Science.gov

Sample records for 10-6 degrees c-1

  1. Orthogonal polynomial Schauder bases in C[-1,1] with optimal growth of degrees

    SciTech Connect

    Skopina, M A

    2001-04-30

    For each {epsilon}>0 an orthogonal Schauder basis of algebraic polynomials P{sub n} in C[-1,1] is constructed such that the degrees of the polynomials have the estimate n(1+{epsilon}). This growth rate is the lowest possible.

  2. Performance and boundary-layer data from 12 degree and 23 degree conical diffusers of area ratio 2.0 at Mach numbers up to choking and Reynolds numbers up to 7.5 x 10(6)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Little, B H , Jr; Wilbur, Stafford W

    1954-01-01

    For each of two inlet-boundary-layer thicknesses, performance and boundary-layer characteristics have been determined for a 12 degree, 10-inch-inlet-diameter diffuser, a 12 degree, 21-inch-inlet-diameter diffuser, and a 23 degree, 21-inch-inlet-diameter diffuser. The investigation covered an inlet Mach number range from about 0.10 to coking. The corresponding inlet Reynolds number, based on inlet diameter, varied from about 0.5 x 10(6) to 7.5 x 10(6).

  3. A comparison of the spanwise loading calculated by various methods with experimental loadings obtained on a 45 degree sweptback wing of aspect ratio 8.02 at a Reynolds number of 4.0 x 10(6)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Willaim C

    1954-01-01

    This report compares the experimental force and moment data obtained by pressure measurements on a wing of aspect ratio 8.02, 45 degree sweptback of the quarter-chord line, taper ratio of 0.45, and NACA 63sub1a012 airfoil sections with the calculated loadings obtained by the standard methods proposed by Weissinger, Falkner, and Multopp, as well as by several variations of these methods.

  4. 43 CFR 10.6 - Custody.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Custody. 10.6 Section 10.6 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NATIVE AMERICAN GRAVES PROTECTION AND REPATRIATION REGULATIONS Human Remains, Funerary Objects, Sacred Objects, or Objects of Cultural Patrimony From Federal...

  5. 43 CFR 10.6 - Custody.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Custody. 10.6 Section 10.6 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NATIVE AMERICAN GRAVES PROTECTION AND REPATRIATION REGULATIONS Human Remains, Funerary Objects, Sacred Objects, or Objects of Cultural Patrimony From Federal...

  6. 43 CFR 10.6 - Custody.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Custody. 10.6 Section 10.6 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NATIVE AMERICAN GRAVES PROTECTION AND REPATRIATION REGULATIONS Human Remains, Funerary Objects, Sacred Objects, or Objects of Cultural Patrimony From Federal...

  7. 43 CFR 10.6 - Custody.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Custody. 10.6 Section 10.6 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NATIVE AMERICAN GRAVES PROTECTION AND REPATRIATION REGULATIONS Human Remains, Funerary Objects, Sacred Objects, or Objects of Cultural Patrimony From Federal...

  8. 43 CFR 10.6 - Custody.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Custody. 10.6 Section 10.6 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NATIVE AMERICAN GRAVES PROTECTION AND REPATRIATION REGULATIONS Human Remains, Funerary Objects, Sacred Objects, or Objects of Cultural Patrimony From Federal...

  9. 27 CFR 10.6 - Administrative provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Administrative provisions..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS COMMERCIAL BRIBERY Scope of Regulations § 10.6 Administrative provisions. (a) General. The Act makes applicable the provisions including penalties of sections 49 and 50...

  10. 24 CFR 10.6 - Initiation of rulemaking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Initiation of rulemaking. 10.6 Section 10.6 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development RULEMAKING: POLICY AND PROCEDURES Procedures § 10.6 Initiation of rulemaking....

  11. 46 CFR 188.10-6 - Captain of the Port.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Captain of the Port. 188.10-6 Section 188.10-6 Shipping... PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 188.10-6 Captain of the Port. This term means an... activities within his assigned area. In addition, the District Commander shall be the Captain of the...

  12. 46 CFR 188.10-6 - Captain of the Port.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Captain of the Port. 188.10-6 Section 188.10-6 Shipping... PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 188.10-6 Captain of the Port. This term means an... activities within his assigned area. In addition, the District Commander shall be the Captain of the...

  13. 46 CFR 188.10-6 - Captain of the Port.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Captain of the Port. 188.10-6 Section 188.10-6 Shipping... PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 188.10-6 Captain of the Port. This term means an... activities within his assigned area. In addition, the District Commander shall be the Captain of the...

  14. 46 CFR 188.10-6 - Captain of the Port.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Captain of the Port. 188.10-6 Section 188.10-6 Shipping... PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 188.10-6 Captain of the Port. This term means an... activities within his assigned area. In addition, the District Commander shall be the Captain of the...

  15. 46 CFR 188.10-6 - Captain of the Port.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Captain of the Port. 188.10-6 Section 188.10-6 Shipping... PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 188.10-6 Captain of the Port. This term means an... activities within his assigned area. In addition, the District Commander shall be the Captain of the...

  16. 28 CFR 10.6 - Necessity for further registration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Necessity for further registration. 10.6 Section 10.6 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE REGISTRATION OF CERTAIN ORGANIZATIONS CARRYING ON ACTIVITIES WITHIN THE UNITED STATES Registration Statement § 10.6 Necessity for...

  17. 32 CFR 10.6 - Non-creation of right.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Non-creation of right. 10.6 Section 10.6 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE MILITARY COMMISSIONS MILITARY COMMISSION INSTRUCTIONS § 10.6 Non-creation of right. Neither this part nor any Military...

  18. 32 CFR 10.6 - Non-creation of right.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Non-creation of right. 10.6 Section 10.6 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE MILITARY COMMISSIONS MILITARY COMMISSION INSTRUCTIONS § 10.6 Non-creation of right. Neither this part nor any Military...

  19. 32 CFR 10.6 - Non-creation of right.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Non-creation of right. 10.6 Section 10.6 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE MILITARY COMMISSIONS MILITARY COMMISSION INSTRUCTIONS § 10.6 Non-creation of right. Neither this part nor any Military...

  20. 32 CFR 10.6 - Non-creation of right.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Non-creation of right. 10.6 Section 10.6 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE MILITARY COMMISSIONS MILITARY COMMISSION INSTRUCTIONS § 10.6 Non-creation of right. Neither this part nor any Military...

  1. 32 CFR 10.6 - Non-creation of right.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Non-creation of right. 10.6 Section 10.6 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE MILITARY COMMISSIONS MILITARY COMMISSION INSTRUCTIONS § 10.6 Non-creation of right. Neither this part nor any Military...

  2. High sensitivity infrared 10.6 micrometer heterodyne receiver development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The results are presented for a study on the design of an infrared 10.6-micrometer quantum-noise-limited optical receiver subsystem. Performance measurements of the HgCdTe photomixer preamplifier combination were carried out for photomixer temperatures up to 152 K and a photomixer frequency response of up to 420 MHz was obtained. Results of temperature and bias cycling of HgCdTe photomixers are reported. Design considerations for an operational 10.6 micrometer heterodyne receiver are presented. These consist of design data on required laser LO illumination, heat load levels for photomixer cooler, photomixer uniformity and the effects of photomixer impedance match on receiver sensitivity. Analysis and measurements of 10.6 micrometer heterodyne detection in an extrinsic photoconductive (p-type) HgCdTe photomixer are also presented.

  3. Draft genome sequence of Phomopsis longicolla MSPL 10-6

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phomopsis longicolla T.W. Hobbs is the primary cause of Phomopsis seed decay in soybean. We report the de novo assembled draft genome sequence of P. longicolla isolate MSPL10-6 with a 54.8-fold depth of coverage. The resulting draft genome was estimated to be approximately 64 Mb in size with an over...

  4. Rough surface interferometry at 10.6 microm.

    PubMed

    Kwon, O; Wyant, J C; Hayslett, C R

    1980-06-01

    An IR Twyman-Green interferometer is described. It uses a cw CO(2) laser as a light source operating at a 10.6-microm wavelength. Theoretical analysis and experimental measurements of the relationship between the contrast of the interference fringes and the rms roughness of test surfaces are discussed. Interferometric testing results and special alignment methods are shown for rough surface optics.

  5. Laser Induced EMP (Electromagnetic Pulse) at 10.6 Microns

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-05-01

    they are returned to the target by the potential barrier ( Barkhausen and Kurz, 1920), radiation is also produced by the oscillations of the position...34Self-Focusing of 10.6 um Radiation in an Underdense Plasma," Phys. Rev. Lett. 45, 1260 (1980). Barkhausen , V. H. and Kurz, K., "Die KUlrzesten mit

  6. Experiment definition phase shuttle laboratory. LDRL-10.6 experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The work completed on the experiment definition phase of the shuttle laboratory LDRL 10.6 micrometers experiment from 27 September 1975 to 26 January 1976 was reported. This work included progress in the following areas: (1) optomechanical system: completion of detail drawings, completion of the beryllium subassembly, fabrication, checking, and weighing of approximately 95% of the detailed parts, dry film lubrication of the bearings and gears, and initiation of assembly of the gimbals; (2) optics: update of the detailed optical layout, receipt of nine mirrors and the pre-expander; (3) miscellaneous: delivery of draft material for the final report, completion of optical testing of the 10.6 micrometers receiver, and receipt, assembly, and checkout of NASA test console.

  7. Experiment definition phase shuttle laboratory LDRL-10.6 experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    This report for the Experiment Definition Phase of the Shuttle Laboratory LDRL 10.6 Micrometer Experiment covers period 27 June through 26 September 1975. Activities during the fifth quarter included: (1) reevaluation of system obscuration ratio with a subsequent reduction of this ratio from 0.417 to 0.362, (2) completion of detail drawings for the 6X pre-expander, (3) completion of detail drawings for the nine mirrors that comprise pointing and tracking optomechanical subsystem, (4) continuation of detailing of mechanical portions of CMSS and modifications to accommodate new obscuration ratio, (5) qualitative operation of the optomechanical subsystem of the 10.6 um receiver achieved under experiment measurement task; receiver fully integrated and operation demonstrated over a 10 km experimental link, and (6) data collection task initiated to begin preparation of link analysis volumes.

  8. Dry/wet wire reflectivities at 10.6 μm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Donald S.; Osche, Gregory R.; Fisher, Kirk L.; Lok, Yuchoi F.

    1991-08-01

    Power cable reflectivities have been measured for both dry and wet conditions using a 10.6 micrometers coherent CO2 laser radar. Measurements were made at a range of 620 m using two types of cable: 1-in.-diameter Grosbeak and 3/8-in. Grouse, at +/- 60 degree(s) aspect angles relative to the normal in increments of 10 degree(s). The cables were both artificially sprayed, in an effort to simulate realistic rainfall rates, as well as being exposed to light rain. Results show that the drop in reflectivity of wet cables compared to dry cables is a function of aspect angle with a mean drop for the Grosbeak and Grouse cables of -5 dB and -1.3 dB, respectively. Measurements of the drying rates of the cables showed a return to the dry state reflectivity in approximately 100 sec after being liberally doused.

  9. Expression of recombinant human complement C1q allows identification of the C1r/C1s-binding sites

    PubMed Central

    Bally, Isabelle; Ancelet, Sarah; Moriscot, Christine; Gonnet, Florence; Mantovani, Alberto; Daniel, Régis; Schoehn, Guy; Arlaud, Gérard J.; Thielens, Nicole M.

    2013-01-01

    Complement C1q is a hexameric molecule assembled from 18 polypeptide chains of three different types encoded by three genes. This versatile recognition protein senses a wide variety of immune and nonimmune ligands, including pathogens and altered self components, and triggers the classical complement pathway through activation of its associated proteases C1r and C1s. We report a method for expression of recombinant full-length human C1q involving stable transfection of HEK 293-F mammalian cells and fusion of an affinity tag to the C-terminal end of the C chain. The resulting recombinant (r) C1q molecule is similar to serum C1q as judged from biochemical and structural analyses and exhibits the characteristic shape of a bunch of flowers. Analysis of its interaction properties by surface plasmon resonance shows that rC1q retains the ability of serum C1q to associate with the C1s-C1r-C1r-C1s tetramer, to recognize physiological C1q ligands such as IgG and pentraxin 3, and to trigger C1r and C1s activation. Functional analysis of rC1q variants carrying mutations of LysA59, LysB61, and/or LysC58, in the collagen-like stems, demonstrates that LysB61 and LysC58 each play a key role in the interaction with C1s-C1r-C1r-C1s, with LysA59 being involved to a lesser degree. We propose that LysB61 and LysC58 both form salt bridges with outer acidic Ca2+ ligands of the C1r and C1s CUB (complement C1r/C1s, Uegf, bone morphogenetic protein) domains. The expression method reported here opens the way for deciphering the molecular basis of the unusual binding versatility of C1q by mapping the residues involved in the sensing of its targets and the binding of its receptors. PMID:23650384

  10. Faraday Rotation Optical Isolator for 10.6-microm Radiation.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, S D; Teegarden, K J; Ahrenkiel, R K

    1974-10-01

    Measurements that have been performed indicate that hot-pressed ferromagnetic CdCr(2)S(4) would be a useful Faraday optical isolator material for laser systems at 10.6 microm. A large-aperture, liquid-nitrogen-cooled isolator, requiring modest magnetic fields with material of optimum thickness, would provide isolation in excess of 30 dB with insertion loss due to optical absorption in the active element of less than 3 dB. Consideration of its figure of merit indicates that hot-pressed CdCr(2)S(4) could be used as an isolator at 1.06 microm, introducing less than 2 dB insertion loss due to optical absorption at that wavelength.

  11. Absorption of thin film materials at 10.6 microm.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, W E; Butterfield, A W

    1975-12-01

    Absorption indices at a wavelength of 10.6 mum for thin films of As(2)S(3), GeSe, BaF(2), ZnSe, and CdTe were measured by calorimetric techniques with a CO(2) laser. The values obtained, 4.6 x 10(-4), 1.4 x 10(-3), 2.8 x 10(-3), 2.8 x 10(-3), and 5.0 x 10(-3), respectively, were significantly greater than the corresponding values for the bulk materials. This difference was least for the vitreous films, As(2)S(3) and GeSe, which also had a lower absorption than the remaining polycrystalline films. Details are presented of the microstructure of the films as determined by scanning electron microscopy and k-ray diffraction.

  12. Absorptivity of water vapor for 10.6 micron radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pugh, E. R.; Krech, R. H.

    1982-01-01

    Attention is called to recent measurements of the absorptivity of water vapor to 10.6-micron laser radiation made using shock-heated H2O/H2 and H2O/Ar mixtures and a probe CO2 laser. It is noted that these measurements give values about a factor of 2 lower than Ludwig's (1971) low resolution values. It is also argued that Fowler's (1981) high values are not likely to be caused by excited water molecules. It is shown that very intense laser radiation would be required to obtain any appreciable vibrational nonequilibrium. Within the narrow spectral range of 944-948/cm, no significant variation in absorption coefficient (suitably normalized) is observed as a function of laser line, water vapor concentration, total pressure, or diluent gas.

  13. A polymer tandem solar cell with 10.6% power conversion efficiency.

    PubMed

    You, Jingbi; Dou, Letian; Yoshimura, Ken; Kato, Takehito; Ohya, Kenichiro; Moriarty, Tom; Emery, Keith; Chen, Chun-Chao; Gao, Jing; Li, Gang; Yang, Yang

    2013-01-01

    An effective way to improve polymer solar cell efficiency is to use a tandem structure, as a broader part of the spectrum of solar radiation is used and the thermalization loss of photon energy is minimized. In the past, the lack of high-performance low-bandgap polymers was the major limiting factor for achieving high-performance tandem solar cell. Here we report the development of a high-performance low bandgap polymer (bandgap <1.4 eV), poly[2,7-(5,5-bis-(3,7-dimethyloctyl)-5H-dithieno[3,2-b:2',3'-d]pyran)-alt-4,7-(5,6-difluoro-2,1,3-benzothia diazole)] with a bandgap of 1.38 eV, high mobility, deep highest occupied molecular orbital. As a result, a single-junction device shows high external quantum efficiency of >60% and spectral response that extends to 900 nm, with a power conversion efficiency of 7.9%. The polymer enables a solution processed tandem solar cell with certified 10.6% power conversion efficiency under standard reporting conditions (25 °C, 1,000 Wm(-2), IEC 60904-3 global), which is the first certified polymer solar cell efficiency over 10%.

  14. 46 CFR 30.10-6 - Cargo handling room-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cargo handling room-TB/ALL. 30.10-6 Section 30.10-6 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-6 Cargo handling room—TB/ALL. The term cargo handling room means any enclosed space where cargo is...

  15. 46 CFR 30.10-6 - Cargo handling room-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo handling room-TB/ALL. 30.10-6 Section 30.10-6 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-6 Cargo handling room—TB/ALL. The term cargo handling room means any enclosed space where cargo is...

  16. THE ENZYMATIC NATURE OF C'1r

    PubMed Central

    Naff, George B.; Ratnoff, Oscar D.

    1968-01-01

    Human C'1, a macromolecular complex composed of three subunits, is the zymogen for at least two distinct enzymes. Preparations of one subunit, C'1r, functioned as a protease which converted another subunit, C'1s, to C'1 esterase. The conversion of C'1s to C'1 esterase by C'1r was blocked by Liquoid, phenyl methylsulfonyl fluoride, and calcium ions, but not by soybean trypsin inhibitor, hirudin, or heparin. Preparations of C'1r also possessed two additional functions, i.e., the ability to hydrolyze certain synthetic amino acid esters and to participate in immune hemolysis. Evidence was presented which indicates that these three functions are properties of a single entity, C'1r, but not of the same portion of its molecular structure. These observations suggest that C'1r has at least two active sites, one for its reaction with C'1q, an additional subunit of C'1, and one for its reaction with C'1s; together, the three subcomponents, C'1q, C'1r, and C'1s, form a single functional unit, the first component of complement. PMID:5675434

  17. Curtiss XSO3C-1 Seagull

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1940-01-01

    Curtiss XSO3C-1 Seagull: Although drag reduction was very important to radial engined aircraft, it was no less important to aircraft such as this inline Ranger powered Curtiss XSO3C-1 Seagull. Here the Seagull is shown in the 30 x 60 Full Scale Tunnel in October of 1940. The XSO3C-1 was also undergoing study to improve engine cooling. Published in Aircraft; FST; Curtiss XSO3C-1 Seagull; Full Scale Tunnel; Nicklas

  18. 29 CFR 2575.502c-1 - Adjusted civil penalty under section 502(c)(1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Adjusted civil penalty under section 502(c)(1). 2575.502c-1 Section 2575.502c-1 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EMPLOYEE BENEFITS SECURITY... ERISA Title I § 2575.502c-1 Adjusted civil penalty under section 502(c)(1). In accordance with...

  19. C1 inhibitor: quantification and purification.

    PubMed

    Varga, Lilian; Dobó, József

    2014-01-01

    C1 inhibitor is a multipotent serpin capable of inhibiting the classical and the lectin pathways of complement, the fibrinolytic system, and contact/kinin system of coagulation. Deficiency of C1 inhibitor manifest as hereditary angioedema (HAE), an autosomal dominant hereditary disease. Measuring the C1 inhibitor level is of vital importance for the diagnosis of HAE and also for monitoring patients receiving C1 inhibitor for therapy. Determination of the antigenic C1 inhibitor level by the radial immunodiffusion (RID) technique is described in detail in this chapter. The presented purification method of plasma C1 inhibitor is primarily based on its high carbohydrate content and its affinity to the lectin jacalin.

  20. Measurement of Double Charmonium Production in$e^+e^-$ Annihilations at $\\sqrt{s}=10.6$ GeV

    SciTech Connect

    Aubert, B.; Barate, R.; Boutigny, D.; Couderc, F.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, J.P.; Poireau, V.; Tisserand, V.; Zghiche, A.; Grauges, E.; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Pompili, A.; Chen, J.C.; Qi, N.D.; Rong, G.; Wang, P.; Zhu, Y.S.; Eigen, G.; Ofte, I.; Stugu, B. /Bergen U. /LBL, Berkeley /UC, Berkeley /Birmingham U. /Ruhr U., Bochum /Bristol U. /British Columbia U. /Brunel U. /Novosibirsk, IYF /UC, Irvine /UCLA /UC, Riverside /UC, San Diego /UC, Santa Barbara /UC, Santa Cruz /Caltech /Cincinnati U. /Colorado U. /Colorado State U. /Dortmund U. /Dresden, Tech. U. /Ecole Polytechnique /Edinburgh U. /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara /Frascati /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /Harvard U. /Heidelberg U. /Imperial Coll., London /Iowa U. /Iowa State U. /Orsay, LAL /LLNL, Livermore /Liverpool U. /Queen Mary, U. of London /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Louisville U. /Manchester U. /Maryland U. /Massachusetts U., Amherst /MIT, LNS /McGill U. /Milan U. /INFN, Milan /Mississippi U. /Montreal U. /Mt. Holyoke Coll. /Naples U. /INFN, Naples /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /Notre Dame U. /Ohio State U. /Oregon U. /Padua U. /INFN, Padua /Paris U., VI-VII /Pennsylvania U. /Perugia U. /INFN, Perugia /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /Prairie View A-M /Princeton U. /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /Rostock U. /Rutherford /DAPNIA, Saclay /South Carolina U. /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SUNY, Stony Brook /Tennessee U. /Texas U. /Texas U., Dallas /Turin U. /INFN, Turin /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Valencia U., IFIC /Vanderbilt U. /Victoria U. /Warwick U. /Wisconsin U., Madison /Yale U.

    2005-06-29

    The authors study e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} J/{psi} c{bar c} by measuring the invariant mass distribution recoiling against fully reconstructed J/{psi} decays, using 124.4 fb{sup -1} of data collected with a center-of-mass energy of 10.6 GeV with the BABAR detector. They observe signals for {eta}{sub c}(1S), {chi}{sub c0}, and {eta}{sub c}(2S) in the recoil mass distribution, thus confirming previous measurements. The authors measure {sigma}(e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} J/{psi} + c{bar c}){Beta}(c{bar c} {yields} > 2 charged) to be 17.6 {+-} 2.8(stat){sub -2.1}{sup +1.5}(syst) fb, 10.3 {+-} 2.5(stat){sub -1.8}{sup +1.4}(syst) fb, and 16.4 {+-} 3.7(stat){sub -3.0}{sup +2.4}(syst) fb with c{bar c} = {eta}{sub c}(1S), {chi}{sub c0}, and {eta}{sub c}(2S), respectively.

  1. C1 Hermite shape preserving polynomial splines in R3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabrielides, Nikolaos C.

    2012-06-01

    The C 2 variable degree splines1-3 have been proven to be an efficient tool for solving the curve shape-preserving interpolation problem in two and three dimensions. Based on this representation, the current paper proposes a Hermite interpolation scheme, to construct C 1 shape-preserving splines of variable degree. After this, a slight modification of the method leads to a C 1 shape-preserving Hermite cubic spline. Both methods can easily be developed within a CAD system, since they compute directly (without iterations) the B-spline control polygon. They have been implemented and tested within the DNV Software CAD/CAE system GeniE. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  2. Dishonorary Degrees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romano, Carlin

    2008-01-01

    If an honorary degree lacks values to begin with, does withdrawing it deliver a rebuke to the recipient? Is whatever honor that comes with the distinction embedded in the fancy paper, or is it wholly in the eye of the degree holder? Are honorary degrees really such silly things that individuals should mock their bestowal or withdrawal? The case of…

  3. Optical response at 10.6 microns in tungsten silicide Schottky barrier diodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, Sandeep; Boyd, Joseph T.; Jackson, Howard E.

    1987-01-01

    Optical response to radiation at a wavelength of 10.6 microns in tungsten silicide-silicon Schottky barrier diodes has been observed. Incident photons excite electrons by means of junction plasmon assisted inelastic electron tunneling. At 78 K, a peak in the second derivative of current versus junction bias voltage was observed at a voltage corresponding to the energy of photons having a wavelength of 10.6 microns. This peak increased with increasing incident laser power, saturating at the highest laser powers investigated.

  4. Acousto-Optic Beam Sampler, Part III: Diffraction Experiments at 10.6 micrometers.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    This report deals with the results of acousto - optic diffraction experiments in air at 10.6 micron. The laser used for the experiments was operated...fields. Detailed experiments were performed to investigate the dependence of the acousto - optic diffraction on incident laser power, acoustic drive voltage and angle of incidence.

  5. 29 CFR 2575.502c-1 - Adjusted civil penalty under section 502(c)(1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ACT OF 1974 ADJUSTMENT OF CIVIL PENALTIES UNDER ERISA TITLE I Adjustment of Civil Penalties Under ERISA Title I § 2575.502c-1 Adjusted civil penalty under section 502(c)(1). In accordance with the... section 502(c)(1) of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974, as amended (ERISA), is...

  6. 29 CFR 2575.502c-1 - Adjusted civil penalty under section 502(c)(1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ACT OF 1974 ADJUSTMENT OF CIVIL PENALTIES UNDER ERISA TITLE I Adjustment of Civil Penalties Under ERISA Title I § 2575.502c-1 Adjusted civil penalty under section 502(c)(1). In accordance with the... section 502(c)(1) of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974, as amended (ERISA), is...

  7. 29 CFR 2575.502c-1 - Adjusted civil penalty under section 502(c)(1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ACT OF 1974 ADJUSTMENT OF CIVIL PENALTIES UNDER ERISA TITLE I Adjustment of Civil Penalties Under ERISA Title I § 2575.502c-1 Adjusted civil penalty under section 502(c)(1). In accordance with the... section 502(c)(1) of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974, as amended (ERISA), is...

  8. 29 CFR 2575.502c-1 - Adjusted civil penalty under section 502(c)(1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ACT OF 1974 ADJUSTMENT OF CIVIL PENALTIES UNDER ERISA TITLE I Adjustment of Civil Penalties Under ERISA Title I § 2575.502c-1 Adjusted civil penalty under section 502(c)(1). In accordance with the... section 502(c)(1) of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974, as amended (ERISA), is...

  9. SLE and C1q: A quantitative ELISA for determining C1q levels in serum

    PubMed Central

    Dillon, Skyler P.; D’Souza, Anil; Kurien, Biji T.; Scofield, R. Hal

    2010-01-01

    C1q is of interest in SLE research due to deficiencies in its activity being associated with the disease. Current published protocols for measuring C1q vary greatly in their results and ease of reproducibility. Due to this, average C1q concentrations have been reported between 56 and 276 µg/ml in non-SLE serum. We present an improved method for quantifying C1q concentrations that employs a sandwich ELISA. This method has improved precision, cost efficiency, up-scaling, reproducibility, and uses significantly lesser volumes of serum sample when compared to RID and other methods for quantifying C1q. We report an average concentration of 113±40 µg/ml for C1q in non-SLE serum. The assay designed here will be useful in the high-throughput measurement of serum C1q in SLE cases. PMID:19370710

  10. Hereditary angioedema with normal C1 inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Bork, Konrad

    2013-11-01

    Until recently it was assumed that hereditary angioedema was a disease that results exclusively from a genetic deficiency of the C1 inhibitor. In 2000, families with hereditary angioedema, normal C1 inhibitor activity, and protein in plasma were described. Since then, numerous patients and families with that condition have been reported. Most of the patients were women. In many of the affected women, oral contraceptives, hormone replacement therapy containing estrogens, and pregnancies triggered the clinical symptoms. In some families mutations in the coagulation factor XII (Hageman factor) gene were detected.

  11. Coupling characteristics of thin-film metal-oxide-metal diodes at 10.6 microns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, S. Y.; Gustafson, T. K.; Izawa, T.

    1975-01-01

    Direct detection experiments have demonstrated the coherent coupling of 10.6 micrometer radiation into photolithographically fabricated metal-oxide-metal tunnel junctions. A CO2 laser beam mechanically chopped at 1 KHz was focused at a variable angle of incidence with a power density of about 10 W/sq cm at the diodes. Diodes in which the junction resistance was much greater than the lead resistance displayed angular characteristics dominated by coherent antenna coupling.

  12. Radiation effects on beta 10.6 of pure and europium doped KCl

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grimes, H. H.; Maisel, J. E.; Hartford, R. H.

    1975-01-01

    Changes in the optical absorption coefficient as a result of X-ray and electron bombardment of pure KCl (monocrystalline and polycrystalline), and divalent europium doped polycrystalline KCl were determined. The optical absorption coefficients were measured by a constant heat flow calorimetric method. Both 300 KV X-irradiation and 2 MeV electron irradiation produced significant increases in beta 10.6, measured at room temperature. The X-irradiation of pure moncrystalline KCl increased beta 10.6 by 0.005/cm for a 113 MR dose. For an equivalent dose, 2 MeV electrons were found less efficient in changing beta 10.6. However, electron irradiation of pure and Eu-doped polycrystalline KCl produced marked increases in adsorption. Beta increased to over 0.25/cm in Eu-doped material for a 30 x 10 to the 14th power electrons/sq cm dose, a factor of 20 increase over unirradiated material. Moreover, bleaching the electron irradiated doped KCl with 649 m light produced and additional factor of 1.5 increase. These findings will be discussed in light of known defect-center properties in KCl.

  13. Refinable C(1) spline elements for irregular quad layout.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thien; Peters, Jörg

    2016-03-01

    Building on a result of U. Reif on removable singularities, we construct C(1) bi-3 splines that may include irregular points where less or more than four tensor-product patches meet. The resulting space complements PHT splines, is refinable and the refined spaces are nested, preserving for example surfaces constructed from the splines. As in the regular case, each quadrilateral has four degrees of freedom, each associated with one spline and the splines are linearly independent. Examples of use for surface construction and isogeometric analysis are provided.

  14. Terminal complement complexes and C1/C1 inhibitor complexes in autoimmune thyroid disease.

    PubMed Central

    Weetman, A P; Cohen, S B; Oleesky, D A; Morgan, B P

    1989-01-01

    The potential role of complement activation and the membrane attack complex in the pathogenesis of Graves' disease and Hashimoto's thyroiditis has been investigated by measuring serum concentrations of the C1r-C1s-C1 inhibitor complex (C1/C1-inh) and the terminal complement complex (TCC), and by studying the binding to thyroid tissue of monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies against TCC neoantigens. Serum C1/C1-inh and TCC concentrations were significantly increased in 29 patients with untreated Graves' disease compared with 47 healthy subjects (P less than 0.001 for both), and decreased significantly after carbimazole treatment in 18 of these patients for whom post-treatment samples were available (P less than 0.01 and P less than 0.02, respectively). The serum TCC concentration, but not that of C1/C1-inh, was also significantly increased in 15 patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis compared with the 47 healthy subjects (P less than 0.001). TCCs were identified by immunohistochemical staining around the thyroid follicles in thyroidectomy specimens from patients with Graves' disease (six out of six) and Hashimoto's thyroiditis (two out of two); normal thyroid tissue from two subjects showed no staining. These results suggest a role for complement, in particular the membrane attack complex in the pathogenesis of autoimmune thyroid disease. Images Fig. 3 PMID:2766576

  15. Combined traumatic occiput-C1 and C1-C2 dissociation: 2 case reports.

    PubMed

    Gould, Stephen; Hishmeh, Shuriz; McKinney, Bart; Stephen, Mark

    2010-08-01

    Occiput-C1 and C1-C2 dissociations and dislocations have been well documented in the literature. However, after thorough review of the literature, we found very little in the literature regarding combined occiput-C1 and C1-C2 dissociations in adults who survived. We present 2 case reports describing the clinical presentation, initial management, operative treatment, and postoperative course of 2 patients who sustained traumatic combined occiput-C1 and C1-C2 dissociations. After initial stabilization, both patients underwent open reduction and posterior occipital-cervical fusion with segmental fixation. At recent follow-up, both patients maintain good sagittal alignment without loss of reduction, and they have radiographic progression to fusion, minimal pain, and improved neurologic function. Combined occiput-C1 and C1-C2 dissociations are rare but serious injuries. Incomplete dissociations may not be evident on initial radiographs. Computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging is recommended for formal diagnosis. A traumatic dural tear may be present. We recommend open reduction and posterior occipital-cervical fusion with segmental fixation for these patients.

  16. Infrared (10.6-mum) scattering and extinction in laboratory water and ice clouds.

    PubMed

    Sassen, K

    1981-01-15

    Measurements of the angular scattering and extinction of IR (10.6-mum) laser radiation in laboratory water and ice clouds are reported and compared to theoretical predictions for spheres and visible (0.633-mum) light scattering data. Randomly oriented cloud particles with dimensions ranging from several times smaller to larger than the incident wavelength generated phase functions span the Rayleigh and Mie scattering domains and illustrate the effects caused by strong internal energy absorption. Dual-wavelength extinction measurements reveal information on the growth and dissipation of laboratory water clouds and the effects of cloud seeding. The remote sensing significance of the findings is discussed.

  17. Cooperative Research in C1 Chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2000-10-27

    C1 chemistry refers to the conversion of simple carbon-containing materials that contain one carbon atom per molecule into valuable products. The feedstocks for C1 chemistry include natural gas, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methanol and synthesis gas (a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen). Synthesis gas, or syngas, is produced primarily by the reaction of natural gas, which is principally methane, with steam. It can also be produced by gasification of coal, petroleum coke, or biomass. The availability of syngas from coal gasification is expected to increase significantly in the future because of increasing development of integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power generation. Because of the abundance of remote natural gas, the advent of IGCC, and environmental advantages, C1 chemistry is expected to become a major area of interest for the transportation fuel and chemical industries in the relatively near future. The CFFLS will therefore perform a valuable national service by providing science and engineering graduates that are trained in this important area. Syngas is the source of most hydrogen. Approximately 10 trillion standard cubic feet (SCF) of hydrogen are manufactured annually in the world. Most of this hydrogen is currently used for the production of ammonia and in a variety of refining and chemical operations. However, utilization of hydrogen in fuel cells is expected to grow significantly in the next century. Syngas is also the feedstock for all methanol and Fischer-Tropsch plants. Currently, world consumption of methanol is over 25 million tons per year. There are many methanol plants in the U.S. and throughout the world. Methanol and oxygenated transportation fuel products play a significant role in the CFFLS C1 program. Currently, the only commercial Fischer-Tropsch plants are overseas, principally in South Africa (SASOL). However, new plants are being built or planned for a number of locations. One possible location for future F

  18. COOPERATIVE RESEARCH IN C1 CHEMISTRY

    SciTech Connect

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2001-04-30

    Faculty and students from five universities (Kentucky, West Virginia, Utah, Pittsburgh and Auburn) are collaborating on a basic research program to develop novel C1 chemistry processes for the production of clean, high quality transportation fuel. An Industrial Advisory Board (IAB) with members from Chevron, Eastman Chemical, Energy International, Teir Associates, and the Department of Defense has been formed to provide practical guidance to the program. The program has two principal objectives. (1) Develop technology for conversion of C1 source materials (natural gas, synthesis gas, carbon dioxide and monoxide, and methanol) into clean, high efficiency transportation fuel. (2) Develop novel processes for producing hydrogen from natural gas and other hydrocarbons. Some of the principal accomplishments of the program in its first two years are: (1) The addition of acetylenic compounds in Fischer-Tropsch synthesis is found to produce significant amounts of oxygenated products in FT diesel fuels. Such oxygenated products should decrease particulate matter (PM) emissions. (2) Nanoscale, binary, Fe-based catalysts supported on alumina have been shown to have significant activity for the decomposition of methane into pure hydrogen and potentially valuable multi-walled carbon nanotubes. (3) Catalytic synthesis processes have been developed for synthesis of diethyl carbonate, higher ethers, and higher alcohols from C1 source materials. Testing of the effect of adding these oxygenates to diesel fuel on PM emissions has begun using a well-equipped small diesel engine test facility. (4) Supercritical fluid (SCF) FT synthesis has been conducted under SCF hexane using both Fe and Co catalysts. There is a marked effect on the hydrocarbon product distribution, with a shift to higher carbon number products. These and other results are summarized.

  19. 10.6% Certified Colloidal Quantum Dot Solar Cells via Solvent-Polarity-Engineered Halide Passivation.

    PubMed

    Lan, Xinzheng; Voznyy, Oleksandr; García de Arquer, F Pelayo; Liu, Mengxia; Xu, Jixian; Proppe, Andrew H; Walters, Grant; Fan, Fengjia; Tan, Hairen; Liu, Min; Yang, Zhenyu; Hoogland, Sjoerd; Sargent, Edward H

    2016-07-13

    Colloidal quantum dot (CQD) solar cells are solution-processed photovoltaics with broad spectral absorption tunability. Major advances in their efficiency have been made via improved CQD surface passivation and device architectures with enhanced charge carrier collection. Herein, we demonstrate a new strategy to improve further the passivation of CQDs starting from the solution phase. A cosolvent system is employed to tune the solvent polarity in order to achieve the solvation of methylammonium iodide (MAI) and the dispersion of hydrophobic PbS CQDs simultaneously in a homogeneous phase, otherwise not achieved in a single solvent. This process enables MAI to access the CQDs to confer improved passivation. This, in turn, allows for efficient charge extraction from a thicker photoactive layer device, leading to a certified solar cell power conversion efficiency of 10.6%, a new certified record in CQD photovoltaics.

  20. Testing the Wavelength Dependence of Cosmological Redshift Down to Δz ˜ 10-6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreras, Ignacio; Trujillo, Ignacio

    2016-07-01

    At the core of the standard cosmological model lies the assumption that the redshift of distant galaxies is independent of photon wavelength. This invariance of cosmological redshift with wavelength is routinely found in all galaxy spectra with a precision of Δz ˜ 10-4. The combined use of approximately half a million high-quality galaxy spectra from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) allows us to explore this invariance down to a nominal precision in redshift of 10-6 (statistical). Our analysis is performed over the redshift interval 0.02 < z < 0.25. We use the centroids of spectral lines over the 3700-6800 Å rest-frame optical window. We do not find any difference in redshift between the blue and red sides down to a precision of 10-6 at z ≲ 0.1 and 10-5 at 0.1 ≲ z ≲ 0.25 (i.e., at least an order of magnitude better than with single galaxy spectra). This is the first time the wavelength-independence of the (1 + z) redshift law is confirmed over a wide spectral window at this precision level. This result holds independently of the stellar population of the galaxies and their kinematical properties. This result is also robust against wavelength calibration issues. The limited spectral resolution (R ˜ 2000) of the SDSS data, combined with the asymmetric wavelength sampling of the spectral features in the observed restframe due to the (1 + z) stretching of the lines, prevent our methodology from achieving a precision higher than 10-5, at z > 0.1. Future attempts to constrain this law will require high quality galaxy spectra at higher resolution (R ≳ 10,000).

  1. Theoretical Insights into C1 Surface Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neurock, Matthew

    2008-03-01

    Reforming and partial oxidation of methane as well as other C1 fuels are important processes in the production of hydrogen and synthesis gas and will likely play important roles future energy strategies. Herein we use theory and simulation to examine the reactivity of methane, methanol and dimethyl ether with CO2, H2O, or O2 over supported transition metals. We systematically probe the elementary C-H bond activation as well as the oxidation pathways involved in both reforming as the oxidation of methane and other C1 intermediates over well defined transition metal surfaces, metal alloys and metal nanoparticles. The calculations demonstrate well-established trends in C-H bond activation as the result of changes in the metal, the activating molecule (methane, methanol, and DME) as well as the reaction conditions. The reaction conditions ultimately dictate the surface coverage of carbon and oxygen which have important consequences on the surface reactivity. The theoretical and simulation results are compared with well defined experiments carried out at Berkeley over supported particles.

  2. Microsecond enamel ablation with 10.6μm CO2 laser radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Góra, W. S.; McDonald, A.; Hand, D. P.; Shephard, J. D.

    2016-02-01

    Lasers have been previously been used for dental applications, however there remain issues with thermally-induced cracking. In this paper we investigate the impact of pulse length on CO2 laser ablation of human dental enamel. Experiments were carried in vitro on molar teeth without any modification to the enamel surface, such as grinding or polishing. In addition to varying the pulse length, we also varied pulse energy and focal position, to determine the most efficient ablation of dental hard tissue and more importantly to minimize or eradicate cracking. The maximum temperature rise during the multi pulse ablation process was monitored using a set of thermocouples embedded into the pulpal chamber. The application of a laser device in dental surgery allows removal of tissue with higher precision, which results in minimal loss of healthy dental tissue. In this study we use an RF discharge excited CO2 laser operating at 10.6μm. The wavelength of 10.6 μm overlaps with a phosphate band (PO3-4) absorption in dental hard tissue hence the CO2 laser radiation has been selected as a potential source for modification of the tissue. This research describes an in-depth analysis of single pulse laser ablation. To determine the parameters that are best suited for the ablation of hard dental tissue without thermal cracking, a range of pulse lengths (10-200 μs), and fluences (0-100 J/cm2) are tested. In addition, different laser focusing approaches are investigated to select the most beneficial way of delivering laser radiation to the surface (divergent/convergent beam). To ensure that these processes do not increase the temperature above the critical threshold and cause the necrosis of the tissue a set of thermocouples was placed into the pulpal chambers. Intermittent laser radiation was investigated with and without application of a water spray to cool down the ablation site and the adjacent area. Results show that the temperature can be kept below the critical threshold

  3. Development of ferromagnetic spinels for optical isolation at 10. 6. mu. m

    SciTech Connect

    Teegarden, K.J.

    1980-05-01

    Vacuum hot pressing was used to fabricate CdCr/sub 2/S/sub 4/, CdCr/sub 2/Se/sub 4/ and (1-x) CdCr/sub 2/S/sub 4/.x CdCr/sub 2/Se/sub 4/ discs with diameters of 1.25 cm from fine powders and small single crystals to relative densities as high as 99.6%. Optical attenuation coefficients of approx. 1.0 cm/sup -1/ at 10.6 m were obtained for CdCr/sub 2/S/sub 4/, and values of 12.1 cm/sup -1/ and 14.9 cm/sup -1/ for the selenide and sulfur-selenide mixture. Two-and-three-phonon absorption bands were found to limit the transmission of CdCr/sub 2/S/sub 4/ at lambda > 10 ..mu..m. Extrinsic absorption mechanisms caused the higher attenuation coefficients in CdCr/sub 2/Se/sub 4/ and the mixture. The main extrinsic mechanisms at long wavelengths were free carrier absorption (in CdCr/sub 2/Se/sub 4/) and an impurity absorption band at 16.3 ..mu..m due to Cr/sub 2/O/sub 3/. At short wavelengths the attenuation coefficient was dominated by scattering from pores and second phases. Free carrier absorption was found to be induced by free selenium present in the starting powders. Suppression of this absorption was achieved by optimizing the hot-pressing procedure in order to remove free selenium. The presence of pores was attributed to incomplete densification arising from the presence of second phases (CdSe and Cr/sub 2/Se/sub 3/) and the absence of plastic deformation as a densification mechanism. Laser damage thresholds of 250 MWcm/sup -2/ and 100 MWcm/sup -2/ were measured at 10.6 ..mu..m for CdCr/sub 2/S/sub 4/ and CdCr/sub 2/Se/sub 4/, respectively.

  4. C1 inhibitor deficiency: 2014 United Kingdom consensus document.

    PubMed

    Longhurst, H J; Tarzi, M D; Ashworth, F; Bethune, C; Cale, C; Dempster, J; Gompels, M; Jolles, S; Seneviratne, S; Symons, C; Price, A; Edgar, D

    2015-06-01

    C1 inhibitor deficiency is a rare disorder manifesting with recurrent attacks of disabling and potentially life-threatening angioedema. Here we present an updated 2014 United Kingdom consensus document for the management of C1 inhibitor-deficient patients, representing a joint venture between the United Kingdom Primary Immunodeficiency Network and Hereditary Angioedema UK. To develop the consensus, we assembled a multi-disciplinary steering group of clinicians, nurses and a patient representative. This steering group first met in 2012, developing a total of 48 recommendations across 11 themes. The statements were distributed to relevant clinicians and a representative group of patients to be scored for agreement on a Likert scale. All 48 statements achieved a high degree of consensus, indicating strong alignment of opinion. The recommendations have evolved significantly since the 2005 document, with particularly notable developments including an improved evidence base to guide dosing and indications for acute treatment, greater emphasis on home therapy for acute attacks and a strong focus on service organization.

  5. C1 inhibitor deficiency: 2014 United Kingdom consensus document

    PubMed Central

    Longhurst, H J; Tarzi, M D; Ashworth, F; Bethune, C; Cale, C; Dempster, J; Gompels, M; Jolles, S; Seneviratne, S; Symons, C; Price, A; Edgar, D

    2015-01-01

    C1 inhibitor deficiency is a rare disorder manifesting with recurrent attacks of disabling and potentially life-threatening angioedema. Here we present an updated 2014 United Kingdom consensus document for the management of C1 inhibitor-deficient patients, representing a joint venture between the United Kingdom Primary Immunodeficiency Network and Hereditary Angioedema UK. To develop the consensus, we assembled a multi-disciplinary steering group of clinicians, nurses and a patient representative. This steering group first met in 2012, developing a total of 48 recommendations across 11 themes. The statements were distributed to relevant clinicians and a representative group of patients to be scored for agreement on a Likert scale. All 48 statements achieved a high degree of consensus, indicating strong alignment of opinion. The recommendations have evolved significantly since the 2005 document, with particularly notable developments including an improved evidence base to guide dosing and indications for acute treatment, greater emphasis on home therapy for acute attacks and a strong focus on service organization. PMID:25605519

  6. Genome-wide functional annotation of Phomopsis longicolla isolate MSPL 10-6.

    PubMed

    Darwish, Omar; Li, Shuxian; Matthews, Benjamin; Alkharouf, Nadim

    2016-06-01

    Phomopsis seed decay of soybean is caused primarily by the seed-borne fungal pathogen Phomopsis longicolla (syn. Diaporthe longicolla). This disease severely decreases soybean seed quality, reduces seedling vigor and stand establishment, and suppresses yield. It is one of the most economically important soybean diseases. In this study we annotated the entire genome of P. longicolla isolate MSPL 10-6, which was isolated from field-grown soybean seed in Mississippi, USA. This study represents the first reported genome-wide functional annotation of a seed borne fungal pathogen in the Diaporthe-Phomopsis complex. The P. longicolla genome annotation will enable research into the genetic basis of fungal infection of soybean seed and provide information for the study of soybean-fungal interactions. The genome annotation will also be a valuable resource for the research and agricultural communities. It will aid in the development of new control strategies for this pathogen. The annotations can be found from: http://bioinformatics.towson.edu/phomopsis_longicolla/download.html. NCBI accession number is: AYRD00000000.

  7. A searchable database for the genome of Phomopsis longicolla (isolate MSPL 10-6).

    PubMed

    Darwish, Omar; Li, Shuxian; May, Zane; Matthews, Benjamin; Alkharouf, Nadim W

    2016-01-01

    Phomopsis longicolla (syn. Diaporthe longicolla) is an important seed-borne fungal pathogen that primarily causes Phomopsis seed decay (PSD) in most soybean production areas worldwide. This disease severely decreases soybean seed quality by reducing seed viability and oil quality, altering seed composition, and increasing frequencies of moldy and/or split beans. To facilitate investigation of the genetic base of fungal virulence factors and understand the mechanism of disease development, we designed and developed a database for P. longicolla isolate MSPL 10-6 that contains information about the genome assemblies (contigs), gene models, gene descriptions and GO functional ontologies. A web-based front end to the database was built using ASP.NET, which allows researchers to search and mine the genome of this important fungus. This database represents the first reported genome database for a seed borne fungal pathogen in the Diaporthe- Phomopsis complex. The database will also be a valuable resource for research and agricultural communities. It will aid in the development of new control strategies for this pathogen.

  8. Standard sources at 10.6 GHz and variability in 3C147

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrew, B. H.; MacLeod, J. M.; Feldman, P. A.

    1981-06-01

    It is pointed out that the work of Baars et al. (1977), referred to as BGPW, is among the most recent on the subject of the calibration of radio telescopes. BGPW provides flux densities for a set of secondary calibrators. Observations made at the Algonquin Radio Observatory (ARO) provide very accurate relative flux densities for the BGPW calibrators. Attention is given to questions of data derivation, variability, and absolute flux densities. The ARO relative flux densities are converted to the BGPW scale by means of the 'semi-absolute' 3C274. If the obtained values are adopted at 10.6 GHz, the BGPW scale can be used more efficiently in the 10 GHz range. Flux densities at other frequencies in the 10 GHz range can be obtained by using the spectral indices implied by Table 5 of BGPW. In view of the variability of 3C147, and the hints of variability in the observations of several other sources, observers should also bear in mind that any 'absolute' calibration scale may be ephemeral if it is tied to 'standard' sources that are assumed to be constant.

  9. Hereditary C1q deficiency: a new family with C1qA deficiency.

    PubMed

    Sun-Tan, Cağman; Ozgür, Tuba Turul; Kilinç, Gamze; Topaloğlu, Rezan; Gököz, Ozay; Ersoy-Evans, Sibel; Sanal, Ozden

    2010-01-01

    Hereditary deficiency of complement component C1q is a rare genetic disorder with susceptibility to recurrent infections with polysaccharide-containing encapsulated microorganisms and a high prevalence of autoimmune diseases, most often systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Here, we report a 29-month-old boy who presented with facial rash and history of early death of a sibling with infections, who was found to have a selective deficiency of C1q. The facial rash was composed of patchy erythematous plaques and centrally hypopigmented macules and desquamation. Two siblings had died of severe bacterial infections and his uncle had died of meningitis. Molecular study disclosed a homozygous point mutation in the C1qA chain gene. Five members of the family, including the parents and three healthy siblings, were heterozygous for this mutation.

  10. Biodegradation and adsorption of C1- and C2-phenanthrenes and C1- and C2-dibenzothiophenes in the presence of clay minerals: effect on forensic diagnostic ratios.

    PubMed

    Ugochukwu, Uzochukwu C; Head, Ian M; Manning, David A C

    2014-07-01

    The impact of modified montmorillonites on adsorption and biodegradation of crude oil C1-phenanthrenes, C1-dibenzothiophenes, C2-phenanthrenes and C2-dibenzothiophenes was investigated in aqueous clay/oil microcosm experiments with a hydrocarbon degrading microorganism community. Consequently, the effect on C1-dibenzothiophenes/C1-phenanthrenes, C2-dibenzothiophenes/C2-phenanthrenes, 2+3-methyldibenzothiophene/4-methyldibenzothiophene and 1-methyldibenzothiophene/4-methyldibenzothiophene ratios commonly used as diagnostic ratios for oil forensic studies was evaluated. The clay mineral samples were treated to produce acid activated montmorillonite, organomontmorillonite and homoionic montmorillonite which were used in this study. The different clay minerals (modified and unmodified) showed varied degrees of biodegradation and adsorption of the C1-phenanthrenes, C1-dibenzothiophenes, C2-phenanthrenes and C2-dibenzothiophenes. The study indicated that as opposed to biodegradation, adsorption has no effect on the diagnostic ratios. Among the diagnostic ratios reviewed, only C2-dibenzothiophenes/C2-phenanthrenes ratio was neither affected by adsorption nor biodegradation making this ratio very useful in forensic studies of oil spills and oil-oil correlation.

  11. Characterization of C1 inhibitor binding to neutrophils.

    PubMed Central

    Chang, N S; Boackle, R J; Leu, R W

    1991-01-01

    In a previous study we have isolated neutrophil membrane proteins that non-covalently bind to native C1-INH (105,000 MW) and a non-functional, degraded C1-INH (88,000 MW; C1-INH-88). To further characterize the binding nature, we have designed a novel kinetic C1 titration assay which enables not only a quantification of the removal of fluid-phase C1-INH by neutrophils, but also a concomitant measure of residual C1-INH function. Native C1-INH, when adsorbed to EDTA-pretreated neutrophils, lost its function in the inhibition of fluid-phase C1. The non-functional C1-INH-88, which is probably devoid of a reactive centre, was found to block the binding of native C1-INH to neutrophils. Pretreatment of neutrophils with serine esterase inhibitors did not abrogate binding capacity of the cells for C1-INH, whereas the binding affinity for C1-INH was lost when the cells were pretreated with trypsin. An array of human peripheral blood leucocytes and several lymphoid cell lines has surface binding sites for C1-INH, but not on human erythrocytes and U937 cells. Binding was further confirmed using (i) C1-INH-microsphere beads to neutrophils, in which the binding was blocked when pretreating neutrophils with excess C1-INH or with trypsin, and (ii) radiolabelled C1-INH to neutrophils, which was competitively blocked by unlabelled non-functional C1-INH-88. Desialylation of C1-INH significantly reduced its binding affinity for neutrophils, indicating that the membrane receptor sites on neutrophils could be specific for the binding of sialic acid residues on C1-INH. Overall, our studies indicate that neutrophils or other leucocytes possess specific surface binding sites for the sialic acid-containing portion of C1-INH. PMID:2045131

  12. Classical complement pathway component C1q: purification of human C1q, isolation of C1q collagen-like and globular head fragments and production of recombinant C1q-derivatives. Functional characterization.

    PubMed

    Kojouharova, Mihaela

    2014-01-01

    The classical complement pathway (CCP) activation is a multimolecular complex, composed of three subcomponents namely C1q, C1r, and C1s. C1q is the recognition subunit of this complex and its binding to the specific targets leads to the formation of active C1, which in turn activates the CCP in an immunoglobulin-dependent or -independent manner. C1q is a hexameric glycoprotein composed of 18 polypeptide chains of three different types (A, B, and C), organized in two fragments-collagen-like (CLR) and globular head (gC1q) possessing different functional activity. The contemporary knowledge of the C1q structure allows the isolation and purification of a C1q molecule from serum by combination of different chromatography procedures including ion-exchange, size-exclusion, and affinity chromatography, as well as the isolation of CLR and gC1q by limited enzymatic hydrolysis of the native C1q molecule. In this chapter, we described methods for purification of human C1q and its CLR and gC1q fragments, as well as methods for their biochemical and functional characterization. The production and purification of recombinant C1q derivatives ghA, ghB, and ghC (globular fragments of the individual C1q chains) are also presented.

  13. C1 inhibitor functional deficiency in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).

    PubMed Central

    Jazwinska, E C; Gatenby, P A; Dunckley, H; Serjeantson, S W

    1993-01-01

    C1 inhibitor (C1-inh) was assayed in eight SLE patients presenting with consistently low levels of intact C4. C1-inh antigenic levels were normal in all patients; however, the function of the C1-inh tested against C1s and C1r was variable and outside the normal functional range in seven of the eight patients. The molecular weight of patients' C1-inh protein was 105 kD, corresponding to the size of the intact molecule. The C1-inh gene was analysed in all patients. Restriction fragments generated with TaqI, PstI and HgiAI gave no indication of a major C1-inh gene rearrangement. Direct genomic sequencing of exon VIII revealed three polymorphic point mutations, but there were no changes from the normal gene in or around the reactive-centre residue of C1-inh. Furthermore, we found no evidence for a C1-inh autoantibody in patients which could affect normal C1-inh function in vitro. These results indicate that the etiology of C1-inh dysfunction in SLE is heterogeneous and distinct from that reported in either hereditary or acquired angioedema. PMID:8485912

  14. The neural guidance receptor Plexin C1 delays melanoma progression

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Y; Soong, J; Mohanty, S; Xu, L; Scott, G

    2013-01-01

    Plexin C1 is a type I transmembrane receptor with intrinsic R-Ras GTPase activity, which regulates cytoskeletal remodeling and adhesion in normal human melanocytes. Melanocytes are pigment-producing cells of the epidermis, precursors for melanoma, and express high levels of Plexin C1, which is lost in melanoma in vitro and in vivo. To determine if Plexin C1 is a tumor suppressor for melanoma, we introduced Plexin C1 into a primary human melanoma cell line, and phenotypes including migration, apoptosis, proliferation and tumor growth in mice were analyzed. Complimentary studies in which Plexin C1 was silenced in human melanocytes were performed. Plexin C1 significantly inhibited migration and proliferation in melanoma, whereas in melanocytes, loss of Plexin C1 increased migration and proliferation. In mouse xenografts, Plexin C1 delayed tumor growth of melanoma at early time points, but tumors eventually escaped the suppressive effects of Plexin C1, due to Plexin C1-dependent activation of the pro-survival protein Akt. R-Ras activation stimulates melanoma migration. Plexin C1 lowered R-Ras activity in melanoma and melanocytes, consistent with inhibitory effects of Plexin C1 on migration of melanocytes and melanoma. To determine if R-Ras is expressed in melanocytic lesions in vivo, staining of tissue microarrays of nevi and melanoma were performed. R-Ras expression was highly limited in melanocytic lesions, being essentially confined to primary melanoma, and almost completely absent in nevi and metastatic melanoma. These data suggest that loss of Plexin C1 in melanoma may promote early steps in melanoma progression through suppression of migration and proliferation, but pro-survival effects of Plexin C1 ultimately abrogate the tumor suppressive effects of Plexin C1. In primary melanoma, loss of Plexin C1 may function in early steps of melanoma progression by releasing inhibition of R-Ras activation, and stimulating migration. PMID:23160370

  15. The neural guidance receptor Plexin C1 delays melanoma progression.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y; Soong, J; Mohanty, S; Xu, L; Scott, G

    2013-10-10

    Plexin C1 is a type I transmembrane receptor with intrinsic R-Ras GTPase activity, which regulates cytoskeletal remodeling and adhesion in normal human melanocytes. Melanocytes are pigment-producing cells of the epidermis, precursors for melanoma, and express high levels of Plexin C1, which is lost in melanoma in vitro and in vivo. To determine if Plexin C1 is a tumor suppressor for melanoma, we introduced Plexin C1 into a primary human melanoma cell line, and phenotypes including migration, apoptosis, proliferation and tumor growth in mice were analyzed. Complimentary studies in which Plexin C1 was silenced in human melanocytes were performed. Plexin C1 significantly inhibited migration and proliferation in melanoma, whereas in melanocytes, loss of Plexin C1 increased migration and proliferation. In mouse xenografts, Plexin C1 delayed tumor growth of melanoma at early time points, but tumors eventually escaped the suppressive effects of Plexin C1, due to Plexin C1-dependent activation of the pro-survival protein Akt. R-Ras activation stimulates melanoma migration. Plexin C1 lowered R-Ras activity in melanoma and melanocytes, consistent with inhibitory effects of Plexin C1 on migration of melanocytes and melanoma. To determine if R-Ras is expressed in melanocytic lesions in vivo, staining of tissue microarrays of nevi and melanoma were performed. R-Ras expression was highly limited in melanocytic lesions, being essentially confined to primary melanoma, and almost completely absent in nevi and metastatic melanoma. These data suggest that loss of Plexin C1 in melanoma may promote early steps in melanoma progression through suppression of migration and proliferation, but pro-survival effects of Plexin C1 ultimately abrogate the tumor suppressive effects of Plexin C1. In primary melanoma, loss of Plexin C1 may function in early steps of melanoma progression by releasing inhibition of R-Ras activation, and stimulating migration.

  16. 26 CFR 1.682(c)-1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 1.682(c)-1 Section 1.682(c)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Miscellaneous § 1.682(c)-1 Definitions. For definitions of the terms “husband” and “wife”...

  17. C1q Deficiency and Neuropsychiatric Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    van Schaarenburg, Rosanne A.; Magro-Checa, César; Bakker, Jaap A.; Teng, Y. K. Onno; Bajema, Ingeborg M.; Huizinga, Tom W.; Steup-Beekman, Gerda M.; Trouw, Leendert A.

    2016-01-01

    C1q deficiency is a rare immunodeficiency, which is strongly associated with the development of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). A mutation in one of the C1q genes can either lead to complete deficiency or to low C1q levels with C1q polypeptide in the form of low-molecular weight (LMW) C1q. Patients with C1q deficiency mainly present with cutaneous and renal involvement. Although less frequent, neuropsychiatric (NP) involvement has also been reported in 20% of the C1q-deficient patients. This involvement appears to be absent in other deficiencies of early components of the complement classical pathway (CP) (C1r/C1s, C2, or C4 deficiencies). We describe a new case with C1q deficiency with a homozygous G34R mutation in C1qC-producing LMW-C1q presenting with a severe SLE flare with NP involvement. The serum of this patient contained very low levels of a LMW variant of C1q polypeptides. Cell lysates contained the three chains of C1q, but no intact C1q was detected, consistent with the hypothesis of the existence of a LMW-C1q. Furthermore, we provide a literature overview of NP-SLE in C1q deficiency and hypothesize about the potential role of C1q in the pathogenesis of NP involvement in these patients. The onset of NP-SLE in C1q-deficient individuals is more severe when compared with complement competent NP-SLE patients. An important number of cases present with seizures and the most frequent findings in neuroimaging are changes in basal ganglia and cerebral vasculitis. A defective CP, because of non-functional C1q, does not protect against NP involvement in SLE. The absence of C1q and, subsequently, some of its biological functions may be associated with more severe NP-SLE. PMID:28082982

  18. Motion-preserving reduction and fixation of C1 Jefferson fracture using a C1 lateral mass screw construct.

    PubMed

    Jo, Kwang-Wook; Park, Ik-Seong; Hong, Jae Taek

    2011-05-01

    The treatment of C1 Jefferson fractures is controversial. Non-surgical treatment with halo fixation always bears the risk of insufficient healing with further instability and increasing neck pain. However, a C1-2 fusion can markedly decrease the rotatory motion of the neck. The aim of this report is to describe a new treatment for C1 Jefferson fractures. We used open reduction and C1 fixation using a bilateral C1 lateral mass screw construct. The screws were connected with a rod and nuts to reduce lateral spread of the lateral masses. This method is an alternative surgical option for C1 Jefferson fractures in select patients and can maintain important C1-2 joint motion.

  19. Hereditary angioedema with normal C1-INH (HAE type III).

    PubMed

    Riedl, Marc A

    2013-01-01

    Hereditary angioedema (HAE) with normal C1 inhibitor (C1-INH), also known as HAE type III, is a familial condition only clinically recognized within the past three decades. Similar to HAE from C1-INH deficiency (HAE types I and II), affected individuals experience unpredictable angioedema episodes of the skin, gastrointestinal tract, and airway. Unique clinical features of HAE with normal C1-INH include the predominance of affected women, frequent exacerbation by estrogen, and a prominence of angioedema that involves the face and oropharynx. The underlying pathophysiology of HAE with normal C1-INH is poorly understood, but indirect evidence points to contact pathway dysregulation with bradykinin-mediated angioedema. Currently, evaluation is complicated by a lack of confirmatory laboratory testing such that clinical criteria must often be used to make the diagnosis of HAE with normal C1-INH. Factor XII mutations have been identified in only a minority of persons affected by HAE with normal C1-INH, limiting the utility of such analysis. To date, no controlled clinical studies have examined the efficacy of therapeutic agents for HAE with normal C1-INH, although published evidence supports frequent clinical benefit with medications shown effective in HAE due to C1-INH deficiency.

  20. A 10.6mm3 Fully-Integrated, Wireless Sensor Node with 8GHz UWB Transmitter

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyeongseok; Kim, Gyouho; Lee, Yoonmyung; Foo, Zhiyoong; Sylvester, Dennis; Blaauw, David; Wentzloff, David

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a complete, autonomous, wireless temperature sensor, fully encapsulated in a 10.6mm3 volume. The sensor includes solar energy harvesting with an integrated 2 μAh battery, optical receiver for programming, microcontroller and memory, 8GHz UWB transmitter, and miniaturized custom antennas with a wireless range of 7 meters. Full, stand-alone operation was demonstrated for the first time for a system of this size and functionality. PMID:26855848

  1. Missed C1 posterior arch fracture: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Munro, Donald S

    1990-01-01

    A case of a C1 posterior arch fracture following a fall is presented. The need to perform a thorough history and examination, regardless of previous examination findings, is emphasized. This is especially true when there is a history of recent trauma. A brief discussion of the characteristics and management of C1 fractures follows. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3

  2. Anti-C1q in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Stojan, G; Petri, M

    2016-07-01

    C1q is the first component of the classical complement pathway. Both clinically validated in-house ELISA assays as well as commercial ELISA kits are used for detection of anti-C1q antibodies. Anti-C1q autoantibodies can be detected in a wide range of autoimmune diseases and are highly sensitive for hypocomplementemic uticarial vasculitis. In SLE, anti-C1q are strongly associated with proliferative lupus nephritis, and their absence carries a negative predictive value for development of lupus nephritis of close to 100%. Anti-C1q in combination with anti-dsDNA and low complement has the strongest serological association with renal involvement. The anti-C1q titers correlate with global disease activity scores in patients with renal involvement, and higher titers seem to precede renal flares. After the successful treatment of a renal flare, anti-C1q has the tendency to decrease or even become undetectable. The main obstacle to the inclusion of anti-C1q in the classification criteria and clinical management of SLE is the lack of standardized laboratory assays.

  3. 26 CFR 1.661(c)-1 - Limitation on deduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Limitation on deduction. 1.661(c)-1 Section 1.661(c)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Estates and Trusts Which May Accumulate Income Or Which Distribute Corpus §...

  4. 26 CFR 1.662(c)-1 - Different taxable years.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Different taxable years. 1.662(c)-1 Section 1.662(c)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Estates and Trusts Which May Accumulate Income Or Which Distribute Corpus §...

  5. 26 CFR 1.678(c)-1 - Trusts for support.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Trusts for support. 1.678(c)-1 Section 1.678(c... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Grantors and Others Treated As Substantial Owners § 1.678(c)-1 Trusts for support... cotrustee, to apply the income of the trust to the support or maintenance of a person whom the holder...

  6. 26 CFR 1.1092(c)-1 - Qualified covered calls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Qualified covered calls. 1.1092(c)-1 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Wash Sales of Stock Or Securities § 1.1092(c)-1 Qualified covered calls. (a) In...), however, writing a qualified covered call option and owning the optioned stock is not treated as...

  7. ClC-1 chloride channels: state-of-the-art research and future challenges

    PubMed Central

    Imbrici, Paola; Altamura, Concetta; Pessia, Mauro; Mantegazza, Renato; Desaphy, Jean-François; Camerino, Diana Conte

    2015-01-01

    The voltage-dependent ClC-1 chloride channel belongs to the CLC channel/transporter family. It is a homodimer comprising two individual pores which can operate independently or simultaneously according to two gating modes, the fast and the slow gate of the channel. ClC-1 is preferentially expressed in the skeletal muscle fibers where the presence of an efficient Cl- homeostasis is crucial for the correct membrane repolarization and propagation of action potential. As a consequence, mutations in the CLCN1 gene cause dominant and recessive forms of myotonia congenita (MC), a rare skeletal muscle channelopathy caused by abnormal membrane excitation, and clinically characterized by muscle stiffness and various degrees of transitory weakness. Elucidation of the mechanistic link between the genetic defects and the disease pathogenesis is still incomplete and, at this time, there is no specific treatment for MC. Still controversial is the subcellular localization pattern of ClC-1 channels in skeletal muscle as well as its modulation by some intracellular factors. The expression of ClC-1 in other tissues such as in brain and heart and the possible assembly of ClC-1/ClC-2 heterodimers further expand the physiological properties of ClC-1 and its involvement in diseases. A recent de novo CLCN1 truncation mutation in a patient with generalized epilepsy indeed postulates an unexpected role of this channel in the control of neuronal network excitability. This review summarizes the most relevant and state-of-the-art research on ClC-1 chloride channels physiology and associated diseases. PMID:25964741

  8. ClC-1 chloride channels: state-of-the-art research and future challenges.

    PubMed

    Imbrici, Paola; Altamura, Concetta; Pessia, Mauro; Mantegazza, Renato; Desaphy, Jean-François; Camerino, Diana Conte

    2015-01-01

    The voltage-dependent ClC-1 chloride channel belongs to the CLC channel/transporter family. It is a homodimer comprising two individual pores which can operate independently or simultaneously according to two gating modes, the fast and the slow gate of the channel. ClC-1 is preferentially expressed in the skeletal muscle fibers where the presence of an efficient Cl(-) homeostasis is crucial for the correct membrane repolarization and propagation of action potential. As a consequence, mutations in the CLCN1 gene cause dominant and recessive forms of myotonia congenita (MC), a rare skeletal muscle channelopathy caused by abnormal membrane excitation, and clinically characterized by muscle stiffness and various degrees of transitory weakness. Elucidation of the mechanistic link between the genetic defects and the disease pathogenesis is still incomplete and, at this time, there is no specific treatment for MC. Still controversial is the subcellular localization pattern of ClC-1 channels in skeletal muscle as well as its modulation by some intracellular factors. The expression of ClC-1 in other tissues such as in brain and heart and the possible assembly of ClC-1/ClC-2 heterodimers further expand the physiological properties of ClC-1 and its involvement in diseases. A recent de novo CLCN1 truncation mutation in a patient with generalized epilepsy indeed postulates an unexpected role of this channel in the control of neuronal network excitability. This review summarizes the most relevant and state-of-the-art research on ClC-1 chloride channels physiology and associated diseases.

  9. Periodontal Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome Is Caused by Mutations in C1R and C1S, which Encode Subcomponents C1r and C1s of Complement.

    PubMed

    Kapferer-Seebacher, Ines; Pepin, Melanie; Werner, Roland; Aitman, Timothy J; Nordgren, Ann; Stoiber, Heribert; Thielens, Nicole; Gaboriaud, Christine; Amberger, Albert; Schossig, Anna; Gruber, Robert; Giunta, Cecilia; Bamshad, Michael; Björck, Erik; Chen, Christina; Chitayat, David; Dorschner, Michael; Schmitt-Egenolf, Marcus; Hale, Christopher J; Hanna, David; Hennies, Hans Christian; Heiss-Kisielewsky, Irene; Lindstrand, Anna; Lundberg, Pernilla; Mitchell, Anna L; Nickerson, Deborah A; Reinstein, Eyal; Rohrbach, Marianne; Romani, Nikolaus; Schmuth, Matthias; Silver, Rachel; Taylan, Fulya; Vandersteen, Anthony; Vandrovcova, Jana; Weerakkody, Ruwan; Yang, Margaret; Pope, F Michael; Byers, Peter H; Zschocke, Johannes

    2016-11-03

    Periodontal Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (pEDS) is an autosomal-dominant disorder characterized by early-onset periodontitis leading to premature loss of teeth, joint hypermobility, and mild skin findings. A locus was mapped to an approximately 5.8 Mb region at 12p13.1 but no candidate gene was identified. In an international consortium we recruited 19 independent families comprising 107 individuals with pEDS to identify the locus, characterize the clinical details in those with defined genetic causes, and try to understand the physiological basis of the condition. In 17 of these families, we identified heterozygous missense or in-frame insertion/deletion mutations in C1R (15 families) or C1S (2 families), contiguous genes in the mapped locus that encode subunits C1r and C1s of the first component of the classical complement pathway. These two proteins form a heterotetramer that then combines with six C1q subunits. Pathogenic variants involve the subunit interfaces or inter-domain hinges of C1r and C1s and are associated with intracellular retention and mild endoplasmic reticulum enlargement. Clinical features of affected individuals in these families include rapidly progressing periodontitis with onset in the teens or childhood, a previously unrecognized lack of attached gingiva, pretibial hyperpigmentation, skin and vascular fragility, easy bruising, and variable musculoskeletal symptoms. Our findings open a connection between the inflammatory classical complement pathway and connective tissue homeostasis.

  10. Your College Degree: The External Degree Way.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haponski, William C.; And Others

    Information on undertaking an external degree program to obtain a college education is presented. An external degree program is one that has no, or minimal requirements for residence (on-campus attendance). Most often it can be entered at any time of the year and usually grants credit for documented learning already acquired. An external degree…

  11. Comparison of cloud boundaries measured with 8.6 mm radar and 10.6 micrometer lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uttal, Taneil; Intrieri, Janet M.

    1993-01-01

    One of the most basic cloud properties is location; the height of cloud base and the height of cloud top. The glossary of meteorology defines cloud base (top) as follows: 'For a given cloud or cloud layer, that lowest (highest) level in the atmosphere at which the air contains a perceptible quantity of cloud particles.' Our studies show that for a 8.66 mm radar, and a 10.6 micrometer lidar, the level at which cloud hydrometers become 'perceptible' can vary significantly as a function of the different wavelengths, powers, beamwidths and sampling rates of the two remote sensors.

  12. Electronic speckle pattern interferometry and digital holographic interferometry with microbolometer arrays at 10.6 {mu}m

    SciTech Connect

    Vandenrijt, Jean-Francois; Georges, Marc P.

    2010-09-20

    Electronic speckle pattern interferometry and digital holographic interferometry are investigated at long infrared wavelengths. Using such wavelengths allows one to extend the measurement range and decrease the sensitivity of the techniques to external perturbations. We discuss the behavior of reflection by the object surfaces due to the long wavelength. We have developed different experimental configurations associating a CO2 laser emitting at 10.6{mu}m and microbolometer arrays. Phase-shifting in-plane and out-of-plane electronic speckle pattern interferometry and lensless digital holographic interferometry are demonstrated on rotation measurements of a solid object.

  13. Interpreting observations of edge-on gravitationally unstable accretion flows. The case of G10.6-0.4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hauyu Baobab

    2017-01-01

    Context. Gravitational collapse of molecular cloud or cloud core/clump may lead to the formation of geometrically flattened, rotating accretion flow surrounding the new born star or star cluster. Gravitational instability may occur in such accretion flow when the gas to stellar mass ratio is high (e.g., over 10%). Aims: This paper takes the OB cluster-forming region G10.6-0.4 as an example. We introduce the enclosed gas mass around its central ultra compact (UC) Hii region, address the gravitational stability of the accreting gas, and outline the observed potential signatures of gravitational instability. Methods: The dense gas accretion flow around the central UC Hii region in G10.6-0.4 is geometrically flattened, and is in an approximately edge-on projection. The position-velocity (PV) diagrams of various molecular gas tracers on G10.6-0.4 consistently show asymmetry in the spatial- and the velocity domain. We deduce the morphology of the dense gas accretion flow by modeling velocity distribution of the azimuthally asymmetric gas structures, and by directly de-projecting the PV diagrams. Results: We find that within the 0.3 pc radius, an infall velocity of 1-2 km s-1 may be required to explain the observed PV diagrams. In addition, the velocity distribution traced in the PV diagrams can be interpreted by spiral arm-like structures, which may be connected with exterior infalling gas filaments. We propose that the morphology of dense gas structures appears very similar to the spatially resolved gas structures around the OB cluster-forming region G33.92+0.11 with similar gas mass and size, which is likely, however, to be in an approximately face-on projection. Conclusions: The dense gas accretion flow around G10.6-0.4 appears to be Toomre-unstable, which is consistent with the existence of large-scale spiral arm-like structures, and the formation of localized gas condensations. The proposed approaches for data analyses may be applied to the observations of Class 0/I

  14. Development of a (Hg, Cd)Te photodiode detector, Phase 2. [for 10.6 micron spectral region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    High speed sensitive (Hg,Cd)Te photodiode detectors operating in the 77 to 90 K temperature range have been developed for the 10.6 micron spectral region. P-N junctions formed by impurity (gold) diffusion in p-type (Hg, Cd) Te have been investigated. It is shown that the bandwidth and quantum efficiency of a diode are a constant for a fixed ratio of mobility/lifetime ratio of minority carriers. The minority carrier mobility and lifetime uniquely determine the bandwidth and quantum efficiency and indicate the shallow n on p (Hg,Cd) Te diodes are preferable as high performance, high frequency devices.

  15. Cbln and C1q family proteins: new transneuronal cytokines.

    PubMed

    Yuzaki, M

    2008-06-01

    The C1q family is characterized by a C-terminal conserved global C1q domain, which is structurally very similar to the tumor necrosis factor homology domain. Although some C1q family members are expressed in the central nervous system, their functions have not been well characterized. Cbln1, a member of the Cbln subfamily of the C1q family, is predominantly expressed in cerebellar granule cells. Interestingly, Cbln1 was recently shown to play two unique roles at excitatory synapses formed between cerebellar granule cells and Purkinje cells: the formation and stabilization of synaptic contact, and the control of functional synaptic plasticity by regulating the postsynaptic endocytosis pathway. Since other Cbln subfamily members, Cbln2-Cbln4, are expressed in various regions of developing and mature brains, Cbln subfamily proteins may generally serve as a new class of transneuronal regulators of synapse development and synaptic plasticity in various brain regions.

  16. The External Degree.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houle, Cyril O.

    This book examines the external degree in relation to the extremes of attitudes, myths, and data. Emphasis is placed on the emergence of the American external degree, foreign external-degree programs, the purpose of the external degree, the current scene, institutional issues, and problems of general policy. (MJM)

  17. Expression of staphylococcal enterotoxin C1 in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Bohach, G A; Schlievert, P M

    1987-01-01

    The structural gene encoding staphylococcal enterotoxin C1 was cloned into Escherichia coli and localized on a 1.5-kilobase HindIII-ClaI DNA fragment by subcloning. The toxin was partially purified from E. coli clones and shown to be immunologically identical to enterotoxin C1 from Staphylococcus aureus. The cloned toxin also had the same molecular weight (26,000) and charge heterogeneity as staphylococcus-derived enterotoxin. Toxins from both sources were equally biologically active. Images PMID:3542834

  18. 26 CFR 1.1402(c)-1 - Trade or business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 12 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Trade or business. 1.1402(c)-1 Section 1.1402(c... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Tax on Self-Employment Income § 1.1402(c)-1 Trade or business. In order for an individual to have net earnings from self-employment, he must carry on a trade or business, either as...

  19. 26 CFR 1.1402(c)-1 - Trade or business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 12 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Trade or business. 1.1402(c)-1 Section 1.1402(c... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Tax on Self-Employment Income § 1.1402(c)-1 Trade or business. In order for an individual to have net earnings from self-employment, he must carry on a trade or...

  20. 26 CFR 1.1402(c)-1 - Trade or business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 12 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Trade or business. 1.1402(c)-1 Section 1.1402(c... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Tax on Self-Employment Income § 1.1402(c)-1 Trade or business. In order for an individual to have net earnings from self-employment, he must carry on a trade or...

  1. Uncoupling complement C1s activation from C1q binding in apoptotic cell phagocytosis and immunosuppressive capacity.

    PubMed

    Colonna, Lucrezia; Parry, Graham C; Panicker, Sandip; Elkon, Keith B

    2016-02-01

    Complement activation contributes to inflammation in many diseases, yet it also supports physiologic apoptotic cells (AC) clearance and its downstream immunosuppressive effects. The roles of individual complement components in AC phagocytosis have been difficult to dissect with artificially depleted sera. Using human in vitro systems and the novel antibody complement C1s inhibitor TNT003, we uncoupled the role of the enzymatic activation of the classical pathway from the opsonizing role of C1q in mediating a) the phagocytosis of early and late AC, and b) the immunosuppressive capacity of early AC. We found that C1s inhibition had a small impact on the physiologic clearance of early AC, leaving their immunosuppressive properties entirely unaffected, while mainly inhibiting the phagocytosis of late apoptotic/secondary necrotic cells. Our data suggest that C1s inhibition may represent a valuable therapeutic strategy to control classical pathway activation without causing significant AC accumulation in diseases without defects in AC phagocytosis.

  2. Regulation of Complement and Contact System Activation via C1 Inhibitor Potentiation and Factor XIIa Activity Modulation by Sulfated Glycans – Structure-Activity Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Schoenfeld, Ann-Kathrin; Lahrsen, Eric; Alban, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    The serpin C1 inhibitor (C1-INH) is the only regulator of classical complement activation as well as the major regulator of the contact system. Its importance is demonstrated by hereditary angioedema (HAE), a severe disease with potentially life-threatening attacks due to deficiency or dysfunction of C1-INH. C1-INH replacement is the therapy of choice in HAE. In addition, C1-INH showed to have beneficial effects in other diseases characterized by inappropriate complement and contact system activation. Due to some limitations of its clinical application, there is a need for improving the efficacy of therapeutically applied C1-INH or to enhance the activity of endogenous C1-INH. Given the known potentiating effect of heparin on C1-INH, sulfated glycans (SG) may be such candidates. The aim of this study was to characterize suitable SG by evaluating structure-activity relationships. For this, more than 40 structurally distinct SG were examined for their effects on C1-INH, C1s and FXIIa. The SG turned out to potentiate the C1s inhibition by C1-INH without any direct influence on C1s. Their potentiating activity proved to depend on their degree of sulfation, molecular mass as well as glycan structure. In contrast, the SG had no effect on the FXIIa inhibition by C1-INH, but structure-dependently modulated the activity of FXIIa. Among the tested SG, β-1,3-glucan sulfates with a Mr ≤ 10 000 were identified as most promising lead candidates for the development of a glycan-based C1-INH amplifier. In conclusion, the obtained information on structural characteristics of SG favoring C1-INH potentiation represent an useful elementary basis for the development of compounds improving the potency of C1-INH in diseases and clinical situations characterized by inappropriate activation of complement and contact system. PMID:27783665

  3. Pulsed-laser-induced damage in semiconductors Ge, ZnS, and ZnSe at 10.6um

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefranc, Sebastian; Kudriavtsev, Eugene M.; Autric, Michel L.

    1998-04-01

    Laser irradiation induced damage to several materials of interest for use as 10.6 micrometers laser system windows is investigated in this paper. The irradiation source in these single shot experiments was a pulsed TEA CO2 laser. Damage initiation in semiconductors has been studied during the interaction by measuring the variation of the transmitted intensity of a He- Ne and a CO2 cw lasers through the samples. Results show that damages appear at the beginning of the laser-matter interaction process on both surfaces and in the bulk of the materials. The damaged materials have been characterized for various incident fluences by means of optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy in terms of topography and morphology. The modified surface chemical analysis and the structural analysis have been carried out using energy dispersive x-ray and Raman spectroscopy.

  4. Synthesis of silicon-based nanoparticles by 10.6 μm nanosecond CO2 laser ablation in liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popovic, D. M.; Chai, J. S.; Zekic, A. A.; Trtica, M.; Momcilovic, M.; Maletic, S.

    2013-02-01

    Silicon-based nanoparticles were produced by irradiating a single-crystal silicon target with 10.6 μm nanosecond transverse excited atmospheric (TEA) pulsed CO2 laser in de-ionized water. The effects of the laser pulse energies and repetition rate were studied. To reveal the role of thermal effects, a low laser repetition rate has been applied, excluding the interaction of the laser beam with the previously generated cavitation bubble. The analysis of the influence of the laser pulse energies and the laser repetition rate showed that the increase of the laser pulse energies leads to an increase of the nanoparticle size. An explanation of such results was proposed and the importance of the role of the target surface temperature in the ablation process is discussed.

  5. Growing degree day calculator

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Degree-day benchmarks indicate discrete biological events in the development of insect pests. For the Sparganothis fruitworm, we have isolated all key development events and linked them to degree-day accumulations. These degree-day accumulations can greatly improve treatment timings for cranberry IP...

  6. Associate Degree Preferred.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parnell, Dale, Ed.

    Designed to encourage dialogue and inform decision making about the associate degree, this book presents perspectives on the role of the associate degree in the nation's two-year colleges. First, "Toward a Greater Degree: A Plan of Action," by Dale Parnell, suggests a plan for preserving and enhancing the value of the education being provided by…

  7. Total synthesis of (-)-CP2-disorazole C1.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, Chad D; Schmitz, John C; Chu, Edward; Wipf, Peter

    2011-08-05

    The total synthesis of a bis-cyclopropane analog of the antimitotic natural product (-)-disorazole C(1) was accomplished in 23 steps and 1.1% overall yield. A vinyl cyclopropane cross-metathesis reaction generated a key (E)-alkene segment of the target molecule. IC(50) determinations of (-)-CP(2)-disorazole C(1) in human colon cancer cell lines indicated low nanomolar cytotoxic properties. Accordingly, this synthetic bioisostere represents the first biologically active disorazole analog not containing a conjugated diene or polyene substructure element.

  8. 41 CFR 302-10.6 - Are the allowances for transporting a mobile home in addition to the allowances for per diem...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Are the allowances for transporting a mobile home in addition to the allowances for per diem, mileage, and transportation expenses, for me and my immediate family member(s)? 302-10.6 Section 302-10.6 Public Contracts and...

  9. 26 CFR 1.1092(c)-1 - Qualified covered calls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Qualified covered calls. 1.1092(c)-1 Section 1... stock price of $14.84. Using the bench marks for an equity option with standardized terms with an adjusted applicable stock price of $14.84, the highest available strike price less than the...

  10. 26 CFR 1.1092(c)-1 - Qualified covered calls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Qualified covered calls. 1.1092(c)-1 Section 1... stock price of $14.84. Using the bench marks for an equity option with standardized terms with an adjusted applicable stock price of $14.84, the highest available strike price less than the...

  11. THE HIGH-VELOCITY MOLECULAR OUTFLOWS IN MASSIVE CLUSTER-FORMING REGION G10.6-0.4

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Hauyu Baobab; Ho, Paul T. P.; Zhang Qizhou E-mail: pho@asiaa.sinica.edu.t

    2010-12-20

    We report the arcsecond resolution Submillimeter Array observations of the {sup 12}CO (2-1) transition in the massive cluster-forming region G10.6-0.4. In these observations, the high-velocity {sup 12}CO emission is resolved into individual outflow systems, which have a typical size scale of a few arcseconds. These molecular outflows are energetic and are interacting with the ambient molecular gas. By inspecting the shock signatures traced by CH{sub 3}OH, SiO, and HCN emissions, we suggest that abundant star formation activities are distributed over the entire 0.5 pc scale dense molecular envelope. The star formation efficiency over one global free-fall timescale (of the 0.5 pc molecular envelope, {approx}10{sup 5} years) is about a few percent. The total energy feedback of these high-velocity outflows is higher than 10{sup 47} erg, which is comparable to the total kinetic energy in the rotational motion of the dense molecular envelope. From order-of-magnitude estimations, we suggest that the energy injected from the protostellar outflows is capable of balancing the turbulent energy dissipation. No high-velocity bipolar molecular outflow associated with the central OB cluster is directly detected, which can be due to the photoionization.

  12. Caudally directed Inferior facetal and transfacetal screws for C1-C2 and C1-2-3 fixation.

    PubMed

    Goel, Atul

    2017-01-13

    An alternative caudally directed C2 inferior facetal screw is described. Such screw insertion can form the axial stabilization point in cases undergoing atlantoaxial lateral mass plate/rod and screw fixation and those undergoing C1-2and C1-2-3 spinal fixation. The C2 screw courses from the medial point of pedicle-laminar junction and travels caudally and laterally towards the C2-3 articulation. Deploying a longer screw that traverses in a transarticular fashion into the facetal mass of C3 vertebra one can perform C1-2-3 stabilization.Sixteen patients underwent C2 inferior facetal or C2-3 transarticular screw in combination with C1 screw for atlantoaxial fixation. Three of these patients with multilevel spinal instability underwent atlantoaxial and C2-3 fixation using the discussed technique. The technical issues, anatomical subtleties and indication for the use of the C2 inferior facetal screws are discussed. With an average follow-up of 9 months, all screws have successfully provided stability that resulted in arthrodesis of the treated spinal segments. Caudally directed C2 inferior facetal screw can enhance the armamentarium of the surgeon, provide an alternative to conventional techniques or a bailout option and add to safety of the procedure of atlantoaxial lateral mass fixation in anatomically challenged situations.

  13. The effect of excision of the posterior arch of C1 on C1/C2 fusion using transarticular screws.

    PubMed

    Chang, K C; Samartzis, D; Fuego, S M; Dhatt, S S; Wong, Y W; Cheung, W Y; Luk, K D K; Cheung, K M C

    2013-07-01

    Transarticular screw fixation with autograft is an established procedure for the surgical treatment of atlantoaxial instability. Removal of the posterior arch of C1 may affect the rate of fusion. This study assessed the rate of atlantoaxial fusion using transarticular screws with or without removal of the posterior arch of C1. We reviewed 30 consecutive patients who underwent atlantoaxial fusion with a minimum follow-up of two years. In 25 patients (group A) the posterior arch of C1 was not excised (group A) and in five it was (group B). Fusion was assessed on static and dynamic radiographs. In selected patients CT imaging was also used to assess fusion and the position of the screws. There were 15 men and 15 women with a mean age of 51.2 years (23 to 77) and a mean follow-up of 7.7 years (2 to 11.6). Stable union with a solid fusion or a stable fibrous union was achieved in 29 patients (97%). In Group A, 20 patients (80%) achieved a solid fusion, four (16%) a stable fibrous union and one (4%) a nonunion. In Group B, stable union was achieved in all patients, three having a solid fusion and two a stable fibrous union. There was no statistically significant difference between the status of fusion in the two groups. Complications were noted in 12 patients (40%); these were mainly related to the screws, and included malpositioning and breakage. The presence of an intact or removed posterior arch of C1 did not affect the rate of fusion in patients with atlantoaxial instability undergoing C1/C2 fusion using transarticular screws and autograft.

  14. Potential of CO2 lasers (10.6 µm) associated with fluorides in inhibiting human enamel erosion.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Oliveira, Thayanne Monteiro; Ramos, Thaysa Monteiro; Esteves-Oliveira, Marcela; Apel, Christian; Fischer, Horst; Eduardo, Carlos de Paula; Steagall, Washington; Freitas, Patricia Moreira de

    2014-01-01

    This in vitro study aimed to investigate the potential of CO2 lasers associated with different fluoride agents in inhibiting enamel erosion. Human enamel samples were randomly divided into 9 groups (n = 12): G1-eroded enamel; G2-APF gel; G3-AmF/NaF gel; G4-AmF/SnF2 solution; G5-CO2 laser (λ = 10.6 µm)+APF gel; G6-CO2 laser+AmF/NaF gel; G7-CO2laser+AmF/SnF2solution; G8-CO2 laser; and G9-sound enamel. The CO2 laser parameters were: 0.45 J/cm2; 6 μs; and 128 Hz. After surface treatment, the samples (except from G9) were immersed in 1% citric acid (pH 4.0, 3 min). Surface microhardness was measured at baseline and after surface softening. The data were statistically analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Tukey's tests (p < 0.05). G2 (407.6 ± 37.3) presented the highest mean SMH after softening, followed by G3 (407.5 ± 29.8) and G5 (399.7 ± 32.9). Within the fluoride-treated groups, G4 (309.0 ± 24.4) had a significantly lower mean SMH than G3 and G2, which were statistically similar to each other. AmF/NaF and APF application showed potential to protect and control erosion progression in dental enamel, and CO2 laser irradiation at 0.45J/cm2 did not influence its efficacy. CO2 laser irradiation alone under the same conditions could also significantly decrease enamel erosive mineral loss, although at lower levels.

  15. C1-transport in gastric micorsomes. An ATP-dependent influx sensitive to membrane potential and to protein kinase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Soumarmon, A; Abastado, M; Bonfils, S; Lewin, M J

    1980-12-25

    Uptakes of radioactive C1- or 1- by gastric microsomal vesicles were stimulated 2- to 8-fold by AtP. The sensitivity of those uptakes to a C1- in equilibrium OH- ionophore and to osmotic swelling suggested they were due to transport rather than to binding. The ATP effect was labile, but dithiothreitol and methanol improved its stability. The stimulation of anion transport required magnesium; GTP and UTP were less potent than ATP whereas ADP and AMP had no effect. The apparent Km for ATP was estimated to be 2 X 10(-4) M at 22 degrees C. The rate of the ATP-dependent transport showed saturation-type kinetics, with half-maximal uptake at 10 mM for I- and 15 mM for C1-. Nonradioactive C1-, I-, and SCN- competed with 125I- uptake while SO42- did not. K+ valinomycin increased the ATP-dependent C1- uptake. The thermostable inhibitor of cAMP-dependent protein kinases inhibited the effect of ATP. These results suggest the existence of an anion conductance, permeant to C1-, I-, and SCN- and nonpermeant to SO42-, which could be linked to a cAMP-dependent protein kinase.

  16. Complement C1r and C1s genes are duplicated in the mouse: differential expression generates alternative isomorphs in the liver and in the male reproductive system.

    PubMed Central

    Garnier, Gérard; Circolo, Antonella; Xu, Yuanyuan; Volanakis, John E

    2003-01-01

    C1r and C1s are the serine proteases that form the catalytic unit of the C1 complex, the first component of complement. In the present study, we found that the genes encoding murine C1r and C1s are duplicated. One set of these genes, referred to as c1rA and c1sA, are primarily expressed in the liver and are therefore the homologues of the human C1r and C1s genes. The other two genes, termed c1rB and c1sB, are expressed exclusively in male reproductive tissues, specifically the coagulating gland and the prostate. The predicted C1rB and C1sB proteins share 96 and 93% amino acid identity with C1rA and C1sA respectively. Most of the substitutions are clustered in the serine protease domains, suggesting differences in catalytic efficiencies and/or substrate specificities or alternatively adaptation to different physiological environments. The high homology of C1rB and C1sB with C1rA and C1sA in the non-catalytic regions indicates that they are probably capable of assembling the C1 complex. The expression of alternative genes encoding isomorphs of activating components of complement in male reproductive tissues raises the possibility of new mechanisms of complement activation in the male genital tract or of novel functions for complement proteases in reproduction. PMID:12513694

  17. Hereditary angioedema with normal C1 inhibitor: clinical characteristics and treatment response with plasma-derived human C1 inhibitor concentrate (Berinert(®)) in a French cohort.

    PubMed

    Bouillet, Laurence; Boccon-Gibod, Isabelle; Gompel, Anne; Floccard, Bernard; Martin, Ludovic; Blanchard-Delaunay, Claire; Launay, David; Fain, Olivier

    2017-03-01

    Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is a rare genetic disorder characterised by episodes of swelling without urticaria. Berinert® (CSL Behring) is a plasma-derived human C1 inhibitor (C1-INH) concentrate, approved for the treatment of HAE with C1-INH deficiency (C1-INH-HAE), however, it is often used off-label in Europe to treat HAE with normal C1-INH.

  18. GATEWAYS: Degree program alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Strong, K.R.; Thayer, M.M.

    1991-11-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory is using non-traditional solutions to assist employees in attaining degrees required for essential Laboratory operations. Varieties of distance learning technologies have been implemented to meet some degree needs. While distance learning is not always a perfect solution, it enables the Laboratory to provide education that would otherwise not be practical for full-time employees. The Laboratory has also formed partnerships with local colleges to design programs to fill particular needs. Meeting the challenge of providing cost-effective, viable degree programs in an isolated location requires both patience and innovation.

  19. Galactosylation of IgA1 Is Associated with Common Variation in C1GALT1.

    PubMed

    Gale, Daniel P; Molyneux, Karen; Wimbury, David; Higgins, Patricia; Levine, Adam P; Caplin, Ben; Ferlin, Anna; Yin, Peiran; Nelson, Christopher P; Stanescu, Horia; Samani, Nilesh J; Kleta, Robert; Yu, Xueqing; Barratt, Jonathan

    2017-02-16

    IgA nephropathy (IgAN), an important cause of kidney failure, is characterized by glomerular IgA deposition and is associated with changes in O-glycosylation of the IgA1 molecule. Here, we sought to identify genetic factors contributing to levels of galactose-deficient IgA1 (Gd-IgA1) in white and Chinese populations. Gd-IgA1 levels were elevated in IgAN patients compared with ethnically matched healthy subjects and correlated with evidence of disease progression. White patients with IgAN exhibited significantly higher Gd-IgA1 levels than did Chinese patients. Among individuals without IgAN, Gd-IgA1 levels did not correlate with kidney function. Gd-IgA1 level heritability (h(2)), estimated by comparing midparental and offspring Gd-IgA1 levels, was 0.39. Genome-wide association analysis by linear regression identified alleles at a single locus spanning the C1GALT1 gene that strongly associated with Gd-IgA1 level (β=0.26; P=2.35×10(-9)). This association was replicated in a genome-wide association study of separate cohorts comprising 308 patients with membranous GN from the UK (P<1.00×10(-6)) and 622 controls with normal kidney function from the UK (P<1.00×10(-10)), and in a candidate gene study of 704 Chinese patients with IgAN (P<1.00×10(-5)). The same extended haplotype associated with elevated Gd-IgA1 levels in all cohorts studied. C1GALT1 encodes a galactosyltransferase enzyme that is important in O-galactosylation of glycoproteins. These findings demonstrate that common variation at C1GALT1 influences Gd-IgA1 level in the population, which independently associates with risk of progressive IgAN, and that the pathogenic importance of changes in IgA1 O-glycosylation may vary between white and Chinese patients with IgAN.

  20. Reduction of CO2 to C1 products and fuel

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mill, T.; Ross, D.

    2002-01-01

    Photochemical semiconductor processes readily reduced CO2 to a broad range of C1 products. However the intrinsic and solar efficiencies for the processes were low. Improved quantum efficiencies could be realized utilizing quantum-sized particles, but at the expense of using less of the visible solar spectrum. Conversely, semiconductors with small bandgaps used more of the visible solar spectrum at the expense of quantum efficiency. Thermal reduction of CO2 with Fe(II) was thermodynamically favored for forming many kinds of organic compounds and occurred readily with olivine and other Fe(II) minerals above 200??C to form higher alkanes and alkenes. No added hydrogen was required.

  1. C1-Cx revisited: intramolecular synergism in a cellulase.

    PubMed Central

    Din, N; Damude, H G; Gilkes, N R; Miller, R C; Warren, R A; Kilburn, D G

    1994-01-01

    Endoglucanase A (CenA) from the bacterium Cellulomonas fimi is composed of a catalytic domain and a nonhydrolytic cellulose-binding domain that can function independently. The individual domains interact synergistically in the disruption and hydrolysis of cellulose fibers. This intramolecular synergism is distinct from the well-known intermolecular synergism between individual cellulases. The catalytic domain corresponds to the hydrolytic Cx system and the cellulose-binding domain corresponds to the nonhydrolytic C1 system postulated by Reese et al. [Reese, E. T., Sui, R. G. H. & Levinson, H. S. (1950) J. Bacteriol. 59, 485-497] to be required for the hydrolysis of cellulose. PMID:7972069

  2. Posterior arch C-1 screw technique: a cadaveric comparison study.

    PubMed

    Moisi, Marc; Fisahn, Christian; Tkachenko, Lara; Jeyamohan, Shiveindra; Reintjes, Stephen; Grunert, Peter; Norvell, Daniel C; Tubbs, R Shane; Page, Jeni; Newell, David W; Nora, Peter; Oskouian, Rod J; Chapman, Jens

    2017-03-17

    OBJECTIVE Posterior atlantoaxial stabilization and fusion using C-1 lateral mass screw fixation has become commonly used in the treatment of instability and for reconstructive indications since its introduction by Goel and Laheri in 1994 and modification by Harms in 2001. Placement of such lateral mass screws can be challenging because of the proximity to the spinal cord, vertebral artery, an extensive venous plexus, and the C-2 nerve root, which overlies the designated starting point on the posterior center of the lateral mass. An alternative posterior access point starting on the posterior arch of C-1 could provide a C-2 nerve root-sparing starting point for screw placement, with the potential benefit of greater directional control and simpler trajectory. The authors present a cadaveric study comparing an alternative strategy (i.e., a C-1 screw with a posterior arch starting point) to the conventional strategy (i.e., using the lower lateral mass entry site), specifically assessing the safety of screw placement to preserve the C-2 nerve root. METHODS Five US-trained spine fellows instrumented 17 fresh human cadaveric heads using the Goel/Harms C-1 lateral mass (GHLM) technique on the left and the posterior arch lateral mass (PALM) technique on the right, under fluoroscopic guidance. After screw placement, a CT scan was obtained on each specimen to assess for radiographic screw placement accuracy. Four faculty spine surgeons, blinded to the surgeon who instrumented the cadaver, independently graded the quality of screw placement using a modified Upendra classification. RESULTS Of the 17 specimens, the C-2 nerve root was anatomically impinged in 13 (76.5%) of the specimens. The GHLM technique was graded Type 1 or 2, which is considered "acceptable," in 12 specimens (70.6%), and graded Type 3 or 4 ("unacceptable") in 5 specimens (29.4%). In contrast, the PALM technique had 17 (100%) of 17 graded Type 1 or 2 (p = 0.015). There were no vertebral artery injuries found

  3. Degree by Thesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Courtis, Barbara

    1974-01-01

    Discusses a student's experience with a research project on the synthesis and reactions of an organo-platinum complex with an organo-Group IV linkage, including the advantages and disadvantages of such a degree by thesis course. (CC)

  4. Analysis of the Interaction between Globular Head Modules of Human C1q and Its Candidate Receptor gC1qR

    PubMed Central

    Pednekar, Lina; Pathan, Ansar A.; Paudyal, Basudev; Tsolaki, Anthony G.; Kaur, Anuvinder; Abozaid, Suhair M.; Kouser, Lubna; Khan, Haseeb A.; Peerschke, Ellinor I.; Shamji, Mohamed H.; Stenbeck, Gudrun; Ghebrehiwet, Berhane; Kishore, Uday

    2016-01-01

    The heterotrimeric globular head (gC1q) domain of human C1q is made up of the C-terminal ends of the three individual chains, ghA, ghB, and ghC. A candidate receptor for the gC1q domain is a multi-functional pattern recognition protein, gC1qR. Since understanding of gC1qR and gC1q interaction could provide an insight into the pleiotropic functions of gC1qR, this study was undertaken to identify the gC1qR-binding site on the gC1q domain, using the recombinant ghA, ghB, and ghC modules and their substitution mutants. Our results show that ghA, ghB, and ghC modules can interact with gC1qR independently, thus reinforcing the notion of modularity within the gC1q domain of human C1q. Mutational analysis revealed that while Arg162 in the ghA module is central to interaction between gC1qR and C1q, a single amino acid substitution (arginine to glutamate) in residue 114 of the ghB module resulted in enhanced binding. Expression of gC1qR and C1q in adherent monocytes with or without pro-inflammatory stimuli was also analyzed by qPCR; it showed an autocrine/paracrine basis of C1q and gC1qR interaction. Microscopic studies revealed that C1q and gC1qR are colocalized on PBMCs. Cell proliferation assays indicated that ghA, ghB, and ghC modules were able to attenuate phytohemagglutinin-stimulated proliferation of PBMCs. Addition of gC1qR had an additive effect on the anti-proliferative effect of globular head modules. In summary, our results identify residues involved in C1q-gC1qR interaction and explain, to a certain level, their involvement on the immune cell surface, which is relevant for C1q-induced functions including inflammation, infection, and immunity. PMID:28018340

  5. Analysis of the Interaction between Globular Head Modules of Human C1q and Its Candidate Receptor gC1qR.

    PubMed

    Pednekar, Lina; Pathan, Ansar A; Paudyal, Basudev; Tsolaki, Anthony G; Kaur, Anuvinder; Abozaid, Suhair M; Kouser, Lubna; Khan, Haseeb A; Peerschke, Ellinor I; Shamji, Mohamed H; Stenbeck, Gudrun; Ghebrehiwet, Berhane; Kishore, Uday

    2016-01-01

    The heterotrimeric globular head (gC1q) domain of human C1q is made up of the C-terminal ends of the three individual chains, ghA, ghB, and ghC. A candidate receptor for the gC1q domain is a multi-functional pattern recognition protein, gC1qR. Since understanding of gC1qR and gC1q interaction could provide an insight into the pleiotropic functions of gC1qR, this study was undertaken to identify the gC1qR-binding site on the gC1q domain, using the recombinant ghA, ghB, and ghC modules and their substitution mutants. Our results show that ghA, ghB, and ghC modules can interact with gC1qR independently, thus reinforcing the notion of modularity within the gC1q domain of human C1q. Mutational analysis revealed that while Arg162 in the ghA module is central to interaction between gC1qR and C1q, a single amino acid substitution (arginine to glutamate) in residue 114 of the ghB module resulted in enhanced binding. Expression of gC1qR and C1q in adherent monocytes with or without pro-inflammatory stimuli was also analyzed by qPCR; it showed an autocrine/paracrine basis of C1q and gC1qR interaction. Microscopic studies revealed that C1q and gC1qR are colocalized on PBMCs. Cell proliferation assays indicated that ghA, ghB, and ghC modules were able to attenuate phytohemagglutinin-stimulated proliferation of PBMCs. Addition of gC1qR had an additive effect on the anti-proliferative effect of globular head modules. In summary, our results identify residues involved in C1q-gC1qR interaction and explain, to a certain level, their involvement on the immune cell surface, which is relevant for C1q-induced functions including inflammation, infection, and immunity.

  6. Effects of 2.1 and 3.5x10(6) sex-sorted sperm dosages on conception rates of Holstein cows and heifers.

    PubMed

    DeJarnette, J M; McCleary, C R; Leach, M A; Moreno, J F; Nebel, R L; Marshall, C E

    2010-09-01

    The objective was to compare conceptions rates of Holstein cows and heifers after artificial insemination (AI) with 2.1 or 3.5x10(6) sex-sorted sperm or 15x10(6) conventional sperm. Ejaculates collected from 7 Holstein sires were cryopreserved conventionally at 15x10(6) sperm per dose or sorted to 90% purity for X-chromosome-bearing spermatozoa using flow cytometry and cryopreserved at either 2.1 or 3.5x10(6) sperm per dose. All treatments were processed in an egg-yolk (20%), Tris, glycerol (7%) extender and packaged in color-coded 0.25-mL French straws. Straws (n=700 straws/dosage per sire) were packaged and distributed in aliquots of 12 (4 straws/sperm dosage) to 69 Holstein herds with an across-herd goal of achieving approximately 50% use in heifers and cows. Straw color was recorded in the on-farm recordkeeping system at the time of AI and retrieved by electronic download. Data for cows and heifers were analyzed separately. Among heifers, 6,268 services were retrieved from 45 herds (298+/-4.2 services/sperm dose per sire; range: 244 to 344). Conception rate of heifers was influenced by the sire by treatment interaction. Conception rate of the 2.1 and 3.5x10(6) sex-sorted sperm dosages were comparable in 6 of 7 sires. Conception rate of both sex-sorted dosages were less than those of conventional semen for 6 of 7 sires. Across sires, heifer conception rates for 2.1 and 3.5x10(6) sex-sorted sperm dosages and 15x10(6) conventional dosages were 44, 46, and 61%, respectively. Among cows, 5,466 services were retrieved from 52 herds (260+/-3.3 services/sperm dose per sire; range: 236 to 289). Conception rates of cows were influenced by herd, sire, and sperm dosage. Conception rates of the 2.1 and 3.5x10(6) sex-sorted sperm dosage were comparable for all 7 sires. Conception rates of 2.1x10(6) sex-sorted sperm dosage were less than those of conventional semen for 4 of 7 sires and conception rates of the 3.5x10(6) sex-sorted sperm dosage were less than those of

  7. Interaction of HmC1q with leech microglial cells: involvement of C1qBP-related molecule in the induction of cell chemotaxis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In invertebrates, the medicinal leech is considered to be an interesting and appropriate model to study neuroimmune mechanisms. Indeed, this non-vertebrate animal can restore normal function of its central nervous system (CNS) after injury. Microglia accumulation at the damage site has been shown to be required for axon sprouting and for efficient regeneration. We characterized HmC1q as a novel chemotactic factor for leech microglial cell recruitment. In mammals, a C1q-binding protein (C1qBP alias gC1qR), which interacts with the globular head of C1q, has been reported to participate in C1q-mediated chemotaxis of blood immune cells. In this study, we evaluated the chemotactic activities of a recombinant form of HmC1q and its interaction with a newly characterized leech C1qBP that acts as its potential ligand. Methods Recombinant HmC1q (rHmC1q) was produced in the yeast Pichia pastoris. Chemotaxis assays were performed to investigate rHmC1q-dependent microglia migration. The involvement of a C1qBP-related molecule in this chemotaxis mechanism was assessed by flow cytometry and with affinity purification experiments. The cellular localization of C1qBP mRNA and protein in leech was investigated using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization techniques. Results rHmC1q-stimulated microglia migrate in a dose-dependent manner. This rHmC1q-induced chemotaxis was reduced when cells were preincubated with either anti-HmC1q or anti-human C1qBP antibodies. A C1qBP-related molecule was characterized in leech microglia. Conclusions A previous study showed that recruitment of microglia is observed after HmC1q release at the cut end of axons. Here, we demonstrate that rHmC1q-dependent chemotaxis might be driven via a HmC1q-binding protein located on the microglial cell surface. Taken together, these results highlight the importance of the interaction between C1q and C1qBP in microglial activation leading to nerve repair in the medicinal leech. PMID:22356764

  8. Overview of GCOM-C1/SGLI science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honda, Yoshiaki; Kajiwara, Koji; Sharma, Ram; Ono, Akiko; Imaoka, Kenji; Murakami, Hiroshi; Hori, Masahiro; Ono, Yusaku; Rostand, Dim

    2012-11-01

    For monitoring of global environmental change, the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) has made a new plan of Global Change Observation Mission (GCOM). SGLI (Second Generation GLI) onboard GCOM-C (Climate) satellite, which is one of this mission, provides an optical sensor from Near-UV to TIR. Characteristic specifications of SGLI are as follows; 1) 250m resolutions over land and area along the shore, 2) Three directional polarization observation (red and NIR), and 3) 500m resolutions temperature over land and area along shore. These characteristics are useful in many fields of social benefits. In addition, 51 products will be made by mainly 35 principal investigators. We introduce the overview of GCOM-C1/SGLI science.

  9. Plasma enhanced C1 chemistry for green technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nozaki, Tomohiro

    2013-09-01

    Plasma catalysis is one of the innovative next generation green technologies that meet the needs for energy and materials conservation as well as environmental protection. Non-thermal plasma uniquely generates reactive species independently of reaction temperature, and these species are used to initiate chemical reactions at unexpectedly lower temperatures than normal thermochemical reactions. Non-thermal plasma thus broadens the operation window of existing chemical conversion processes, and ultimately allows modification of the process parameters to minimize energy and material consumption. We have been specifically focusing on dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) as one of the viable non-thermal plasma sources for practical fuel reforming. In the presentation, room temperature one-step conversion of methane to methanol and hydrogen using a miniaturized DBD reactor (microplasma reactor) is highlighted. The practical impact of plasma technology on existing C1-chemistry is introduced, and then unique characteristics of plasma fuel reforming such as non-equilibrium product distribution is discussed.

  10. C1,1 regularity for degenerate elliptic obstacle problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daskalopoulos, Panagiota; Feehan, Paul M. N.

    2016-03-01

    The Heston stochastic volatility process is a degenerate diffusion process where the degeneracy in the diffusion coefficient is proportional to the square root of the distance to the boundary of the half-plane. The generator of this process with killing, called the elliptic Heston operator, is a second-order, degenerate-elliptic partial differential operator, where the degeneracy in the operator symbol is proportional to the distance to the boundary of the half-plane. In mathematical finance, solutions to the obstacle problem for the elliptic Heston operator correspond to value functions for perpetual American-style options on the underlying asset. With the aid of weighted Sobolev spaces and weighted Hölder spaces, we establish the optimal C 1 , 1 regularity (up to the boundary of the half-plane) for solutions to obstacle problems for the elliptic Heston operator when the obstacle functions are sufficiently smooth.

  11. A Selection of Recent Advances in C1 Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Mesters, Carl

    2016-06-07

    This review presents a selection of recent publications related to the chemistry and catalysis of C1 molecules, including methane, methanol, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide. These molecules play an important role in the current supply of energy and chemicals and will likely become even more relevant because of the need to decarbonize fuels (shift from coal to natural gas) in line with CO2 capture and use to mitigate global warming, as well as a gradual shift on the supply side from crude oil to natural gas. This review includes both recent industrial developments, such as the huge increase in methanol-to-olefins-capacity build in China and the demonstration of oxidative coupling of methane, and scientific developments in these chemistries facilitated by improved capabilities in, for example, analytical tools and computational modeling.

  12. 75 FR 53861 - Airworthiness Directives; Robert E. Rust, Jr. Model DeHavilland DH.C1 Chipmunk 21, DH.C1 Chipmunk...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-02

    ...-025-AD; Amendment 39-16426; AD 2010-18-01] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Robert E. Rust, Jr... adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for all Robert E. Rust, Jr. Models DeHavilland DH.C1 Chipmunk... Robert E. Rust, Jr. Models DeHavilland DH.C1 Chipmunk 21, DH.C1 Chipmunk 22, and DH.C1 Chipmunk...

  13. The "Clinical" Masters Degree.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perlman, Baron; Lane, Robert

    1981-01-01

    Discusses issues surrounding the clinical master's degree: the belief that the only true psychologist is a PhD, public confusion between doctoral and subdoctoral psychologists, training guidelines, role responsibility, employment, licensing and competency, accreditation, and supervision. Suggests an APA sponsored conference to discuss and resolve…

  14. Registered Nurse (Associate Degree).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This document, which is designed for use in developing a tech prep competency profile for the occupation of registered nurse (with an associate degree), lists technical competencies and competency builders for 19 units pertinent to the health technologies cluster in general and 5 units specific to the occupation of registered nurse. The following…

  15. Catalytic routes to fuels from C1 and oxygenate molecules.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuai; Agirrezabal-Telleria, Iker; Bhan, Aditya; Simonetti, Dante; Takanabe, Kazuhiro; Iglesia, Enrique

    2017-03-16

    This account illustrates concepts in chemical kinetics underpinned by the formalism of transition state theory using catalytic processes that enable the synthesis of molecules suitable as fuels from C1 and oxygenate reactants. Such feedstocks provide an essential bridge towards a carbon-free energy future, but their volatility and low energy density require the formation of new C-C bonds and the removal of oxygen. These transformations are described here through recent advances in our understanding of the mechanisms and site requirements in catalysis by surfaces, with emphasis on enabling concepts that tackle ubiquitous reactivity and selectivity challenges. The hurdles in forming the first C-C bond from C1 molecules are illustrated by the oxidative coupling of methane, in which surface O-atoms form OH radicals from O2 and H2O molecules. These gaseous OH species act as strong H-abstractors and activate C-H bonds with earlier transition states than oxide surfaces, thus rendering activation rates less sensitive to the weaker C-H bonds in larger alkane products than in CH4 reactants. Anhydrous carbonylation of dimethyl ether forms a single C-C bond on protons residing within inorganic voids that preferentially stabilize the kinetically-relevant transition state through van der Waals interactions that compensate for the weak CO nucleophile. Similar solvation effects, but by intrapore liquids instead of inorganic hosts, also become evident as alkenes condense within MCM-41 channels containing isolated Ni(2+) active sites during dimerization reactions. Intrapore liquids preferentially stabilize transition states for C-C bond formation and product desorption, leading to unprecedented reactivity and site stability at sub-ambient temperatures and to 1-alkene dimer selectivities previously achieved only on organometallic systems with co-catalysts or activators. C1 homologation selectively forms C4 and C7 chains with a specific backbone (isobutane, triptane) on solid acids

  16. Forkhead Box C1 Regulates Human Primary Keratinocyte Terminal Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Liehua; Yang, Hengwen; Zhu, Leqing; Wang, Xiao; Edwards, Michael G.; Richers, Brittany; Leung, Donald Y. M.

    2016-01-01

    The epidermis serves as a critical protective barrier between the internal and external environment of the human body. Its remarkable barrier function is established through the keratinocyte (KC) terminal differentiation program. The transcription factors specifically regulating terminal differentiation remain largely unknown. Using a RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) profiling approach, we found that forkhead box c 1 (FOXC1) was significantly up-regulated in human normal primary KC during the course of differentiation. This observation was validated in human normal primary KC from several different donors and human skin biopsies. Silencing FOXC1 in human normal primary KC undergoing differentiation led to significant down-regulation of late terminal differentiation genes markers including epidermal differentiation complex genes, keratinization genes, sphingolipid/ceramide metabolic process genes and epidermal specific cell-cell adhesion genes. We further demonstrated that FOXC1 works down-stream of ZNF750 and KLF4, and upstream of GRHL3. Thus, this study defines FOXC1 as a regulator specific for KC terminal differentiation and establishes its potential position in the genetic regulatory network. PMID:27907090

  17. Near-ultraviolet spectroscopy of Comet Austin (1989c1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valk, Jacobus H.; O'Dell, C. R.; Cochran, Anita L.; Cochran, William D.; Opal, Chet B. S.; Barker, Edwin S.

    1992-01-01

    Comet Austin (1989c1) was observed post-perihelion at a heliocentric distance near 1.25 AU. The wavelength range was from the atmospheric cutoff at 3000 to 4000 A. The coma spectra were calibrated into flux units and the contaminating sky spectrum and solar scattered light continuum were subtracted, leaving an ultraviolet spectrum of about 1.5-A resolution and excellent signal-to-noise ratio. The spectrum is dominated by emissions from OH, NH, CH, C3, and CN, some of the weaker emissions of which are seen here for the first time. More bands of CO(2+) were found than in any previous investigation and several intensity anomalies were noted; H2CO, OH(+), NCN, N(2+), and CN(+) may be present. Several emission features well above the noise level remain unidentified. The relative intensities of the OH and CN bands agree with the predictions of resonance fluorescence when one considers the potential effects of contamination by other molecules. The effects of the ozone absorption spectrum are not fully removed by the data-reduction process, although this does not affect these results.

  18. Human C1qRp is identical with CD93 and the mNI-11 antigen but does not bind C1q.

    PubMed

    McGreal, Eamon P; Ikewaki, Nobunao; Akatsu, Hiroyasu; Morgan, B Paul; Gasque, Philippe

    2002-05-15

    It has been suggested that the human C1qRp is a receptor for the complement component C1q; however, there is no direct evidence for an interaction between C1q and C1qRp. In this study, we demonstrate that C1q does not show enhanced binding to C1qRp-transfected cells compared with control cells. Furthermore, a soluble recombinant C1qRp-Fc chimera failed to interact with immobilized C1q. The proposed role of C1qRp in the phagocytic response in vivo is also unsupported in that we demonstrate that this molecule is not expressed by macrophages in a variety of human tissues and the predominant site of expression is on endothelial cells. Studies on the rodent homolog of C1qRp, known as AA4, have suggested that this molecule may function as an intercellular adhesion molecule. Here we show that C1qRp is the Ag recognized by several previously described mAbs, mNI-11 and two anti-CD93 Abs (clones X2 and VIMD2b). Interestingly, mNI-11 (Fab') has been shown to promote monocyte-monocyte and monocyte-endothelial cell adhesive interactions. We produced a recombinant C1qRp-Fc chimera containing the C-type lectin-like domain of C1qRp and found specific binding to vascular endothelial cells in sections of inflamed human tonsil, indicating the presence of a C1qRp ligand at this site. This interaction was Ca(2+) independent and was not blocked by our anti-C1qRp mAb BIIG-4, but was blocked by the proadhesive mAb mNI-11. Collectively, these data indicate that C1qRp is not a receptor for C1q, and they support the emerging role of C1qRp (here renamed CD93) in functions relevant to intercellular adhesion.

  19. Fabrication of dye-sensitized solar cells using chlorophylls c1 and c2 and their oxidized forms c1' and c2' from Undaria pinnatifida (Wakame)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiao-Feng; Zhan, Cong-Hong; Maoka, Takashi; Wada, Yuji; Koyama, Yasushi

    2007-10-01

    Two different types of chlorophyll c ( c1 and c2) and their oxidized forms ( c1' and c2') were isolated from a brown seaweed, Undaria pinnatifida, and their structures were determined by mass spectrometry and 1H NMR spectroscopy. The order of conversion efficiencies in titania-based solar cells using these chlorophyll sensitizers, i.e., c2(4.6%)>c1(3.4%)>c2'(2.6%)≧c1'(2.5%), were explained in terms of a more extended conjugated system and the resultant higher electron densities in Chl c2 than Chl c1 as well as the different configurations and electron densities of the vinyl carboxyl group in Chls c2' and c1'.

  20. When Graduate Degrees Prostitute the Educational Process: Degrees Gone Wild

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lumadue, Richard T.

    2006-01-01

    Graduate degrees prostitute the educational process when they are sold to consumers by unaccredited degree/diploma mills as being equivalent to legitimate, bona-fide degrees awarded by accredited graduate schools. This article carefully analyzes the serious problems of bogus degrees and their association with the religious higher education…

  1. The production and secretion of complement component C1q by human mast cells.

    PubMed

    van Schaarenburg, Rosanne A; Suurmond, Jolien; Habets, Kim L L; Brouwer, Mieke C; Wouters, Diana; Kurreeman, Fina A S; Huizinga, Tom W J; Toes, René E M; Trouw, Leendert A

    2016-10-01

    C1q is the initiation molecule of the classical pathway of the complement system and is produced by macrophages and immature dendritic cells. As mast cells share the same myeloid progenitor cells, we have studied whether also mast cells can produce and secrete C1q. Mast cells were generated in vitro from CD34+ progenitor cells from buffy coats or cord blood. Fully differentiated mast cells were shown by both RNA sequencing and qPCR to express C1QA, C1QB and C1QC. C1q produced by mast cells has a similar molecular make-up as serum C1q. Reconstituting C1q depleted serum with mast cell supernatant in haemolytic assays, indicated that C1q secreted by mast cells is functionally active. The level of C1q in supernatants produced under basal conditions was considerably enhanced upon stimulation with LPS, dexamethasone in combination with IFN- γ or via FcεRI triggering. Mast cells in human tissues stained positive for C1q in both healthy and in inflamed tissue. Moreover, mast cells in healthy and diseased skin appear to be the predominant C1q positive cells. Together, our data reveal that mast cells are able to produce and secrete functional active C1q and indicate mast cells as a local source of C1q in human tissue.

  2. Extinction of 10.6 μm laser radiation by free electrons in an argon filamentary discharge at atmospheric pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, S. H.; Yang, H. J.; Mironov, A. E.; Park, S.-J.; Eden, J. G.

    2016-09-01

    Experiments will be described in which the extinction of 10.6 μm photons by free electrons in a single filamentary discharge is being studied. The extinction ranges from 3 to 10 percent over a path length of 1 cm, depending on the argon flow rate. The temporally- and spatially-averaged electron density in the filament is approximately 1015 cm-3, as determined by Stark broadening of the hydrogen alpha (656.28 nm) and argon I (696.54 nm) lines. Calculations indicate that the observed extinction of 10.6 μm is attributable to a combination of inverse bremsstrahlung and a negative lens effect, and experimental results will be compared to theoretical calculations based on Boltzmann's equation. The potential application of such high electron density plasmas to studies of fundamental plasma phenomena, as well as optical applications will be discussed.

  3. Degrees of understanding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlowicz, Michael

    America's most famous journalism school has teamed up with the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory to try to improve science communication. This fall, Columbia University combined two of its greatest assets—Lamont-Doherty and the Columbia School of Journalism—to offer a joint degree program for would-be writers to specialize in Earth and environmental science.“Science journalists are translators between those with the knowledge and those with the need to know,” said Kenneth Goldstein, a professor of journalism at Columbia. “The new Earth and environmental sciences journalism program seeks to produce students who are fluently bilingual in the language of Earth science and the language of public debate.”

  4. Constitutive Activation of an Anthocyanin Regulatory Gene PcMYB10.6 Is Related to Red Coloration in Purple-Foliage Plum

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Hui; Wang, Lu; Deng, Xianbao; Han, Yuepeng

    2015-01-01

    Cherry plum is a popular ornamental tree worldwide and most cultivars are selected for purple foliage. Here, we report the investigation of molecular mechanism underlying red pigmentation in purple-leaf plum ‘Ziyeli’ (Prunus cerasifera Ehrhar f. atropurpurea (Jacq.) Rehd.), which shows red color pigmentation in fruit (flesh and skin) and foliage. Six anthocyanin-activating MYB genes, designated PcMYB10.1 to PcMYB10.6, were isolated based on RNA-Seq data from leaves of cv. Ziyeli. Of these PcMYB10 genes, five (PcMYB10.1 through PcMYB10.5) show distinct spatial and temporal expression patterns, while the PcMYB10.6 gene is highly expressed in all the purple-coloured organs of cv. Ziyeli. Constitutive activation of PcMYB10.6 is closely related to red pigmentation in the leaf, fruit (flesh and skin), and sepal. However, the PcMYB10.6 activation cannot induce red pigmentation in the petal of cv. Ziyeli during late stages of flower development due to due to a lack of expression of PcUFGT. The inhibition of red pigmentation in the petal of cherry plum could be attributed to the high-level expression of PcANR that directs anthocyanidin flux to proanthocyanidin biosynthesis. In addition, PcMYB10.2 is highly expressed in fruit and sepal, but its expression cannot induce red pigmentation. This suggests the PcMYB10 gene family in cherry plum may have diverged in function and PcMYB10.2 plays little role in the regulation of red pigmentation. Our study provides for the first time an example of constitutive activation of an anthocyanin-activating MYB gene in Prunus although its underlying mechanism remains unclear. PMID:26247780

  5. Constitutive Activation of an Anthocyanin Regulatory Gene PcMYB10.6 Is Related to Red Coloration in Purple-Foliage Plum.

    PubMed

    Gu, Chao; Liao, Liao; Zhou, Hui; Wang, Lu; Deng, Xianbao; Han, Yuepeng

    2015-01-01

    Cherry plum is a popular ornamental tree worldwide and most cultivars are selected for purple foliage. Here, we report the investigation of molecular mechanism underlying red pigmentation in purple-leaf plum 'Ziyeli' (Prunus cerasifera Ehrhar f. atropurpurea (Jacq.) Rehd.), which shows red color pigmentation in fruit (flesh and skin) and foliage. Six anthocyanin-activating MYB genes, designated PcMYB10.1 to PcMYB10.6, were isolated based on RNA-Seq data from leaves of cv. Ziyeli. Of these PcMYB10 genes, five (PcMYB10.1 through PcMYB10.5) show distinct spatial and temporal expression patterns, while the PcMYB10.6 gene is highly expressed in all the purple-coloured organs of cv. Ziyeli. Constitutive activation of PcMYB10.6 is closely related to red pigmentation in the leaf, fruit (flesh and skin), and sepal. However, the PcMYB10.6 activation cannot induce red pigmentation in the petal of cv. Ziyeli during late stages of flower development due to due to a lack of expression of PcUFGT. The inhibition of red pigmentation in the petal of cherry plum could be attributed to the high-level expression of PcANR that directs anthocyanidin flux to proanthocyanidin biosynthesis. In addition, PcMYB10.2 is highly expressed in fruit and sepal, but its expression cannot induce red pigmentation. This suggests the PcMYB10 gene family in cherry plum may have diverged in function and PcMYB10.2 plays little role in the regulation of red pigmentation. Our study provides for the first time an example of constitutive activation of an anthocyanin-activating MYB gene in Prunus although its underlying mechanism remains unclear.

  6. Comparing the use of 4.6 um lasers versus 10.6 um lasers for mitigating damage site growth on fused silica surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, S T; Matthews, M J; Elhadj, S; Cooke, D; Guss, G M; Draggoo, V G; Wegner, P J

    2010-10-21

    The advantage of using mid-infrared (IR) 4.6 {micro}m lasers, versus far-infrared 10.6 {micro}m lasers, for mitigating damage growth on fused silica is investigated. In contrast to fused silica's high absorption at 10.6 {micro}m, silica absorption at 4.6 {micro}m is two orders of magnitude less. The much reduced absorption at 4.6 {micro}m enables deep heat penetration into fused silica when it is heated using the mid-IR laser, which in turn leads to more effective mitigation of damage sites with deep cracks. The advantage of using mid-IR versus far-IR laser for damage growth mitigation under non-evaporative condition is quantified by defining a figure of merit (FOM) that relates the crack healing depth to laser power required. Based on our FOM, we show that for damage cracks up to at least 500 {micro}m in depth, mitigation using a 4.6 {micro}m mid-IR laser is more efficient than mitigation using a 10.6 {micro}m far-IR laser.

  7. Lack of increased prevalence of immunoregulatory disorders in hereditary angioedema due to C1-inhibitor deficiency.

    PubMed

    Farkas, Henriette; Csuka, Dorottya; Gács, Judit; Czaller, Ibolya; Zotter, Zsuzsanna; Füst, George; Varga, Lilian; Gergely, Péter

    2011-10-01

    Hereditary angioedema due to deficiency of C1-INH (HAE-C1-INH) is associated with enhanced consumption of the early complement components, which may predispose for autoimmune disease. We assessed the prevalence of such disorders among HAE- C1-INH patients and their impact on the natural course of HAE-C1-INH. Clinical data and immunoserological parameters of 130 HAE-C1-INH and 174 non-C1-INH-deficient patients with angioedema were analyzed. In our study, the incidence of immunoregulatory disorders was 11.5% in the population of HAE-C1-INH patients and 5.2% among non-C1-INH-deficient controls with angioedema. Immunoserology screening revealed a greater prevalence of anticardiolipin IgM (p=0.0118) among HAE-C1-INH patients, than in those with non-C1-INH-deficient angioedema. We did not find higher prevalence of immunoregulatory disorders among our HAE-C1-INH patients. However, in patients with confirmed immunoregulatory disorders, the latter influenced both the severity of HAE-C1-INH and the effectiveness of its long-term management. Appropriate management of the immunoregulatory disease thus identified improves the symptoms of HAE-C1-INH.

  8. Human diploid fibroblasts have receptors for the globular domain of C1Q

    SciTech Connect

    Bordin, S.; Page, R.C.

    1986-03-01

    The authors showed that mass cultures of fibroblasts grown from gingival explants in DB medium with 10% human serum are enriched in a phenotype that binds C1q with an affinity much higher than the rest of the population. Because of potential biologic importance of C1q receptors, the authors studied whether the interaction between C1q and this phenotype was mediated by the globular or collagenous domains of the molecule. Globular fragments were prepared by digesting C1q with collagenase, and collagenous fragments obtained after pepsin treatment. C1q binding on cells in suspension was determined by reaction with /sup 125/I-C1q as reported. Competition experiments were performed under conditions in which intact /sup 125/I-C1q binding saturated all available receptors. The results showed that collagenous fragments inhibited 20% of the /sup 125/I-C1q binding to high affinity receptors, whereas inhibition by globular fragments was 70%. Unlabeled intact C1q and collagen type 1 were used as controls, and inhibited 92% and 17% of C1q binding, respectively. These studies show that C1q interacts with the fibroblast phenotype expressing high affinity receptors through its globular domain. The authors suggest that at sites of trauma, native C1 may bind to the surface of these cells via the globular domain of C1q, and that this unique phenotype may play an important role in tissue repair.

  9. Regulation of sympathetic tone and arterial pressure by rostral ventrolateral medulla after depletion of C1 cells in rat.

    PubMed

    Schreihofer, A M; Stornetta, R L; Guyenet, P G

    2000-11-15

    1. In this study we examined whether the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) maintains resting sympathetic vasomotor tone and activates sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) after the depletion of bulbospinal C1 adrenergic neurones. 2. Bulbospinal C1 cells were destroyed ( approximately 84% loss) by bilateral microinjections (spinal segments T2-T3) of an anti-dopamine-beta-hydroxylase antibody conjugated to the ribosomal toxin saporin (anti-DH-SAP). 3. Extracellular recording and juxtacellular labelling of bulbospinal barosensitive neurones in the RVLM revealed that treatment with anti-DH-SAP spared the lightly myelinated neurones with no tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity. 4. In rats treated with anti-DH-SAP, inhibition of RVLM neurones by bilateral microinjection of muscimol eliminated splanchnic SNA and produced the same degree of hypotension as in control rats. 5. Following treatment with anti-DH-SAP the sympathoexcitatory (splanchnic nerve) and pressor responses to electrical stimulation of the RVLM were reduced. 6. Treatment with anti-DH-SAP also eliminated the majority of A5 noradrenergic neurones. However, rats with selective lesion of A5 cells by microinjection of 6-hydroxydopamine into the pons showed no deficits to stimulation of the RVLM. 7. In summary, the loss of 84% of bulbospinal adrenergic neurones does not alter the ability of RVLM to maintain SNA and arterial pressure at rest in anaesthetized rats, but this loss reduces the sympathoexcitatory and pressor responses evoked by RVLM stimulation. The data suggest sympathoexcitatory roles for both the C1 cells and non-C1 cells of the RVLM and further suggest the C1 cells are critical for the full expression of sympathoexcitatory responses generated by the RVLM.

  10. 26 CFR 1.860C-1 - Taxation of holders of residual interests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Taxation of holders of residual interests. 1.860C-1 Section 1.860C-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Real Estate Investment Trusts § 1.860C-1 Taxation of...

  11. 26 CFR 301.6230(c)-1 - Claim arising out of erroneous computation, etc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Claim arising out of erroneous computation, etc. 301.6230(c)-1 Section 301.6230(c)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE....6230(c)-1 Claim arising out of erroneous computation, etc. (a) In general. A claim for refund...

  12. 26 CFR 1.673(c)-1 - Reversionary interest after income beneficiary's death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Reversionary interest after income beneficiary's death. 1.673(c)-1 Section 1.673(c)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Substantial Owners § 1.673(c)-1 Reversionary interest after income beneficiary's death. The subject matter...

  13. 26 CFR 1.673(c)-1 - Reversionary interest after income beneficiary's death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Reversionary interest after income beneficiary's death. 1.673(c)-1 Section 1.673(c)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Substantial Owners § 1.673(c)-1 Reversionary interest after income beneficiary's death. The subject matter...

  14. 26 CFR 1.673(c)-1 - Reversionary interest after income beneficiary's death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Reversionary interest after income beneficiary's death. 1.673(c)-1 Section 1.673(c)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Substantial Owners § 1.673(c)-1 Reversionary interest after income beneficiary's death. The subject matter...

  15. 26 CFR 1.673(c)-1 - Reversionary interest after income beneficiary's death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... § 1.673(c)-1 Reversionary interest after income beneficiary's death. The subject matter of section 673... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reversionary interest after income beneficiary's death. 1.673(c)-1 Section 1.673(c)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  16. 26 CFR 1.673(c)-1 - Reversionary interest after income beneficiary's death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Substantial Owners § 1.673(c)-1 Reversionary interest after income beneficiary's death. The subject matter of... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Reversionary interest after income beneficiary's death. 1.673(c)-1 Section 1.673(c)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  17. 17 CFR 270.23c-1 - Repurchase of securities by closed-end companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... closed-end companies. 270.23c-1 Section 270.23c-1 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) RULES AND REGULATIONS, INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940 § 270.23c-1 Repurchase of securities by closed-end companies. (a) A registered closed-end company may purchase for cash...

  18. 26 CFR 1.674(c)-1 - Excepted powers exercisable only by independent trustees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... trustees. 1.674(c)-1 Section 1.674(c)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... § 1.674(c)-1 Excepted powers exercisable only by independent trustees. Section 674(c) provides an exception to the general rule of section 674(a) for certain powers that are exercisable by...

  19. 26 CFR 1.674(c)-1 - Excepted powers exercisable only by independent trustees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... trustees. 1.674(c)-1 Section 1.674(c)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Substantial Owners § 1.674(c)-1 Excepted powers exercisable only by independent trustees. Section 674(c) provides an exception to the general rule of section 674(a) for certain powers that are exercisable...

  20. 360-degree Color Panorama

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This is a 'geometrically improved' version of the 360- degree panorama heretofore known as the 'Gallery Pan', the first contiguous, uniform panorama taken by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) over the course of Sols 8, 9, and 10. Different regions were imaged at different times over the three Martian days to acquire consistent lighting and shadow conditions for all areas of the panorama.

    The IMP is a stereo imaging system that, in its fully deployed configuration, stands 1.8 meters above the Martian surface, and has a resolution of two millimeters at a range of two meters. In this geometrically improved version of the panorama, distortion due to a 2.5 degree tilt in the IMP camera mast has been removed, effectively flattening the horizon.

    The IMP has color capability provided by 24 selectable filters -- twelve filters per 'eye'. Its red, green, and blue filters were used to take this image.

    At left is a Lander petal and a metallic mast which is a portion of the low-gain antenna. Misregistration in the antenna and other Lander features is due to parallax in the extreme foreground. On the horizon the double 'Twin Peaks' are visible, about 1-2 kilometers away. The rock 'Couch' is the dark, curved rock at right of Twin Peaks. Another Lander petal is at left-center, showing the fully deployed forward ramp at far left, and rear ramp at right, which rover Sojourner used to descend to the surface of Mars on July 5. Immediately to the left of the rear ramp is the rock 'Barnacle Bill', which scientists found to be andesitic, possibly indicating that it is a volcanic rock (a true andesite) or a physical mixture of particles. Just beyond Barnacle Bill, rover tracks lead to Sojourner, shown using its Alpha Proton X-Ray Spectrometer (APXS) instrument to study the large rock 'Yogi'. Yogi, low in quartz content, appears to be more primitive than Barnacle Bill, and appears more like the common basalts found on Earth.

    The tracks and circular pattern in the soil

  1. The soluble recombinant form of a binding protein/receptor for the globular domain of C1q (gC1qR) enhances blood coagulation.

    PubMed

    Peerschke, E I; Jesty, J; Reid, K B; Ghebrehiwet, B

    1998-01-01

    The gC1qR is a ubiquitously expressed, 33 kDa cellular protein which recognizes the globular domains of C1q. Recent evidence suggests that the gC1qR also serves as the Zn(++)-dependent endothelial cell binding site for factor XII and high-molecular-weight kininogen, and activates intrinsic coagulation and kinin pathways in purified systems. In addition, activated lymphocytes have been reported to release soluble gC1qR. Thus, the present study investigated the procoagulant potential of soluble gC1qR in human plasma using the recombinant protein (rgC1qR). rgC1qR supported a dose-dependent shortening of extrinsic coagulation using the prothrombin time in the presence of diluted (1/50-1/500) thromboplastin. Maximum enhancement of the prothrombin time resulted in shortening of the clotting time from 78.8 +/- 0.4 s to 68.5 +/- 0.6 s (mean +/- SD, n = 8) in the presence of 50 micrograms/ml (1.5 mumol/l) rgC1qR. rgC1qR also enhanced the intrinsic pathway of coagulation evaluated in the absence of activators of the contact system, as demonstrated by a shortening of the plasma recalcification time from 348 +/- 66 s to 140 +/- 23 s (n = 4). rgC1qR, however, had no effect on intrinsic coagulation in the presence of undiluted kaolin or ellagic acid, and under these conditions failed to shorten the activated partial thromboplastin time of factor VIII or factor-IX-deficient plasma. rgC1qR further failed to affect thrombin and factor Xa generation assayed using chromogenic substrates, and did not enhance thrombin-induced conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin. Interestingly, the procoagulant activity of the rgC1qR was measurable in either factor-XII- or factor-XI-deficient plasma, suggesting that it was not exclusively focused on the contact system of coagulation. Although the mechanism of action of gC1qR on blood coagulation remains obscure, the data suggest a potential role for this protein in hemostatic and thrombotic events.

  2. Two Universities, Two Degrees: A Dual Degree Program for Pharmacists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milio, Frank

    2001-01-01

    Describes a dual degree program between Towson University and the University of Maryland School of Pharmacy, which allows a student to receive both a B.S. degree in Medicinal Chemistry and a Doctor of Pharmacy degree in a combined 7-year program. It also allows flexibility in pursuing alternate career goals. (EV)

  3. Effect of plastoquinone derivative 10-(6'-plastoquinonyl) decyltriphenylphosphonium (SkQ1) on estrous cycle and 17β-estradiol level in rats.

    PubMed

    Chistyakov, V A; Dem'yanenko, S V; Alexandrova, A A; Gutnikova, L V; Prokof'ev, V N; Kosheleva, O N

    2012-12-01

    Administration of the plastoquinone derivative 10-(6'-plastoquinonyl)decyltriphenylphosphonium (SkQ1) to female Wistar rats with regular estrous cycle once a day for two weeks at doses of 25 nmol/kg (but not 250 nmol/kg) leads to increase in proestrus duration by reducing the phase of diestrus and metestrus. Neither dose caused significant changes in serum 17β-estradiol level for any stage of the cycle. However, relative elongation of the proestrus stage leads to an increase in average per cycle estradiol levels by 20%.

  4. Accurate and stable equal-pressure measurements of water vapor transmission rate reaching the 10(-6) g m(-2) day(-1) range.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Yoichiro; Yanase, Takashi; Nagahama, Taro; Yoshida, Hajime; Shimada, Toshihiro

    2016-10-17

    The water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) of a gas barrier coating is a critically important parameter for flexible organic device packaging, but its accurate measurement without mechanical stress to ultrathin films has been a significant challenge in instrumental analysis. At the current stage, no reliable results have been reported in the range of 10(-6) g m(-2) day(-1) that is required for organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs). In this article, we describe a solution for this difficult, but important measurement, involving enhanced sensitivity by a cold trap, stabilized temperature system, pumped sealing and calibration by a standard conductance element.

  5. Investigation on the Ability of Antireflection Coating to Withstand the Destructive Effects of Laser Radiation in IR Range (10.6 Micrometers),

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-26

    at the mid-IR, KCl and NaCl are commonly selected as substrates. But for the CO2 laser , a Ge substrate coated with a *i ZnS AR coating, is still widely...FOREIGN TECHNOLOGY DIVISION INVESTIGATION ON THE ABILITY OF ANTIREFLECTION COATING TO WITHSTAND THE DESTRUCTIVE EFFECTS OF LASER RADIATION IN IR RANGE...INVESTIGATION ON THE ABILITY OF ANTIREFLECTION COATING TO WITHSTAND THE DESTRUCTIVE EFFECTS OF LASER RADIATION IN IR RANGE (10.6 pm) By: Wang Jingrui, Liu Jien

  6. C1 finite elements on non-tensor-product 2d and 3d manifolds

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Thien; Karčiauskas, Kęstutis; Peters, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    Geometrically continuous (Gk) constructions naturally yield families of finite elements for isogeometric analysis (IGA) that are Ck also for non-tensor-product layout. This paper describes and analyzes one such concrete C1 geometrically generalized IGA element (short: gIGA element) that generalizes bi-quadratic splines to quad meshes with irregularities. The new gIGA element is based on a recently-developed G1 surface construction that recommends itself by its a B-spline-like control net, low (least) polynomial degree, good shape properties and reproduction of quadratics at irregular (extraordinary) points. Remarkably, for Poisson’s equation on the disk using interior vertices of valence 3 and symmetric layout, we observe O(h3) convergence in the L∞ norm for this family of elements. Numerical experiments confirm the elements to be effective for solving the trivariate Poisson equation on the solid cylinder, deformations thereof (a turbine blade), modeling and computing geodesics on smooth free-form surfaces via the heat equation, for solving the biharmonic equation on the disk and for Koiter-type thin-shell analysis. PMID:26594070

  7. C(1) finite elements on non-tensor-product 2d and 3d manifolds.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thien; Karčiauskas, Kęstutis; Peters, Jörg

    2016-01-01

    Geometrically continuous (G(k) ) constructions naturally yield families of finite elements for isogeometric analysis (IGA) that are C(k) also for non-tensor-product layout. This paper describes and analyzes one such concrete C(1) geometrically generalized IGA element (short: gIGA element) that generalizes bi-quadratic splines to quad meshes with irregularities. The new gIGA element is based on a recently-developed G(1) surface construction that recommends itself by its a B-spline-like control net, low (least) polynomial degree, good shape properties and reproduction of quadratics at irregular (extraordinary) points. Remarkably, for Poisson's equation on the disk using interior vertices of valence 3 and symmetric layout, we observe O(h(3)) convergence in the L(∞) norm for this family of elements. Numerical experiments confirm the elements to be effective for solving the trivariate Poisson equation on the solid cylinder, deformations thereof (a turbine blade), modeling and computing geodesics on smooth free-form surfaces via the heat equation, for solving the biharmonic equation on the disk and for Koiter-type thin-shell analysis.

  8. Foundation Degrees: A Risky Business?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowley, Jennifer

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Foundation degrees, the new proposal for sub-degree vocational education in the UK, are characterised by innovation both in their design (curriculum, teaching, learning and assessment) and in the marketplace for which they are designed. This article argues that the development and delivery of foundation degrees carry a high level of risk,…

  9. Students' Perceptions of Foundation Degrees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ooms, A.; Burke, L. M.; Marks-Maran, D. J.; Webb, M.; Cooper, D.

    2012-01-01

    In 2008 there were 87,339 people enrolled on foundation degrees (FDs) in the UK (Foundation Degree Forward, 2009), and educational institutions in the UK offered 1700 different foundation degrees in over 25 subjects, with nearly 900 more in development (Action on Access, 2010). In addition, student views are seen to be of importance, as…

  10. Silencing of atp6v1c1 prevents breast cancer growth and bone metastasis.

    PubMed

    Feng, Shengmei; Zhu, Guochun; McConnell, Matthew; Deng, Lianfu; Zhao, Qiang; Wu, Mengrui; Zhou, Qi; Wang, Jinshen; Qi, Jin; Li, Yi-Ping; Chen, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that Atp6v1c1, a regulator of the assembly of the V0 and V1 domains of the V-ATPase complex, is up-regulated in metastatic oral tumors. Despite these studies, the function of Atp6v1c1 in tumor growth and metastasis is still unknown. Atp6v1c1's expression in metastatic oral squamous cell carcinoma indicates that Atp6v1c1 has an important function in cancer growth and metastasis. We hypothesized that elevated expression of Atp6v1c1 is essential to cancer growth and metastasis and that Atp6v1c1 promotes cancer growth and metastasis through activation of V-ATPase activity. To test this hypothesis, a Lentivirus-mediated RNAi knockdown approach was used to study the function of Atp6v1c1 in mouse 4T1 mammary tumor cell proliferation and migration in vitro and cancer growth and metastasis in vivo. Our data revealed that silencing of Atp6v1c1 in 4T1 cancer cells inhibited lysosomal acidification and severely impaired 4T1 cell growth, migration, and invasion through Matrigel in vitro. We also show that Atp6v1c1 knockdown with Lenti-c1s3, a lentivirus targeting Atp6v1c1 for shRNA mediated knockdown, can significantly inhibit 4T1 xenograft tumor growth, metastasis, and osteolytic lesions in vivo. Our study demonstrates that Atp6v1c1 may promote breast cancer growth and bone metastasis through regulation of lysosomal V-ATPase activity, indicating that Atp6v1c1 may be a viable target for breast cancer therapy and silencing of Atp6v1c1 may be an innovative therapeutic approach for the treatment and prevention of breast cancer growth and metastasis.

  11. Consumption of tropospheric levels of methyl bromide by C(1) compound-utilizing bacteria and comparison to saturation kinetics.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, K D; Varner, R K; Crill, P M; Oremland, R S

    2001-12-01

    Pure cultures of methylotrophs and methanotrophs are known to oxidize methyl bromide (MeBr); however, their ability to oxidize tropospheric concentrations (parts per trillion by volume [pptv]) has not been tested. Methylotrophs and methanotrophs were able to consume MeBr provided at levels that mimicked the tropospheric mixing ratio of MeBr (12 pptv) at equilibrium with surface waters ( approximately 2 pM). Kinetic investigations using picomolar concentrations of MeBr in a continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) were performed using strain IMB-1 and Leisingeria methylohalidivorans strain MB2(T) - terrestrial and marine methylotrophs capable of halorespiration. First-order uptake of MeBr with no indication of threshold was observed for both strains. Strain MB2(T) displayed saturation kinetics in batch experiments using micromolar MeBr concentrations, with an apparent K(s) of 2.4 microM MeBr and a V(max) of 1.6 nmol h(-1) (10(6) cells)(-1). Apparent first-order degradation rate constants measured with the CSTR were consistent with kinetic parameters determined in batch experiments, which used 35- to 1 x 10(7)-fold-higher MeBr concentrations. Ruegeria algicola (a phylogenetic relative of strain MB2(T)), the common heterotrophs Escherichia coli and Bacillus pumilus, and a toluene oxidizer, Pseudomonas mendocina KR1, were also tested. These bacteria showed no significant consumption of 12 pptv MeBr; thus, the ability to consume ambient mixing ratios of MeBr was limited to C(1) compound-oxidizing bacteria in this study. Aerobic C(1) bacteria may provide model organisms for the biological oxidation of tropospheric MeBr in soils and waters.

  12. Bilateral key comparison CCM.P-K3.1 for absolute pressure measurements from 3 × 10-6 Pa to 9 × 10-4 Pa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedchak, J. A.; Bock, Th; Jousten, K.

    2014-01-01

    This report describes the bilateral key comparison CCM.P-K3.1 between the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) for absolute pressure in the range from 3 × 10-6 Pa to 9 × 10-4 Pa. This comparison was a follow-up to the comparison CCM.P-K3. Two ionization gauges and two spinning rotor gauges (SRGs) were used as the transfer standards for the comparison. The SRGs were used to compare the standards at a pressure of 9 × 10-4 Pa and to normalize the ionization gauge readings. The two ionization gauges were used to compare the standards in the pressure range of from 3 × 10-6 Pa to 3 × 10-4 Pa. Both laboratories used dynamic expansion chambers as standards in the comparison. The two labs showed excellent agreement with each other and with the CCM.P-K3 key comparison reference value (KCRV) over the entire range. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  13. Identification of the srtC1 Transcription Start Site and Catalytically Essential Residues Required for Actinomyces oris T14V SrtC1 Activity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-27

    al., 1999, 2002; Frankel et al., 2007), Cys 193 in SrtC1 from Streptococcus pneumoniae (Manzano et al., 2008) and Cys 219 in SrtC1 from Group B...Sortase mediated pilus fiber biogenesis in Streptococcus pneumoniae . Structure 16: 1838 1848. Manzano C, Izore T, Job V, Di Guilmi AM & Dessen A... Streptococcus (Cozzi et al., 2011) are critical for each of their corresponding sortase activities. When two other residues (Leu263 and Thr265) in this

  14. Application of polymethacrylate resin as stationary phase in liquid chromatography with UV detection for C1-C7 aliphatic monocarboxylic acids and C1-C7 aliphatic monoamines.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Kazutoku; Towata, Atsuya; Ohashi, Masayoshi; Takeuchi, Toyohide

    2004-06-11

    The application of unfunctionized polymethacrylate resin (TSKgel G3000PWXL) as a stationary phase in liquid chromatography with UV detection for C1-C7 aliphatic monocarboxylic acids (formic acid, acetic acid, propionic acid, butyric acid, isovaleric acid, valeric acid, 3,3-dimethylbutyric acid, 4-methylvaleric acid, hexanoic acid, 2-methylhexanoic acid, 5-methylhexanoic acid and heptanoic acid) and C1-C7 aliphatic monoamines (methylamine, ethylamine, propylamine, isobutylamine, butylamine, isoamylamine, amylamine, 1,3-dimethylbutylamine, hexylamine, 2-heptylamine and heptylamine) was carried out. Using dilute sulfuric acid as the eluent, the TSKgel G3000PWXL, resin acted as an advanced stationary phase for these C1-C7 carboxylic acids. Excellent simultaneous separation and symmetrical peaks for these C1-C7 carboxylic acids were achieved on a TSKgel G3000PWXL column (150 mm x 6 mm i.d.) in 60 min with 0.25 mM sulfuric acid containing 1 mM 2-methylheptanoic acid at pH 3.3 as the eluent. Using dilute sodium hydroxide as the eluent, the TSKgel G3000PWXL resin also behaved as an advanced stationary phase for these C1-C7 amines. Excellent simultaneous separation and good peaks for these C1-C7 amines were achieved on the TSKgel G3000PWXL column in 60 min with 10 mM sodium hydroxide containing 0.5 mM 1-methylheptylamine at pH 11.9 as the eluent.

  15. Cleavage of the second component of complement by plasma proteases: implications in hereditary C1-inhibitor deficiency.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, M A; Kerr, M A

    1985-01-01

    EDTA plasma from patients with hereditary angioedema (HAE), the genetic deficiency of C1-inhibitor, when incubated at 37 degrees produces a kinin-like activity which can induce contraction of oestrus rat uterus. The second component of complement (C2) has previously been suggested to be the source of this kinin-like activity, with the implication that C2-kinin is a normal product of complement activation. Our results show that purified human C2 is cleaved rapidly to C2a and C2b when added to HAE plasma, but not normal plasma or plasma from a danazol-treated HAE patient. However, the addition to HAE plasma of C2 at 20 X normal plasma concentration had no effect on the kinin activity generated on incubation at 37 degrees. In the presence of soya bean trypsin inhibitor, the rate of C2 cleavage and products were unaltered but no kinin activity was generated. C2 was cleaved by purified C1s to C2a and C2b. Incubation of C2 with trypsin resulted in cleavage to C2a and C2b followed by more extensive cleavage of both C2a and C2b. Kallikrein cleaved C2 to C2a and C2b but plasmin had no effect on C2. In no case was kinin activity generated. When C2 was cleaved by C1s to C2a and C2b then incubated with trypsin, kallikrein, or plasmin, no kinin activity was generated: only trypsin cleaved the C2 fragments further. The results suggest that C2 is not the source of the kinin-like activity generated in hereditary angioedema plasma. Images Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:2934317

  16. Serum C1q as a novel biomarker of sarcopenia in older adults.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Shinya; Sato, Koji; Hasegawa, Natsuki; Kurihara, Toshiyuki; Matsutani, Kenji; Sanada, Kiyoshi; Hamaoka, Takafumi; Fujita, Satoshi; Iemitsu, Motoyuki

    2015-03-01

    Aging-induced elevation in C1q secretion activates the Wnt signaling pathway in muscles, leading to the development of muscle fibrosis. However, the association between serum C1q level and muscle mass and strength remains unclear in humans. The aim of the study was to elucidate whether serum C1q level is associated with aging- and resistance training-induced changes in muscle mass and strength. First, in a cross-sectional study, we investigated the association between serum C1q level and muscle mass and strength in 131 healthy subjects, aged 20-81 yr. Second, in an intervention study, we examined the association between the effects of serum C1q level and muscle mass and strength on 12 wk resistance training in 11 healthy older adults (60-81 yr). In the cross-sectional study, serum C1q level increased with aging and was negatively correlated with muscle mass and strength. Furthermore, 12 wk resistance training in older adults reduced the age-associated elevation in serum C1q levels. The training effect of serum C1q level significantly correlated with the change in the cross-sectional area of the thigh (r = -0.703; P < 0.01). Serum C1q level may reflect loss of muscle mass; therefore, C1q may be a novel biomarker of sarcopenia.

  17. Charge density influences C1 domain ligand affinity and membrane interactions

    PubMed Central

    Lewin, Nancy E.; Kedei, Noemi; Hill, Colin S.; Selezneva, Julia S.; Valle, Christopher J.; Woo, Wonhee; Gorshkova, Inna; Blumberg, Peter M.

    2014-01-01

    The C1 domain, which represents the recognition motif on protein kinase C for the lipophilic second messenger diacylglycerol and its ultrapotent analog the phorbol esters, has emerged as a promising therapeutic target for cancer and other indications. Potential target selectivity is markedly enhanced both because binding reflects ternary complex formation between ligand, the C1 domain, and phospholipid, and because binding drives membrane insertion of the C1 domain, permitting aspects of the C1 domain surface outside the binding site per se to influence binding energetics. Here, focusing on charged residues identified in atypical C1 domains which contribute to their loss of ligand binding activity, we show that increasing charge along the rim of the binding cleft of the protein kinase C δ C1b domain raises the requirement for anionic phospholipids. Correspondingly, it shifts the selectivity of C1 domain translocation to the plasma membrane, which is more negatively charged than internal membranes. This change in localization is most pronounced in the case of more hydrophilic ligands, which provide weaker membrane stabilization than do the more hydrophobic ligands, and thus contributes an element to the structure activity relations for C1 domain ligands. Co-expressing pairs of C1 containing constructs with differing charges each expressing a distinct fluorescent tag provided a powerful tool to demonstrate the effect of increasing charge in the C1 domain. PMID:24777910

  18. Functional characterization of βC1 gene of Cotton leaf curl Multan betasatellite.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Neha; Sharma, P K; Malathi, V G

    2013-02-01

    Whitefly-transmitted Begomoviruses having circular single stranded DNA genome cause severe leaf curl diseases in the tropical and subtropical region. The majority of Old World monopartite begomoviruses with DNA A component is associated with a satellite DNA of 1.3 kb length referred to as betasatellites. The presence of betasatellite is required to express typical symptoms in the primary hosts. Increased symptom expression in betasatellite's presence is attributed to a 13-15 kDa βC1 protein encoded by the βC1 gene on complementary sense strand. The exact mechanism by which the βC1 protein contributes to the symptoms' severity and helper viral DNA's accumulation is not yet understood. Here, we studied the βC1 protein of Cotton leaf curl Multan betasatellite, associated with mono and bipartite begomoviruses. The βC1 protein was expressed in prokaryotic system as 6XHis-βC1 fusion protein and recombinant protein showed size- and sequence-specific DNA binding activity. The host proteins which may interact with βC1 were identified by binding βC1 recombinant protein with heptapeptide in phage display library. The βC1-interacting host proteins predicted belong to metabolic and defense pathways, indicating that βC1 protein has a pivotal role in viral pathogenicity.

  19. XPB Induces C1D Expression to Counteract UV-Induced Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Guang; Liu, Juhong; Abu-Asab, Mones; Masabumi, Shibuya; Maru, Yoshiro

    2010-01-01

    Although C1D has been shown to be involved in DNA double-strand breaks repair, how C1D expression was induced and the mechanism(s) by which C1D facilitates DNA repair in mammalian cells remain poorly understood. We and others have previously shown that expression of XPB protein efficiently compensated the UV-irradiation sensitive phenotype of 27-1 cells which lacks functional XPB. To further explore XPB-regulated genes that could be involved in UV-induced DNA repair, Differential Display analysis of mRNA level from CHO-9, 27-1 and 27-1 complemented with wild-type XPB were performed and C1D gene was identified as one of the major genes whose expression was significantly up-regulated by restoring XPB function. We found that XPB is essential to induce C1D transcription after UV-irradiation. The increase of C1D expression effectively compensates the UV-induced proteolysis of C1D and thus maintains cellular C1D level to cope with DNA damage inflicted by UV-irradiation. We further showed that although insufficient to rescue 27-1 cells from UV-induced apoptosis by itself, C1D facilitates XPB DNA repair through direct interaction with XPB. Our findings provided direct evidence that C1D is associated with DNA repair complex and may promote repair of UV-induced DNA damage. PMID:20530579

  20. The C1 and C2 domains target human type 6 adenylyl cyclase to lipid rafts and caveolae.

    PubMed

    Thangavel, Muthusamy; Liu, Xiaoqiu; Sun, Shu Qiang; Kaminsky, Joseph; Ostrom, Rennolds S

    2009-02-01

    Previous data has shown that adenylyl cyclase type 6 (AC6) is expressed principally in lipid rafts or caveolae of cardiac myocytes and other cell types while certain other isoforms of AC are excluded from these microdomains. The mechanism by which AC6 is localized to lipid rafts or caveolae is unknown. In this study, we show AC6 is localized in lipid rafts of COS-7 cells (expressing caveolin-1) and in HEK-293 cells or cardiac fibroblasts isolated from caveolin-1 knock-out mice (both of which lack prototypical caveolins). To determine the region of AC6 that confers raft localization, we independently expressed each of the major intracellular domains, the N-terminus, C1 and C2 domains, and examined their localization with various approaches. The N-terminus did not associate with lipid rafts or caveolae of either COS-7 or HEK-293 cells nor did it immunoprecipitate with caveolin-1 when expressed in COS-7 cells. By contrast, the C1 and C2 domains each associated with lipid rafts to varying degrees and were present in caveolin-1 immunoprecipitates. There were no differences in the pattern of localization of either the C1 or C2 domains between COS-7 and HEK-293 cells. Further dissection of the C1 domain into four individual proteins indicated that the N-terminal half of this domain is responsible for its raft localization. To probe for a role of a putative palmitoylation motif in the C-terminal portion of the C2 domain, we expressed various truncated forms of AC6 lacking most or all of the C-terminal 41 amino acids. These truncated AC6 proteins were not altered in terms of their localization in lipid rafts or their catalytic activity, implying that this C-terminal region is not required for lipid raft targeting of AC6. We conclude that while the C1 domain may be most important, both the C1 and C2 domains of AC6 play a role in targeting AC6 to lipid rafts.

  1. Allelic diversification at the C (OsC1) locus of wild and cultivated rice: nucleotide changes associated with phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Saitoh, Kumi; Onishi, Kazumitsu; Mikami, Ichiho; Thidar, Khin; Sano, Yoshio

    2004-10-01

    Divergent phenotypes are often detected in domesticated plants despite the existence of invariant phenotypes in their wild forms. One such example in rice is the occurrence of varying degrees of apiculus coloration due to anthocyanin pigmentation, which was previously reported to be caused by a series of alleles at the C locus. The present study reveals, on the basis of comparison of its maps, that the C gene appears to be the rice homolog (OsC1) of maize C1, which belongs to the group of R2R3-Myb factors. Two different types of deletions causing a frameshift were detected in the third exon, and both of the deleted nucleotides corresponded to the positions of putative base-contacting residues, suggesting that the Indica and Japonica types carry loss-of-function mutations with independent origins. In addition, replacement substitutions were frequently detected in OsC1 of strains carrying the previously defined C alleles. Molecular population analysis revealed that 17 haplotypes were found in 39 wild and cultivated rices, and the haplotypes of most cultivated forms could be classified into one of three distinct groups, with few shared haplotypes among taxa, including Indica and Japonica types. The genealogy of the OsC1 gene suggests that allelic diversification causing phenotypic change might have resulted from mutations in the coding region rather than from recombination between preexisting alleles. The McDonald and Kreitman test revealed that the changes in amino acids might be associated with selective forces acting on the lineage of group A whose haplotypes were carried by most Asian cultivated forms. The results regarding a significant implication for genetic diversity in landraces of rice are also discussed.

  2. Graduate Physics Degrees: Largest Departments and Degree Distribution. Focus On

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulvey, Patrick J.; Nicholson, Starr

    2014-01-01

    In the 2011-12 academic year there were 751 degree-granting physics departments in the U.S. Of these, 195 offered a PhD and 62 departments offered a master's as the highest physics degree. The remaining 494 departments offered a bachelor's as their highest physics degree. There were six universities that had two doctoral-granting physics…

  3. From SMART-1 D-CIXS lunar results to C1XS on Chandrayaan-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grande, Manuel

    The D-CIXS X-ray spectrometer on SMART-1 demonstrated the potential of the technique of X-ray fluorescent spectroscopy of the Moon. We will show recent results, indicating the capabilities of the technique. The Chandrayaan-1 X-ray Spectrometer (C1XS) is a compact X-ray spectrometer for the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) Chandrayaan-1 lunar mission, launching mid 2008. It exploits heritage from the D-CIXS instrument on ESA's SMART1 mission. By comparison with SMART-1, Chandrayaan-1 is intended as a science rather than a technology mission, leading to far more favourable conditions for science measurements. The CIXS instrument hardware is built by an international team led from the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory. The Principal Investigator is M. Grande at the Aberystwyth University, and there is also a major science and design contribution from ISAC, ISRO, Bangalore, India; CESR, Toulouse, France provide amplifiers. The Science team is led by I A Crawford of Birkbeck College London. In order to record the incident solar X-ray flux at the Moon, a good measure of which is essential to derive absolute lunar elemental surface abundances, CIXS carries an X-ray Solar Monitor (XSM) provided by the University of Helsinki, Finland. The baseline design consists of 24 nadir pointing Swept Charge Device detectors, which provide high detection efficiency in the 1 to 7 keV range, which contains the X-ray fluorescence lines of interest. Micro-machined collimators provide a 14 degree FWHM FOV, equivalent to 25 km from 100km altitude. A deployable door protects the instrument during launch and cruise, and also provides a Fe55 calibration X-ray sources for each of the detectors. Additional refinements to the electronics, onboard software and thermal design greatly increase detector stability and signal to noise ratio compared to D-CIXS. This will result in a significantly improved energy resolution which should therefore be better than 200eV throughout the lifetime of the

  4. The exosporium of B. cereus contains a binding site for gC1qR/p33: implication in spore attachment and/or entry.

    PubMed

    Ghebrehiwet, Berhane; Tantral, Lee; Titmus, Mathew A; Panessa-Warren, Barbara J; Tortora, George T; Wong, Stanislaus S; Warren, John B

    2007-01-01

    B. cereus, is a member of a genus of aerobic, gram-positive, spore-forming rod-like bacilli, which includes the deadly, B. anthracis. Preliminary experiments have shown that gC1qR binds to B. cereus spores that have been attached to microtiter plates. The present studies were therefore undertaken, to examine if cell surface gC1qR plays a role in B. cereus spore attachment and/or entry. Monolayers of human colon carcinoma (Caco-2) and lung cells were grown to confluency on 6 mm coverslips in shell vials with gentle swirling in a shaker incubator. Then, 2 microl of a suspension of strain SB460 B. cereus spores (3x10(8)/ml, in sterile water), were added and incubated (1-4 h; 36 degrees C) in the presence or absence of anti-gC1qR mAb-carbon nanoloops. Examination of these cells by EM revealed that: (1) When B. cereus endospores contacted the apical Caco-2 cell surface, or lung cells, gC1qR was simultaneously detectable, indicating upregulation of the molecule. (2) In areas showing spore contact with the cell surface, gC1qR expression was often adjacent to the spores in association with microvilli (Caco-2 cells) or cytoskeletal projections (lung cells). (3) Furthermore, the exosporia of the activated and germinating spores were often decorated with mAb-nanoloops. These observations were further corroborated by experiments in which B.cereus spores were readily taken up by monocytes and neutrophils, and this uptake was partially inhibited by mAb 60.11, which recognizes the C1q binding site on gC1qR. Taken together, the data suggest a role, for gC1qR at least in the initial stages of spore attachment and/or entry.

  5. Cell Surface Expression and Function of the Macromolecular C1 Complex on the Surface of Human Monocytes

    PubMed Central

    Hosszu, Kinga K.; Valentino, Alisa; Ji, Yan; Matkovic, Mara; Pednekar, Lina; Rehage, Nina; Tumma, Nithin; Peerschke, Ellinor I. B.; Ghebrehiwet, Berhane

    2011-01-01

    The synthesis of the subunits of the C1 complex (C1q, C1s, C1r), and its regulator C1 inhibitor (C1-Inh) by human monocytes has been previously established. However, surface expression of these molecules by monocytes has not been shown. Using flow cytometry and antigen-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, we show here for the first time that, in addition to C1q, peripheral blood monocytes, and the monocyte-derived U937 cells express C1s and C1r, as well as Factor B and C1-Inh on their surface. C1s and C1r immunoprecipitated with C1q, suggesting that at least some of the C1q on these cells is part of the C1 complex. Furthermore, the C1 complex on U937 cells was able to trigger complement activation via the classical pathway. The presence of C1-Inh may ensure that an unwarranted autoactivation of the C1 complex does not take place. Since C1-Inh closely monitors the activation of the C1 complex in a sterile or infectious inflammatory environment, further elucidation of the role of C1 complex is crucial to dissect its function in monocyte, dendritic cell, and T cell activities, and its implications in host defense and tolerance. PMID:22566921

  6. Occurrence and Antioxidant Activity of C1 Degradation Products in Cocoa

    PubMed Central

    De Taeye, Cédric; Kankolongo Cibaka, Marie-Lucie; Collin, Sonia

    2017-01-01

    Procyanidin C1 is by far the main flavan-3-ol trimer in cocoa. Like other flavan-3-ols, however, it suffers a lot during heat treatments such as roasting. RP-HPLC-HRMS/MS(ESI(−))analysis applied to an aqueous model medium containing commercial procyanidin C1 proved that epimerization is the main reaction involved in its degradation (accounting for 62% of degradation products). In addition to depolymerization, cocoa procyanidin C1 also proved sensitive to oxidation, yielding once- and twice-oxidized dimers. No chemical oligomer involving the native trimer was found in either model medium or cocoa, while two C1 isomers were retrieved. C1 degradation products exhibited antioxidant activity (monitored by RP-HPLC-Online TEAC) close to that of C1 (when expressed in µM TE/mg·kg−1). PMID:28264525

  7. The C1q complement family of synaptic organizers: not just complementary.

    PubMed

    Yuzaki, Michisuke

    2017-02-17

    Molecules that regulate formation, differentiation, and maintenance of synapses are called synaptic organizers. Recently, various 'C1q family' proteins have been shown to be released from neurons, and serve as a new class of synaptic organizers. Cbln1 and C1ql1 proteins regulate the formation and maintenance of parallel fiber-Purkinje cell and climbing fiber-Purkinje cell synapses, respectively, in the cerebellum. Cbln1 also modulates the function of postsynaptic delta2 glutamate receptors to regulate synaptic plasticity. C1ql2 and C1ql3, released from mossy fibers, determine the synaptic localization of postsynaptic kainate receptors in the hippocampus. C1ql3 also regulates the formation of synapses between the basolateral amygdala and the prefrontal cortex. These findings indicate the diverse functions of C1q family proteins in various brain regions.

  8. Effects of C1 Inhibitor on Tissue Damage in a Porcine Model of Controlled Hemorrhage

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    glucose, hematocrit (Hct), hemoglobin ( Hb ), sodium (Na+), potassium (K+), and ionized calcium (Ca2+) using i STAT cartridges (Abbott Laboratories, Abbott...Shock Society. Unauthorized reproduction of this article is prohibited. (Princeton, NJ). MicroVue C1 INH enzyme immunoassay (EIA) kit was purchased from...TABLE 3. Prehemorrhage and posthemorrhage metabolic data of hemorrhaged animals Group PSham H H + C1-100 H + C1-250 n 5 5 6 4 5 4 5 Prehemorrhage Hb , g

  9. 29 CFR 2550.404c-1 - ERISA section 404(c) plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false ERISA section 404(c) plans. 2550.404c-1 Section 2550.404c-1... REGULATIONS FOR FIDUCIARY RESPONSIBILITY § 2550.404c-1 ERISA section 404(c) plans. (a) In general. (1) Section 404(c) of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 (ERISA or the Act) provides that if...

  10. 29 CFR 2550.404c-1 - ERISA section 404(c) plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false ERISA section 404(c) plans. 2550.404c-1 Section 2550.404c-1... REGULATIONS FOR FIDUCIARY RESPONSIBILITY § 2550.404c-1 ERISA section 404(c) plans. (a) In general. (1) Section 404(c) of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 (ERISA or the Act) provides that if...

  11. Aerodynamic characteristics of an all-body hypersonic aircraft configuration at Mach numbers from 0.65 to 10.6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelms, W. P., Jr.; Thomas, C. L.

    1971-01-01

    Aerodynamic characteristics of a model designed to represent an all body, hypersonic cruise aircraft are presented for Mach numbers from 0.65 to 10.6. The configuration had a delta planform with an elliptic cone forebody and an afterbody of elliptic cross section. Detailed effects of varying angle of attack (-2 to +15 deg), angle of sideslip (-2 to +8 deg), Mach number, and configuration buildup were considered. In addition, the effectiveness of horizontal tail, vertical tail, and canard stabilizing and control surfaces was investigated. The results indicate that all configurations were longitudinally stable near maximum lift drag ratio. The configurations with vertical tails were directionally stable at all angles of attack. Trim penalties were small at hypersonic speeds for a center of gravity location representative of the airplane, but because of the large rearward travel of the aerodynamic center, trim penalties were severe at transonic Mach numbers.

  12. A Study of the DsJ(2317) and DsJ(2460) Mesons in Inclusive ccbar Production near sqrt(s) = 10.6 GeV

    SciTech Connect

    Aubert, B.

    2006-04-19

    A study of the D*{sub sJ}(2317){sup +} and D{sub sJ}(2460){sup +} mesons in inclusive c{bar c} production is presented using 232 fb{sup -1} of data collected by the BABAR experiment near {radical}s = 10.6 GeV. Final states consisting of a D{sub s}{sup +} meson along with one or more {pi}{sup 0}, {pi}{sup {+-}}, or {gamma} particles are considered. Estimates of the mass and limits on the width are provided for both mesons and for the D{sub s1}(2536){sup +} meson. A search is also performed for neutral and doubly-charged partners of the D*{sub sJ}(2317){sup +} meson.

  13. 1.95  μm-pumped OP-GaAs optical parametric oscillator with 10.6  μm idler wavelength.

    PubMed

    Wueppen, Jochen; Nyga, Sebastian; Jungbluth, Bernd; Hoffmann, Dieter

    2016-09-15

    We report on an optical parametric oscillator that generates output idler wavelengths around 10.6 μm. On the basis of orientation-patterned gallium arsenide (OP-GaAs) as a nonlinear medium and a 1.95 μm ns-pulsed pump laser, a signal-resonant bow-tie resonator was designed in order to maximize the output power at moderate intensities well below the damage threshold of the optical components. With this setup, the average idler output power at 50 kHz and 100 ns idler pulse length was more than 800 mW, which corresponds to a pulse energy of 16 μJ. The maximum quantum conversion efficiency of 36.8% is the highest value measured so far for comparable setups to the best of our knowledge.

  14. Inhibition of the activation of Hageman factor (factor XII) by complement subcomponent C1q.

    PubMed

    Rehmus, E H; Greene, B M; Everson, B A; Ratnoff, O D

    1987-08-01

    Hageman factor (HF, Factor XII) is activated by glass, collagen, and ellagic acid, and initiates blood coagulation via the intrinsic pathway. C1q inhibits collagen-induced platelet aggregation and adherence of platelets to glass, effects attributable to the collagen-like region of C1q. We examined the actions of C1q on HF activation. Incubation of C1q with HF before addition of HF-deficient plasma extended the activated partial thromboplastin time. Similarly, when glass tubes were coated with C1q before testing, the partial thromboplastin time of normal plasma was increased. C1q reduced the activation of HF by ellagic acid, as measured by the release of p-nitroaniline from the synthetic substrate H-D-prolyl-L-phenylalanyl-L-arginine-p-nitroanilide dihydrochloride, an effect inhibited by monoclonal anti-human C1q murine IgG and by digestion of C1q by collagenase. Thus, C1q inhibits activation of HF in vitro in clot-promoting and amidolytic assays and suggests a regulatory mechanism for the inhibition of coagulation.

  15. Inhibition of the activation of Hageman factor (factor XII) by complement subcomponent C1q.

    PubMed Central

    Rehmus, E H; Greene, B M; Everson, B A; Ratnoff, O D

    1987-01-01

    Hageman factor (HF, Factor XII) is activated by glass, collagen, and ellagic acid, and initiates blood coagulation via the intrinsic pathway. C1q inhibits collagen-induced platelet aggregation and adherence of platelets to glass, effects attributable to the collagen-like region of C1q. We examined the actions of C1q on HF activation. Incubation of C1q with HF before addition of HF-deficient plasma extended the activated partial thromboplastin time. Similarly, when glass tubes were coated with C1q before testing, the partial thromboplastin time of normal plasma was increased. C1q reduced the activation of HF by ellagic acid, as measured by the release of p-nitroaniline from the synthetic substrate H-D-prolyl-L-phenylalanyl-L-arginine-p-nitroanilide dihydrochloride, an effect inhibited by monoclonal anti-human C1q murine IgG and by digestion of C1q by collagenase. Thus, C1q inhibits activation of HF in vitro in clot-promoting and amidolytic assays and suggests a regulatory mechanism for the inhibition of coagulation. PMID:3038961

  16. Engineering Botulinum Neurotoxin C1 as a Molecular Vehicle for Intra-Neuronal Drug Delivery.

    PubMed

    Vazquez-Cintron, Edwin J; Beske, Phillip H; Tenezaca, Luis; Tran, Bao Q; Oyler, Jonathan M; Glotfelty, Elliot J; Angeles, Christopher A; Syngkon, Aurelia; Mukherjee, Jean; Kalb, Suzanne R; Band, Philip A; McNutt, Patrick M; Shoemaker, Charles B; Ichtchenko, Konstantin

    2017-02-21

    Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) binds to and internalizes its light chain into presynaptic compartments with exquisite specificity. While the native toxin is extremely lethal, bioengineering of BoNT has the potential to eliminate toxicity without disrupting neuron-specific targeting, thereby creating a molecular vehicle capable of delivering therapeutic cargo into the neuronal cytosol. Building upon previous work, we have developed an atoxic derivative (ad) of BoNT/C1 through rationally designed amino acid substitutions in the metalloprotease domain of wild type (wt) BoNT/C1. To test if BoNT/C1 ad retains neuron-specific targeting without concomitant toxic host responses, we evaluated the localization, activity, and toxicity of BoNT/C1 ad in vitro and in vivo. In neuronal cultures, BoNT/C1 ad light chain is rapidly internalized into presynaptic compartments, but does not cleave SNARE proteins nor impair spontaneous neurotransmitter release. In mice, systemic administration resulted in the specific co-localization of BoNT/C1 ad with diaphragmatic motor nerve terminals. The mouse LD50 of BoNT/C1 ad is 5 mg/kg, with transient neurological symptoms emerging at sub-lethal doses. Given the low toxicity and highly specific neuron-targeting properties of BoNT/C1 ad, these data suggest that BoNT/C1 ad can be useful as a molecular vehicle for drug delivery to the neuronal cytoplasm.

  17. Overview of hereditary angioedema caused by C1-inhibitor deficiency: assessment and clinical management.

    PubMed

    Bork, K; Davis-Lorton, M

    2013-02-01

    Hereditary angioedema due to C1-inhibitor deficiency (HAE-C1-INH) is a rare, autosomal-dominant disease. HAE-C1-INH is characterized by recurrent attacks of marked, diffuse, nonpitting and nonpruritic skin swellings, painful abdominal attacks, and laryngeal edema. The extremities and the gastrointestinal tract are most commonly affected. Swelling of the upper respiratory mucosa poses the greatest risk because death from asphyxiation can result from laryngealedema. HAE-C1-INH attacks are variable, unpredictable, and may be induced by a variety of stimuli, including stress or physical trauma. Because the clinical presentation of HAE-C1-INH is similar to other types of angioedema, the condition may be a challenge to diagnose. Accurate identification of HAE-C1-INH is critical in order to avoid asphyxiation by laryngeal edema and to improve the burden of disease. Based on an understanding of the underlying pathophysiology of IHAE-C1-INH, drugs targeted specifically to the disease, such as C1-inhibitor therapy, bradykinin B2-receptor antagonists, and kallikrein-inhibitors, have become available for both treatment and prevention of angioedema attacks. This article reviews the clinical features, differential diagnosis, and current approaches to management of HAE-C1-INH.

  18. Engineering Botulinum Neurotoxin C1 as a Molecular Vehicle for Intra-Neuronal Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Vazquez-Cintron, Edwin J.; Beske, Phillip H.; Tenezaca, Luis; Tran, Bao Q.; Oyler, Jonathan M.; Glotfelty, Elliot J.; Angeles, Christopher A.; Syngkon, Aurelia; Mukherjee, Jean; Kalb, Suzanne R.; Band, Philip A.; McNutt, Patrick M.; Shoemaker, Charles B.; Ichtchenko, Konstantin

    2017-01-01

    Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) binds to and internalizes its light chain into presynaptic compartments with exquisite specificity. While the native toxin is extremely lethal, bioengineering of BoNT has the potential to eliminate toxicity without disrupting neuron-specific targeting, thereby creating a molecular vehicle capable of delivering therapeutic cargo into the neuronal cytosol. Building upon previous work, we have developed an atoxic derivative (ad) of BoNT/C1 through rationally designed amino acid substitutions in the metalloprotease domain of wild type (wt) BoNT/C1. To test if BoNT/C1 ad retains neuron-specific targeting without concomitant toxic host responses, we evaluated the localization, activity, and toxicity of BoNT/C1 ad in vitro and in vivo. In neuronal cultures, BoNT/C1 ad light chain is rapidly internalized into presynaptic compartments, but does not cleave SNARE proteins nor impair spontaneous neurotransmitter release. In mice, systemic administration resulted in the specific co-localization of BoNT/C1 ad with diaphragmatic motor nerve terminals. The mouse LD50 of BoNT/C1 ad is 5 mg/kg, with transient neurological symptoms emerging at sub-lethal doses. Given the low toxicity and highly specific neuron-targeting properties of BoNT/C1 ad, these data suggest that BoNT/C1 ad can be useful as a molecular vehicle for drug delivery to the neuronal cytoplasm. PMID:28220863

  19. Anti-C1q Autoantibodies, Novel Tests, and Clinical Consequences

    PubMed Central

    Mahler, Michael; van Schaarenburg, Rosanne A.; Trouw, Leendert A.

    2013-01-01

    Although anti-C1q autoantibodies have been described more than four decades ago a constant stream of papers describing clinical associations or functional consequences highlights that anti-C1q antibodies are still hot and happening. By far the largest set of studies focus on anti-C1q antibodies is systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). In SLE anti-C1q antibodies associate with involvement of lupus nephritis in such a way that in the absence of anti-C1q antibodies it is unlikely that a flare in nephritis will occur. Anti-C1q antibodies occur in several autoimmune conditions but also in healthy individuals. Although considerable progress has been made in the understanding of how anti-C1q antibodies may contribute to tissue injury there is still a lot to learn about the processes involved in the breaking of tolerance to this protein. There has been considerable improvement in the assays employed to test for the presence of anti-C1q antibodies. Hopefully with these new and standardized assays at hand larger clinical association studies will be conducted with independent replication. Such large-scale studies will reveal the true value of clinical testing for anti-C1q autoantibodies in several clinical conditions. PMID:23717311

  20. Aeroelastic Tests of an Eight Percent Scale Saturn C-1 Block II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    Aeroelastic Tests of an Eight Percent Scale Saturn C-1 Block II. Buffet and flutter characteristics of Saturn Apollo mission were studied using a dynamically scaled model. The model was built around a central aluminum tube for scaled stiffness distribution and strength to resist loads imposed during testing. Styrofoam sections attached to the core provided the correct external contours. Lead weights were added for correct mass distribution. An electromagnetic shaker was used to excite the model in its flexible modes of vibration during portions of the test. The model was supported on a sting, mounted by leaf springs, cables and torsion bars. The support system provided for simulating the full scale rigid body pitch frequency with minimum restraint imposed on elastic deflections. Bending moments recorded by sensors on the aluminum tube. Several modified nose configurations were tested: The basic configuration was tested with and without a flow separator disk on the escape rocket motor, tests also were made with the escape tower and rocket motor removed completely. For the final test, the Apollo capsule was replaced with a Jupiter nose cone. The test program consisted of determining model response throughout the transonic speed range at angles of attack up to 6 degrees and measuring the aerodynamic damping over the same range for the basic model and the modified configurations. Signals from the model pickup were recorded on tape for later analysis. The data obtained were used to estimate bending moments that would be produced on the full-scale vehicle by aerodynamic forces due to buffeting. [Entire movie available on DVD from CASI as Doc ID 20070030987. Contact help@sti.nasa.gov

  1. Niemann-Pick C1 Is Essential for Ebolavirus Replication and Pathogenesis In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Herbert, Andrew S.; Davidson, Cristin; Kuehne, Ana I.; Bakken, Russell; Braigen, Stephen Z.; Gunn, Kathryn E.; Whelan, Sean P.; Brummelkamp, Thijn R.; Twenhafel, Nancy A.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Recent work demonstrated that the Niemann-Pick C1 (NPC1) protein is an essential entry receptor for filoviruses. While previous studies focused on filovirus entry requirements of NPC1 in vitro, its roles in filovirus replication and pathogenesis in vivo remain unclear. Here, we evaluated the importance of NPC1, and its partner in cholesterol transport, NPC2, by using a mouse model of Ebolavirus (EBOV) disease. We found that, whereas wild-type mice had high viral loads and succumbed to EBOV infection, Npc1−/− mice were entirely free of viral replication and completely protected from EBOV disease. Interestingly, Npc1+/− mice transiently developed high levels of viremia, but were nevertheless substantially protected from EBOV challenge. We also found Npc2−/− mice to be fully susceptible to EBOV infection, while Npc1−/− mice treated to deplete stored lysosomal cholesterol remained completely resistant to EBOV infection. These results provide mechanistic evidence that NPC1 is directly required for EBOV infection in vivo, with little or no role for NPC1/NPC2-dependent cholesterol transport. Finally, we assessed the in vivo antiviral efficacies of three compounds known to inhibit NPC1 function or NPC1-glycoprotein binding in vitro. Two compounds reduced viral titers in vivo and provided a modest, albeit not statistically significant, degree of protection. Taken together, our results show that NPC1 is critical for replication and pathogenesis in animals and is a bona fide target for development of antifilovirus therapeutics. Additionally, our findings with Npc1+/− mice raise the possibility that individuals heterozygous for NPC1 may have a survival advantage in the face of EBOV infection. PMID:26015498

  2. Functional C1q is present in the skin mucus of Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii).

    PubMed

    Fan, Chunxin; Wang, Jian; Zhang, Xuguang; Song, Jiakun

    2015-01-01

    The skin mucus of fish acts as the first line of self-protection against pathogens in the aquatic environment and comprises a number of innate immune components. However, the presence of the critical classical complement component C1q, which links the innate and adaptive immune systems of mammalians, has not been explored in a primitive actinopterygian fish. In this study, we report that C1q is present in the skin mucus of the Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii). The skin mucus was able to inhibit the growth of Escherichia coli. The bacteriostatic activity of the skin mucus was reduced by heating and by pre-incubation with EDTA or mouse anti-human C1q antibody. We also detected C1q protein in skin mucus using the western blot procedure and isolated a cDNA that encodes the Siberian sturgeon C1qC, which had 44.7-51.4% identity with C1qCs in teleosts and tetrapods. A phylogenetic analysis revealed that Siberian sturgeon C1qC lies at the root of the actinopterygian branch and is separate from the tetrapod branch. The C1qC transcript was expressed in many tissues as well as in skin. Our data indicate that C1q is present in the skin mucus of the Siberian sturgeon to protect against water-borne bacteria, and the C1qC found in the sturgeon may represent the primitive form of teleost and tetrapod C1qCs.

  3. Spinolaminar Line Test as a Screening Tool for C1 Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Oshima, Yasushi; Kelly, Michael P.; Song, Kwang-Sup; Park, Moon Soo; Chuntarapas, Tapanut; Vo, Katie D.; Yeom, Jin S.; Takeshita, Katsushi; Riew, K. Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective cohort. Objective To clarify the sensitivity of C3–C2 spinolaminar line test as a screening tool for the stenosis of C1 space available for the cord (SAC). Methods Spine clinic records from April 2005 to August 2011 were reviewed. The C1 SAC was measured on lateral radiographs, and the relative positions between a C1 posterior arch and the C3–C2 spinolaminar line were examined and considered “positive” when the C1 ring lay ventral to the line. Computed tomography (CT) scans and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were utilized to measure precise diameters of C1 and C2 SAC and to check the existence of spinal cord compression. Results Four hundred eighty-seven patients were included in this study. There were 246 men and 241 women, with an average age of 53 years (range: 18 to 86). The mean SAC at C1 on radiographs was 21.2 mm (range: 13.5 to 28.2). Twenty-one patients (4.3%) were positive for the spinolaminar line test; all of these patients had C1 SAC of 19.4 mm or less. Eight patients (1.6%) had C1 SAC smaller than C2 on CT examination; all of these patients had a positive spinolaminar test, with high sensitivity (100%) and specificity (97%). MRI analysis revealed that two of the eight patients with a smaller C1 SAC had spinal cord compression at the C1 level. Conclusion Although spinal cord compression at the level of atlas without instability is a rare condition, the spinolaminar line can be used as a screening of C1 stenosis. PMID:27190740

  4. NLN: Celebrating Associate Degree Nursing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoddick, Nancy A.

    1981-01-01

    Introduces a project celebrating the thirtieth anniversary of associate degree nursing (ADN) education. Reviews the efforts and plans of two national associations to identify and resolve recurring ADN issues and recognize the associate degree nurse's contributions. Describes the forums and publications planned to meet these objectives. Includes…

  5. Employers Often Distrust Online Degrees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnevale, Dan

    2007-01-01

    This article explains why employers are reluctant to accept potential employees with online degrees. The results of several surveys of those who evaluate potential employees and make hiring decisions indicate a bias against online degrees, even as more and more colleges are offering programs online. To those officials, the words "online…

  6. Degree, Yes--Education, No

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheahan, Sister Dorothy

    1974-01-01

    The external degree program, based solely on test proficiency, offers to its students not an educational opportunity; not a learning situation but a schema for securing a degree, with any kind of socialization into the profession conspicuously missing from the program. (Author/DS)

  7. Six Degrees of "Visual" Separation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wall, Sharon

    2006-01-01

    Whether referring to psychologist Stanley Milgram's intriguing theory, John Guare's successful play and film, or Kevin Bacon's party game, six degrees of separation may also be used as a way to help students make visual connections. The six degrees of separation is the concept that everyone is connected to everyone else in the world by only six…

  8. Individualized Degree Program Student Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagan, Jan

    This student handbook describes the process and components of Whatcom Community College's Individualized Degree Program (IDP), which offers students the opportunity to design an associate degree or certificate plan to meet their educational goals. After introductory material presents a history of the IDP's development and the purpose of the…

  9. Associate/Bachelor Degree Articulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hochberg, L. Jim, Sr.

    Policies and procedures to promote articulation of associate degree with bachelor degree study are recommended based on the experience of Hawaii Pacific College, Honolulu. Consideration is given to: flexibility versus rigidity, competency versus curriculum specifics, corroboration and substantiation, and contingency versus once-for-all-award. It…

  10. Guide to Teaching Degrees 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Caralee

    2011-01-01

    Getting a master's degree means lots of late nights, busy weekends, and probably taking on student loan debt. The commitment raises the question: Is it worth it? This article takes a comprehensive look at how much a master's is worth, which degree one should pursue, and how one can find a balance in graduate school.

  11. Specific heats of lunar surface materials from 90 to 350 degrees Kelvin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robie, R.A.; Hemingway, B.S.; Wilson, W.H.

    1970-01-01

    The specific heats of lunar samples 10057 and 10084 returned by the Apollo 11 mission have been measured between 90 and 350 degrees Kelvin by use of an adiabatic calorimeter. The samples are representative of type A vesicular basalt-like rocks and of finely divided lunar soil. The specific heat of these materials changes smoothly from about 0.06 calorie per gram per degree at 90 degrees Kelvin to about 0.2 calorie per gram per degree at 350 degrees Kelvin. The thermal parameter ??=(k??C)-1/2 for the lunar surface will accordingly vary by a factor of about 2 between lunar noon and midnight.

  12. Set our Master's degrees free

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padman, Rachael

    2010-04-01

    Making UK undergraduate physics degrees longer must have seemed like a good idea at the time. Back in the early 1990s the standard three-year Bachelor's physics degree (four years in Scotland) was under pressure at both ends. The A-level curriculum - one of the requirements for entry onto a degree course - was being increasingly modularized, and dumbed down. Physics students were arriving at university less well prepared than in the past and there was an increasing awareness that graduates of five-year continental degree courses were better equipped for a professional scientific career than those in the UK. At the same time, local education authorities in the UK were required to provide full funding for a first degree, whether for three or four years.

  13. Enhanced synaptic connectivity and epilepsy in C1q knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Chu, Yunxiang; Jin, Xiaoming; Parada, Isabel; Pesic, Alexei; Stevens, Beth; Barres, Ben; Prince, David A

    2010-04-27

    Excessive CNS synapses are eliminated during development to establish mature patterns of neuronal connectivity. A complement cascade protein, C1q, is involved in this process. Mice deficient in C1q fail to refine retinogeniculate connections resulting in excessive retinal innervation of lateral geniculate neurons. We hypothesized that C1q knockout (KO) mice would exhibit defects in neocortical synapse elimination resulting in enhanced excitatory synaptic connectivity and epileptiform activity. We recorded spontaneous and evoked field potential activity in neocortical slices and obtained video-EEG recordings from implanted C1q KO and wild-type (WT) mice. We also used laser scanning photostimulation of caged glutamate and whole cell recordings to map excitatory and inhibitory synaptic connectivity. Spontaneous and evoked epileptiform field potentials occurred at multiple sites in neocortical slices from C1q KO, but not WT mice. Laser mapping experiments in C1q KO slices showed that the proportion of glutamate uncaging sites from which excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) could be evoked ("hotspot ratio") increased significantly in layer IV and layer V, although EPSC amplitudes were unaltered. Density of axonal boutons was significantly increased in layer V pyramidal neurons of C1q KO mice. Implanted KO mice had frequent behavioral seizures consisting of behavioral arrest associated with bihemispheric spikes and slow wave activity lasting from 5 to 30 s. Results indicate that epileptogenesis in C1q KO mice is related to a genetically determined failure to prune excessive excitatory synapses during development.

  14. 26 CFR 1.641(c)-1 - Electing small business trust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electing small business trust. 1.641(c)-1...) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Estates, Trusts, and Beneficiaries § 1.641(c)-1 Electing small business trust. (a) In general. An electing small business trust (ESBT) within the meaning of section...

  15. Relevance of anti-C1q autoantibodies to lupus nephritis.

    PubMed

    Tsirogianni, Alexandra; Pipi, Elena; Soufleros, Kostantinos

    2009-09-01

    The first component of the classical pathway of the complement system (C1q) is considered to have a crucial role in the clearance of immune complexes (ICs) as well as in the removal of waste material originating from apoptotic cells. A prolonged exposure of C1q epitopes to the immune system could eventually lead to an autoimmune response against itself. Although autoantibodies against C1q are found in several diseases, their clinical interest originates from their strong association to active lupus nephritis (LN). Several studies indicate that anti-C1q autoantibodies could serve as a reliable serologic marker in the assessment of LN activity compared to other immunological tests. Additionally, it was suggested that anti-C1q autoantibodies could play a role in LN pathogenesis. Their potential pathogenic actions likely depend on genetic background, titers, Ig classes and subclasses, and specific epitopes of anti-C1q autoantibodies as well as C1q availability and allocation. It is still unclear which different types of anti-C1q autoantibodies dominate in each case and if their upregulation is pathogenic, an epiphenomenon of aberrant tissue damage, or compensatory to an uncontrolled immune response.

  16. 17 CFR 240.15c1-9 - Use of pro forma balance sheets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Use of pro forma balance sheets. 240.15c1-9 Section 240.15c1-9 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE... pro forma balance sheets. The term manipulative, deceptive, or other fraudulent device or...

  17. 17 CFR 240.15c1-9 - Use of pro forma balance sheets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Use of pro forma balance sheets. 240.15c1-9 Section 240.15c1-9 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE... pro forma balance sheets. The term manipulative, deceptive, or other fraudulent device or...

  18. 17 CFR 240.15c1-9 - Use of pro forma balance sheets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Use of pro forma balance sheets. 240.15c1-9 Section 240.15c1-9 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE... pro forma balance sheets. The term manipulative, deceptive, or other fraudulent device or...

  19. 17 CFR 240.15c1-9 - Use of pro forma balance sheets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of pro forma balance sheets. 240.15c1-9 Section 240.15c1-9 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE... pro forma balance sheets. The term manipulative, deceptive, or other fraudulent device or...

  20. 17 CFR 240.15c1-9 - Use of pro forma balance sheets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Use of pro forma balance sheets. 240.15c1-9 Section 240.15c1-9 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE... pro forma balance sheets. The term manipulative, deceptive, or other fraudulent device or...

  1. 26 CFR 1.280C-1 - Disallowance of certain deductions for wage or salary expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... salary expenses. 1.280C-1 Section 1.280C-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Disallowance of certain deductions for wage or salary expenses. If an employer elects to claim the targeted... reduce its deduction for wage or salary expenses paid or incurred in the year the credit is earned by...

  2. 26 CFR 1.280C-1 - Disallowance of certain deductions for wage or salary expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... salary expenses. 1.280C-1 Section 1.280C-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... certain deductions for wage or salary expenses. If an employer elects to claim the targeted jobs credit... deduction for wage or salary expenses paid or incurred in the year the credit is earned by the...

  3. 26 CFR 1.280C-1 - Disallowance of certain deductions for wage or salary expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... salary expenses. 1.280C-1 Section 1.280C-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Disallowance of certain deductions for wage or salary expenses. If an employer elects to claim the targeted... reduce its deduction for wage or salary expenses paid or incurred in the year the credit is earned by...

  4. 26 CFR 1.280C-1 - Disallowance of certain deductions for wage or salary expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... salary expenses. 1.280C-1 Section 1.280C-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Disallowance of certain deductions for wage or salary expenses. If an employer elects to claim the targeted... reduce its deduction for wage or salary expenses paid or incurred in the year the credit is earned by...

  5. 26 CFR 1.280C-1 - Disallowance of certain deductions for wage or salary expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... salary expenses. 1.280C-1 Section 1.280C-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Disallowance of certain deductions for wage or salary expenses. If an employer elects to claim the targeted... reduce its deduction for wage or salary expenses paid or incurred in the year the credit is earned by...

  6. 26 CFR 301.6104(c)-1 - Disclosure of certain information to State officers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disclosure of certain information to State officers. 301.6104(c)-1 Section 301.6104(c)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE...) of this section, the Internal Revenue Service will notify the Attorney General and the principal...

  7. Generalized van der Waals Hamiltonian: periodic orbits and C1 nonintegrability.

    PubMed

    Guirao, Juan L G; Llibre, Jaume; Vera, Juan A

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this paper is to study the periodic orbits of the generalized van der Waals Hamiltonian system. The tool for studying such periodic orbits is the averaging theory. Moreover, for this Hamiltonian system we provide information on its C(1) nonintegrability, i.e., on the existence of a second first integral of class C(1).

  8. 26 CFR 1.512(c)-1 - Special rules applicable to partnerships; in general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Special rules applicable to partnerships; in general. 1.512(c)-1 Section 1.512(c)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Taxation of Business Income of...

  9. 26 CFR 31.3406(c)-1 - Notified payee underreporting of reportable interest or dividend payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notified payee underreporting of reportable interest or dividend payments. 31.3406(c)-1 Section 31.3406(c)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE...)(2)) made with respect to an account of a payee if the Internal Revenue Service or a broker...

  10. 26 CFR 1.641(c)-1 - Electing small business trust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Electing small business trust. 1.641(c)-1... small business trust. (a) In general. An electing small business trust (ESBT) within the meaning of... meaning of section 642(c)(1). The limitations of section 681, regarding unrelated business income,...

  11. 26 CFR 1.641(c)-1 - Electing small business trust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Electing small business trust. 1.641(c)-1... small business trust. (a) In general. An electing small business trust (ESBT) within the meaning of... meaning of section 642(c)(1). The limitations of section 681, regarding unrelated business income,...

  12. MECHANISMS OF ACTIVATION OF C'1 ESTERASE IN HEREDITARY ANGIONEUROTIC EDEMA PLASMA IN VITRO

    PubMed Central

    Donaldson, Virginia H.

    1968-01-01

    The generation of C'1 esterase activity in siliconed plasma obtained from individuals with hereditary angioneurotic edema in remission tends to occur spontaneously, but can be hastened during its incubation with preparations of activated Hageman factor. This effect of activated Hageman factor could not be shown during its incubation with normal siliconed plasma, nor could consumption of normal serum inhibition of C'1 esterase be clearly shown. Soy bean trypsin inhibitor and heparin could impair this enhanced generation of C'1 esterase but neither inhibits the esterolytic function of C'1 esterase once formed. Trasylol was less effective in blocking this effect of activated Hageman factor. While the mechanism of the effect of activated Hageman factor upon C'1 activation remains obscure, it is apparent that some intermediate steps, possibly involving a kinin-forming system of plasma, may play a role. PMID:5299945

  13. Recombinant replacement therapy for hereditary angioedema due to C1 inhibitor deficiency.

    PubMed

    Moldovan, Dumitru; Bernstein, Jonathan A; Cicardi, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Hereditary angioedema is a rare genetic condition transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait and characterized most commonly by the production of either inadequate or nonfunctioning C1 esterase inhibitor (C1-INH), a blood protein that regulates proteases in the complement, fibrinolytic and contact systems. Patients with hereditary angioedema suffer from episodic, unpredictable manifestations of edema affecting multiple anatomical locations, including the GI tract, facial tissue, the upper airway, oropharynx, urogenital region and/or the arms and legs. A rational approach to treatment is replacement of C1-INH protein, to normalize the levels of C1-INH activity and halt the progression of the biochemical activation processes underlying the edema formation. Ruconest is a highly purified recombinant human C1-INH. This article will focus on the results of ten clinical studies demonstrating the efficacy and safety of Ruconest(®) (Pharming Group NV, Leiden, the Netherlands), which is now approved for use in Europe, Israel and the USA.

  14. Center is at Latitude 30 Degrees South, Longitude 210 Degrees

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Center of the orthographic projection is at latitude 30 degrees S., longitude 210 degrees. Toward the top, the lowland plains of Elysium and Utopia Planitiae are separated from the darker heavily cratered highlands by a broad escarpment. The far bottom left is marked by the large light-colored ancient Hellas impact basin. The permanent south polar residual ice cap is located near the bottom.

  15. C2 laminar screw and C1-2 transarticular screw combined with C1 laminar hooks for atlantoaxial instability with unilateral vertebral artery injury.

    PubMed

    Guo, Qunfeng; Liu, Jun; Ni, Bin; Lu, Xuhua; Zhou, Fengjin

    2011-09-01

    Transarticular screw fixation (TASF) is technically demanding, with high risk of vertebral artery (VA) injury. How to manage intraoperative VA injury and choose optimal alternative fixation becomes a concern of spinal surgeons. In this study, the management strategy for a patient with suspected intraoperative VA injury was analyzed. A 53-year-old woman developed type II odontoid fracture and brain stem injury due to a motor vehicle accident 3 months earlier. After conservative treatments, the brain stem injury improved, but with residual ocular motility defect in the right eye. The odontoid fracture did not achieve fusion with displacement and absorption of fracture fragments. After admission, atlantoaxial fixation using bilateral C1-2 transarticular screws (TASs) combined with C1 laminar hooks was planed. The first TAS was inserted successfully. Unfortunately, suspected VA injury developed during tapping the tract for the second TAS. Considering the previous brain stem injury and that directly inserting the screw to tamponade the hemorrhage might cause VA stenosis or occlusion, we blocked the screw trajectory with bone wax. C2 laminar screw was implanted instead of intended TAS on the injured side. The management strategy for suspected VA injury should depend on intraoperative circumstances and be tailored to patients. Blocking screw trajectory with bone wax is a useful method to stop bleeding. Atlantoaxial fixation using C2 laminar screw and C1-2 TAS combined with C1 laminar hooks is an ideal alternative procedure.

  16. Separation and conductimetric detection of C1-C7 aliphatic monocarboxylic acids and C1-C7 aliphatic monoamines on unfunctionized polymethacrylate resin columns.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Kazutoku; Towata, Atsuya; Ohashi, Masayoshi; Takeuchi, Toyohide

    2004-06-11

    The application of unfunctionized polymethacrylate resin (TSKgel G3000PWXL) as a stationary phase in liquid chromatography with conductimetric detection for C1-C7 aliphatic monocarboxylic acids (formic acid, acetic acid, propionic acid, butyric acid, isovaleric acid, valeric acid, 3,3-dimethylbutyric acid, 4-methylvaleric acid, hexanoic acid, 2-methylhexanoic acid, 5-methylhexanoic acid and heptanoic acid) and C1-C7 aliphatic monoamines (methylamine, ethylamine, propylamine, isobutylamine, butylamine, isoamylamine, amylamine, 1,3-dimethylbutylamine, hexylamine, 2-heptylamine and heptylamine) was attempted with C8 aliphatic monocarboxylic acids (2-propylvaleric acid, 2-ethylhexanoic acid, 2-methylheptanoic acid and octanoic acid) and C8 aliphatic monoamines (1,5-dimethylhexylamine, 2-ethylhexylamine, 1-methylheptylamine and octylamine) as eluents, respectively. Using 1 mM 2-methylheptanoic acid at pH 4.0 as the eluent, excellent separation and relatively high sensitive detection for these C1-C7 carboxylic acids were achieved on a TSKgel G3000PWXL column (150 mm x 6 mm i.d.) in 60 min. Using 2 mM octylamine at pH 11.0 as the eluent, excellent separation and relatively high sensitive detection for these C1-C7 amines were also achieved on the TSKgel G3000PWXL column in 60 min.

  17. Killing Horizons Kill Horizon Degrees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergamin, L.; Grumiller, D.

    Frequently, it is argued that the microstates responsible for the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy should arise from some physical degrees of freedom located near or on the black hole horizon. In this essay, we elucidate that instead entropy may emerge from the conversion of physical degrees of freedom, attached to a generic boundary, into unobservable gauge degrees of freedom attached to the horizon. By constructing the reduced phase space, it can be demonstrated that such a transmutation indeed takes place for a large class of black holes, including Schwarzschild.

  18. Hereditary and acquired C1-inhibitor-dependent angioedema: from pathophysiology to treatment.

    PubMed

    Zeerleder, Sacha; Levi, Marcel

    2016-01-01

    Uncontrolled generation of bradykinin (BK) due to insufficient levels of protease inhibitors controlling contact phase (CP) activation, increased activity of CP proteins, and/or inadequate degradation of BK into inactive peptides increases vascular permeability via BK-receptor 2 (BKR2) and results in subcutaneous and submucosal edema formation. Hereditary and acquired angioedema due to C1-inhibitor deficiency (C1-INH-HAE and -AAE) are diseases characterized by serious and potentially fatal attacks of subcutaneous and submucosal edemas of upper airways, facial structures, abdomen, and extremities, due to inadequate control of BK generation. A decreased activity of C1-inhibitor is the hallmark of C1-INH-HAE (types 1 and 2) due to a mutation in the C1-inhibitor gene, whereas the deficiency in C1-inhibitor in C1-INH-AAE is the result of autoimmune phenomena. In HAE with normal C1-inhibitor, a significant percentage of patients have an increased activity of factor XIIa due to a FXII mutation (FXII-HAE). Treatment of C1-inhibitor-dependent angioedema focuses on restoring control of BK generation by inhibition of CP proteases by correcting the balance between CP inhibitors and BK breakdown or by inhibition of BK-mediated effects at the BKR2 on endothelial cells. This review will address the pathophysiology, clinical picture, diagnosis and available treatment in C1-inhibitor-dependent angioedema focusing on BK-release and its regulation. Key Messages Inadequate control of bradykinin formation results in the formation of characteristic subcutaneous and submucosal edemas of the skin, upper airways, facial structures, abdomen and extremities as seen in hereditary and acquired C1-inhibitor-dependent angioedema. Diagnosis of hereditary and acquired C1-inhibitor-dependent angioedema may be troublesome as illustrated by the fact that there is a significant delay in diagnosis; a certain grade of suspicion is therefore crucial for quick diagnosis. Submucosal edema formation in

  19. Patterned FeNi soft magnetic strips film with tunable resonance frequency from 1 to 10.6 GHz

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Yong; Li, Xinxi; Wang, Yan; Ren, Jiankun; Zhang, Yan; Dai, Bo; Yan, Haiyang; Sun, Guangai; Peng, Shuming

    2016-01-01

    Soft magnetic films with a wide-range tunable ferromagnetic resonance frequency are suitable for miniaturization and multifunctionalization of microwave integrated circuits. Fabrication of these films for high-frequency applications is usually complicated and difficult. We demonstrate a simple method to fabricate patterned FeNi soft magnetic strip films by magnetron sputtering and photolithography. Films prepared by this method exhibits a tunable in-plane uniaxial magnetic anisotropy (IPUMA) for different strip widths and gaps. As the strip widths changing from 500 to 2 μm, the IPUMA field increases monotonically from 2.2 to 576 Oe and resonance frequency from 1 to 10.6 GHz(which covers four microwave bands, including the L,S,C and X bands) respectively. This ultra-wide-range adjustability of resonance frequency can be attributed to shape anisotropy of strips. Considering that FeNi alloy has relatively low magnetocrystalline anisotropy, so a wider adjustable range of resonance frequency could be obtained using materials with stronger magnetocrystalline anisotropy. PMID:27561328

  20. HYDROGEN CHLORIDE IN DIFFUSE INTERSTELLAR CLOUDS ALONG THE LINE OF SIGHT TO W31C (G10.6-0.4)

    SciTech Connect

    Monje, R. R.; Lis, D. C.; Phillips, T. G.; Roueff, E.; Gerin, M.; De Luca, M.; Neufeld, D. A.; Godard, B.

    2013-04-10

    We report the detection of hydrogen chloride, HCl, in diffuse molecular clouds on the line of sight toward the star-forming region W31C (G10.6-0.4). The J = 1-0 lines of the two stable HCl isotopologues, H{sup 35}Cl and H{sup 37}Cl, are observed using the 1b receiver of the Heterodyne Instrument for the Far-Infrared (HIFI) on board the Herschel Space Observatory. The HCl line is detected in absorption, over a wide range of velocities associated with diffuse clouds along the line of sight to W31C. The analysis of the absorption strength yields a total HCl column density of a few 10{sup 13} cm{sup -2}, implying that HCl accounts for {approx}0.6% of the total gas-phase chlorine, which exceeds the theoretical model predictions by a factor of {approx}6. This result is comparable to those obtained from the chemically related species H{sub 2}Cl{sup +} and HCl{sup +}, for which large column densities have also been reported on the same line of sight. The source of discrepancy between models and observations is still unknown; however, the detection of these Cl-bearing molecules provides key constraints for the chlorine chemistry in the diffuse gas.

  1. Aerosol backscatter measurements at 10.6 microns with airborne and ground-based CO2 Doppler lidars over the Colorado High Plains. I - Lidar intercomparison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowdle, David A.; Rothermel, Jeffry; Vaughan, J. Michael; Brown, Derek W.; Post, Madison J.

    1991-01-01

    An airborne continuous-wave (CW) focused CO2 Doppler lidar and a ground-based pulsed CO2 Doppler lidar were to obtain seven pairs of comparative measurements of tropospheric aerosol backscatter profiles at 10.6-micron wavelength, near Denver, Colorado, during a 20-day period in July 1982. In regions of uniform backscatter, the two lidars show good agreement, with differences usually less than about 50 percent near 8-km altitude and less than a factor of 2 or 3 elsewhere but with the pulsed lidar often lower than the CW lidar. Near sharp backscatter gradients, the two lidars show poorer agreement, with the pulsed lidar usually higher than the CW lidar. Most discrepancies arise from a combination of atmospheric factors and instrument factors, particularly small-scale areal and temporal backscatter heterogeneity above the planetary boundary layer, unusual large-scale vertical backscatter structure in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere, and differences in the spatial resolution, detection threshold, and noise estimation for the two lidars.

  2. Influence of CO2 (10.6 μm) and Nd:YAG laser irradiation on the prevention of enamel caries around orthodontic brackets.

    PubMed

    Seino, Priscila Yumi; Freitas, Patrícia Moreira; Marques, Márcia Martins; de Souza Almeida, Fernanda Campos; Botta, Sérgio Brossi; Moreira, Maria Stella Nunes Araújo

    2015-02-01

    One possible undesirable consequence of orthodontic therapy is the development of incipient caries lesions of enamel around brackets. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of CO2 (λ = 10.6 μm) and Nd:YAG (λ = 1,064 nm) lasers associated or not with topical fluoride application on the prevention of caries lesions around brackets. Brackets were bonded to the enamel of 65 premolars. The experimental groups (n = 13) were: G1--application of 1.23% acidulated fluoride phosphate gel (AFP, control); G2--Nd:YAG laser irradiation (0.6 W, 84.9 J/cm(2), 10 Hz, 110 μs, contact mode); G3--Nd:YAG laser irradiation associated with AFP; G4--CO2 laser irradiation (0.5 W, 28.6 J/cm(2), 50 Hz, 5 μs, and 10 mm focal distance); and G5--CO2 laser irradiation associated with AFP. Quantitative light-induced fluorescence was used to assess enamel demineralization. The data were statistically compared (α = 5%). The highest demineralization occurred in the Nd:YAG laser group (G2, 26.15% ± 1.94). The demineralization of all other groups was similar to that of the control group. In conclusion, CO2 laser alone was able to control enamel demineralization around brackets at the same level as that obtained with topical fluoride application.

  3. A PP2C-1 Allele Underlying a Quantitative Trait Locus Enhances Soybean 100-Seed Weight.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiang; Xiong, Qing; Cheng, Tong; Li, Qing-Tian; Liu, Xin-Lei; Bi, Ying-Dong; Li, Wei; Zhang, Wan-Ke; Ma, Biao; Lai, Yong-Cai; Du, Wei-Guang; Man, Wei-Qun; Chen, Shou-Yi; Zhang, Jin-Song

    2017-03-28

    Cultivated soybeans may lose some useful genetic locus during domestication. Introgression of genes from wild soybeans may broaden the genetic background and improve soybean agronomic traits. Here, through whole-genome sequencing of an RIL population derived from a cross between a wild soybean ZYD7 and a cultivated soybean HN44, and mapping of QTLs for seed weight, we discover that a phosphatase 2C-1 (PP2C-1) allele from wild soybean ZYD7 contributes to the increase of seed weight/size in transgenic plants. The PP2C-1 may achieve this function by enhancing cell size of integument and activating a subset of seed trait-related genes. The PP2C-1 was further found to associate with a transcription factor GmBZR1 and facilitate accumulation of dephosphorylated GmBZR1. In contrast, a PP2C-2 allele with variations of a few amino acids at N-terminus does not exhibit this function. Moreover, the GmBZR1 can promote seed weight/size in transgenic plants. Through analysis of cultivated soybean accessions, we find that 40% of the examined accessions do not have the PP2C-1 allele, suggesting that these accessions can be improved through introduction of the PP2C-1 allele. Our study identifies an elite allele PP2C-1, which can enhance seed weight/size. Manipulation of the allele by molecule-assisted breeding may increase production in soybean and other legumes/crops.

  4. Amplitude analysis of the χc 1→η π+π- decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ablikim, M.; Achasov, M. N.; Ahmed, S.; Ai, X. C.; Albayrak, O.; Albrecht, M.; Ambrose, D. J.; Amoroso, A.; An, F. F.; An, Q.; Bai, J. Z.; Bakina, O.; Baldini Ferroli, R.; Ban, Y.; Bennett, D. W.; Bennett, J. V.; Berger, N.; Bertani, M.; Bettoni, D.; Bian, J. M.; Bianchi, F.; Boger, E.; Boyko, I.; Briere, R. A.; Cai, H.; Cai, X.; Cakir, O.; Calcaterra, A.; Cao, G. F.; Cetin, S. A.; Chai, J.; Chang, J. F.; Chelkov, G.; Chen, G.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, J. C.; Chen, M. L.; Chen, S.; Chen, S. J.; Chen, X.; Chen, X. R.; Chen, Y. B.; Cheng, H. P.; Chu, X. K.; Cibinetto, G.; Dai, H. L.; Dai, J. P.; Dbeyssi, A.; Dedovich, D.; Deng, Z. Y.; Denig, A.; Denysenko, I.; Destefanis, M.; de Mori, F.; Ding, Y.; Dong, C.; Dong, J.; Dong, L. Y.; Dong, M. Y.; Dou, Z. L.; Du, S. X.; Duan, P. F.; Fan, J. Z.; Fang, J.; Fang, S. S.; Fang, X.; Fang, Y.; Farinelli, R.; Fava, L.; Feldbauer, F.; Felici, G.; Feng, C. Q.; Fioravanti, E.; Fritsch, M.; Fu, C. D.; Gao, Q.; Gao, X. L.; Gao, Y.; Gao, Z.; Garzia, I.; Goetzen, K.; Gong, L.; Gong, W. X.; Gradl, W.; Greco, M.; Gu, M. H.; Gu, Y. T.; Guan, Y. H.; Guo, A. Q.; Guo, L. B.; Guo, R. P.; Guo, Y.; Guo, Y. P.; Haddadi, Z.; Hafner, A.; Han, S.; Hao, X. Q.; Harris, F. A.; He, K. L.; Heinsius, F. H.; Held, T.; Heng, Y. K.; Holtmann, T.; Hou, Z. L.; Hu, C.; Hu, H. M.; Hu, J. F.; Hu, T.; Hu, Y.; Huang, G. S.; Huang, J. S.; Huang, X. T.; Huang, X. Z.; Huang, Y.; Huang, Z. L.; Hussain, T.; Ikegami Andersson, W.; Ji, Q.; Ji, Q. P.; Ji, X. B.; Ji, X. L.; Jiang, L. W.; Jiang, X. S.; Jiang, X. Y.; Jiao, J. B.; Jiao, Z.; Jin, D. P.; Jin, S.; Johansson, T.; Julin, A.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kang, X. L.; Kang, X. S.; Kavatsyuk, M.; Ke, B. C.; Kiese, P.; Kliemt, R.; Kloss, B.; Kolcu, O. B.; Kopf, B.; Kornicer, M.; Kupsc, A.; Kühn, W.; Lange, J. S.; Lara, M.; Larin, P.; Leithoff, H.; Leng, C.; Li, C.; Li, Cheng; Li, D. M.; Li, F.; Li, F. Y.; Li, G.; Li, H. B.; Li, H. J.; Li, J. C.; Li, Jin; Li, K.; Li, K.; Li, Lei; Li, P. R.; Li, Q. Y.; Li, T.; Li, W. D.; Li, W. G.; Li, X. L.; Li, X. N.; Li, X. Q.; Li, Y. B.; Li, Z. B.; Liang, H.; Liang, Y. F.; Liang, Y. T.; Liao, G. R.; Lin, D. X.; Liu, B.; Liu, B. J.; Liu, C. X.; Liu, D.; Liu, F. H.; Liu, Fang; Liu, Feng; Liu, H. B.; Liu, H. H.; Liu, H. H.; Liu, H. M.; Liu, J.; Liu, J. B.; Liu, J. P.; Liu, J. Y.; Liu, K.; Liu, K. Y.; Liu, L. D.; Liu, P. L.; Liu, Q.; Liu, S. B.; Liu, X.; Liu, Y. B.; Liu, Y. Y.; Liu, Z. A.; Liu, Zhiqing; Loehner, H.; Long, Y. F.; Lou, X. C.; Lu, H. J.; Lu, J. G.; Lu, Y.; Lu, Y. P.; Luo, C. L.; Luo, M. X.; Luo, T.; Luo, X. L.; Lyu, X. R.; Ma, F. C.; Ma, H. L.; Ma, L. L.; Ma, M. M.; Ma, Q. M.; Ma, T.; Ma, X. N.; Ma, X. Y.; Ma, Y. M.; Maas, F. E.; Maggiora, M.; Malik, Q. A.; Mao, Y. J.; Mao, Z. P.; Marcello, S.; Messchendorp, J. G.; Mezzadri, G.; Min, J.; Min, T. J.; Mitchell, R. E.; Mo, X. H.; Mo, Y. J.; Morales Morales, C.; Muchnoi, N. Yu.; Muramatsu, H.; Musiol, P.; Nefedov, Y.; Nerling, F.; Nikolaev, I. B.; Ning, Z.; Nisar, S.; Niu, S. L.; Niu, X. Y.; Olsen, S. L.; Ouyang, Q.; Pacetti, S.; Pan, Y.; Patteri, P.; Pelizaeus, M.; Peng, H. P.; Peters, K.; Pettersson, J.; Ping, J. L.; Ping, R. G.; Poling, R.; Prasad, V.; Qi, H. R.; Qi, M.; Qian, S.; Qiao, C. F.; Qin, L. Q.; Qin, N.; Qin, X. S.; Qin, Z. H.; Qiu, J. F.; Rashid, K. H.; Redmer, C. F.; Ripka, M.; Rong, G.; Rosner, Ch.; Ruan, X. D.; Sarantsev, A.; Savrié, M.; Schnier, C.; Schoenning, K.; Schumann, S.; Shan, W.; Shao, M.; Shen, C. P.; Shen, P. X.; Shen, X. Y.; Sheng, H. Y.; Shi, M.; Song, W. M.; Song, X. Y.; Sosio, S.; Spataro, S.; Sun, G. X.; Sun, J. F.; Sun, S. S.; Sun, X. H.; Sun, Y. J.; Sun, Y. Z.; Sun, Z. J.; Sun, Z. T.; Tang, C. J.; Tang, X.; Tapan, I.; Thorndike, E. H.; Tiemens, M.; Uman, I.; Varner, G. S.; Wang, B.; Wang, B. L.; Wang, D.; Wang, D. Y.; Wang, K.; Wang, L. L.; Wang, L. S.; Wang, M.; Wang, P.; Wang, P. L.; Wang, W.; Wang, W. P.; Wang, X. F.; Wang, Y.; Wang, Y. D.; Wang, Y. F.; Wang, Y. Q.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Z. G.; Wang, Z. H.; Wang, Z. Y.; Wang, Z. Y.; Weber, T.; Wei, D. H.; Weidenkaff, P.; Wen, S. P.; Wiedner, U.; Wolke, M.; Wu, L. H.; Wu, L. J.; Wu, Z.; Xia, L.; Xia, L. G.; Xia, Y.; Xiao, D.; Xiao, H.; Xiao, Z. J.; Xie, Y. G.; Xiu, Q. L.; Xu, G. F.; Xu, J. J.; Xu, L.; Xu, Q. J.; Xu, Q. N.; Xu, X. P.; Yan, L.; Yan, W. B.; Yan, W. C.; Yan, Y. H.; Yang, H. J.; Yang, H. X.; Yang, L.; Yang, Y. X.; Ye, M.; Ye, M. H.; Yin, J. H.; You, Z. Y.; Yu, B. X.; Yu, C. X.; Yu, J. S.; Yuan, C. Z.; Yuan, W. L.; Yuan, Y.; Yuncu, A.; Zafar, A. A.; Zallo, A.; Zeng, Y.; Zeng, Z.; Zhang, B. X.; Zhang, B. Y.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, C. C.; Zhang, D. H.; Zhang, H. H.; Zhang, H. Y.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, J. J.; Zhang, J. L.; Zhang, J. Q.; Zhang, J. W.; Zhang, J. Y.; Zhang, J. Z.; Zhang, K.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, S. Q.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Y. H.; Zhang, Y. N.; Zhang, Y. T.; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Z. H.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhang, Z. Y.; Zhao, G.; Zhao, J. W.; Zhao, J. Y.; Zhao, J. Z.; Zhao, Lei; Zhao, Ling; Zhao, M. G.; Zhao, Q.; Zhao, Q. W.; Zhao, S. J.; Zhao, T. C.; Zhao, Y. B.; Zhao, Z. G.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zheng, B.; Zheng, J. P.; Zheng, W. J.; Zheng, Y. H.; Zhong, B.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, X.; Zhou, X. K.; Zhou, X. R.; Zhou, X. Y.; Zhu, K.; Zhu, K. J.; Zhu, S.; Zhu, S. H.; Zhu, X. L.; Zhu, Y. C.; Zhu, Y. S.; Zhu, Z. A.; Zhuang, J.; Zotti, L.; Zou, B. S.; Zou, J. H.; Besiii Collaboration

    2017-02-01

    Using 448.0 ×1 06 ψ (3686 ) events collected with the BESIII detector, an amplitude analysis is performed for ψ (3686 )→γ χc 1 , χc 1→η π+π- decays. The most dominant two-body structure observed is a0(980 )±π∓ ; a0(980 )±→η π± . The a0(980 ) line shape is modeled using a dispersion relation, and a significant nonzero a0(980 ) coupling to the η'π channel is measured. We observe χc 1→a2(1700 )π production for the first time, with a significance larger than 17 σ . The production of mesons with exotic quantum numbers, JP C=1-+ , is investigated, and upper limits for the branching fractions χc 1→π1(1400 )±π∓ , χc 1→π1(1600 )±π∓ , and χc 1→π1(2015 )±π∓ , with subsequent π1(X )±→η π± decay, are determined.

  5. Atomic resolution model of the antibody Fc interaction with the complement C1q component.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Sebastian; Zacharias, Martin

    2012-05-01

    The globular C1q heterotrimer is a subunit of the C1 complement factor. Binding of the C1q subunit to the constant (Fc) part of antibody molecules is a first step and key event of complement activation. Although three-dimensional structures of C1q and antibody Fc subunits have been determined experimentally no atomic resolution structure of the C1q-Fc complex is known so far. Based on systematic protein-protein docking searches and Molecular Dynamics simulations a structural model of the C1q-IgG1-Fc-binding geometry has been obtained. The structural model is compatible with available experimental data on the interaction between the two partner proteins. It predicts a binding geometry that involves mainly the B-subunit of the C1q-trimer and both subunits of the IgG1-Fc-dimer with small conformational adjustments with respect to the unbound partners to achieve high surface complementarity. In addition to several charge-charge and polar contacts in the rim region of the interface it also involves nonpolar contacts between the two proteins and is compatible with the carbohydrate moiety of the Fc subunit. The model for the complex structure provides a working model for rationalizing available biochemical data on this important interaction and can form the basis for the design of Fc variants with a greater capacity to activate the complement system for example on binding to cancer cells or other target structures.

  6. Dimension spectrum of asymptotically additive potentials for C1 average conformal repellers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Yongluo

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, the dimension spectrum of asymptotically additive potentials for C1 average conformal repellers is considered. First, we give dimension estimates of arbitrary subsets for C1 average conformal repellers and we also consider the pointwise dimension of invariant measures. Furthermore, we consider the dimension spectrum of asymptotically additive potentials and its properties. As applications, we give an affirmative answer to the problem posed by Olsen (2003 J. Math. Pures Appl. 82 1591-649) for general types of level sets and obtain the dimension spectrum of weak Gibbs measures for continuous potentials on C1 average conformal repellers.

  7. Population pharmacokinetics of recombinant human C1 inhibitor in patients with hereditary angioedema

    PubMed Central

    Farrell, Colm; Hayes, Siobhan; Relan, Anurag; van Amersfoort, Edwin S; Pijpstra, Rienk; Hack, C Erik

    2013-01-01

    Aims To characterize the pharmacokinetics (PK) of recombinant human C1 inhibitor (rhC1INH) in healthy volunteers and hereditary angioedema (HAE) patients. Methods Plasma levels of C1INH following 294 administrations of rhC1INH in 133 subjects were fitted using nonlinear mixed-effects modelling. The model was used to simulate maximal C1INH levels for the proposed dosing scheme. Results A one-compartment model with Michaelis–Menten elimination kinetics described the data. Baseline C1INH levels were 0.901 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.839–0.968] and 0.176 U ml−1 (95% CI: 0.154–0.200) in healthy volunteers and HAE patients, respectively. The volume of distribution of rhC1INH was 2.86 l (95% CI: 2.68–3.03). The maximal rate of elimination and the concentration corresponding to half this maximal rate were 1.63 U ml−1 h−1 (95% CI: 1.41–1.88) and 1.60 U ml−1 (95% CI: 1.14–2.24), respectively, for healthy volunteers and symptomatic HAE patients. The maximal elimination rate was 36% lower in asymptomatic HAE patients. Peak C1INH levels did not change upon repeated administration of rhC1INH. Bodyweight was found to be an important predictor of the volume of distribution. Simulations of the proposed dosing scheme predicted peak C1INH concentrations above the lower level of the normal range (0.7 U ml−1) for at least 94% of all patients. Conclusions The population PK model for C1INH supports a dosing scheme on a 50 U kg−1 basis up to 84 kg, with a fixed dose of 4200 U above 84 kg. The PK of rhC1INH following repeat administration are consistent with the PK following the first administration. PMID:23594263

  8. Non-Contact Measurement of the Spectral Emissivity through Active/Passive Synergy of CO2 Laser at 10.6 µm and 102F FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared) Spectrometer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ren-Hua; Su, Hong-Bo; Tian, Jing; Mi, Su-Juan; Li, Zhao-Liang

    2016-01-01

    In the inversion of land surface temperature (LST) from satellite data, obtaining the information on land surface emissivity is most challenging. How to solve both the emissivity and the LST from the underdetermined equations for thermal infrared radiation is a hot research topic related to quantitative thermal infrared remote sensing. The academic research and practical applications based on the temperature-emissivity retrieval algorithms show that directly measuring the emissivity of objects at a fixed thermal infrared waveband is an important way to close the underdetermined equations for thermal infrared radiation. Based on the prior research results of both the authors and others, this paper proposes a new approach of obtaining the spectral emissivity of the object at 8–14 µm with a single-band CO2 laser at 10.6 µm and a 102F FTIR spectrometer. Through experiments, the spectral emissivity of several key samples, including aluminum plate, iron plate, copper plate, marble plate, rubber sheet, and paper board, at 8–14 µm is obtained, and the measured data are basically consistent with the hemispherical emissivity measurement by a Nicolet iS10 FTIR spectrometer for the same objects. For the rough surface of materials, such as marble and rusty iron, the RMSE of emissivity is below 0.05. The differences in the field of view angle and in the measuring direction between the Nicolet FTIR method and the method proposed in the paper, and the heterogeneity in the degree of oxidation, polishing and composition of the samples, are the main reasons for the differences of the emissivities between the two methods. PMID:27347964

  9. Genome-wide scan identifies TNIP1, PSORS1C1, and RHOB as novel risk loci for systemic sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Allanore, Yannick; Saad, Mohamad; Dieudé, Philippe; Avouac, Jérôme; Distler, Jorg H W; Amouyel, Philippe; Matucci-Cerinic, Marco; Riemekasten, Gabriella; Airo, Paolo; Melchers, Inga; Hachulla, Eric; Cusi, Daniele; Wichmann, H-Erich; Wipff, Julien; Lambert, Jean-Charles; Hunzelmann, Nicolas; Tiev, Kiet; Caramaschi, Paola; Diot, Elisabeth; Kowal-Bielecka, Otylia; Valentini, Gabriele; Mouthon, Luc; Czirják, László; Damjanov, Nemanja; Salvi, Erika; Conti, Costanza; Müller, Martina; Müller-Ladner, Ulf; Riccieri, Valeria; Ruiz, Barbara; Cracowski, Jean-Luc; Letenneur, Luc; Dupuy, Anne Marie; Meyer, Oliver; Kahan, André; Munnich, Arnold; Boileau, Catherine; Martinez, Maria

    2011-07-01

    Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is an orphan, complex, inflammatory disease affecting the immune system and connective tissue. SSc stands out as a severely incapacitating and life-threatening inflammatory rheumatic disease, with a largely unknown pathogenesis. We have designed a two-stage genome-wide association study of SSc using case-control samples from France, Italy, Germany, and Northern Europe. The initial genome-wide scan was conducted in a French post quality-control sample of 564 cases and 1,776 controls, using almost 500 K SNPs. Two SNPs from the MHC region, together with the 6 loci outside MHC having at least one SNP with a P<10(-5) were selected for follow-up analysis. These markers were genotyped in a post-QC replication sample of 1,682 SSc cases and 3,926 controls. The three top SNPs are in strong linkage disequilibrium and located on 6p21, in the HLA-DQB1 gene: rs9275224, P = 9.18×10(-8), OR = 0.69, 95% CI [0.60-0.79]; rs6457617, P = 1.14×10(-7) and rs9275245, P = 1.39×10(-7). Within the MHC region, the next most associated SNP (rs3130573, P = 1.86×10(-5), OR = 1.36 [1.18-1.56]) is located in the PSORS1C1 gene. Outside the MHC region, our GWAS analysis revealed 7 top SNPs (P<10(-5)) that spanned 6 independent genomic regions. Follow-up of the 17 top SNPs in an independent sample of 1,682 SSc and 3,926 controls showed associations at PSORS1C1 (overall P = 5.70×10(-10), OR:1.25), TNIP1 (P = 4.68×10(-9), OR:1.31), and RHOB loci (P = 3.17×10(-6), OR:1.21). Because of its biological relevance, and previous reports of genetic association at this locus with connective tissue disorders, we investigated TNIP1 expression. A markedly reduced expression of the TNIP1 gene and also its protein product were observed both in lesional skin tissue and in cultured dermal fibroblasts from SSc patients. Furthermore, TNIP1 showed in vitro inhibitory effects on inflammatory cytokine-induced collagen production. The genetic signal of

  10. (+)-Rimocidin Synthetic Studies: Construction of the C(1-27) Aglycone Skeleton

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Amos B.; Foley, Megan A.; Dong, Shuzhi; Orbin, Alia

    2010-01-01

    Assembly of the C(1-27) macrocyclic skeleton of rimocidinolide, the aglycone of (+)-rimocidin (1), has been achieved in convergent fashion. Key features of the synthetic strategy entail application of multicomponent Type 1 Anion Relay Chemistry (ARC), in conjunction with the SN2/SN2' reaction manifolds of vinyl epoxides, both employing 2-susbtituted-1,3-dithianes to construct the C(1-19) carbon backbone. Yamaguchi union of a C(20-27) vinyl borate ester, possessing the all trans triene, with an advanced C(1-19) vinyl iodide followed by macrocyclization via Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling completed construction of the C(1-27) rimocidinolide skeleton. PMID:19621880

  11. Observation of the h(c)(1P) Using e+ e- collisions above the DD threshold.

    PubMed

    Pedlar, T K; Cronin-Hennessy, D; Hietala, J; Dobbs, S; Metreveli, Z; Seth, K K; Tomaradze, A; Xiao, T; Martin, L; Powell, A; Wilkinson, G; Mendez, H; Ge, J Y; Miller, D H; Shipsey, I P J; Xin, B; Adams, G S; Hu, D; Moziak, B; Napolitano, J; Ecklund, K M; Insler, J; Muramatsu, H; Park, C S; Pearson, L J; Thorndike, E H; Ricciardi, S; Thomas, C; Artuso, M; Blusk, S; Mountain, R; Skwarnicki, T; Stone, S; Zhang, L M; Bonvicini, G; Cinabro, D; Lincoln, A; Smith, M J; Zhou, P; Zhu, J; Naik, P; Rademacker, J; Asner, D M; Edwards, K W; Randrianarivony, K; Tatishvili, G; Briere, R A; Vogel, H; Onyisi, P U E; Rosner, J L; Alexander, J P; Cassel, D G; Das, S; Ehrlich, R; Gibbons, L; Gray, S W; Hartill, D L; Heltsley, B K; Kreinick, D L; Kuznetsov, V E; Patterson, J R; Peterson, D; Riley, D; Ryd, A; Sadoff, A J; Shi, X; Sun, W M; Yelton, J; Rubin, P; Lowrey, N; Mehrabyan, S; Selen, M; Wiss, J; Libby, J; Kornicer, M; Mitchell, R E; Shepherd, M R; Tarbert, C M; Besson, D

    2011-07-22

    Using 586  pb(-1) of e+ e- collision data at E(c.m.) = 4170  MeV, produced at the Cornell Electron Storage Ring collider and collected with the CLEO-c detector, we observe the process e+ e- → π+ π- h(c)(1P). We measure its cross section to be 15.6±2.3±1.9±3.0  pb, where the third error is due to the external uncertainty on the branching fraction of ψ(2S) → π0 h(c)(1P), which we use for normalization. We also find evidence for e+ e- → ηh(c)(1P) at 4170 MeV at the 3σ level and see hints of a rise in the e+ e- → π+ π- h(c)(1P) cross section at 4260 MeV.

  12. Retro-odontoid cystic mass treated by laminectomy and C1-C2 fixation.

    PubMed

    Lin, Dasheng; Ding, Zhenqi; Guo, Yanjie; Lian, Kejian

    2014-11-01

    Retro-odontoid cysts associated with chronic atlantoaxial subluxation are extremely rare. This article describes a case of retro-odontoid cystic mass associated with chronic atlantoaxial subluxation and its management with posterior C1 and partial C2 laminectomy and C1-C2 pedicle screw fixation without resection of the retro-odontoid cyst. A 64-year-old woman experienced a sudden onset of neck pain, hand and foot paresthesia. Atlantoaxial instability associated with a retro-odontoid cystic mass was found in the imaging. The patient underwent posterior C1 and partial C2 laminectomy and C1-C2 pedicle screws fixation without resection of the retro-odontoid cyst. During the 24 months followup period, the cyst disappeared completely and the patient remained symptom free and returned to independent daily living. These findings suggest that posterior laminectomy and fixation without resection of the retro-odontoid cyst is relatively simple and safe and the results are satisfactory.

  13. Development of the Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS) for NPOESS C1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brann, C.; Kunkee, D.

    2008-12-01

    The National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System's Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS) is planned for flight on the first NPOESS mission (C1) in 2013. The C1 ATMS will be the second instrument of the ATMS series and will provide along with the companion Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS), atmospheric temperature and moisture profiles for NPOESS. The first flight of the ATMS is scheduled in 2010 on the NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) satellite, which is an early instrument risk reduction component of the NPOESS mission. This poster will focus on the development of the ATMS for C1 including aspects of the sensor calibration, antenna beam and RF characteristics and scanning. New design aspects of the C1 ATMS, required primarily by parts obsolescence, will also be addressed in this poster.

  14. 26 CFR 1.1244(c)-1 - Section 1244 stock defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... under section 1244(c)(1)(C). Payments for the parking of automobiles ordinarily do not constitute rents... means the entire amount received as an annuity under an annuity, endowment, or life insurance...

  15. Therapeutic management of hereditary angioedema due to C1 inhibitor deficiency.

    PubMed

    Zanichelli, Andrea; Mansi, Marta; Periti, Giulia; Cicardi, Marco

    2013-05-01

    Hereditary angioedema (HAE) due to C1 inhibitor (C1-INH) deficiency is a rare genetic disease characterized by recurrent swellings of the subcutaneous and submucosal tissues that can manifest as cutaneous edema, abdominal pain and laryngeal edema with airway obstruction. These symptoms have a significant impact on patients' quality of life. The reduction in C1-INH function leads to uncontrolled activation of the contact system and generation of bradykinin, the mediator of increased vascular permeability and edema formation. In the past, few treatment options were available; however, several new therapies with proven efficacy have recently become available to treat and prevent HAE attacks, such as plasma-derived and recombinant C1-INHs that replace the deficient protein, bradykinin receptor antagonist (icatibant) that blocks bradykinin activity and kallikrein inhibitor (ecallantide) that prevents bradykinin release. Such therapies can improve disease outcome. This article reviews the therapeutic management of HAE, which involves the treatment of acute attacks and prophylaxis.

  16. 26 CFR 1.412(c)(1)-1 - Determinations to be made under funding method-terms defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...-terms defined. 1.412(c)(1)-1 Section 1.412(c)(1)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... Plans, Etc. § 1.412(c)(1)-1 Determinations to be made under funding method—terms defined. (a) Actuarial... bargained plans, see § 1.412(c)(1)-2; for principles applicable to funding methods in general,...

  17. Decay resistance of thermally-modified Eucalyptus grandis wood at 140 degrees C, 160 degrees C, 180 degrees C, 200 degrees C and 220 degrees C.

    PubMed

    Calonego, Fred Willians; Severo, Elias Taylor Durgante; Furtado, Edson Luiz

    2010-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of thermal treatment on the biological resistance of Eucalyptus grandis wood to the decay fungus Picnoporus sanguineus. Boards from 5 years and 11 months old E. grandis trees, taken from the stock possessed by the Duratex-SA company, were thermally-modified at 140 degrees C, 160 degrees C, 180 degrees C, 200 degrees C and 220 degrees C in the Laboratory of Wood Drying and Preservation from UNESP, Botucatu, SP, Brazil. Samples of each treatment were treated according to ASTM D-2017 (1994). The experiment tested the accelerated decay caused by the decay fungus P. sanguineus on a system of soil-block wood. The results of thermal treatment showed that an increase of temperature of 180-220 degrees C caused reductions of between 15.7% and 82.4% in the weight loss in the samples from E. grandis incubated with P. sanguineus.

  18. C1 inhibitor-mediated myocardial protection from chronic intermittent hypoxia-induced injury

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Jinrong; Guo, Furong; Chen, Cheng; Yu, Xiaoman; Hu, Ke; Li, Mingjiang

    2016-01-01

    The optimal treatment for chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH)-induced cardiovascular injuries has yet to be determined. The aim of the current study was to explore the potential protective effect and mechanism of a C1 inhibitor in CIH in the myocardium. The present study used a rat model of CIH in which complement regulatory protein, known as C1 inhibitor (C1INH), was administered to the rats in the intervention groups. Cardiomyocyte apoptosis was detected by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling. The expression of proteins associated with the apoptotic pathway, such as B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), Bax and caspase-3 were detected by western blot analysis. The expression of complement C3 protein and RNA were also analyzed. C1INH was observed to improve the cardiac function in rats with CIH. Myocardial myeloperoxidase activity, a marker of neutrophil infiltration, was significantly decreased in the C1INH intervention group compared with the CIH control group, and cardiomyocyte apoptosis was significantly attenuated (P<0.05). Western blotting and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis indicated that the protein expression levels of Bcl-2 were decreased and those of Bax were increased in the CIH group compared with the normal control group, but the protein expression levels of Bcl-2 were increased and those of Bax were decreased in the C1INH intervention group, as compared with the CIH group. Furthermore, the CIH-induced expression and synthesis of complement C3 in the myocardium were also reduced in the C1INH intervention group. C1INH, in addition to inhibiting complement activation and inflammation, preserved cardiac function in CIH-mediated myocardial cell injury through an anti-apoptotic mechanism. PMID:27698713

  19. 17 CFR 240.15c1-8 - Sales at the market.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sales at the market. 240.15c1... Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Rules Relating to Over-The-Counter Markets § 240.15c1-8 Sales at the market... securities exchange that such security is being offered to such customer “at the market” or at a...

  20. 17 CFR 240.15c1-8 - Sales at the market.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sales at the market. 240.15c1... Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Rules Relating to Over-The-Counter Markets § 240.15c1-8 Sales at the market... securities exchange that such security is being offered to such customer “at the market” or at a...

  1. 26 CFR 1.1244(c)-1 - Section 1244 stock defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Section 1244 stock defined. 1.1244(c)-1 Section....1244(c)-1 Section 1244 stock defined. (a) In general. For purposes of §§ 1.1244(a)-1 to 1.1244(e)-1, inclusive: (1) The term pre-November 1978 stock means stock issued after June 30, 1958, and on or...

  2. Complement, Kinins, and Hereditary Angioedema: Mechanisms of Plasma Instability when C1 Inhibitor is Absent.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Allen P; Joseph, Kusumam

    2016-10-01

    Plasma of patients with types I and II hereditary angioedema is unstable if incubated in a plastic (i.e., inert) vessel at 37 °C manifested by progressively increasing formation of bradykinin. There is also a persistent low level of C4 in 95 % of patients even when they are symptomatic. These phenomena are due to the properties of the C1r subcomponent of C1, factor XII, and the bimolecular complex of prekallikrein with high molecular weight kininogen (HK). Purified C1r auto-activates in physiologic buffers, activates C1s, which in turn depletes C4. This occurs when C1 inhibitor is deficient. The complex of prekallikrein-HK acquires an inducible active site not present in prekallikrein which in Tris-type buffers cleaves HK stoichiometrically to release bradykinin, or in phosphate buffer auto-activates to generate kallikrein and bradykinin. Thus immunologic depletion of C1 inhibitor from factor XII-deficient plasma (phosphate is the natural buffer) auto-activates on incubation to release bradykinin. Normal C1 inhibitor prevents this from occurring. During attacks of angioedema, if factor XII auto-activates on surfaces, the initial factor XIIa formed converts prekallikrein to kallikrein, and kallikrein cleaves HK to release bradykinin. Kallikrein also rapidly activates most remaining factor XII to factor XIIa. Additional cleavages convert factor XIIa to factor XIIf and factor XIIf activates C1r enzymatically so that C4 levels approach zero, and C2 is depleted. There is also a possibility that kallikrein is generated first as a result of activation of the prekallikrein-HK complex by heat shock protein 90 released from endothelial cells, followed by kallikrein activation of factor XII.

  3. Minimum variance and variance of outgoing quality limit MDS-1(c1, c2) plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raju, C.; Vidya, R.

    2016-06-01

    In this article, the outgoing quality (OQ) and total inspection (TI) of multiple deferred state sampling plans MDS-1(c1,c2) are studied. It is assumed that the inspection is rejection rectification. Procedures for designing MDS-1(c1,c2) sampling plans with minimum variance of OQ and TI are developed. A procedure for obtaining a plan for a designated upper limit for the variance of the OQ (VOQL) is outlined.

  4. Characterization of the membrane-targeting C1 domain in Pasteurella multocida toxin.

    PubMed

    Kamitani, Shigeki; Kitadokoro, Kengo; Miyazawa, Masayuki; Toshima, Hirono; Fukui, Aya; Abe, Hiroyuki; Miyake, Masami; Horiguchi, Yasuhiko

    2010-08-13

    Pasteurella multocida toxin (PMT) is a virulence factor responsible for the pathogenesis of some forms of pasteurellosis. The toxin activates G(q)- and G(12/13)-dependent pathways through the deamidation of a glutamine residue in the alpha-subunit of heterotrimeric GTPases. We recently reported the crystal structure of the C terminus (residues 575-1285) of PMT (C-PMT), which is composed of three domains (C1, C2, and C3), and that the C1 domain is involved in the localization of C-PMT to the plasma membrane, and the C3 domain possesses a cysteine protease-like catalytic triad. In this study, we analyzed the membrane-targeting function of the C1 domain in detail. The C1 domain consists of seven helices of which the first four (residues 590-670), showing structural similarity to the N terminus of Clostridium difficile toxin B, were found to be involved in the recruitment of C-PMT to the plasma membrane. C-PMT lacking these helices (C-PMT DeltaC1(4H)) neither localized to the plasma membrane nor stimulated the G(q/12/13)-dependent signaling pathways. When the membrane-targeting property was complemented by a peptide tag with an N-myristoylation motif, C-PMT DeltaC1(4H) recovered the PMT activity. Direct binding between the C1 domain and liposomes containing phospholipids was evidenced by surface plasmon resonance analyses. These results indicate that the C1 domain of C-PMT functions as a targeting signal for the plasma membrane.

  5. 17 CFR 240.15c1-8 - Sales at the market.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sales at the market. 240.15c1... Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Rules Relating to Over-The-Counter Markets § 240.15c1-8 Sales at the market... securities exchange that such security is being offered to such customer “at the market” or at a...

  6. 17 CFR 240.15c1-8 - Sales at the market.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sales at the market. 240.15c1... Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Rules Relating to Over-The-Counter Markets § 240.15c1-8 Sales at the market... securities exchange that such security is being offered to such customer “at the market” or at a...

  7. 17 CFR 240.15c1-8 - Sales at the market.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sales at the market. 240.15c1... Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Rules Relating to Over-The-Counter Markets § 240.15c1-8 Sales at the market... securities exchange that such security is being offered to such customer “at the market” or at a...

  8. Two human homeobox genes, c1 and c8: structure analysis and expression in embryonic development

    SciTech Connect

    Simeone, A.; Mavilio, F.; Acampora, D.; Giampaolo, A.; Faiella, A.; Zappavigna, V.; D'Esposito, M.; Pannese, M.; Russo, G.; Boncinelli, E.; Peschle, C.

    1987-07-01

    Two human cDNA clones (HHO.c1.95 and HHO.c8.5111) containing a homeobox region have been characterized, and the respective genomic regions have been partially analyzed. Expression of the corresponding genes, termed c1 and c8, was evaluated in different organs and body parts during human embryonic/fetal development. HHO.c1.95 apparently encodes a 217-amino acid protein containing a class I homeodomain that shares 60 out of 61 amino acid residues with the Antennapedia homeodomain of Drosophila melanogaster. HHO.c8.5111 encodes a 153-amino acid protein containing a homeodomains identical to that of the frog AC1 gene. Clones HHO.c1 and HHO.c8 detect by blot-hybridization one and two specific polyadenylylated transcripts, respectively. These are differentially expressed in spinal cord, backbone rudiments, limb buds (or limbs), heart, and skin of human embryos and early fetuses in the 5- to 9-week postfertilization period, thus suggesting that the c1 and c8 genes play a key role in a variety of developmental processes. Together, the results of the embryonic/fetal expression of c1 and c8 and those of two previously analyzed genes (c10 and c13) indicate a coherent pattern of expression of these genes in early human ontogeny.

  9. The Cyclic Peptide Ecumicin Targeting ClpC1 Is Active against Mycobacterium tuberculosis In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Wei; Kim, Jin-Yong; Anderson, Jeffrey R.; Akopian, Tatos; Hong, Seungpyo; Jin, Ying-Yu; Kandror, Olga; Kim, Jong-Woo; Lee, In-Ae; Lee, Sun-Young; McAlpine, James B.; Mulugeta, Surafel; Sunoqrot, Suhair; Wang, Yuehong; Yang, Seung-Hwan; Yoon, Tae-Mi; Goldberg, Alfred L.; Pauli, Guido F.; Cho, Sanghyun

    2014-01-01

    Drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) has lent urgency to finding new drug leads with novel modes of action. A high-throughput screening campaign of >65,000 actinomycete extracts for inhibition of Mycobacterium tuberculosis viability identified ecumicin, a macrocyclic tridecapeptide that exerts potent, selective bactericidal activity against M. tuberculosis in vitro, including nonreplicating cells. Ecumicin retains activity against isolated multiple-drug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) strains of M. tuberculosis. The subcutaneous administration to mice of ecumicin in a micellar formulation at 20 mg/kg body weight resulted in plasma and lung exposures exceeding the MIC. Complete inhibition of M. tuberculosis growth in the lungs of mice was achieved following 12 doses at 20 or 32 mg/kg. Genome mining of lab-generated, spontaneous ecumicin-resistant M. tuberculosis strains identified the ClpC1 ATPase complex as the putative target, and this was confirmed by a drug affinity response test. ClpC1 functions in protein breakdown with the ClpP1P2 protease complex. Ecumicin markedly enhanced the ATPase activity of wild-type (WT) ClpC1 but prevented activation of proteolysis by ClpC1. Less stimulation was observed with ClpC1 from ecumicin-resistant mutants. Thus, ClpC1 is a valid drug target against M. tuberculosis, and ecumicin may serve as a lead compound for anti-TB drug development. PMID:25421483

  10. Complement Protein C1q Forms a Complex with Cytotoxic Prion Protein Oligomers

    PubMed Central

    Erlich, Paul; Dumestre-Pérard, Chantal; Ling, Wai Li; Lemaire-Vieille, Catherine; Schoehn, Guy; Arlaud, Gérard J.; Thielens, Nicole M.; Gagnon, Jean; Cesbron, Jean-Yves

    2010-01-01

    A growing number of studies have investigated the interaction between C1q and PrP, but the oligomeric form of PrP involved in this interaction remains to be determined. Aggregation of recombinant full-length murine PrP in the presence of 100 mm NaCl allowed us to isolate three different types of oligomers by size-exclusion chromatography. In contrast to PrP monomers and fibrils, these oligomers activate the classical complement pathway, the smallest species containing 8–15 PrP protomers being the most efficient. We used Thioflavine T fluorescence to monitor PrP aggregation and showed that, when added to the reaction, C1q has a cooperative effect on PrP aggregation and leads to the formation of C1q-PrP complexes. In these complexes, C1q interacts through its globular domains preferentially with the smallest oligomers, as shown by electron microscopy, and retains the ability to activate the classical complement pathway. Using two cell lines, we also provide evidence that C1q inhibits the cytotoxicity induced by the smallest PrP oligomers. The cooperative interaction between C1q and PrP could represent an early step in the disease, where it prevents elimination of the prion seed, leading to further aggregation. PMID:20410306

  11. Post-transplant development of C1q-positive HLA antibodies and kidney graft survival.

    PubMed

    Piazza, Antonina; Poggi, Elvira; Ozzella, Giuseppina; Adorno, Domenico

    2013-01-01

    The development of de novo human leukocyte antigen (HLA) donor specific antibodies (DSA), detected by both cytotoxic or solid phase assays, was considered the major risk factor for allograft failure in kidney transplantation. However, it was shown that not all patients with persistent production of DSA suffered loss of their grafts. Modified Luminex-Single Antigen assays, able to identify C1q-fixing antibodies, represent a new strategy in assessing the clinical relevance of detected DSA. This study demonstrated that C1q-fixing capability of de novo DSA is a clinically relevant marker of worse outcome and inferior graft survival in kidney transplantation. In fact, our findings evidenced a very low graft survival only in the patients who developed DSA able to fix C1q during post-transplant course, while patients producing C1q-negative DSA had good graft survival, which was comparable to that found in our previous study for DSA-negative patients. Moreover, anti-HLA class II antibodies had a higher incidence than anti-HLA class I, and the ability to fix C1q was significantly more frequent among anti-DQ DSA than anti-DR DSA. Monitoring of de novo C1q-DSA production represents a useful, non-invasive tool for risk stratification and prediction of graft outcome in kidney transplantation.

  12. Effects of C1 inhibitor on tissue damage in a porcine model of controlled hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Dalle Lucca, Jurandir J; Li, Yansong; Simovic, Milomir; Pusateri, Anthony E; Falabella, Michael; Dubick, Michael A; Tsokos, George C

    2012-07-01

    Activation of the complement system has been associated with tissue injury after hemorrhage and resuscitation in animals. We investigated whether administration of recombinant human C1-esterase inhibitor (rhC1-INH), a regulator of complement and contact activation systems, reduces tissue damage and cytokine release and improves metabolic acidosis in a porcine model of hemorrhagic shock. Male Yorkshire swine were assigned to experimental groups and subjected to controlled, isobaric hemorrhage to a target mean arterial pressure of 35 mmHg. Hypotension was maintained for 20 min followed by a bolus intravenous injection of rhC1-INH or vehicle; animals were then observed for 3 h. Blood chemistry and physiologic parameters were recorded. Lung and small intestine tissue samples were subjected to histopathologic evaluation and immunohistochemistry to determine the extent of injury and deposition of complement proteins. Cytokine levels and quantitative assessment of renal and hepatic function were measured via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and chemistry analyzer, respectively. Pharmacokinetics of rhC1-INH revealed dose proportionality for maximum concentration, half-life, and the time span in which the functional C1-INH level was greater than 1 IU/mL. Recombinant human C1-INH significantly reduced renal, intestinal, and lung tissue damage in a dose-dependent manner (100 and 250 IU/kg). In addition, rhC1-INH (250 IU/kg) markedly improved hemorrhage-induced metabolic acidosis and circulating tumor necrosis factor α. The tissue-protective effects of rhC1-INH appear to be related to its ability to reduce tissue complement activation and deposition. Recombinant human C1-INH decreased tissue complement activation and deposition in hemorrhaged animals, improved metabolic acidosis, reduced circulating tumor necrosis factor α, and attenuated tissue damage in this model. The observed beneficial effects of rhC1-INH treatment on tissue injury 20 min into severe hypotension

  13. Life after a Humanities Degree

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masola, Athambile

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the experiences of a humanities graduate after leaving the academy. The author considers her own education in light of the historical changes in South Africa's education system. The article is a personal account of the questions and challenges encountered in choosing a humanities degree in a context where a tertiary education…

  14. The Top Theological Degree Producers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diverse: Issues in Higher Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Each year, "Diverse: Issues in Higher Education" publishes a list of the Top 100 producers of associate, bachelor's and graduate degrees awarded to minority students based on research conducted by Dr. Victor M. H. Borden, professor of educational leadership and policy studies at Indiana University Bloomington. This year, for the first…

  15. The Top STEM Degree Producers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diverse: Issues in Higher Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a list of the top Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) degree producers in the U.S. This list is broken down into seven categories: (1) Total Minority Research/Scholarship and Other Doctoral: Mathematics and Statistics; (2) Total Minority Bachelors: Biological and Biomedical Sciences; (3) Total Minority…

  16. C1-c2 pedicle screw fixation for treatment of old odontoid fractures.

    PubMed

    Qi, Lei; Li, Mu; Zhang, Shuai; Si, Haipeng; Xue, Jingsong

    2015-02-01

    Nonunion and C1-C2 instability of odontoid fractures usually result from delayed diagnosis and inappropriate treatment. However, the available treatment options for odontoid fractures remain controversial. The authors evaluated the effectiveness of internal screw fixation via the C1 and C2 pedicle in cases of old odontoid fractures. This retrospective study included 21 patients with old odontoid fractures (13 men and 8 women; mean age, 46.5 years; range, 24-69 years). Internal screw fixation via the C1 and C2 pedicle was performed in all patients. Fracture reduction and C1-C2 fusion were assessed with imaging. The neck pain visual analog scale score and cervical spinal cord functional Japanese Orthopaedic Association score (for those who had cervical spinal cord injury) were used to evaluate the effectiveness of treatment. Postoperative complications were recorded. Postoperative imaging showed that the C1-C2 dislocation was satisfactorily repositioned in all patients. Bone fusion was observed 1 year after surgery in all patients. No loosening or breaking of internal fixation occurred. The preoperative neck pain visual analog scale score was 5.9±1.5 and improved significantly to 1.8±0.8 after surgery (P<.001). The Japanese Orthopaedic Association score in patients with cervical spinal injury (n=14) was 9.2±1.9 and also significantly improved to 13.8±1.9 at the last follow-up examination (P<.001), with an average improvement rate of 61.0%. No iatrogenic vertebral artery injury or severe spinal cord injury occurred. Screw fixation via the C1 and C2 pedicle was found to be an effective and safe surgical approach for the treatment of old odontoid fractures with C1-C2 dislocation or instability.

  17. The Janus faces of acquired angioedema: C1-inhibitor deficiency, lymphoproliferation and autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Wu, Maddalena Alessandra; Castelli, Roberto

    2016-02-01

    Several clinical and biological features of lymphoproliferative diseases have been associated with an increased risk of developing autoimmune manifestations. Acquired deficiency of C1-inhibitor (C1-INH) (AAE) is a rare syndrome clinically similar to hereditary angioedema (HAE) characterized by local increase in vascular permeability (angioedema) of the skin and the gastrointestinal and oro-pharyngo-laryngeal mucosa. Bradykinin, a potent vasoactive peptide, released from high molecular weight kininogen when it is cleaved by plasma kallikrein (a serine protease controlled by C1-INH), is the mediator of symptoms. In total 46% of AAE patients carry an underlying hematological disorder including monoclonal gammopathy of uncertain significance (MGUS) or B cell malignancies. However, 74% of AAE patients have anti-C1-INH autoantibodies without hematological, clinical or instrumental evidence of lymphoproliferative disease. Unlike HAE patients, AAE patients usually have late-onset symptoms, do not have a family history of angioedema and present variable response to treatment due to the hypercatabolism of C1-INH. Experiments show that C1-INH and/or the classical complement pathway were consumed by the neoplastic lymphatic tissues and/or anti-C1-INH neutralizing autoantibodies. Therapy of AAE follows two directions: 1) prevention/reversal of the symptoms of angioedema; and 2) treatment of the associated disease. Different forms of B cell disorders coexist and/or evolve into each other in AAE and seem to be dominated by an altered control of B cell proliferation, thus AAE represents an example of the strict link between autoimmunity and lymphoproliferation.

  18. The orexinergic neurons receive synaptic input from C1 cells in rats

    PubMed Central

    Bochorishvili, Genrieta; Nguyen, Thanh; Coates, Melissa B.; Viar, Kenneth E.; Stornetta, Ruth L.; Guyenet, Patrice G.

    2014-01-01

    The C1 cells, located in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM), are activated by pain, hypoxia, hypoglycemia, infection and hypotension and elicit cardiorespiratory stimulation, adrenaline and ACTH release, and arousal. The orexin neurons contribute to the autonomic responses to acute psychological stress. Here, using an anatomical approach, we consider whether the orexin neurons could also be contributing to the autonomic effects elicited by C1 neuron activation. Phenylethanolamine N-methyl transferase-immunoreactive (PNMT-ir) axons were detected amongst orexin-ir somata and close appositions between PNMT-ir axonal varicosities and orexin-ir profiles were observed. The existence of synapses between PNMT-ir boutons labeled with diaminobenzidine and orexinergic neurons labeled with immunogold was confirmed by electron microscopy. We labeled RVLM neurons with a lentiviral vector that expresses the fusion protein ChR2-mCherry under the control of the catecholaminergic neuron-selective promoter PRSx8 and obtained light and ultrastructural evidence that these neurons innervate the orexin cells. Using a Cre-dependent adeno-associated vector and TH-Cre rats we confirmed that the projection from RVLM catecholaminergic neurons to the orexinergic neurons originates predominantly from PNMT-ir catecholaminergic (i.e. C1 cells). The C1 neurons were found to establish predominantly asymmetric synapses with orexin-ir cell bodies or dendrites. These synapses were packed with small clear vesicles and also contained dense core vesicles. In summary, the orexin neurons are among the hypothalamic neurons contacted and presumably excited by the C1 cells. The C1-orexin neuronal connection is probably one of several suprabulbar pathways through which the C1 neurons activate breathing and the circulation, raise blood glucose and facilitate arousal from sleep. PMID:24984694

  19. Transporters MCT8 and OATP1C1 maintain murine brain thyroid hormone homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Mayerl, Steffen; Müller, Julia; Bauer, Reinhard; Richert, Sarah; Kassmann, Celia M; Darras, Veerle M; Buder, Katrin; Boelen, Anita; Visser, Theo J; Heuer, Heike

    2014-05-01

    Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome (AHDS), a severe form of psychomotor retardation with abnormal thyroid hormone (TH) parameters, is linked to mutations in the TH-specific monocarboxylate transporter MCT8. In mice, deletion of Mct8 (Mct8 KO) faithfully replicates AHDS-associated endocrine abnormalities; however, unlike patients, these animals do not exhibit neurological impairments. While transport of the active form of TH (T3) across the blood-brain barrier is strongly diminished in Mct8 KO animals, prohormone (T4) can still enter the brain, possibly due to the presence of T4-selective organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP1C1). Here, we characterized mice deficient for both TH transporters, MCT8 and OATP1C1 (Mct8/Oatp1c1 DKO). Mct8/Oatp1c1 DKO mice exhibited alterations in peripheral TH homeostasis that were similar to those in Mct8 KO mice; however, uptake of both T3 and T4 into the brains of Mct8/Oatp1c1 DKO mice was strongly reduced. Evidence of TH deprivation in the CNS of Mct8/Oatp1c1 DKO mice included highly decreased brain TH content as well as altered deiodinase activities and TH target gene expression. Consistent with delayed cerebellar development and reduced myelination, Mct8/Oatp1c1 DKO mice displayed pronounced locomotor abnormalities. Intriguingly, differentiation of GABAergic interneurons in the cerebral cortex was highly compromised. Our findings underscore the importance of TH transporters for proper brain development and provide a basis to study the pathogenic mechanisms underlying AHDS.

  20. Alanine mutagenesis of the primary antigenic escape residue cluster, c1, of apical membrane antigen 1.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Sheetij; Dlugosz, Lisa S; Clayton, Joshua W; Pool, Christopher D; Haynes, J David; Gasser, Robert A; Batchelor, Adrian H

    2010-02-01

    Antibodies against apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA1) inhibit invasion of Plasmodium merozoites into red cells, and a large number of single nucleotide polymorphisms on AMA1 allow the parasite to escape inhibitory antibodies. The availability of a crystal structure makes it possible to test protein engineering strategies to develop a monovalent broadly reactive vaccine. Previously, we showed that a linear stretch of polymorphic residues (amino acids 187 to 207), localized within the C1 cluster on domain 1, conferred the highest level of escape from inhibitory antibodies, and these were termed antigenic escape residues (AER). Here we test the hypothesis that immunodampening the C1 AER will divert the immune system toward more conserved regions. We substituted seven C1 AER of the FVO strain Plasmodium falciparum AMA1 with alanine residues (ALA). The resulting ALA protein was less immunogenic than the native protein in rabbits. Anti-ALA antibodies contained a higher proportion of cross-reactive domain 2 and domain 3 antibodies and had higher avidity than anti-FVO. No overall enhancement of cross-reactive inhibitory activity was observed when anti-FVO and anti-ALA sera were compared for their ability to inhibit invasion. Alanine mutations at the C1 AER had shifted the immune response toward cross-strain-reactive epitopes that were noninhibitory, refuting the hypothesis but confirming the importance of the C1 cluster as an inhibitory epitope. We further demonstrate that naturally occurring polymorphisms that fall within the C1 cluster can predict escape from cross-strain invasion inhibition, reinforcing the importance of the C1 cluster genotype for antigenic categorization and allelic shift analyses in future phase 2b trials.

  1. Platelet activation by C1q results in the induction of alpha IIb/beta 3 integrins (GPIIb-IIIa) and the expression of P-selectin and procoagulant activity

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    C1q receptors (C1qR) have been identified on a variety of somatic and cultured cells including peripheral blood platelets. Since platelets are likely to encounter both circulating C1q multimers and C1q associated with the extracellular matrix after complement activation by the classical pathway, the present study was designed to assess the effect of fluid phase and immobilized C1q on platelet function. Platelet adhesion to C1q-coated surfaces was accompanied by the induction of fibrinogen receptors. Scatchard analysis of fibrinogen binding to adherent platelets revealed the binding of approximately 10,000 molecules of fibrinogen per platelet with a Kd of 0.1 +/- 0.03 microM (mean +/- SD, n = 4). Furthermore, fluid phase C1q multimers were noted to aggregate platelets at doses > 5 micrograms/ml. This aggregation was preceded by a rise in inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) (6.9 +/- 2.4 pmoles/10(9) platelets at 15 s, n = 4), and activation of GPIIb-IIIa complexes supporting fibrinogen binding. Platelet aggregation in response to C1q multimers was accompanied by the aspirin-inhibitable release of granule contents and P-selectin (CD62) expression. Platelet aggregation was inhibited by the collagenous domain of C1q (c-Clq) and a monoclonal antibody directed against C1q receptors, suggesting the direct involvement of the 67-kD platelet C1qR. Antibodies against the very late antigen 2 or CD36 collagen receptors were without effect. Platelet exposure to C1q multimers was also accompanied by the expression of procoagulant activity, as demonstrated by the dose-dependent shortening of the kaolin recalcification time of normal plasma from 108 +/- 12 s in the presence of unstimulated platelets to 62 +/- 14 s in the presence of platelets that had been preincubated (5 min, 37 degrees C) with 100 micrograms/ml multimeric C1q (n = 3). These data suggest that platelet interactions with C1q multimers or immobilized C1q, resulting in the activation of GPIIb-IIIa fibrinogen binding

  2. C1q complement component and -antibodies reflect SLE activity and kidney involvement.

    PubMed

    Horák, P; Hermanová, Z; Zadrazil, J; Ciferská, H; Ordeltová, M; Kusá, L; Zurek, M; Tichý, T

    2006-07-01

    The role of the complement system in the pathogenesis of systemic diseases is very ambivalent. In systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), many abnormalities in the activation of the complement system have been reported. The most important antibodies formed against the complement system in SLE are the ones associated with the C1q component. The aim of this study was to assess separately the anti-C1q antibodies and C1q component in the serum from 65 patients with SLE, then in individuals with (n=33) and without (n=32) lupus nephritis and with active (n=36) and nonactive (n=29) form of the disease (European Consensus Lupus Activity Measurement, ECLAM>3, ECLAMC1q antibodies were measured by the Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) test, while radial immunodiffusion according to Mancini was used to measure the C1q complement component. The mean serum levels were 90.89+/-13 IU/ml for anti-C1q antibodies and 145+/-52 mg/l for C1q. The significant difference in C1q antibodies levels was found between individuals with and without lupus nephritis (117.5+/-52 IU/ml vs. 28.2+/-12.2 IU/ml, p=0.0001) and between those with active and nonactive SLE (154.6+/-115 IU/ml vs. 50.6+/-73, p=0.001). C1q complement component was statistically lower in patients with lupus nephritis (144+/-30 mg/l vs. 175+/-50 mg/ml, p=0.002) and in active patients (138+/-40 mg/l vs. 202+/-20 mg/l, p=0.001). If the two parameters are measured together, they seem to have a mirror-like pattern of serum concentration, and they are potential markers of SLE activity and of the presence of lupus nephritis.

  3. Variation in complement protein C1q is not a major contributor to cognitive impairment in Parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Carbutt, Sophia; Duff, Jennifer; Yarnall, Alison; Burn, David J.; Hudson, Gavin

    2015-01-01

    Traditional dogma regarding the brain as an immune exempt organ has changed in recent years. New research has highlighted the role of the classical complement cascade in both synaptic elimination and function, driven largely by the role of the pathway initiating protein C1q. Given the links between C1q and cognitive function we assessed the genetic variability of the C1q encoding genes: C1QA, C1QB and C1QC between PD patients and matched controls. Despite a strong link between C1Q/cognitive decline and PD/cognitive decline we were unable to find a link between common C1Q variation and PD. We conclude that common C1Q-A/B/C genetic variation is unlikely to contribute to cognitive decline or the missing heritability in PD. PMID:25817358

  4. Mississippi Degree Programs: A Numerical (CIP) and Summary Listing of Academic Degree Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi State Board of Trustees of State Institutions of Higher Learning, Jackson.

    This publication presents a numerical and summary listing of academic degree programs at Mississippi State institutions of higher education. Programs are listed by discipline. Program levels include: bachelor's degree, master's degree, specialist degree, sixth year degree, doctoral degree, first professional degree, associate degree, and…

  5. Simulation of XPS C1s spectra of organic monolayers by quantum chemical methods.

    PubMed

    Giesbers, Marcel; Marcelis, Antonius T M; Zuilhof, Han

    2013-04-16

    Several simple methods are presented and evaluated to simulate the X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS) of organic monolayers and polymeric layers by density functional theory (DFT) and second-order Møller-Plesset theory (MP2) in combination with a series of basis sets. The simulated carbon (C1s) XPS spectra as obtained via B3LYP/6-311G(d,p) or M11/6-311G(d,p) calculations are in good agreement (average mean error <0.3 eV) with the experimental spectra, and good estimates of C1s spectra can be obtained via E(C1s)(exp) = 0.9698EC1s(theory) + 20.34 (in eV) (B3LYP/6-311G(d,p)). As a result, the simulated C1s XPS spectra can elucidate the binding energies of the different carbon species within an organic layer and, in this way, greatly aid the assignment of complicated C1s XPS spectra. The paper gives a wide range of examples, including haloalkanes, esters, (thio-)ethers, leaving groups, clickable functionalities, and bioactive moieties.

  6. C1q deficiency: identification of a novel missense mutation and treatment with fresh frozen plasma.

    PubMed

    Topaloglu, Rezan; Taskiran, Ekim Z; Tan, Cagman; Erman, Baran; Ozaltin, Fatih; Sanal, Ozden

    2012-07-01

    A Turkish patient with C1q deficiency presented with a lupus-like disease, and a new missense mutation at A chain is presented. To characterize the genetic defect, all exons of the genes for the A, B, and C chains of C1q were sequenced in the patient. This revealed a missense mutation in the collagen-like domain of the A chain, p.Gly31 Arg. No other sequence variants, including the common silent mutations, were found in the three chains. Exon 1 of the C1q A chain was sequenced in 105 samples from healthy controls for this particular mutation. None of these carried the mutation. The C1q-deficient patient was treated with fresh frozen plasma infusions. Our findings showed that Turkish patients may have different mutations than the previously described common mutation, and once again, not only nonsense mutations but also missense mutations cause hereditary C1q deficiency. Regular fresh frozen plasma infusions to the patient have been clinically and therapeutically successful.

  7. Caspase cleavage of cytochrome c1 disrupts mitochondrial function and enhances cytochrome c release.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yushan; Li, Min; Wang, Xiaohui; Jin, Haijing; Liu, Shusen; Xu, Jianxin; Chen, Quan

    2012-01-01

    Mitochondrial catastrophe can be the cause or consequence of apoptosis and is associated with a number of pathophysiological conditions. The exact relationship between mitochondrial catastrophe and caspase activation is not completely understood. Here we addressed the underlying mechanism, explaining how activated caspase could feedback to attack mitochondria to amplify further cytochrome c (cyto.c) release. We discovered that cytochrome c1 (cyto.c1) in the bc1 complex of the mitochondrial respiration chain was a novel substrate of caspase 3 (casp.3). We found that cyto.c1 was cleaved at the site of D106, which is critical for binding with cyto.c, following apoptotic stresses or targeted expression of casp.3 into the mitochondrial intermembrane space. We demonstrated that this cleavage was closely linked with further cyto.c release and mitochondrial catastrophe. These mitochondrial events could be effectively blocked by expressing non-cleavable cyto.c1 (D106A) or by caspase inhibitor z-VAD-fmk. Our results demonstrate that the cleavage of cyto.c1 represents a critical step for the feedback amplification of cyto.c release by caspases and subsequent mitochondrial catastrophe.

  8. The semaphorin 7A receptor Plexin C1 is lost during melanoma metastasis.

    PubMed

    Lazova, Rossitza; Gould Rothberg, Bonnie E; Rimm, David; Scott, Glynis

    2009-04-01

    The transformation of normal melanocytes, or melanocyte stem cells, to melanoma, is a complex process involving multiple mechanisms. Loss of tumor suppressor proteins, which function as brakes on cell growth, migration, or cell survival, was recognized early on as an important mechanism for initiation and progression of melanoma. Semaphorins and their cognate receptors, Plexins and neuropilins, are involved in neuronal pathfinding, immune function, and tumor progression through effects on blood vessel growth and cell migration. Semaphorin 7A (Sema7A) is a membrane-linked semaphorin that is expressed by human keratinocytes, and we have shown that Sema7A binds to human melanocytes through beta1-integrins and the Plexin C1 receptor. Functional studies showed that Sema7A stimulates cytoskeletal reorganization in human melanocytes, resulting in adhesion and dendrite formation. Downstream targets of Plexin C1 signaling in human melanocytes include cofilin and LIM kinase II, both of which are critical mediators of cell adhesion and migration. In this report, we analyzed the expression of Plexin C1 using immunohistochemistry on sections of primary and matched metastatic lesions from 19 subjects and in a large melanoma tumor microarray. Our data show a significant loss of Plexin C1 in metastatic melanoma compared with primary melanoma, suggesting the possibility that the Plexin C1 receptor is a tumor suppressor protein for melanoma.

  9. A single-center study of C1q nephropathy in children.

    PubMed

    Roberti, Isabel; Baqi, Noosha; Vyas, Shefali; Kim, Dae Un

    2009-01-01

    C1q nephropathy (C1qN) is a rare idiopathic glomerulopathy typically seen in adolescents and young adults. All kidney biopsies done from 2002 to 2007 were analyzed (264). Thirteen cases of C1qN from 212 (6.6%) native biopsies and one case out of 52 (1.9%) transplant biopsies were reviewed regarding demographic features, clinical presentation, histopathology, treatment, and outcome. Age varied from 1 to 18 years; half were boys. Ten children (71.4%) presented with nephrotic syndrome (NS). The most common histopathology found was diffuse mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis (DMP) by light microscopy (LM), with diffuse granular staining for C1q predominantly in the mesangium. Children with either NS or persistent gross hematuria received prednisone and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi) (11). Median follow-up was 36 months. Steroid response was complete in 6 patients (54.5%). Those with steroid resistance (5) or steroid dependence (2) received further immunosuppression with mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) or tacrolimus (Tac). Three children achieved complete remission and four partial remission. Frequent relapses were seen in 4/14 patients. Renal survival was 100%. Our report reveals a high incidence of C1qN in pediatric patients, with variable clinical presentation. Despite a high incidence of steroid resistance among those with NS, an excellent response was observed with the addition of further immunosuppression.

  10. Protein phosphatase AP2C1 negatively regulates basal resistance and defense responses to Pseudomonas syringae.

    PubMed

    Shubchynskyy, Volodymyr; Boniecka, Justyna; Schweighofer, Alois; Simulis, Justinas; Kvederaviciute, Kotryna; Stumpe, Michael; Mauch, Felix; Balazadeh, Salma; Mueller-Roeber, Bernd; Boutrot, Freddy; Zipfel, Cyril; Meskiene, Irute

    2017-01-06

    Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) mediate plant immune responses to pathogenic bacteria. However, less is known about the cell autonomous negative regulatory mechanism controlling basal plant immunity. We report the biological role of Arabidopsis thaliana MAPK phosphatase AP2C1 as a negative regulator of plant basal resistance and defense responses to Pseudomonas syringae AP2C2, a closely related MAPK phosphatase, also negatively controls plant resistance. Loss of AP2C1 leads to enhanced pathogen-induced MAPK activities, increased callose deposition in response to pathogen-associated molecular patterns or to P. syringae pv. tomato (Pto) DC3000, and enhanced resistance to bacterial infection with Pto. We also reveal the impact of AP2C1 on the global transcriptional reprogramming of transcription factors during Pto infection. Importantly, ap2c1 plants show salicylic acid-independent transcriptional reprogramming of several defense genes and enhanced ethylene production in response to Pto This study pinpoints the specificity of MAPK regulation by the different MAPK phosphatases AP2C1 and MKP1, which control the same MAPK substrates, nevertheless leading to different downstream events. We suggest that precise and specific control of defined MAPKs by MAPK phosphatases during plant challenge with pathogenic bacteria can strongly influence plant resistance.

  11. The C1 area of rostral ventrolateral medulla: a central site integrating autonomic responses to hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Reis, D J; Ruggiero, D A; Morrison, S F

    1989-12-01

    Activation of the sympathetic neurons and release of adrenomedullary catecholamines are the principal early reflex responses to hemorrhage. These are initiated by arterial baro- and chemoreceptors, from other cardiopulmonary receptors, and by intracerebral receptors responding to ischemia. A principal gateway for integrating the autonomic responses are a small collection of neurons in a region of the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVL), containing a cluster of neurons of the C1 adrenergic cell group, the C1 area. Neurons in the C1 area of RVL project exclusively to autonomic nuclei of the spinal cord, are tonically active, and fire with a rhythm linked to the cardiac cycle. They are essential for maintaining resting discharge of sympathetic nerves and, consequently, arterial pressure (AP) and heart rate. They also are critical for reflex changes in AP in the baro- and chemoreceptor, somato-sympathetic (pain), and cerebral ischemic reflexes. Neurons of the C1 area are under tonic excitatory and inhibitory control by pathways from other autonomic centers. They are controlled by a range of neurotransmitters including, gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA), acetylcholine, catecholamines, enkephalin, and several neuropeptides. They also serve as a site of action for the hypotensive actions of several clinically important neurotransmitters. The C1-area of RVL may play a critical role in the autonomic responses to hemorrhage and may be an important target for drugs seeking to treat hemorrhagic shock.

  12. Evidence of Real-Space Transfer in Buried-Channel GexC1-x Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, En-Shao; Kelly, David; Donnelly, Joseph; Tutuc, Emanuel; Banerjee, Sanjay

    2008-03-01

    We present experimental evidence of real-space transfer (RST) in buried-channel GexC1-x p-type metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFET) containing a Si cap layer. The output characteristics of these devices reveal a negative differential resistance (NDR) below 150K, at the onset of the saturation regime. This observation indicates a charge transfer from GexC1-x layer into the Si cap at sufficiently large drain bias values. The lower hole mobility of the Si cap with respect to the GexC1-x, translates into a drain current reduction, hence the observed NDR. Our low-field, temperature-dependent mobility measurements indeed reveal a higher effective carrier mobility in the buried-channel GexC1-x layer with respect to a Si-reference sample, which suggests that the observed NDR is caused by RST of holes from the GexC1-x into the Si layer.

  13. Negative Regulation of Abscisic Acid Signaling by the Fagus sylvatica FsPP2C1 Plays A Role in Seed Dormancy Regulation and Promotion of Seed Germination1

    PubMed Central

    González-García, Mary Paz; Rodríguez, Dolores; Nicolás, Carlos; Rodríguez, Pedro Luis; Nicolás, Gregorio; Lorenzo, Oscar

    2003-01-01

    FsPP2C1 was previously isolated from beech (Fagus sylvatica) seeds as a functional protein phosphatase type-2C (PP2C) with all the conserved features of these enzymes and high homology to ABI1, ABI2, and PP2CA, PP2Cs identified as negative regulators of ABA signaling. The expression of FsPP2C1 was induced upon abscisic acid (ABA) treatment and was also up-regulated during early weeks of stratification. Furthermore, this gene was specifically expressed in ABA-treated seeds and was hardly detectable in vegetative tissues. In this report, to provide genetic evidence on FsPP2C1 function in seed dormancy and germination, we used an overexpression approach in Arabidopsis because transgenic work is not feasible in beech. Constitutive expression of FsPP2C1 under the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter confers ABA insensitivity in Arabidopsis seeds and, consequently, a reduced degree of seed dormancy. Additionally, transgenic 35S:FsPP2C1 plants are able to germinate under unfavorable conditions, as inhibitory concentrations of mannitol, NaCl, or paclobutrazol. In vegetative tissues, Arabidopsis FsPP2C1 transgenic plants show ABA-resistant early root growth and diminished induction of the ABA-response genes RAB18 and KIN2, but no effect on stomatal closure regulation. Seed and vegetative phenotypes of Arabidopsis 35S:FsPP2C1 plants suggest that FsPP2C1 negatively regulates ABA signaling. The ABA inducibility of FsPP2C1 expression, together with the transcript accumulation mainly in seeds, suggest that it could play an important role modulating ABA signaling in beechnuts through a negative feedback loop. Finally, we suggest that negative regulation of ABA signaling by FsPP2C1 is a factor contributing to promote the transition from seed dormancy to germination during early weeks of stratification. PMID:12970481

  14. Unnatural C-1 homologues of pancratistatin — Synthesis and promising biological activities

    PubMed Central

    Vshyvenko, Sergey; Scattolon, Jon; Hudlicky, Tomas; Romero, Anntherese E.; Kornienko, Alexander; Ma, Dennis; Tuffley, Ian; Pandey, Siyaram

    2016-01-01

    Several C-1 homologues of pancratistatin and 7-deoxypancratistatin were synthesized by a phenanthrene–phenathridone oxidative recyclization strategy. The key steps involved the enzymatic dihydroxylation of bromobenzene, addition of an aryl alane to an epoxyaziridine, an intramolecular aziridine opening on silica gel in solid phase, and the above-mentioned recylization strategy. Experimental and spectral data are reported for all new compounds. All synthesized C-1 homologues of pancratistatin and 7-deoxypancratistatin were evaluated for antiproliferative activity in a panel of human cancer cell lines. As expected, the 7-hydroxy compounds were found to be more potent and the activity of the C-1 benzoxymethyl analogue exceeded that of narciclasine, which was used as a positive control. PMID:28017970

  15. Six degree of freedom sensor

    DOEpatents

    Vann, Charles S.

    1999-01-01

    This small, non-contact optical sensor increases the capability and flexibility of computer controlled machines by detecting its relative position to a workpiece in all six degrees of freedom (DOF). At a fraction of the cost, it is over 200 times faster and up to 25 times more accurate than competing 3-DOF sensors. Applications range from flexible manufacturing to a 6-DOF mouse for computers. Until now, highly agile and accurate machines have been limited by their inability to adjust to changes in their tasks. By enabling them to sense all six degrees of position, these machines can now adapt to new and complicated tasks without human intervention or delay--simplifying production, reducing costs, and enhancing the value and capability of flexible manufacturing.

  16. Six degree of freedom sensor

    DOEpatents

    Vann, C.S.

    1999-03-16

    This small, non-contact optical sensor increases the capability and flexibility of computer controlled machines by detecting its relative position to a workpiece in all six degrees of freedom (DOF). At a fraction of the cost, it is over 200 times faster and up to 25 times more accurate than competing 3-DOF sensors. Applications range from flexible manufacturing to a 6-DOF mouse for computers. Until now, highly agile and accurate machines have been limited by their inability to adjust to changes in their tasks. By enabling them to sense all six degrees of position, these machines can now adapt to new and complicated tasks without human intervention or delay--simplifying production, reducing costs, and enhancing the value and capability of flexible manufacturing. 3 figs.

  17. Space Separatism: Degree of Differentiation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    November–December 2014 Air & Space Power Journal | 17 Feature Space Separatism Degree of Differentiation Capt Luke R. Stover, USAF Dr. Alan Johnson...expressed or implied in the Journal are those of the authors and should not be construed as carry- ing the official sanction of the Department of...Defense, Air Force, Air Education and Training Command, Air University, or other agencies or departments of the US government. This article may be

  18. Antithrombin III/SerpinC1 insufficiency exacerbates renal ischemia/reperfusion injury

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Feng; Zhang, Guangyuan; Lu, Zeyuan; Geurts, Aron M; Usa, Kristie; Jacob, Howard J; Cowley, Allen W; Wang, Niansong; Liang, Mingyu

    2015-01-01

    Antithrombin III, encoded by SerpinC1, is a major anti-coagulation molecule in vivo and has anti-inflammatory effects. We found that patients with low antithrombin III activities presented a higher risk of developing acute kidney injury after cardiac surgery. To study this further, we generated SerpinC1 heterozygous knockout rats and followed the development of acute kidney injury in a model of modest renal ischemia/reperfusion injury. Renal injury, assessed by serum creatinine and renal tubular injury scores after 24 h of reperfusion, was significantly exacerbated in SerpinC1+/− rats compared to wild-type littermates. Concomitantly, renal oxidative stress, tubular apoptosis, and macrophage infiltration following this injury were significantly aggravated in SerpinC1+/− rats. However, significant thrombosis was not found in the kidneys of any group of rats. Antithrombin III is reported to stimulate the production of prostaglandin I2, a known regulator of renal cortical blood flow, in addition to having anti-inflammatory effects and to protect against renal failure. Prostaglandin F1α, an assayable metabolite of prostaglandin I2, was increased in the kidneys of the wild-type rats at 3 h after reperfusion. The increase of prostaglandin F1α was significantly blunted in SerpinC1+/− rats, which preceded increased tubular injury and oxidative stress. Thus, our study found a novel role of SerpinC1 insufficiency in increasing the severity of renal ischemia/reperfusion injury. PMID:26108065

  19. Altered transition metal homeostasis in Niemann-Pick disease, Type C1

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Ya Hui; Faux, Noel G.; Killilea, David W.; Yanjanin, Nicole; Firnkes, Sally; Volitakis, Irene; Ganio, George; Walterfang, Mark; Hastings, Caroline; Porter, Forbes D.; Ory, Daniel S.; Bush, Ashley I.

    2014-01-01

    The loss of NPC1 protein function is the predominant cause of Niemann-Pick type C1 disease (NP-C1), a systemic and neurodegenerative disorder characterized by late-endosomal/lysosomal accumulation of cholesterol and other lipids. Limited evidence from post-mortem human tissues, an Npc1−/− mouse model, and cell culture studies also suggest failure of metal homeostasis in NP-C1. To investigate these findings, we performed a comprehensive transition metal analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), plasma and tissue samples from human NP-C1 patients and an Npc1−/− mouse model. NPC1 deficiency in the Npc1−/− mouse model resulted in a perturbation of transition metal homeostasis in the plasma and key organs (brain, liver, spleen, heart, lungs, and kidneys). Analysis of human patient CSF, plasma and post-mortem brain tissues also indicated disrupted metal homeostasis. There was a disparity in the direction of metal changes between the human and the Npc1−/− mouse samples, which may reflect species-specific metal metabolism. Nevertheless, common to both species is brain zinc accumulation. Furthermore, treatment with the glucosylceramide synthase inhibitor miglustat, the only drug shown in a controlled clinical trial to have some efficacy for NP-C1, did not correct the alterations in CSF and plasma transition metal and ceruloplasmin (CP) metabolism in NP-C1 patients. These findings highlight the importance of NPC1 function in metal homeostasis, and indicate that metal-targeting therapy may be of value as a treatment for NP-C. PMID:24343124

  20. Deficiency in complement C1q improves histological and functional locomotor outcome after spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Galvan, Manuel D.; Luchetti, Sabina; Burgos, Adrian M.; Nguyen, Hal X.; Hooshmand, Mitra J.; Anderson, Aileen J.; Hamers, Frank P.T.

    2009-01-01

    Although studies have suggested a role for the complement system in the pathophysiology of spinal cord injury (SCI), that role remains poorly defined. Additionally, the relative contribution of individual complement pathways in SCI is unknown. Our initial studies revealed that systemic complement activation was strongly influenced by genetic background and gender. Thus, to investigate the role of the classical complement pathway in contusion-induced SCI, male C1q knockout (KO) and wildtype (WT) mice on a complement sufficient background (BUB) received a mild-moderate T9 contusion injury with the Infinite Horizon (IH) impactor. BUB C1q KO mice exhibited greater locomotor recovery in comparison to BUB WT mice (p < 0.05). Improved recovery observed in BUB C1q KO mice was also associated with decreased threshold for withdrawal from a mild stimulus using von Frey filament testing. Surprisingly, quantification of microglia/macrophages (F4/80) by FACS analysis showed that BUB C1q KO mice exhibited a significantly greater percentage of macrophages in the spinal cord compared to BUB WT mice 3 days post injury (p < 0.05). However, this increased macrophage response appeared to be transient as stereological assessment of spinal cord tissue obtained 28 days post injury revealed no difference in F4/80 positive cells between groups. Stereological assessment of spinal cord tissue showed that BUB C1q KO mice had reduced lesion volume and an increase in tissue sparing in comparison to BUB WT mice (p < 0.05). Taken together, these data suggest that initiation of the classical complement pathway via C1q is detrimental to recovery after SCI. PMID:19091977

  1. Endovascular Treatment of a Vertebral Artery Pseudoaneurysm Following Posterior C1-C2 Transarticular Screw Fixation

    SciTech Connect

    Mendez, Jose C. Gonzalez-Llanos, Francisco

    2005-01-15

    We present a case of vertebral artery pseudoaneurysm after a posterior C1-C2 transarticular screw fixation procedure that was effectively treated with endovascular coil occlusion. Vertebral artery pseudoaneurysm complicating posterior C1-C2 transarticular fixation is extremely rare, with only one previous case having been reported previously. Endovascular occlusion is better achieved in the subacute phase of the pseudoaneurysm, when the wall of the pseudoaneurysm has matured and stabilized. Further follow-up angiographies are mandatory in order to confirm that there is no recurrence of the lesion.

  2. Solar gases in meteorites - The origin of chondrites and C1 carbonaceous chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heymann, D.

    1978-01-01

    Evidence suggesting that chondritic meteorites broke off from parent bodies in earth-crossing orbits is considered. It is suggested that ordinary chondrites have an asteroidal origin, and the possibility that C1 chondrites have a cometary origin is examined. Indications of heavy shock and reheating among L and H chondrites provides support for an asteroidal origin, while the Apollo and Amor objects are too small to be unfragmented asteroids, as proposed in the Anders theory of the origin of gas-rich meteorites. Events associated with the megaregolith are discussed in the framework of the proposed cometary origin of C1 chondrites.

  3. C1q binding to Dengue Virus inhibits infection of THP-1 and cellular inflammatory responses

    PubMed Central

    Douradinha, Bruno; McBurney, Sean P.; de Melo, Klecia M. Soares; Smith, Amanda P.; Krishna, Neel K.; Barratt-Boyes, Simon M.; Evans, Jared D.; Nascimento, Eduardo J. M.; Marques, Ernesto T. A

    2014-01-01

    Summary Dengue virus infection elicits a spectrum of clinical presentations ranging from asymptomatic to severe disease. The mechanisms leading to severe dengue are not known, however it has been reported that the complement system is hyper-activated in severe dengue. Screening of complement proteins demonstrated that C1q, a pattern recognition molecule, can bind directly to Dengue Virus Envelope protein and to whole Dengue Virus serotype 2. Incubation of Dengue Virus serotype 2 with C1q prior to infection of THP-1 cells led to decreased virus infectivity and modulation of mRNA expression of immunoregulatory molecules suggesting reduced inflammatory responses. PMID:24246304

  4. Degree Attainment. Snapshot™ Report, Winter 2015

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Student Clearinghouse, 2015

    2015-01-01

    This Snapshot Report presents information on student degree attainment in science and engineering disciplines for 2004 and 2014. It offers data on the following: (1) Science and Engineering Degrees as Percentage of All Degrees; (2) Gender Distribution of Science and Engineering Degrees by Level; (3) Gender Distribution of Bachelor's Degrees in…

  5. An amphioxus gC1q protein binds human IgG and initiates the classical pathway: Implications for a C1q-mediated complement system in the basal chordate.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhan; Li, Mengyang; Ma, Jie; Zhang, Shicui

    2014-12-01

    The origin of the classical complement pathway remains open during chordate evolution. A C1q-like member, BjC1q, was identified in the basal chordate amphioxus. It is predominantly expressed in the hepatic caecum, hindgut, and notochord, and is significantly upregulated following challenge with bacteria or lipoteichoic acid and LPS. Recombinant BjC1q and its globular head domain specifically interact with lipoteichoic acid and LPS, but BjC1q displays little lectin activity. Moreover, rBjC1q can assemble to form the high molecular weight oligomers necessary for binding to proteases C1r/C1s and for complement activation, and binds human C1r/C1s/mannan-binding lectin-associated serine protease-2 as well as amphioxus serine proteases involved in the cleavage of C4/C2, and C3 activation. Importantly, rBjC1q binds with human IgG as well as an amphioxus Ig domain containing protein, resulting in the activation of the classical complement pathway. This is the first report showing that a C1q-like protein in invertebrates is able to initiate classical pathway, raising the possibility that amphioxus possesses a C1q-mediated complement system. It also suggests a new scenario for the emergence of the classical complement pathway, in contrast to the proposal that the lectin pathway evolved into the classical pathway.

  6. 5 CFR 1201.56 - Burden and degree of proof; affirmative defenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... defenses. 1201.56 Section 1201.56 Administrative Personnel MERIT SYSTEMS PROTECTION BOARD ORGANIZATION AND... proof; affirmative defenses. (a) Burden and degree of proof—(1) Agency: Under 5 U.S.C. 7701(c)(1), and...) Affirmative defenses. In appeals from reconsideration decisions of the Office of Personnel...

  7. 5 CFR 1201.56 - Burden and degree of proof; affirmative defenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... defenses. 1201.56 Section 1201.56 Administrative Personnel MERIT SYSTEMS PROTECTION BOARD ORGANIZATION AND... proof; affirmative defenses. (a) Burden and degree of proof—(1) Agency: Under 5 U.S.C. 7701(c)(1), and...) Affirmative defenses. In appeals from reconsideration decisions of the Office of Personnel...

  8. Dextran molecular size and degree of branching as a function of sucrose concentration, pH, and temperature of reaction of Leuconostoc mesenteroides B-512FMCM dextransucrase.

    PubMed

    Kim, Doman; Robyt, John F; Lee, So-Young; Lee, Jin-Ha; Kim, Young-Min

    2003-05-23

    Reactions of Leuconostoc mesenteroides B-512FMCM dextransucrase with increasing concentrations of sucrose, from 0.1 to 4.0 M, gave a decreasing amount of high-molecular weight dextran (HMWD) (>10(6) Da) with a concomitant increase in low-molecular weight dextran (LMWD) (<10(5) Da). At 0.1 M sucrose, pH 5.5, and 28 degrees C, 99.8% of the dextran had a MW>10(6) Da and at 4.0 M sucrose, 69.9% had a MW<10(5) Da and 30.1% had a MW>10(6) Da, giving a bimodal distribution. The degree of branching increased from 5% for 0.1 M sucrose to 16.6% for 4.0 M sucrose. The temperature had very little effect on the size of the dextran, which was >10(6) Da, but it had a significant effect on the degree of branching, which was 4.8% at 4 degrees C and increased to 14.7% at 45 degrees C. Both the molecular weight (MW) and the degree of branching were not significantly affected by different pH values between 4.5 and 6.0.

  9. Surface effects on the structure and mobility of the ionic liquid C6C1ImTFSI in silica gels.

    PubMed

    Nayeri, Moheb; Aronson, Matthew T; Bernin, Diana; Chmelka, Bradley F; Martinelli, Anna

    2014-08-14

    We report on how the dynamical and structural properties of the ionic liquid 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (C6C1ImTFSI) change upon different degrees of confinement in silica gels. The apparent diffusion coefficients of the individual ions are measured by (1)H and (19)F pulsed field gradient nuclear magnetic resonance (PFG-NMR) spectroscopy, while the intermolecular interactions in the ionogels are elucidated by Raman spectroscopy. In addition, the local structure of the ionic liquid at the silica interface is probed by solid-state NMR spectroscopy. Importantly, we extend this study to a wider range of ionic liquid-to-silica molar ratios (x) than has been investigated previously, from very low (high degree of confinement) to very high (liquid-like gels) ionic liquid contents. Diffusion NMR measurements indicate that a solvation shell, with a significantly lower mobility than the bulk ionic liquid, forms at the silica interface. Additionally, the diffusion of the C6C1Im(+) and TFSI(-) ions decreases more rapidly below an observed molar ratio threshold (x < 1), with the intrinsic difference in the self-diffusion coefficient between the cation and anion becoming less pronounced. For ionic liquid molar ratio of x < 1, Raman spectroscopy reveals a different conformational equilibrium for the TFSI(-) anions compared to the bulk ionic liquid, with an increased population of the cisoid isomers with respect to the transoid. Concomitantly, at these high degrees of confinement the TFSI(-) anion experiences stronger ion-ion interactions as indicated by the evolution of the TFSI(-) characteristic vibrational mode at ∼740 cm(-1). Furthermore, solid-state 2D (29)Si{(1)H} HETCOR NMR measurements establish the interactions of the ionic liquid species with the silica surface, where the presence of adsorbed water results in weaker interactions between (29)Si surface moieties and the hydrophobic alkyl protons of the cationic C6C1Im(+) molecules.

  10. Compartment C1, engine room. View down compionway of top of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Compartment C-1, engine room. View down compionway of top of engine cylinder heads; note slots in frame at left of photograph, slots hold steel bars which form a protective grating above the engines during battle. (081) - USS Olympia, Penn's Landing, 211 South Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  11. 29 CFR Appendix B to Subpart C of... - Figures C-1 through C-16

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Figures C-1 through C-16 B Appendix B to Subpart C of Part 1928 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR AGRICULTURE Roll-Over Protective Structures Pt. 1928, Subpt. C, App....

  12. C1 anterior arch preservation in transnasal odontoidectomy using three-dimensional endoscope: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Zenga, Francesco; Marengo, Nicola; Pacca, Paolo; Pecorari, Giancarlo; Ducati, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Background: The transoral ventral corridor is the most common approach used to reach the craniovertebral junction (CVJ). Over the last decade, many case reports have demonstrated the transnasal corridor to the odontoid peg represents a practicable route to remove the tip of the odontoid process. The biomechanical consequences of the traditional odontoidectomy led to the necessity of a cervical spine stabilization. Preserving the inferior portion of the C1 anterior arch should prevent instability. Case Description: This is the first report in which the technique to remove the tip of the odontoid while preserving the C1 anterior arch is described by means of a three-dimensional (3D) endoscope. A 53-year-old man underwent a transnasal 3D endoscopic approach because of a complex CVJ malformation. The upper-medial portion of the C1 anterior arch was removed preserving its continuity, and the odontoidectomy was performed. After surgery, a dynamic X-ray scan showed no difference in CVJ motility in comparison with the preoperative one. Conclusions: The stereoscopic perception augmented the precision of the surgical gesture in the deep field. The importance of a 3D view relates to the depth of field, which a two-dimensional endoscopy cannot provide. This affects the preservation of the C1 anterior arch because of the presence of critical structures that are exposed to potential damage if not displayed. PMID:26759737

  13. Cleanup Verification Package for the 118-C-1, 105-C Solid Waste Burial Ground

    SciTech Connect

    M. J. Appel and J. M. Capron

    2007-07-25

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 118-C-1, 105-C Solid Waste Burial Ground. This waste site was the primary burial ground for general wastes from the operation of the 105-C Reactor and received process tubes, aluminum fuel spacers, control rods, reactor hardware, spent nuclear fuel and soft wastes.

  14. 40 CFR Appendix C-1 to Subpart E... - Required Provisions-Consulting Engineering Agreements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Engineering Agreements C Appendix C-1 to Subpart E of Part 35 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Provisions—Consulting Engineering Agreements 1. General 2. Responsibility of the Engineer 3. Scope of Work 4... drawings, designs, specifications, reports, and incidental engineering work or materials...

  15. 40 CFR Appendix C-1 to Subpart E... - Required Provisions-Consulting Engineering Agreements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Engineering Agreements C Appendix C-1 to Subpart E of Part 35 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Provisions—Consulting Engineering Agreements 1. General 2. Responsibility of the Engineer 3. Scope of Work 4... drawings, designs, specifications, reports, and incidental engineering work or materials...

  16. A South American Prehistoric Mitogenome: Context, Continuity, and the Origin of Haplogroup C1d

    PubMed Central

    Sans, Mónica; Figueiro, Gonzalo; Hughes, Cris E.; Lindo, John; Hidalgo, Pedro C.; Malhi, Ripan S.

    2015-01-01

    Based on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), it has been estimated that at least 15 founder haplogroups peopled the Americas. Subhaplogroup C1d3 was defined based on the mitogenome of a living individual from Uruguay that carried a lineage previously identified in hypervariable region I sequences from ancient and modern Uruguayan individuals. When complete mitogenomes were studied, additional substitutions were found in the coding region of the mitochondrial genome. Using a complete ancient mitogenome and three modern mitogenomes, we aim to clarify the ancestral state of subhaplogroup C1d3 and to better understand the peopling of the region of the Río de la Plata basin, as well as of the builders of the mounds from which the ancient individuals were recovered. The ancient mitogenome, belonging to a female dated to 1,610±46 years before present, was identical to the mitogenome of one of the modern individuals. All individuals share the mutations defining subhaplogroup C1d3. We estimated an age of 8,974 (5,748–12,261) years for the most recent common ancestor of C1d3, in agreement with the initial peopling of the geographic region. No individuals belonging to the defined lineage were found outside of Uruguay, which raises questions regarding the mobility of the prehistoric inhabitants of the country. Moreover, the present study shows the continuity of Native lineages over at least 6,000 years. PMID:26509686

  17. Spirastrellolide E: Synthesis of an advanced C(1)-C(24) southern hemisphere

    PubMed Central

    Sokolsky, Alexander; Wang, Xiaozhao; Smith, Amos B.

    2014-01-01

    The synthesis of a C(1)-C(24) advanced southern hemisphere fragment towards the total synthesis of spirastrellolide E has been achieved. Highlights of the route include a highly convergent Type I Anion Relay Chemistry (ARC) tactic for fragment assembly, in conjunction with a directed, regioselective gold-catalyzed alkyne functionalization to generate the central unsaturated [6,6]-spiroketal. PMID:26097261

  18. 4. PROPOSED C1 ASSEMBLY AND TESTING FACILITIES FOR THE ORDINANCE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. PROPOSED C-1 ASSEMBLY AND TESTING FACILITIES FOR THE ORDINANCE GUIDED MISSILE CENTER AT REDSTONE ARSENAL, NEAR THE SOUTH END OF MADKIN MOUNTAIN. OCTOBER 1950, HANNES LUEHRSEN COLLECTION, MSFC MASTER PLANNING OFFICE. - Marshall Space Flight Center, East Test Area, Dodd Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  19. Tomographic correlation for Magerl's technique in C1-C2 arthrodesis in children

    PubMed Central

    Chiaramonti, Bárbara Camargo; Kim, So Yeon; Marchese, Luiz Roberto Delboni; Letaif, Olavo Biraghi; Marcon, Raphael Martus; Cristante, Alexandre Fogaça

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze through tomographic studies, the morphology and dimensions of the C1-C2 vertebrae in pediatric patients, to evaluate the possibility of application of Magerl's technique in these patients, and to contribute with data for the usage of the technique in safety. METHOD: Forty normal cervical tomographies, from patients at an age range of 24-120 months of age and from both genders, were retrospectively analyzed. Data was statistically analyzed to obtain mean value and variations of each measurement: length from the C2's pedicle to C1's lateral mass, thickness of the pedicle of C2, the attack angle of the screw at the C2 isthmus with the horizontal axis and the distance from the odontoid to the anterior arch of C1. RESULTS: The mean values obtained were: length right 30.86 mm, left 31.47 mm; thickness right 5.28 mm, left 5.26 mm; attack angle right 46.250 , left 44.500 ; distance from odontoid to anterior arch of C1 2,17 mm. CONCLUSION: The Magerl technique, after tomographic study, seems to be a viable option to be used in pediatric patients. Level of Evidence IV, Case Series. PMID:24453677

  20. 26 CFR 1.512(c)-1 - Special rules applicable to partnerships; in general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Special rules applicable to partnerships; in... Exempt Organizations § 1.512(c)-1 Special rules applicable to partnerships; in general. In the event an organization to which section 511 applies is a member of a partnership regularly engaged in a trade or...

  1. 26 CFR 1.512(c)-1 - Special rules applicable to partnerships; in general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Special rules applicable to partnerships; in... Exempt Organizations § 1.512(c)-1 Special rules applicable to partnerships; in general. In the event an organization to which section 511 applies is a member of a partnership regularly engaged in a trade or...

  2. 26 CFR 1.512(c)-1 - Special rules applicable to partnerships; in general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Special rules applicable to partnerships; in... Exempt Organizations § 1.512(c)-1 Special rules applicable to partnerships; in general. In the event an organization to which section 511 applies is a member of a partnership regularly engaged in a trade or...

  3. 26 CFR 1.512(c)-1 - Special rules applicable to partnerships; in general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Special rules applicable to partnerships; in... Exempt Organizations § 1.512(c)-1 Special rules applicable to partnerships; in general. In the event an organization to which section 511 applies is a member of a partnership regularly engaged in a trade or...

  4. Fluorographane (C1H(x)F(1-x-δ))n: synthesis and properties.

    PubMed

    Sofer, Zdeněk; Šimek, Petr; Mazánek, Vlastimil; Šembera, Filip; Janoušek, Zbyněk; Pumera, Martin

    2015-04-04

    Fluorographane (C1HxF1-x-δ)n was obtained from graphene by hydrogenation via the Birch reaction with consequent fluorination of the resulting graphane. Fluorographane exhibits fast heterogeneous electron transfer rates and hydrophobicity, which increase with increasing fluorination.

  5. 26 CFR 31.3306(c)-1 - Employment; services performed before 1955.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE Federal Unemployment Tax Act (Chapter 23, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) § 31.3306(c)-1... which they were performed. (b) The tax applies with respect to remuneration paid by an employer...

  6. 17 CFR 240.15c1-2 - Fraud and misrepresentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Fraud and misrepresentation... Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Rules Relating to Over-The-Counter Markets § 240.15c1-2 Fraud and... any act, practice, or course of business which operates or would operate as a fraud or deceit upon...

  7. 17 CFR 240.15c1-2 - Fraud and misrepresentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Fraud and misrepresentation... Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Rules Relating to Over-The-Counter Markets § 240.15c1-2 Fraud and... any act, practice, or course of business which operates or would operate as a fraud or deceit upon...

  8. 17 CFR 240.15c1-2 - Fraud and misrepresentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Fraud and misrepresentation... Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Rules Relating to Over-The-Counter Markets § 240.15c1-2 Fraud and... any act, practice, or course of business which operates or would operate as a fraud or deceit upon...

  9. 26 CFR 1.404(c)-1 - Certain negotiated plans; effect of section 404(c).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certain negotiated plans; effect of section 404.... § 1.404(c)-1 Certain negotiated plans; effect of section 404(c). (a) Section 404(a) does not apply to... include a trust established under a plan of an employer, or group of employers, who are in...

  10. βC1 of chili leaf curl betasatellite is a pathogenicity determinant

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Cotton leaf curl disease in the Indian subcontinent is associated with several distinct begomoviruses that interact with a disease-specific DNA satellite named Cotton leaf curl Multan betasatellite (CLCuMB). However, we have recently reported that Chili leaf curl betasatellite (ChLCB) is also occasionally found associated with the disease in Pakistan. The question as to whether ChLCB contributes to the development of disease symptoms such as leaf curling and enations remain to be answered. We have previously shown that the expression of βC1 of CLCuMB develops all symptoms of cotton leaf curl disease in Nicotiana benthamiana when expressed from PVX vector. Findings The role of ChLCB in the induction of typical disease symptoms was studied by its expression from PVX vector in N. benthamiana. The expression of βC1 from PVX vector developed severe leaf curl symptoms and leaf-like enations that resemble the phenotype induced by βC1 of CLCuMB. Conclusions The results presented here show that the expression of βC1 of ChLCB from PVX vector exhibit phenotype typical of cotton leaf curl and therefore ChLCB may contribute to the disease symptoms. PMID:22067326

  11. View to starboard, starboard engine room, compartment C1; salt water ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View to starboard, starboard engine room, compartment C-1; salt water circulating pipe at center. Note annunciator to right of pipe and engine room telegraph at left center. Gage at left top center is a vacuum gage. (060) - USS Olympia, Penn's Landing, 211 South Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  12. χc 1 and χc 2 production at e+e- colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    CzyŻ, Henryk; Kühn, Johann H.; Tracz, Szymon

    2016-08-01

    Direct, resonant production of the charmonium states χc 1 and χc 2 in electron-positron annihilation is investigated. Depending on details of the model, a sizeable variation of the prediction for the production cross section is anticipated. It is demonstrated that resonant production could be observed under favorable circumstances.

  13. [Reduction of chlorates by acinetobacter thermotoleranticus C-1 in the presence of chromate ions].

    PubMed

    Smirnova, G F; Podgorskiĭ, V S; Muchnik, F V

    2010-01-01

    The rate of chlorate reduction by A. thermotoleranticus C-1 reached 59.6-63.7 mg/l an hour and did not practically depend on chlorate concentration in a broad range. Chlorate and chromate being jointly present in the medium, the rate of chlorate-reduction depended on chromate concentration and remained at the same level when content of chromate reached 5 mg/l. Under CrO4(2-) of 10.0 mg/l the reduction of chlorate by A. thermotoleranticus became inconsiderably slower. The increase of CrO4(2-) content to 20.0-30.0 mg/l decreased the chlorate reduction rate from 63.7 to 18.3-5.8 mg/l an hour, and availability of 50.0 mg/l of chromate was the inhibiting concentration for chlorate destruction and led to irreversible loss of the capacity ofA. thermotoleranticus C-1 to reduce chlorate. The reduction of chromate proceeded simultaneously with that of chlorate. The rate of chromate reduction by A. thermotoleranticus C-1 under their content in the medium of 3-20 mg/l was 0.5-0.37 mg/l an hour and decreased considerably with the increase of concentration of chromate-ions. Availability of chlorate had no effect on reduction of chromate by A. thermotoleranticus C-1.

  14. View forward, starboard engine room, compartment C1; note RPM indicator ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View forward, starboard engine room, compartment C-1; note RPM indicator at top right of photograph, bilge drain manifold at lower right; worm gear at left is probably part of a hydraulic reversing gear. (057) - USS Olympia, Penn's Landing, 211 South Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  15. 26 CFR 31.3302(c)-1 - Limit on total credits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Limit on total credits. 31.3302(c)-1 Section 31... credits. (a) In general. Paragraph (b) of this section relates to the limitation on the aggregate of the credits allowable under section 3302 (a) and (b). Paragraph (c) of this section relates to...

  16. 26 CFR 31.3302(c)-1 - Limit on total credits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Limit on total credits. 31.3302(c)-1 Section 31... credits. (a) In general. Paragraph (b) of this section relates to the limitation on the aggregate of the credits allowable under section 3302 (a) and (b). Paragraph (c) of this section relates to...

  17. 26 CFR 31.3302(c)-1 - Limit on total credits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Limit on total credits. 31.3302(c)-1 Section 31... credits. (a) In general. Paragraph (b) of this section relates to the limitation on the aggregate of the credits allowable under section 3302 (a) and (b). Paragraph (c) of this section relates to...

  18. An Evaluation of Title I Model C1: The Special Regression Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandeville, Garrett K.

    The RMC Research Corporation evaluation model C1--the special regression model (SRM)--was evaluated through a series of computer simulations and compared with an alternative model, the norm referenced model (NRM). Using local data and national norm data to determine reasonable values for sample size and pretest posttest correlation parameters, the…

  19. 17 CFR 240.15c1-2 - Fraud and misrepresentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fraud and misrepresentation... Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Rules Relating to Over-The-Counter Markets § 240.15c1-2 Fraud and... any act, practice, or course of business which operates or would operate as a fraud or deceit upon...

  20. 17 CFR 240.15c1-2 - Fraud and misrepresentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Fraud and misrepresentation... Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Rules Relating to Over-The-Counter Markets § 240.15c1-2 Fraud and... any act, practice, or course of business which operates or would operate as a fraud or deceit upon...

  1. Retro-odontoid cystic mass treated by laminectomy and C1-C2 fixation

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Dasheng; Ding, Zhenqi; Guo, Yanjie; Lian, Kejian

    2014-01-01

    Retro-odontoid cysts associated with chronic atlantoaxial subluxation are extremely rare. This article describes a case of retro-odontoid cystic mass associated with chronic atlantoaxial subluxation and its management with posterior C1 and partial C2 laminectomy and C1-C2 pedicle screw fixation without resection of the retro-odontoid cyst. A 64-year-old woman experienced a sudden onset of neck pain, hand and foot paresthesia. Atlantoaxial instability associated with a retro-odontoid cystic mass was found in the imaging. The patient underwent posterior C1 and partial C2 laminectomy and C1-C2 pedicle screws fixation without resection of the retro-odontoid cyst. During the 24 months followup period, the cyst disappeared completely and the patient remained symptom free and returned to independent daily living. These findings suggest that posterior laminectomy and fixation without resection of the retro-odontoid cyst is relatively simple and safe and the results are satisfactory. PMID:25404777

  2. C1-continuous Virtual Element Method for Poisson-Kirchhoff plate problem

    SciTech Connect

    Gyrya, Vitaliy; Mourad, Hashem Mohamed

    2016-09-20

    We present a family of C1-continuous high-order Virtual Element Methods for Poisson-Kirchho plate bending problem. The convergence of the methods is tested on a variety of meshes including rectangular, quadrilateral, and meshes obtained by edge removal (i.e. highly irregular meshes). The convergence rates are presented for all of these tests.

  3. 26 CFR 1.412(c)(1)-1 - Determinations to be made under funding method-terms defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...-terms defined. 1.412(c)(1)-1 Section 1.412(c)(1)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT..., Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.412(c)(1)-1 Determinations to be made under funding method—terms defined. (a... collectively bargained plans, see § 1.412(c)(1)-2; for principles applicable to funding methods in......

  4. 40 CFR Table C-1 to Subpart C of... - Test Concentration Ranges, Number of Measurements Required, and Maximum Discrepancy Specification

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Measurements Required, and Maximum Discrepancy Specification C Table C-1 to Subpart C of Part 53 Protection of... Reference Methods Pt. 53, Subpt. C, Table C-1 Table C-1 to Subpart C of Part 53—Test Concentration Ranges... 0.25 to 0.35 2 2 .03 Total 7 8 Effective Date Note: At 75 FR 35601, June 22, 2010, table C-1...

  5. Probing the Paracoccus denitrificans cytochrome c1 / c552 interaction by mutagenesis and fast kinetics†

    PubMed Central

    Janzon, Julia; Yuan, Quan; Malatesta, Francesco; Hellwig, Petra; Ludwig, Bernd; Durham, Bill; Millett, Francis

    2008-01-01

    Electron transfer (ET) between Paracoccus denitrificans cytochrome c1 and cytochrome c552 was studied using the soluble redox fragments cyt c1CF and cyt c552F. A new ruthenium cyt c552F derivative labeled at C23 (Ruz-23-c552F) was designed to measure rapid electron transfer with cyt c1CF in the physiological direction using flash photolysis. The bimolecular rate constant k12 decreased rapidly with ionic strength above 40 mM, consistent with a diffusional process guided by long-range electrostatic interactions between the two proteins. However, a new kinetic phase was detected below 35 mM ionic strength with the ruthenium photoexcitation technique in which k12 became very rapid (3 × 109 M−1s−1) and nearly independent of ionic strength, suggesting that the reaction became so fast that it was controlled by short-range diffusion along the protein surfaces guided by hydrophobic interactions. These results are consistent with a two-step model for formation of the final encounter complex. No intracomplex electron transfer between Ruz-23-c552F and c1CF was observed even at the lowest ionic strength, indicating that the dissociation constant of the complex was greater than 30 µM. On the other hand, the ruthenium-labeled yeast cytochrome c derivative Ruz-39-Cc formed a tight 1:1 complex with cyt c1CF at ionic strengths below 60 mM with an intracomplex electron transfer rate constant of 50,000 s−1. A group of cyt c1CF variants in the presumed docking site were generated based on information from the yeast cyt bc1/cyt c co-crystal structure. Kinetic analysis of cyt c1CF mutants located near the heme crevice provided preliminary identification of the interaction site for cyt c552F, and suggest that formation of the encounter complex is guided primarily by the overall electrostatic surface potential rather than by defined ions. PMID:19006325

  6. The C1C2: A framework for simultaneous model selection and assessment

    PubMed Central

    Eklund, Martin; Spjuth, Ola; Wikberg, Jarl ES

    2008-01-01

    Background There has been recent concern regarding the inability of predictive modeling approaches to generalize to new data. Some of the problems can be attributed to improper methods for model selection and assessment. Here, we have addressed this issue by introducing a novel and general framework, the C1C2, for simultaneous model selection and assessment. The framework relies on a partitioning of the data in order to separate model choice from model assessment in terms of used data. Since the number of conceivable models in general is vast, it was also of interest to investigate the employment of two automatic search methods, a genetic algorithm and a brute-force method, for model choice. As a demonstration, the C1C2 was applied to simulated and real-world datasets. A penalized linear model was assumed to reasonably approximate the true relation between the dependent and independent variables, thus reducing the model choice problem to a matter of variable selection and choice of penalizing parameter. We also studied the impact of assuming prior knowledge about the number of relevant variables on model choice and generalization error estimates. The results obtained with the C1C2 were compared to those obtained by employing repeated K-fold cross-validation for choosing and assessing a model. Results The C1C2 framework performed well at finding the true model in terms of choosing the correct variable subset and producing reasonable choices for the penalizing parameter, even in situations when the independent variables were highly correlated and when the number of observations was less than the number of variables. The C1C2 framework was also found to give accurate estimates of the generalization error. Prior information about the number of important independent variables improved the variable subset choice but reduced the accuracy of generalization error estimates. Using the genetic algorithm worsened the model choice but not the generalization error estimates

  7. Photo-electrochemical Oxidation of Organic C1 Molecules over WO3 Films in Aqueous Electrolyte: Competition Between Water Oxidation and C1 Oxidation.

    PubMed

    Reichert, Robert; Zambrzycki, Christian; Jusys, Zenonas; Behm, R Jürgen

    2015-11-01

    To better understand organic-molecule-assisted photo-electrochemical water splitting, photo-electrochemistry and on-line mass spectrometry measurements are used to investigate the photo-electrochemical oxidation of the C1 molecules methanol, formaldehyde, and formic acid over WO3 film anodes in aqueous solution and its competition with O2 evolution from water oxidation O2 (+) and CO2 (+) ion currents show that water oxidation is strongly suppressed by the organic species. Photo-electro-oxidation of formic acid is dominated by formation of CO2 , whereas incomplete oxidation of formaldehyde and methanol prevails, with the selectivity for CO2 formation increasing with increasing potential and light intensity. The mechanistic implications for the photo-electro-oxidation of the organic molecules and its competition with water oxidation, which could be derived from this novel approach, are discussed.

  8. Medical morbidities and DNA methylation of NR3C1 in preterm infants

    PubMed Central

    Giarraputo, James; DeLoach, Jordan; Padbury, James; Uzun, Alper; Marsit, Carmen; Hawes, Katheleen; Lester, Barry

    2017-01-01

    Background: Although there are no accepted “normal” levels of circulating cortisol in preterm infants, critically ill preterm infants show lower cortisol levels than healthy preterm infants. The regulation of cortisol reactivity by epigenetic changes in glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1) expression has been demonstrated. This study aims to examine the relationship between medical morbidities in preterm infants and DNA methylation of NR3C1. Methods: Pyrosequencing was used to determine DNA methylation in CpG sites 1-4 of promoter region 1F of NR3C1. Cluster analysis placed 67 preterm infants born <1,500 g into groups based on medical morbidities. The DNA methylation pattern was compared across groups. Results: Cluster analysis identified a high medical risk cluster and a low medical risk cluster. A Mann-Whitney U-test showed lower methylation at CpG1 for infants in the high-risk group (M = 0.336, SE = 0.084) than infants in the low-risk group (M = 0.617, SE = 0.109, P = 0.032). The false discovery rate was low (q = 0.025). Cohen's D effect size was moderate (0.525). Conclusion: Decreased DNA methylation of CpG1 of NR3C1 in high-risk infants may allow for increased binding of transcription factors involved in the stress response, repair and regulation of NR3C1. This may ensure healthy growth in high-risk preterm infants over increasing cortisol levels. PMID:27653086

  9. Intraoperative electrophysiological monitoring for C1-2 spinal cord stimulation.

    PubMed

    Muncie, Laura M; Ellens, Nathaniel R; Tolod-Kemp, Emeline; Feler, Claudio A; Winestone, John S

    2017-02-01

    OBJECTIVE This study is a retrospective case series involving C1-2 spinal cord stimulation in patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) under general endotracheal anesthesia. Currently, C1-2 paddle lead placement is an accepted practice, which provides effective cervical stimulation to ameliorate upper-extremity and sometimes lower-extremity symptoms experienced by patients with CRPS. However, this technique must be performed under general endotracheal anesthesia rather than in an awake or semiconscious state due to intraoperative safety concerns and patient comfort. The authors aim to provide additional data to support the following novel technique: the use of somatosensory evoked potential (SSEP) diminution data to assist with proper midline placement of C1-2 leads under general anesthesia. METHODS SSEP median nerve (MN) and posterior tibial nerve (PTN) data were collected from 6 patients undergoing placement of C1-2 leads under general anesthesia. Fluoroscopy was used as an initial guide for proper anatomical midline placement. This was followed by the activation of the spinal cord stimulator and simultaneous collection of primarily MN SSEPs as well as PTN SSEPs for physiological midline placement. Unilateral and bilateral reductions in SSEPs assisted with the correct lateralization of the lead to ensure effective postoperative coverage according to the patient's individual preoperative symptoms. RESULTS Six patients were monitored using SSEPs and repeatable, reliable MN and PTN baseline responses were obtained from all. A reduction in amplitude ranging from 5% to 87% was observed, confirming inhibition of dorsal column conduction, and an average pain relief of 63% at short-term and 64% at long-term follow-up was recorded with 6 of 6 and 5 of 6 patients responding, respectively. CONCLUSIONS Intraoperative SSEP collision study testing appears to be a safe technique to monitor placement of C1-2 paddle leads intraoperatively under general anesthesia.

  10. 26 CFR 301.6227(c)-1 - Administrative adjustment request by the tax matters partner on behalf of the partnership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... matters partner on behalf of the partnership. 301.6227(c)-1 Section 301.6227(c)-1 Internal Revenue... tax matters partner on behalf of the partnership shall be filed on the form prescribed by the Internal... ADMINISTRATION Assessment In General § 301.6227(c)-1 Administrative adjustment request by the tax matters...

  11. 26 CFR 301.6227(c)-1 - Administrative adjustment request by the tax matters partner on behalf of the partnership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... matters partner on behalf of the partnership. 301.6227(c)-1 Section 301.6227(c)-1 Internal Revenue... tax matters partner on behalf of the partnership shall be filed on the form prescribed by the Internal... ADMINISTRATION Assessment In General § 301.6227(c)-1 Administrative adjustment request by the tax matters...

  12. 17 CFR 230.160 - Registered investment company exemption from Section 101(c)(1) of the Electronic Signatures in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... exemption from Section 101(c)(1) of the Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act. 230.160...(c)(1) of the Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act. A prospectus for an... 101(c)(1) of the Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act....

  13. 17 CFR 230.160 - Registered investment company exemption from Section 101(c)(1) of the Electronic Signatures in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... exemption from Section 101(c)(1) of the Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act. 230.160...(c)(1) of the Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act. A prospectus for an... 101(c)(1) of the Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act....

  14. 17 CFR 230.160 - Registered investment company exemption from Section 101(c)(1) of the Electronic Signatures in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... exemption from Section 101(c)(1) of the Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act. 230.160...(c)(1) of the Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act. A prospectus for an... 101(c)(1) of the Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act....

  15. 17 CFR 230.160 - Registered investment company exemption from Section 101(c)(1) of the Electronic Signatures in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... exemption from Section 101(c)(1) of the Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act. 230.160...(c)(1) of the Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act. A prospectus for an... 101(c)(1) of the Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act....

  16. 17 CFR 230.160 - Registered investment company exemption from Section 101(c)(1) of the Electronic Signatures in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... exemption from Section 101(c)(1) of the Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act. 230.160...(c)(1) of the Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act. A prospectus for an... 101(c)(1) of the Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act....

  17. Complement Component C1q Mediates Mitochondria-Driven Oxidative Stress in Neonatal Hypoxic–Ischemic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Ten, Vadim S.; Yao, Jun; Ratner, Veniamin; Sosunov, Sergey; Fraser, Deborah A.; Botto, Marina; Baalasubramanian, Sivasankar; Morgan, B. Paul; Silverstein, Samuel; Stark, Raymond; Polin, Richard; Vannucci, Susan J.; Pinsky, David; Starkov, Anatoly A.

    2010-01-01

    Hypoxic–ischemic (HI) brain injury in infants is a leading cause of lifelong disability. We report a novel pathway mediating oxidative brain injury after hypoxia–ischemia in which C1q plays a central role. Neonatal mice incapable of classical or terminal complement activation because of C1q or C6 deficiency or pharmacologically inhibited assembly of membrane attack complex were subjected to hypoxia–ischemia. Only C1q−/− mice exhibited neuroprotection coupled with attenuated oxidative brain injury. This was associated with reduced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in C1q−/− brain mitochondria and preserved activity of the respiratory chain. Compared with C1q+/+ neurons, cortical C1q−/− neurons exhibited resistance to oxygen– glucose deprivation. However, postischemic exposure to exogenous C1q increased both mitochondrial ROS production and mortality of C1q−/− neurons. This C1q toxicity was abolished by coexposure to antioxidant Trolox (6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchroman-2-carboxylic acid). Thus, the C1q component of complement, accelerating mitochondrial ROS emission, exacerbates oxidative injury in the developing HI brain. The terminal complement complex is activated in the HI neonatal brain but appeared to be nonpathogenic. These findings have important implications for design of the proper therapeutic interventions against HI neonatal brain injury by highlighting a pathogenic priority of C1q-mediated mitochondrial oxidative stress over the C1q deposition-triggered terminal complement activation. PMID:20147536

  18. A novel multi-domain C1qDC protein from Zhikong scallop Chlamys farreri provides new insights into the function of invertebrate C1qDC proteins.

    PubMed

    Wang, Leilei; Wang, Lingling; Zhang, Daoxiang; Jiang, Qiufen; Sun, Rui; Wang, Hao; Zhang, Huan; Song, Linsheng

    2015-10-01

    The C1q domain containing (C1qDC) proteins are a family of proteins possessing globular C1q (gC1q) domains, and they rely on this domain to recognize various ligands such as PAMPs, immunoglobulins, ligands on apoptotic cell. In the present study, a novel multi-domain C1qDC protein (CfC1qDC-2) was identified from scallop Chlamys farreri, and its full length cDNA was composed of 1648 bp, encoding a signal peptide and three typical gC1q domains. BLAST analysis revealed significant sequence similarity between CfC1qDC-2 and C1qDC proteins from mollusks. Three gC1q domains were predicted in its tertiary structure to form a tightly packed bell-shaped trimer, and each one adopted a typical 10-stranded sandwich fold with a jelly-roll topology and contained six aromatic amino acids forming the hydrophobic core. The mRNA transcripts of CfC1qDC-2 were mainly detected in the tissues of hepatopancreas and gonad of adult scallops, and the expression level was up-regulated in hemocytes after stimulated by LPS, PGN and β-glucan. During the embryonic development of scallop, the mRNA transcripts of CfC1qDC-2 were presented in all the detected stages, and the expression level was up-regulated from D-hinged larvae and reached the highest at eye-spot larvae. The recombinant protein of MBP-CfC1qDC-2 (rCfC1qDC-2) could bind various PAMPs including LPS, PGN, LTA, β-glucan, mannan as well as polyI:C, and different microorganisms including three Gram-negative bacteria, three Gram-positive bacteria and two yeasts, as well as scallop apoptotic cells. Meanwhile, rCfC1qDC-2 could interact with human heat-aggregated IgG and IgM, and inhibit the C1q-dependent hemolysis of rabbit serum. All these results indicated that CfC1qDC-2 could recognize not only PAMPs as a PRR, but also the apoptotic cells. Moreover, the similar structures and functions shared by CfC1qDC-2 and complement C1q provided a new insight into the evolution of C1qDC proteins in complement system.

  19. The Kilo-Degree Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jong, J. T. A.; Kuijken, K.; Applegate, D.; Begeman, K.; Belikov, A.; Blake, C.; Bout, J.; Boxhoorn, D.; Buddelmeijer, H.; Buddendiek, A.; Cacciato, M.; Capaccioli, M.; Choi, A.; Cordes, O.; Covone, G.; Dall'Ora, M.; Edge, A.; Erben, T.; Franse, J.; Getman, F.; Grado, A.; Harnois-Deraps, J.; Helmich, E.; Herbonnet, R.; Heymans, C.; Hildebrandt, H.; Hoekstra, H.; Huang, Z.; Irisarri, N.; Joachimi, B.; Köhlinger, F.; Kitching, T.; La Barbera, F.; Lacerda, P.; McFarland, J.; Miller, L.; Nakajima, R.; Napolitano, N. R.; Paolillo, M.; Peacock, J.; Pila-Diez, B.; Puddu, E.; Radovich, M.; Rifatto, A.; Schneider, P.; Schrabback, T.; Sifon, C.; Sikkema, G.; Simon, P.; Sutherland, W.; Tudorica, A.; Valentijn, E.; van der Burg, R.; van Uitert, E.; van Waerbeke, L.; Velander, M.; Kleijn, G. V.; Viola, M.; Vriend, W.-J.

    2013-12-01

    The Kilo-Degree Survey (KiDS), a 1500-square-degree optical imaging survey with the recently commissioned OmegaCAM wide-field imager on the VLT Survey Telescope (VST), is described. KiDS will image two fields in u-,g-,r- and i-bands and, together with the VIKING survey, produce nine-band (u- to K-band) coverage over two fields. For the foreseeable future the KiDS/VIKING combination of superb image quality with wide wavelength coverage will be unique for surveys of its size and depth. The survey has been designed to tackle some of the most fundamental questions of cosmology and galaxy formation of today. The main science driver is mapping the dark matter distribution in the Universe and putting constraints on the expansion of the Universe and the equation of state of dark energy, all through weak gravitational lensing. However, the deep and wide imaging data will facilitate a wide variety of science cases.

  20. Optimal Degrees of Synaptic Connectivity.

    PubMed

    Litwin-Kumar, Ashok; Harris, Kameron Decker; Axel, Richard; Sompolinsky, Haim; Abbott, L F

    2017-03-08

    Synaptic connectivity varies widely across neuronal types. Cerebellar granule cells receive five orders of magnitude fewer inputs than the Purkinje cells they innervate, and cerebellum-like circuits, including the insect mushroom body, also exhibit large divergences in connectivity. In contrast, the number of inputs per neuron in cerebral cortex is more uniform and large. We investigate how the dimension of a representation formed by a population of neurons depends on how many inputs each neuron receives and what this implies for learning associations. Our theory predicts that the dimensions of the cerebellar granule-cell and Drosophila Kenyon-cell representations are maximized at degrees of synaptic connectivity that match those observed anatomically, showing that sparse connectivity is sometimes superior to dense connectivity. When input synapses are subject to supervised plasticity, however, dense wiring becomes advantageous, suggesting that the type of plasticity exhibited by a set of synapses is a major determinant of connection density.

  1. Perspective View of Venus (Center Latitude 0 Degree N., Center Longitude 163 Degrees E.)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This perspective view of Venus, generated by computer from Magellan data and color-coded with emissivity, shows the impact crater Markham, named after the English aviator Beryl Markham (The crater was briefly known unofficially as Franklin; the earlier name was not approved by the Nomenclature Committee of the International Astronomical Union). Markham, with a diameter of 71 km, is one of more than 400 Venusian craters whose formation triggered the outflow of highly fluid materials. Such outflows are thought to consist of mixtures of melted and fractured rock, and studies of their lobate margins and surface roughnesses suggest that they behave like a cross between lava flows and debris flows on Earth. The flow from this crater's ejecta traversed a slope of extremely low gradient (less than 0.1 degree) for 450 km, leaving an extremely rough, radar-bright surface. The ground-hugging nature of the flow is indicated by its being diverted by the foreground hill, which is less than 200 m high. Magellan MIDR quadrangle* containing this image: C1- 00N163. Image resolution (m): 225. Size of region shown (E-W x N-S, in km): 473 x 360. Range of emissivities from violet to red: 0.80 -- 0.95. Vertical exaggeration: 200. Azimuth of viewpoint (deg clockwise from East): 300. Elevation of viewpoint (km): 500. *Quadrangle name indicates approximate center latitude (N=north, S=south) and center longitude (East).

  2. Complement-fixing donor-specific antibodies identified by a novel C1q assay are associated with allograft loss.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, Scott M; Chen, Ge; Sequeira, Flavia A; Lou, Calvin D; Alexander, Steven R; Tyan, Dolly B

    2012-02-01

    Long-term outcomes following renal transplantation remain disappointing. Recently, interest has focused on the antibody-mediated component of allograft injury and the deleterious effects of DSA. We applied a novel C1q solid-phase assay in parallel with the standard IgG SAB assay to identify DSA with the potential to activate complement by binding C1q. Among 193 consecutive renal transplants at our center, 19.2% developed de novo DSA following transplantation. Of the patients with DSA, 43% had antibodies that bound C1q in vitro [C1q+ DSA]. Patients with C1q+ DSA were more likely to develop allograft loss than patients with DSA that did not bind C1q (46.7% vs. 15%; p = 0.04); patients with C1q+ DSA were nearly six times more likely to lose their transplant than those with C1q- DSA. Additionally, patients with C1q+ DSA who underwent allograft biopsy were more likely to demonstrate C4d deposition (50% vs. 8%; p = 0.03) and meet criteria for acute rejection (60% vs. 17%; p = 0.02) when compared with patients with DSA that did not bind C1q. These data suggest that DSA with the ability to activate complement, as determined by this novel C1q assay, are associated with greater risk of acute rejection and allograft loss.

  3. Enrollments and Degrees Report. AIP Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulvey, Patrick J.; Nicholson, Starr

    In fall 1999, the 762 degree-granting physics departments in the United States were asked to provide information on their current enrollments and recent degrees, and data were received from 93% of the departments. The number of individuals receiving physics bachelor's degrees was at a 40-year low, with 3,646 degrees conferred in the class of 1999.…

  4. Tech-Prep/Associate Degree Program Guide: Tech Prep Associate Degree Program, Business Administration Associate Degree Program, Office Administration Associate Degree Program, Allied Health Associate Degree Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marmaras, Judy; Neri, Pat

    The Tech-Prep Associate Degree Program (TPAD) at the Community College of Rhode Island (CCRI) in Warwick, is a high school/community college partnership providing high school students with an alternative program of study focused on goal setting, basic academic skills development, and the skills needed to pursue a career in a technical, business or…

  5. C1 fractures: a review of diagnoses, management options, and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Mead, Loren B; Millhouse, Paul W; Krystal, Jonathan; Vaccaro, Alexander R

    2016-09-01

    The atlas is subject to fracture under axial load, often due to traumatic injuries such as shallow dives and automobile accidents. These fractures account for 2-13 % of injuries to the cervical spine [Marcon RM et al. Clinics (Sao Paulo) 68(11):1455-61, 2013]. Fractures of the C1 vertebra are often difficult to diagnose, as there is often no neurological deficit or easily identifiable findings on radiographs. However, injuries to the atlas can be associated with vertebral artery injury and atlantoaxial or atlanto-occipital instability, making prompt and accurate diagnosis imperative. A detailed understanding of the anatomy, inherent stability, and common injury patterns is essential for any surgeon treating spinal trauma. This chapter explores the diagnosis and management of C1 fractures, as well as outcomes after treatment.

  6. Fishing for biodiversity: Novel methanopterin-linked C1 transfergenes deduced from the Sargasso Sea metagenome

    SciTech Connect

    Kalyuzhnaya, Marina G.; Nercessian, Olivier; Lapidus, Alla; Chistoserdova, Ludmila

    2004-07-01

    The recently generated database of microbial genes from anoligotrophic environment populated by a calculated 1,800 of major phylotypes (the Sargasso Sea metagenome) presents a great source for expanding local databases of genes indicative of a specific function. In this paper we analyze the Sargasso Sea metagenome in terms of the presence of methanopterin-linked C1 transfer genes that are signature for methylotrophy. We conclude that more than 10 phylotypes possessing genes of interest are present in this environment, and a few of these are relatively abundant species. The sequences representative of the major phylotypes do not appear to belong to any known microbial group capable of methanopterin-linked C1 transfer. Instead, they separate from all known sequences on phylogenetic trees, pointing towards their affiliation with a novel microbial phylum. These data imply a broader distribution of methanopterin-linked functions in the microbial world than previously known.

  7. Non-nephronal hematuria misdiagnosed as C1q nephropathy: Look before you leap.

    PubMed

    Mandal, S N; Jha, R; Fatima, R; Swarnalata, G

    2012-05-01

    A 19-year-old male presented with persistent macroscopic hematuria for last 3 months. On initial evaluation, he was found to have minimal proteinuria, normal renal function, and normal complement with negative lupus serology. Light microscopy, immunofluorescence and electron microscopy of renal tissue confirmed the presence of C1q nephropathy. Because of poor response to immunosuppressive agent (prednisolone and mycophenolate mofetil), passage of urinary clot once and vexing persistent macroscopic hematuria, alternative diagnosis was considered. Cystourethroscopy showed urethritis of prostatic urethra. Immunosuppressives were stopped and doxycycline started to which hematuria responded dramatically. This case report illustrates that hematuria in this patient was because of undiagnosed urethritis rather than incidental C1q nephropathy.

  8. Comparative computational analysis of the Cahn-Hilliard equation with emphasis on C1-continuous methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaessmair, S.; Steinmann, P.

    2016-10-01

    The numerical treatment of the fourth-order Cahn-Hilliard equation is nonstandard. Using a Galerkin-method necessitates, for instance, piecewise smooth and globally C1-continuous basis functions or a mixed formulation. The latter is obtained introducing an auxiliary field which allows to rephrase the Cahn-Hilliard equation as a set of two coupled second-order equations. In view of this, the formulation in terms of the primal unknown appears to be a more intuitive and natural choice but requires a C1-continuous interpolation. Therefore, isogeometric analysis, using a spline basis, and natural element analysis are addressed in the present contribution. Mixed second-order finite element methods introducing the chemical potential or alternatively a nonlocal concentration as auxiliary field serve as references to which both higher-order methods are compared in terms of accuracy and efficiency.

  9. C 1Σ+ , A 1Σ+ , and b 3Π0+ states of LiRb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevenson, I. C.; Blasing, D. B.; Chen, Y. P.; Elliott, D. S.

    2016-12-01

    We present the first spectroscopic studies of the C 1Σ+ electronic state and the A 1Σ+ -b 3Π0+ complex in 7Li-85Rb. Using resonantly enhanced, two-photon ionization, we observed v =7 , 9, 12, 13, and 26-45 of the C 1Σ+ state. We augment the REMPI data with a form of depletion spectra in regions of dense spectral lines. The A 1Σ+ -b 3Π0+ complex was observed with depletion spectroscopy, depleting to vibrational levels v =0 →29 of the A 1Σ+ state and v =8 →18 of the b 3Π0+ state. For all three series, we determine the term energy and vibrational constants. Finally, we outline several possible future projects based on the data presented here.

  10. C1 CHEMISTRY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ULTRA-CLEAN LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND HYDROGEN

    SciTech Connect

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2003-03-31

    Faculty and students from five universities--the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University--are collaborating in a research program to develop C1 chemistry processes to produce ultra-clean liquid transportation fuels and hydrogen, the zero-emissions transportation fuel of the future. The feedstocks contain one carbon atom per molecular unit. They include synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. An important objective is to develop C1 technology for the production of transportation fuel from domestically plentiful resources such as coal, coalbed methane, and natural gas. An Industrial Advisory Board with representatives from Chevron-Texaco, Eastman Chemical, Conoco-Phillips, Energy International, the Department of Defense, and Tier Associates provides guidance on the practicality of the research.

  11. Presence of C1q-reactive immune complexes in patients with leprosy

    PubMed Central

    Rojas-Espinosa, O.; Mendez-Navarrete, I.; Estrada-Parra, S.

    1972-01-01

    Presence of soluble immune complexes was investigated in sera from persons with a well documented clinical diagnosis of leprosy. The complexes were detected by their reactivity with the C1q component of complement. More than 70% of the studied patients with lepromatous-leprosy had immune complexes demonstrable by this method (39/51), while only a small proportion of the healthy control group (1/35 or about 3%) had precipitable complexes. Two out of nine sera from patients with tuberculoid leprosy reacted when tested with C1q component. The presence of free-antibody to mycobacterial antigens was determined as well. The possible relationship between the presence of such immune complexes and the pathology of some reactional states of the disease is discussed. ImagesFig. 1 PMID:4630778

  12. A new subclade of mtDNA haplogroup C1 found in Icelanders: evidence of pre-Columbian contact?

    PubMed

    Ebenesersdóttir, Sigríður Sunna; Sigurðsson, Asgeir; Sánchez-Quinto, Federico; Lalueza-Fox, Carles; Stefánsson, Kári; Helgason, Agnar

    2011-01-01

    Although most mtDNA lineages observed in contemporary Icelanders can be traced to neighboring populations in the British Isles and Scandinavia, one may have a more distant origin. This lineage belongs to haplogroup C1, one of a handful that was involved in the settlement of the Americas around 14,000 years ago. Contrary to an initial assumption that this lineage was a recent arrival, preliminary genealogical analyses revealed that the C1 lineage was present in the Icelandic mtDNA pool at least 300 years ago. This raised the intriguing possibility that the Icelandic C1 lineage could be traced to Viking voyages to the Americas that commenced in the 10th century. In an attempt to shed further light on the entry date of the C1 lineage into the Icelandic mtDNA pool and its geographical origin, we used the deCODE Genetics genealogical database to identify additional matrilineal ancestors that carry the C1 lineage and then sequenced the complete mtDNA genome of 11 contemporary C1 carriers from four different matrilines. Our results indicate a latest possible arrival date in Iceland of just prior to 1700 and a likely arrival date centuries earlier. Most surprisingly, we demonstrate that the Icelandic C1 lineage does not belong to any of the four known Native American (C1b, C1c, and C1d) or Asian (C1a) subclades of haplogroup C1. Rather, it is presently the only known member of a new subclade, C1e. While a Native American origin seems most likely for C1e, an Asian or European origin cannot be ruled out.

  13. Up-regulation of C1GALT1 promotes breast cancer cell growth through MUC1-C signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Chih-Hsing; Huang, Miao-Juei; Chen, Chi-Hau; Shyu, Ming-Kwang; Huang, John; Hung, Ji-Shiang; Huang, Chiun-Sheng; Huang, Min-Chuan

    2015-01-01

    Aberrant glycosylation is frequently observed in cancers. Core 1 β1,3-galactosyltransferase (C1GALT1) is an exclusive enzyme in humans that catalyzes the biosynthesis of core 1 O-glycan structure, Gal-GalNAc-O-Ser/Thr, whose expression is commonly up-regulated during tumorigenesis. Little is known about the function of C1GALT1 in breast cancer. This study aims to determine the correlation between C1GALT1 expression and breast cancer clinicopathological features and roles of C1GALT1 in breast cancer malignant phenotypes. Public databases and our data showed that C1GALT1 mRNA and C1GALT1 protein are frequently up-regulated in breast cancer; and increased C1GALT1 expression correlates with higher histological grade and advanced tumor stage. Overexpression of C1GALT1 enhanced breast cancer cell growth, migration, and invasion in vitro as well as tumor growth in vivo. Conversely, C1GALT1 knockdown suppressed these malignant phenotypes. Furthermore, C1GALT1 modulates O-glycan structures on Mucin (MUC) 1 and promotes MUC1-C/β-catenin signaling in breast cancer cells. These findings suggest that C1GALT1 enhances breast cancer malignant progression through promoting MUC1-C/β-catenin signaling pathway. Unveiling the function of C1GALT1 in breast cancer opens new insights to the roles of C1GALT1 and O-glycosylation in tumorigenesis and renders the potential of C1GALT1 as a target of novel therapeutic agent development. PMID:25762620

  14. Polygonumnolides C1-C4; minor dianthrone glycosides from the roots of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jian-Bo; Li, Li; Dai, Zhong; Wu, Yu; Geng, Xing-Chao; Li, Bo; Ma, Shuang-Cheng; Wang, Ai-Guo; Su, Ya-Lun

    2016-09-01

    Four new dianthrone glycosides, named polygonumnolides C1-C4 (1-4), were isolated from the dried roots of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb, together with two known emodin dianthrones (5-6). Their hepatotoxicities were evaluated against L-02 cell lines. Compounds 1-4 showed weak hepatotoxicity against L-02 cell lines with IC50 values of 313.05, 205.20, 294.20, and 207.35 μM, respectively.

  15. The geologic mapping of Venus using C-1 format: Sheets 75N254, 60N263

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shalimov, I. V.

    1992-01-01

    The results of geologic mapping of Venus, produced on the base of Magellan images, are presented. We submit two C-1 format geologic maps with the appropriate legend. The mapping territory was taken from Venera 15 and 16 missions and geologic maps were composed. Magellan images allow us to divide some types of the plains units to determine the lava flow direction and to map with better accuracy.

  16. Synthesis of C-1 Homologues of Pancratistatin and their Preliminary Biological Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Vshyvenko, Sergey; Scattolon, Jon; Hudlicky, Tomas; Romero, Anntherese E.; Kornienko, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    The synthesis of two C-1 analogues of pancratistatin has been accomplished in 17 steps from bromobenzene. The key steps involved the enzymatic dihydroxylation, regioselective opening of epoxyaziridine 9 with the alane derived from 8, a solid-state silica-gel-catalyzed intramolecular opening of aziridine to produce phenanthrene 13 whose oxidative cleavage and recyclization provided the full skeleton of the Amaryllidaceae constituents. The new analogues 5 and 6 exhibited promising activity in several human cancer cell lines. PMID:21757350

  17. Synthesis of metal-adeninate frameworks with high separation capacity on C2/C1 hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yan-Ping; Zhou, Nan; Tan, Yan-Xi; Wang, Fei; Zhang, Jian

    2016-06-01

    By introducing isophthalic acid or 2,5-thiophenedicarboxylic acid to assemble with adenine and cadmium salt, two isostructural and anionic porous metal-organic frameworks (1 and 2) possessing the novel (4,8)-connected sqc topology are presented here. 1 shows permanent porosity with Langmuir surface area of 770.1 m2/g and exhibits high separation capacity on C2/C1 hydrocarbons.

  18. Kinetic modeling of hyperpolarized 13C 1-pyruvate metabolism in normal rats and TRAMP mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zierhut, Matthew L.; Yen, Yi-Fen; Chen, Albert P.; Bok, Robert; Albers, Mark J.; Zhang, Vickie; Tropp, Jim; Park, Ilwoo; Vigneron, Daniel B.; Kurhanewicz, John; Hurd, Ralph E.; Nelson, Sarah J.

    2010-01-01

    PurposeTo investigate metabolic exchange between 13C 1-pyruvate, 13C 1-lactate, and 13C 1-alanine in pre-clinical model systems using kinetic modeling of dynamic hyperpolarized 13C spectroscopic data and to examine the relationship between fitted parameters and dose-response. Materials and methodsDynamic 13C spectroscopy data were acquired in normal rats, wild type mice, and mice with transgenic prostate tumors (TRAMP) either within a single slice or using a one-dimensional echo-planar spectroscopic imaging (1D-EPSI) encoding technique. Rate constants were estimated by fitting a set of exponential equations to the dynamic data. Variations in fitted parameters were used to determine model robustness in 15 mm slices centered on normal rat kidneys. Parameter values were used to investigate differences in metabolism between and within TRAMP and wild type mice. ResultsThe kinetic model was shown here to be robust when fitting data from a rat given similar doses. In normal rats, Michaelis-Menten kinetics were able to describe the dose-response of the fitted exchange rate constants with a 13.65% and 16.75% scaled fitting error (SFE) for kpyr→lac and kpyr→ala, respectively. In TRAMP mice, kpyr→lac increased an average of 94% after up to 23 days of disease progression, whether the mice were untreated or treated with casodex. Parameters estimated from dynamic 13C 1D-EPSI data were able to differentiate anatomical structures within both wild type and TRAMP mice. ConclusionsThe metabolic parameters estimated using this approach may be useful for in vivo monitoring of tumor progression and treatment efficacy, as well as to distinguish between various tissues based on metabolic activity.

  19. View forward in starboard engine room, compartment C1. Lagged cylinders ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View forward in starboard engine room, compartment C-1. Lagged cylinders at lower right are part of a steam engine that poers the salt water circulating pumps. Note main throttle wheel at lower center of photograph. Handles at lower center are cylinder manifold drains. Handles to the right are engine starting valves. (062) - USS Olympia, Penn's Landing, 211 South Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  20. Rapid Reactivation of Deep Subsurface Microbes in the Presence of C-1 Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Rajala, Pauliina; Bomberg, Malin; Kietäväinen, Riikka; Kukkonen, Ilmo; Ahonen, Lasse; Nyyssönen, Mari; Itävaara, Merja

    2015-01-01

    Microorganisms in the deep biosphere are believed to conduct little metabolic activity due to low nutrient availability in these environments. However, destructive penetration to long-isolated bedrock environments during construction of underground waste repositories can lead to increased nutrient availability and potentially affect the long-term stability of the repository systems, Here, we studied how microorganisms present in fracture fluid from a depth of 500 m in Outokumpu, Finland, respond to simple carbon compounds (C-1 compounds) in the presence or absence of sulphate as an electron acceptor. C-1 compounds such as methane and methanol are important intermediates in the deep subsurface carbon cycle, and electron acceptors such as sulphate are critical components of oxidation processes. Fracture fluid samples were incubated in vitro with either methane or methanol in the presence or absence of sulphate as an electron acceptor. Metabolic response was measured by staining the microbial cells with fluorescent dyes that indicate metabolic activity and transcriptional response with RT-qPCR. Our results show that deep subsurface microbes exist in dormant states but rapidly reactivate their transcription and respiration systems in the presence of C-1 substrates, particularly methane. Microbial activity was further enhanced by the addition of sulphate as an electron acceptor. Sulphate- and nitrate-reducing microbes were particularly responsive to the addition of C-1 compounds and sulphate. These taxa are common in deep biosphere environments and may be affected by conditions disturbed by bedrock intrusion, as from drilling and excavation for long-term storage of hazardous waste. PMID:27682076

  1. Synthetic studies on hemicalide: development of a convergent approach toward the C1-C25 fragment.

    PubMed

    Sorin, Geoffroy; Fleury, Etienne; Tran, Christine; Prost, Elise; Molinier, Nicolas; Sautel, François; Massiot, Georges; Specklin, Simon; Meyer, Christophe; Cossy, Janine; Lannou, Marie-Isabelle; Ardisson, Janick

    2013-09-20

    Synthetic studies on hemicalide, a recently isolated marine natural product displaying highly potent antiproliferative activity and a unique mode of action, have highlighted a reliable Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons olefination to create the C6-C7 alkene and a remarkable efficient Suzuki-Miyaura coupling to form the C15-C16 bond, resulting in the development of a convergent approach toward the C1-C25 fragment.

  2. Reactions of water and C1 molecules on carbide and metal-modified carbide surfaces.

    PubMed

    Wan, Weiming; Tackett, Brian M; Chen, Jingguang G

    2017-02-23

    The formation of carbides can significantly modify the physical and chemical properties of the parent metals. In the current review, we summarize the general trends in the reactions of water and C1 molecules over transition metal carbide (TMC) and metal-modified TMC surfaces and thin films. Although the primary focus of the current review is on the theoretical and experimental studies of reactions of C1 molecules (CO, CO2, CH3OH, etc.), the reactions of water will also be reviewed because water plays an important role in many of the C1 transformation reactions. This review is organized by discussing separately thermal reactions and electrochemical reactions, which provides insights into the application of TMCs in heterogeneous catalysis and electrocatalysis, respectively. In thermal reactions, we discuss the thermal decomposition of water and methanol, as well as the reactions of CO and CO2 over TMC surfaces. In electrochemical reactions, we summarize recent studies in the hydrogen evolution reaction, electrooxidation of methanol and CO, and electroreduction of CO2. Finally, future research opportunities and challenges associated with using TMCs as catalysts and electrocatalysts are also discussed.

  3. Potential energy surface intersections in the C(1D)H2 reactive system.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaojun; Bian, Wensheng; Zhao, Xian; Tao, Xutang

    2006-08-21

    Potential energy surface (PES) intersection seams of two or more electronic states from the 1 1A', 2 1A', 3 1A', 1 1A", and 2 1A" states in the C(1D)H2 reactive system are investigated using the internally contracted multireference configuration interaction method and the aug-cc-pVQZ basis set. Intersection seams with energies less than 20 kcal/mol relative to the C(1D) + H2 asymptote are searched systematically, and finally several seam lines (at the linear H-C-H, linear C-H-H, and C(2v), geometries, respectively) and a seam surface (at Cs geometries) are discovered and determined. The minimum energy crossing points on these seams are reported and the influences of the PES intersections, in particular, conical intersections, on the CH2 spectroscopy and the C(1D) + H2 reaction dynamics are discussed. In addition, geometries and energies of the 1 1A2 and 1 1B2 states of methylene biradical CH2 are reported in detail for the first time.

  4. An update on the diagnosis and management of hereditary angioedema with abnormal C1 inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Davis-Lorton, Mark

    2015-02-01

    Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is a rare genetic disease caused by a deficiency in functional C1-esterase inhibitor characterized by recurrent episodes of angioedema in the absence of associated urticaria. Subcutaneous swellings are experienced by virtually all patients with HAE, and dermatologists are likely to encounter this manifestation, requiring that they be knowledgeable about diagnosis and treatment options. Diagnosis of HAE is often delayed because several of the symptoms can mimic other disease states. Delays in diagnosis can lead to increased inappropriate treatment and decreased patient quality of life. Once a proper diagnosis is made, treatment needs to be targeted to the individual patient and includes on-demand therapy and an option for short- and long-term prophylaxis. On-demand therapy is required for all patients who are diagnosed with HAE and effective options include plasma-derived and recombinant C1 inhibitors, kallikrein inhibitors, and bradykinin B2-receptor antagonists. Options available for prophylaxis include plasma-derived C1 inhibitors, attenuated androgens, and antifibrinolytic agents, although the latter 2 options are associated with significant adverse events. This article reviews the diagnosis and options for effective management of patients with HAE.

  5. [Reduction of chlorate in the presence of heavy metals by Acinetobacter thermotoleranticus C-1].

    PubMed

    Smirnova, G F; Podgorskiĭ, V S; Muchnik, F V

    2012-01-01

    Influence of heavy metals on Acinetobacter thermotoleranticus C-1 was studied by the rate of chlorate reduction and biomass growth. It was established that Fe3+ in a form of free ion at concentration of 30 mg/l also stimulates both the reduction of chlorate by A. thermotoleranticus C-1 and the growth of biomass, Cd2+ Pb2+ and Mn2+ do not practically affect the process velocity or stimulate it a little, Cu2+ and Zn2+ lower the reduction rate of C10(3)- 2.5-3 times, under these conditions the biomass growth is inhibited more weakly than the reduction rate. Nickel and cobalt in the mentioned amount inhibit completely the process of reduction. Metals in the form of hydroxide-ion proved to be less toxic for str. C-1, than their ion forms. General influence of a free ion, metal hydroxide and the amount of organic nutrition takes more considerable (stimulating or inhibiting) influence on the process, than each of these factors itself.

  6. Phase equilibria of NdC1 3NaClKCl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosoya, Yuji; Terai, Takayuki; Tanaka, Satoru; Takahashi, Yoichi

    1997-08-01

    Molten chloride is considered to be applied to a fast-breeder-reactor fuel and a solvent in the pyrochemical reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel. In this work, phase diagrams for molten chloride systems were constructed, using NdCl 3 as an imitative substance in place of UCl 3 or PuCl 3. A compound of 3NdC1 3 · NaCl, which melts incongruently at 540°C to NdCl 3 and liquid and a eutectic at 437°C were found in the NdC1 3NaCl system. In the NdCl 3KCl system, many invariant reactions were observed: the decomposition of NdCl 3 · 2KCl and 2NdCl 3 · KCl at 444 and 474°C, respectively; a eutectic at 489°C; a peritectic at 506°C and a monotectic at 624°C. It is thought that there should be a peritectic compound of 6NdCl 3 · KCl above 474°C. A compound of 2NdC1 3 · NaCl · KCl was considered to exist in the ternary system of NdCl 3NaClKCl, to which attention should be paid in determining the composition of the fuel of the molten-salt fast breeder reactor.

  7. Studying χc1 → ηπ+π- decays at BESIII

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kornicer, Mihajlo

    2016-05-01

    Based on 447.5 × 106 ψ(3686) produced at BESIII, we present results from an Amplitude Analysis of the ψ(3686) → γχc1; χc1 → ηπ+π- decays. Strong evidence for a two-body structure in ηπ+ + c.c. decays, with the invariant mass, width and spin consistent with the a2 (1700) is found. This decay mode of the χc1 has not been reported before. Using a dispersion relation to model the a0(980) → ηπ line shape, a non-zero value for the a0 (980) → η'π coupling is measured for the first time. The production of mesons with exotic quantum numbers, JPC = 1-+, decaying to the ηπ final state in the mass range 1.4-2.0 GeV/c2 is investigated, and the upper limits at 90% confidence level for the production of the π1(1400), π1(1600) and π1(2015) are determined.

  8. Roles of Complement C1q in Pneumococcus-Host Interactions.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Vaibhav; Blom, Anna M

    2015-01-01

    The fight between a human host and a bacterial pathogen is highly complicated; each party tries to outshine the other in the race for survival. In humans, the innate immune system--in particular the complement system--functions as the first line of defence against invading pathogens. During the course of evolution, however, pathogens, in order to survive and perpetuate within a host, developed multiple strategies to counteract the host complement system and to colonize. One such pathogen is Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus), a gram-positive bacterial pathogen often commensal in the human respiratory tract. Depending on the host's susceptibility, pneumococci can transform into an infectious agent, disseminating within the human host and causing mild to life-threatening diseases. This transition from commensal to infectious agent is a highly complex process, and understanding of this mechanism is essential in controlling the pathogenicity of pneumococci. Using its intricate arsenal of weapons, such as surface-presenting adhesins as well as recruitment of host factor, pneumococci successfully colonize the host, a prerequisite for establishing infection. This review describes C1q, the first subunit of the classical complement pathway, and its role in pneumococcus-host interactions, whereby pneumococci exploit C1q as a molecular bridge facilitating host cellular adherence and invasion, a function not akin to the role of C1q in the defence mechanism.

  9. Permeation and Block of the Skeletal Muscle Chloride Channel, ClC-1, by Foreign Anions

    PubMed Central

    Rychkov, G.Y.; Pusch, M.; Roberts, M.L.; Jentsch, T.J.; Bretag, A.H.

    1998-01-01

    A distinctive feature of the voltage-dependent chloride channels ClC-0 (the Torpedo electroplaque chloride channel) and ClC-1 (the major skeletal muscle chloride channel) is that chloride acts as a ligand to its own channel, regulating channel opening and so controlling the permeation of its own species. We have now studied the permeation of a number of foreign anions through ClC-1 using voltage-clamp techniques on Xenopus oocytes and Sf9 cells expressing human (hClC-1) or rat (rClC-1) isoforms, respectively. From their effect on channel gating, the anions presented in this paper can be divided into three groups: impermeant or poorly permeant anions that can not replace Cl− as a channel opener and do not block the channel appreciably (glutamate, gluconate, HCO3−, BrO3−); impermeant anions that can open the channel and show significant block (methanesulfonate, cyclamate); and permeant anions that replace Cl− at the regulatory binding site but impair Cl− passage through the channel pore (Br−, NO3−, ClO3−, I−, ClO4−, SCN−). The permeability sequence for rClC-1, SCN− ∼ ClO4− > Cl− > Br− > NO3− ∼ ClO3− > I− >> BrO3− > HCO3− >> methanesulfonate ∼ cyclamate ∼ glutamate, was different from the sequence determined for blocking potency and ability to shift the Popen curve, SCN− ∼ ClO4− > I− > NO3− ∼ ClO3− ∼ methanesulfonate > Br− > cyclamate > BrO3− > HCO3− > glutamate, implying that the regulatory binding site that opens the channel is different from the selectivity center and situated closer to the external side. Channel block by foreign anions is voltage dependent and can be entirely accounted for by reduction in single channel conductance. Minimum pore diameter was estimated to be ∼4.5 Å. Anomalous mole-fraction effects found for permeability ratios and conductance in mixtures of Cl− and SCN− or ClO4− suggest a multi-ion pore. Hydrophobic interactions with the wall of the channel pore may

  10. The Technology of Two Degrees

    SciTech Connect

    Edmonds, James A.; Smith, Steven J.

    2006-09-29

    This paper examines the technology implications of limiting the change in mean global surface temperature (GMST) to two degrees Celsius (2oC) relative to preindustrial temperatures. Understanding the implications of this goal is clouded by uncertainty in key physical science parameters, particularly the climate sensitivity. If the climate sensitivity is 2.5oC then stabilization implies stabilization of CO2 concentrations at less than 500 parts per million (ppm) with a peak in global CO2 emissions occurring in the next 15 years and with a decline in emissions to 3.1 petagrams of carbon per year (PgC/y) by 2095. Under such circumstances the value of technology improvements beyond those assumed in the reference case is found to be exceptionally high, denominated in trillions of 1990 USD. The role of non-CO2 greenhouse gases is important. Aerosols could produce significant feedbacks, though uncertainty is significant. If the climate sensitivity is 4.5oC or greater, it may be impossible to hold GMST change below 2oC. On the other hand if the climate sensitivity is 1.5oC, limiting GMST change to 2oC may be a trivial matter requiring little deviation from a reference emissions path until after the middle of the 21st century.

  11. The technology of two degrees

    SciTech Connect

    Jae Edmonds; Steven J. Smith

    2006-02-15

    This paper examines some of the energy technology implications of limiting the change in mean global surface temperature (GMST) to two degrees Celsius (2{sup o}C) relative to pre-industrial temperatures. Understanding the implications of this goal is clouded by uncertainty in key physical science parameters, particularly the climate sensitivity. If the climate sensitivity is 2.5{sup o}C then stabilization implies stabilisation of CO{sub 2} concentrations at less than 500 parts per million (ppm) with a peak in global CO{sub 2} emissions occurring in the next 15 years and with a decline in emissions to approximately 3 petagrams of carbon per year by 2095. Under such circumstances the value of technology improvements beyond those assumed in the reference case is found to be exceptionally high, denominated in trillions of 1990 USD. The role of non-CO{sub 2} greenhouse gases is important. Aerosols could produce significant feedbacks, though uncertainty is significant. If the climate sensitivity is 3.5{sup o}C or greater, it may be impossible to hold GMST change below 2{sup o}C. On the other hand if the climate sensitivity is 1.5{sup o}C, limiting GMST change to 2{sup o}C may be a trivial matter requiring little deviation from a reference emission path until after the middle of the 21st century. 21 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Doctorate nursing degree in Spain

    PubMed Central

    López-Montesinos, Mª José; Maciá-Soler, Loreto

    2015-01-01

    Analytical and descriptive study of the process of change being experienced in the Spanish university system over the last decade (2005-2014). OBJECTIVE: To describe the structural changes occurring in Nursing Education in Spain, reaching access to doctoral studies from the European Convergence Process and the subsequent legislative development. METHODOLOGY: Bibliographical review of royal decrees and reference literature on the subject of study and descriptive analysis of the situation. RESULTS: Carries various changes suffered in the curricula of nursing education in the last decade, the legislation of the European Higher Education sets the guidelines for current studies of Masters and Doctorates. CONCLUSIONS: The implementation of the Master and Doctorate stages after a basic degree, which is now possible with the new legislation. A formal beginning made of scientific nursing in order to generate their own lines of research led by Doctors of nursing who can integrate in research groups under the same condition as other researcher, yet now, from the nursing discipline itself. PMID:26312628

  13. Molecular Basis for Failure of “Atypical” C1 Domain of Vav1 to Bind Diacylglycerol/Phorbol Ester*

    PubMed Central

    Geczy, Tamas; Peach, Megan L.; El Kazzouli, Saïd; Sigano, Dina M.; Kang, Ji-Hye; Valle, Christopher J.; Selezneva, Julia; Woo, Wonhee; Kedei, Noemi; Lewin, Nancy E.; Garfield, Susan H.; Lim, Langston; Mannan, Poonam; Marquez, Victor E.; Blumberg, Peter M.

    2012-01-01

    C1 domains, the recognition motif of the second messenger diacylglycerol and of the phorbol esters, are classified as typical (ligand-responsive) or atypical (not ligand-responsive). The C1 domain of Vav1, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor, plays a critical role in regulation of Vav activity through stabilization of the Dbl homology domain, which is responsible for exchange activity of Vav. Although the C1 domain of Vav1 is classified as atypical, it retains a binding pocket geometry homologous to that of the typical C1 domains of PKCs. This study clarifies the basis for its failure to bind ligands. Substituting Vav1-specific residues into the C1b domain of PKCδ, we identified five crucial residues (Glu9, Glu10, Thr11, Thr24, and Tyr26) along the rim of the binding cleft that weaken binding potency in a cumulative fashion. Reciprocally, replacing these incompatible residues in the Vav1 C1 domain with the corresponding residues from PKCδ C1b (δC1b) conferred high potency for phorbol ester binding. Computer modeling predicts that these unique residues in Vav1 increase the hydrophilicity of the rim of the binding pocket, impairing membrane association and thereby preventing formation of the ternary C1-ligand-membrane binding complex. The initial design of diacylglycerol-lactones to exploit these Vav1 unique residues showed enhanced selectivity for C1 domains incorporating these residues, suggesting a strategy for the development of ligands targeting Vav1. PMID:22351766

  14. Mutation of the Conserved Calcium-Binding Motif in Neisseria gonorrhoeae PilC1 Impacts Adhesion but Not Piliation

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Yuan; Johnson, Michael D. L.; Burillo-Kirch, Christine; Mocny, Jeffrey C.; Anderson, James E.; Garrett, Christopher K.; Redinbo, Matthew R.

    2013-01-01

    Neisseria gonorrhoeae PilC1 is a member of the PilC family of type IV pilus-associated adhesins found in Neisseria species and other type IV pilus-producing genera. Previously, a calcium-binding domain was described in the C-terminal domains of PilY1 of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and in PilC1 and PilC2 of Kingella kingae. Genetic analysis of N. gonorrhoeae revealed a similar calcium-binding motif in PilC1. To evaluate the potential significance of this calcium-binding region in N. gonorrhoeae, we produced recombinant full-length PilC1 and a PilC1 C-terminal domain fragment. We show that, while alterations of the calcium-binding motif disrupted the ability of PilC1 to bind calcium, they did not grossly affect the secondary structure of the protein. Furthermore, we demonstrate that both full-length wild-type PilC1 and full-length calcium-binding-deficient PilC1 inhibited gonococcal adherence to cultured human cervical epithelial cells, unlike the truncated PilC1 C-terminal domain. Similar to PilC1 in K. kingae, but in contrast to the calcium-binding mutant of P. aeruginosa PilY1, an equivalent mutation in N. gonorrhoeae PilC1 produced normal amounts of pili. However, the N. gonorrhoeae PilC1 calcium-binding mutant still had partial defects in gonococcal adhesion to ME180 cells and genetic transformation, which are both essential virulence factors in this human pathogen. Thus, we conclude that calcium binding to PilC1 plays a critical role in pilus function in N. gonorrhoeae. PMID:24002068

  15. Proteolytic inactivation of nuclear alarmin high-mobility group box 1 by complement protease C1s during apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Yeo, J G; Leong, J; Arkachaisri, T; Cai, Y; Teo, B H D; Tan, J H T; Das, L; Lu, J

    2016-01-01

    Effective clearance of apoptotic cells by phagocytes prevents the release of intracellular alarmins and manifestation of autoimmunity. This prompt efferocytosis is complemented by intracellular proteolytic degradation that occurs within the apoptotic cells and in the efferosome of the phagocytes. Although the role of extracellular proteases in apoptotic cells clearance is unknown, the strong association of congenital C1s deficiency with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus highlights the protective nature that this extracellular protease has against autoimmunity. The archetypical role of serine protease C1s as the catalytic arm of C1 complex (C1qC1r2C1s2) involve in the propagation of the classical complement pathway could not provide the biological basis for this association. However, a recent observation of the ability of C1 complex to cleave a spectrum of intracellular cryptic targets exposed during apoptosis provides a valuable insight to the underlying protective mechanism. High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), an intracellular alarmin that is capable of inducing the formation of antinuclear autoantibodies and causes lupus-like conditions in mice, is identified as a novel potential target by bioinformatics analysis. This is verified experimentally with C1s, both in its purified and physiological form as C1 complex, cleaving HMGB1 into defined fragments of 19 and 12 kDa. This cleavage diminishes HMGB1 ability to enhance lipopolysaccharide mediated pro-inflammatory cytokines production from monocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells. Further mass spectrometric analysis of the C1 complex treated apoptotic cellular proteins demonstrated additional C1s substrates and revealed the complementary role of C1s in apoptotic cells clearance through the proteolytic cleavage of intracellular alarmins and autoantigens. C1 complex may have evolved as, besides the bacteriolytic arm of antibodies in which it activates the complement cascade, a tissue renewal mechanism that reduces the

  16. Evidence of ϒ (1 S )→J /ψ +χc 1 and search for double-charmonium production in ϒ (1 S ) and ϒ (2 S ) decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, S. D.; Shen, C. P.; Ban, Y.; Abdesselam, A.; Adachi, I.; Aihara, H.; Al Said, S.; Arinstein, K.; Asner, D. M.; Aulchenko, V.; Aushev, T.; Ayad, R.; Bakich, A. M.; Bansal, V.; Behera, P.; Bhuyan, B.; Bobrov, A.; Bozek, A.; Bračko, M.; Browder, T. E.; Červenkov, D.; Chekelian, V.; Chen, A.; Cheon, B. G.; Chilikin, K.; Chistov, R.; Cho, K.; Chobanova, V.; Choi, S.-K.; Choi, Y.; Cinabro, D.; Dalseno, J.; Danilov, M.; Dingfelder, J.; Doležal, Z.; Drásal, Z.; Drutskoy, A.; Dutta, K.; Eidelman, S.; Farhat, H.; Fast, J. E.; Ferber, T.; Gaur, V.; Gabyshev, N.; Ganguly, S.; Garmash, A.; Gillard, R.; Goh, Y. M.; Golob, B.; Haba, J.; Hara, T.; Hayasaka, K.; Hayashii, H.; He, X. H.; Hou, W.-S.; Huschle, M.; Iijima, T.; Inami, K.; Ishikawa, A.; Itoh, R.; Jaegle, I.; Joffe, D.; Joo, K. K.; Julius, T.; Kawasaki, T.; Kim, D. Y.; Kim, H. J.; Kim, J. B.; Kim, J. H.; Kim, K. T.; Kinoshita, K.; Ko, B. R.; Kodyš, P.; Korpar, S.; Križan, P.; Krokovny, P.; Kuzmin, A.; Kwon, Y.-J.; Lange, J. S.; Li, J.; Li, Y.; Li Gioi, L.; Libby, J.; Liventsev, D.; Lukin, P.; Miyabayashi, K.; Miyata, H.; Moll, A.; Mussa, R.; Nakano, E.; Nakao, M.; Nanut, T.; Nisar, N. K.; Nishida, S.; Okuno, S.; Ostrowicz, W.; Park, C. W.; Park, H.; Pedlar, T. K.; Pestotnik, R.; Petrič, M.; Piilonen, L. E.; Ribežl, E.; Ritter, M.; Rostomyan, A.; Sakai, Y.; Sandilya, S.; Santelj, L.; Sanuki, T.; Schneider, O.; Schnell, G.; Schwanda, C.; Semmler, D.; Senyo, K.; Shebalin, V.; Shibata, T.-A.; Shiu, J.-G.; Shwartz, B.; Sibidanov, A.; Simon, F.; Sohn, Y.-S.; Sokolov, A.; Starič, M.; Steder, M.; Sumiyoshi, T.; Tamponi, U.; Tanida, K.; Tatishvili, G.; Teramoto, Y.; Uchida, M.; Uehara, S.; Uglov, T.; Unno, Y.; Uno, S.; Urquijo, P.; Usov, Y.; Vahsen, S. E.; Van Hulse, C.; Vanhoefer, P.; Varner, G.; Vinokurova, A.; Vorobyev, V.; Vossen, A.; Wagner, M. N.; Wang, C. H.; Wang, M.-Z.; Wang, P.; Wang, X. L.; Watanabe, M.; Watanabe, Y.; Won, E.; Yamaoka, J.; Yashchenko, S.; Yook, Y.; Yuan, C. Z.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhilich, V.; Zhulanov, V.; Belle Collaboration

    2014-12-01

    Using data samples of 102 ×106 ϒ (1 S ) and 158 ×106 ϒ (2 S ) events collected with the Belle detector, a first experimental search has been made for double-charmonium production in the exclusive decays ϒ (1 S ,2 S )→J /ψ (ψ')+X , where X =ηc, χc J(J =0 ,1 ,2 ), ηc(2 S ), X (3940 ), and X (4160 ). No significant signal is observed in the spectra of the mass recoiling against the reconstructed J /ψ or ψ' except for the evidence of χc 1 production with a significance of 4.6 σ for ϒ (1 S )→J /ψ +χc 1 . The measured branching fraction B (ϒ (1 S )→J /ψ +χc 1) is [3.90 ±1.21 (stat)±0.23 (syst)]×10-6 . The 90% C.L. upper limits on the branching fractions of the other modes having a significance of less than 3 σ are determined. These results are consistent with theoretical calculations using the nonrelativistic QCD factorization approach.

  17. βC1 encoded by tomato yellow leaf curl China betasatellite forms multimeric complexes in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xiaofei; Wang, Xiaoqiang; Wu, Jianxiang; Briddon, Rob W; Zhou, Xueping

    2011-01-20

    The βC1 protein encoded by betasatellites associated with begomoviruses is multi-functional. To investigate its properties, the βC1 protein encoded by tomato yellow leaf curl China betasatellite (TYLCCNB) was expressed in Escherichia coli and analyzed for its ability to self-interaction. The βC1 protein formed large soluble multimeric complexes in vitro and in vivo. Mutations that prevented formation of multimeric complexes in vitro, also prevented formation of granular bodies in vivo, suggesting that granular bodies resulted from βC1 oligomerization. Similarly, βC1 mutants unable to form complexes also did not induce typical symptoms in plants when expressed from a Potato virus X (PVX) vector, suggesting that βC1 self-interaction was required for symptom induction in planta. Deletion analysis revealed that amino acid sequences spanning two predicted α-helices at the C-terminal end of the protein were important in multimerization.

  18. The Complex Case of Positioning the Foundation Degree: Making Sense of a Degree That Is Not a Degree

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kadembo, Ernest

    2008-01-01

    The Foundation degree was launched in 2001 and has enjoyed growth but remains a controversial qualification. Foundation Degree Forward, the body charged by the UK government with providing a "national network or expertise to support the development and validation of high-quality Foundation degrees" is championing the marketing of the…

  19. Human C1q Induces Apoptosis in an Ovarian Cancer Cell Line via Tumor Necrosis Factor Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Anuvinder; Sultan, Sami H. A.; Murugaiah, Valarmathy; Pathan, Ansar A.; Alhamlan, Fatimah S.; Karteris, Emmanouil; Kishore, Uday

    2016-01-01

    Complement protein C1q is the first recognition subcomponent of the complement classical pathway that plays a vital role in the clearance of immune complexes, pathogens, and apoptotic cells. C1q also has a homeostatic role involving immune and non-immune cells; these functions not necessarily involve complement activation. Recently, C1q has been shown to be expressed locally in the microenvironment of a range of human malignant tumors, where it can promote cancer cell adhesion, migration, and proliferation, without involving complement activation. C1q has been shown to be present in the ascitic fluid formed during ovarian cancers. In this study, we have examined the effects of human C1q and its globular domain on an ovarian cancer cell line, SKOV3. We show that C1q and the recombinant globular head modules induce apoptosis in SKOV3 cells in a time-dependent manner. C1q expression was not detectable in the SKOV3 cells. Exogenous treatment with C1q and globular head modules at the concentration of 10 µg/ml induced apoptosis in approximately 55% cells, as revealed by immunofluorescence microscopy and FACS. The qPCR and caspase analysis suggested that C1q and globular head modules activated tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and upregulated Fas. The genes of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), RICTOR, and RAPTOR survival pathways, which are often overexpressed in majority of the cancers, were significantly downregulated within few hours of the treatment of SKOV3 cells with C1q and globular head modules. In conclusion, C1q, via its globular domain, induced apoptosis in an ovarian cancer cell line SKOV3 via TNF-α induced apoptosis pathway involving upregulation of Bax and Fas. This study highlights a potentially protective role of C1q in certain cancers. PMID:28066412

  20. Clinical Presentation of Cervical Myelopathy at C1–2 Level

    PubMed Central

    Takebayashi, Tsuneo; Terashima, Yoshinori; Tsuda, Hajime; Yoshimoto, Mitsunori; Yamashita, Toshihiko

    2016-01-01

    Study Design Single-center retrospective study. Purpose To clarify the clinical features of cervical myelopathy at the C1–2 level. Overview of Literature Methods for distinguishing the affected level based on myelomere symptoms or dysfunction of the conducting pathway were established. However, no symptoms have been identified as being specific to the C1–2 level segment. Methods We evaluated 24 patients with cervical myelopathy due to spinal cord compression at the C1–2 level. Preoperative neurological assessment were investigated and compared with the rate and site of compression of the spinal cord using computed tomography-myelography. Results Impaired temperature and pain sensation were confirmed in 18 of the 24 patients with that localized to the upper arms (n=3), forearm (n=9), both (n=2), and whole body (n=4). Muscle weakness was observed in 18 patients, muscle weakness extended from the biceps brachii to the abductor digiti minimi in 10 patients, and in the whole body in 8 patients. Deep tendon reflexes were normal in 10 patients, whereas hyperactive deep tendon reflexes were noted in 14 patients. The rate of spinal cord compression was significantly higher in patients with perceptual dysfunction and muscle weakness compared with those with no dysfunction. However, no significant difference in the rate and site of compression was identified in those with dysfunction. Conclusions Perceptual dysfunction and muscle weakness localized to the upper limbs was observed in 58% and 42% of patients, respectively. Neurological abnormalities, such as perceptual dysfunction and muscle weakness, were visualized in patients with marked compression. PMID:27559458

  1. Global modeling of the C1-C3 alkyl nitrates using STOCHEM-CRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, M. A. H.; Cooke, M. C.; Utembe, S. R.; Morris, W. C.; Archibald, A. T.; Derwent, R. G.; Jenkin, M. E.; Orr-Ewing, A. J.; Higgins, C. M.; Percival, C. J.; Leather, K. E.; Shallcross, D. E.

    2015-12-01

    The atmospheric global budget and distribution of C1-C3 alkyl nitrates have been investigated using a global three-dimensional chemistry transport model, STOCHEM-CRI. Alkyl nitrates (RONO2) are significant NOx reservoir species and the more detailed VOC oxidation mechanism (CRI v2-R5) leads to greater photochemical production. RONO2 are significant sources of NOx in regions remote from NOx sources. The study shows that the global burden and the atmospheric life-time of C1-C3 alkyl nitrates are 113 Gg and 9-10 days, respectively, which are in excellent agreement with estimates established by previous studies. The abundance of alkyl nitrates have been found to be higher in the continental atmosphere, with CH3ONO2 mixing ratios up to 20 ppt over the Amazon rainforest. Up to 15, 10, 2, and 5 ppt of modelled CH3ONO2, C2H5ONO2, n-C3H7ONO2 and i-C3H7ONO2 have been found in the northern hemisphere over regions with large anthropogenic emissions of NOx and VOCs. The combination of atmospheric production and long-range transport led to high alkyl nitrate levels at high latitudes. The model performance for C1-C3 alkyl nitrates was established using observations from nine flights and nine field campaigns. The comparison shows a tendency towards model under-prediction of the observations, particularly in the southern hemispheric marine boundary layer, possibly due to the absence of oceanic production mechanisms and air-sea exchange processes in the model. The discrepancies between model and observed seasonal cycles, especially of CH3ONO2, in both hemispheres are discussed.

  2. Relativistic Force Field: Parametrization of (13)C-(1)H Nuclear Spin-Spin Coupling Constants.

    PubMed

    Kutateladze, Andrei G; Mukhina, Olga A

    2015-11-06

    Previously, we reported a reliable DU8 method for natural bond orbital (NBO)-aided parametric scaling of Fermi contacts to achieve fast and accurate prediction of proton-proton spin-spin coupling constants (SSCC) in (1)H NMR. As sophisticated NMR experiments for precise measurements of carbon-proton SSCCs are becoming more user-friendly and broadly utilized by the organic chemistry community to guide and inform the process of structure determination of complex organic compounds, we have now developed a fast and accurate method for computing (13)C-(1)H SSCCs. Fermi contacts computed with the DU8 basis set are scaled using selected NBO parameters in conjunction with empirical scaling coefficients. The method is optimized for inexpensive B3LYP/6-31G(d) geometries. The parametric scaling is based on a carefully selected training set of 274 ((3)J), 193 ((2)J), and 143 ((1)J) experimental (13)C-(1)H spin-spin coupling constants reported in the literature. The DU8 basis set, optimized for computing Fermi contacts, which by design had evolved from optimization of a collection of inexpensive 3-21G*, 4-21G, and 6-31G(d) bases, offers very short computational (wall) times even for relatively large organic molecules containing 15-20 carbon atoms. The most informative SSCCs for structure determination, i.e., (3)J, were computed with an accuracy of 0.41 Hz (rmsd). The new unified approach for computing (1)H-(1)H and (13)C-(1)H SSCCs is termed "DU8c".

  3. iAK692: A genome-scale metabolic model of Spirulina platensis C1

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Spirulina (Arthrospira) platensis is a well-known filamentous cyanobacterium used in the production of many industrial products, including high value compounds, healthy food supplements, animal feeds, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics, for example. It has been increasingly studied around the world for scientific purposes, especially for its genome, biology, physiology, and also for the analysis of its small-scale metabolic network. However, the overall description of the metabolic and biotechnological capabilities of S. platensis requires the development of a whole cellular metabolism model. Recently, the S. platensis C1 (Arthrospira sp. PCC9438) genome sequence has become available, allowing systems-level studies of this commercial cyanobacterium. Results In this work, we present the genome-scale metabolic network analysis of S. platensis C1, iAK692, its topological properties, and its metabolic capabilities and functions. The network was reconstructed from the S. platensis C1 annotated genomic sequence using Pathway Tools software to generate a preliminary network. Then, manual curation was performed based on a collective knowledge base and a combination of genomic, biochemical, and physiological information. The genome-scale metabolic model consists of 692 genes, 837 metabolites, and 875 reactions. We validated iAK692 by conducting fermentation experiments and simulating the model under autotrophic, heterotrophic, and mixotrophic growth conditions using COBRA toolbox. The model predictions under these growth conditions were consistent with the experimental results. The iAK692 model was further used to predict the unique active reactions and essential genes for each growth condition. Additionally, the metabolic states of iAK692 during autotrophic and mixotrophic growths were described by phenotypic phase plane (PhPP) analysis. Conclusions This study proposes the first genome-scale model of S. platensis C1, iAK692, which is a predictive metabolic platform

  4. Observation of the NaD C1 Σ + state near the region of dissociation limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whang, Thou-Jen; Cheng, Soul-En; Lin, Ming-Hong; Tsai, Chin-Chun

    2015-05-01

    Using pulsed optical-optical double resonance fluorescence depletion spectroscopy, we observed the C1 Σ + state levels of gaseous sodium deuteride molecules. In this work, total of 369 rovibrational levels were recorded including vibrational quantum numbers from 10 to 58 and rotational quantum numbers from 3 to 10. The avoid-crossing of shallow-dish well in the inner potential energy curve causes the irregular behaviors of Bv and ΔGv near the dissociation limit. A comparison of molecular properties between NaH and NaD will be presented. The Ministry of Science and Technology, Taiwan.

  5. Photometric narrowband CCD imaging of comets P/Brorsen-Metcalf and Austin (1989c1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schleicher, David G.; Osip, David J.; Millis, Robert L.; Thompson, Andrea; Sauter, Linda M.

    1990-01-01

    Simultaneous wide-field CCD images and conventional aperture photometry were obtained of Comets P/Brorsen/Metcalf (1989o) and Austin (1989c1). These data allow direct testing of absolute calibration of the CCD images and the ability to generate full-come, continuum-subtracted emission band images. Preliminary photometric calibration for a portion of the Brorsen-Metcalf observations yields reduced emission band and continuum fluxes which agree to within about 10 percent with those from the photoelectric observations. Conventional photometry of Comet Austin shows unusual variations among the production rates of the different species as a function of heliocentric distance.

  6. Development of Cotton leaf curl virus resistant transgenic cotton using antisense ßC1 gene.

    PubMed

    Sohrab, Sayed Sartaj; Kamal, Mohammad A; Ilah, Abdul; Husen, Azamal; Bhattacharya, P S; Rana, D

    2016-05-01

    Cotton leaf curl virus (CLCuV) is a serious pathogen causing leaf curl disease and affecting the cotton production in major growing areas. The transgenic cotton (Gossypium hirsutum cv. Coker 310) plants were developed by using βC1 gene in antisense orientation gene driven by Cauliflower mosaic virus-35S promoter and nos (nopaline synthase) terminator and mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens transformation and somatic embryogenesis system. Molecular confirmation of the transformants was carried out by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Southern blot hybridization. The developed transgenic and inoculated plants remained symptomless till their growth period. In conclusion, the plants were observed as resistant to CLCuV.

  7. Structural Basis for Specificity of Propeptide-Enzyme Interaction in Barley C1A Cysteine Peptidases

    PubMed Central

    Cambra, Inés; Hernández, David; Diaz, Isabel; Martinez, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    C1A cysteine peptidases are synthesized as inactive proenzymes. Activation takes place by proteolysis cleaving off the inhibitory propeptide. The inhibitory capacity of propeptides from barley cathepsin L and B-like peptidases towards commercial and barley cathepsins has been characterized. Differences in selectivity have been found for propeptides from L-cathepsins against their cognate and non cognate enzymes. Besides, the propeptide from barley cathepsin B was not able to inhibit bovine cathepsin B. Modelling of their three-dimensional structures suggests that most propeptide inhibitory properties can be explained from the interaction between the propeptide and the mature cathepsin structures. Their potential use as biotechnological tools is discussed. PMID:22615948

  8. Prevention of Hereditary Angioedema Attacks with a Subcutaneous C1 Inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Longhurst, Hilary; Cicardi, Marco; Craig, Timothy; Bork, Konrad; Grattan, Clive; Baker, James; Li, Huamin H; Reshef, Avner; Bonner, James; Bernstein, Jonathan A; Anderson, John; Lumry, William R; Farkas, Henriette; Katelaris, Constance H; Sussman, Gordon L; Jacobs, Joshua; Riedl, Marc; Manning, Michael E; Hebert, Jacques; Keith, Paul K; Kivity, Shmuel; Neri, Sergio; Levy, Donald S; Baeza, Maria L; Nathan, Robert; Schwartz, Lawrence B; Caballero, Teresa; Yang, William; Crisan, Ioana; Hernandez, María D; Hussain, Iftikhar; Tarzi, Michael; Ritchie, Bruce; Králíčková, Pavlina; Guilarte, Mar; Rehman, Syed M; Banerji, Aleena; Gower, Richard G; Bensen-Kennedy, Debra; Edelman, Jonathan; Feuersenger, Henrike; Lawo, John-Philip; Machnig, Thomas; Pawaskar, Dipti; Pragst, Ingo; Zuraw, Bruce L

    2017-03-23

    Background Hereditary angioedema is a disabling, potentially fatal condition caused by deficiency (type I) or dysfunction (type II) of the C1 inhibitor protein. In a phase 2 trial, the use of CSL830, a nanofiltered C1 inhibitor preparation that is suitable for subcutaneous injection, resulted in functional levels of C1 inhibitor activity that would be expected to provide effective prophylaxis of attacks. Methods We conducted an international, prospective, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-ranging, phase 3 trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of self-administered subcutaneous CSL830 in patients with type I or type II hereditary angioedema who had had four or more attacks in a consecutive 2-month period within 3 months before screening. We randomly assigned the patients to one of four treatment sequences in a crossover design, each involving two 16-week treatment periods: either 40 IU or 60 IU of CSL830 per kilogram of body weight twice weekly followed by placebo, or vice versa. The primary efficacy end point was the number of attacks of angioedema. Secondary efficacy end points were the proportion of patients who had a response (≥50% reduction in the number of attacks with CSL830 as compared with placebo) and the number of times that rescue medication was used. Results Of the 90 patients who underwent randomization, 79 completed the trial. Both doses of CSL830, as compared with placebo, reduced the rate of attacks of hereditary angioedema (mean difference with 40 IU, -2.42 attacks per month; 95% confidence interval [CI], -3.38 to -1.46; and mean difference with 60 IU, -3.51 attacks per month; 95% CI, -4.21 to -2.81; P<0.001 for both comparisons). Response rates were 76% (95% CI, 62 to 87) in the 40-IU group and 90% (95% CI, 77 to 96) in the 60-IU group. The need for rescue medication was reduced from 5.55 uses per month in the placebo group to 1.13 uses per month in the 40-IU group and from 3.89 uses in the placebo group to 0

  9. Structural and spectral characterizations of C1C2 channelrhodopsin and its mutants by molecular simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamiya, Motoshi; Kato, Hideaki E.; Ishitani, Ryuichiro; Nureki, Osamu; Hayashi, Shigehiko

    2013-01-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and excitation energy calculations of C1C2 chimera channelrhodopsin, a light-gated ion channel protein utilized as a biotechnological tool for optogenetics, based on a protein structure determined recently by X-ray crystallography were performed to investigate its structural and spectral properties. The MD simulations showed stability of hydrogen-bonds responsible for the channel gating observed in the crystallographic structural model. Analysis of electrostatic contribution of the surrounding protein groups to the absorption energy proposes several site-specific mutations that shift absorption maxima significantly, and provides a clear and controlled guide for engineering design of color variant proteins utilized in optogenetics.

  10. Hypervelocity Impact (HVI). Volume 3; WLE Small-Scale Fiberglass Panel Flat Target C-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorman, Michael R.; Ziola, Steven M.

    2007-01-01

    During 2003 and 2004, the Johnson Space Center's White Sands Testing Facility in Las Cruces, New Mexico conducted hypervelocity impact tests on the space shuttle wing leading edge. Hypervelocity impact tests were conducted to determine if Micro-Meteoroid/Orbital Debris impacts could be reliably detected and located using simple passive ultrasonic methods. The objective of Target C-1 was to study hypervelocity impacts on the reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) panels of the Wing Leading Edge. Fiberglass was used in place of RCC in the initial tests. Impact damage was detected using lightweight, low power instrumentation capable of being used in flight.

  11. Modified pseudomonas oleovorans phaC1 nucleic acids encoding bispecific polyhydroxyalkanoate polymerase

    DOEpatents

    Srienc, Friedrich; Jackson, John K.; Somers, David A.

    2000-01-01

    A genetically engineered Pseudomonas oleovorans phaC1 polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) polymerase having tailored substrate specificity is provided. The modified PHA polymerase is preferably a "bispecific" PHA polymerase capable of copolymerizing a short chain length monomer and a medium chain length monomer is provided. Methods for making the modified PHA polymerase and for making nucleic acids encoding the modified PHA polymerase are also disclosed, as are methods of producing PHA using the modified PHA polymerase. The invention further includes methods to assay for altered substrate specificity.

  12. Are Master's Degrees in Gerontology Comparable?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, David A.

    1984-01-01

    Compares gerontology master's degree curricula for length, content, and requirements. Results showed they have great comparability and fall within established guidelines. Master's degree programs in gerontology appear to be sufficiently similar to allow for beginning discussions of accreditation. (JAC)

  13. Sources and Information on Transfer Associate Degrees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayon, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    This chapter provides an annotated bibliography of articles about the effects of transfer associate degrees and related statewide transfer and articulation policies. It also provides links to transfer degree legislation in several states.

  14. A novel mutation in exon 8 of C1 inhibitor (C1INH) gene leads to abolish its physiological stop codon in a large Chinese family with hereditary angioedema type I.

    PubMed

    Qu, Le; Wei, Bin; Liu, Mei; Zhang, Lili; Xiao, Ting; Chen, Hong-Duo; Zhou, Li; Mi, Qing-Sheng; He, Chundi

    2012-10-01

    C1 inhibitor (C1INH) plays an important role in the classical pathway of the complement system. Mutations in C1INH gene cause quantitative or qualitative deficiencies in C1INH, which can lead to hereditary angioedema (HAE) type I or II. Here, we identified a novel frame-shift mutation c.1391-1445del55 (p.v464fsx556) in exon 8 in a large Chinese family with HAE type I. This 55 base pairs deletion abolishes the original stop codon and introduces a new stop codon 220 bp downstream of the original one, and leads to mutated C1INH protein prolonged from 500 to 556 amino acids. The levels of C4 and C1INH as well as C1INH activity in serum were significantly reduced in affected individuals. This is the first report of a novel mutation abolishing the physiological stop codon of C1INH gene in a large Chinese family with HAE type I.

  15. 45 CFR 2400.41 - Degree programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... degree in history or political science (including government or politics), the degree of Master of Arts in Teaching in history or political science (including government or politics), or a related master's degree in education that permits a concentration in American history, American government, social...

  16. Profile of the Nontraditional Doctoral Degree Student

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Offerman, Michael

    2011-01-01

    What type of individual pursues a nontraditional doctoral degree? Although answering this question is the main purpose of this chapter, there is an underlying story that provides context for how and why these individuals came to pursue a doctoral degree. The tremendous growth in the number of doctoral students and doctoral degree-granting…

  17. The Master's Degree: Jack of All Trades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Joslyn L., Ed.

    The master's degree is discussed in seven papers written by academic officers serving state coordinating and governing boards. In "Toward a New Paradigm," Judith S. Glazer considers changes in the master's degree and suggests that the degree is changing to meet student needs, the job market, and external standards. Martine F. Hammond's…

  18. First Professional Degree Awards to Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, George H.

    Changes in the percentage representation of women among recipients of first professional degrees are examined between the academic years 1970-71 and 1975-76. The data were collected through the annual Survey of Degrees and Other Formal Awards Conferred. A first professional degree is one that "signifies completion of the academic requirements for…

  19. Physics Bachelors with Master's Degrees. AIP Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivie, Rachel; Stowe, Katie

    This report provides information about holders of bachelor's degrees in physics who went on to earn master's degrees and were employed at the time of the survey (completed by spring 1999). This is the second report based on data collected from people who earned bachelor's degrees between 1990 and 1993, but it is the first time the American…

  20. Enrollments and Degrees Report. AIP Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulvey, Patrick J.; Nicholson, Starr

    This report presents the results of a fall 1999 survey of U.S. colleges and universities that offer doctoral, master's, and bachelor's degrees in physics and astronomy, focusing on degree production and current student enrollment. Highlighted are the following: (1) after four years of significant declines, physics bachelor's degrees conferred in…

  1. Enrollments and Degrees Report. AIP Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulvey, Patrick J.; Nicholson, Starr

    In fall 2000, the 770 degree-granting physics departments in the United States were asked to provide information on their current enrollments and recent degrees granted, and responses were received from 98% of the departments. Findings show that the number of individuals receiving physics bachelors degrees increased substantially after a decade of…

  2. Report on Time-Shortened Degree Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magill, Samuel H.

    Since January 1971, a number of colleges and universities have announced time-shortened degree programs. In the interest of examining and clarifying the various approaches to and understanding of time-shortened degrees, this brief analysis is offered. There appear to be 4 approaches to the reduction of time spent on the way to the B.A. degree, one…

  3. 45 CFR 2400.41 - Degree programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... degree in history or political science (including government or politics), the degree of Master of Arts in Teaching in history or political science (including government or politics), or a related master's..., or political science. Graduate degrees under which study is excluded from fellowship support...

  4. 45 CFR 2400.41 - Degree programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... degree in history or political science (including government or politics), the degree of Master of Arts in Teaching in history or political science (including government or politics), or a related master's..., or political science. Graduate degrees under which study is excluded from fellowship support...

  5. 45 CFR 2400.41 - Degree programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... degree in history or political science (including government or politics), the degree of Master of Arts in Teaching in history or political science (including government or politics), or a related master's..., or political science. Graduate degrees under which study is excluded from fellowship support...

  6. 45 CFR 2400.41 - Degree programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... degree in history or political science (including government or politics), the degree of Master of Arts in Teaching in history or political science (including government or politics), or a related master's..., or political science. Graduate degrees under which study is excluded from fellowship support...

  7. Human semen refrigeration at + 4 degrees C: bio-kinetic characteristics.

    PubMed

    Dondero, Franco; Rossi, Tiziana; Delfino, Michele; Imbrogno, Norina; Cannistrà, Stefania; Mazzilli, Fernando

    2006-01-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the bio-kinetic characteristics of human semen refrigerated for different periods and to compare the effects of refrigeration at +4 degrees C against cryopreservation of human sperm at -196 degrees C. Semen was obtained from 30 male partners of infertile couples (infertile subjects) with the following semen profile: sperm count >or=10 x 10(6)/ml; progressive motility >or=20%; atypical forms <70% and white blood cells <1.0 x 10(6)/ml. Fifteen normospermic subjects were also selected as controls (control subjects). The following tests were carried out on basal, refrigerated and cryopreserved sperm: a) sperm kinetic properties (by Superimposed Image Analysis System); b) the Hypoosmotic Viability Test (HVT) (combined Hypoosmotic Swelling and Viability Test). The results of the study showed that the percentage recovery of kinetic properties and of HVT were optimum for up to 48 h. After refrigeration for 72 h, a drastic decrease in straight motility recovery was observed. No significant differences were observed between cryopreservation and refrigeration at +4 degrees C for 48 h for motility or HVT recoveries in samples from control subjects. However, in infertile subjects, a significant decrease in straight progressive motility and HVT recoveries was observed in cryopreserved samples compared to those refrigerated for 48 h. Neither refrigeration nor cryopreservation led to the growth of pathogenic bacteria in any of the cases studied. Based on the above results, refrigeration could represent a useful alternative to the cryopreservation method.

  8. DNA damage targets PKC{eta} to the nuclear membrane via its C1b domain

    SciTech Connect

    Tamarkin, Ana; Zurgil, Udi; Braiman, Alex; Hai, Naama; Krasnitsky, Ella; Maissel, Adva; Ben-Ari, Assaf; Yankelovich, Liat; Livneh, Etta

    2011-06-10

    Translocation to cellular membranes is one of the hallmarks of PKC activation, occurring as a result of the generation of lipid secondary messengers in target membrane compartments. The activation-induced translocation of PKCs and binding to membranes is largely directed by their regulatory domains. We have previously reported that PKC{eta}, a member of the novel subfamily and an epithelial specific isoform, is localized at the cytoplasm and ER/Golgi and is translocated to the plasma membrane and the nuclear envelope upon short-term activation by PMA. Here we show that PKC{eta} is shuttling between the cytoplasm and the nucleus and that upon etoposide induced DNA damage is tethered at the nuclear envelope. Although PKC{eta} expression and its phosphorylation on the hydrophobic motif (Ser675) are increased by etoposide, this phosphorylation is not required for its accumulation at the nuclear envelope. Moreover, we demonstrate that the C1b domain is sufficient for translocation to the nuclear envelope. We further show that, similar to full-length PKC{eta}, the C1b domain could also confer protection against etoposide-induced cell death. Our studies demonstrate translocation of PKC{eta} to the nuclear envelope, and suggest that its spatial regulation could be important for its cellular functions including effects on cell death.

  9. Modeling resistive wall modes and disruptive instabilities with M3D-C1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferraro, Nm; Jardin, Sc; Pfefferle, D.

    2016-10-01

    Disruptive instabilities pose a significant challenge to the tokamak approach to magnetic fusion energy, and must be reliably avoided in a successful reactor. These instabilities generally involve rapid, global changes to the magnetic field, and electromagnetic interaction with surrounding conducting structures. Here we apply the extended-MHD code M3D-C1 to calculate the stability and evolution of disruptive modes, including their interaction with external conducting structures. The M3D-C1 model includes the effects of resistivity, equilibrium rotation, and resistive walls of arbitrary thickness, each of which may play important roles in the stability and evolution of disruptive modes. The strong stabilizing effect of rotation on resistive wall modes is explored and compared with analytic theory. The nonlinear evolution of vertical displacement events is also considered, including the evolution of non-axisymmetric instabilities that may arise during the current-quench phase of the disruption. It is found that the non-axisymmetric stability of the plasma during a VDE depends strongly on the thermal history of the plasma. This work is supported by US DOE Grant DE-AC02-09CH11466 and the SciDAC Center for Extended MHD Modeling.

  10. Lactobacillus casei strain C1 attenuates vascular changes in spontaneously hypertensive rats

    PubMed Central

    Yap, Wei Boon; Ahmad, Faisal Malau; Lim, Yi Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension can be caused by various factors while the predominant causes include increase in body fluid volume and resistance in the circulatory system that elevate the blood pressure. Consumption of probiotics has been proven to attenuate hypertension; however, the effect is much strain-dependent. In this study, a newly isolated Lactobacillus casei (Lb. casei) strain C1 was investigated for its antihypertensive properties in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) suspension of 11 log colony-forming unit (CFU) was given to SHR (SHR+LAB, n=8), and phosphate buffer saline (PBS) was given as a control in SHR (SHR, n=8) and in Wistar rats as sham (WIS, n=8). The treatment was given via oral gavage for 8 weeks. The results showed that the weekly systolic blood pressure (SBP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and aortic reactivity function were remarkably improved after 8 weeks of bacterial administration in SHR+LAB. These effects were mostly attributed by restoration of wall tension and tensile stress following the bacterial treatment. Although not statistically significant, the level of malondialdehye (MDA) in SHR+LAB serum was found declining. Increased levels of glutathione (GSH) and nitric oxide (NO) in SHR+LAB serum suggested that the bacterium exerted vascular protection through antioxidative functions and relatively high NO level that induced vasodilation. Collectively, Lb. casei strain C1 is a promising alternative for hypertension improvement. PMID:27847439

  11. Magnetism and the defect state in the magnetocaloric antiperovskite Mn3GaC1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, L. H.; Yoder, D.; Moodenbaugh, A. R.; Fischer, D. A.; Yu, M.-H.

    2006-02-01

    Magnetic and spectroscopic techniques were used to study the intermetallic antiperovskite Mn3GaC. An antiferromagnetic-ferromagnetic magnetostructural transition at 160 K underlies a remarkable magnetocaloric effect; these phenomena are suppressed in the substoichiometric composition Mn3GaC1-δ. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) data reported for three compositions Mn3GaC1-δ, δ = 0, 0.10, 0.22, are the basis for drawing inferences concerning the mechanism controlling magnetic order as a function of carbon stoichiometry. While the temperature dependence of the Mn3GaC carbon K edge reveals no observable change across the first-order magnetic transition, a clear splitting of the carbon absorption bands is observed that increases with increasing carbon deficiency. The room temperature Mn and Ga K edges indicate no significant variation with C content. FEFF 8.2 code calculations are in good qualitative agreement with data for the stoichiometric sample, but do not predict the changes in XAS observed in C-deficient samples. These results and the Goodenough-Anderson-Kanamori rules are the basis for a phenomenological model that attributes the carbon content dependence of the low temperature transition to the promotion of weak near-neighbour 90° Mn-Mn pairs in the carbon-deficient compound over the stronger 180° Mn-C-Mn interaction, locking in dominant ferromagnetism at low temperatures.

  12. Photoincorporation of azialcohol to the C1B domain of PKCdelta is buffer dependent.

    PubMed

    Das, Joydip

    2009-06-03

    Protein kinase C (PKC) is a signal transducing protein that has been implicated in binding alcohol and anesthetics. The alcohol and anesthetic binding of protein kinase C delta C1B domain has been determined previously by photolabeling and mass spectrometry [J. Das, G.H. Addona, W.S. Sandberg, S.S. Husain, T. Stehle, K.W. Miller, Identiffcation of a general anesthetic binding site in the diacylglycerol-binding domain of protein kinase C delta, J. Biol. Chem. 279 (2004) 37964-37972]. Here we studied photoincorporation of 3-azioctanol, a photoactive analog of octanol into PKC delta C1B in two buffer systems containing tris and hepes. The extent of photoincorporation was higher in hepes compared to tris as determined by high performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometric analysis. The results are explained on the basis of the presence of number of primary hydroxyl and amino groups in tris and hepes molecules that could affect the binding of alcohol molecules to protein. This observation will be useful in selecting buffer system for biochemical studies on PKC.

  13. A hybrid kinetic hot ion PIC module for the M3D-C1 Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breslau, J. A.; Ferraro, N.; Jardin, S. C.; Kalyanaraman, K.

    2016-10-01

    Building on the success of the original M3D code with the addition of efficient high-order, high-continuity finite elements and a fully implicit time advance making use of cutting-edge numerical techniques, M3D-C1 has become a flagship code for realistic time-dependent 3D MHD and two-fluid calculations of the nonlinear evolution of macroinstabilities in tokamak plasmas. It is therefore highly desirable to introduce to M3D-C1 one of the most-used features of its predecessor: the option to use a drift-kinetic delta- f PIC model for a minority population of energetic ions (representing, e.g., beam ions or fusion alpha particles) coupled with the usual finite element advance of the bulk ion and electron fluids through its pressure tensor. We describe the implementation of a module for this purpose using high-order-of-accuracy numerical integration and carefully tuned to take advantage of state-of-the-art multicore processing elements. Verification results for a toroidal Alfvén eigenmode test problem will be presented, along with a demonstration of favorable parallel scaling to large numbers of supercomputer nodes.

  14. Tetrahydromethanopterin-dependent methanogenesis from non-physiological C1 donors in Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum.

    PubMed Central

    Escalante-Semerena, J C; Wolfe, R S

    1985-01-01

    Methanogenesis from the non-physiological C1 donors thioproline, thiazolidine, hexamethylenetetramine, formaldehyde (HCHO), and HOCH2-S-coenzyme M (CoM) was catalyzed by cell extracts of Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum under a hydrogen atmosphere. Tetrahydromethanopterin (H4MPT) and HS-CoM were required in the reaction mixture. The non-physiological compounds were found to be in chemical equilibrium with HCHO, which has been shown to react spontaneously with H4MPT to form methylene-H4MPT, an intermediate of the methanogenic pathway at the formaldehyde level of oxidation. Highfield (360 MHZ) 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance studies performed on the interaction between HCHO and HS-CoM showed that these compounds are in equilibrium with HOCH2-S-CoM and that the equilibrium is pH dependent. When methanogenesis from the non-physiological donors was followed under a nitrogen atmosphere, the C1 moiety from each compound underwent a disproportionation, forming methenyl-H4MPT+ and methane. The compounds tested served as substrates for the enzymatic synthesis of methenyl-H4MPT+. PMID:3838170

  15. Low energy metastable states and immiscibility in (SiC)1-X-(AlN)X

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burton, Benjamin; van de Walle, Axel; Davydov, Albert; Vinograd, Victor

    2009-03-01

    A cluster expansion Hamiltonian was fit to VASP/PAW calculated supercell formation energies, δEf, and first principles based phase diagrams (miscibility gaps) were calculated for the wurtzite-structure pseudobinary system SiC1-XAlNX. An unusually wide range of 3 δEf 125 kJ/mole MX (M= Al, Si; X= N, C) was calculated and all supercells with δEf 8 kJ/mole exhibited characteristic (SiC)m(AlN)n crystallography, in which (SiC)m indicates m SiC-double layers to the hexagonal c-axis, and similarly for (AlN)n. The prediction of (SiC)m(AlN)n low-energy metastable states, may explain why one can synthesize SiC1-XAlNX films, or single crystals of arbitrary bulk composition, in spite of the very strong tendency toward immiscibility. Specifically, one expects that metastable films or single crystals will be dominated by a disordered stacking of SiC- and AlN-double layers.

  16. Transition Metal-Catalyzed Utilization of Methanol as C1 Source in Organic Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Rajenahally, Jagadeesh; Natte, Kishore; Neumann, Helfried; Beller, Matthias

    2017-03-09

    Methanol represents one of the privileged and widespread platform chemicals, which is used in many science sectors such as chemistry, biology, medicine and energy. This essential alcohol serves as common solvent, cost-effective reagent and sustainable feedstock for value-added chemicals, pharmaceuticals and materials. Among different applications, the utilization of methanol as C1 source for the formation of carbon-carbon, carbon-nitrogen and carbon-oxygen bonds continues to be important in organic synthesis and drug discovery. Particularly, the synthesis of C-methylated, N-methylated and O-methylated products is of central interest because these motifs are found in a large number of life science molecules as well as fine and bulk chemicals. In this Minireview, we summarize the utilization of methanol as C1 source in C-methylation, N-methylation, C-methoxylation, N-formylation, methoxycarbonylation and oxidative methyl esterification reactions for the synthesis of C-methylated products, N-methylamines, formamides, urea derivatives, ethers, esters and heterocycles.

  17. Cytochrome c1 exhibits two binding sites for cytochrome c in plants.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Beltrán, Blas; Díaz-Quintana, Antonio; González-Arzola, Katiuska; Velázquez-Campoy, Adrián; De la Rosa, Miguel A; Díaz-Moreno, Irene

    2014-10-01

    In plants, channeling of cytochrome c molecules between complexes III and IV has been purported to shuttle electrons within the supercomplexes instead of carrying electrons by random diffusion across the intermembrane bulk phase. However, the mode plant cytochrome c behaves inside a supercomplex such as the respirasome, formed by complexes I, III and IV, remains obscure from a structural point of view. Here, we report ab-initio Brownian dynamics calculations and nuclear magnetic resonance-driven docking computations showing two binding sites for plant cytochrome c at the head soluble domain of plant cytochrome c1, namely a non-productive (or distal) site with a long heme-to-heme distance and a functional (or proximal) site with the two heme groups close enough as to allow electron transfer. As inferred from isothermal titration calorimetry experiments, the two binding sites exhibit different equilibrium dissociation constants, for both reduced and oxidized species, that are all within the micromolar range, thus revealing the transient nature of such a respiratory complex. Although the docking of cytochrome c at the distal site occurs at the interface between cytochrome c1 and the Rieske subunit, it is fully compatible with the complex III structure. In our model, the extra distal site in complex III could indeed facilitate the functional cytochrome c channeling towards complex IV by building a "floating boat bridge" of cytochrome c molecules (between complexes III and IV) in plant respirasome.

  18. C1 CHEMISTRY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ULTRA-CLEAN LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND HYDROGEN

    SciTech Connect

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2004-03-31

    Faculty and students from five universities--the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University--are collaborating in a research program to develop C1 chemistry processes to produce ultra-clean liquid transportation fuels and hydrogen, the zero-emissions transportation fuel of the future. The feedstocks contain one carbon atom per molecular unit. They include synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. An important objective is to develop C1 technology for the production of liquid transportation fuel and hydrogen from domestically plentiful resources such as coal, coalbed methane, and natural gas. An Industrial Advisory Board with representatives from Chevron-Texaco, Eastman Chemical, Conoco-Phillips, the Air Force Research Laboratory, the U.S. Army National Automotive Center (Tank & Automotive Command--TACOM), and Tier Associates provides guidance on the practicality of the research. The current report presents results obtained in this research program during the six months of the subject contract from October 1, 2002 through March 31, 2003. The results are presented in thirteen detailed reports on research projects headed by various faculty members at each of the five CFFS Universities. Additionally, an Executive Summary has been prepared that summarizes the principal results of all of these projects during the six-month reporting period.

  19. C1 Chemistry for the Production of Ultra-Clean Liquid Transportation Fuels and Hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2003-03-31

    Faculty and students from five universities--the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University--are collaborating in a research program to develop C1 chemistry processes to produce ultra-clean liquid transportation fuels and hydrogen, the zero-emissions transportation fuel of the future. The feedstocks contain one carbon atom per molecular unit. They include synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. An important objective is to develop C1 technology for the production of transportation fuel from domestically plentiful resources such as coal, coalbed methane, and natural gas. An Industrial Advisory Board with representatives from Chevron-Texaco, Eastman Chemical, Conoco-Phillips, Energy International, the Department of Defense, and Tier Associates provides guidance on the practicality of the research. The current report presents results obtained in this research program during the first six months of the subject contract (DE-FC26-02NT-4159), from October 1, 2002 through March 31, 2003.

  20. C1 Chemistry for the Production of Ultra-Clean Liquid Transportation Fuels and Hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2005-03-31

    Faculty and students from five universities--the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University--are collaborating in a research program to develop C1 chemistry processes to produce ultra-clean liquid transportation fuels and hydrogen, the zero-emissions transportation fuel of the future. The feedstocks contain one carbon atom per molecular unit. They include synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. An important objective is to develop C1 technology for the production of liquid transportation fuel and hydrogen from domestically plentiful resources such as coal, coalbed methane, and natural gas. An Industrial Advisory Board with representatives from Chevron-Texaco, Eastman Chemical, Conoco-Phillips, the Air Force Research Laboratory, the U.S. Army National Automotive Center (Tank & Automotive Command--TACOM), and Tier Associates provides guidance on the practicality of the research. The current report presents results obtained in this research program during the six months of the subject contract from October 1, 2002 through March 31, 2003. The results are presented in thirteen detailed reports on research projects headed by various faculty members at each of the five CFFS Universities. Additionally, an Executive Summary has been prepared that summarizes the principal results of all of these projects during the six-month reporting period.

  1. Subtype C1 persistent infection of HHV-8 in a PEL patient.

    PubMed

    Metaxa-Mariatou, V; Papaioannou, D; Loli, A; Papadopoulou, I; Gazouli, M; Mavroudis, P; Nasioulas, G

    2005-10-01

    PEL, a rare type of lymphoma constituting less than 5% of NHLs, has been recently identified as a distinct clinical and pathological entity among the B-cell lymphomas, with characteristic morphologic, immunophenotypic, molecular and viral features. ICC, PCR, RT-PCR and sequencing were carried out in biologicals samples from a 44-year-old, non-smoker Caucasian male patient of Greek nationality, HIV-1 negative and HCV positive. The ICC results showed CD30 + , Vimentin + , EMA + , Ki67 + , Pankeratin- and negative to B and T antibodies. In addition, HHV-8 was detected in pleural fluid. Examination of blood samples of the patient over a period of nearly two years showed a persistent infection of HHV-8. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a close relation to the C1 variant of HHV-8. The samples was also found EBV negative by PCR. Using a combination of clinical, morphological, immunohistochemical features and molecular biology techniques in this study we document a PEL case with persistent HHV-8 of genotype C1 infection.

  2. Cancer/Testis Antigen MAGE-C1/CT7: New Target for Multiple Myeloma Therapy

    PubMed Central

    de Carvalho, Fabricio; Vettore, André L.; Colleoni, Gisele W. B.

    2012-01-01

    Cancer/Testis Antigens (CTAs) are a promising class of tumor antigens that have a limited expression in somatic tissues (testis, ovary, fetal, and placental cells). Aberrant expression of CTAs in cancer cells may lead to abnormal chromosome segregation and aneuploidy. CTAs are regulated by epigenetic mechanisms (DNA methylation and acetylation of histones) and are attractive targets for immunotherapy in cancer because the gonads are immune privileged organs and anti-CTA immune response can be tumor-specific. Multiple myeloma (MM) is an incurable hematological malignancy, and several CTAs have been detected in many MM cell lines and patients. Among CTAs expressed in MM we must highlight the MAGE-C1/CT7 located on the X chromosome and expressed specificity in the malignant plasma cells. MAGE-C1/CT7 seems to be related to disease progression and functional studies suggests that this CTA might play a role in cell cycle and mainly in survival of malignant plasma cells, protecting myeloma cells against spontaneous as well as drug-induced apoptosis. PMID:22481966

  3. The non-inflammatory role of C1q during Her2/neu-driven mammary carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Bandini, Silvio; Macagno, Marco; Hysi, Albana; Lanzardo, Stefania; Conti, Laura; Bello, Amanda; Riccardo, Federica; Ruiu, Roberto; Merighi, Irene Fiore; Forni, Guido; Iezzi, Manuela; Quaglino, Elena; Cavallo, Federica

    2016-01-01

    There is an ever increasing amount of evidence to support the hypothesis that complement C1q, the first component of the classical complement pathway, is involved in the regulation of cancer growth, in addition to its role in fighting infections. It has been demonstrated that C1q is expressed in the microenvironment of various types of human tumors, including breast adenocarcinomas. This study compares carcinogenesis progression in C1q deficient (neuT-C1KO) and C1q competent neuT mice in order to investigate the role of C1q in mammary carcinogenesis. Significantly accelerated autochthonous neu(+) carcinoma progression was paralleled by accelerated spontaneous lung metastases occurrence in C1q deficient mice. Surprisingly, this effect was not caused by differences in the tumor-infiltrating cells or in the activation of the complement classical pathway, since neuT-C1KO mice did not display a reduction in C3 fragment deposition at the tumor site. By contrast, a significant higher number of intratumor blood vessels and a decrease in the activation of the tumor suppressor WW domain containing oxidoreductase (WWOX) were observed in tumors from neuT-C1KO as compare with neuT mice. In parallel, an increase in Her2/neu expression was observed on the membrane of tumor cells. Taken together, our findings suggest that C1q plays a direct role both on halting tumor angiogenesis and on inducing apoptosis in mammary cancer cells by coordinating the signal transduction pathways linked to WWOX and, furthermore, highlight the role of C1q in mammary tumor immune surveillance regardless of complement system activation.

  4. 10.6 Micron Parametric Frequency Converter

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-05-30

    1974). 15. C. H. Towncs and A. L. Schawlow, "Microwave Spectroscopy " McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc. (New York 1955). 40 16. Sec, for example, A. Yariv...One plate of the St bsorption cell is grounded while the other plate is driven by a 9 Hz 300 \\l peak to peak square wave imposed on a slow...June 1976. 4. C. H. Townes and A. L. Schawlow, Microwave Spectroscopy (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1955), p. 256. 5. P. T. Dawson and R. S. Hansen, J. Chem

  5. Epizootiological study of rodent-borne hepatitis E virus HEV-C1 in small mammals in Hanoi, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Obana, Satomu; Shimizu, Kenta; Yoshimatsu, Kumiko; Hasebe, Futoshi; Hotta, Kozue; Isozumi, Rie; Nguyen, Hoa Thuy; LE, Mai Quynh; Yamashiro, Tetsu; Tsuda, Yoshimi; Arikawa, Jiro

    2017-01-20

    There is concern about the zoonotic potential of rodent-borne hepatitis E virus, designated as HEV-C1. However, epizootiological information about HEV-C1 is limited. To address this issue, serum samples from 443 small mammals captured at 5 sites in Hanoi, Vietnam, were examined for anti-HEV-C1 IgG antibodies. In addition, livers of seropositive animals were examined for viral RNA. Anti-HEV-C1 antibodies were detected in 57 (12.9%) of the 443 serum samples. Seropositive animals were found in all of the sites (4.7% to 22.2%). Anti-HEV-C1 antibodies were detected from 48 (12.3%) of 389 Rattus norvegicus and 9 (19.6%) of 46 R. tanezumi, but were not detected from 8 Suncus murinus. Viral RNAs were detected from 13 (22.8%) of the 57 seropositive rodents. The detection rate of viral RNA in seropositive R. tanezumi (66.7%, 6/9) was significantly higher than that in seropositive R. norvegicus (14.6%, 7/48). The results suggest that R. tanezumi is more susceptible than R. norvegicus to HEV-C1 infection. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that Vietnamese strains were divided into 3 clusters in genetic group 2 of HEV-C1. Multiple clusters of viruses were detected at several sites without species specificity, suggesting that 3 clusters of HEV-C1 co-circulate in Hanoi, Vietnam.

  6. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-binding protein C1orf124 is a regulator of translesion synthesis.

    PubMed

    Ghosal, Gargi; Leung, Justin Wai-Chung; Nair, Binoj C; Fong, Ka-Wing; Chen, Junjie

    2012-10-05

    DNA damage-induced proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) ubiquitination serves as the key event mediating post-replication repair. Post-replication repair involves either translesion synthesis (TLS) or damage avoidance via template switching. In this study, we have identified and characterized C1orf124 as a regulator of TLS. C1orf124 co-localizes and interacts with unmodified and mono-ubiquitinated PCNA at UV light-induced damage sites, which require the PIP box and UBZ domain of C1orf124. C1orf124 also binds to the AAA-ATPase valosin-containing protein via its SHP domain, and cellular resistance to UV radiation mediated by C1orf124 requires its interactions with valosin-containing protein and PCNA. Interestingly, C1orf124 binds to replicative DNA polymerase POLD3 and PDIP1 under normal conditions but preferentially associates with TLS polymerase η (POLH) upon UV damage. Depletion of C1orf124 compromises PCNA monoubiquitination, RAD18 chromatin association, and RAD18 localization to UV damage sites. Thus, C1orf124 acts at multiple steps in TLS, stabilizes RAD18 and ubiquitinated PCNA at damage sites, and facilitates the switch from replicative to TLS polymerase to bypass DNA lesion.

  7. C1, a highly potent novel curcumin derivative, binds to tubulin, disrupts microtubule network and induces apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Shalini; Mishra, Satyendra; Surolia, Avadhesha; Panda, Dulal

    2016-01-01

    We have synthesized a curcumin derivative, 4-{5-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-phenyl)-2-[3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-phenyl)-acryloyl]-3-oxo-penta-1,4-dienyl}-piperidine-1-carboxylic acid tert-butyl ester (C1) that displays much stronger antiproliferative activity against various types of cancer cells including multidrug resistance cells than curcumin. C1 depolymerized both interphase and mitotic microtubules in MCF-7 cells and also inhibited the reassembly of microtubules in these cells. C1 inhibited the polymerization of purified tubulin, disrupted the lattice structure of microtubules and suppressed their GTPase activity in vitro The compound bound to tubulin with a dissociation constant of 2.8±1 μM and perturbed the secondary structures of tubulin. Further, C1 treatment reduced the expression of Bcl2, increased the expression of Bax and down regulated the level of a key regulator of p53, murine double minute 2 (Mdm2) (S166), in MCF-7 cells. C1 appeared to induce p53 mediated apoptosis in MCF-7 cells. Interestingly, C1 showed more stability in aqueous buffer than curcumin. The results together showed that C1 perturbed microtubule network and inhibited cancer cells proliferation more efficiently than curcumin. The strong antiproliferative activity and improved stability of C1 indicated that the compound may have a potential as an anticancer agent.

  8. In situ detection of the Clostridium botulinum type C1 toxin gene in wetland sediments with a nested PCR assay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williamson, J.L.; Rocke, T.E.; Aiken, Judd M.

    1999-01-01

    A nested PCR was developed for detection of the Clostridium botulinum type C1 toxin gene in sediments collected from wetlands where avian botulism outbreaks had or had not occurred. The C1 toxin gene was detected in 16 of 18 sites, demonstrating both the ubiquitous distribution of C. botulinum type C in wetland sediments and the sensitivity of the detection assay.

  9. 40 CFR Table C-1 to Subpart C of... - Test Concentration Ranges, Number of Measurements Required, and Maximum Discrepancy Specifications

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Test Concentration Ranges, Number of... Reference Methods Pt. 53, Subpt. C, Table C-1 Table C-1 to Subpart C of Part 53—Test Concentration Ranges, Number of Measurements Required, and Maximum Discrepancy Specifications Pollutant Concentration...

  10. 40 CFR Table C-1 to Subpart C of... - Test Concentration Ranges, Number of Measurements Required, and Maximum Discrepancy Specifications

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Test Concentration Ranges, Number of... Reference Methods Pt. 53, Subpt. C, Table C-1 Table C-1 to Subpart C of Part 53—Test Concentration Ranges, Number of Measurements Required, and Maximum Discrepancy Specifications Pollutant Concentration...

  11. 40 CFR Table C-1 to Subpart C of... - Test Concentration Ranges, Number of Measurements Required, and Maximum Discrepancy Specifications

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Test Concentration Ranges, Number of... Reference Methods Pt. 53, Subpt. C, Table C-1 Table C-1 to Subpart C of Part 53—Test Concentration Ranges, Number of Measurements Required, and Maximum Discrepancy Specifications Pollutant Concentration...

  12. 40 CFR Table C-1 to Subpart C of... - Test Concentration Ranges, Number of Measurements Required, and Maximum Discrepancy Specifications

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Test Concentration Ranges, Number of... Reference Methods Pt. 53, Subpt. C, Table C-1 Table C-1 to Subpart C of Part 53—Test Concentration Ranges, Number of Measurements Required, and Maximum Discrepancy Specifications Pollutant Concentration...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10108 - Naphthalenedisulfonic acid, hydrozy-[[[(hydroxyl-disulfo-naphthaleneyl)azo]-alkyl(C=1-5...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...- -alkyl(C=1-5)-(sulfoalkoxy)cyclic]azo]-substituted azo-, metal salt (generic). 721.10108 Section 721.10108 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT... Naphthalenedisulfonic acid, hydrozy- -alkyl(C=1-5)-(sulfoalkoxy)cyclic]azo]-substituted azo-, metal salt (generic)....

  14. 40 CFR 721.10108 - Naphthalenedisulfonic acid, hydrozy-[[[(hydroxyl-disulfo-naphthaleneyl)azo]-alkyl(C=1-5...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...- -alkyl(C=1-5)-(sulfoalkoxy)cyclic]azo]-substituted azo-, metal salt (generic). 721.10108 Section 721.10108 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT... Naphthalenedisulfonic acid, hydrozy- -alkyl(C=1-5)-(sulfoalkoxy)cyclic]azo]-substituted azo-, metal salt (generic)....

  15. 40 CFR 721.10108 - Naphthalenedisulfonic acid, hydrozy-[[[(hydroxyl-disulfo-naphthaleneyl)azo]-alkyl(C=1-5...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...- -alkyl(C=1-5)-(sulfoalkoxy)cyclic]azo]-substituted azo-, metal salt (generic). 721.10108 Section 721.10108 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT... Naphthalenedisulfonic acid, hydrozy- -alkyl(C=1-5)-(sulfoalkoxy)cyclic]azo]-substituted azo-, metal salt (generic)....

  16. The macular degeneration-linked C1QTNF5 (S163) mutation causes higher-order structural rearrangements.

    PubMed

    Tu, Xiongying; Palczewski, Krzysztof

    2014-04-01

    The C1q-tumor necrosis factor 5 (C1QTNF5) protein plays a significant role in retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) cellular adhesion. The C1QTNF5 gene is co-transcribed with the frizzled-related protein (MFRP) gene. A Ser-to-Arg mutation at site 163 (S163R) in C1QTNF5 is known to cause late-onset retinal macular degeneration (L-ORMD). Here we also found that C1QTNF5 monomers can multimerize into a bouquet-like octadecamer. We found that a novel intermolecular hydrogen-bond network of S163 that glues adjacent globular heads of C1QTNF5 together was weakened or abolished by the R163 pathogenic mutation. These findings could underlie the structural basis of this protein's adhesive function and relate to the pathogenesis of its S163R mutation. Additionally, the fact that C1QTNF5 immobilized to a resin selectively enriched detergent extracted membrane-bound MFRP, further confirmed their interaction, implying functions other than cellular adhesion for C1QTNF5.

  17. The macular degeneration-linked C1QTNF5 (S163) mutation causes higher-order structural rearrangements

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Xiongying; Palczewski, Krzysztof

    2014-01-01

    The C1q-tumor necrosis factor 5 (C1QTNF5) protein plays a significant role in retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) cellular adhesion. The C1QTNF5 gene is co-transcribed with the frizzled-related protein (MFRP) gene. A Ser-to-Arg mutation at site 163 (S163R) in C1QTNF5 is known to cause late-onset retinal macular degeneration (L-ORMD). Here we also found that C1QTNF5 monomers can multimerize into a bouquet-like octadecamer. We found that a novel intermolecular hydrogen-bond network of S163 that glues adjacent globular heads of C1QTNF5 together and was weakened or abolished by the R163 pathogenic mutation. These findings could underlie the structural basis of this protein’s adhesive function and relate to the pathogenesis of its S163R mutation. Additionally, the fact that C1QTNF5 immobilized to a resin selectively enriched detergent extracted membrane-bound MFRP, further confirming their interaction and implying functions other than cellular adhesion for C1QTNF5. PMID:24531000

  18. 29 CFR 2550.401c-1 - Definition of “plan assets”-insurance company general accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... accounts. 2550.401c-1 Section 2550.401c-1 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EMPLOYEE BENEFITS... an insurer issues one or more policies to or for the benefit of an employee benefit plan (and such... of guaranteed benefits or to the payment of benefits, and the terms on which such withdrawals...

  19. 17 CFR 240.19c-1 - Governing certain off-board agency transactions by members of national securities exchanges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Governing certain off-board agency transactions by members of national securities exchanges. 240.19c-1 Section 240.19c-1 Commodity... members of national securities exchanges. The rules of each national securities exchange shall provide...

  20. 17 CFR 240.19c-1 - Governing certain off-board agency transactions by members of national securities exchanges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Governing certain off-board agency transactions by members of national securities exchanges. 240.19c-1 Section 240.19c-1 Commodity... members of national securities exchanges. The rules of each national securities exchange shall provide...

  1. 17 CFR 240.19c-1 - Governing certain off-board agency transactions by members of national securities exchanges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Governing certain off-board agency transactions by members of national securities exchanges. 240.19c-1 Section 240.19c-1 Commodity... members of national securities exchanges. The rules of each national securities exchange shall provide...

  2. 17 CFR 240.19c-1 - Governing certain off-board agency transactions by members of national securities exchanges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Governing certain off-board agency transactions by members of national securities exchanges. 240.19c-1 Section 240.19c-1 Commodity... members of national securities exchanges. The rules of each national securities exchange shall provide...

  3. 17 CFR 240.19c-1 - Governing certain off-board agency transactions by members of national securities exchanges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Governing certain off-board agency transactions by members of national securities exchanges. 240.19c-1 Section 240.19c-1 Commodity... members of national securities exchanges. The rules of each national securities exchange shall provide...

  4. Epizootiological study of rodent-borne hepatitis E virus HEV-C1 in small mammals in Hanoi, Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    OBANA, Satomu; SHIMIZU, Kenta; YOSHIMATSU, Kumiko; HASEBE, Futoshi; HOTTA, Kozue; ISOZUMI, Rie; NGUYEN, Hoa Thuy; LE, Mai Quynh; YAMASHIRO, Tetsu; TSUDA, Yoshimi; ARIKAWA, Jiro

    2016-01-01

    There is concern about the zoonotic potential of rodent-borne hepatitis E virus, designated as HEV-C1. However, epizootiological information about HEV-C1 is limited. To address this issue, serum samples from 443 small mammals captured at 5 sites in Hanoi, Vietnam, were examined for anti-HEV-C1 IgG antibodies. In addition, livers of seropositive animals were examined for viral RNA. Anti-HEV-C1 antibodies were detected in 57 (12.9%) of the 443 serum samples. Seropositive animals were found in all of the sites (4.7% to 22.2%). Anti-HEV-C1 antibodies were detected from 48 (12.3%) of 389 Rattus norvegicus and 9 (19.6%) of 46 R. tanezumi, but were not detected from 8 Suncus murinus. Viral RNAs were detected from 13 (22.8%) of the 57 seropositive rodents. The detection rate of viral RNA in seropositive R. tanezumi (66.7%, 6/9) was significantly higher than that in seropositive R. norvegicus (14.6%, 7/48). The results suggest that R. tanezumi is more susceptible than R. norvegicus to HEV-C1 infection. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that Vietnamese strains were divided into 3 clusters in genetic group 2 of HEV-C1. Multiple clusters of viruses were detected at several sites without species specificity, suggesting that 3 clusters of HEV-C1 co-circulate in Hanoi, Vietnam. PMID:27795461

  5. Suppression of complement regulatory protein C1 inhibitor in vascular endothelial activation by inhibiting vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 action

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Haimou; Qin, Gangjian; Liang, Gang; Li, Jinan; Chiu, Isaac; Barrington, Robert A.; Liu, Dongxu . E-mail: dxliu001@yahoo.com

    2007-07-13

    Increased expression of adhesion molecules by activated endothelium is a critical feature of vascular inflammation associated with the several diseases such as endotoxin shock and sepsis/septic shock. Our data demonstrated complement regulatory protein C1 inhibitor (C1INH) prevents endothelial cell injury. We hypothesized that C1INH has the ability of an anti-endothelial activation associated with suppression of expression of adhesion molecule(s). C1INH blocked leukocyte adhesion to endothelial cell monolayer in both static assay and flow conditions. In inflammatory condition, C1INH reduced vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1) expression associated with its cytoplasmic mRNA destabilization and nuclear transcription level. Studies exploring the underlying mechanism of C1INH-mediated suppression in VCAM-1 expression were related to reduction of NF-{kappa}B activation and nuclear translocation in an I{kappa}B{alpha}-dependent manner. The inhibitory effects were associated with reduction of inhibitor I{kappa}B kinase activity and stabilization of the NF-{kappa}B inhibitor I{kappa}B. These findings indicate a novel role for C1INH in inhibition of vascular endothelial activation. These observations could provide the basis for new therapeutic application of C1INH to target inflammatory processes in different pathologic situations.

  6. Drosophila DPP2C1, a novel member of the protein phosphatase 2C (PP2C) family.

    PubMed

    Dick, T; Bahri, S M; Chia, W

    1997-10-15

    We report the molecular cloning, chromosome mapping and developmental transcription pattern of a putative serine/threonine protein phosphatase 2C (PP2C), DPP2C1, from Drosophila melanogaster. The 6-kb transcript of this first Drosophila PP2C gene encodes a 1428-aa deduced protein. The DPP2C1 protein contains a approximately 330-aa PP2C-like catalytic domain flanked by extensive N- and C-terminal sequences showing no similarities to other PP2Cs. The dpp2c1 gene maps to 4E1-2 on the X chromosome, 1.5 kb upstream of the ddlc1 gene. Northern blot analyses showed that dpp2c1 transcription is developmentally regulated, accumulating maximally during early (0-6 h) and late (12-24 h) embryogensis. The presented molecular characterisation provides the basis for a genetic dissection of DPP2C1 function.

  7. Non-Ideal ELM Stability and Non-Axisymmetric Field Penetration Calculations with M3D-C1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferraro, N. M.; Chu, M. S.; Snyder, P. B.; Jardin, S. C.; Luo, X.

    2009-11-01

    Numerical studies of ELM stability and non-axisymmetric field penetration in diverted DIII-D and NSTX equilibria are presented, with resistive and finite Larmor radius effects included. These results are obtained with the nonlinear two-fluid code M3D-C1, which has recently been extended to allow linear non-axisymmetric calculations. Benchmarks of M3D-C1 with ideal codes ELITE and GATO show good agreement for the linear stability of peeling-ballooning modes in the ideal limit. New calculations of the resistive stability of ideally stable DIII-D equilibria are presented. M3D-C1 has also been used to calculate the linear response to non-axisymmetric external fields; these calculations are benchmarked with Surfmn and MARS-F. New numerical methods implemented in M3D-C1 are presented, including the treatment of boundary conditions with C^1 elements in a non-rectangular mesh.

  8. 84 Immuno-Safety of Recombinant Human C1 Inhibitor in Patients With Hereditary Angioedema: An Integrated Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hack, Erik; Relan, Anurag; Kaufman, Leonard; Pijpstra, Rienk

    2012-01-01

    Background Recombinant C1 inhibitor (rhC1INH) is a novel therapeutic option for the treatment of acute angioedema attacks in patients with hereditary angioedema (HAE). The amino acid sequence of rhC1INH is identical to that of endogenous C1INH. However, any recombinant protein may elicit antibodies against the protein and/or host related impurities (HRI). Clinical consequences of these antibodies can theoretically range from no clinical symptoms to allergic reactions and reduced C1INH activity due to neutralizing antibodies. Objective To analyze the immuno-safety of rhC1INH in symptomatic patients with HAE. Methods Plasma samples were collected pre-treatment and 22 and 90 days post-treatment of an acute angioedema attack. Plasma samples were tested for the presence of antibodies against plasma-derived C1INH and rhC1INH using 6 different, validated enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), to detect IgM, IgG and IgA antibodies against plasma-derived C1INH or rhC1INH. Antibodies against HRI in plasma samples were measured in an ELISA testing for all antibody classes. Plasma samples from normal healthy controls and HAE patients, never exposed to rhC1INH, were used to estimate cut off levels of the assays. Plasma samples with antibody levels above the cut-off level in the screening assays were tested in confirmatory displacement assay in case of anti-HRI antibodies and in an assay for neutralizing antibodies in case of antibodies against C1INH. Results Data from 155 symptomatic HAE patients having received a total of 424 administrations of rhC1INH were analyzed. The frequency of anti-C1INH antibody levels above the assay cut-off was low and similar in pre- and post-exposure samples (1.7 and 1.8%, respectively). Results above the assay cut-off were sporadic and transient. Occurrence of anti-C1INH antibodies did not correlate with repeated treatment or time since last treatment. No neutralizing antibodies were detected. A total of 5/155 (3%) rhC1INH-treated patients

  9. Differential Effects of C1qa Ablation on Glaucomatous Damage in Two Sexes in DBA/2NNia Mice

    PubMed Central

    Genis, Alina; Danias, John

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To determine the sex and age-related effects of C1qa ablation on retinal ganglion cell (RGC) and optic nerve (ON) axonal loss in a mouse model of glaucomatous neurodegeneration. Methods Congenic C1qa mice were generated in the DBA/2NNia background. Female and male knockout (-/-), heterozygous (+/-), and wild type (+/+) mice were aged up to 14 months and IOPs were recorded in a subset of animals. Retinas of mice from all three groups at 5–6, 9–10 and 11–13 months of age were flat-mounted after retrograde labeling with Fluorogold. Imaged retinas were scored (RGC score) semi-quantitatively on a 10 point scale by two independent observers. A subset of retinas and optic nerves were also used for measurement of total number of RGCs. Semi-thin sections of ON were imaged and graded (ON score) for the amount of axonal damage semi-quantitatively, by two masked observers. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used for statistical comparisons. Microglial cells in flat-mounted retinas of 5–6 month old C1qa -/- and C1qa +/+ mice were used for assessment of microglial activation utilizing morphological criteria. Results Female C1qa -/- mice had significantly higher IOP (p<0.000001, ANOVA) between 8 and 13 months of age compared to C1qa +/+ animals. No differences in IOPs between animals of the three genotypes were observed in males. At 5–6 months of age, there was no difference in RGC or ON scores between the three genotypes in animals of either sex. At 9–10 months of age, female mice didn’t show significant differences in RGC or ON scores between the three genotypes. However, male C1qa -/- and C1qa +/- mice of the same age had better RGC and ON scores (p<0.003 and p<0.05, ANCOVA, for RGC and ON scores, respectively) compared with C1qa +/+ mice. At 11–13 months of age, female C1qa -/- mice had better RGC scores (p<0.006, ANCOVA) compared to C1qa +/+ and C1qa +/- animals. Accordingly, C1qa -/- mice had higher RGC counts (p<0.03, t-test) compared to C1qa

  10. Hereditary angioedema with normal C1 inhibitor in a French cohort: Clinical characteristics and response to treatment with icatibant

    PubMed Central

    Boccon‐Gibod, Isabelle; Launay, David; Gompel, Anne; Kanny, Gisele; Fabien, Vincent; Fain, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Introduction The clinical characteristics and icatibant‐treatment outcomes of patients with hereditary angioedema with normal C1 inhibitor (HAE‐nC1 INH) are limited. Methods We retrospectively analyzed data from French HAE patients enrolled in the Icatibant Outcome Survey registry (from July 2009 to September 2013) to compare disease characteristics and the effectiveness and safety of acute icatibant‐treated angioedema attacks in patients with HAE‐nC1 INH, HAE with C1 INH deficiency (type I), or dysfunction (type II). Results One center in Grenoble contributed 22 patients with HAE‐nC1 INH and a family history of HAE while 15 centers across France contributed 153 patients with HAE type I and seven patients with HAE type II. Patients with HAE‐nC1 INH compared to HAE type I, respectively, were more likely to be female (88.1% vs. 63.4%), older at median age of disease onset (21 years vs. 15 years), and have a greater rate of abdominal (80% vs. 61%) and laryngeal (23% vs. 14%) attacks. Icatibant was effective in both groups though the median time to resolution of attack was significantly longer in the HAE‐nC1 INH group (20.0 h, 37 attacks) versus the HAE type I group (14.0 h, 67 attacks). Icatibant was self‐administered for 96.1% of attacks in patients with HAE‐nC1 INH and 75.8% in patients with HAE type I. No serious adverse side effects related to icatibant were reported. Conclusions These data help further define the disease characteristics of HAE‐nC1 INH in the French population and extend the limited data reporting the safe and effective use of icatibant in acute treatment of angioedema in French patients diagnosed with HAE‐nC1 INH. PMID:28250922

  11. Synapse organization and modulation via C1q family proteins and their receptors in the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Keiko

    2016-11-12

    Several C1q family members, related to the C1q complement component are extensively expressed in the central nervous system. Cbln1, which belongs to the Cbln subfamily of C1q proteins and released from cerebellar granule cells, plays an indispensable role in the synapse formation and function at parallel fiber-Purkinje cell synapses. This is achieved by formation of a trans-synaptic tripartite complex which is composed of one unit of the Cbln1 hexamer, monomeric neurexin (NRX) containing a splice site 4 insertion at presynaptic terminals and the postsynaptic GluD2 dimers. Recently an increasing number of soluble or transmembrane proteins have been identified to bind directly to the amino-terminal domains of iGluR and regulate the recruitment and function of iGluRs at synapses. Especially at mossy fiber (MF)-CA3 synapses in the hippocampus, postsynaptic kainate-type glutamate receptors (KARs) are involved in synaptic network activity through their characteristic channel kinetics. C1ql2 and C1ql3, which belong to the C1q-like subfamily of C1q proteins, are produced by MFs and serve as extracellular organizers to recruit functional postsynaptic KAR complexes at MF-CA3 synapses via binding to the amino-terminal domains of GluK2 and GluK4 KAR subunits. In addition, C1ql2 and C1ql3 directly bind to NRX3 containing sequences encoded by exon 25b insertion at splice site 5. In the present review, we highlighted the generality of the strategy by tripartite complex formation of the specific type of NRX and iGluR via C1q family members.

  12. Endothelial targeting with C1-inhibitor reduces complement activation in vitro and during ex vivo reperfusion of pig liver

    PubMed Central

    Bergamaschini, L; Gobbo, G; Gatti, S; Caccamo, L; Prato, P; Maggioni, M; Braidotti, P; Di Stefano, R; Fassati, L R

    2001-01-01

    Tissue damage during cold storage and reperfusion remains a major obstacle to wider use of transplantation. Vascular endothelial cells and complement activation are thought to be involved in the inflammatory reactions following reperfusion, so endothelial targeting of complement inhibitors is of great interest. Using an in vitro model of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) cold storage and an animal model of ex vivo liver reperfusion after cold ischaemia, we assessed the effect of C1-INH on cell functions and liver damage. We found that in vitro C1-INH bound to HUVEC in a manner depending on the duration of cold storage. Cell-bound C1-INH was functionally active since retained the ability to inhibit exogenous C1s. To assess the ability of cell-bound C1-INH to prevent complement activation during organ reperfusion, we added C1-INH to the preservation solution in an animal model of extracorporeal liver reperfusion. Ex vivo liver reperfusion after 8 h of cold ischaemia resulted in plasma C3 activation and reduction of total serum haemolytic activity, and at tissue level deposition of C3 associated with variable level of inflammatory cell infiltration and tissue damage. These findings were reduced when livers were stored in preservation solution containing C1-INH. Immunohistochemical analysis of C1-INH-treated livers showed immunoreactivity localized on the sinusoidal pole of the liver trabeculae, linked to sinusoidal endothelium, so it is likely that the protective effect was due to C1-INH retained by the livers. These results suggest that adding C1-INH to the preservation solution may be useful to reduce complement activation and tissue injury during the reperfusion of an ischaemic liver. PMID:11737055

  13. Endothelial targeting with C1-inhibitor reduces complement activation in vitro and during ex vivo reperfusion of pig liver.

    PubMed

    Bergamaschini, L; Gobbo, G; Gatti, S; Caccamo, L; Prato, P; Maggioni, M; Braidotti, P; Di Stefano, R; Fassati, L R

    2001-12-01

    Tissue damage during cold storage and reperfusion remains a major obstacle to wider use of transplantation. Vascular endothelial cells and complement activation are thought to be involved in the inflammatory reactions following reperfusion, so endothelial targeting of complement inhibitors is of great interest. Using an in vitro model of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) cold storage and an animal model of ex vivo liver reperfusion after cold ischaemia, we assessed the effect of C1-INH on cell functions and liver damage. We found that in vitro C1-INH bound to HUVEC in a manner depending on the duration of cold storage. Cell-bound C1-INH was functionally active since retained the ability to inhibit exogenous C1s. To assess the ability of cell-bound C1-INH to prevent complement activation during organ reperfusion, we added C1-INH to the preservation solution in an animal model of extracorporeal liver reperfusion. Ex vivo liver reperfusion after 8 h of cold ischaemia resulted in plasma C3 activation and reduction of total serum haemolytic activity, and at tissue level deposition of C3 associated with variable level of inflammatory cell infiltration and tissue damage. These findings were reduced when livers were stored in preservation solution containing C1-INH. Immunohistochemical analysis of C1-INH-treated livers showed immunoreactivity localized on the sinusoidal pole of the liver trabeculae, linked to sinusoidal endothelium, so it is likely that the protective effect was due to C1-INH retained by the livers. These results suggest that adding C1-INH to the preservation solution may be useful to reduce complement activation and tissue injury during the reperfusion of an ischaemic liver.

  14. Optogenetic Stimulation of Adrenergic C1 Neurons Causes Sleep State–Dependent Cardiorespiratory Stimulation and Arousal with Sighs in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Peter G. R.; Abbott, Stephen B. G.; Coates, Melissa B.; Viar, Kenneth E.; Stornetta, Ruth L.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: The rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) contains central respiratory chemoreceptors (retrotrapezoid nucleus, RTN) and the sympathoexcitatory, hypoxia-responsive C1 neurons. Simultaneous optogenetic stimulation of these neurons produces vigorous cardiorespiratory stimulation, sighing, and arousal from non-REM sleep. Objectives: To identify the effects that result from selectively stimulating C1 cells. Methods: A Cre-dependent vector expressing channelrhodopsin 2 (ChR2) fused with enhanced yellow fluorescent protein or mCherry was injected into the RVLM of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-Cre rats. The response of ChR2-transduced neurons to light was examined in anesthetized rats. ChR2-transduced C1 neurons were photoactivated in conscious rats while EEG, neck muscle EMG, blood pressure (BP), and breathing were recorded. Measurements and Main Results: Most ChR2-expressing neurons (95%) contained C1 neuron markers and innervated the spinal cord. RTN neurons were not transduced. While the rats were under anesthesia, the C1 cells were faithfully activated by each light pulse up to 40 Hz. During quiet resting and non-REM sleep, C1 cell stimulation (20 s, 2–20 Hz) increased BP and respiratory frequency and produced sighs and arousal from non-REM sleep. Arousal was frequency-dependent (85% probability at 20 Hz). Stimulation during REM sleep increased BP, but had no effect on EEG or breathing. C1 cell–mediated breathing stimulation was occluded by hypoxia (12% FIO2), but was unchanged by 6% FiCO2. Conclusions: C1 cell stimulation reproduces most effects of acute hypoxia, specifically cardiorespiratory stimulation, sighs, and arousal. C1 cell activation likely contributes to the sleep disruption and adverse autonomic consequences of sleep apnea. During hypoxia (awake) or REM sleep, C1 cell stimulation increases BP but no longer stimulates breathing. PMID:25325789

  15. Impact of Oatp1c1 deficiency on thyroid hormone metabolism and action in the mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Mayerl, Steffen; Visser, Theo J; Darras, Veerle M; Horn, Sigrun; Heuer, Heike

    2012-03-01

    Organic anion-transporting polypeptide 1c1 (Oatp1c1) (also known as Slco1c1 and Oatp14) belongs to the family of Oatp and has been shown to facilitate the transport of T(4). In the rodent brain, Oatp1c1 is highly enriched in capillary endothelial cells and choroid plexus structures where it may mediate the entry of T(4) into the central nervous system. Here, we describe the generation and first analysis of Oatp1c1-deficient mice. Oatp1c1 knockout (KO) mice were born with the expected frequency, were not growth retarded, and developed without any overt neurological abnormalities. Serum T(3) and T(4) concentrations as well as renal and hepatic deiodinase type 1 expression levels were indistinguishable between Oatp1c1 KO mice and control animals. Hypothalamic TRH and pituitary TSH mRNA levels were not affected, but brain T(4) and T(3) content was decreased in Oatp1c1-deficient animals. Moreover, increased type 2 and decreased type 3 deiodinase activities indicate a mild hypothyroid situation in the brain of Oatp1c1 KO mice. Consequently, mRNA expression levels of gene products positively regulated by T(3) in the brain were down-regulated. This central nervous system-specific hypothyroidism is presumably caused by an impaired passage of T(4) across the blood-brain barrier and indicates a unique function of Oatp1c1 in facilitating T(4) transport despite the presence of other thyroid hormone transporters such as Mct8.

  16. Does acetylcholine released within the C1 area of the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVL) tonically maintain arterial pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Arneric, S.P.; Giuliano, R.; Ernsberger, P.; Underwood, M.D.; Reis, D.J.

    1986-03-05

    The RVL, which contains C1 epinephrine neurons (C1 area), plays a major role in the maintenance and reflex control of arterial pressure (AP). Muscarinic cholinergic stimulation of the C1 area is sympathoexcitatory. They sought to determine whether the C1 area of rat: (1) contains choline acetyltransferase (ChAT); (2) releases acetylcholine (ACh); and (3) has ACh receptors. ChAT was immunocytochemically localized to neurons in the C1 area. ChAT activity (pmol/mg prot./40 min; N=5) varied 10-fold over 19 regions microdissected from medulla; it was highest in the hypoglossal and vagal nuclei (203 +/- 63), lowest in the pyramidal tract (19 +/- 4) and moderate in the C1 area (96 +/- 12). Muscarinic binding sites labeled by /sup 3/H-quinuclidinyl benzylate (2 nM) and identified autoradiographically had a similar distribution. Release of /sup 3/H-ACh from (1.0 x 0.5 mm) punches of the C1 area was Ca/sup 2 +/-dependent and graded with respect to the depolarization stimulus (5-55 mM K/sup +/). Bilateral microinjection of atropine sulfate (5.0 nmol/100nl) into the C1 area of urethane anesthetized rats, but not adjacent raphen., lowered MAP (mmHg: - 38 +/- 7; N=7). They conclude that the C1 area contains muscarinic cholinergic receptors and that local neurons synthesize, store and release substantial amounts of ACh. ACh released within the C1 area may participate in the tonic maintenance of resting AP.

  17. Matrix effects in the C 1s photoabsorption spectra of condensed naphthalene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Norman; Wenzel, Jan; Dreuw, Andreas; Fink, Rainer H.; Hieringer, Wolfgang

    2016-12-01

    High-resolution C 1s near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectra of naphthalene are investigated. By comparing the spectral signatures of condensed naphthalene molecules with those of naphthalene in the gas phase, we are able to unambiguously identify spectral features which are affected by the intermolecular interactions in the condensed phase. With the help of calculations using time-dependent density-functional theory and the second-order algebraic-diagrammatic construction scheme for the polarization propagator, resonances in the relevant energy range can be assigned to valence and Rydberg-like excitations. Thus, we obtain a more detailed identification of NEXAFS resonances beyond the present literature.

  18. C1-C2 spondylodiscitis in an adult with SAPHO syndrome: an unusual presentation.

    PubMed

    Harifi, Ghita; Belkhou, Ahlam; El Bouchti, Imane; Ouali Idrissi, Meryem; Chérif Idrissi, Najat; Ousehal, Ahmed; El Hassani, Selma

    2012-02-01

    The main advantage of recognition and diagnosis of SAPHO syndrome is the avoidance of unnecessary prolonged antibiotic treatment and repeated invasive procedures. The combination of synovitis, acne, pustulosis, hyperostosis and aseptic osteitis is known as SAPHO syndrome. The most common site of the disease is the upper anterior chest wall, characterized by predominantly osteosclerotic lesions, hyperostosis, and arthritis of the adjacent joints. Osteosclerosis of the vertebral bodies, hyperostosis, and erosions of the vertebral plates are rarely encountered. We present a case of SAPHO syndrome with C1-C2 spondylodiscitis. Diagnosis of SAPHO syndrome was established using Khan et al. criteria (Schilling, SAPHO syndrome, Encyclopedie Orphanet, 2004). CT showed osteosclerotic lesions of dens axis. MRI sequences reveal inflammatory bone marrow oedema. Radiologists should be aware of this unusual syndrome to avoid misdiagnosis (tumour/infection), unnecessary surgery, and antibiotic therapy.

  19. Outcomes of C1 and C2 posterior screw fixation for upper cervical spine fusion.

    PubMed

    De Iure, F; Donthineni, R; Boriani, S

    2009-06-01

    To achieve stable fixation of the upper cervical spine in posterior fusions, the occiput is often included. With the newer techniques, excluding fixation to the occiput will retain the occiput-cervical motion, while still allowing a stable fixation. Harms's technique has been adapted at our institution and its effectiveness for indications such as C2 complex fractures and tumors using C1 or C2 as endpoints of a posterior fixation are reviewed. Fourteen cases were identified, consisting of one os odontoideum; four acute fractures and four non-unions of the odontoid; three tumors and two complex fractures of C2 vertebral body, and one C2-C3 post-traumatic instability. One misplaced screw without clinical consequences was the only complication recorded. Screw loosening or migration was not observed at follow-up, showing a stable fixation.

  20. C1 CHEMISTRY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ULTRA-CLEAN LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND HYDROGEN

    SciTech Connect

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2004-09-30

    The Consortium for Fossil Fuel Science (CFFS) is a research consortium with participants from the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, West Virginia University, University of Utah, and Auburn University. The CFFS is conducting a research program to develop C1 chemistry technology for the production of clean transportation fuel from resources such as coal and natural gas, which are more plentiful domestically than petroleum. The processes under development will convert feedstocks containing one carbon atom per molecular unit into ultra clean liquid transportation fuels (gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel) and hydrogen, which many believe will be the transportation fuel of the future. Feedstocks include synthesis gas, a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification, coalbed methane, light products produced by Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis, methanol, and natural gas.

  1. High resolution spectroscopy of comet C/2002 C1 Ikeya-Zhang with SARG at TNG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capria, M. T.; Cremonese, G.; Boattini, A.; de Sanctis, M. C.; D'Abramo, G.; Buzzoni, A.

    2002-11-01

    A program of high resolution spectroscopy of comets is being conducted at TNG in Canary Islands using the echelle spectrograph SARG. The aim of the program is to catalogue known and unknown emission lines, compare them with the lines already listed in existing catalogues and possibly identify unknown lines. In the visible range of the spectrum emission lines of daughter molecules and ions can be found, and many of them are still unidentified. The comet C/2002 C1 Ikeya-Zhang was observed with SARG during the night 19-20 of April and spectra with two different setups were taken. In the first case a narrow band filter was used to isolate the sodium emissions with a long slit and R = 43000. The data show very interesting cometary sodium emissions in the coma. The second setup used a short slit covering the spectral range of 4620-7920 Å with R = 57000.

  2. Rocket observations of the ultraviolet spectrum of comet Austin (1989c1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahnow, D. J.; Feldman, P. D.; McCandliss, S. R.; Martinez, M. E.

    Long slit ultraviolet spectra of Comet Austin (1989c1) were obtained from a sounding rocket experiment launched from White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico, on 21 April 1990 at 1015 UT. The instrument, known as the Faint Object Telescope, consisted of f/15.5 Dall-Kirkham telescope, a Rowland Circle spectrograph and a microchannel plate intensifier coupled to a Reticon diode array. An onboard television camera transmitted images to the ground during flight, which permitted real-time maneuvers in order to center the comet in the entrance slit. The comet was held near the center of the slit for approximately 270 seconds by sending six pointing corrections, all but one of which was less than 30 arcseconds. The comet's parameters at the time of observation, along with the characteristics of the instrument, are given.

  3. Rocket observations of the ultraviolet spectrum of comet Austin (1989c1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sahnow, D. J.; Feldman, P. D.; Mccandliss, S. R.; Martinez, M. E.

    1990-01-01

    Long slit ultraviolet spectra of Comet Austin (1989c1) were obtained from a sounding rocket experiment launched from White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico, on 21 April 1990 at 1015 UT. The instrument, known as the Faint Object Telescope, consisted of f/15.5 Dall-Kirkham telescope, a Rowland Circle spectrograph and a microchannel plate intensifier coupled to a Reticon diode array. An onboard television camera transmitted images to the ground during flight, which permitted real-time maneuvers in order to center the comet in the entrance slit. The comet was held near the center of the slit for approximately 270 seconds by sending six pointing corrections, all but one of which was less than 30 arcseconds. The comet's parameters at the time of observation, along with the characteristics of the instrument, are given.

  4. Progress of Chiral Schiff Bases with C1 Symmetry in Metal-Catalyzed Asymmetric Reactions.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Masahiko

    2016-12-01

    In this Personal Account, various chiral Schiff base-metal-catalyzed enantioselective organic reactions are reported; the Schiff bases used were O,N,O- as well as N,N,P-tridentate ligands and N,N-bidentate ligands having C1 symmetry. In particular, the enantioselective addition of trimethylsilyl cyanide, dialkylzinc, and organozinc halides to aldehydes, enantioselective 1,4-addition of dialkylzinc to cyclic and acyclic enones, and asymmetric allylic oxidation are reported. Typically, ketimine-type Schiff base-metal complexes exhibited higher reactivity and enantioselectivity compared with the corresponding aldimine-type Schiff base-metal complexes. Notably, remarkable ligand acceleration was observed for all reactions. The obtained products can be used as key intermediates for optically active natural products and pharmaceuticals.

  5. Selection and characterization of DNA aptamers against Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin C1.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yukun; Chen, Xiujuan; Duan, Nuo; Wu, Shijia; Wang, Zhouping; Wei, Xinlin; Wang, Yuanfeng

    2015-01-01

    Enterotoxins from pathogenic bacteria are known as the main reason that can cause the bacterial foodborne diseases. In this study, aptamers that bound to Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin C1 (SEC1) with high affinity and selectivity were generated in vitro by twelve rounds of selection based on magnetic separation technology, with a low-level dissociation constant (Kd) value of 65.14 ± 11.64 nmol/L of aptamer C10. Aptamer-based quantification of SEC1 in the food sample by a graphene oxide (GO)-based method was implemented to investigate the potential of the aptamer against SEC1 with a limit of detection of 6 ng/mL. On the basis of this work, biosensors using the selected SEC1 aptamers as new molecular recognition elements could be applied for innovative determinations of SEC1.

  6. Development and in-house validation of allergen-specific ELISA tests for the quantification of Dau c 1.01, Dau c 1.02 and Dau c 4 in carrot extracts (Daucus carota).

    PubMed

    Foetisch, Kay; Dahl, Lotte; Jansen, Baerbel; Becker, Wolf-Meinhard; Lidholm, Jonas; van Ree, Ronald; Broll, Hermann; Kaul, Susanne; Vieths, Stefan; Holzhauser, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Even though carrot allergy is common in Europe, the amount of different allergens in carrots is still unknown due to a lack of methods for quantitative allergen measurements. The current study aimed at the development of quantitative ELISA tests for the known carrot allergens, namely Dau c 1.01, Dau c 1.02, and Dau c 4 in pure carrot extracts. Monoclonal antibodies targeting the major carrot allergen isoforms Dau c 1.01 and Dau c 1.02 were generated and combined in sandwich ELISA with rabbit antisera against Api g 1, the celery homologue of Dau c 1. A competitive ELISA for the carrot profilin Dau c 4 was based on a polyclonal rabbit antiserum. The three ELISA tests were allergen-specific and displayed detection limits between 0.4 and 6 ng allergen/ml of carrot extract. The mean coefficient of variation (CV) as a means of intraassay variability of the Dau c 1.01, Dau c 1.02 and Dau c 4 ELISA tests was 8.1%, 6.9%, and 11.9%, and the mean interassay CV 13.3%, 37.1% and 15.6%, respectively. Target recovery ranged between 93 and 113%. In conclusion, the specific, accurate and reproducible quantification of three important carrot allergens may help to identify less allergenic carrot varieties, as well as to standardize the amount of allergens in extracts used for carrot allergy diagnosis.

  7. Solubility of alkali metal halides in the ionic liquid [C4C1im][OTf].

    PubMed

    Kuzmina, O; Bordes, E; Schmauck, J; Hunt, P A; Hallett, J P; Welton, T

    2016-06-28

    The solubilities of the metal halides LiF, LiCl, LiBr, LiI, NaF, NaCl, NaBr, NaI, KF, KCl, KBr, KI, RbCl, CsCl, CsI, were measured at temperatures ranging from 298.15 to 378.15 K in the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate ([C4C1im][OTf]). Li(+), Na(+) and K(+) salts with anions matching the ionic liquid have also been investigated to determine how well these cations dissolve in [C4C1im][OTf]. This study compares the influence of metal cation and halide anion on the solubility of salts within this ionic liquid. The highest solubility found was for iodide salts, and the lowest solubility for the three fluoride salts. There is no outstanding difference in the solubility of salts with matching anions in comparison to halide salts. The experimental data were correlated employing several phase equilibria models, including ideal mixtures, van't Hoff, the λh (Buchowski) equation, the modified Apelblat equation, and the non-random two-liquid model (NRTL). It was found that the van't Hoff model gave the best correlation results. On the basis of the experimental data the thermodynamic dissolution parameters (ΔH, ΔS, and ΔG) were determined for the studied systems together with computed gas phase metathesis parameters. Dissolution depends on the energy difference between enthalpies of fusion and dissolution of the solute salt. This demonstrates that overcoming the lattice energy of the solid matrix is the key to the solubility of inorganic salts in ionic liquids.

  8. Physiological and transcriptional responses to high temperature in Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis C1.

    PubMed

    Panyakampol, Jaruta; Cheevadhanarak, Supapon; Sutheeworapong, Sawannee; Chaijaruwanich, Jeerayut; Senachak, Jittisak; Siangdung, Wipawan; Jeamton, Wattana; Tanticharoen, Morakot; Paithoonrangsarid, Kalyanee

    2015-03-01

    Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis is a well-known commercial cyanobacterium that is used as a food and in feed supplements. In this study, we examined the physiological changes and whole-genome expression in A. platensis C1 exposed to high temperature. We found that photosynthetic activity was significantly decreased after the temperature was shifted from 35°C to 42°C for 2 h. A reduction in biomass production and protein content, concomitant with the accumulation of carbohydrate content, was observed after prolonged exposure to high temperatures for 24 h. Moreover, the results of the expression profiling in response to high temperature at the designated time points (8 h) revealed two distinct phases of the responses. The first was the immediate response phase, in which the transcript levels of genes involved in different mechanisms, including genes for heat shock proteins; genes involved in signal transduction and carbon and nitrogen metabolism; and genes encoding inorganic ion transporters for magnesium, nitrite and nitrate, were either transiently induced or repressed by the high temperature. In the second phase, the long-term response phase, both the induction and repression of the expression of genes with important roles in translation and photosynthesis were observed. Taken together, the results of our physiological and transcriptional studies suggest that dynamic changes in the transcriptional profiles of these thermal-responsive genes might play a role in maintaining cell homeostasis under high temperatures, as reflected in the growth and biochemical composition, particularly the protein and carbohydrate content, of A. platensis C1.

  9. Evaluated Enthalpies of Formation of the Stable Closed Shell C1 and C2 Chlorinated Hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manion, Jeffrey A.

    2002-03-01

    Experimental data on the enthalpies of formation of chloromethanes, chloroethynes, chloroethenes, and chloroethanes are critically reviewed. Enthalpy of formation values for the C1 and C2 chlorinated hydrocarbons are highly cross-linked by various measured reaction equilibria and currently available sets of values are not internally self-consistent. It is shown that the early static bomb combustion calorimetry studies on highly chlorinated compounds generally give enthalpies of formation that are systematically more positive than later values derivable from rotating bomb combustion or equilibria studies. Those previously recommended values which were based mainly on the early static bomb work therefore need substantial revision. On the basis of more recent literature data obtained with rotating bomb combustion calorimetry, together with analyses of literature data on other reaction enthalpies and equilibria involving chlorinated hydrocarbons, an updated self-consistent set of ΔfHo[298.15 K] values for closed shell chlorinated C1 and C2 hydrocarbons (25 compounds) is recommended. Data on the enthalpies of vaporization are also reviewed and values of ΔvapH[298.15 K] and ΔvapHo[298.15 K] are recommended. The presently suggested enthalpies of formation for highly chlorinated alkenes and alkanes (particularly C2Cl4, C2HCl3, C2HCl5, and C2Cl6) are significantly (8-15 kJ mol-1) more negative than given by most previous evaluators. Values for the chloroethynes are 10-25 kJ mol-1 more positive than given in previous reviews and more limited changes are suggested for other compounds in the series.

  10. An algorithm of gross primary production capacity from GCOM-C1/SGLI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muramatsu, Kanako; Soyama, Noriko; Furumi, Shinobu; Daigo, Motomasa; Mineshita, Yukiko

    An algorithm of gross primary production (GPP) capacity from GCOM-C1/SGLI is presented. GCOM-C1 satellite will be launched in 2016. The characteristics of this method corresponds to photosynthesis process, and was to use light-response curves. The photosynthesis velocity depends on it's capacity and depression because of weather conditions. The capacity part depends on one of plant physiological parameters of chlorophyll contents of a leaf. In the previous study ( J. Thanyapraneedkul et al., 2013 ), the framework of estimation method was developed how to determine the two parameters, initial slope and maximum of GPP capacity in the light saturation, of light-response curves of GPP capacity using FLUX data and satellite data. The initial slope was used as fixed values for each plant functional types. The maximum of GPP capacity at the light saturation was determined from the linear relationship between GPP capacity at 2000 (mumol/m2/s) and Chlorophyll index (CIgreen) using green band developed by Gitelson et al. (1996). The relationship determined for five plant functional types of needleleaf deciduous trees, broadleaf deciduous trees, needleleaf evergreen trees, C3 grass, and crops were determined. For applying the method, other plant functional types were needed. In this study, additional four plant functional types were studied for open shrub, closed shrub, mixed forest and tropical rain forest, and the initial slopes and the relationship between GPP capacity at 2000 (umol/m2/s) and CIgreen for each plant functional types were determined. From the results, the relationship were divided into three groups. One was grass, and open shrubs, and second one was forest types except for tropical rain forest, and third one was tropical rain forest. For each group, the slope of the relationship was almost same value, and only the intercept was different. Whether the rules were extracted for determination of the intercept was discussed and the estimation results of GPP

  11. Combined crossed beam and theoretical studies of the C(1D) + CH4 reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonori, Francesca; Skouteris, Dimitrios; Petrucci, Raffaele; Casavecchia, Piergiorgio; Rosi, Marzio; Balucani, Nadia

    2013-01-01

    The reaction involving atomic carbon in its first electronically excited state 1D and methane has been investigated in crossed molecular beam experiments at a collision energy of 25.3 kJ mol-1. Electronic structure calculations of the underlying potential energy surface (PES) and Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus (RRKM) estimates of rates and branching ratios have been performed to assist the interpretation of the experimental results. The reaction proceeds via insertion of C(1D) into one of the C-H bonds of methane leading to the formation of the intermediate HCCH3 (methylcarbene or ethylidene), which either decomposes directly into the products C2H3 + H or C2H2 + H2 or isomerizes to the more stable ethylene, which in turn dissociates into C2H3 + H or H2CC + H2. The experimental results indicate that the H-displacement and H2-elimination channels are of equal importance and that for both channels the reaction mechanism is controlled by the presence of a bound intermediate, the lifetime of which is comparable to its rotational period. On the contrary, RRKM estimates predict a very short lifetime for the insertion intermediate and the dominance of the H-displacement channel. It is concluded that the reaction C(1D) + CH4 cannot be described statistically and a dynamical treatment is necessary to understand its mechanism. Possibly, nonadiabatic effects are responsible for the discrepancies, as triplet and singlet PES of methylcarbene cross each other and intersystem crossing is possible. Similarities with the photodissociation of ethylene and with the related reactions N(2D) + CH4, O(1D) + CH4 and S(1D) + CH4 are also commented on.

  12. [Optimization of cultivation conditions of chlorate-reducing bacteria Acinetobacter thermotoleranticus C-1 for treatment of sewage from fuel mixtures industry].

    PubMed

    Smirnova, G F

    2006-01-01

    Composition of culture medium for cultivation of chlorate-reducing strain A. thermotoleranticus C-1 has been optimized with the purpose to decontaminate sewage from production of fuel mixtures, match production sewage, including toxical oxygen-containing anions-chlorates, chromates in particular. It has been established that chlorates are not toxical for the studied culture in a wide concentration range. The rate of chlorates reduction by the strain C-1 was 50.4 + 2.3 mg/(l x h). Maximum chlorate reduction displays in the medium containing (mg/1) : ClO3(-) - 700; CrO4(2-) - 4.5; phosphates in the form of HPO4(2-) - 0.5; in the form of H2PO4(-) - 4.5; nitrogen in the form of NH4Cl - 50.0; t - 40 degrees C; albumin - 500. It is shown that the optimal ratio ChPC:N:P in sewage supplied for neutralization should be 80:10:1 for the efficient use of the strain.

  13. Glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1) methylation following stressful events between birth and adolescence. The TRAILS study.

    PubMed

    van der Knaap, L J; Riese, H; Hudziak, J J; Verbiest, M M P J; Verhulst, F C; Oldehinkel, A J; van Oort, F V A

    2014-04-08

    Stress early in life is a known risk factor for the development of affective disorders later in life. Epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation, may have an important role in mediating that risk. Recent epigenetic research reported on the long-term relationship between traumatic stress in childhood and DNA methylation in adulthood. In this study, we examined the impact of various types of stress (perinatal stress, stressful life events (SLEs) and traumatic youth experiences) on methylation of the glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1) in the blood of a population sample of 468 adolescents (50.4% female, mean age 16.1 years). Second, we determined whether stress at different ages was associated with higher NR3C1 methylation. NR3C1 methylation rates were higher after exposure to SLEs and after exposure to traumatic youth experiences. NR3C1 methylation in adolescence was not higher after exposure to perinatal stress. Experience of SLEs in adolescence was associated with a higher NR3C1 methylation, independently of childhood SLEs. We demonstrate that not only traumatic youth experiences but also (more common) SLEs are associated with higher NR3C1 methylation. In addition, our findings underline the relevance of adolescent stress for epigenetic changes in the NR3C1 gene.

  14. Enzymological analysis of the tumor suppressor A-C1 reveals a novel group of phospholipid-metabolizing enzymes.

    PubMed

    Shinohara, Naoki; Uyama, Toru; Jin, Xing-Hua; Tsuboi, Kazuhito; Tonai, Takeharu; Houchi, Hitoshi; Ueda, Natsuo

    2011-11-01

    A-C1 protein is the product of a tumor suppressor gene negatively regulating the oncogene Ras and belongs to the HRASLS (HRAS-like suppressor) subfamily. We recently found that four members of this subfamily expressed in human tissues function as phospholipid-metabolizing enzymes. Here we examined a possible enzyme activity of A-C1. The homogenates of COS-7 cells overexpressing recombinant A-C1s from human, mouse, and rat showed a phospholipase A½ (PLA½) activity toward phosphatidylcholine (PC). This finding was confirmed with the purified A-C1. The activity was Ca²⁺ independent, and dithiothreitol and Nonidet P-40 were indispensable for full activity. Phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) was also a substrate and the phospholipase A₁ (PLA₁) activity was dominant over the PLA₂ activity. Furthermore, the protein exhibited acyltransferase activities transferring an acyl group of PCs to the amino group of PEs and the hydroxyl group of lyso PCs. As for tissue distribution in human, mouse, and rat, A-C1 mRNA was abundantly expressed in testis, skeletal muscle, brain, and heart. These results demonstrate that A-C1 is a novel phospholipid-metabolizing enzyme. Moreover, the fact that all five members of the HRASLS subfamily, including A-C1, show similar catalytic properties strongly suggests that these proteins constitute a new class of enzymes showing PLA½ and acyltransferase activities.

  15. Cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and X-ray crystallographic analysis of recombinant human C1ORF123 protein.

    PubMed

    Rahaman, Siti Nurulnabila A; Mat Yusop, Jastina; Mohamed-Hussein, Zeti-Azura; Ho, Kok Lian; Teh, Aik-Hong; Waterman, Jitka; Ng, Chyan Leong

    2016-03-01

    C1ORF123 is a human hypothetical protein found in open reading frame 123 of chromosome 1. The protein belongs to the DUF866 protein family comprising eukaryote-conserved proteins with unknown function. Recent proteomic and bioinformatic analyses identified the presence of C1ORF123 in brain, frontal cortex and synapses, as well as its involvement in endocrine function and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), indicating the importance of its biological role. In order to provide a better understanding of the biological function of the human C1ORF123 protein, the characterization and analysis of recombinant C1ORF123 (rC1ORF123), including overexpression and purification, verification by mass spectrometry and a Western blot using anti-C1ORF123 antibodies, crystallization and X-ray diffraction analysis of the protein crystals, are reported here. The rC1ORF123 protein was crystallized by the hanging-drop vapor-diffusion method with a reservoir solution comprised of 20% PEG 3350, 0.2 M magnesium chloride hexahydrate, 0.1 M sodium citrate pH 6.5. The crystals diffracted to 1.9 Å resolution and belonged to an orthorhombic space group with unit-cell parameters a = 59.32, b = 65.35, c = 95.05 Å. The calculated Matthews coefficient (VM) value of 2.27 Å(3) Da(-1) suggests that there are two molecules per asymmetric unit, with an estimated solvent content of 45.7%.

  16. C1-Inhibitor protects from focal brain trauma in a cortical cryolesion mice model by reducing thrombo-inflammation.

    PubMed

    Albert-Weissenberger, Christiane; Mencl, Stine; Schuhmann, Michael K; Salur, Irmak; Göb, Eva; Langhauser, Friederike; Hopp, Sarah; Hennig, Nelli; Meuth, Sven G; Nolte, Marc W; Sirén, Anna-Leena; Kleinschnitz, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) induces a strong inflammatory response which includes blood-brain barrier damage, edema formation and infiltration of different immune cell subsets. More recently, microvascular thrombosis has been identified as another pathophysiological feature of TBI. The contact-kinin system represents an interface between inflammatory and thrombotic circuits and is activated in different neurological diseases. C1-Inhibitor counteracts activation of the contact-kinin system at multiple levels. We investigated the therapeutic potential of C1-Inhibitor in a model of TBI. Male and female C57BL/6 mice were subjected to cortical cryolesion and treated with C1-Inhibitor after 1 h. Lesion volumes were assessed between day 1 and day 5 and blood-brain barrier damage, thrombus formation as well as the local inflammatory response were determined post TBI. Treatment of male mice with 15.0 IU C1-Inhibitor, but not 7.5 IU, 1 h after cryolesion reduced lesion volumes by ~75% on day 1. This protective effect was preserved in female mice and at later stages of trauma. Mechanistically, C1-Inhibitor stabilized the blood-brain barrier and decreased the invasion of immune cells into the brain parenchyma. Moreover, C1-Inhibitor had strong antithrombotic effects. C1-Inhibitor represents a multifaceted anti-inflammatory and antithrombotic compound that prevents traumatic neurodegeneration in clinically meaningful settings.

  17. Inclusive and exclusive measurements of B decays to χc 1 and χc 2 at Belle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhardwaj, V.; Miyabayashi, K.; Panzenböck, E.; Trabelsi, K.; Frey, A.; Abdesselam, A.; Adachi, I.; Aihara, H.; Al Said, S.; Arinstein, K.; Asner, D. M.; Atmacan, H.; Aulchenko, V.; Aushev, T.; Ayad, R.; Babu, V.; Badhrees, I.; Bahinipati, S.; Bakich, A. M.; Bala, A.; Bansal, V.; Barberio, E.; Bhuyan, B.; Biswal, J.; Bobrov, A.; Bondar, A.; Bozek, A.; Bračko, M.; Browder, T. E.; Červenkov, D.; Chekelian, V.; Chen, A.; Cheon, B. G.; Chilikin, K.; Chistov, R.; Cho, K.; Chobanova, V.; Choi, S.-K.; Choi, Y.; Cinabro, D.; Dalseno, J.; Danilov, M.; Doležal, Z.; Dutta, D.; Eidelman, S.; Farhat, H.; Fast, J. E.; Ferber, T.; Frost, O.; Fulsom, B. G.; Gaur, V.; Gabyshev, N.; Ganguly, S.; Garmash, A.; Gillard, R.; Glattauer, R.; Goh, Y. M.; Goldenzweig, P.; Golob, B.; Greenwald, D.; Haba, J.; Hamer, P.; Hayasaka, K.; Hayashii, H.; He, X. H.; Hou, W.-S.; Iijima, T.; Inami, K.; Ishikawa, A.; Itoh, R.; Iwasaki, Y.; Jaegle, I.; Joffe, D.; Joo, K. K.; Julius, T.; Kato, E.; Katrenko, P.; Kawasaki, T.; Kiesling, C.; Kim, D. Y.; Kim, J. B.; Kim, K. T.; Kim, M. J.; Kim, S. H.; Kim, Y. J.; Kinoshita, K.; Ko, B. R.; Kobayashi, N.; Kodyš, P.; Korpar, S.; Križan, P.; Krokovny, P.; Kuhr, T.; Kumar, R.; Kumita, T.; Kuzmin, A.; Kwon, Y.-J.; Lee, I. S.; Li, C.; Li, Y.; Li Gioi, L.; Libby, J.; Liventsev, D.; Loos, A.; Lukin, P.; Masuda, M.; Matvienko, D.; Miyata, H.; Mizuk, R.; Mohanty, G. B.; Mohanty, S.; Moll, A.; Moon, H. K.; Mussa, R.; Nakano, E.; Nakao, M.; Nanut, T.; Natkaniec, Z.; Nayak, M.; Nisar, N. K.; Nishida, S.; Ogawa, S.; Okuno, S.; Pakhlova, G.; Pal, B.; Park, C. W.; Park, H.; Pedlar, T. K.; Pestotnik, R.; Petrič, M.; Piilonen, L. E.; Pulvermacher, C.; Purohit, M. V.; Rauch, J.; Ribežl, E.; Ritter, M.; Rostomyan, A.; Sahoo, H.; Sakai, Y.; Sandilya, S.; Santelj, L.; Sanuki, T.; Sato, Y.; Savinov, V.; Schneider, O.; Schnell, G.; Schwanda, C.; Seino, Y.; Semmler, D.; Senyo, K.; Seon, O.; Sevior, M. E.; Shebalin, V.; Shen, C. P.; Shibata, T.-A.; Shiu, J.-G.; Shwartz, B.; Simon, F.; Singh, J. B.; Sohn, Y.-S.; Sokolov, A.; Solovieva, E.; Starič, M.; Stypula, J.; Sumihama, M.; Sumiyoshi, T.; Tamponi, U.; Tanida, K.; Teramoto, Y.; Uchida, M.; Uehara, S.; Uglov, T.; Unno, Y.; Uno, S.; Urquijo, P.; Usov, Y.; Van Hulse, C.; Vanhoefer, P.; Varner, G.; Vinokurova, A.; Vorobyev, V.; Wang, C. H.; Wang, M.-Z.; Wang, P.; Wang, X. L.; Watanabe, M.; Watanabe, Y.; Wehle, S.; Won, E.; Yamaoka, J.; Yashchenko, S.; Ye, H.; Yook, Y.; Yuan, C. Z.; Yusa, Y.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhilich, V.; Zhulanov, V.; Zupanc, A.; Belle Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    We report inclusive and exclusive measurements for χc 1 and χc 2 production in B decays. We measure B (B →χc 1X )=(3.03 ±0.05 (stat )±0.24 (syst ))×10-3 and B (B →χc 2X )=(0.70 ±0.06 (stat )±0.10 (syst ))×10-3 . For the first time, χc 2 production in exclusive B decays in the modes B0→χc 2π-K+ and B+→χc 2π+π-K+ has been observed, along with first evidence for the B+→χc 2π+KS0 decay mode. For χc 1 production, we report the first observation in the B+→χc 1π+π-K+ , B0→χc 1π+π-KS0 and B0→χc 1π0π-K+ decay modes. Using these decay modes, we observe a difference in the production mechanism of χc 2 in comparison to χc 1 in B decays. In addition, we report searches for X (3872 ) and χc 1(2 P ) in the B+→(χc 1π+π-)K+ decay mode. The reported results use 772 ×106 B B ¯ events collected at the ϒ (4 S ) resonance with the Belle detector at the KEKB asymmetric-energy e+e- collider.

  18. Complement protein C1q modulates neurite outgrowth in vitro and spinal cord axon regeneration in vivo.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Sheri L; Nguyen, Hal X; Mendez, Oscar A; Anderson, Aileen J

    2015-03-11

    Traumatic injury to CNS fiber tracts is accompanied by failure of severed axons to regenerate and results in lifelong functional deficits. The inflammatory response to CNS trauma is mediated by a diverse set of cells and proteins with varied, overlapping, and opposing effects on histological and behavioral recovery. Importantly, the contribution of individual inflammatory complement proteins to spinal cord injury (SCI) pathology is not well understood. Although the presence of complement components increases after SCI in association with axons and myelin, it is unknown whether complement proteins affect axon growth or regeneration. We report a novel role for complement C1q in neurite outgrowth in vitro and axon regrowth after SCI. In culture, C1q increased neurite length on myelin. Protein and molecular assays revealed that C1q interacts directly with myelin associated glycoprotein (MAG) in myelin, resulting in reduced activation of growth inhibitory signaling in neurons. In agreement with a C1q-outgrowth-enhancing mechanism in which C1q binding to MAG reduces MAG signaling to neurons, complement C1q blocked both the growth inhibitory and repulsive turning effects of MAG in vitro. Furthermore, C1q KO mice demonstrated increased sensory axon turning within the spinal cord lesion after SCI with peripheral conditioning injury, consistent with C1q-mediated neutralization of MAG. Finally, we present data that extend the role for C1q in axon growth and guidance to include the sprouting patterns of descending corticospinal tract axons into spinal gray matter after dorsal column transection SCI.

  19. Cooperation in an evolutionary prisoner's dilemma on networks with degree-degree correlations.

    PubMed

    Devlin, Stephen; Treloar, Thomas

    2009-08-01

    We study the effects of degree-degree correlations on the success of cooperation in an evolutionary prisoner's dilemma played on a random network. When degree-degree correlations are not present, the standardized variance of the network's degree distribution has been shown to be an accurate analytical measure of network heterogeneity that can be used to predict the success of cooperation. In this paper, we use a local-mechanism interpretation of standardized variance to give a generalization to graphs with degree-degree correlations. Two distinct mechanisms are shown to influence cooperation levels on these types of networks. The first is an intrinsic measurement of base-line heterogeneity coming from the network's degree distribution. The second is the increase in heterogeneity coming from the degree-degree correlations present in the network. A strong linear relationship is found between these two parameters and the average cooperation level in an evolutionary prisoner's dilemma on a network.

  20. Intra- and intergroup azimuthal correlations of particles in the interaction of gold nuclei with silver and bromine nuclei of track emulsions at the projectile energy of 10.6 GeV per nucleon

    SciTech Connect

    Abdurakhmanov, U. U. Gulamov, K. G.; Zhokhova, S. I.; Navotny, V. Sh.

    2010-01-15

    Inter- and intragroup azimuthal correlations of target and projectile fragments and of shower particles in the interactions between gold nuclei of energy 10.6 GeV per nucleon and silver and bromine nuclei of a track emulsion are studied at intermediate values of the impact parameter. The asymmetry index {beta}'{sub 1} and the collinearity index {beta}'{sub 2} of groups' asymmetry vectors are used to study azimuthal correlations between two and three groups of particles. The interplay of effects of intra- and intergroup azimuthal particle correlations is investigated.