish the accuracy of stride velocity data collected by the s3 Stride Sensor. Participants walked along a GAITRite mat at self-selected slow, preferred, and fast velocities, with two s3 Stride Sensors attached to their right foot. The start position was systematically varied such that the GAITRite system would…

  10. Tunable surface wettability and water adhesion of Sb2S3 micro-/nanorod films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Xin; Zhao, Huiping; Yang, Hao; Liu, Yunling; Yan, Guoping; Chen, Rong

    2014-01-01

    Antimony sulfide (Sb2S3) films were successfully prepared by spin coating Sb2S3 micro-/nanorods with different sizes on glass slides, which was synthesized via a facile and rapid microwave irradiation method. The prepared Sb2S3 micro-/nanorods and films were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and water contact angle (CA). The as-prepared Sb2S3 films exhibited different surface wettabilities ranging from superhydrophilicity to superhydrophobicity, which was strongly dependent on the diameter of Sb2S3 micro-/nanorod. Sb2S3 film made by nanorods possessed superhydrophobic surface and high water adhesive property. After surface modification with stearic acid, the superhydrophobic surface exhibited an excellent self-cleaning property owing to its low adhesive force. The clarification of three possible states including Wenzel's state, 'Gecko' state and Cassie's state for Sb2S3 film surfaces was also proposed to provide a better understanding of interesting surface phenomena on Sb2S3 films.

  11. The herpes simplex virus 1 U{sub S}3 regulates phospholipid synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Wild, Peter; Oliveira, Anna Paula de; Sonda, Sabrina; Schraner, Elisabeth M.; Ackermann, Mathias; Tobler, Kurt

    2012-10-25

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 capsids bud at nuclear and Golgi membranes for envelopment by phospholipid bilayers. In the absence of U{sub S}3, nuclear membranes form multiple folds harboring virions that suggests disturbance in membrane turnover. Therefore, we investigated phospholipid metabolism in cells infected with the U{sub S}3 deletion mutant R7041({Delta}U{sub S}3), and quantified membranes involved in viral envelopment. We report that (i) [{sup 3}H]-choline incorporation into nuclear membranes and cytoplasmic membranes was enhanced peaking at 12 or 20 h post inoculation with wild type HSV-1 and R7041({Delta}U{sub S}3), respectively, (ii) the surface area of nuclear membranes increased until 24 h of R7041({Delta}U{sub S}3) infection forming folds that equaled {approx}45% of the nuclear surface, (iii) the surface area of viral envelopes between nuclear membranes equaled {approx}2400 R7041({Delta}U{sub S}3) virions per cell, and (iv) during R7041({Delta}U{sub S}3) infection, the Golgi complex expanded dramatically. The data indicate that U{sub S}3 plays a significant role in regulation of membrane biosynthesis.

  12. Integrable open spin-chains in AdS3 /CFT2 correspondences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prinsloo, Andrea; Regelskis, Vidas; Torrielli, Alessandro

    2015-11-01

    We study integrable open boundary conditions for d (2 ,1 ;α )2 and p s u (1 ,1 |2 )2 spin-chains. Magnon excitations of these open spin-chains are mapped to massive excitations of type-IIB open superstrings ending on D-branes in the AdS3×S3×S3×S1 and AdS3×S3×T4 supergravity geometries with pure R-R flux. We derive reflection matrix solutions of the boundary Yang-Baxter equation which intertwine representations of a variety of boundary coideal subalgebras of the bulk Hopf superalgebra. Many of these integrable boundaries are matched to D1- and D5-brane maximal giant gravitons.

  13. Myeloid PTEN deficiency protects livers from ischemia reperfusion injury by facilitating M2 macrophage differentiation.

    PubMed

    Yue, Shi; Rao, Jianhua; Zhu, Jianjun; Busuttil, Ronald W; Kupiec-Weglinski, Jerzy W; Lu, Ling; Wang, Xuehao; Zhai, Yuan

    2014-06-01

    Although the role of phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) in regulating cell proliferation is well established, its function in immune responses remains to be fully appreciated. In the current study, we analyzed myeloid-specific PTEN function in regulating tissue inflammatory immune response in a murine liver partial warm ischemia model. Myeloid-specific PTEN knockout (KO) resulted in liver protection from ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) by deviating the local innate immune response against ischemia reperfusion toward the regulatory type: expression of proinflammatory genes was selectively decreased and anti-inflammatory IL-10 was simultaneously increased in ischemia reperfusion livers of PTEN KO mice compared with those of wild-type (WT) mice. PI3K inhibitor and IL-10-neutralizing Abs, but not exogenous LPS, recreated liver IRI in these KO mice. At the cellular level, Kupffer cells and peritoneal macrophages isolated from KO mice expressed higher levels of M2 markers and produced lower TNF-α and higher IL-10 in response to TLR ligands than did their WT counterparts. They had enhanced Stat3- and Stat6-signaling pathway activation, but diminished Stat1-signaling pathway activation, in response to TLR4 stimulation. Inactivation of Kupffer cells by gadolinium chloride enhanced proinflammatory immune activation and increased IRI in livers of myeloid PTEN KO mice. Thus, myeloid PTEN deficiency protects livers from IRI by facilitating M2 macrophage differentiation. PMID:24771857

  14. Characterizing detergent mediated reconstitution of viral protein M2 in large unilamellar vesicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freyre, Mariel; Grossman, Carl; Crouch, Catherine; Howard, Kathleen

    2015-03-01

    Influenza M2 is a model membrane protein whose function is to induce curvature and vesicle formation in the process of viral infection. To study embedded M2 in synthetic phospholipid vesicles (large unilamellar vesicles or LUVs), a concentration of detergent and buffer is optimized to balance protein solubility, proteolipid concentration, and LUV stability. Adding detergent also causes the LUVs to partially disassemble and form micelles, which warrants detergent removal to restore LUV integrity. We explore methods of measuring the coexistence of detergent micelles and LUVs to track the different phases of the system as detergent is removed. A combination of Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy, Dynamic Light Scattering, and chemical analysis are used to measure the properties of this system. With detergent/LUV number densities as high as 5 we find coexistence of micelles and LUVs at 50% to 60%. As the detergent is removed, the micelle concentration drops to lower than 30% while detergent levels drop to nearly zero. These results may indicate a polydispersed LUV size distribution after detergent mediated reconstitution. Supported by HHMI and Swarthmore College.

  15. IEEE802.15.6 NB portable BAN clinic and M2M international standardization.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Masahiro; Nohara, Yasunobu

    2013-01-01

    The increase of non communicable diseases (NCDs) will change the direction of health services to emphasize the role of preventive medicine in healthcare services. The first short-range medical body are network (BAN) standard IEEE802.15.6 is expected to be used for secure and user-friendly sensor devices for portable medical equipment. A BAN is an enabler for uploading medical data to a backend system for remote diagnoses and treatment. Machine-to-Machine (M2M) infrastructure is also a key technology for providing flexible and affordable services extending electronic health record (EHR) systems. This paper proposes a BAN-based portable clinic that collects health-check data from user-friendly medical devices and sensors and sends the data to a local backend server, and it evaluates the clinic in fields of actual usage. We discuss issues experienced from actual deployment of the system and focus on integrating it into upcoming healthcare M2M infrastructure to achieve affordable and dependable clinic services. We explain the components and workflow of the clinic and the system model. The system is set up at a temporary health center and has a network link to a remote medical help center. The paper concludes with our plan to introduce our system to contribute to internationally standardized preventive medicine. PMID:24110023

  16. Decisive disappearance search at high Δ m2 with monoenergetic muon neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Axani, S.; Collin, G.; Conrad, J. M.; Shaevitz, M. H.; Spitz, J.; Wongjirad, T.

    2015-11-01

    "KPipe" is a proposed experiment which will study muon neutrino disappearance for a sensitive test of the Δ m2˜1 eV2 anomalies, possibly indicative of one or more sterile neutrinos. The experiment is to be located at the J-PARC Materials and Life Science Experimental Facility's spallation neutron source, which represents the world's most intense source of charged kaon decay-at-rest monoenergetic (236 MeV) muon neutrinos. The detector vessel, designed to measure the charged-current interactions of these neutrinos, will be 3 m in diameter and 120 m long, extending radially at a distance of 32 to 152 m from the source. This design allows a sensitive search for νμ disappearance associated with currently favored light sterile neutrino models and features the ability to reconstruct the neutrino oscillation wave within a single, extended detector. The required detector design, technology, and costs are modest. The KPipe measurements will be robust since they depend on a known energy neutrino source with low expected backgrounds. Further, since the measurements rely only on the measured rate of detected events as a function of distance, with no required knowledge of the initial flux and neutrino interaction cross section, the results will be largely free of systematic errors. The experimental sensitivity to oscillations, based on a shape-only analysis of the L /E distribution, will extend an order of magnitude beyond present experimental limits in the relevant high-Δ m2 parameter space.

  17. IEEE802.15.6 NB portable BAN clinic and M2M international standardization.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Masahiro; Nohara, Yasunobu

    2013-01-01

    The increase of non communicable diseases (NCDs) will change the direction of health services to emphasize the role of preventive medicine in healthcare services. The first short-range medical body are network (BAN) standard IEEE802.15.6 is expected to be used for secure and user-friendly sensor devices for portable medical equipment. A BAN is an enabler for uploading medical data to a backend system for remote diagnoses and treatment. Machine-to-Machine (M2M) infrastructure is also a key technology for providing flexible and affordable services extending electronic health record (EHR) systems. This paper proposes a BAN-based portable clinic that collects health-check data from user-friendly medical devices and sensors and sends the data to a local backend server, and it evaluates the clinic in fields of actual usage. We discuss issues experienced from actual deployment of the system and focus on integrating it into upcoming healthcare M2M infrastructure to achieve affordable and dependable clinic services. We explain the components and workflow of the clinic and the system model. The system is set up at a temporary health center and has a network link to a remote medical help center. The paper concludes with our plan to introduce our system to contribute to internationally standardized preventive medicine.

  18. Machine to machine (M2M) technology in demand responsive commercial buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, David S.; Piette, Mary Ann; Sezgen, Osman; Motegi, Naoya; ten Hope, Laurie

    2004-08-01

    Machine to Machine (M2M) is a term used to describe the technologies that enable computers, embedded processors, smart sensors, actuators and mobile devices to communicate with one another, take measurements and make decisions--often without human intervention. M2M technology was applied to five commercial buildings in a test. The goal was to reduce electric demand when a remote price signal rose above a predetermine price. In this system, a variable price signal was generated from a single source on the Internet and distributed using the meta-language, XML (Extensible Markup Language). Each of five commercial building sites monitored the common price signal and automatically shed site-specific electric loads when the price increased above predetermined thresholds. Other than price signal scheduling, which was set up in advance by the project researchers, the system was designed to operate without human intervention during the two-week test period. Although the buildings responded to the same price signal, the communication infrastructures used at each building were substantially different. This study provides an overview of the technologies used at each building site, the price generator/server, and each link in between. Network architecture, security, data visualization and site-specific system features are characterized. The results of the test are discussed, including: functionality at each site, measurement and verification techniques, and feedback from energy managers and building operators. Lessons learned from the test and potential implications for widespread rollout are provided.

  19. Straining to observe the M2 phase in epitaxial VO2 films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quackenbush, Nicholas; Wahila, Matthew; Piper, Louis; Paik, Hanjong; Holtz, Megan; Huang, Xin; Brock, Joel; Muller, David; Schlom, Darrell; Woicik, Joseph; Arena, Dario

    It has been more than a decade since it was shown that the transition temperature TMIT of VO2 in epitaxial thin films can be tuned by compressive and tensile strain along the rutile c-axis. Since this discovery, uniaxial strain studies of VO2 nanobeams have demonstrated that compressive strain indeed lowers TMIT, thus stabilizing the metallic rutile phase. However, even minor tensile strain induces an intermediate insulating monoclinic M2 phase. Whether this phase can be stabilized in thin films remains contentious owing to the constraints of sample and/or interface quality. Here, we present hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and temperature-dependent soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy of high quality ultrathin epitaxial VO2 films on TiO2 (001) and (100) substrates. The VO2/TiO2(001) are absent of intermediate phases and maintain a MIT similar to unstrained VO2, while the VO2/TiO2(100) films display a stable M2 phase between the M1 and rutile endpoint phases. We discuss our findings in terms of differences between uniaxial and biaxial strain. This research is supported by the National Science Foundation under DMR-1409912.

  20. Oxysterol mixture and, in particular, 27-hydroxycholesterol drive M2 polarization of human macrophages.

    PubMed

    Marengo, Barbara; Bellora, Francesca; Ricciarelli, Roberta; De Ciucis, Chiara; Furfaro, AnnaLisa; Leardi, Riccardo; Colla, Renata; Pacini, Davide; Traverso, Nicola; Moretta, Alessandro; Pronzato, Maria Adelaide; Bottino, Cristina; Domenicotti, Cinzia

    2016-01-01

    Macrophages play a crucial role in atherosclerosis progression. Classically activated M1 macrophages have been found in rupture-prone atherosclerotic plaques whereas alternatively activated macrophages, M2, localize in stable plaque. Macrophage accumulation of cholesterol and of its oxidized derivatives (oxysterols) leads to the formation of foam cells, a hallmark of atherosclerotic lesions. In this study, the effects of oxysterols in determining the functional polarization of human macrophages were investigated. Monocytes, purified from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of healthy donors, were differentiated into macrophages (M0) and treated with an oxysterol mixture, cholesterol, or ethanol, every 4 H for a total of 4, 8, and 12 H. The administration of the compounds was repeated in order to maintain the levels of oxysterols constant throughout the treatment. Compared with ethanol treatment, the oxysterol mixture decreased the surface expression of CD36 and CD204 scavenger receptors and reduced the amount of reactive oxygen species whereas it did not affect either cell viability or matrix metalloprotease-9 activity. Moreover, the oxysterol mixture increased the expression of both liver X receptor α and ATP-binding cassette transporter 1. An enhanced secretion of the immunoregulatory cytokine IL-10 accompanied these events. The results supported the hypothesis that the constant levels of oxysterols and, in particular, of 27-hydroxycholesterol stimulate macrophage polarization toward the M2 immunomodulatory functional phenotype, contributing to the stabilization of atherosclerotic plaques.

  1. M2SG: mapping human disease-related genetic variants to protein sequences and genomic loci

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Renkai; Cong, Qian; Li, Wenlin; Grishin, Nick V.

    2013-01-01

    Summary: Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) is a manually curated compendium of human genetic variants and the corresponding phenotypes, mostly human diseases. Instead of directly documenting the native sequences for gene entries, OMIM links its entries to protein and DNA sequences in other databases. However, because of the existence of gene isoforms and errors in OMIM records, mapping a specific OMIM mutation to its corresponding protein sequence is not trivial. Combining computer programs and extensive manual curation of OMIM full-text descriptions and original literature, we mapped 98% of OMIM amino acid substitutions (AASs) and all SwissProt Variant (SwissVar) disease-related AASs to reference sequences and confidently mapped 99.96% of all AASs to the genomic loci. Based on the results, we developed an online database and interactive web server (M2SG) to (i) retrieve the mapped OMIM and SwissVar variants for a given protein sequence; and (ii) obtain related proteins and mutations for an input disease phenotype. This database will be useful for analyzing sequences, understanding the effect of mutations, identifying important genetic variations and designing experiments on a protein of interest. Availability and implementation: The database and web server are freely available at http://prodata.swmed.edu/M2S/mut2seq.cgi. Contact: grishin@chop.swmed.edu Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:24002112

  2. Metal hydride preheater for the M2 diesel burner. Final report, September 1992--October 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Gerstmann, J.; Golben, M.

    1999-03-01

    This report describes the results of a Phase 1 Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) project to demonstrate the feasibility of preheating the catalytic generator of the M2 diesel burner using a metal hydride preheater. Preliminary testing of an electrically heated generator showed that the originally proposed concept of preheating the catalytic generator of the burner would have resulted in excessive weight for the hydride system. An alternate approach of preheating only the 'superheater,' and using it to vaporize the fuel at start-up, was implemented instead. This resulted in an extremely compact and lightweight burner system that ignited cleanly an rapidly. The Phase 1 results indicate that the 'hydride superheater' is an effective means of obtaining clean ignition of a diesel cook stove burner. Furthermore, the resulting burner is considerably smaller and lighter than the M2 burner. Additional work is required to optimize the designs of the preheater and the superheater, to scale-up the capacity of the burner and to develop practical burner controls.

  3. IL-33 Contributes to Schistosoma japonicum-induced Hepatic Pathology through Induction of M2 Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Hui; Zhang, Qixian; Li, Xiaojuan; Liu, Zhen; Shen, Jia; Sun, Rui; Wei, Jie; Zhao, Jia; Wu, Xiaoying; Feng, Feng; Zhong, Shuping; Sun, Xi; Wu, Zhongdao

    2016-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-33 is involved in T helper (Th)2-biased immune responses in mice infected with Schistosoma, but the precise mechanism remains to be elucidated. Herein, we investigated the role of IL-33 and its receptor ST2L in hepatic granuloma pathology induced by Schistosoma japonicum infection. We found that IL-33 induced the increased production of IL-5 and IL-13 from splenocytes and liver mononuclear cells (MNCs) of infected mice. The infected mice developed significantly higher number of ST2L-expressing cells in spleen and liver. Most of the ST2L-expressing cells in liver were F4/80+ macrophages, indicating the key role of macrophages in the response to IL-33. However, the liver MNCs in male-only worm infection had a poor response to IL-33, though elevated serum IL-33 was observed. ST2L+F4/80+ cells were lower in male-only worm infection than that of mixed infection. IL-33 and soluble egg antigen (SEA) upregulated ST2L expression on macrophages in vitro and ST2L-expressing macrophage displayed MHCII-CD11b+M2 phenotype. Macrophage deletion significantly attenuated IL-33-induced type 2 immunity and egg granuloma formation during S. japonicum infection. These data demonstrate that IL-33 contributes to hepatic granuloma pathology through induction of M2 macrophages during S. japonicum infection. PMID:27445267

  4. Myeloid Angiogenic Cells Act as Alternative M2 Macrophages and Modulate Angiogenesis through Interleukin-8

    PubMed Central

    Medina, Reinhold J; O’Neill, Christina L; O’Doherty, T Michelle; Knott, Henry; Guduric-Fuchs, Jasenka; Gardiner, Tom A; Stitt, Alan W

    2011-01-01

    Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) promote angiogenesis, and clinical trials have shown such cell therapy to be feasible for treating ischemic disease. However, clinical outcomes have been contradictory owing to the diverse range of EPC types used. We recently characterized two EPC subtypes, and identified outgrowth endothelial cells as the only EPC type with true progenitor and endothelial characteristics. By contrast, myeloid angiogenic cells (MACs) were shown to be monocytic cells without endothelial characteristics despite being widely described as “EPCs.” In the current study we demonstrated that although MACs do not become endothelial cells or directly incorporate into a microvascular network, they can significantly induce endothelial tube formation in vitro and vascular repair in vivo. MAC-derived interleukin-8 (IL-8) was identified as a key paracrine factor, and blockade of IL-8 but not vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) prevented MAC-induced angiogenesis. Extracellular IL-8 transactivates VEGFR2 and induces phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases. Further transcriptomic and immunophenotypic analysis indicates that MACs represent alternative activated M2 macrophages. Our findings demonstrate an unequivocal role for MACs in angiogenesis, which is linked to paracrine release of cytokines such as IL-8. We also show, for the first time, the true identity of these cells as alternative M2 macrophages with proangiogenic, antiinflammatory and pro–tissue-repair properties. PMID:21670847

  5. Gold nanoparticle–M2e conjugate coformulated with CpG induces protective immunity against influenza A virus

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Wenqian; Ziemer, Katherine S; Gill, Harvinder S

    2014-01-01

    Aim: This study aimed to develop a novel influenza A vaccine by conjugating the highly conserved extracellular region of the matrix 2 protein (M2e) of influenza A virus to gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and to test the vaccine in a mouse influenza challenge model. Materials & methods: Citrate-reduced AuNPs (diameter: 12 nm) were synthesized, and characterized by transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. M2e was conjugated to AuNPs through thiol–gold interactions to form M2e–AuNP conjugates. Particle stability was confirmed by UV–visible spectra, and M2e conjugation was further characterized by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Mice were immunized with M2e–AuNPs with or without CpG (cytosine-guanine rich oligonucleotide) as an adjuvant with appropriate control groups. Sera was collected and M2e-specific immunoglobulin (IgG) was measured, and immunized mice were challenged with PR8-H1N1 influenza virus. Results: M2e-capped AuNPs could be lyophilized and stably resuspended in water. Intranasal vaccination of mice with M2e–AuNP conjugates induced M2e-specific IgG serum antibodies, which significantly increased upon addition of soluble CpG as adjuvant. Upon challenge with lethal PR8, mice vaccinated with M2e-AuNP conjugates were only partially protected, while mice that received soluble CpG as adjuvant in addition to M2e–AuNP were fully protected. Conclusion: Overall, this study demonstrates the potential of using the M2e–AuNP conjugates with CpG as an adjuvant as a platform for developing an influenza A vaccine. PMID:23829488

  6. Synthesis of CeFe10.5Mo1.5 with ThMn12-type structure by melt spinning

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, C; Tessema, M; Meyer, MS; Pinkerton, FE

    2013-06-01

    Rare earth compounds RFe12_xMx with tetragonal ThMn12-type structure are of great research interest for potential applications as permanent magnets. These materials are known to serve as the precursors for nitriding and hydriding processes which in certain conditions can dramatically increase the Curie temperature, spontaneous magnetization, and affect the magnetic anisotropy. In this paper, we report the phase study of CeFe10.5Mo1.5 samples melt spun at various surface wheel speeds vs between 5 m/s and 60 m/s. The results from quantitative Rietveld analysis indicate that the as-spun ribbons are a mixture of primary CeFe10.5Mo1.5 phase with impurity phases such as Ce2Fe17, Fe-Mo alloy and CeFe2. When the wheel speed vs is below 25 m/s, CeFe10.5Mo1.5 phase accounts for greater than 85 wt% in the as-spun ribbons, while the Fe-Mo alloy is the only detectable impurity phase. Above v(s)=25 m/s, as the wheel speed increases, CeFe10.5Mo1.5 phase decreases monotonically to about 60 wt% at v(s)=6O m/s while the amounts of impurity phases increase. Thermogravimetric measurement indicates that the Curie temperature T-c. corresponding to CeFe10.5Mo1.5 phase is 341 K. As a result, the best performing sample melt spun at v(s),=15 m/s only exhibits an energy product BHmax=0.121 MGOe at room temperature. Although such a number is modest for a permanent magnet, further nitriding is expected to greatly enhance the Curie temperature, and hence the magnetic performance. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Speciation of [Cp*(2)M(2)O(5)] in polar and donor solvents.

    PubMed

    Sözen-Aktaş, Pelin; Del Rosal, Iker; Manoury, Eric; Demirhan, Funda; Lledós, Agustí; Poli, Rinaldo

    2013-03-18

    The speciation of compounds [Cp*2 M2 O5 ] (M=Mo, W; Cp*=pentamethylcyclopentadienyl) in different protic and aprotic polar solvents (methanol, dimethyl sulfoxide, acetone, acetonitrile), in the presence of variable amounts of water or acid/base, has been investigated by (1) H NMR spectrometry and electrical conductivity. Specific hypotheses suggested by the experimental results have been further probed by DFT calculations. The solvent (S)-assisted ionic dissociation to generate [Cp*MO2 (S)](+) and [Cp*MO3 ](-) takes place extensively for both metals only in water/methanol mixtures. Equilibrium amounts of the neutral hydroxido species [Cp*MO2 (OH)] are generated in the presence of water, with the relative amount increasing in the order MeCN≈acetoneM2 O5 ] into [Et3 NH](+) [Cp*MO3 ](-) , for which the presence of a NH⋅⋅⋅OM interaction is revealed by (1) H NMR spectroscopy in comparison with the sodium salts, Na(+) [Cp*MO3 ](-) . These are fully dissociated in DMSO and MeOH, but display a slow equilibrium between free ions and the ion pair in MeCN and acetone. Only one resonance is observed for mixtures of [Cp*MO3 ](-) and [Cp*MO2 (OH)] because of a rapid self-exchange. In the presence of extensive ionic dissociation, only one resonance is observed for mixtures of the cationic [Cp*MO2 (S)](+) product and the residual undissociated [Cp*2 M2 O5 ] because of a rapid associative exchange via the trinuclear [Cp*3 M3 O7 ](+) intermediate. In neat methanol, complex [Cp*2 W2 O5 ] reacts to yield extensive amounts of a new species, formulated as the mononuclear methoxido complex [Cp*WO2 (OMe)] on the basis of the DFT study. An equivalent product is not observed for the Mo system. The addition of increasing amounts of water results in the rapid decrease of this product in favor of [Cp*2 W2 O5 ] and [Cp*WO2 (OH)].

  8. Structural properties of Sb2S3 under pressure: Evidence of an electronic topological transition

    DOE PAGES

    Efthimiopoulos, Ilias; Buchan, Cienna; Wang, Yuejian

    2016-04-06

    High-pressure Raman spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction of Sb2S3 up to 53 GPa reveals two phase transitions at 5 GPa and 15 GPa. The first transition is evidenced by noticeable compressibility changes in distinct Raman-active modes, in the lattice parameter axial ratios, the unit cell volume, as well as in specific interatomic bond lengths and bond angles. By taking into account relevant results from the literature, we assign these effects to a second-order isostructural transition arising from an electronic topological transition in Sb2S3 near 5 GPa. Close comparison between Sb2S3 and Sb2S3 up to 10 GPa reveals a slightly diverse structuralmore » behavior for these two compounds after the isostructural transition pressure. This structural diversity appears to account for the different pressure-induced electronic behavior of Sb2S3 and Sb2S3 up to 10 GPa, i.e. the absence of an insulator-metal transition in Sb2S3 up to that pressure. Lastly, the second high-pressure modification appearing above 15 GPa appears to trigger a structural disorder at ~20 GPa; full decompression from 53 GPa leads to the recovery of an amorphous state.« less

  9. Synthesis, crystal structure, electronic structure, and photoelectric response properties of KCu2SbS3.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ruiqi; Zhang, Xian; He, Jianqiao; Zheng, Chong; Lin, Jianhua; Huang, Fuqiang

    2016-02-28

    Copper thioantimonates have received enormous attention due to their potential for applications in photovoltaic devices. In this work, a new layered compound KCu2SbS3 was synthesized via a reactive flux method using thiourea as a reactive flux. The compound crystallizes in the triclinic space group P1[combining macron]. The structure features two-dimensional [Cu2SbS3](-) layers stacking along the c axis with K(+) ions intercalated between the layers. Each [Cu2SbS3](-) layer is composed of two single graphene-like layers connected via interlayer Cu-S bonds and CuSb contacts. The optical measurements indicate that the compound has a band gap of 1.7 eV. The Hall effect measurement shows that KCu2SbS3 is a p-type semiconductor with a carrier concentration of 7 × 10(16) cm(-3). First-principles calculations reveal that the direct transition occurs between Cu-3d-S-3p orbitals (VBM) to Sb-5p-S-3p orbitals (CBM). The photoelectric response properties of KCu2SbS3 under visible light irradiation were analyzed. The photocurrent is 3.7 μA cm(-2) at 10 V bias, demonstrating its potential for applications in photoelectric devices.

  10. Synthesis, crystal structure, electronic structure, and photoelectric response properties of KCu2SbS3.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ruiqi; Zhang, Xian; He, Jianqiao; Zheng, Chong; Lin, Jianhua; Huang, Fuqiang

    2016-02-28

    Copper thioantimonates have received enormous attention due to their potential for applications in photovoltaic devices. In this work, a new layered compound KCu2SbS3 was synthesized via a reactive flux method using thiourea as a reactive flux. The compound crystallizes in the triclinic space group P1[combining macron]. The structure features two-dimensional [Cu2SbS3](-) layers stacking along the c axis with K(+) ions intercalated between the layers. Each [Cu2SbS3](-) layer is composed of two single graphene-like layers connected via interlayer Cu-S bonds and CuSb contacts. The optical measurements indicate that the compound has a band gap of 1.7 eV. The Hall effect measurement shows that KCu2SbS3 is a p-type semiconductor with a carrier concentration of 7 × 10(16) cm(-3). First-principles calculations reveal that the direct transition occurs between Cu-3d-S-3p orbitals (VBM) to Sb-5p-S-3p orbitals (CBM). The photoelectric response properties of KCu2SbS3 under visible light irradiation were analyzed. The photocurrent is 3.7 μA cm(-2) at 10 V bias, demonstrating its potential for applications in photoelectric devices. PMID:26794832

  11. In Situ Growth of In2S3 Nanorods in Poly(3-Hexylthiophene) Hybrid Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cota-Leal, M.; Sotelo-Lerma, M.; Corona-Corona, I.; Quevedo-Lopez, M. A.

    2016-04-01

    A novel and efficient gas-liquid method for the in situ synthesis of In2S3 nanorods in a poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) matrix is demonstrated. The method involves a self-contained reaction between Na2S and HCl that produces H2S, which reacts with a P3HT/InCl3 solution resulting in hybrid P3HT/In2S3 films. The Na2S solution is regenerated for further use. The method yielded results in In2S3 nanoparticles and nanorods in a P3HT matrix, as observed by transmission electron microscopy. The In2S3 nanorods are 3 nm wide and ~30 nm long. The size of the nanorods is dependent on the P3HT concentration. The band gap (E g) of the resulting In2S3/P3HT is in the range of 2.97-3.71 eV, as measured by UV-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis) Charge transfer in the In2S3/P3HT was demonstrated by the presence of quenching in the fluorescence spectra of the composite. Chemical composition was investigated by energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy analysis, as well as x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Both techniques demonstrated the formation of In2S3.

  12. Solution-Processed hybrid Sb2 S3 planar heterojunction solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wenxiao; Borazan, Ismail; Carroll, David

    Thin-film solar cells based on inorganic absorbers permit a high efficiency and stability. Among or those absorber candidates, recently Sb2S3 has attracted extensive attention because of its suitable band gap (1.5eV ~1.7 eV) , strong optical absorption, low-cost and earth-abundant constituents. Currently high-efficiency Sb2S3 solar cells have absorber layer deposited on nanostructured TiO2 electrodes in combination with organic hole transport material (HTM) on top. However it's challenging to fill the nanostructured TiO2 layer with Sb2S3 and subsequently by HTM, this leads to uncovered surface permits charge recombination. And the existing of Sb2S3/TiO2/HTM triple interface will enhance the recombination due to the surface trap state. Therefore, a planar junction cell would not only have simpler structure with less steps to fabricate but also ideally also have a higher open circuit voltage because of less interface carrier recombination. By far there is limited research focusing on planar Sb2S3 solar cell, so the feasibility is still unclear. Here, we developed a low-toxic solution method to fabricate Sb2S3 thin film solar cell, then we studied the morphology of the Sb2S3 layer and its impact to the device performance. The best device with a structure of FTO/TiO2/Sb2S3/P3HT/Ag has PCE over 5% which is similar or higher than yet the best nanostructure devices with the same HTM. Furthermore, based on solution engineering and surface modification, we improved the Sb2S3 film quality and achieved a record PCE. .

  13. Characterization of the N-glycans of recombinant bee venom hyaluronidase (Api m 2) expressed in insect cells.

    PubMed

    Soldatova, Lyudmila N; Tsai, Chaoming; Dobrovolskaia, Ekaterina; Marković-Housley, Zora; Slater, Jay E

    2007-01-01

    Honeybee venom hyaluronidase (Api m 2) is a major glycoprotein allergen. Previous studies have indicated that recombinant Api m 2 expressed in insect cells has enzyme activity and IgE binding comparable with that of native Api m 2. In contrast, Api m 2 expressed in Escherichia coli does not. In this study, we characterized the carbohydrate side chains of Api m 2 expressed in insect cells, and compared our data with the established carbohydrate structure of native Api m 2. We assessed both the monosaccharide and the oligosaccharide content of recombinant Api m 2 using fluorophore-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis and HPLC. To identify the amino acid residues at which glycosylation occurs, we digested recombinant Api m 2 with endoproteinase Glu-C and identified the fragments that contained carbohydrate by specific staining. Recombinant Api m 2 expressed in insect cells contains N-acetylglucosamine, mannose, and fucose, as well as trace amounts of glucose and galactose, and the oligosaccharide analysis is consistent with heterogeneous oligosaccharide chains consisting of two to seven monosaccharides. No sialic acid or N-acetylgalactosamine were detected. These results are similar to published data for native Api m 2, although some monosaccharide components appear to be absent in the recombinant protein. Analysis of proteolytic digests indicates that of the four candidate N-glycosylation sites, carbohydrate chains are attached at asparagines 115 and 263. Recombinant Api m 2 expressed in insect cells has enzymic activity and IgE binding comparable with the native protein, and its carbohydrate composition is very similar. PMID:17479607

  14. Magnetic anisotropy of S m2F e17 single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diop, L. V. B.; Kuz'min, M. D.; Skokov, K. P.; Karpenkov, D. Yu.; Gutfleisch, O.

    2016-10-01

    The previously accepted notion that the spontaneous magnetization of S m2F e17 lies in the basal plane of the crystal is true only approximately, and then only around room temperature. At low temperatures the magnetization, whose orientation is not fixed by the symmetry, is found to deviate from the basal plane by as much as 10∘. The threefold symmetry axis is a hard direction; to magnetize the crystal in this direction, a magnetic field of about 9 T is required. The hard-axis magnetization arrives at saturation discontinuously, by way of a first-order phase transition. The behavior is a general one for trigonal ferromagnets where K1<0 and the leading trigonal anisotropy constant is nonzero, K2'≠0 . Although of universal occurrence, the first-order transition is only visible at low temperatures, where it is accompanied by a magnetization anomaly of sufficient size.

  15. PET imaging of tumor glycolysis downstream of hexokinase through noninvasive measurement of pyruvate kinase M2.

    PubMed

    Witney, Timothy H; James, Michelle L; Shen, Bin; Chang, Edwin; Pohling, Christoph; Arksey, Natasha; Hoehne, Aileen; Shuhendler, Adam; Park, Jun-Hyung; Bodapati, Deepika; Weber, Judith; Gowrishankar, Gayatri; Rao, Jianghong; Chin, Frederick T; Gambhir, Sanjiv Sam

    2015-10-21

    Cancer cells reprogram their metabolism to meet increased biosynthetic demands, commensurate with elevated rates of replication. Pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) catalyzes the final and rate-limiting step in tumor glycolysis, controlling the balance between energy production and the synthesis of metabolic precursors. We report here the synthesis and evaluation of a positron emission tomography (PET) radiotracer, [(11)C]DASA-23, that provides a direct noninvasive measure of PKM2 expression in preclinical models of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). In vivo, orthotopic U87 and GBM39 patient-derived tumors were clearly delineated from the surrounding normal brain tissue by PET imaging, corresponding to exclusive tumor-associated PKM2 expression. In addition, systemic treatment of mice with the PKM2 activator TEPP-46 resulted in complete abrogation of the PET signal in intracranial GBM39 tumors. Together, these data provide the basis for the clinical evaluation of imaging agents that target this important gatekeeper of tumor glycolysis. PMID:26491079

  16. The evolution of M 2-9 from 2000 to 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corradi, R. L. M.; Balick, B.; Santander-García, M.

    2011-05-01

    Context. Understanding the formation of collimated outflows is one of the most debated and controversial topics in the study of the late stages of stellar evolution. Aims: M 2-9 is an outstanding representative of extreme aspherical flows. It presents unique features such as a pair of high-velocity dusty polar blobs and a mirror-symmetric rotating pattern in the inner lobes. Their study provides important information on the nature of the poorly understood central source of M 2-9 and its nebula. Methods: Imaging monitoring at sub-arcsec resolution of the evolution of the nebula in the past decade is presented. Spectroscopic data provide complementary information. Results: We determine the proper motions of the dusty blobs, which infer a new distance estimate of 1.3 ± 0.2 kpc, a total nebular size of 0.8 pc, a speed of 147 km s-1, and a kinematical age of 2500 yr. The corkscrew geometry of the inner rotating pattern is confirmed and quantified. Different recombination timescales for different ions explain the observed surface brightness distribution. According to the images taken after 1999, the pattern rotates with a period of 92 ± 4 years. On the other hand, the analysis of images taken between 1952 and 1977 measures a faster angular velocity. If the phenomenon were related to orbital motion, this would correspond to a modest orbital eccentricity (e = 0.10 ± 0.05), and a slightly shorter period (86 ± 5 years). New features have appeared after 2005 on the west side of the lobes and at the base of the pattern. Conclusions: The geometry and travelling times of the rotating pattern support our previous proposal that the phenomenon is produced by a collimated spray of high velocity particles (jet) from the central source, which excites the walls of the inner cavity of M 2-9, rather than by a ionizing photon beam. The speed of such a jet would be remarkable: between 11 000 and 16 000 km s-1. The rotating-jet scenario may explain the formation and excitation of most

  17. Spaceflight Effects on Hemopoiesis of Lower Vertebrates Flown on Foton-M2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Domaratskaya, E. I.; Payushina, O. V.; Butorina, M. N.; Nikonova, T. M.; Grigorian, E. N.; Mitashov, V. I.; Tairbekov, M. G.; Almeida, E.; Khrushchov, N. G.

    2006-01-01

    Intact and operated newts Pleumdeles waltl flown on Foton-M2 for 16 days were used to study the effects of spaceflight as well as tail amputation and lensectomy on their hemopoiesis. The flight did not produce noticeable changes in the peripheral blood of nonoperated newts. However, in operated animals, the number of lymphocytes increased whereas that of neutrophils decreased. There were no morphological differences in hemopoietic organs (liver and spleen) between flown non-operated and operated animals or their controls. However, in both non-operated and operated newts the liver weight and the number of hemopoietic cells in it increased. In contrast to nonoperated newts, space-flown mammals typically showed significant changes in blood cell counts. Experiments with BrdU incorporation revealed labeled cells in the hemopoietic area of the liver as well as in blood and spleen. This observation gives evidence that the BrdU label can be used to study proliferation of hemopoietic cells.

  18. A polarizing question: do M1 and M2 microglia exist?

    PubMed

    Ransohoff, Richard M

    2016-07-26

    Microglial research has entered a fertile, dynamic phase characterized by novel technologies including two-photon imaging, whole-genome transcriptomic and epigenomic analysis with complementary bioinformatics, unbiased proteomics, cytometry by time of flight (CyTOF; Fluidigm) cytometry, and complex high-content experimental models including slice culture and zebrafish. Against this vivid background of newly emerging data, investigators will encounter in the microglial research literature a body of published work using the terminology of macrophage polarization, most commonly into the M1 and M2 phenotypes. It is the assertion of this opinion piece that microglial polarization has not been established by research findings. Rather, the adoption of this schema was undertaken in an attempt to simplify data interpretation at a time when the ontogeny and functional significance of microglia had not yet been characterized. Now, terminology suggesting established meaningful pathways of microglial polarization hinders rather than aids research progress and should be discarded. PMID:27459405

  19. M2-F1 lifting body and Paresev 1B on ramp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    In this photo of the M2-F1 lifting body and the Paresev 1B on the ramp, the viewer sees two vehicles representing different approaches to building a research craft to simulate a spacecraft able to land on the ground instead of splashing down in the ocean as the Mercury capsules did. The M2-F1 was a lifting body, a shape able to re-enter from orbit and land. The Paresev (Paraglider Research Vehicle) used a Rogallo wing that could be (but never was) used to replace a conventional parachute for landing a capsule-type spacecraft, allowing it to make a controlled landing on the ground. The wingless, lifting body aircraft design was initially conceived as a means of landing an aircraft horizontally after atmospheric reentry. The absence of wings would make the extreme heat of re-entry less damaging to the vehicle. In 1962, Dryden management approved a program to build a lightweight, unpowered lifting body as a prototype to flight test the wingless concept. It would look like a 'flying bathtub,' and was designated the M2-F1, the 'M' referring to 'manned' and 'F' referring to 'flight' version. It featured a plywood shell placed over a tubular steel frame crafted at Dryden. Construction was completed in 1963. The first flight tests of the M2-F1 were over Rogers Dry Lake at the end of a tow rope attached to a hopped-up Pontiac convertible driven at speeds up to about 120 mph. This vehicle needed to be able to tow the M2-F1 on the Rogers Dry Lakebed adjacent to NASA's Flight Research Center (FRC) at a minimum speed of 100 miles per hour. To do that, it had to handle the 400-pound pull of the M2-F1. Walter 'Whitey' Whiteside, who was a retired Air Force maintenance officer working in the FRC's Flight Operations Division, was a dirt-bike rider and hot-rodder. Together with Boyden 'Bud' Bearce in the Procurement and Supply Branch of the FRC, Whitey acquired a Pontiac Catalina convertible with the largest engine available. He took the car to Bill Straup's renowned hot-rod shop

  20. Integrated memristor-MOS (M2) sensor for basic pattern matching applications.

    PubMed

    Kavehei, Omid; Cho, Kyoung-Rok; Lee, Sang-Jin; Al-Sarawi, Said; Eshraghian, Kamran; Abbott, Derek

    2013-05-01

    This paper introduces an integrated sensor circuit based on an analog Memristor-MOS (M2) pattern matching building block that calculates the similarity/dissimilarity between two analog values. A new approach for a pulse-width modulation pixel image sensor compatible with the memristive-MOS matching structure is introduced allowing direct comparison between incoming and stored images. The pulsed-width encoded information from the pixels is forwarded to a matching circuitry that provides an anti-Gaussian-like comparison between the states of memristors. The non-volatile and multi-state memory characteristics of memristor, together with the related ability to be programmed at any one of the intermediate states between logic '1' and logic '0' brings us closer to the implementation of bio-machines that can eventually emulate human-like sensory functions. PMID:23858918

  1. Gamma rays emitted in the decay of 31-year 178m2Hf

    SciTech Connect

    MB, S; PW, W; GC, B; JJ, C; PE, G; G, H; R, P; F, S; HC, S

    2003-10-15

    The spontaneous decay of the K{sup {pi}} = 16{sup +}, 31-year {sup 178m2}Hf isomer has been investigated with a 15 kBq source placed at the center of a 20-element {gamma}-ray spectrometer. High-multipolarity M4 and E5 transitions, which represent the first definitive observation of direct {gamma}-ray emission from the isomer, have been identified, together with other low-intensity transitions. Branching ratios for these other transitions have elucidated the spin dependence of the mixing between the two known K{sup {pi}} = 8{sup -} bands. The M4 and E5 {gamma}-ray decays are the first strongly K-forbidden transitions to be identified with such high multipolarities, and demonstrate a consistent extension of K-hindrance systematics, with an inhibition factor of approximately 100 per degree of K forbiddenness. Some unplaced transitions are also reported.

  2. FAST TRACK COMMUNICATION: Multiple M2-branes and the embedding tensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergshoeff, Eric A.; de Roo, Mees; Hohm, Olaf

    2008-07-01

    We show that the Bagger Lambert theory of multiple M2-branes fits into the general construction of maximally supersymmetric gauge theories using the embedding tensor technique. We apply the embedding tensor technique in order to systematically obtain the consistent gaugings of {\\cal N}=8 superconformal theories in 2 + 1 dimensions. This leads to the Bagger Lambert theory, with the embedding tensor playing the role of the four-index antisymmetric tensor defining a '3-algebra'. We present an alternative formulation of the theory in which the embedding tensor is replaced by a set of unrestricted scalar fields. By taking these scalar fields to be parity-odd, the Chern Simons term can be made parity-invariant.

  3. Integrated memristor-MOS (M2) sensor for basic pattern matching applications.

    PubMed

    Kavehei, Omid; Cho, Kyoung-Rok; Lee, Sang-Jin; Al-Sarawi, Said; Eshraghian, Kamran; Abbott, Derek

    2013-05-01

    This paper introduces an integrated sensor circuit based on an analog Memristor-MOS (M2) pattern matching building block that calculates the similarity/dissimilarity between two analog values. A new approach for a pulse-width modulation pixel image sensor compatible with the memristive-MOS matching structure is introduced allowing direct comparison between incoming and stored images. The pulsed-width encoded information from the pixels is forwarded to a matching circuitry that provides an anti-Gaussian-like comparison between the states of memristors. The non-volatile and multi-state memory characteristics of memristor, together with the related ability to be programmed at any one of the intermediate states between logic '1' and logic '0' brings us closer to the implementation of bio-machines that can eventually emulate human-like sensory functions.

  4. Primary structure of the human M2 mitochondrial autoantigen of primary biliary cirrhosis: Dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase

    SciTech Connect

    Coppel, R.L.; McNeilage, L.J.; Surh, C.D.; Van De Water, J.; Spithill, T.W.; Whittingham, S.; Gershwin, M.E. )

    1988-10-01

    Primary biliary cirrhosis is a chronic, destructive autoimmune liver disease of humans. Patient sera are characterized by a high frequency of autoantibodies to a M{sub r} 70,000 mitochondrial antigen a component of the M2 antigen complex. The authors have identified a human cDNA clone encoding the complete amino acid sequence of this autoantigen. The predicted structure has significant similarity with the dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase of the Escherichia coli pyruvate dehydrogenase multienzyme complex. The human sequence preserves the Glu-Thr-Asp-Lys-Ala motif of the lipoyl-binding site and has two potential binding sites. Expressed fragments of the cDNA react strongly with sera from patients with primary biliary cirrhosis but not with sera from patients with autoimmune chronic active hepatitis or sera from healthy subjects.

  5. Aft Body Closure: Predicted Strut Effects at M=2.4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamar, John E.; Garritz, Javier A.

    1999-01-01

    This paper reports the predicted M = 2.4 strut-interference effects on a closed aftbody with empennage for the TCA baseline model. The strut mounting technique was needed in order to assess the impact of aft-end shaping, i.e. open for a sting or closed to better represent a flight vehicle. However,this technique can potentially lead to unanticipated effects that are measured on the aft body. Therefore, a set of computations were performed in order to examine the closed aft body with and without strut present, at both zero and non-zero angles of sideslip (AOS). The work was divided into a computational task performed by Javier A. Garriz, using an inviscid (Euler) solver, and a monitoring/reporting task done by John E. Lamar. All this work was performed during FY98 at the NASA Langley Research Center.

  6. M2, S2, K1 models of the global ocean tide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parke, M. E.; Hendershott, M. C.

    1979-01-01

    Ocean tidal signals appear in many geophysical measurements. Geophysicists need realistic tidal models to aid in interpretation of their data. Because of the closeness to resonance of dissipationless ocean tides, it is difficult for numerical models to correctly represent the actual open ocean tide. As an approximate solution to this problem, test functions derived by solving Laplace's Tidal Equations with ocean loading and self gravitation are used as a basis for least squares dynamic interpolation of coastal and island tidal data for the constituents M2, S2, and Kl. The resulting representations of the global tide are stable over at least a ?5% variation in the mean depth of the model basin, and they conserve mass. Maps of the geocentric tide, the induced free space potential, the induced vertical component of the solid earth tide, and the induced vertical component of the gravitational field for each contituent are presented.

  7. A disc inside the bipolar planetary nebula M2-9

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lykou, F.; Chesneau, O.; Zijlstra, A. A.; Castro-Carrizo, A.; Lagadec, E.; Balick, B.; Smith, N.

    2011-03-01

    Aims: Bipolarity in proto-planetary and planetary nebulae is associated with events occurring in or around their cores. Past infrared observations have revealed the presence of dusty structures around the cores, many in the form of discs. Characterising those dusty discs provides invaluable constraints on the physical processes that govern the final mass expulsion of intermediate mass stars. We focus this study on the famous M2-9 bipolar nebula, where the moving lighthouse beam pattern indicates the presence of a wide binary. The compact and dense dusty core in the centre of the nebula can be studied by means of optical interferometry. Methods: M2-9 was observed with VLTI/MIDI at 39-47 m baselines with the UT2-UT3 and UT3-UT4 baseline configurations. These observations are interpreted using a dust radiative transfer Monte Carlo code. Results: A disc-like structure is detected perpendicular to the lobes, and a good fit is found with a stratified disc model composed of amorphous silicates. The disc is compact, 25 × 35 mas at 8 μm and 37 × 46 mas at 13 μm. For the adopted distance of 1.2 kpc, the inner rim of the disc is ~15 AU. The mass represents a few percent of the mass found in the lobes. The compactness of the disc puts strong constraints on the binary content of the system, given an estimated orbital period 90-120 yr. We derive masses of the binary components between 0.6-1.0 M⊙ for a white dwarf and 0.6-1.4 M⊙ for an evolved star. We present different scenarios on the geometric structure of the disc accounting for the interactions of the binary system, which includes an accretion disc as well. Based on observations collected at the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, Chile, ESO N: 079.D-146.

  8. Coupling of G Proteins to Reconstituted Monomers and Tetramers of the M2 Muscarinic Receptor*

    PubMed Central

    Redka, Dar'ya S.; Morizumi, Takefumi; Elmslie, Gwendolynne; Paranthaman, Pranavan; Shivnaraine, Rabindra V.; Ellis, John; Ernst, Oliver P.; Wells, James W.

    2014-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors can be reconstituted as monomers in nanodiscs and as tetramers in liposomes. When reconstituted with G proteins, both forms enable an allosteric interaction between agonists and guanylyl nucleotides. Both forms, therefore, are candidates for the complex that controls signaling at the level of the receptor. To identify the biologically relevant form, reconstituted monomers and tetramers of the purified M2 muscarinic receptor were compared with muscarinic receptors in sarcolemmal membranes for the effect of guanosine 5′-[β,γ-imido]triphosphate (GMP-PNP) on the inhibition of N-[3H]methylscopolamine by the agonist oxotremorine-M. With monomers, a stepwise increase in the concentration of GMP-PNP effected a lateral, rightward shift in the semilogarithmic binding profile (i.e. a progressive decrease in the apparent affinity of oxotremorine-M). With tetramers and receptors in sarcolemmal membranes, GMP-PNP effected a vertical, upward shift (i.e. an apparent redistribution of sites from a state of high affinity to one of low affinity with no change in affinity per se). The data were analyzed in terms of a mechanistic scheme based on a ligand-regulated equilibrium between uncoupled and G protein-coupled receptors (the “ternary complex model”). The model predicts a rightward shift in the presence of GMP-PNP and could not account for the effects at tetramers in vesicles or receptors in sarcolemmal membranes. Monomers present a special case of the model in which agonists and guanylyl nucleotides interact within a complex that is both constitutive and stable. The results favor oligomers of the M2 receptor over monomers as the biologically relevant state for coupling to G proteins. PMID:25023280

  9. Plasma control of shock wave configuration in off-design mode of M = 2 inlet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falempin, Francois; Firsov, Alexander A.; Yarantsev, Dmitry A.; Goldfeld, Marat A.; Timofeev, Konstantin; Leonov, Sergey B.

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this work was to study the steering effect of a weakly ionized plasma on a supersonic flow structure in a two-dimensional aerodynamic configuration with a three-shock compression ramp in an off-design operational mode. Experiments were performed in wind tunnel T-313 of ITAM SB RAS, with the model air inlet designed for operation at a flow of Mach number M = 2. The inlet was tested at M = 2, 2.5, and 3 and with Re = (25-36) × 106/m and an angle of attack AoA = 0°, 5°, and 8°. For the regulation of the inlet characteristics, a plasma generator with electrical power W pl = 2-10 kW was flush-mounted upstream of the compression ramp. A significant plasma effect on the shock configuration at the inlet and on the flow parameters after air compression is considered. It is shown that the main shock wave angle is controllable by means of the plasma power magnitude and, therefore, can be accurately adjusted to the cowl lip of an inlet with a fixed geometry. An additional plasma effect has been demonstrated through a notable increase in the pressure recovery coefficient in a flowpass extension behind the inlet because of an nearly isentropic pattern of flow compression with the plasma turned on. Numerical simulation brings out the details of 3D distribution of the flow structure and parameters throughout the model at thermal energy deposition in inlet near the compression surfaces. We conclude that the plasma-based technique may be a feasible method for expanding supersonic inlet operational limits.

  10. Sequence Analysis of the Matrix (M2) Protein Gene of Avian Pneumovirus Recovered from Turkey Flocks in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Dar, Arshud M.; Munir, Shirin; Goyal, Sagar M.; Kapur, Vivek

    2003-01-01

    We here report the comparative sequence and phylogenetic analysis of the avian pneumovirus subgroup C (APV C) matrix (M2) gene of cell culture-adapted isolates and clinical samples. Limited heterogeneity was observed among the M2 sequences, suggesting that diagnostic tests and vaccines against APV C are likely to exhibit broad cross-reactivity. PMID:12791921

  11. Human eosinophil major basic protein is an endogenous allosteric antagonist at the inhibitory muscarinic M2 receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Jacoby, D B; Gleich, G J; Fryer, A D

    1993-01-01

    The effect of human eosinophil major basic protein (MBP) as well as other eosinophil proteins, on binding of [3H]N-methyl-scopolamine ([3H]NMS: 1 x 10(-10) M) to muscarinic M2 receptors in heart membranes and M3 receptors in submandibular gland membranes was studied. MBP inhibited specific binding of [3H]NMS to M2 receptors but not to M3 receptors. MBP also inhibited atropine-induced dissociation of [3H]NMS-receptor complexes in a dose-dependent fashion, demonstrating that the interaction of MBP with the M2 muscarinic receptor is allosteric. This effect of MBP suggests that it may function as an endogenous allosteric inhibitor of agonist binding to the M2 muscarinic receptor. Inhibition of [3H]NMS binding by MBP was reversible by treatment with heparin, which binds and neutralizes MBP. Eosinophil peroxidase (EPO) also inhibited specific binding of [3H]NMS to M2 receptors but not to M3 receptors and inhibited atropine-induced dissociation of [3H]NMS-receptor complexes. On a molar basis, EPO is less potent than MBP. Neither eosinophil cationic protein nor eosinophil-derived neurotoxin affected binding of [3H]NMS to M2 receptors. Thus both MBP and EPO are selective allosteric antagonists at M2 receptors. The effects of these proteins may be important causes of M2 receptor dysfunction and enhanced vagally mediated bronchoconstriction in asthma. Images PMID:8473484

  12. Hexagonal Cu2SnS3 with metallic character: Another category of conducting sulfides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Changzheng; Hu, Zhenpeng; Wang, Chengle; Sheng, Hua; Yang, Jinlong; Xie, Yi

    2007-10-01

    A hexagonal Cu2SnS3 with uniform and well-dispersed nanoparticle morphology has been synthesized, representing an example of hexagonal system in the Cu -Sn-E (S, Se) ternary chalcogenides. Both theoretical calculation and experimental results give the unique metallic character of Cu2SnS3, which is significantly different from the traditional opinion that I-IV-VI ternary chalcogenides were regarded previously as small or middle band-gap semiconductors. Also, M(I)2SnS3 (M =Ag, Au, Rb, and Cs) serial compounds are another potential family of conducting sulfides. The conducting Cu2SnS3 product with the interlayer space and tunnels in the crystal structures could be fascinatingly introduced to the lithium battery application.

  13. Correlation analysis between S3T and SFT/MTK vector magnetograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, H. F.; Sin, S. A.; Ma, L.

    2008-07-01

    Three components of the vector magnetic field, flux density B, inclination γ and azimuth χ of the active region NOAA10507 are derived from the two-dimensional Stokes spectral data obtained by the S3T at the Yunnan Observatory. The distributions of the longitudinal magnetic field and the transverse magnetic field are contoured on the basis of the three components. The distributions indicate that the active region is a very complicated sunspot group which is mainly composed of five sunspots, including one of negative polarity and four positive ones. Comparing the vector magnetograms obtained by S3T and the SFT/MTK, it is found that there is basic agreement on the longitudinal fields of S3T and SFT/MTK magnetograms with a correlation coefficient ρ=0.842, and the two distributions of transverse magnetic field obtained by S3T and SFT/MTK have correlation coefficients, ρ=0.423 and ρ=0.72.

  14. The all-loop integrable spin-chain for strings on AdS3 × S 3 × T 4: the massive sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borsato, Riccardo; Sax, Olof Ohlsson; Sfondrini, Alessandro; Stefanski, Bogdan; Torrielli, Alessandro

    2013-08-01

    We bootstrap the all-loop dynamic S-matrix for the homogeneous (1, 1|2)2 spin-chain believed to correspond to the discretization of the massive modes of string theory on AdS3 × S 3 × T 4. The S-matrix is the tensor product of two copies of the (1|1)2 invariant S-matrix constructed recently for the (2, 1; α)2 chain, and depends on two anti-symmetric dressing phases. We write down the crossing equations that these phases have to satisfy. Furthermore, we present the corresponding Bethe Ansatz, which differs from the one previously conjectured, and discuss how our construction matches several recent perturbative calculations.

  15. Structural and optical properties of annealed and illuminated (Ag3AsS3)0.6(As2S3)0.4 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Studenyak, I. P.; Neimet, Yu. Yu.; Rati, Y. Y.; Stanko, D.; Kranjčec, M.; Kökényesi, S.; Daróci, L.; Bohdan, R.

    2014-11-01

    (Ag3AsS3)0.6(As2S3)0.4 thin films were deposited upon a quartz substrate by rapid thermal evaporation. Structural studies of the as-deposited, annealed and illuminated films were performed using XRD, scanning electron and atomic force microscopies. Surfaces of all the films were found to be covered with Ag-rich crystalline micrometer sized cones. Thermal annealing leads to mechanical deformation of part of the cones and their detachment from the base film surface while the laser illumination leads to the new formations appearance on the surface of thin films. The spectroscopic studies of optical transmission spectra for as-deposited, annealed and illuminated thin films were carried out. The optical absorption spectra in the region of its exponential behaviour were analysed, the dispersion dependences of refractive index as well as their variation after annealing and illumination were investigated.

  16. Biocompatible Fluorescent Core-Shell Nanoconjugates Based on Chitosan/Bi2S3 Quantum Dots.

    PubMed

    Ramanery, Fábio P; Mansur, Alexandra A P; Mansur, Herman S; Carvalho, Sandhra M; Fonseca, Matheus C

    2016-12-01

    Bismuth sulfide (Bi2S3) is a narrow-bandgap semiconductor that is an interesting candidate for fluorescent biomarkers, thermoelectrics, photocatalysts, and photovoltaics. This study reports the synthesis and characterization of novel Bi2S3 quantum dots (QDs) functionalized using chitosan (CHI) as the capping ligands via aqueous "green" route at room temperature and ambient pressure. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy, photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering (DLS), and zeta potential (ZP) analysis were used to characterize the hybrids made of biopolymer-functionalized Bi2S3 semiconductor nanocrystals. The results demonstrated that the CHI ligand was effective at nucleating and controlling the growth of water-soluble colloidal Bi2S3 nanoparticles. The average sizes of the Bi2S3 nanoparticles were significantly affected by the molar ratio of the precursors but less dependent on the pH of the aqueous media, leading to the formation of nanocrystals with average diameters varying from 4.2 to 6.7 nm. These surface-modified Bi2S3 nanocrystals with CHI exhibited photoluminescence in the visible spectral region. Moreover, the results of in vitro MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay with human osteosarcoma cells (SAOS) cell line demonstrated no cytotoxic response of the nanoconjugates.Furthermore, the results indicated that the Bi2S3 QD-CHI nanoconjugates showed HEK293T cell uptake; therefore, they can be potentially used as novel fluorescent nanoprobes for the in vitro bioimaging of cells in biomedical applications. Graphical Abstract Schematic representation of the biocompatible core-shell nanostructure of the chitosan/Bi2S3 quantum dot conjugates with photoluminescent properties.

  17. Genetic exchange of the S2 and S3 subunits in pertussis toxin.

    PubMed

    Raze, Dominique; Veithen, Alex; Sato, Hiroko; Antoine, Rudy; Menozzi, Franco D; Locht, Camille

    2006-06-01

    Bordetella pertussis, the causative agent of whooping cough, produces a complex hetero-oligomeric exotoxin, named pertussis toxin (PTX), which is responsible for several of the clinical manifestations associated with whooping cough. The toxin is composed of five dissimilar subunits, named S1 through S5 and arranged in a hexameric structure with a 1S1:1S2:1S3:2S4:1S5 stoichiometry. Although S2 and S3 share 70% amino acid identity, these two subunits were previously thought not to be able to substitute for each other in toxin assembly/secretion and the biological activities of PTX. Here, we show that toxin analogues containing two S3 subunits and lacking S2 (PTXdeltaS2), or containing two S2 subunits and lacking S3 (PTXdeltaS3), can be produced, assembled and secreted by B. pertussis strains, in which the S2-encoding cistron or the S3-coding cistrons have been inactivated by internal in-frame deletions that avoid downstream effects. In fact, PTXdeltaS3 was produced in higher amounts in the bacterial culture supernatants than natural PTX, whereas PTXdeltaS2 was produced in lower amounts than PTX. The action of the toxin analogues on the clustering of Chinese Hamster Ovary cells was also affected differentially by the S2-S3 substitution. These toxin analogues constitute thus interesting probes for the study of cellular functions, in particular immune cell functions, for which natural PTX has already shown its usefulness.

  18. Deposition of calcium phosphate coatings using condensed phosphates (P2O7(4-) and P3O10(5-)) as phosphate source through induction heating.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Huan; Hou, Saisai; Zhang, Mingjie; Yang, Mengmeng; Deng, Linhong; Xiong, Xinbo; Ni, Xinye

    2016-12-01

    In present work condensed phosphates (P2O7(4-) and P3O10(5-)) were used as phosphate source in induction heating to deposit calcium phosphate coatings. The phase, morphology, and composition of different phosphate-related coatings were characterized and compared using XRD, FTIR, and SEM analyses. Results showed that P2O7(4-)formed calcium pyrophosphate hydrate coatings with interconnected cuboid-like particles. The as-deposited calcium tripolyphosphate hydrate coating with P3O10(5-) was mainly composed of flower-like particles assembled by plate-like crystals. The bioactivity and cytocompatibility of the coatings were also studied. Moreover, the feasibility of using hybrid phosphate sources for preparing and depositing coatings onto magnesium alloy was investigated. PMID:27612721

  19. Synthesis and structure of a new halophosphate Sr3P3O10Cl with the flexible [P3O10]5- anions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Jianhua; Liu, Xi; Song, Limei; Sha, Xunshan; Zhao, Pan; Guo, Ping

    2016-05-01

    A new halophosphate crystal Sr3P3O10Cl was grown in molten chloride flux media. It crystallizes in the centrosymmetric orthorhombic space group Pnma (No. 62) with a = 10.617(2) Å, b = 10.736(2) Å, and c = 8.7354(17) Å. In the structure, the basic building unit is the [P3O10]5- anion, which is consist of three PO4 tetrahedra by sharing the corner oxygen atoms. The two Sr atoms and the Cl atom are linked to construct an infinite [Sr3Cl]5+ chain. The [P3O10]5- anions are interconnected with the [Sr3Cl]5+ chains to form a three-dimensional frameworks. Additionally, the first-principle calculation was employed to obtain the band structures and densities of states.

  20. Coupling of the lattice and superlattice deformations and hysteresis in thermal expansion for the quasi-one-dimensional conductor TaS3.

    PubMed

    Golovnya, A V; Pokrovskii, V Ya; Shadrin, P M

    2002-06-17

    An original interferometer-based setup for measurements of length of needlelike samples is developed, and thermal expansion of o-TaS(3) crystals is studied. Below the Peierls transition the temperature hysteresis of length L is observed, the width of the hysteresis loop deltaL/L being up to 5 x 10(-5). The behavior of the loop is anomalous: the length changes so that it is in front of its equilibrium value. The hysteresis loop couples with that of conductivity. With lowering the temperature down to 100 K the charge-density waves' elastic modulus grows achieving a value comparable with the lattice Young modulus. Our results could be helpful in consideration of different systems with intrinsic superstructures.

  1. S3: School Zone Safety System Based on Wireless Sensor Network

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Seong-eun; Chong, Poh Kit; Kim, Daeyoung

    2009-01-01

    School zones are areas near schools that have lower speed limits and where illegally parked vehicles pose a threat to school children by obstructing them from the view of drivers. However, these laws are regularly flouted. Thus, we propose a novel wireless sensor network application called School zone Safety System (S3) to help regulate the speed limit and to prevent illegal parking in school zones. S3 detects illegally parked vehicles, and warns the driver and records the license plate number. To reduce the traveling speed of vehicles in a school zone, S3 measures the speed of vehicles and displays the speed to the driver via an LED display, and also captures the image of the speeding vehicle with a speed camera. We developed a state machine based vehicle detection algorithm for S3. From extensive experiments in our testbeds and data from a real school zone, it is shown that the system can detect all kinds of vehicles, and has an accuracy of over 95% for speed measurement. We modeled the battery life time of a sensor node and validated the model with a downscaled measurement; we estimate the battery life time to be over 2 years. We have deployed S3 in 15 school zones in 2007, and we have demonstrated the robustness of S3 by operating them for over 1 year. PMID:22454567

  2. Solution-Processed Mesoscopic Bi2S3:Polymer Photoactive Layers

    PubMed Central

    MacLachlan, Andrew J; O'Mahony, Flannan T F; Sudlow, Anna L; Hill, Michael S; Molloy, Kieran C; Nelson, Jenny; Haque, Saif A

    2014-01-01

    The fabrication of solution-processed nontoxic mesoporous Bi2S3 structures is demonstrated and the suitability of these structures for use in hybrid solar cells investigated. Mesoporous Bi2S3 electrodes are prepared via thermal decomposition of a thin film composed of a bismuth xanthate single source precursor. The resultant Bi2S3 films are made up of regular needles with approximate dimensions of 50×500 nm, as confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The crystallinity of the Bi2S3 is found to be dependent on the annealing temperature, as determined by X-ray diffraction. The porous Bi2S3 films are infiltrated with the hole conductor P3HT to generate novel hybrid films, and laser-based transient absorption spectroscopy is used to interrogate the charge-separation reaction at the resulting Bi2S3/P3HT heterojunction. Specifically, optical excitation of the hybrid films results in efficient and long-lived charge separation (microsecond to millisecond timescale), thereby rendering such films suitable for the development of novel low-cost solar-energy conversion devices. PMID:24596301

  3. Sequential domain assembly of ribosomal protein S3 drives 40S subunit maturation

    PubMed Central

    Mitterer, Valentin; Murat, Guillaume; Réty, Stéphane; Blaud, Magali; Delbos, Lila; Stanborough, Tamsyn; Bergler, Helmut; Leulliot, Nicolas; Kressler, Dieter; Pertschy, Brigitte

    2016-01-01

    Eukaryotic ribosomes assemble by association of ribosomal RNA with ribosomal proteins into nuclear precursor particles, which undergo a complex maturation pathway coordinated by non-ribosomal assembly factors. Here, we provide functional insights into how successive structural re-arrangements in ribosomal protein S3 promote maturation of the 40S ribosomal subunit. We show that S3 dimerizes and is imported into the nucleus with its N-domain in a rotated conformation and associated with the chaperone Yar1. Initial assembly of S3 with 40S precursors occurs via its C-domain, while the N-domain protrudes from the 40S surface. Yar1 is replaced by the assembly factor Ltv1, thereby fixing the S3 N-domain in the rotated orientation and preventing its 40S association. Finally, Ltv1 release, triggered by phosphorylation, and flipping of the S3 N-domain into its final position results in the stable integration of S3. Such a stepwise assembly may represent a new paradigm for the incorporation of ribosomal proteins. PMID:26831757

  4. Biocompatible Fluorescent Core-Shell Nanoconjugates Based on Chitosan/Bi2S3 Quantum Dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramanery, Fábio P.; Mansur, Alexandra A. P.; Mansur, Herman S.; Carvalho, Sandhra M.; Fonseca, Matheus C.

    2016-04-01

    Bismuth sulfide (Bi2S3) is a narrow-bandgap semiconductor that is an interesting candidate for fluorescent biomarkers, thermoelectrics, photocatalysts, and photovoltaics. This study reports the synthesis and characterization of novel Bi2S3 quantum dots (QDs) functionalized using chitosan (CHI) as the capping ligands via aqueous "green" route at room temperature and ambient pressure. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy, photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering (DLS), and zeta potential (ZP) analysis were used to characterize the hybrids made of biopolymer-functionalized Bi2S3 semiconductor nanocrystals. The results demonstrated that the CHI ligand was effective at nucleating and controlling the growth of water-soluble colloidal Bi2S3 nanoparticles. The average sizes of the Bi2S3 nanoparticles were significantly affected by the molar ratio of the precursors but less dependent on the pH of the aqueous media, leading to the formation of nanocrystals with average diameters varying from 4.2 to 6.7 nm. These surface-modified Bi2S3 nanocrystals with CHI exhibited photoluminescence in the visible spectral region. Moreover, the results of in vitro MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay with human osteosarcoma cells (SAOS) cell line demonstrated no cytotoxic response of the nanoconjugates.

  5. Engineering of cofactor regeneration enhances (2S,3S)-2,3-butanediol production from diacetyl

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yu; Li, Lixiang; Ma, Cuiqing; Gao, Chao; Tao, Fei; Xu, Ping

    2013-01-01

    (2S,3S)-2,3-Butanediol ((2S,3S)-2,3-BD) is a potentially valuable liquid fuel and an excellent building block in asymmetric synthesis. In this study, cofactor engineering was applied to improve the efficiency of (2S,3S)-2,3-BD production and simplify the product purification. Two NADH regeneration enzymes, glucose dehydrogenase and formate dehydrogenase (FDH), were introduced into Escherichia coli with 2,3-BD dehydrogenase, respectively. Introduction of FDH resulted in higher (2S,3S)-2,3-BD concentration, productivity and yield from diacetyl, and large increase in the intracellular NADH concentration. In fed-batch bioconversion, the final titer, productivity and yield of (2S,3S)-2,3-BD on diacetyl reached 31.7 g/L, 2.3 g/(L·h) and 89.8%, the highest level of (2S,3S)-2,3-BD production thus far. Moreover, cosubstrate formate was almost totally converted to carbon dioxide and no organic acids were produced. The biocatalytic process presented should be a promising route for biotechnological production of NADH-dependent microbial metabolites. PMID:24025762

  6. An efficient blocking M2L translation for low-frequency fast multipole method in three dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Toru; Shimba, Yuta; Isakari, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Toshiro

    2016-05-01

    We propose an efficient scheme to perform the multipole-to-local (M2L) translation in the three-dimensional low-frequency fast multipole method (LFFMM). Our strategy is to combine a group of matrix-vector products associated with M2L translation into a matrix-matrix product in order to diminish the memory traffic. For this purpose, we first developed a grouping method (termed as internal blocking) based on the congruent transformations (rotational and reflectional symmetries) of M2L-translators for each target box in the FMM hierarchy (adaptive octree). Next, we considered another method of grouping (termed as external blocking) that was able to handle M2L translations for multiple target boxes collectively by using the translational invariance of the M2L translation. By combining these internal and external blockings, the M2L translation can be performed efficiently whilst preservingthe numerical accuracy exactly. We assessed the proposed blocking scheme numerically and applied it to the boundary integral equation method to solve electromagnetic scattering problems for perfectly electrical conductor. From the numerical results, it was found that the proposed M2L scheme achieved a few times speedup compared to the non-blocking scheme.

  7. Pyruvate Kinase M2 Regulates Gene Transcription by Acting as A Protein Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xueliang; Wang, Haizhen; Jenny, J. Yang; Liu, Xiaowei; Liu, Zhi-Ren

    2012-01-01

    Summary Pyruvate kinase isoform M2 (PKM2) is a glycolysis enzyme catalyzing conversion of phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) to pyruvate with transferring a phosphate from PEP to ADP. We report here that PKM2 localizes to the cell nucleus. The levels of nuclear PKM2 correlate with cell proliferation. PKM2 activates transcription of MEK5 by phosphorylating stat3 at Y705. In vitro phosphorylation assays show that PKM2 is a protein kinase using PEP as phosphate donor. ADP competes with the protein substrate binding, indicating that the substrate may bind to the ADP site of PKM2. Our experiments suggest that PKM2 dimer is an active protein kinase, while the tetramer is an active pyruvate kinase. Expression a PKM2 mutant that exists as a dimer promotes cell proliferation, indicating that protein kinase activity of PKM2 plays a role in promoting cell proliferation. Our study reveals an important link between metabolism alteration and gene expression during tumor transformation and progression. PMID:22306293

  8. Activation and proton transport mechanism in influenza A M2 channel.

    PubMed

    Wei, Chenyu; Pohorille, Andrew

    2013-11-01

    Molecular dynamics trajectories 2 μs in length have been generated for the pH-activated, tetrameric M2 proton channel of the influenza A virus in all protonation states of the pH sensor located at the His(37) tetrad. All simulated structures are in very good agreement with high-resolution structures. Changes in the channel caused by progressive protonation of His(37) provide insight into the mechanism of proton transport. The channel is closed at both His(37) and Trp(41) sites in the singly and doubly protonated states, but it opens at Trp(41) upon further protonation. Anions access the charged His(37) and by doing so stabilize the protonated states of the channel. The narrow opening at the His(37) site, further blocked by anions, is inconsistent with the water-wire mechanism of proton transport. Instead, conformational interconversions of His(37) correlated with hydrogen bonding to water molecules indicate that these residues shuttle protons in high-protonation states. Hydrogen bonds between charged and uncharged histidines are rare. The valve at Val(27) remains on average quite narrow in all protonation states but fluctuates sufficiently to support water and proton transport. A proton transport mechanism in which the channel, depending on pH, opens at either the histidine or valine gate is only partially supported by the simulations. PMID:24209848

  9. Switching of pyruvate kinase isoform L to M2 promotes metabolic reprogramming in hepatocarcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Wong, Carmen Chak-Lui; Au, Sandy Leung-Kuen; Tse, Aki Pui-Wah; Xu, Iris Ming-Jing; Lai, Robin Kit-Ho; Chiu, David Kung-Chun; Wei, Larry Lai; Fan, Dorothy Ngo-Yin; Tsang, Felice Ho-Ching; Lo, Regina Cheuk-Lam; Wong, Chun-Ming; Ng, Irene Oi-Lin

    2014-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is an aggressive tumor, with a high mortality rate due to late symptom presentation and frequent tumor recurrences and metastasis. It is also a rapidly growing tumor supported by different metabolic mechanisms; nevertheless, the biological and molecular mechanisms involved in the metabolic reprogramming in HCC are unclear. In this study, we found that pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) was frequently over-expressed in human HCCs and its over-expression was associated with aggressive clinicopathological features and poor prognosis of HCC patients. Furthermore, knockdown of PKM2 suppressed aerobic glycolysis and cell proliferation in HCC cell lines in vitro. Importantly, knockdown of PKM2 hampered HCC growth in both subcutaneous injection and orthotopic liver implantation models, and reduced lung metastasis in vivo. Of significance, PKM2 over-expression in human HCCs was associated with a down-regulation of a liver-specific microRNA, miR-122. We further showed that miR-122 interacted with the 3UTR of the PKM2 gene. Re-expression of miR-122 in HCC cell lines reduced PKM2 expression, decreased glucose uptake in vitro, and suppressed HCC tumor growth in vivo. Our clinical data and functional studies have revealed a novel biological mechanism involved in HCC metabolic reprogramming. PMID:25541689

  10. A new 2D monolayer BiXene, M2C (M = Mo, Tc, Os).

    PubMed

    Sun, Weiwei; Li, Yunguo; Wang, Baotian; Jiang, Xue; Katsnelson, Mikhail I; Korzhavyi, Pavel; Eriksson, Olle; Di Marco, Igor

    2016-08-25

    The existence of BiXenes, a new family of 2D monolayers, is hereby predicted. Theoretically, BiXenes have 1H symmetry (P6[combining macron]m2) and can be formed from the 4d/5d binary carbides. As the name suggests, they are close relatives of MXenes, which instead have 1T symmetry (P3[combining macron]m1). The newly found BiXenes, as well as some new MXenes, are shown to have formation energies close to that of germanene, which suggests that these materials should be possible to be synthesised. Among them, we illustrate that 1H-Tc2C and 1T-Mo2C are dynamically stable at 0 K, while 1H-Mo2C, 1T-Tc2C, 1H-Os2C, and 1T-Rh2C are likely to be stabilised via strain or temperature. In addition, the nature of the chemical bonding is analysed, emphasizing that the covalency between the transition metal ions and carbon is much stronger in BiXenes than in MXenes. The emergence of BiXenes can not only open up a new era of conducting 2D monolayers, but also provide good candidates for carrier materials aimed at energy storage and spintronic devices that have already been unveiled in MXenes. PMID:27528499

  11. The Lichens experiment at Foton M-2 mission: Survival capacity in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de La Torre, R.; Horneck, G.; Garcia-Sancho, L.

    Lichens are one of the most resistant organisms at Earth They live at very extreme environments in deserts Atacama desert high mountains Himalaya Antarctica Dry Valleys etc This is possible due to the symbiotic relationship between both constituents the algae and the fungui and to their poikilohidric nature characteristic that allows them to survive latent when environmental conditions are very extreme i e when UV radiation is very high temperatures are extreme and dryness exists If humidity returns and temperature tendencies turn near the optimum around 10 C dormant lichens starts to photosynthetice We have selected two epilithic lichen species for the LICHENS experiment which was included at the ESA Biopan-facility located at the outer shell of the satellite Foton M-2 launched into low Earth orbit the 31th of Mai 2005 from Baikonur Russia On of this species was Rhizocarpon geographicum a bipolar epilithic lichen which grows at high mountain regions e g Sierra de Gredos Central Spain with continental climate has been systematically studied in the natural environment Plataforma de Gredos at 2000 m altitude as well as under simulated space conditions at the space simulation facilities of the DLR The sensitivity of the photosynthetic system PSII to the different environmental conditions dryness including vacuum treatment high temperature fluctuations high UV intensity was fluorometrically measured with a MINI PAM Walz Germany The lichen Rhizocarpon geographicum was

  12. NREL National Wind Technology Center (NWTC): M2 Tower; Boulder, Colorado (Data)

    DOE Data Explorer

    Jager, D.; Andreas, A.

    1996-09-24

    The National Wind Technology Center (NWTC), located at the foot of the Rocky Mountains near Boulder, Colorado, is a world-class research facility managed by NREL for the U.S. Department of Energy. NWTC researchers work with members of the wind energy industry to advance wind power technologies that lower the cost of wind energy through research and development of state-of-the-art wind turbine designs. NREL's Measurement and Instrument Data Center provides data from NWTC's M2 tower which are derived from instruments mounted on or near an 82 meter (270 foot) meteorological tower located at the western edge of the NWTC site and about 11 km (7 miles) west of Broomfield, and approximately 8 km (5 miles) south of Boulder, Colorado. The data represent the mean value of readings taken every two seconds and averaged over one minute. The wind speed and direction are measured at six heights on the tower and air temperature is measured at three heights. The dew point temperature, relative humidity, barometric pressure, totalized liquid precipitation, and global solar radiation are also available.

  13. Experiment "Regeneration" Performed Aboard the Russian Spacecraft Foton-M2 in 2005

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grigoryan, Elonora; Almeida, Eduardo; Domaratskaya, Elena; Poplinskaya, Valentina; Aleinikova, Karina; Tairbekov, Murad; Mitashov, Victor

    2006-01-01

    The experiments on the newts performed earlier aboard Russian biosate llites showed that the rate of lens and tail regeneration in space wa s greater than on the ground. In parallel it was found that the numbe r of cells in S-phase was greater in space-flown animals than in the ground controls. However, it was unclear whether cell proliferation stimulation was induced by micro-g per se. Molecular mechanisms under lying the change also remained obscure. These issues were addressed b y the joint Russian-American experiment "Regeneration" flown on Foton -M2 in 2005. The method for in-flight delivering DNA precursor BrdU was developed. The experiment showed that during the flight the numbe r of S-phase cells in the regenerating eyes and tails increased. Thes e data together with those obtained earlier suggest that cell prolife ration increases in response to the effects of both micro-g and 1-g a fter return to Earth. The expression of bFGF in regenerating tissues of "flown" newts and ground controls was examined using immuno-histo chemistry. Obtained results suggest that this growth factor is a part icipant of the promotional effect of space flight upon cell prolifera tion in lens and tail regenerates.

  14. The transglutaminase type 2 and pyruvate kinase isoenzyme M2 interplay in autophagy regulation

    PubMed Central

    Altuntas, Sara; Rossin, Federica; Marsella, Claudia; D'Eletto, Manuela; Hidalgo, Laura Diaz; Farrace, Maria Grazia; Campanella, Michelangelo; Antonioli, Manuela; Fimia, Gian Maria; Piacentini, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy is a self-degradative physiological process by which the cell removes worn-out or damaged components. Constant at basal level it may become highly active in response to cellular stress. The type 2 transglutaminase (TG2), which accumulates under stressful cell conditions, plays an important role in the regulation of autophagy and cells lacking this enzyme display impaired autophagy/mitophagy and a consequent shift their metabolism to glycolysis. To further define the molecular partners of TG2 involved in these cellular processes, we analysed the TG2 interactome under normal and starved conditions discovering that TG2 interacts with various proteins belonging to different functional categories. Herein we show that TG2 interacts with pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2), a rate limiting enzyme of glycolysis which is responsible for maintaining a glycolytic phenotype in malignant cells and displays non metabolic functions, including transcriptional co-activation and protein kinase activity. Interestingly, the ablation of PKM2 led to the decrease of intracellular TG2's transamidating activity paralleled by an increase of its tyrosine phosphorylation. Along with this, a significant decrease of ULK1 and Beclin1 was also recorded, thus suggesting a block in the upstream regulation of autophagosome formation. These data suggest that the PKM2/TG2 interplay plays an important role in the regulation of autophagy in particular under cellular stressful conditions such as those displayed by cancer cells. PMID:26702927

  15. A PRIMAL view of the Milky Way, made possible by Gaia and M2M modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, J. A. S.; Kawata, D.

    2014-07-01

    We have developed our original made-to-measure (M2M) algorithm, primal, with the aim of modelling the Galactic disc from upcoming Gaia data. From a Milky Way like N-body disc galaxy simulation, we have created mock Gaia data using M0III stars as tracers, taking into account extinction and the expected Gaia errors. In primal, observables calculated from the N-body model are compared with the target stars, at the position of the target stars. Using primal, the masses of the N-body model particles are changed to reproduce the target mock data, and the gravitational potential is automatically adjusted by the changing mass of the model particles. We have also adopted a new resampling scheme for the model particles to keep the mass resolution of the N-body model relatively constant. We have applied primalto this mock Gaia data and we show that primalcan recover the structure and kinematics of a Milky Way like barred spiral disc, along with the apparent bar structure and pattern speed of the bar despite the galactic extinction and the observational errors.

  16. Distributed net-centric architecture of m2m acquisition units with optical GVA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guha, Dipnarayan; Choi, Jun; Hassan, Mashfique

    2005-05-01

    This paper describes the architecture of a low-latency symmetric multiprocessing optical soft memory system to cluster computing inside the core of an adaptive optical signal processor with the aid of soft decision algebraic polynomial algorithms. The optical system hardware is shown to evolve along with the iterator instantiations of the soft algorithm that forms the core of the memory map. The system enables efficient cache coherence protocols used in unit multiprocessors to be run across a homogeneous cluster in optical soft memory systems. We define a structure called the Optical Generalized Viterbi Algorithm Data Structure (Optical GVA DS) that makes up the system map for adaptive optical signal processing. The system executes transforms where algorithms for handling the entire data vector is processed, shortening the computational complexity effectively. Thus the optical soft memory system as described by the evolving Optical GVA DS iterator instantiates enables the design of parallel processors to handle modulated data in the optical domain. This is of importance in the realization of distributed netcentric architectures and forms the basis of large-scale real-time data processing and acquisition in m2m units.

  17. M2M modelling of the Galactic disc via PRIMAL: fitting to Gaia error added data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, Jason A. S.; Kawata, Daisuke

    2014-09-01

    We have adapted our made-to-measure (M2M) algorithm PRIMAL to use mock Milky Way like data constructed from an N-body barred galaxy with a boxy bulge in a known dark matter potential. We use M0 giant stars as tracers, with the expected error of the ESA (European Space Agency) space astrometry mission Gaia. We demonstrate the process of constructing mock Gaia data from an N-body model, including the conversion of a galactocentric Cartesian coordinate N-body model into equatorial coordinates and how to add error to it for a single stellar type. We then describe the modifications made to PRIMAL to work with observational error. This paper demonstrates that PRIMAL can recover the radial profiles of the surface density, radial velocity dispersion, vertical velocity dispersion and mean rotational velocity of the target disc, along with the pattern speed of the bar, to a reasonable degree of accuracy despite the lack of accurate target data. We also construct mock data which take into account dust extinction and show that PRIMAL recovers the structure and kinematics of the disc reasonably well. In other words, the expected accuracy of the Gaia data is good enough for PRIMAL to recover these global properties of the disc, at least in a simplified condition, as used in this paper.

  18. Form factors of descendant operators: reduction to perturbed M (2 , 2 s + 1) models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lashkevich, Michael; Pugai, Yaroslav

    2015-04-01

    In the framework of the algebraic approach to form factors in two-dimensional integrable models of quantum field theory we consider the reduction of the sine-Gordon model to the Φ13-perturbation of minimal conformal models of the M (2 , 2 s + 1) series. We find in an algebraic form the condition of compatibility of local operators with the reduction. We propose a construction that make it possible to obtain reduction compatible local operators in terms of screening currents. As an application we obtain exact multiparticle form factors for the compatible with the reduction conserved currents T ±2 k , Θ±(2 k-2), which correspond to the spin ±(2 k - 1) integrals of motion, for any positive integer k. Furthermore, we obtain all form factors of the operators T 2 k T -2 l , which generalize the famous operator. The construction is analytic in the s parameter and, therefore, makes sense in the sine-Gordon theory.

  19. M2L4 coordination capsules with tunable anticancer activity upon guest encapsulation.

    PubMed

    Ahmedova, Anife; Mihaylova, Rositsa; Momekova, Denitsa; Shestakova, Pavletta; Stoykova, Silviya; Zaharieva, Joana; Yamashina, Masahiro; Momekov, Georgi; Akita, Munetaka; Yoshizawa, Michito

    2016-08-16

    Metallosupramolecular cages and capsules have gained increasing popularity as both molecular containers and anticancer agents. For successful combination of these properties a thorough analysis of the effect of guest encapsulation on the host's cytotoxic properties is highly required. Here we report on the cytotoxicity modulation of Pt(ii) and Pd(ii)-linked M2L4 coordination capsules upon encapsulation of guest molecules such as pyrene and caffeine. The anticancer activity of the capsules against various human cancer cells (HT-29, T-24, HL-60 and its resistant counterparts HL-60/Dox and HL-60/CDDP) significantly altered upon the guest encapsulation. The encapsulation of pyrene molecules causes a decrease in the cytotoxicity of the Pt(ii) capsule, which is stronger than that of the Pd(ii) capsule. The cytotoxicities of the caffeine containing capsules are lower than that of the empty capsules (except for HL-60), but still superior to cisplatin under the same conditions. The observed trends in the anticancer activity of the capsules and their host-guest complexes correlate with their different stabilities toward glutathione, estimated by NMR-based kinetic experiments. Mechanistic insights into the observed cytotoxicities are obtained by fluorescence microscopy imaging of tumor cells treated with the capsules and their pyrene complexes. The data suggest the glutathione-triggered disassembly of the capsular structures as a potential activation pathway for their cytotoxicities. PMID:27488015

  20. Reduction of the linear reflex gain explained from the M1-M2 refractory period.

    PubMed

    Klomp, Asbjorn; de Vlugt, Erwin; Meskers, Carel G M; de Groot, Jurriaan H; Arendzen, J Hans; van der Helm, Frans C T

    2013-06-01

    Linear system identification methods combined with neuromechanical modeling enable the quantification of reflex gains from recorded joint angular perturbation, torque, and/or electromyography (EMG). However, the stretch reflex response as recorded by EMG consists of multiple consecutive activation volleys (M1 and M2 responses) separated by a period of reduced activity and is nonlinearly related to joint perturbation. The goal of this study is to assess to what extent linear assumptions hold when quantifying these reflexive responses. Series of ramp-and-hold angular perturbations with fixed velocity but different ramp durations (and, therefore, different amplitudes) were applied to the wrist joint of seven healthy volunteers. Evoked EMG responses were compared to the reflex response estimated from a common linear reflex model relating EMG to perturbation velocity. Model fits described the measured EMG responses best when the perturbation and M1 response durations were equivalent. With increasing perturbation duration, i.e., amplitude, EMG response increased but reflex gain decreased due to the inert period after M1, which is believed to be related to alignment of the refractory period of the motoneurons. For angular joint perturbations exceeding the M1 duration (coinciding with 2 (°) of wrist joint rotation in this study), reflex gain variation may be largely explained from a shortcoming of the linear model in describing the nonlinear reflex response, and in particular the period of low reflexive activity after M1.