Science.gov

Sample records for 10-6 degrees c-1

  1. Effect of Ground Interference on the Aerodynamic and Flow Characteristics of a 42 Degree Sweptback Wing at Reynolds Numbers up to 6.8 x 10(6)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Furlong, G Chester; Bollech, Thomas V

    1955-01-01

    Report presents the results of an investigation of the effects of ground interference on the aerodynamic characteristics of a 42 degree sweptback wing at distances 0.68 and 0.92 of the mean aerodynamic chord from the simulated ground to the 0.25-chord point of the mean aerodynamic chord. Survey data behind the wing, both with and without the simulated ground, are presented in the form of contour charts of downwash, sidewash, and dynamic-pressure ratio at longitudinal stations of 2.0 and 2.8 mean aerodynamic chords behind the wing.

  2. A comparison of the spanwise loading calculated by various methods with experimental loadings obtained on a 45 degree sweptback wing of aspect ratio 8.02 at a Reynolds number of 4.0 x 10(6)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Willaim C

    1954-01-01

    This report compares the experimental force and moment data obtained by pressure measurements on a wing of aspect ratio 8.02, 45 degree sweptback of the quarter-chord line, taper ratio of 0.45, and NACA 63sub1a012 airfoil sections with the calculated loadings obtained by the standard methods proposed by Weissinger, Falkner, and Multopp, as well as by several variations of these methods.

  3. 27 CFR 10.6 - Administrative provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Administrative provisions. 10.6 Section 10.6 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS COMMERCIAL BRIBERY Scope of Regulations § 10.6 Administrative provisions. (a) General. The Act makes applicable...

  4. 43 CFR 10.6 - Custody.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Custody. 10.6 Section 10.6 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NATIVE AMERICAN GRAVES PROTECTION AND REPATRIATION REGULATIONS Human Remains, Funerary Objects, Sacred Objects, or Objects of Cultural Patrimony From Federal or Tribal Lands § 10.6 Custody. (a)...

  5. 32 CFR 10.6 - Non-creation of right.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Non-creation of right. 10.6 Section 10.6 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE MILITARY COMMISSIONS MILITARY COMMISSION INSTRUCTIONS § 10.6 Non-creation of right. Neither this part nor any Military...

  6. 32 CFR 10.6 - Non-creation of right.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Non-creation of right. 10.6 Section 10.6 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE MILITARY COMMISSIONS MILITARY COMMISSION INSTRUCTIONS § 10.6 Non-creation of right. Neither this part nor any Military...

  7. 32 CFR 10.6 - Non-creation of right.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Non-creation of right. 10.6 Section 10.6 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE MILITARY COMMISSIONS MILITARY COMMISSION INSTRUCTIONS § 10.6 Non-creation of right. Neither this part nor any Military...

  8. 46 CFR 188.10-6 - Captain of the Port.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Captain of the Port. 188.10-6 Section 188.10-6 Shipping... PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 188.10-6 Captain of the Port. This term means an... activities within his assigned area. In addition, the District Commander shall be the Captain of the...

  9. 32 CFR 10.6 - Non-creation of right.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Non-creation of right. 10.6 Section 10.6 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE MILITARY COMMISSIONS MILITARY COMMISSION INSTRUCTIONS § 10.6 Non-creation of right. Neither this part nor any Military...

  10. 32 CFR 10.6 - Non-creation of right.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Non-creation of right. 10.6 Section 10.6 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE MILITARY COMMISSIONS MILITARY COMMISSION INSTRUCTIONS § 10.6 Non-creation of right. Neither this part nor any Military...

  11. 22 CFR 19.10-6 - Benefits for recall service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Benefits for recall service. 19.10-6 Section 19... PARTICIPANTS IN THE FOREIGN SERVICE RETIREMENT AND DISABILITY SYSTEM § 19.10-6 Benefits for recall service. (a... recall service. Upon reversion of the annuitant to retired status, any pension payable to a former...

  12. 22 CFR 19.10-6 - Benefits for recall service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Benefits for recall service. 19.10-6 Section 19... PARTICIPANTS IN THE FOREIGN SERVICE RETIREMENT AND DISABILITY SYSTEM § 19.10-6 Benefits for recall service. (a... recall service. Upon reversion of the annuitant to retired status, any pension payable to a former...

  13. 22 CFR 19.10-6 - Benefits for recall service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Benefits for recall service. 19.10-6 Section 19... PARTICIPANTS IN THE FOREIGN SERVICE RETIREMENT AND DISABILITY SYSTEM § 19.10-6 Benefits for recall service. (a... recall service. Upon reversion of the annuitant to retired status, any pension payable to a former...

  14. 22 CFR 19.10-6 - Benefits for recall service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Benefits for recall service. 19.10-6 Section 19... PARTICIPANTS IN THE FOREIGN SERVICE RETIREMENT AND DISABILITY SYSTEM § 19.10-6 Benefits for recall service. (a... recall service. Upon reversion of the annuitant to retired status, any pension payable to a former...

  15. 22 CFR 19.10-6 - Benefits for recall service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Benefits for recall service. 19.10-6 Section 19... PARTICIPANTS IN THE FOREIGN SERVICE RETIREMENT AND DISABILITY SYSTEM § 19.10-6 Benefits for recall service. (a... recall service. Upon reversion of the annuitant to retired status, any pension payable to a former...

  16. High sensitivity infrared 10.6 micrometer heterodyne receiver development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The results are presented for a study on the design of an infrared 10.6-micrometer quantum-noise-limited optical receiver subsystem. Performance measurements of the HgCdTe photomixer preamplifier combination were carried out for photomixer temperatures up to 152 K and a photomixer frequency response of up to 420 MHz was obtained. Results of temperature and bias cycling of HgCdTe photomixers are reported. Design considerations for an operational 10.6 micrometer heterodyne receiver are presented. These consist of design data on required laser LO illumination, heat load levels for photomixer cooler, photomixer uniformity and the effects of photomixer impedance match on receiver sensitivity. Analysis and measurements of 10.6 micrometer heterodyne detection in an extrinsic photoconductive (p-type) HgCdTe photomixer are also presented.

  17. Draft genome sequence of Phomopsis longicolla MSPL 10-6

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phomopsis longicolla T.W. Hobbs is the primary cause of Phomopsis seed decay in soybean. We report the de novo assembled draft genome sequence of P. longicolla isolate MSPL10-6 with a 54.8-fold depth of coverage. The resulting draft genome was estimated to be approximately 64 Mb in size with an over...

  18. Experiment definition phase shuttle laboratory LDRL-10.6 experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    This report for the Experiment Definition Phase of the Shuttle Laboratory LDRL 10.6 Micrometer Experiment covers period 27 June through 26 September 1975. Activities during the fifth quarter included: (1) reevaluation of system obscuration ratio with a subsequent reduction of this ratio from 0.417 to 0.362, (2) completion of detail drawings for the 6X pre-expander, (3) completion of detail drawings for the nine mirrors that comprise pointing and tracking optomechanical subsystem, (4) continuation of detailing of mechanical portions of CMSS and modifications to accommodate new obscuration ratio, (5) qualitative operation of the optomechanical subsystem of the 10.6 um receiver achieved under experiment measurement task; receiver fully integrated and operation demonstrated over a 10 km experimental link, and (6) data collection task initiated to begin preparation of link analysis volumes.

  19. Observations of nine supernova remnants at 10.6 GHz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, R. H.; Kundu, M. R.

    1975-01-01

    Intensity contour and polarization observation maps of nine supernova remnants at a microwave frequency are presented and discussed. The data provided are the highest-frequency (10.6 GHz) measurements to date for several of these sources and should therefore be useful in determining their spectra. Polarization ranges from 2 or 3% to as high as 40-50%. Integrated fluxes for the sources vary from about 3 to more than 25.

  20. Experiment definition phase shuttle laboratory: LDRL-10.6 experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Progress is reported in the development of the space shuttle laboratory laser data relay link. The system transmittance of various surfaces was considered in order to examine the coating tradeoffs for the beryllium mirrors. The results of six coating combinations considered are summarized. It is recommended that silver coatings be used throughout the system. Design of the pre-expander and a preliminary alignment procedure implemented to align all optical elements to the reference mechanical axis (the rotational axis of the outer gimbal bearing located between the two Gregorian telescopes) are included. The local oscillator subsystem, consisting of the laser, Stark cell, Stark cell electronics, power supply, starting circuit, and conditioning optics were completed and installed in the optimechanical subsystem and operation against a 10.6 micrometer source was attempted. Preliminary measurements of the HgCdTe mixer showed that this critical element was inoperative and in subsequent tests the receiver front end electronics had also failed. Possible reasons for these failures and corrective action and steps to prevent future recurrence are discussed.

  1. A polymer tandem solar cell with 10.6% power conversion efficiency

    PubMed Central

    You, Jingbi; Dou, Letian; Yoshimura, Ken; Kato, Takehito; Ohya, Kenichiro; Moriarty, Tom; Emery, Keith; Chen, Chun-Chao; Gao, Jing; Li, Gang; Yang, Yang

    2013-01-01

    An effective way to improve polymer solar cell efficiency is to use a tandem structure, as a broader part of the spectrum of solar radiation is used and the thermalization loss of photon energy is minimized. In the past, the lack of high-performance low-bandgap polymers was the major limiting factor for achieving high-performance tandem solar cell. Here we report the development of a high-performance low bandgap polymer (bandgap <1.4 eV), poly[2,7-(5,5-bis-(3,7-dimethyloctyl)-5H-dithieno[3,2-b:2′,3′-d]pyran)-alt-4,7-(5,6-difluoro-2,1,3-benzothia diazole)] with a bandgap of 1.38 eV, high mobility, deep highest occupied molecular orbital. As a result, a single-junction device shows high external quantum efficiency of >60% and spectral response that extends to 900 nm, with a power conversion efficiency of 7.9%. The polymer enables a solution processed tandem solar cell with certified 10.6% power conversion efficiency under standard reporting conditions (25 °C, 1,000 Wm−2, IEC 60904-3 global), which is the first certified polymer solar cell efficiency over 10%. PMID:23385590

  2. 46 CFR 30.10-6 - Cargo handling room-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cargo handling room-TB/ALL. 30.10-6 Section 30.10-6 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-6 Cargo handling room—TB/ALL. The term cargo handling room means any enclosed space where cargo is...

  3. 46 CFR 30.10-6 - Cargo handling room-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo handling room-TB/ALL. 30.10-6 Section 30.10-6 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-6 Cargo handling room—TB/ALL. The term cargo handling room means any enclosed space where cargo is...

  4. 20 CFR 10.6 - What special statutory definitions apply to dependents and survivors?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What special statutory definitions apply to dependents and survivors? 10.6 Section 10.6 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' COMPENSATION ACT CLAIMS FOR COMPENSATION UNDER THE FEDERAL...

  5. 20 CFR 10.6 - What special statutory definitions apply to dependents and survivors?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true What special statutory definitions apply to dependents and survivors? 10.6 Section 10.6 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' COMPENSATION ACT CLAIMS FOR COMPENSATION UNDER THE FEDERAL...

  6. Fluid-phase interaction of C1 inhibitor (C1 Inh) and the subcomponents C1r and C1s of the first component of complement, C1.

    PubMed

    Chesne, S; Villiers, C L; Arlaud, G J; Lacroix, M B; Colomb, M G

    1982-01-01

    Interactions between proenzymic or activated complement subcomponents of C1 and C1 Inh (C1 inhibitor) were analysed by sucrose-density-gradient ultracentrifugation and sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. The interaction of C1 Inh with dimeric C1r in the presence of EDTA resulted into two bimolecular complexes accounting for a disruption of C1r. The interaction of C1 Inh with the Ca2+-dependent C1r2-C1s2 complex (8.8 S) led to an 8.5 S inhibited C1r-C1s-C1 Inh complex (1:1:2), indicating a disruption of C1r2 and of C1s2 on C1 Inh binding. The 8.5 S inhibited complex was stable in the presence of EDTA; it was also formed from a mixture of C1r, C1s and C1 Inh in the presence of EDTA or from bimolecular complexes of C1r-C1 Inh and C1s-C1 Inh. C1r II, a modified C1r molecule, deprived of a Ca2+-binding site after autoproteolysis, did not lead to an inhibited tetrameric complex on incubation with C1s and C1 Inh. These findings suggest that, when C1 Inh binds to C1r2-C1s2 complex, the intermonomer links inside C1r2 or C1s2 are weakened, whereas the non-covalent Ca2+-independent interaction between C1r2 and C1s2 is strengthened. The nature of the proteinase-C1 Inh link was investigated. Hydroxylamine (1M) was able to dissociate the complexes partially (pH 7.5) or totally (pH 9.0) when the incubation was performed in denaturing conditions. An ester link between a serine residue at the active site of C1r or C1s and C1 Inh is postulated. PMID:6282262

  7. Online Degrees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolezalek, Holly

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the trend of trainers who are getting degrees through online courses delivered via the Internet. Addresses accreditation issues and what to ask before enrolling in online degree programs. (JOW)

  8. Measurement of Double Charmonium Production in$e^+e^-$ Annihilations at $\\sqrt{s}=10.6$ GeV

    SciTech Connect

    Aubert, B.; Barate, R.; Boutigny, D.; Couderc, F.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, J.P.; Poireau, V.; Tisserand, V.; Zghiche, A.; Grauges, E.; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Pompili, A.; Chen, J.C.; Qi, N.D.; Rong, G.; Wang, P.; Zhu, Y.S.; Eigen, G.; Ofte, I.; Stugu, B. /Bergen U. /LBL, Berkeley /UC, Berkeley /Birmingham U. /Ruhr U., Bochum /Bristol U. /British Columbia U. /Brunel U. /Novosibirsk, IYF /UC, Irvine /UCLA /UC, Riverside /UC, San Diego /UC, Santa Barbara /UC, Santa Cruz /Caltech /Cincinnati U. /Colorado U. /Colorado State U. /Dortmund U. /Dresden, Tech. U. /Ecole Polytechnique /Edinburgh U. /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara /Frascati /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /Harvard U. /Heidelberg U. /Imperial Coll., London /Iowa U. /Iowa State U. /Orsay, LAL /LLNL, Livermore /Liverpool U. /Queen Mary, U. of London /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Louisville U. /Manchester U. /Maryland U. /Massachusetts U., Amherst /MIT, LNS /McGill U. /Milan U. /INFN, Milan /Mississippi U. /Montreal U. /Mt. Holyoke Coll. /Naples U. /INFN, Naples /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /Notre Dame U. /Ohio State U. /Oregon U. /Padua U. /INFN, Padua /Paris U., VI-VII /Pennsylvania U. /Perugia U. /INFN, Perugia /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /Prairie View A-M /Princeton U. /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /Rostock U. /Rutherford /DAPNIA, Saclay /South Carolina U. /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SUNY, Stony Brook /Tennessee U. /Texas U. /Texas U., Dallas /Turin U. /INFN, Turin /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Valencia U., IFIC /Vanderbilt U. /Victoria U. /Warwick U. /Wisconsin U., Madison /Yale U.

    2005-06-29

    The authors study e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} J/{psi} c{bar c} by measuring the invariant mass distribution recoiling against fully reconstructed J/{psi} decays, using 124.4 fb{sup -1} of data collected with a center-of-mass energy of 10.6 GeV with the BABAR detector. They observe signals for {eta}{sub c}(1S), {chi}{sub c0}, and {eta}{sub c}(2S) in the recoil mass distribution, thus confirming previous measurements. The authors measure {sigma}(e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} J/{psi} + c{bar c}){Beta}(c{bar c} {yields} > 2 charged) to be 17.6 {+-} 2.8(stat){sub -2.1}{sup +1.5}(syst) fb, 10.3 {+-} 2.5(stat){sub -1.8}{sup +1.4}(syst) fb, and 16.4 {+-} 3.7(stat){sub -3.0}{sup +2.4}(syst) fb with c{bar c} = {eta}{sub c}(1S), {chi}{sub c0}, and {eta}{sub c}(2S), respectively.

  9. 46 CFR 30.10-6a - Category A machinery space-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Category A machinery space-TB/ALL. 30.10-6a Section 30... Definitions § 30.10-6a Category A machinery space—TB/ALL. The term Category A machinery space means any space and trunks and ducts to such a space that contains: (a) Internal combustion machinery used for...

  10. 46 CFR 30.10-6a - Category A machinery space-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Category A machinery space-TB/ALL. 30.10-6a Section 30... Definitions § 30.10-6a Category A machinery space—TB/ALL. The term Category A machinery space means any space and trunks and ducts to such a space that contains: (a) Internal combustion machinery used for...

  11. 46 CFR 30.10-6a - Category A machinery space-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Category A machinery space-TB/ALL. 30.10-6a Section 30... Definitions § 30.10-6a Category A machinery space—TB/ALL. The term Category A machinery space means any space and trunks and ducts to such a space that contains: (a) Internal combustion machinery used for...

  12. 46 CFR 30.10-6a - Category A machinery space-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Category A machinery space-TB/ALL. 30.10-6a Section 30... Definitions § 30.10-6a Category A machinery space—TB/ALL. The term Category A machinery space means any space and trunks and ducts to such a space that contains: (a) Internal combustion machinery used for...

  13. 46 CFR 30.10-6a - Category A machinery space-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Category A machinery space-TB/ALL. 30.10-6a Section 30... Definitions § 30.10-6a Category A machinery space—TB/ALL. The term Category A machinery space means any space and trunks and ducts to such a space that contains: (a) Internal combustion machinery used for...

  14. Dishonorary Degrees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romano, Carlin

    2008-01-01

    If an honorary degree lacks values to begin with, does withdrawing it deliver a rebuke to the recipient? Is whatever honor that comes with the distinction embedded in the fancy paper, or is it wholly in the eye of the degree holder? Are honorary degrees really such silly things that individuals should mock their bestowal or withdrawal? The case of…

  15. C1q and systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Walport, M J; Davies, K A; Botto, M

    1998-08-01

    In this chapter we review the association between SLE and C1q. In the first part of the chapter we discuss the clinical associations of C1q deficiency, and tabulate the available information in the literature relating to C1q deficiency and autoimmune disease. Other clinical associations of C1q deficiency are then considered, and we mention briefly the association between other genetically determined complement deficiencies and lupus. In the review we explore the relationship between C1q consumption and lupus and we discuss the occurrence of low molecular weight (7S) C1q in lupus, which raises the possibility that increased C1q turnover in the disease may result in unbalanced chain synthesis of the molecule. Anti-C1q antibodies are also strongly associated with severe SLE affecting the kidney, and with hypocomplementaemic urticarial vasculitis, and these associations are also examined. We address the question of how C1q deficiency may cause SLE, discussing the possibility that this may be due to abnormalities of immune complex processing, which have been well characterised in a umber of different human models. There is clear evidence that immune complex processing is abnormal in patients with hypocomplementaemia, and this is compatible with the hypothesis that ineffective immune complex clearance could cause tissue injury, and this may in turn stimulate an autoantibody response. We have also considered the possibility that C1q-C1q receptor interactions are critical in the regulation of apoptosis, and we explore the hypothesis that dysregulation of apoptosis could explain important features in the development of autoimmune disease associated with C1q deficiency. An abnormally high rate of apoptosis, or defective clearance of apoptotic cells, could promote the accumulation of abnormal cellular products that might drive an autoimmune response. Anti-C1q antibodies have been described in a number of murine models of lupus, and these are also briefly discussed. We focus

  16. C1 Hermite shape preserving polynomial splines in R3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabrielides, Nikolaos C.

    2012-06-01

    The C 2 variable degree splines1-3 have been proven to be an efficient tool for solving the curve shape-preserving interpolation problem in two and three dimensions. Based on this representation, the current paper proposes a Hermite interpolation scheme, to construct C 1 shape-preserving splines of variable degree. After this, a slight modification of the method leads to a C 1 shape-preserving Hermite cubic spline. Both methods can easily be developed within a CAD system, since they compute directly (without iterations) the B-spline control polygon. They have been implemented and tested within the DNV Software CAD/CAE system GeniE. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  17. Autoantibodies against complement C1q specifically target C1q bound on early apoptotic cells.

    PubMed

    Bigler, Cornelia; Schaller, Monica; Perahud, Iryna; Osthoff, Michael; Trendelenburg, Marten

    2009-09-01

    Autoantibodies against complement C1q (anti-C1q) are frequently found in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). They strongly correlate with the occurrence of severe lupus nephritis, suggesting a pathogenic role in SLE. Because anti-C1q are known to recognize a neoepitope on bound C1q, but not on fluid-phase C1q, the aim of this study was to clarify the origin of anti-C1q by determining the mechanism that renders C1q antigenic. We investigated anti-C1q from serum and purified total IgG of patients with SLE and hypocomplementemic urticarial vasculitis as well as two monoclonal human anti-C1q Fab from a SLE patient generated by phage display. Binding characteristics, such as their ability to recognize C1q bound on different classes of Igs, on immune complexes, and on cells undergoing apoptosis, were analyzed. Interestingly, anti-C1q did not bind to C1q bound on Igs or immune complexes. Neither did we observe specific binding of anti-C1q to C1q bound on late apoptotic/necrotic cells when compared with binding in the absence of C1q. However, as shown by FACS analysis and confocal microscopy, anti-C1q specifically targeted C1q bound on early apoptotic cells. Anti-C1q were found to specifically target C1q bound on cells undergoing apoptosis. Our observations suggest that early apoptotic cells are a major target of the autoimmune response in SLE and provide a direct link between human SLE, apoptosis, and C1q. PMID:19648280

  18. C1 neurons: the body's EMTs.

    PubMed

    Guyenet, Patrice G; Stornetta, Ruth L; Bochorishvili, Genrieta; Depuy, Seth D; Burke, Peter G R; Abbott, Stephen B G

    2013-08-01

    The C1 neurons reside in the rostral and intermediate portions of the ventrolateral medulla (RVLM, IVLM). They use glutamate as a fast transmitter and synthesize catecholamines plus various neuropeptides. These neurons regulate the hypothalamic pituitary axis via direct projections to the paraventricular nucleus and regulate the autonomic nervous system via projections to sympathetic and parasympathetic preganglionic neurons. The presympathetic C1 cells, located in the RVLM, are probably organized in a roughly viscerotopic manner and most of them regulate the circulation. C1 cells are variously activated by hypoglycemia, infection or inflammation, hypoxia, nociception, and hypotension and contribute to most glucoprivic responses. C1 cells also stimulate breathing and activate brain stem noradrenergic neurons including the locus coeruleus. Based on the various effects attributed to the C1 cells, their axonal projections and what is currently known of their synaptic inputs, subsets of C1 cells appear to be differentially recruited by pain, hypoxia, infection/inflammation, hemorrhage, and hypoglycemia to produce a repertoire of stereotyped autonomic, metabolic, and neuroendocrine responses that help the organism survive physical injury and its associated cohort of acute infection, hypoxia, hypotension, and blood loss. C1 cells may also contribute to glucose and cardiovascular homeostasis in the absence of such physical stresses, and C1 cell hyperactivity may contribute to the increase in sympathetic nerve activity associated with diseases such as hypertension. PMID:23697799

  19. 42 CFR 52c.1 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Applicability. 52c.1 Section 52c.1 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS MINORITY BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH... Biomedical Research Support Program) awarded in accordance with section 301(a)(3) of the Public...

  20. 42 CFR 52c.1 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Applicability. 52c.1 Section 52c.1 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS MINORITY BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH... Biomedical Research Support Program) awarded in accordance with section 301(a)(3) of the Public...

  1. C1 neurons: the body's EMTs

    PubMed Central

    Stornetta, Ruth L.; Bochorishvili, Genrieta; DePuy, Seth D.; Burke, Peter G. R.; Abbott, Stephen B. G.

    2013-01-01

    The C1 neurons reside in the rostral and intermediate portions of the ventrolateral medulla (RVLM, IVLM). They use glutamate as a fast transmitter and synthesize catecholamines plus various neuropeptides. These neurons regulate the hypothalamic pituitary axis via direct projections to the paraventricular nucleus and regulate the autonomic nervous system via projections to sympathetic and parasympathetic preganglionic neurons. The presympathetic C1 cells, located in the RVLM, are probably organized in a roughly viscerotopic manner and most of them regulate the circulation. C1 cells are variously activated by hypoglycemia, infection or inflammation, hypoxia, nociception, and hypotension and contribute to most glucoprivic responses. C1 cells also stimulate breathing and activate brain stem noradrenergic neurons including the locus coeruleus. Based on the various effects attributed to the C1 cells, their axonal projections and what is currently known of their synaptic inputs, subsets of C1 cells appear to be differentially recruited by pain, hypoxia, infection/inflammation, hemorrhage, and hypoglycemia to produce a repertoire of stereotyped autonomic, metabolic, and neuroendocrine responses that help the organism survive physical injury and its associated cohort of acute infection, hypoxia, hypotension, and blood loss. C1 cells may also contribute to glucose and cardiovascular homeostasis in the absence of such physical stresses, and C1 cell hyperactivity may contribute to the increase in sympathetic nerve activity associated with diseases such as hypertension. PMID:23697799

  2. Biomechanical characteristics of C1-2 cable fixations.

    PubMed

    Dickman, C A; Crawford, N R; Paramore, C G

    1996-08-01

    The biomechanical characteristics of four different methods of C1-2 cable fixation were studied to assess the effectiveness of each technique in restoring atlantoaxial stability. Biomechanical testing was performed on the upper cervical spines of four human cadaveric specimens. Physiological range loading was applied to the atlantoaxial specimens and three-dimensional motion was analyzed with stereophotogrammetry. The load-deformation relationships and kinematics were measured, including the stiffness, the angular ranges of motion, the linear ranges of motion, and the axes of rotation. Specimens were nondestructively tested in the intact state, after surgical destabilization, and after each of four different methods of cable fixation. Cable fixation techniques included the interspinous technique, the Brooks technique, and two variants of the Gallie technique. All specimens were tested immediately after fixation and again after the specimen was fatigued with 6000 cycles of physiological range torsional loading. All four cable fixation methods were moderately flexible immediately; the different cable fixations allowed between 5 degrees and 40 degrees of rotational motion and between 0.6 and 7 mm of translational motion to occur at C1-2. The Brooks and interspinous methods controlled C1-2 motion significantly better than both of the Gallie techniques. The motion allowed by one of the Gallie techniques did not differ significantly from the motion of the unfixed destabilized specimens. All cable fixation techniques loosened after cyclic loading and demonstrated significant increases in C1-2 rotational and translational motions. The bone grafts shifted during cyclic loading, which reduced the effectiveness of the fixation. The locations of the axes of rotation, which were unconstrained and mobile in the destabilized specimens, became altered with cable fixation. The C1-2 cables constrained motion by shifting the axes of rotation so that C-1 rotated around the fixed cable

  3. Experiment definition phase shuttle laboratory LDRL-10.6 experiment. [applying optical communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The 10.6 microns laser data relay link (LDRL 10.6) program was directed to applying optical communications to NASA's wideband data transmission requirements through the 1980's. The LDRL consists of a transmitter on one or more low earth orbit satellites with an elliptical orbit satellite receivers. Topics discussed include: update of the LDRL design control table to detail the transmitter optical chain losses and to incorporate the change to a reflective beam pre-expander; continued examination of the link establishment sequence, including its dependence upon spacecraft stability; design of the transmitter pointing and tracking control system; and finalization of the transmitter brassboard optical and mechanical design.

  4. Optical response at 10.6 microns in tungsten silicide Schottky barrier diodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, Sandeep; Boyd, Joseph T.; Jackson, Howard E.

    1987-01-01

    Optical response to radiation at a wavelength of 10.6 microns in tungsten silicide-silicon Schottky barrier diodes has been observed. Incident photons excite electrons by means of junction plasmon assisted inelastic electron tunneling. At 78 K, a peak in the second derivative of current versus junction bias voltage was observed at a voltage corresponding to the energy of photons having a wavelength of 10.6 microns. This peak increased with increasing incident laser power, saturating at the highest laser powers investigated.

  5. Routine testing of diamond-turned optics using a 10.6 micron interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, D. C.

    1980-01-01

    A 10.6-micron laser unequal-path interferometer for the testing of diamond-turned optics has been designed and built; the device eliminates difficulties associated with surface defects. Zinc selenide optics are used throughout to facilitate alignment in the visible and permit expansion to near IR wavelengths. The output is displayed on a TV monitor through the use of a pyroelectric vidicon. Examples are presented which clearly demonstrate the reduced effect of the diamond-turning surface defects at 10.6 microns, resulting in a more realistic view of the wavefront.

  6. Posterior osseous bridging of C1.

    PubMed

    Simsek, Serkan; Yigitkanli, Kazim; Comert, Ayhan; Acar, Halil I; Seckin, Hakan; Er, Uygur; Belen, Deniz; Tekdemir, Ibrahim; Elhan, Alaittin

    2008-06-01

    The sulcus of the vertebral artery is located behind the lateral mass of the atlas and in some cases is converted into a foramen by anomalous ossification known as the posterior ponticulus (osseous bridge). This study involved anatomical observations of 158 isolated anatomical specimens of dry C1 vertebrae. The incidence and types of posterior osseous bridging were identified for the 158 dry samples of atlas vertebrae. In nine (5.6%) dry C1 vertebrae, partial osseous bridging was detected (bilaterally in eight vertebrae and unilaterally on the left in one). Complete osseous bridging (arcuate foramen) was observed in six (3.8%) dry C1 vertebrae (bilaterally in one vertebra, unilaterally on the left in three, and on the right in two). Awareness of the types of posterior osseous bridging of C1 in craniocervical junction surgery is essential, and may be helpful in surgical interventions in this region. PMID:18378457

  7. Anti-C1q autoantibodies.

    PubMed

    Kallenberg, Cees G M

    2008-09-01

    Autoantibodies to complement components are associated with various diseases. Anti-C1q antibodies are present in all patients with hypocomplementemic urticarial vasculitis, but also, with varying prevalence, in other conditions. In SLE, these antibodies are neither sensitive nor specific for this condition. They occur, however, more frequently in (proliferative) lupus nephritis, particularly during active disease. Furthermore, levels of anti-C1q rise, in many cases, prior to a relapse of lupus nephritis, suggesting a pathogenic role for the autoantibodies. Indeed, experimental studies strongly support a pathogenic role for anti-C1q in immune complex-mediated renal disease. In addition, anti-C1q may interfere with the clearance of apoptotic cells, so influencing induction and expression of autoimmunity. PMID:18606253

  8. 15 CFR 10.6 - Procedures for acceptance of a recommended standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) Acceptance of not less than 60 percent by the producer segment, the distributor segment, and the user and... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Procedures for acceptance of a... PROCEDURES FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF VOLUNTARY PRODUCT STANDARDS § 10.6 Procedures for acceptance of...

  9. 15 CFR 10.6 - Procedures for acceptance of a recommended standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) Acceptance of not less than 60 percent by the producer segment, the distributor segment, and the user and... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Procedures for acceptance of a... PROCEDURES FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF VOLUNTARY PRODUCT STANDARDS § 10.6 Procedures for acceptance of...

  10. Absorption coefficient at 10.6 microm in CdTe modulator crystals.

    PubMed

    Tucker, A W; Birnbaum, M; Montes, H; Fincher, C L

    1982-08-15

    The bulk and surface absorption coefficients of CdTe modulator crystals at 10.6 microm were compared with those of single-crystal KC1 and NaCl which served to calibrate the laser calorimeter. High-resistivity (>10(7) ohm/cm) CdTe crystals exhibited a bulk absorption coefficient of 0.0014 cm(-1). PMID:20396150

  11. Four C1q domain-containing proteins involved in the innate immune response in Hyriopsis cumingii.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ling-Ling; Jin, Min; Li, Xin-Cang; Ren, Qian; Lan, Jiang-Feng

    2016-08-01

    C1q is a key subcomponent of the complement C1 complex. This subcomponent contains a globular C1q (gC1q) domain with remarkable ligand binding properties. C1q domain-containing (C1qDC) proteins are composed of all proteins with a gC1q domain. C1qDC proteins exist in many invertebrates and recognize non-self-ligands. In our study, four C1qDC genes, namely, HcC1qDC1-HcC1qDC4, were identified from Hyriopsis cumingii. HcC1qDC1-HcC1qDC4 encode a protein of 224, 204, 305, and 332 amino acids, respectively. All C1qDC proteins consist of a gC1q domain at the C terminal. In addition to the gC1q domain, a coiled-coil region is found in HcC1qDC4. Multiple alignments and phylogenetic tree analysis revealed that the C1qDC proteins highly differ from one another. Tissue distribution analysis demonstrated that HcC1qDC1-HcC1qDC4 are widely distributed in hemocytes, hepatopancreas, gills, mantle, and foot. These C1qDC genes are regulated by bacteria to varying degrees. These recombinant HcC1qDC proteins exhibit a binding activity against different bacterial species. Our results may suggest the roles of HcC1qDC genes in anti-bacterial immune defense. PMID:27288256

  12. Hereditary angioedema with normal C1 inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Bork, Konrad

    2013-11-01

    Until recently it was assumed that hereditary angioedema was a disease that results exclusively from a genetic deficiency of the C1 inhibitor. In 2000, families with hereditary angioedema, normal C1 inhibitor activity, and protein in plasma were described. Since then, numerous patients and families with that condition have been reported. Most of the patients were women. In many of the affected women, oral contraceptives, hormone replacement therapy containing estrogens, and pregnancies triggered the clinical symptoms. In some families mutations in the coagulation factor XII (Hageman factor) gene were detected. PMID:24176211

  13. The Charpy impact properties of martensitic 10.6% Cr steel (MANET-1) before and after neutron exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Rieth, M.; Dafferner, B.; Rohrig, H.D.

    1994-12-31

    The MANET-I martensitic 10.6% Cr type of steel was developed as a potential structural material for the first wall and the blanket of a fusion device within the framework of the Nuclear Fusion Project. An extensive irradiation program (FRUST/SIENA) was elaborated to study the influence of radiation upon the Charpy impact characteristics. In addition to unirradiated reference specimens, 87 irradiated subsize Charpy specimens (3 x 4 x 27 mm{sup 3}) were examined under eight different heat treatments at irradiation temperatures between 287{degrees}C and 475{degrees}C and exposure doses of 5 dpa to 15 dpa. On the basis of the numerous test results and their interpretation it is possible to describe radiation induced material embrittlement, and, consequently, the deterioration of the Charpy impact properties. The description is limited, on the one hand, by the variations in the test results and, on the other hand, by the gaps in the test matrix. Therefore, additional investigations, especially in the low irradiation temperature and low dose regimes will be the subject of further ongoing work.

  14. Atmospheric backscatter vertical profiles at 9.2 and 10.6 microns - A comparative study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ancellet, Gerard M.; Menzies, Robert T.; Tratt, David M.

    1988-01-01

    The paper reports a series of atmospheric aerosol backscatter measurements at two widely spaced CO2 laser wavelengths: 9.25 and 10.6 microns. Comparisons are made between backscatter coefficient profiles at these two wavelengths up to 20-km altitude. Measurements such as those reported here can be used to assess the feasibility of coherent CO2 lidar for wind measurements, and they also provide a partial test of backscatter model predictions.

  15. Coupling characteristics of thin-film metal-oxide-metal diodes at 10.6 microns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, S. Y.; Gustafson, T. K.; Izawa, T.

    1975-01-01

    Direct detection experiments have demonstrated the coherent coupling of 10.6 micrometer radiation into photolithographically fabricated metal-oxide-metal tunnel junctions. A CO2 laser beam mechanically chopped at 1 KHz was focused at a variable angle of incidence with a power density of about 10 W/sq cm at the diodes. Diodes in which the junction resistance was much greater than the lead resistance displayed angular characteristics dominated by coherent antenna coupling.

  16. Radiation effects on beta 10.6 of pure and europium doped KCl

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grimes, H. H.; Maisel, J. E.; Hartford, R. H.

    1975-01-01

    Changes in the optical absorption coefficient as a result of X-ray and electron bombardment of pure KCl (monocrystalline and polycrystalline), and divalent europium doped polycrystalline KCl were determined. The optical absorption coefficients were measured by a constant heat flow calorimetric method. Both 300 KV X-irradiation and 2 MeV electron irradiation produced significant increases in beta 10.6, measured at room temperature. The X-irradiation of pure moncrystalline KCl increased beta 10.6 by 0.005/cm for a 113 MR dose. For an equivalent dose, 2 MeV electrons were found less efficient in changing beta 10.6. However, electron irradiation of pure and Eu-doped polycrystalline KCl produced marked increases in adsorption. Beta increased to over 0.25/cm in Eu-doped material for a 30 x 10 to the 14th power electrons/sq cm dose, a factor of 20 increase over unirradiated material. Moreover, bleaching the electron irradiated doped KCl with 649 m light produced and additional factor of 1.5 increase. These findings will be discussed in light of known defect-center properties in KCl.

  17. Cooperative Research in C1 Chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2000-10-27

    C1 chemistry refers to the conversion of simple carbon-containing materials that contain one carbon atom per molecule into valuable products. The feedstocks for C1 chemistry include natural gas, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methanol and synthesis gas (a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen). Synthesis gas, or syngas, is produced primarily by the reaction of natural gas, which is principally methane, with steam. It can also be produced by gasification of coal, petroleum coke, or biomass. The availability of syngas from coal gasification is expected to increase significantly in the future because of increasing development of integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power generation. Because of the abundance of remote natural gas, the advent of IGCC, and environmental advantages, C1 chemistry is expected to become a major area of interest for the transportation fuel and chemical industries in the relatively near future. The CFFLS will therefore perform a valuable national service by providing science and engineering graduates that are trained in this important area. Syngas is the source of most hydrogen. Approximately 10 trillion standard cubic feet (SCF) of hydrogen are manufactured annually in the world. Most of this hydrogen is currently used for the production of ammonia and in a variety of refining and chemical operations. However, utilization of hydrogen in fuel cells is expected to grow significantly in the next century. Syngas is also the feedstock for all methanol and Fischer-Tropsch plants. Currently, world consumption of methanol is over 25 million tons per year. There are many methanol plants in the U.S. and throughout the world. Methanol and oxygenated transportation fuel products play a significant role in the CFFLS C1 program. Currently, the only commercial Fischer-Tropsch plants are overseas, principally in South Africa (SASOL). However, new plants are being built or planned for a number of locations. One possible location for future F

  18. Subwavelength transmission grating retarders for use at 10.6 μm.

    PubMed

    Brundrett, D L; Glytsis, E N; Gaylord, T K

    1996-11-01

    Designs are given for gallium-arsenide subwavelength grating retarders operating at 10.6 μm. A design procedure is detailed that takes into account the reflections at all surfaces and that uses numerical optimization to improve the transmittance of the retarders to nearly 100%. It is shown that the homogeneous uniaxial layer model for subwavelength gratings can be used to provide starting points for the Nelder-Mead simplex optimization, obviating the need for stochastic optimization techniques such as simulated annealing. An analysis of the designs with respect to wavelength, angle of incidence, and fabrication tolerances indicates that such grating retarders will perform favorably compared with commercial alternatives. PMID:21127640

  19. Predicted performance of a 10.6 micron pulsed coherent laser radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Kenneth W.

    1987-01-01

    Theoretical predictions are made for the S/N ratio effects of atmospheric turbulence, target features, and receiver configuration on the performance of a 10.6-micron pulsed coherent laser radar. The predictions obtained are compared with experimental data for two target types: terrain consisting of soil and trees, and a silage tower. It is predicted that the terrain target should be detectable with a 50-mm aperture at ranges of up to 2.5 km for 50 percent of the time; this performance has been achieved in practice.

  20. COOPERATIVE RESEARCH IN C1 CHEMISTRY

    SciTech Connect

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2001-04-30

    Faculty and students from five universities (Kentucky, West Virginia, Utah, Pittsburgh and Auburn) are collaborating on a basic research program to develop novel C1 chemistry processes for the production of clean, high quality transportation fuel. An Industrial Advisory Board (IAB) with members from Chevron, Eastman Chemical, Energy International, Teir Associates, and the Department of Defense has been formed to provide practical guidance to the program. The program has two principal objectives. (1) Develop technology for conversion of C1 source materials (natural gas, synthesis gas, carbon dioxide and monoxide, and methanol) into clean, high efficiency transportation fuel. (2) Develop novel processes for producing hydrogen from natural gas and other hydrocarbons. Some of the principal accomplishments of the program in its first two years are: (1) The addition of acetylenic compounds in Fischer-Tropsch synthesis is found to produce significant amounts of oxygenated products in FT diesel fuels. Such oxygenated products should decrease particulate matter (PM) emissions. (2) Nanoscale, binary, Fe-based catalysts supported on alumina have been shown to have significant activity for the decomposition of methane into pure hydrogen and potentially valuable multi-walled carbon nanotubes. (3) Catalytic synthesis processes have been developed for synthesis of diethyl carbonate, higher ethers, and higher alcohols from C1 source materials. Testing of the effect of adding these oxygenates to diesel fuel on PM emissions has begun using a well-equipped small diesel engine test facility. (4) Supercritical fluid (SCF) FT synthesis has been conducted under SCF hexane using both Fe and Co catalysts. There is a marked effect on the hydrocarbon product distribution, with a shift to higher carbon number products. These and other results are summarized.

  1. C1q protein binds to the apoptotic nucleolus and causes C1 protease degradation of nucleolar proteins.

    PubMed

    Cai, Yitian; Teo, Boon Heng Dennis; Yeo, Joo Guan; Lu, Jinhua

    2015-09-11

    In infection, complement C1q recognizes pathogen-congregated antibodies and elicits complement activation. Among endogenous ligands, C1q binds to DNA and apoptotic cells, but whether C1q binds to nuclear DNA in apoptotic cells remains to be investigated. With UV irradiation-induced apoptosis, C1q initially bound to peripheral cellular regions in early apoptotic cells. By 6 h, binding concentrated in the nuclei to the nucleolus but not the chromatins. When nucleoli were isolated from non-apoptotic cells, C1q also bound to these structures. In vivo, C1q exists as the C1 complex (C1qC1r2C1s2), and C1q binding to ligands activates the C1r/C1s proteases. Incubation of nucleoli with C1 caused degradation of the nucleolar proteins nucleolin and nucleophosmin 1. This was inhibited by the C1 inhibitor. The nucleoli are abundant with autoantigens. C1q binding and C1r/C1s degradation of nucleolar antigens during cell apoptosis potentially reduces autoimmunity. These findings help us to understand why genetic C1q and C1r/C1s deficiencies cause systemic lupus erythematosus. PMID:26231209

  2. Microbial growth on C1 compounds

    PubMed Central

    Kemp, M. B.; Quayle, J. R.

    1967-01-01

    1. A study has been made of the incorporation of carbon from [14C]formaldehyde and [14C]formate by cultures of Pseudomonas methanica growing on methane. 2. The distribution of radioactivity within the non-volatile constituents of the ethanol-soluble fractions of the cells, after incubation with labelled compounds for periods of up to 1min., has been analysed by chromatography and radioautography. 3. Radioactivity was fixed from [14C]formaldehyde mainly into the phosphates of the sugars, glucose, fructose, sedoheptulose and allulose. 4. Very little radioactivity was fixed from [14C]formate; after 1min. the only products identified were serine and malate. 5. The distribution of radioactivity within the carbon skeleton of glucose, obtained from short-term incubations with [14C]methanol of Pseudomonas methanica growing on methane, has been investigated. At the earliest time of sampling over 70% of the radioactivity was located in C-1; as the time increased the radioactivity spread throughout the molecule. 6. The results have been interpreted in terms of a variant of the pentose phosphate cycle, involving the condensation of formaldehyde with C-1 of ribose 5-phosphate to give allulose phosphate. PMID:6030306

  3. Frequency modulation and demodulation of a 10.6-micron CO2 laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasuoka, Y.; Takahashi, T.; Gustafson, T. K.

    1980-01-01

    Frequency modulation and demodulation in optical communication is done using the 10.6-micron CO2 laser beam as a carrier. A Ge-LiNbO3 acousto-optic device and W-Ni point-contact diode are used as a modulator and a detector, respectively. The frequency of the carrier shifts by f sub zero by driving the modulator with the signal of f sub zero. By using the nonreflected laser beam as a local oscillator, the beat note when the transducer was driven by the signal from the sweep signal generator is obtained at the receiving station. Present experimental observations have demonstrated this, using the subcarrier of 38 MHz and the signal of 1 MHz as the driving frequencies of the modulator.

  4. 10.6% Certified Colloidal Quantum Dot Solar Cells via Solvent-Polarity-Engineered Halide Passivation.

    PubMed

    Lan, Xinzheng; Voznyy, Oleksandr; García de Arquer, F Pelayo; Liu, Mengxia; Xu, Jixian; Proppe, Andrew H; Walters, Grant; Fan, Fengjia; Tan, Hairen; Liu, Min; Yang, Zhenyu; Hoogland, Sjoerd; Sargent, Edward H

    2016-07-13

    Colloidal quantum dot (CQD) solar cells are solution-processed photovoltaics with broad spectral absorption tunability. Major advances in their efficiency have been made via improved CQD surface passivation and device architectures with enhanced charge carrier collection. Herein, we demonstrate a new strategy to improve further the passivation of CQDs starting from the solution phase. A cosolvent system is employed to tune the solvent polarity in order to achieve the solvation of methylammonium iodide (MAI) and the dispersion of hydrophobic PbS CQDs simultaneously in a homogeneous phase, otherwise not achieved in a single solvent. This process enables MAI to access the CQDs to confer improved passivation. This, in turn, allows for efficient charge extraction from a thicker photoactive layer device, leading to a certified solar cell power conversion efficiency of 10.6%, a new certified record in CQD photovoltaics. PMID:27351104

  5. Physics design for the ATA tapered wiggler 10. 6. mu. FEL amplifier experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Fawley, W.M.

    1985-10-01

    We are presently designing and constructing a high-gain, tapered wiggler 10.6 ..mu.. FEL amplifier to operate with the 50 MeV ATA e-beam. The initial experiments will be done with a constant period (lambda /SUB w/ =8 cm), 5 m-long linear wiggler. For an input laser power of 800 MW and electron beam brightness of 2.10/sup 5/ A/(rad-cm)/sup 2/, we hope to achieve a trapped particle fraction about0.5 and an energy extraction efficiency of about2% with a about10% taper in the wiggler magnetic field. This taper corresponds to decelerating the trapped particle approximately two full ponderomotive well (i.e. bucket) heights. In this talk, we discuss the physics motivations behind our tapered wiggler design and initial experimental diagnostics.

  6. Draft genome sequence of Phomopsis longicolla isolate MSPL 10-6

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shuxian; Darwish, Omar; Alkharouf, Nadim; Matthews, Benjamin; Ji, Pingsheng; Domier, Leslie L.; Zhang, Ning; Bluhm, Burton H.

    2014-01-01

    Phomopsis longicolla is the primary cause of Phomopsis seed decay in soybean. This disease severely affects soybean seed quality by reducing seed viability and oil content, altering seed composition, and increasing frequencies of moldy and/or split beans. It is one of the most economically important soybean diseases. Here, we report the de novo assembled draft genome sequence of the P. longicolla isolate MSPL10-6, which was isolated from field-grown soybean seed in Mississippi, USA. This study represents the first reported genome sequence of a seedborne fungal pathogen in the Diaporthe–Phomopsis complex. The P. longicolla genome sequence will enable research into the genetic basis of fungal infection of soybean seed and provide information for the study of soybean–fungal interactions. The genome sequence will also be valuable for molecular genetic marker development, manipulation of pathogenicity-related genes and development of new control strategies for this pathogen. PMID:26484148

  7. Draft genome sequence of Phomopsis longicolla isolate MSPL 10-6.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuxian; Darwish, Omar; Alkharouf, Nadim; Matthews, Benjamin; Ji, Pingsheng; Domier, Leslie L; Zhang, Ning; Bluhm, Burton H

    2015-03-01

    Phomopsis longicolla is the primary cause of Phomopsis seed decay in soybean. This disease severely affects soybean seed quality by reducing seed viability and oil content, altering seed composition, and increasing frequencies of moldy and/or split beans. It is one of the most economically important soybean diseases. Here, we report the de novo assembled draft genome sequence of the P. longicolla isolate MSPL10-6, which was isolated from field-grown soybean seed in Mississippi, USA. This study represents the first reported genome sequence of a seedborne fungal pathogen in the Diaporthe-Phomopsis complex. The P. longicolla genome sequence will enable research into the genetic basis of fungal infection of soybean seed and provide information for the study of soybean-fungal interactions. The genome sequence will also be valuable for molecular genetic marker development, manipulation of pathogenicity-related genes and development of new control strategies for this pathogen. PMID:26484148

  8. MgZnO/ZnO heterostructures with electron mobility exceeding 1 × 10(6) cm(2)/Vs.

    PubMed

    Falson, Joseph; Kozuka, Yusuke; Uchida, Masaki; Smet, Jurgen H; Arima, Taka-Hisa; Tsukazaki, Atsushi; Kawasaki, Masashi

    2016-01-01

    The inherently complex chemical and crystallographic nature of oxide materials has suppressed the purities achievable in laboratory environments, obscuring the rich physical degrees of freedom these systems host. In this manuscript we provide a systematic approach to defect identification and management in oxide molecular beam epitaxy grown MgZnO/ZnO heterostructures which host two-dimensional electron systems. We achieve samples displaying electron mobilities in excess of 1 × 10(6) cm(2)/Vs. This data set for the MgZnO/ZnO system firmly establishes that the crystalline quality has become comparable to traditional semiconductor materials. PMID:27229479

  9. C1 inhibitor deficiency: 2014 United Kingdom consensus document

    PubMed Central

    Longhurst, H J; Tarzi, M D; Ashworth, F; Bethune, C; Cale, C; Dempster, J; Gompels, M; Jolles, S; Seneviratne, S; Symons, C; Price, A; Edgar, D

    2015-01-01

    C1 inhibitor deficiency is a rare disorder manifesting with recurrent attacks of disabling and potentially life-threatening angioedema. Here we present an updated 2014 United Kingdom consensus document for the management of C1 inhibitor-deficient patients, representing a joint venture between the United Kingdom Primary Immunodeficiency Network and Hereditary Angioedema UK. To develop the consensus, we assembled a multi-disciplinary steering group of clinicians, nurses and a patient representative. This steering group first met in 2012, developing a total of 48 recommendations across 11 themes. The statements were distributed to relevant clinicians and a representative group of patients to be scored for agreement on a Likert scale. All 48 statements achieved a high degree of consensus, indicating strong alignment of opinion. The recommendations have evolved significantly since the 2005 document, with particularly notable developments including an improved evidence base to guide dosing and indications for acute treatment, greater emphasis on home therapy for acute attacks and a strong focus on service organization. PMID:25605519

  10. C1 inhibitor deficiency: 2014 United Kingdom consensus document.

    PubMed

    Longhurst, H J; Tarzi, M D; Ashworth, F; Bethune, C; Cale, C; Dempster, J; Gompels, M; Jolles, S; Seneviratne, S; Symons, C; Price, A; Edgar, D

    2015-06-01

    C1 inhibitor deficiency is a rare disorder manifesting with recurrent attacks of disabling and potentially life-threatening angioedema. Here we present an updated 2014 United Kingdom consensus document for the management of C1 inhibitor-deficient patients, representing a joint venture between the United Kingdom Primary Immunodeficiency Network and Hereditary Angioedema UK. To develop the consensus, we assembled a multi-disciplinary steering group of clinicians, nurses and a patient representative. This steering group first met in 2012, developing a total of 48 recommendations across 11 themes. The statements were distributed to relevant clinicians and a representative group of patients to be scored for agreement on a Likert scale. All 48 statements achieved a high degree of consensus, indicating strong alignment of opinion. The recommendations have evolved significantly since the 2005 document, with particularly notable developments including an improved evidence base to guide dosing and indications for acute treatment, greater emphasis on home therapy for acute attacks and a strong focus on service organization. PMID:25605519

  11. Development of ferromagnetic spinels for optical isolation at 10. 6. mu. m

    SciTech Connect

    Teegarden, K.J.

    1980-05-01

    Vacuum hot pressing was used to fabricate CdCr/sub 2/S/sub 4/, CdCr/sub 2/Se/sub 4/ and (1-x) CdCr/sub 2/S/sub 4/.x CdCr/sub 2/Se/sub 4/ discs with diameters of 1.25 cm from fine powders and small single crystals to relative densities as high as 99.6%. Optical attenuation coefficients of approx. 1.0 cm/sup -1/ at 10.6 m were obtained for CdCr/sub 2/S/sub 4/, and values of 12.1 cm/sup -1/ and 14.9 cm/sup -1/ for the selenide and sulfur-selenide mixture. Two-and-three-phonon absorption bands were found to limit the transmission of CdCr/sub 2/S/sub 4/ at lambda > 10 ..mu..m. Extrinsic absorption mechanisms caused the higher attenuation coefficients in CdCr/sub 2/Se/sub 4/ and the mixture. The main extrinsic mechanisms at long wavelengths were free carrier absorption (in CdCr/sub 2/Se/sub 4/) and an impurity absorption band at 16.3 ..mu..m due to Cr/sub 2/O/sub 3/. At short wavelengths the attenuation coefficient was dominated by scattering from pores and second phases. Free carrier absorption was found to be induced by free selenium present in the starting powders. Suppression of this absorption was achieved by optimizing the hot-pressing procedure in order to remove free selenium. The presence of pores was attributed to incomplete densification arising from the presence of second phases (CdSe and Cr/sub 2/Se/sub 3/) and the absence of plastic deformation as a densification mechanism. Laser damage thresholds of 250 MWcm/sup -2/ and 100 MWcm/sup -2/ were measured at 10.6 ..mu..m for CdCr/sub 2/S/sub 4/ and CdCr/sub 2/Se/sub 4/, respectively.

  12. Microsecond enamel ablation with 10.6μm CO2 laser radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Góra, W. S.; McDonald, A.; Hand, D. P.; Shephard, J. D.

    2016-02-01

    Lasers have been previously been used for dental applications, however there remain issues with thermally-induced cracking. In this paper we investigate the impact of pulse length on CO2 laser ablation of human dental enamel. Experiments were carried in vitro on molar teeth without any modification to the enamel surface, such as grinding or polishing. In addition to varying the pulse length, we also varied pulse energy and focal position, to determine the most efficient ablation of dental hard tissue and more importantly to minimize or eradicate cracking. The maximum temperature rise during the multi pulse ablation process was monitored using a set of thermocouples embedded into the pulpal chamber. The application of a laser device in dental surgery allows removal of tissue with higher precision, which results in minimal loss of healthy dental tissue. In this study we use an RF discharge excited CO2 laser operating at 10.6μm. The wavelength of 10.6 μm overlaps with a phosphate band (PO3-4) absorption in dental hard tissue hence the CO2 laser radiation has been selected as a potential source for modification of the tissue. This research describes an in-depth analysis of single pulse laser ablation. To determine the parameters that are best suited for the ablation of hard dental tissue without thermal cracking, a range of pulse lengths (10-200 μs), and fluences (0-100 J/cm2) are tested. In addition, different laser focusing approaches are investigated to select the most beneficial way of delivering laser radiation to the surface (divergent/convergent beam). To ensure that these processes do not increase the temperature above the critical threshold and cause the necrosis of the tissue a set of thermocouples was placed into the pulpal chambers. Intermittent laser radiation was investigated with and without application of a water spray to cool down the ablation site and the adjacent area. Results show that the temperature can be kept below the critical threshold

  13. Complete cDNA sequence of human complement C1s and close physical linkage of the homologous genes C1s and C1r

    SciTech Connect

    Tosi, M.; Duponchel, C.; Meo, T.; Julier, C.

    1987-12-29

    Overlapping molecular clones encoding the complement subcomponent C1s were isolated from a human liver cDNA library. The nucleotide sequence reconstructed from these clones spans about 85% of the length of the liver C1s messenger RNAs, which occur in three distinct size classes around 3 kilobases in length. Comparisons with the sequence of C1r, the other enzymatic subcomponent of C1, reveal 40% amino acid identity and conservation of all the cysteine residues. Beside the serine protease domain, the following sequence motifs, previously described in C1r, were also found in C1s: (a) two repeats of the type found in the Ba fragment of complement factor B and in several other complement but also noncomplement proteins, (b) a cysteine-rich segment homologous to the repeats of epidermal growth factor precursor, and (c) a duplicated segment found only in C1r and C1s. Differences in each of these structural motifs provide significant clues for the interpretation of the functional divergence of these interacting serine protease zymogens. Hybridizations of C1r and C1s probes to restriction endonuclease fragments of genomic DNA demonstrate close physical linkage of the corresponding genes. The implications of this finding are discussed with respect to the evolution of C1r and C1s after their origin by tandem gene duplication and to the previously observed combined hereditary deficiencies of Clr and Cls.

  14. Cryogenic BRDF measurements at 10.6 micrometers and 0.63 micrometers on contaminated mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seiber, B. L.; Bryson, R. J.; Bertrand, W. T.; Wood, B. E.

    1995-02-01

    Effects of contaminants on optical surface are concern for space-based systems. Many systems contain cryogenic optical systems that operate at temperatures where gases condense. This study presents experimental results of the effects of condensed gases and spacecraft contaminants on highly polished (superpolished) mirror surfaces cooled, under vacuum to temperatures near 16 K and 70 K. After condensing contaminants on the mirror, the change in the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) was obtained at wavelengths of 10.6 and 0.6328 um for various contaminant thicknesses up to 15 um. For a mirror surface of 16 K, BRDF changes for the following contaminant films were obtained: air, N2, O2, H2O, CO, CO2, and Ar. For a mirror surface near 70 K, the BRDF changes from condensed films of the following outgassing effluents were measured: RS12M polycyanate, Nusil CV2500 silicone, Solithane 113/Cl 13-300 urethane, RTVS60 silicone, and 1120. In addition, using measured optical properties and the thin-film interference theory-based computer program CALCRT, the spectral reflectance of an 80 K aluminum mirror was calculated for H2O, CO and RTV560. This report was sponsored by the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization (BMDO) through Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) and by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) Space Environmental Effects Program.

  15. A single-stage GM-type pulse tube cryocooler operating at 10.6 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, Z. H.; Dong, W. Q.; Qiu, L. M.; Zhang, X. B.; Sun, H.; He, Y. L.; Radebaugh, R.

    2009-05-01

    In order to explore the lowest attainable refrigeration temperature and improve cooling performance at temperatures around 20 K for a single-stage G-M type pulse tube cryocooler (PTC), numerical and experimental studies were performed. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) numerical model known as REGEN was applied to the simulation of a G-M type PTC for the first time. Based on the calculation results, a single-stage G-M type PTC was designed, fabricated and tested. The performance improvement of the regenerator in the temperature range of 10-80 K was investigated. The calculations predicted a lowest temperature of 10 K. A lowest temperature of 10.6 K was achieved experimentally with an input power of 7.5 kW, which is the lowest temperature ever achieved by a single-stage PTC. Further more, the cryocooler can provide a cooling power of 20 W at 20.6 K and 39.5 W at 30 K, respectively.

  16. Genome-wide functional annotation of Phomopsis longicolla isolate MSPL 10-6.

    PubMed

    Darwish, Omar; Li, Shuxian; Matthews, Benjamin; Alkharouf, Nadim

    2016-06-01

    Phomopsis seed decay of soybean is caused primarily by the seed-borne fungal pathogen Phomopsis longicolla (syn. Diaporthe longicolla). This disease severely decreases soybean seed quality, reduces seedling vigor and stand establishment, and suppresses yield. It is one of the most economically important soybean diseases. In this study we annotated the entire genome of P. longicolla isolate MSPL 10-6, which was isolated from field-grown soybean seed in Mississippi, USA. This study represents the first reported genome-wide functional annotation of a seed borne fungal pathogen in the Diaporthe-Phomopsis complex. The P. longicolla genome annotation will enable research into the genetic basis of fungal infection of soybean seed and provide information for the study of soybean-fungal interactions. The genome annotation will also be a valuable resource for the research and agricultural communities. It will aid in the development of new control strategies for this pathogen. The annotations can be found from: http://bioinformatics.towson.edu/phomopsis_longicolla/download.html. NCBI accession number is: AYRD00000000. PMID:27222801

  17. C1-inhibitor (C1-INH) autoantibodies in hereditary angioedema. Strong correlation with the severity of disease in C1-INH concentrate naïve patients.

    PubMed

    Varga, Lilian; Széplaki, Gábor; Visy, Beáta; Füst, George; Harmat, George; Miklós, Katalin; Németh, Julianna; Cervenak, László; Karádi, István; Farkas, Henriette

    2007-02-01

    The presence of autoantibodies to C1-inhibitor (C1-INH-Abs) is a hallmark of acquired C1-inhibitor deficiency. However, only scarce data are available on their prevalence in hereditary angioedema (HAE). In a prospective study performed between 2001 and 2004 in 95 patients with Type I or II HAE, serum samples were taken one to three times a year and clinical status of the patients was registered. Serum samples were tested for total activity of the classical pathway, C1q, C3, C4 and C1-inhibitor (C1-INH) concentration and activity levels, as well as the presence of IgG, IgA and IgM type anti-C1-inhibitor antibodies (C1-INH-Ab). Fifty-four healthy age and gender matched persons served as control. Significant differences between the patients and controls in the occurrence of elevated (2S.D. higher than mean of control) C1-INH-Abs titers was found only in the case of IgM type C1-INH-Abs. Elevated (>4.22AU/ml) IgM C1-INH-Abs levels were found in 31 and 4% of the patients and controls, respectively (p<0.001). Surprisingly, high titer IgM C1-INH-Abs were present with equal frequency in the 41 HAE patients ever treated with C1-INH concentrate and in the 54 C1-INH treatment naïve patients. In the latter group, strong positive correlation between the levels of the IgM C1-INH-Abs and the most severe disease (score 1) (p=0.0021) and the yearly attack rate (p=0.0173) were obtained. In addition, the levels of the IgM C1-INH-Abs exhibited strong negative correlation to the C1-inhibitor concentration and functional activity, total classical complement pathway activity, and a positive correlation to total IgM concentration. Taken together, these data indicate that IgM type C1-INH-Abs are present with highly elevated frequency in HAE patients irrespectively of the previous treatment with C1-INH concentrate. Most probable production of these autoantibodies is the consequence of the activation of complement and other plasma enzyme systems during HAE attacks. Determination of IgM C1

  18. Characterization of C1 inhibitor binding to neutrophils.

    PubMed Central

    Chang, N S; Boackle, R J; Leu, R W

    1991-01-01

    In a previous study we have isolated neutrophil membrane proteins that non-covalently bind to native C1-INH (105,000 MW) and a non-functional, degraded C1-INH (88,000 MW; C1-INH-88). To further characterize the binding nature, we have designed a novel kinetic C1 titration assay which enables not only a quantification of the removal of fluid-phase C1-INH by neutrophils, but also a concomitant measure of residual C1-INH function. Native C1-INH, when adsorbed to EDTA-pretreated neutrophils, lost its function in the inhibition of fluid-phase C1. The non-functional C1-INH-88, which is probably devoid of a reactive centre, was found to block the binding of native C1-INH to neutrophils. Pretreatment of neutrophils with serine esterase inhibitors did not abrogate binding capacity of the cells for C1-INH, whereas the binding affinity for C1-INH was lost when the cells were pretreated with trypsin. An array of human peripheral blood leucocytes and several lymphoid cell lines has surface binding sites for C1-INH, but not on human erythrocytes and U937 cells. Binding was further confirmed using (i) C1-INH-microsphere beads to neutrophils, in which the binding was blocked when pretreating neutrophils with excess C1-INH or with trypsin, and (ii) radiolabelled C1-INH to neutrophils, which was competitively blocked by unlabelled non-functional C1-INH-88. Desialylation of C1-INH significantly reduced its binding affinity for neutrophils, indicating that the membrane receptor sites on neutrophils could be specific for the binding of sialic acid residues on C1-INH. Overall, our studies indicate that neutrophils or other leucocytes possess specific surface binding sites for the sialic acid-containing portion of C1-INH. PMID:2045131

  19. Molecular analysis of the maize anthocyanin regulatory locus C1.

    PubMed Central

    Cone, K C; Burr, F A; Burr, B

    1986-01-01

    The C1 gene of maize plays a regulatory role in the production of anthocyanin pigments in the aleurone layer of the endosperm. As an initial step toward understanding the molecular details of how C1 controls pigment biosynthesis, we cloned the C1 gene. This was accomplished by first cloning a mutable allele of C1, c1-m5, which contains the transposable element Spm. A combination of molecular and genetic analysis was used to identify the Spm at the C1 locus. Individual genomic DNAs from a population in which the c1-mutable phenotype was segregating with the recessive c1 phenotype were digested with methyl-sensitive restriction enzymes and probed with a small DNA fragment derived from a defective Spm. One Sal I restriction fragment complementary to the Spm probe was shown to be present in the DNA of individuals with the c1-m5 phenotype but absent from DNA of individuals with a recessive c1 phenotype. Subsequent cloning and restriction analysis of this fragment revealed sequences flanking the Spm that proved to be C1-specific. A DNA fragment derived from the flanking sequences was then used as a probe to clone the wild-type C1 gene and several additional alleles of C1, including one stable recessive, two mutations caused by Ds insertions, one mutation induced by insertion of a defective Spm, and two dominant mutations, C1-S and C1-I. RNA blot hybridization analysis of three C1 alleles indicates that C1 regulation of the Bz1 and A1 structural genes in the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway is at the transcriptional level. Images PMID:3025847

  20. Interaction between complement subcomponent C1q and bacterial lipopolysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Zohair, A; Chesne, S; Wade, R H; Colomb, M G

    1989-02-01

    The heptose-less mutant of Escherichia coli, D31m4, bound complement subcomponent C1q and its collagen-like fragments (C1qCLF) with Ka values of 1.4 x 10(8) and 2.0 x 10(8) M-1 respectively. This binding was suppressed by chemical modification of C1q and C1qCLF using diethyl pyrocarbonate (DEPC). To investigate the role of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) in this binding, biosynthetically labelled [14C]LPS were purified from E. coli D31m4 and incorporated into liposomes prepared from phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) [PC/PE/LPS, 2:2:1, by wt.]. Binding of C1q or its collagen-like fragments to the liposomes was estimated via a flotation test. These liposomes bound C1q and C1qCLF with Ka values of 8.0 x 10(7) and 2.0 x 10(7) M-1; this binding was totally inhibited after chemical modification of C1q and C1qCLF by DEPC. Liposomes containing LPS purified from the wild-strain E. coli K-12 S also bound C1q and C1qCLF, whereas direct binding of C1q or C1qCLF to the bacteria was negligible. Diamines at concentrations which dissociate C1 into C1q and (C1r, C1s)2, strongly inhibited the interaction of C1q or C1qCLF with LPS. Removal of 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonic acid (2-keto-3-deoxyoctonic acid; KDO) from E. coli D31m4 LPS decreases the binding of C1qCLF to the bacteria by 65%. When this purified and modified LPS was incorporated into liposomes, the C1qCLF binding was completely abolished. These results show: (i) the essential role of the collagen-like moiety and probably its histidine residues in the interaction between C1q and the mutant D31m4; (ii) the contribution of LPS, particularly the anionic charges of KDO, to this interaction. PMID:2649081

  1. 26 CFR 1.1092(c)-1 - Qualified covered calls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Qualified covered calls. 1.1092(c)-1 Section 1.1092(c)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Wash Sales of Stock Or Securities § 1.1092(c)-1 Qualified covered calls. (a)...

  2. 26 CFR 49.4262(c)-1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Definitions. 49.4262(c)-1 Section 49.4262(c)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES FACILITIES AND SERVICES EXCISE TAXES Transportation of Persons § 49.4262(c)-1 Definitions. (a) The continental United States. For purposes...

  3. 26 CFR 31.3401(c)-1 - Employee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Employee. 31.3401(c)-1 Section 31.3401(c)-1... Income Tax at Source § 31.3401(c)-1 Employee. (a) The term employee includes every individual performing... relationship of employer and employee. The term includes officers and employees, whether elected or...

  4. 26 CFR 1.1092(c)-1 - Qualified covered calls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Qualified covered calls. 1.1092(c)-1 Section 1.1092(c)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Wash Sales of Stock Or Securities § 1.1092(c)-1 Qualified covered...

  5. Revisiting the mechanism of the autoactivation of the complement protease C1r in the C1 complex: structure of the active catalytic region of C1r.

    PubMed

    Kardos, József; Harmat, Veronika; Palló, Anna; Barabás, Orsolya; Szilágyi, Katalin; Gráf, László; Náray-Szabó, Gábor; Goto, Yuji; Závodszky, Péter; Gál, Péter

    2008-03-01

    C1r is a modular serine protease which is the autoactivating component of the C1 complex of the classical pathway of the complement system. We have determined the first crystal structure of the entire active catalytic region of human C1r. This fragment contains the C-terminal serine protease (SP) domain and the preceding two complement control protein (CCP) modules. The activated CCP1-CCP2-SP fragment makes up a dimer in a head-to-tail fashion similarly to the previously characterized zymogen. The present structure shows an increased number of stabilizing interactions. Moreover, in the crystal lattice there is an enzyme-product relationship between the C1r molecules of neighboring dimers. This enzyme-product complex exhibits the crucial S1-P1 salt bridge between Asp631 and Arg446 residues, and intermolecular interaction between the CCP2 module and the SP domain. Based on these novel structural information we propose a new split-and-reassembly model for the autoactivation of the C1r. This model is consistent with experimental results that have not been explained adequately by previous models. It allows autoactivation of C1r without large-scale, directed movement of C1q arms. The model is concordant with the stability of the C1 complex during activation of the next complement components. PMID:17996945

  6. Genome Characteristics of a Novel Type I Methanotroph (Sn10-6) Isolated from a Flooded Indian Rice Field.

    PubMed

    Rahalkar, Monali C; Pandit, Pranitha S; Dhakephalkar, Prashant K; Pore, Soham; Arora, Preeti; Kapse, Neelam

    2016-04-01

    Flooded rice fields are important sources of atmospheric methane. Aerobic methanotrophs living in the vicinity of rice roots oxidize methane and act as environmental filters. Here, we present genome characteristics of a gammaproteobacterial methanotroph, isolate Sn10-6, which was isolated from a rice rhizosphere of a flooded field in India. Sn10-6 has been identified as a member of a putative novel genus and species within the family Methylococcaceae (Type I methanotrophs). The draft genome of Sn10-6 showed pathways for the following: methane oxidation, formaldehyde assimilation (RuMP), nitrogen fixation, conversion of nitrite to nitrous oxide, and other interesting genes including the ones responsible for survival in the rhizosphere environment. The majority of genes found in this genome were most similar to Methylovulum miyakonese which is a forest isolate. This draft genome provided insight into the physiology, ecology, and phylogeny of this gammaproteobacterial methanotroph. PMID:26547566

  7. Transcriptional activator elements for curtovirus C1 expression reside in the 3' coding region of ORF C1.

    PubMed

    Hur, Jingyung; Buckley, Kenneth; Lee, Sukchan; Davis, Keith

    2007-02-28

    Beet curly top virus (BCTV) and Beet severe curly top virus (BSCTV), members of curtoviruses, encode seven open reading frames (ORFs) within a approximately 3 kb genome. One of these viral ORFs, C1, is known to play an important role in the early stage of viral infection in plants during initiation of viral DNA replication. We used promoter:: reporter (beta-glucuronidase) gene fusions in transgenic Ara-bidopsis to identify the putative promoter region of BCTV ORF C1. Unlike other geminiviruses, the intergenic region of BCTV was not sufficient to promote C1 expression in transgenic plants. When sequences extending into the coding region of C1 were tested, strong expression of the reporter protein was observed in vascular tissues of transgenic plants. This expression was not dependent on the presence of the intergenic regions or proximal 5' portions of the C1 coding region. Transgenic plants expressing a reporter gene under control of the putative complete C1 promoter were inoculated with virus to determine if any viral transcript affected C1 expression. Virus inoculated plants did not show any altered pattern or change in of reporter gene expression level. These results suggest that (1) important transcriptional activator elements for C1 expression reside in the 3' portion of C1 coding area itself, (2) C1 protein does not auto-regulate its own expression and (3) C1 expression of two curtoviruses is controlled differently compared to other geminiviruses. PMID:17464215

  8. Platelet C1- inhibitor. A secreted alpha-granule protein.

    PubMed Central

    Schmaier, A H; Smith, P M; Colman, R W

    1985-01-01

    In order to characterize which proteins of the contact phase of coagulation interact with platelets, human platelets were studied immunochemically and functionally to determine if they contain C1- inhibitor. By means of monospecific antibody to C1- inhibitor, a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (CELISA) was developed to measure directly platelet C1- inhibitor. With the CELISA, from 33 to 115 ng of C1- inhibitor antigen per 10(8) platelets from 15 normal donors was quantified in lysates of washed human platelets solubilized in nonionic detergent. The mean concentration in 10(8) platelets was 62 +/- 33 ng (SD). Plasma C1- inhibitor either in the platelet suspension medium or on the surface of the platelets could account for only from 6.5 to 16% of the total antigen measured in the solubilized platelets. Upon functional studies, platelets contained 84 +/- 36 ng (SD) of C1- inhibitor activity in 10(8) platelets. As assessed by the CELISA, platelet C1- inhibitor antigen was immunochemically identical to plasma and purified C1- inhibitor. In contrast, the mean concentration of platelet C1- inhibitor antigen in platelets from four patients with classical hereditary angioedema was 8.3 ng/10(8) platelets (range, 5.3 to 11.3 ng/10(8) platelets). 25 and 31% of the total platelet C1- inhibitor was secreted without cell lysis from normal platelets after exposure to collagen (20 micrograms/ml) and thrombin (1 U/ml), respectively, and this secretion was blocked by metabolic inhibitors. Platelet subcellular fractionation showed that platelet C1- inhibitor resided mostly in alpha-granules, similar to the location of platelet fibrinogen. Thus, human platelets contained C1- inhibitor, which became available by platelet secretion. The identification of platelet C1- inhibitor suggests that platelets may modulate the activation of the proteins of early blood coagulation and the classical complement pathways. Images PMID:3965505

  9. Physics design for the ATA (Advanced Test Accelerator) tapered wiggler 10. 6. mu. FEL (Free-Electron Laser) amplifier experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Fawley, W.M.

    1985-05-09

    The design and construction of a high-gain, tapered wiggler 10.6 ..mu.. Free Electron Laser (FEL) amplifier to operate with the 50 MeV e-beam is underway. This report discussed the FEL simulation and the physics motivations behind the tapered wiggler design and initial experimental diagnostics.

  10. Wideband long-pulse operation of an efficient electro-optic modulator at 10.6 microm.

    PubMed

    Harris, N W; Grimm, J G; Eng, R S

    1990-10-15

    High conversion efficiency over a wide microwave band has been achieved in a high-power CdTe single-sideband electro-optic modulator working at 10.6 microm by dividing the modulator into two sections and driving each separately. PMID:19771027

  11. Fundamental role of C1q in autoimmunity and inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Son, Myoungsun; Santiago-Schwarz, Frances

    2016-01-01

    C1q, historically viewed as the initiating component of the classical complement pathway, also exhibits a variety of complement-independent activities in both innate and acquired immunity. Recent studies focusing on C1q’s suppressive role in the immune system have provided new insight into how abnormal C1q expression and bioactivity may contribute to autoimmunity. In particular, molecular networks involving C1q interactions with cell surface receptors and other ligands are emerging as mechanisms involved in C1q’s modulation of immunity. Here, we discuss the role of C1q in controlling immune cell function, including recently elucidated mechanisms of action, and suggest how these processes are critical for maintaining tissue homeostasis under steady-state conditions and in preventing autoimmunity. PMID:26410546

  12. Hereditary angioedema with normal C1-INH (HAE type III).

    PubMed

    Riedl, Marc A

    2013-01-01

    Hereditary angioedema (HAE) with normal C1 inhibitor (C1-INH), also known as HAE type III, is a familial condition only clinically recognized within the past three decades. Similar to HAE from C1-INH deficiency (HAE types I and II), affected individuals experience unpredictable angioedema episodes of the skin, gastrointestinal tract, and airway. Unique clinical features of HAE with normal C1-INH include the predominance of affected women, frequent exacerbation by estrogen, and a prominence of angioedema that involves the face and oropharynx. The underlying pathophysiology of HAE with normal C1-INH is poorly understood, but indirect evidence points to contact pathway dysregulation with bradykinin-mediated angioedema. Currently, evaluation is complicated by a lack of confirmatory laboratory testing such that clinical criteria must often be used to make the diagnosis of HAE with normal C1-INH. Factor XII mutations have been identified in only a minority of persons affected by HAE with normal C1-INH, limiting the utility of such analysis. To date, no controlled clinical studies have examined the efficacy of therapeutic agents for HAE with normal C1-INH, although published evidence supports frequent clinical benefit with medications shown effective in HAE due to C1-INH deficiency. PMID:24565612

  13. Top 100 Degree Producers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borden, Victor M. H.

    2000-01-01

    Lists institutions of higher education that confer the most postsecondary degrees to students of color. Tables are provided for associate degrees (all minorities); baccalaureate degrees (all minorities); baccalaureate degrees for African Americans, American Indian, Asian American, and Hispanic; and baccalaureate degrees by subject area and…

  14. ClC-1 chloride channels: state-of-the-art research and future challenges

    PubMed Central

    Imbrici, Paola; Altamura, Concetta; Pessia, Mauro; Mantegazza, Renato; Desaphy, Jean-François; Camerino, Diana Conte

    2015-01-01

    The voltage-dependent ClC-1 chloride channel belongs to the CLC channel/transporter family. It is a homodimer comprising two individual pores which can operate independently or simultaneously according to two gating modes, the fast and the slow gate of the channel. ClC-1 is preferentially expressed in the skeletal muscle fibers where the presence of an efficient Cl- homeostasis is crucial for the correct membrane repolarization and propagation of action potential. As a consequence, mutations in the CLCN1 gene cause dominant and recessive forms of myotonia congenita (MC), a rare skeletal muscle channelopathy caused by abnormal membrane excitation, and clinically characterized by muscle stiffness and various degrees of transitory weakness. Elucidation of the mechanistic link between the genetic defects and the disease pathogenesis is still incomplete and, at this time, there is no specific treatment for MC. Still controversial is the subcellular localization pattern of ClC-1 channels in skeletal muscle as well as its modulation by some intracellular factors. The expression of ClC-1 in other tissues such as in brain and heart and the possible assembly of ClC-1/ClC-2 heterodimers further expand the physiological properties of ClC-1 and its involvement in diseases. A recent de novo CLCN1 truncation mutation in a patient with generalized epilepsy indeed postulates an unexpected role of this channel in the control of neuronal network excitability. This review summarizes the most relevant and state-of-the-art research on ClC-1 chloride channels physiology and associated diseases. PMID:25964741

  15. 26 CFR 1.661(c)-1 - Limitation on deduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Limitation on deduction. 1.661(c)-1 Section 1... Corpus § 1.661(c)-1 Limitation on deduction. An estate or trust is not allowed a deduction under section..., a trust, which reports on the calendar year basis, has distributable net income of $20,000, which...

  16. 26 CFR 31.6413(c)-1 - Special refunds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Special refunds. 31.6413(c)-1 Section 31.6413(c)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EMPLOYMENT TAXES... Administrative Provisions of Special Application to Employment Taxes (Selected Provisions of Subtitle F,...

  17. 26 CFR 1.652(c)-1 - Different taxable years.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Different taxable years. 1.652(c)-1 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Trusts Which Distribute Current Income Only § 1.652(c)-1 Different taxable years. If a beneficiary has a different taxable year (as defined in section 441 or 442) from the taxable...

  18. 26 CFR 1.662(c)-1 - Different taxable years.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Different taxable years. 1.662(c)-1 Section 1... Corpus § 1.662(c)-1 Different taxable years. If a beneficiary has a different taxable year (as defined in section 441 or 442) from the taxable year of an estate or trust, the amount he is required to include...

  19. Anti-C1q in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Stojan, G; Petri, M

    2016-07-01

    C1q is the first component of the classical complement pathway. Both clinically validated in-house ELISA assays as well as commercial ELISA kits are used for detection of anti-C1q antibodies. Anti-C1q autoantibodies can be detected in a wide range of autoimmune diseases and are highly sensitive for hypocomplementemic uticarial vasculitis. In SLE, anti-C1q are strongly associated with proliferative lupus nephritis, and their absence carries a negative predictive value for development of lupus nephritis of close to 100%. Anti-C1q in combination with anti-dsDNA and low complement has the strongest serological association with renal involvement. The anti-C1q titers correlate with global disease activity scores in patients with renal involvement, and higher titers seem to precede renal flares. After the successful treatment of a renal flare, anti-C1q has the tendency to decrease or even become undetectable. The main obstacle to the inclusion of anti-C1q in the classification criteria and clinical management of SLE is the lack of standardized laboratory assays. PMID:27252264

  20. 17 CFR 240.14c-1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Definitions. 240.14c-1 Section 240.14c-1 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) GENERAL... Exchange Act of 1934 Regulation 14c: Distribution of Information Pursuant to Section 14(c) §...

  1. 17 CFR 240.14c-1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Definitions. 240.14c-1 Section 240.14c-1 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) GENERAL... Exchange Act of 1934 Regulation 14c: Distribution of Information Pursuant to Section 14(c) §...

  2. 17 CFR 240.14c-1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Definitions. 240.14c-1 Section 240.14c-1 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) GENERAL... Exchange Act of 1934 Regulation 14c: Distribution of Information Pursuant to Section 14(c) §...

  3. 17 CFR 240.14c-1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 240.14c-1 Section 240.14c-1 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) GENERAL... Exchange Act of 1934 Regulation 14c: Distribution of Information Pursuant to Section 14(c) §...

  4. 17 CFR 240.14c-1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Definitions. 240.14c-1 Section 240.14c-1 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) GENERAL... Exchange Act of 1934 Regulation 14c: Distribution of Information Pursuant to Section 14(c) §...

  5. 26 CFR 1.662(c)-1 - Different taxable years.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Different taxable years. 1.662(c)-1 Section 1... Corpus § 1.662(c)-1 Different taxable years. If a beneficiary has a different taxable year (as defined in section 441 or 442) from the taxable year of an estate or trust, the amount he is required to include...

  6. 26 CFR 1.662(c)-1 - Different taxable years.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Different taxable years. 1.662(c)-1 Section 1... Corpus § 1.662(c)-1 Different taxable years. If a beneficiary has a different taxable year (as defined in section 441 or 442) from the taxable year of an estate or trust, the amount he is required to include...

  7. A 10.6mm3 Fully-Integrated, Wireless Sensor Node with 8GHz UWB Transmitter

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyeongseok; Kim, Gyouho; Lee, Yoonmyung; Foo, Zhiyoong; Sylvester, Dennis; Blaauw, David; Wentzloff, David

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a complete, autonomous, wireless temperature sensor, fully encapsulated in a 10.6mm3 volume. The sensor includes solar energy harvesting with an integrated 2 μAh battery, optical receiver for programming, microcontroller and memory, 8GHz UWB transmitter, and miniaturized custom antennas with a wireless range of 7 meters. Full, stand-alone operation was demonstrated for the first time for a system of this size and functionality. PMID:26855848

  8. The importance of quaternary structure in the expression of the C1-binding site of IgM.

    PubMed Central

    Bubb, M O; Conradie, J D

    1976-01-01

    The ability of C1 to bind to the Fc5mu-fragment of a monoclonal IgM was determined by means of a haemolytic C1-inhibition assay. Fc5mu fragments were produced by trypsin digestion at five different temperatures ranging from 54-62 degrees (2 degrees increments) and were purified by immunoadsorption through a column of monospecific anti-Fabmu and by molecular exclusion chromatography. Analytical ultracentrifugation showed the final preparations to be free of aggregates. A plot of mug Fc5mu required to inhibit 50% of available C1 versus temperatures of production of the fragment yielded a curve with a minimum at 58-60 degrees. Upon mild reduction and alkylation of these Fc5mu fragments their C1-fixing capacity became approximately the same irrespective of temperature of production. Fc5mu was also prepared at 25 degrees in the presence of 5 M urea, purified by immunoadsorption as before and aliquots then exposed to temperatures ranging from 40-70 degrees (5 degrees increments) for 15 min. After aggregates had been removed by chromatography a similar minimum in C1-fixation was again observed at 60 degrees. Reduction and alkylation once more abolished these differences. Fc5mu and its reduced and alkylated subunits, produced at 60 degrees and then exposed to various concentrations of urea (0-7 M) for 24 hd did not yield a minimum in C1 fixation. Reduced and alkylated Fcmu incubated at various temperatures (40-70 degrees) also did not fix C1 differentially. Examination in the near and far u.v. region of the circular dichroism spectra of different Fc5mu preparations showed a gradual loss of structure associated with restricted aromatic chromophores and secondary (beta) structure with increased temperature. Urea denaturation had a more pronounced and irreversible effect on Fc5 mu conformation. These changes could not be correlated with the CU-fixation patterns observed. It would therefore appear that elevated temperatures induce a static change in the pentameric FC-part of

  9. Electronic speckle pattern interferometry and digital holographic interferometry with microbolometer arrays at 10.6 {mu}m

    SciTech Connect

    Vandenrijt, Jean-Francois; Georges, Marc P.

    2010-09-20

    Electronic speckle pattern interferometry and digital holographic interferometry are investigated at long infrared wavelengths. Using such wavelengths allows one to extend the measurement range and decrease the sensitivity of the techniques to external perturbations. We discuss the behavior of reflection by the object surfaces due to the long wavelength. We have developed different experimental configurations associating a CO2 laser emitting at 10.6{mu}m and microbolometer arrays. Phase-shifting in-plane and out-of-plane electronic speckle pattern interferometry and lensless digital holographic interferometry are demonstrated on rotation measurements of a solid object.

  10. Development of a (Hg, Cd)Te photodiode detector, Phase 2. [for 10.6 micron spectral region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    High speed sensitive (Hg,Cd)Te photodiode detectors operating in the 77 to 90 K temperature range have been developed for the 10.6 micron spectral region. P-N junctions formed by impurity (gold) diffusion in p-type (Hg, Cd) Te have been investigated. It is shown that the bandwidth and quantum efficiency of a diode are a constant for a fixed ratio of mobility/lifetime ratio of minority carriers. The minority carrier mobility and lifetime uniquely determine the bandwidth and quantum efficiency and indicate the shallow n on p (Hg,Cd) Te diodes are preferable as high performance, high frequency devices.

  11. Wideband long-pulse operation of an efficient electro-optic modulator at 10.6 microns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, N. W.; Grimm, J. G.; Eng, R. S.

    1990-10-01

    A high-efficiency high-power bulk-type CdTe single-sideband electrooptic modulator operating at 10.6 microns was designed by dividing the modulator into two sections and driving each section separately so that the relative phase of the microwave drive and optical beam are identical at the entrance to each section. This was done at selected frequencies at high power and high efficiency and then over a wide instantaneous bandwidth at lower power. High conversion efficiency over a wide microwave band was demonstrated. The experimental data compared well with theoretical predictions, supporting the quantitative theory that predicts further bandwidth improvement with more separately driven modulator sections.

  12. Comparison of cloud boundaries measured with 8.6 mm radar and 10.6 micrometer lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uttal, Taneil; Intrieri, Janet M.

    1993-01-01

    One of the most basic cloud properties is location; the height of cloud base and the height of cloud top. The glossary of meteorology defines cloud base (top) as follows: 'For a given cloud or cloud layer, that lowest (highest) level in the atmosphere at which the air contains a perceptible quantity of cloud particles.' Our studies show that for a 8.66 mm radar, and a 10.6 micrometer lidar, the level at which cloud hydrometers become 'perceptible' can vary significantly as a function of the different wavelengths, powers, beamwidths and sampling rates of the two remote sensors.

  13. Vein formation in the C1 carbonaceous chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, S. M.

    1978-01-01

    Veins in the C1 chondrites Orgueil, Alais, and Ivuna have been deposited during an extended period of impact brecciation and leaching. At least three generations of mineralization, dominated successively by carbonates, calcium sulfate, and magnesium sulfate, can be recognized. Vein minerals are derived locally by closed-system reactions between matrix phyllosilicates and an aqueous fluid, with the result that few, if any, primitive mineral phases still exist in the C1s.

  14. 26 CFR 1.1402(c)-1 - Trade or business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...)-7, inclusive, the term “trade or business”, for the purpose of the tax on self-employment income... 26 Internal Revenue 12 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Trade or business. 1.1402(c)-1 Section 1.1402(c... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Tax on Self-Employment Income § 1.1402(c)-1 Trade or business. In order for...

  15. 26 CFR 1.1402(c)-1 - Trade or business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 12 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Trade or business. 1.1402(c)-1 Section 1.1402(c... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Tax on Self-Employment Income § 1.1402(c)-1 Trade or business. In order for an individual to have net earnings from self-employment, he must carry on a trade or...

  16. 26 CFR 1.1402(c)-1 - Trade or business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 12 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Trade or business. 1.1402(c)-1 Section 1.1402(c... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Tax on Self-Employment Income § 1.1402(c)-1 Trade or business. In order for an individual to have net earnings from self-employment, he must carry on a trade or...

  17. 26 CFR 1.1402(c)-1 - Trade or business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 12 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Trade or business. 1.1402(c)-1 Section 1.1402(c... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Tax on Self-Employment Income § 1.1402(c)-1 Trade or business. In order for an individual to have net earnings from self-employment, he must carry on a trade or...

  18. 26 CFR 1.1402(c)-1 - Trade or business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 12 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Trade or business. 1.1402(c)-1 Section 1.1402(c... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Tax on Self-Employment Income § 1.1402(c)-1 Trade or business. In order for an individual to have net earnings from self-employment, he must carry on a trade or...

  19. Influence of C1-inhibitor on inflammation, edema and shock.

    PubMed

    Dickneite, G

    1993-12-01

    C1-Inhibitor (Berinert, C1 INH), a 104 kDa protein, inhibits complement components (C1 esterase) as well as enzymes of the contact phase of coagulation (Factor XII, Factor XI) and kallikrein, thus regulating kinin generation. C1 INH is used for the treatment of the hereditary angioneurotic edema. This paper will give a survey about the evidence in recent literature concerning the potential efficacy of the compound on other diseases associated with shock, capillary leakage and inflammation as well. In our own experiments we evaluated whether the compound could influence acute inflammatory reactions or the severe systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) as a consequence of an experimental septic shock. To prevent the sepsis-induced DIC we co-infused the thrombin inhibitors AT III or rec. hirudin in combination with C1 INH. Coinfusion of C1-inhibitor (50-200 U/kg x h) with either rec. hirudin or AT III significantly improved survival rate compared to thrombin inhibitor alone. PMID:8172580

  20. Structural properties of PbVO3 perovskites under hydrostatic pressure conditions up to 10.6 GPa.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wei; Tan, Dayong; Xiao, Wansheng; Song, Maoshuang; Chen, Ming; Xiong, Xiaolin; Xu, Jian

    2012-10-31

    High-pressure synchrotron x-ray powder diffraction experiments were performed on PbVO(3) tetragonal perovskite in a diamond anvil cell under hydrostatic pressures of up to 10.6 GPa at room temperature. The compression behavior of the PbVO(3) tetragonal phase is highly anisotropic, with the c-axis being the soft direction. A reversible tetragonal to cubic perovskite structural phase transition was observed between 2.7 and 6.4 GPa in compression and below 2.2 GPa in decompression. This transition was accompanied by a large volume collapse of 10.6% at 2.7 GPa, which was mainly due to electronic structural changes of the V(4+) ion. The polar pyramidal coordination of the V(4+) ion in the tetragonal phase changed to an isotropic octahedral coordination in the cubic phase. Fitting the observed P-V data using the Birch-Murnaghan equation of state with a fixed [Formula: see text] of 4 yielded a bulk modulus K(0) = 61(2) GPa and a volume V(0) = 67.4(1) Å(3) for the tetragonal phase, and the values of K(0) = 155(3) GPa and V(0) = 58.67(4) Å(3) for the cubic phase. The first-principles calculated results were in good agreement with our experiments. PMID:23041755

  1. Behavior of welds in liquid lead containing 10-6 wt% and 10-8 wt% oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinzel, A.; Müller, G.; Weisenburger, A.

    2013-06-01

    Specimens with welded joints of P91 TIG (tungsten inert gas welding), P91 EB (electron beam welding) and frictions stir welding, with P92 (EB), PM2000 (EB) and combination of P91-PM2000 EB were tested 2000 h in stagnant liquid Pb at 550 °C with an oxygen concentration of 10-6 wt% and 10-8 wt%. After exposure at 10-6 wt% all specimens showed an oxide layer on the surface. If the grain size of the welds varies strongly from that of the bulk material like in the friction stir welds, a change in oxide thickness could be observed. Also precipitations which pin the oxide formers or reduce the diffusion rate can lead to thicker oxide layers or a stronger dissolution attack like it was observed on the dissimilar weld P91/PM2000 EB. The specimens have similar microstructures in all regions (weld, heat affected zone and bulk material) and due to a post-weld heat treatment show everywhere the same behavior.

  2. Mapping Surface Accessibility of the C1r/C1s Tetramer by Chemical Modification and Mass Spectrometry Provides New Insights into Assembly of the Human C1 Complex*

    PubMed Central

    Brier, Sébastien; Pflieger, Delphine; Le Mignon, Maxime; Bally, Isabelle; Gaboriaud, Christine; Arlaud, Gérard J.; Daniel, Régis

    2010-01-01

    C1, the complex that triggers the classic pathway of complement, is a 790-kDa assembly resulting from association of a recognition protein C1q with a Ca2+-dependent tetramer comprising two copies of the proteases C1r and C1s. Early structural investigations have shown that the extended C1s-C1r-C1r-C1s tetramer folds into a compact conformation in C1. Recent site-directed mutagenesis studies have identified the C1q-binding sites in C1r and C1s and led to a three-dimensional model of the C1 complex (Bally, I., Rossi, V., Lunardi, T., Thielens, N. M., Gaboriaud, C., and Arlaud, G. J. (2009) J. Biol. Chem. 284, 19340–19348). In this study, we have used a mass spectrometry-based strategy involving a label-free semi-quantitative analysis of protein samples to gain new structural insights into C1 assembly. Using a stable chemical modification, we have compared the accessibility of the lysine residues in the isolated tetramer and in C1. The labeling data account for 51 of the 73 lysine residues of C1r and C1s. They strongly support the hypothesis that both C1s CUB1-EGF-CUB2 interaction domains, which are distant in the free tetramer, associate with each other in the C1 complex. This analysis also provides the first experimental evidence that, in the proenzyme form of C1, the C1s serine protease domain is partly positioned inside the C1q cone and yields precise information about its orientation in the complex. These results provide further structural insights into the architecture of the C1 complex, allowing significant improvement of our current C1 model. PMID:20592021

  3. Top 100 Degree Producers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black Issues in Higher Education, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Provides data on bachelor's degrees awarded to minority students in 1999-2000. Tables include total minority degrees and degrees awarded to African Americans, American Indians, Asian Americans, and Hispanics by type of school (uses Carnegie classification). Another table presents top disciplines by race/ethnicity. (EV)

  4. Associate Degree Preferred.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parnell, Dale, Ed.

    Designed to encourage dialogue and inform decision making about the associate degree, this book presents perspectives on the role of the associate degree in the nation's two-year colleges. First, "Toward a Greater Degree: A Plan of Action," by Dale Parnell, suggests a plan for preserving and enhancing the value of the education being provided by…

  5. Growing degree day calculator

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Degree-day benchmarks indicate discrete biological events in the development of insect pests. For the Sparganothis fruitworm, we have isolated all key development events and linked them to degree-day accumulations. These degree-day accumulations can greatly improve treatment timings for cranberry IP...

  6. Emerging and Novel Functions of Complement Protein C1q

    PubMed Central

    Kouser, Lubna; Madhukaran, Shanmuga Priyaa; Shastri, Abhishek; Saraon, Anuvinder; Ferluga, Janez; Al-Mozaini, Maha; Kishore, Uday

    2015-01-01

    Complement protein C1q, the recognition molecule of the classical pathway, performs a diverse range of complement and non-complement functions. It can bind various ligands derived from self, non-self, and altered self and modulate the functions of immune and non-immune cells including dendritic cells and microglia. C1q involvement in the clearance of apoptotic cells and subsequent B cell tolerance is more established now. Recent evidence appears to suggest that C1q plays an important role in pregnancy where its deficiency and dysregulation can have adverse effects, leading to preeclampsia, missed abortion, miscarriage or spontaneous loss, and various infections. C1q is also produced locally in the central nervous system, and has a protective role against pathogens and possible inflammatory functions while interacting with aggregated proteins leading to neurodegenerative diseases. C1q role in synaptic pruning, and thus CNS development, its anti-cancer effects as an immune surveillance molecule, and possibly in aging are currently areas of extensive research. PMID:26175731

  7. Synthesis of silicon-based nanoparticles by 10.6 μm nanosecond CO2 laser ablation in liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popovic, D. M.; Chai, J. S.; Zekic, A. A.; Trtica, M.; Momcilovic, M.; Maletic, S.

    2013-02-01

    Silicon-based nanoparticles were produced by irradiating a single-crystal silicon target with 10.6 μm nanosecond transverse excited atmospheric (TEA) pulsed CO2 laser in de-ionized water. The effects of the laser pulse energies and repetition rate were studied. To reveal the role of thermal effects, a low laser repetition rate has been applied, excluding the interaction of the laser beam with the previously generated cavitation bubble. The analysis of the influence of the laser pulse energies and the laser repetition rate showed that the increase of the laser pulse energies leads to an increase of the nanoparticle size. An explanation of such results was proposed and the importance of the role of the target surface temperature in the ablation process is discussed.

  8. 75 FR 57846 - Airworthiness Directives; Robert E. Rust, Jr. Model DeHavilland DH.C1 Chipmunk 21, DH.C1 Chipmunk...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-23

    ....gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Airworthiness Directive 2010-18-12, amendment 39-16426 (75 FR 53861.... Model DeHavilland DH.C1 Chipmunk 21, DH.C1 Chipmunk 22, and DH.C1 Chipmunk 22A Airplanes AGENCY: Federal...Havilland DH.C1 Chipmunk 21, DH.C1 Chipmunk 22, and DH.C1 Chipmunk 22A airplanes. As published, the...

  9. 26 CFR 1.662(c)-1 - Different taxable years.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Different taxable years. 1.662(c)-1 Section 1...)-1 Different taxable years. If a beneficiary has a different taxable year (as defined in section 441 or 442) from the taxable year of an estate or trust, the amount he is required to include in...

  10. 26 CFR 1.652(c)-1 - Different taxable years.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Different taxable years. 1.652(c)-1 Section 1... taxable years. If a beneficiary has a different taxable year (as defined in section 441 or 442) from the taxable year of the trust, the amount he is required to include in gross income in accordance with...

  11. C1q Nephropathy: The Unique Underrecognized Pathological Entity.

    PubMed

    Devasahayam, Joe; Erode-Singaravelu, Gowrishankar; Bhat, Zeenat; Oliver, Tony; Chandran, Arul; Zeng, Xu; Dakshinesh, Paramesh; Pillai, Unni

    2015-01-01

    C1q nephropathy is a rare glomerular disease with characteristic mesangial C1q deposition noted on immunofluorescence microscopy. It is histologically defined and poorly understood. Light microscopic features are heterogeneous and comprise minimal change disease (MCD), focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), and proliferative glomerulonephritis. Clinical presentation is also diverse, and ranges from asymptomatic hematuria or proteinuria to frank nephritic or nephrotic syndrome in both children and adults. Hypertension and renal insufficiency at the time of diagnosis are common findings. Optimal treatment is not clear and is usually guided by the underlying light microscopic lesion. Corticosteroids are the mainstay of treatment, with immunosuppressive agents reserved for steroid resistant cases. The presence of nephrotic syndrome and FSGS appear to predict adverse outcomes as opposed to favorable outcomes in those with MCD. Further research is needed to establish C1q nephropathy as a universally recognized distinct clinical entity. In this paper, we discuss the current understanding of pathogenesis, histopathology, clinical features, therapeutic options, and outcomes of C1q nephropathy. PMID:26640759

  12. 26 CFR 1.514(c)-1 - Acquisition indebtedness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Taxation of Business Income of Certain Exempt Organizations § 1.514(c)-1... where State law provides that a tax lien attaches to property prior to the time when such lien becomes... and payable and the organization has had an opportunity to pay such lien in accordance with State...

  13. 26 CFR 53.4941(c)-1 - Special rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... of private foundation X, lend one of the foundation's paintings to G, a disqualified person, for... EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) FOUNDATION AND SIMILAR EXCISE TAXES Taxes on Self-Dealing § 53.4941(c)-1 Special...) (relating to tax on foundation managers). An initial tax is imposed on both A and B with respect to the...

  14. 26 CFR 53.4941(c)-1 - Special rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... of private foundation X, lend one of the foundation's paintings to G, a disqualified person, for... EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) FOUNDATION AND SIMILAR EXCISE TAXES Taxes on Self-Dealing § 53.4941(c)-1 Special...) (relating to tax on foundation managers). An initial tax is imposed on both A and B with respect to the...

  15. 26 CFR 53.4941(c)-1 - Special rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... of private foundation X, lend one of the foundation's paintings to G, a disqualified person, for... EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) FOUNDATION AND SIMILAR EXCISE TAXES Taxes on Self-Dealing § 53.4941(c)-1 Special...) (relating to tax on foundation managers). An initial tax is imposed on both A and B with respect to the...

  16. 26 CFR 53.4941(c)-1 - Special rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... of private foundation X, lend one of the foundation's paintings to G, a disqualified person, for... EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) FOUNDATION AND SIMILAR EXCISE TAXES Taxes on Self-Dealing § 53.4941(c)-1 Special...) (relating to tax on foundation managers). An initial tax is imposed on both A and B with respect to the...

  17. 26 CFR 53.4941(c)-1 - Special rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... of private foundation X, lend one of the foundation's paintings to G, a disqualified person, for... EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) FOUNDATION AND SIMILAR EXCISE TAXES Taxes on Self-Dealing § 53.4941(c)-1 Special...) (relating to tax on foundation managers). An initial tax is imposed on both A and B with respect to the...

  18. Pediatric hereditary angioedema due to C1-inhibitor deficiency

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Hereditary angioedema (HAE) resulting from the deficiency of the C1 inhibitor (C1-INH) is a rare, life-threatening disorder. It is characterized by attacks of angioedema involving the skin and/or the mucosa of the upper airways, as well as the intestinal mucosa. In approximately 50 per cent of cases, clinical manifestations may appear during childhood. The complex management of HAE in pediatric patients is in many respects different from the management of adults. Establishing the diagnosis early, preferably before the onset of clinical symptoms, is essential in cases with a positive family history. Complement studies usually afford accurate diagnosis, whereas molecular genetics tests may prove helpful in uncertain cases. Appropriate therapy, supported by counselling, suitable modification of lifestyle, and avoidance of triggering factors (which primarily include mechanical trauma, mental stress and airway infections in children) may spare the patient unnecessary surgery and may prevent mortality. Prompt control of edematous attacks, short-term prophylaxis and intermittent therapy are recommended as the primary means for the management of pediatric cases. Medicinal products currently used for the treatment of children with hereditary angioedema include antifibrinolytics, attenuated androgens, and C1-INH replacement therapy. Current guidelines favour antifibrinolytics for long-term prophylaxis because of their favorable safety profile but efficacy may be lacking. Attenuated androgens administered in the lowest effective dose are another option. C1-INH replacement therapy is also an effective and safe agent for children. Regular monitoring and follow-up of patients are necessary. PMID:20667121

  19. 26 CFR 1.652(c)-1 - Different taxable years.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Different taxable years. 1.652(c)-1 Section 1... taxable years. If a beneficiary has a different taxable year (as defined in section 441 or 442) from the taxable year of the trust, the amount he is required to include in gross income in accordance with...

  20. 26 CFR 1.652(c)-1 - Different taxable years.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Different taxable years. 1.652(c)-1 Section 1... taxable years. If a beneficiary has a different taxable year (as defined in section 441 or 442) from the taxable year of the trust, the amount he is required to include in gross income in accordance with...

  1. The External Degree Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Syracuse Univ., NY. School of Management.

    An external degree is one granted on the basis of academic work undertaken through independent and flexible study and pursued in whole or in part outside of the framework of existing college and university courses. A person's qualifications for an external degree are measured not by a list of accumulated formal courses taken and passed, but by an…

  2. What price a degree?

    PubMed

    Corbett, Kevin

    2016-05-25

    Let's face it, nurse education is big business for British universities. The lobby group of universities offering nursing degrees, the Council of Deans of health (CoDH), argues that the true cost of nursing degrees is subsidised by their members. PMID:27224609

  3. Degree Accreditation in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Dave

    2004-01-01

    Until recently, the meaning and origin of the Canadian university degree was well understood by Canadians and around the world. Degrees were only offered by universities and the use of the label university was controlled by legislation in each of the ten provinces and three territories. Institutional membership in the Association of Universities…

  4. Isolation and mode of action of bacteriocin BacC1 produced by nonpathogenic Enterococcus faecium C1.

    PubMed

    Goh, H F; Philip, K

    2015-08-01

    Lactic acid bacteria are present in fermented food products and help to improve shelf life and enhance the flavor of the food. They also produce metabolites such as bacteriocins to prevent the growth of undesirable or pathogenic bacteria. In this study, Enterococcus faecium C1 isolated from fermented cow milk was able to produce bacteriocin BacC1 and inhibit the growth of selected food-spoilage bacteria. The bacteriocin was purified through 4 steps: ammonium sulfate precipitation, hydrophobic interaction column, a series of centrifugal steps, and finally reversed-phase HPLC. A membrane permeability test using SYTOX green dye (Invitrogen, Grand Island, NY) showed that the bacteriocin caused significant disruptions to the test bacterial membrane, as shown by transmission electron microscopy. The molecular weight of the BacC1 obtained from SDS-PAGE was around 10kDa, and N-terminal sequencing revealed a partial amino acid sequence of BacC1: GPXGPXGP. The bacterial strain was nonhemolytic and not antibiotic resistant. Therefore, it has high potential for application in the food industry as an antimicrobial agent to extend the shelf life of food products. PMID:26004828

  5. THE HIGH-VELOCITY MOLECULAR OUTFLOWS IN MASSIVE CLUSTER-FORMING REGION G10.6-0.4

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Hauyu Baobab; Ho, Paul T. P.; Zhang Qizhou E-mail: pho@asiaa.sinica.edu.t

    2010-12-20

    We report the arcsecond resolution Submillimeter Array observations of the {sup 12}CO (2-1) transition in the massive cluster-forming region G10.6-0.4. In these observations, the high-velocity {sup 12}CO emission is resolved into individual outflow systems, which have a typical size scale of a few arcseconds. These molecular outflows are energetic and are interacting with the ambient molecular gas. By inspecting the shock signatures traced by CH{sub 3}OH, SiO, and HCN emissions, we suggest that abundant star formation activities are distributed over the entire 0.5 pc scale dense molecular envelope. The star formation efficiency over one global free-fall timescale (of the 0.5 pc molecular envelope, {approx}10{sup 5} years) is about a few percent. The total energy feedback of these high-velocity outflows is higher than 10{sup 47} erg, which is comparable to the total kinetic energy in the rotational motion of the dense molecular envelope. From order-of-magnitude estimations, we suggest that the energy injected from the protostellar outflows is capable of balancing the turbulent energy dissipation. No high-velocity bipolar molecular outflow associated with the central OB cluster is directly detected, which can be due to the photoionization.

  6. The C1s core line in irradiated graphite

    SciTech Connect

    Speranza, Giorgio; Minati, Luca; Anderle, Mariano

    2007-08-15

    Recently, plasma deposited amorphous carbon films have been the subject of extensive experimental and theoretical investigations aimed at correlating their electronic, structural, and mechanical properties to growth parameters. To investigate these properties, different spectral parameters reflecting the electronic structure of carbon-based materials are proposed in literature. The effects of various electronic configurations on the carbon photoelectron spectra are analyzed here with particular attention to C1s core line with the aim to better interpret its structure. The latter is commonly fitted under the assumption that it can be described by using just two spectral components related to sp{sup 2} and sp{sup 3} hybrids. Their relative intensities are then used to estimate the sp{sup 2} and sp{sup 3} phases. We show that, in the presence of an amorphous network, the C1s line shape is the result of a more complex mixture of electronic states. Ar{sup +} irradiated graphite and successive oxidation was used to identify spectral features to better describe the C1s line shape.

  7. GATEWAYS: Degree program alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Strong, K.R.; Thayer, M.M.

    1991-11-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory is using non-traditional solutions to assist employees in attaining degrees required for essential Laboratory operations. Varieties of distance learning technologies have been implemented to meet some degree needs. While distance learning is not always a perfect solution, it enables the Laboratory to provide education that would otherwise not be practical for full-time employees. The Laboratory has also formed partnerships with local colleges to design programs to fill particular needs. Meeting the challenge of providing cost-effective, viable degree programs in an isolated location requires both patience and innovation.

  8. Nitrogen hydrides in interstellar gas. Herschel/HIFI observations towards G10.6-0.4 (W31C)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persson, C. M.; Black, J. H.; Cernicharo, J.; Goicoechea, J. R.; Hassel, G. E.; Herbst, E.; Gerin, M.; de Luca, M.; Bell, T. A.; Coutens, A.; Falgarone, E.; Goldsmith, P. F.; Gupta, H.; Kaźmierczak, M.; Lis, D. C.; Mookerjea, B.; Neufeld, D. A.; Pearson, J.; Phillips, T. G.; Sonnentrucker, P.; Stutzki, J.; Vastel, C.; Yu, S.; Boulanger, F.; Dartois, E.; Encrenaz, P.; Geballe, T. R.; Giesen, T.; Godard, B.; Gry, C.; Hennebelle, P.; Hily-Blant, P.; Joblin, C.; Kołos, R.; Krełowski, J.; Martín-Pintado, J.; Menten, K.; Monje, R.; Perault, M.; Plume, R.; Salez, M.; Schlemmer, S.; Schmidt, M.; Teyssier, D.; Péron, I.; Cais, P.; Gaufre, P.; Cros, A.; Ravera, L.; Morris, P.; Lord, S.; Planesas, P.

    2010-10-01

    The HIFI instrument on board the Herschel Space Observatory has been used to observe interstellar nitrogen hydrides along the sight-line towards G10.6-0.4 in order to improve our understanding of the interstellar chemistry of nitrogen. We report observations of absorption in NH N = 1 ≤ftarrow 0, J = 2 ≤ftarrow 1 and ortho-NH2 11,1 ≥ts 00,0. We also observed ortho-NH3 10 ≥ts00, and 20 ≥ts 10, para-NH3 21 ≥ts 11, and searched unsuccessfully for NH+. All detections show emission and absorption associated directly with the hot-core source itself as well as absorption by foreground material over a wide range of velocities. All spectra show similar, non-saturated, absorption features, which we attribute to diffuse molecular gas. Total column densities over the velocity range 11-54 km s-1 are estimated. The similar profiles suggest fairly uniform abundances relative to hydrogen, approximately 6 × 10-9, 3 × 10-9, and 3 × 10-9 for NH, NH2, and NH3, respectively. These abundances are discussed with reference to models of gas-phase and surface chemistry. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.Figures A.1 and A.2 (page 6) are only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  9. Degree by Thesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Courtis, Barbara

    1974-01-01

    Discusses a student's experience with a research project on the synthesis and reactions of an organo-platinum complex with an organo-Group IV linkage, including the advantages and disadvantages of such a degree by thesis course. (CC)

  10. Latitude 90 Degrees North to 90 Degrees South and Longitude -180 Degrees to 0 Degrees

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The coordinates of the Lambert azimuthal equal area projection are latitude 90 degrees N. to 90 degrees S. and longitude -180 degrees to 0 degrees. The north polar residual ice cap of the Planum Boreum region, which is cut by spiral-patterned troughs, is located at top. The upper part is marked by large depression, Isidis basin, which contains light-colored plains. The upper part also includes the light-colored smooth plains of Elysium Planitia and dark plains of Vastitas Borealis. Together, these form a vast expanse of contiguous plains. Toward the bottom, on the other hand, the southern hemisphere is almost entirely made up of heavily cratered highlands. Toward the bottom, a conspicuous, relatively bright circular depression marks the ancient large Hellas impact basin.

  11. Latitude 90 Degrees North to 90 Degrees South and Longitude 0 Degrees to 180 Degrees

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The coordinates of the Lambert azimuthal equal area projection are latitude 90 degrees N. to 90 degrees S. and longitude 0 degree to 180 degrees. Both polar residual ice caps are seen at top and bottom. The central part is dominated by the four largest and youngest volcanoes on Mars--Olympus, Arsia, Pavonis, and Ascraeus Montes--and by a vast system of canyons several thousand kilometers long--Valles Marineris. Directly to the northeast of Valles Marineris, several large outflow channels terminate at a dark depression, Chryse basin. The lower-right corner is marked by the large Argyre basin, defined by an expanse of light-colored plains 800 km across.

  12. Linearization of class C1 for contractions on Banach spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, Hildebrando M.; Solà-Morales, J.

    In this work we prove a C1-linearization result for contraction diffeomorphisms, near a fixed point, valid in infinite-dimensional Banach spaces. As an intermediate step, we prove a specific result of existence of invariant manifolds, which can be interesting by itself and that was needed on the proof of our main theorem. Our results essentially generalize some classical results by P. Hartman in finite dimensions, and a result of Mora-Sola-Morales in the infinite-dimensional case. It is shown that the result can be applied to some abstract systems of semilinear damped wave equations.

  13. Reduction of CO2 to C1 products and fuel

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mill, T.; Ross, D.

    2002-01-01

    Photochemical semiconductor processes readily reduced CO2 to a broad range of C1 products. However the intrinsic and solar efficiencies for the processes were low. Improved quantum efficiencies could be realized utilizing quantum-sized particles, but at the expense of using less of the visible solar spectrum. Conversely, semiconductors with small bandgaps used more of the visible solar spectrum at the expense of quantum efficiency. Thermal reduction of CO2 with Fe(II) was thermodynamically favored for forming many kinds of organic compounds and occurred readily with olivine and other Fe(II) minerals above 200??C to form higher alkanes and alkenes. No added hydrogen was required.

  14. C1-Cx revisited: intramolecular synergism in a cellulase.

    PubMed Central

    Din, N; Damude, H G; Gilkes, N R; Miller, R C; Warren, R A; Kilburn, D G

    1994-01-01

    Endoglucanase A (CenA) from the bacterium Cellulomonas fimi is composed of a catalytic domain and a nonhydrolytic cellulose-binding domain that can function independently. The individual domains interact synergistically in the disruption and hydrolysis of cellulose fibers. This intramolecular synergism is distinct from the well-known intermolecular synergism between individual cellulases. The catalytic domain corresponds to the hydrolytic Cx system and the cellulose-binding domain corresponds to the nonhydrolytic C1 system postulated by Reese et al. [Reese, E. T., Sui, R. G. H. & Levinson, H. S. (1950) J. Bacteriol. 59, 485-497] to be required for the hydrolysis of cellulose. PMID:7972069

  15. Land validation for GCOM-C1/SGLI using UAV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honda, Yhosiaki; Kajiwara, Koji; Sharma, Ram; Ono, Akiko; Imaoka, Keiji; Murakami, Hiroshi; Hori, Masahiro; Ono, Yusaku; Rostand, Dim

    2012-09-01

    Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) is going to launch new Earth observation satellite GCOM-C1 in near future. The core sensor of GCOM-C1, Second Generation Global Imager (SGLI) has a set of along track slant viewing Visible and Near Infrared Radiometer (VNR). These multi-angular views aim to detect the structural information from vegetation canopy, especially forest canopy, for estimating productivity of the vegetation. SGLI Land science team has been developing the algorithm for above ground biomass, canopy roughness index, shadow index, etc. In this paper, we introduce the ground observation method developed by using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) in order to contribute the algorithm development and its validation. Mainly, multi-angular spectral observation method and simple BRF model have been developed for estimating slant view response of forest canopy. The BRF model developed by using multi-angular measurement has been able to obtain structural information from vegetation canopy. In addition, we have conducted some observation campaigns on typical forest in Japan in collaboration with other science team experienced with vegetation phenology and carbon flux measurement. Primary results of these observations are also be demonstrated.

  16. Prophylaxis in hereditary angioedema (HAE) with C1 inhibitor deficiency.

    PubMed

    Greve, Jens; Strassen, Ulrich; Gorczyza, Marina; Dominas, Nina; Frahm, Uta-Marie; Mühlberg, Heike; Wiednig, Michaela; Zampeli, Vasiliki; Magerl, Markus

    2016-03-01

    Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is a rare congenital disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of subcutaneous or submucosal edema. Laryngeal manifestations can be life-threatening. In the majority of cases, the disease can be adequately treated with an on-demand approach - in some cases, however, short- or long-term prophylaxis is indicated. Attenuated androgens used to be the drugs of choice, but they are associated with considerable side effects and no longer commercially available in the German-speaking countries of the EU. They are currently being replaced by more effective and more tolerable agents such C1-inhibitors, the kallikrein inhibitor ecallantide, and the B2 receptor antagonist icatibant, which have recently obtained market authorization. These new drugs have had a major impact, especially on the indications and procedures for long-term prophylaxis. According to the most recent international consensus papers and our own experience, self-administered C1-inhibitors are now the first option for long-term prophylactic therapy. The decision for prophylaxis should no longer be based on single parameters such as the frequency of attacks but on adequate overall disease control including quality of life. More drugs are currently being developed, which may lead to further changes in the treatment algorithms of HAE. PMID:26972189

  17. Paracoccus denitrificans cytochrome c1 gene replacement mutants.

    PubMed Central

    Gerhus, E; Steinrücke, P; Ludwig, B

    1990-01-01

    We describe the construction and characterization of gene replacement mutants for the respiratory chain component cytochrome c1 in the bacterium Paracoccus denitrificans. Its structural gene (fbcC) was inactivated by insertion of the kanamycin resistance gene, introduced into a suicide vector, and conjugated into Paracoccus; chromosomal mutants obtained by homologous recombination were selected by antibiotic resistance screening and further characterized biochemically. They showed the complete spectral, enzymatic, and immunological loss of the fbcC gene product together with a serious defect in the assembly of the two other gene products of the fbc operon, cytochrome b and the FeS protein. A possible role of the cytochrome c1 in the assembly process for the enzyme complex is discussed. A functional restoration to wild-type phenotype was achieved by complementing in trans with a newly constructed broad-host-range vector carrying the fbcC gene cassette. When the complete fbc operon was present on this vector, overexpression of complex III subunits was observed. Apart from their physiological significance, such mutants are a prerequisite for probing structure-function relationships by site-directed mutagenesis in order to understand molecular details of electron transport and energy transduction processes of this respiratory enzyme in bacteria and in mitochondria. Images PMID:2158969

  18. Interaction of HmC1q with leech microglial cells: involvement of C1qBP-related molecule in the induction of cell chemotaxis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In invertebrates, the medicinal leech is considered to be an interesting and appropriate model to study neuroimmune mechanisms. Indeed, this non-vertebrate animal can restore normal function of its central nervous system (CNS) after injury. Microglia accumulation at the damage site has been shown to be required for axon sprouting and for efficient regeneration. We characterized HmC1q as a novel chemotactic factor for leech microglial cell recruitment. In mammals, a C1q-binding protein (C1qBP alias gC1qR), which interacts with the globular head of C1q, has been reported to participate in C1q-mediated chemotaxis of blood immune cells. In this study, we evaluated the chemotactic activities of a recombinant form of HmC1q and its interaction with a newly characterized leech C1qBP that acts as its potential ligand. Methods Recombinant HmC1q (rHmC1q) was produced in the yeast Pichia pastoris. Chemotaxis assays were performed to investigate rHmC1q-dependent microglia migration. The involvement of a C1qBP-related molecule in this chemotaxis mechanism was assessed by flow cytometry and with affinity purification experiments. The cellular localization of C1qBP mRNA and protein in leech was investigated using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization techniques. Results rHmC1q-stimulated microglia migrate in a dose-dependent manner. This rHmC1q-induced chemotaxis was reduced when cells were preincubated with either anti-HmC1q or anti-human C1qBP antibodies. A C1qBP-related molecule was characterized in leech microglia. Conclusions A previous study showed that recruitment of microglia is observed after HmC1q release at the cut end of axons. Here, we demonstrate that rHmC1q-dependent chemotaxis might be driven via a HmC1q-binding protein located on the microglial cell surface. Taken together, these results highlight the importance of the interaction between C1q and C1qBP in microglial activation leading to nerve repair in the medicinal leech. PMID:22356764

  19. Angular distributions of molecular Auger electrons: The case of C 1s Auger emission in CO

    SciTech Connect

    Semenov, S. K.; Kuznetsov, V. V.; Cherepkov, N. A.; Bolognesi, P.; Feyer, V.; Lahmam-Bennani, A.; Casagrande, M. E. Staicu; Avaldi, L.

    2007-03-15

    The results of a study of the Auger-electron-photoelectron angular correlations in the case of the C 1s ionization of the CO molecule are presented and compared with theoretical calculations in the Hartree-Fock approximation based on the two-step model. The measurements have been performed at two photon energies, 305 and 318 eV, respectively, and at three angles of photoelectron emission relative to the light polarization vector: namely, 0 degree sign , 30 degree sign , and 60 degree sign . A general agreement is found between theory and experiment for the coincidence angular distributions and the relative magnitudes of the Auger-electron-photoelectron angular correlations. However, both experiment and theory show that the Auger-electron-photoelectron angular correlations are not sufficiently sensitive to the details of the Auger-electron wave function to allow a 'complete' Auger experiment in molecules. On the other hand, our calculations demonstrate that the Auger-electron angular distribution measured in the molecular frame is very sensitive to the individual contributions of different partial waves of the Auger electron. Therefore we conclude that the complete experiment for the Auger decay in molecules can be realized only measuring the Auger-electron angular distributions in the molecular frame.

  20. The Levels of the Lectin Pathway Serine Protease MASP-1 and Its Complex Formation with C1 Inhibitor Are Linked to the Severity of Hereditary Angioedema.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Cecilie Bo; Csuka, Dorottya; Munthe-Fog, Lea; Varga, Lilian; Farkas, Henriette; Hansen, Karin Møller; Koch, Claus; Skjødt, Karsten; Garred, Peter; Skjoedt, Mikkel-Ole

    2015-10-15

    C1 inhibitor (C1-INH) is known to form complexes with the lectin complement pathway serine proteases MASP-1 and MASP-2. Deficiency of C1-INH is associated with hereditary angioedema (HAE), an autosomal inherited disease characterized by swelling attacks caused by elevated levels of bradykinin. MASP-1 was shown to cleave high m.w. kininogen into bradykinin; therefore, we hypothesized that MASP-1 levels and the quantity of MASP-1/C1-INH complexes might be associated with different paraclinical and clinical outcomes of HAE. We measured MASP-1 serum concentrations and endogenous MASP-1/C1-INH complex levels in 128 HAE patients and 100 controls. Relatively high levels of pre-existing MASP-1/C1-INH complexes were observed in normal serum, and we found that both the serum levels of MASP-1 and the complex formation between MASP-1 and C1-INH were significantly reduced in HAE patients compared with matched controls (p < 0.0001). The level of MASP-1 and MASP-1/C1-INH complexes in HE patients correlated with the level of C1-INH (p = 0.0009 and p = 0.0047, respectively), the level of C4 (p = 0.0084 and p < 0.0001, respectively), and the number of attacks in the year of blood sampling (p = 0.0075 and p = 0.0058, respectively). In conclusion, we show that MASP-1/C1-INH complexes circulate in normal human blood. The levels of MASP-1 and MASP-1/C1-INH complexes are reduced in HAE patients compared with controls. Both MASP-1 and MASP-1/C1-INH complexes are related to the degree of complement C4 consumption, as well as the severity of disease. These results suggest that MASP-1 may exert a previously unrecognized role in the pathophysiology of HAE. PMID:26371246

  1. Effects of 2.1 and 3.5x10(6) sex-sorted sperm dosages on conception rates of Holstein cows and heifers.

    PubMed

    DeJarnette, J M; McCleary, C R; Leach, M A; Moreno, J F; Nebel, R L; Marshall, C E

    2010-09-01

    The objective was to compare conceptions rates of Holstein cows and heifers after artificial insemination (AI) with 2.1 or 3.5x10(6) sex-sorted sperm or 15x10(6) conventional sperm. Ejaculates collected from 7 Holstein sires were cryopreserved conventionally at 15x10(6) sperm per dose or sorted to 90% purity for X-chromosome-bearing spermatozoa using flow cytometry and cryopreserved at either 2.1 or 3.5x10(6) sperm per dose. All treatments were processed in an egg-yolk (20%), Tris, glycerol (7%) extender and packaged in color-coded 0.25-mL French straws. Straws (n=700 straws/dosage per sire) were packaged and distributed in aliquots of 12 (4 straws/sperm dosage) to 69 Holstein herds with an across-herd goal of achieving approximately 50% use in heifers and cows. Straw color was recorded in the on-farm recordkeeping system at the time of AI and retrieved by electronic download. Data for cows and heifers were analyzed separately. Among heifers, 6,268 services were retrieved from 45 herds (298+/-4.2 services/sperm dose per sire; range: 244 to 344). Conception rate of heifers was influenced by the sire by treatment interaction. Conception rate of the 2.1 and 3.5x10(6) sex-sorted sperm dosages were comparable in 6 of 7 sires. Conception rate of both sex-sorted dosages were less than those of conventional semen for 6 of 7 sires. Across sires, heifer conception rates for 2.1 and 3.5x10(6) sex-sorted sperm dosages and 15x10(6) conventional dosages were 44, 46, and 61%, respectively. Among cows, 5,466 services were retrieved from 52 herds (260+/-3.3 services/sperm dose per sire; range: 236 to 289). Conception rates of cows were influenced by herd, sire, and sperm dosage. Conception rates of the 2.1 and 3.5x10(6) sex-sorted sperm dosage were comparable for all 7 sires. Conception rates of 2.1x10(6) sex-sorted sperm dosage were less than those of conventional semen for 4 of 7 sires and conception rates of the 3.5x10(6) sex-sorted sperm dosage were less than those of

  2. One Degree of Separation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jean

    2012-01-01

    A 2011 survey of young adults conducted by Public Agenda found that a cluster of obstacles have prevented many of them from competing college. The author describes the opportunity, college awareness, and funding gaps that put a postsecondary degree out of the reach of so many young people. For example, just 3 in 10 non-college-completers are aware…

  3. Charting Journalism Degrees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borden, Victor M. H.

    1998-01-01

    Data are presented on the numbers of African Americans, Hispanic Americans, Asian Americans, and total minority group members receiving associate, bachelor's, master's and doctoral degrees in journalism and mass communication in 1997-98. Colleges and universities graduating the most minorities are also ranked. (MSE)

  4. Feedback at 360 Degrees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manatt, Richard P.

    2000-01-01

    Multirater or 360-degree feedback is a sampling technique that can be used at three levels: for developmental purposes, appraisal, and compensation. It was designed to be small-scale, personalized, and occasional. Implementation tips and pitfalls for districts are described. (MLH)

  5. Registered Nurse (Associate Degree).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This document, which is designed for use in developing a tech prep competency profile for the occupation of registered nurse (with an associate degree), lists technical competencies and competency builders for 19 units pertinent to the health technologies cluster in general and 5 units specific to the occupation of registered nurse. The following…

  6. Top Hispanic Degree Producers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diverse: Issues in Higher Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a list of the top 100 producers of associate, bachelor's and graduate degrees awarded to minority students based on research conducted by Dr. Victor M.H. Borden, professor of educational leadership and policy students at the Indiana University Bloomington. For the year 2012, the listings focus on Hispanic students. Data for…

  7. BA Degree Handbook, 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Open Univ., Walton, Bletchley, Bucks (England).

    This 1978 Open University BA degree Handbook begins with information about the university organization, correspondence materials, assignments and examinations, television and radio broadcasts, audio-cassette loan service, books and libraries, study centers, the computing service, handicapped students, tutor-counselors and course tutors, tuition,…

  8. C1,1 regularity for degenerate elliptic obstacle problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daskalopoulos, Panagiota; Feehan, Paul M. N.

    2016-03-01

    The Heston stochastic volatility process is a degenerate diffusion process where the degeneracy in the diffusion coefficient is proportional to the square root of the distance to the boundary of the half-plane. The generator of this process with killing, called the elliptic Heston operator, is a second-order, degenerate-elliptic partial differential operator, where the degeneracy in the operator symbol is proportional to the distance to the boundary of the half-plane. In mathematical finance, solutions to the obstacle problem for the elliptic Heston operator correspond to value functions for perpetual American-style options on the underlying asset. With the aid of weighted Sobolev spaces and weighted Hölder spaces, we establish the optimal C 1 , 1 regularity (up to the boundary of the half-plane) for solutions to obstacle problems for the elliptic Heston operator when the obstacle functions are sufficiently smooth.

  9. [C1Q NEPHROPATHY: CASE REPORTS AND LITERATURE REVIEW].

    PubMed

    Galešić, Krešimir; Horvatić, Ivica; Batinić, Danica; Milošević, Danko; Saraga, Marijan; Durdov, Merica Glavina; Ljubanović, Danica Galešić

    2015-01-01

    C1q nephropathy is considered a form of glomerulonephritis, defined by histological findings of dominant Clq immune deposits in renal biopsy. It is a rare disease, most often manifested in children and young adults. The most common clinical manifestation of the disease is nephrotic syndrome, but other renal syndromes could also be found. The cause of the disease is not known, but the immune pathogenesis could be assumed. Often, resistance to glucocorticoid or other immunosuppressive therapy is present, potentially leading to chronic renal insufficiency. We present ten patients with renal biopsy and clinical findings of Clq nephropathy. None of the patients had clinical or serological manifestations of systemic lupus. All patients had normal findings of C3 and C4 components of complement, as well as normal ANF, anti-dsD-NA and ANCA antibodies. PMID:26749950

  10. A Selection of Recent Advances in C1 Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Mesters, Carl

    2016-06-01

    This review presents a selection of recent publications related to the chemistry and catalysis of C1 molecules, including methane, methanol, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide. These molecules play an important role in the current supply of energy and chemicals and will likely become even more relevant because of the need to decarbonize fuels (shift from coal to natural gas) in line with CO2 capture and use to mitigate global warming, as well as a gradual shift on the supply side from crude oil to natural gas. This review includes both recent industrial developments, such as the huge increase in methanol-to-olefins-capacity build in China and the demonstration of oxidative coupling of methane, and scientific developments in these chemistries facilitated by improved capabilities in, for example, analytical tools and computational modeling. PMID:27276549

  11. Plasma enhanced C1 chemistry for green technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nozaki, Tomohiro

    2013-09-01

    Plasma catalysis is one of the innovative next generation green technologies that meet the needs for energy and materials conservation as well as environmental protection. Non-thermal plasma uniquely generates reactive species independently of reaction temperature, and these species are used to initiate chemical reactions at unexpectedly lower temperatures than normal thermochemical reactions. Non-thermal plasma thus broadens the operation window of existing chemical conversion processes, and ultimately allows modification of the process parameters to minimize energy and material consumption. We have been specifically focusing on dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) as one of the viable non-thermal plasma sources for practical fuel reforming. In the presentation, room temperature one-step conversion of methane to methanol and hydrogen using a miniaturized DBD reactor (microplasma reactor) is highlighted. The practical impact of plasma technology on existing C1-chemistry is introduced, and then unique characteristics of plasma fuel reforming such as non-equilibrium product distribution is discussed.

  12. C(1) metabolism and CVD outcomes in older adults.

    PubMed

    McNulty, Helene; Strain, J J; Pentieva, Kristina; Ward, Mary

    2012-05-01

    CVD is the most common cause of death in people over 65 years. This review considers the latest evidence for a potential protective effect of C(1) donors (folate and the metabolically related B-vitamins) in CVD. Such an effect may or may not be mediated via the role of these nutrients in maintaining plasma homocysteine concentrations within a desirable range. Despite predictions from epidemiological studies that lowering plasma homocysteine would reduce cardiovascular risk, several secondary prevention trials in at-risk patients published since 2004 have failed to demonstrate a benefit of homocysteine-lowering therapy with B-vitamins on CVD events generally. All these trials were performed in CVD patients with advanced disease; thus current evidence suggests that intervention with high-dose folic acid is of no benefit in preventing another event, at least in the case of heart disease. The evidence at this time, however, is stronger for stroke, with meta-analyses of randomised trials showing that folic acid reduces the risk of stroke, particularly in people with no history of stroke. Genetic studies provide convincing evidence to support a causal relationship between sub-optimal B-vitamin status and CVD. People homozygous for the common C677T variant in the gene encoding the folate-metabolising enzyme, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), typically have a 14-21% higher risk of CVD. Apart from folate, riboflavin is required as a co-factor for MTHFR. New evidence shows that riboflavin intervention results in marked lowering of blood pressure, specifically in patients with the MTHFR 677TT genotype. This novel gene-nutrient interaction may provide insights as to the mechanism that links C(1) metabolism with CVD outcomes. PMID:22152927

  13. NEW MASER EMISSION FROM NONMETASTABLE AMMONIA IN NGC 7538. III. DETECTION OF THE (10,6) TRANSITION AND A VELOCITY GRADIENT

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, Ian M.

    2012-11-01

    We present the first astronomical detection of the {sup 14}NH{sub 3} (J, K) = (10, 6) line: nonthermal emission at several velocities in the Galactic star-forming region NGC 7538. Using the Very Large Array we have imaged the (10,6) and (9,6) ammonia masers at several positions within NGC 7538 IRS 1. The individual sources have angular sizes {approx}< 0.1 arcsec corresponding to brightness temperatures T{sub B} {approx}> 10{sup 6} K. We apply the pumping model of Brown and Cragg, confirming the conjecture that multiple ortho-ammonia masers can occur with the same value of K. The positions and velocities of the (10,6) and (9,6) masers are modeled as motion in a possible disk or torus and are discussed in the context of recent models of the region.

  14. L-C1qDC-1, a novel C1q domain-containing protein from Lethenteron camtschaticum that is involved in the immune response.

    PubMed

    Pei, Guangying; Liu, Ge; Pan, Xiong; Pang, Yue; Li, Qingwei

    2016-01-01

    The C1q domain-containing (C1qDC) proteins are a family of proteins characterized by a globular C1q (gC1q) domain at their C-terminus. These proteins are involved in various processes in vertebrates and are assumed to serve as important pattern recognition receptors in innate immunity in invertebrates. Here, a novel C1qDC protein from Lethenteron camtschaticum was identified and characterized (designated as L-C1qDC-1). After a partial cDNA sequence of L-C1qDC-1 was identified in a L. camtschaticum liver cDNA library, the full-length cDNA was obtained using 3'- and 5'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). L-C1qDC-1 encodes 236 amino acids and contains a signal peptide, a collagen-like sequence with Gly-Xaa-Yaa repeats, and a C-terminal gC1q domain. The L-C1qDC-1 protein was primarily distributed in the gut, liver and supraneural body of L. camtschaticum and was also marginally detectable in leukocytes via real-time PCR and immunofluorescence assays. Furthermore, both immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence results showed that in L. camtschaticum serum, L-C1qDC-1 could interact with variable lymphocyte receptor (VLR) B and displayed strong colocalization with cancer cell immune responses. These results indicated that the L-C1qDC-1 gene encodes a novel C1qDC protein that may play an important role in the immune responses of L. camtschaticum, providing clues for understanding the universal functions of C1qDC proteins in other species and suggesting that these proteins could serve as pattern recognition molecules in immunotherapy. PMID:26342581

  15. Anatomic Consideration of the C1 Laminar Arch for Lateral Mass Screw Fixation via C1 Lateral Lamina : A Landmark between the Lateral and Posterior Lamina of the C1

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jung-Hwan; Kwak, Dai-Soon; Han, Seung-Ho; Cho, Sung-Min; You, Seung-Hoon

    2013-01-01

    Objective To clarify the landmark for deciding the entry point for C1 lateral mass screws via the posterior arch by using 3-dimensional (3D) computed images. Methods Resnick insisted that the C1 posterior arch could be divided into pure posterior and lateral lamina (C1 pedicle). Authors studied where this transition point (TP) is located between the posterior lamina and the C1 pedicle and how it can be recognized. The 3D computed images of 86 cadaver C1s (M : F=45 : 41) were used in this study. Results The superior ridge of the C1 posterior arch had 2 types of orientation. One was in the vertical direction in the C1 posterior lamina and the other was in the horizontal direction in the C1 pedicle. The TP was located at the border between the 2 areas, the same site as the posterior end of the groove of the vertebral artery. On posterior-anterior projection, the posterior arch was sharpened abruptly at TP. We were unable to identify the TP in 6.4% of specimens due to complete or partial osseous bridges. A total of 93.8% of the TP were located between the most enlarged point of the spinal canal and the medial wall of the vertebral artery. Conclusion The anatomic entry zone of C1 lateral laminar screws was clarified and identified based on the TP by using preoperative 3D computed images. PMID:24044076

  16. Circular-dichroism and electron-microscopy studies of human subcomponent C1q before and after limited proteolysis by pepsin.

    PubMed Central

    Brodsky-Doyle, B; Leonard, K R; Reid, K B

    1976-01-01

    1. A fragment of human subcomponent C1q was prepared by limited proteolysis with pepsin at 37 degrees C for 20 h, and at pH4.4, followed by gel filtration on Sephadex G-200. This fragment was shown to contain all the collagen-like features known to be present in the intact molecule [Reid (1976) Biochem. J. 155, 5-17]. 2. Circular-dichroism studies showed the presence of positive bands at 230 and 223 nm in the intact subcomponent C1q and pepsin fragment respectively, compared with a positive band at 220 nm obtained for lathyritic rat skin collagen. These bands were abolished by collagenase treatment, which suggested that there may some collagen-like triple-helical structure in subcomponent C1q and that this structure resides in the pepsin-resistant portion of the molecule. However, the 230 and 223 nm bands had a substantially lower magnitude than that obtained for the unaggregated single fibres of totally triple-helical collagen. 3. Thermal-transition temperatures obtained for subcomponent C1q, the pepsin fragment and the reduced and alkylated pepsin fragment were 48 degrees, 48 degrees and 39 degrees C respectively, compared with a value of 38 degrees C obtained for lathyritic rat skin collagen. 4. Only the unreduced pepsin fragment regained significant amounts (up to 60%) of collagen-like structure, after heat denaturation and cooling, as estimated by circular-dichroism measurements. 5. Electron-microscopy studies of subcomponent C1q and the collagen-like pepsin-resistant fragment of subcomponent C1q showed that the six peripheral globular regions of the molecule were fragmented by pepsin leaving the six collagen-like connecting strands and fibril-like central portion intact. Images PLATE 1 PLATE 2 PMID:187173

  17. Radiation damage of the HEAO C-1 germanium detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahoney, W. A.; Ling, J. C.; Jacobson, A. S.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of radiation damage from proton bombardment of the four HEAO C-1 high purity germanium detectors have been measured and compared to predictions. Because of the presence of numerous gamma-ray lines in the detector background spectra and because of the relatively long exposure time of the HEAO 3 satellite to cosmic-ray and trapped protons, it has been possible to measure both the energy and time dependence of radiation damage. After 100 d in orbit, each of the four detectors has been exposed to approximately 3 x 10 to the 7th protons/sq cm, and the average energy resolution at 1460 keV had degraded from 3.2 keV fwhm to 8.6 keV fwhm. The lines were all broadened to the low energy side although the line profile was different for each of the four detectors. The damage-related contribution to the degradation in energy resolution was found to be linear in energy and proton influence.

  18. Near-ultraviolet spectroscopy of Comet Austin (1989c1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valk, Jacobus H.; O'Dell, C. R.; Cochran, Anita L.; Cochran, William D.; Opal, Chet B. S.; Barker, Edwin S.

    1992-01-01

    Comet Austin (1989c1) was observed post-perihelion at a heliocentric distance near 1.25 AU. The wavelength range was from the atmospheric cutoff at 3000 to 4000 A. The coma spectra were calibrated into flux units and the contaminating sky spectrum and solar scattered light continuum were subtracted, leaving an ultraviolet spectrum of about 1.5-A resolution and excellent signal-to-noise ratio. The spectrum is dominated by emissions from OH, NH, CH, C3, and CN, some of the weaker emissions of which are seen here for the first time. More bands of CO(2+) were found than in any previous investigation and several intensity anomalies were noted; H2CO, OH(+), NCN, N(2+), and CN(+) may be present. Several emission features well above the noise level remain unidentified. The relative intensities of the OH and CN bands agree with the predictions of resonance fluorescence when one considers the potential effects of contamination by other molecules. The effects of the ozone absorption spectrum are not fully removed by the data-reduction process, although this does not affect these results.

  19. Structure of human Niemann-Pick C1 protein.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaochun; Wang, Jiawei; Coutavas, Elias; Shi, Hang; Hao, Qi; Blobel, Günter

    2016-07-19

    Niemann-Pick C1 protein (NPC1) is a late-endosomal membrane protein involved in trafficking of LDL-derived cholesterol, Niemann-Pick disease type C, and Ebola virus infection. NPC1 contains 13 transmembrane segments (TMs), five of which are thought to represent a "sterol-sensing domain" (SSD). Although present also in other key regulatory proteins of cholesterol biosynthesis, uptake, and signaling, the structure and mechanism of action of the SSD are unknown. Here we report a crystal structure of a large fragment of human NPC1 at 3.6 Å resolution, which reveals internal twofold pseudosymmetry along TM 2-13 and two structurally homologous domains that protrude 60 Å into the endosomal lumen. Strikingly, NPC1's SSD forms a cavity that is accessible from both the luminal bilayer leaflet and the endosomal lumen; computational modeling suggests that this cavity is large enough to accommodate one cholesterol molecule. We propose a model for NPC1 function in cholesterol sensing and transport. PMID:27307437

  20. Structure of human Niemann–Pick C1 protein

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaochun; Wang, Jiawei; Coutavas, Elias; Shi, Hang; Hao, Qi; Blobel, Günter

    2016-01-01

    Niemann–Pick C1 protein (NPC1) is a late-endosomal membrane protein involved in trafficking of LDL-derived cholesterol, Niemann–Pick disease type C, and Ebola virus infection. NPC1 contains 13 transmembrane segments (TMs), five of which are thought to represent a “sterol-sensing domain” (SSD). Although present also in other key regulatory proteins of cholesterol biosynthesis, uptake, and signaling, the structure and mechanism of action of the SSD are unknown. Here we report a crystal structure of a large fragment of human NPC1 at 3.6 Å resolution, which reveals internal twofold pseudosymmetry along TM 2–13 and two structurally homologous domains that protrude 60 Å into the endosomal lumen. Strikingly, NPC1's SSD forms a cavity that is accessible from both the luminal bilayer leaflet and the endosomal lumen; computational modeling suggests that this cavity is large enough to accommodate one cholesterol molecule. We propose a model for NPC1 function in cholesterol sensing and transport. PMID:27307437

  1. When Graduate Degrees Prostitute the Educational Process: Degrees Gone Wild

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lumadue, Richard T.

    2006-01-01

    Graduate degrees prostitute the educational process when they are sold to consumers by unaccredited degree/diploma mills as being equivalent to legitimate, bona-fide degrees awarded by accredited graduate schools. This article carefully analyzes the serious problems of bogus degrees and their association with the religious higher education…

  2. A common neoepitope is created when the reactive center of C1-inhibitor is cleaved by plasma kallikrein, activated factor XII fragment, C1 esterase, or neutrophil elastase.

    PubMed Central

    de Agostini, A; Patston, P A; Marottoli, V; Carrel, S; Harpel, P C; Schapira, M

    1988-01-01

    The reactive center of C1-inhibitor, a plasma protease inhibitor that belongs to the serpin superfamily, is located on a peptide loop which is highly susceptible to proteolytic cleavage. With plasma kallikrein, C1s and beta-Factor XIIa, this cleavage occurs at the reactive site residue P1 (Arg444); with neutrophil elastase, it takes place near P1, probably at residue P3 (Val442). After these cleavages, C1-inhibitor is inactivated and its conformation is modified. Moreover, in vivo, cleaved C1-inhibitor is removed from the blood stream more rapidly than the intact serpin, which suggests that proteolysis unmasks sites responsible for cellular recognition and the uptake of the cleaved inhibitor. In the study reported here, we show, using an MAb, that an identical neoepitope is created on C1-inhibitor after the cleavage of its exposed loop by plasma kallikrein, C1s, beta-Factor XIIa, and by neutrophil elastase. Images PMID:2457036

  3. [Hereditary angioneurotic edema: a molecular disease caused by a defect in the O-glycosylation of C1 esterase inhibitor (C1-INH)].

    PubMed

    Ollier-Hartmann, M P; Strecker, G; Montreuil, J; Hartmann, L

    1984-01-01

    A quantitative and qualitative study of neutral and aminosaccharides in C 1-esterase inhibitor (C 1-INH), protein of the complement system, was performed. We observe a mixed glycosylation of the molecule with an N-glycosylated: O-glycosylated chain ratio of 1: 4. The loss of the inhibitory activity of the molecule in hereditary angioedema (O ANH) is associated with an O-glycosylation deficiency which differs according to the two molecular variants: C 1-INH (1 A) and C 1-INH (II) previously described. PMID:6440668

  4. Corrosion behavior of austenitic steels in liquid lead bismuth containing 10-6 wt% and 10-8 wt% oxygen at 400-500 °C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinzel, A.; Weisenburger, A.; Müller, G.

    2014-05-01

    Three austenitic steels (316L, DIN 1.4970 tube and rod material) were tested up to 5000 h at temperatures between 400 and 500 °C in PbBi containing 10-8 wt% oxygen and at 450 °C and 500 °C in PbBi with 10-6 wt% oxygen. Protective scales grown on the surface up to 450 °C consist mainly of Cr rich oxides. However, after 5000 h at 500 °C dissolution attack occurred. At 10-6 wt% and 450 °C the thin Cr rich oxide scale is interrupted by areas with a thicker duplex-layered oxide of magnetite and spinel. At the higher temperature of 500 °C the whole surface is covered by the duplex-layered oxide scale.

  5. Human diploid fibroblasts have receptors for the globular domain of C1Q

    SciTech Connect

    Bordin, S.; Page, R.C.

    1986-03-01

    The authors showed that mass cultures of fibroblasts grown from gingival explants in DB medium with 10% human serum are enriched in a phenotype that binds C1q with an affinity much higher than the rest of the population. Because of potential biologic importance of C1q receptors, the authors studied whether the interaction between C1q and this phenotype was mediated by the globular or collagenous domains of the molecule. Globular fragments were prepared by digesting C1q with collagenase, and collagenous fragments obtained after pepsin treatment. C1q binding on cells in suspension was determined by reaction with /sup 125/I-C1q as reported. Competition experiments were performed under conditions in which intact /sup 125/I-C1q binding saturated all available receptors. The results showed that collagenous fragments inhibited 20% of the /sup 125/I-C1q binding to high affinity receptors, whereas inhibition by globular fragments was 70%. Unlabeled intact C1q and collagen type 1 were used as controls, and inhibited 92% and 17% of C1q binding, respectively. These studies show that C1q interacts with the fibroblast phenotype expressing high affinity receptors through its globular domain. The authors suggest that at sites of trauma, native C1 may bind to the surface of these cells via the globular domain of C1q, and that this unique phenotype may play an important role in tissue repair.

  6. Regulation of sympathetic tone and arterial pressure by rostral ventrolateral medulla after depletion of C1 cells in rat

    PubMed Central

    Schreihofer, Ann M; Stornetta, Ruth L; Guyenet, Patrice G

    2000-01-01

    In this study we examined whether the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) maintains resting sympathetic vasomotor tone and activates sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) after the depletion of bulbospinal C1 adrenergic neurones. Bulbospinal C1 cells were destroyed (≈84% loss) by bilateral microinjections (spinal segments T2-T3) of an anti-dopamine-β-hydroxylase antibody conjugated to the ribosomal toxin saporin (anti-DβH-SAP). Extracellular recording and juxtacellular labelling of bulbospinal barosensitive neurones in the RVLM revealed that treatment with anti-DβH-SAP spared the lightly myelinated neurones with no tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity. In rats treated with anti-DβH-SAP, inhibition of RVLM neurones by bilateral microinjection of muscimol eliminated splanchnic SNA and produced the same degree of hypotension as in control rats. Following treatment with anti-DβH-SAP the sympathoexcitatory (splanchnic nerve) and pressor responses to electrical stimulation of the RVLM were reduced. Treatment with anti-DβH-SAP also eliminated the majority of A5 noradrenergic neurones. However, rats with selective lesion of A5 cells by microinjection of 6-hydroxydopamine into the pons showed no deficits to stimulation of the RVLM. In summary, the loss of 84% of bulbospinal adrenergic neurones does not alter the ability of RVLM to maintain SNA and arterial pressure at rest in anaesthetized rats, but this loss reduces the sympathoexcitatory and pressor responses evoked by RVLM stimulation. The data suggest sympathoexcitatory roles for both the C1 cells and non-C1 cells of the RVLM and further suggest the C1 cells are critical for the full expression of sympathoexcitatory responses generated by the RVLM. PMID:11080264

  7. Variable-reflectance thin-film polarization-independent beam splitters for 0.6328- and 10.6-microm laser light.

    PubMed

    Azzam, R M

    1985-03-01

    Truly polarization-independent beam splitters for 0.6328- and 10.6-microm (He-Ne and CO(2)) laser radiation are designed using single-layer-coated (Cleartran) ZnS and Ge prisms. These devices are found to be reasonably achromatic, their reflectance (beam-splitting ratio) can be varied over a wide range with little accompanying polarization error, and they are tolerent to small film-thickness and film refractive-index errors. PMID:19724362

  8. Constitutive Activation of an Anthocyanin Regulatory Gene PcMYB10.6 Is Related to Red Coloration in Purple-Foliage Plum

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Hui; Wang, Lu; Deng, Xianbao; Han, Yuepeng

    2015-01-01

    Cherry plum is a popular ornamental tree worldwide and most cultivars are selected for purple foliage. Here, we report the investigation of molecular mechanism underlying red pigmentation in purple-leaf plum ‘Ziyeli’ (Prunus cerasifera Ehrhar f. atropurpurea (Jacq.) Rehd.), which shows red color pigmentation in fruit (flesh and skin) and foliage. Six anthocyanin-activating MYB genes, designated PcMYB10.1 to PcMYB10.6, were isolated based on RNA-Seq data from leaves of cv. Ziyeli. Of these PcMYB10 genes, five (PcMYB10.1 through PcMYB10.5) show distinct spatial and temporal expression patterns, while the PcMYB10.6 gene is highly expressed in all the purple-coloured organs of cv. Ziyeli. Constitutive activation of PcMYB10.6 is closely related to red pigmentation in the leaf, fruit (flesh and skin), and sepal. However, the PcMYB10.6 activation cannot induce red pigmentation in the petal of cv. Ziyeli during late stages of flower development due to due to a lack of expression of PcUFGT. The inhibition of red pigmentation in the petal of cherry plum could be attributed to the high-level expression of PcANR that directs anthocyanidin flux to proanthocyanidin biosynthesis. In addition, PcMYB10.2 is highly expressed in fruit and sepal, but its expression cannot induce red pigmentation. This suggests the PcMYB10 gene family in cherry plum may have diverged in function and PcMYB10.2 plays little role in the regulation of red pigmentation. Our study provides for the first time an example of constitutive activation of an anthocyanin-activating MYB gene in Prunus although its underlying mechanism remains unclear. PMID:26247780

  9. Ligamentous laxity across C0-C1-C2 complex. Axial torque-rotation characteristics until failure.

    PubMed

    Goel, V K; Winterbottom, J M; Schulte, K R; Chang, H; Gilbertson, L G; Pudgil, A G; Gwon, J K

    1990-10-01

    The axial torque until failure of the ligamentous occipito-atlanto-axial complex (C0-C1-C2) subjected to axial angular rotation (theta) was characterized using a biaxial MTS system. A special fixture and gearbox that permitted right axial rotation of the specimen until failure without imposing any additional constraints were designed to obtain the data. The average values for the axial rotation and torque at the point of maximum resistance were, respectively, 68.1 degrees and 13.6 N-m. The specimens offered minimal resistance (approximately 0.5 N-m), up to an average axial rotation of 21 degrees across the complex. The torque-angular rotation (T-theta) curve can be divided into four regions: regions of least and steadily increasing resistances, a transition zone that connects these two regions, and the increasing resistance region to the point of maximum resistance. The regions of least and steadily increasing resistances may be represented by two straight lines with average slopes of 0.028 and 0.383 N-m/degree, respectively. Post-test dissection of the specimens disclosed the following. The point of maximum resistance corresponded roughly to the value of axial rotation at which complete bilateral rotary dislocation of the C1-C2 facets occurred. The types of injuries observed were related to the magnitude of axial rotation imposed on a specimen during testing. Soft-tissue injuries alone (like stretch/rupture of the capsular ligaments, subluxation of the C1-C2 facets, etc.) were confined to specimens rotated up to or close to the point of maximum resistance. The specimens that were subjected to rotations up to the point of maximum resistance of the curve spontaneously reduced completely on removal from the testing apparatus. Spontaneous reduction was not possible for specimens tested slightly beyond their points of maximum resistance.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2263977

  10. Comparing the use of 4.6 um lasers versus 10.6 um lasers for mitigating damage site growth on fused silica surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, S T; Matthews, M J; Elhadj, S; Cooke, D; Guss, G M; Draggoo, V G; Wegner, P J

    2010-10-21

    The advantage of using mid-infrared (IR) 4.6 {micro}m lasers, versus far-infrared 10.6 {micro}m lasers, for mitigating damage growth on fused silica is investigated. In contrast to fused silica's high absorption at 10.6 {micro}m, silica absorption at 4.6 {micro}m is two orders of magnitude less. The much reduced absorption at 4.6 {micro}m enables deep heat penetration into fused silica when it is heated using the mid-IR laser, which in turn leads to more effective mitigation of damage sites with deep cracks. The advantage of using mid-IR versus far-IR laser for damage growth mitigation under non-evaporative condition is quantified by defining a figure of merit (FOM) that relates the crack healing depth to laser power required. Based on our FOM, we show that for damage cracks up to at least 500 {micro}m in depth, mitigation using a 4.6 {micro}m mid-IR laser is more efficient than mitigation using a 10.6 {micro}m far-IR laser.

  11. Antireflection coating on germanium for dual channel (3-5 and 7.5-10.6 μm) thermal imagers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, A.; Kant, P.; Bandyopadhyay, P. K.; Chandra, P.; Nijhawan, O. P.

    1999-02-01

    The dual channel thermal imager, operating in the 3-5 and 7.5-10.6 μm wavelength bands, is one of the latest achievements in instrumentation for target recognition and acquisition. While the 3-5 μm band is utilised for detecting hot objects such as engine exhausts of vehicles and fighter planes, the 7.5-10.6 μm band is employed for human bodies and objects at ambient temperatures. Many substrates are available which transmit in both these wavelength bands and their transmission can be enhanced by providing a suitable antireflection coating. In this paper, a broad band antireflection coating on germanium substrate is reported. The design approach involves achieving a continuously varying refractive index from that of the incident medium to the substrate. The continuously varying refractive index profile may be generated by using a sequence of thin layers of high and low refractive index materials. In this design a continuous refractive index profile is approximated by using a 13-layer stack of thorium fluoride and germanium as low and high index coating materials respectively. This coating conforms to environmental stability standards and shows an average transmission of 91% in 3-5 μm band and 94.5% in 7.5-10.6 μm band with a peak of 97% at 9 μm on 10 mm thick germanium substrate. Polycrystalline germanium has 2.5% absorption for a 10 mm thick substrate.

  12. Two Universities, Two Degrees: A Dual Degree Program for Pharmacists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milio, Frank

    2001-01-01

    Describes a dual degree program between Towson University and the University of Maryland School of Pharmacy, which allows a student to receive both a B.S. degree in Medicinal Chemistry and a Doctor of Pharmacy degree in a combined 7-year program. It also allows flexibility in pursuing alternate career goals. (EV)

  13. 360-degree Color Panorama

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This is a 'geometrically improved' version of the 360- degree panorama heretofore known as the 'Gallery Pan', the first contiguous, uniform panorama taken by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) over the course of Sols 8, 9, and 10. Different regions were imaged at different times over the three Martian days to acquire consistent lighting and shadow conditions for all areas of the panorama.

    The IMP is a stereo imaging system that, in its fully deployed configuration, stands 1.8 meters above the Martian surface, and has a resolution of two millimeters at a range of two meters. In this geometrically improved version of the panorama, distortion due to a 2.5 degree tilt in the IMP camera mast has been removed, effectively flattening the horizon.

    The IMP has color capability provided by 24 selectable filters -- twelve filters per 'eye'. Its red, green, and blue filters were used to take this image.

    At left is a Lander petal and a metallic mast which is a portion of the low-gain antenna. Misregistration in the antenna and other Lander features is due to parallax in the extreme foreground. On the horizon the double 'Twin Peaks' are visible, about 1-2 kilometers away. The rock 'Couch' is the dark, curved rock at right of Twin Peaks. Another Lander petal is at left-center, showing the fully deployed forward ramp at far left, and rear ramp at right, which rover Sojourner used to descend to the surface of Mars on July 5. Immediately to the left of the rear ramp is the rock 'Barnacle Bill', which scientists found to be andesitic, possibly indicating that it is a volcanic rock (a true andesite) or a physical mixture of particles. Just beyond Barnacle Bill, rover tracks lead to Sojourner, shown using its Alpha Proton X-Ray Spectrometer (APXS) instrument to study the large rock 'Yogi'. Yogi, low in quartz content, appears to be more primitive than Barnacle Bill, and appears more like the common basalts found on Earth.

    The tracks and circular pattern in the soil

  14. Molecular Determinants of the Substrate Specificity of the Complement-initiating Protease, C1r*

    PubMed Central

    Wijeyewickrema, Lakshmi C.; Yongqing, Tang; Tran, Thuy P.; Thompson, Phillip E.; Viljoen, Jacqueline E.; Coetzer, Theresa H.; Duncan, Renee C.; Kass, Itamar; Buckle, Ashley M.; Pike, Robert N.

    2013-01-01

    The serine protease, C1r, initiates activation of the classical pathway of complement, which is a crucial innate defense mechanism against pathogens and altered-self cells. C1r both autoactivates and subsequently cleaves and activates C1s. Because complement is implicated in many inflammatory diseases, an understanding of the interaction between C1r and its target substrates is required for the design of effective inhibitors of complement activation. Examination of the active site specificity of C1r using phage library technology revealed clear specificity for Gln at P2 and Ile at P1′, which are found in these positions in physiological substrates of C1r. Removal of one or both of the Gln at P2 and Ile at P1′ in the C1s substrate reduced the rate of C1r activation. Substituting a Gln residue into the P2 of the activation site of MASP-3, a protein with similar domain structure to C1s that is not normally cleaved by C1r, enabled efficient activation of this enzyme. Molecular dynamics simulations and structural modeling of the interaction of the C1s activation peptide with the active site of C1r revealed the molecular mechanisms that particularly underpin the specificity of the enzyme for the P2 Gln residue. The complement control protein domains of C1r also made important contributions to efficient activation of C1s by this enzyme, indicating that exosite interactions were also important. These data show that C1r specificity is well suited to its cleavage targets and that efficient cleavage of C1s is achieved through both active site and exosite contributions. PMID:23589288

  15. Studies on human plasma C1 inactivator-enzyme interactions. I. Mechanisms of interaction with C1s, plasmin, and trypsin.

    PubMed Central

    Harpel, P C; Cooper, N R

    1975-01-01

    This study has explored the nature of the molecular events which occur when C1 inactivator, a human plasma inhibitor of the complement, kinin-forming, coagulation, and fibrinolytic enzyme systems, interacts with C1s, plasmin, and trypsin. Purified inhibitor preparations demonstrated two bands, when examined by acrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). The molecular weights of the major and minor bands were 105,000 and 96,000 daltons, respectively. The minor component appeared to be immunologically and functionally identical to the main C1 inactivator component. Loss of C1s and plasmin functional activity was associated with the formation of a 1:1 molar complex between the inhibitor and each enzyme. These complexes were stable in the presence of SDS and urea. The light chain of both these enzymes provided the binding site for C1 inactivator. Complex formation and enzyme inhibition occurred only with native and not with an inhibitor preparation denatured by acid treatment, thereby demonstrating the importance of conformational factors in the enzyme-inhibitor reaction. Although peptide bond cleavage of the C1 inactivator molecule by C1s was not documented, plasmin was found to degrade the inhibitor with the production of several characteristic derivatives. At least one of these products retained the ability to complex with C1s and plasmin. Trypsin, which failed to form a complex with C1 inactivator, degraded the inhibitor in a limited and sequential manner with the production of nonfunctional derivatives one of which appeared structurally similar to a plasmin-induced product. These studies therefore, provide new information concerning the molecular interactions between C1 inactivator and several of the proteases which it inhibits. Images PMID:123251

  16. 26 CFR 31.3302(c)-1 - Limit on total credits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Limit on total credits. 31.3302(c)-1 Section 31.3302(c)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EMPLOYMENT... Federal Unemployment Tax Act (Chapter 23, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) § 31.3302(c)-1 Limit on...

  17. 26 CFR 1.666(c)-1A - Pro rata portion of taxes deemed distributed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pro rata portion of taxes deemed distributed. 1.666(c)-1A Section 1.666(c)-1A Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... Taxable Years Beginning Before January 1, 1969 § 1.666(c)-1A Pro rata portion of taxes deemed...

  18. 26 CFR 1.666(c)-1 - Pro rata portion of taxes deemed distributed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pro rata portion of taxes deemed distributed. 1.666(c)-1 Section 1.666(c)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... Taxable Years Beginning Before January 1, 1969 § 1.666(c)-1 Pro rata portion of taxes deemed...

  19. 17 CFR 270.18c-1 - Exemption of privately held indebtedness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exemption of privately held indebtedness. 270.18c-1 Section 270.18c-1 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) RULES AND REGULATIONS, INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940 § 270.18c-1 Exemption of privately held indebtedness. The issuance or...

  20. 26 CFR 1.503(c)-1 - Future status of organizations denied exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Future status of organizations denied exemption. 1.503(c)-1 Section 1.503(c)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Exempt Organizations § 1.503(c)-1 Future status of organizations denied exemption. (a)...

  1. 26 CFR 1.666(c)-1 - Pro rata portion of taxes deemed distributed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ....666(c)-1 Section 1.666(c)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... Applicable to Taxable Years Beginning Before January 1, 1969 § 1.666(c)-1 Pro rata portion of taxes deemed distributed. (a) If an accumulation distribution is deemed under § 1.666(a)-1 to be distributed on the...

  2. 26 CFR 1.666(c)-1A - Pro rata portion of taxes deemed distributed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ....666(c)-1A Section 1.666(c)-1A Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... Applicable to Taxable Years Beginning Before January 1, 1969 § 1.666(c)-1A Pro rata portion of taxes deemed distributed. (a) If an accumulation distribution is deemed under § 1.666(a)-1A to be distributed on the...

  3. 26 CFR 1.673(c)-1 - Reversionary interest after income beneficiary's death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Reversionary interest after income beneficiary's death. 1.673(c)-1 Section 1.673(c)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Substantial Owners § 1.673(c)-1 Reversionary interest after income beneficiary's death. The subject matter...

  4. 26 CFR 1.673(c)-1 - Reversionary interest after income beneficiary's death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Reversionary interest after income beneficiary's death. 1.673(c)-1 Section 1.673(c)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Substantial Owners § 1.673(c)-1 Reversionary interest after income beneficiary's death. The subject matter...

  5. 26 CFR 1.673(c)-1 - Reversionary interest after income beneficiary's death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Reversionary interest after income beneficiary's death. 1.673(c)-1 Section 1.673(c)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Substantial Owners § 1.673(c)-1 Reversionary interest after income beneficiary's death. The subject matter...

  6. 26 CFR 1.509(c)-1 - Status of organization after termination of private foundation status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... private foundation status. 1.509(c)-1 Section 1.509(c)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Private Foundations § 1.509(c)-1 Status of organization after termination of private foundation status. (a) In...

  7. 26 CFR 1.509(c)-1 - Status of organization after termination of private foundation status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... private foundation status. 1.509(c)-1 Section 1.509(c)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Private Foundations § 1.509(c)-1 Status of organization after termination of private foundation status. (a) In...

  8. 26 CFR 1.509(c)-1 - Status of organization after termination of private foundation status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... private foundation status. 1.509(c)-1 Section 1.509(c)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Private Foundations § 1.509(c)-1 Status of organization after termination of private foundation status. (a) In...

  9. 26 CFR 1.509(c)-1 - Status of organization after termination of private foundation status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... private foundation status. 1.509(c)-1 Section 1.509(c)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Private Foundations § 1.509(c)-1 Status of organization after termination of private foundation status. (a) In...

  10. 26 CFR 1.1244(c)-1 - Section 1244 stock defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Section 1244 stock defined. 1.1244(c)-1 Section 1.1244(c)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Special Rules for Determining Capital Gains and Losses § 1.1244(c)-1 Section 1244 stock defined. (a)...

  11. 26 CFR 1.503(c)-1 - Future status of organizations denied exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Future status of organizations denied exemption. 1.503(c)-1 Section 1.503(c)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Exempt Organizations § 1.503(c)-1 Future...

  12. 26 CFR 1.503(c)-1 - Future status of organizations denied exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Future status of organizations denied exemption. 1.503(c)-1 Section 1.503(c)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Exempt Organizations § 1.503(c)-1 Future...

  13. 26 CFR 1.503(c)-1 - Future status of organizations denied exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Future status of organizations denied exemption. 1.503(c)-1 Section 1.503(c)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Exempt Organizations § 1.503(c)-1 Future...

  14. 26 CFR 1.860C-1 - Taxation of holders of residual interests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Taxation of holders of residual interests. 1.860C-1 Section 1.860C-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Real Estate Investment Trusts § 1.860C-1 Taxation of...

  15. 26 CFR 1.666(c)-1A - Pro rata portion of taxes deemed distributed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ....666(c)-1A Section 1.666(c)-1A Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... Applicable to Taxable Years Beginning Before January 1, 1969 § 1.666(c)-1A Pro rata portion of taxes deemed distributed. (a) If an accumulation distribution is deemed under § 1.666(a)-1A to be distributed on the...

  16. 26 CFR 1.666(c)-1 - Pro rata portion of taxes deemed distributed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ....666(c)-1 Section 1.666(c)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... Applicable to Taxable Years Beginning Before January 1, 1969 § 1.666(c)-1 Pro rata portion of taxes deemed distributed. (a) If an accumulation distribution is deemed under § 1.666(a)-1 to be distributed on the...

  17. 26 CFR 1.666(c)-1A - Pro rata portion of taxes deemed distributed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ....666(c)-1A Section 1.666(c)-1A Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... Applicable to Taxable Years Beginning Before January 1, 1969 § 1.666(c)-1A Pro rata portion of taxes deemed distributed. (a) If an accumulation distribution is deemed under § 1.666(a)-1A to be distributed on the...

  18. 26 CFR 1.666(c)-1A - Pro rata portion of taxes deemed distributed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ....666(c)-1A Section 1.666(c)-1A Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... Applicable to Taxable Years Beginning Before January 1, 1969 § 1.666(c)-1A Pro rata portion of taxes deemed distributed. (a) If an accumulation distribution is deemed under § 1.666(a)-1A to be distributed on the...

  19. 26 CFR 1.666(c)-1 - Pro rata portion of taxes deemed distributed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ....666(c)-1 Section 1.666(c)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... Applicable to Taxable Years Beginning Before January 1, 1969 § 1.666(c)-1 Pro rata portion of taxes deemed distributed. (a) If an accumulation distribution is deemed under § 1.666(a)-1 to be distributed on the...

  20. 26 CFR 1.666(c)-1 - Pro rata portion of taxes deemed distributed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ....666(c)-1 Section 1.666(c)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... Applicable to Taxable Years Beginning Before January 1, 1969 § 1.666(c)-1 Pro rata portion of taxes deemed distributed. (a) If an accumulation distribution is deemed under § 1.666(a)-1 to be distributed on the...

  1. Serum IgG antibodies to C1q in hypocomplementemic urticarial vasculitis syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wisnieski, J J; Naff, G B

    1989-09-01

    Urticaria, angioedema, and arthritis are cardinal features of hypocomplementemic urticarial vasculitis syndrome (HUVS). Considered to be an immune complex-mediated disorder, HUVS has been differentiated from systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), based on its clinical manifestations and the C1q precipitin (C1q-p) reaction, which is manifested as gel precipitation of C1q by a small percentage of HUVS IgG molecules. This phenomenon has been attributed to an Fc region abnormality, and the responsible IgG molecules are said to possess C1q-p activity. We purified IgG from 4 HUVS patients and confirmed that HUVS IgG contains C1q binding activity. F(ab')2 fragments from these patients also bound to C1q, as measured by 2 different C1q binding methods at physiologic ionic strength; HUVS IgG Fc fragments did not bind to C1q. Preincubation of HUVS F(ab')2 fragments with antibody to human F(ab')2 prevented subsequent binding to C1q. We conclude that IgG antibodies to C1q are present in HUVS serum, and it is likely that these antibodies are C1q-p. Because the clinical manifestations of HUVS and the presence of anti-C1q antibodies have been described in patients with SLE, our findings support the concept that HUVS is an autoimmune syndrome related to SLE. PMID:2528353

  2. 26 CFR 1.674(c)-1 - Excepted powers exercisable only by independent trustees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Excepted powers exercisable only by independent trustees. 1.674(c)-1 Section 1.674(c)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... § 1.674(c)-1 Excepted powers exercisable only by independent trustees. Section 674(c) provides...

  3. Chemical characterization and location of ionic interactions involved in the assembly of the C1 complex of human complement.

    PubMed

    Illy, C; Thielens, N M; Arlaud, G J

    1993-12-01

    The C1 complex of human complement comprises two loosely interacting subunits, C1q and the Ca(2+)-dependent C1s-C1r-C1r-C1s tetramer. With a view to gain information on the nature of the ionic interactions involved in C1 assembly, we have studied the effects of the chemical modifications of charged residues of C1q or the tetramer on their ability to reconstitute the C1 complex. Treatment of C1q with pyridoxal-5'-phosphate, acetic anhydride, and citraconic anhydride, as well as with cyclohexanedione and diethylpyrocarbonate, inhibited its ability to associate with C1s-C1r-C1r-C1s. Treatment of the collagen-like fragments of C1q with the same reagents yielded the same effects. Treatment of C1s-C1r-C1r-C1s with 1-ethyl-3-[-3-(dimethylamino) propyl] carbodiimide also prevented C1 assembly, through modification of acidic amino acids which were shown to be located in C1r. Further studies on the location of the interaction sites within C1q, using ligand-blotting and competition experiments with synthetic peptides, were unsuccessful, suggesting that these sites are contributed to by two or three of the C1q chains. It is concluded that C1 assembly involves interactions between acidic amino acids of C1r and lysine (hydroxylysine) and arginine residues located within the collagen-like region of C1q. Sequence comparison with mannan binding protein, another collagen-like molecule which binds the C1s-C1r-C1r-C1s tetramer, suggests Arg A38, and HyL B32, B65, and C29 of C1q as possible interaction sites. PMID:8136028

  4. Foundation Degrees: A Risky Business?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowley, Jennifer

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Foundation degrees, the new proposal for sub-degree vocational education in the UK, are characterised by innovation both in their design (curriculum, teaching, learning and assessment) and in the marketplace for which they are designed. This article argues that the development and delivery of foundation degrees carry a high level of risk,…

  5. Top 100--Graduate Degree Producers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borden, Victor M. H.

    2009-01-01

    The Top 100 degree tables published in this edition of Diverse, and the many more detailed tables included on the Diverse Web site, delineate the institutions that have conferred the most master's, doctoral and first professional degrees to students of color in academic year 2007-2008. Each table shows the number of degrees for a specific minority…

  6. Students' Perceptions of Foundation Degrees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ooms, A.; Burke, L. M.; Marks-Maran, D. J.; Webb, M.; Cooper, D.

    2012-01-01

    In 2008 there were 87,339 people enrolled on foundation degrees (FDs) in the UK (Foundation Degree Forward, 2009), and educational institutions in the UK offered 1700 different foundation degrees in over 25 subjects, with nearly 900 more in development (Action on Access, 2010). In addition, student views are seen to be of importance, as…

  7. Presence of C1-Inhibitor Polymers in a Subset of Patients Suffering from Hereditary Angioedema

    PubMed Central

    Madsen, Daniel Elenius; Hansen, Søren; Gram, Jørgen; Bygum, Anette; Drouet, Christian; Sidelmann, Johannes Jakobsen

    2014-01-01

    Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is a potentially life-threatening disease caused by mutations in the gene encoding the serine protease inhibitor (serpin) C1 inhibitor (C1-inh). The mutations cause decreased functional plasma levels of C1-inh, which triggers unpredictable recurrent edema attacks. Subjects suffering from HAE have been classified in type I patients with decreased functional and antigenic levels of C1-inh, and type II patients with decreased functional but normal antigenic C1-inh levels. However, a few reports have demonstrated that some mutations cause C1-inh polymerization in vitro, and it is speculated that C1-inh polymers may exist in patient plasma, challenging the current classification of HAE patients. To investigate the presence of C1-inh polymers in patient plasma samples, we developed an immunological method, where monoclonal antibodies produced against polymerized C1-inh were applied in native PAGE western blotting. Using this approach we analyzed genuine plasma samples from 31 Danish HAE families, and found that plasma samples from three genotypically distinct HAE type I families (classified upon C1-inh plasma concentrations) contained C1-inh polymers. Identical C1-inh polymerization phenotypes were observed in four affected family members from one of these families. Genotyping of the families revealed that the polymerogenic mutations of two families were located in proximity to the reactive center loop insertion site in C1-inh (p.Ile271Thr and p.Ser258_Pro260del),and one mutation affected helix C (p.Thr167Asn). In conclusion, we demonstrate that C1-inh polymers are present in the plasma of a subgroup of HAE type I patients. PMID:25369003

  8. Enhanced temperature and emission from a standoff 266 nm laser initiated LIBS plasma using a simultaneous 10.6 microm CO2 laser pulse.

    PubMed

    Pal, Avishekh; Waterbury, Robert D; Dottery, Edwin L; Killinger, Dennis K

    2009-05-25

    A deep UV 266 nm laser induced LIBS plasma has been enhanced by using a simultaneous 10.6 microm CO(2) laser pulse at standoff ranges up to 55 m for several targets including metals, ceramics and plastics. The LIBS plasma emission was produced, for the first time, by a 266 nm laser and was enhanced by several orders of magnitude using the CO(2) laser pulse. The temperature of the enhanced LIBS plasma was measured, for the first time, and was observed to increase by about 3000K due to the addition of the CO(2) laser pulse. PMID:19466135

  9. Antireflecting and polarizing dielectric single-layer coating at oblique incidence on absorbing substrates at λ = 10.6 μm.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cojocaru, E.; Julea, T.

    Transparent single-layer antireflection coating on an absorbing substrate for p and s polarizations of the infrared light at λ = 10.6 μm as a function of the angle of incidence is studied in this paper. Two cases of low absorbing Ge, GaAs, ZnSe substrates and high absorbing Cu substrate are considered. It is found that the Cu substrate coated by an adequate antireflecting single-layer film functions as an excellent Rs = 0 reflection polarizer.

  10. Graduate Physics Degrees: Largest Departments and Degree Distribution. Focus On

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulvey, Patrick J.; Nicholson, Starr

    2014-01-01

    In the 2011-12 academic year there were 751 degree-granting physics departments in the U.S. Of these, 195 offered a PhD and 62 departments offered a master's as the highest physics degree. The remaining 494 departments offered a bachelor's as their highest physics degree. There were six universities that had two doctoral-granting physics…

  11. CT-based morphometric analysis of C1 laminar dimensions: C1 translaminar screw fixation is a feasible technique for salvage of atlantoaxial fusions

    PubMed Central

    Yew, Andrew; Lu, Derek; Lu, Daniel C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Translaminar screw fixation has become an alternative in the fixation of the axial and subaxial cervical spine. We report utilization of this approach in the atlas as a salvage technique for atlantoaxial stabilization when C1 lateral mass screws are precluded. To assess the feasibility of translaminar fixation at the atlas, we have characterized the dimensions of the C1 lamina in the general adult population using computed tomography (CT)-based morphometry. Methods: A 46-year-old male with symptomatic atlantoaxial instability secondary to os odontoideum underwent bilateral C1 and C2 translaminar screw/rod fixation as C1 lateral mass fixation was precluded by an anomalous vertebral artery. The follow-up evaluation 2½ years postoperatively revealed an asymptomatic patient without recurrent neck/shoulder pain or clinical signs of instability. To better assess the feasibility of utilizing this approach in the general population, we retrospectively analyzed 502 consecutive cervical CT scans performed over a 3-month period in patients aged over 18 years at a single institution. Measurements of C1 bicortical diameter, bilateral laminar length, height, and angulation were performed. Laminar and screw dimensions were compared to assess instrumentation feasibility. Results: Review of CT imaging found that 75.9% of C1 lamina had a sufficient bicortical diameter, and 63.7% of C1 lamina had sufficient height to accept bilateral translaminar screw placement. Conclusions: CT-based measurement of atlas morphology in the general population revealed that a majority of C1 lamina had sufficient dimensions to accept translaminar screw placement. Although these screws appear to be a feasible alternative when lateral mass screws are precluded, further research is required to determine if they provide comparable fixation strength versus traditional instrumentation methods. PMID:26005585

  12. Isolation and function of a human endothelial cell C1q receptor

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, L.; Berg, R. van den; Lange, Y. Muizert-de; Gerritsen, A.; Es, L. A. van

    1993-01-01

    It has been shown previously that cultured human venous and arterial endothelial cells (EC) bind C1q in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Cultured human endothelial cells express an average number of 5.2 × 105 binding sites/cell. In the present study the putative receptor for C1q (C1qR) was isolated from the membranes of 1–5 × 109 human umbilical cord EC by affinity chromatography on C1q–Sepharose. During isolation, C1qR was detected by its capacity to inhibit the lysis of EAC1q in C1q-deficient serum. The eluate from C1q–Sepharose was concentrated, dialysed and subjected to QAE-A50 chromatography and subsequently to gel filtration on HPLC–TSK 3000. C1qR filtered at an apparent molecular weight of 60 kDa. Purified C1qR exhibited an apparent molecular weight of 55–62 kDa in the unreduced state and a molecular weight of 64–68 kDa in reduced form. Two IgM monoclonal antibodies (mAb) D3 and D5 were raised following immunization of mice with purified receptor preparations. Both monoclonal antibodies increased the binding of 125I-C1q to endothelial cells but F(ab')2 anti-C1qR mAb inhibited the binding of a125I-C1q to EC in a dosedependent manner. The D3 mAb recognized a band of 54–60 kDa in Western blots of membranes of human EC and polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Previously, the authors showed that C1q induces the binding of IgM-containing immune complexes to EC. Therefore, it was hypothesized that during a primary immune response generation of IgM-IC may occur, resulting in binding and activation of C1, dissociation of activated C1 by C1 inhibitor and subsequent interaction of IgM-IC bearing C1q with EC–C1qR. PMID:18475561

  13. C1q component of complement binds to fibrinogen and fibrin

    SciTech Connect

    Entwistle, R.A.; Furcht, L.T.

    1988-01-12

    The interaction of complement component C1q with fibrinogen and fibrin was studied by using a solid-phase direct binding assay. Scatchard analysis of radioiodinated fibrinogen binding to C1q indicated at least two high-affinity binding constants (Kd) calculated as 8.5 and 120 nM. In contrast, binding of radioiodinated fibrin to C1q showed only a single class of binding sites with a calculated Kd of 600 nM. Fibrinogen-C1q binding was shown to decrease as a function of increasing salt concentrations, indicating either the presence of charged amino acids in the binding sites or an ionic strength induced conformational dependency of the binding. In direct binding studies using isolated fragments of C1q, both the collagen-like domain of C1q and the globular domains of C1q were shown to bind fibrinogen, indicating at least one binding site for fibrinogen is located in each of the major domains of C1q. Addition of the thrombin-generated peptides of fibrinogen, fibrinopeptides A and B, enhanced C1q-fibrinogen binding, again indicating a complex binding interaction. These results indicate that C1q and fibrinogen are capable of high-affinity interactions that may serve to sequester these complexes in areas of tumors, immune complex deposition, or wounds.

  14. Colonizing populations of Candida albicans are clonal in origin but undergo microevolution through C1 fragment reorganization as demonstrated by DNA fingerprinting and C1 sequencing.

    PubMed Central

    Lockhart, S R; Fritch, J J; Meier, A S; Schröppel, K; Srikantha, T; Galask, R; Soll, D R

    1995-01-01

    The genetic homogeneity of nine commensal and infecting populations of Candida albicans has been assessed by fingerprinting multiple isolates from each population by Southern blot hybridization first with the Ca3 probe and then with the 0.98-kb C1 fragment of the Ca3 probe. The isolates from each population were highly related, demonstrating the clonal origin of each population, but each population contained minor variants, demonstrating microevolution. Variation in each case was limited to bands of the Ca3 fingerprint pattern which hybridized with the 0.98-kb C1 fragment. The C1 fragment was therefore sequenced and demonstrated to contain an RPS repetitive element. The C1 fragment also contained part or all of a true end of the RPS element. These results, therefore, demonstrate that most colonizing C. albicans populations in nonimmuno-suppressed patients are clonal, that microevolution can be detected in every colonizing population by C1 hybridization, and that C1 contains the repeat RPS element. PMID:7650175

  15. Enzymatic pathways in the pathogenesis of hereditary angioedema: the role of C1 inhibitor therapy.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Allen P

    2010-11-01

    A functional abnormality of C1 inhibitor (C1INH) is present in types I and II hereditary angioedema (HAE), and normal C1INH may be rendered ineffective in the newly described type III HAE. C1INH inhibits factor XIIa, factor XII fragment (XIIf), kallikrein, and plasmin. Thus, in its absence, there is marked activation of the bradykinin-forming cascade resulting in severe angioedema. Factor XII may autoactivate on binding to endothelial cell surface gC1qR (receptor for the globular heads of C1q) thus initiating the cascade. Alternatively, stimuli that activate endothelial cells may liberate (or express at the cell surface) heat shock protein 90 or the enzyme prolylcarboxypeptidase, either of which can interact with the prekallikrein-high-molecular-weight kininogen complex to convert prekallikrein to kallikrein stoichiometrically. The kallikrein produced can cleave high-molecular-weight kininogen to produce bradykinin and also recruit factor XII by enzymatically activating it. Patients with type I or II HAE have mutant C1INH so that control of C1 activation is lost. Autoactivation of C1r in the absence of C1INH leads to C1s activation followed by C4 cleavage and depletion. An attack of swelling is accompanied by conversion of factor XIIa to factor XIIf and further enzymatic activation of C1r so that C4 levels drop further and C2 is depleted. New therapies for HAE focus on the bradykinin-forming cascade and include a kallikrein inhibitor and a bradykinin B-2 receptor antagonist in addition to administration of purified C1INH. PMID:20889195

  16. Increased Complement C1q Level Marks Active Disease in Human Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Mingxia; Liu, Haiying; Zhang, Guoliang; Deng, Qunyi; Huang, Jian; Gao, Zhiliang; Zhou, Boping; Feng, Carl G.; Chen, Xinchun

    2014-01-01

    Background Complement functions as an important host defense system and complement C5 and C7 have been implicated in immunopathology of tuberculosis. However, little is known about the role of other complement components in tuberculosis. Methods Complement gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of tuberculosis patients and controls were determined using whole genome transcriptional microarray assays. The mRNA and protein levels of three C1q components, C1qA, C1qB, and C1qC, were further validated by qRT-PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. The percentages of C1q expression in CD14 positive cells were determined by flow cytometry. Finally, C1qC protein level was quantified in the pleural fluid of tuberculosis and non-tuberculosis pleurisy. Results C1q expression increases significantly in the peripheral blood of patients with active tuberculosis compared to healthy controls and individuals with latent TB infection. The percentage of C1q-expressing CD14 positive cells is significantly increased in active TB patients. C1q expression in the peripheral blood correlates with sputum smear positivity in tuberculosis patients and is reduced after anti-tuberculosis chemotherapy. Notably, receiver operating characteristic analysis showed that C1qC mRNA levels in peripheral blood efficiently discriminate active from latent tuberculosis infection and healthy controls. Additionally, C1qC protein level in pleural effusion shows improved power in discriminating tuberculosis from non-tuberculosis pleurisy when compared to other inflammatory markers, such as IL-6 and TNF-α. Conclusions C1q expression correlates with active disease in human tuberculosis. C1q could be a potential diagnostic marker to discriminate active tuberculosis from latent tuberculosis infection as well as tuberculosis pleurisy from non-tuberculosis pleurisy. PMID:24647646

  17. Bilateral key comparison CCM.P-K3.1 for absolute pressure measurements from 3 × 10-6 Pa to 9 × 10-4 Pa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedchak, J. A.; Bock, Th; Jousten, K.

    2014-01-01

    This report describes the bilateral key comparison CCM.P-K3.1 between the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) for absolute pressure in the range from 3 × 10-6 Pa to 9 × 10-4 Pa. This comparison was a follow-up to the comparison CCM.P-K3. Two ionization gauges and two spinning rotor gauges (SRGs) were used as the transfer standards for the comparison. The SRGs were used to compare the standards at a pressure of 9 × 10-4 Pa and to normalize the ionization gauge readings. The two ionization gauges were used to compare the standards in the pressure range of from 3 × 10-6 Pa to 3 × 10-4 Pa. Both laboratories used dynamic expansion chambers as standards in the comparison. The two labs showed excellent agreement with each other and with the CCM.P-K3 key comparison reference value (KCRV) over the entire range. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  18. The importance of polarizability: comparison of models of carbon disulphide in the ionic liquids [C1C1im][NTf2] and [C4C1im][NTf2].

    PubMed

    Lynden-Bell, Ruth M; Quitevis, Edward L

    2016-06-28

    The local environment of CS2 and in solution in two ionic liquids ([C1C1im][NTf2] and [C4C1im][NTf2]) are investigated by atomistic simulation and compared with that in neat CS2. The intermolecular vibrational densities of states of CS2 are calculated and compared with experimental OHD-RIKES spectra. The fair agreement of the results from solutions but poor agreement of the results from neat CS2 suggest that while collective effects are unimportant in solutions, they have a major effect on the OHD-RIKES spectrum of neat CS2. Comparing polarizable and unpolarizable models for CS2 emphasizes the importance of polarizability in determining local structure. PMID:27273458

  19. From SMART-1 D-CIXS lunar results to C1XS on Chandrayaan-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grande, Manuel

    The D-CIXS X-ray spectrometer on SMART-1 demonstrated the potential of the technique of X-ray fluorescent spectroscopy of the Moon. We will show recent results, indicating the capabilities of the technique. The Chandrayaan-1 X-ray Spectrometer (C1XS) is a compact X-ray spectrometer for the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) Chandrayaan-1 lunar mission, launching mid 2008. It exploits heritage from the D-CIXS instrument on ESA's SMART1 mission. By comparison with SMART-1, Chandrayaan-1 is intended as a science rather than a technology mission, leading to far more favourable conditions for science measurements. The CIXS instrument hardware is built by an international team led from the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory. The Principal Investigator is M. Grande at the Aberystwyth University, and there is also a major science and design contribution from ISAC, ISRO, Bangalore, India; CESR, Toulouse, France provide amplifiers. The Science team is led by I A Crawford of Birkbeck College London. In order to record the incident solar X-ray flux at the Moon, a good measure of which is essential to derive absolute lunar elemental surface abundances, CIXS carries an X-ray Solar Monitor (XSM) provided by the University of Helsinki, Finland. The baseline design consists of 24 nadir pointing Swept Charge Device detectors, which provide high detection efficiency in the 1 to 7 keV range, which contains the X-ray fluorescence lines of interest. Micro-machined collimators provide a 14 degree FWHM FOV, equivalent to 25 km from 100km altitude. A deployable door protects the instrument during launch and cruise, and also provides a Fe55 calibration X-ray sources for each of the detectors. Additional refinements to the electronics, onboard software and thermal design greatly increase detector stability and signal to noise ratio compared to D-CIXS. This will result in a significantly improved energy resolution which should therefore be better than 200eV throughout the lifetime of the

  20. Specific heats of lunar surface materials from 90 to 350 degrees Kelvin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robie, R.A.; Hemingway, B.S.; Wilson, W.H.

    1970-01-01

    The specific heats of lunar samples 10057 and 10084 returned by the Apollo 11 mission have been measured between 90 and 350 degrees Kelvin by use of an adiabatic calorimeter. The samples are representative of type A vesicular basalt-like rocks and of finely divided lunar soil. The specific heat of these materials changes smoothly from about 0.06 calorie per gram per degree at 90 degrees Kelvin to about 0.2 calorie per gram per degree at 350 degrees Kelvin. The thermal parameter ??=(k??C)-1/2 for the lunar surface will accordingly vary by a factor of about 2 between lunar noon and midnight.

  1. New insight into the effects of heparinoids on complement inhibition by C1-inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Poppelaars, F; Damman, J; de Vrij, E L; Burgerhof, J G M; Saye, J; Daha, M R; Leuvenink, H G; Uknis, M E; Seelen, M A J

    2016-06-01

    Complement activation is of major importance in numerous pathological conditions. Therefore, targeted complement inhibition is a promising therapeutic strategy. C1-esterase inhibitor (C1-INH) controls activation of the classical pathway (CP) and the lectin pathway (LP). However, conflicting data exist on inhibition of the alternative pathway (AP) by C1-INH. The inhibitory capacity of C1-INH for the CP is potentiated by heparin and other glycosaminoglycans, but no data exist for the LP and AP. The current study investigates the effects of C1-INH in the presence or absence of different clinically used heparinoids on the CP, LP and AP. Furthermore, the combined effects of heparinoids and C1-INH on coagulation were investigated. C1-INH, heparinoids or combinations were analysed in a dose-dependent fashion in the presence of pooled serum. Functional complement activities were measured simultaneously using the Wielisa(®) -kit. The activated partial thrombin time was determined using an automated coagulation analyser. The results showed that all three complement pathways were inhibited significantly by C1-INH or heparinoids. Next to their individual effects on complement activation, heparinoids also enhanced the inhibitory capacity of C1-INH significantly on the CP and LP. For the AP, significant potentiation of C1-INH by heparinoids was found; however, this was restricted to certain concentration ranges. At low concentrations the effect on blood coagulation by combining heparinoids with C1-INH was minimal. In conclusion, our study shows significant potentiating effects of heparinoids on the inhibition of all complement pathways by C1-INH. Therefore, their combined use is a promising and a potentially cost-effective treatment option for complement-mediated diseases. PMID:26874675

  2. Treatment of hereditary angioedema with plasma-derived C1 inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Prematta, Michael J; Prematta, Tracy; Craig, Timothy J

    2008-01-01

    Background: Plasma-derived C1 inhibitor (C1-INH) concentrate is a treatment option for acute hereditary angioedema (HAE) attacks and is considered the standard-of-care in many countries, although it is not yet available in the United States. Studies are still being conducted to establish its safety and efficacy as required by the FDA. Objective: To review the medical literature to determine if C1-INH concentrate is a safe and effective treatment for acute HAE attacks. Methods: The following keywords were searched in PubMed and OVID: C1 esterase inhibitor, C1-inhibitor, C1 inhibitor, and hereditary angioedema treatment. English-language articles were searched from 1966 to the present to look for studies demonstrating the efficacy and the safety of C1-INH concentrate. Results: The English-language literature search revealed several studies showing significantly improved relief of HAE symptoms with the administration of C1-INH concentrate – many studies demonstrated some improvement of symptoms within 30 minutes. Side effects have been similar to placebo, and no proven cases of viral transmission have occurred in over 20 years. Conclusion: C1-INH concentrate appears to be a very safe and effective treatment option for HAE. PMID:19209279

  3. Acquired C1 esterase inhibitor deficiency in lymphomas: prevalence, symptoms, and response to treatment.

    PubMed

    Bekos, Christine; Perkmann, Thomas; Krauth, Maria; Raderer, Markus; Lechner, Klaus; Jaeger, Ulrich

    2016-09-01

    We retrospectively studied the prevalence of C1 esterase inhibitor (C1 INH) deficiency in 131 patients with various lymphomas. We determined C1 INH activity, C1 INH antigen, and C4 concentration at diagnosis and after chemotherapy. In follicular lymphoma (FL), diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) consecutive patients were studied. In these entities, the prevalence of C1 INH deficiency was 10.2% in DLBCL, 4.1% in CLL, and 0% in FL and Hodgkin lymphoma. In indolent lymphomas, we identified only single cases of C1 INH deficiency, predominantly in splenic marginal zone lymphomas (SMZL) (four cases). Only three patients were symptomatic while the majority (11 cases) was asymptomatic. In DLBCL patients who were successfully treated with chemotherapy, complete normalization of C1 INH activity and C4 was observed. In contrast, C1 INH deficiency remained in SMZL patients after splenectomy. We conclude that C1 INH deficiency in lymphomas is frequently asymptomatic and responsive to immunochemotherapy. PMID:26795750

  4. Placement of C1 Pedicle Screws Using Minimal Exposure: Radiographic, Clinical, and Literature Validation

    PubMed Central

    Storey, Christopher M.; Nixon, Menarvia K.C.; Haydel, Justin; Nanda, Anil; Sin, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Background Traditional C1-2 fixation involves placement of C1 lateral mass screws. Evolving techniques have led to the placement of C1 pedicle screws to avoid exposure of the C1-C2 joint capsule. Our minimal dissection technique utilizes anatomical landmarks with isolated exposure of C2 and the inferior posterior arch of C1. We evaluate this procedure clinically and radiographically through a technical report. Methods Consecutive cases of cranial-vertebral junction surgery were reviewed for one fellowship trained spinal surgeon from 2008-2014. Information regarding sex, age, indication for surgery, private or public hospital, intra-operative complications, post-operative neurological deterioration, death, and failure of fusion was extracted. Measurement of pre-operative axial and sagittal CT scans were performed for C1 pedicle width and C1 posterior arch height respectively. Results 64 patients underwent posterior cranio-vertebral junction fixation surgery. 40 of these patients underwent occipital-cervical fusion procedures. 7/9 (77.8%) C1 instrumentation cases were from trauma with the remaining two (22.2%) from oncologic lesions. The average blood loss among isolated C1-C2 fixation was 160cc. 1/9 patients (11.1%) suffered pedicle breech requiring sub-laminar wiring at the C1 level. On radiographic measurement, the average height of the C1 posterior arch was noted at 4.3mm (range 3.8mm to 5.7mm). The average width of the C1 pedicle measured at 5.3mm (range 2.8 to 8.7mm). The patient with C1 pedicle screw failure had a pedicle width of 2.78mm on pre-operative axial CT imaging. Conclusion Our study directly adds to the literature with level four evidence supporting a minimal dissection of C1 arch in the placement of C1 pedicle screws with both radiographic and clinical validation. Clinical Relevance Justification of this technique avoids C2 nerve root manipulation or sacrifice, reduces bleeding associated with the venous plexus, and leaves the third segment of the

  5. Contact system activation in patients with HAE and normal C1 inhibitor function.

    PubMed

    Ghannam, Arije; Defendi, Federica; Charignon, Delphine; Csopaki, Françoise; Favier, Bertrand; Habib, Mohammed; Cichon, Sven; Drouet, Christian

    2013-11-01

    In addition to hereditary angioedema (HAE) with C1 inhibitor (C1INH) deficiency, a type of HAE with dominant inheritance and normal C1INH function (HAE with normal C1INH) has been described. This relates to contact phase activation with exaggerated kinin formation, and mutations in the coagulation factor XII gene have been identified in some affected families, but the cause of the disease has remained elusive in a majority of families. Several triggering factors are responsible for developing kinin forming system, with participation of endothelium and mast cell component. Angioedema conditions meet the accumulation of kinins with failed kinin catabolism. PMID:24176216

  6. Angiooedema due to acquired deficiency of C1-esterase inhibitor associated with leucocytoclastic vasculitis.

    PubMed

    Farkas, H; Szongoth, M; Bély, M; Varga, L; Fekete, B; Karádi, I; Füst, G

    2001-01-01

    A hereditary and an acquired type of C1-esterase inhibitor deficiency have been described. Manifestations characteristic of both forms include recurrent subcutaneous and submucosal angiooedema. Acquired C1-esterase inhibitor deficiency has been observed in association with lymphoproliferative disorders, malignancy, autoimmune diseases and infections. We report on a case with the acquired form of the disease accompanied by leucocytoclastic vasculitis. Treatment with antimalarial agents resulted in complete resolution of symptoms and signs. Furthermore, C1-esterase inhibitor concentration and activity, as well as C1 levels, all returned to normal. PMID:11720182

  7. NLN: Celebrating Associate Degree Nursing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoddick, Nancy A.

    1981-01-01

    Introduces a project celebrating the thirtieth anniversary of associate degree nursing (ADN) education. Reviews the efforts and plans of two national associations to identify and resolve recurring ADN issues and recognize the associate degree nurse's contributions. Describes the forums and publications planned to meet these objectives. Includes…

  8. Degree, Yes--Education, No

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheahan, Sister Dorothy

    1974-01-01

    The external degree program, based solely on test proficiency, offers to its students not an educational opportunity; not a learning situation but a schema for securing a degree, with any kind of socialization into the profession conspicuously missing from the program. (Author/DS)

  9. Top 100 Degree Producers 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brotherton, Phaedra; Borden, Victor M. H.

    2001-01-01

    Descriptive text and numerous tables provide information on higher education degrees awarded to minority students in 1999-2000. Data are provided on masters, doctoral, and first professional degrees for minorities in 1999-2000 by gender, state, race/ethnicity, school type, individual school, and major. Data for previous years are provided for…

  10. Employers Often Distrust Online Degrees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnevale, Dan

    2007-01-01

    This article explains why employers are reluctant to accept potential employees with online degrees. The results of several surveys of those who evaluate potential employees and make hiring decisions indicate a bias against online degrees, even as more and more colleges are offering programs online. To those officials, the words "online education"…

  11. Research Degrees as Professional Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnacle, Robyn; Dall'Alba, Gloria

    2011-01-01

    There is an increasing trend within higher education and, more specifically, in higher degrees by research, to treat a professional skills set as a desirable graduate outcome. The increasing value that is being placed on a professional skills set in large part reflects growing interest around the world in the role of research degrees in labour…

  12. Six Degrees of "Visual" Separation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wall, Sharon

    2006-01-01

    Whether referring to psychologist Stanley Milgram's intriguing theory, John Guare's successful play and film, or Kevin Bacon's party game, six degrees of separation may also be used as a way to help students make visual connections. The six degrees of separation is the concept that everyone is connected to everyone else in the world by only six…

  13. Mutations in the membrane anchor of yeast cytochrome c1 compensate for the absence of Oxa1p and generate carbonate-extractable forms of cytochrome c1.

    PubMed Central

    Hamel, P; Lemaire, C; Bonnefoy, N; Brivet-Chevillotte, P; Dujardin, G

    1998-01-01

    Oxa1p is a mitochondrial inner membrane protein that is mainly required for the insertion/assembly of complex IV and ATP synthase and is functionally conserved in yeasts, humans, and plants. We have isolated several independent suppressors that compensate for the absence of Oxa1p. Molecular cloning and sequencing reveal that the suppressor mutations (CYT1-1 to -6) correspond to amino acid substitutions that are all located in the membrane anchor of cytochrome c1 and decrease the hydrophobicity of this anchor. Cytochrome c1 is a catalytic subunit of complex III, but the CYT1-1 mutation does not seem to affect the electron transfer activity. The double-mutant cyt1-1,164, which has a drastically reduced electron transfer activity, still retains the suppressor activity. Altogether, these results suggest that the suppressor function of cytochrome c1 is independent of its electron transfer activity. In addition to the membrane-bound cytochrome c1, carbonate-extractable forms accumulate in all the suppressor strains. We propose that these carbonate-extractable forms of cytochrome c1 are responsible for the suppressor function by preventing the degradation of the respiratory complex subunits that occur in the absence of Oxa1p. PMID:9755193

  14. Measurement of optical absorption in polycrystalline CVD diamond plates by the phase photothermal method at a wavelength of 10.6 {mu}m

    SciTech Connect

    Luk'yanov, A Yu; Serdtsev, E V; Volkov, P V; Ral'chenko, Viktor G; Savel'ev, A V; Konov, Vitalii I; Khomich, A V

    2008-12-31

    A highly-efficient phase photothermal method is developed for quantitative measurements of the small optical absorption coefficient in thin plates made of highly transparent materials in which bulk losses significantly exceed surface losses. The bulk absorption coefficient at 10.6 {mu}m is estimated in polycrystalline diamond plates grown from the vapour phase (a CVD diamond). The results are compared with those for natural and synthetic diamond single crystals and with the concentrations of nitrogen and hydrogen impurities. The absorption coefficient of the best samples of the CVD diamond did not exceed 0.06 cm{sup -1}, which, taking into account the high thermal conductivity of the CVD diamond (1800-2200 W mK{sup -1} at room temperature), makes this material attractive for fabricating output windows of high-power CO{sub 2} lasers, especially for manufacturing large-size optics. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  15. A Study of the DsJ(2317) and DsJ(2460) Mesons in Inclusive ccbar Production near sqrt(s) = 10.6 GeV

    SciTech Connect

    Aubert, B.

    2006-04-19

    A study of the D*{sub sJ}(2317){sup +} and D{sub sJ}(2460){sup +} mesons in inclusive c{bar c} production is presented using 232 fb{sup -1} of data collected by the BABAR experiment near {radical}s = 10.6 GeV. Final states consisting of a D{sub s}{sup +} meson along with one or more {pi}{sup 0}, {pi}{sup {+-}}, or {gamma} particles are considered. Estimates of the mass and limits on the width are provided for both mesons and for the D{sub s1}(2536){sup +} meson. A search is also performed for neutral and doubly-charged partners of the D*{sub sJ}(2317){sup +} meson.

  16. Aeroelastic Tests of an Eight Percent Scale Saturn C-1 Block II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    Aeroelastic Tests of an Eight Percent Scale Saturn C-1 Block II. Buffet and flutter characteristics of Saturn Apollo mission were studied using a dynamically scaled model. The model was built around a central aluminum tube for scaled stiffness distribution and strength to resist loads imposed during testing. Styrofoam sections attached to the core provided the correct external contours. Lead weights were added for correct mass distribution. An electromagnetic shaker was used to excite the model in its flexible modes of vibration during portions of the test. The model was supported on a sting, mounted by leaf springs, cables and torsion bars. The support system provided for simulating the full scale rigid body pitch frequency with minimum restraint imposed on elastic deflections. Bending moments recorded by sensors on the aluminum tube. Several modified nose configurations were tested: The basic configuration was tested with and without a flow separator disk on the escape rocket motor, tests also were made with the escape tower and rocket motor removed completely. For the final test, the Apollo capsule was replaced with a Jupiter nose cone. The test program consisted of determining model response throughout the transonic speed range at angles of attack up to 6 degrees and measuring the aerodynamic damping over the same range for the basic model and the modified configurations. Signals from the model pickup were recorded on tape for later analysis. The data obtained were used to estimate bending moments that would be produced on the full-scale vehicle by aerodynamic forces due to buffeting. [Entire movie available on DVD from CASI as Doc ID 20070030987. Contact help@sti.nasa.gov

  17. Niemann-Pick C1 Is Essential for Ebolavirus Replication and Pathogenesis In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Herbert, Andrew S.; Davidson, Cristin; Kuehne, Ana I.; Bakken, Russell; Braigen, Stephen Z.; Gunn, Kathryn E.; Whelan, Sean P.; Brummelkamp, Thijn R.; Twenhafel, Nancy A.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Recent work demonstrated that the Niemann-Pick C1 (NPC1) protein is an essential entry receptor for filoviruses. While previous studies focused on filovirus entry requirements of NPC1 in vitro, its roles in filovirus replication and pathogenesis in vivo remain unclear. Here, we evaluated the importance of NPC1, and its partner in cholesterol transport, NPC2, by using a mouse model of Ebolavirus (EBOV) disease. We found that, whereas wild-type mice had high viral loads and succumbed to EBOV infection, Npc1−/− mice were entirely free of viral replication and completely protected from EBOV disease. Interestingly, Npc1+/− mice transiently developed high levels of viremia, but were nevertheless substantially protected from EBOV challenge. We also found Npc2−/− mice to be fully susceptible to EBOV infection, while Npc1−/− mice treated to deplete stored lysosomal cholesterol remained completely resistant to EBOV infection. These results provide mechanistic evidence that NPC1 is directly required for EBOV infection in vivo, with little or no role for NPC1/NPC2-dependent cholesterol transport. Finally, we assessed the in vivo antiviral efficacies of three compounds known to inhibit NPC1 function or NPC1-glycoprotein binding in vitro. Two compounds reduced viral titers in vivo and provided a modest, albeit not statistically significant, degree of protection. Taken together, our results show that NPC1 is critical for replication and pathogenesis in animals and is a bona fide target for development of antifilovirus therapeutics. Additionally, our findings with Npc1+/− mice raise the possibility that individuals heterozygous for NPC1 may have a survival advantage in the face of EBOV infection. PMID:26015498

  18. Degradation of C1-inhibitor by plasmin: implications for the control of inflammatory processes.

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, E. M.; Perkins, S. J.; Sim, R. B.; Willis, A. C.; Feighery, C.; Jackson, J.

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A correct balance between protease and inhibitor activity is critical in the maintenance of homoeostasis; excessive activation of enzyme pathways is frequently associated with inflammatory disorders. Plasmin is an enzyme ubiquitously activated in inflammatory disorder, and C1-inhibitor (C1-Inh) is a pivotal inhibitor of protease activity, which is particularly important in the regulation of enzyme cascades generated in plasma. The nature of the interaction between plasmin and C1-Inh is poorly understood. MATERIALS AND METHODS: C1-Inh was immunoadsorbed from the plasma of normal individuals (n = 21), from that of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (n = 18) or adult respiratory distress syndrome (n = 9), and from the plasma and synovial fluid of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (n = 18). As plasmin is a putative enzyme responsible for C1-Inh was examined using SDS-PAGE. In addition, peptides cleaved from C1-Inh by plasmin were isolated and sequenced and the precise cleavage sites determined from the known primary sequence of C1-Inh. Homology models of C1-Inh were then constructed. RESULTS: Increased levels of cleaved and inactivated C1-Inh were found in each of the inflammatory disorders examined. Through SDS-PAGE analysis it was shown that plasmin rapidly degraded C1-Inh in vitro. The pattern of C1-Inh cleavage seen in vivo in patients with inflammatory disorders and that produced in vitro following incubation with plasmin were very similar. Homology models of C1-Inh indicate that the majority of the plasmin cleavage sites are adjacent to the reactive site of the inhibitor. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that local C1-Inh degradation by plasmin may be a central and critical event in the loss of protease inhibition during inflammation. These findings have important implications for our understanding of pathogenic mechanisms in inflammation and for the development of more effectively targeted therapeutic regimes. These findings may also explain

  19. Functional C1q is present in the skin mucus of Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii).

    PubMed

    Fan, Chunxin; Wang, Jian; Zhang, Xuguang; Song, Jiakun

    2015-01-01

    The skin mucus of fish acts as the first line of self-protection against pathogens in the aquatic environment and comprises a number of innate immune components. However, the presence of the critical classical complement component C1q, which links the innate and adaptive immune systems of mammalians, has not been explored in a primitive actinopterygian fish. In this study, we report that C1q is present in the skin mucus of the Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii). The skin mucus was able to inhibit the growth of Escherichia coli. The bacteriostatic activity of the skin mucus was reduced by heating and by pre-incubation with EDTA or mouse anti-human C1q antibody. We also detected C1q protein in skin mucus using the western blot procedure and isolated a cDNA that encodes the Siberian sturgeon C1qC, which had 44.7-51.4% identity with C1qCs in teleosts and tetrapods. A phylogenetic analysis revealed that Siberian sturgeon C1qC lies at the root of the actinopterygian branch and is separate from the tetrapod branch. The C1qC transcript was expressed in many tissues as well as in skin. Our data indicate that C1q is present in the skin mucus of the Siberian sturgeon to protect against water-borne bacteria, and the C1qC found in the sturgeon may represent the primitive form of teleost and tetrapod C1qCs. PMID:24920077

  20. Receptor-mediated binding of C1 q on pulmonary endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, S.C.; Schultz, D.; Ryan, U.

    1986-03-01

    Normal undamaged pulmonary endothelial cells (EC) do not express receptors for C3b or the Fc portion of IgG, but both receptors become unmasked after viral infection or exposure to white cell lysates. Here, highly purified human C1q was labeled with /sup 125/I, and the globular subunits were separated from the collagenous portion by collagenase digestion and chromatography. Bovine pulmonary artery EC were cultured without exposure to proteolytic enzymes. Binding assays were carried out at 0/sup 0/C, pH 7.4, ..mu.. = 0.15. Results showed that /sup 125/I-C1q binds to EC, the binding is dose-dependent, and the receptor is saturable. Saturation was approached at a C1q concentration of ca 0.1 ug. By Scatchard analysis, maximum binding was 0.219 pmoles in a volume of 250 ..mu..l for 7 x 10/sup 5/ cells, and the average number of binding sites per cell was 1.88 x 10/sup 5/. Isolated /sup 125/I-C1q heads do not bind, and when native /sup 125/I-C1q was bound to EC radioactivity was eliminated after collagenase treatment for 4 h at 37/sup 0/C. Thus, C1q binds to EC via the collagenous portion. That Fc receptors (globular heads) are exposed was shown by rosette formation with EA and EC bound C1q. Using similar conditions, native C1(C1w x 2C1r x 2C1s) did not bind to EC. These results suggest a mechanism for localizing immune complexes on undamaged pulmonary vessels which may be important for initiation of the inflammatory response.

  1. Spinolaminar Line Test as a Screening Tool for C1 Stenosis.

    PubMed

    Oshima, Yasushi; Kelly, Michael P; Song, Kwang-Sup; Park, Moon Soo; Chuntarapas, Tapanut; Vo, Katie D; Yeom, Jin S; Takeshita, Katsushi; Riew, K Daniel

    2016-06-01

    Study Design Retrospective cohort. Objective To clarify the sensitivity of C3-C2 spinolaminar line test as a screening tool for the stenosis of C1 space available for the cord (SAC). Methods Spine clinic records from April 2005 to August 2011 were reviewed. The C1 SAC was measured on lateral radiographs, and the relative positions between a C1 posterior arch and the C3-C2 spinolaminar line were examined and considered "positive" when the C1 ring lay ventral to the line. Computed tomography (CT) scans and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were utilized to measure precise diameters of C1 and C2 SAC and to check the existence of spinal cord compression. Results Four hundred eighty-seven patients were included in this study. There were 246 men and 241 women, with an average age of 53 years (range: 18 to 86). The mean SAC at C1 on radiographs was 21.2 mm (range: 13.5 to 28.2). Twenty-one patients (4.3%) were positive for the spinolaminar line test; all of these patients had C1 SAC of 19.4 mm or less. Eight patients (1.6%) had C1 SAC smaller than C2 on CT examination; all of these patients had a positive spinolaminar test, with high sensitivity (100%) and specificity (97%). MRI analysis revealed that two of the eight patients with a smaller C1 SAC had spinal cord compression at the C1 level. Conclusion Although spinal cord compression at the level of atlas without instability is a rare condition, the spinolaminar line can be used as a screening of C1 stenosis. PMID:27190740

  2. Spinolaminar Line Test as a Screening Tool for C1 Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Oshima, Yasushi; Kelly, Michael P.; Song, Kwang-Sup; Park, Moon Soo; Chuntarapas, Tapanut; Vo, Katie D.; Yeom, Jin S.; Takeshita, Katsushi; Riew, K. Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective cohort. Objective To clarify the sensitivity of C3–C2 spinolaminar line test as a screening tool for the stenosis of C1 space available for the cord (SAC). Methods Spine clinic records from April 2005 to August 2011 were reviewed. The C1 SAC was measured on lateral radiographs, and the relative positions between a C1 posterior arch and the C3–C2 spinolaminar line were examined and considered “positive” when the C1 ring lay ventral to the line. Computed tomography (CT) scans and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were utilized to measure precise diameters of C1 and C2 SAC and to check the existence of spinal cord compression. Results Four hundred eighty-seven patients were included in this study. There were 246 men and 241 women, with an average age of 53 years (range: 18 to 86). The mean SAC at C1 on radiographs was 21.2 mm (range: 13.5 to 28.2). Twenty-one patients (4.3%) were positive for the spinolaminar line test; all of these patients had C1 SAC of 19.4 mm or less. Eight patients (1.6%) had C1 SAC smaller than C2 on CT examination; all of these patients had a positive spinolaminar test, with high sensitivity (100%) and specificity (97%). MRI analysis revealed that two of the eight patients with a smaller C1 SAC had spinal cord compression at the C1 level. Conclusion Although spinal cord compression at the level of atlas without instability is a rare condition, the spinolaminar line can be used as a screening of C1 stenosis. PMID:27190740

  3. The C1q Family of Proteins: Insights into the Emerging Non-Traditional Functions

    PubMed Central

    Ghebrehiwet, Berhane; Hosszu, Kinga K.; Valentino, Alisa; Peerschke, Ellinor I. B.

    2012-01-01

    Research conducted over the past 20 years have helped us unravel not only the hidden structural and functional subtleties of human C1q, but also has catapulted the molecule from a mere recognition unit of the classical pathway to a well-recognized molecular sensor of damage-modified self or non-self antigens. Thus, C1q is involved in a rapidly expanding list of pathological disorders – including autoimmunity, trophoblast migration, preeclampsia, and cancer. The results of two recent reports are provided to underscore the critical role C1q plays in health and disease. First is the observation by Singh et al. (2011) showing that pregnant C1q−/− mice recapitulate the key features of human preeclampsia that correlate with increased fetal death. Treatment of the C1q−/− mice with pravastatin restored trophoblast invasiveness, placental blood flow, and angiogenic balance and, thus, prevented the onset of preeclampsia. Second is the report by Hong et al. (2009) which showed that C1q can induce apoptosis of prostate cancer cells by activating the tumor suppressor molecule WW-domain containing oxydoreductase (WWOX or WOX1) and destabilizing cell adhesion. Downregulation of C1q on the other hand, enhanced prostate hyperplasia and cancer formation due to failure of WOX1 activation. C1q belongs to a family of structurally and functionally related TNF-α-like family of proteins that may have arisen from a common ancestral gene. Therefore C1q not only shares the diverse functions with the tumor necrosis factor family of proteins, but also explains why C1q has retained some of its ancestral “cytokine-like” activities. This review is intended to highlight some of the structural and functional aspects of C1q by underscoring the growing list of its non-traditional functions. PMID:22536204

  4. Degree Options and Requirements in Master's Degree Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumner, David E.

    1998-01-01

    Presents results of a survey of 158 master's degree programs in mass communication disciplines regarding: thesis, project, and coursework-only options; course requirements; and core courses most frequently required. Compares these findings with those from earlier studies. (SR)

  5. Potent inhibition of the classical pathway of complement by a novel C1q-binding peptide derived from the human astrovirus coat protein.

    PubMed

    Gronemus, Jenny Q; Hair, Pamela S; Crawford, Katrina B; Nyalwidhe, Julius O; Cunnion, Kenji M; Krishna, Neel K

    2010-01-01

    Previous work from our laboratories has demonstrated that purified, recombinant human astrovirus coat protein (HAstV CP) binds C1q and mannose-binding lectin (MBL) inhibiting activation of the classical and lectin pathways of complement, respectively. Analysis of the 787 amino acid CP molecule revealed that residues 79-139 share limited sequence homology with human neutrophil defensin-1 (HNP-1), a molecule previously demonstrated to bind C1q and MBL, inhibiting activation of the classical and lectin pathways of complement, respectively. A 30 amino acid peptide derived from this region of the CP molecule competitively inhibited the binding of wild-type CP to C1q. The parent peptide and various derivatives were subsequently assayed for C1q binding, inhibition of C1 and C4 activation as well as suppression of complement activation in hemolytic assays. The parent peptide and several derivatives inhibited complement activation in these functional assays to varying degrees. One peptide derivative in particular (E23A) displayed superior inhibition of complement activation in multiple assays of classical complement pathway activation. Further analysis revealed homology to a plant defensin allowing development of a proposed structural model for E23A. Based upon these findings, we hypothesize that further rationale optimization of E23A may result in a promising therapeutic inhibitor for the treatment of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases in which dysregulated activation of the classical and lectin pathways of complement contribute to pathogenesis. PMID:20728940

  6. Center is at Latitude 30 Degrees North, Longitude 30 Degrees

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Center of the orthographic projection is at latitude 30 degrees N., longitude 30 degrees. The north polar residual ice cap, which is cut by spiral-patterned troughs, is located at the top. The central part is characterized by a dark depression, Chryse basin, where several large outflow channels terminate. The lower-left corner is marked by a vast system of canyons, Valles Marineris, which extends eastward for several thousand kilometers.

  7. Center is at Latitude 30 Degrees South., Longitude 330 Degrees

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Center of the orthographic projection is at latitude 30 degrees S., longitude 330 degrees. Heavily cratered highlands dominate this view. Toward the lower right, a conspicuous light-colored circular depression marks the ancient large Hellas impact basin. Directly northeast of Hellas, several large ancient impacts dot the landscape, including Cassini, Schiaparelli, and Huygens. Several large outflow channels are located in the upper left-hand corner. The permanent, residual south polar ice cap is located near the bottom.

  8. Center is at Latitude 30 Degrees South, Longitude 210 Degrees

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Center of the orthographic projection is at latitude 30 degrees S., longitude 210 degrees. Toward the top, the lowland plains of Elysium and Utopia Planitiae are separated from the darker heavily cratered highlands by a broad escarpment. The far bottom left is marked by the large light-colored ancient Hellas impact basin. The permanent south polar residual ice cap is located near the bottom.

  9. Transsynaptic Modulation of Kainate Receptor Functions by C1q-like Proteins.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Keiko; Budisantoso, Timotheus; Mitakidis, Nikolaos; Sugaya, Yuki; Miura, Eriko; Kakegawa, Wataru; Yamasaki, Miwako; Konno, Kohtarou; Uchigashima, Motokazu; Abe, Manabu; Watanabe, Izumi; Kano, Masanobu; Watanabe, Masahiko; Sakimura, Kenji; Aricescu, A Radu; Yuzaki, Michisuke

    2016-05-18

    Postsynaptic kainate-type glutamate receptors (KARs) regulate synaptic network activity through their slow channel kinetics, most prominently at mossy fiber (MF)-CA3 synapses in the hippocampus. Nevertheless, how KARs cluster and function at these synapses has been unclear. Here, we show that C1q-like proteins C1ql2 and C1ql3, produced by MFs, serve as extracellular organizers to recruit functional postsynaptic KAR complexes to the CA3 pyramidal neurons. C1ql2 and C1ql3 specifically bound the amino-terminal domains of postsynaptic GluK2 and GluK4 KAR subunits and the presynaptic neurexin 3 containing a specific sequence in vitro. In C1ql2/3 double-null mice, CA3 synaptic responses lost the slow, KAR-mediated components. Furthermore, despite induction of MF sprouting in a temporal lobe epilepsy model, KARs were not recruited to postsynaptic sites in C1ql2/3 double-null mice, leading to reduced recurrent circuit activities. C1q family proteins, broadly expressed, are likely to modulate KAR function throughout the brain and represent promising antiepileptic targets. PMID:27133466

  10. 29 CFR Appendix B to Subpart C of... - Figures C-1 through C-16

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Figures C-1 through C-16 B Appendix B to Subpart C of Part 1928 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... Structures Pt. 1928, Subpt. C, App. B Appendix B to Subpart C of Part 1928—Figures C-1 through C-16...

  11. 26 CFR 1.503(c)-1 - Future status of organizations denied exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Future status of organizations denied exemption. 1.503(c)-1 Section 1.503(c)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... notified the Commissioner that it is applying for recognition of its exempt status under section 508(a)...

  12. 26 CFR 1.475(c)-1 - Definitions-dealer in securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions-dealer in securities. 1.475(c)-1 Section 1.475(c)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED... a manner that allows recognition of unrealized gains or losses or deductions for additions to...

  13. 26 CFR 1.509(c)-1 - Status of organization after termination of private foundation status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Status of organization after termination of private foundation status. 1.509(c)-1 Section 1.509(c)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... recognition of section 501(c)(3) status pursuant to the provisions of section 508(a). (b) Effect upon...

  14. 26 CFR 1.641(c)-1 - Electing small business trust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Electing small business trust. 1.641(c)-1... small business trust. (a) In general. An electing small business trust (ESBT) within the meaning of... meaning of section 642(c)(1). The limitations of section 681, regarding unrelated business income,...

  15. 26 CFR 25.2523(c)-1 - Interest in unidentified assets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Interest in unidentified assets. 25.2523(c)-1 Section 25.2523(c)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED... from the trust and at the termination of the trust the trustee is to turn over to H's wife, W,...

  16. 26 CFR 1.267(c)-1 - Constructive ownership of stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Constructive ownership of stock. 1.267(c)-1 Section 1.267(c)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED... the outstanding stock of the M Corporation. The M Corporation in turn owned 80 percent of...

  17. 26 CFR 1.267(c)-1 - Constructive ownership of stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Constructive ownership of stock. 1.267(c)-1 Section 1.267(c)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED... 25 percent, of the outstanding stock of the M Corporation. The M Corporation in turn owned 80...

  18. 26 CFR 1.267(c)-1 - Constructive ownership of stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Constructive ownership of stock. 1.267(c)-1 Section 1.267(c)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED... 25 percent, of the outstanding stock of the M Corporation. The M Corporation in turn owned 80...

  19. 26 CFR 1.267(c)-1 - Constructive ownership of stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Constructive ownership of stock. 1.267(c)-1 Section 1.267(c)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED... 25 percent, of the outstanding stock of the M Corporation. The M Corporation in turn owned 80...

  20. 26 CFR 25.2523(c)-1 - Interest in unidentified assets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Interest in unidentified assets. 25.2523(c)-1 Section 25.2523(c)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED... from the trust and at the termination of the trust the trustee is to turn over to H's wife, W,...

  1. 26 CFR 1.267(c)-1 - Constructive ownership of stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Constructive ownership of stock. 1.267(c)-1 Section 1.267(c)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED... 25 percent, of the outstanding stock of the M Corporation. The M Corporation in turn owned 80...

  2. 26 CFR 25.2523(c)-1 - Interest in unidentified assets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Interest in unidentified assets. 25.2523(c)-1 Section 25.2523(c)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED... from the trust and at the termination of the trust the trustee is to turn over to H's wife, W,...

  3. 17 CFR 240.24c-1 - Access to nonpublic information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Access to nonpublic information. (a) For purposes of this section, the term “nonpublic information” means... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Access to nonpublic information. 240.24c-1 Section 240.24c-1 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE...

  4. Generalized van der Waals Hamiltonian: periodic orbits and C1 nonintegrability.

    PubMed

    Guirao, Juan L G; Llibre, Jaume; Vera, Juan A

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this paper is to study the periodic orbits of the generalized van der Waals Hamiltonian system. The tool for studying such periodic orbits is the averaging theory. Moreover, for this Hamiltonian system we provide information on its C(1) nonintegrability, i.e., on the existence of a second first integral of class C(1). PMID:22587198

  5. 26 CFR 31.3406(c)-1 - Notified payee underreporting of reportable interest or dividend payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Notified payee underreporting of reportable interest or dividend payments. 31.3406(c)-1 Section 31.3406(c)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX...

  6. 26 CFR 48.4216(c)-1 - Computation of tax on leases and installment sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Computation of tax on leases and installment sales. 48.4216(c)-1 Section 48.4216(c)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES MANUFACTURERS AND RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Special Provisions Applicable to Manufacturers Taxes §...

  7. 26 CFR 40.6302(c)-1 - Use of Government depositaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Section 40.6302(c)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES EXCISE TAX PROCEDURAL REGULATIONS § 40.6302(c)-1 Use of Government depositaries. (a... deposit of tax for each semimonthly period (as defined in § 40.0-1(c)) in which tax liability is...

  8. 26 CFR 31.3121(c)-1 - Included and excluded services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Included and excluded services. 31.3121(c)-1 Section 31.3121(c)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX...

  9. 17 CFR 240.15c1-9 - Use of pro forma balance sheets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Use of pro forma balance sheets. 240.15c1-9 Section 240.15c1-9 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE... pro forma balance sheets. The term manipulative, deceptive, or other fraudulent device or...

  10. 17 CFR 240.15c1-9 - Use of pro forma balance sheets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Use of pro forma balance sheets. 240.15c1-9 Section 240.15c1-9 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE... pro forma balance sheets. The term manipulative, deceptive, or other fraudulent device or...

  11. 17 CFR 240.15c1-9 - Use of pro forma balance sheets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Use of pro forma balance sheets. 240.15c1-9 Section 240.15c1-9 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE... pro forma balance sheets. The term manipulative, deceptive, or other fraudulent device or...

  12. 17 CFR 240.15c1-9 - Use of pro forma balance sheets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of pro forma balance sheets. 240.15c1-9 Section 240.15c1-9 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE... pro forma balance sheets. The term manipulative, deceptive, or other fraudulent device or...

  13. 17 CFR 240.15c1-9 - Use of pro forma balance sheets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Use of pro forma balance sheets. 240.15c1-9 Section 240.15c1-9 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE... pro forma balance sheets. The term manipulative, deceptive, or other fraudulent device or...

  14. 26 CFR 1.512(c)-1 - Special rules applicable to partnerships; in general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Special rules applicable to partnerships; in general. 1.512(c)-1 Section 1.512(c)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Taxation of Business Income of...

  15. 26 CFR 1.412(c)(1)-2 - Shortfall method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Shortfall method. 1.412(c)(1)-2 Section 1.412(c... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.412(c)(1)-2 Shortfall method. (a) In general—(1) Shortfall method. The shortfall method is a funding method that adapts a...

  16. 26 CFR 31.3306(c)(1)-1 - Agricultural labor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Agricultural labor. 31.3306(c)(1)-1 Section 31.3306(c)(1)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE Federal Unemployment Tax Act (Chapter...

  17. 26 CFR 31.3306(c)(1)-1 - Agricultural labor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Agricultural labor. 31.3306(c)(1)-1 Section 31.3306(c)(1)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED... SOURCE Federal Unemployment Tax Act (Chapter 23, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) §...

  18. 26 CFR 1.641(c)-1 - Electing small business trust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electing small business trust. 1.641(c)-1...) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Estates, Trusts, and Beneficiaries § 1.641(c)-1 Electing small business trust. (a) In general. An electing small business trust (ESBT) within the meaning of section...

  19. 26 CFR 1.641(c)-1 - Electing small business trust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Electing small business trust. 1.641(c)-1... small business trust. (a) In general. An electing small business trust (ESBT) within the meaning of... meaning of section 642(c)(1). The limitations of section 681, regarding unrelated business income,...

  20. 360-degree physician performance assessment.

    PubMed

    Dubinsky, Isser; Jennings, Kelly; Greengarten, Moshe; Brans, Amy

    2010-01-01

    Few jurisdictions have a robust common approach to assessing the quantitative and qualitative dimensions of physician performance. In this article, we examine the need for 360-degree physician performance assessment and review the literature supporting comprehensive physician assessment. An evidence-based, "best practice" approach to the development of a 360-degree physician performance assessment framework is presented, including an overview of a tool kit to support implementation. The focus of the framework is to support physician career planning and to enhance the quality of patient care. Finally, the legal considerations related to implementing 360-degree physician performance assessment are explored. PMID:20357549

  1. Killing Horizons Kill Horizon Degrees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergamin, L.; Grumiller, D.

    Frequently, it is argued that the microstates responsible for the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy should arise from some physical degrees of freedom located near or on the black hole horizon. In this essay, we elucidate that instead entropy may emerge from the conversion of physical degrees of freedom, attached to a generic boundary, into unobservable gauge degrees of freedom attached to the horizon. By constructing the reduced phase space, it can be demonstrated that such a transmutation indeed takes place for a large class of black holes, including Schwarzschild.

  2. Interaction between complement subcomponent C1q and the Klebsiella pneumoniae porin OmpK36.

    PubMed Central

    Albertí, S; Marqués, G; Hernández-Allés, S; Rubires, X; Tomás, J M; Vivanco, F; Benedí, V J

    1996-01-01

    The interaction between C1q, a subcomponent of the complement classical pathway component C1, and OmpK36, a porin protein from Klebsiella pneumoniae, was studied in a solid-phase direct-binding assay, inhibition assays with the purified globular and collagen-like regions of C1q, and cross-linking experiments. We have shown that the binding of C1q to the OmpK36 porin of the serum-sensitive strain K. pneumoniae KT707 occurs in an in vivo situation and that this binding leads to activation of the complement classical pathway and the subsequent deposition of complement components C3b and C5b-9 on the OmpK36 porin. Scatchard analysis of the binding of [125I]C1q to the OmpK36 porin showed two binding sites with dissociation constants of 1.5 and 75 nM. The decrease of [125I]C1q binding to the OmpK36 porin in buffer with increasing salt concentrations and the pIs of the C1q subcomponent (10.3) and OmpK36 porin (4.5) suggest that charged amino acids are involved in the binding phenomenon. In inhibition assays, only the globular regions of C1q inhibited the interaction between C1q and OmpK36 porin, demonstrating that C1q binds to porin through its globular region and not through the collagen-like stalks. PMID:8890231

  3. C1GALT1 enhances proliferation of hepatocellular carcinoma cells via modulating MET glycosylation and dimerization.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yao-Ming; Liu, Chiung-Hui; Huang, Miao-Juei; Lai, Hong-Shiee; Lee, Po-Huang; Hu, Rey-Heng; Huang, Min-Chuan

    2013-09-01

    Altered glycosylation is a hallmark of cancer. The core 1 β1,3-galactosyltransferase (C1GALT1) controls the formation of mucin-type O-glycans, far overlooked and underestimated in cancer. Here, we report that C1GALT1 mRNA and protein are frequently overexpressed in hepatocellular carcinoma tumors compared with nontumor liver tissues, where it correlates with advanced tumor stage, metastasis, and poor survival. Enforced expression of C1GALT1 was sufficient to enhance cell proliferation, whereas RNA interference-mediated silencing of C1GALT1 was sufficient to suppress cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo. Notably, C1GALT1 attenuation also suppressed hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)-mediated phosphorylation of the MET kinase in hepatocellular carcinoma cells, whereas enforced expression of C1GALT1 enhanced MET phosphorylation. MET blockade with PHA665752 inhibited C1GALT1-enhanced cell viability. In support of these results, we found that the expression level of phospho-MET and C1GALT1 were associated in primary hepatocellular carcinoma tissues. Mechanistic investigations showed that MET was decorated with O-glycans, as revealed by binding to Vicia villosa agglutinin and peanut agglutinin. Moreover, C1GALT1 modified the O-glycosylation of MET, enhancing its HGF-induced dimerization and activation. Together, our results indicate that C1GALT1 overexpression in hepatocellular carcinoma activates HGF signaling via modulation of MET O-glycosylation and dimerization, providing new insights into how O-glycosylation drives hepatocellular carcinoma pathogenesis. PMID:23832667

  4. Separation and conductimetric detection of C1-C7 aliphatic monocarboxylic acids and C1-C7 aliphatic monoamines on unfunctionized polymethacrylate resin columns.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Kazutoku; Towata, Atsuya; Ohashi, Masayoshi; Takeuchi, Toyohide

    2004-06-11

    The application of unfunctionized polymethacrylate resin (TSKgel G3000PWXL) as a stationary phase in liquid chromatography with conductimetric detection for C1-C7 aliphatic monocarboxylic acids (formic acid, acetic acid, propionic acid, butyric acid, isovaleric acid, valeric acid, 3,3-dimethylbutyric acid, 4-methylvaleric acid, hexanoic acid, 2-methylhexanoic acid, 5-methylhexanoic acid and heptanoic acid) and C1-C7 aliphatic monoamines (methylamine, ethylamine, propylamine, isobutylamine, butylamine, isoamylamine, amylamine, 1,3-dimethylbutylamine, hexylamine, 2-heptylamine and heptylamine) was attempted with C8 aliphatic monocarboxylic acids (2-propylvaleric acid, 2-ethylhexanoic acid, 2-methylheptanoic acid and octanoic acid) and C8 aliphatic monoamines (1,5-dimethylhexylamine, 2-ethylhexylamine, 1-methylheptylamine and octylamine) as eluents, respectively. Using 1 mM 2-methylheptanoic acid at pH 4.0 as the eluent, excellent separation and relatively high sensitive detection for these C1-C7 carboxylic acids were achieved on a TSKgel G3000PWXL column (150 mm x 6 mm i.d.) in 60 min. Using 2 mM octylamine at pH 11.0 as the eluent, excellent separation and relatively high sensitive detection for these C1-C7 amines were also achieved on the TSKgel G3000PWXL column in 60 min. PMID:15250420

  5. Hereditary and acquired C1-inhibitor-dependent angioedema: from pathophysiology to treatment.

    PubMed

    Zeerleder, Sacha; Levi, Marcel

    2016-01-01

    Uncontrolled generation of bradykinin (BK) due to insufficient levels of protease inhibitors controlling contact phase (CP) activation, increased activity of CP proteins, and/or inadequate degradation of BK into inactive peptides increases vascular permeability via BK-receptor 2 (BKR2) and results in subcutaneous and submucosal edema formation. Hereditary and acquired angioedema due to C1-inhibitor deficiency (C1-INH-HAE and -AAE) are diseases characterized by serious and potentially fatal attacks of subcutaneous and submucosal edemas of upper airways, facial structures, abdomen, and extremities, due to inadequate control of BK generation. A decreased activity of C1-inhibitor is the hallmark of C1-INH-HAE (types 1 and 2) due to a mutation in the C1-inhibitor gene, whereas the deficiency in C1-inhibitor in C1-INH-AAE is the result of autoimmune phenomena. In HAE with normal C1-inhibitor, a significant percentage of patients have an increased activity of factor XIIa due to a FXII mutation (FXII-HAE). Treatment of C1-inhibitor-dependent angioedema focuses on restoring control of BK generation by inhibition of CP proteases by correcting the balance between CP inhibitors and BK breakdown or by inhibition of BK-mediated effects at the BKR2 on endothelial cells. This review will address the pathophysiology, clinical picture, diagnosis and available treatment in C1-inhibitor-dependent angioedema focusing on BK-release and its regulation. Key Messages Inadequate control of bradykinin formation results in the formation of characteristic subcutaneous and submucosal edemas of the skin, upper airways, facial structures, abdomen and extremities as seen in hereditary and acquired C1-inhibitor-dependent angioedema. Diagnosis of hereditary and acquired C1-inhibitor-dependent angioedema may be troublesome as illustrated by the fact that there is a significant delay in diagnosis; a certain grade of suspicion is therefore crucial for quick diagnosis. Submucosal edema formation in

  6. Nanoscale Biogeocomplexity of the Organomineral Assemblage in Soil: Application of STXM Microscopy and C 1s-NEXAFS Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Kinyangi,J.; Solomon, D.; Liang, B.; Lerotic, M.; Wirick, S.; Lehmann, J.

    2006-01-01

    Methodological constraints limit the extent to which existing soil aggregation models explain carbon (C) stabilization in soil. We hypothesize that the physical infrastructure of microaggregates plays a major role in determining the chemistry of the occluded C and intimate associations between particulate C, chemically stabilized C and the soil mineral matrix. We employed synchrotron-based scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) coupled with near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (C 1s-NEXAFS) spectroscopy to investigate the nanoscale physical assemblage and C chemistry of 150-{micro}m microaggregates from a Kenyan Oxisol. Ultra-thin sections were obtained after embedding microaggregates in a sulfur block and sectioning on a cryo-microtome at -55 degrees C. Principal component and cluster analyses revealed four spatially distinct features: pore surfaces, mineral matter, organic matter, and their mixtures. The occurrence of these features did not vary between exterior and interior locations; however, the degree of oxidation decreased while the complexity and occurrence of aliphatic C forms increased from exterior to interior regions of the microaggregate. At both locations, compositional mapping rendered a nanoscale distribution of oxidized C clogging pores and coating pore cavities on mineral surface. Hydrophobic organic matter of aromatic and aliphatic nature, representing particulate C forms appeared physically occluded in 2- to 5-{micro}m pore spaces. Our findings demonstrate that organic matter in microaggregates may be found as either oxidized C associated with mineral surfaces or aromatic and aliphatic C in particulate form. Using STXM and C 1s-NEXAFS we are for the first time able to resolve the nanoscale biogeocomplexity of unaltered soil microaggregates.

  7. Survival of the anaerobic fungus Orpinomyces sp. strain C1A after prolonged air exposure

    PubMed Central

    Struchtemeyer, Christopher G.; Ranganathan, Abhaya; Couger, M. B.; Liggenstoffer, Audra S.; Youssef, Noha H.; Elshahed, Mostafa S.

    2014-01-01

    Anaerobic fungi are efficient plant biomass degraders and represent promising agents for a variety of biotechnological applications. We evaluated the tolerance of an anaerobic fungal isolate, Orpinomyces sp. strain C1A, to air exposure in liquid media using soluble (cellobiose) and insoluble (dried switchgrass) substrates. Strain C1A grown on cellobiose survived for 11, and 13.5 hours following air exposure when grown under planktonic, and immobilized conditions, respectively. When grown on switchgrass media, strain C1A exhibited significantly enhanced air tolerance and survived for 168 hours. The genome of strain C1A lacked a catalase gene, but contained superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase genes. Real time PCR analysis indicated that superoxide dismutase, but not glutathione peroxidase, exhibits a transient increase in expression level post aeration. Interestingly, the C1A superoxide dismutase gene of strain C1A appears to be most closely related to bacterial SODs, which implies its acquisition from a bacterial donor via cross kingdom horizontal gene transfer during Neocallimastigomycota evolution. We conclude that strain C1A utilizes multiple mechanisms to minimize the deleterious effects of air exposure such as physical protection and the production of oxidative stress enzymes. PMID:25367149

  8. Survival of the anaerobic fungus Orpinomyces sp. strain C1A after prolonged air exposure.

    PubMed

    Struchtemeyer, Christopher G; Ranganathan, Abhaya; Couger, M B; Liggenstoffer, Audra S; Youssef, Noha H; Elshahed, Mostafa S

    2014-01-01

    Anaerobic fungi are efficient plant biomass degraders and represent promising agents for a variety of biotechnological applications. We evaluated the tolerance of an anaerobic fungal isolate, Orpinomyces sp. strain C1A, to air exposure in liquid media using soluble (cellobiose) and insoluble (dried switchgrass) substrates. Strain C1A grown on cellobiose survived for 11, and 13.5 hours following air exposure when grown under planktonic, and immobilized conditions, respectively. When grown on switchgrass media, strain C1A exhibited significantly enhanced air tolerance and survived for 168 hours. The genome of strain C1A lacked a catalase gene, but contained superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase genes. Real time PCR analysis indicated that superoxide dismutase, but not glutathione peroxidase, exhibits a transient increase in expression level post aeration. Interestingly, the C1A superoxide dismutase gene of strain C1A appears to be most closely related to bacterial SODs, which implies its acquisition from a bacterial donor via cross kingdom horizontal gene transfer during Neocallimastigomycota evolution. We conclude that strain C1A utilizes multiple mechanisms to minimize the deleterious effects of air exposure such as physical protection and the production of oxidative stress enzymes. PMID:25367149

  9. Trichinella spiralis Paramyosin Binds Human Complement C1q and Inhibits Classical Complement Activation

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Ran; Zhao, Xi; Wang, Zixia; Yang, Jing; Zhao, Limei; Zhan, Bin; Zhu, Xinping

    2015-01-01

    Background Trichinella spiralis expresses paramyosin (Ts-Pmy) as a defense mechanism. Ts-Pmy is a functional protein with binding activity to human complement C8 and C9 and thus plays a role in evading the attack of the host’s immune system. In the present study, the binding activity of Ts-Pmy to human complement C1q and its ability to inhibit classical complement activation were investigated. Methods and Findings The binding of recombinant and natural Ts-Pmy to human C1q were determined by ELISA, Far Western blotting and immunoprecipitation, respectively. Binding of recombinant Ts-Pmy (rTs-Pmy) to C1q inhibited C1q binding to IgM and consequently inhibited C3 deposition. The lysis of antibody-sensitized erythrocytes (EAs) elicited by the classical complement pathway was also inhibited in the presence of rTs-Pmy. In addition to inhibiting classical complement activation, rTs-Pmy also suppressed C1q binding to THP-1-derived macrophages, thereby reducing C1q-induced macrophages migration. Conclusion Our results suggest that T. spiralis paramyosin plays an important role in immune evasion by interfering with complement activation through binding to C1q in addition to C8 and C9. PMID:26720603

  10. Evolutionary diversification of DYX1C1 transcripts via an HERV-H LTR integration event.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yun-Ji; Huh, Jae-Won; Kim, Dae-Soo; Han, Kyudong; Kim, Hwan-Mook; Kim, Heui-Soo

    2011-01-01

    DYX1C1 is a candidate gene for developmental dyslexia and has three alternative pre-mRNA spliced forms in the human genome. One of the transcripts contains an HERV-H LTR that could affect the expression level of DYX1C1. We speculate that the HERV-H LTR integrated into the DYX1C1 locus in the catarrhine lineage after its divergence from the platyrrhine lineage. Reverse transcription-PCR of the HERV-H LTR-related transcript produced four alternative forms from several human tissues. All of alternative forms were also identified in various rhesus macaque tissues. Through sequencing analysis of various primate DNA samples, we found that a part of the HERV-H LTR sequence was duplicated within the DYX1C1 exon 9 only in catarrhines. However, the duplication event did not cause frameshift mutation of the DYX1C1 transcript. Taken together, this HERV-H LTR insertion into DYX1C1 has contributed to transcript diversification of DYX1C1 during primate evolution. PMID:22214596

  11. Maize anthocyanin regulatory gene pl is a duplicate of c1 that functions in the plant.

    PubMed

    Cone, K C; Cocciolone, S M; Burr, F A; Burr, B

    1993-12-01

    Genetic studies in maize have identified several regulatory genes that control the tissue-specific synthesis of purple anthocyanin pigments in the plant. c1 regulates pigmentation in the aleurone layer of the kernel, whereas pigmentation in the vegetative and floral tissues of the plant body depends on pl. c1 encodes a protein with the structural features of eukaryotic transcription factors and functions to control the accumulation of transcripts for the anthocyanin biosynthetic genes. Previous genetic and molecular observations have prompted the hypothesis that c1 and pl are functionally duplicate, in that they control the same set of anthocyanin structural genes but in distinct parts of the plant. Here, we show that this proposed functional similarity is reflected by DNA sequence homology between c1 and pl. Using a c1 DNA fragment as a hybridization probe, genomic and cDNA clones for pl were isolated. Comparison of pl and c1 cDNA sequences revealed that the genes encode proteins with 90% or more amino acid identity in the amino- and carboxyl-terminal domains that are known to be important for the regulatory function of the C1 protein. Consistent with the idea that the pl gene product also acts as a transcriptional activator is our finding that a functional pl allele is required for the transcription of at least three structural genes in the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway. PMID:8305872

  12. Oversulfated chondroitin sulfate inhibits the complement classical pathway by potentiating C1 inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhao-Hua; Rajabi, Mohsen; Chen, Trina; Karnaukhova, Elena; Kozlowski, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Oversulfated chondroitin sulfate (OSCS) has become the subject of multidisciplinary investigation as a non-traditional contaminant in the heparin therapeutic preparations that were linked to severe adverse events. In this study, it was found that OSCS inhibited complement fixation on bacteria and bacterial lysis mediated by the complement classical pathway. The inhibition of complement by OSCS is not due to interference with antibody/antigen interaction or due to consumption of C3 associated with FXII-dependent contact system activation. However, OSCS complement inhibition is dependent on C1 inhibitor (C1inh) since the depletion of C1inh from either normal or FXII-deficient complement plasma prevents OSCS inhibition of complement activity. Surface plasmon resonance measurements revealed that immobilized C1inhibitor bound greater than 5-fold more C1s in the presence of OSCS than in presence of heparin. Although heparin can also inhibit complement, OSCS and OSCS contaminated heparin are more potent inhibitors of complement. Furthermore, polysulfated glycosaminoglycan (PSGAG), an anti-inflammatory veterinary medicine with a similar structure to OSCS, also inhibited complement in the plasma of dogs and farm animals. This study provides a new insight that in addition to the FXII-dependent activation of contact system, oversulfated and polysulfated chondroitin-sulfate can inhibit complement activity by potentiating the classical complement pathway regulator C1inh. This effect on C1inh may play a role in inhibiting inflammation as well as impacting bacterial clearance. PMID:23077587

  13. Transinhibition of C1 inhibitor synthesis in type I hereditary angioneurotic edema.

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, J; Rosen, F S; Colten, H R; Rajczy, K; Strunk, R C

    1993-01-01

    To ascertain the mechanism for decreased synthesis of C1 inhibitor (C1 INH) in certain patients with the autosomal dominant disorder hereditary angioneurotic edema, we studied expression of C1 INH in fibroblasts in which the mutant and wild type mRNA and protein could be distinguished because of deletion of exon 7 (delta Ex7). In the HANE delta Ex7 cells, the amount of wild type mRNA (2.1 kb) was expressed at 52 +/- 2% (n = 5) of normal, whereas the mutant mRNA was 17 +/- 1% (n = 5) of normal. Rates of synthesis of both wild type and mutant proteins (11 +/- 3 and 3 +/- 1% of normal, respectively) were lower than predicted from the mRNA levels. There was no evidence of increased C1 INH protein catabolism. These data indicate that there are multiple levels of control of C1 INH synthesis in type I hereditary angioneurotic edema. Pretranslational regulation results in < 50% of the mutant truncated 1.9-kb mRNA. In addition, translational regulation results in decreased synthesis of both wild type and mutatn C1 INH proteins. These data suggest a transinhibition of wild type C1 INH translation by mutant mRNA and/or protein. Images PMID:8450054

  14. Hereditary and acquired C1-inhibitor deficiency: biological and clinical characteristics in 235 patients.

    PubMed

    Agostoni, A; Cicardi, M

    1992-07-01

    Two hundred and twenty-six patients with inherited C1 inhibitor (C1-INH) deficiency, also known as hereditary angioedema (HAE), have been studied. They belonged to 80 unrelated families, and in 11 of them C1-INH was functionally deficient but antigenically normal (type II HAE). Genetic analysis of type 1 families demonstrated restriction fragment length polymorphisms in 11% and abnormal mRNAs in 25%. In type II families, the site of the mutation appeared to determine the rate of catabolism of the dysfunctional C1-INH and its antigenic plasma levels. Clinical symptoms (subcutaneous and mucous swellings) generally first appeared within the second decade of life. The frequency of symptoms was highly variable from patient to patient, but a few patients remained asymptomatic throughout their lives. Prophylactic treatment with attenuated androgens was administered to 59 patients and was totally effective in 57, without significant side effects. Sixty-seven laryngeal and 15 abdominal attacks were treated with C1-INH plasma concentrate, yielding initial regression of symptoms in 30 to 90 minutes. The acquired deficiency of C1-INH, also known as acquired angioedema, was diagnosed in 9 patients. Eight of them had an autoantibody against C1-INH; the only patient without the autoantibody had associated chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Prophylactic treatment with attenuated androgens was effective in this last patient, while those with the autoantibody against C1-INH benefited from prophylaxis with antifibrinolytic agents. Replacement therapy with C1-INH concentrate was necessary only for patients with autoantibodies and required doses 3 or 4 times higher than those used in HAE. PMID:1518394

  15. Treatment response after repeated administration of C1 esterase inhibitor for successive acute hereditary angioedema attacks.

    PubMed

    Craig, Timothy J; Bewtra, Againdra K; Hurewitz, David; Levy, Robyn; Janss, Gerti; Jacobson, Kraig W; Packer, Flint; Bernstein, Jonathan A; Rojavin, Mikhail A; Machnig, Thomas; Keinecke, Heinz-Otto; Wasserman, Richard L

    2012-01-01

    Placebo-controlled studies established the efficacy of replacement therapy with C1 esterase inhibitor (C1-INH) concentrate for treating single acute hereditary angioedema (HAE) attacks, but only limited data from prospective studies are available on repeated treatment of successive HAE attacks. This study evaluates the association between repeated treatments with 20 U/kg of C1-INH concentrate (Berinert; CSL Behring, Marburg, Germany) for HAE attacks at any body location and treatment response. In a post hoc analysis of an open-label extension study (International Multicenter Prospective Angioedema C1-INH Trial [I.M.P.A.C.T.2]), the association between repeated treatment with C1-INH and times to onset of symptom relief and complete resolution of HAE symptoms was assessed in patients who were treated for at least 15 attacks by linear regression on the ordinal attack number. Eighteen patients received C1-INH concentrate for at least 15 HAE attacks over a mean duration of 34 months. Demographic and baseline characteristics of these patients were similar to those of all patients in the study. The distribution of body locations and the intensity of HAE attacks were similar for each of the first 15 attacks and subsequent attacks. The extent of previous use of C1-INH concentrate had no effect on the time to onset of symptom relief, the time to complete resolution of HAE symptoms, or the time between attacks treated with C1-INH concentrate; the median of individual linear regression coefficients was not statistically significantly different from 0. Treatment with 20 U/kg of C1-INH concentrate provided consistent treatment response in patients treated for multiple successive HAE attacks at any body location. (Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT00292981). PMID:22856636

  16. On degree-degree correlations in multilayer networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Arruda, Guilherme Ferraz; Cozzo, Emanuele; Moreno, Yamir; Rodrigues, Francisco A.

    2016-06-01

    We propose a generalization of the concept of assortativity based on the tensorial representation of multilayer networks, covering the definitions given in terms of Pearson and Spearman coefficients. Our approach can also be applied to weighted networks and provides information about correlations considering pairs of layers. By analyzing the multilayer representation of the airport transportation network, we show that contrasting results are obtained when the layers are analyzed independently or as an interconnected system. Finally, we study the impact of the level of assortativity and heterogeneity between layers on the spreading of diseases. Our results highlight the need of studying degree-degree correlations on multilayer systems, instead of on aggregated networks.

  17. Robustness of networks of networks with degree-degree correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, Byungjoon; Canals, Santiago; Makse, Hernan

    Many real-world complex systems ranging from critical infrastructure and transportation networks to living systems including brain and cellular networks are not formed by an isolated network but by a network of networks. Randomly coupled networks with interdependency between different networks may easily result in abrupt collapse. Here, we seek a possible explanation of stable functioning in natural networks of networks including functional brain networks. Specifically, we analyze the robustness of networks of networks focused on one-to-many interconnections between different networks and degree-degree correlation. Implication of the network robustness on functional brain networks of rats is also discussed.

  18. Center is at Latitude 30 Degrees South, Longitude 90 Degrees

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Center of the orthographic projection is at latitude 30 degrees S., longitude 90 degrees. The top half is dominated by the Tharsis Montes volcanoes, the large Alba Patera shield volcano, the dark Chryse basin, and a vast canyon system, Valles Marineris. In the central part, a prominent physiographic feature, Thaumasia plateau, includes a complex array of small- and large-scale faults and ridges and ancient volcanoes. The large conspicuous Argyre basin, southeast of the Thaumasia plateau, contains a broad expanse of light-colored plains 800 km across. The permanent south polar ice cap is located near the bottom.

  19. Center is at Latitude 30 Degrees North, Longitude 150 Degrees

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Center of the orthographic projection is at latitude 30 degrees N., longitude 150 degrees. The north polar residual ice cap, which is cut by spiral-patterned troughs and surrounded by the dark lowland plains of Vastitas Borealis, is located at the top. The right-central part is dominated by the Tharsis Montes volcanoes. The most prominent of the Tharsis Montes volcanoes is the largest known volcano in the solar system, Olympus Mons. The light-colored lowland plains of Amazonis, Elysium, and Arcadia Planitiae lies north and west of Olympus Mons. The heavily cratered highlands dominate the lower one-third.

  20. Dimension spectrum of asymptotically additive potentials for C1 average conformal repellers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Yongluo

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, the dimension spectrum of asymptotically additive potentials for C1 average conformal repellers is considered. First, we give dimension estimates of arbitrary subsets for C1 average conformal repellers and we also consider the pointwise dimension of invariant measures. Furthermore, we consider the dimension spectrum of asymptotically additive potentials and its properties. As applications, we give an affirmative answer to the problem posed by Olsen (2003 J. Math. Pures Appl. 82 1591-649) for general types of level sets and obtain the dimension spectrum of weak Gibbs measures for continuous potentials on C1 average conformal repellers.

  1. HYDROGEN CHLORIDE IN DIFFUSE INTERSTELLAR CLOUDS ALONG THE LINE OF SIGHT TO W31C (G10.6-0.4)

    SciTech Connect

    Monje, R. R.; Lis, D. C.; Phillips, T. G.; Roueff, E.; Gerin, M.; De Luca, M.; Neufeld, D. A.; Godard, B.

    2013-04-10

    We report the detection of hydrogen chloride, HCl, in diffuse molecular clouds on the line of sight toward the star-forming region W31C (G10.6-0.4). The J = 1-0 lines of the two stable HCl isotopologues, H{sup 35}Cl and H{sup 37}Cl, are observed using the 1b receiver of the Heterodyne Instrument for the Far-Infrared (HIFI) on board the Herschel Space Observatory. The HCl line is detected in absorption, over a wide range of velocities associated with diffuse clouds along the line of sight to W31C. The analysis of the absorption strength yields a total HCl column density of a few 10{sup 13} cm{sup -2}, implying that HCl accounts for {approx}0.6% of the total gas-phase chlorine, which exceeds the theoretical model predictions by a factor of {approx}6. This result is comparable to those obtained from the chemically related species H{sub 2}Cl{sup +} and HCl{sup +}, for which large column densities have also been reported on the same line of sight. The source of discrepancy between models and observations is still unknown; however, the detection of these Cl-bearing molecules provides key constraints for the chlorine chemistry in the diffuse gas.

  2. Residual energy deposition in dental enamel during IR laser ablation at 2.79, 2.94, 9.6, and 10.6 μm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ragadio, Jerome N.; Lee, Christian K.; Fried, Daniel

    2000-03-01

    The objective of this study was to measure the residual heat deposition during laser ablation at those IR laser wavelengths best suited for the removal of dental caries. The principal factor limiting the rate of laser ablation of dental hard tissue is the risk of excessive heat accumulation in the tooth, which has the potential for causing damage to the pulp. Optimal laser ablation systems minimize the residual energy deposition in the tooth by transferring deposited laser energy to kinetic and internal energy of ejected tissue components. The residual heat deposition in the tooth was measured at laser wavelengths of 2.79, 2.94, 9.6 and 10.6 micrometer and pulse widths of 150 ns - 150 microsecond(s) . The residual energy was at a minimum for fluences well above the ablation threshold where it saturates at values from 25 - 70% depending on pulse duration and wavelength for the systems investigated. The lowest values of the residual energy were measured for short (less than 20 microseconds) CO2 laser pulses at 9.6 micrometer and for Q-switched erbium laser pulses. This work was supported by NIH/NIDCR R29DE12091 and the Center for Laser Applications in Medicine, DOE DEFG0398ER62576.

  3. Patterned FeNi soft magnetic strips film with tunable resonance frequency from 1 to 10.6 GHz.

    PubMed

    Ren, Yong; Li, Xinxi; Wang, Yan; Ren, Jiankun; Zhang, Yan; Dai, Bo; Yan, Haiyang; Sun, Guangai; Peng, Shuming

    2016-01-01

    Soft magnetic films with a wide-range tunable ferromagnetic resonance frequency are suitable for miniaturization and multifunctionalization of microwave integrated circuits. Fabrication of these films for high-frequency applications is usually complicated and difficult. We demonstrate a simple method to fabricate patterned FeNi soft magnetic strip films by magnetron sputtering and photolithography. Films prepared by this method exhibits a tunable in-plane uniaxial magnetic anisotropy (IPUMA) for different strip widths and gaps. As the strip widths changing from 500 to 2 μm, the IPUMA field increases monotonically from 2.2 to 576 Oe and resonance frequency from 1 to 10.6 GHz(which covers four microwave bands, including the L,S,C and X bands) respectively. This ultra-wide-range adjustability of resonance frequency can be attributed to shape anisotropy of strips. Considering that FeNi alloy has relatively low magnetocrystalline anisotropy, so a wider adjustable range of resonance frequency could be obtained using materials with stronger magnetocrystalline anisotropy. PMID:27561328

  4. Aerosol backscatter measurements at 10.6 microns with airborne and ground-based CO2 Doppler lidars over the Colorado High Plains. I - Lidar intercomparison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowdle, David A.; Rothermel, Jeffry; Vaughan, J. Michael; Brown, Derek W.; Post, Madison J.

    1991-01-01

    An airborne continuous-wave (CW) focused CO2 Doppler lidar and a ground-based pulsed CO2 Doppler lidar were to obtain seven pairs of comparative measurements of tropospheric aerosol backscatter profiles at 10.6-micron wavelength, near Denver, Colorado, during a 20-day period in July 1982. In regions of uniform backscatter, the two lidars show good agreement, with differences usually less than about 50 percent near 8-km altitude and less than a factor of 2 or 3 elsewhere but with the pulsed lidar often lower than the CW lidar. Near sharp backscatter gradients, the two lidars show poorer agreement, with the pulsed lidar usually higher than the CW lidar. Most discrepancies arise from a combination of atmospheric factors and instrument factors, particularly small-scale areal and temporal backscatter heterogeneity above the planetary boundary layer, unusual large-scale vertical backscatter structure in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere, and differences in the spatial resolution, detection threshold, and noise estimation for the two lidars.

  5. Patterned FeNi soft magnetic strips film with tunable resonance frequency from 1 to 10.6 GHz

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Yong; Li, Xinxi; Wang, Yan; Ren, Jiankun; Zhang, Yan; Dai, Bo; Yan, Haiyang; Sun, Guangai; Peng, Shuming

    2016-01-01

    Soft magnetic films with a wide-range tunable ferromagnetic resonance frequency are suitable for miniaturization and multifunctionalization of microwave integrated circuits. Fabrication of these films for high-frequency applications is usually complicated and difficult. We demonstrate a simple method to fabricate patterned FeNi soft magnetic strip films by magnetron sputtering and photolithography. Films prepared by this method exhibits a tunable in-plane uniaxial magnetic anisotropy (IPUMA) for different strip widths and gaps. As the strip widths changing from 500 to 2 μm, the IPUMA field increases monotonically from 2.2 to 576 Oe and resonance frequency from 1 to 10.6 GHz(which covers four microwave bands, including the L,S,C and X bands) respectively. This ultra-wide-range adjustability of resonance frequency can be attributed to shape anisotropy of strips. Considering that FeNi alloy has relatively low magnetocrystalline anisotropy, so a wider adjustable range of resonance frequency could be obtained using materials with stronger magnetocrystalline anisotropy. PMID:27561328

  6. Non-Contact Measurement of the Spectral Emissivity through Active/Passive Synergy of CO2 Laser at 10.6 µm and 102F FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared) Spectrometer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ren-Hua; Su, Hong-Bo; Tian, Jing; Mi, Su-Juan; Li, Zhao-Liang

    2016-01-01

    In the inversion of land surface temperature (LST) from satellite data, obtaining the information on land surface emissivity is most challenging. How to solve both the emissivity and the LST from the underdetermined equations for thermal infrared radiation is a hot research topic related to quantitative thermal infrared remote sensing. The academic research and practical applications based on the temperature-emissivity retrieval algorithms show that directly measuring the emissivity of objects at a fixed thermal infrared waveband is an important way to close the underdetermined equations for thermal infrared radiation. Based on the prior research results of both the authors and others, this paper proposes a new approach of obtaining the spectral emissivity of the object at 8–14 µm with a single-band CO2 laser at 10.6 µm and a 102F FTIR spectrometer. Through experiments, the spectral emissivity of several key samples, including aluminum plate, iron plate, copper plate, marble plate, rubber sheet, and paper board, at 8–14 µm is obtained, and the measured data are basically consistent with the hemispherical emissivity measurement by a Nicolet iS10 FTIR spectrometer for the same objects. For the rough surface of materials, such as marble and rusty iron, the RMSE of emissivity is below 0.05. The differences in the field of view angle and in the measuring direction between the Nicolet FTIR method and the method proposed in the paper, and the heterogeneity in the degree of oxidation, polishing and composition of the samples, are the main reasons for the differences of the emissivities between the two methods. PMID:27347964

  7. Non-Contact Measurement of the Spectral Emissivity through Active/Passive Synergy of CO₂ Laser at 10.6 µm and 102F FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared) Spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ren-Hua; Su, Hong-Bo; Tian, Jing; Mi, Su-Juan; Li, Zhao-Liang

    2016-01-01

    In the inversion of land surface temperature (LST) from satellite data, obtaining the information on land surface emissivity is most challenging. How to solve both the emissivity and the LST from the underdetermined equations for thermal infrared radiation is a hot research topic related to quantitative thermal infrared remote sensing. The academic research and practical applications based on the temperature-emissivity retrieval algorithms show that directly measuring the emissivity of objects at a fixed thermal infrared waveband is an important way to close the underdetermined equations for thermal infrared radiation. Based on the prior research results of both the authors and others, this paper proposes a new approach of obtaining the spectral emissivity of the object at 8-14 µm with a single-band CO₂ laser at 10.6 µm and a 102F FTIR spectrometer. Through experiments, the spectral emissivity of several key samples, including aluminum plate, iron plate, copper plate, marble plate, rubber sheet, and paper board, at 8-14 µm is obtained, and the measured data are basically consistent with the hemispherical emissivity measurement by a Nicolet iS10 FTIR spectrometer for the same objects. For the rough surface of materials, such as marble and rusty iron, the RMSE of emissivity is below 0.05. The differences in the field of view angle and in the measuring direction between the Nicolet FTIR method and the method proposed in the paper, and the heterogeneity in the degree of oxidation, polishing and composition of the samples, are the main reasons for the differences of the emissivities between the two methods. PMID:27347964

  8. Top 100 Degree Producers 2003. Part II: Graduate Degrees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anyaso, Hilary Hurd, Ed.

    2003-01-01

    Articles in this theme issue discuss the current status of graduate education in the United States, exploring whether there is or is not a crisis and discussing economic factors that affect participation in graduate study. Featured is the annual list of the top 100 producers of graduate degrees for black students. (SLD)

  9. 26 CFR 1.381(c)(1)-1 - Net operating loss carryovers in certain corporate acquisitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... corporate acquisitions. 1.381(c)(1)-1 Section 1.381(c)(1)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... Reorganizations § 1.381(c)(1)-1 Net operating loss carryovers in certain corporate acquisitions. (a) Carryover requirement. (1) Section 381(c)(1) requires the acquiring corporation to succeed to, and take into......

  10. 26 CFR 1.412(c)(1)-1 - Determinations to be made under funding method-terms defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...-terms defined. 1.412(c)(1)-1 Section 1.412(c)(1)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... Plans, Etc. § 1.412(c)(1)-1 Determinations to be made under funding method—terms defined. (a) Actuarial... bargained plans, see § 1.412(c)(1)-2; for principles applicable to funding methods in general,...

  11. 26 CFR 1.381(c)(1)-1 - Net operating loss carryovers in certain corporate acquisitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... corporate acquisitions. 1.381(c)(1)-1 Section 1.381(c)(1)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... Reorganizations § 1.381(c)(1)-1 Net operating loss carryovers in certain corporate acquisitions. (a) Carryover requirement. (1) Section 381(c)(1) requires the acquiring corporation to succeed to, and take into......

  12. 26 CFR 1.381(c)(1)-1 - Net operating loss carryovers in certain corporate acquisitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... corporate acquisitions. 1.381(c)(1)-1 Section 1.381(c)(1)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... Reorganizations § 1.381(c)(1)-1 Net operating loss carryovers in certain corporate acquisitions. (a) Carryover requirement. (1) Section 381(c)(1) requires the acquiring corporation to succeed to, and take into......

  13. Starboard engine room, compartment C1; view aft showing triple expansion ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Starboard engine room, compartment C-1; view aft showing triple expansion engine, main throttle wheel, starting valves and cylinder drain manifold at center left. (056) - USS Olympia, Penn's Landing, 211 South Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  14. 26 CFR 1.860C-1 - Taxation of holders of residual interests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Real Estate Investment Trusts § 1.860C-1 Taxation... (but not below zero) by— (i) First, the amount of any cash or the fair market value of any...

  15. C1-bypass complement-activation pathway in patients with chronic urticaria and angio-oedema.

    PubMed

    Ballow, M; Ward, G W; Gershwin, M E; Day, N K

    1975-08-01

    During the routine screening of 152 patients with urticaria or angio-oedema for hypocomplementaemia, 4 patients were found to have low serum levels of the third component of complement (C). These patients were noteworthy and differed from previous reports of patients with urticaria-like skin lesions and hypocomplementaemia because of the absence of immune-complex disease. In addition to the low C3, 2 of these patients were unique on the basis of low serum levels of haemolytic C1, C1q, C1s, and properdin factor B, but normal concentrations of C4 and C2. These C abnormalities may reflect a new clinical entity, and these cases form the first description in man of the C1-bypass complement-activation pathway. PMID:49798

  16. Is Collapsing C1q Nephropathy Another MYH9-Associated Kidney Disease? A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Reeves-Daniel, Amber M.; Iskandar, Samy S.; Bowden, Donald W.; Bostrom, Meredith A.; Hicks, Pamela J.; Comeau, Mary E.; Langefeld, Carl D.; Freedman, Barry I.

    2009-01-01

    C1q nephropathy is a rare kidney disease that can present with nephrotic syndrome and typically has the histological phenotype of either minimal change disease (MCD) or focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). Disagreement exists as to whether it is a distinct immune complex-mediated glomerulopathy or whether it resides in the spectrum of FSGS-MCD. Two African American patients with C1q nephropathy histologically presenting as the collapsing variant of FSGS (collapsing C1q nephropathy) and rapid loss of kidney function were genotyped for polymorphisms in the non-muscle myosin heavy chain 9 gene (MYH9). Both cases were homozygous for the MYH9 E1 risk haplotype; the variant strongly associated with idiopathic FSGS, collapsing FSGS in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-associated nephropathy and focal global glomerulosclerosis (historically attributed to hypertensive nephrosclerosis). Collapsing C1q nephropathy with rapid progression to ESRD appears to reside in the MYH9-associated disease spectrum. PMID:20116156

  17. Development of the Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS) for NPOESS C1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brann, C.; Kunkee, D.

    2008-12-01

    The National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System's Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS) is planned for flight on the first NPOESS mission (C1) in 2013. The C1 ATMS will be the second instrument of the ATMS series and will provide along with the companion Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS), atmospheric temperature and moisture profiles for NPOESS. The first flight of the ATMS is scheduled in 2010 on the NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) satellite, which is an early instrument risk reduction component of the NPOESS mission. This poster will focus on the development of the ATMS for C1 including aspects of the sensor calibration, antenna beam and RF characteristics and scanning. New design aspects of the C1 ATMS, required primarily by parts obsolescence, will also be addressed in this poster.

  18. FoxC1 is essential for vascular basement membrane integrity and hyaloid vessel morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Skarie, Jonathan M.; Link, Brian A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Alterations in FOXC1 dosage lead to a spectrum of highly penetrant, ocular anterior segment dysgenesis phenotypes. The most serious outcome is development of glaucoma, but this only occurs in 50–75% of patients. Therefore, the need to identify specific pathways and genes that interact with FOXC1 to promote glaucoma is great. In this study, we investigated loss of foxC1 in the zebrafish to characterize phenotypes and gene interactions that may impact glaucoma pathogenesis. Methods Morpholino knockdown in zebrafish, RNA and protein marker analyses, transgenic reporter lines, and angiography, along with histology and transmission electron microscopy were used to study foxC1 function and gene interactions. Results Zebrafish foxC1 genes were expressed dynamically in the developing vasculature and periocular mesenchyme during development. Multiple ocular and vascular defects were found after knockdown of foxC1. Defects in the hyaloid vasculature, arterial-venous malformations, and coarctation of the aorta were observed with maximal depletion of foxC1. Partial loss of foxC1 resulted in CNS and ocular hemorrhages, defects in intersegmental vessel patterning, and increased vascular permeability. To investigate the basis for these disruptions, ultrastructure of foxC1-depleted hyaloid vascular cells was studied. These experiments, along with Laminin-111 immunoreactivity, revealed disruptions in basement membrane integrity. Finally, co-depletion of laminin alpha-1 and foxC1 uncovered a genetic interaction between these genes during development. Conclusions Genetic interactions between FOXC1 and basement membrane components influence vascular stability and may impact glaucoma development and increase stroke risk in FOXC1 patients. PMID:19458328

  19. Maternal complement C1q and increased odds for psychosis in adult offspring

    PubMed Central

    Severance, Emily G.; Gressitt, Kristin L.; Buka, Stephen L.; Cannon, Tyrone D.; Yolken, Robert H.

    2014-01-01

    The presence of maternal antibodies to food and infectious antigens may confer an increased risk of developing schizophrenia and psychosis in adult offspring. Complement factor C1q is an immune molecule with multiple functions including clearance of antigen-antibody complexes from circulation and mediation of synaptic pruning during fetal brain development. To determine if maternal C1q was associated with offspring schizophrenia and psychosis, we evaluated 55 matched case-control maternal serum pairs from the National Collaborative Perinatal Project. Sample pairs were composed of mothers whose offspring developed psychoses as adults and those whose offspring were free from psychiatric disease. Matching criteria for offspring included birth date, delivery hospital, race and gender, with further matching based on mother’s age. IgG markers of C1q, bovine milk casein, egg ovalbumin and wheat gluten were measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. C1q levels were compared to food antigen IgG and to previously generated data for C-reactive protein, adenovirus, herpes simplex viruses, influenza viruses, measles virus and Toxoplasma gondii. C1q was significantly elevated in case mothers with odds ratios of 2.66–6.31 (conditional logistic regressions, p≤0.008–0.05). In case mothers only, C1q was significantly correlated with antibodies to both food and infectious antigens: gluten (R2=0.26, p≤0.004), herpes simplex virus type 2 (R2=0.21, p≤0.02), adenovirus (R2=0.25, p≤0.006). In conclusion, exposure to maternal C1q activity during pregnancy may be a risk factor for the development of schizophrenia and psychosis in offspring. Prenatal measurement of maternal C1q may be an important and convergent screening tool to identify potentially deleterious immune activation from multiple sources. PMID:25195065

  20. Minimum variance and variance of outgoing quality limit MDS-1(c1, c2) plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raju, C.; Vidya, R.

    2016-06-01

    In this article, the outgoing quality (OQ) and total inspection (TI) of multiple deferred state sampling plans MDS-1(c1,c2) are studied. It is assumed that the inspection is rejection rectification. Procedures for designing MDS-1(c1,c2) sampling plans with minimum variance of OQ and TI are developed. A procedure for obtaining a plan for a designated upper limit for the variance of the OQ (VOQL) is outlined.

  1. 17 CFR 240.15c1-8 - Sales at the market.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sales at the market. 240.15c1... Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Rules Relating to Over-The-Counter Markets § 240.15c1-8 Sales at the market... securities exchange that such security is being offered to such customer “at the market” or at a...

  2. 17 CFR 240.15c1-8 - Sales at the market.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sales at the market. 240.15c1... Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Rules Relating to Over-The-Counter Markets § 240.15c1-8 Sales at the market... securities exchange that such security is being offered to such customer “at the market” or at a...

  3. 17 CFR 240.15c1-8 - Sales at the market.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sales at the market. 240.15c1... Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Rules Relating to Over-The-Counter Markets § 240.15c1-8 Sales at the market... securities exchange that such security is being offered to such customer “at the market” or at a...

  4. 17 CFR 240.15c1-8 - Sales at the market.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sales at the market. 240.15c1... Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Rules Relating to Over-The-Counter Markets § 240.15c1-8 Sales at the market... securities exchange that such security is being offered to such customer “at the market” or at a...

  5. 17 CFR 240.15c1-8 - Sales at the market.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sales at the market. 240.15c1... Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Rules Relating to Over-The-Counter Markets § 240.15c1-8 Sales at the market... securities exchange that such security is being offered to such customer “at the market” or at a...

  6. Transcriptional Factor PU.1 Regulates Decidual C1q Expression in Early Pregnancy in Human.

    PubMed

    Madhukaran, Shanmuga Priyaa; Kishore, Uday; Jamil, Kaiser; Teo, Boon Heng Dennis; Choolani, Mahesh; Lu, Jinhua

    2015-01-01

    C1q is the first recognition subcomponent of the complement classical pathway, which in addition to being synthesized in the liver, is also expressed by macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs). Trophoblast invasion during early placentation results in accumulation of debris that triggers the complement system. Hence, both early and late components of the classical pathway are widely distributed in the placenta and decidua. In addition, C1q has recently been shown to significantly contribute to feto-maternal tolerance, trophoblast migration, and spiral artery remodeling, although the exact mechanism remains unknown. Pregnancy in mice, genetically deficient in C1q, mirrors symptoms similar to that of human preeclampsia. Thus, regulated complement activation has been proposed as an essential requirement for normal successful pregnancy. Little is known about the molecular pathways that regulate C1q expression in pregnancy. PU.1, an Ets-family transcription factor, is required for the development of hematopoietic myeloid lineage immune cells, and its expression is tissue-specific. Recently, PU.1 has been shown to regulate C1q gene expression in DCs and macrophages. Here, we have examined if PU.1 transcription factor regulates decidual C1q expression. We used immune-histochemical analysis, PCR, and immunostaining to localize and study the gene expression of PU.1 transcription factor in early human decidua. PU.1 was highly expressed at gene and protein level in early human decidual cells including trophoblast and stromal cells. Surprisingly, nuclear as well as cytoplasmic PU.1 expression was observed. Decidual cells with predominantly nuclear PU.1 expression had higher C1q expression. It is likely that nuclear and cytoplasmic PU.1 localization has a role to play in early pregnancy via regulating C1q expression in the decidua during implantation. PMID:25762996

  7. Expression of ATP6V1C1 during oral carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Oliveira Alves, M G; Carta, Cfl; Padín-Iruegas, M-E; Pérez-Sayáns, M; Suarez-Peñaranda, J M; Issa, J S; García-García, A; Almeida, J D

    2016-05-01

    We investigated the gene and protein expressions of V-type ATPase protein subunit C1 (ATP6V1C1) in cases of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and contralateral normal mucosa in smokers, nonsmokers and former smokers. Subjects were separated into five groups of 15: group 1, smokers with OSCC; group 2, normal contralateral mucosa of OSCC patients; group 3, chronic smokers; group 4, former smokers who had stopped smoking 1 year earlier; group 5, individuals who had never smoked. Exfoliative cytology specimens from oral mucosa of smokers, former smokers and nonsmokers showed normal gene and protein expression. We found significantly greater gene expression in the OSCC group than in the nonsmoker groups. No difference in gene expression was observed between normal contralateral mucosa and nonsmoker groups, smoker and nonsmoker groups or former smoker and nonsmoker groups. We observed intense immunostaining for ATP6V1C1 protein in all cases of OSCC and weak or no staining in smoker, former smoker and nonsmoker groups. Significantly greater expression of ATP6V1C1 protein was observed in the OSCC group compared to the other groups, which supports the role of ATP6V1C1 in effecting changes associated with oral cancer. Analysis of the mucosae of chronic smokers, former smokers and the normal contralateral mucosa of patients with OSCC showed unaltered ATP6V1C1 gene and protein expression. Early stages of carcinogenesis, represented by altered epithelium of chronic smokers, had neither gene nor protein alterations as seen in OSCC. Therefore, we infer that the changes in ATP6V1C1 occur during later stages of carcinogenesis. Our preliminary study provides a basis for future studies of using ATP6V1C1 levels for detecting early stage OSCC. PMID:26984774

  8. Complement C1q Reduces Early Atherosclerosis in Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Bhatia, Vinay K.; Yun, Sheng; Leung, Viola; Grimsditch, David C.; Benson, G. Martin; Botto, Marina B.; Boyle, Joseph J.; Haskard, Dorian O.

    2007-01-01

    We explored the role of the classic complement pathway in atherogenesis by intercrossing C1q-deficient mice (C1qa−/−) with low-density lipoprotein receptor knockout mice (Ldlr−/−). Mice were fed a normal rodent diet until 22 weeks of age. Aortic root lesions were threefold larger in C1qa−/−/Ldlr−/− mice compared with Ldlr−/− mice (3.72 ± 1.0% aortic root versus 1.1 ± 0.4%; mean ± SEM, P < 0.001). Furthermore, the cellular composition of lesions in C1qa−/−/Ldlr−/− was more complex, with an increase in vascular smooth muscle cells. The greater aortic root lesion size in C1qa−/−/Ldlr−/− mice occurred despite a significant reduction in C5b-9 deposition per lesion unit area, suggesting the critical importance of proximal pathway activity. Apoptotic cells were readily detectable by cleaved caspase-3 staining, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling assay, and electron microscopy in C1qa−/−/Ldlr−/−, whereas apoptotic cells were not detected in Ldlr−/− mice. This is the first direct demonstration of a role for the classic complement pathway in atherogenesis. The greater lesion size in C1qa−/−/Ldlr−/− mice is consistent with the emerging homeostatic role for C1q in the disposal of dying cells. This study suggests the importance of effective apoptotic cell removal for containing the size and complexity of early lesions in atherosclerosis. PMID:17200212

  9. 26 CFR 1.1244(c)-1 - Section 1244 stock defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Section 1244 stock defined. 1.1244(c)-1 Section....1244(c)-1 Section 1244 stock defined. (a) In general. For purposes of §§ 1.1244(a)-1 to 1.1244(e)-1... other amount. Example 2. A corporation has a long-term contract as defined in paragraph (a) of §...

  10. Identification of C1q as a Binding Protein for Advanced Glycation End Products.

    PubMed

    Chikazawa, Miho; Shibata, Takahiro; Hatasa, Yukinori; Hirose, Sayumi; Otaki, Natsuki; Nakashima, Fumie; Ito, Mika; Machida, Sachiko; Maruyama, Shoichi; Uchida, Koji

    2016-01-26

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) make up a heterogeneous group of molecules formed from the nonenzymatic reaction of reducing sugars with the free amino groups of proteins. The abundance of AGEs in a variety of age-related diseases, including diabetic complications and atherosclerosis, and their pathophysiological effects suggest the existence of innate defense mechanisms. Here we examined the presence of serum proteins that are capable of binding glycated bovine serum albumin (AGEs-BSA), prepared upon incubation of BSA with dehydroascorbate, and identified complement component C1q subcomponent subunit A as a novel AGE-binding protein in human serum. A molecular interaction analysis showed the specific binding of C1q to the AGEs-BSA. In addition, we identified DNA-binding regions of C1q, including a collagen-like domain, as the AGE-binding site and established that the amount of positive charge on the binding site was the determining factor. C1q indeed recognized several other modified proteins, including acylated proteins, suggesting that the binding specificity of C1q might be ascribed, at least in part, to the electronegative potential of the ligand proteins. We also observed that C1q was involved in the AGEs-BSA-activated deposition of complement proteins, C3b and C4b. In addition, the AGEs-BSA mediated the proteolytic cleavage of complement protein 5 to release C5a. These findings provide the first evidence of AGEs as a new ligand recognized by C1q, stimulating the C1q-dependent classical complement pathway. PMID:26731343

  11. C1q, the recognition subcomponent of the classical pathway of complement, drives microglial activation.

    PubMed

    Färber, Katrin; Cheung, Giselle; Mitchell, Daniel; Wallis, Russell; Weihe, Eberhard; Schwaeble, Wilhelm; Kettenmann, Helmut

    2009-02-15

    Microglia, central nervous system (CNS) resident phagocytic cells, persistently police the integrity of CNS tissue and respond to any kind of damage or pathophysiological changes. These cells sense and rapidly respond to danger and inflammatory signals by changing their cell morphology; by release of cytokines, chemokines, or nitric oxide; and by changing their MHC expression profile. We have shown previously that microglial biosynthesis of the complement subcomponent C1q may serve as a reliable marker of microglial activation ranging from undetectable levels of C1q biosynthesis in resting microglia to abundant C1q expression in activated, nonramified microglia. In this study, we demonstrate that cultured microglial cells respond to extrinsic C1q with a marked intracellular Ca(2+) increase. A shift toward proinflammatory microglial activation is indicated by the release of interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and nitric oxide and the oxidative burst in rat primary microglial cells, an activation and differentiation process similar to the proinflammatory response of microglia to exposure to lipopolysaccharide. Our findings indicate 1) that extrinsic plasma C1q is involved in the initiation of microglial activation in the course of CNS diseases with blood-brain barrier impairment and 2) that C1q synthesized and released by activated microglia is likely to contribute in an autocrine/paracrine way to maintain and balance microglial activation in the diseased CNS tissue. PMID:18831010

  12. TgrC1 Has Distinct Functions in Dictyostelium Development and Allorecognition

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yue; Shaulsky, Gad

    2015-01-01

    The cell adhesion glycoproteins, TgrB1 and TgrC1, are essential for Dictyostelium development and allorecognition, but it has been impossible to determine whether their pleiotropic roles are due to one common function or to distinct functions in separate pathways. Mutations in the respective genes, tgrB1 and tgrC1, abrogate both development and allorecognition and the defects cannot be suppressed by activation of the cyclic AMP dependent protein kinase PKA, a central regulator of Dictyostelium development. Here we report that mutations in genes outside the known PKA pathway partially suppress the tgrC1-null developmental defect. We separated the pleiotropic roles of tgrC1 by testing the effects of a suppression mutation, stcinsA under different conditions. stcAins modified only the developmental defect of tgrC1– but not the allorecognition defect, suggesting that the two functions are separable. The suppressor mutant phenotype also revealed that tgrC1 regulates stalk differentiation in a cell-autonomous manner and spore differentiation in a non-cell-autonomous manner. Moreover, stcAins did not modify the developmental defect of tgrB1–, but the less robust phenotype of tgrB1– obscures the possible role of stcA relative to tgrB1. PMID:25894230

  13. The Cyclic Peptide Ecumicin Targeting ClpC1 Is Active against Mycobacterium tuberculosis In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Wei; Kim, Jin-Yong; Anderson, Jeffrey R.; Akopian, Tatos; Hong, Seungpyo; Jin, Ying-Yu; Kandror, Olga; Kim, Jong-Woo; Lee, In-Ae; Lee, Sun-Young; McAlpine, James B.; Mulugeta, Surafel; Sunoqrot, Suhair; Wang, Yuehong; Yang, Seung-Hwan; Yoon, Tae-Mi; Goldberg, Alfred L.; Pauli, Guido F.; Cho, Sanghyun

    2014-01-01

    Drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) has lent urgency to finding new drug leads with novel modes of action. A high-throughput screening campaign of >65,000 actinomycete extracts for inhibition of Mycobacterium tuberculosis viability identified ecumicin, a macrocyclic tridecapeptide that exerts potent, selective bactericidal activity against M. tuberculosis in vitro, including nonreplicating cells. Ecumicin retains activity against isolated multiple-drug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) strains of M. tuberculosis. The subcutaneous administration to mice of ecumicin in a micellar formulation at 20 mg/kg body weight resulted in plasma and lung exposures exceeding the MIC. Complete inhibition of M. tuberculosis growth in the lungs of mice was achieved following 12 doses at 20 or 32 mg/kg. Genome mining of lab-generated, spontaneous ecumicin-resistant M. tuberculosis strains identified the ClpC1 ATPase complex as the putative target, and this was confirmed by a drug affinity response test. ClpC1 functions in protein breakdown with the ClpP1P2 protease complex. Ecumicin markedly enhanced the ATPase activity of wild-type (WT) ClpC1 but prevented activation of proteolysis by ClpC1. Less stimulation was observed with ClpC1 from ecumicin-resistant mutants. Thus, ClpC1 is a valid drug target against M. tuberculosis, and ecumicin may serve as a lead compound for anti-TB drug development. PMID:25421483

  14. C2 nerve dysfunction associated with C1 lateral mass screw fixation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Da-geng; Hao, Ding-jun; Li, Guang-lin; Guo, Hao; Zhang, Yu-chen; He, Bao-rong

    2014-11-01

    The C1 lateral mass screw technique is widely used for atlantoaxial fixation. However, C2 nerve dysfunction may occur as a complication of this procedure, compromising the quality of life of affected patients. This is a review of the topic of C2 nerve dysfunction associated with C1 lateral mass screw fixation and related research developments. The C2 nerve root is located in the space bordered superiorly by the posterior arch of C1 , inferiorly by the C2 lamina, anteriorly by the lateral atlantoaxial joint capsule, and posteriorly by the anterior edge of the ligamentum flavum. Some surgeons suggest cutting the C2 nerve root during C1 lateral mass screw placement, whereas others prefer to preserve it. The incidence, clinical manifestations, causes, management, and prevention of C2 nerve dysfunction associated with C(1) lateral mass screw fixation are reviewed. Sacrifice of the C2 nerve root carries a high risk of postoperative numbness, whereas postoperative nerve dysfunction can occur when it has been preserved. Many surgeons have been working hard on minimizing the risk of postoperative C2 nerve dysfunction associated with C1 lateral mass screw fixation. PMID:25430709

  15. Structural Analysis of CYP101C1 from Novosphingobium aromaticivorans DSM12444.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ming; Bell, Stephen G; Yang, Wen; Hao, Yiming; Rees, Nicholas H; Bartlam, Mark; Zhou, Weihong; Wong, Luet-Lok; Rao, Zihe

    2011-01-01

    CYP101C1 from Novosphingobium aromaticivorans DSM12444 is a homologue of CYP101D1 and CYP101D2 enzymes from the same bacterium and CYP101A1 from Pseudomonas putida. CYP101C1 does not bind camphor but is capable of binding and hydroxylating ionone derivatives including α- and β-ionone and β-damascone. The activity of CYP101C1 was highest with β-damascone (k(cat)=86 s(-1)) but α-ionone oxidation was the most regioselective (98 % at C3). The crystal structures of hexane-2,5-diol- and β-ionone-bound CYP101C1 have been solved; both have open conformations and the hexanediol-bound form has a clear access channel from the heme to the bulk solvent. The entrance of this channel is blocked when β-ionone binds to the enzyme. The heme moiety of CYP101C1 is in a significantly different environment compared to the other structurally characterised CYP101 enzymes. The likely ferredoxin binding site on the proximal face of CYP101C1 has a different topology but a similar overall positive charge compared to CYP101D1 and CYP101D2, all of which accept electrons from the ArR/Arx class I electron transfer system. PMID:21154803

  16. Complement Blockade with a C1 Esterase Inhibitor in Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria

    PubMed Central

    DeZern, Amy E.; Uknis, Marc; Yuan, Xuan; Mukhina, Galina L; Varela, Juan; Saye, JoAnne; Pu, Jeffrey; Brodsky, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is a rare, clonal, hematopoietic stem cell disorder that manifests with a complement-mediated hemolytic anemia, bone marrow failure and a propensity for thrombosis. These patients experience both intra- and extravascular hemolysis in the context of underlying complement activation. Currently eculizumab effectively blocks the intravascular hemolysis PNH. There remains an unmet clinical need for a complement inhibitor with activity early in the complement cascade to block complement at the classical and alternative pathways. C1 esterase inhibitor (C1INH) is an endogenous human plasma protein that has broad inhibitory activity in the complement pathway through inhibition of the classical pathway by binding C1r and C1s and inhibits the mannose-binding lectin-associated serine proteases in the lectin pathway. In this study, we show that commercially available plasma derived C1INH prevents lysis induced by the alternative complement pathway, of PNH erythrocytes in human serum. Importantly, C1INH was able to block the accumulation of C3 degradation products on CD55 deficient erythrocytes from PNH patient on eculizumab therapy. This could suggest a role for inhibition of earlier phases of the complement cascade than that currently inhibited by eculizumab for incomplete or non-responders to that therapy. PMID:25034232

  17. CpG mutations in the reactive site of human C1 inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Skriver, K; Radziejewska, E; Silbermann, J A; Donaldson, V H; Bock, S C

    1989-02-25

    C1 inhibitor plays an important role in the regulation of vascular permeability through its ability to inactivate enzymes which release polypeptide kinins. Dysfunctional C1 inhibitor molecules are present in the plasma of affected members of the Da and Ri hereditary angioneurotic edema kindreds. We constructed genomic libraries from Da and Ri patient DNAs which had been cleaved with BclI to generate a fragment containing 21 kilobases of the C1 inhibitor locus. C1 inhibitor gene-containing recombinants originating from mutant Da and Ri alleles were differentiated from those derived from normal alleles by linkage analysis using the intragenic HgiAI restriction fragment length polymorphism. Nucleotide sequencing of the complete protein-coding regions of the mutant alleles identified two different mutations in a CpG dinucleotide corresponding to the first two bases of arginine codon 444. These single base mutations changed the identity of the functionally critical P1 reactive site residue from arginine to cysteine (Da) or histidine (Ri). The additional cysteine residue in C1 inhibitor Da suggests how it is covalently bound to albumin in plasma. The presence of CpG dinucleotides in the codons specifying the P1 arginines of C1 inhibitor and antithrombin III explains the high incidence of histidine and cysteine substitutions observed among dysfunctional mutants of these serine protease inhibitors. PMID:2563376

  18. C1q-latex assay for immune complexes. Complexes that react with both C1q and monoclonal rheumatoid factor in lupus erythematosus and lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Medof, M.E.

    1982-05-01

    A solid phase radioassay for measurement of ICs in biological fluids is described in which ICs present in test sample bind to C1q immobilized on latex particles and bound complexes are quantitated by reaction with radioiodinated mRF. The radioassay can reproducibly measure 10 ng of aggregated human IgG in serum and differentiate soluble complexes from IC-like materials that precipitate with centrifugation or low temperature or stick to test tube walls. Reagents used in the assay, including C1q-L, can be stored for extended periods of time before use. One hundred four of 171 sera from patients with SLE and 8 of 50 sera from patients with LC, assayed by this method, contained elevated levels of ICs relative to controls . IC levels determined by this method correlated with IC data generated by 125I-C1q-PEG precipitation. Raji cell radioimmune assay, and solid-phase conglutinin assay, in some cases but not other.

  19. Caries resistance of lased human root surface with 10.6 μm CO2 laser-thermal, morphological, and microhardness analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Souza-Zaroni, W. C.; Freitas, A. C. P.; Hanashiro, F. S.; Steiner-Oliveira, C.; Nobre-Dos-Santos, M.; Youssef, M. N.

    2010-02-01

    Although the cariostatic effects of CO2 laser on enamel have been shown, its effects on root surface demineralization remains uncertain. The objectives of this in vitro research was to establish safe parameters for a pulsed 10.6 μm CO2 laser and to evaluate its effect on morphological features of the root surface, as well as on the reduction of root demineralization. Ninety-five human root surfaces were randomly divided into five groups: G1-No treatment (control); G2—2.5 J/cm2; G3—4.0 J/cm2; G4—5.0 J/cm2; and G5—6.0 J/cm2. Intrapulpal temperature was evaluated during root surface irradiation by a thermocouple and morphological changes were evaluated by SEM. After the surface treatment, the specimens were submitted to a 7-day pH-cycling model. Subsequently, the cross-sectional Knoop microhardness values were measured. For all irradiated groups, intrapulpal temperature changes were less than 1.5°C. Scanning electron microscopy images indicated that fluences as low as 4.0 J/cm2 were sufficient to induce morphological changes in the root surface. Additionally, for fluences reaching or exceeding 4.0 J/cm2, laser-induced inhibitory effects on root surface demineralization were observed. It was concluded that laser energy density in the range of 4.0 to 6.0 J/cm2 could be applied to a dental root to reduce demineralization of this surface without compromising pulp vitality.

  20. Life after a Humanities Degree

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masola, Athambile

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the experiences of a humanities graduate after leaving the academy. The author considers her own education in light of the historical changes in South Africa's education system. The article is a personal account of the questions and challenges encountered in choosing a humanities degree in a context where a tertiary education…

  1. The Top STEM Degree Producers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diverse: Issues in Higher Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a list of the top Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) degree producers in the U.S. This list is broken down into seven categories: (1) Total Minority Research/Scholarship and Other Doctoral: Mathematics and Statistics; (2) Total Minority Bachelors: Biological and Biomedical Sciences; (3) Total Minority…

  2. The Top Theological Degree Producers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diverse: Issues in Higher Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Each year, "Diverse: Issues in Higher Education" publishes a list of the Top 100 producers of associate, bachelor's and graduate degrees awarded to minority students based on research conducted by Dr. Victor M. H. Borden, professor of educational leadership and policy studies at Indiana University Bloomington. This year, for the first time, it has…

  3. Degrees of Success in Accounting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourner, Jill; Bourner, Tom

    1985-01-01

    Analysis of degree awards in Great Britain shows considerable inconsistency across disciplines and poor results in the accounting field. The implications for the labor market and accounting employment prospects are examined, and a reexamination of the application of equivalent standards across subjects is recommended. (MSE)

  4. Center is at Latitude 30 Degrees North, Longitude 270 Degrees

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Center of the orthographic projection is at latitude 30 degrees N., longitude 270 degrees. The north polar residual ice cap of the Planum Boreum region, which is cut by spiral-patterned troughs, is located at top. The upper part is marked by a large depression, Isidis basin, which contains light-colored plains. The upper part also includes the light-colored smooth plains of Elysium Planitia and dark plains of Vastitas Borealis. Together, these form a vast expanse of contiguous plains. Toward the bottom, on the other hand, the southern hemisphere is almost entirely made up of heavily cratered highlands. At bottom left, a conspicuous, relatively bright circular depression marks the ancient large Hellas impact basin.

  5. Complement C1q formation of immune complexes with milk caseins and wheat glutens in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Severance, Emily G.; Gressitt, Kristin; Halling, Meredith; Stallings, Cassie R.; Origoni, Andrea E.; Vaughan, Crystal; Khushalani, Sunil; Alaedini, Armin; Dupont, Didier; Dickerson, Faith B.; Yolken, Robert H.

    2012-01-01

    Immune system factors including complement pathway activation are increasingly linked to the etiology and pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Complement protein, C1q, binds to and helps to clear immune complexes composed of immunoglobulins coupled to antigens. The antigenic stimuli for C1q activation in schizophrenia are not known. Food sensitivities characterized by elevated IgG antibodies to bovine milk caseins and wheat glutens have been reported in individuals with schizophrenia. Here, we examined the extent to which these food products might comprise the antigen component of complement C1q immune complexes in individuals with recent onset schizophrenia (n=38), non-recent onset schizophrenia (n=61) and non-psychiatric controls (n=63). C1q seropositivity was significantly associated with both schizophrenia groups (recent onset, odds ratio (OR)=8.02, p≤0.008; non-recent onset, OR=3.15, p≤0.03) compared to controls (logistic regression models corrected for age, sex, race and smoking status). Casein- and/or gluten-IgG binding to C1q was significantly elevated in the non-recent onset group compared to controls (OR=4.36, p≤0.01). Significant amounts of C1q-casein/gluten-related immune complexes and C1q correlations with a marker for gastrointestinal inflammation in non-recent onset schizophrenia suggests a heightened rate of food antigens in the systemic circulation, perhaps via a disease-associated altered intestinal permeability. In individuals who are in the early stages of disease onset, C1q activation may reflect the formation of immune complexes with non-casein- or non-gluten-related antigens, the presence of C1q autoantibodies, and/or a dissociated state of immune complex components. In conclusion, complement activation may be a useful biomarker to diagnose schizophrenia early during the course of the disease. Future prospective studies should evaluate the impacts of casein- and gluten-free diets on C1q activation in schizophrenia. PMID:22801085

  6. Transcriptional response of four C1q domain containing protein (C1qDC) genes from Venerupis philippinarum exposed to the water soluble fraction of No.0 diesel oil.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Linbao; Sun, Wei; Cai, Wengui; Zhang, Zhe; Chen, Haigang; Ma, Shengwei; Jia, Xiaoping

    2016-10-01

    As pattern recognitionreceptors, the C1q-domain-containing (C1qDC) proteins play an important role in the pathogen recognition and complement pathway activation. In the present study, four novel C1q domain containing proteins (designated as VpC1qDC1, VpC1qDC2, VpC1qDC3 and VpC1qDC4) were cloned and characterized from clam Venerupis philippinarum. The four VpC1qDCs all possessed the conserved features critical for the fundamental structure and function of the C1q family. The four VpC1qDCs genes showed differential response profiles after exposure to the water soluble fraction of No.0 diesel oil (WSFD). More notably, VpC1qDC1 and VpC1qDC3 were more sensitive to low concentration of WSFD, as their mRNA level changed by higher magnitudes. In addition, VpC1qDC2 and VpC1qDC4 displayed notable increases with larger amplitude to high concentration of WSFD. All these results suggested that the transcriptional response of VpC1qDCs genes were probably a protective mechanism of the cell to oils pollution. The diverse expression patterns of VpC1qDCs demonstrated that VpC1qDC1 and VpC1qDC3 were sensitive responders to environmental stress in V. philippinarum. PMID:27261881

  7. C1-c2 pedicle screw fixation for treatment of old odontoid fractures.

    PubMed

    Qi, Lei; Li, Mu; Zhang, Shuai; Si, Haipeng; Xue, Jingsong

    2015-02-01

    Nonunion and C1-C2 instability of odontoid fractures usually result from delayed diagnosis and inappropriate treatment. However, the available treatment options for odontoid fractures remain controversial. The authors evaluated the effectiveness of internal screw fixation via the C1 and C2 pedicle in cases of old odontoid fractures. This retrospective study included 21 patients with old odontoid fractures (13 men and 8 women; mean age, 46.5 years; range, 24-69 years). Internal screw fixation via the C1 and C2 pedicle was performed in all patients. Fracture reduction and C1-C2 fusion were assessed with imaging. The neck pain visual analog scale score and cervical spinal cord functional Japanese Orthopaedic Association score (for those who had cervical spinal cord injury) were used to evaluate the effectiveness of treatment. Postoperative complications were recorded. Postoperative imaging showed that the C1-C2 dislocation was satisfactorily repositioned in all patients. Bone fusion was observed 1 year after surgery in all patients. No loosening or breaking of internal fixation occurred. The preoperative neck pain visual analog scale score was 5.9±1.5 and improved significantly to 1.8±0.8 after surgery (P<.001). The Japanese Orthopaedic Association score in patients with cervical spinal injury (n=14) was 9.2±1.9 and also significantly improved to 13.8±1.9 at the last follow-up examination (P<.001), with an average improvement rate of 61.0%. No iatrogenic vertebral artery injury or severe spinal cord injury occurred. Screw fixation via the C1 and C2 pedicle was found to be an effective and safe surgical approach for the treatment of old odontoid fractures with C1-C2 dislocation or instability. PMID:25665108

  8. The orexinergic neurons receive synaptic input from C1 cells in rats

    PubMed Central

    Bochorishvili, Genrieta; Nguyen, Thanh; Coates, Melissa B.; Viar, Kenneth E.; Stornetta, Ruth L.; Guyenet, Patrice G.

    2014-01-01

    The C1 cells, located in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM), are activated by pain, hypoxia, hypoglycemia, infection and hypotension and elicit cardiorespiratory stimulation, adrenaline and ACTH release, and arousal. The orexin neurons contribute to the autonomic responses to acute psychological stress. Here, using an anatomical approach, we consider whether the orexin neurons could also be contributing to the autonomic effects elicited by C1 neuron activation. Phenylethanolamine N-methyl transferase-immunoreactive (PNMT-ir) axons were detected amongst orexin-ir somata and close appositions between PNMT-ir axonal varicosities and orexin-ir profiles were observed. The existence of synapses between PNMT-ir boutons labeled with diaminobenzidine and orexinergic neurons labeled with immunogold was confirmed by electron microscopy. We labeled RVLM neurons with a lentiviral vector that expresses the fusion protein ChR2-mCherry under the control of the catecholaminergic neuron-selective promoter PRSx8 and obtained light and ultrastructural evidence that these neurons innervate the orexin cells. Using a Cre-dependent adeno-associated vector and TH-Cre rats we confirmed that the projection from RVLM catecholaminergic neurons to the orexinergic neurons originates predominantly from PNMT-ir catecholaminergic (i.e. C1 cells). The C1 neurons were found to establish predominantly asymmetric synapses with orexin-ir cell bodies or dendrites. These synapses were packed with small clear vesicles and also contained dense core vesicles. In summary, the orexin neurons are among the hypothalamic neurons contacted and presumably excited by the C1 cells. The C1-orexin neuronal connection is probably one of several suprabulbar pathways through which the C1 neurons activate breathing and the circulation, raise blood glucose and facilitate arousal from sleep. PMID:24984694

  9. Correlated expression levels of endothelin receptor B and Plexin C1 in melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Kumasaka, Mayuko Y; Yajima, Ichiro; Iida, Machiko; Takahashi, Hiro; Inoue, Yuji; Fukushima, Satoshi; Ihn, Hironobu; Takeda, Kozue; Naito, Yuji; Yoshikawa, Toshikazu; Kato, Masashi

    2015-01-01

    Discussion concerning the effect of endothelin receptor B (Ednrb) on melanoma continues because Ednrb has been reported to have both tumor promoting and suppressive effects for melanoma. In order to examine Ednrb-related signaling in melanomagenesis, DNA microarray analysis for a melanoma from a RFP/RET-transgenic mouse (RET-mouse) and a melanoma from an Ednrb-heterozygously deleted RET-mouse [Ednrb(+/-);RET-mouse], in both of which melanoma spontaneously develops, was performed in this study. We found that the expression level of Plexin C1 (PlxnC1), a suppressor for melanoma, in a melanoma from an Ednrb(+/-);RET-mouse was drastically decreased compared to that in a melanoma from a RET-mouse. Therefore, we further examined the correlation between Ednrb and PlxnC1 expression levels in melanomas. PlxnC1 transcript expression levels in melanomas from Ednrb(+/-);RET-mice were lower than those in melanomas from RET-mice. A strong correlation between Ednrb and PlxnC1 transcript expression levels (R = 0.78, p < 0.01) was also found in melanomas from both RET-mice and Ednrb(+/-);RET-mice. Correspondingly, there was a significant correlation between transcript (R = 0.80; p < 0.01) and protein (R = 0.60; p < 0.01) expression levels of EDNRB and PLXNC1 in human primary melanomas. Together with our results showing that the expression level of PLXNC1 transcript was reduced in EDNRB-depleted human melanoma cells, our results showing positively correlated expression levels of Ednrb/EDNRB and PlxnC1/PLXNC1 in melanoma suggest that PlxnC1/PLXNC1 is involved in the Ednrb/EDNRB-mediated suppressive effect on melanoma. PMID:26045990

  10. The Janus faces of acquired angioedema: C1-inhibitor deficiency, lymphoproliferation and autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Wu, Maddalena Alessandra; Castelli, Roberto

    2016-02-01

    Several clinical and biological features of lymphoproliferative diseases have been associated with an increased risk of developing autoimmune manifestations. Acquired deficiency of C1-inhibitor (C1-INH) (AAE) is a rare syndrome clinically similar to hereditary angioedema (HAE) characterized by local increase in vascular permeability (angioedema) of the skin and the gastrointestinal and oro-pharyngo-laryngeal mucosa. Bradykinin, a potent vasoactive peptide, released from high molecular weight kininogen when it is cleaved by plasma kallikrein (a serine protease controlled by C1-INH), is the mediator of symptoms. In total 46% of AAE patients carry an underlying hematological disorder including monoclonal gammopathy of uncertain significance (MGUS) or B cell malignancies. However, 74% of AAE patients have anti-C1-INH autoantibodies without hematological, clinical or instrumental evidence of lymphoproliferative disease. Unlike HAE patients, AAE patients usually have late-onset symptoms, do not have a family history of angioedema and present variable response to treatment due to the hypercatabolism of C1-INH. Experiments show that C1-INH and/or the classical complement pathway were consumed by the neoplastic lymphatic tissues and/or anti-C1-INH neutralizing autoantibodies. Therapy of AAE follows two directions: 1) prevention/reversal of the symptoms of angioedema; and 2) treatment of the associated disease. Different forms of B cell disorders coexist and/or evolve into each other in AAE and seem to be dominated by an altered control of B cell proliferation, thus AAE represents an example of the strict link between autoimmunity and lymphoproliferation. PMID:26068904

  11. Six degree of freedom sensor

    DOEpatents

    Vann, Charles S.

    1999-01-01

    This small, non-contact optical sensor increases the capability and flexibility of computer controlled machines by detecting its relative position to a workpiece in all six degrees of freedom (DOF). At a fraction of the cost, it is over 200 times faster and up to 25 times more accurate than competing 3-DOF sensors. Applications range from flexible manufacturing to a 6-DOF mouse for computers. Until now, highly agile and accurate machines have been limited by their inability to adjust to changes in their tasks. By enabling them to sense all six degrees of position, these machines can now adapt to new and complicated tasks without human intervention or delay--simplifying production, reducing costs, and enhancing the value and capability of flexible manufacturing.

  12. Six degree of freedom sensor

    DOEpatents

    Vann, C.S.

    1999-03-16

    This small, non-contact optical sensor increases the capability and flexibility of computer controlled machines by detecting its relative position to a workpiece in all six degrees of freedom (DOF). At a fraction of the cost, it is over 200 times faster and up to 25 times more accurate than competing 3-DOF sensors. Applications range from flexible manufacturing to a 6-DOF mouse for computers. Until now, highly agile and accurate machines have been limited by their inability to adjust to changes in their tasks. By enabling them to sense all six degrees of position, these machines can now adapt to new and complicated tasks without human intervention or delay--simplifying production, reducing costs, and enhancing the value and capability of flexible manufacturing. 3 figs.

  13. Validity of palpation of the C1 transverse process: comparison with a radiographic reference standard

    PubMed Central

    Cooperstein, Robert; Young, Morgan; Lew, Makani

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Primary goal: to determine the validity of C1 transverse process (TVP) palpation compared to an imaging reference standard. Methods: Radiopaque markers were affixed to the skin at the putative location of the C1 TVPs in 21 participants receiving APOM radiographs. The radiographic vertical distances from the marker to the C1 TVP, mastoid process, and C2 TVP were evaluated to determine palpatory accuracy. Results: Interexaminer agreement for radiometric analysis was “excellent.” Stringent accuracy (marker placed ±4mm from the most lateral projection of the C1 TVP) = 57.1%; expansive accuracy (marker placed closer to contiguous structures) = 90.5%. Mean Absolute Deviation (MAD) = 4.34 (3.65, 5.03) mm; root-mean-squared error = 5.40mm. Conclusions: Manual palpation of the C1 TVP can be very accurate and likely to direct a manual therapist or other health professional to the intended diagnostic or therapeutic target. This work is relevant to manual therapists, anesthetists, surgeons, and other health professionals. PMID:26136601

  14. In pursuit of excellence: an integrated care pathway for C1 inhibitor deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Manson, A L; Price, A; Dempster, J; Clinton-Tarestad, P; Greening, C; Enti, R; Hill, S; Grigoriadou, S; Buckland, M S; Longhurst, H J

    2013-01-01

    There are estimated to be approximately 1500 people in the United Kingdom with C1 inhibitor (C1INH) deficiency. At BartsHealth National Health Service (NHS) Trust we manage 133 patients with this condition and we believe that this represents one of the largest cohorts in the United Kingdom. C1INH deficiency may be hereditary or acquired. It is characterized by unpredictable episodic swellings, which may affect any part of the body, but are potentially fatal if they involve the larynx and cause significant morbidity if they involve the viscera. The last few years have seen a revolution in the treatment options that are available for C1 inhibitor deficiency. However, this occurs at a time when there are increased spending restraints in the NHS and the commissioning structure is being overhauled. Integrated care pathways (ICP) are a tool for disseminating best practice, for facilitating clinical audit, enabling multi-disciplinary working and for reducing health-care costs. Here we present an ICP for managing C1 inhibitor deficiency. PMID:23607500

  15. To the occiput or not? C1-c2 ligamentous laxity in children with down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Siemionow, Kris; Chou, Dean

    2014-10-01

    Study Design Retrospective case review. Objective Atlantoaxial instability with and without basilar invagination poses a considerable challenge in management regarding reduction, surgical approach, decompression, instrumentation choice, and extent of fusion. A variety of strategies have been described to reduce and stabilize cranial settling with basilar invagination. Modern instrumentation options included extension to the occiput, C1-C2 transarticular fixation, and C1 lateral mass-C2 pars among others. Since not all cases of cranial settling are the same, their treatment strategies also differ. Factors such as local vascular anatomy, amount of subluxation, need for distraction, and shape of occipital condyles will dictate level and type of instrumentation. The objective of this study was to outline treatment options and provide a rationale for the surgical plan. Methods Two cases of C1-C2 instability in patients with Down syndrome are described. Case 2 underwent C1-C2 instrumented fusion, whereas case 1 involved posterior instrumented fusion to the occiput. Results Both patients tolerated the procedures well. There were no complications. Minimum follow-up was 1 year. There was no loss of reduction. Solid arthrodesis was achieved in both cases. Conclusion Successful reduction can be achieved with both C1-C2 instrumented fusion as well as O-C instrument fusion. Factors such as local vascular anatomy, amount of subluxation, need for distraction, and shape of occipital condyles will dictate level and type of instrumentation. PMID:25364324

  16. Modeling and estimation of C1-P1 bias in GPS receivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Y.; Lahaye, F.; Héroux, P.; Liao, X.; Beck, N.; Olynik, M.

    2001-01-01

    Modern dual-frequency global positioning system (GPS) receivers are capable of providing direct measurements of both L1 C/A (C1) and P code (P1) without the use of the Y-codes under Anti-Spoofing. A discrepancy or bias between the C1 and P1 measurements from these receivers has however been of concern to operators and users of GPS reference networks. For the purpose of modeling and estimation, the nature and characteristics of the discrepancy must be investigated. The research results presented indicate that the discrepancy between the C1 and P1 measurements contains two different types of components: one is of constant type while another is time variant. A method has been developed for their modeling and estimation. The residual C1-P1 time series after a satellite-dependent bias removal agree at a few-centimeter level, indicating the effectiveness of the proposed model. This allows the C1-P1 discrepancy, both constant and non-constant components, to be removed from GPS reference network solutions. Numerical results are provided to support the analysis.

  17. C1 inhibitor serpin domain structure reveals the likely mechanism of heparin potentiation and conformational disease.

    PubMed

    Beinrohr, László; Harmat, Veronika; Dobó, József; Lörincz, Zsolt; Gál, Péter; Závodszky, Péter

    2007-07-20

    C1 inhibitor, a member of the serpin family, is a major down-regulator of inflammatory processes in blood. Genetic deficiency of C1 inhibitor results in hereditary angioedema, a dominantly inheritable, potentially lethal disease. Here we report the first crystal structure of the serpin domain of human C1 inhibitor, representing a previously unreported latent form, which explains functional consequences of several naturally occurring mutations, two of which are discussed in detail. The presented structure displays a novel conformation with a seven-stranded beta-sheet A. The unique conformation of the C-terminal six residues suggests its potential role as a barrier in the active-latent transition. On the basis of surface charge pattern, heparin affinity measurements, and docking of a heparin disaccharide, a heparin binding site is proposed in the contact area of the serpin-proteinase encounter complex. We show how polyanions change the activity of the C1 inhibitor by a novel "sandwich" mechanism, explaining earlier reaction kinetic and mutagenesis studies. These results may help to improve therapeutic C1 inhibitor preparations used in the treatment of hereditary angioedema, organ transplant rejection, and heart attack. PMID:17488724

  18. New Associate Degree Requirements. The Advisor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer, Vancouver.

    This document contains a brief history of the development of the associate degree in British Columbia and reviews the degrees presently conferred. A major portion of the document focuses on newly approved (May 30, 2000) requirements for the Associate Degree of Arts (AA) and the Associate Degree of Science (AS). The associate degree formally became…

  19. Degree Attainment. Snapshot™ Report, Winter 2015

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Student Clearinghouse, 2015

    2015-01-01

    This Snapshot Report presents information on student degree attainment in science and engineering disciplines for 2004 and 2014. It offers data on the following: (1) Science and Engineering Degrees as Percentage of All Degrees; (2) Gender Distribution of Science and Engineering Degrees by Level; (3) Gender Distribution of Bachelor's Degrees in…

  20. Human cytochrome P450 27C1 catalyzes 3,4-desaturation of retinoids.

    PubMed

    Kramlinger, Valerie M; Nagy, Leslie D; Fujiwara, Rina; Johnson, Kevin M; Phan, Thanh T N; Xiao, Yi; Enright, Jennifer M; Toomey, Matthew B; Corbo, Joseph C; Guengerich, Frederick Peter

    2016-05-01

    In humans, a considerable fraction of the retinoid pool in skin is derived from vitamin A2 (all-trans 3,4-dehydroretinal). Vitamin A2 may be locally generated by keratinocytes, which can convert vitamin A1 (all-trans retinol) into vitamin A2 in cell culture. We report that human cytochrome P450 (hP450) 27C1, a previously 'orphan' enzyme, can catalyze this reaction. Purified recombinant hP450 27C1 bound and desaturated all-trans retinol, retinal, and retinoic acid, as well as 11-cis-retinal. Although the physiological role of 3,4-dehydroretinoids in humans is unclear, we have identified hP450 27C1 as an enzyme capable of efficiently mediating their formation. PMID:27059013

  1. C1q binding and complement activation by prions and amyloids.

    PubMed

    Sim, Robert B; Kishore, Uday; Villiers, Christian L; Marche, Patrice N; Mitchell, Daniel A

    2007-01-01

    C1q binds to many non-self and altered-self-materials. These include microorganisms, immune complexes, apoptotic and necrotic cells and their breakdown products, and amyloids. C1q binding to amyloid fibrils found as extracellular deposits in tissues, and subsequent complement activation are involved in the pathology of several amyloid diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease. Prion diseases, such as scrapie also involve formation of amyloid by polymerization of the host prion protein (PrP). Complement activation is likely to contribute to neuronal damage in the end stages of prion diseases, but is also thought to participate in the initial infection, dissemination and replication stages. Infectious prion particles are likely to bind C1q and activate the complement system. Bound complement proteins may then influence the uptake and transport of prion particles by dendritic cells (DCs) and their subsequent proliferation at sites such as follicular DCs. PMID:17544820

  2. Treatment of type I and II hereditary angioedema with Rhucin, a recombinant human C1 inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Varga, Lilian; Farkas, Henriette

    2008-11-01

    Hereditary and acquired angioedema are of outstanding clinical importance, as edematous attacks associated with these conditions can thrust afflicted patients into mortal danger. Currently, C1 inhibitor concentrate - a human blood product - is available as a replacement therapy. In view of the limited number of donors, as well as the risk of transmission of blood-borne infections, it is a reasonable expectation to develop a therapeutic alternative based on recombinant technology, which would eliminate all these shortcomings. Pharming (Leiden, The Netherlands) has developed Rhucin, a recombinant human C1 inhibitor, as a proprietary product, which is currently being evaluated in Phase III clinical trials. Ongoing studies conducted within the framework of the development program are almost complete and their interim findings are reassuring. This should facilitate successful regulatory approval in the near future, which is indispensable in order to make Rhucin available for patients with hereditary angioedema or other disorders amenable to C1 inhibitor replacement. PMID:20477114

  3. Cervicogenic vertigo treated by c1 transverse foramen decompression : a case report.

    PubMed

    Park, Junhee; Lee, Chulkyu; You, Namkyu; Kim, Sanghyun; Cho, Kihong

    2014-09-01

    Cervicogenic vertigo was known as Bow hunter's syndrome. Occlusion of vertebral artery causes vertebrobasilar insufficiency and we reported cervicogenic vertigo case which was treated by simple decompression of transverse foramen of C1. The patient was 48 years old female who had left side dominant vertebral artery and vertigo was provoked when she rotated her head to right side. Angiography showed complete obliteration of blood flow of left vertebral artery when her head was rotated to right side. The operation was decompression of left vertebral artery at C1 level. Posterior wall of transverse foramen was resected and vertebral artery was exposed and decompressed. After surgery, vertigo of the patient was disappeared, and angiography showed patent left vertebral artery when her head was rotated to right side. Vertigo caused by compression of cervical vertebral artery could be treated by decompression without fusion or instrumentation, especially in C1 transverse foramen. PMID:25346772

  4. C1 Inhibitor Limits Organ Injury and Prolongs Survival in Swine Subjected to Battlefield Simulated Injury.

    PubMed

    Campbell, James C; Li, Yansong; van Amersfoort, Edwin; Relan, Anurag; Dubick, Michael; Sheppard, Forest; Pusateri, Anthony; Niemeyer, Debra; Tsokos, George C; Dalle Lucca, Jurandir J

    2016-09-01

    Complement system activation is recognized as a deleterious component of the mammalian physiological response to traumatic injury with severe hemorrhage (TH). Female Yorkshire swine were subjected to a simulated austere prehospital battlefield scenario. Each animal underwent controlled hemorrhage of 22 mL/kg at 100 mL/min rate for approximately 10 min followed by soft tissue injury, femur fracture, and spleen injury. Subsequent blood loss was uncontrolled. Twenty-eight minutes postinjury the animals were randomized into treatment or no treatment with recombinant human C1 esterase inhibitor (C1INH) (500 IU/kg, n = 11) and into receiving or not permissive hypotensive resuscitation (n = 14) with infusion of 45 mL/kg lactated Ringer's solution (2× blood lost). Observation and animal maintenance continued for 6 h at which time the animals had either expired or were euthanized. Heart, lung, and small intestine tissue samples were collected. Pharmacokinetic, hemodynamic, and metabolic parameters as well as survival time, plasma complement activity and tissue deposition, cytokine levels, and tissue injury were determined. We found that administration of C1INH protected tissues from damage, reduced the levels of inflammatory cytokines, and improved blood chemistry. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed that C1INH administration following TH markedly reduced complement activation and deposition in tissues. Importantly, C1INH administration prolonged survival of animals particularly in those which received resuscitation fluid infusion. Our data urge early administration of C1INH to limit organ damage and prolong survival of those injured in the battlefield. PMID:27405065

  5. High prevalence of splenic marginal zone lymphoma among patients with acquired C1 inhibtor deficiency.

    PubMed

    Castelli, Roberto; Wu, Maddalena Alessandra; Arquati, Massimo; Zanichelli, Andrea; Suffritti, Chiara; Rossi, Davide; Cicardi, Marco

    2016-03-01

    Marginal zone lymphoma represents about 10% of all non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHLs). 33% of patients with acquired angioedema (AAE) due to acquired C1-inhibitor (C1-INH) deficiency (C1-INH-AAE) have or will develop NHLs. C1-INH-AAE is a rare condition. We report the follow-up of 72 C1-INH-AAE patients, followed for a median of 15 years (range 1-24). Median age was 71 (range 64-79) years; median age at onset of angioedema symptoms was 57·5 (range 50-66) years and it was 63 [range 45-80) years at diagnosis]. Twenty patients were diagnosed with low-grade non-follicular B-cell lymphomas (75% were splenic MZL), one with follicular and three with high-grade lymphomas (two diffuse large B-cell lymphomas and one mantle cell lymphoma). Fifteen NHLs were diagnosed at onset of AAE or thereafter (3 months to 7 years), eight had already been diagnosed at onset of angioedema. Two of 24 patients remain on watchful wait. Thirthen of 24 received chemotherapy, two received rituximab. Three underwent splenectomy. All 18 patients receiving therapy for NHL experienced post-treatment reduction in AAE symptoms. Our study suggests that clonal B-cell proliferation is the pathology underlying AAE leading to production of C1-INH-neutralizing autoantibodies and to NHLs. The post-germinal centre origin of NHL suggests that immune stimulation may contribute to lymphomagenesis. PMID:26728240

  6. Inactivation of factor XII active fragment in normal plasma. Predominant role of C-1-inhibitor.

    PubMed

    de Agostini, A; Lijnen, H R; Pixley, R A; Colman, R W; Schapira, M

    1984-06-01

    To define the factors responsible for the inactivation of the active fragment derived from Factor XII (Factor XIIf ) in plasma, we studied the inactivation kinetics of Factor XIIf in various purified and plasma mixtures. We also analyzed the formation of 125I-Factor XIIf -inhibitor complexes by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). In purified systems, the bimolecular rate constants for the reactions of Factor XIIf with C-1-inhibitor, alpha 2-antiplasmin, and antithrombin III were 18.5, 0.91, and 0.32 X 10(4) M-1 min-1, respectively. Furthermore, SDS-PAGE analysis revealed that 1:1 stoichiometric complexes were formed between 125I-Factor XIIf and each of these three inhibitors. In contrast, kinetic and SDS-PAGE studies indicated that Factor XIIf did not react with alpha 1-antitrypsin or alpha 2-macroglobulin. The inactivation rate constant of Factor XIIf by prekallikrein-deficient plasma was 14.4 X 10(-2) min-1, a value that was essentially identical to the value predicted from the studies in purified systems (15.5 X 10(-2) min-1). This constant was reduced to 1.8 X 10(-2) min-1 when Factor XIIf was inactivated by prekallikrein-deficient plasma that had been immunodepleted (less than 5%) of C-1-inhibitor. In addition, after inactivation in normal plasma, 74% of the active 125I-Factor XIIf was found to form a complex with C-1-inhibitor, whereas 26% of the enzyme formed complexes with alpha 2-antiplasmin and antithrombin III. Furthermore, 42% of the labeled enzyme was still complexed with C-1-inhibitor when 125I-Factor XII was inactivated in hereditary angioedema plasma that contained 32% of functional C-1-inhibitor. This study quantitatively demonstrates the dominant role of C-1-inhibitor in the inactivation of Factor XIIf in the plasma milieu. PMID:6725552

  7. Purified human C1-esterase inhibitor is safe in acute relapses of neuromyelitis optica

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To minimize complement-mediated damage in acute relapses of neuromyelitis optica (NMO) by adding treatment with a complement inhibitor, purified C1-esterase inhibitor, to the current standard of care (high-dose glucocorticoids). Method: We conducted an open-label phase 1b safety and proof-of-concept trial in 10 patients with NMO–immunoglobulin G seropositive NMO or NMO spectrum disease (NMOSD) who presented with acute transverse myelitis and/or optic neuritis. In addition to treating with 1 g of daily IV methylprednisolone, we infused 2,000 units of C1-esterase inhibitor daily for 3 days, beginning on day 1 of hospitalization. The primary outcome measure was safety, and the secondary efficacy measure was change in Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) scores. Results: Ten patients with NMO/NMOSD were enrolled, 7 of whom presented with acute transverse myelitis and 3 with acute optic neuritis. C1-esterase inhibitor proved to be safe in all 10 patients, with no serious adverse events recorded. There were no thromboembolic events or related lab abnormalities in any of the subjects. EDSS scores dropped from a median of 4.5 on admission to 4.0 on discharge and then down to 2.5 on 30-day follow-up. All but 1 patient returned to preattack EDSS or better and only 2 patients required escalation to plasmapheresis. Conclusions: C1-esterase inhibitor is a safe add-on therapy for patients with NMO/NMOSD presenting with acute transverse myelitis and optic neuritis. Preliminary evidence suggests a promising benefit with C1-esterase inhibitor in reducing neurologic damage and improving outcomes. A placebo-controlled trial is necessary to confirm these findings. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class IV evidence that for patients with NMO with acute transverse myelitis or optic neuritis, C1-esterase inhibitor is safe and improves disability. PMID:25340061

  8. A Dramatic Increase of C1q Protein in the CNS during Normal Aging

    PubMed Central

    Madison, Daniel V.; Mateos, José María; Fraser, Deborah A.; Lovelett, Emilie A.; Coutellier, Laurence; Kim, Leo; Tsai, Hui-Hsin; Huang, Eric J.; Rowitch, David H.; Berns, Dominic S.; Tenner, Andrea J.; Shamloo, Mehrdad; Barres, Ben A.

    2013-01-01

    The decline of cognitive function has emerged as one of the greatest health threats of old age. Age-related cognitive decline is caused by an impacted neuronal circuitry, yet the molecular mechanisms responsible are unknown. C1q, the initiating protein of the classical complement cascade and powerful effector of the peripheral immune response, mediates synapse elimination in the developing CNS. Here we show that C1q protein levels dramatically increase in the normal aging mouse and human brain, by as much as 300-fold. This increase was predominantly localized in close proximity to synapses and occurred earliest and most dramatically in certain regions of the brain, including some but not all regions known to be selectively vulnerable in neurodegenerative diseases, i.e., the hippocampus, substantia nigra, and piriform cortex. C1q-deficient mice exhibited enhanced synaptic plasticity in the adult and reorganization of the circuitry in the aging hippocampal dentate gyrus. Moreover, aged C1q-deficient mice exhibited significantly less cognitive and memory decline in certain hippocampus-dependent behavior tests compared with their wild-type littermates. Unlike in the developing CNS, the complement cascade effector C3 was only present at very low levels in the adult and aging brain. In addition, the aging-dependent effect of C1q on the hippocampal circuitry was independent of C3 and unaccompanied by detectable synapse loss, providing evidence for a novel, complement- and synapse elimination-independent role for C1q in CNS aging. PMID:23946404

  9. Purification and characterization of two functionally distinct forms of C1 inhibitor from a patient with angioedema.

    PubMed Central

    Curd, J G; Yelvington, M; Ziccardi, R J; Mathison, D A; Griffin, J H

    1981-01-01

    A minority of patients with hereditary angioedema (HAE) have normal concentrations of a dysfunctional C1 inhibitor protein (C1INH) in their plasmas. We purified C1INH from the plasmas of one such patient before and during treatment with the anabolic steroid stanozolol. Both the pretreatment plasma and plasma obtained during stanozolol treatment contained varying amounts of two extremely similar C1INH proteins that were functionally distinct. The pretreatment plasma contained primarily (94%) dysfunctional C1INH that did not inactivate or complex with either purified C1s, activated Hageman factor, or kallikrein and small amounts (6%) of functionally normal C1INH. Stanozolol treatment increased the plasma concentrations of both of these proteins as well as the proportion (23%) of functional C1INH in the plasma. The purified dysfunctional and functional C1INHs had identical or nearly identical molecular sizes, charges, amino acid compositions, and amino sugar contents, and could not be distinguished physicochemically from each other or from normal C1INH. From these studies of purified C1INH proteins we concluded that HAE associated with dysfunctional C1INH is due to a defect at the structural locus for one C1INH gene and that both the dysfunctional C1INH gene and the normal C1INH gene products are present in the plasma of the affected subject. Treatment with stanozolol comparably increased the synthesis of both C1INH proteins. The disproportionate rise in the level of the normal C1INH protein is consistent with the view that it is more rapidly catabolized as a consequence of its interaction with the proteases it inactivates. PMID:6976242

  10. Function of gC1qR in innate immunity of Chinese mitten crab, Eriocheir sinensis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ying; Wang, Wen; Ren, Qian

    2016-08-01

    gC1qR is identified as the globular "head" binding protein of the C1q protein and performs an important function in innate immunity. A EsgC1qR gene was identified from the hepatopancreas of Eriocheir sinensis. EsgC1qR encodes a protein with 275 amino acids. Phylogenetic analysis showed that, together with crustaceans gC1qRs, EsgC1qR belongs to one group. EsgC1qR mRNA was detected in hemocytes, intestine, hepatopancreas, gills, eyestalk, heart, muscle, and nerve. The expression of the EsgC1qR transcript in the hepatopancreas could be regulated by lipopolysaccharides (LPS), peptidoglycans (PGN), Staphyloccocus aureus, or Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Recombinant EsgC1qR (rEsgC1qR) protein could bind to various bacteria, LPS, and PGN. rEsgC1qR protein also presents direct bacteria inhibitory activity. rEsgC1qR could interact with EsCnx or EsCrt. Therefore, from the results, we could speculate that EsgC1qR is involved in the innate immunity of Chinese mitten crab, E. sinensis. PMID:26993663

  11. C1 Esterase Inhibitor Reduces Lower Extremity Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury and Associated Lung Damage

    PubMed Central

    Duehrkop, Claudia; Banz, Yara; Spirig, Rolf; Miescher, Sylvia; Nolte, Marc W.; Spycher, Martin; Smith, Richard A. G.; Sacks, Steven H.; Rieben, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Background Ischemia/reperfusion injury of lower extremities and associated lung damage may result from thrombotic occlusion, embolism, trauma, or surgical intervention with prolonged ischemia and subsequent restoration of blood flow. This clinical entity is characterized by high morbidity and mortality. Deprivation of blood supply leads to molecular and structural changes in the affected tissue. Upon reperfusion inflammatory cascades are activated causing tissue injury. We therefore tested preoperative treatment for prevention of reperfusion injury by using C1 esterase inhibitor (C1 INH). Methods and Findings Wistar rats systemically pretreated with C1 INH (n = 6), APT070 (a membrane-targeted myristoylated peptidyl construct derived from human complement receptor 1, n = 4), vehicle (n = 7), or NaCl (n = 8) were subjected to 3h hind limb ischemia and 24h reperfusion. The femoral artery was clamped and a tourniquet placed under maintenance of a venous return. C1 INH treated rats showed significantly less edema in muscle (P<0.001) and lung and improved muscle viability (P<0.001) compared to controls and APT070. C1 INH prevented up-regulation of bradykinin receptor b1 (P<0.05) and VE-cadherin (P<0.01), reduced apoptosis (P<0.001) and fibrin deposition (P<0.01) and decreased plasma levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, whereas deposition of complement components was not significantly reduced in the reperfused muscle. Conclusions C1 INH reduced edema formation locally in reperfused muscle as well as in lung, and improved muscle viability. C1 INH did not primarily act via inhibition of the complement system, but via the kinin and coagulation cascade. APT070 did not show beneficial effects in this model, despite potent inhibition of complement activation. Taken together, C1 INH might be a promising therapy to reduce peripheral ischemia/reperfusion injury and distant lung damage in complex and prolonged surgical interventions requiring tourniquet application

  12. Endovascular Treatment of a Vertebral Artery Pseudoaneurysm Following Posterior C1-C2 Transarticular Screw Fixation

    SciTech Connect

    Mendez, Jose C. Gonzalez-Llanos, Francisco

    2005-01-15

    We present a case of vertebral artery pseudoaneurysm after a posterior C1-C2 transarticular screw fixation procedure that was effectively treated with endovascular coil occlusion. Vertebral artery pseudoaneurysm complicating posterior C1-C2 transarticular fixation is extremely rare, with only one previous case having been reported previously. Endovascular occlusion is better achieved in the subacute phase of the pseudoaneurysm, when the wall of the pseudoaneurysm has matured and stabilized. Further follow-up angiographies are mandatory in order to confirm that there is no recurrence of the lesion.

  13. Solar gases in meteorites - The origin of chondrites and C1 carbonaceous chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heymann, D.

    1978-01-01

    Evidence suggesting that chondritic meteorites broke off from parent bodies in earth-crossing orbits is considered. It is suggested that ordinary chondrites have an asteroidal origin, and the possibility that C1 chondrites have a cometary origin is examined. Indications of heavy shock and reheating among L and H chondrites provides support for an asteroidal origin, while the Apollo and Amor objects are too small to be unfragmented asteroids, as proposed in the Anders theory of the origin of gas-rich meteorites. Events associated with the megaregolith are discussed in the framework of the proposed cometary origin of C1 chondrites.

  14. Experimental and theoretical study of s 2p and c 1s spectroscopyin cs2

    SciTech Connect

    Eustatiu, I.G.; Tyliszczak, Tolek; Cooper, G.; Hitchcock, Adam; Turci, C.C.; Rocha, A.B.; Barbatti, M.; Bielschowsky, C.E.

    2006-12-01

    The generalized oscillator strength profiles in the momentumtransfer range (K) of (2 a.u.- 2C 1s transitions of carbon disulfide (CS2) arepresented. Optical oscillator strengths and generalized oscillatorstrength profiles have been calculated for vertical excitation from theground X1SIGMAg+ electronic state to several C(1s) and S(2p) inner-shellelectronic excited states of CS2, using high level ab initio (HF-CI)calculations. The experimental and computed GOS profiles of CS2 arecompared and found to be generally in reasonable agreement.

  15. An amphioxus gC1q protein binds human IgG and initiates the classical pathway: Implications for a C1q-mediated complement system in the basal chordate.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhan; Li, Mengyang; Ma, Jie; Zhang, Shicui

    2014-12-01

    The origin of the classical complement pathway remains open during chordate evolution. A C1q-like member, BjC1q, was identified in the basal chordate amphioxus. It is predominantly expressed in the hepatic caecum, hindgut, and notochord, and is significantly upregulated following challenge with bacteria or lipoteichoic acid and LPS. Recombinant BjC1q and its globular head domain specifically interact with lipoteichoic acid and LPS, but BjC1q displays little lectin activity. Moreover, rBjC1q can assemble to form the high molecular weight oligomers necessary for binding to proteases C1r/C1s and for complement activation, and binds human C1r/C1s/mannan-binding lectin-associated serine protease-2 as well as amphioxus serine proteases involved in the cleavage of C4/C2, and C3 activation. Importantly, rBjC1q binds with human IgG as well as an amphioxus Ig domain containing protein, resulting in the activation of the classical complement pathway. This is the first report showing that a C1q-like protein in invertebrates is able to initiate classical pathway, raising the possibility that amphioxus possesses a C1q-mediated complement system. It also suggests a new scenario for the emergence of the classical complement pathway, in contrast to the proposal that the lectin pathway evolved into the classical pathway. PMID:25174509

  16. Complimentary action: C1q increases ganglion cell survival in an in vitro model of retinal degeneration.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Linnéa; Arnér, Karin; Blom, Anna M; Ghosh, Fredrik

    2016-09-15

    Using a previously described retinal explant culture system as an acute injury model, we here explore the role of C1q, the initiator of the classical complement pathway, in neuronal cell survival and retinal homeostasis. Full-thickness adult rat retinal explants were divided into four groups, receiving the following supplementation: C1q (50nM), C1-inhibitor (C1-inh; Berinert; 500mg/l), C1q+C1-inh, and no supplementation (culture controls). Explants were kept for 12h or 2days after which they were examined morphologically and with a panel of immunohistochemical markers. C1q supplementation protects ganglion cells from degeneration within the explant in vitro system. This effect is correlated to an attenuated endogenous production of C1q, and a quiesced gliotic response. PMID:27609284

  17. Synthesis of C1 inhibitor in fibroblasts from patients with type I and type II hereditary angioneurotic edema.

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, J; Katz, Y; Rosen, F S; Davis, A E; Strunk, R C

    1991-01-01

    Patients with hereditary angioneurotic edema (HANE) have serum levels of functionally active inhibitor of the first component of complement (C1 INH) between 5 and 30% of normal, instead of the 50% expected from the single normal allele. Increases in rates of catabolism have been documented in patients with HANE and certainly account for some of decrease in C1 INH level. A possible role for a decrease in synthesis of C1 INH in producing serum levels of C1 INH below the expected 50% of normal has not been well studied. We studied the synthesis of C1 INH in skin fibroblast lines, which produce easily detectable amounts of C1 INH. In type I HANE cells, C1 INH synthesis was 19.6 +/- 4.0% (mean +/- SD) of normal, much less than the 50% predicted. In type II HANE cells, the total amount of C1 INH synthesis (functional and dysfunctional) was 98.9 +/- 17% of normal; the functional protein comprised 43% of the total. Thus, type II HANE cells synthesized functional C1 INH at a much greater rate than for the type I cells. In both type I and II HANE cells, amounts of steady-state C1 INH mRNA levels paralleled rates of C1 INH synthesis, indicating that control of C1 INH synthesis occurred at pretranslational levels. Both type I and type II fibroblasts synthesized normal amounts of C1r and C1s. These data suggest that the lower than expected amounts of functionally active C1 INH in type I HANE may be due, in part, to a decrease in rate of synthesis of the protein, and that the expressions of the normal C1 INH allele in HANE is influenced by the type of abnormal allele present. Images PMID:1902490

  18. 40 CFR Table C-1 to Subpart C of... - Test Concentration Ranges, Number of Measurements Required, and Maximum Discrepancy Specification

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Measurements Required, and Maximum Discrepancy Specification C Table C-1 to Subpart C of Part 53 Protection of... Reference Methods Pt. 53, Subpt. C, Table C-1 Table C-1 to Subpart C of Part 53—Test Concentration Ranges... 0.25 to 0.35 2 2 .03 Total 7 8 Effective Date Note: At 75 FR 35601, June 22, 2010, table C-1...

  19. 26 CFR 1.412(c)(1)-1 - Determinations to be made under funding method-terms defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...-terms defined. 1.412(c)(1)-1 Section 1.412(c)(1)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT..., Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.412(c)(1)-1 Determinations to be made under funding method—terms defined. (a... collectively bargained plans, see § 1.412(c)(1)-2; for principles applicable to funding methods in......

  20. 26 CFR 1.412(c)(1)-1 - Determinations to be made under funding method-terms defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...-terms defined. 1.412(c)(1)-1 Section 1.412(c)(1)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT..., Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.412(c)(1)-1 Determinations to be made under funding method—terms defined. (a... collectively bargained plans, see § 1.412(c)(1)-2; for principles applicable to funding methods in......

  1. 26 CFR 1.412(c)(1)-1 - Determinations to be made under funding method-terms defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...-terms defined. 1.412(c)(1)-1 Section 1.412(c)(1)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT..., Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.412(c)(1)-1 Determinations to be made under funding method—terms defined. (a... collectively bargained plans, see § 1.412(c)(1)-2; for principles applicable to funding methods in......

  2. 26 CFR 1.412(c)(1)-1 - Determinations to be made under funding method-terms defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...-terms defined. 1.412(c)(1)-1 Section 1.412(c)(1)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT..., Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.412(c)(1)-1 Determinations to be made under funding method—terms defined. (a... collectively bargained plans, see § 1.412(c)(1)-2; for principles applicable to funding methods in......

  3. Investing in a master's degree.

    PubMed

    Hodges, L C; Ganchorre, C; Hodges, E A

    1997-10-01

    One of the most important decisions you will ever make is the decision to invest your time and money in a master's degree. It is a big investment and often requires real sacrifice for you and your family. Since this decision is of paramount importance over the life of your career, it should be approached as a major topic to research. The first step in the process is a thorough review of your own goals and career expectations. Once you decide returning to graduate school is right for you, then you must turn your attention to finding the school that meets your goals for specialized study, as well as the location that best suits your lifestyle. A good place to start the search is in the library among a number of up-to-date references on master's nursing programs. A second source is the Internet. To find out more about the school locations, two good sources are the city's chamber of commerce and the Internet. Acquiring a master's degree in nursing will be a challenge, but one that will pay big dividends in your future nursing career. PMID:9384158

  4. The Kilo-Degree Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jong, J. T. A.; Kuijken, K.; Applegate, D.; Begeman, K.; Belikov, A.; Blake, C.; Bout, J.; Boxhoorn, D.; Buddelmeijer, H.; Buddendiek, A.; Cacciato, M.; Capaccioli, M.; Choi, A.; Cordes, O.; Covone, G.; Dall'Ora, M.; Edge, A.; Erben, T.; Franse, J.; Getman, F.; Grado, A.; Harnois-Deraps, J.; Helmich, E.; Herbonnet, R.; Heymans, C.; Hildebrandt, H.; Hoekstra, H.; Huang, Z.; Irisarri, N.; Joachimi, B.; Köhlinger, F.; Kitching, T.; La Barbera, F.; Lacerda, P.; McFarland, J.; Miller, L.; Nakajima, R.; Napolitano, N. R.; Paolillo, M.; Peacock, J.; Pila-Diez, B.; Puddu, E.; Radovich, M.; Rifatto, A.; Schneider, P.; Schrabback, T.; Sifon, C.; Sikkema, G.; Simon, P.; Sutherland, W.; Tudorica, A.; Valentijn, E.; van der Burg, R.; van Uitert, E.; van Waerbeke, L.; Velander, M.; Kleijn, G. V.; Viola, M.; Vriend, W.-J.

    2013-12-01

    The Kilo-Degree Survey (KiDS), a 1500-square-degree optical imaging survey with the recently commissioned OmegaCAM wide-field imager on the VLT Survey Telescope (VST), is described. KiDS will image two fields in u-,g-,r- and i-bands and, together with the VIKING survey, produce nine-band (u- to K-band) coverage over two fields. For the foreseeable future the KiDS/VIKING combination of superb image quality with wide wavelength coverage will be unique for surveys of its size and depth. The survey has been designed to tackle some of the most fundamental questions of cosmology and galaxy formation of today. The main science driver is mapping the dark matter distribution in the Universe and putting constraints on the expansion of the Universe and the equation of state of dark energy, all through weak gravitational lensing. However, the deep and wide imaging data will facilitate a wide variety of science cases.

  5. Policy Statements for the Associate Degree, the Associate in Applied Science Degree, and the Associate Degree in Nursing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Community and Junior Colleges, Washington, DC.

    The policy statements contained in this document present the position of the American Association of Community and Junior Colleges (AACJC) on the Associate Degree, the Associate in Applied Science Degree (AAS), and the Associate Degree in Nursing. In its statement on the Associate Degree, the AACJC: (1) stresses the responsibility of faculty and…

  6. 17 CFR 270.22c-1 - Pricing of redeemable securities for distribution, redemption and repurchase.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) (17 CFR 270.14a-3(b))) from selling or repurchasing Trust units in a secondary market at a price based... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pricing of redeemable... 1940 § 270.22c-1 Pricing of redeemable securities for distribution, redemption and repurchase. (a)...

  7. 17 CFR 270.22c-1 - Pricing of redeemable securities for distribution, redemption and repurchase.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) (17 CFR 270.14a-3(b))) from selling or repurchasing Trust units in a secondary market at a price based... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pricing of redeemable... 1940 § 270.22c-1 Pricing of redeemable securities for distribution, redemption and repurchase. (a)...

  8. 17 CFR 270.22c-1 - Pricing of redeemable securities for distribution, redemption and repurchase.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) (17 CFR 270.14a-3(b))) from selling or repurchasing Trust units in a secondary market at a price based... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pricing of redeemable... 1940 § 270.22c-1 Pricing of redeemable securities for distribution, redemption and repurchase. (a)...

  9. 17 CFR 270.22c-1 - Pricing of redeemable securities for distribution, redemption and repurchase.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) (17 CFR 270.14a-3(b))) from selling or repurchasing Trust units in a secondary market at a price based... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pricing of redeemable... 1940 § 270.22c-1 Pricing of redeemable securities for distribution, redemption and repurchase. (a)...

  10. 17 CFR 240.15c1-2 - Fraud and misrepresentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Fraud and misrepresentation... Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Rules Relating to Over-The-Counter Markets § 240.15c1-2 Fraud and... any act, practice, or course of business which operates or would operate as a fraud or deceit upon...

  11. 17 CFR 240.15c1-2 - Fraud and misrepresentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Fraud and misrepresentation... Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Rules Relating to Over-The-Counter Markets § 240.15c1-2 Fraud and... any act, practice, or course of business which operates or would operate as a fraud or deceit upon...

  12. 17 CFR 240.15c1-2 - Fraud and misrepresentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Fraud and misrepresentation... Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Rules Relating to Over-The-Counter Markets § 240.15c1-2 Fraud and... any act, practice, or course of business which operates or would operate as a fraud or deceit upon...

  13. 26 CFR 31.3302(c)-1 - Limit on total credits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Limit on total credits. 31.3302(c)-1 Section 31... credits. (a) In general. Paragraph (b) of this section relates to the limitation on the aggregate of the credits allowable under section 3302 (a) and (b). Paragraph (c) of this section relates to...

  14. 26 CFR 31.3302(c)-1 - Limit on total credits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Limit on total credits. 31.3302(c)-1 Section 31... credits. (a) In general. Paragraph (b) of this section relates to the limitation on the aggregate of the credits allowable under section 3302 (a) and (b). Paragraph (c) of this section relates to...

  15. 26 CFR 31.3302(c)-1 - Limit on total credits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Limit on total credits. 31.3302(c)-1 Section 31... credits. (a) In general. Paragraph (b) of this section relates to the limitation on the aggregate of the credits allowable under section 3302 (a) and (b). Paragraph (c) of this section relates to...

  16. 26 CFR 1.412(c)(1)-2 - Shortfall method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Shortfall method. 1.412(c)(1)-2 Section 1.412(c... Shortfall method. (a) In general—(1) Shortfall method. The shortfall method is a funding method that adapts a plan's underlying funding method for purposes of section 412. As such, the use of the...

  17. 2. VIEW OF THE BELL FAMILY RESIDENCE (FEATURE C1), WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW OF THE BELL FAMILY RESIDENCE (FEATURE C-1), WEST END, FACING SOUTHEAST. PRIVY (FEATURE C-2) IS VISIBLE IN BACKGROUND, UPPER LEFT SIDE OF FRAME. - Bell Family Residence, House, East slope of Buckskin Mountain, Paradise Valley, Humboldt County, NV

  18. Sequencing analysis of the human glucocorticoid receptor (NR3C1) gene in multiple sclerosis patients.

    PubMed

    Kassi, Eva; Semaniakou, Anna; Sertedaki, Amalia; Evangelopoulos, Maria-Eleftheria; Kazazoglou, Theodosia; Kominakis, Antonios; Sfagos, Constantinos; Charmandari, Evangelia; Chrousos, George P; Moutsatsou, Paraskevi

    2016-04-15

    Various specific human glucocorticoid receptor (NR3C1) gene polymorphisms have been described in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and correlated with disease progression, susceptibility and aggressiveness. Herein, we investigated the presence of gene alterations in the entire coding region of the NR3C1 in MS patients of variable clinical status (CIS, RRMS and SPMS) and the association(s) of these alterations with severity of disease (EDSS), response to glucocorticoid (GC) treatment and clinical improvement. Sixty Caucasian Greek MS patients were included. Sequencing the coding sequences and intron-exon boundaries of the NR3C1 did not reveal the presence of mutation(s) in any of the MS patients. Three previously described polymorphisms were detected: p.N363S (rs6195), p.N766N (rs6196) and c.1469-16G>T (rs6188). None of the identified alleles/genotypes were found to be associated with the severity of disease, response to glucocorticoids and disease subtypes. Known polymorphism, such as ER22/23EK that has been previously detected in MS patients, was not detected. There is a considerable ethnicity-related variation in the frequency of the NR3C1 polymorphisms. Although a genetic basis of the glucocorticoid sensitivity exists in healthy population, in the presence of chronic inflammation and abundance of cytokines--such in MS patients--other factors appear to play a more important role in GC sensitivity. PMID:27000245

  19. View forward, starboard engine room, compartment C1; note RPM indicator ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View forward, starboard engine room, compartment C-1; note RPM indicator at top right of photograph, bilge drain manifold at lower right; worm gear at left is probably part of a hydraulic reversing gear. (057) - USS Olympia, Penn's Landing, 211 South Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  20. βC1 of chili leaf curl betasatellite is a pathogenicity determinant

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Cotton leaf curl disease in the Indian subcontinent is associated with several distinct begomoviruses that interact with a disease-specific DNA satellite named Cotton leaf curl Multan betasatellite (CLCuMB). However, we have recently reported that Chili leaf curl betasatellite (ChLCB) is also occasionally found associated with the disease in Pakistan. The question as to whether ChLCB contributes to the development of disease symptoms such as leaf curling and enations remain to be answered. We have previously shown that the expression of βC1 of CLCuMB develops all symptoms of cotton leaf curl disease in Nicotiana benthamiana when expressed from PVX vector. Findings The role of ChLCB in the induction of typical disease symptoms was studied by its expression from PVX vector in N. benthamiana. The expression of βC1 from PVX vector developed severe leaf curl symptoms and leaf-like enations that resemble the phenotype induced by βC1 of CLCuMB. Conclusions The results presented here show that the expression of βC1 of ChLCB from PVX vector exhibit phenotype typical of cotton leaf curl and therefore ChLCB may contribute to the disease symptoms. PMID:22067326

  1. C 1 natural element method for strain gradient linear elasticity and its application to microstructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Zhi-Feng; Zhou, Shen-Jie; Han, Ru-Jun; Xiao, Lin-Jing; Wang, Kai

    2012-02-01

    C 1 natural element method ( C 1 NEM) is applied to strain gradient linear elasticity, and size effects on microstructures are analyzed. The shape functions in C 1 NEM are built upon the natural neighbor interpolation (NNI), with interpolation realized to nodal function and nodal gradient values, so that the essential boundary conditions (EBCs) can be imposed directly in a Galerkin scheme for partial differential equations (PDEs). In the present paper, C 1 NEM for strain gradient linear elasticity is constructed, and several typical examples which have analytical solutions are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the constructed method. In its application to microstructures, the size effects of bending stiffness and stress concentration factor (SCF) are studied for microspeciem and microgripper, respectively. It is observed that the size effects become rather strong when the width of spring for microgripper, the radius of circular perforation and the long axis of elliptical perforation for microspeciem come close to the material characteristic length scales. For the U-shaped notch, the size effects decline obviously with increasing notch radius, and decline mildly with increasing length of notch.

  2. Congenital anomaly of craniovertebral junction: atlas-dens fusion with C1 anterior arch cleft.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Vallina, José R; Riaño-Galán, Isolina; Cobo-Ruisánchez, Angeles; Orejas-Rodriguez-Arango, Gonzalo; López-Muñiz, Carlos; Fernández-Martínez, José M

    2002-02-01

    A rare case of congenital atlantoaxial block is reported. A 13-year-old boy had a fusion of a non-separated odontoid process with the anterior arch of the atlas, in association with an anterior midline C1 arch cleft. PMID:11891461

  3. Stereoselective synthesis of the C1-C29 part of amphidinol 3.

    PubMed

    Tsuruda, Takeshi; Ebine, Makoto; Umeda, Aya; Oishi, Tohru

    2015-01-16

    Stereoselective synthesis of the C1-C29 part of amphidinol 3 (AM3) was achieved. The C1-C20 part was assembled from three building blocks via regioselective cross metathesis to form the C4-C5 double bond and addition of an alkenyllithium and a lithium acetylide to two Weinreb amides followed by asymmetric reduction to form the C9-C10 and C14-C15 bonds, respectively. The C21-C29 part was synthesized via successive cross metathesis and oxa-Michael addition sequence to construct the 1,3-diol system at C25 and C27 and Brown asymmetric crotylation to introduce the stereogenic centers at C23 and C24. Coupling of the C1-C20 and C21-C29 parts was achieved by Julia-Kocienski olefination and regio- and stereoselective dihydroxylation of the C20-C21 double bond in the presence of the C4-C5 and C8-C9 double bonds to afford the C1-C29 part of AM3. PMID:25517178

  4. Spirastrellolide E: Synthesis of an advanced C(1)-C(24) southern hemisphere

    PubMed Central

    Sokolsky, Alexander; Wang, Xiaozhao; Smith, Amos B.

    2014-01-01

    The synthesis of a C(1)-C(24) advanced southern hemisphere fragment towards the total synthesis of spirastrellolide E has been achieved. Highlights of the route include a highly convergent Type I Anion Relay Chemistry (ARC) tactic for fragment assembly, in conjunction with a directed, regioselective gold-catalyzed alkyne functionalization to generate the central unsaturated [6,6]-spiroketal. PMID:26097261

  5. Compartment C1, engine room. View down compionway of top of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Compartment C-1, engine room. View down compionway of top of engine cylinder heads; note slots in frame at left of photograph, slots hold steel bars which form a protective grating above the engines during battle. (081) - USS Olympia, Penn's Landing, 211 South Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  6. 12 CFR 563c.1 - Form and content of financial statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Commission (17 CFR 210.l-210.4, 210.10, and 210.11). (4) Be audited, when required, by an independent auditor... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Form and content of financial statements. 563c... ACCOUNTING REQUIREMENTS Form and Content of Financial Statements § 563c.1 Form and content of...

  7. 26 CFR 49.4264(c)-1 - Special rule for the payment of tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ....4264(c)-1 Special rule for the payment of tax. (a) Rule—(1) In general. Except as provided in... as uninterrupted international air transportation. In the case of a payment for transportation... and return. The amount paid for A's transportation became subject to tax at the time he began...

  8. 26 CFR 1.6031(c)-1T - Nominee reporting of partnership information (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Nominee reporting of partnership information... TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Information Returns § 1.6031(c)-1T Nominee reporting of partnership information (temporary). (a) Statements required to be furnished...

  9. 26 CFR 1.6031(c)-1T - Nominee reporting of partnership information (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Nominee reporting of partnership information... TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Information Returns § 1.6031(c)-1T Nominee reporting of partnership information (temporary). (a) Statements required to be furnished...

  10. 26 CFR 31.3302(c)-1 - Limit on total credits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE... Temporary Unemployment Compensation Act of 1958. A reduction of credit under paragraph (c)(1), (2), or (3... rate of 3 percent. (b) Limitation on aggregate credit. The aggregate of the credit under section...

  11. Cleanup Verification Package for the 118-C-1, 105-C Solid Waste Burial Ground

    SciTech Connect

    M. J. Appel and J. M. Capron

    2007-07-25

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 118-C-1, 105-C Solid Waste Burial Ground. This waste site was the primary burial ground for general wastes from the operation of the 105-C Reactor and received process tubes, aluminum fuel spacers, control rods, reactor hardware, spent nuclear fuel and soft wastes.

  12. Rhucin, a recombinant C1 inhibitor for the treatment of hereditary angioedema and cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Longhurst, Hilary

    2008-03-01

    Pharming NV and Esteve are developing Rhucin, a recombinant human C1 esterase inhibitor. Rhucin is currently undergoing phase III clinical trials in North America and is awaiting regulatory approval in Western Europe for the treatment of prophylactic and acute hereditary angioedema. Pharming is also investigating Rhucin for the potential treatment of cerebral ischemic injury. PMID:18311668

  13. A South American Prehistoric Mitogenome: Context, Continuity, and the Origin of Haplogroup C1d

    PubMed Central

    Sans, Mónica; Figueiro, Gonzalo; Hughes, Cris E.; Lindo, John; Hidalgo, Pedro C.; Malhi, Ripan S.

    2015-01-01

    Based on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), it has been estimated that at least 15 founder haplogroups peopled the Americas. Subhaplogroup C1d3 was defined based on the mitogenome of a living individual from Uruguay that carried a lineage previously identified in hypervariable region I sequences from ancient and modern Uruguayan individuals. When complete mitogenomes were studied, additional substitutions were found in the coding region of the mitochondrial genome. Using a complete ancient mitogenome and three modern mitogenomes, we aim to clarify the ancestral state of subhaplogroup C1d3 and to better understand the peopling of the region of the Río de la Plata basin, as well as of the builders of the mounds from which the ancient individuals were recovered. The ancient mitogenome, belonging to a female dated to 1,610±46 years before present, was identical to the mitogenome of one of the modern individuals. All individuals share the mutations defining subhaplogroup C1d3. We estimated an age of 8,974 (5,748–12,261) years for the most recent common ancestor of C1d3, in agreement with the initial peopling of the geographic region. No individuals belonging to the defined lineage were found outside of Uruguay, which raises questions regarding the mobility of the prehistoric inhabitants of the country. Moreover, the present study shows the continuity of Native lineages over at least 6,000 years. PMID:26509686

  14. A South American Prehistoric Mitogenome: Context, Continuity, and the Origin of Haplogroup C1d.

    PubMed

    Sans, Mónica; Figueiro, Gonzalo; Hughes, Cris E; Lindo, John; Hidalgo, Pedro C; Malhi, Ripan S

    2015-01-01

    Based on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), it has been estimated that at least 15 founder haplogroups peopled the Americas. Subhaplogroup C1d3 was defined based on the mitogenome of a living individual from Uruguay that carried a lineage previously identified in hypervariable region I sequences from ancient and modern Uruguayan individuals. When complete mitogenomes were studied, additional substitutions were found in the coding region of the mitochondrial genome. Using a complete ancient mitogenome and three modern mitogenomes, we aim to clarify the ancestral state of subhaplogroup C1d3 and to better understand the peopling of the region of the Río de la Plata basin, as well as of the builders of the mounds from which the ancient individuals were recovered. The ancient mitogenome, belonging to a female dated to 1,610±46 years before present, was identical to the mitogenome of one of the modern individuals. All individuals share the mutations defining subhaplogroup C1d3. We estimated an age of 8,974 (5,748-12,261) years for the most recent common ancestor of C1d3, in agreement with the initial peopling of the geographic region. No individuals belonging to the defined lineage were found outside of Uruguay, which raises questions regarding the mobility of the prehistoric inhabitants of the country. Moreover, the present study shows the continuity of Native lineages over at least 6,000 years. PMID:26509686

  15. 26 CFR 1.404(c)-1 - Certain negotiated plans; effect of section 404(c).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Certain negotiated plans; effect of section 404... Plans, Etc. § 1.404(c)-1 Certain negotiated plans; effect of section 404(c). (a) Section 404(a) does not... to maintain a sound position in the labor market producing the commodity. Thus, for example, if...

  16. 26 CFR 1.404(c)-1 - Certain negotiated plans; effect of section 404(c).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certain negotiated plans; effect of section 404.... § 1.404(c)-1 Certain negotiated plans; effect of section 404(c). (a) Section 404(a) does not apply to... would therefore be expected to establish such a trust as a reasonable measure to maintain a...

  17. Dyslexia and DYX1C1: deficits in reading and spelling associated with a missense mutation.

    PubMed

    Bates, T C; Lind, P A; Luciano, M; Montgomery, G W; Martin, N G; Wright, M J

    2010-12-01

    The status of DYX1C1 (C15q21.3) as a susceptibility gene for dyslexia is unclear. We report the association of this gene with reading and spelling ability in a sample of adolescent twins and their siblings. Family-based association analyses were carried out on 13 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in DYX1C1, typed in 790 families with up to 5 offspring and tested on 6 validated measures of lexical processing (irregular word) and grapheme-phoneme decoding (pseudo-word) reading- and spelling-based measures of dyslexia, as well as a short-term memory measure. Significant association was observed at the misssense mutation rs17819126 for all reading measures and for spelling of lexical processing words, and at rs3743204 for both irregular and nonword reading. Verbal short-term memory was associated with rs685935. Support for association was not found at rs3743205 and rs61761345 as previously reported by Taipale et al., but these SNPs had very low (0.002 for rs3743205) minor allele frequencies in this sample. These results suggest that DYX1C1 influences reading and spelling ability with additional effects on short-term information storage or rehearsal. Missense mutation rs17819126 is a potential functional basis for the association of DYX1C1 with dyslexia. PMID:19901951

  18. 17 CFR 240.15c1-2 - Fraud and misrepresentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fraud and misrepresentation... Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Rules Relating to Over-The-Counter Markets § 240.15c1-2 Fraud and... any act, practice, or course of business which operates or would operate as a fraud or deceit upon...

  19. 17 CFR 240.15c1-2 - Fraud and misrepresentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Fraud and misrepresentation... Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Rules Relating to Over-The-Counter Markets § 240.15c1-2 Fraud and... any act, practice, or course of business which operates or would operate as a fraud or deceit upon...

  20. View to starboard, starboard engine room, compartment C1; salt water ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View to starboard, starboard engine room, compartment C-1; salt water circulating pipe at center. Note annunciator to right of pipe and engine room telegraph at left center. Gage at left top center is a vacuum gage. (060) - USS Olympia, Penn's Landing, 211 South Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  1. 26 CFR 25.2523(c)-1 - Interest in unidentified assets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Interest in unidentified assets. 25.2523(c)-1... unidentified assets. (a) Section 2523(c) provides that if an interest passing to a donee spouse may be satisfied out of a group of assets (or their proceeds) which include a particular asset that would be...

  2. Toward the Total Synthesis of Scleritodermin A: Preparation of the C1-N15 Fragment

    PubMed Central

    Sellanes, Diver; Manta, Eduardo; Serra, Gloria

    2007-01-01

    The synthesis of the C1-N15 fragment of the marine natural product Scleritodermin A has been accomplished through a short and stereocontrolled sequence. Highlights of this route include the synthesis of the novel ACT fragment and the formation of the α-keto amide linkage by the use of a highly activated α, β-ketonitrile. PMID:18320006

  3. C1 anterior arch preservation in transnasal odontoidectomy using three-dimensional endoscope: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Zenga, Francesco; Marengo, Nicola; Pacca, Paolo; Pecorari, Giancarlo; Ducati, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Background: The transoral ventral corridor is the most common approach used to reach the craniovertebral junction (CVJ). Over the last decade, many case reports have demonstrated the transnasal corridor to the odontoid peg represents a practicable route to remove the tip of the odontoid process. The biomechanical consequences of the traditional odontoidectomy led to the necessity of a cervical spine stabilization. Preserving the inferior portion of the C1 anterior arch should prevent instability. Case Description: This is the first report in which the technique to remove the tip of the odontoid while preserving the C1 anterior arch is described by means of a three-dimensional (3D) endoscope. A 53-year-old man underwent a transnasal 3D endoscopic approach because of a complex CVJ malformation. The upper-medial portion of the C1 anterior arch was removed preserving its continuity, and the odontoidectomy was performed. After surgery, a dynamic X-ray scan showed no difference in CVJ motility in comparison with the preoperative one. Conclusions: The stereoscopic perception augmented the precision of the surgical gesture in the deep field. The importance of a 3D view relates to the depth of field, which a two-dimensional endoscopy cannot provide. This affects the preservation of the C1 anterior arch because of the presence of critical structures that are exposed to potential damage if not displayed. PMID:26759737

  4. 26 CFR 1.512(c)-1 - Special rules applicable to partnerships; in general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Special rules applicable to partnerships; in... Exempt Organizations § 1.512(c)-1 Special rules applicable to partnerships; in general. In the event an organization to which section 511 applies is a member of a partnership regularly engaged in a trade or...

  5. Tomographic correlation for Magerl's technique in C1-C2 arthrodesis in children

    PubMed Central

    Chiaramonti, Bárbara Camargo; Kim, So Yeon; Marchese, Luiz Roberto Delboni; Letaif, Olavo Biraghi; Marcon, Raphael Martus; Cristante, Alexandre Fogaça

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze through tomographic studies, the morphology and dimensions of the C1-C2 vertebrae in pediatric patients, to evaluate the possibility of application of Magerl's technique in these patients, and to contribute with data for the usage of the technique in safety. METHOD: Forty normal cervical tomographies, from patients at an age range of 24-120 months of age and from both genders, were retrospectively analyzed. Data was statistically analyzed to obtain mean value and variations of each measurement: length from the C2's pedicle to C1's lateral mass, thickness of the pedicle of C2, the attack angle of the screw at the C2 isthmus with the horizontal axis and the distance from the odontoid to the anterior arch of C1. RESULTS: The mean values obtained were: length right 30.86 mm, left 31.47 mm; thickness right 5.28 mm, left 5.26 mm; attack angle right 46.250 , left 44.500 ; distance from odontoid to anterior arch of C1 2,17 mm. CONCLUSION: The Magerl technique, after tomographic study, seems to be a viable option to be used in pediatric patients. Level of Evidence IV, Case Series. PMID:24453677

  6. 26 CFR 1.412(c)(1)-2 - Shortfall method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Shortfall method. 1.412(c)(1)-2 Section 1.412(c... Shortfall method. (a) In general—(1) Shortfall method. The shortfall method is a funding method that adapts a plan's underlying funding method for purposes of section 412. As such, the use of the...

  7. 26 CFR 1.412(c)(1)-2 - Shortfall method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Shortfall method. 1.412(c)(1)-2 Section 1.412(c... Shortfall method. (a) In general—(1) Shortfall method. The shortfall method is a funding method that adapts a plan's underlying funding method for purposes of section 412. As such, the use of the...

  8. In vivo 13 carbon metabolic imaging at 3T with hyperpolarized 13C-1-pyruvate.

    PubMed

    Kohler, S J; Yen, Y; Wolber, J; Chen, A P; Albers, M J; Bok, R; Zhang, V; Tropp, J; Nelson, S; Vigneron, D B; Kurhanewicz, J; Hurd, R E

    2007-07-01

    We present for the first time dynamic spectra and spectroscopic images acquired in normal rats at 3T following the injection of (13)C-1-pyruvate that was hyperpolarized by the dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) method. Spectroscopic sampling was optimized for signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and for spectral resolution of (13)C-1-pyruvate and its metabolic products (13)C-1-alanine, (13)C-1-lactate, and (13)C-bicarbonate. Dynamic spectra in rats were collected with a temporal resolution of 3 s from a 90-mm axial slab using a dual (1)H-(13)C quadrature birdcage coil to observe the combined effects of metabolism, flow, and T(1) relaxation. In separate experiments, spectroscopic imaging data were obtained during a 17-s acquisition of a 20-mm axial slice centered on the rat kidney region to provide information on the spatial distribution of the metabolites. Conversion of pyruvate to lactate, alanine, and bicarbonate occurred within a minute of injection. Alanine was observed primarily in skeletal muscle and liver, while pyruvate, lactate, and bicarbonate concentrations were relatively high in the vasculature and kidneys. In contrast to earlier work at 1.5 T, bicarbonate was routinely observed in skeletal muscle as well as the kidney and vasculature. PMID:17659629

  9. 26 CFR 1.414(c)-1 - Commonly controlled trades or businesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Commonly controlled trades or businesses. 1.414.... § 1.414(c)-1 Commonly controlled trades or businesses. For purposes of applying the provisions of... 416 (relating to top-heavy plans), all employees of two or more trades or businesses under...

  10. 26 CFR 1.414(c)-1 - Commonly controlled trades or businesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Commonly controlled trades or businesses. 1.414.... § 1.414(c)-1 Commonly controlled trades or businesses. For purposes of applying the provisions of... 416 (relating to top-heavy plans), all employees of two or more trades or businesses under...

  11. 26 CFR 1.414(c)-1 - Commonly controlled trades or businesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Commonly controlled trades or businesses. 1.414.... § 1.414(c)-1 Commonly controlled trades or businesses. For purposes of applying the provisions of... 416 (relating to top-heavy plans), all employees of two or more trades or businesses under...

  12. 26 CFR 1.663(c)-1 - Separate shares treated as separate trusts or as separate estates; in general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Separate shares treated as separate trusts or as separate estates; in general. 1.663(c)-1 Section 1.663(c)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... Accumulate Income Or Which Distribute Corpus § 1.663(c)-1 Separate shares treated as separate trusts or...

  13. 17 CFR 230.160 - Registered investment company exemption from Section 101(c)(1) of the Electronic Signatures in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... exemption from Section 101(c)(1) of the Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act. 230.160...(c)(1) of the Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act. A prospectus for an... 101(c)(1) of the Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act....

  14. 17 CFR 230.160 - Registered investment company exemption from Section 101(c)(1) of the Electronic Signatures in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... exemption from Section 101(c)(1) of the Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act. 230.160...(c)(1) of the Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act. A prospectus for an... 101(c)(1) of the Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act....

  15. 17 CFR 230.160 - Registered investment company exemption from Section 101(c)(1) of the Electronic Signatures in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... exemption from Section 101(c)(1) of the Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act. 230.160...(c)(1) of the Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act. A prospectus for an... 101(c)(1) of the Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act....

  16. 26 CFR 1.263(c)-1 - Intangible drilling and development costs in the case of oil and gas wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... case of oil and gas wells. 1.263(c)-1 Section 1.263(c)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... § 1.263(c)-1 Intangible drilling and development costs in the case of oil and gas wells. For rules relating to the option to deduct as expenses intangible drilling and development costs in the case of...

  17. 26 CFR 1.263(c)-1 - Intangible drilling and development costs in the case of oil and gas wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... case of oil and gas wells. 1.263(c)-1 Section 1.263(c)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... § 1.263(c)-1 Intangible drilling and development costs in the case of oil and gas wells. For rules relating to the option to deduct as expenses intangible drilling and development costs in the case of...

  18. 26 CFR 1.263(c)-1 - Intangible drilling and development costs in the case of oil and gas wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... case of oil and gas wells. 1.263(c)-1 Section 1.263(c)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... § 1.263(c)-1 Intangible drilling and development costs in the case of oil and gas wells. For rules relating to the option to deduct as expenses intangible drilling and development costs in the case of...

  19. 26 CFR 1.263(c)-1 - Intangible drilling and development costs in the case of oil and gas wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... case of oil and gas wells. 1.263(c)-1 Section 1.263(c)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... § 1.263(c)-1 Intangible drilling and development costs in the case of oil and gas wells. For rules relating to the option to deduct as expenses intangible drilling and development costs in the case of...

  20. 26 CFR 1.1033(c)-1 - Disposition of excess property within irrigation project deemed to be involuntary conversion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... irrigation project deemed to be involuntary conversion. 1.1033(c)-1 Section 1.1033(c)-1 Internal Revenue... (CONTINUED) Common Nontaxable Exchanges § 1.1033(c)-1 Disposition of excess property within irrigation... irrigation project or division in order to conform to acreage limitations of the Federal reclamation...

  1. 26 CFR 1.1033(c)-1 - Disposition of excess property within irrigation project deemed to be involuntary conversion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... irrigation project deemed to be involuntary conversion. 1.1033(c)-1 Section 1.1033(c)-1 Internal Revenue... (CONTINUED) Common Nontaxable Exchanges § 1.1033(c)-1 Disposition of excess property within irrigation... irrigation project or division in order to conform to acreage limitations of the Federal reclamation...

  2. 17 CFR 230.160 - Registered investment company exemption from Section 101(c)(1) of the Electronic Signatures in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... exemption from Section 101(c)(1) of the Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act. 230.160...(c)(1) of the Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act. A prospectus for an... 101(c)(1) of the Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act....

  3. 40 CFR Table C-1 to Subpart C of... - Test Concentration Ranges, Number of Measurements Required, and Maximum Discrepancy Specifications

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Test Concentration Ranges, Number of Measurements Required, and Maximum Discrepancy Specifications C Table C-1 to Subpart C of Part 53 Protection of... Reference Methods Pt. 53, Subpt. C, Table C-1 Table C-1 to Subpart C of Part 53—Test Concentration...

  4. 26 CFR 1.381(c)(1)-1 - Net operating loss carryovers in certain corporate acquisitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... corporate acquisitions. 1.381(c)(1)-1 Section 1.381(c)(1)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Insolvency Reorganizations § 1.381(c)(1)-1 Net operating loss carryovers in certain corporate acquisitions. (a) Carryover...

  5. 26 CFR 1.381(c)(1)-1 - Net operating loss carryovers in certain corporate acquisitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... corporate acquisitions. 1.381(c)(1)-1 Section 1.381(c)(1)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Insolvency Reorganizations § 1.381(c)(1)-1 Net operating loss carryovers in certain corporate acquisitions. (a) Carryover...

  6. 40 CFR 721.10108 - Naphthalenedisulfonic acid, hydrozy-[[[(hydroxyl-disulfo-naphthaleneyl)azo]-alkyl(C=1-5...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...- -alkyl(C=1-5)-(sulfoalkoxy)cyclic]azo]-substituted azo-, metal salt (generic). 721.10108 Section 721... Naphthalenedisulfonic acid, hydrozy- -alkyl(C=1-5)-(sulfoalkoxy)cyclic]azo]-substituted azo-, metal salt (generic). (a... generically as naphthalenedisulfonic acid, hydrozy- -alkyl(C=1-5)-(sulfoalkoxy)cyclic]azo]-substituted...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10108 - Naphthalenedisulfonic acid, hydrozy-[[[(hydroxyl-disulfo-naphthaleneyl)azo]-alkyl(C=1-5...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...- -alkyl(C=1-5)-(sulfoalkoxy)cyclic]azo]-substituted azo-, metal salt (generic). 721.10108 Section 721... Naphthalenedisulfonic acid, hydrozy- -alkyl(C=1-5)-(sulfoalkoxy)cyclic]azo]-substituted azo-, metal salt (generic). (a... generically as naphthalenedisulfonic acid, hydrozy- -alkyl(C=1-5)-(sulfoalkoxy)cyclic]azo]-substituted...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10108 - Naphthalenedisulfonic acid, hydrozy-[[[(hydroxyl-disulfo-naphthaleneyl)azo]-alkyl(C=1-5...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...- -alkyl(C=1-5)-(sulfoalkoxy)cyclic]azo]-substituted azo-, metal salt (generic). 721.10108 Section 721... Naphthalenedisulfonic acid, hydrozy- -alkyl(C=1-5)-(sulfoalkoxy)cyclic]azo]-substituted azo-, metal salt (generic). (a... generically as naphthalenedisulfonic acid, hydrozy- -alkyl(C=1-5)-(sulfoalkoxy)cyclic]azo]-substituted...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10108 - Naphthalenedisulfonic acid, hydrozy-[[[(hydroxyl-disulfo-naphthaleneyl)azo]-alkyl(C=1-5...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...- -alkyl(C=1-5)-(sulfoalkoxy)cyclic]azo]-substituted azo-, metal salt (generic). 721.10108 Section 721... Naphthalenedisulfonic acid, hydrozy- -alkyl(C=1-5)-(sulfoalkoxy)cyclic]azo]-substituted azo-, metal salt (generic). (a... generically as naphthalenedisulfonic acid, hydrozy- -alkyl(C=1-5)-(sulfoalkoxy)cyclic]azo]-substituted...

  10. sghC1q, a novel C1q family member from half-smooth tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis): identification, expression and analysis of antibacterial and antiviral activities.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yan; Xiang, Jinsong; Lu, Yang; Chen, Yadong; Wang, Tianzi; Gong, Guangye; Wang, Lei; Li, Xihong; Chen, Songlin; Sha, Zhenxia

    2015-01-01

    The C1q family includes many proteins that contain a globular (gC1q) domain, and this family is widely conserved from bacteria to mammals. The family is divided into three subgroups: C1q, C1q-like and ghC1q. In this study, a novel C1q family member, sghC1q, was cloned and identified from Cynoglossus semilaevis (named CssghC1q). The full-length CssghC1q cDNA spans 905 bp, including an open reading frame (ORF) of 768 bp, a 5'-untranslated region (UTR) of 25 bp and a 3'-UTR of 112 bp. The ORF encodes a putative protein of 255 amino acids (aa) with a deduced molecular weight of 28 kDa. The predicted protein contains a signal peptide (aa 1-19), a coiled-coil region (aa 61-102) and a globular C1q (gC1q) domain (aa 117-255). Protein sequence alignment indicated that the C-terminus of CssghC1q is highly conserved across several species. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that CssghC1q is most closely related to Maylandia zebra C1q-like-2-like. The CssghC1q genomic sequence spanned 1562 bp, with three exons and two introns. CssghC1q is constitutively expressed in all evaluated tissues, with the highest expression in the liver and the weakest in the heart. After a challenge with Vibrio anguillarum, CssghC1q transcript levels exhibited distinct time-dependent response patterns in the blood, head kidney, skin, spleen, intestine and liver. Recombinant CssghC1q protein exhibited antimicrobial activities against Gram-negative bacteria, Gram-positive bacteria and viruses. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values against Vibrio harveyi, Vibrio anguillarum, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus were 0.043 mg/mL, 0.087 mg/mL, 0.174 mg/mL and 0.025 mg/mL, respectively. A low concentration (0.06 mg/mL) of CssghC1q showed significant antiviral activity in vitro against nervous necrosis virus (NNV). These results suggest that CssghC1q plays a vital role in immune defense against bacteria and viruses. PMID:25312696

  11. A novel multi-domain C1qDC protein from Zhikong scallop Chlamys farreri provides new insights into the function of invertebrate C1qDC proteins.

    PubMed

    Wang, Leilei; Wang, Lingling; Zhang, Daoxiang; Jiang, Qiufen; Sun, Rui; Wang, Hao; Zhang, Huan; Song, Linsheng

    2015-10-01

    The C1q domain containing (C1qDC) proteins are a family of proteins possessing globular C1q (gC1q) domains, and they rely on this domain to recognize various ligands such as PAMPs, immunoglobulins, ligands on apoptotic cell. In the present study, a novel multi-domain C1qDC protein (CfC1qDC-2) was identified from scallop Chlamys farreri, and its full length cDNA was composed of 1648 bp, encoding a signal peptide and three typical gC1q domains. BLAST analysis revealed significant sequence similarity between CfC1qDC-2 and C1qDC proteins from mollusks. Three gC1q domains were predicted in its tertiary structure to form a tightly packed bell-shaped trimer, and each one adopted a typical 10-stranded sandwich fold with a jelly-roll topology and contained six aromatic amino acids forming the hydrophobic core. The mRNA transcripts of CfC1qDC-2 were mainly detected in the tissues of hepatopancreas and gonad of adult scallops, and the expression level was up-regulated in hemocytes after stimulated by LPS, PGN and β-glucan. During the embryonic development of scallop, the mRNA transcripts of CfC1qDC-2 were presented in all the detected stages, and the expression level was up-regulated from D-hinged larvae and reached the highest at eye-spot larvae. The recombinant protein of MBP-CfC1qDC-2 (rCfC1qDC-2) could bind various PAMPs including LPS, PGN, LTA, β-glucan, mannan as well as polyI:C, and different microorganisms including three Gram-negative bacteria, three Gram-positive bacteria and two yeasts, as well as scallop apoptotic cells. Meanwhile, rCfC1qDC-2 could interact with human heat-aggregated IgG and IgM, and inhibit the C1q-dependent hemolysis of rabbit serum. All these results indicated that CfC1qDC-2 could recognize not only PAMPs as a PRR, but also the apoptotic cells. Moreover, the similar structures and functions shared by CfC1qDC-2 and complement C1q provided a new insight into the evolution of C1qDC proteins in complement system. PMID:26049063

  12. Tetrahydrofolate and tetrahydromethanopterin compared: functionally distinct carriers in C1 metabolism.

    PubMed Central

    Maden, B E

    2000-01-01

    In most organisms, tetrahydrofolate (H(4)folate) is the carrier of C(1) fragments between formyl and methyl oxidation levels. The C(1) fragments are utilized in several essential biosynthetic processes. In addition, C(1) flux through H(4)folate is utilized for energy metabolism in some groups of anaerobic bacteria. In methanogens and several other Archaea, tetrahydromethanopterin (H(4)MPT) carries C(1) fragments between formyl and methyl oxidation levels. At first sight H(4)MPT appears to resemble H(4)folate at the sites where C(1) fragments are carried. However, the two carriers are functionally distinct, as discussed in the present review. In energy metabolism, H(4)MPT permits redox-flux features that are distinct from the pathway on H(4)folate. In the reductive direction, ATP is consumed in the entry of carbon from CO(2) into the H(4)folate pathway, but not in entry into the H(4)MPT pathway. In the oxidative direction, methyl groups are much more readily oxidized on H(4)MPT than on H(4)folate. Moreover, the redox reactions on H(4)MPT are coupled to more negative reductants than the pyridine nucleotides which are generally used in the H(4)folate pathway. Thermodynamics of the reactions of C(1) reduction via the two carriers differ accordingly. A major underlying cause of the thermodynamic differences is in the chemical properties of the arylamine nitrogen N(10) on the two carriers. In H(4)folate, N(10) is subject to electron withdrawal by the carbonyl group of p-aminobenzoate, but in H(4)MPT an electron-donating methylene group occurs in the corresponding position. It is also proposed that the two structural methyl groups of H(4)MPT tune the carrier's thermodynamic properties through an entropic contribution. H(4)MPT appears to be unsuited to some of the biosynthetic functions of H(4)folate, in particular the transfer of activated formyl groups, as in purine biosynthesis. Evidence bearing upon whether H(4)MPT participates in thymidylate synthesis is discussed

  13. Photo-electrochemical Oxidation of Organic C1 Molecules over WO3 Films in Aqueous Electrolyte: Competition Between Water Oxidation and C1 Oxidation.

    PubMed

    Reichert, Robert; Zambrzycki, Christian; Jusys, Zenonas; Behm, R Jürgen

    2015-11-01

    To better understand organic-molecule-assisted photo-electrochemical water splitting, photo-electrochemistry and on-line mass spectrometry measurements are used to investigate the photo-electrochemical oxidation of the C1 molecules methanol, formaldehyde, and formic acid over WO3 film anodes in aqueous solution and its competition with O2 evolution from water oxidation O2 (+) and CO2 (+) ion currents show that water oxidation is strongly suppressed by the organic species. Photo-electro-oxidation of formic acid is dominated by formation of CO2 , whereas incomplete oxidation of formaldehyde and methanol prevails, with the selectivity for CO2 formation increasing with increasing potential and light intensity. The mechanistic implications for the photo-electro-oxidation of the organic molecules and its competition with water oxidation, which could be derived from this novel approach, are discussed. PMID:26382643

  14. Dr. Wernher von Braun Presents Saturn C-1 Progress for the Senate Committee of Aeronautical and

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1961-01-01

    Progress in the Saturn program, depicted below, was described by Dr. Wernher von Braun, Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Director, in an appearance before the Senate Committee of Aeronautical and Space Sciences. 'The flight configuration of the giant three-stage Saturn C-1 rocket (later called Saturn I Block I) is seen in the Fabrication and Assembly Engineering Division at MSFC. Dwarfed by the 180-foot C-1 are a Juno II rocket (left rear) and a Mercury-Redstone rocket (front foreground). The C-1 (first version of the Saturn rocket) is composed of an S-1 first stage or booster (rear), powered by eight H-1 engines having a thrust of 1,500,000 pounds, followed by a dummy S-IV second stage and a dummy S-V third stage. The 'live' S-IV for later flights, under development by Douglas Aircraft Co., will be powered by four Pratt Whitney LR-119 engines having 17,500,000 pounds thrust each. The live S-V, under development by Convair Division of General Dynamics Corp., will use two LR-119 engines. With all three stages live, the C-1 will be capable of placing 19,000 pounds into a 300-mile Earth orbit, sending 5,000 pounds to escape velocity, or lofting 2,500 pounds to Mars or Venus. The second version Saturn C-2 (later called Saturn 1 Block II) would double these capabilities. Early C-1 flights will employ a live S-1 with dummy upper stages. The first such flight is scheduled late this year.'

  15. Commitment of the teratocarcinoma-derived mesodermal clone C1 towards terminal osteogenic differentiation.

    PubMed

    Poliard, A; Lamblin, D; Marie, P J; Buc-Caron, M H; Kellermann, O

    1993-10-01

    The mesodermal clone C1 was derived from the multipotent embryonal carcinoma 1003 cell line transformed with the plasmid pK4 carrying SV40 oncogenes under the control of the adenovirus E1A promoter. We have shown that the C1 clone becomes committed to the osteogenic pathway when cultured in aggregates in the presence of mediators of the osteogenic differentiation. To further validate C1 as a model with which to study osteogenesis in vitro the kinetics of its differentiation was studied, focusing on the histology of the aggregates and on the expression of a set of genes corresponding to representative bone matrix proteins. The presence of ascorbic acid and beta- glycerophosphate specifically leads to mineralization in almost 100% of the aggregates. Transcription of the above genes, silent in exponentially growing cells, specifically occurred with the establishment of cell-cell contacts independently of the presence of ascorbic acid and inorganic phosphate. The latter, however, were absolutely required for matrix deposition and mineralization. In their presence, one observed an overall decline in type I collagen and alkaline phosphatase transcripts while osteocalcin and osteopontin transcripts preferentially accumulated in cells lining the mineralizing foci. Concomitantly, type I collagen and osteocalcin became extracellularly deposited. The osteogenic differentiation of C1 occurred while cells were still proliferating. The C1 clone thus behaves as a mesodermal stem cell, becoming committed to the osteogenic pathway upon: firstly, establishment of cellular contacts; and secondly, addition of ascorbate and beta-glycerophosphate. It therefore appears to be a promising in vitro system for deciphering the molecular basis of osteoblast ontogeny.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8282757

  16. Perspective View of Venus (Center Latitude 0 Degree N., Center Longitude 163 Degrees E.)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This perspective view of Venus, generated by computer from Magellan data and color-coded with emissivity, shows the impact crater Markham, named after the English aviator Beryl Markham (The crater was briefly known unofficially as Franklin; the earlier name was not approved by the Nomenclature Committee of the International Astronomical Union). Markham, with a diameter of 71 km, is one of more than 400 Venusian craters whose formation triggered the outflow of highly fluid materials. Such outflows are thought to consist of mixtures of melted and fractured rock, and studies of their lobate margins and surface roughnesses suggest that they behave like a cross between lava flows and debris flows on Earth. The flow from this crater's ejecta traversed a slope of extremely low gradient (less than 0.1 degree) for 450 km, leaving an extremely rough, radar-bright surface. The ground-hugging nature of the flow is indicated by its being diverted by the foreground hill, which is less than 200 m high. Magellan MIDR quadrangle* containing this image: C1- 00N163. Image resolution (m): 225. Size of region shown (E-W x N-S, in km): 473 x 360. Range of emissivities from violet to red: 0.80 -- 0.95. Vertical exaggeration: 200. Azimuth of viewpoint (deg clockwise from East): 300. Elevation of viewpoint (km): 500. *Quadrangle name indicates approximate center latitude (N=north, S=south) and center longitude (East).

  17. Role of complement component C1q in phagocytosis of Listeria monocytogenes by murine macrophage-like cell lines.

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez-Dominguez, C; Carrasco-Marin, E; Leyva-Cobian, F

    1993-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a facultative intracellular pathogen of a great variety of cells. Among them, macrophages constitute the major effector cells of listerial immunity during the course of an infection. Although the molecular bases of L. monocytogenes attachment and entry to phagocytes are not completely understood, it has been demonstrated that C3b significantly increases L. monocytogenes uptake by macrophages via complement receptor type 3. The first component of complement, C1q, is present in organic fluids at a relatively high concentration, and C1q receptor sites in macrophages are also abundant. In the present report, results of studies on the role of C1q in the internalization and infectivity of L. monocytogenes by macrophages are presented. L. monocytogenes uptake is enhanced by prior treatment of bacteria with normal sera. Heated serum or C1q-deficient serum abrogates this enhancement. Purified C1q specifically restored uptake. This effect was blocked by the addition of F(ab')2 anti-C1q antibody but not by an irrelevant matched antibody. Direct binding of C1q to L. monocytogenes was specific, saturable, and dose dependent with both fluorescent and radiolabeled C1q. N-Acetyl-D-alanyl-L-isoglutamine, diaminopimelic acid, and L-rhamnose caused a significant dose-dependent inhibition of C1q binding to bacteria, suggesting that these molecules, at least, are involved in the attachment of C1q to L. monocytogenes cell wall. When C1q binding structures on macrophage-like cells were blocked with saturating concentrations of C1q, the uptake of C1q-opsonized bacteria was less than in untreated cells. These experiments demonstrate that, in addition to other reported mechanisms, L. monocytogenes binds C1q, which mediates enhanced uptake by macrophages through C1q binding structures. Images PMID:8359889

  18. IS Degrees - Sociotechnical or Technosocial?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coady, Jenny; Pooley, Rob

    It is widely agreed that information systems is a field requiring knowledge and competence, spanning business processes, information infrastructure and technical processes, uniting these to deliver information needs of organisations. In designing curricula which will educate new IS professionals appropriately, we are faced with a daunting range and volume of material. Despite attempts to structure and scope this, the problems remain and become worse with time. We revisit such a degree course, noting that many existing courses are based in management and business schools. We, however, are based in a computer science department. We have experience of convincing technologically focused students that understanding organisational and social issues is crucial to successful software engineering and students with an interest in organisations and people that they need technical understanding of information systems. We review some key proposals for IS model curricula and conclude with a proposal suited to the students we recruit.

  19. 360-degree 3D profilometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Yuanhe; Zhao, Hong; Chen, Wenyi; Tan, Yushan

    1997-12-01

    A new method of 360 degree turning 3D shape measurement in which light sectioning and phase shifting techniques are both used is presented in this paper. A sine light field is applied in the projected light stripe, meanwhile phase shifting technique is used to calculate phases of the light slit. Thereafter wrapped phase distribution of the slit is formed and the unwrapping process is made by means of the height information based on the light sectioning method. Therefore phase measuring results with better precision can be obtained. At last the target 3D shape data can be produced according to geometric relationships between phases and the object heights. The principles of this method are discussed in detail and experimental results are shown in this paper.

  20. Professional Schools Seek Degrees of Cooperation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangan, Katherine S.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses how professional schools, faced with a shortage of students and an increased demand for cross-disciplinary training, are teaming up to offer joint degrees. Examples include joint medical and business degrees, joint social work and law degrees, and joint medical and law degrees. (EV)

  1. Tech-Prep/Associate Degree Program Guide: Tech Prep Associate Degree Program, Business Administration Associate Degree Program, Office Administration Associate Degree Program, Allied Health Associate Degree Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marmaras, Judy; Neri, Pat

    The Tech-Prep Associate Degree Program (TPAD) at the Community College of Rhode Island (CCRI) in Warwick, is a high school/community college partnership providing high school students with an alternative program of study focused on goal setting, basic academic skills development, and the skills needed to pursue a career in a technical, business or…

  2. Procyanidin C1 Causes Vasorelaxation Through Activation of the Endothelial NO/cGMP Pathway in Thoracic Aortic Rings

    PubMed Central

    Byun, Eui-Baek; Sung, Nak-Yun; Yang, Mi-So; Song, Du-Sup; Byun, Eui-Hong; Kim, Jae-Kyung; Park, Jong-Heum; Song, Beom-Seok; Lee, Ju-Woon; Park, Sang-Hyun; Byun, Myung-Woo

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to clarify the efficacy of procyanidin C1 (Pro C1) for modulating vascular tone. Pro C1 induced a potent vasorelaxant effect on phenylephrine-constricted endothelium-intact thoracic aortic rings, but had no effect on denuded thoracic aortic rings. Moreover, Pro C1 caused a significant increase in nitric oxide (NO) production in endothelial cells. Pro C1-induced vasorelaxation and Pro C1-induced NO production were significantly decreased in the presence of a nonspecific potassium channel blocker (tetraethylammonium chloride [TEA]), an endothelial NO synthase inhibitor (NG-monomethyl-L-arginine [L-NMMA]), and a store-operated calcium entry inhibitor (2-aminoethyl diphenylborinate [2-APB]). Pro C1-induced vasorelaxation was also completely abolished by an inhibitor of soluble guanyl cyclase, which suggests that the Pro C1 effects observed involved cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) production. Interestingly, Pro C1 significantly enhanced basal cGMP levels. Taken together, these results indicate that Pro C1-induced vasorelaxation is associated with the activation of the calcium-dependent NO/cGMP pathway, involving potassium channel activation. Thus, Pro C1 may represent a novel and potentially therapeutically relevant compound for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:24971771

  3. Procyanidin C1 causes vasorelaxation through activation of the endothelial NO/cGMP pathway in thoracic aortic rings.

    PubMed

    Byun, Eui-Baek; Sung, Nak-Yun; Yang, Mi-So; Song, Du-Sup; Byun, Eui-Hong; Kim, Jae-Kyung; Park, Jong-Heum; Song, Beom-Seok; Lee, Ju-Woon; Park, Sang-Hyun; Byun, Myung-Woo; Kim, Jae-Hun

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the efficacy of procyanidin C1 (Pro C1) for modulating vascular tone. Pro C1 induced a potent vasorelaxant effect on phenylephrine-constricted endothelium-intact thoracic aortic rings, but had no effect on denuded thoracic aortic rings. Moreover, Pro C1 caused a significant increase in nitric oxide (NO) production in endothelial cells. Pro C1-induced vasorelaxation and Pro C1-induced NO production were significantly decreased in the presence of a nonspecific potassium channel blocker (tetraethylammonium chloride [TEA]), an endothelial NO synthase inhibitor (N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine [L-NMMA]), and a store-operated calcium entry inhibitor (2-aminoethyl diphenylborinate [2-APB]). Pro C1-induced vasorelaxation was also completely abolished by an inhibitor of soluble guanyl cyclase, which suggests that the Pro C1 effects observed involved cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) production. Interestingly, Pro C1 significantly enhanced basal cGMP levels. Taken together, these results indicate that Pro C1-induced vasorelaxation is associated with the activation of the calcium-dependent NO/cGMP pathway, involving potassium channel activation. Thus, Pro C1 may represent a novel and potentially therapeutically relevant compound for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:24971771

  4. Up-regulation of C1GALT1 promotes breast cancer cell growth through MUC1-C signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Chih-Hsing; Huang, Miao-Juei; Chen, Chi-Hau; Shyu, Ming-Kwang; Huang, John; Hung, Ji-Shiang; Huang, Chiun-Sheng; Huang, Min-Chuan

    2015-01-01

    Aberrant glycosylation is frequently observed in cancers. Core 1 β1,3-galactosyltransferase (C1GALT1) is an exclusive enzyme in humans that catalyzes the biosynthesis of core 1 O-glycan structure, Gal-GalNAc-O-Ser/Thr, whose expression is commonly up-regulated during tumorigenesis. Little is known about the function of C1GALT1 in breast cancer. This study aims to determine the correlation between C1GALT1 expression and breast cancer clinicopathological features and roles of C1GALT1 in breast cancer malignant phenotypes. Public databases and our data showed that C1GALT1 mRNA and C1GALT1 protein are frequently up-regulated in breast cancer; and increased C1GALT1 expression correlates with higher histological grade and advanced tumor stage. Overexpression of C1GALT1 enhanced breast cancer cell growth, migration, and invasion in vitro as well as tumor growth in vivo. Conversely, C1GALT1 knockdown suppressed these malignant phenotypes. Furthermore, C1GALT1 modulates O-glycan structures on Mucin (MUC) 1 and promotes MUC1-C/β-catenin signaling in breast cancer cells. These findings suggest that C1GALT1 enhances breast cancer malignant progression through promoting MUC1-C/β-catenin signaling pathway. Unveiling the function of C1GALT1 in breast cancer opens new insights to the roles of C1GALT1 and O-glycosylation in tumorigenesis and renders the potential of C1GALT1 as a target of novel therapeutic agent development. PMID:25762620

  5. A new subclade of mtDNA haplogroup C1 found in Icelanders: evidence of pre-Columbian contact?

    PubMed

    Ebenesersdóttir, Sigríður Sunna; Sigurðsson, Asgeir; Sánchez-Quinto, Federico; Lalueza-Fox, Carles; Stefánsson, Kári; Helgason, Agnar

    2011-01-01

    Although most mtDNA lineages observed in contemporary Icelanders can be traced to neighboring populations in the British Isles and Scandinavia, one may have a more distant origin. This lineage belongs to haplogroup C1, one of a handful that was involved in the settlement of the Americas around 14,000 years ago. Contrary to an initial assumption that this lineage was a recent arrival, preliminary genealogical analyses revealed that the C1 lineage was present in the Icelandic mtDNA pool at least 300 years ago. This raised the intriguing possibility that the Icelandic C1 lineage could be traced to Viking voyages to the Americas that commenced in the 10th century. In an attempt to shed further light on the entry date of the C1 lineage into the Icelandic mtDNA pool and its geographical origin, we used the deCODE Genetics genealogical database to identify additional matrilineal ancestors that carry the C1 lineage and then sequenced the complete mtDNA genome of 11 contemporary C1 carriers from four different matrilines. Our results indicate a latest possible arrival date in Iceland of just prior to 1700 and a likely arrival date centuries earlier. Most surprisingly, we demonstrate that the Icelandic C1 lineage does not belong to any of the four known Native American (C1b, C1c, and C1d) or Asian (C1a) subclades of haplogroup C1. Rather, it is presently the only known member of a new subclade, C1e. While a Native American origin seems most likely for C1e, an Asian or European origin cannot be ruled out. PMID:21069749

  6. Asteroseismology of Solar-Type Stars with K2: Detection of Oscillations in C1 Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaplin, W. J.; Lund, M. N.; Handberg, R.; Basu, S.; Buchhave, L. A.; Campante, T. L.; Davies, G. R.; Huber, D.; Latham, D. W.; Latham, C. A.; Serenelli, A.; Antia, H. M.; Appourchaux, T.; Ball, W. H.; Benomar, O.; Casagrande, L.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.; Coelho, H. R.; Creevey, O. L.; Elsworth, Y.; García, R. A.; Gaulme, P.; Hekker, S.; Kallinger, T.; Karoff, C.; Kawaler, S. D.; Kjeldsen, H.; Lundkvist, M. S.; Marcadon, F.; Mathur, S.; Miglio, A.; Mosser, B.; Régulo, C.; Roxburgh, I. W.; Silva Aguirre, V.; Stello, D.; Verma, K.; White, T. R.; Bedding, T. R.; Barclay, T.; Buzasi, D. L.; Dehuevels, S.; Gizon, L.; Houdek, G.; Howell, S. B.; Salabert, D.; Soderblom, D. R.

    2015-10-01

    We present the first detections by the NASA K2 mission of oscillations in solar-type stars, using short-cadence data collected during K2 Campaign 1 (C1). We understand the asteroseismic detection thresholds for C1-like levels of photometric performance, and we can detect oscillations in subgiants having dominant oscillation frequencies around 1000 μHz. Changes to the operation of the fine-guidance sensors are expected to give significant improvements in the high-frequency performance from C3 onwards. A reduction in the excess high-frequency noise by a factor of 2.5 in amplitude would bring main-sequence stars with dominant oscillation frequencies as high as sime2500 μHz into play as potential asteroseismic targets for K2.

  7. C1 CHEMISTRY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ULTRA-CLEAN LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND HYDROGEN

    SciTech Connect

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2003-03-31

    Faculty and students from five universities--the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University--are collaborating in a research program to develop C1 chemistry processes to produce ultra-clean liquid transportation fuels and hydrogen, the zero-emissions transportation fuel of the future. The feedstocks contain one carbon atom per molecular unit. They include synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. An important objective is to develop C1 technology for the production of transportation fuel from domestically plentiful resources such as coal, coalbed methane, and natural gas. An Industrial Advisory Board with representatives from Chevron-Texaco, Eastman Chemical, Conoco-Phillips, Energy International, the Department of Defense, and Tier Associates provides guidance on the practicality of the research.

  8. Posterior C1-C2 calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystal deposition disease.

    PubMed

    Ng, Isaac Bing-Yi; Arkun, Knarik; Riesenburger, Ron I

    2016-01-01

    Calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD) crystal deposition disease rarely occurs in the posterior aspect of the craniocervical junction (CCJ). To the best of our knowledge, there have been only 2 previously reported cases of patients with posterior CPPD lesions in this region that have led to cervical myelopathy. We report the case of a 70-year-old man presenting with neck pain and cervical myelopathy with multilevel stenosis from C1-C6. The stenosis was worst at C1-C2, secondary to compression by a CPPD lesion posterior to the spinal cord. The patient underwent a C2-C6 laminectomy and fusion with resection of the CPPD lesion. In this report, we discuss the patient and present a novel theory to explain the preponderance of CPPD lesions in the CCJ occurring anteriorly and not posteriorly to the spinal cord. PMID:26976840

  9. C1 fractures: a review of diagnoses, management options, and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Mead, Loren B; Millhouse, Paul W; Krystal, Jonathan; Vaccaro, Alexander R

    2016-09-01

    The atlas is subject to fracture under axial load, often due to traumatic injuries such as shallow dives and automobile accidents. These fractures account for 2-13 % of injuries to the cervical spine [Marcon RM et al. Clinics (Sao Paulo) 68(11):1455-61, 2013]. Fractures of the C1 vertebra are often difficult to diagnose, as there is often no neurological deficit or easily identifiable findings on radiographs. However, injuries to the atlas can be associated with vertebral artery injury and atlantoaxial or atlanto-occipital instability, making prompt and accurate diagnosis imperative. A detailed understanding of the anatomy, inherent stability, and common injury patterns is essential for any surgeon treating spinal trauma. This chapter explores the diagnosis and management of C1 fractures, as well as outcomes after treatment. PMID:27357228

  10. Nonvortical Rashba Spin Structure on a Surface with C1 h Symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Annese, Emilia; Kuzumaki, Takuya; Müller, Beate; Yamamoto, Yuta; Nakano, Hiroto; Kato, Haruki; Araki, Atsushi; Ohtaka, Minoru; Aoki, Takashi; Ishikawa, Hirotaka; Hayashida, Takashi; Osiecki, Jacek R.; Miyamoto, Koji; Takeichi, Yasuo; Harasawa, Ayumi; Yaji, Koichiro; Shirasawa, Tetsuroh; Nittoh, Koh-ichi; Yang, Wooil; Miki, Kazushi; Oda, Tatsuki; Yeom, Han Woong; Sakamoto, Kazuyuki

    2016-07-01

    A totally anisotropic peculiar Rashba-Bychkov (RB) splitting of electronic bands was found on the Tl /Si (110 )-(1 ×1 ) surface with C1 h symmetry by angle- and spin-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy and first-principles theoretical calculation. The constant energy contour of the upper branch of the RB split band has a warped elliptical shape centered at a k point located between Γ ¯ and the edge of the surface Brillouin zone, i.e., at a point without time-reversal symmetry. The spin-polarization vector of this state is in-plane and points almost the same direction along the whole elliptic contour. This novel nonvortical RB spin structure is confirmed as a general phenomenon originating from the C1 h symmetry of the surface.

  11. Nonvortical Rashba Spin Structure on a Surface with C_{1h} Symmetry.

    PubMed

    Annese, Emilia; Kuzumaki, Takuya; Müller, Beate; Yamamoto, Yuta; Nakano, Hiroto; Kato, Haruki; Araki, Atsushi; Ohtaka, Minoru; Aoki, Takashi; Ishikawa, Hirotaka; Hayashida, Takashi; Osiecki, Jacek R; Miyamoto, Koji; Takeichi, Yasuo; Harasawa, Ayumi; Yaji, Koichiro; Shirasawa, Tetsuroh; Nittoh, Koh-Ichi; Yang, Wooil; Miki, Kazushi; Oda, Tatsuki; Yeom, Han Woong; Sakamoto, Kazuyuki

    2016-07-01

    A totally anisotropic peculiar Rashba-Bychkov (RB) splitting of electronic bands was found on the Tl/Si(110)-(1×1) surface with C_{1h} symmetry by angle- and spin-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy and first-principles theoretical calculation. The constant energy contour of the upper branch of the RB split band has a warped elliptical shape centered at a k point located between Γ[over ¯] and the edge of the surface Brillouin zone, i.e., at a point without time-reversal symmetry. The spin-polarization vector of this state is in-plane and points almost the same direction along the whole elliptic contour. This novel nonvortical RB spin structure is confirmed as a general phenomenon originating from the C_{1h} symmetry of the surface. PMID:27419582

  12. Fishing for biodiversity: Novel methanopterin-linked C1 transfergenes deduced from the Sargasso Sea metagenome

    SciTech Connect

    Kalyuzhnaya, Marina G.; Nercessian, Olivier; Lapidus, Alla; Chistoserdova, Ludmila

    2004-07-01

    The recently generated database of microbial genes from anoligotrophic environment populated by a calculated 1,800 of major phylotypes (the Sargasso Sea metagenome) presents a great source for expanding local databases of genes indicative of a specific function. In this paper we analyze the Sargasso Sea metagenome in terms of the presence of methanopterin-linked C1 transfer genes that are signature for methylotrophy. We conclude that more than 10 phylotypes possessing genes of interest are present in this environment, and a few of these are relatively abundant species. The sequences representative of the major phylotypes do not appear to belong to any known microbial group capable of methanopterin-linked C1 transfer. Instead, they separate from all known sequences on phylogenetic trees, pointing towards their affiliation with a novel microbial phylum. These data imply a broader distribution of methanopterin-linked functions in the microbial world than previously known.

  13. Three Novel Heterozygous Point Mutations of NR3C1 Causing Glucocorticoid Resistance.

    PubMed

    Vitellius, Géraldine; Fagart, Jérôme; Delemer, Brigitte; Amazit, Larbi; Ramos, Nelly; Bouligand, Jérôme; Le Billan, Florian; Castinetti, Frédéric; Guiochon-Mantel, Anne; Trabado, Séverine; Lombès, Marc

    2016-08-01

    Generalized glucocorticoid resistance is associated with glucocorticoid receptor (GR; NR3C1) mutations. Three novel heterozygous missense NR3C1 mutations (R477S, Y478C, and L672P) were identified in patients presenting with adrenal incidentalomas, glucocorticoid excess without Cushing syndrome. Dexamethasone (DXM) binding studies demonstrated that the affinity of GRR477S and GRY478C mutants, located in the DNA-binding domain (DBD) of GR, was similar to wild-type GR (Kd  = 2-3 nM). In contrast, GRL672P mutant, located in the ligand-binding domain (LBD) of GR, was unable to bind glucocorticoids and was more sensitive to protein degradation. GR subcellular distribution revealed a marked decrease in DXM-induced nuclear translocation of GRR477S and GRY478C mutants, whereas GRL672P remained exclusively cytoplasmic. Chromatin immunoprecipitation demonstrated impaired recruitment of DBD mutants onto the regulatory sequence of FKBP5. Transactivation assays disclosed the lack of transcriptional activity of GRR477S and GRL672P , whereas GRY478C had a reduced transactivation capacity. Three-dimensional modeling indicated that R477S lost two essential hydrogen bonds with DNA, Y478C resulted in altered interaction with surrounding amino-acids, destabilizing DBD, whereas L672P altered the H8 helix folding, leading to unstructured LBD. This study identifies novel NR3C1 mutations with their molecular consequences on altered GR signaling and suggests that genetic screening of NR3C1 should be conducted in patients with subclinical hypercorticism. PMID:27120390

  14. Case report: electrophrenic respiration and discharge planning with a C1 quadriplegic.

    PubMed

    MacKechnie, J; Wade, P A

    1984-12-01

    The neuroscience aspects of care associated with a 365-day hospitalization of a 25-year-old, C1 quadriplegic are presented in the following article. The patient and his family have given permission to present specifics of his case and to use his name and photograph. This report does not consider all of the technical aspects of this patient's care. Our focus is on procedures and problems concomitant with phrenic stimulation and with discharge planning. PMID:6568261

  15. 26 CFR 31.3405(c)-1 - Withholding on eligible rollover distributions; questions and answers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... appears in § 1.403(b)-2T of this chapter (as it appeared in the April 1, 1995 edition of 26 CFR part 1... October 19, 1995, § 31.3405(c)-1T (as it appeared in the April 1, 1995 edition of 26 CFR part 1), applies... distributed in an eligible rollover distribution? Q-12: How does the mandatory withholding rule apply to...

  16. 26 CFR 31.3405(c)-1 - Withholding on eligible rollover distributions; questions and answers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... appears in § 1.403(b)-2T of this chapter (as it appeared in the April 1, 1995 edition of 26 CFR part 1... October 19, 1995, § 31.3405(c)-1T (as it appeared in the April 1, 1995 edition of 26 CFR part 1), applies... distributed in an eligible rollover distribution? Q-12: How does the mandatory withholding rule apply to...

  17. 26 CFR 31.3405(c)-1 - Withholding on eligible rollover distributions; questions and answers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... appears in § 1.403(b)-2T of this chapter (as it appeared in the April 1, 1995 edition of 26 CFR part 1... October 19, 1995, § 31.3405(c)-1T (as it appeared in the April 1, 1995 edition of 26 CFR part 1), applies... distributed in an eligible rollover distribution? Q-12: How does the mandatory withholding rule apply to...

  18. Polygonumnolides C1-C4; minor dianthrone glycosides from the roots of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jian-Bo; Li, Li; Dai, Zhong; Wu, Yu; Geng, Xing-Chao; Li, Bo; Ma, Shuang-Cheng; Wang, Ai-Guo; Su, Ya-Lun

    2016-09-01

    Four new dianthrone glycosides, named polygonumnolides C1-C4 (1-4), were isolated from the dried roots of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb, together with two known emodin dianthrones (5-6). Their hepatotoxicities were evaluated against L-02 cell lines. Compounds 1-4 showed weak hepatotoxicity against L-02 cell lines with IC50 values of 313.05, 205.20, 294.20, and 207.35 μM, respectively. PMID:27139982

  19. Masses of JP C=1-+ exotic quarkonia in a Bethe-Salpeter-equation approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilger, T.; Gómez-Rocha, M.; Krassnigg, A.

    2015-06-01

    We investigate the properties of mesons with the exotic JP C=1-+ quantum numbers. Starting out from the light-quark domain, where the π1 states are used as references, we predict the masses of analogous quarkonia for c c ¯ and b b ¯ configurations. We employ a covariant Dyson-Schwinger-Bethe-Salpeter-equation approach with a rainbow-ladder truncated model of quantum chromodynamics.

  20. Synthesis of metal-adeninate frameworks with high separation capacity on C2/C1 hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yan-Ping; Zhou, Nan; Tan, Yan-Xi; Wang, Fei; Zhang, Jian

    2016-06-01

    By introducing isophthalic acid or 2,5-thiophenedicarboxylic acid to assemble with adenine and cadmium salt, two isostructural and anionic porous metal-organic frameworks (1 and 2) possessing the novel (4,8)-connected sqc topology are presented here. 1 shows permanent porosity with Langmuir surface area of 770.1 m2/g and exhibits high separation capacity on C2/C1 hydrocarbons.