Science.gov

Sample records for 10-6 degrees c-1

  1. Protists decrease in size linearly with temperature: ca. 2.5% degrees C(-1).

    PubMed

    Atkinson, David; Ciotti, Benjamin J; Montagnes, David J S

    2003-12-22

    An inverse relationship between organism size and rearing temperature is widely observed in ectotherms ('the temperature-size rule', TSR). This has rarely been quantified for related taxa, and its applicability to protists also required testing. Here, we quantify the relationship between temperature and mean cell volume within the protists by a meta-analysis of published data covering marine, brackish water and freshwater autotrophs and heterotrophs. In each of 44 datasets, a linear relationship between temperature and size could not be rejected, and a negative trend was found in 32 cases (20 gave significant negative regressions, p < 0.05). By combining 65 datasets, we revealed, for each 1 degrees C increase, a cell-size reduction of 2.5% (95% CI of 1.7-3.3%) of the volume observed at 15 degrees C. The value did not differ across taxa (amoebae, ciliates, diatoms, dinoflagellates, flagellates), habitats, modes of nutrition or combinations of these. The data are consistent with two hypotheses that are capable of explaining the TSR in ectotherms generally: (i) resource, especially respiratory gas, limitation; and (ii) fitness gains from dividing earlier as population growth increases. Using the above relationship we show how changes in cell numbers with temperature can be estimated from changes in biomass and vice versa; ignoring this relationship would produce a systematic error.

  2. Darboux transformations of lower degree for two-dimensional C(1)l and D(2)l+1 Toda equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zi-Xiang

    2008-08-01

    For the two-dimensional Toda equations corresponding to the Kac-Moody algebras C(1)l and D(2)l+1, the Darboux transformations with a special choice of spectral parameters are constructed so that the degree of these Darboux transformations is half of that for usual Darboux transformations and the derived solutions become simpler. These Darboux transformations for a Lax pair are constructed from real solutions of itself or a slightly different Lax pair corresponding to the same Toda equation, depending on the parity of l. Exact solutions of these Toda equations are presented by simplifying the results derived from the Darboux transformations.

  3. 27 CFR 10.6 - Administrative provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Administrative provisions. 10.6 Section 10.6 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS COMMERCIAL BRIBERY Scope of Regulations § 10.6 Administrative...

  4. 46 CFR 188.10-6 - Captain of the Port.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Captain of the Port. 188.10-6 Section 188.10-6 Shipping... PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 188.10-6 Captain of the Port. This term means an... activities within his assigned area. In addition, the District Commander shall be the Captain of the...

  5. 46 CFR 188.10-6 - Captain of the Port.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Captain of the Port. 188.10-6 Section 188.10-6 Shipping... PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 188.10-6 Captain of the Port. This term means an... activities within his assigned area. In addition, the District Commander shall be the Captain of the...

  6. C1-inhibitor and transplantation.

    PubMed

    Kirschfink, Michael

    2002-09-01

    Excessive activation of the protein cascade systems has been associated with post-transplantation inflammatory disorders. There is increasing evidence that complement not only significantly contributes to ischemia/reperfusion injury upon cold storage of the organ but also, although to a different degree, to allograft rejection. Complement activation is most fulminant in hyperacute rejection but seems also to contribute to acute transplant rejection. Therapeutic substitution of appropriate regulators, therefore, appears to be a reasonable approach to reduce undesirable inflammatory reactions in the grafted organ. C1-inhibitor, a multifunctional regulator of the various kinin-generating cascade systems (for review see: E. Hack, chapter in this issue), is frequently reduced in patients suffering from severe inflammatory disorders. Studies applying pathophysiologically relevant animal models of allo- and xenotransplantation as well as promising first clinical results from successful allotransplantation now provide evidence that C1-inhibitor may also serve as an effective means to protect the grafted organ against inflammatory tissue injury. In xenotransplantation, complement inhibition by specific regulators such as C1-inhibitor may help to overcome hyperacute graft rejection. After a brief introduction on the significance of complement to allo- and xenotransplantation the following review will focus on the impact of C1-inhibitor treatment on transplantation-associated inflammatory disorders, where complement contributes to the pathogenesis.

  7. 22 CFR 19.10-6 - Benefits for recall service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Benefits for recall service. 19.10-6 Section 19... PARTICIPANTS IN THE FOREIGN SERVICE RETIREMENT AND DISABILITY SYSTEM § 19.10-6 Benefits for recall service. (a... recall service. Upon reversion of the annuitant to retired status, any pension payable to a former...

  8. 22 CFR 19.10-6 - Benefits for recall service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Benefits for recall service. 19.10-6 Section 19... PARTICIPANTS IN THE FOREIGN SERVICE RETIREMENT AND DISABILITY SYSTEM § 19.10-6 Benefits for recall service. (a... recall service. Upon reversion of the annuitant to retired status, any pension payable to a former...

  9. 22 CFR 19.10-6 - Benefits for recall service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Benefits for recall service. 19.10-6 Section 19... PARTICIPANTS IN THE FOREIGN SERVICE RETIREMENT AND DISABILITY SYSTEM § 19.10-6 Benefits for recall service. (a... recall service. Upon reversion of the annuitant to retired status, any pension payable to a former...

  10. 22 CFR 19.10-6 - Benefits for recall service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Benefits for recall service. 19.10-6 Section 19... PARTICIPANTS IN THE FOREIGN SERVICE RETIREMENT AND DISABILITY SYSTEM § 19.10-6 Benefits for recall service. (a... recall service. Upon reversion of the annuitant to retired status, any pension payable to a former...

  11. A C1-inhibitor-complex assay (INCA): a method to detect C1 activation in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Hack, C E; Hannema, A J; Eerenberg-Belmer, A J; Out, T A; Aalberse, R C

    1981-10-01

    A radioimmunoassay (the C1-inhibitor-complex assay, INCA) is described for the detection of complexes that are composed of at least C1s and C1-inhibitor. This INCA is based on demonstrating that C1s and C1-inhibitor (C1-In) are linked: after an incubation with anti-C1s-Sepharose, bound C1sC1-In complexes are detected by 125I-anti-C1-In. C1sC1-In complexes were prepared by the addition of a slight excess of C1s to normal human serum (NHS). As little as 2 ng C1-In bound to C1s was detected. Additional free C1s in serum hardly influenced the detection of C1sC1-In complexes. Complexes presumably composed of C1rC1s(C1-In)2 were generated by the addition of aggregated IgG to NHS. This generation was inhibited by lowering the temperature to 0 degrees C, and by EDTA, and depended on the concentration of aggregated IgG. These complexes had a sedimentation value of approximately 9S. Complexes of C1s and C1-In were also generated in NHS by the addition of DNP-albumin and protein A, but not by zymosan. The INCA was applied to blood samples from normal donors and patients. Sixteen out of 19 samples from patients with acute glomerulonephritis contained increased amounts of C1rC1s(C1-In)2 complexes as compared with the amounts in blood samples from normal donors. The INCA provides a useful tool to assess the activation of C1 in the presence of C1-In, both in vitro and in vivo.

  12. High sensitivity infrared 10.6 micrometer heterodyne receiver development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The results are presented for a study on the design of an infrared 10.6-micrometer quantum-noise-limited optical receiver subsystem. Performance measurements of the HgCdTe photomixer preamplifier combination were carried out for photomixer temperatures up to 152 K and a photomixer frequency response of up to 420 MHz was obtained. Results of temperature and bias cycling of HgCdTe photomixers are reported. Design considerations for an operational 10.6 micrometer heterodyne receiver are presented. These consist of design data on required laser LO illumination, heat load levels for photomixer cooler, photomixer uniformity and the effects of photomixer impedance match on receiver sensitivity. Analysis and measurements of 10.6 micrometer heterodyne detection in an extrinsic photoconductive (p-type) HgCdTe photomixer are also presented.

  13. Draft genome sequence of Phomopsis longicolla MSPL 10-6

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phomopsis longicolla T.W. Hobbs is the primary cause of Phomopsis seed decay in soybean. We report the de novo assembled draft genome sequence of P. longicolla isolate MSPL10-6 with a 54.8-fold depth of coverage. The resulting draft genome was estimated to be approximately 64 Mb in size with an over...

  14. Experiment definition phase shuttle laboratory: LDRL-10.6 experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Progress is reported in the development of the space shuttle laboratory laser data relay link. The system transmittance of various surfaces was considered in order to examine the coating tradeoffs for the beryllium mirrors. The results of six coating combinations considered are summarized. It is recommended that silver coatings be used throughout the system. Design of the pre-expander and a preliminary alignment procedure implemented to align all optical elements to the reference mechanical axis (the rotational axis of the outer gimbal bearing located between the two Gregorian telescopes) are included. The local oscillator subsystem, consisting of the laser, Stark cell, Stark cell electronics, power supply, starting circuit, and conditioning optics were completed and installed in the optimechanical subsystem and operation against a 10.6 micrometer source was attempted. Preliminary measurements of the HgCdTe mixer showed that this critical element was inoperative and in subsequent tests the receiver front end electronics had also failed. Possible reasons for these failures and corrective action and steps to prevent future recurrence are discussed.

  15. Characterization of recombinant C1 inhibitor P1 variants.

    PubMed

    Eldering, E; Huijbregts, C C; Lubbers, Y T; Longstaff, C; Hack, C E

    1992-04-01

    Twelve human C1 inhibitor P1 variants were constructed by site-directed mutagenesis of the codon for arginine 444 and were expressed in COS-1 cells to analyze the functional properties. The ability to bind to target proteases, as well as potential substrate-like behavior, was investigated with radioimmunoassays. The P1-Lys variant retained binding capacity toward C1s, plasmin, and kallikrein. In addition, complex formation with C1s was detected for P1-Asn and P1-His. All other P1 substitutions resulted in C1 inhibitor variants that neither complexed with nor were inactivated by C1s, kallikrein, beta-factor XIIa, or plasmin. Electrophoretic studies confirmed that P1-Lys and P1-His can form sodium dodecyl sulfate-resistant complexes with C1s. In contrast, the C1s-P1-Asn complex dissociated upon addition of sodium dodecyl sulfate. Kinetic experiments by the method of progress curves generated association rate constants (kon) with C1s of 4.2 x 10(4) M-1 s-1 for recombinant wild-type C1 inhibitor and 1.7 x 10(4) M-1 s-1 for P1-Lys. For P1-Asn and P1-His, kon was decreased approximately 100-fold. The results from inhibition experiments were compatible with a model of reversible inhibition, although the observed dissociation rate for wild-type C1 inhibitor is too low (1-2 x 10(-6) s-1) to be physiologically relevant. The overall inhibition constant (Ki) was estimated to be 0.03 nM. With P1-Asn, reversible inhibition could be demonstrated directly upon dilution of preformed complexes; the observed dissociation rate constant was 3.2 x 10(-4) s-1; and Ki increased to approximately 380 nM. These findings are discussed in relation to inhibitor specificity and inhibition mechanism.

  16. A polymer tandem solar cell with 10.6% power conversion efficiency.

    PubMed

    You, Jingbi; Dou, Letian; Yoshimura, Ken; Kato, Takehito; Ohya, Kenichiro; Moriarty, Tom; Emery, Keith; Chen, Chun-Chao; Gao, Jing; Li, Gang; Yang, Yang

    2013-01-01

    An effective way to improve polymer solar cell efficiency is to use a tandem structure, as a broader part of the spectrum of solar radiation is used and the thermalization loss of photon energy is minimized. In the past, the lack of high-performance low-bandgap polymers was the major limiting factor for achieving high-performance tandem solar cell. Here we report the development of a high-performance low bandgap polymer (bandgap <1.4 eV), poly[2,7-(5,5-bis-(3,7-dimethyloctyl)-5H-dithieno[3,2-b:2',3'-d]pyran)-alt-4,7-(5,6-difluoro-2,1,3-benzothia diazole)] with a bandgap of 1.38 eV, high mobility, deep highest occupied molecular orbital. As a result, a single-junction device shows high external quantum efficiency of >60% and spectral response that extends to 900 nm, with a power conversion efficiency of 7.9%. The polymer enables a solution processed tandem solar cell with certified 10.6% power conversion efficiency under standard reporting conditions (25 °C, 1,000 Wm(-2), IEC 60904-3 global), which is the first certified polymer solar cell efficiency over 10%.

  17. A polymer tandem solar cell with 10.6% power conversion efficiency

    PubMed Central

    You, Jingbi; Dou, Letian; Yoshimura, Ken; Kato, Takehito; Ohya, Kenichiro; Moriarty, Tom; Emery, Keith; Chen, Chun-Chao; Gao, Jing; Li, Gang; Yang, Yang

    2013-01-01

    An effective way to improve polymer solar cell efficiency is to use a tandem structure, as a broader part of the spectrum of solar radiation is used and the thermalization loss of photon energy is minimized. In the past, the lack of high-performance low-bandgap polymers was the major limiting factor for achieving high-performance tandem solar cell. Here we report the development of a high-performance low bandgap polymer (bandgap <1.4 eV), poly[2,7-(5,5-bis-(3,7-dimethyloctyl)-5H-dithieno[3,2-b:2′,3′-d]pyran)-alt-4,7-(5,6-difluoro-2,1,3-benzothia diazole)] with a bandgap of 1.38 eV, high mobility, deep highest occupied molecular orbital. As a result, a single-junction device shows high external quantum efficiency of >60% and spectral response that extends to 900 nm, with a power conversion efficiency of 7.9%. The polymer enables a solution processed tandem solar cell with certified 10.6% power conversion efficiency under standard reporting conditions (25 °C, 1,000 Wm−2, IEC 60904-3 global), which is the first certified polymer solar cell efficiency over 10%. PMID:23385590

  18. A polymer tandem solar cell with 10.6% power conversion efficiency.

    PubMed

    You, Jingbi; Dou, Letian; Yoshimura, Ken; Kato, Takehito; Ohya, Kenichiro; Moriarty, Tom; Emery, Keith; Chen, Chun-Chao; Gao, Jing; Li, Gang; Yang, Yang

    2013-01-01

    An effective way to improve polymer solar cell efficiency is to use a tandem structure, as a broader part of the spectrum of solar radiation is used and the thermalization loss of photon energy is minimized. In the past, the lack of high-performance low-bandgap polymers was the major limiting factor for achieving high-performance tandem solar cell. Here we report the development of a high-performance low bandgap polymer (bandgap <1.4 eV), poly[2,7-(5,5-bis-(3,7-dimethyloctyl)-5H-dithieno[3,2-b:2',3'-d]pyran)-alt-4,7-(5,6-difluoro-2,1,3-benzothia diazole)] with a bandgap of 1.38 eV, high mobility, deep highest occupied molecular orbital. As a result, a single-junction device shows high external quantum efficiency of >60% and spectral response that extends to 900 nm, with a power conversion efficiency of 7.9%. The polymer enables a solution processed tandem solar cell with certified 10.6% power conversion efficiency under standard reporting conditions (25 °C, 1,000 Wm(-2), IEC 60904-3 global), which is the first certified polymer solar cell efficiency over 10%. PMID:23385590

  19. 46 CFR 30.10-6 - Cargo handling room-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cargo handling room-TB/ALL. 30.10-6 Section 30.10-6 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-6 Cargo handling room—TB/ALL. The term cargo handling room means any enclosed space where cargo is...

  20. 46 CFR 30.10-6 - Cargo handling room-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cargo handling room-TB/ALL. 30.10-6 Section 30.10-6 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-6 Cargo handling room—TB/ALL. The term cargo handling room means any enclosed space where cargo is...

  1. 46 CFR 30.10-6 - Cargo handling room-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cargo handling room-TB/ALL. 30.10-6 Section 30.10-6 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-6 Cargo handling room—TB/ALL. The term cargo handling room means any enclosed space where cargo is...

  2. 46 CFR 30.10-6 - Cargo handling room-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cargo handling room-TB/ALL. 30.10-6 Section 30.10-6 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-6 Cargo handling room—TB/ALL. The term cargo handling room means any enclosed space where cargo is...

  3. 15 CFR 10.6 - Procedures for acceptance of a recommended standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... recommended standard. 10.6 Section 10.6 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce PROCEDURES FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF VOLUNTARY PRODUCT STANDARDS § 10.6 Procedures for acceptance of a recommended standard. (a) Upon receipt from the Standard Review Committee of a recommended standard and...

  4. 46 CFR 30.10-6 - Cargo handling room-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo handling room-TB/ALL. 30.10-6 Section 30.10-6 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-6 Cargo handling room—TB/ALL. The term cargo handling room means any enclosed space where cargo is...

  5. The enzymatic nature of C'1r. Conversion of C'1s to C'1 esterase and digestion of amino acid esters by C'1r.

    PubMed

    Naff, G B; Ratnoff, O S

    1968-10-01

    Human C'1, a macromolecular complex composed of three subunits, is the zymogen for at least two distinct enzymes. Preparations of one subunit, C'1r, functioned as a protease which converted another subunit, C'1s, to C'1 esterase. The conversion of C'1s to C'1 esterase by C'1r was blocked by Liquoid, phenyl methylsulfonyl fluoride, and calcium ions, but not by soybean trypsin inhibitor, hirudin, or heparin. Preparations of C'1r also possessed two additional functions, i.e., the ability to hydrolyze certain synthetic amino acid esters and to participate in immune hemolysis. Evidence was presented which indicates that these three functions are properties of a single entity, C'1r, but not of the same portion of its molecular structure. These observations suggest that C'1r has at least two active sites, one for its reaction with C'1q, an additional subunit of C'1, and one for its reaction with C'1s; together, the three subcomponents, C'1q, C'1r, and C'1s, form a single functional unit, the first component of complement.

  6. Lack of activation of C1, despite circulating immune complexes detected by two C1q methods, in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Hack, C E; Eerenberg-Belmer, A J; Lim, U G; Haverman, J; Aalberse, R C

    1984-01-01

    The activation of C1 by circulating immune complexes in patients with rheumatoid arthritis was investigated. C1rC1s(C1-In)2 complexes in EDTA-plasma, reflecting C1 activation in vivo, were slightly raised in 35 of 57 patients with rheumatoid arthritis, though most patients had elevated levels of circulating immune complexes as measured with either the 125I-C1q binding test or the C1q solid phase assay. The activation of C1 by circulating immune complexes in vitro was investigated by measuring the generation of C1rC1s(C1-In)2 complexes during 60 minutes at 37 degrees C in diluted recalcified EDTA-plasma. In 16 of the 57 patients, a slightly increased C1 activation in vitro was observed. These patients tended to have high levels of circulating immune complexes. However, the majority of the patients with high levels of circulating immune complexes showed a normal C1 activation in vitro. Therefore, it was concluded that measurement of circulating immune complexes by either of the two C1q methods in patients with rheumatoid arthritis does not imply that these circulating immune complexes are able to activate C1.

  7. Curtiss SB2C-1 Helldiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1944-01-01

    Curtiss SB2C-1 Helldiver: This Curtiss SB2C-1 Helldiver was flown by the NACA at Langley with an early radio-control system. Flying controls such as a spring tab were also examined with this airframe. Helldivers were also operated by the U. S. Army as A-25 Shrikes.

  8. C1 neurons: the body's EMTs.

    PubMed

    Guyenet, Patrice G; Stornetta, Ruth L; Bochorishvili, Genrieta; Depuy, Seth D; Burke, Peter G R; Abbott, Stephen B G

    2013-08-01

    The C1 neurons reside in the rostral and intermediate portions of the ventrolateral medulla (RVLM, IVLM). They use glutamate as a fast transmitter and synthesize catecholamines plus various neuropeptides. These neurons regulate the hypothalamic pituitary axis via direct projections to the paraventricular nucleus and regulate the autonomic nervous system via projections to sympathetic and parasympathetic preganglionic neurons. The presympathetic C1 cells, located in the RVLM, are probably organized in a roughly viscerotopic manner and most of them regulate the circulation. C1 cells are variously activated by hypoglycemia, infection or inflammation, hypoxia, nociception, and hypotension and contribute to most glucoprivic responses. C1 cells also stimulate breathing and activate brain stem noradrenergic neurons including the locus coeruleus. Based on the various effects attributed to the C1 cells, their axonal projections and what is currently known of their synaptic inputs, subsets of C1 cells appear to be differentially recruited by pain, hypoxia, infection/inflammation, hemorrhage, and hypoglycemia to produce a repertoire of stereotyped autonomic, metabolic, and neuroendocrine responses that help the organism survive physical injury and its associated cohort of acute infection, hypoxia, hypotension, and blood loss. C1 cells may also contribute to glucose and cardiovascular homeostasis in the absence of such physical stresses, and C1 cell hyperactivity may contribute to the increase in sympathetic nerve activity associated with diseases such as hypertension. PMID:23697799

  9. Measurement of Double Charmonium Production in$e^+e^-$ Annihilations at $\\sqrt{s}=10.6$ GeV

    SciTech Connect

    Aubert, B.; Barate, R.; Boutigny, D.; Couderc, F.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, J.P.; Poireau, V.; Tisserand, V.; Zghiche, A.; Grauges, E.; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Pompili, A.; Chen, J.C.; Qi, N.D.; Rong, G.; Wang, P.; Zhu, Y.S.; Eigen, G.; Ofte, I.; Stugu, B. /Bergen U. /LBL, Berkeley /UC, Berkeley /Birmingham U. /Ruhr U., Bochum /Bristol U. /British Columbia U. /Brunel U. /Novosibirsk, IYF /UC, Irvine /UCLA /UC, Riverside /UC, San Diego /UC, Santa Barbara /UC, Santa Cruz /Caltech /Cincinnati U. /Colorado U. /Colorado State U. /Dortmund U. /Dresden, Tech. U. /Ecole Polytechnique /Edinburgh U. /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara /Frascati /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /Harvard U. /Heidelberg U. /Imperial Coll., London /Iowa U. /Iowa State U. /Orsay, LAL /LLNL, Livermore /Liverpool U. /Queen Mary, U. of London /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Louisville U. /Manchester U. /Maryland U. /Massachusetts U., Amherst /MIT, LNS /McGill U. /Milan U. /INFN, Milan /Mississippi U. /Montreal U. /Mt. Holyoke Coll. /Naples U. /INFN, Naples /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /Notre Dame U. /Ohio State U. /Oregon U. /Padua U. /INFN, Padua /Paris U., VI-VII /Pennsylvania U. /Perugia U. /INFN, Perugia /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /Prairie View A-M /Princeton U. /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /Rostock U. /Rutherford /DAPNIA, Saclay /South Carolina U. /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SUNY, Stony Brook /Tennessee U. /Texas U. /Texas U., Dallas /Turin U. /INFN, Turin /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Valencia U., IFIC /Vanderbilt U. /Victoria U. /Warwick U. /Wisconsin U., Madison /Yale U.

    2005-06-29

    The authors study e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} J/{psi} c{bar c} by measuring the invariant mass distribution recoiling against fully reconstructed J/{psi} decays, using 124.4 fb{sup -1} of data collected with a center-of-mass energy of 10.6 GeV with the BABAR detector. They observe signals for {eta}{sub c}(1S), {chi}{sub c0}, and {eta}{sub c}(2S) in the recoil mass distribution, thus confirming previous measurements. The authors measure {sigma}(e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} J/{psi} + c{bar c}){Beta}(c{bar c} {yields} > 2 charged) to be 17.6 {+-} 2.8(stat){sub -2.1}{sup +1.5}(syst) fb, 10.3 {+-} 2.5(stat){sub -1.8}{sup +1.4}(syst) fb, and 16.4 {+-} 3.7(stat){sub -3.0}{sup +2.4}(syst) fb with c{bar c} = {eta}{sub c}(1S), {chi}{sub c0}, and {eta}{sub c}(2S), respectively.

  10. Transmission at lambda = 10.6-mum wavelength through the upper atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Douglas-Hamilton, D H

    1978-08-01

    An analytic model of atmospheric bleaching at 10.6 umicrom is derived from analysis of the kinetic equations for the CO(2)-N(2)-H(2)O system. The case of upward-directed CO(2) laser beams is of particular interest, and values of local absorptance and total absorption integrated along beam path are given. At intensities 10(6)-10(7) W cm(-2) thermal blooming of the laser beam is greatly reduced due to bleached absorption.

  11. 46 CFR 30.10-6a - Category A machinery space-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Category A machinery space-TB/ALL. 30.10-6a Section 30... Definitions § 30.10-6a Category A machinery space—TB/ALL. The term Category A machinery space means any space and trunks and ducts to such a space that contains: (a) Internal combustion machinery used for...

  12. Structure and function of C1-inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Wagenaar-Bos, Ineke G A; Hack, C Erik

    2006-11-01

    C1-INH belongs to the family of serpins. Structural studies have yielded a clear understanding of the biochemical principle underlying the functional activities of these proteins. Although the crystal structure of C1-INH has yet to be revealed, homology modeling has provided a three-dimensional model of the serpin part of C1-INH. This model has helped us understand the biochemical consequences of mutations of the C1-INH gene as they occur in patients who have HAE. The structure of the N-terminal domain of C1-INH remains unknown; however, this part of the molecule is unlikely to be important in the inhibitory activity of C1-INH toward its target proteases. Mutations in this part have not been described in patients who have HAE, except for a deletion containing two cysteine residues involved in the stabilization of the serpin domain. Recent studies suggest some anti-inflammatory functions for this N-terminal part, possibly explaining the effects of C1-INH in diseases other than HAE.

  13. Online Degrees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolezalek, Holly

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the trend of trainers who are getting degrees through online courses delivered via the Internet. Addresses accreditation issues and what to ask before enrolling in online degree programs. (JOW)

  14. Dishonorary Degrees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romano, Carlin

    2008-01-01

    If an honorary degree lacks values to begin with, does withdrawing it deliver a rebuke to the recipient? Is whatever honor that comes with the distinction embedded in the fancy paper, or is it wholly in the eye of the degree holder? Are honorary degrees really such silly things that individuals should mock their bestowal or withdrawal? The case of…

  15. Curtiss SB2C-1 Helldiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1943-01-01

    Curtiss SB2C-1 Helldiver: The front canopy came off this Curtiss SB2C-1 Helldiver while it was in flight, injuring pilot Herbert H. Hoover, but he recovered the plane back to the NACA at Langley Field. SB2Cs were license-built by Fairchild as SBFs and by Canadian Car and Foundry as SBWs. Helldivers were also flown by the British and Australians.

  16. 29 CFR 2575.502c-1 - Adjusted civil penalty under section 502(c)(1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ACT OF 1974 ADJUSTMENT OF CIVIL PENALTIES UNDER ERISA TITLE I Adjustment of Civil Penalties Under ERISA Title I § 2575.502c-1 Adjusted civil penalty under section 502(c)(1). In accordance with the... section 502(c)(1) of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974, as amended (ERISA), is...

  17. 29 CFR 2575.502c-1 - Adjusted civil penalty under section 502(c)(1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ACT OF 1974 ADJUSTMENT OF CIVIL PENALTIES UNDER ERISA TITLE I Adjustment of Civil Penalties Under ERISA Title I § 2575.502c-1 Adjusted civil penalty under section 502(c)(1). In accordance with the... section 502(c)(1) of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974, as amended (ERISA), is...

  18. 29 CFR 2575.502c-1 - Adjusted civil penalty under section 502(c)(1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ACT OF 1974 ADJUSTMENT OF CIVIL PENALTIES UNDER ERISA TITLE I Adjustment of Civil Penalties Under ERISA Title I § 2575.502c-1 Adjusted civil penalty under section 502(c)(1). In accordance with the... section 502(c)(1) of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974, as amended (ERISA), is...

  19. 29 CFR 2575.502c-1 - Adjusted civil penalty under section 502(c)(1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ACT OF 1974 ADJUSTMENT OF CIVIL PENALTIES UNDER ERISA TITLE I Adjustment of Civil Penalties Under ERISA Title I § 2575.502c-1 Adjusted civil penalty under section 502(c)(1). In accordance with the... section 502(c)(1) of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974, as amended (ERISA), is...

  20. 29 CFR 2575.502c-1 - Adjusted civil penalty under section 502(c)(1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ACT OF 1974 ADJUSTMENT OF CIVIL PENALTIES UNDER ERISA TITLE I Adjustment of Civil Penalties Under ERISA Title I § 2575.502c-1 Adjusted civil penalty under section 502(c)(1). In accordance with the... section 502(c)(1) of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974, as amended (ERISA), is...

  1. Optical response at 10.6 microns in tungsten silicide Schottky barrier diodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, Sandeep; Boyd, Joseph T.; Jackson, Howard E.

    1987-01-01

    Optical response to radiation at a wavelength of 10.6 microns in tungsten silicide-silicon Schottky barrier diodes has been observed. Incident photons excite electrons by means of junction plasmon assisted inelastic electron tunneling. At 78 K, a peak in the second derivative of current versus junction bias voltage was observed at a voltage corresponding to the energy of photons having a wavelength of 10.6 microns. This peak increased with increasing incident laser power, saturating at the highest laser powers investigated.

  2. 17 CFR 10.6 - Changes in time permitted for filing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Changes in time permitted for... OF PRACTICE General Provisions § 10.6 Changes in time permitted for filing. Except as otherwise... a matter is then pending, on their own motion or the motion of a party, at any time may extend...

  3. Four C1q domain-containing proteins involved in the innate immune response in Hyriopsis cumingii.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ling-Ling; Jin, Min; Li, Xin-Cang; Ren, Qian; Lan, Jiang-Feng

    2016-08-01

    C1q is a key subcomponent of the complement C1 complex. This subcomponent contains a globular C1q (gC1q) domain with remarkable ligand binding properties. C1q domain-containing (C1qDC) proteins are composed of all proteins with a gC1q domain. C1qDC proteins exist in many invertebrates and recognize non-self-ligands. In our study, four C1qDC genes, namely, HcC1qDC1-HcC1qDC4, were identified from Hyriopsis cumingii. HcC1qDC1-HcC1qDC4 encode a protein of 224, 204, 305, and 332 amino acids, respectively. All C1qDC proteins consist of a gC1q domain at the C terminal. In addition to the gC1q domain, a coiled-coil region is found in HcC1qDC4. Multiple alignments and phylogenetic tree analysis revealed that the C1qDC proteins highly differ from one another. Tissue distribution analysis demonstrated that HcC1qDC1-HcC1qDC4 are widely distributed in hemocytes, hepatopancreas, gills, mantle, and foot. These C1qDC genes are regulated by bacteria to varying degrees. These recombinant HcC1qDC proteins exhibit a binding activity against different bacterial species. Our results may suggest the roles of HcC1qDC genes in anti-bacterial immune defense. PMID:27288256

  4. 42 CFR 52c.1 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS MINORITY BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH SUPPORT PROGRAM § 52c.1 Applicability. The regulations in this part apply to grants (under the Minority... Service (PHS) Act (42 U.S.C. 241(a)(3)) to increase the numbers of ethnic minority faculty, students,...

  5. 42 CFR 52c.1 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS MINORITY BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH SUPPORT PROGRAM § 52c.1 Applicability. The regulations in this part apply to grants (under the Minority... Service (PHS) Act (42 U.S.C. 241(a)(3)) to increase the numbers of ethnic minority faculty, students,...

  6. 42 CFR 52c.1 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS MINORITY BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH SUPPORT PROGRAM § 52c.1 Applicability. The regulations in this part apply to grants (under the Minority... Service (PHS) Act (42 U.S.C. 241(a)(3)) to increase the numbers of ethnic minority faculty, students,...

  7. 42 CFR 52c.1 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS MINORITY BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH SUPPORT PROGRAM § 52c.1 Applicability. The regulations in this part apply to grants (under the Minority... Service (PHS) Act (42 U.S.C. 241(a)(3)) to increase the numbers of ethnic minority faculty, students,...

  8. 42 CFR 52c.1 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS MINORITY BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH SUPPORT PROGRAM § 52c.1 Applicability. The regulations in this part apply to grants (under the Minority... Service (PHS) Act (42 U.S.C. 241(a)(3)) to increase the numbers of ethnic minority faculty, students,...

  9. Protein engineering studies on C1r and C1s.

    PubMed

    Závodszky, P; Gál, P; Cseh, S; Schumaker, V N

    1993-12-01

    1. C1r and C1s cDNAs were placed downstream the strong polyhedrin promoter in the Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus and the recombinant proteins were expressed in insect cells, in biologically active form. The yield of expression is high enough to get recombinant components for chemical and functional studies (5 micrograms/ml cell culture supernatant). 2. The biological activity and the post-translational modifications of the recombinant subcomponents were checked. The rC1r and rC1s proved to be biologically active in the hemolytic assay, although their glycosylations were different compared to that of the serum proteins. The insect cells are able to beta-hydroxylate the Asn residue of the EGF domain in the C1r but with a low efficiency. It is clear now, that this post-translational modification does not play a role in the Ca2+ dependent C1r-C1s interaction. 3. Two deletion mutants of C1r cDNA were constructed in order to clarify the role of domain I and II. The results show that both, domain I, and II are absolutely necessary for the tetramer formation and both have a regulatory role in the autoactivation. The autoactivation of the mutants is accelerated significantly. 4. Hybrid cDNA constructions were also made, and one of them was expressed. In the C1s alpha R hybrid the C1s alpha part cannot dimerize in presence of Ca2+, but it can form a tetramer with C1r2, that can bind to C1q. This observation indicates that the function of the C1s alpha part in the hybrid is modulated by the C1r part (gamma B) of the molecule. 5. In order to control the autoactivation process point mutant cDNAs were constructed through altering the Arg-Ile bond in the catalytic domain of the C1r. The Gln-Ile construction is a stable zymogen while the Arg-Phe mutant has a lower rate of autoactivation. These results do justify our approach of using domain-domain interchange, domain deletion and point mutations in combination, to reveal the structural background of C1 function

  10. Radiation effects on beta 10.6 of pure and europium doped KCl

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grimes, H. H.; Maisel, J. E.; Hartford, R. H.

    1975-01-01

    Changes in the optical absorption coefficient as a result of X-ray and electron bombardment of pure KCl (monocrystalline and polycrystalline), and divalent europium doped polycrystalline KCl were determined. The optical absorption coefficients were measured by a constant heat flow calorimetric method. Both 300 KV X-irradiation and 2 MeV electron irradiation produced significant increases in beta 10.6, measured at room temperature. The X-irradiation of pure moncrystalline KCl increased beta 10.6 by 0.005/cm for a 113 MR dose. For an equivalent dose, 2 MeV electrons were found less efficient in changing beta 10.6. However, electron irradiation of pure and Eu-doped polycrystalline KCl produced marked increases in adsorption. Beta increased to over 0.25/cm in Eu-doped material for a 30 x 10 to the 14th power electrons/sq cm dose, a factor of 20 increase over unirradiated material. Moreover, bleaching the electron irradiated doped KCl with 649 m light produced and additional factor of 1.5 increase. These findings will be discussed in light of known defect-center properties in KCl.

  11. A quenched c = 1 critical matrix model

    SciTech Connect

    Qiu, Zongan; Rey, Soo-Jong

    1990-12-01

    We study a variant of the Penner-Distler-Vafa model, proposed as a c = 1 quantum gravity: `quenched` matrix model with logarithmic potential. The model is exactly soluble, and exhibits a two-cut branching as observed in multicritical unitary matrix models and multicut Hermitian matrix models. Using analytic continuation of the power in the conventional polynomial potential, we also show that both the Penner-Distler-Vafa model and our `quenched` matrix model satisfy Virasoro algebra constraints.

  12. A quenched c = 1 critical matrix model

    SciTech Connect

    Qiu, Zongan; Rey, Soo-Jong.

    1990-12-01

    We study a variant of the Penner-Distler-Vafa model, proposed as a c = 1 quantum gravity: quenched' matrix model with logarithmic potential. The model is exactly soluble, and exhibits a two-cut branching as observed in multicritical unitary matrix models and multicut Hermitian matrix models. Using analytic continuation of the power in the conventional polynomial potential, we also show that both the Penner-Distler-Vafa model and our quenched' matrix model satisfy Virasoro algebra constraints.

  13. Cooperative Research in C1 Chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2000-10-27

    C1 chemistry refers to the conversion of simple carbon-containing materials that contain one carbon atom per molecule into valuable products. The feedstocks for C1 chemistry include natural gas, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methanol and synthesis gas (a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen). Synthesis gas, or syngas, is produced primarily by the reaction of natural gas, which is principally methane, with steam. It can also be produced by gasification of coal, petroleum coke, or biomass. The availability of syngas from coal gasification is expected to increase significantly in the future because of increasing development of integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power generation. Because of the abundance of remote natural gas, the advent of IGCC, and environmental advantages, C1 chemistry is expected to become a major area of interest for the transportation fuel and chemical industries in the relatively near future. The CFFLS will therefore perform a valuable national service by providing science and engineering graduates that are trained in this important area. Syngas is the source of most hydrogen. Approximately 10 trillion standard cubic feet (SCF) of hydrogen are manufactured annually in the world. Most of this hydrogen is currently used for the production of ammonia and in a variety of refining and chemical operations. However, utilization of hydrogen in fuel cells is expected to grow significantly in the next century. Syngas is also the feedstock for all methanol and Fischer-Tropsch plants. Currently, world consumption of methanol is over 25 million tons per year. There are many methanol plants in the U.S. and throughout the world. Methanol and oxygenated transportation fuel products play a significant role in the CFFLS C1 program. Currently, the only commercial Fischer-Tropsch plants are overseas, principally in South Africa (SASOL). However, new plants are being built or planned for a number of locations. One possible location for future F

  14. Notes on Liouville theory at c{<=}1

    SciTech Connect

    McElgin, Will

    2008-03-15

    The continuation of the Liouville conformal field theory to c{<=}1 is considered. The viability of an interpretation involving a timelike boson which is the conformal factor for two-dimensional asymptotically de Sitter geometries is examined. The conformal bootstrap leads to a three-point function with a unique analytic factor which is the same as that which appears along with the fusion coefficients in the minimal models. A corresponding nonanalytic factor produces a well-defined metric on fields only when the central charge is restricted to those of the topological minimal models, and when the conformal dimensions satisfy h>(c-1)/24. However, the theories considered here have a continuous spectrum which excludes the degenerate representations appearing in the minimal models. The c=1 theory has been investigated previously using similar techniques, and is identical to a nonrational conformal field theory (CFT) which arises as a limit of unitary minimal models. When coupled to unitary matter fields, the nonunitary theories with c{<=}-2 produce string amplitudes which are similar to those of the minimal string.

  15. COOPERATIVE RESEARCH IN C1 CHEMISTRY

    SciTech Connect

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2001-04-30

    Faculty and students from five universities (Kentucky, West Virginia, Utah, Pittsburgh and Auburn) are collaborating on a basic research program to develop novel C1 chemistry processes for the production of clean, high quality transportation fuel. An Industrial Advisory Board (IAB) with members from Chevron, Eastman Chemical, Energy International, Teir Associates, and the Department of Defense has been formed to provide practical guidance to the program. The program has two principal objectives. (1) Develop technology for conversion of C1 source materials (natural gas, synthesis gas, carbon dioxide and monoxide, and methanol) into clean, high efficiency transportation fuel. (2) Develop novel processes for producing hydrogen from natural gas and other hydrocarbons. Some of the principal accomplishments of the program in its first two years are: (1) The addition of acetylenic compounds in Fischer-Tropsch synthesis is found to produce significant amounts of oxygenated products in FT diesel fuels. Such oxygenated products should decrease particulate matter (PM) emissions. (2) Nanoscale, binary, Fe-based catalysts supported on alumina have been shown to have significant activity for the decomposition of methane into pure hydrogen and potentially valuable multi-walled carbon nanotubes. (3) Catalytic synthesis processes have been developed for synthesis of diethyl carbonate, higher ethers, and higher alcohols from C1 source materials. Testing of the effect of adding these oxygenates to diesel fuel on PM emissions has begun using a well-equipped small diesel engine test facility. (4) Supercritical fluid (SCF) FT synthesis has been conducted under SCF hexane using both Fe and Co catalysts. There is a marked effect on the hydrocarbon product distribution, with a shift to higher carbon number products. These and other results are summarized.

  16. Infrared (10.6-mum) scattering and extinction in laboratory water and ice clouds.

    PubMed

    Sassen, K

    1981-01-15

    Measurements of the angular scattering and extinction of IR (10.6-mum) laser radiation in laboratory water and ice clouds are reported and compared to theoretical predictions for spheres and visible (0.633-mum) light scattering data. Randomly oriented cloud particles with dimensions ranging from several times smaller to larger than the incident wavelength generated phase functions span the Rayleigh and Mie scattering domains and illustrate the effects caused by strong internal energy absorption. Dual-wavelength extinction measurements reveal information on the growth and dissipation of laboratory water clouds and the effects of cloud seeding. The remote sensing significance of the findings is discussed.

  17. Atmospheric refractive effects on coherent lidar performance at 10.6 microm.

    PubMed

    Schwiesow, R L; Calfee, R F

    1979-12-01

    The aperture diameter over which a lidar transceiver collects backscattered signal that can be coherently detected depends on refractive index inhomogeneities in the atmosphere. We have studied the change in coherently detected signal with change in aperture for a cw (focusing) lidar operating at 10.6-microm wavelength over a horizontal path 2 m above the ground at target ranges between 0.6 km and 2.6 km. We conclude that for average daytime conditions at a range of 1 km, for example, a transceiver aperture diameter of 27 cm gives approximately 65% of the coherent signal expected from an aperture of twice that diameter.

  18. Effects of 10.6-mu Laser Induced Air Chemistry on the Atmospheric Refractive Index.

    PubMed

    Wood, A D; Camac, M; Gerry, E T

    1971-08-01

    Atmospheric absorption of 10.6-mu radiation can either heat or cool the air, depending upon atmospheric conditions. Absorption by CO(2) is essentially from the (100) to the (001) states. The depleted (100) state is rapidly replenished by energy transfer from translation, cooling the atmosphere. The (001) state slowly transfers energy through the N(2) back to translation, eventually heating the atmosphere. Cooling increases the density and index of refraction, and the resulting gradient tends to focus a gaussian beam. This partially offsets the usual heating effects and associated ray divergence.

  19. C1q protein binds to the apoptotic nucleolus and causes C1 protease degradation of nucleolar proteins.

    PubMed

    Cai, Yitian; Teo, Boon Heng Dennis; Yeo, Joo Guan; Lu, Jinhua

    2015-09-11

    In infection, complement C1q recognizes pathogen-congregated antibodies and elicits complement activation. Among endogenous ligands, C1q binds to DNA and apoptotic cells, but whether C1q binds to nuclear DNA in apoptotic cells remains to be investigated. With UV irradiation-induced apoptosis, C1q initially bound to peripheral cellular regions in early apoptotic cells. By 6 h, binding concentrated in the nuclei to the nucleolus but not the chromatins. When nucleoli were isolated from non-apoptotic cells, C1q also bound to these structures. In vivo, C1q exists as the C1 complex (C1qC1r2C1s2), and C1q binding to ligands activates the C1r/C1s proteases. Incubation of nucleoli with C1 caused degradation of the nucleolar proteins nucleolin and nucleophosmin 1. This was inhibited by the C1 inhibitor. The nucleoli are abundant with autoantigens. C1q binding and C1r/C1s degradation of nucleolar antigens during cell apoptosis potentially reduces autoimmunity. These findings help us to understand why genetic C1q and C1r/C1s deficiencies cause systemic lupus erythematosus.

  20. Microbial growth on C1 compounds

    PubMed Central

    Kemp, M. B.; Quayle, J. R.

    1967-01-01

    1. A study has been made of the incorporation of carbon from [14C]formaldehyde and [14C]formate by cultures of Pseudomonas methanica growing on methane. 2. The distribution of radioactivity within the non-volatile constituents of the ethanol-soluble fractions of the cells, after incubation with labelled compounds for periods of up to 1min., has been analysed by chromatography and radioautography. 3. Radioactivity was fixed from [14C]formaldehyde mainly into the phosphates of the sugars, glucose, fructose, sedoheptulose and allulose. 4. Very little radioactivity was fixed from [14C]formate; after 1min. the only products identified were serine and malate. 5. The distribution of radioactivity within the carbon skeleton of glucose, obtained from short-term incubations with [14C]methanol of Pseudomonas methanica growing on methane, has been investigated. At the earliest time of sampling over 70% of the radioactivity was located in C-1; as the time increased the radioactivity spread throughout the molecule. 6. The results have been interpreted in terms of a variant of the pentose phosphate cycle, involving the condensation of formaldehyde with C-1 of ribose 5-phosphate to give allulose phosphate. PMID:6030306

  1. C1IV:. Gravitational Wave Data Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sathyaprakash, B. S.

    2002-09-01

    Resonant bar detectors are routinely searching for astronomical sources of gravitational waves and to setting upper limits on event rates. Interferometric detectors are beginning to operate at sensitivity levels good enough to set meaningful upper limits and begin astrophysical searches. With the long baseline interferometers scheduled to take data at unprecedented sensitivity levels the next few years will be a very exciting period for gravitational waves. In session C1iv there were talks focusing on gravitational wave searches (Krolak and Sintes), setting upper limits on astrophysical signals (Brady and Whelan), theoretical developments in modelling binary black holes (Iyer), testing general relativity with gravitational wave data (Will) and tools for gravitational wave data analysis (Schutz). There was also a one-hour round-table discussion on setting upper limits chaired by Andersson.

  2. Characterization of optical thin films for applications at 10.6 μm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaspar, Martin; Pfefferkorn, R.; Ramm, Juergen

    1990-08-01

    Electron beam evaporation and ion assisted deposition have been used to prepare BaF2, LaF3 and HoF3 single layers. These fluorides were chosen as low index materials for laser applications at 10.6 Lm. The films were characterized by Rutherford backscattering (RBS), x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), stress measurement, laser calorimetry, and spectrophotometry. The influence of substrate temperature, deposition rate, ion energy, and ion to molecule arrival ratio on film growth was analysed and related to the optical properties. Although each material reacts differently to the deposition parameters, ion assisted deposition leads to an increase of the absorption loss at the laser wavelength for all three materials.

  3. 10.6% Certified Colloidal Quantum Dot Solar Cells via Solvent-Polarity-Engineered Halide Passivation.

    PubMed

    Lan, Xinzheng; Voznyy, Oleksandr; García de Arquer, F Pelayo; Liu, Mengxia; Xu, Jixian; Proppe, Andrew H; Walters, Grant; Fan, Fengjia; Tan, Hairen; Liu, Min; Yang, Zhenyu; Hoogland, Sjoerd; Sargent, Edward H

    2016-07-13

    Colloidal quantum dot (CQD) solar cells are solution-processed photovoltaics with broad spectral absorption tunability. Major advances in their efficiency have been made via improved CQD surface passivation and device architectures with enhanced charge carrier collection. Herein, we demonstrate a new strategy to improve further the passivation of CQDs starting from the solution phase. A cosolvent system is employed to tune the solvent polarity in order to achieve the solvation of methylammonium iodide (MAI) and the dispersion of hydrophobic PbS CQDs simultaneously in a homogeneous phase, otherwise not achieved in a single solvent. This process enables MAI to access the CQDs to confer improved passivation. This, in turn, allows for efficient charge extraction from a thicker photoactive layer device, leading to a certified solar cell power conversion efficiency of 10.6%, a new certified record in CQD photovoltaics.

  4. Costas loop experiments for a 10.6 micron communications receiver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philipp, H. K.; Scholtz, A. L.; Bonek, E.; Leeb, W. R.

    1983-08-01

    The principle of the Costas-type nonlinear phase-locked loop is transferred to the 10.6 micron wavelength of CO2 lasers. The experimental setup is described, emphasizing the peculiarities of optical Costas loops, and the measured characteristic loop parameters are presented. Results are given of a successful demonstration of carrier regeneration and coherent demodulation of binary phase-shift-keyed double-sideband suppressed-carrier input signals. It is shown that the optical Costas loop has the ability to regenerate the carrier of a binary phase-shift-keyed input signal and to perform coherent demodulation at a data rate of 20 Mbit/s. It is concluded that Costas loop communication receivers are feasible for the infrared and that optical fiber communications around 1 micron wavelength will profit from phase-locked loop coherent detection.

  5. Physics design for the ATA tapered wiggler 10. 6. mu. FEL amplifier experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Fawley, W.M.

    1985-10-01

    We are presently designing and constructing a high-gain, tapered wiggler 10.6 ..mu.. FEL amplifier to operate with the 50 MeV ATA e-beam. The initial experiments will be done with a constant period (lambda /SUB w/ =8 cm), 5 m-long linear wiggler. For an input laser power of 800 MW and electron beam brightness of 2.10/sup 5/ A/(rad-cm)/sup 2/, we hope to achieve a trapped particle fraction about0.5 and an energy extraction efficiency of about2% with a about10% taper in the wiggler magnetic field. This taper corresponds to decelerating the trapped particle approximately two full ponderomotive well (i.e. bucket) heights. In this talk, we discuss the physics motivations behind our tapered wiggler design and initial experimental diagnostics.

  6. 10.6% Certified Colloidal Quantum Dot Solar Cells via Solvent-Polarity-Engineered Halide Passivation.

    PubMed

    Lan, Xinzheng; Voznyy, Oleksandr; García de Arquer, F Pelayo; Liu, Mengxia; Xu, Jixian; Proppe, Andrew H; Walters, Grant; Fan, Fengjia; Tan, Hairen; Liu, Min; Yang, Zhenyu; Hoogland, Sjoerd; Sargent, Edward H

    2016-07-13

    Colloidal quantum dot (CQD) solar cells are solution-processed photovoltaics with broad spectral absorption tunability. Major advances in their efficiency have been made via improved CQD surface passivation and device architectures with enhanced charge carrier collection. Herein, we demonstrate a new strategy to improve further the passivation of CQDs starting from the solution phase. A cosolvent system is employed to tune the solvent polarity in order to achieve the solvation of methylammonium iodide (MAI) and the dispersion of hydrophobic PbS CQDs simultaneously in a homogeneous phase, otherwise not achieved in a single solvent. This process enables MAI to access the CQDs to confer improved passivation. This, in turn, allows for efficient charge extraction from a thicker photoactive layer device, leading to a certified solar cell power conversion efficiency of 10.6%, a new certified record in CQD photovoltaics. PMID:27351104

  7. Testing the Wavelength Dependence of Cosmological Redshift Down to Δz ˜ 10-6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreras, Ignacio; Trujillo, Ignacio

    2016-07-01

    At the core of the standard cosmological model lies the assumption that the redshift of distant galaxies is independent of photon wavelength. This invariance of cosmological redshift with wavelength is routinely found in all galaxy spectra with a precision of Δz ˜ 10-4. The combined use of approximately half a million high-quality galaxy spectra from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) allows us to explore this invariance down to a nominal precision in redshift of 10-6 (statistical). Our analysis is performed over the redshift interval 0.02 < z < 0.25. We use the centroids of spectral lines over the 3700-6800 Å rest-frame optical window. We do not find any difference in redshift between the blue and red sides down to a precision of 10-6 at z ≲ 0.1 and 10-5 at 0.1 ≲ z ≲ 0.25 (i.e., at least an order of magnitude better than with single galaxy spectra). This is the first time the wavelength-independence of the (1 + z) redshift law is confirmed over a wide spectral window at this precision level. This result holds independently of the stellar population of the galaxies and their kinematical properties. This result is also robust against wavelength calibration issues. The limited spectral resolution (R ˜ 2000) of the SDSS data, combined with the asymmetric wavelength sampling of the spectral features in the observed restframe due to the (1 + z) stretching of the lines, prevent our methodology from achieving a precision higher than 10-5, at z > 0.1. Future attempts to constrain this law will require high quality galaxy spectra at higher resolution (R ≳ 10,000).

  8. C1 inhibitor deficiency: 2014 United Kingdom consensus document.

    PubMed

    Longhurst, H J; Tarzi, M D; Ashworth, F; Bethune, C; Cale, C; Dempster, J; Gompels, M; Jolles, S; Seneviratne, S; Symons, C; Price, A; Edgar, D

    2015-06-01

    C1 inhibitor deficiency is a rare disorder manifesting with recurrent attacks of disabling and potentially life-threatening angioedema. Here we present an updated 2014 United Kingdom consensus document for the management of C1 inhibitor-deficient patients, representing a joint venture between the United Kingdom Primary Immunodeficiency Network and Hereditary Angioedema UK. To develop the consensus, we assembled a multi-disciplinary steering group of clinicians, nurses and a patient representative. This steering group first met in 2012, developing a total of 48 recommendations across 11 themes. The statements were distributed to relevant clinicians and a representative group of patients to be scored for agreement on a Likert scale. All 48 statements achieved a high degree of consensus, indicating strong alignment of opinion. The recommendations have evolved significantly since the 2005 document, with particularly notable developments including an improved evidence base to guide dosing and indications for acute treatment, greater emphasis on home therapy for acute attacks and a strong focus on service organization. PMID:25605519

  9. Plasma levels of C1- inhibitor complexes and cleaved C1- inhibitor in patients with hereditary angioneurotic edema.

    PubMed

    Cugno, M; Nuijens, J; Hack, E; Eerenberg, A; Frangi, D; Agostoni, A; Cicardi, M

    1990-04-01

    C1- inhibitor (C1(-)-Inh) catabolism in plasma of patients with hereditary angioneurotic edema (HANE) was assessed by measuring the complexes formed by C1(-)-Inh with its target proteases (C1-s, Factor XIIa, and kallikrein) and a modified (cleaved) inactive form of C1(-)-Inh (iC1(-)-Inh). This study was performed in plasma from 18 healthy subjects and 30 patients with HANE in remission: 20 with low antigen concentration (type I) and 10 (from 5 different kindreds) with dysfunctional protein (type II). Both type-I and type-II patients had increased C1(-)-C1(-)-Inh complexes (P less than 0.0001), which in type I inversely correlated with the levels of C1(-)-Inh (P less than 0.001). iC1(-)-Inh was normal in all type-I patients and in type-II patients from three families with increased C1(-)-Inh antigen, whereas iC1(-)-Inh was higher than 20 times the normal values in patients from the remaining two families with C1(-)-Inh antigen in the normal range. None of the subjects had an increase of either Factor XIIa-C1(-)-Inh or kallikrein-C1(-)-Inh complexes. This study shows that the hypercatabolism of C1(-)-Inh in HANE patients at least in part occurs via the formation of complexes with C1- and that genetically determined differences in catabolism of dysfunctional C1(-)-Inh proteins are present in type-II patients.

  10. MgZnO/ZnO heterostructures with electron mobility exceeding 1 × 10(6) cm(2)/Vs.

    PubMed

    Falson, Joseph; Kozuka, Yusuke; Uchida, Masaki; Smet, Jurgen H; Arima, Taka-Hisa; Tsukazaki, Atsushi; Kawasaki, Masashi

    2016-01-01

    The inherently complex chemical and crystallographic nature of oxide materials has suppressed the purities achievable in laboratory environments, obscuring the rich physical degrees of freedom these systems host. In this manuscript we provide a systematic approach to defect identification and management in oxide molecular beam epitaxy grown MgZnO/ZnO heterostructures which host two-dimensional electron systems. We achieve samples displaying electron mobilities in excess of 1 × 10(6) cm(2)/Vs. This data set for the MgZnO/ZnO system firmly establishes that the crystalline quality has become comparable to traditional semiconductor materials. PMID:27229479

  11. Structural and functional aspects of C1-inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Bos, Ineke G A; Hack, C Erik; Abrahams, Jan Pieter

    2002-09-01

    C1-Inh is a serpin that inhibits serine proteases from the complement and the coagulation pathway. C1-Inh consists of a serpin domain and a unique N-terminal domain and is heavily glycosylated. Non-functional mutants of C1-Inh can give insight into the inhibitory mechanism of C1-Inh. This review describes a novel 3D model of C1-Inh, based on a newly developed homology modelling method. This model gives insight into a possible potentiation mechanism of C1-Inh and based on this model the essential residues for efficient inhibition by C1-Inh are discussed.

  12. Biodegradation and adsorption of C1- and C2-phenanthrenes and C1- and C2-dibenzothiophenes in the presence of clay minerals: effect on forensic diagnostic ratios.

    PubMed

    Ugochukwu, Uzochukwu C; Head, Ian M; Manning, David A C

    2014-07-01

    The impact of modified montmorillonites on adsorption and biodegradation of crude oil C1-phenanthrenes, C1-dibenzothiophenes, C2-phenanthrenes and C2-dibenzothiophenes was investigated in aqueous clay/oil microcosm experiments with a hydrocarbon degrading microorganism community. Consequently, the effect on C1-dibenzothiophenes/C1-phenanthrenes, C2-dibenzothiophenes/C2-phenanthrenes, 2+3-methyldibenzothiophene/4-methyldibenzothiophene and 1-methyldibenzothiophene/4-methyldibenzothiophene ratios commonly used as diagnostic ratios for oil forensic studies was evaluated. The clay mineral samples were treated to produce acid activated montmorillonite, organomontmorillonite and homoionic montmorillonite which were used in this study. The different clay minerals (modified and unmodified) showed varied degrees of biodegradation and adsorption of the C1-phenanthrenes, C1-dibenzothiophenes, C2-phenanthrenes and C2-dibenzothiophenes. The study indicated that as opposed to biodegradation, adsorption has no effect on the diagnostic ratios. Among the diagnostic ratios reviewed, only C2-dibenzothiophenes/C2-phenanthrenes ratio was neither affected by adsorption nor biodegradation making this ratio very useful in forensic studies of oil spills and oil-oil correlation.

  13. Microsecond enamel ablation with 10.6μm CO2 laser radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Góra, W. S.; McDonald, A.; Hand, D. P.; Shephard, J. D.

    2016-02-01

    Lasers have been previously been used for dental applications, however there remain issues with thermally-induced cracking. In this paper we investigate the impact of pulse length on CO2 laser ablation of human dental enamel. Experiments were carried in vitro on molar teeth without any modification to the enamel surface, such as grinding or polishing. In addition to varying the pulse length, we also varied pulse energy and focal position, to determine the most efficient ablation of dental hard tissue and more importantly to minimize or eradicate cracking. The maximum temperature rise during the multi pulse ablation process was monitored using a set of thermocouples embedded into the pulpal chamber. The application of a laser device in dental surgery allows removal of tissue with higher precision, which results in minimal loss of healthy dental tissue. In this study we use an RF discharge excited CO2 laser operating at 10.6μm. The wavelength of 10.6 μm overlaps with a phosphate band (PO3-4) absorption in dental hard tissue hence the CO2 laser radiation has been selected as a potential source for modification of the tissue. This research describes an in-depth analysis of single pulse laser ablation. To determine the parameters that are best suited for the ablation of hard dental tissue without thermal cracking, a range of pulse lengths (10-200 μs), and fluences (0-100 J/cm2) are tested. In addition, different laser focusing approaches are investigated to select the most beneficial way of delivering laser radiation to the surface (divergent/convergent beam). To ensure that these processes do not increase the temperature above the critical threshold and cause the necrosis of the tissue a set of thermocouples was placed into the pulpal chambers. Intermittent laser radiation was investigated with and without application of a water spray to cool down the ablation site and the adjacent area. Results show that the temperature can be kept below the critical threshold

  14. Development of ferromagnetic spinels for optical isolation at 10. 6. mu. m

    SciTech Connect

    Teegarden, K.J.

    1980-05-01

    Vacuum hot pressing was used to fabricate CdCr/sub 2/S/sub 4/, CdCr/sub 2/Se/sub 4/ and (1-x) CdCr/sub 2/S/sub 4/.x CdCr/sub 2/Se/sub 4/ discs with diameters of 1.25 cm from fine powders and small single crystals to relative densities as high as 99.6%. Optical attenuation coefficients of approx. 1.0 cm/sup -1/ at 10.6 m were obtained for CdCr/sub 2/S/sub 4/, and values of 12.1 cm/sup -1/ and 14.9 cm/sup -1/ for the selenide and sulfur-selenide mixture. Two-and-three-phonon absorption bands were found to limit the transmission of CdCr/sub 2/S/sub 4/ at lambda > 10 ..mu..m. Extrinsic absorption mechanisms caused the higher attenuation coefficients in CdCr/sub 2/Se/sub 4/ and the mixture. The main extrinsic mechanisms at long wavelengths were free carrier absorption (in CdCr/sub 2/Se/sub 4/) and an impurity absorption band at 16.3 ..mu..m due to Cr/sub 2/O/sub 3/. At short wavelengths the attenuation coefficient was dominated by scattering from pores and second phases. Free carrier absorption was found to be induced by free selenium present in the starting powders. Suppression of this absorption was achieved by optimizing the hot-pressing procedure in order to remove free selenium. The presence of pores was attributed to incomplete densification arising from the presence of second phases (CdSe and Cr/sub 2/Se/sub 3/) and the absence of plastic deformation as a densification mechanism. Laser damage thresholds of 250 MWcm/sup -2/ and 100 MWcm/sup -2/ were measured at 10.6 ..mu..m for CdCr/sub 2/S/sub 4/ and CdCr/sub 2/Se/sub 4/, respectively.

  15. Characterization of C1 inhibitor binding to neutrophils.

    PubMed Central

    Chang, N S; Boackle, R J; Leu, R W

    1991-01-01

    In a previous study we have isolated neutrophil membrane proteins that non-covalently bind to native C1-INH (105,000 MW) and a non-functional, degraded C1-INH (88,000 MW; C1-INH-88). To further characterize the binding nature, we have designed a novel kinetic C1 titration assay which enables not only a quantification of the removal of fluid-phase C1-INH by neutrophils, but also a concomitant measure of residual C1-INH function. Native C1-INH, when adsorbed to EDTA-pretreated neutrophils, lost its function in the inhibition of fluid-phase C1. The non-functional C1-INH-88, which is probably devoid of a reactive centre, was found to block the binding of native C1-INH to neutrophils. Pretreatment of neutrophils with serine esterase inhibitors did not abrogate binding capacity of the cells for C1-INH, whereas the binding affinity for C1-INH was lost when the cells were pretreated with trypsin. An array of human peripheral blood leucocytes and several lymphoid cell lines has surface binding sites for C1-INH, but not on human erythrocytes and U937 cells. Binding was further confirmed using (i) C1-INH-microsphere beads to neutrophils, in which the binding was blocked when pretreating neutrophils with excess C1-INH or with trypsin, and (ii) radiolabelled C1-INH to neutrophils, which was competitively blocked by unlabelled non-functional C1-INH-88. Desialylation of C1-INH significantly reduced its binding affinity for neutrophils, indicating that the membrane receptor sites on neutrophils could be specific for the binding of sialic acid residues on C1-INH. Overall, our studies indicate that neutrophils or other leucocytes possess specific surface binding sites for the sialic acid-containing portion of C1-INH. PMID:2045131

  16. Structure and functions of the interaction domains of C1r and C1s: keystones of the architecture of the C1 complex.

    PubMed

    Thielens, N M; Bersch, B; Hernandez, J F; Arlaud, G J

    1999-05-01

    C1r and C1s, the proteases responsible for activation and proteolytic activity of the C1 complex of complement, share similar overall structural organizations featuring five nonenzymic protein modules (two CUB modules surrounding a single EGF module, and a pair of CCP modules) followed by a serine protease domain. Besides highly specific proteolytic activities, both proteases exhibit interaction properties associated with their N-terminal regions. These properties include the ability to bind Ca2+ ions with high affinity, to associate with each other within a Ca2+-dependent C1s-C1r-C1r-C1s tetramer, and to interact with C1q upon C1 assembly. Precise functional mapping of these regions has been achieved recently, allowing identification of the domains responsible for these interactions, and providing a comprehensive picture of their structure and function. The objective of this article is to provide a detailed and up-to-date overview of the information available on these domains, which are keystones of the assembly of C1, and appear to play an essential role at the interface between the recognition function of C1 and its proteolytic activity. PMID:10408360

  17. Genome-wide functional annotation of Phomopsis longicolla isolate MSPL 10-6.

    PubMed

    Darwish, Omar; Li, Shuxian; Matthews, Benjamin; Alkharouf, Nadim

    2016-06-01

    Phomopsis seed decay of soybean is caused primarily by the seed-borne fungal pathogen Phomopsis longicolla (syn. Diaporthe longicolla). This disease severely decreases soybean seed quality, reduces seedling vigor and stand establishment, and suppresses yield. It is one of the most economically important soybean diseases. In this study we annotated the entire genome of P. longicolla isolate MSPL 10-6, which was isolated from field-grown soybean seed in Mississippi, USA. This study represents the first reported genome-wide functional annotation of a seed borne fungal pathogen in the Diaporthe-Phomopsis complex. The P. longicolla genome annotation will enable research into the genetic basis of fungal infection of soybean seed and provide information for the study of soybean-fungal interactions. The genome annotation will also be a valuable resource for the research and agricultural communities. It will aid in the development of new control strategies for this pathogen. The annotations can be found from: http://bioinformatics.towson.edu/phomopsis_longicolla/download.html. NCBI accession number is: AYRD00000000. PMID:27222801

  18. Round-robin test on optical absorption at 10.6 μm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ristau, Detlev; Niederwald, Hansjoerg S.; Erdelyi, D.; Meja, Peter; Giesen, Adolf; Plass, Wilfried; Krupka, Rene; Kennedy, Michael; Oertel, E.; Lu, Zhiming; Le, T. V.; Lee, Kwang M.; Reedy, Herman E.; Scatena, D.; Ellis, Nick; Greening, David

    1996-05-01

    The approved Draft International Standard 11551 on test methods for absorptance of optical laser components recently passed the international voting procedure. The utility of this standard practice document is the subject of the present round robin test. In order to cover a broad range of CO2-laser optical components, different types of metal mirrors and transmissive ZnSe-optics were included in the master sample set. After an initial inspection, this set passed through a series of optical laboratories in the United States, the United Kingdom, and Germany. The absorption of the samples was measured by calorimetric methods according to ISO DIS 11551, and the measurement results were compiled by the coordinating institute. The evaluation of the experiment was not started until all tests were completed. The results of the round robin test are discussed, compared and evaluated with respect to ageing mechanisms in optical coatings for CO2-laser systems. Although a great variety of different test facilities was employed by the round robin partners, a good agrement of the absorption values was observed for the wavelength of 10.6 micrometers . This demonstrates the versatility of the approved Draft International Standard 11551 for the calorimetric measurement of optical absorption in CO2-laser components.

  19. A single-stage GM-type pulse tube cryocooler operating at 10.6 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, Z. H.; Dong, W. Q.; Qiu, L. M.; Zhang, X. B.; Sun, H.; He, Y. L.; Radebaugh, R.

    2009-05-01

    In order to explore the lowest attainable refrigeration temperature and improve cooling performance at temperatures around 20 K for a single-stage G-M type pulse tube cryocooler (PTC), numerical and experimental studies were performed. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) numerical model known as REGEN was applied to the simulation of a G-M type PTC for the first time. Based on the calculation results, a single-stage G-M type PTC was designed, fabricated and tested. The performance improvement of the regenerator in the temperature range of 10-80 K was investigated. The calculations predicted a lowest temperature of 10 K. A lowest temperature of 10.6 K was achieved experimentally with an input power of 7.5 kW, which is the lowest temperature ever achieved by a single-stage PTC. Further more, the cryocooler can provide a cooling power of 20 W at 20.6 K and 39.5 W at 30 K, respectively.

  20. Complete genome sequence and transcription profiles of the rock bream iridovirus RBIV-C1.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bao-Cun; Zhang, Min; Sun, Bo-Guang; Fang, Yong; Xiao, Zhi-Zhong; Sun, Li

    2013-06-13

    The family Iridoviridae consists of 5 genera of double-stranded DNA viruses, including the genus Megalocytivirus, which contains species that are important fish pathogens. In a previous study, we isolated the first rock bream iridovirus from China (RBIV-C1) and identified it as a member of the genus Megalocytivirus. In this report, we determined the complete genomic sequence of RBIV-C1 and examined its in vivo expression profiles. The genome of RBIV-C1 is 112333 bp in length, with a GC content of 55% and a coding density of 92%. RBIV-C1 contains 4584 simple sequence repeats, 89.8% of which are distributed among coding regions. A total of 119 potential open reading frames (ORFs) were identified in RBIV-C1, including the 26 core iridovirus genes; 41 ORFs encode proteins that are predicted to be associated with essential biological functions. RBIV-C1 exhibits the highest degree of sequence conservation and colinear arrangement of genes with orange-spotted grouper iridovirus (OSGIV) and rock bream iridovirus (RBIV). The pairwise nucleotide identities are 99.49% between RBIV-C1 and OSGIV and 98.69% between RBIV-C1 and RBIV. Compared to OSGIV, RBIV-C1 contains 11 insertions, 13 deletions, and 103 single nucleotide mutations. Whole-genome transcription analysis showed that following experimental infection of rock bream with RBIV-C1, all but 1 of the 119 ORFs were expressed at different time points and clustered into 3 hierarchical groups based on their expression patterns. These results provide new insights into the genetic nature and gene expression features of megalocytiviruses.

  1. Proteolytic inactivation of plasma C1- inhibitor in sepsis.

    PubMed

    Nuijens, J H; Eerenberg-Belmer, A J; Huijbregts, C C; Schreuder, W O; Felt-Bersma, R J; Abbink, J J; Thijs, L G; Hack, C E

    1989-08-01

    Activation of both the complement system and the contact system of intrinsic coagulation is implicated in the pathophysiology of sepsis. Because C1 inhibitor (C1-Inh) regulates the activation of both cascade systems, we studied the characteristics of plasma C1-Inh in 48 patients with severe sepsis on admission to the Intensive Care Unit at the Free University of Amsterdam. The ratio between the level of functional and antigenic C1-Inh (functional index) was significantly reduced in the patients with sepsis compared with healthy volunteers (P = 0.004). The assessment of modified (cleaved), inactive C1-Inh (iC1-Inh), and complexed forms of C1-Inh (nonfunctional C1-Inh species) revealed that the reduced functional index was mainly due to the presence of iC1-Inh. On SDS-PAGE, iC1-Inh species migrated with a lower apparent molecular weight (Mr 98,000, 91,000, and 86,000) than native C1-Inh (Mr 110,000). Elevated iC1-Inh levels (greater than or equal to 0.13 microM) were found in 81% of all patients, sometimes up to 1.6 microM. Levels of iC1-Inh on admission appeared to be of prognostic value: iC1-Inh was higher in 27 patients who died than in 21 patients who survived (P = 0.003). The mortality in 15 patients with iC1-Inh levels up to 0.2 microM was 27%, but in 12 patients with plasma iC1-Inh exceeding 0.44 microM, the mortality was 83%. The overall mortality in the patients with sepsis was 56%. We propose that the cleavage of C1-Inh in patients with sepsis reflects processes that play a major role in the development of fatal complications during sepsis.

  2. Low molecular weight C1q in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Hoekzema, R; Hannema, A J; Swaak, T J; Paardekooper, J; Hack, C E

    1985-07-01

    In sera of patients suffering from an exacerbation of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), increased amounts of abnormal C1q were detected, contrasting with decreased or even undetectable levels of normal C1q in these sera. When analyzed immunochemically by double immunodiffusion, this low m.w. C1q (LMW-C1q) appeared to be identical with the defective C1q in serum of individuals with an inherited, homozygous inability to produce functional plasma C1q. These persons show a tendency to develop SLE-like syndromes. Like the genetically defective C1q, the abnormal C1q molecule in SLE sera was hemolytically inactive, did not incorporate in C1, was found in the supernatant of euglobulin-precipitated serum, and appeared in the break-through fraction of a cation-exchange column. Sucrose gradients and gel filtration analyses supported the putative identity of the molecules. SDS-PAGE and immunoblots revealed the presence of subunits that reacted with antibodies against C1q and confirmed the C1q-like nature of LMW-C1q. Low levels of LMW-C1q were also detected in serum and plasma of normal individuals. A radial immunodiffusion technique was used to measure LMW-C1q in the serum of 54 patients. Although these patients were not selected for parameters of disease activity, their levels of LMW-C1q were significantly higher than those of normal individuals and children with decreased C3 levels due to acute glomerulonephritis.

  3. Recombinant human C1-inhibitor produced in Pichia pastoris has the same inhibitory capacity as plasma C1-inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Bos, Ineke G A; de Bruin, Eric C; Karuntu, Yani A; Modderman, Piet W; Eldering, Eric; Hack, C Erik

    2003-05-30

    Therapeutic application of the serpin C1-inhibitor (C1-Inh) in inflammatory diseases like sepsis, acute myocardial infarction and vascular leakage syndrome seems promising, but large doses may be required. Therefore, a high-yield recombinant expression system for C1-Inh is very interesting. Earlier attempts to produce high levels of C1-Inh resulted in predominantly inactive C1-Inh. We describe the high yield expression of rhC1-Inh in Pichia pastoris, with 180 mg/l active C1-Inh at maximum. On average, 30 mg/l of 80-100% active C1-Inh was obtained. Progress curves were used to study the interaction with C1s, kallikrein, coagulation factor XIIa and XIa, and demonstrated that rhC1-Inh had the same inhibitory capacity as plasma C1-Inh. Structural integrity, as monitored via heat stability, was comparable despite differences in extent and nature of glycosylation. We conclude that the P. pastoris system is capable of high-level production of functionally and structurally intact human C1 inhibitor.

  4. Complement C1-inhibitor expression in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Veerhuis, R; Janssen, I; Hoozemans, J J; De Groot, C J; Hack, C E; Eikelenboom, P

    1998-09-01

    In situ and in vitro studies suggest that activation of locally produced complement factors may act as a mediator between amyloid deposits and neurodegenerative changes seen in Alzheimer's disease (AD). C1-esterase inhibitor (C1-Inh), which regulates activation of C1 of the complement classical pathway, can be detected immunohistochemically in its inactivated form in activated astrocytes and dystrophic neurites in AD plaque areas. In this study, designed to investigate the cellular source of C1-Inh, C1-Inh was found to be secreted in a functionally active form by astrocytes cultured from postmortem human brain specimens as well as by neuroblastoma cell lines. Recombinant human interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), which stimulates C1-Inh synthesis in various cell types, several-fold stimulated C1-Inh protein secretion by cultured human astrocytes derived from different regions of the central nervous system and by one (SK-N-SH) of two neuroblastoma cell lines (SK-N-SH and IMR-32) included in this study. In contrast to IFN-gamma, other cytokines [interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha] that can be found in brain areas affected by AD, did not stimulate C1-Inh secretion by astrocytes or neuroblastomas in vitro. This inability to secrete C1-Inh is probably due to unresponsiveness at the transcriptional level, since C1-Inh secretion paralleled the expression of the 2.1-kb C1-Inh mRNA. In situ hybridization with a C1-Inh RNA antisense probe labeled neurons rather than astrocytes, suggesting a role for neurons as producers of complement regulatory proteins in vivo. Since IFN-gamma is apparently lacking in the brain parenchyma, and amyloid plaque-associated cytokines (IL-1beta, IL-6, TNF-alpha) do not stimulate C1-Inh expression in vitro, the nature of the stimulus responsible for neuronal C1-Inh expression in AD brains remains to be investigated.

  5. Temperature dependence of anisotonic NaC1 effect on radiosensitization and ultrastructure of V79 Chinese hamster cells

    SciTech Connect

    Szekely, J.G.; Raaphorst, G.P.; Lobreau, A.U.; Azzam, E.I.; Copps, T.P.

    1983-01-01

    Isodose radiation survival of V79 Chinese hamster cells, pretreated with strongly hypertonic concentrations of NaC1 at 22 degrees C, or at 37 degrees C, has been determined and correlated with ultrastructural changes within the nucleus. After an exposure of less than 10 min to 1.5 M NaC1, at both temperatures, the cells are radioprotected, but after longer exposures, the cells treated at 37 degrees C are radiosensitive, whereas those treated at 22 degrees C still show protection. The cells are radiosensitized at both temperatures by pretreatment with 0.5 M and 0.05 M NaC1. The ultrastructure of the nucleus observed after the anisotonic treatments suggests that contraction or swelling of chromatin may be associated with the observed variation in radiation sensitivity.

  6. Temperature dependence of anisotonic NaC1 effect on radiosensitization and ultrastructure of V79 Chinese hamster cells.

    PubMed

    Szekely, J G; Raaphorst, G P; Lobreau, A U; Azzam, E I; Copps, T P

    1983-01-01

    Isodose radiation survival of V79 Chinese hamster cells, pretreated with strongly hypertonic concentrations of NaC1 at 22 degrees C, or at 37 degrees C, has been determined and correlated with ultrastructural changes within the nucleus. After an exposure of less than 10 min to 1.5 M NaC1, at both temperatures, the cells are radioprotected, but after longer exposures, the cells treated at 37 degrees C are radiosensitive, whereas those treated at 22 degrees C still show protection. The cells are radiosensitized at both temperatures by pretreatment with 0.5 M and 0.05 M NaC1. The ultrastructure of the nucleus observed after the anisotonic treatments suggests that contraction or swelling of chromatin may be associated with the observed variation in radiation sensitivity.

  7. The structural basis for neutrophil inactivation of C1 inhibitor.

    PubMed Central

    Pemberton, P A; Harrison, R A; Lachmann, P J; Carrell, R W

    1989-01-01

    Limited proteolysis of C1 inhibitor (C1-INH) by neutrophil elastase, Pseudomonas elastase and snake venoms resulted in initial cleavage within the molecule's N-terminus followed by further cleavage within the molecule's C-terminally placed reactive centre. N-Terminal proteolysis occurred at peptide bonds 14-15, 36-37 and 40-41. This had no effect on either the inhibitory activity or the heat-stability of C1-INH. Proteolysis within the reactive centre occurred at peptide bonds 439-440, 440-441, 441-442 and 442-443. Cleavage at any one of these sites inactivated C1-INH and conferred enhanced heat-stability upon a previously heat-labile molecule. Released neutrophil proteinases also cleaved and inactivated C1-INH, suggesting that they may physiologically regulate C1-INH during inflammatory episodes. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 3. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:2930506

  8. In vitro interaction of C1-inhibitor with thrombin.

    PubMed

    Cugno, M; Bos, I; Lubbers, Y; Hack, C E; Agostoni, A

    2001-06-01

    Previous observations of increased generation of thrombin during acute attacks of angioedema in plasma of patients with C1-inhibitor (C1-INH) deficiency prompted us to evaluate the interaction of C1-INH with thrombin in both purified systems and human plasma. For this purpose, we used several methods: (1) sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting analysis; (2) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays to measure complexes between C1-INH and thrombin and inactivated C1-INH; and (3) kinetic studies using a chromogenic assay. We found that the interaction of purified C1-INH with thrombin is associated with the formation of bimolecular complexes of molecular weight (Mr) 130 000 and 120 000 as well as with the appearance of a cleaved form of C1-INH of Mr 97 000. The kinetic studies of inhibition of thrombin by C1-INH showed an average second-order rate constant of 19/s per mol/l, which was significantly increased in the presence of heparin. The addition of thrombin to human plasma was not associated with detectable C1-INH-thrombin complex formation or with cleavage of C1-INH. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that C1-INH upon interaction with thrombin, in part, forms enzyme-inhibitor complexes and, in part, is cleaved. The low second-order rate constant and the lack of a significant interaction in plasma suggest that the inhibition of thrombin by C1-INH has a minor role in circulating blood; however, its role might be important at the endothelial surface, where high concentrations of glycosaminoglycans occur.

  9. 17 CFR 240.15c1-1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 240.15c1-1... Exchange Act of 1934 Rules Relating to Over-The-Counter Markets § 240.15c1-1 Definitions. As used in any rule adopted pursuant to section 15(c)(1) of the Act: (a) The term customer shall not include a...

  10. Human genes for complement components C1r and C1s in a close tail-to-tail arrangement.

    PubMed Central

    Kusumoto, H; Hirosawa, S; Salier, J P; Hagen, F S; Kurachi, K

    1988-01-01

    Complementary DNA clones for human C1s were isolated from cDNA libraries that were prepared with poly(A)+ RNAs of human liver and HepG2 cells. A clone with the largest cDNA insert of 2664 base pairs (bp) was analyzed for its complete nucleotide sequence. It contained 202 bp of a 5' untranslated region, 45 bp of coding for a signal peptide (15 amino acid residues), 2019 bp for complement component C1s zymogen (673 amino acid residues), 378 bp for a 3' untranslated region, a stop codon, and 17 bp of a poly(A) tail. The amino acid sequence of C1s was 40.5% identical to that of C1r, with excellent matches of tentative disulfide bond locations conserving the overall domain structure of C1r. DNA blotting and sequencing analyses of genomic DNA and of an isolated genomic DNA clone clearly showed that the human genes for C1r and C1s are closely located in a "tail-to-tail" arrangement at a distance of about 9.5 kilobases. Furthermore, RNA blot analyses showed that both C1r and C1s genes are primarily expressed in liver, whereas most other tissues expressed both C1r and C1s genes at much lower levels (less than 10% of that in liver). Multiple molecular sizes of specific mRNAs were observed in the RNA blot analyses for both C1r and C1s, indicating that alternative RNA processing(s), likely an alternative polyadenylylation, might take place for both genes. Images PMID:2459702

  11. C1q rs292001 polymorphism and C1q antibodies in juvenile lupus and their relation to lupus nephritis

    PubMed Central

    Mosaad, Y M; Hammad, A; Fawzy, Z; El-Refaaey, A; Tawhid, Z; Hammad, E M; Youssef, L F; ElAttar, E A A; Radwan, D F; Fawzy, I M

    2015-01-01

    C1q deficiency is related strongly to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), but very few and inconsistent studies explored the single nucleotide polymorphisms of the C1q gene in relation to juvenile SLE (jSLE) and lupus nephritis (LN). The objective of this study was to analyse whether C1q rs 292001 polymorphism is associated with SLE and disease phenotype, especially nephritis, and to investigate the relation between this polymorphism and clinical data, treatment outcome, serum level of C1q protein and antibodies. Typing of C1q rs292001 polymorphism using restriction fragment length polymorphism and measuring serum levels of C1q protein and antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were performed for 130 children with SLE and 208 healthy controls. The A allele of C1q rs292001 was associated with jSLE and LN (P = 0·005 and 0·013, respectively) and the AA genotype was associated with jSLE (P = 0·036). Low serum levels of C1q protein were found in jSLE and LN (P < 0·001 and 0·009, respectively), and these levels were increased after treatment in patients with LN (P = 0·009) and active renal disease (P = 0·027). Higher titres of C1q antibodies were found in patients with LN (P = 0·015) and correlated negatively with C1q protein level (P < 0·001) and patient age (P = 0·04). The A allele and AA genotype of C1q rs292001 can be considered a susceptibility risk factor and the GG genotype could be considered protective for jSLE and LN in the studied cohort of Egyptian children. Decreased serum levels of C1q protein and increased titres of C1q antibodies may be involved in the pathogenesis of jSLE, especially LN. PMID:26095468

  12. Physics design for the ATA (Advanced Test Accelerator) tapered wiggler 10. 6. mu. FEL (Free-Electron Laser) amplifier experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Fawley, W.M.

    1985-05-09

    The design and construction of a high-gain, tapered wiggler 10.6 ..mu.. Free Electron Laser (FEL) amplifier to operate with the 50 MeV e-beam is underway. This report discussed the FEL simulation and the physics motivations behind the tapered wiggler design and initial experimental diagnostics.

  13. 26 CFR 1.662(c)-1 - Different taxable years.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Different taxable years. 1.662(c)-1 Section 1... Corpus § 1.662(c)-1 Different taxable years. If a beneficiary has a different taxable year (as defined in section 441 or 442) from the taxable year of an estate or trust, the amount he is required to include...

  14. 26 CFR 1.662(c)-1 - Different taxable years.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Different taxable years. 1.662(c)-1 Section 1... Corpus § 1.662(c)-1 Different taxable years. If a beneficiary has a different taxable year (as defined in section 441 or 442) from the taxable year of an estate or trust, the amount he is required to include...

  15. 26 CFR 1.662(c)-1 - Different taxable years.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Different taxable years. 1.662(c)-1 Section 1... Corpus § 1.662(c)-1 Different taxable years. If a beneficiary has a different taxable year (as defined in section 441 or 442) from the taxable year of an estate or trust, the amount he is required to include...

  16. 26 CFR 1.652(c)-1 - Different taxable years.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Different taxable years. 1.652(c)-1 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Trusts Which Distribute Current Income Only § 1.652(c)-1 Different taxable years. If a beneficiary has a different taxable year (as defined in section 441 or 442) from the taxable...

  17. Expression of functional human C1 inhibitor in COS cells.

    PubMed

    Eldering, E; Nuijens, J H; Hack, C E

    1988-08-25

    Full length human C1 inhibitor cDNA was cloned into a vector suitable for transient expression in COS-1 cells. Transfected COS cells secreted an immunoreactive protein of Mr approximately 110,000 that appeared to be functionally equivalent to the plasma-derived protein as established by the following criteria: 1) ability to form sodium dodecyl sulfate-stable complexes with C1s, factor XIIa, and kallikrein; 2) inhibition of C1s-mediated C4 consumption; and 3) susceptibility to inactivation by the nontarget proteinase elastase. Quantitation of secreted recombinant C1 inhibitor by radioimmunoassay indicated that 72 h after transfection the level was approximately 2.2 micrograms/ml. Treatment of transfected cells with tunicamycin resulted in secretion of a protein of Mr approximately 90,000 that was also capable of complex formation with C1s.

  18. Are C1 chondrites chemically fractionated - A trace element study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ebihara, M.; Wolf, R.; Anders, E.

    1982-01-01

    Six C1 chondrite samples and a C2 xenolith from the Plainview H5 chondrite were analyzed by radiochemical neutron activation for a large variety of elements, including rare earths. The sample processing is described, including the irradiation, chemical procedure, rare earths separation, counting techniques, radiochemical purity check, and chemical yields. The results of consistency checks on a number of elements are discussed. Abundances for siderophiles, volatiles, and rare earths are presented and discussed. Tests are presented for fractionation of rare earths and other refractories, compositional uniformity of C1's, and interelement correlations. There is no conclusive evidence for nebular fractionation affecting C1's. Three fractionation-prone rare earths have essentially the same relative abundances in C1's and all other chondrite classes, and hence are apparently not fractionated in C1's.

  19. ClC-1 chloride channels: state-of-the-art research and future challenges

    PubMed Central

    Imbrici, Paola; Altamura, Concetta; Pessia, Mauro; Mantegazza, Renato; Desaphy, Jean-François; Camerino, Diana Conte

    2015-01-01

    The voltage-dependent ClC-1 chloride channel belongs to the CLC channel/transporter family. It is a homodimer comprising two individual pores which can operate independently or simultaneously according to two gating modes, the fast and the slow gate of the channel. ClC-1 is preferentially expressed in the skeletal muscle fibers where the presence of an efficient Cl- homeostasis is crucial for the correct membrane repolarization and propagation of action potential. As a consequence, mutations in the CLCN1 gene cause dominant and recessive forms of myotonia congenita (MC), a rare skeletal muscle channelopathy caused by abnormal membrane excitation, and clinically characterized by muscle stiffness and various degrees of transitory weakness. Elucidation of the mechanistic link between the genetic defects and the disease pathogenesis is still incomplete and, at this time, there is no specific treatment for MC. Still controversial is the subcellular localization pattern of ClC-1 channels in skeletal muscle as well as its modulation by some intracellular factors. The expression of ClC-1 in other tissues such as in brain and heart and the possible assembly of ClC-1/ClC-2 heterodimers further expand the physiological properties of ClC-1 and its involvement in diseases. A recent de novo CLCN1 truncation mutation in a patient with generalized epilepsy indeed postulates an unexpected role of this channel in the control of neuronal network excitability. This review summarizes the most relevant and state-of-the-art research on ClC-1 chloride channels physiology and associated diseases. PMID:25964741

  20. The importance of quaternary structure in the expression of the C1-binding site of IgM.

    PubMed Central

    Bubb, M O; Conradie, J D

    1976-01-01

    The ability of C1 to bind to the Fc5mu-fragment of a monoclonal IgM was determined by means of a haemolytic C1-inhibition assay. Fc5mu fragments were produced by trypsin digestion at five different temperatures ranging from 54-62 degrees (2 degrees increments) and were purified by immunoadsorption through a column of monospecific anti-Fabmu and by molecular exclusion chromatography. Analytical ultracentrifugation showed the final preparations to be free of aggregates. A plot of mug Fc5mu required to inhibit 50% of available C1 versus temperatures of production of the fragment yielded a curve with a minimum at 58-60 degrees. Upon mild reduction and alkylation of these Fc5mu fragments their C1-fixing capacity became approximately the same irrespective of temperature of production. Fc5mu was also prepared at 25 degrees in the presence of 5 M urea, purified by immunoadsorption as before and aliquots then exposed to temperatures ranging from 40-70 degrees (5 degrees increments) for 15 min. After aggregates had been removed by chromatography a similar minimum in C1-fixation was again observed at 60 degrees. Reduction and alkylation once more abolished these differences. Fc5mu and its reduced and alkylated subunits, produced at 60 degrees and then exposed to various concentrations of urea (0-7 M) for 24 hd did not yield a minimum in C1 fixation. Reduced and alkylated Fcmu incubated at various temperatures (40-70 degrees) also did not fix C1 differentially. Examination in the near and far u.v. region of the circular dichroism spectra of different Fc5mu preparations showed a gradual loss of structure associated with restricted aromatic chromophores and secondary (beta) structure with increased temperature. Urea denaturation had a more pronounced and irreversible effect on Fc5 mu conformation. These changes could not be correlated with the CU-fixation patterns observed. It would therefore appear that elevated temperatures induce a static change in the pentameric FC-part of

  1. A 10.6mm3 Fully-Integrated, Wireless Sensor Node with 8GHz UWB Transmitter

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyeongseok; Kim, Gyouho; Lee, Yoonmyung; Foo, Zhiyoong; Sylvester, Dennis; Blaauw, David; Wentzloff, David

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a complete, autonomous, wireless temperature sensor, fully encapsulated in a 10.6mm3 volume. The sensor includes solar energy harvesting with an integrated 2 μAh battery, optical receiver for programming, microcontroller and memory, 8GHz UWB transmitter, and miniaturized custom antennas with a wireless range of 7 meters. Full, stand-alone operation was demonstrated for the first time for a system of this size and functionality. PMID:26855848

  2. A C1q domain containing protein from Crassostrea gigas serves as pattern recognition receptor and opsonin with high binding affinity to LPS.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shuai; Li, Hui; Zhang, Daoxiang; Zhang, Huan; Wang, Lingling; Sun, Jinsheng; Song, Linsheng

    2015-08-01

    C1q proteins serve as pattern recognition receptors and involve in the pathogen recognition and complement pathway activation. In the present study, a novel C1q domain containing protein from Crassostrea gigas (designated CgC1qDC-1) was isolated by liposaccharide-Sepharose 6B affinity chromatography. The coding sequence of CgC1qDC-1 gene was determined by performing a homologous search of eight tryptic peptides identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS against the genome of C. gigas. The coding sequence of CgC1qDC-1 was of 387 bp encoding a polypeptide of 128 amino acids containing a typical globular C1q domain. The globular C1q domain possessed eight β strands with a jelly-roll topology structure, which was similar to the structure of human gC1q domain. The mRNA transcripts of CgC1qDC-1 were dominantly expressed in mantle and hemocytes, while low expressed in hepatopancreas, gonad, gill and muscle. The expression level of CgC1qDC-1 increased drastically at 6 h after Vibrio splendidus stimulation, and then gradually fell to the normal level at about 24 h. ELISA assay quantified that CgC1qDC-1 bound to LPS with high binding affinity (Kd = 0.09 × 10(-6) M). Moreover, CgC1qDC-1 significantly enhanced the phagocytosis of oyster hemocytes towards Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli and V. splendidus. These results collectively indicated that CgC1qDC-1 could serve as pattern recognition receptor and opsonin in the innate immune response against invading Gram-negative bacteria.

  3. A pilot study to evaluate the effects of C1 esterase inhibitor on the toxicity of high-dose interleukin 2.

    PubMed

    Ogilvie, A C; Baars, J W; Eerenberg, A J; Hack, C E; Pinedo, H M; Thijs, L G; Wagstaff, J

    1994-03-01

    In a pilot study six patients received 4 days' treatment with interleukin 2 (IL-2) [cumulative dose (CD) 264 +/- 26 x 10(6) IU m-2] and C1 esterase inhibitor (C1-INH) (loading dose 2,000 U, followed by 500-1,000 U twice daily). Toxicity was compared with that in patients given 4 days' treatment with standard (CD 66 +/- 12 x 10(6) IU m-2) or escalating-dose (CD 99 +/- 8 x 10(6) IU m-2) IL-2. IL-2-induced hypotension was equivalent and complement activation was less after IL-2 + C1-INH (C3a = 10.5 +/- 3.2 nmol l-1) than following standard (14.1 +/- 8.4 nmol l-1) or escalating-dose (18.3 +/- 2.9 nmol l-1) IL-2. This study demonstrates that C1-INH administration during IL-2 treatment is safe and warrants further study to evaluate its ability to ameliorate IL-2-induced toxicity.

  4. A neoepitope-based enzyme immunoassay for quantification of C1-inhibitor in complex with C1r and C1s.

    PubMed

    Fure, H; Nielsen, E W; Hack, C E; Mollnes, T E

    1997-12-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (MoAb) recognizing neoepitopes exposed on activation products of complement proteins but hidden in the native components have been used for quantification of activated complement. A previously produced and characterized mouse MoAb, recognizing a neoepitope on the human plasma protein C1-inhibitor complexed with its substrates, was used to design an enzyme immunoassay for detection of C1-inhibitor complexed with C1r and C1s. These complexes are indicators of early classical complement pathway activation. The standard was serum activated with heat aggregated IgG defined to contain 1000 arbitrary units (AU)/ml. The lower detection limit was approximately 0.05 AU/ml corresponding to 0.005% of fully activated serum. The reliability of the assay, including day-to-day variation, was tested. Intra-assay variation coefficients were 12% for low plasma control and 13% for high plasma control (n = 12 for both). Inter-assay variation coefficients were 12% for low control (n = 6), 19% for high control (n = 6) and 15% for the normal plasma control (n = 9). A 2.5-97.5 percentile reference range (normal blood donors) was 16-33 AU/ml. Two patients with systemic lupus erythematosus had considerably elevated plasma levels of the activation product (56 and 62 AU/ml), and six patients with hereditary angioedema had normal plasma levels despite considerably reduced C1-inhibitor concentration. We conclude that the present method is sensitive and reliable for detection of early classical pathway activation and superior to previously published methods by utilizing neoepitope specificity and non-radiolabelled reagents.

  5. [Interaction of Arenicin-1 with C1q Protein].

    PubMed

    Berlov, M N; Umnyakova, E S; Leonova, T S; Milman, B L; Krasnodembskaya, A D; Ovchinnikova, T V; Kokryakov, V N

    2015-01-01

    The interaction between arenicin-1, that is an antimicrobial peptide from polychaeta Arenicola marina, and human complement system protein C1q was studied using enzyme-linked receptor sorbent assay and ELISA. We revealed that arenicin-1 and C1q form complex that is stable in high ionic strength condition 0.5 M NaCl. The ability of C1q to interact with arenicin-1 is comparable with the binding activity of C1q towards another antimicrobial peptide, porcine cathelicidin protegrin-1, which has a similar spatial arrangement with arenicin-1. Namely, both arenicin-1 and protegrin-1 form cystine-stabilized antiparallel β-hairpin structure. PMID:27125019

  6. 26 CFR 1.1402(c)-1 - Trade or business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 12 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Trade or business. 1.1402(c)-1 Section 1.1402(c... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Tax on Self-Employment Income § 1.1402(c)-1 Trade or business. In order for an individual to have net earnings from self-employment, he must carry on a trade or business, either as...

  7. Potential Roles for C1 Inhibitor in Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Berger, Mel; Baldwin, William M; Jordan, Stanley C

    2016-07-01

    Complement is a major contributor to inflammation and graft injury. This system is especially important in ischemia-reperfusion injury/delayed graft function as well as in acute and chronic antibody-mediated rejection (AMR). The latter is increasingly recognized as a major cause of late graft loss, for which we have few effective therapies. C1 inhibitor (C1-INH) regulates several pathways which contribute to both acute and chronic graft injuries. However, C1-INH spares the alternative pathway and the membrane attack complex (C5-9) so innate antibacterial defenses remain intact. Plasma-derived C1-INH has been used to treat hereditary angioedema for more than 30 years with excellent safety. Studies with C1-INH in transplant recipients are limited, but have not revealed any unique toxicity or serious adverse events attributed to the protein. Extensive data from animal and ex vivo models suggest that C1-INH ameliorates ischemia-reperfusion injury. Initial clinical studies suggest this effect may allow transplantation of donor organs which are now discarded because the risk of primary graft dysfunction is considered too great. Although the incidence of severe early AMR is declining, accumulating evidence strongly suggests that complement is an important mediator of chronic AMR, a major cause of late graft loss. Thus, C1-INH may also be helpful in preserving function of established grafts. Early clinical studies in transplantation suggest significant beneficial effects of C1-INH with minimal toxicity. Recent results encourage continued investigation of this already-available therapeutic agent.

  8. 26 CFR 1.1402(c)-1 - Trade or business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 12 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Trade or business. 1.1402(c)-1 Section 1.1402(c... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Tax on Self-Employment Income § 1.1402(c)-1 Trade or business. In order for an individual to have net earnings from self-employment, he must carry on a trade or...

  9. 26 CFR 1.1402(c)-1 - Trade or business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 12 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Trade or business. 1.1402(c)-1 Section 1.1402(c... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Tax on Self-Employment Income § 1.1402(c)-1 Trade or business. In order for an individual to have net earnings from self-employment, he must carry on a trade or...

  10. Your College Degree: The External Degree Way.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haponski, William C.; And Others

    Information on undertaking an external degree program to obtain a college education is presented. An external degree program is one that has no, or minimal requirements for residence (on-campus attendance). Most often it can be entered at any time of the year and usually grants credit for documented learning already acquired. An external degree…

  11. Regulation of Complement and Contact System Activation via C1 Inhibitor Potentiation and Factor XIIa Activity Modulation by Sulfated Glycans – Structure-Activity Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Schoenfeld, Ann-Kathrin; Lahrsen, Eric; Alban, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    The serpin C1 inhibitor (C1-INH) is the only regulator of classical complement activation as well as the major regulator of the contact system. Its importance is demonstrated by hereditary angioedema (HAE), a severe disease with potentially life-threatening attacks due to deficiency or dysfunction of C1-INH. C1-INH replacement is the therapy of choice in HAE. In addition, C1-INH showed to have beneficial effects in other diseases characterized by inappropriate complement and contact system activation. Due to some limitations of its clinical application, there is a need for improving the efficacy of therapeutically applied C1-INH or to enhance the activity of endogenous C1-INH. Given the known potentiating effect of heparin on C1-INH, sulfated glycans (SG) may be such candidates. The aim of this study was to characterize suitable SG by evaluating structure-activity relationships. For this, more than 40 structurally distinct SG were examined for their effects on C1-INH, C1s and FXIIa. The SG turned out to potentiate the C1s inhibition by C1-INH without any direct influence on C1s. Their potentiating activity proved to depend on their degree of sulfation, molecular mass as well as glycan structure. In contrast, the SG had no effect on the FXIIa inhibition by C1-INH, but structure-dependently modulated the activity of FXIIa. Among the tested SG, β-1,3-glucan sulfates with a Mr ≤ 10 000 were identified as most promising lead candidates for the development of a glycan-based C1-INH amplifier. In conclusion, the obtained information on structural characteristics of SG favoring C1-INH potentiation represent an useful elementary basis for the development of compounds improving the potency of C1-INH in diseases and clinical situations characterized by inappropriate activation of complement and contact system. PMID:27783665

  12. Uncoupling complement C1s activation from C1q binding in apoptotic cell phagocytosis and immunosuppressive capacity.

    PubMed

    Colonna, Lucrezia; Parry, Graham C; Panicker, Sandip; Elkon, Keith B

    2016-02-01

    Complement activation contributes to inflammation in many diseases, yet it also supports physiologic apoptotic cells (AC) clearance and its downstream immunosuppressive effects. The roles of individual complement components in AC phagocytosis have been difficult to dissect with artificially depleted sera. Using human in vitro systems and the novel antibody complement C1s inhibitor TNT003, we uncoupled the role of the enzymatic activation of the classical pathway from the opsonizing role of C1q in mediating a) the phagocytosis of early and late AC, and b) the immunosuppressive capacity of early AC. We found that C1s inhibition had a small impact on the physiologic clearance of early AC, leaving their immunosuppressive properties entirely unaffected, while mainly inhibiting the phagocytosis of late apoptotic/secondary necrotic cells. Our data suggest that C1s inhibition may represent a valuable therapeutic strategy to control classical pathway activation without causing significant AC accumulation in diseases without defects in AC phagocytosis.

  13. Intracomplex electron transfer between ruthenium-cytochrome c derivatives and cytochrome c1.

    PubMed

    Heacock, D H; Liu, R Q; Yu, C A; Yu, L; Durham, B; Millett, F

    1993-12-25

    The reactions of a beef heart cytochrome c1 preparation containing the hinge protein with horse cytochrome c derivatives labeled at specific lysine amino groups with (dicarboxybipyridine)(bisbipyridine)ruthenium(II) (Ru(II)) were studied by flash photolysis. All of the ruthenium-cytochrome c derivatives formed complexes with cytochrome c1 in low ionic strength buffer (5 mM sodium phosphate, pH 7). Excitation of Ru(II) to Ru(II*) with a 0.4-microseconds laser flash resulted in rapid electron transfer to the ferric heme group in cytochrome c, followed by electron transfer from the ferrous heme group of cytochrome c to the ferric heme group of cytochrome c1. The kinetic difference spectra displayed maxima at 546 nm and minima at 554 nm characteristic of electron transfer between the two cytochromes. The rate constants were independent of concentration at low ionic strength, indicating intracomplex electron transfer. The rate constants were 4,800, 6,800, 22,000, and 22,000 s-1 for cytochrome c derivatives modified at lysines 13, 27, 25, and 72, respectively. The observed rate constants were independent of ionic strength up to about 50 nM and then decreased progressively with further increases in ionic strength indicating dissociation of the complex. Second-order kinetics were observed at 310 mM ionic strength, with rate constants of 1.0 x 10(6), 1.6 x 10(7), 1.2 x 10(8), and 3.0 x 10(7) M-1 s-1 for the derivatives modified at lysines 13, 27, 25, and 72, respectively. The ionic strength dependence of the second-order rate constants is comparable to that involving native horse cytochrome c and is consistent with electron transfer reactions between oppositely charged proteins.

  14. Comparison of cloud boundaries measured with 8.6 mm radar and 10.6 micrometer lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uttal, Taneil; Intrieri, Janet M.

    1993-01-01

    One of the most basic cloud properties is location; the height of cloud base and the height of cloud top. The glossary of meteorology defines cloud base (top) as follows: 'For a given cloud or cloud layer, that lowest (highest) level in the atmosphere at which the air contains a perceptible quantity of cloud particles.' Our studies show that for a 8.66 mm radar, and a 10.6 micrometer lidar, the level at which cloud hydrometers become 'perceptible' can vary significantly as a function of the different wavelengths, powers, beamwidths and sampling rates of the two remote sensors.

  15. A wide angle search technique for a 10.6 micron ladar. [scanning radar using Q switched carbon dioxide laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levinson, S.; Adelman, S.; Lowrey, D. O.

    1975-01-01

    A ladar (laser radar) sensor designed around a pulsed passively Q-switched CO2 laser, capable of a efficient and rapid scans with a narrow beam over a wide field of view, is considered for surveillance and tracking applications in space. The output is a train of narrow pulses with a controllable pulse repetition rate. A resonant vibrating mirror in back of a classical Gregorian telescope, and a plane pointing mirror in front for beam steering, are used in scanning. Scan pulse sequences are described and illustrated. The 10.6 micron ladar set is under consideration as baseline sensor for various space rendezvous and docking applications.

  16. Combination of skull traction with posterior C1-2 fusion for old C1-2 dislocations.

    PubMed

    Li, Xue Feng; Yang, Hui Lin; Jiang, Wei Min; Tang, Tian Si; Gong, Xiao Hong; Yuan, Jing; Zhang, Ji Gang; Wang, Gen Lin

    2011-06-01

    Between January 2003 and December 2009, 23 patients who had suffered old C1-2 dislocations, were surgically treated in our orthopedics department. Fifteen patients underwent direct posterior C1-2 fusion following pre-operative reduction by skull traction. In eight patients, reduction was achieved only by skull traction under general anesthesia, facilitated by manual hyperextension of the cervical spine and maintained by simultaneous posterior C1-2 fusion. Intra-operative traction was monitored using C-arm fluoroscopy and cortical somatosensory-evoked potentials. Posterior C1-2 fixation was achieved in nine patients using C1-2 laminar hooks and in 14 patients using C1 laminar hooks with C2 pedicle screws. During the follow-up of 5 to 72 months (mean: 42.8 months), solid bony fusion was accomplished in all patients. Using Di Lorenzo's grades and Japanese Orthopedics Association scores, there was significant improvement (p<0.05). The cervical medullary angle exhibited a significant improvement of 31.7°, from 121.6° to 153.3° (p<0.05). There were no complications, including dural tears, spinal cord damage, vertebral artery damage, or breakage or loosening of implants.

  17. Detection of activation of the contact system of coagulation in vitro and in vivo: quantitation of activated Hageman factor-C-1-inhibitor and kallikrein-C-1-inhibitor complexes by specific radioimmunoassays.

    PubMed

    Nuijens, J H; Huijbregts, C C; Cohen, M; Navis, G O; de Vries, A; Eerenberg, A J; Bakker, J C; Hack, C E

    1987-08-01

    Radioimmunoassays (RIAs) for the detection of C-1-inhibitor (C-1-Inh) complexed to either kallikrein or activated Hageman factor (factor XIIa) are described. Kallikrein-C-1-Inh or factor XIIa-C-1-Inh complexes were bound to Sepharose to which monospecific antibodies against (pre)kallikrein or factor XII, respectively, were coupled. Bound complexes were subsequently detected by an incubation with affinity purified 125I-labeled antibodies against C-1-Inh. These RIAs were used to detect activation of the contact system of coagulation in vitro and in vivo. Addition of dextran sulfate (DXS) (20 micrograms/ml) to fresh plasma resulted at 37 degrees C in the rapid generation of amidolytic kallikrein activity, which was maximal after 1 to 2 min of incubation and subsequently decreased within a few minutes. The generation of kallikrein activity coincided with the appearance of both kallikrein-C-1-Inh and factor XIIa-C-1-Inh complexes. However, in contrast to kallikrein activity, both types of complexes remained detectable in the incubation mixtures during the incubation period. Experiments with purified kallikrein. C-1-Inh and partly purified beta-factor XIIa, and activation experiments in plasmas deficient in either factor XII or prekallikrein, demonstrated the specificity of both RIAs. The minimal amount of DXS that resulted in the generation of measurable amounts of both types of complexes in plasma was 2-3 micrograms per ml. Similar experiments with kaolin showed that with limiting amounts of activator (1-2 mg/ml), only kallikrein-C-1-Inh complexes were detected in plasma. When larger amounts of kaolin were added to plasma, factor XIIa-C-1-Inh complexes were additionally detected in plasma.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. The External Degree.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houle, Cyril O.

    This book examines the external degree in relation to the extremes of attitudes, myths, and data. Emphasis is placed on the emergence of the American external degree, foreign external-degree programs, the purpose of the external degree, the current scene, institutional issues, and problems of general policy. (MJM)

  19. Emerging and Novel Functions of Complement Protein C1q

    PubMed Central

    Kouser, Lubna; Madhukaran, Shanmuga Priyaa; Shastri, Abhishek; Saraon, Anuvinder; Ferluga, Janez; Al-Mozaini, Maha; Kishore, Uday

    2015-01-01

    Complement protein C1q, the recognition molecule of the classical pathway, performs a diverse range of complement and non-complement functions. It can bind various ligands derived from self, non-self, and altered self and modulate the functions of immune and non-immune cells including dendritic cells and microglia. C1q involvement in the clearance of apoptotic cells and subsequent B cell tolerance is more established now. Recent evidence appears to suggest that C1q plays an important role in pregnancy where its deficiency and dysregulation can have adverse effects, leading to preeclampsia, missed abortion, miscarriage or spontaneous loss, and various infections. C1q is also produced locally in the central nervous system, and has a protective role against pathogens and possible inflammatory functions while interacting with aggregated proteins leading to neurodegenerative diseases. C1q role in synaptic pruning, and thus CNS development, its anti-cancer effects as an immune surveillance molecule, and possibly in aging are currently areas of extensive research. PMID:26175731

  20. Structural properties of PbVO3 perovskites under hydrostatic pressure conditions up to 10.6 GPa.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wei; Tan, Dayong; Xiao, Wansheng; Song, Maoshuang; Chen, Ming; Xiong, Xiaolin; Xu, Jian

    2012-10-31

    High-pressure synchrotron x-ray powder diffraction experiments were performed on PbVO(3) tetragonal perovskite in a diamond anvil cell under hydrostatic pressures of up to 10.6 GPa at room temperature. The compression behavior of the PbVO(3) tetragonal phase is highly anisotropic, with the c-axis being the soft direction. A reversible tetragonal to cubic perovskite structural phase transition was observed between 2.7 and 6.4 GPa in compression and below 2.2 GPa in decompression. This transition was accompanied by a large volume collapse of 10.6% at 2.7 GPa, which was mainly due to electronic structural changes of the V(4+) ion. The polar pyramidal coordination of the V(4+) ion in the tetragonal phase changed to an isotropic octahedral coordination in the cubic phase. Fitting the observed P-V data using the Birch-Murnaghan equation of state with a fixed [Formula: see text] of 4 yielded a bulk modulus K(0) = 61(2) GPa and a volume V(0) = 67.4(1) Å(3) for the tetragonal phase, and the values of K(0) = 155(3) GPa and V(0) = 58.67(4) Å(3) for the cubic phase. The first-principles calculated results were in good agreement with our experiments. PMID:23041755

  1. Structural properties of PbVO3 perovskites under hydrostatic pressure conditions up to 10.6 GPa.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wei; Tan, Dayong; Xiao, Wansheng; Song, Maoshuang; Chen, Ming; Xiong, Xiaolin; Xu, Jian

    2012-10-31

    High-pressure synchrotron x-ray powder diffraction experiments were performed on PbVO(3) tetragonal perovskite in a diamond anvil cell under hydrostatic pressures of up to 10.6 GPa at room temperature. The compression behavior of the PbVO(3) tetragonal phase is highly anisotropic, with the c-axis being the soft direction. A reversible tetragonal to cubic perovskite structural phase transition was observed between 2.7 and 6.4 GPa in compression and below 2.2 GPa in decompression. This transition was accompanied by a large volume collapse of 10.6% at 2.7 GPa, which was mainly due to electronic structural changes of the V(4+) ion. The polar pyramidal coordination of the V(4+) ion in the tetragonal phase changed to an isotropic octahedral coordination in the cubic phase. Fitting the observed P-V data using the Birch-Murnaghan equation of state with a fixed [Formula: see text] of 4 yielded a bulk modulus K(0) = 61(2) GPa and a volume V(0) = 67.4(1) Å(3) for the tetragonal phase, and the values of K(0) = 155(3) GPa and V(0) = 58.67(4) Å(3) for the cubic phase. The first-principles calculated results were in good agreement with our experiments.

  2. Behavior of welds in liquid lead containing 10-6 wt% and 10-8 wt% oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinzel, A.; Müller, G.; Weisenburger, A.

    2013-06-01

    Specimens with welded joints of P91 TIG (tungsten inert gas welding), P91 EB (electron beam welding) and frictions stir welding, with P92 (EB), PM2000 (EB) and combination of P91-PM2000 EB were tested 2000 h in stagnant liquid Pb at 550 °C with an oxygen concentration of 10-6 wt% and 10-8 wt%. After exposure at 10-6 wt% all specimens showed an oxide layer on the surface. If the grain size of the welds varies strongly from that of the bulk material like in the friction stir welds, a change in oxide thickness could be observed. Also precipitations which pin the oxide formers or reduce the diffusion rate can lead to thicker oxide layers or a stronger dissolution attack like it was observed on the dissimilar weld P91/PM2000 EB. The specimens have similar microstructures in all regions (weld, heat affected zone and bulk material) and due to a post-weld heat treatment show everywhere the same behavior.

  3. Inactivation of C-1 inhibitor by proteases: demonstration by a monoclonal antibody of a neodeterminant on inactivated, non-complexed C-1 inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Nuijens, J H; Huijbregts, C C; van Mierlo, G M; Hack, C E

    1987-07-01

    Monoclonal antibodies were raised against kallikrein-C-1 inhibitor and factor XIIa-C-1 inhibitor complexes. One of the monoclonal antibodies (KII) appeared to react predominantly with C-1 inhibitor complexes in an ELISA. However, the apparent binding of KII to C-1 inhibitor complexes was probably due to the presence of proteolytically inactivated C-1 inhibitor in the complex mixture used for the coating:KII did not bind either kallikrein-C-1 inhibitor or factor XIIa-C-1 inhibitor complexes generated in plasma by dextran sulphate. SDS-PAGE analysis of C-1 inhibitor incubated with proteases revealed that KII-reactive C-1 inhibitor has a lower molecular weight than native C-1 inhibitor. We propose that the determinant that reacts with KII is exposed after cleavage of C-1 inhibitor in its reactive site. The monoclonal antibody KII will enable us to study the inactivation of C-1 inhibitor in human inflammatory disease.

  4. 26 CFR 1.652(c)-1 - Different taxable years.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Different taxable years. 1.652(c)-1 Section 1... taxable years. If a beneficiary has a different taxable year (as defined in section 441 or 442) from the taxable year of the trust, the amount he is required to include in gross income in accordance with...

  5. 26 CFR 1.652(c)-1 - Different taxable years.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Different taxable years. 1.652(c)-1 Section 1... taxable years. If a beneficiary has a different taxable year (as defined in section 441 or 442) from the taxable year of the trust, the amount he is required to include in gross income in accordance with...

  6. 26 CFR 1.662(c)-1 - Different taxable years.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Different taxable years. 1.662(c)-1 Section 1...)-1 Different taxable years. If a beneficiary has a different taxable year (as defined in section 441 or 442) from the taxable year of an estate or trust, the amount he is required to include in...

  7. 26 CFR 1.652(c)-1 - Different taxable years.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Different taxable years. 1.652(c)-1 Section 1... taxable years. If a beneficiary has a different taxable year (as defined in section 441 or 442) from the taxable year of the trust, the amount he is required to include in gross income in accordance with...

  8. 26 CFR 1.652(c)-1 - Different taxable years.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Different taxable years. 1.652(c)-1 Section 1... taxable years. If a beneficiary has a different taxable year (as defined in section 441 or 442) from the taxable year of the trust, the amount he is required to include in gross income in accordance with...

  9. 26 CFR 1.678(c)-1 - Trusts for support.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Grantors and Others Treated As Substantial Owners § 1.678(c)-1 Trusts for support... cotrustee, to apply the income of the trust to the support or maintenance of a person whom the holder is obligated to support, except to the extent the income is so applied. See paragraphs (a), (b), and (c) of §...

  10. C1q Nephropathy: The Unique Underrecognized Pathological Entity

    PubMed Central

    Devasahayam, Joe; Erode-Singaravelu, Gowrishankar; Bhat, Zeenat; Oliver, Tony; Chandran, Arul; Zeng, Xu; Dakshinesh, Paramesh; Pillai, Unni

    2015-01-01

    C1q nephropathy is a rare glomerular disease with characteristic mesangial C1q deposition noted on immunofluorescence microscopy. It is histologically defined and poorly understood. Light microscopic features are heterogeneous and comprise minimal change disease (MCD), focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), and proliferative glomerulonephritis. Clinical presentation is also diverse, and ranges from asymptomatic hematuria or proteinuria to frank nephritic or nephrotic syndrome in both children and adults. Hypertension and renal insufficiency at the time of diagnosis are common findings. Optimal treatment is not clear and is usually guided by the underlying light microscopic lesion. Corticosteroids are the mainstay of treatment, with immunosuppressive agents reserved for steroid resistant cases. The presence of nephrotic syndrome and FSGS appear to predict adverse outcomes as opposed to favorable outcomes in those with MCD. Further research is needed to establish C1q nephropathy as a universally recognized distinct clinical entity. In this paper, we discuss the current understanding of pathogenesis, histopathology, clinical features, therapeutic options, and outcomes of C1q nephropathy. PMID:26640759

  11. Associate Degree Preferred.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parnell, Dale, Ed.

    Designed to encourage dialogue and inform decision making about the associate degree, this book presents perspectives on the role of the associate degree in the nation's two-year colleges. First, "Toward a Greater Degree: A Plan of Action," by Dale Parnell, suggests a plan for preserving and enhancing the value of the education being provided by…

  12. Growing degree day calculator

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Degree-day benchmarks indicate discrete biological events in the development of insect pests. For the Sparganothis fruitworm, we have isolated all key development events and linked them to degree-day accumulations. These degree-day accumulations can greatly improve treatment timings for cranberry IP...

  13. 41 CFR 302-10.6 - Are the allowances for transporting a mobile home in addition to the allowances for per diem...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., for me and my immediate family member(s)? 302-10.6 Section 302-10.6 Public Contracts and Property... diem, mileage, and transportation expenses, for me and my immediate family member(s)? Yes, allowances... reimbursement of per diem, mileage, and transportation expenses for you and your immediate family...

  14. Isolation and mode of action of bacteriocin BacC1 produced by nonpathogenic Enterococcus faecium C1.

    PubMed

    Goh, H F; Philip, K

    2015-08-01

    Lactic acid bacteria are present in fermented food products and help to improve shelf life and enhance the flavor of the food. They also produce metabolites such as bacteriocins to prevent the growth of undesirable or pathogenic bacteria. In this study, Enterococcus faecium C1 isolated from fermented cow milk was able to produce bacteriocin BacC1 and inhibit the growth of selected food-spoilage bacteria. The bacteriocin was purified through 4 steps: ammonium sulfate precipitation, hydrophobic interaction column, a series of centrifugal steps, and finally reversed-phase HPLC. A membrane permeability test using SYTOX green dye (Invitrogen, Grand Island, NY) showed that the bacteriocin caused significant disruptions to the test bacterial membrane, as shown by transmission electron microscopy. The molecular weight of the BacC1 obtained from SDS-PAGE was around 10kDa, and N-terminal sequencing revealed a partial amino acid sequence of BacC1: GPXGPXGP. The bacterial strain was nonhemolytic and not antibiotic resistant. Therefore, it has high potential for application in the food industry as an antimicrobial agent to extend the shelf life of food products.

  15. Isolation and mode of action of bacteriocin BacC1 produced by nonpathogenic Enterococcus faecium C1.

    PubMed

    Goh, H F; Philip, K

    2015-08-01

    Lactic acid bacteria are present in fermented food products and help to improve shelf life and enhance the flavor of the food. They also produce metabolites such as bacteriocins to prevent the growth of undesirable or pathogenic bacteria. In this study, Enterococcus faecium C1 isolated from fermented cow milk was able to produce bacteriocin BacC1 and inhibit the growth of selected food-spoilage bacteria. The bacteriocin was purified through 4 steps: ammonium sulfate precipitation, hydrophobic interaction column, a series of centrifugal steps, and finally reversed-phase HPLC. A membrane permeability test using SYTOX green dye (Invitrogen, Grand Island, NY) showed that the bacteriocin caused significant disruptions to the test bacterial membrane, as shown by transmission electron microscopy. The molecular weight of the BacC1 obtained from SDS-PAGE was around 10kDa, and N-terminal sequencing revealed a partial amino acid sequence of BacC1: GPXGPXGP. The bacterial strain was nonhemolytic and not antibiotic resistant. Therefore, it has high potential for application in the food industry as an antimicrobial agent to extend the shelf life of food products. PMID:26004828

  16. The effect of excision of the posterior arch of C1 on C1/C2 fusion using transarticular screws.

    PubMed

    Chang, K C; Samartzis, D; Fuego, S M; Dhatt, S S; Wong, Y W; Cheung, W Y; Luk, K D K; Cheung, K M C

    2013-07-01

    Transarticular screw fixation with autograft is an established procedure for the surgical treatment of atlantoaxial instability. Removal of the posterior arch of C1 may affect the rate of fusion. This study assessed the rate of atlantoaxial fusion using transarticular screws with or without removal of the posterior arch of C1. We reviewed 30 consecutive patients who underwent atlantoaxial fusion with a minimum follow-up of two years. In 25 patients (group A) the posterior arch of C1 was not excised (group A) and in five it was (group B). Fusion was assessed on static and dynamic radiographs. In selected patients CT imaging was also used to assess fusion and the position of the screws. There were 15 men and 15 women with a mean age of 51.2 years (23 to 77) and a mean follow-up of 7.7 years (2 to 11.6). Stable union with a solid fusion or a stable fibrous union was achieved in 29 patients (97%). In Group A, 20 patients (80%) achieved a solid fusion, four (16%) a stable fibrous union and one (4%) a nonunion. In Group B, stable union was achieved in all patients, three having a solid fusion and two a stable fibrous union. There was no statistically significant difference between the status of fusion in the two groups. Complications were noted in 12 patients (40%); these were mainly related to the screws, and included malpositioning and breakage. The presence of an intact or removed posterior arch of C1 did not affect the rate of fusion in patients with atlantoaxial instability undergoing C1/C2 fusion using transarticular screws and autograft.

  17. The C1s core line in irradiated graphite

    SciTech Connect

    Speranza, Giorgio; Minati, Luca; Anderle, Mariano

    2007-08-15

    Recently, plasma deposited amorphous carbon films have been the subject of extensive experimental and theoretical investigations aimed at correlating their electronic, structural, and mechanical properties to growth parameters. To investigate these properties, different spectral parameters reflecting the electronic structure of carbon-based materials are proposed in literature. The effects of various electronic configurations on the carbon photoelectron spectra are analyzed here with particular attention to C1s core line with the aim to better interpret its structure. The latter is commonly fitted under the assumption that it can be described by using just two spectral components related to sp{sup 2} and sp{sup 3} hybrids. Their relative intensities are then used to estimate the sp{sup 2} and sp{sup 3} phases. We show that, in the presence of an amorphous network, the C1s line shape is the result of a more complex mixture of electronic states. Ar{sup +} irradiated graphite and successive oxidation was used to identify spectral features to better describe the C1s line shape.

  18. Immune complex processing in C1q-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Nash, J T; Taylor, P R; Botto, M; Norsworthy, P J; Davies, K A; Walport, M J

    2001-02-01

    Complement and Fcgamma receptors are known to mediate the processing of immune complexes (IC), and abnormalities in these mechanisms may predispose to the development of lupus. We explored the processing of IC in mice deficient in complement component C1q. 125I-labelled IC comprising Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)/human anti-HBsAg (HBsAg/Ab) were injected intravenously and the sites of IC clearance determined by direct counting of organ uptake at various time points. The liver and spleen were the main sites of IC uptake in all mice. The splenic uptake of IC was significantly reduced in the C1q-deficient mice compared with the control mice. C1q-deficient mice also exhibited an initial accelerated hepatic uptake of IC similar to that seen in human subjects with hypocomplementaemia. The hepatic localization of IC at later time points was similar in both groups of mice. These data in mice are consistent with previous observations in humans that confirm that the classical pathway of complement plays an important role in the appropriate processing of IC in vivo.

  19. THE DECREASE OF SPECIFIC ANGULAR MOMENTUM AND THE HOT TOROID FORMATION: THE MASSIVE CLUMP G10.6-0.4

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Hauyu Baobab; Ho, Paul T. P.; Zhang, Qizhou; Keto, Eric; Wu Jingwen; Li Huabai E-mail: qzhang@cfa.harvard.ed E-mail: pho@asiaa.sinica.edu.t E-mail: li@mpia.d

    2010-10-10

    This is the first paper of our series of high-resolution (1'') studies of the massive star-forming region G10.6-0.4. We present the emission line observations of the hot core type tracers (O{sup 13}CS, OCS, SO{sub 2}) with {approx}0.''5 resolution. By comparing the results to the high-resolution NH{sub 3} absorption line observation, we confirm for the first time the rotationally flattened hot toroid in the central <0.1 pc region, which has a rotational axis perpendicular to its geometrical major axis. In addition, we present the observations of NH{sub 3}, {sup 13}CS, and CH{sub 3}CN with {approx}1'' resolution, and follow the dynamics of the molecular accretion flow from the 0.3 pc radius to the inner 0.03 pc radius. With reference to the rotational axis of the hot toroid, we measure the rotational velocity from the molecular emission in the region. The results are consistent with an envelope with a rapid decrease of the specific angular momentum from the outer to the inner region. These new results improve the current understanding of the molecular accretion flow in an ultracompact H II region created by the embedded O-type cluster.

  20. THE HIGH-VELOCITY MOLECULAR OUTFLOWS IN MASSIVE CLUSTER-FORMING REGION G10.6-0.4

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Hauyu Baobab; Ho, Paul T. P.; Zhang Qizhou E-mail: pho@asiaa.sinica.edu.t

    2010-12-20

    We report the arcsecond resolution Submillimeter Array observations of the {sup 12}CO (2-1) transition in the massive cluster-forming region G10.6-0.4. In these observations, the high-velocity {sup 12}CO emission is resolved into individual outflow systems, which have a typical size scale of a few arcseconds. These molecular outflows are energetic and are interacting with the ambient molecular gas. By inspecting the shock signatures traced by CH{sub 3}OH, SiO, and HCN emissions, we suggest that abundant star formation activities are distributed over the entire 0.5 pc scale dense molecular envelope. The star formation efficiency over one global free-fall timescale (of the 0.5 pc molecular envelope, {approx}10{sup 5} years) is about a few percent. The total energy feedback of these high-velocity outflows is higher than 10{sup 47} erg, which is comparable to the total kinetic energy in the rotational motion of the dense molecular envelope. From order-of-magnitude estimations, we suggest that the energy injected from the protostellar outflows is capable of balancing the turbulent energy dissipation. No high-velocity bipolar molecular outflow associated with the central OB cluster is directly detected, which can be due to the photoionization.

  1. Nearly 10(6)-fold enhancements in intermolecular (1)H double-quantum NMR experiments by nuclear hyperpolarization.

    PubMed

    Mishkovsky, Mor; Eliav, Uzi; Navon, Gil; Frydman, Lucio

    2009-09-01

    Intermolecular Multiple-Quantum Coherences (iMQCs) can yield interesting NMR information of high potential usefulness in spectroscopy and imaging - provided their associated sensitivity limitations can be overcome. A recent study demonstrated that ex situ dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) could assist in overcoming sensitivity problems for iMQC-based experiments on (13)C nuclei. In the present work we show that a similar approach is possible when targeting the protons of a hyperpolarized solvent. It was found that although the DNP procedure enhances single-quantum (1)H signals by about 600, which is significantly less than in optimized low-gamma liquid-state counterparts, the non-linear dependence of iMQC-derived signals on polarization can yield very large enhancements approaching 10(6). Cleary no practical amount of data averaging can match this kind of sensitivity gains. The fact that DNP endows iMQC-based (1)H NMR spectra with a sensitivity that amply exceeds that of their thermally polarized single-quantum counterpart, is confirmed in a number of simple single-scan 2D imaging experiments.

  2. The High-velocity Molecular Outflows in Massive Cluster-forming Region G10.6-0.4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hauyu Baobab; Ho, Paul T. P.; Zhang, Qizhou

    2010-12-01

    We report the arcsecond resolution Submillimeter Array observations of the 12CO (2-1) transition in the massive cluster-forming region G10.6-0.4. In these observations, the high-velocity 12CO emission is resolved into individual outflow systems, which have a typical size scale of a few arcseconds. These molecular outflows are energetic and are interacting with the ambient molecular gas. By inspecting the shock signatures traced by CH3OH, SiO, and HCN emissions, we suggest that abundant star formation activities are distributed over the entire 0.5 pc scale dense molecular envelope. The star formation efficiency over one global free-fall timescale (of the 0.5 pc molecular envelope, ~105 years) is about a few percent. The total energy feedback of these high-velocity outflows is higher than 1047 erg, which is comparable to the total kinetic energy in the rotational motion of the dense molecular envelope. From order-of-magnitude estimations, we suggest that the energy injected from the protostellar outflows is capable of balancing the turbulent energy dissipation. No high-velocity bipolar molecular outflow associated with the central OB cluster is directly detected, which can be due to the photoionization.

  3. The distortive mechanism for the activation of complement component C1 supported by studies with a monoclonal antibody against the "arms" of C1q.

    PubMed

    Hoekzema, R; Martens, M; Brouwer, M C; Hack, C E

    1988-05-01

    A mouse monoclonal antibody (IgG1 isotype) against human C1q (MAb 130) is presented that activates C1 in serum through its antigen-binding sites at an optimal molar ratio of 3 MAbs:1 C1q. The antibody does not inhibit binding of C1q to IgG. Experiments with pepsin- and collagenase-digested C1q showed that MAb 130 binds to the fibril-like strands (arms) of C1q, close to the globular heads. Bivalency of MAb 130 was a requirement for C1-activation, but not for binding to C1q. Increasing the segmental flexibility of the intact antibody by reduction and alkylation destroyed its capacity to activate C1. A MAb against the globular heads of C1q completely inhibited C1-activation by aggregated IgG (AHG), but did not prevent activation by MAb 130. C1, reconstituted by adding C1q-stalks that lack the globular heads to C1q-depleted serum was not activated by AHG, whereas activation by MAb 130 was not affected. Activation of serum-C1 by AHG and MAb 130 was inhibited by addition of excess purified C1-inhibitor in a comparable and dose-dependent manner. Sucrose-gradient analysis indicated a predominance of stable complexes of a single C1q-molecule with three MAbs at the optimal activating ratio. When isolated and added to C1q-depleted serum, these complexes activated C1 efficiently. A mechanism for activation by MAb 130 is proposed that supports the "distortive" model of C1-activation.

  4. Reduction of CO2 to C1 products and fuel

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mill, T.; Ross, D.

    2002-01-01

    Photochemical semiconductor processes readily reduced CO2 to a broad range of C1 products. However the intrinsic and solar efficiencies for the processes were low. Improved quantum efficiencies could be realized utilizing quantum-sized particles, but at the expense of using less of the visible solar spectrum. Conversely, semiconductors with small bandgaps used more of the visible solar spectrum at the expense of quantum efficiency. Thermal reduction of CO2 with Fe(II) was thermodynamically favored for forming many kinds of organic compounds and occurred readily with olivine and other Fe(II) minerals above 200??C to form higher alkanes and alkenes. No added hydrogen was required.

  5. Degree Accreditation in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Dave

    2004-01-01

    Until recently, the meaning and origin of the Canadian university degree was well understood by Canadians and around the world. Degrees were only offered by universities and the use of the label university was controlled by legislation in each of the ten provinces and three territories. Institutional membership in the Association of Universities…

  6. What price a degree?

    PubMed

    Corbett, Kevin

    2016-05-25

    Let's face it, nurse education is big business for British universities. The lobby group of universities offering nursing degrees, the Council of Deans of health (CoDH), argues that the true cost of nursing degrees is subsidised by their members. PMID:27224609

  7. Potential of CO2 lasers (10.6 µm) associated with fluorides in inhibiting human enamel erosion.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Oliveira, Thayanne Monteiro; Ramos, Thaysa Monteiro; Esteves-Oliveira, Marcela; Apel, Christian; Fischer, Horst; Eduardo, Carlos de Paula; Steagall, Washington; Freitas, Patricia Moreira de

    2014-01-01

    This in vitro study aimed to investigate the potential of CO2 lasers associated with different fluoride agents in inhibiting enamel erosion. Human enamel samples were randomly divided into 9 groups (n = 12): G1-eroded enamel; G2-APF gel; G3-AmF/NaF gel; G4-AmF/SnF2 solution; G5-CO2 laser (λ = 10.6 µm)+APF gel; G6-CO2 laser+AmF/NaF gel; G7-CO2laser+AmF/SnF2solution; G8-CO2 laser; and G9-sound enamel. The CO2 laser parameters were: 0.45 J/cm2; 6 μs; and 128 Hz. After surface treatment, the samples (except from G9) were immersed in 1% citric acid (pH 4.0, 3 min). Surface microhardness was measured at baseline and after surface softening. The data were statistically analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Tukey's tests (p < 0.05). G2 (407.6 ± 37.3) presented the highest mean SMH after softening, followed by G3 (407.5 ± 29.8) and G5 (399.7 ± 32.9). Within the fluoride-treated groups, G4 (309.0 ± 24.4) had a significantly lower mean SMH than G3 and G2, which were statistically similar to each other. AmF/NaF and APF application showed potential to protect and control erosion progression in dental enamel, and CO2 laser irradiation at 0.45J/cm2 did not influence its efficacy. CO2 laser irradiation alone under the same conditions could also significantly decrease enamel erosive mineral loss, although at lower levels.

  8. Polyethylene glycol enhances the binding of C1q to circulating immune complexes.

    PubMed

    Hack, C E; Eerenberg-Belmer, A J; Hannema, A J; Out, T A; Aalberse, R C

    1981-01-01

    By radioimmunoassay we measured the amount of endogenous C1q that was precipitated by polyethylene glycol (PEG) under the conditions of the 125I-C1q-binding test (C1q-BT). We found a linear correlation between the percentage endogenous C1q that was precipitated and the 125I-C1q-binding activity (C1q-BA). We concluded that the 125I-C1q behaves like the endogenous C1q. To detect circulating immune complexes (CIC) which had already bound C1q, human sera were added to tubes coated with anti-C1q. Under the conditions used, no C1q-bearing CIC were detected. In addition, 7 sera from patients with high C1q-BA were analyzed by sucrose-gradient ultracentrifugation. No C1q was found in the fast sedimenting fractions, although C1q-BA was detected in these fractions. With IgG-coated tubes we observed that PEG enhanced the binding of 125I-C1q as well as endogenous C1q to aggregated and monomeric IgG. PEG also enhanced the binding of CIC to C1q-coated tubes. The results suggest that CIC detected by the C1q-BT do not bear C1q in significant amounts in the circulation and that these CIC become detectable only in the presence of PEG.

  9. GATEWAYS: Degree program alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Strong, K.R.; Thayer, M.M.

    1991-11-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory is using non-traditional solutions to assist employees in attaining degrees required for essential Laboratory operations. Varieties of distance learning technologies have been implemented to meet some degree needs. While distance learning is not always a perfect solution, it enables the Laboratory to provide education that would otherwise not be practical for full-time employees. The Laboratory has also formed partnerships with local colleges to design programs to fill particular needs. Meeting the challenge of providing cost-effective, viable degree programs in an isolated location requires both patience and innovation.

  10. Degree by Thesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Courtis, Barbara

    1974-01-01

    Discusses a student's experience with a research project on the synthesis and reactions of an organo-platinum complex with an organo-Group IV linkage, including the advantages and disadvantages of such a degree by thesis course. (CC)

  11. Latitude 90 Degrees North to 90 Degrees South and Longitude 0 Degrees to 180 Degrees

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The coordinates of the Lambert azimuthal equal area projection are latitude 90 degrees N. to 90 degrees S. and longitude 0 degree to 180 degrees. Both polar residual ice caps are seen at top and bottom. The central part is dominated by the four largest and youngest volcanoes on Mars--Olympus, Arsia, Pavonis, and Ascraeus Montes--and by a vast system of canyons several thousand kilometers long--Valles Marineris. Directly to the northeast of Valles Marineris, several large outflow channels terminate at a dark depression, Chryse basin. The lower-right corner is marked by the large Argyre basin, defined by an expanse of light-colored plains 800 km across.

  12. Latitude 90 Degrees North to 90 Degrees South and Longitude -180 Degrees to 0 Degrees

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The coordinates of the Lambert azimuthal equal area projection are latitude 90 degrees N. to 90 degrees S. and longitude -180 degrees to 0 degrees. The north polar residual ice cap of the Planum Boreum region, which is cut by spiral-patterned troughs, is located at top. The upper part is marked by large depression, Isidis basin, which contains light-colored plains. The upper part also includes the light-colored smooth plains of Elysium Planitia and dark plains of Vastitas Borealis. Together, these form a vast expanse of contiguous plains. Toward the bottom, on the other hand, the southern hemisphere is almost entirely made up of heavily cratered highlands. Toward the bottom, a conspicuous, relatively bright circular depression marks the ancient large Hellas impact basin.

  13. Microbial growth on C1 compounds. Incorporation of C1 units into allulose phosphate by extracts of Pseudomonas methanica

    PubMed Central

    Kemp, M. B.; Quayle, J. R.

    1966-01-01

    1. Incubation of cell-free extracts of methane- or methanol-grown Pseudomonas methanica with [14C]formaldehyde and d-ribose 5-phosphate leads to incorporation of radioactivity into a non-volatile product, which has the chromatographic properties of a phosphorylated compound. 2. Treatment of this reaction product with a phosphatase, followed by chromatography, shows the presence of two compounds whose chromatographic properties are consistent with their being free sugars. 3. The minor component of the dephosphorylated products has been identified as fructose. The major component has been identified as allulose (psicose) on the basis of co-chromatography, co-crystallization of the derived phenylosazone and dinitrophenylosazone with authentic derivatives of allulose and behaviour towards oxidation with bromine water. 4. It is suggested that the bacterial extracts catalyse the condensation of a C1 unit identical with, or derived from, formaldehyde with ribose 5-phosphate to give allulose 6-phosphate. 5. Testing of hexose phosphates and pentose phosphates as substrates has so far shown the reaction to be specific for ribose 5-phosphate. 6. The condensation reaction is not catalysed by extracts of methanol-grown Pseudomonas AM1. 7. A variant of the pentose phosphate cycle, involving this condensation reaction, is suggested as an explanation for the net synthesis of C3 compounds from C1 units by P. methanica. PMID:5965346

  14. [C1Q NEPHROPATHY: CASE REPORTS AND LITERATURE REVIEW].

    PubMed

    Galešić, Krešimir; Horvatić, Ivica; Batinić, Danica; Milošević, Danko; Saraga, Marijan; Durdov, Merica Glavina; Ljubanović, Danica Galešić

    2015-01-01

    C1q nephropathy is considered a form of glomerulonephritis, defined by histological findings of dominant Clq immune deposits in renal biopsy. It is a rare disease, most often manifested in children and young adults. The most common clinical manifestation of the disease is nephrotic syndrome, but other renal syndromes could also be found. The cause of the disease is not known, but the immune pathogenesis could be assumed. Often, resistance to glucocorticoid or other immunosuppressive therapy is present, potentially leading to chronic renal insufficiency. We present ten patients with renal biopsy and clinical findings of Clq nephropathy. None of the patients had clinical or serological manifestations of systemic lupus. All patients had normal findings of C3 and C4 components of complement, as well as normal ANF, anti-dsD-NA and ANCA antibodies. PMID:26749950

  15. A Selection of Recent Advances in C1 Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Mesters, Carl

    2016-06-01

    This review presents a selection of recent publications related to the chemistry and catalysis of C1 molecules, including methane, methanol, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide. These molecules play an important role in the current supply of energy and chemicals and will likely become even more relevant because of the need to decarbonize fuels (shift from coal to natural gas) in line with CO2 capture and use to mitigate global warming, as well as a gradual shift on the supply side from crude oil to natural gas. This review includes both recent industrial developments, such as the huge increase in methanol-to-olefins-capacity build in China and the demonstration of oxidative coupling of methane, and scientific developments in these chemistries facilitated by improved capabilities in, for example, analytical tools and computational modeling.

  16. Plasma enhanced C1 chemistry for green technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nozaki, Tomohiro

    2013-09-01

    Plasma catalysis is one of the innovative next generation green technologies that meet the needs for energy and materials conservation as well as environmental protection. Non-thermal plasma uniquely generates reactive species independently of reaction temperature, and these species are used to initiate chemical reactions at unexpectedly lower temperatures than normal thermochemical reactions. Non-thermal plasma thus broadens the operation window of existing chemical conversion processes, and ultimately allows modification of the process parameters to minimize energy and material consumption. We have been specifically focusing on dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) as one of the viable non-thermal plasma sources for practical fuel reforming. In the presentation, room temperature one-step conversion of methane to methanol and hydrogen using a miniaturized DBD reactor (microplasma reactor) is highlighted. The practical impact of plasma technology on existing C1-chemistry is introduced, and then unique characteristics of plasma fuel reforming such as non-equilibrium product distribution is discussed.

  17. A Selection of Recent Advances in C1 Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Mesters, Carl

    2016-06-01

    This review presents a selection of recent publications related to the chemistry and catalysis of C1 molecules, including methane, methanol, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide. These molecules play an important role in the current supply of energy and chemicals and will likely become even more relevant because of the need to decarbonize fuels (shift from coal to natural gas) in line with CO2 capture and use to mitigate global warming, as well as a gradual shift on the supply side from crude oil to natural gas. This review includes both recent industrial developments, such as the huge increase in methanol-to-olefins-capacity build in China and the demonstration of oxidative coupling of methane, and scientific developments in these chemistries facilitated by improved capabilities in, for example, analytical tools and computational modeling. PMID:27276549

  18. C(1) metabolism and CVD outcomes in older adults.

    PubMed

    McNulty, Helene; Strain, J J; Pentieva, Kristina; Ward, Mary

    2012-05-01

    CVD is the most common cause of death in people over 65 years. This review considers the latest evidence for a potential protective effect of C(1) donors (folate and the metabolically related B-vitamins) in CVD. Such an effect may or may not be mediated via the role of these nutrients in maintaining plasma homocysteine concentrations within a desirable range. Despite predictions from epidemiological studies that lowering plasma homocysteine would reduce cardiovascular risk, several secondary prevention trials in at-risk patients published since 2004 have failed to demonstrate a benefit of homocysteine-lowering therapy with B-vitamins on CVD events generally. All these trials were performed in CVD patients with advanced disease; thus current evidence suggests that intervention with high-dose folic acid is of no benefit in preventing another event, at least in the case of heart disease. The evidence at this time, however, is stronger for stroke, with meta-analyses of randomised trials showing that folic acid reduces the risk of stroke, particularly in people with no history of stroke. Genetic studies provide convincing evidence to support a causal relationship between sub-optimal B-vitamin status and CVD. People homozygous for the common C677T variant in the gene encoding the folate-metabolising enzyme, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), typically have a 14-21% higher risk of CVD. Apart from folate, riboflavin is required as a co-factor for MTHFR. New evidence shows that riboflavin intervention results in marked lowering of blood pressure, specifically in patients with the MTHFR 677TT genotype. This novel gene-nutrient interaction may provide insights as to the mechanism that links C(1) metabolism with CVD outcomes. PMID:22152927

  19. The S8 serine, C1A cysteine and A1 aspartic protease families in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Beers, Eric P; Jones, Alan M; Dickerman, Allan W

    2004-01-01

    The Arabidopsis thaliana genome has over 550 protease sequences representing all five catalytic types: serine, cysteine, aspartic acid, metallo and threonine (MEROPS peptidase database, http://merops.sanger.ac.uk/), which probably reflect a wide variety of as yet unidentified functions performed by plant proteases. Recent indications that the 26S proteasome, a T1 family-threonine protease, is a regulator of light and hormone responsive signal transduction highlight the potential of proteases to participate in many aspects of plant growth and development. Recent discoveries that proteases are required for stomatal distribution, embryo development and disease resistance point to wider roles for four additional multigene families that include some of the most frequently studied (yet poorly understood) plant proteases: the subtilisin-like, serine proteases (family S8), the papain-like, cysteine proteases (family C1A), the pepsin-like, aspartic proteases (family A1) and the plant matrixin, metalloproteases (family M10A). In this report, 54 subtilisin-like, 30 papain-like and 59 pepsin-like proteases from Arabidopsis, are compared with S8, C1A and A1 proteases known from other plant species at the functional, phylogenetic and gene structure levels. Examples of structural conservation between S8, C1A and A1 genes from rice, barley, tomato and soybean and those from Arabidopsis are noted, indicating that some common, essential plant protease roles were established before the divergence of monocots and eudicots. Numerous examples of tandem duplications of protease genes and evidence for a variety of restricted expression patterns suggest that a high degree of specialization exists among proteases within each family. We propose that comprehensive analysis of the functions of these genes in Arabidopsis will firmly establish serine, cysteine and aspartic proteases as regulators and effectors of a wide range of plant processes.

  20. Near-ultraviolet spectroscopy of Comet Austin (1989c1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valk, Jacobus H.; O'Dell, C. R.; Cochran, Anita L.; Cochran, William D.; Opal, Chet B. S.; Barker, Edwin S.

    1992-01-01

    Comet Austin (1989c1) was observed post-perihelion at a heliocentric distance near 1.25 AU. The wavelength range was from the atmospheric cutoff at 3000 to 4000 A. The coma spectra were calibrated into flux units and the contaminating sky spectrum and solar scattered light continuum were subtracted, leaving an ultraviolet spectrum of about 1.5-A resolution and excellent signal-to-noise ratio. The spectrum is dominated by emissions from OH, NH, CH, C3, and CN, some of the weaker emissions of which are seen here for the first time. More bands of CO(2+) were found than in any previous investigation and several intensity anomalies were noted; H2CO, OH(+), NCN, N(2+), and CN(+) may be present. Several emission features well above the noise level remain unidentified. The relative intensities of the OH and CN bands agree with the predictions of resonance fluorescence when one considers the potential effects of contamination by other molecules. The effects of the ozone absorption spectrum are not fully removed by the data-reduction process, although this does not affect these results.

  1. Structure of human Niemann-Pick C1 protein.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaochun; Wang, Jiawei; Coutavas, Elias; Shi, Hang; Hao, Qi; Blobel, Günter

    2016-07-19

    Niemann-Pick C1 protein (NPC1) is a late-endosomal membrane protein involved in trafficking of LDL-derived cholesterol, Niemann-Pick disease type C, and Ebola virus infection. NPC1 contains 13 transmembrane segments (TMs), five of which are thought to represent a "sterol-sensing domain" (SSD). Although present also in other key regulatory proteins of cholesterol biosynthesis, uptake, and signaling, the structure and mechanism of action of the SSD are unknown. Here we report a crystal structure of a large fragment of human NPC1 at 3.6 Å resolution, which reveals internal twofold pseudosymmetry along TM 2-13 and two structurally homologous domains that protrude 60 Å into the endosomal lumen. Strikingly, NPC1's SSD forms a cavity that is accessible from both the luminal bilayer leaflet and the endosomal lumen; computational modeling suggests that this cavity is large enough to accommodate one cholesterol molecule. We propose a model for NPC1 function in cholesterol sensing and transport. PMID:27307437

  2. Structure of human Niemann–Pick C1 protein

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaochun; Wang, Jiawei; Coutavas, Elias; Shi, Hang; Hao, Qi; Blobel, Günter

    2016-01-01

    Niemann–Pick C1 protein (NPC1) is a late-endosomal membrane protein involved in trafficking of LDL-derived cholesterol, Niemann–Pick disease type C, and Ebola virus infection. NPC1 contains 13 transmembrane segments (TMs), five of which are thought to represent a “sterol-sensing domain” (SSD). Although present also in other key regulatory proteins of cholesterol biosynthesis, uptake, and signaling, the structure and mechanism of action of the SSD are unknown. Here we report a crystal structure of a large fragment of human NPC1 at 3.6 Å resolution, which reveals internal twofold pseudosymmetry along TM 2–13 and two structurally homologous domains that protrude 60 Å into the endosomal lumen. Strikingly, NPC1's SSD forms a cavity that is accessible from both the luminal bilayer leaflet and the endosomal lumen; computational modeling suggests that this cavity is large enough to accommodate one cholesterol molecule. We propose a model for NPC1 function in cholesterol sensing and transport. PMID:27307437

  3. NEW MASER EMISSION FROM NONMETASTABLE AMMONIA IN NGC 7538. III. DETECTION OF THE (10,6) TRANSITION AND A VELOCITY GRADIENT

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, Ian M.

    2012-11-01

    We present the first astronomical detection of the {sup 14}NH{sub 3} (J, K) = (10, 6) line: nonthermal emission at several velocities in the Galactic star-forming region NGC 7538. Using the Very Large Array we have imaged the (10,6) and (9,6) ammonia masers at several positions within NGC 7538 IRS 1. The individual sources have angular sizes {approx}< 0.1 arcsec corresponding to brightness temperatures T{sub B} {approx}> 10{sup 6} K. We apply the pumping model of Brown and Cragg, confirming the conjecture that multiple ortho-ammonia masers can occur with the same value of K. The positions and velocities of the (10,6) and (9,6) masers are modeled as motion in a possible disk or torus and are discussed in the context of recent models of the region.

  4. The conversion of C'IS to C'1 esterase by plasmin and trypsin.

    PubMed

    Ratnoff, O D; Naff, G B

    1967-02-01

    The formation of C'1 esterase from C'1, the first component of complement, may be brought about by the action of plasmin or trypsin upon C'1s, a subcomponent of C'1. These enzymes also decrease the esterolytic activity of C'1 esterase. The formation of C'1 esterase was demonstrated by measuring the appearance of an agent or agents with esterolytic properties and the capacity to inactivate C'2 and C'4, attributes of C'1 esterase. The activity of the agent which evolved was blocked by serum inhibitor of C'1 esterase. The implications of these observations, that the formation of C'1 esterase during complement fixation is mediated by proteolytic processes, are under study. The possible inhibition of C'1q by soybean trypsin inhibitor is in agreement with this hypothesis.

  5. The "Clinical" Masters Degree.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perlman, Baron; Lane, Robert

    1981-01-01

    Discusses issues surrounding the clinical master's degree: the belief that the only true psychologist is a PhD, public confusion between doctoral and subdoctoral psychologists, training guidelines, role responsibility, employment, licensing and competency, accreditation, and supervision. Suggests an APA sponsored conference to discuss and resolve…

  6. Top Hispanic Degree Producers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diverse: Issues in Higher Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a list of the top 100 producers of associate, bachelor's and graduate degrees awarded to minority students based on research conducted by Dr. Victor M.H. Borden, professor of educational leadership and policy students at the Indiana University Bloomington. For the year 2012, the listings focus on Hispanic students. Data for…

  7. One Degree of Separation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jean

    2012-01-01

    A 2011 survey of young adults conducted by Public Agenda found that a cluster of obstacles have prevented many of them from competing college. The author describes the opportunity, college awareness, and funding gaps that put a postsecondary degree out of the reach of so many young people. For example, just 3 in 10 non-college-completers are aware…

  8. Registered Nurse (Associate Degree).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This document, which is designed for use in developing a tech prep competency profile for the occupation of registered nurse (with an associate degree), lists technical competencies and competency builders for 19 units pertinent to the health technologies cluster in general and 5 units specific to the occupation of registered nurse. The following…

  9. Charting Journalism Degrees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borden, Victor M. H.

    1998-01-01

    Data are presented on the numbers of African Americans, Hispanic Americans, Asian Americans, and total minority group members receiving associate, bachelor's, master's and doctoral degrees in journalism and mass communication in 1997-98. Colleges and universities graduating the most minorities are also ranked. (MSE)

  10. Studies on the haemolytic activity of circulating C1q-C3/C4 complexes.

    PubMed

    Wouters, Diana; Brouwer, Mieke C; Daha, Mohamed R; Hack, C Erik

    2008-04-01

    During classical complement pathway activation, the internal thio-ester of both C3 and C4 becomes exposed which enables C3 and C4 to bind covalently to nearby molecules. Recently, we described that C3 and C4 bind to C1q, the recognition molecule of the classical pathway, upon activation of this pathway. Covalently linked complexes between C1q and activated C4 (C1q-C4 complexes) are specific markers for classical complement pathway activation. In the present study we further investigated the molecular characteristics of complexes between C1q and activated C3 or C4 that occur in vivo. In human serum only complexes of C1q with C3d or C4d fragments were detected but not those with the larger C3b/bi or C4b/bi fragments. We identified that C1q-C4 complexes circulate as part of the intact C1 complex instead of as free C1q. Finally, we investigated whether deposited C3d or C4d affect C1 haemolytic activity. We observed that both C1q-C3 and C1q-C4 complexes are significantly (P<0.05) less active in a C1q-haemolytic assay than non-complexed C1q. Thus, the dominant types of C1q complexes that circulate in vivo are C1q-C3d and C1q-C4d complexes. These complexes are still able to interact with C1r and C1s to form a C1 complex, but seem to have a reduced activity as compared to C1q not carrying C3- or C4-fragments.

  11. Structure and function of the serine-protease subcomponents of C1: protein engineering studies.

    PubMed

    Gál, P; Závodszky, P

    1998-08-01

    Our protein engineering studies on human C1r and C1s revealed important characteristics of the individual domains of these multidomain serine-proteases, and supplied evidence about the cooperation of the domains to create binding sites, and to control the activation process. We expressed the recombinant subcomponents in the baculovirus-insect cell system and checked the biological activity. Deletions and point mutants of C1r were constructed and C1r-C1s chimeras were also produced. Our deletion mutants demonstrated that the N-terminal CUB domain and the EGF-like domain of C1r together are responsible for the calcium dependent C1r-C1s interaction. It seems very likely that these two modules form the calcium-binding site of the C1r alpha-fragment and participate in the tetramer formation. The deletion mutants also demonstrated that the N-terminal region of the C1r molecule contains essential elements involved in the control of activation of the serine-protease module. The substrate specificity of the serine-protease is also determined by the five N-terminal noncatalytic domain of C1r/C1s chimera, which contains the catalytic domain of C1s preceded by the N-terminal region of C1r, could replace the C1r in the hemolytically active C1 complex. The C1s/C1r chimera, in which the alpha-fragment of the C1r was replaced for that of the C1s exibits both C1r- and C1s-like characteristics. We stabilized the zymogen form of human C1r by mutating the Arg(463)-Ile(464) bond. Using our stable zymogen C1r we showed that one active C1r in the C1 complex is sufficient for the full activity of the entire complex. Further experiment with this mutant could provide us with important information about the structure of the C1 complex. PMID:9777415

  12. Microwave spectra for the three 13C1 isotopologues of propene and new rotational constants for propene and its 13C1 isotopologues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craig, Norman C.; Groner, Peter; Conrad, Andrew R.; Gurusinghe, Ranil; Tubergen, Michael J.

    2016-10-01

    New measurements of microwave lines (A and E) of propene and its three 13C1 isotopologues have been made in the 10-22 GHz region with FT accuracy. The revised lines for propene along with many hundreds from the literature were fitted with the ERHAM program for internal rotors to give improved rotational constants. The new constants are A0 = 46280.2904(16), B0 = 9305.24260(30), and C0 = 8134.22685(28) MHz. Lines for the 3-13C1 species were observed in a pure sample; lines for the 1-13C1 and 2-13C1 species were observed in natural abundance. In fitting the limited sets of lines for the 13C1 species, many of the centrifugal distortion constants and most of the tunneling parameters were transferred from the fit of propene itself with 27 parameters. Improved rotational constants for the 13C1 species are reported.

  13. 25 CFR 10.6 - How is the BIA assured that the policies and standards are being applied uniformly and facilities...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... PROGRAMS § 10.6 How is the BIA assured that the policies and standards are being applied uniformly and facilities are properly accredited? The tribes and BIA programs will use a phased approach to meeting all non-mandatory detention standards and will document progress on uniform reporting. The BIA Office of...

  14. Influence of ionic strength, EDTA concentration, endogenous C1q and polyanions on the 125I-C1q-binding test.

    PubMed

    Hack, C E; Huijbregts, C C; Paardekooper, J

    1984-08-01

    Several parameters of the 125I-C1q-binding test were investigated: ionic strength, pH, concentration of EDTA, influence of serum C1q and the possibility of interference by polyanions. Lowering the ionic strength of the borate buffer resulted in increased precipitation of 125I-C1q in normal human serum. This increase was dependent on the presence of serum proteins, probably immunoglobulins. When the concentration of the EDTA was decreased, increased precipitation of 125I-C1q in normal human serum was also observed. This was prevented by adding NaCl to the EDTA solution. However at very low concentrations of EDTA (too low to chelate all calcium ions in the serum), increased precipitation of 125I-C1q in normal human serum was observed even in the presence of added NaCl. Addition of purified C1q to sera from patients with very low C1q levels had varying effects on the results of the C1q-binding test: (a) it decreased the C1q-binding activity of some sera, probably by competition with 125I-C1q for binding sites on the immune complexes; (b) it increased the C1q-binding activity of other sera, probably by enhancing the precipitation of immune complexes as a consequence of the cross-linking effect of C1q; or (c) it had no influence, possibly due to the opposite effects of (a) and (b). The addition of dextran sulphate resulted in a dose-dependent increase in the 125I-C1q-binding activity of normal human serum. This effect was dependent on the interaction of dextran sulphate with either C1q or low-density lipoproteins and was prevented by addition of polybrene to the assay. However, addition of polybrene to sera with a high C1q-binding activity scarcely influenced binding activity.

  15. Emerging distance degree programs.

    PubMed

    Birnbaum, D; Greenhalgh, T

    2000-01-01

    The variation in program focus and style is examined in this column, which also identifies resources for evaluation. The integration of Web-based or other distance modality materials to conventional courses, and the expansion of traditional universities to include a virtual campus, should proceed with caution and systematic evaluation. It is an evolution that offers both rewards and pitfalls, but requires more rigorous examination. This article provides information about pedagogical issues and additional distance-education master's degree programs. Some are new, while others are established.

  16. Significance of low molecular weight C1q in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Hoekzema, R; Swaak, A J; Brouwer, M C; van Rooijen, A; Nieuwenhuys, E J; Hack, C E

    1990-09-01

    The significance of high serum concentrations of low molecular weight C1q (LMW-C1q) in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) was studied. Concentrations of LMW-C1q were increased in SLE, but not in rheumatoid arthritis or acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis. Concentrations of LMW-C1q in SLE serum samples correlated with titres of anti-dsDNA and were inversely related to concentrations of normal C1q and C3. Serial studies in six patients, who had rising anti-dsDNA titres and who developed a major exacerbation requiring admission to hospital, showed that LMW-C1q increased in parallel with anti-dsDNA, reaching peak values of more than 2000% of normal just before or at the time of clinical relapse and decreasing during convalescence. Most marked increases in LMW-C1q were noted in the three patients in whom C1q concentrations remained normal, whereas increases were less in the three patients who had strongly depressed concentrations of normal C1q. A study of C1q biosynthesis by macrophages cultured from patients with SLE and high serum concentrations of LMW-C1q did not show impaired secretion of normal C1q in favour of LMW-C1q, but indicated that serum concentrations of LMW-C1q may reflect the synthetic rate of C1q in vivo. The results show that increased serum concentrations of LMW-C1q may be helpful in diagnosing SLE and suggest that serial determination of LMW-C1q in serum may have predictive value in monitoring patients with SLE.

  17. When Graduate Degrees Prostitute the Educational Process: Degrees Gone Wild

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lumadue, Richard T.

    2006-01-01

    Graduate degrees prostitute the educational process when they are sold to consumers by unaccredited degree/diploma mills as being equivalent to legitimate, bona-fide degrees awarded by accredited graduate schools. This article carefully analyzes the serious problems of bogus degrees and their association with the religious higher education…

  18. Ligamentous laxity across C0-C1-C2 complex. Axial torque-rotation characteristics until failure.

    PubMed

    Goel, V K; Winterbottom, J M; Schulte, K R; Chang, H; Gilbertson, L G; Pudgil, A G; Gwon, J K

    1990-10-01

    The axial torque until failure of the ligamentous occipito-atlanto-axial complex (C0-C1-C2) subjected to axial angular rotation (theta) was characterized using a biaxial MTS system. A special fixture and gearbox that permitted right axial rotation of the specimen until failure without imposing any additional constraints were designed to obtain the data. The average values for the axial rotation and torque at the point of maximum resistance were, respectively, 68.1 degrees and 13.6 N-m. The specimens offered minimal resistance (approximately 0.5 N-m), up to an average axial rotation of 21 degrees across the complex. The torque-angular rotation (T-theta) curve can be divided into four regions: regions of least and steadily increasing resistances, a transition zone that connects these two regions, and the increasing resistance region to the point of maximum resistance. The regions of least and steadily increasing resistances may be represented by two straight lines with average slopes of 0.028 and 0.383 N-m/degree, respectively. Post-test dissection of the specimens disclosed the following. The point of maximum resistance corresponded roughly to the value of axial rotation at which complete bilateral rotary dislocation of the C1-C2 facets occurred. The types of injuries observed were related to the magnitude of axial rotation imposed on a specimen during testing. Soft-tissue injuries alone (like stretch/rupture of the capsular ligaments, subluxation of the C1-C2 facets, etc.) were confined to specimens rotated up to or close to the point of maximum resistance. The specimens that were subjected to rotations up to the point of maximum resistance of the curve spontaneously reduced completely on removal from the testing apparatus. Spontaneous reduction was not possible for specimens tested slightly beyond their points of maximum resistance.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. rhC1INH: a new drug for the treatment of attacks in hereditary angioedema caused by C1-inhibitor deficiency.

    PubMed

    Varga, Lilian; Farkas, Henriette

    2011-03-01

    Recombinant human C1 esterase inhibitor (rhC1INH) (Ruconest(®), Pharming) is a new drug developed for the relief of symptoms occurring in patients with angioedema due to C1-inhibitor deficiency. Pertinent results have already been published elsewhere; this article summarizes the progress made since then. Similar to the purified C1-inhibitor derived from human plasma, the therapeutic efficacy of rhC1INH results from its ability to block the actions of enzymes belonging to the overactivated bradykinin-forming pathway, at multiple locations. During clinical trials into the management of acute edema, a total of 190 subjects received recombinant C1-inhibitor by intravenous infusion on 714 occasions altogether. Dose-ranging efficacy studies established 50 U/kg as the recommended dose, and demonstrated the effectiveness of this agent in all localizations of hereditary angioedema attacks. Studies into the safety of rhC1INH based on 300 administrations to healthy subjects or hereditary angioedema patients followed-up for 90 days have not detected the formation of autoantibodies against rhC1INH or IgE antibodies directed against rabbit proteins, even after repeated administration on multiple occasions. These findings met favorable appraisal by the EMA, which granted European marketing authorization for rhC1INH. Pharming is expected to file a biological licence with the US FDA by the end of 2010 to obtain marketing approval in the USA. The launch of rhC1INH onto the pharmaceutical market may represent an important progress in the management of hereditary angioedema patients.

  20. rhC1INH: a new drug for the treatment of attacks in hereditary angioedema caused by C1-inhibitor deficiency.

    PubMed

    Varga, Lilian; Farkas, Henriette

    2011-03-01

    Recombinant human C1 esterase inhibitor (rhC1INH) (Ruconest(®), Pharming) is a new drug developed for the relief of symptoms occurring in patients with angioedema due to C1-inhibitor deficiency. Pertinent results have already been published elsewhere; this article summarizes the progress made since then. Similar to the purified C1-inhibitor derived from human plasma, the therapeutic efficacy of rhC1INH results from its ability to block the actions of enzymes belonging to the overactivated bradykinin-forming pathway, at multiple locations. During clinical trials into the management of acute edema, a total of 190 subjects received recombinant C1-inhibitor by intravenous infusion on 714 occasions altogether. Dose-ranging efficacy studies established 50 U/kg as the recommended dose, and demonstrated the effectiveness of this agent in all localizations of hereditary angioedema attacks. Studies into the safety of rhC1INH based on 300 administrations to healthy subjects or hereditary angioedema patients followed-up for 90 days have not detected the formation of autoantibodies against rhC1INH or IgE antibodies directed against rabbit proteins, even after repeated administration on multiple occasions. These findings met favorable appraisal by the EMA, which granted European marketing authorization for rhC1INH. Pharming is expected to file a biological licence with the US FDA by the end of 2010 to obtain marketing approval in the USA. The launch of rhC1INH onto the pharmaceutical market may represent an important progress in the management of hereditary angioedema patients. PMID:21426252

  1. Do the mutations of C1GALT1C1 gene play important roles in the genetic susceptibility to Chinese IgA nephropathy?

    PubMed Central

    Li, Gui-Sen; Nie, Guang-Jun; Zhang, Hong; LV, Ji-Cheng; Shen, Yan; Wang, Hai-Yan

    2009-01-01

    Background The deficiency of β1,3 galactose in hinge region of IgA1 molecule played a pivotal role in pathogenesis of IgA nephropathy (IgAN). Cosmc, encoded by C1GALT1C1 gene, was indispensable to β1,3 galactosylation of IgA1. We designed a serial study to investigate the relationship between the mutations of C1GALT1C1 gene and the genetic susceptibility to IgAN. Methods Nine hundred and thirty-eight subjects, including 661 patients with IgAN and 277 healthy controls were enrolled in the study. Firstly, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the promoter region of C1GALT1C1 gene were screened. Then the c.-347-190G>A was analyzed by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) for further case-control association analysis. Secondly the somatic mutations of DNAs from peripheral blood B lymphocytes were detected in 15 patients and 7 normal controls. Results No significant association was observed between the different alleles or genotypes of c.-347-190G>A and IgAN. The patients with different genotypes of C1GALT1C1 gene did not significantly associate with clinical manifestations, including hematuria, proteinuria, and serum creatinine of patients with IgAN. There was no somatic mutation detected in total 202 clones of 22 individuals. Conclusion The c.-347-190G>A polymorphism and the somatic mutation of encoding region of C1GALT1C1 gene were not significantly related to the genetic susceptibility to IgAN in Northern Chinese population. PMID:19778426

  2. Clearance of human native, proteinase-complexed, and proteolytically inactivated C1-inhibitor in rats.

    PubMed

    de Smet, B J; de Boer, J P; Agterberg, J; Rigter, G; Bleeker, W K; Hack, C E

    1993-01-01

    C1-inhibitor is the only known inhibitor of the classical pathway of complement and the major inhibitor of the contact pathway of coagulation. Like other serine proteinase inhibitors, C1-inhibitor can exist in three conformations, ie, the native, the proteinase-complexed, and the proteolytically inactivated form. Here we studied the plasma elimination kinetics of these three forms of human C1-inhibitor in rats. The clearance of the complexed form of C1-inhibitor appeared to be the most rapid and depended in part on the proteinase involved (observed plasma t1/2 was 20 minutes for C1s-C1-inhibitor, 32 minutes for kallikrein-C1-inhibitor, and 47 minutes for beta XIIa-C1-inhibitor), whereas that of native C1-inhibitor was the slowest (observed plasma t1/2 4.5 hours). Inactivated C1-inhibitor was cleared with an apparent plasma t1/2 of 1.6 hours. Thus, the short plasma t1/2 of complexed relative to native C1-inhibitor explains why in patients only low concentrations of C1-inhibitor complexes may be observed despite activation of the contact and/or complement systems.

  3. SLE like syndrome and functional deficiency of C1q in members of a large family.

    PubMed

    Hannema, A J; Kluin-Nelemans, J C; Hack, C E; Eerenberg-Belmer, A J; Mallée, C; van Helden, H P

    1984-01-01

    Two sisters and a brother from one family are described whose sera were deficient in haemolytic complement function. This defect was restored by addition of purified C1q. In their sera, C1q like material was found, whereas C1r and C1s were normal or increased in concentration, as were the other complement components tested. All three had suffered from glomerulonephritis during childhood. A renal biopsy in the brother recently disclosed a membranous glomerulopathy stage 1; otherwise, he is apparently healthy. In both sisters, a systemic lupus erythematosus like disease became manifest at the age of 20 and 23, respectively, resulting in the death of one of them. In the serum of these three family members, the C1q like material was antigenically deficient compared with normal C1q and had, on sucrose gradient analysis, a molecular weight of approximately 65,000 daltons. It did not bind to C1r and C1s. Binding of the dysfunctional C1q to aggregated human gammaglobulin could be demonstrated. On double immunodiffusion analysis, the abnormal C1q was identical with reduced and alkylated C1q. The possible structure of the abnormal C1q molecule is discussed.

  4. Biochemical and functional characterization of the interaction between pentraxin 3 and C1q.

    PubMed

    Nauta, Alma J; Bottazzi, Barbara; Mantovani, Alberto; Salvatori, Giovanni; Kishore, Uday; Schwaeble, Wilhelm J; Gingras, Alexandre R; Tzima, Sotiria; Vivanco, Fernando; Egido, Jesús; Tijsma, Odette; Hack, Erik C; Daha, Mohamed R; Roos, Anja

    2003-02-01

    Pentraxin 3 (PTX3) is a recently characterized member of the pentraxin family of acute-phase proteins produced during inflammation. Classical short pentraxins, C-reactive protein, and serum amyloid P component can bind to C1q and thereby activate the classical complement pathway. Since PTX3 can also bind C1q, the present study was designed to define the interaction between PTX3 and C1q and to examine the functional consequences of this interaction. A dose-dependent binding of both C1q and the C1 complex to PTX3 was observed. Experiments with recombinant globular head domains of human C1q A, B, and C chains indicated that C1q interacts with PTX3 via its globular head region. Binding of C1q to immobilized PTX3 induced activation of the classical complement pathway as assessed by C4 deposition. Furthermore, PTX3 enhanced C1q binding and complement activation on apoptotic cells. However, in the fluid-phase, pre-incubation of PTX3 with C1q resulted in inhibition of complement activation by blocking the interaction of C1q with immunoglobulins. These results indicate that PTX3 can both inhibit and activate the classical complement pathway by binding C1q, depending on the way it is presented. PTX3 may therefore be involved in the regulation of the innate immune response.

  5. 26 CFR 1.673(c)-1 - Reversionary interest after income beneficiary's death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Reversionary interest after income beneficiary's death. 1.673(c)-1 Section 1.673(c)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Substantial Owners § 1.673(c)-1 Reversionary interest after income beneficiary's death. The subject matter...

  6. 26 CFR 1.673(c)-1 - Reversionary interest after income beneficiary's death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Reversionary interest after income beneficiary's death. 1.673(c)-1 Section 1.673(c)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Substantial Owners § 1.673(c)-1 Reversionary interest after income beneficiary's death. The subject matter...

  7. 26 CFR 1.673(c)-1 - Reversionary interest after income beneficiary's death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Reversionary interest after income beneficiary's death. 1.673(c)-1 Section 1.673(c)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Substantial Owners § 1.673(c)-1 Reversionary interest after income beneficiary's death. The subject matter...

  8. 26 CFR 1.415(c)-1 - Limitations for defined contribution plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Limitations for defined contribution plans. 1.415(c)-1 Section 1.415(c)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.415(c)-1 Limitations for defined contribution...

  9. 17 CFR 270.22c-1 - Pricing of redeemable securities for distribution, redemption and repurchase.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) (17 CFR 270.14a-3(b))) from selling or repurchasing Trust units in a secondary market at a price based... securities for distribution, redemption and repurchase. 270.22c-1 Section 270.22c-1 Commodity and Securities... 1940 § 270.22c-1 Pricing of redeemable securities for distribution, redemption and repurchase. (a)...

  10. 17 CFR 270.22c-1 - Pricing of redeemable securities for distribution, redemption and repurchase.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) (17 CFR 270.14a-3(b))) from selling or repurchasing Trust units in a secondary market at a price based... securities for distribution, redemption and repurchase. 270.22c-1 Section 270.22c-1 Commodity and Securities... 1940 § 270.22c-1 Pricing of redeemable securities for distribution, redemption and repurchase. (a)...

  11. 26 CFR 301.6323(c)-1 - Protection for commercial transactions financing agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... financing agreements. 301.6323(c)-1 Section 301.6323(c)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... General Provisions § 301.6323(c)-1 Protection for commercial transactions financing agreements. (a) In... financing agreement entered into before the tax lien filing, and (3) Is protected under local law against...

  12. 26 CFR 1.179C-1T - Election to expense certain refineries (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Election to expense certain refineries (temporary). 1.179C-1T Section 1.179C-1T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Itemized Deductions for Individuals and Corporations (continued) § 1.179C-1T Election to...

  13. 26 CFR 1.503(c)-1 - Future status of organizations denied exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Future status of organizations denied exemption. 1.503(c)-1 Section 1.503(c)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Exempt Organizations § 1.503(c)-1 Future status of organizations denied exemption. (a)...

  14. 26 CFR 1.509(c)-1 - Status of organization after termination of private foundation status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... private foundation status. 1.509(c)-1 Section 1.509(c)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Private Foundations § 1.509(c)-1 Status of organization after termination of private foundation status. (a) In...

  15. 26 CFR 1.509(c)-1 - Status of organization after termination of private foundation status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... private foundation status. 1.509(c)-1 Section 1.509(c)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Private Foundations § 1.509(c)-1 Status of organization after termination of private foundation status. (a) In...

  16. 26 CFR 1.509(c)-1 - Status of organization after termination of private foundation status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... private foundation status. 1.509(c)-1 Section 1.509(c)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Private Foundations § 1.509(c)-1 Status of organization after termination of private foundation status. (a) In...

  17. 26 CFR 1.509(c)-1 - Status of organization after termination of private foundation status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... private foundation status. 1.509(c)-1 Section 1.509(c)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Private Foundations § 1.509(c)-1 Status of organization after termination of private foundation status. (a) In...

  18. Constitutive Activation of an Anthocyanin Regulatory Gene PcMYB10.6 Is Related to Red Coloration in Purple-Foliage Plum.

    PubMed

    Gu, Chao; Liao, Liao; Zhou, Hui; Wang, Lu; Deng, Xianbao; Han, Yuepeng

    2015-01-01

    Cherry plum is a popular ornamental tree worldwide and most cultivars are selected for purple foliage. Here, we report the investigation of molecular mechanism underlying red pigmentation in purple-leaf plum 'Ziyeli' (Prunus cerasifera Ehrhar f. atropurpurea (Jacq.) Rehd.), which shows red color pigmentation in fruit (flesh and skin) and foliage. Six anthocyanin-activating MYB genes, designated PcMYB10.1 to PcMYB10.6, were isolated based on RNA-Seq data from leaves of cv. Ziyeli. Of these PcMYB10 genes, five (PcMYB10.1 through PcMYB10.5) show distinct spatial and temporal expression patterns, while the PcMYB10.6 gene is highly expressed in all the purple-coloured organs of cv. Ziyeli. Constitutive activation of PcMYB10.6 is closely related to red pigmentation in the leaf, fruit (flesh and skin), and sepal. However, the PcMYB10.6 activation cannot induce red pigmentation in the petal of cv. Ziyeli during late stages of flower development due to due to a lack of expression of PcUFGT. The inhibition of red pigmentation in the petal of cherry plum could be attributed to the high-level expression of PcANR that directs anthocyanidin flux to proanthocyanidin biosynthesis. In addition, PcMYB10.2 is highly expressed in fruit and sepal, but its expression cannot induce red pigmentation. This suggests the PcMYB10 gene family in cherry plum may have diverged in function and PcMYB10.2 plays little role in the regulation of red pigmentation. Our study provides for the first time an example of constitutive activation of an anthocyanin-activating MYB gene in Prunus although its underlying mechanism remains unclear. PMID:26247780

  19. Teotihuacanin, a Diterpene with an Unusual Spiro-10/6 System from Salvia amarissima with Potent Modulatory Activity of Multidrug Resistance in Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Bautista, Elihú; Fragoso-Serrano, Mabel; Toscano, Rubén A; García-Peña, María del Rosario; Ortega, Alfredo

    2015-07-01

    Teotihuacanin (1), an unusual rearranged clerodane diterpene with a new carbon skeleton containing a spiro-10/6 bicyclic system, was isolated from the leaves and flowers of Salvia amarissima. Its structure was determined through spectroscopic analyses. Its absolute configuration was established by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Compound 1 showed potent modulatory activity of multidrug resistance in vinblastine-resistant MCF-7 cancer cell line (reversal fold, RFMCF-7/Vin+ > 10703) at 25 μg/mL.

  20. Constitutive Activation of an Anthocyanin Regulatory Gene PcMYB10.6 Is Related to Red Coloration in Purple-Foliage Plum

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Hui; Wang, Lu; Deng, Xianbao; Han, Yuepeng

    2015-01-01

    Cherry plum is a popular ornamental tree worldwide and most cultivars are selected for purple foliage. Here, we report the investigation of molecular mechanism underlying red pigmentation in purple-leaf plum ‘Ziyeli’ (Prunus cerasifera Ehrhar f. atropurpurea (Jacq.) Rehd.), which shows red color pigmentation in fruit (flesh and skin) and foliage. Six anthocyanin-activating MYB genes, designated PcMYB10.1 to PcMYB10.6, were isolated based on RNA-Seq data from leaves of cv. Ziyeli. Of these PcMYB10 genes, five (PcMYB10.1 through PcMYB10.5) show distinct spatial and temporal expression patterns, while the PcMYB10.6 gene is highly expressed in all the purple-coloured organs of cv. Ziyeli. Constitutive activation of PcMYB10.6 is closely related to red pigmentation in the leaf, fruit (flesh and skin), and sepal. However, the PcMYB10.6 activation cannot induce red pigmentation in the petal of cv. Ziyeli during late stages of flower development due to due to a lack of expression of PcUFGT. The inhibition of red pigmentation in the petal of cherry plum could be attributed to the high-level expression of PcANR that directs anthocyanidin flux to proanthocyanidin biosynthesis. In addition, PcMYB10.2 is highly expressed in fruit and sepal, but its expression cannot induce red pigmentation. This suggests the PcMYB10 gene family in cherry plum may have diverged in function and PcMYB10.2 plays little role in the regulation of red pigmentation. Our study provides for the first time an example of constitutive activation of an anthocyanin-activating MYB gene in Prunus although its underlying mechanism remains unclear. PMID:26247780

  1. Comparing the use of 4.6 um lasers versus 10.6 um lasers for mitigating damage site growth on fused silica surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, S T; Matthews, M J; Elhadj, S; Cooke, D; Guss, G M; Draggoo, V G; Wegner, P J

    2010-10-21

    The advantage of using mid-infrared (IR) 4.6 {micro}m lasers, versus far-infrared 10.6 {micro}m lasers, for mitigating damage growth on fused silica is investigated. In contrast to fused silica's high absorption at 10.6 {micro}m, silica absorption at 4.6 {micro}m is two orders of magnitude less. The much reduced absorption at 4.6 {micro}m enables deep heat penetration into fused silica when it is heated using the mid-IR laser, which in turn leads to more effective mitigation of damage sites with deep cracks. The advantage of using mid-IR versus far-IR laser for damage growth mitigation under non-evaporative condition is quantified by defining a figure of merit (FOM) that relates the crack healing depth to laser power required. Based on our FOM, we show that for damage cracks up to at least 500 {micro}m in depth, mitigation using a 4.6 {micro}m mid-IR laser is more efficient than mitigation using a 10.6 {micro}m far-IR laser.

  2. Characterization of recombinant human C1 inhibitor secreted in milk of transgenic rabbits.

    PubMed

    van Veen, Harrie A; Koiter, Jaco; Vogelezang, Carla J M; van Wessel, Noucha; van Dam, Tijtje; Velterop, Ingeborg; van Houdt, Kristina; Kupers, Luc; Horbach, Danielle; Salaheddine, Mourad; Nuijens, Jan H; Mannesse, Maurice L M

    2012-12-31

    C1 inhibitor (C1INH) is a single-chain glycoprotein that inhibits activation of the contact system of coagulation and the complement system. C1INH isolated from human blood plasma (pd-hC1INH) is used for the management of hereditary angioedema (HAE), a disease caused by heterozygous deficiency of C1INH, and is a promise for treatment of ischemia-reperfusion injuries like acute myocardial or cerebral infarction. To obtain large quantities of C1INH, recombinant human C1INH (rhC1INH) was expressed in the milk of transgenic rabbits (12 g/l) harboring genomic human C1INH sequences fused to 5' bovine αS(1) casein promoter sequences. Recombinant hC1INH was isolated from milk to a specific activity of 6.1 U/mg and a purity of 99%; by size-exclusion chromatography the 1% impurities consisted of multimers and N-terminal cleaved C1INH species. Mass spectrometric analysis of purified rhC1INH revealed a relative molecular mass (M(r)) of 67,200. Differences in M(r) on SDS PAGE and mass spectrometric analysis between rhC1INH and pd-hC1INH are explained by differential glycosylation (calculated carbohydrate contents of 21% and 28%, respectively), since protein sequencing analysis of rhC1INH revealed intact N- and C-termini. Host-related impurity analysis by ELISA revealed trace amounts of rabbit protein (approximately 10 ppm) in purified batches, but not endogenous rabbit C1INH. The kinetics of inhibition of the target proteases C1s, Factor XIIa, kallikrein and Factor XIa by rhC1INH and pd-hC1INH, indicated comparable inhibitory potency and specificity. Recently, rhC1INH (Ruconest(®)) has been approved by the European Medicines Agency for the treatment of acute attacks of HAE. PMID:22995741

  3. Proteasome-mediated degradation antagonizes critical levels of the apoptosis-inducing C1D protein

    PubMed Central

    Rothbarth, Karsten; Stammer, Hermann; Werner, Dieter

    2002-01-01

    The C1D gene is expressed in a broad spectrum of mammalian cells and tissues but its product induces apoptotic cell death when exceeding a critical level. Critical levels are achieved in a fraction of cells by transient transfection with EGFP-tagged C1D expression constructs. However, transfected cells expressing sub-critical levels of C1D(EGFP) escape apoptotic cell death by activation of a proteasome-mediated rescue mechanism. Inhibition of the proteasome-dependent degradation of the C1D(EGFP) protein results in a parallel increase of the intracellular C1D level and in the fraction of apoptotic cells. PMID:12379155

  4. Complement components C1r/C1s, bone morphogenic protein 1 and Xenopus laevis developmentally regulated protein UVS.2 share common repeats.

    PubMed

    Bork, P

    1991-04-22

    Property patterns were constructed, based on an alignment of related domains in human complement subcomponents C1r and C1s as well as in the sea urchin protein uEGF. This kind of consensus pattern was able to identify similar domains in a human bone morphogenic protein, in a Xenopus laevis embryonal protein involved in dorsoanterior development and in a calcium-dependent serine protease secreted from malignant hamster embryo fibroblast cells. Because of the high level of overall sequence homology this protease may be the hamsters' equivalent of the human complement subcomponent C1s. The resulting multiple alignment of all studied domains suggests functionally and structurally important regions.

  5. Effect of reactive site loop elongation on the inhibitory activity of C1-inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Bos, Ineke G A; Lubbers, Yvonne T P; Eldering, Eric; Abrahams, Jan Pieter; Hack, C Erik

    2004-06-01

    The serine protease inhibitor C1-Inhibitor (C1-Inh) inhibits several complement- and contact-system proteases, which play an important role in inflammation. C1-Inh has a short reactive site loop (RSL) compared to other serpins. RSL length determines the inhibitory activity of serpins. We investigated the effect of RSL elongation on inhibitory activity of C1-Inh by insertion of one or two alanine residues in the RSL. One of five mutants had an increased association rate with kallikrein, but was nevertheless a poor inhibitor because of a simultaneous high stoichiometry of inhibition (>10). The association rate of the other variants was lower than that of wild-type C1-Inh. These data suggest that the relatively weak inhibitory activity of C1-Inh is not the result of its short RSL. The short RSL of C1-Inh has, surprisingly, the optimal length for inhibition.

  6. Isolation and characterization of a cyanide dihydratase from Bacillus pumilus C1.

    PubMed Central

    Meyers, P R; Rawlings, D E; Woods, D R; Lindsey, G G

    1993-01-01

    A cyanide-degrading enzyme from Bacillus pumilus C1 has been purified and characterized. This enzyme consisted of three polypeptides of 45.6, 44.6, and 41.2 kDa; the molecular mass by gel filtration was 417 kDa. Electron microscopy revealed a multimeric, rod-shaped protein approximately 9 by 50 nm. Cyanide was rapidly degraded to formate and ammonia. Enzyme activity was optimal at 37 degrees C and pH 7.8 to 8.0. Activity was enhanced by Sc3+, Cr3+, Fe3+, and Tb3+; enhancement was independent of metal ion concentration at concentrations above 5 microM. Reversible enhancement of enzymatic activity by azide was maximal at 4.5 mM azide and increased with time. No activity was recorded with the cyanide substrate analogs CNO-, SCN-, CH3CN, and N3- and the possible degradation intermediate HCONH2. Kinetic studies indicated a Km of 2.56 +/- 0.48 mM for cyanide and a Vmax of 88.03 +/- 4.67 mmol of cyanide per min/mg/liter. The Km increased approximately twofold in the presence of 10 microM Cr3+ to 5.28 +/- 0.38 mM for cyanide, and the Vmax increased to 197.11 +/- 8.51 mmol of cyanide per min/mg/liter. We propose naming this enzyme cyanide dihydratase. Images PMID:8407782

  7. 360-degree Color Panorama

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This is a 'geometrically improved' version of the 360- degree panorama heretofore known as the 'Gallery Pan', the first contiguous, uniform panorama taken by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) over the course of Sols 8, 9, and 10. Different regions were imaged at different times over the three Martian days to acquire consistent lighting and shadow conditions for all areas of the panorama.

    The IMP is a stereo imaging system that, in its fully deployed configuration, stands 1.8 meters above the Martian surface, and has a resolution of two millimeters at a range of two meters. In this geometrically improved version of the panorama, distortion due to a 2.5 degree tilt in the IMP camera mast has been removed, effectively flattening the horizon.

    The IMP has color capability provided by 24 selectable filters -- twelve filters per 'eye'. Its red, green, and blue filters were used to take this image.

    At left is a Lander petal and a metallic mast which is a portion of the low-gain antenna. Misregistration in the antenna and other Lander features is due to parallax in the extreme foreground. On the horizon the double 'Twin Peaks' are visible, about 1-2 kilometers away. The rock 'Couch' is the dark, curved rock at right of Twin Peaks. Another Lander petal is at left-center, showing the fully deployed forward ramp at far left, and rear ramp at right, which rover Sojourner used to descend to the surface of Mars on July 5. Immediately to the left of the rear ramp is the rock 'Barnacle Bill', which scientists found to be andesitic, possibly indicating that it is a volcanic rock (a true andesite) or a physical mixture of particles. Just beyond Barnacle Bill, rover tracks lead to Sojourner, shown using its Alpha Proton X-Ray Spectrometer (APXS) instrument to study the large rock 'Yogi'. Yogi, low in quartz content, appears to be more primitive than Barnacle Bill, and appears more like the common basalts found on Earth.

    The tracks and circular pattern in the soil

  8. CT-based morphometric analysis of C1 laminar dimensions: C1 translaminar screw fixation is a feasible technique for salvage of atlantoaxial fusions

    PubMed Central

    Yew, Andrew; Lu, Derek; Lu, Daniel C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Translaminar screw fixation has become an alternative in the fixation of the axial and subaxial cervical spine. We report utilization of this approach in the atlas as a salvage technique for atlantoaxial stabilization when C1 lateral mass screws are precluded. To assess the feasibility of translaminar fixation at the atlas, we have characterized the dimensions of the C1 lamina in the general adult population using computed tomography (CT)-based morphometry. Methods: A 46-year-old male with symptomatic atlantoaxial instability secondary to os odontoideum underwent bilateral C1 and C2 translaminar screw/rod fixation as C1 lateral mass fixation was precluded by an anomalous vertebral artery. The follow-up evaluation 2½ years postoperatively revealed an asymptomatic patient without recurrent neck/shoulder pain or clinical signs of instability. To better assess the feasibility of utilizing this approach in the general population, we retrospectively analyzed 502 consecutive cervical CT scans performed over a 3-month period in patients aged over 18 years at a single institution. Measurements of C1 bicortical diameter, bilateral laminar length, height, and angulation were performed. Laminar and screw dimensions were compared to assess instrumentation feasibility. Results: Review of CT imaging found that 75.9% of C1 lamina had a sufficient bicortical diameter, and 63.7% of C1 lamina had sufficient height to accept bilateral translaminar screw placement. Conclusions: CT-based measurement of atlas morphology in the general population revealed that a majority of C1 lamina had sufficient dimensions to accept translaminar screw placement. Although these screws appear to be a feasible alternative when lateral mass screws are precluded, further research is required to determine if they provide comparable fixation strength versus traditional instrumentation methods. PMID:26005585

  9. Functional C1-inhibitor diagnostics in hereditary angioedema: assay evaluation and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Wagenaar-Bos, Ineke G A; Drouet, Christian; Aygören-Pursun, Emel; Bork, Konrad; Bucher, Christoph; Bygum, Anette; Farkas, Henriette; Fust, George; Gregorek, Hanna; Hack, C Erik; Hickey, Alaco; Joller-Jemelka, Helen I; Kapusta, Maria; Kreuz, Wolfhart; Longhurst, Hilary; Lopez-Trascasa, Margarita; Madalinski, Kazimierz; Naskalski, Jerzy; Nieuwenhuys, Ed; Ponard, Denise; Truedsson, Lennart; Varga, Lilian; Nielsen, Erik Waage; Wagner, Eric; Zingale, Lorenza; Cicardi, Marco; van Ham, S Marieke

    2008-09-30

    Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is an autosomal dominant disease characterized by recurrent episodes of potentially life-threatening angioedema. The most widespread underlying genetic deficiency is a heterozygous deficiency of the serine protease inhibitor C1 esterase inhibitor (C1-Inh). In addition to low C4 levels, the most important laboratory parameter for correct diagnosis of HAE or angioedema due to acquired C1-Inh deficiency is reduced C1-Inh function (fC1-Inh). No direct recommendations about the assays for fC1-Inh or sample handling conditions are available, although this would prove especially useful when a laboratory first starts to offer assays on fC1-Inh for HAE diagnosis. In the present study we evaluated the performance of fC1-Inh assays in the 15 different laboratories that are specialised in HAE diagnostics and assessed inter-laboratory variation with each laboratory using their own assays and standards. A double-blind survey was conducted using plasma/serum samples from healthy donors and HAE patients and the uniformity of HAE diagnosis was evaluated. It can be concluded that the diagnosis of fC1-Inh deficiency was made correctly in most cases in this survey. We can recommend the chromogenic assay for the determination of fC1-Inh, while the complex ELISA needs further investigation.

  10. Gonococcal infection in a nonhuman host is determined by human complement C1q.

    PubMed

    Nowicki, S; Martens, M G; Nowicki, B J

    1995-12-01

    Human C1q displayed a dose-dependent protection of gonococcal cells (GC) from the bactericidal effect of newborn rat serum. All rat pups injected with C1q-preincubated GC developed bacteremia, while none of the animals injected with GC only were infected. After clearance of bacteremia at day 6, live GC could still be recovered from tested organs, including the liver. Preincubation of GC with higher concentrations of C1q was associated with increased morbidity. In contrast to human serum as a source of C1q, rat, rabbit, and mouse sera did not increase the in vivo virulence of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. C1q-deficient human serum, heat-inactivated C1q or human serum, type IV collagen, and complement C3 were inefficient in inducing infection. Experimental infection by C1q-preincubated GC was inhibited by anti-C1q antibodies in a dose-dependent fashion, demonstrating a causal effect of C1q function. This report demonstrates the novel finding that human C1q, a component of the human immune system with a general function for elimination of infection, may increase GC virulence and result in the development of disseminated infection in a nonhuman host.

  11. Gonococcal infection in a nonhuman host is determined by human complement C1q.

    PubMed Central

    Nowicki, S; Martens, M G; Nowicki, B J

    1995-01-01

    Human C1q displayed a dose-dependent protection of gonococcal cells (GC) from the bactericidal effect of newborn rat serum. All rat pups injected with C1q-preincubated GC developed bacteremia, while none of the animals injected with GC only were infected. After clearance of bacteremia at day 6, live GC could still be recovered from tested organs, including the liver. Preincubation of GC with higher concentrations of C1q was associated with increased morbidity. In contrast to human serum as a source of C1q, rat, rabbit, and mouse sera did not increase the in vivo virulence of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. C1q-deficient human serum, heat-inactivated C1q or human serum, type IV collagen, and complement C3 were inefficient in inducing infection. Experimental infection by C1q-preincubated GC was inhibited by anti-C1q antibodies in a dose-dependent fashion, demonstrating a causal effect of C1q function. This report demonstrates the novel finding that human C1q, a component of the human immune system with a general function for elimination of infection, may increase GC virulence and result in the development of disseminated infection in a nonhuman host. PMID:7591137

  12. Cleavage of the second component of complement by plasma proteases: implications in hereditary C1-inhibitor deficiency.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, M A; Kerr, M A

    1985-01-01

    EDTA plasma from patients with hereditary angioedema (HAE), the genetic deficiency of C1-inhibitor, when incubated at 37 degrees produces a kinin-like activity which can induce contraction of oestrus rat uterus. The second component of complement (C2) has previously been suggested to be the source of this kinin-like activity, with the implication that C2-kinin is a normal product of complement activation. Our results show that purified human C2 is cleaved rapidly to C2a and C2b when added to HAE plasma, but not normal plasma or plasma from a danazol-treated HAE patient. However, the addition to HAE plasma of C2 at 20 X normal plasma concentration had no effect on the kinin activity generated on incubation at 37 degrees. In the presence of soya bean trypsin inhibitor, the rate of C2 cleavage and products were unaltered but no kinin activity was generated. C2 was cleaved by purified C1s to C2a and C2b. Incubation of C2 with trypsin resulted in cleavage to C2a and C2b followed by more extensive cleavage of both C2a and C2b. Kallikrein cleaved C2 to C2a and C2b but plasmin had no effect on C2. In no case was kinin activity generated. When C2 was cleaved by C1s to C2a and C2b then incubated with trypsin, kallikrein, or plasmin, no kinin activity was generated: only trypsin cleaved the C2 fragments further. The results suggest that C2 is not the source of the kinin-like activity generated in hereditary angioedema plasma. Images Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:2934317

  13. The importance of polarizability: comparison of models of carbon disulphide in the ionic liquids [C1C1im][NTf2] and [C4C1im][NTf2].

    PubMed

    Lynden-Bell, Ruth M; Quitevis, Edward L

    2016-06-28

    The local environment of CS2 and in solution in two ionic liquids ([C1C1im][NTf2] and [C4C1im][NTf2]) are investigated by atomistic simulation and compared with that in neat CS2. The intermolecular vibrational densities of states of CS2 are calculated and compared with experimental OHD-RIKES spectra. The fair agreement of the results from solutions but poor agreement of the results from neat CS2 suggest that while collective effects are unimportant in solutions, they have a major effect on the OHD-RIKES spectrum of neat CS2. Comparing polarizable and unpolarizable models for CS2 emphasizes the importance of polarizability in determining local structure.

  14. Strong absorption by interstellar hydrogen fluoride: Herschel/HIFI observations of the sight-line to G10.6-0.4 (W31C)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neufeld, D. A.; Sonnentrucker, P.; Phillips, T. G.; Lis, D. C.; de Luca, M.; Goicoechea, J. R.; Black, J. H.; Gerin, M.; Bell, T.; Boulanger, F.; Cernicharo, J.; Coutens, A.; Dartois, E.; Kazmierczak, M.; Encrenaz, P.; Falgarone, E.; Geballe, T. R.; Giesen, T.; Godard, B.; Goldsmith, P. F.; Gry, C.; Gupta, H.; Hennebelle, P.; Herbst, E.; Hily-Blant, P.; Joblin, C.; Kołos, R.; Krełowski, J.; Martín-Pintado, J.; Menten, K. M.; Monje, R.; Mookerjea, B.; Pearson, J.; Perault, M.; Persson, C.; Plume, R.; Salez, M.; Schlemmer, S.; Schmidt, M.; Stutzki, J.; Teyssier, D.; Vastel, C.; Yu, S.; Cais, P.; Caux, E.; Liseau, R.; Morris, P.; Planesas, P.

    2010-07-01

    We report the detection of strong absorption by interstellar hydrogen fluoride along the sight-line to the submillimeter continuum source G10.6-0.4 (W31C). We have used Herschel's HIFI instrument, in dual beam switch mode, to observe the 1232.4763 GHz J = 1-0 HF transition in the upper sideband of the Band 5a receiver. The resultant spectrum shows weak HF emission from G10.6-0.4 at LSR velocities in the range -10 to -3 km s-1, accompanied by strong absorption by foreground material at LSR velocities in the range 15 to 50 km s-1. The spectrum is similar to that of the 1113.3430 GHz 111-000 transition of para-water, although at some frequencies the HF (hydrogen fluoride) optical depth clearly exceeds that of para-H2O. The optically-thick HF absorption that we have observed places a conservative lower limit of 1.6×1014 cm-2 on the HF column density along the sight-line to G10.6-0.4. Our lower limit on the HF abundance, 6×10-9 relative to hydrogen nuclei, implies that hydrogen fluoride accounts for between ~30% and 100% of the fluorine nuclei in the gas phase along this sight-line. This observation corroborates theoretical predictions that - because the unique thermochemistry of fluorine permits the exothermic reaction of F atoms with molecular hydrogen - HF will be the dominant reservoir of interstellar fluorine under a wide range of conditions. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  15. C1q Differentially Modulates Phagocytosis and Cytokine Responses during Ingestion of Apoptotic Cells by Human Monocytes, Macrophages, and Dendritic Cells1

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, Deborah A.; Laust, Amanda K.; Nelson, Edward L.; Tenner, Andrea J.

    2010-01-01

    C1q, the first component of the classical complement pathway, is also a pattern recognition receptor involved in the recognition and clearance of apoptotic cells. C1q deficiency in humans leads to development of lupus-like autoimmune disease, and it has been speculated that impaired clearance of apoptotic cells may contribute to disease development. Since phagocytes initiate specific and appropriate immune responses as a result of initial ligand-receptor interactions, regulation of gene expression by C1q may also contribute to the sculpting of an immune response to the ingested “self-Ags.” In this study, the role of C1q in apoptotic cell clearance and subsequent modulation of cytokine release by phagocytes was assessed including donor matched human monocytes, monocyte-derived macrophages (HMDMs), and dendritic cells (DCs). First, C1q binding is much greater to late compared with early apoptotic cells. Second, C1q binding to apoptotic cells significantly enhanced the levels of ingestion by monocytes but had no effect on HMDM and DC uptake. Third, in the presence of serum, C1q bound to apoptotic cells, activated the complement pathway, leading to C3b deposition, and enhancement of uptake of apoptotic cells by monocytes, HMDMs, and DCs. Finally, although C1q, either immobilized on a plate or bound to apoptotic cells, modulates the LPS-induced cytokine levels released by human monocytes, HMDMs, and DCs toward a more limited immune response, both the degree and direction of modulation differed significantly depending on the differentiation state of the phagocyte, providing further evidence of the integration of these cell- and environment-specific signals in determining appropriate immune responses. PMID:19864605

  16. The Master's Degree. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glazer, Judith S.

    The master's degree is reviewed in terms of its current status and rate of conferral, its diversity, standards, and the dominant program models. Changes in the patterns of master's degrees conferred, by discipline, are examined, and problems associated with the proliferation of degrees are noted. Diversity in curricular models is cited as a source…

  17. Foundation Degrees: A Risky Business?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowley, Jennifer

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Foundation degrees, the new proposal for sub-degree vocational education in the UK, are characterised by innovation both in their design (curriculum, teaching, learning and assessment) and in the marketplace for which they are designed. This article argues that the development and delivery of foundation degrees carry a high level of risk,…

  18. Students' Perceptions of Foundation Degrees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ooms, A.; Burke, L. M.; Marks-Maran, D. J.; Webb, M.; Cooper, D.

    2012-01-01

    In 2008 there were 87,339 people enrolled on foundation degrees (FDs) in the UK (Foundation Degree Forward, 2009), and educational institutions in the UK offered 1700 different foundation degrees in over 25 subjects, with nearly 900 more in development (Action on Access, 2010). In addition, student views are seen to be of importance, as…

  19. Engineering and Technology Degrees, 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engineers Joint Council, New York, NY. Engineering Manpower Commission.

    This report gives the number of engineering and technology degrees for the school year ending in June 1974. Tables appear in the following order: engineering degrees (bachelor's, master's, engineer's, doctor's) and technology degrees (associate, bachelor's, certificate, master's). The engineering tables include all 284 schools known to offer…

  20. C1 inhibitor hinge region mutations produce dysfunction by different mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Davis, A E; Aulak, K; Parad, R B; Stecklein, H P; Eldering, E; Hack, C E; Kramer, J; Strunk, R C; Bissler, J; Rosen, F S

    1992-08-01

    Heterozygosity for a mutant dysfunctional C1 inhibitor protein, a member of the serine proteinase inhibitor (serpin) superfamily, results in type II hereditary angioneurotic oedema. We identified a "hinge" region mutation in C1 inhibitor with a Val to Glu replacement at P14 Val-432. Recombinant C1 inhibitors P10 Ala-->Thr and P14Val-->Glu did not form stable complexes with fluid phase C1s or kallikrein. The P14 Val-->Glu mutant, however, was cleaved to a 96K form by C1s, while the P10 Ala-->Thr mutant was not. The recombinant P10 mutant also did not complex with C1s, kallikrein or beta-factor Xlla-Sepharose. The two mutations, therefore, result in dysfunction by different mechanisms: in one (P14 Val-->Glu), the inhibitor is converted to a substrate, while in the other (P10 Ala-->Thr), interaction with target protease is blocked.

  1. C1 inhibitor treatment improves host defense in pneumococcal meningitis in rats and mice.

    PubMed

    Zwijnenburg, Petra J G; van der Poll, Tom; Florquin, Sandrine; Polfliet, Machteld M J; van den Berg, Timo K; Dijkstra, Christine D; Roord, John J; Hack, C Erik; van Furth, A Marceline

    2007-07-01

    In spite of antibiotic treatment, pneumococcal meningitis continues to be associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The complement system is a key component of innate immunity against invading pathogens. However, activation of complement is also involved in tissue damage, and complement inhibition by C1 inhibitor (C1-inh) is beneficial in animal models of endotoxemia and sepsis. In the present study, we demonstrate classical pathway complement activation during pneumococcal meningitis in rats. We also evaluate the effect of C1-inh treatment on clinical illness, bacterial clearance, and inflammatory responses in rats and mice with pneumococcal meningitis. C1-inh treatment was associated with reduced clinical illness, a less-pronounced inflammatory infiltrate around the meninges, and lower brain levels of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines. C1-inh treatment increased bacterial clearance, possibly through an up-regulation of CR3. Hence, C1-inh may be a useful agent in the treatment of pneumococcal meningitis.

  2. New insight into the effects of heparinoids on complement inhibition by C1-inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Poppelaars, F; Damman, J; de Vrij, E L; Burgerhof, J G M; Saye, J; Daha, M R; Leuvenink, H G; Uknis, M E; Seelen, M A J

    2016-06-01

    Complement activation is of major importance in numerous pathological conditions. Therefore, targeted complement inhibition is a promising therapeutic strategy. C1-esterase inhibitor (C1-INH) controls activation of the classical pathway (CP) and the lectin pathway (LP). However, conflicting data exist on inhibition of the alternative pathway (AP) by C1-INH. The inhibitory capacity of C1-INH for the CP is potentiated by heparin and other glycosaminoglycans, but no data exist for the LP and AP. The current study investigates the effects of C1-INH in the presence or absence of different clinically used heparinoids on the CP, LP and AP. Furthermore, the combined effects of heparinoids and C1-INH on coagulation were investigated. C1-INH, heparinoids or combinations were analysed in a dose-dependent fashion in the presence of pooled serum. Functional complement activities were measured simultaneously using the Wielisa(®) -kit. The activated partial thrombin time was determined using an automated coagulation analyser. The results showed that all three complement pathways were inhibited significantly by C1-INH or heparinoids. Next to their individual effects on complement activation, heparinoids also enhanced the inhibitory capacity of C1-INH significantly on the CP and LP. For the AP, significant potentiation of C1-INH by heparinoids was found; however, this was restricted to certain concentration ranges. At low concentrations the effect on blood coagulation by combining heparinoids with C1-INH was minimal. In conclusion, our study shows significant potentiating effects of heparinoids on the inhibition of all complement pathways by C1-INH. Therefore, their combined use is a promising and a potentially cost-effective treatment option for complement-mediated diseases.

  3. Home treatment of attacks with conestat alfa in hereditary angioedema due to C1-inhibitor deficiency.

    PubMed

    Farkas, Henriette; Csuka, Dorottya; Veszeli, Nóra; Zotter, Zsuzsanna; Szabó, Erika; Varga, Lilian

    2014-01-01

    Conestat alfa, a recombinant human C1 inhibitor (rhC1-INH) is a novel therapeutic option for the acute treatment of hereditary angioedema due to C1-INH (HAE-C1-INH) deficiency. Our aim was to investigate the efficacy and safety profile of conestat alfa in patients with HAE-C1-INH, under real-life conditions. We analyzed 65 edematous episodes requiring acute treatment and occurring in two female HAE-C1-INH patients. The patients were treated at home with rhC1-INH per occasion. They recorded the time of rhC1-INH administration, the time to the onset of improvement, and time to the complete resolution of symptoms, as well as the side effects. Symptom severity and patient satisfaction were measured with a visual analog scale (VAS). Thirty-three HAE attacks occurred in submucosal tissue, 17 in subcutaneous tissue, and 15 had mixed locations. After the administration of rhC1-INH, clinical symptoms improved within 0.50 (0.17-4.50 hours) hours and resolved completely within 9.00 (1.67-58.75 hours) hours. The time between the onset of the attack and the administration of rhC1-INH was correlated with the time when the symptoms stopped worsening (R = 0.3212; p = 0.0096) and the time to complete resolution of the symptoms (R = 0.4774; p < 0.0001). The time to response to the drug differed with attack location. The efficacy and safety of rhC1-INH persisted after repeated use. None of the patients experienced a recurrence of the HAE attack or drug-related systemic adverse events. The mean VAS score of patient satisfaction was 93.14. Home treatment with rhC1-INH was an effective and well-tolerated therapy for all types of HAE attacks.

  4. C1-esterase inhibitor treatment: preclinical safety aspects on the potential prothrombotic risk.

    PubMed

    Schürmann, Daniel; Herzog, Eva; Raquet, Elmar; Nolte, Marc W; May, Frauke; Müller-Cohrs, Jochen; Björkqvist, Jenny; Dickneite, Gerhard; Pragst, Ingo

    2014-11-01

    Human plasma-derived C1-esterase inhibitor (C1-INH) is an efficacious and safe treatment for hereditary angioedema. However, thrombotic events in subjects treated with C1-INH at recommended or off-label, high doses have been reported. In this study, we addressed the potential prothrombotic risk of C1-INH treatment in high doses using a non-clinical rabbit model. Following intravenous infusion of C1-INH to rabbits at doses up to 800 IU/kg, the exposure and the pharmacodynamic efficacy of C1-INH in rabbits were confirmed by activity measurements of C1-esterase, and coagulation factors XIa and XIIa, respectively. Potential prothrombotic effects were assessed following induction of venous and arterial thrombosis using in vivo models of venous and arterial stasis, complemented by various in vitro assays of coagulation markers. Administration of C1-INH at doses up to 800 IU/kg did not potentiate thrombus formation during venous stasis. In contrast, inhibition of arterial occlusion was observed upon C1-INH administration when compared with isotonic saline treatment, indicating antithrombotic rather than prothrombotic activity of high dose C1-INH treatment in vivo. This was further confirmed in vitro by decreased thrombin generation, increased activated partial thromboplastin time, clotting time and clot formation time, and inhibition of platelet aggregation. No relevant changes in fibrinolysis or in the levels of thrombin-antithrombin complexes, and prothrombin fragment 1+2 were observed upon high dose C1-INH treatment. The data suggest that treatment of healthy rabbits with high doses of C1-INH could potentially inhibit coagulation and thrombus formation rather than induce a prothrombotic risk.

  5. Recombinant human C1 esterase inhibitor in the management of hereditary angioedema.

    PubMed

    Riedl, Marc

    2015-07-01

    Hereditary angioedema (HAE), a rare autosomal dominant genetic disorder, is caused by a deficiency in functional C1 esterase inhibitor (C1-INH). This potentially life-threatening condition manifests as recurrent attacks of subcutaneous and submucosal swelling of the skin, gastrointestinal tract and larynx. The management of HAE includes treatment of acute episodes, short-term prophylaxis in preparation for exposure to known triggers and long-term prophylaxis to decrease the incidence and severity of HAE attacks. Four products are approved in the USA for the treatment of acute attacks of HAE, including one human plasma-derived C1-INH therapy, a recombinant human C1-INH product (rhC1-INH), a plasma kallikrein inhibitor and a bradykinin B2 receptor antagonist. In addition, one human plasma-derived C1-INH therapy and danazol are approved for prophylaxis of HAE attacks. rhC1-INH, extracted from the milk of transgenic rabbits, is a glycoprotein of 478 amino acids with an identical amino acid sequence to the endogenous human C1-INH protein. Population pharmacokinetic analysis of rhC1-INH supports an intravenous dosing strategy of 50 U/kg (maximum 4200 U). The safety and efficacy of rhC1-INH in the treatment of acute attacks in patients with HAE were demonstrated in three randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies and two open-label extension studies. In a pilot prophylaxis study, weekly administration of rhC1-INH 50 U/kg for 8 weeks reduced the incidence of HAE attacks and was well tolerated. Administration of rhC1-INH has not been associated with the development of anti-drug antibodies or antibodies to anti-host-related impurities.

  6. New insight into the effects of heparinoids on complement inhibition by C1-inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Poppelaars, F; Damman, J; de Vrij, E L; Burgerhof, J G M; Saye, J; Daha, M R; Leuvenink, H G; Uknis, M E; Seelen, M A J

    2016-06-01

    Complement activation is of major importance in numerous pathological conditions. Therefore, targeted complement inhibition is a promising therapeutic strategy. C1-esterase inhibitor (C1-INH) controls activation of the classical pathway (CP) and the lectin pathway (LP). However, conflicting data exist on inhibition of the alternative pathway (AP) by C1-INH. The inhibitory capacity of C1-INH for the CP is potentiated by heparin and other glycosaminoglycans, but no data exist for the LP and AP. The current study investigates the effects of C1-INH in the presence or absence of different clinically used heparinoids on the CP, LP and AP. Furthermore, the combined effects of heparinoids and C1-INH on coagulation were investigated. C1-INH, heparinoids or combinations were analysed in a dose-dependent fashion in the presence of pooled serum. Functional complement activities were measured simultaneously using the Wielisa(®) -kit. The activated partial thrombin time was determined using an automated coagulation analyser. The results showed that all three complement pathways were inhibited significantly by C1-INH or heparinoids. Next to their individual effects on complement activation, heparinoids also enhanced the inhibitory capacity of C1-INH significantly on the CP and LP. For the AP, significant potentiation of C1-INH by heparinoids was found; however, this was restricted to certain concentration ranges. At low concentrations the effect on blood coagulation by combining heparinoids with C1-INH was minimal. In conclusion, our study shows significant potentiating effects of heparinoids on the inhibition of all complement pathways by C1-INH. Therefore, their combined use is a promising and a potentially cost-effective treatment option for complement-mediated diseases. PMID:26874675

  7. Acquired C1 esterase inhibitor deficiency in lymphomas: prevalence, symptoms, and response to treatment.

    PubMed

    Bekos, Christine; Perkmann, Thomas; Krauth, Maria; Raderer, Markus; Lechner, Klaus; Jaeger, Ulrich

    2016-09-01

    We retrospectively studied the prevalence of C1 esterase inhibitor (C1 INH) deficiency in 131 patients with various lymphomas. We determined C1 INH activity, C1 INH antigen, and C4 concentration at diagnosis and after chemotherapy. In follicular lymphoma (FL), diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) consecutive patients were studied. In these entities, the prevalence of C1 INH deficiency was 10.2% in DLBCL, 4.1% in CLL, and 0% in FL and Hodgkin lymphoma. In indolent lymphomas, we identified only single cases of C1 INH deficiency, predominantly in splenic marginal zone lymphomas (SMZL) (four cases). Only three patients were symptomatic while the majority (11 cases) was asymptomatic. In DLBCL patients who were successfully treated with chemotherapy, complete normalization of C1 INH activity and C4 was observed. In contrast, C1 INH deficiency remained in SMZL patients after splenectomy. We conclude that C1 INH deficiency in lymphomas is frequently asymptomatic and responsive to immunochemotherapy.

  8. Treatment of hereditary angioedema with plasma-derived C1 inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Prematta, Michael J; Prematta, Tracy; Craig, Timothy J

    2008-01-01

    Background: Plasma-derived C1 inhibitor (C1-INH) concentrate is a treatment option for acute hereditary angioedema (HAE) attacks and is considered the standard-of-care in many countries, although it is not yet available in the United States. Studies are still being conducted to establish its safety and efficacy as required by the FDA. Objective: To review the medical literature to determine if C1-INH concentrate is a safe and effective treatment for acute HAE attacks. Methods: The following keywords were searched in PubMed and OVID: C1 esterase inhibitor, C1-inhibitor, C1 inhibitor, and hereditary angioedema treatment. English-language articles were searched from 1966 to the present to look for studies demonstrating the efficacy and the safety of C1-INH concentrate. Results: The English-language literature search revealed several studies showing significantly improved relief of HAE symptoms with the administration of C1-INH concentrate – many studies demonstrated some improvement of symptoms within 30 minutes. Side effects have been similar to placebo, and no proven cases of viral transmission have occurred in over 20 years. Conclusion: C1-INH concentrate appears to be a very safe and effective treatment option for HAE. PMID:19209279

  9. Contact system activation in patients with HAE and normal C1 inhibitor function.

    PubMed

    Ghannam, Arije; Defendi, Federica; Charignon, Delphine; Csopaki, Françoise; Favier, Bertrand; Habib, Mohammed; Cichon, Sven; Drouet, Christian

    2013-11-01

    In addition to hereditary angioedema (HAE) with C1 inhibitor (C1INH) deficiency, a type of HAE with dominant inheritance and normal C1INH function (HAE with normal C1INH) has been described. This relates to contact phase activation with exaggerated kinin formation, and mutations in the coagulation factor XII gene have been identified in some affected families, but the cause of the disease has remained elusive in a majority of families. Several triggering factors are responsible for developing kinin forming system, with participation of endothelium and mast cell component. Angioedema conditions meet the accumulation of kinins with failed kinin catabolism. PMID:24176216

  10. Degree distributions of growing networks.

    PubMed

    Krapivsky, P L; Rodgers, G J; Redner, S

    2001-06-01

    The in-degree and out-degree distributions of a growing network model are determined. The in-degree is the number of incoming links to a given node (and vice versa for out-degree). The network is built by (i) creation of new nodes which each immediately attach to a preexisting node, and (ii) creation of new links between preexisting nodes. This process naturally generates correlated in-degree and out-degree distributions. When the node and link creation rates are linear functions of node degree, these distributions exhibit distinct power-law forms. By tuning the parameters in these rates to reasonable values, exponents which agree with those of the web graph are obtained.

  11. Percolation transition in networks with degree-degree correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noh, Jae Dong

    2007-08-01

    We introduce an exponential random graph model for networks with a fixed degree distribution and a tunable degree-degree correlation. We then investigate the nature of the percolation transition in a correlated network with a Poisson degree distribution. It is found that negative correlation is irrelevant in that the percolation transition in the disassortative network belongs to the same universality class as in the uncorrelated network. Positive correlation turns out to be relevant. The percolation transition in the assortative network is characterized by the nondiverging mean size of finite clusters and power-law scalings of the density of the largest cluster and the cluster size distribution in the nonpercolating phase as well as at the critical point. Our results suggest that the unusual type of percolation transition in the growing network models reported recently may be inherited from the assortative degree-degree correlation.

  12. Graduate Physics Degrees: Largest Departments and Degree Distribution. Focus On

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulvey, Patrick J.; Nicholson, Starr

    2014-01-01

    In the 2011-12 academic year there were 751 degree-granting physics departments in the U.S. Of these, 195 offered a PhD and 62 departments offered a master's as the highest physics degree. The remaining 494 departments offered a bachelor's as their highest physics degree. There were six universities that had two doctoral-granting physics…

  13. The thrombogenicity of C1 esterase inhibitor (human): review of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Crowther, Mark; Bauer, Kenneth A; Kaplan, Allen P

    2014-01-01

    Thromboembolic events associated with human plasma-derived C1 esterase inhibitor (C1-INH) use in patients with hereditary angioedema (HAE) have been reported in the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Adverse Event Reporting System database. The purpose of this article is to review and assess the strength of available evidence regarding the thrombogenicity of human plasma-derived C1-INH. A PubMed search was conducted of English language articles from January 1990 to December 2013 reporting the thrombogenicity of C1-INH. Original research articles were selected if the following criteria were met: (1) C1-INH was the focus of the study and (2) the authors addressed the pro- or antithrombotic potential of C1-INH. Additional articles on the clinical use of C1-INH in disease states other than HAE were obtained using reference lists of selected articles. Pivotal studies and prescribing information for C1-INH products were also reviewed. Limited animal and clinical data suggest that C1-INH, particularly at high doses of up to 500 U/kg (compared with the U.S. FDA-approved 20-U/kg dose), may be prothrombotic. In contrast, C1-INH has been used in some patients with myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, sepsis, and capillary leak syndrome at off-label supratherapeutic doses (up to 100 U/kg) without evidence of a thrombogenic effect. Based on our review, thromboembolic events reported with C1-INH use are rare and patients with HAE who experienced such events often have underlying thromboembolic risk factors.

  14. Functional C1q is present in the skin mucus of Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii).

    PubMed

    Fan, Chunxin; Wang, Jian; Zhang, Xuguang; Song, Jiakun

    2015-01-01

    The skin mucus of fish acts as the first line of self-protection against pathogens in the aquatic environment and comprises a number of innate immune components. However, the presence of the critical classical complement component C1q, which links the innate and adaptive immune systems of mammalians, has not been explored in a primitive actinopterygian fish. In this study, we report that C1q is present in the skin mucus of the Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii). The skin mucus was able to inhibit the growth of Escherichia coli. The bacteriostatic activity of the skin mucus was reduced by heating and by pre-incubation with EDTA or mouse anti-human C1q antibody. We also detected C1q protein in skin mucus using the western blot procedure and isolated a cDNA that encodes the Siberian sturgeon C1qC, which had 44.7-51.4% identity with C1qCs in teleosts and tetrapods. A phylogenetic analysis revealed that Siberian sturgeon C1qC lies at the root of the actinopterygian branch and is separate from the tetrapod branch. The C1qC transcript was expressed in many tissues as well as in skin. Our data indicate that C1q is present in the skin mucus of the Siberian sturgeon to protect against water-borne bacteria, and the C1qC found in the sturgeon may represent the primitive form of teleost and tetrapod C1qCs.

  15. The C1q Family of Proteins: Insights into the Emerging Non-Traditional Functions

    PubMed Central

    Ghebrehiwet, Berhane; Hosszu, Kinga K.; Valentino, Alisa; Peerschke, Ellinor I. B.

    2012-01-01

    Research conducted over the past 20 years have helped us unravel not only the hidden structural and functional subtleties of human C1q, but also has catapulted the molecule from a mere recognition unit of the classical pathway to a well-recognized molecular sensor of damage-modified self or non-self antigens. Thus, C1q is involved in a rapidly expanding list of pathological disorders – including autoimmunity, trophoblast migration, preeclampsia, and cancer. The results of two recent reports are provided to underscore the critical role C1q plays in health and disease. First is the observation by Singh et al. (2011) showing that pregnant C1q−/− mice recapitulate the key features of human preeclampsia that correlate with increased fetal death. Treatment of the C1q−/− mice with pravastatin restored trophoblast invasiveness, placental blood flow, and angiogenic balance and, thus, prevented the onset of preeclampsia. Second is the report by Hong et al. (2009) which showed that C1q can induce apoptosis of prostate cancer cells by activating the tumor suppressor molecule WW-domain containing oxydoreductase (WWOX or WOX1) and destabilizing cell adhesion. Downregulation of C1q on the other hand, enhanced prostate hyperplasia and cancer formation due to failure of WOX1 activation. C1q belongs to a family of structurally and functionally related TNF-α-like family of proteins that may have arisen from a common ancestral gene. Therefore C1q not only shares the diverse functions with the tumor necrosis factor family of proteins, but also explains why C1q has retained some of its ancestral “cytokine-like” activities. This review is intended to highlight some of the structural and functional aspects of C1q by underscoring the growing list of its non-traditional functions. PMID:22536204

  16. Niemann-Pick C1 Is Essential for Ebolavirus Replication and Pathogenesis In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Herbert, Andrew S.; Davidson, Cristin; Kuehne, Ana I.; Bakken, Russell; Braigen, Stephen Z.; Gunn, Kathryn E.; Whelan, Sean P.; Brummelkamp, Thijn R.; Twenhafel, Nancy A.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Recent work demonstrated that the Niemann-Pick C1 (NPC1) protein is an essential entry receptor for filoviruses. While previous studies focused on filovirus entry requirements of NPC1 in vitro, its roles in filovirus replication and pathogenesis in vivo remain unclear. Here, we evaluated the importance of NPC1, and its partner in cholesterol transport, NPC2, by using a mouse model of Ebolavirus (EBOV) disease. We found that, whereas wild-type mice had high viral loads and succumbed to EBOV infection, Npc1−/− mice were entirely free of viral replication and completely protected from EBOV disease. Interestingly, Npc1+/− mice transiently developed high levels of viremia, but were nevertheless substantially protected from EBOV challenge. We also found Npc2−/− mice to be fully susceptible to EBOV infection, while Npc1−/− mice treated to deplete stored lysosomal cholesterol remained completely resistant to EBOV infection. These results provide mechanistic evidence that NPC1 is directly required for EBOV infection in vivo, with little or no role for NPC1/NPC2-dependent cholesterol transport. Finally, we assessed the in vivo antiviral efficacies of three compounds known to inhibit NPC1 function or NPC1-glycoprotein binding in vitro. Two compounds reduced viral titers in vivo and provided a modest, albeit not statistically significant, degree of protection. Taken together, our results show that NPC1 is critical for replication and pathogenesis in animals and is a bona fide target for development of antifilovirus therapeutics. Additionally, our findings with Npc1+/− mice raise the possibility that individuals heterozygous for NPC1 may have a survival advantage in the face of EBOV infection. PMID:26015498

  17. Aeroelastic Tests of an Eight Percent Scale Saturn C-1 Block II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    Aeroelastic Tests of an Eight Percent Scale Saturn C-1 Block II. Buffet and flutter characteristics of Saturn Apollo mission were studied using a dynamically scaled model. The model was built around a central aluminum tube for scaled stiffness distribution and strength to resist loads imposed during testing. Styrofoam sections attached to the core provided the correct external contours. Lead weights were added for correct mass distribution. An electromagnetic shaker was used to excite the model in its flexible modes of vibration during portions of the test. The model was supported on a sting, mounted by leaf springs, cables and torsion bars. The support system provided for simulating the full scale rigid body pitch frequency with minimum restraint imposed on elastic deflections. Bending moments recorded by sensors on the aluminum tube. Several modified nose configurations were tested: The basic configuration was tested with and without a flow separator disk on the escape rocket motor, tests also were made with the escape tower and rocket motor removed completely. For the final test, the Apollo capsule was replaced with a Jupiter nose cone. The test program consisted of determining model response throughout the transonic speed range at angles of attack up to 6 degrees and measuring the aerodynamic damping over the same range for the basic model and the modified configurations. Signals from the model pickup were recorded on tape for later analysis. The data obtained were used to estimate bending moments that would be produced on the full-scale vehicle by aerodynamic forces due to buffeting. [Entire movie available on DVD from CASI as Doc ID 20070030987. Contact help@sti.nasa.gov

  18. Biosynthesis of normal and low-molecular-mass complement component C1q by cultured human monocytes and macrophages.

    PubMed

    Hoekzema, R; Brouwer, M C; de Graeff-Meeder, E R; van Helden, H P; Hack, C E

    1989-01-15

    High levels of low-molecular-mass complement component C1q (LMM-C1q), a haemolytically inactive form of C1q, are found in serum of individuals with inherited complete (functional) C1q deficiency and in serum of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, whereas lower levels are present in normal serum [Hoekzema, Hannema, Swaak, Paardekooper & Hack (1985) J. Immunol. 135, 265-271]. To investigate whether LMM-C1q is a (by-)product of C1q synthesis or the result of degradation of C1q, cultures of blood monocytes and of alveolar macrophages, which secrete functional C1q, were studied. A considerable portion of C1q-like protein secreted by these cells was found to be LMM-C1q. In contrast with the C1q fragments that resulted from degradation of normal C1q during phagocytosis, culture-derived LMM-C1q appeared to be identical with LMM-C1q found in serum, as judged by sedimentation behaviour, subunit structure and recognition by poly- and mono-clonal antibodies raised against C1q. The presence of LMM-C1q in cytoplasmic organelles compatible with the Golgi apparatus and the inability to generate LMM-C1q by impeding hydroxylation and triple-helix formation of C1q further argues against degradation as its source. Monocyte cultures of homozygous probands from two families with complete functional C1q deficiency reflected the abnormalities in serum, i.e. absence of functional C1q, but increased levels of LMM-C1q. By contrast, secretion of C1q and LMM-C1q by cells from healthy individuals was clearly co-ordinate, indicating that LMM-C1q in serum may provide a unique marker of C1q synthesis in vivo.

  19. 26 CFR 31.3306(c)(1)-1 - Agricultural labor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Agricultural labor. 31.3306(c)(1)-1 Section 31.3306(c)(1)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED... SOURCE Federal Unemployment Tax Act (Chapter 23, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) §...

  20. 26 CFR 31.3306(c)(1)-1 - Agricultural labor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Agricultural labor. 31.3306(c)(1)-1 Section 31.3306(c)(1)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED... SOURCE Federal Unemployment Tax Act (Chapter 23, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) §...

  1. 17 CFR 240.15c1-9 - Use of pro forma balance sheets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Use of pro forma balance sheets. 240.15c1-9 Section 240.15c1-9 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE... pro forma balance sheets. The term manipulative, deceptive, or other fraudulent device or...

  2. 17 CFR 240.15c1-9 - Use of pro forma balance sheets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of pro forma balance sheets. 240.15c1-9 Section 240.15c1-9 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE... pro forma balance sheets. The term manipulative, deceptive, or other fraudulent device or...

  3. 17 CFR 240.15c1-9 - Use of pro forma balance sheets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Use of pro forma balance sheets. 240.15c1-9 Section 240.15c1-9 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE... pro forma balance sheets. The term manipulative, deceptive, or other fraudulent device or...

  4. 17 CFR 240.15c1-9 - Use of pro forma balance sheets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Use of pro forma balance sheets. 240.15c1-9 Section 240.15c1-9 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE... pro forma balance sheets. The term manipulative, deceptive, or other fraudulent device or...

  5. 17 CFR 240.15c1-9 - Use of pro forma balance sheets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Use of pro forma balance sheets. 240.15c1-9 Section 240.15c1-9 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE... pro forma balance sheets. The term manipulative, deceptive, or other fraudulent device or...

  6. Hawking’s singularity theorem for C1,1-metrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunzinger, Michael; Steinbauer, Roland; Stojković, Milena; Vickers, James A.

    2015-04-01

    We provide a detailed proof of Hawking’s singularity theorem in the regularity class {{C}1,1}, i.e., for spacetime metrics possessing locally Lipschitz continuous first derivatives. The proof uses recent results in {{C}1,1}-causality theory and is based on regularisation techniques adapted to the causal structure.

  7. Generalized van der Waals Hamiltonian: periodic orbits and C1 nonintegrability.

    PubMed

    Guirao, Juan L G; Llibre, Jaume; Vera, Juan A

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this paper is to study the periodic orbits of the generalized van der Waals Hamiltonian system. The tool for studying such periodic orbits is the averaging theory. Moreover, for this Hamiltonian system we provide information on its C(1) nonintegrability, i.e., on the existence of a second first integral of class C(1).

  8. Direct binding of C1q to apoptotic cells and cell blebs induces complement activation.

    PubMed

    Nauta, Alma J; Trouw, Leendert A; Daha, Mohamed R; Tijsma, Odette; Nieuwland, Rienk; Schwaeble, Wilhelm J; Gingras, Alexandre R; Mantovani, Alberto; Hack, Erik C; Roos, Anja

    2002-06-01

    Deficiency of early components of the classical pathway of complement, particularly C1q, predisposes to the development of systemic lupus erythematosus. Several studies have suggested an association between the classical complement pathway and the clearance of apoptotic cells. Mice with a targeted deletion of the C1q gene develop a lupus-like renal disease, which is associated with the presence of multiple apoptotic bodies in the kidney. In the present study we demonstrate that highly purified C1q binds to apoptotic cells and isolated blebs derived from these apoptotic cells. Binding of C1q to apoptotic cells occurs via the globular heads of C1q and induces activation of the classical complement pathway, as shown by the deposition of C4 and C3 on the surface of these cells and on cell-derived blebs. In addition, for the first time, we demonstrate that surface-bound C1q is present on a subpopulation of microparticles isolated from human plasma. Taken together, these observations demonstrate that C1q binds directly to apoptotic cells and blebs derived therefrom and support a role for C1q, possibly in concert with C4 and C3, in the clearance of apoptotic cells and blebs by the phagocytic system.

  9. 26 CFR 1.503(c)-1 - Future status of organizations denied exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Future status of organizations denied exemption. 1.503(c)-1 Section 1.503(c)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... notified the Commissioner that it is applying for recognition of its exempt status under section 508(a)...

  10. 26 CFR 1.509(c)-1 - Status of organization after termination of private foundation status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Status of organization after termination of private foundation status. 1.509(c)-1 Section 1.509(c)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... recognition of section 501(c)(3) status pursuant to the provisions of section 508(a). (b) Effect upon...

  11. 26 CFR 1.641(c)-1 - Electing small business trust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Electing small business trust. 1.641(c)-1... small business trust. (a) In general. An electing small business trust (ESBT) within the meaning of... meaning of section 642(c)(1). The limitations of section 681, regarding unrelated business income,...

  12. Variation of NimC1 expression in Drosophila stocks and transgenic strains

    PubMed Central

    Honti, Viktor; Cinege, Gyöngyi; Csordás, Gábor; Kurucz, Éva; Zsámboki, János; Evans, Cory J; Banerjee, Utpal; Andó, István

    2013-01-01

    The NimC1 molecule has been described as a phagocytosis receptor, and is being used as a marker for professional phagocytes, the plasmatocytes, in Drosophila melanogaster. In studies including tumor-biology, developmental biology, and cell mediated immunity, monoclonal antibodies (P1a and P1b) to the NimC1 antigen are used. As we observed that these antibodies did not react with plasmatocytes of several strains and genetic combinations, a molecular analysis was performed on the structure of the nimC1 gene. In these strains we found 2 deletions and an insertion within the nimC1 gene, which may result in the production of a truncated NimC1 protein. The NimC1 positivity was regained by recombining the mutation with a wild-type allele or by using nimC1 mutant lines under heterozygous conditions. By means of these procedures or using the recombined stock, NimC1 can be used as a marker for phagocytic cells in the majority of the possible genetic backgrounds. PMID:23899817

  13. 17 CFR 270.23c-1 - Repurchase of securities by closed-end companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Repurchase of securities by closed-end companies. 270.23c-1 Section 270.23c-1 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND... Repurchase of securities by closed-end companies. (a) A registered closed-end company may purchase for cash...

  14. 17 CFR 270.23c-1 - Repurchase of securities by closed-end companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Repurchase of securities by closed-end companies. 270.23c-1 Section 270.23c-1 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND... Repurchase of securities by closed-end companies. (a) A registered closed-end company may purchase for cash...

  15. 26 CFR 301.6104(c)-1 - Disclosure of certain information to State officers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disclosure of certain information to State officers. 301.6104(c)-1 Section 301.6104(c)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE...) of this section, the Internal Revenue Service will notify the Attorney General and the principal...

  16. 26 CFR 1.475(c)-1 - Definitions-dealer in securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions-dealer in securities. 1.475(c)-1 Section 1.475(c)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED... a manner that allows recognition of unrealized gains or losses or deductions for additions to...

  17. Anti-DNA antibodies cross-react with C1q.

    PubMed

    Franchin, Giovanni; Son, Myoungsun; Kim, Sun Jung; Ben-Zvi, Ilan; Zhang, Jie; Diamond, Betty

    2013-08-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disorder that involves multiple organ systems and typically presents as a chronic inflammatory disease. Antibodies to double-stranded (ds) DNA are present in approximately 70% of patients and form nucleic acid containing immune complexes which activate dendritic cells through engagement of toll-like receptors, leading to a pro-inflammatory, pro-immunogenic milieu. In addition, anti-dsDNA antibodies deposit in kidneys to initiate glomerulonephritis. Antibodies to C1q have also been implicated in lupus nephritis and are found in 30-50% of patients. C1q is a known suppressor of immune activation and C1q deficiency is the strongest risk factor for SLE. We previously identified a subset of anti-DNA antibodies that binds the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor. We now show that both mouse and human anti-DNA antibodies with this specificity bind C1q. These antibodies bind to Clq in glomeruli and exhibit decreased glomerular deposition in the absence of C1q. We propose that this subset of anti-DNA antibodies participates in lupus pathogenesis through direct targeting of C1q on glomeruli and also through removal of soluble C1q thereby limiting the ability of C1q to mediate immune homeostasis.

  18. 26 CFR 1.267(c)-1 - Constructive ownership of stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Constructive ownership of stock. 1.267(c)-1...) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Items Not Deductible § 1.267(c)-1 Constructive ownership of stock. (a) In general. (1) The determination of stock ownership for purposes of section 267(b) shall be...

  19. DYX1C1 is required for axonemal dynein assembly and ciliary motility

    PubMed Central

    Tarkar, Aarti; Loges, Niki T.; Slagle, Christopher E.; Francis, Richard; Dougherty, Gerard W.; Tamayo, Joel V.; Shook, Brett; Cantino, Marie; Schwartz, Daniel; Jahnke, Charlotte; Olbrich, Heike; Werner, Claudius; Raidt, Johanna; Pennekamp, Petra; Abouhamed, Marouan; Hjeij, Rim; Köhler, Gabriele; Griese, Matthias; Li, You; Lemke, Kristi; Klena, Nikolas; Liu, Xiaoqin; Gabriel, George; Tobita, Kimimasa; Jaspers, Martine; Morgan, Lucy C.; Shapiro, Adam J.; Letteboer, Stef J.F.; Mans, Dorus A.; Carson, Johnny L.; Leigh, Margaret W.; Wolf, Whitney E.; Chen, Serafine; Lucas, Jane S.; Onoufriadis, Alexandros; Plagnol, Vincent; Schmidts, Miriam; Boldt, Karsten; Roepman, Ronald; Zariwala, Maimoona; Lo, Cecilia W.; Mitchison, Hannah M.; Knowles, Michael R.; Burdine, Rebecca D.; LoTurco, Joseph J.; Omran, Heymut

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Dyx1c1 has been associated with dyslexia and neuronal migration in the developing neocortex. Unexpectedly, we found that deletion of Dyx1c1 exons 2–4 in mice caused a phenotype resembling primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD), a genetically heterogeneous disorder characterized by chronic airway disease, laterality defects, and male infertility. This phenotype was confirmed independently in mice with a Dyx1c1c.T2A start codon mutation recovered from an ENU mutagenesis screen. Morpholinos targeting dyx1c1 in zebrafish also created laterality and ciliary motility defects. In humans, recessive loss-of-function DYX1C1 mutations were identified in twelve PCD individuals. Ultrastructural and immunofluorescence analyses of DYX1C1-mutant motile cilia in mice and humans revealed disruptions of outer and inner dynein arms (ODA/IDA). DYX1C1 localizes to the cytoplasm of respiratory epithelial cells, its interactome is enriched for molecular chaperones, and it interacts with the cytoplasmic ODA/IDA assembly factor DNAAF2/KTU. Thus, we propose that DYX1C1 is a newly identified dynein axonemal assembly factor (DNAAF4). PMID:23872636

  20. 18 CFR 1c.1 - Prohibition of natural gas market manipulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Prohibition of natural gas market manipulation. 1c.1 Section 1c.1 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES PROHIBITION OF ENERGY MARKET MANIPULATION §...

  1. 18 CFR 1c.1 - Prohibition of natural gas market manipulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Prohibition of natural gas market manipulation. 1c.1 Section 1c.1 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES PROHIBITION OF ENERGY MARKET MANIPULATION §...

  2. 18 CFR 1c.1 - Prohibition of natural gas market manipulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Prohibition of natural gas market manipulation. 1c.1 Section 1c.1 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES PROHIBITION OF ENERGY MARKET MANIPULATION §...

  3. 18 CFR 1c.1 - Prohibition of natural gas market manipulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prohibition of natural gas market manipulation. 1c.1 Section 1c.1 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES PROHIBITION OF ENERGY MARKET MANIPULATION §...

  4. Recombinant replacement therapy for hereditary angioedema due to C1 inhibitor deficiency.

    PubMed

    Moldovan, Dumitru; Bernstein, Jonathan A; Cicardi, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Hereditary angioedema is a rare genetic condition transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait and characterized most commonly by the production of either inadequate or nonfunctioning C1 esterase inhibitor (C1-INH), a blood protein that regulates proteases in the complement, fibrinolytic and contact systems. Patients with hereditary angioedema suffer from episodic, unpredictable manifestations of edema affecting multiple anatomical locations, including the GI tract, facial tissue, the upper airway, oropharynx, urogenital region and/or the arms and legs. A rational approach to treatment is replacement of C1-INH protein, to normalize the levels of C1-INH activity and halt the progression of the biochemical activation processes underlying the edema formation. Ruconest is a highly purified recombinant human C1-INH. This article will focus on the results of ten clinical studies demonstrating the efficacy and safety of Ruconest(®) (Pharming Group NV, Leiden, the Netherlands), which is now approved for use in Europe, Israel and the USA.

  5. Recombinant replacement therapy for hereditary angioedema due to C1 inhibitor deficiency.

    PubMed

    Moldovan, Dumitru; Bernstein, Jonathan A; Cicardi, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Hereditary angioedema is a rare genetic condition transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait and characterized most commonly by the production of either inadequate or nonfunctioning C1 esterase inhibitor (C1-INH), a blood protein that regulates proteases in the complement, fibrinolytic and contact systems. Patients with hereditary angioedema suffer from episodic, unpredictable manifestations of edema affecting multiple anatomical locations, including the GI tract, facial tissue, the upper airway, oropharynx, urogenital region and/or the arms and legs. A rational approach to treatment is replacement of C1-INH protein, to normalize the levels of C1-INH activity and halt the progression of the biochemical activation processes underlying the edema formation. Ruconest is a highly purified recombinant human C1-INH. This article will focus on the results of ten clinical studies demonstrating the efficacy and safety of Ruconest(®) (Pharming Group NV, Leiden, the Netherlands), which is now approved for use in Europe, Israel and the USA. PMID:26250409

  6. Degree Depreciation: A Fait Accompli for the Liberal Arts Degree

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duplass, James A.

    1976-01-01

    The liberal arts degree will continue to lack the credibility needed to compete with professional school degrees in the job market unless a return is made to rigourous standards, subjective tests, term papers, comprehensive exams, improvement in instructional methods, and more stringent curriculum requirements for foreign language, composition,…

  7. Measurement of optical absorption in polycrystalline CVD diamond plates by the phase photothermal method at a wavelength of 10.6 {mu}m

    SciTech Connect

    Luk'yanov, A Yu; Serdtsev, E V; Volkov, P V; Ral'chenko, Viktor G; Savel'ev, A V; Konov, Vitalii I; Khomich, A V

    2008-12-31

    A highly-efficient phase photothermal method is developed for quantitative measurements of the small optical absorption coefficient in thin plates made of highly transparent materials in which bulk losses significantly exceed surface losses. The bulk absorption coefficient at 10.6 {mu}m is estimated in polycrystalline diamond plates grown from the vapour phase (a CVD diamond). The results are compared with those for natural and synthetic diamond single crystals and with the concentrations of nitrogen and hydrogen impurities. The absorption coefficient of the best samples of the CVD diamond did not exceed 0.06 cm{sup -1}, which, taking into account the high thermal conductivity of the CVD diamond (1800-2200 W mK{sup -1} at room temperature), makes this material attractive for fabricating output windows of high-power CO{sub 2} lasers, especially for manufacturing large-size optics. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  8. QCD corrections to J/ψ plus ηc production in e+e- annihilation at s=10.6GeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Bin; Wang, Jian-Xiong

    2008-03-01

    Next-to-leading-order QCD corrections to J/ψ plus ηc production in e+e- annihilation at s=10.6GeV are calculated in this paper, and an analytic result is obtained. By choosing proper physical parameters, a K factor (ratio of next-to-leading order to LO) of about 2, which is in agreement with the result in Y.-J. Zhang, Y.-j. Gao, and K.-T. Chao, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 092001 (2006)PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.96.092001, is obtained. The plot of the K factor vs the center-of-mass energy s shows that it is more difficult to obtain a convergent result from the perturbative QCD without resummation of ln⁡(s/mc2) terms as the s becomes larger.

  9. 1.95  μm-pumped OP-GaAs optical parametric oscillator with 10.6  μm idler wavelength.

    PubMed

    Wueppen, Jochen; Nyga, Sebastian; Jungbluth, Bernd; Hoffmann, Dieter

    2016-09-15

    We report on an optical parametric oscillator that generates output idler wavelengths around 10.6 μm. On the basis of orientation-patterned gallium arsenide (OP-GaAs) as a nonlinear medium and a 1.95 μm ns-pulsed pump laser, a signal-resonant bow-tie resonator was designed in order to maximize the output power at moderate intensities well below the damage threshold of the optical components. With this setup, the average idler output power at 50 kHz and 100 ns idler pulse length was more than 800 mW, which corresponds to a pulse energy of 16 μJ. The maximum quantum conversion efficiency of 36.8% is the highest value measured so far for comparable setups to the best of our knowledge. PMID:27628363

  10. 1.95  μm-pumped OP-GaAs optical parametric oscillator with 10.6  μm idler wavelength.

    PubMed

    Wueppen, Jochen; Nyga, Sebastian; Jungbluth, Bernd; Hoffmann, Dieter

    2016-09-15

    We report on an optical parametric oscillator that generates output idler wavelengths around 10.6 μm. On the basis of orientation-patterned gallium arsenide (OP-GaAs) as a nonlinear medium and a 1.95 μm ns-pulsed pump laser, a signal-resonant bow-tie resonator was designed in order to maximize the output power at moderate intensities well below the damage threshold of the optical components. With this setup, the average idler output power at 50 kHz and 100 ns idler pulse length was more than 800 mW, which corresponds to a pulse energy of 16 μJ. The maximum quantum conversion efficiency of 36.8% is the highest value measured so far for comparable setups to the best of our knowledge.

  11. Aerodynamic characteristics of an all-body hypersonic aircraft configuration at Mach numbers from 0.65 to 10.6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelms, W. P., Jr.; Thomas, C. L.

    1971-01-01

    Aerodynamic characteristics of a model designed to represent an all body, hypersonic cruise aircraft are presented for Mach numbers from 0.65 to 10.6. The configuration had a delta planform with an elliptic cone forebody and an afterbody of elliptic cross section. Detailed effects of varying angle of attack (-2 to +15 deg), angle of sideslip (-2 to +8 deg), Mach number, and configuration buildup were considered. In addition, the effectiveness of horizontal tail, vertical tail, and canard stabilizing and control surfaces was investigated. The results indicate that all configurations were longitudinally stable near maximum lift drag ratio. The configurations with vertical tails were directionally stable at all angles of attack. Trim penalties were small at hypersonic speeds for a center of gravity location representative of the airplane, but because of the large rearward travel of the aerodynamic center, trim penalties were severe at transonic Mach numbers.

  12. Spectral characteristics of quantum-cascade laser operating at 10.6 μm wavelength for a seed application in laser-produced-plasma extreme UV source.

    PubMed

    Nowak, Krzysztof M; Ohta, Takeshi; Suganuma, Takashi; Yokotsuka, Toshio; Fujimoto, Junichi; Mizoguchi, Hakaru; Endo, Akira

    2012-11-15

    In this Letter, we investigate, for the first time to our knowledge, the spectral properties of a quantum-cascade laser (QCL) from a point of view of a new application as a laser seeder for a nanosecond-pulse high-repetition frequency CO(2) laser operating at 10.6 μm wavelength. The motivation for this work is a renewed interest in such a pulse format and wavelength driven by a development of extreme UV (EUV) laser-produced-plasma (LPP) sources. These sources use pulsed multikilowatt CO(2) lasers to drive the EUV-emitting plasmas. Basic spectral performance characteristics of a custom-made QCL chip are measured, such as tuning range and chirp rate. The QCL is shown to have all essential qualities of a robust seed source for a high-repetition nanosecond-pulsed CO(2) laser required by EUV LPP sources.

  13. Spectral characteristics of quantum-cascade laser operating at 10.6 μm wavelength for a seed application in laser-produced-plasma extreme UV source.

    PubMed

    Nowak, Krzysztof M; Ohta, Takeshi; Suganuma, Takashi; Yokotsuka, Toshio; Fujimoto, Junichi; Mizoguchi, Hakaru; Endo, Akira

    2012-11-15

    In this Letter, we investigate, for the first time to our knowledge, the spectral properties of a quantum-cascade laser (QCL) from a point of view of a new application as a laser seeder for a nanosecond-pulse high-repetition frequency CO(2) laser operating at 10.6 μm wavelength. The motivation for this work is a renewed interest in such a pulse format and wavelength driven by a development of extreme UV (EUV) laser-produced-plasma (LPP) sources. These sources use pulsed multikilowatt CO(2) lasers to drive the EUV-emitting plasmas. Basic spectral performance characteristics of a custom-made QCL chip are measured, such as tuning range and chirp rate. The QCL is shown to have all essential qualities of a robust seed source for a high-repetition nanosecond-pulsed CO(2) laser required by EUV LPP sources. PMID:23164906

  14. A Study of the DsJ(2317) and DsJ(2460) Mesons in Inclusive ccbar Production near sqrt(s) = 10.6 GeV

    SciTech Connect

    Aubert, B.

    2006-04-19

    A study of the D*{sub sJ}(2317){sup +} and D{sub sJ}(2460){sup +} mesons in inclusive c{bar c} production is presented using 232 fb{sup -1} of data collected by the BABAR experiment near {radical}s = 10.6 GeV. Final states consisting of a D{sub s}{sup +} meson along with one or more {pi}{sup 0}, {pi}{sup {+-}}, or {gamma} particles are considered. Estimates of the mass and limits on the width are provided for both mesons and for the D{sub s1}(2536){sup +} meson. A search is also performed for neutral and doubly-charged partners of the D*{sub sJ}(2317){sup +} meson.

  15. QCD Corrections to Double J/{psi} Production in e{sup +}e{sup -} Annihilation at {radical}(s)=10.6 GeV

    SciTech Connect

    Gong Bin; Wang Jianxiong

    2008-05-09

    Next-to-leading-order (NLO) QCD corrections to double J/{psi} production in e{sup +}e{sup -} annihilation at {radical}(s)=10.6 GeV are calculated. We find that they greatly decrease the cross section, with a K factor (NLO/LO) ranging from -0.31 to 0.25 depending on the renormalization scale. Although the renormalization scale dependence indicates a large uncertainty, when combined with the NLO QCD corrections to J/{psi}+{eta}{sub c} production, it can explain why the double J/{psi} production could not be found at B factories while the J/{psi}+{eta}{sub c} production could, despite the fact that cross section of the former is larger than that of the latter at LO by a factor of 1.8.

  16. Interaction between complement subcomponent C1q and the Klebsiella pneumoniae porin OmpK36.

    PubMed Central

    Albertí, S; Marqués, G; Hernández-Allés, S; Rubires, X; Tomás, J M; Vivanco, F; Benedí, V J

    1996-01-01

    The interaction between C1q, a subcomponent of the complement classical pathway component C1, and OmpK36, a porin protein from Klebsiella pneumoniae, was studied in a solid-phase direct-binding assay, inhibition assays with the purified globular and collagen-like regions of C1q, and cross-linking experiments. We have shown that the binding of C1q to the OmpK36 porin of the serum-sensitive strain K. pneumoniae KT707 occurs in an in vivo situation and that this binding leads to activation of the complement classical pathway and the subsequent deposition of complement components C3b and C5b-9 on the OmpK36 porin. Scatchard analysis of the binding of [125I]C1q to the OmpK36 porin showed two binding sites with dissociation constants of 1.5 and 75 nM. The decrease of [125I]C1q binding to the OmpK36 porin in buffer with increasing salt concentrations and the pIs of the C1q subcomponent (10.3) and OmpK36 porin (4.5) suggest that charged amino acids are involved in the binding phenomenon. In inhibition assays, only the globular regions of C1q inhibited the interaction between C1q and OmpK36 porin, demonstrating that C1q binds to porin through its globular region and not through the collagen-like stalks. PMID:8890231

  17. Exponential Decay of Correlations for Nonuniformly Hyperbolic Flows with a ${{C(1+alpha}}) $ C 1 + α Stable Foliation, Including the Classical Lorenz Attractor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araújo, Vitor; Melbourne, Ian

    2016-11-01

    We prove exponential decay of correlations for a class of $C^{1+\\alpha}$ uniformly hyperbolic skew product flows, subject to a uniform nonintegrability condition. In particular, this establishes exponential decay of correlations for an open set of geometric Lorenz attractors. As a special case, we show that the classical Lorenz attractor is robustly exponentially mixing.

  18. 75 FR 34956 - Airworthiness Directives; Robert E. Rust, Jr. Model DeHavilland DH.C1 Chipmunk 21, DH.C1 Chipmunk...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-21

    ... AD would require a one-time inspection of the flap operating system for an unauthorized latch plate design installation. This proposed AD results from a report of a latch plate failing in service that was.... Discussion We have received a report of a latch plate supplied under part number (P/N) C1-CF-1489 failing...

  19. Dau c 1.01 and Dau c 1.02-silenced transgenic carrot plants show reduced allergenicity to patients with carrot allergy.

    PubMed

    Peters, Susanna; Imani, Jafargholi; Mahler, Vera; Foetisch, Kay; Kaul, Susanne; Paulus, Kathrin E; Scheurer, Stephan; Vieths, Stefan; Kogel, Karl-Heinz

    2011-06-01

    Pathogenesis-related protein-10 (PR10) is a ubiquitous small plant protein induced by microbial pathogens and abiotic stress that adversely contributes to the allergenic potency of many fruits and vegetables, including carrot. In this plant, two highly similar genes encoding PR10 isoforms have been isolated and designated as allergen Dau c 1.01 and Dau c 1.02. The aim of the study was to generate PR10-reduced hypoallergenic carrots by silencing either one of these genes in transgenic carrots by means of RNA interference (RNAi). The efficiency of gene silencing by stably expressed hairpin RNA (hnRNA) was documented by means of quantitative RT-PCR (qPCR) and immunoblotting. Quantification of the residual protein revealed that PR10 accumulation was strongly decreased compared with untransformed controls. Treatment of carrot plants with the PR protein-inducing chemical salicylic acid resulted in an increase of PR10 isoforms only in wild-type but not in Dau c 1-silenced mutants. The decrease of the allergenic potential in Dau c 1-silenced plants was sufficient to cause a reduced allergenic reactivity in patients with carrot allergy, as determined with skin prick tests (SPT). However, simultaneous silencing of multiple allergens will be required to design hypoallergenic carrots for the market. Our findings demonstrate the feasibility of creating low-allergenic food by using RNAi. This constitutes a reasonable approach to allergen avoidance.

  20. Specific heats of lunar surface materials from 90 to 350 degrees Kelvin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robie, R.A.; Hemingway, B.S.; Wilson, W.H.

    1970-01-01

    The specific heats of lunar samples 10057 and 10084 returned by the Apollo 11 mission have been measured between 90 and 350 degrees Kelvin by use of an adiabatic calorimeter. The samples are representative of type A vesicular basalt-like rocks and of finely divided lunar soil. The specific heat of these materials changes smoothly from about 0.06 calorie per gram per degree at 90 degrees Kelvin to about 0.2 calorie per gram per degree at 350 degrees Kelvin. The thermal parameter ??=(k??C)-1/2 for the lunar surface will accordingly vary by a factor of about 2 between lunar noon and midnight.

  1. Specific heats of lunar surface materials from 90 to 350 degrees Kelvin.

    PubMed

    Robie, R A; Hemingway, B S; Wilson, W H

    1970-01-30

    The specific heats of lunar samples 10057 and 10084 returned by the Apollo 11 mission have been measured between 90 and 350 degrees Kelvin by use of an adiabatic calorimeter. The samples are representative of type A vesicular basalt-like rocks and of finely divided lunar soil. The specific heat of these materials changes smoothly from about 0.06 calorie per gram per degree at 90 degrees Kelvin to about 0.2 calorie per gram per degree at 350 degrees Kelvin. The thermal parameter gamma=(kpC-(1/2) for the lunar surface will accordingly vary by a factor of about 2 between lunar noon and midnight.

  2. Hereditary and acquired C1-inhibitor-dependent angioedema: from pathophysiology to treatment.

    PubMed

    Zeerleder, Sacha; Levi, Marcel

    2016-01-01

    Uncontrolled generation of bradykinin (BK) due to insufficient levels of protease inhibitors controlling contact phase (CP) activation, increased activity of CP proteins, and/or inadequate degradation of BK into inactive peptides increases vascular permeability via BK-receptor 2 (BKR2) and results in subcutaneous and submucosal edema formation. Hereditary and acquired angioedema due to C1-inhibitor deficiency (C1-INH-HAE and -AAE) are diseases characterized by serious and potentially fatal attacks of subcutaneous and submucosal edemas of upper airways, facial structures, abdomen, and extremities, due to inadequate control of BK generation. A decreased activity of C1-inhibitor is the hallmark of C1-INH-HAE (types 1 and 2) due to a mutation in the C1-inhibitor gene, whereas the deficiency in C1-inhibitor in C1-INH-AAE is the result of autoimmune phenomena. In HAE with normal C1-inhibitor, a significant percentage of patients have an increased activity of factor XIIa due to a FXII mutation (FXII-HAE). Treatment of C1-inhibitor-dependent angioedema focuses on restoring control of BK generation by inhibition of CP proteases by correcting the balance between CP inhibitors and BK breakdown or by inhibition of BK-mediated effects at the BKR2 on endothelial cells. This review will address the pathophysiology, clinical picture, diagnosis and available treatment in C1-inhibitor-dependent angioedema focusing on BK-release and its regulation. Key Messages Inadequate control of bradykinin formation results in the formation of characteristic subcutaneous and submucosal edemas of the skin, upper airways, facial structures, abdomen and extremities as seen in hereditary and acquired C1-inhibitor-dependent angioedema. Diagnosis of hereditary and acquired C1-inhibitor-dependent angioedema may be troublesome as illustrated by the fact that there is a significant delay in diagnosis; a certain grade of suspicion is therefore crucial for quick diagnosis. Submucosal edema formation in

  3. Degree, Yes--Education, No

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheahan, Sister Dorothy

    1974-01-01

    The external degree program, based solely on test proficiency, offers to its students not an educational opportunity; not a learning situation but a schema for securing a degree, with any kind of socialization into the profession conspicuously missing from the program. (Author/DS)

  4. Bachelor's Degree Recipients, 1996 Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulvey, Patrick J.; Nicholson, Starr; Dodge, Elizabeth

    1997-01-01

    This report presents the results of a survey of senior-level physics majors at U.S. colleges and universities who received a Bachelor's degree between September 1995 and August 1996. Completed questionnaires were received from 1,956 students. It was found that the number of undergraduates receiving Bachelor's degrees in physics continued to…

  5. Research Degrees as Professional Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnacle, Robyn; Dall'Alba, Gloria

    2011-01-01

    There is an increasing trend within higher education and, more specifically, in higher degrees by research, to treat a professional skills set as a desirable graduate outcome. The increasing value that is being placed on a professional skills set in large part reflects growing interest around the world in the role of research degrees in labour…

  6. NLN: Celebrating Associate Degree Nursing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoddick, Nancy A.

    1981-01-01

    Introduces a project celebrating the thirtieth anniversary of associate degree nursing (ADN) education. Reviews the efforts and plans of two national associations to identify and resolve recurring ADN issues and recognize the associate degree nurse's contributions. Describes the forums and publications planned to meet these objectives. Includes…

  7. Guide to Teaching Degrees 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Caralee

    2011-01-01

    Getting a master's degree means lots of late nights, busy weekends, and probably taking on student loan debt. The commitment raises the question: Is it worth it? This article takes a comprehensive look at how much a master's is worth, which degree one should pursue, and how one can find a balance in graduate school.

  8. Survival of the anaerobic fungus Orpinomyces sp. strain C1A after prolonged air exposure.

    PubMed

    Struchtemeyer, Christopher G; Ranganathan, Abhaya; Couger, M B; Liggenstoffer, Audra S; Youssef, Noha H; Elshahed, Mostafa S

    2014-01-01

    Anaerobic fungi are efficient plant biomass degraders and represent promising agents for a variety of biotechnological applications. We evaluated the tolerance of an anaerobic fungal isolate, Orpinomyces sp. strain C1A, to air exposure in liquid media using soluble (cellobiose) and insoluble (dried switchgrass) substrates. Strain C1A grown on cellobiose survived for 11, and 13.5 hours following air exposure when grown under planktonic, and immobilized conditions, respectively. When grown on switchgrass media, strain C1A exhibited significantly enhanced air tolerance and survived for 168 hours. The genome of strain C1A lacked a catalase gene, but contained superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase genes. Real time PCR analysis indicated that superoxide dismutase, but not glutathione peroxidase, exhibits a transient increase in expression level post aeration. Interestingly, the C1A superoxide dismutase gene of strain C1A appears to be most closely related to bacterial SODs, which implies its acquisition from a bacterial donor via cross kingdom horizontal gene transfer during Neocallimastigomycota evolution. We conclude that strain C1A utilizes multiple mechanisms to minimize the deleterious effects of air exposure such as physical protection and the production of oxidative stress enzymes. PMID:25367149

  9. Atomic resolution model of the antibody Fc interaction with the complement C1q component.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Sebastian; Zacharias, Martin

    2012-05-01

    The globular C1q heterotrimer is a subunit of the C1 complement factor. Binding of the C1q subunit to the constant (Fc) part of antibody molecules is a first step and key event of complement activation. Although three-dimensional structures of C1q and antibody Fc subunits have been determined experimentally no atomic resolution structure of the C1q-Fc complex is known so far. Based on systematic protein-protein docking searches and Molecular Dynamics simulations a structural model of the C1q-IgG1-Fc-binding geometry has been obtained. The structural model is compatible with available experimental data on the interaction between the two partner proteins. It predicts a binding geometry that involves mainly the B-subunit of the C1q-trimer and both subunits of the IgG1-Fc-dimer with small conformational adjustments with respect to the unbound partners to achieve high surface complementarity. In addition to several charge-charge and polar contacts in the rim region of the interface it also involves nonpolar contacts between the two proteins and is compatible with the carbohydrate moiety of the Fc subunit. The model for the complex structure provides a working model for rationalizing available biochemical data on this important interaction and can form the basis for the design of Fc variants with a greater capacity to activate the complement system for example on binding to cancer cells or other target structures.

  10. Survival of the anaerobic fungus Orpinomyces sp. strain C1A after prolonged air exposure

    PubMed Central

    Struchtemeyer, Christopher G.; Ranganathan, Abhaya; Couger, M. B.; Liggenstoffer, Audra S.; Youssef, Noha H.; Elshahed, Mostafa S.

    2014-01-01

    Anaerobic fungi are efficient plant biomass degraders and represent promising agents for a variety of biotechnological applications. We evaluated the tolerance of an anaerobic fungal isolate, Orpinomyces sp. strain C1A, to air exposure in liquid media using soluble (cellobiose) and insoluble (dried switchgrass) substrates. Strain C1A grown on cellobiose survived for 11, and 13.5 hours following air exposure when grown under planktonic, and immobilized conditions, respectively. When grown on switchgrass media, strain C1A exhibited significantly enhanced air tolerance and survived for 168 hours. The genome of strain C1A lacked a catalase gene, but contained superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase genes. Real time PCR analysis indicated that superoxide dismutase, but not glutathione peroxidase, exhibits a transient increase in expression level post aeration. Interestingly, the C1A superoxide dismutase gene of strain C1A appears to be most closely related to bacterial SODs, which implies its acquisition from a bacterial donor via cross kingdom horizontal gene transfer during Neocallimastigomycota evolution. We conclude that strain C1A utilizes multiple mechanisms to minimize the deleterious effects of air exposure such as physical protection and the production of oxidative stress enzymes. PMID:25367149

  11. Trichinella spiralis Paramyosin Binds Human Complement C1q and Inhibits Classical Complement Activation

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Ran; Zhao, Xi; Wang, Zixia; Yang, Jing; Zhao, Limei; Zhan, Bin; Zhu, Xinping

    2015-01-01

    Background Trichinella spiralis expresses paramyosin (Ts-Pmy) as a defense mechanism. Ts-Pmy is a functional protein with binding activity to human complement C8 and C9 and thus plays a role in evading the attack of the host’s immune system. In the present study, the binding activity of Ts-Pmy to human complement C1q and its ability to inhibit classical complement activation were investigated. Methods and Findings The binding of recombinant and natural Ts-Pmy to human C1q were determined by ELISA, Far Western blotting and immunoprecipitation, respectively. Binding of recombinant Ts-Pmy (rTs-Pmy) to C1q inhibited C1q binding to IgM and consequently inhibited C3 deposition. The lysis of antibody-sensitized erythrocytes (EAs) elicited by the classical complement pathway was also inhibited in the presence of rTs-Pmy. In addition to inhibiting classical complement activation, rTs-Pmy also suppressed C1q binding to THP-1-derived macrophages, thereby reducing C1q-induced macrophages migration. Conclusion Our results suggest that T. spiralis paramyosin plays an important role in immune evasion by interfering with complement activation through binding to C1q in addition to C8 and C9. PMID:26720603

  12. Maize anthocyanin regulatory gene pl is a duplicate of c1 that functions in the plant.

    PubMed

    Cone, K C; Cocciolone, S M; Burr, F A; Burr, B

    1993-12-01

    Genetic studies in maize have identified several regulatory genes that control the tissue-specific synthesis of purple anthocyanin pigments in the plant. c1 regulates pigmentation in the aleurone layer of the kernel, whereas pigmentation in the vegetative and floral tissues of the plant body depends on pl. c1 encodes a protein with the structural features of eukaryotic transcription factors and functions to control the accumulation of transcripts for the anthocyanin biosynthetic genes. Previous genetic and molecular observations have prompted the hypothesis that c1 and pl are functionally duplicate, in that they control the same set of anthocyanin structural genes but in distinct parts of the plant. Here, we show that this proposed functional similarity is reflected by DNA sequence homology between c1 and pl. Using a c1 DNA fragment as a hybridization probe, genomic and cDNA clones for pl were isolated. Comparison of pl and c1 cDNA sequences revealed that the genes encode proteins with 90% or more amino acid identity in the amino- and carboxyl-terminal domains that are known to be important for the regulatory function of the C1 protein. Consistent with the idea that the pl gene product also acts as a transcriptional activator is our finding that a functional pl allele is required for the transcription of at least three structural genes in the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway. PMID:8305872

  13. A new simplified procedure for C1 inhibitor purification. A novel use for jacalin-agarose.

    PubMed

    Pilatte, Y; Hammer, C H; Frank, M M; Fries, L F

    1989-06-01

    C1 inhibitor (C1-INH), the major regulatory protein of the classical pathway of complement activation, is also involved in the regulation of several other plasma proteolytic systems including the coagulation, fibrinolytic and contact systems. All the previously published methods for the purification of C1-INH are time-consuming and some do not yield highly pure protein. Recently, it was reported that Jack fruit (Artocarpus integrifolia) lectin, also called jacalin, binds C1-INH. Since jacalin binds only a small number of human serum proteins it appeared that jacalin-agarose affinity chromatography would constitute a very selective early step for the purification of C1-INH. Consequently we have designed a new, simplified three-step procedure for the purification of C1-INH which includes PEG fractionation, jacalin-agarose chromatography and hydrophobic interaction chromatography on phenyl-Sepharose which takes advantage of the marked hydrophilicity of the inhibitor. This procedure has three major advantages over those which have been the most frequently used. Firstly, it includes only two fast chromatographic steps. Secondly, because the C1-INH pool is cleanly and predictably separated from the unwanted proteins by differential elution conditions in both chromatographic steps, no antigenic or functional assays are required to define the desired peaks. Thirdly, only the final product is dialyzed while all other methods required several buffer changes. For these reasons this procedure is much faster and simpler than the previously published methods. About 10-12 mg of highly purified and fully active C1-INH can be obtained within 1 day from 120 ml of plasma giving an average yield of 40-45%. This method may thus be highly adaptable to bulk purification for clinical use or for preparation of genetically or pathologically altered C1-INH from clinical specimens.

  14. Population pharmacokinetics of recombinant human C1 inhibitor in patients with hereditary angioedema

    PubMed Central

    Farrell, Colm; Hayes, Siobhan; Relan, Anurag; van Amersfoort, Edwin S; Pijpstra, Rienk; Hack, C Erik

    2013-01-01

    Aims To characterize the pharmacokinetics (PK) of recombinant human C1 inhibitor (rhC1INH) in healthy volunteers and hereditary angioedema (HAE) patients. Methods Plasma levels of C1INH following 294 administrations of rhC1INH in 133 subjects were fitted using nonlinear mixed-effects modelling. The model was used to simulate maximal C1INH levels for the proposed dosing scheme. Results A one-compartment model with Michaelis–Menten elimination kinetics described the data. Baseline C1INH levels were 0.901 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.839–0.968] and 0.176 U ml−1 (95% CI: 0.154–0.200) in healthy volunteers and HAE patients, respectively. The volume of distribution of rhC1INH was 2.86 l (95% CI: 2.68–3.03). The maximal rate of elimination and the concentration corresponding to half this maximal rate were 1.63 U ml−1 h−1 (95% CI: 1.41–1.88) and 1.60 U ml−1 (95% CI: 1.14–2.24), respectively, for healthy volunteers and symptomatic HAE patients. The maximal elimination rate was 36% lower in asymptomatic HAE patients. Peak C1INH levels did not change upon repeated administration of rhC1INH. Bodyweight was found to be an important predictor of the volume of distribution. Simulations of the proposed dosing scheme predicted peak C1INH concentrations above the lower level of the normal range (0.7 U ml−1) for at least 94% of all patients. Conclusions The population PK model for C1INH supports a dosing scheme on a 50 U kg−1 basis up to 84 kg, with a fixed dose of 4200 U above 84 kg. The PK of rhC1INH following repeat administration are consistent with the PK following the first administration. PMID:23594263

  15. Nanoscale Biogeocomplexity of the Organomineral Assemblage in Soil: Application of STXM Microscopy and C 1s-NEXAFS Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Kinyangi,J.; Solomon, D.; Liang, B.; Lerotic, M.; Wirick, S.; Lehmann, J.

    2006-01-01

    Methodological constraints limit the extent to which existing soil aggregation models explain carbon (C) stabilization in soil. We hypothesize that the physical infrastructure of microaggregates plays a major role in determining the chemistry of the occluded C and intimate associations between particulate C, chemically stabilized C and the soil mineral matrix. We employed synchrotron-based scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) coupled with near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (C 1s-NEXAFS) spectroscopy to investigate the nanoscale physical assemblage and C chemistry of 150-{micro}m microaggregates from a Kenyan Oxisol. Ultra-thin sections were obtained after embedding microaggregates in a sulfur block and sectioning on a cryo-microtome at -55 degrees C. Principal component and cluster analyses revealed four spatially distinct features: pore surfaces, mineral matter, organic matter, and their mixtures. The occurrence of these features did not vary between exterior and interior locations; however, the degree of oxidation decreased while the complexity and occurrence of aliphatic C forms increased from exterior to interior regions of the microaggregate. At both locations, compositional mapping rendered a nanoscale distribution of oxidized C clogging pores and coating pore cavities on mineral surface. Hydrophobic organic matter of aromatic and aliphatic nature, representing particulate C forms appeared physically occluded in 2- to 5-{micro}m pore spaces. Our findings demonstrate that organic matter in microaggregates may be found as either oxidized C associated with mineral surfaces or aromatic and aliphatic C in particulate form. Using STXM and C 1s-NEXAFS we are for the first time able to resolve the nanoscale biogeocomplexity of unaltered soil microaggregates.

  16. Center is at Latitude 30 Degrees South, Longitude 210 Degrees

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Center of the orthographic projection is at latitude 30 degrees S., longitude 210 degrees. Toward the top, the lowland plains of Elysium and Utopia Planitiae are separated from the darker heavily cratered highlands by a broad escarpment. The far bottom left is marked by the large light-colored ancient Hellas impact basin. The permanent south polar residual ice cap is located near the bottom.

  17. Center is at Latitude 30 Degrees North, Longitude 30 Degrees

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Center of the orthographic projection is at latitude 30 degrees N., longitude 30 degrees. The north polar residual ice cap, which is cut by spiral-patterned troughs, is located at the top. The central part is characterized by a dark depression, Chryse basin, where several large outflow channels terminate. The lower-left corner is marked by a vast system of canyons, Valles Marineris, which extends eastward for several thousand kilometers.

  18. Center is at Latitude 30 Degrees South., Longitude 330 Degrees

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Center of the orthographic projection is at latitude 30 degrees S., longitude 330 degrees. Heavily cratered highlands dominate this view. Toward the lower right, a conspicuous light-colored circular depression marks the ancient large Hellas impact basin. Directly northeast of Hellas, several large ancient impacts dot the landscape, including Cassini, Schiaparelli, and Huygens. Several large outflow channels are located in the upper left-hand corner. The permanent, residual south polar ice cap is located near the bottom.

  19. Joint venture on degree course.

    PubMed

    1987-12-19

    A ground breaking joint venture between South Glamorgan's Health Authority and Institute of Higher Education will bear fruit next year when the first students enrol for a new part time post registration degree course in nursing studies. The four-year course will be split into two equal sections, diploma and degree, and will be open to any first level registered nurse. Nurses who have already obtained their diploma will be able to opt in for the degree course only and there are plans to introduce access courses for applicants with the old London University Diploma so they too can qualify.

  20. 26 CFR 1.412(c)(1)-1 - Determinations to be made under funding method-terms defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...-terms defined. 1.412(c)(1)-1 Section 1.412(c)(1)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... Plans, Etc. § 1.412(c)(1)-1 Determinations to be made under funding method—terms defined. (a) Actuarial... bargained plans, see § 1.412(c)(1)-2; for principles applicable to funding methods in general,...

  1. Development of the Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS) for NPOESS C1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brann, C.; Kunkee, D.

    2008-12-01

    The National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System's Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS) is planned for flight on the first NPOESS mission (C1) in 2013. The C1 ATMS will be the second instrument of the ATMS series and will provide along with the companion Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS), atmospheric temperature and moisture profiles for NPOESS. The first flight of the ATMS is scheduled in 2010 on the NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) satellite, which is an early instrument risk reduction component of the NPOESS mission. This poster will focus on the development of the ATMS for C1 including aspects of the sensor calibration, antenna beam and RF characteristics and scanning. New design aspects of the C1 ATMS, required primarily by parts obsolescence, will also be addressed in this poster.

  2. C1A cysteine protease-cystatin interactions in leaf senescence.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Mendoza, Mercedes; Velasco-Arroyo, Blanca; González-Melendi, Pablo; Martínez, Manuel; Díaz, Isabel

    2014-07-01

    Senescence-associated proteolysis in plants is a crucial process to relocalize nutrients from leaves to growing or storage tissues. The massive net degradation of proteins involves broad metabolic networks, different subcellular compartments, and several types of proteases and regulators. C1A cysteine proteases, grouped as cathepsin L-, B-, H-, and F-like according to their gene structures and phylogenetic relationships, are the most abundant enzymes responsible for the proteolytic activity during leaf senescence. Besides, cystatins as specific modulators of C1A peptidase activities exert a complex regulatory role in this physiological process. This overview article covers the most recent information on C1A proteases in leaf senescence in different plant species. Particularly, it is focussed on barley, as the unique species where the whole gene family members of C1A cysteine proteases and cystatins have been analysed.

  3. 26 CFR 1.860C-1 - Taxation of holders of residual interests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Real Estate Investment Trusts § 1.860C-1 Taxation of holders... below zero) by— (i) First, the amount of any cash or the fair market value of any property...

  4. Anti-C1q autoantibodies are linked to autoimmune thyroid disorders in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Vitkova, H; Jiskra, J; Springer, D; Limanova, Z; Telicka, Z; Bartakova, J; Trendelenburg, M; Potlukova, E

    2016-10-01

    Anti-C1q antibodies (anti-C1q) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases, including autoimmune thyroid disorders (AITD). The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between anti-C1q and thyroid function in pregnancy-associated AITD. In 96 pregnant women screened positive for AITD (thyroid dysfunction and/or antibodies against thyroperoxidase - TPOAb), anti-C1q were measured during the 9-11th gestational week and after delivery (median 16 months after delivery), and compared to the corresponding serum levels of thyroid hormones. As controls, 80 healthy pregnant women, 72 non-pregnant AITD patients and 72 blood donors were included. In the non-pregnant AITD group, two serum samples ≥ 6 months apart were analysed. Compared to blood donors, anti-C1q levels were substantially higher in all pregnant women analysed. In pregnancy, anti-C1q levels were higher in the TPOAb-positive women than in controls (37 versus 17·5%, P < 0·0001). Anti-C1q-positive pregnant women screened positive for AITD had higher thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels than anti-C1q-negative women (2·41 versus 1·94 mU/l, P = 0·01), and TSH correlated positively with anti-C1q (r = 0·226, P = 0·045) in the TPOAb-positive women. After delivery, serum levels of anti-C1q decreased in the positively screened TPOAb-negative women (8·8 versus 5·9 U/l, P = 0·002), but not in the TPOAb-positive ones, and they no longer correlated with TSH. Anti-C1q antibody levels increase during pregnancy in general and even more in the context of AITD, where they correlate with thyroid stimulating hormone levels. PMID:27198614

  5. C1 inhibitor-mediated myocardial protection from chronic intermittent hypoxia-induced injury

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Jinrong; Guo, Furong; Chen, Cheng; Yu, Xiaoman; Hu, Ke; Li, Mingjiang

    2016-01-01

    The optimal treatment for chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH)-induced cardiovascular injuries has yet to be determined. The aim of the current study was to explore the potential protective effect and mechanism of a C1 inhibitor in CIH in the myocardium. The present study used a rat model of CIH in which complement regulatory protein, known as C1 inhibitor (C1INH), was administered to the rats in the intervention groups. Cardiomyocyte apoptosis was detected by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling. The expression of proteins associated with the apoptotic pathway, such as B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), Bax and caspase-3 were detected by western blot analysis. The expression of complement C3 protein and RNA were also analyzed. C1INH was observed to improve the cardiac function in rats with CIH. Myocardial myeloperoxidase activity, a marker of neutrophil infiltration, was significantly decreased in the C1INH intervention group compared with the CIH control group, and cardiomyocyte apoptosis was significantly attenuated (P<0.05). Western blotting and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis indicated that the protein expression levels of Bcl-2 were decreased and those of Bax were increased in the CIH group compared with the normal control group, but the protein expression levels of Bcl-2 were increased and those of Bax were decreased in the C1INH intervention group, as compared with the CIH group. Furthermore, the CIH-induced expression and synthesis of complement C3 in the myocardium were also reduced in the C1INH intervention group. C1INH, in addition to inhibiting complement activation and inflammation, preserved cardiac function in CIH-mediated myocardial cell injury through an anti-apoptotic mechanism. PMID:27698713

  6. 17 CFR 240.15c1-8 - Sales at the market.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sales at the market. 240.15c1... Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Rules Relating to Over-The-Counter Markets § 240.15c1-8 Sales at the market... securities exchange that such security is being offered to such customer “at the market” or at a...

  7. 17 CFR 240.15c1-8 - Sales at the market.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sales at the market. 240.15c1... Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Rules Relating to Over-The-Counter Markets § 240.15c1-8 Sales at the market... securities exchange that such security is being offered to such customer “at the market” or at a...

  8. Biochemical comparison of four commercially available C1 esterase inhibitor concentrates for treatment of hereditary angioedema

    PubMed Central

    Feussner, Annette; Kalina, Uwe; Hofmann, Peter; Machnig, Thomas; Henkel, Georg

    2014-01-01

    Background For safe and efficacious treatment of hereditary angioedema, C1 esterase inhibitor (C1-INH) concentrates should have high purity and high amounts of functional protein. As no pharmacopoeia requirements exist for C1-INH concentrate lot release, biochemical characteristics as declared by the manufacturers may not be compared directly. This study compared the characteristics and purity profiles of four commercially available C1-INH concentrates. Study Design and Methods The analysis included one transgenic (Ruconest) and three plasma-derived (Berinert, Cetor, Cinryze) C1-INH concentrates. C1-INH antigen concentration was determined by nephelometry, total protein (specific activity) with a Bradford assay, purity by size-exclusion chromatography and gel electrophoresis, and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry was performed. Results Functionality (inversely proportional to antigen-to-activity ratio) was lowest for Ruconest (1.67), followed by Cetor (1.42), Berinert (1.24), and Cinryze (1.22). Specific activity (U/mg) and purity (%) were highest in Ruconest (12.13; 98.6) and Berinert (11.57; 97.0), followed by Cinryze (10.41; 89.5) and Cetor (9.01; 88.6). Main protein bands were found for all plasma-derived products at approximately 105 kDa, and for Ruconest, at approximately 98 kDa. Additional bands in the plasma-derived products were α1-antichymotrypsin, ceruloplasmin, Factor C3 (Cinryze/Cetor), and immunoglobulin heavy constant mu (Berinert). Conclusion Ruconest has a very high purity profile but is not identical to the human C1-INH protein. Of the plasma-derived products, Berinert has the highest purity profile. The impact of the nontherapeutic proteins identified has not yet been evaluated. For harmonization of the analysis for drug release, we recommend the establishment of regulatory requirements for purity determination and the implementation of threshold levels in C1-INH concentrates. PMID:24805006

  9. Nanofiltered C1 esterase inhibitor (human) for hereditary angioedema attacks in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Baker, James W; Craig, Timothy J; Riedl, Marc A; Banerji, Aleena; Fitts, David; Kalfus, Ira N; Uknis, Marc E

    2013-01-01

    Data are limited on hereditary angioedema (HAE) in pregnant women and the safety and efficacy of therapies for treatment and prevention of HAE attacks during pregnancy. Prospective studies are unlikely given the rarity of HAE and ethical considerations regarding enrollment of pregnant female subjects in clinical trials. A retrospective analysis of clinical trial and compassionate-use data was conducted to identify subjects who received nanofiltered C1 esterase inhibitor (C1 INH-nf; human) during pregnancy. This study evaluates the efficacy and safety of human C1 INH-nf for treatment and prevention of HAE attacks in pregnant women. Data from pregnant subjects enrolled in either open-label extensions of two randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of C1 INH-nf or in a compassionate-use program were retrospectively analyzed for efficacy (e.g., total attacks, attack frequency during prophylaxis, and monthly attack rates) and safety (e.g., pregnancy outcomes and adverse events). C1 INH-nf was administered as acute treatment, preprocedural prophylaxis, or routine prophylaxis. C1 INH-nf prophylaxis substantially reduced monthly attack rates. Of 16 subjects, 13 delivered 14 healthy neonates (1 set of twins). Two adverse fetal outcomes were reported; neither was considered by the principal investigator to be related to C1 INH-nf. One subject's pregnancy outcome was unknown. This analysis shows a favorable risk-benefit profile for C1 INH-nf for managing HAE during pregnancy. NCT Identifier: NCT00438815; NCT00462709. PMID:23484892

  10. C1 inhibitor-mediated myocardial protection from chronic intermittent hypoxia-induced injury

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Jinrong; Guo, Furong; Chen, Cheng; Yu, Xiaoman; Hu, Ke; Li, Mingjiang

    2016-01-01

    The optimal treatment for chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH)-induced cardiovascular injuries has yet to be determined. The aim of the current study was to explore the potential protective effect and mechanism of a C1 inhibitor in CIH in the myocardium. The present study used a rat model of CIH in which complement regulatory protein, known as C1 inhibitor (C1INH), was administered to the rats in the intervention groups. Cardiomyocyte apoptosis was detected by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling. The expression of proteins associated with the apoptotic pathway, such as B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), Bax and caspase-3 were detected by western blot analysis. The expression of complement C3 protein and RNA were also analyzed. C1INH was observed to improve the cardiac function in rats with CIH. Myocardial myeloperoxidase activity, a marker of neutrophil infiltration, was significantly decreased in the C1INH intervention group compared with the CIH control group, and cardiomyocyte apoptosis was significantly attenuated (P<0.05). Western blotting and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis indicated that the protein expression levels of Bcl-2 were decreased and those of Bax were increased in the CIH group compared with the normal control group, but the protein expression levels of Bcl-2 were increased and those of Bax were decreased in the C1INH intervention group, as compared with the CIH group. Furthermore, the CIH-induced expression and synthesis of complement C3 in the myocardium were also reduced in the C1INH intervention group. C1INH, in addition to inhibiting complement activation and inflammation, preserved cardiac function in CIH-mediated myocardial cell injury through an anti-apoptotic mechanism.

  11. Probing the Determinants of Diacylglycerol Binding Affinity in C1B domain of Protein Kinase Cα

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Mikaela D.; Morgan, Brittany; Massi, Francesca; Igumenova, Tatyana I.

    2012-01-01

    C1 domains are independently folded modules that are responsible for targeting their parent proteins to lipid membranes containing diacylglycerol (DAG), a ubiquitous second messenger. The DAG-binding affinities of C1 domains determine the threshold concentration of DAG required for the propagation of the signaling response and the selectivity of this response among the DAG receptors in the cell. The structural information currently available for C1 domains offers little insight into the molecular basis of their differential DAG-binding affinities. In this work, we characterized the C1B domain of Protein Kinase Cα (C1Bα) and its diagnostic mutant, Y123W, using solution NMR methods and molecular dynamics simulations. The mutation did not perturb the C1Bα structure or sub-nanosecond dynamics of the protein backbone, but resulted in a >100-fold increase of DAG binding affinity and substantial change in μs-timescale conformational dynamics, as quantified by NMR rotating-frame relaxation-dispersion methods. The differences in the conformational exchange behavior between the wild-type and Y123W C1Bα were localized to the hinge regions of ligand-binding loops. Molecular dynamics simulations provided insight into the identity of the exchanging conformers and revealed the significance of a particular residue, Gln128, in modulating the geometry of the ligand-binding site. Taken together with the results of binding studies, our findings suggest that the conformational dynamics and preferential partitioning of the tryptophan sidechain into the water-lipid interface are important factors that modulate the DAG-binding properties of C1 domains. PMID:21419781

  12. Identification of C1q as a Binding Protein for Advanced Glycation End Products.

    PubMed

    Chikazawa, Miho; Shibata, Takahiro; Hatasa, Yukinori; Hirose, Sayumi; Otaki, Natsuki; Nakashima, Fumie; Ito, Mika; Machida, Sachiko; Maruyama, Shoichi; Uchida, Koji

    2016-01-26

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) make up a heterogeneous group of molecules formed from the nonenzymatic reaction of reducing sugars with the free amino groups of proteins. The abundance of AGEs in a variety of age-related diseases, including diabetic complications and atherosclerosis, and their pathophysiological effects suggest the existence of innate defense mechanisms. Here we examined the presence of serum proteins that are capable of binding glycated bovine serum albumin (AGEs-BSA), prepared upon incubation of BSA with dehydroascorbate, and identified complement component C1q subcomponent subunit A as a novel AGE-binding protein in human serum. A molecular interaction analysis showed the specific binding of C1q to the AGEs-BSA. In addition, we identified DNA-binding regions of C1q, including a collagen-like domain, as the AGE-binding site and established that the amount of positive charge on the binding site was the determining factor. C1q indeed recognized several other modified proteins, including acylated proteins, suggesting that the binding specificity of C1q might be ascribed, at least in part, to the electronegative potential of the ligand proteins. We also observed that C1q was involved in the AGEs-BSA-activated deposition of complement proteins, C3b and C4b. In addition, the AGEs-BSA mediated the proteolytic cleavage of complement protein 5 to release C5a. These findings provide the first evidence of AGEs as a new ligand recognized by C1q, stimulating the C1q-dependent classical complement pathway. PMID:26731343

  13. Transcriptional Factor PU.1 Regulates Decidual C1q Expression in Early Pregnancy in Human.

    PubMed

    Madhukaran, Shanmuga Priyaa; Kishore, Uday; Jamil, Kaiser; Teo, Boon Heng Dennis; Choolani, Mahesh; Lu, Jinhua

    2015-01-01

    C1q is the first recognition subcomponent of the complement classical pathway, which in addition to being synthesized in the liver, is also expressed by macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs). Trophoblast invasion during early placentation results in accumulation of debris that triggers the complement system. Hence, both early and late components of the classical pathway are widely distributed in the placenta and decidua. In addition, C1q has recently been shown to significantly contribute to feto-maternal tolerance, trophoblast migration, and spiral artery remodeling, although the exact mechanism remains unknown. Pregnancy in mice, genetically deficient in C1q, mirrors symptoms similar to that of human preeclampsia. Thus, regulated complement activation has been proposed as an essential requirement for normal successful pregnancy. Little is known about the molecular pathways that regulate C1q expression in pregnancy. PU.1, an Ets-family transcription factor, is required for the development of hematopoietic myeloid lineage immune cells, and its expression is tissue-specific. Recently, PU.1 has been shown to regulate C1q gene expression in DCs and macrophages. Here, we have examined if PU.1 transcription factor regulates decidual C1q expression. We used immune-histochemical analysis, PCR, and immunostaining to localize and study the gene expression of PU.1 transcription factor in early human decidua. PU.1 was highly expressed at gene and protein level in early human decidual cells including trophoblast and stromal cells. Surprisingly, nuclear as well as cytoplasmic PU.1 expression was observed. Decidual cells with predominantly nuclear PU.1 expression had higher C1q expression. It is likely that nuclear and cytoplasmic PU.1 localization has a role to play in early pregnancy via regulating C1q expression in the decidua during implantation.

  14. Interaction of C1 inhibitor with thrombin on the endothelial surface.

    PubMed

    Caccia, Sonia; Castelli, Roberto; Maiocchi, Diana; Bergamaschini, Luigi; Cugno, Massimo

    2011-10-01

    Thrombin, the central bioregulatory enzyme of haemostasis, also has a potent vasopermeability effect on the surface of endothelial cells, and has therefore been considered a major link between the activation of the coagulation pathway and inflammation. C1 inhibitor inhibits thrombin with a low second-order rate constant that can be increased by heparin. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the C1 inhibitor-induced inhibition of thrombin is potentiated on the endothelial surface. The interaction of C1 inhibitor and thrombin was evaluated in an in-vitro system of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) to which purified C1 inhibitor and thrombin have been added. The role of heparins and selectins has been tested by adding heparinase and Mab to selectins. Kinetic analysis under pseudo-first-order conditions showed that the inhibitory effect of C1 inhibitor on thrombin is greater on the surface of endothelial cells. After incubating nanomolar concentrations of thrombin and micromolar concentrations of C1 inhibitor in a purified system, thrombin activity remained significant, but was almost totally suppressed in the presence of HUVECs. The abolition of such suppression by heparinase and Mab to selectins supports the involvement of heparin and selectins in C1 inhibitor-thrombin interaction. Furthermore, the second-order rate constant was 25 ± 3 /s per mol/l in our purified system, but increased to 100 ± 9 /s per mol/l in the presence of HUVECs. Our results indicate that C1 inhibitor can inhibit thrombin activity on vascular endothelium via binding to selectins and potentiation by heparins. This may contribute to the modulation of thrombin activity on vasopermeability and on coagulation especially when the major natural anticoagulant pathways are impaired. PMID:21959589

  15. C1q-latex assay for immune complexes. Complexes that react with both C1q and monoclonal rheumatoid factor in lupus erythematosus and lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Medof, M.E.

    1982-05-01

    A solid phase radioassay for measurement of ICs in biological fluids is described in which ICs present in test sample bind to C1q immobilized on latex particles and bound complexes are quantitated by reaction with radioiodinated mRF. The radioassay can reproducibly measure 10 ng of aggregated human IgG in serum and differentiate soluble complexes from IC-like materials that precipitate with centrifugation or low temperature or stick to test tube walls. Reagents used in the assay, including C1q-L, can be stored for extended periods of time before use. One hundred four of 171 sera from patients with SLE and 8 of 50 sera from patients with LC, assayed by this method, contained elevated levels of ICs relative to controls . IC levels determined by this method correlated with IC data generated by 125I-C1q-PEG precipitation. Raji cell radioimmune assay, and solid-phase conglutinin assay, in some cases but not other.

  16. Patterned FeNi soft magnetic strips film with tunable resonance frequency from 1 to 10.6 GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Yong; Li, Xinxi; Wang, Yan; Ren, Jiankun; Zhang, Yan; Dai, Bo; Yan, Haiyang; Sun, Guangai; Peng, Shuming

    2016-08-01

    Soft magnetic films with a wide-range tunable ferromagnetic resonance frequency are suitable for miniaturization and multifunctionalization of microwave integrated circuits. Fabrication of these films for high-frequency applications is usually complicated and difficult. We demonstrate a simple method to fabricate patterned FeNi soft magnetic strip films by magnetron sputtering and photolithography. Films prepared by this method exhibits a tunable in-plane uniaxial magnetic anisotropy (IPUMA) for different strip widths and gaps. As the strip widths changing from 500 to 2 μm, the IPUMA field increases monotonically from 2.2 to 576 Oe and resonance frequency from 1 to 10.6 GHz(which covers four microwave bands, including the L,S,C and X bands) respectively. This ultra-wide-range adjustability of resonance frequency can be attributed to shape anisotropy of strips. Considering that FeNi alloy has relatively low magnetocrystalline anisotropy, so a wider adjustable range of resonance frequency could be obtained using materials with stronger magnetocrystalline anisotropy.

  17. HYDROGEN CHLORIDE IN DIFFUSE INTERSTELLAR CLOUDS ALONG THE LINE OF SIGHT TO W31C (G10.6-0.4)

    SciTech Connect

    Monje, R. R.; Lis, D. C.; Phillips, T. G.; Roueff, E.; Gerin, M.; De Luca, M.; Neufeld, D. A.; Godard, B.

    2013-04-10

    We report the detection of hydrogen chloride, HCl, in diffuse molecular clouds on the line of sight toward the star-forming region W31C (G10.6-0.4). The J = 1-0 lines of the two stable HCl isotopologues, H{sup 35}Cl and H{sup 37}Cl, are observed using the 1b receiver of the Heterodyne Instrument for the Far-Infrared (HIFI) on board the Herschel Space Observatory. The HCl line is detected in absorption, over a wide range of velocities associated with diffuse clouds along the line of sight to W31C. The analysis of the absorption strength yields a total HCl column density of a few 10{sup 13} cm{sup -2}, implying that HCl accounts for {approx}0.6% of the total gas-phase chlorine, which exceeds the theoretical model predictions by a factor of {approx}6. This result is comparable to those obtained from the chemically related species H{sub 2}Cl{sup +} and HCl{sup +}, for which large column densities have also been reported on the same line of sight. The source of discrepancy between models and observations is still unknown; however, the detection of these Cl-bearing molecules provides key constraints for the chlorine chemistry in the diffuse gas.

  18. Aerosol backscatter measurements at 10. 6 micrometers with airborne and ground-based CO sub 2 Doppler lidars over the Colorado high plains. 1. Lidar intercomparison

    SciTech Connect

    Bowdle, D.A. ); Rothermel, J. ); Vaughan, J.M.; Brown, D.W. ); Post, M.J. )

    1991-03-20

    An airborne continuous wave (CW) focused CO{sub 2} Doppler lidar and a ground-based pulsed CO{sub 2} Doppler lidar were used to obtain seven pairs of comparative measurements of tropospheric aerosol backscatter profiles at 10.6 {mu}m wavelength, near Denver, Colorado, during a 20-day period in July 1982. In regions of uniform backscatter the two lidars show good agreement, with differences usually less than {approximately}50% near 8-km altitude and less than a factor of 2 or 3 elsewhere but with the pulsed lidar often lower than the CW lidar. Near sharp backscatter gradients the two lidars show poorer agreement, with the pulsed lidar usually higher than the CW lidar. Most discrepancies arise from a combination of atmospheric factors and instrument factors, particularly small-scale areal and temporal backscatter heterogeneity above the planetary boundary layer, unusual large-scale vertical backscatter structure in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere, and differences in the spatial resolution, detection threshold, and noise estimation for the two lidars.

  19. Patterned FeNi soft magnetic strips film with tunable resonance frequency from 1 to 10.6 GHz

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Yong; Li, Xinxi; Wang, Yan; Ren, Jiankun; Zhang, Yan; Dai, Bo; Yan, Haiyang; Sun, Guangai; Peng, Shuming

    2016-01-01

    Soft magnetic films with a wide-range tunable ferromagnetic resonance frequency are suitable for miniaturization and multifunctionalization of microwave integrated circuits. Fabrication of these films for high-frequency applications is usually complicated and difficult. We demonstrate a simple method to fabricate patterned FeNi soft magnetic strip films by magnetron sputtering and photolithography. Films prepared by this method exhibits a tunable in-plane uniaxial magnetic anisotropy (IPUMA) for different strip widths and gaps. As the strip widths changing from 500 to 2 μm, the IPUMA field increases monotonically from 2.2 to 576 Oe and resonance frequency from 1 to 10.6 GHz(which covers four microwave bands, including the L,S,C and X bands) respectively. This ultra-wide-range adjustability of resonance frequency can be attributed to shape anisotropy of strips. Considering that FeNi alloy has relatively low magnetocrystalline anisotropy, so a wider adjustable range of resonance frequency could be obtained using materials with stronger magnetocrystalline anisotropy. PMID:27561328

  20. Patterned FeNi soft magnetic strips film with tunable resonance frequency from 1 to 10.6 GHz.

    PubMed

    Ren, Yong; Li, Xinxi; Wang, Yan; Ren, Jiankun; Zhang, Yan; Dai, Bo; Yan, Haiyang; Sun, Guangai; Peng, Shuming

    2016-01-01

    Soft magnetic films with a wide-range tunable ferromagnetic resonance frequency are suitable for miniaturization and multifunctionalization of microwave integrated circuits. Fabrication of these films for high-frequency applications is usually complicated and difficult. We demonstrate a simple method to fabricate patterned FeNi soft magnetic strip films by magnetron sputtering and photolithography. Films prepared by this method exhibits a tunable in-plane uniaxial magnetic anisotropy (IPUMA) for different strip widths and gaps. As the strip widths changing from 500 to 2 μm, the IPUMA field increases monotonically from 2.2 to 576 Oe and resonance frequency from 1 to 10.6 GHz(which covers four microwave bands, including the L,S,C and X bands) respectively. This ultra-wide-range adjustability of resonance frequency can be attributed to shape anisotropy of strips. Considering that FeNi alloy has relatively low magnetocrystalline anisotropy, so a wider adjustable range of resonance frequency could be obtained using materials with stronger magnetocrystalline anisotropy. PMID:27561328

  1. Human C1 inhibitor attenuates liver ischemia-reperfusion injury and promotes liver regeneration.

    PubMed

    Saidi, Reza F; Rajeshkumar, Barur; Shariftabrizi, Ahmad; Dresser, Karen; Walter, Otto

    2014-04-01

    Liver ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) is a well-known cause of morbidity and mortality after liver transplantation (LT). Activation of the complement system contributes to the pathogenesis of IRI. Effective treatment strategies aimed at reducing hepatic IRI and accelerating liver regeneration could offer major benefits in LT. Herein, we investigated the effect of C1-esterase inhibitor (human) [C1-INH] on IRI and liver regeneration. Mice were subjected to 60-min partial IRI, with or without 70% partial hepatectomy, or CCl4-induced acute liver failure. Before liver injury, the animals were pretreated with intravenous C1-INH or normal saline. Liver IRI was evaluated using serum levels of alanine aminotransferase, serum interleukin-6, and histopathology. Liver samples were stained for specific markers of regeneration (5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine [BrdU] staining and proliferating cell nuclear antigen [PCNA]). Histology, serum interleukin-6, and alanine aminotransferase release revealed that C1-INH treatment attenuated liver injury compared with controls. Improved animal survival and increased number of BrdU- and PCNA-positive cells were observed in C1-INH-treated animals which underwent IRI + partial hepatectomy or CCl4 injection compared with control group. These data indicate that complement plays a key role in IRI and liver regeneration. C1-INH represents a potential therapeutic strategy to reduce IRI and promote regeneration in LT.

  2. Role of C1q in Rhesus haemolytic disease of the newborn.

    PubMed

    Poorkhorsandi, M E; Gupte, S C

    1996-09-01

    Present study attempts to find out if maternal anti-D can bind the first complement component C1q and its impact on phagocytosis and severity of Rh haemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN). One hundred Rh immunised women were enrolled, however six having Rh(D) negative infants were excluded. Immunometric assay revealed that of 94 sera, 18 (19.1%) were able to bind C1q but failed to bind C3. Six mothers had anti-C (two bound C1q) and one had anti-E (C1q nonbinding) in addition to anti-D. Various characteristics of anti-D like titre, concentration, IgG subtypes and phagocytic activity showed comparable results (P > 0.3) in C1q binding and nonbinding groups. No significant difference in the severity of Rhesus haemolytic disease of the newborn (Rh HDN), judged by the outcome of pregnancy, cord blood haemoglobin, peak and pre exchange transfusion (ET), indirect serum bilirubin and requirement of ET, was observed in these two groups. Hence this study suggests that though some anti-D sera can bind C1q, there is no further activation of complement pathway and the severity of Rh HDN is not influenced by this phenomenon.

  3. Post-transplant development of C1q-positive HLA antibodies and kidney graft survival.

    PubMed

    Piazza, Antonina; Poggi, Elvira; Ozzella, Giuseppina; Adorno, Domenico

    2013-01-01

    The development of de novo human leukocyte antigen (HLA) donor specific antibodies (DSA), detected by both cytotoxic or solid phase assays, was considered the major risk factor for allograft failure in kidney transplantation. However, it was shown that not all patients with persistent production of DSA suffered loss of their grafts. Modified Luminex-Single Antigen assays, able to identify C1q-fixing antibodies, represent a new strategy in assessing the clinical relevance of detected DSA. This study demonstrated that C1q-fixing capability of de novo DSA is a clinically relevant marker of worse outcome and inferior graft survival in kidney transplantation. In fact, our findings evidenced a very low graft survival only in the patients who developed DSA able to fix C1q during post-transplant course, while patients producing C1q-negative DSA had good graft survival, which was comparable to that found in our previous study for DSA-negative patients. Moreover, anti-HLA class II antibodies had a higher incidence than anti-HLA class I, and the ability to fix C1q was significantly more frequent among anti-DQ DSA than anti-DR DSA. Monitoring of de novo C1q-DSA production represents a useful, non-invasive tool for risk stratification and prediction of graft outcome in kidney transplantation.

  4. Deciphering the Fine Details of C1 Assembly and Activation Mechanisms: “Mission Impossible”?

    PubMed Central

    Gaboriaud, Christine; Ling, Wai Li; Thielens, Nicole M.; Bally, Isabelle; Rossi, Véronique

    2014-01-01

    The classical complement pathway is initiated by the large (~800 kDa) and flexible multimeric C1 complex. Its catalytic function is triggered by the proteases hetero-tetramer C1r2s2, which is associated to the C1q sensing unit, a complex assembly of 18 chains built as a hexamer of heterotrimers. Initial pioneering studies gained insights into the main architectural principles of the C1 complex. A dissection strategy then provided the high-resolution structures of its main functional and/or structural building blocks, as well as structural details on some key protein–protein interactions. These past and current discoveries will be briefly summed up in order to address the question of what is still ill-defined. On a functional point of view, the main molecular determinants of C1 activation and its tight control will be delineated. The current perspective remains to decipher how C1 really works and is controlled in vivo, both in normal and pathological settings. PMID:25414705

  5. C2 nerve dysfunction associated with C1 lateral mass screw fixation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Da-geng; Hao, Ding-jun; Li, Guang-lin; Guo, Hao; Zhang, Yu-chen; He, Bao-rong

    2014-11-01

    The C1 lateral mass screw technique is widely used for atlantoaxial fixation. However, C2 nerve dysfunction may occur as a complication of this procedure, compromising the quality of life of affected patients. This is a review of the topic of C2 nerve dysfunction associated with C1 lateral mass screw fixation and related research developments. The C2 nerve root is located in the space bordered superiorly by the posterior arch of C1 , inferiorly by the C2 lamina, anteriorly by the lateral atlantoaxial joint capsule, and posteriorly by the anterior edge of the ligamentum flavum. Some surgeons suggest cutting the C2 nerve root during C1 lateral mass screw placement, whereas others prefer to preserve it. The incidence, clinical manifestations, causes, management, and prevention of C2 nerve dysfunction associated with C(1) lateral mass screw fixation are reviewed. Sacrifice of the C2 nerve root carries a high risk of postoperative numbness, whereas postoperative nerve dysfunction can occur when it has been preserved. Many surgeons have been working hard on minimizing the risk of postoperative C2 nerve dysfunction associated with C1 lateral mass screw fixation. PMID:25430709

  6. The Cyclic Peptide Ecumicin Targeting ClpC1 Is Active against Mycobacterium tuberculosis In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Wei; Kim, Jin-Yong; Anderson, Jeffrey R.; Akopian, Tatos; Hong, Seungpyo; Jin, Ying-Yu; Kandror, Olga; Kim, Jong-Woo; Lee, In-Ae; Lee, Sun-Young; McAlpine, James B.; Mulugeta, Surafel; Sunoqrot, Suhair; Wang, Yuehong; Yang, Seung-Hwan; Yoon, Tae-Mi; Goldberg, Alfred L.; Pauli, Guido F.; Cho, Sanghyun

    2014-01-01

    Drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) has lent urgency to finding new drug leads with novel modes of action. A high-throughput screening campaign of >65,000 actinomycete extracts for inhibition of Mycobacterium tuberculosis viability identified ecumicin, a macrocyclic tridecapeptide that exerts potent, selective bactericidal activity against M. tuberculosis in vitro, including nonreplicating cells. Ecumicin retains activity against isolated multiple-drug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) strains of M. tuberculosis. The subcutaneous administration to mice of ecumicin in a micellar formulation at 20 mg/kg body weight resulted in plasma and lung exposures exceeding the MIC. Complete inhibition of M. tuberculosis growth in the lungs of mice was achieved following 12 doses at 20 or 32 mg/kg. Genome mining of lab-generated, spontaneous ecumicin-resistant M. tuberculosis strains identified the ClpC1 ATPase complex as the putative target, and this was confirmed by a drug affinity response test. ClpC1 functions in protein breakdown with the ClpP1P2 protease complex. Ecumicin markedly enhanced the ATPase activity of wild-type (WT) ClpC1 but prevented activation of proteolysis by ClpC1. Less stimulation was observed with ClpC1 from ecumicin-resistant mutants. Thus, ClpC1 is a valid drug target against M. tuberculosis, and ecumicin may serve as a lead compound for anti-TB drug development. PMID:25421483

  7. C1q, the recognition subcomponent of the classical pathway of complement, drives microglial activation.

    PubMed

    Färber, Katrin; Cheung, Giselle; Mitchell, Daniel; Wallis, Russell; Weihe, Eberhard; Schwaeble, Wilhelm; Kettenmann, Helmut

    2009-02-15

    Microglia, central nervous system (CNS) resident phagocytic cells, persistently police the integrity of CNS tissue and respond to any kind of damage or pathophysiological changes. These cells sense and rapidly respond to danger and inflammatory signals by changing their cell morphology; by release of cytokines, chemokines, or nitric oxide; and by changing their MHC expression profile. We have shown previously that microglial biosynthesis of the complement subcomponent C1q may serve as a reliable marker of microglial activation ranging from undetectable levels of C1q biosynthesis in resting microglia to abundant C1q expression in activated, nonramified microglia. In this study, we demonstrate that cultured microglial cells respond to extrinsic C1q with a marked intracellular Ca(2+) increase. A shift toward proinflammatory microglial activation is indicated by the release of interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and nitric oxide and the oxidative burst in rat primary microglial cells, an activation and differentiation process similar to the proinflammatory response of microglia to exposure to lipopolysaccharide. Our findings indicate 1) that extrinsic plasma C1q is involved in the initiation of microglial activation in the course of CNS diseases with blood-brain barrier impairment and 2) that C1q synthesized and released by activated microglia is likely to contribute in an autocrine/paracrine way to maintain and balance microglial activation in the diseased CNS tissue. PMID:18831010

  8. Non-Contact Measurement of the Spectral Emissivity through Active/Passive Synergy of CO₂ Laser at 10.6 µm and 102F FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared) Spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ren-Hua; Su, Hong-Bo; Tian, Jing; Mi, Su-Juan; Li, Zhao-Liang

    2016-01-01

    In the inversion of land surface temperature (LST) from satellite data, obtaining the information on land surface emissivity is most challenging. How to solve both the emissivity and the LST from the underdetermined equations for thermal infrared radiation is a hot research topic related to quantitative thermal infrared remote sensing. The academic research and practical applications based on the temperature-emissivity retrieval algorithms show that directly measuring the emissivity of objects at a fixed thermal infrared waveband is an important way to close the underdetermined equations for thermal infrared radiation. Based on the prior research results of both the authors and others, this paper proposes a new approach of obtaining the spectral emissivity of the object at 8-14 µm with a single-band CO₂ laser at 10.6 µm and a 102F FTIR spectrometer. Through experiments, the spectral emissivity of several key samples, including aluminum plate, iron plate, copper plate, marble plate, rubber sheet, and paper board, at 8-14 µm is obtained, and the measured data are basically consistent with the hemispherical emissivity measurement by a Nicolet iS10 FTIR spectrometer for the same objects. For the rough surface of materials, such as marble and rusty iron, the RMSE of emissivity is below 0.05. The differences in the field of view angle and in the measuring direction between the Nicolet FTIR method and the method proposed in the paper, and the heterogeneity in the degree of oxidation, polishing and composition of the samples, are the main reasons for the differences of the emissivities between the two methods. PMID:27347964

  9. Non-Contact Measurement of the Spectral Emissivity through Active/Passive Synergy of CO2 Laser at 10.6 µm and 102F FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared) Spectrometer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ren-Hua; Su, Hong-Bo; Tian, Jing; Mi, Su-Juan; Li, Zhao-Liang

    2016-01-01

    In the inversion of land surface temperature (LST) from satellite data, obtaining the information on land surface emissivity is most challenging. How to solve both the emissivity and the LST from the underdetermined equations for thermal infrared radiation is a hot research topic related to quantitative thermal infrared remote sensing. The academic research and practical applications based on the temperature-emissivity retrieval algorithms show that directly measuring the emissivity of objects at a fixed thermal infrared waveband is an important way to close the underdetermined equations for thermal infrared radiation. Based on the prior research results of both the authors and others, this paper proposes a new approach of obtaining the spectral emissivity of the object at 8–14 µm with a single-band CO2 laser at 10.6 µm and a 102F FTIR spectrometer. Through experiments, the spectral emissivity of several key samples, including aluminum plate, iron plate, copper plate, marble plate, rubber sheet, and paper board, at 8–14 µm is obtained, and the measured data are basically consistent with the hemispherical emissivity measurement by a Nicolet iS10 FTIR spectrometer for the same objects. For the rough surface of materials, such as marble and rusty iron, the RMSE of emissivity is below 0.05. The differences in the field of view angle and in the measuring direction between the Nicolet FTIR method and the method proposed in the paper, and the heterogeneity in the degree of oxidation, polishing and composition of the samples, are the main reasons for the differences of the emissivities between the two methods. PMID:27347964

  10. Non-Contact Measurement of the Spectral Emissivity through Active/Passive Synergy of CO₂ Laser at 10.6 µm and 102F FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared) Spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ren-Hua; Su, Hong-Bo; Tian, Jing; Mi, Su-Juan; Li, Zhao-Liang

    2016-06-24

    In the inversion of land surface temperature (LST) from satellite data, obtaining the information on land surface emissivity is most challenging. How to solve both the emissivity and the LST from the underdetermined equations for thermal infrared radiation is a hot research topic related to quantitative thermal infrared remote sensing. The academic research and practical applications based on the temperature-emissivity retrieval algorithms show that directly measuring the emissivity of objects at a fixed thermal infrared waveband is an important way to close the underdetermined equations for thermal infrared radiation. Based on the prior research results of both the authors and others, this paper proposes a new approach of obtaining the spectral emissivity of the object at 8-14 µm with a single-band CO₂ laser at 10.6 µm and a 102F FTIR spectrometer. Through experiments, the spectral emissivity of several key samples, including aluminum plate, iron plate, copper plate, marble plate, rubber sheet, and paper board, at 8-14 µm is obtained, and the measured data are basically consistent with the hemispherical emissivity measurement by a Nicolet iS10 FTIR spectrometer for the same objects. For the rough surface of materials, such as marble and rusty iron, the RMSE of emissivity is below 0.05. The differences in the field of view angle and in the measuring direction between the Nicolet FTIR method and the method proposed in the paper, and the heterogeneity in the degree of oxidation, polishing and composition of the samples, are the main reasons for the differences of the emissivities between the two methods.

  11. NaHCO3 and NaC1 tolerance in chronic renal failure.

    PubMed

    Husted, F C; Nolph, K D; Maher, J F

    1975-08-01

    In patients with chronic renal failure, NaHCO3 therapy may correct or prevent acidemia. It has been proposed that the NaHCO3 required will not result in clinically significant Na retention comparable to that from similar increases in NaC1 intake. In each of ten patients with chronic renal failure, creatinine clearance (Ccr) range 2.5-16.8 ml/min, on an estimated 10-meq Na and C1 diet, electrolyte excretion was compared on NaHCO3 vs NaC1 supplements of 200 meq/day. Periods of NaHCO3 and NaC1 (in alternate order for successive patients) lasted 4 days, separated by reequilibration to base-line weight. Mean +/- SEM excretion (ex) of Na, C1, and HCO3 and deltaCcr and deltaweight (day 4-1) are compared below for the 4th day of NaC1 vs. NaHCO3 intake. Mean Ccr +/-SEM on day 4 of NaC1 and NaHCO3 were 10.8 +/-1.6 and 9.0 +/-1.4 ml/min, respectively (P less than 0.02). Mean systolic blood pressure (but not diastolic) increased significantly on NaC1 (P less than 0.05). No significant blood pressure changes were seen on NaHCO3. Net positive HCO3 balance occurred on NaHCO3 as indicated above and reflected a rise in mean serum HCO3 from 19 to 30 meq/liter (day 1 vs. 4) (P less than 0.01). Mechanisms for the greater excretion of Na on NaHCO3 may relate to C1 wasting as noted above on low C1 intake and limited HCO3 reabsorptive capacity. Thus, Na excretion by day 4 was greater on NaHCO3 than on NaHCO3 did Na excretion near intake (210 meq/day).

  12. On degree-degree correlations in multilayer networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Arruda, Guilherme Ferraz; Cozzo, Emanuele; Moreno, Yamir; Rodrigues, Francisco A.

    2016-06-01

    We propose a generalization of the concept of assortativity based on the tensorial representation of multilayer networks, covering the definitions given in terms of Pearson and Spearman coefficients. Our approach can also be applied to weighted networks and provides information about correlations considering pairs of layers. By analyzing the multilayer representation of the airport transportation network, we show that contrasting results are obtained when the layers are analyzed independently or as an interconnected system. Finally, we study the impact of the level of assortativity and heterogeneity between layers on the spreading of diseases. Our results highlight the need of studying degree-degree correlations on multilayer systems, instead of on aggregated networks.

  13. Robustness of networks of networks with degree-degree correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, Byungjoon; Canals, Santiago; Makse, Hernan

    Many real-world complex systems ranging from critical infrastructure and transportation networks to living systems including brain and cellular networks are not formed by an isolated network but by a network of networks. Randomly coupled networks with interdependency between different networks may easily result in abrupt collapse. Here, we seek a possible explanation of stable functioning in natural networks of networks including functional brain networks. Specifically, we analyze the robustness of networks of networks focused on one-to-many interconnections between different networks and degree-degree correlation. Implication of the network robustness on functional brain networks of rats is also discussed.

  14. Center is at Latitude 30 Degrees North, Longitude 150 Degrees

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Center of the orthographic projection is at latitude 30 degrees N., longitude 150 degrees. The north polar residual ice cap, which is cut by spiral-patterned troughs and surrounded by the dark lowland plains of Vastitas Borealis, is located at the top. The right-central part is dominated by the Tharsis Montes volcanoes. The most prominent of the Tharsis Montes volcanoes is the largest known volcano in the solar system, Olympus Mons. The light-colored lowland plains of Amazonis, Elysium, and Arcadia Planitiae lies north and west of Olympus Mons. The heavily cratered highlands dominate the lower one-third.

  15. Center is at Latitude 30 Degrees South, Longitude 90 Degrees

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Center of the orthographic projection is at latitude 30 degrees S., longitude 90 degrees. The top half is dominated by the Tharsis Montes volcanoes, the large Alba Patera shield volcano, the dark Chryse basin, and a vast canyon system, Valles Marineris. In the central part, a prominent physiographic feature, Thaumasia plateau, includes a complex array of small- and large-scale faults and ridges and ancient volcanoes. The large conspicuous Argyre basin, southeast of the Thaumasia plateau, contains a broad expanse of light-colored plains 800 km across. The permanent south polar ice cap is located near the bottom.

  16. Transcriptional response of four C1q domain containing protein (C1qDC) genes from Venerupis philippinarum exposed to the water soluble fraction of No.0 diesel oil.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Linbao; Sun, Wei; Cai, Wengui; Zhang, Zhe; Chen, Haigang; Ma, Shengwei; Jia, Xiaoping

    2016-10-01

    As pattern recognitionreceptors, the C1q-domain-containing (C1qDC) proteins play an important role in the pathogen recognition and complement pathway activation. In the present study, four novel C1q domain containing proteins (designated as VpC1qDC1, VpC1qDC2, VpC1qDC3 and VpC1qDC4) were cloned and characterized from clam Venerupis philippinarum. The four VpC1qDCs all possessed the conserved features critical for the fundamental structure and function of the C1q family. The four VpC1qDCs genes showed differential response profiles after exposure to the water soluble fraction of No.0 diesel oil (WSFD). More notably, VpC1qDC1 and VpC1qDC3 were more sensitive to low concentration of WSFD, as their mRNA level changed by higher magnitudes. In addition, VpC1qDC2 and VpC1qDC4 displayed notable increases with larger amplitude to high concentration of WSFD. All these results suggested that the transcriptional response of VpC1qDCs genes were probably a protective mechanism of the cell to oils pollution. The diverse expression patterns of VpC1qDCs demonstrated that VpC1qDC1 and VpC1qDC3 were sensitive responders to environmental stress in V. philippinarum. PMID:27261881

  17. Transcriptional response of four C1q domain containing protein (C1qDC) genes from Venerupis philippinarum exposed to the water soluble fraction of No.0 diesel oil.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Linbao; Sun, Wei; Cai, Wengui; Zhang, Zhe; Chen, Haigang; Ma, Shengwei; Jia, Xiaoping

    2016-10-01

    As pattern recognitionreceptors, the C1q-domain-containing (C1qDC) proteins play an important role in the pathogen recognition and complement pathway activation. In the present study, four novel C1q domain containing proteins (designated as VpC1qDC1, VpC1qDC2, VpC1qDC3 and VpC1qDC4) were cloned and characterized from clam Venerupis philippinarum. The four VpC1qDCs all possessed the conserved features critical for the fundamental structure and function of the C1q family. The four VpC1qDCs genes showed differential response profiles after exposure to the water soluble fraction of No.0 diesel oil (WSFD). More notably, VpC1qDC1 and VpC1qDC3 were more sensitive to low concentration of WSFD, as their mRNA level changed by higher magnitudes. In addition, VpC1qDC2 and VpC1qDC4 displayed notable increases with larger amplitude to high concentration of WSFD. All these results suggested that the transcriptional response of VpC1qDCs genes were probably a protective mechanism of the cell to oils pollution. The diverse expression patterns of VpC1qDCs demonstrated that VpC1qDC1 and VpC1qDC3 were sensitive responders to environmental stress in V. philippinarum.

  18. Efficacy of C1 esterase inhibitor concentrate in treatment of cutaneous attacks of hereditary angioedema

    PubMed Central

    Bork, Konrad; Craig, Timothy J.; Bernstein, Jonathan A.; Feuersenger, Henrike; Machnig, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although treatment with C1 esterase inhibitor (C1-INH) concentrate is well established for hereditary angioedema (HAE) attacks in general, data that assess its efficacy for cutaneous attack treatment are sparse. Objective: To assess efficacy of plasma-derived, nanofiltered C1-INH concentrate for cutaneous attack treatment by comparing treated attacks from the uncontrolled I.M.P.A.C.T.2 study with historical data for untreated attacks. Methods: Cutaneous attack data from patients with HAE who were treated for cutaneous edema with 20 IU/kg body weight C1-INH concentrate in the uncontrolled I.M.P.A.C.T.2 study (38 patients) were compared with data from untreated patients from an historical data base (46 patients) and included subset analyses for facial edema (treated group, 21 patients; untreated group, 33 patients) and peripheral edema (30 patients in each group). Average attack duration (AAD) per patient was the efficacy end point used to compare treated and untreated patients. Differences were assessed with a Wilcoxon test (primary analysis) and a log-rank test; AAD per patient was analyzed descriptively and graphically with Kaplan-Meier curves. Results: The AAD per patient of all cutaneous attacks or facial and peripheral cutaneous attack subsets was significantly faster with C1-INH treatment than without treatment (Wilcoxon and log-rank tests, both p < 0.0001 for all comparisons). Mean AADs per patient for all, facial, and peripheral attacks were 2.04, 1.45, and 2.16 days, respectively, in the C1-INH–treated group, and were 3.74, 4.45, and 2.98 days, respectively, in the untreated group. Kaplan-Meier curves corroborated the observed group differences. Conclusion: Treatment of cutaneous HAE attacks (all attacks or facial and peripheral attack subsets) with 20 IU/kg C1-INH concentrate provided faster attack resolution compared with no treatment. PMID:25803207

  19. 3. C1XS results - First measurement of enhanced Sodium on the Lunar surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grande, Manuel; Athiray, Subramania; Narendranath, Shyama; Sreekumar, Parameswaran; Carter, Jimmy

    2015-04-01

    We describe the first unambiguous evidence of enhanced sodium on the lunar surface revealed by the Chandrayaan-1 X-ray Spectrometer (C1XS).The C1XS on board the Chandrayaan-1 spacecraft was designed to map the surface elemental chemistry of the Moon using the X-ray fluorescence (XRF) technique. During the nine months of remote sensing observations (November 2008-August 2009), C1XS measured XRF emission from the Moon under several solar flare conditions. A summary of the entire C1XS observations and data selection methods are presented. Surface elemental abundances of major rock-forming elements viz., Mg, Al, Si and Ca as well as Na derived from C1XS data corresponding to certain nearside regions of the Moon are reported here. We also present a detailed description of the analysis techniques including derivation of XRF line fluxes and conversion to elemental abundances. The derived abundances of Na(2-3 wt%) are significantly higher than what has been known from earlier studies. We compare the surface chemistry of C1XS observed regions with the highly silicic compositions (intermediate plagioclase) measured by the Diviner Radiometer instrument on board Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) in those regions. Elemental maps of the nearside Lunar highlands are presented. The compositions determined from C1XS tend to support recent theories and findings of intermediate plagioclase on the Moon. However,precise Ca and Na abundance measurements are required on a global scale to address the evolution of the lunar surface.

  20. C1-c2 pedicle screw fixation for treatment of old odontoid fractures.

    PubMed

    Qi, Lei; Li, Mu; Zhang, Shuai; Si, Haipeng; Xue, Jingsong

    2015-02-01

    Nonunion and C1-C2 instability of odontoid fractures usually result from delayed diagnosis and inappropriate treatment. However, the available treatment options for odontoid fractures remain controversial. The authors evaluated the effectiveness of internal screw fixation via the C1 and C2 pedicle in cases of old odontoid fractures. This retrospective study included 21 patients with old odontoid fractures (13 men and 8 women; mean age, 46.5 years; range, 24-69 years). Internal screw fixation via the C1 and C2 pedicle was performed in all patients. Fracture reduction and C1-C2 fusion were assessed with imaging. The neck pain visual analog scale score and cervical spinal cord functional Japanese Orthopaedic Association score (for those who had cervical spinal cord injury) were used to evaluate the effectiveness of treatment. Postoperative complications were recorded. Postoperative imaging showed that the C1-C2 dislocation was satisfactorily repositioned in all patients. Bone fusion was observed 1 year after surgery in all patients. No loosening or breaking of internal fixation occurred. The preoperative neck pain visual analog scale score was 5.9±1.5 and improved significantly to 1.8±0.8 after surgery (P<.001). The Japanese Orthopaedic Association score in patients with cervical spinal injury (n=14) was 9.2±1.9 and also significantly improved to 13.8±1.9 at the last follow-up examination (P<.001), with an average improvement rate of 61.0%. No iatrogenic vertebral artery injury or severe spinal cord injury occurred. Screw fixation via the C1 and C2 pedicle was found to be an effective and safe surgical approach for the treatment of old odontoid fractures with C1-C2 dislocation or instability. PMID:25665108

  1. C3 is activated in hereditary angioedema, and C1/C1-inhibitor complexes rise during physical stress in untreated patients.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, E W; Johansen, H T; Gaudesen, O; Osterud, B; Olsen, J O; Høgåsen, K; Hack, C E; Mollnes, T E

    1995-12-01

    Seven patients with hereditary angioedema (HAE) were studied to understand further how physical exercise may induce attacks. The most pronounced differences between patients and controls, however, were independent of the controlled bicycle run (mean values in patients/ controls); C4(g/L): 0.12/0.28 (P = 0.0122); C4bc (AU/ml): 137.0/18.0 (P = 0.0002); C4d (mg/mL): 5.03/2.35 (P = 0.0004); C3bc (AU/ml): 8.4/6.3 (P = 0.0049); C3a (AU/ml): 11.1/5.6 (P = 0.0102). The ratio C4bc to C4 was 1141 versus 64. Consequently, a substantial part of the low amount of C4 left in HAE patients consists of activation products, and the authors show for the first time that a mild but significant activation of C3 occurs in HAE. The two HAE patients treated with danazol had values of C1-INH function and antigen, C4, and C2 in-between those of normal and untreated patients, and lower levels of split products from C4 and high molecular weight kininogen than untreated patients. As a result of the exercise, fibrinolysis increased significantly in both patients and controls, while C1/C1-INH complexes rose significantly only in the five HAE patients without treatment when compared to the seven controls (P = 0.0089). This study thus suggests that complement activation is enhanced in untreated HAE patients following physical stress.

  2. Single-stranded DNA binding activity of C1-tetrahydrofolate synthase enzymes.

    PubMed

    Wahls, W P; Song, J M; Smith, G R

    1993-11-15

    In eukaryotes C1-5,6,7,8-tetrahydrofolate (THF) synthase is a trifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the interconversion of reduced forms of folate to supply activated one-carbon units required for a variety of metabolic pathways. The enzymatic activities include 10-formyl-THF synthetase (EC 6.3.4.3), 5,10-methenyl-THF cyclohydrolase (EC 3.5.4.9), and 5,10-methylene-THF dehydrogenase (EC 1.5.1.5). In bacteria separate, monofunctional or bifunctional polypeptides catalyze the same reactions. We have purified C1-THF synthase from the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe and found its physical and enzymatic properties similar to those of other eukaryotic C1-THF synthase enzymes. Unexpectedly, the S. pombe enzyme bound strongly (Keq = 100 pM) to single-stranded DNA, but not to double-stranded DNA or to RNA. The binding was sequence-independent, apparently not cooperative, and not detectably inhibited by C1-THF synthase substrates or cofactors. Trifunctional cytoplasmic enzyme from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and monofunctional (synthetase) enzyme from Clostridium acidiurici also bound tightly to single-stranded DNA, while bifunctional (dehydrogenase and cyclohydrolase) enzyme from Escherichia coli did not, suggesting that single-stranded DNA binding is a conserved function of the synthetase domain of C1-THF synthase enzymes. PMID:8226914

  3. Recombinant human C1-inhibitor inhibits cytotoxicity induced by allo- and xenoantibodies.

    PubMed

    Poirier, N; Blancho, G

    2008-03-01

    Antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) is usually poorly controlled, especially in the context of pretransplant immunization, and remains an unsolved issue in xenotransplantation. In order to study prevention and/or treatment of AMR through an early blockade of the complement classical pathway, we designed two strategies to test the effect of a new recombinant human C1-inhibitor that inhibits C1 esterase (rhC1-INH; Pharming, The Netherlands), in a complement-dependent cytotoxicity assay, in the contexts of pretransplant anti-donor alloimmunization and pig-to-primate combinations in order to compare the situations. RhC1-INH appeared to be efficient, in allo- and xenotransplantation settings to block cytotoxicity when given at the initiation of (preventive strategy) or during (curative strategy) the cytotoxicity assay. Importantly, we showed that a small amount of exogenous rhC1-INH was sufficient to prevent cytotoxicity induced by anti-donor alloantibody, thus possibly helping to prevent or treat AMR in preimmunized patients. These in vitro data lead to future in vivo studies in models of AMR in pigs and baboons in allotransplantation and xenotransplantation, in which cytotoxicity due to Gal and non-Gal antibodies is so detrimental.

  4. In pursuit of excellence: an integrated care pathway for C1 inhibitor deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Manson, A L; Price, A; Dempster, J; Clinton-Tarestad, P; Greening, C; Enti, R; Hill, S; Grigoriadou, S; Buckland, M S; Longhurst, H J

    2013-01-01

    There are estimated to be approximately 1500 people in the United Kingdom with C1 inhibitor (C1INH) deficiency. At BartsHealth National Health Service (NHS) Trust we manage 133 patients with this condition and we believe that this represents one of the largest cohorts in the United Kingdom. C1INH deficiency may be hereditary or acquired. It is characterized by unpredictable episodic swellings, which may affect any part of the body, but are potentially fatal if they involve the larynx and cause significant morbidity if they involve the viscera. The last few years have seen a revolution in the treatment options that are available for C1 inhibitor deficiency. However, this occurs at a time when there are increased spending restraints in the NHS and the commissioning structure is being overhauled. Integrated care pathways (ICP) are a tool for disseminating best practice, for facilitating clinical audit, enabling multi-disciplinary working and for reducing health-care costs. Here we present an ICP for managing C1 inhibitor deficiency. PMID:23607500

  5. Complement C1q-induced activation of β-catenin signalling causes hypertensive arterial remodelling

    PubMed Central

    Sumida, Tomokazu; Naito, Atsuhiko T.; Nomura, Seitaro; Nakagawa, Akito; Higo, Tomoaki; Hashimoto, Akihito; Okada, Katsuki; Sakai, Taku; Ito, Masamichi; Yamaguchi, Toshihiro; Oka, Toru; Akazawa, Hiroshi; Lee, Jong-Kook; Minamino, Tohru; Offermanns, Stefan; Noda, Tetsuo; Botto, Marina; Kobayashi, Yoshio; Morita, Hiroyuki; Manabe, Ichiro; Nagai, Toshio; Shiojima, Ichiro; Komuro, Issei

    2015-01-01

    Hypertension induces structural remodelling of arteries, which leads to arteriosclerosis and end-organ damage. Hyperplasia of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and infiltration of immune cells are the hallmark of hypertensive arterial remodelling. However, the precise molecular mechanisms of arterial remodelling remain elusive. We have recently reported that complement C1q activates β-catenin signalling independent of Wnts. Here, we show a critical role of complement C1-induced activation of β-catenin signalling in hypertensive arterial remodelling. Activation of β-catenin and proliferation of VSMCs were observed after blood-pressure elevation, which were prevented by genetic and chemical inhibition of β-catenin signalling. Macrophage depletion and C1qa gene deletion attenuated the hypertension-induced β-catenin signalling, proliferation of VSMCs and pathological arterial remodelling. Our findings unveil the link between complement C1 and arterial remodelling and suggest that C1-induced activation of β-catenin signalling becomes a novel therapeutic target to prevent arteriosclerosis in patients with hypertension. PMID:25716000

  6. Recombinant human C1-inhibitor inhibits cytotoxicity induced by allo- and xenoantibodies.

    PubMed

    Poirier, N; Blancho, G

    2008-03-01

    Antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) is usually poorly controlled, especially in the context of pretransplant immunization, and remains an unsolved issue in xenotransplantation. In order to study prevention and/or treatment of AMR through an early blockade of the complement classical pathway, we designed two strategies to test the effect of a new recombinant human C1-inhibitor that inhibits C1 esterase (rhC1-INH; Pharming, The Netherlands), in a complement-dependent cytotoxicity assay, in the contexts of pretransplant anti-donor alloimmunization and pig-to-primate combinations in order to compare the situations. RhC1-INH appeared to be efficient, in allo- and xenotransplantation settings to block cytotoxicity when given at the initiation of (preventive strategy) or during (curative strategy) the cytotoxicity assay. Importantly, we showed that a small amount of exogenous rhC1-INH was sufficient to prevent cytotoxicity induced by anti-donor alloantibody, thus possibly helping to prevent or treat AMR in preimmunized patients. These in vitro data lead to future in vivo studies in models of AMR in pigs and baboons in allotransplantation and xenotransplantation, in which cytotoxicity due to Gal and non-Gal antibodies is so detrimental. PMID:18374134

  7. To the occiput or not? C1-c2 ligamentous laxity in children with down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Siemionow, Kris; Chou, Dean

    2014-10-01

    Study Design Retrospective case review. Objective Atlantoaxial instability with and without basilar invagination poses a considerable challenge in management regarding reduction, surgical approach, decompression, instrumentation choice, and extent of fusion. A variety of strategies have been described to reduce and stabilize cranial settling with basilar invagination. Modern instrumentation options included extension to the occiput, C1-C2 transarticular fixation, and C1 lateral mass-C2 pars among others. Since not all cases of cranial settling are the same, their treatment strategies also differ. Factors such as local vascular anatomy, amount of subluxation, need for distraction, and shape of occipital condyles will dictate level and type of instrumentation. The objective of this study was to outline treatment options and provide a rationale for the surgical plan. Methods Two cases of C1-C2 instability in patients with Down syndrome are described. Case 2 underwent C1-C2 instrumented fusion, whereas case 1 involved posterior instrumented fusion to the occiput. Results Both patients tolerated the procedures well. There were no complications. Minimum follow-up was 1 year. There was no loss of reduction. Solid arthrodesis was achieved in both cases. Conclusion Successful reduction can be achieved with both C1-C2 instrumented fusion as well as O-C instrument fusion. Factors such as local vascular anatomy, amount of subluxation, need for distraction, and shape of occipital condyles will dictate level and type of instrumentation. PMID:25364324

  8. Validity of palpation of the C1 transverse process: comparison with a radiographic reference standard

    PubMed Central

    Cooperstein, Robert; Young, Morgan; Lew, Makani

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Primary goal: to determine the validity of C1 transverse process (TVP) palpation compared to an imaging reference standard. Methods: Radiopaque markers were affixed to the skin at the putative location of the C1 TVPs in 21 participants receiving APOM radiographs. The radiographic vertical distances from the marker to the C1 TVP, mastoid process, and C2 TVP were evaluated to determine palpatory accuracy. Results: Interexaminer agreement for radiometric analysis was “excellent.” Stringent accuracy (marker placed ±4mm from the most lateral projection of the C1 TVP) = 57.1%; expansive accuracy (marker placed closer to contiguous structures) = 90.5%. Mean Absolute Deviation (MAD) = 4.34 (3.65, 5.03) mm; root-mean-squared error = 5.40mm. Conclusions: Manual palpation of the C1 TVP can be very accurate and likely to direct a manual therapist or other health professional to the intended diagnostic or therapeutic target. This work is relevant to manual therapists, anesthetists, surgeons, and other health professionals. PMID:26136601

  9. Modeling and estimation of C1-P1 bias in GPS receivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Y.; Lahaye, F.; Héroux, P.; Liao, X.; Beck, N.; Olynik, M.

    2001-01-01

    Modern dual-frequency global positioning system (GPS) receivers are capable of providing direct measurements of both L1 C/A (C1) and P code (P1) without the use of the Y-codes under Anti-Spoofing. A discrepancy or bias between the C1 and P1 measurements from these receivers has however been of concern to operators and users of GPS reference networks. For the purpose of modeling and estimation, the nature and characteristics of the discrepancy must be investigated. The research results presented indicate that the discrepancy between the C1 and P1 measurements contains two different types of components: one is of constant type while another is time variant. A method has been developed for their modeling and estimation. The residual C1-P1 time series after a satellite-dependent bias removal agree at a few-centimeter level, indicating the effectiveness of the proposed model. This allows the C1-P1 discrepancy, both constant and non-constant components, to be removed from GPS reference network solutions. Numerical results are provided to support the analysis.

  10. Evidence that complement protein C1q interacts with C-reactive protein through its globular head region.

    PubMed

    McGrath, Fabian D G; Brouwer, Mieke C; Arlaud, Gérard J; Daha, Mohamed R; Hack, C Erik; Roos, Anja

    2006-03-01

    C1q acts as the recognition unit of the first complement component, C1, and binds to immunoglobulins IgG and IgM, as well as to non-Ig ligands, such as C-reactive protein (CRP). IgG and IgM are recognized via the globular head regions of C1q (C1qGR), whereas CRP has been postulated to interact with the collagen-like region (C1qCLR). In the present study, we used a series of nine mAbs to C1q, five directed against C1qGR and four against C1qCLR, to inhibit the interaction of C1q with CRP. The F(ab')(2) of each of the five mAbs directed against C1qGR inhibited binding of C1q to polymerized IgG. These five mAbs also successfully inhibited the interaction of C1q with CRP. Moreover, these five mAbs inhibited C1 activation by CRP as well as by polymerized IgG in vitro. In contrast, none of the four mAbs against C1qCLR inhibited C1q interaction with CRP or IgG, or could reduce activation of complement by CRP or polymerized IgG. These results provide the first evidence that the interaction of C1q with CRP or IgG involves sites located in the C1qGR, whereas sites in the CLR do not seem to be involved in the physiological interaction of C1q with CRP.

  11. Treatment of type I and II hereditary angioedema with Rhucin, a recombinant human C1 inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Varga, Lilian; Farkas, Henriette

    2008-11-01

    Hereditary and acquired angioedema are of outstanding clinical importance, as edematous attacks associated with these conditions can thrust afflicted patients into mortal danger. Currently, C1 inhibitor concentrate - a human blood product - is available as a replacement therapy. In view of the limited number of donors, as well as the risk of transmission of blood-borne infections, it is a reasonable expectation to develop a therapeutic alternative based on recombinant technology, which would eliminate all these shortcomings. Pharming (Leiden, The Netherlands) has developed Rhucin, a recombinant human C1 inhibitor, as a proprietary product, which is currently being evaluated in Phase III clinical trials. Ongoing studies conducted within the framework of the development program are almost complete and their interim findings are reassuring. This should facilitate successful regulatory approval in the near future, which is indispensable in order to make Rhucin available for patients with hereditary angioedema or other disorders amenable to C1 inhibitor replacement.

  12. Treatment of type I and II hereditary angioedema with Rhucin, a recombinant human C1 inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Varga, Lilian; Farkas, Henriette

    2008-11-01

    Hereditary and acquired angioedema are of outstanding clinical importance, as edematous attacks associated with these conditions can thrust afflicted patients into mortal danger. Currently, C1 inhibitor concentrate - a human blood product - is available as a replacement therapy. In view of the limited number of donors, as well as the risk of transmission of blood-borne infections, it is a reasonable expectation to develop a therapeutic alternative based on recombinant technology, which would eliminate all these shortcomings. Pharming (Leiden, The Netherlands) has developed Rhucin, a recombinant human C1 inhibitor, as a proprietary product, which is currently being evaluated in Phase III clinical trials. Ongoing studies conducted within the framework of the development program are almost complete and their interim findings are reassuring. This should facilitate successful regulatory approval in the near future, which is indispensable in order to make Rhucin available for patients with hereditary angioedema or other disorders amenable to C1 inhibitor replacement. PMID:20477114

  13. Detection of vanC1 gene transcription in vancomycin-susceptible Enterococcus faecalis.

    PubMed

    Moura, Tiane Martin de; Cassenego, Ana Paula Vaz; Campos, Fabrício Souza; Ribeiro, Andrea Machado Leal; Franco, Ana Cláudia; d'Azevedo, Pedro Alves; Frazzon, Jeverson; Frazzon, Ana Paula Guedes

    2013-06-01

    Here we report the presence and expression levels of the vanC1 and vanC(2/3) genes in vancomycin-susceptible strains of Enterococcus faecalis. The vanC1 and vanC(2/3) genes were located in the plasmid DNA and on the chromosome, respectively. Specific mRNA of the vanC1 gene was detected in one of these strains. Additionally, analysis of the vanC gene sequences showed that these genes are related to the vanC genes of Enterococcus gallinarum and Enterococcus casseliflavus. The presence of vanC genes is useful for the identification of E. gallinarum and E. casseliflavus. Moreover, this is the first report of vanC mRNA in E. faecalis.

  14. Cervicogenic vertigo treated by c1 transverse foramen decompression : a case report.

    PubMed

    Park, Junhee; Lee, Chulkyu; You, Namkyu; Kim, Sanghyun; Cho, Kihong

    2014-09-01

    Cervicogenic vertigo was known as Bow hunter's syndrome. Occlusion of vertebral artery causes vertebrobasilar insufficiency and we reported cervicogenic vertigo case which was treated by simple decompression of transverse foramen of C1. The patient was 48 years old female who had left side dominant vertebral artery and vertigo was provoked when she rotated her head to right side. Angiography showed complete obliteration of blood flow of left vertebral artery when her head was rotated to right side. The operation was decompression of left vertebral artery at C1 level. Posterior wall of transverse foramen was resected and vertebral artery was exposed and decompressed. After surgery, vertigo of the patient was disappeared, and angiography showed patent left vertebral artery when her head was rotated to right side. Vertigo caused by compression of cervical vertebral artery could be treated by decompression without fusion or instrumentation, especially in C1 transverse foramen. PMID:25346772

  15. BP-C1 in the treatment of patients with stage IV breast cancer: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled multicenter study and an additional open-label treatment phase

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, Stig; Butthongkomvong, Kritiya; Manikhas, Alexey; Trishkina, Ekaterina; Poddubuskaya, Elena; Matrosova, Marina; Srimuninnimit, Vichien; Lindkær-Jensen, Steen

    2014-01-01

    receiving 64 days of BP-C1 from 9.2 at screening to 8.9 at Day 48, but it increased again to 10.1 by Day 64 and 10.6 during the 28-day follow-up. “Breast cancer-related pain and discomfort” and “Breast cancer treatment problem last week” were significantly reduced (P=0.02) in the BP-C1 group but increased slightly in the placebo group; between-group differences were significant in favor of BP-C1 (P=0.05). “Breast cancer related pain and discomfort”, “Breast cancer treatment problem last week,” and “Physical activity problem” were significantly reduced during the 64 days of BP-C1 treatment (P≤0.05). Conclusion For patients suffering from stage IV metastatic breast cancer, treatment with BP-C1 reduces cancer growth, is well tolerated, improves quality of life, and produces few adverse events, which were mainly mild and manageable. PMID:25473312

  16. C1 Inhibitor Limits Organ Injury and Prolongs Survival in Swine Subjected to Battlefield Simulated Injury.

    PubMed

    Campbell, James C; Li, Yansong; van Amersfoort, Edwin; Relan, Anurag; Dubick, Michael; Sheppard, Forest; Pusateri, Anthony; Niemeyer, Debra; Tsokos, George C; Dalle Lucca, Jurandir J

    2016-09-01

    Complement system activation is recognized as a deleterious component of the mammalian physiological response to traumatic injury with severe hemorrhage (TH). Female Yorkshire swine were subjected to a simulated austere prehospital battlefield scenario. Each animal underwent controlled hemorrhage of 22 mL/kg at 100 mL/min rate for approximately 10 min followed by soft tissue injury, femur fracture, and spleen injury. Subsequent blood loss was uncontrolled. Twenty-eight minutes postinjury the animals were randomized into treatment or no treatment with recombinant human C1 esterase inhibitor (C1INH) (500 IU/kg, n = 11) and into receiving or not permissive hypotensive resuscitation (n = 14) with infusion of 45 mL/kg lactated Ringer's solution (2× blood lost). Observation and animal maintenance continued for 6 h at which time the animals had either expired or were euthanized. Heart, lung, and small intestine tissue samples were collected. Pharmacokinetic, hemodynamic, and metabolic parameters as well as survival time, plasma complement activity and tissue deposition, cytokine levels, and tissue injury were determined. We found that administration of C1INH protected tissues from damage, reduced the levels of inflammatory cytokines, and improved blood chemistry. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed that C1INH administration following TH markedly reduced complement activation and deposition in tissues. Importantly, C1INH administration prolonged survival of animals particularly in those which received resuscitation fluid infusion. Our data urge early administration of C1INH to limit organ damage and prolong survival of those injured in the battlefield. PMID:27405065

  17. C1-Pathways in Methyloversatilis universalis FAM5: Genome Wide Gene Expression and Mutagenesis Studies

    PubMed Central

    Good, Nathan M.; Lamb, Andrew; Beck, David A. C.; Martinez-Gomez, N. Cecilia; Kalyuzhnaya, Marina G.

    2015-01-01

    Methyloversatilis universalis FAM5 utilizes single carbon compounds such as methanol or methylamine as a sole source of carbon and energy. Expression profiling reveals distinct sets of genes altered during growth on methylamine vs methanol. As expected, all genes for the N-methylglutamate pathway were induced during growth on methylamine. Among other functions responding to the aminated source of C1-carbon, are a heme-containing amine dehydrogenase (Qhp), a distant homologue of formaldehyde activating enzyme (Fae3), molybdenum-containing formate dehydrogenase, ferredoxin reductase, a set of homologues to urea/ammonium transporters and amino-acid permeases. Mutants lacking one of the functional subunits of the amine dehydrogenase (ΔqhpA) or Δfae3 showed no growth defect on C1-compounds. M. universalis FAM5 strains with a lesion in the H4-folate pathway were not able to use any C1-compound, methanol or methylamine. Genes essential for C1-assimilation (the serine cycle and glyoxylate shunt) and H4MTP-pathway for formaldehyde oxidation showed similar levels of expression on both C1-carbon sources. M. universalis FAM5 possesses three homologs of the formaldehyde activating enzyme, a key enzyme of the H4MTP-pathway. Strains lacking the canonical Fae (fae1) lost the ability to grow on both C1-compounds. However, upon incubation on methylamine the fae1-mutant produced revertants (Δfae1R), which regained the ability to grow on methylamine. Double and triple mutants (Δfae1RΔfae3, or Δfae1RΔfae2 or Δfae1RΔfae2Δfae3) constructed in the revertant strain background showed growth similar to the Δfae1R phenotype. The metabolic pathways for utilization of methanol and methylamine in Methyloversatilis universalis FAM5 are reconstructed based on these gene expression and phenotypic data.

  18. Deficiency in complement C1q improves histological and functional locomotor outcome after spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Galvan, Manuel D.; Luchetti, Sabina; Burgos, Adrian M.; Nguyen, Hal X.; Hooshmand, Mitra J.; Anderson, Aileen J.; Hamers, Frank P.T.

    2009-01-01

    Although studies have suggested a role for the complement system in the pathophysiology of spinal cord injury (SCI), that role remains poorly defined. Additionally, the relative contribution of individual complement pathways in SCI is unknown. Our initial studies revealed that systemic complement activation was strongly influenced by genetic background and gender. Thus, to investigate the role of the classical complement pathway in contusion-induced SCI, male C1q knockout (KO) and wildtype (WT) mice on a complement sufficient background (BUB) received a mild-moderate T9 contusion injury with the Infinite Horizon (IH) impactor. BUB C1q KO mice exhibited greater locomotor recovery in comparison to BUB WT mice (p < 0.05). Improved recovery observed in BUB C1q KO mice was also associated with decreased threshold for withdrawal from a mild stimulus using von Frey filament testing. Surprisingly, quantification of microglia/macrophages (F4/80) by FACS analysis showed that BUB C1q KO mice exhibited a significantly greater percentage of macrophages in the spinal cord compared to BUB WT mice 3 days post injury (p < 0.05). However, this increased macrophage response appeared to be transient as stereological assessment of spinal cord tissue obtained 28 days post injury revealed no difference in F4/80 positive cells between groups. Stereological assessment of spinal cord tissue showed that BUB C1q KO mice had reduced lesion volume and an increase in tissue sparing in comparison to BUB WT mice (p < 0.05). Taken together, these data suggest that initiation of the classical complement pathway via C1q is detrimental to recovery after SCI. PMID:19091977

  19. C1-Pathways in Methyloversatilis universalis FAM5: Genome Wide Gene Expression and Mutagenesis Studies

    PubMed Central

    Good, Nathan M.; Lamb, Andrew; Beck, David A. C.; Martinez-Gomez, N. Cecilia; Kalyuzhnaya, Marina G.

    2015-01-01

    Methyloversatilis universalis FAM5 utilizes single carbon compounds such as methanol or methylamine as a sole source of carbon and energy. Expression profiling reveals distinct sets of genes altered during growth on methylamine vs methanol. As expected, all genes for the N-methylglutamate pathway were induced during growth on methylamine. Among other functions responding to the aminated source of C1-carbon, are a heme-containing amine dehydrogenase (Qhp), a distant homologue of formaldehyde activating enzyme (Fae3), molybdenum-containing formate dehydrogenase, ferredoxin reductase, a set of homologues to urea/ammonium transporters and amino-acid permeases. Mutants lacking one of the functional subunits of the amine dehydrogenase (ΔqhpA) or Δfae3 showed no growth defect on C1-compounds. M. universalis FAM5 strains with a lesion in the H4-folate pathway were not able to use any C1-compound, methanol or methylamine. Genes essential for C1-assimilation (the serine cycle and glyoxylate shunt) and H4MTP-pathway for formaldehyde oxidation showed similar levels of expression on both C1-carbon sources. M. universalis FAM5 possesses three homologs of the formaldehyde activating enzyme, a key enzyme of the H4MTP-pathway. Strains lacking the canonical Fae (fae1) lost the ability to grow on both C1-compounds. However, upon incubation on methylamine the fae1-mutant produced revertants (Δfae1R), which regained the ability to grow on methylamine. Double and triple mutants (Δfae1RΔfae3, or Δfae1RΔfae2 or Δfae1RΔfae2Δfae3) constructed in the revertant strain background showed growth similar to the Δfae1R phenotype. The metabolic pathways for utilization of methanol and methylamine in Methyloversatilis universalis FAM5 are reconstructed based on these gene expression and phenotypic data. PMID:27682085

  20. Basal and hydrogen peroxide stimulated sites of phosphorylation in heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein C1/C2.

    PubMed

    Stone, James R; Maki, Jenny L; Collins, Tucker

    2003-02-11

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a recently recognized second messenger, which regulates mammalian cell proliferation and migration. The biochemical mechanisms by which mammalian cells sense and respond to low concentrations of H2O2 are poorly understood. Recently, heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein C1/C2 (hnRNP-C1/C2) was found to be rapidly phosphorylated in response to the application of low concentrations of H2O2 to human endothelial cells. Here, using tandem mass spectrometry, four sites of phosphorylation are identified in hnRNP-C1/C2, all of which are in the acidic C-terminal domain of the protein. Under resting conditions, the protein is phosphorylated at S247 and S286. In response to low concentrations of H2O2, there is increased phosphorylation at S240 and at one of the four contiguous serine residues from S225-S228. Studies using a recombinant acidic C-terminal domain of hnRNP-C overexpressed in Escherichia coli demonstrate that protein kinase CK2 phosphorylates hnRNP-C1/C2 at S247, while protein kinase A and several protein kinase C isoforms fail to phosphorylate the isolated domain. These findings demonstrate that the acidic C-terminal domain of hnRNP-C1/C2 serves as the site for both basal and stimulated phosphorylation, indicating that this domain may play an important role in the regulation of mRNA binding by hnRNP-C1/C2.

  1. Possible C1q bypass loop activation in the haemolytic uraemic syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Nolin, L; O'Regan, S; Pelletier, M; Rivard, G E; Mongeau, J G; Robitaille, P

    1979-01-01

    Ultrastructural and immunofluorescent microscopic studies were performed on renal tissue obtained from nine patients during the acute and convalescent phase of the haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS). All had glomerular deposits of IgM in the absence of circulating immune complexes. This was associated with deposition of C1q during the acute phase, and properdin and C3 during the convalescent phase. C4 was consistently absent. Since such a pattern of complement deposition does not fulfil criteria either for alternate or classical pathway activation, the possibility of C1q bypass loop activation by IgM is suggested. PMID:371879

  2. Solar gases in meteorites - The origin of chondrites and C1 carbonaceous chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heymann, D.

    1978-01-01

    Evidence suggesting that chondritic meteorites broke off from parent bodies in earth-crossing orbits is considered. It is suggested that ordinary chondrites have an asteroidal origin, and the possibility that C1 chondrites have a cometary origin is examined. Indications of heavy shock and reheating among L and H chondrites provides support for an asteroidal origin, while the Apollo and Amor objects are too small to be unfragmented asteroids, as proposed in the Anders theory of the origin of gas-rich meteorites. Events associated with the megaregolith are discussed in the framework of the proposed cometary origin of C1 chondrites.

  3. Endovascular Treatment of a Vertebral Artery Pseudoaneurysm Following Posterior C1-C2 Transarticular Screw Fixation

    SciTech Connect

    Mendez, Jose C. Gonzalez-Llanos, Francisco

    2005-01-15

    We present a case of vertebral artery pseudoaneurysm after a posterior C1-C2 transarticular screw fixation procedure that was effectively treated with endovascular coil occlusion. Vertebral artery pseudoaneurysm complicating posterior C1-C2 transarticular fixation is extremely rare, with only one previous case having been reported previously. Endovascular occlusion is better achieved in the subacute phase of the pseudoaneurysm, when the wall of the pseudoaneurysm has matured and stabilized. Further follow-up angiographies are mandatory in order to confirm that there is no recurrence of the lesion.

  4. Protection Conferred by Infectious Coryza Vaccines Against Emergent Avibacterium paragallinarum Serovar C-1.

    PubMed

    Morales-Erasto, V; Maruri-Esteban, E; Trujillo-Ruíz, H H; Talavera-Rojas, M; Blackall, P J; Soriano-Vargas, E

    2015-03-01

    Infectious coryza is an upper respiratory disease of chickens caused by Avibacterium paragallinarum. Outbreaks of infectious coryza caused by Av. paragallinarum serovar C-1 isolates in coryza-vaccinated flocks in Ecuador and Mexico have been reported. In the current study, the protection conferred by four commercially available, trivalent infectious coryza vaccines in chickens challenged with a serovar C-1 isolate from an apparent coryza vaccine failure in a layer flock in Mexico was evaluated. Only one infectious coryza vaccine provided a good protection level (83%) in vaccinated chickens. These results might explain the infectious coryza outbreaks in vaccinated flocks that have been observed in the field. PMID:26292552

  5. Reexamining the Associate Degree Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahill, Marion; Devlin, Martha; LeBlanc, Phyllis; Lowe, Barbara; Norton, Betty; Tassin, Karen; Vallette, Elaine; Jamieson, Marjorie K.; Irons, Patricia D.; Meehan, Susan; Reilly, Margaret J.

    1998-01-01

    Includes "Assessing the Need for Community Concepts" (Marion Cahill et al.); "Expanding the Associate Degree Curriculum without Adding Time" (Marjorie K. Jamieson); and "A Community College Responds to Changes in Health Care Delivery" (Patricia D. Irons, Susan Meehan, and Margaret J. Reilly). (SK)

  6. Life after a Humanities Degree

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masola, Athambile

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the experiences of a humanities graduate after leaving the academy. The author considers her own education in light of the historical changes in South Africa's education system. The article is a personal account of the questions and challenges encountered in choosing a humanities degree in a context where a tertiary education…

  7. The Top Theological Degree Producers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diverse: Issues in Higher Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Each year, "Diverse: Issues in Higher Education" publishes a list of the Top 100 producers of associate, bachelor's and graduate degrees awarded to minority students based on research conducted by Dr. Victor M. H. Borden, professor of educational leadership and policy studies at Indiana University Bloomington. This year, for the first time, it has…

  8. The Top STEM Degree Producers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diverse: Issues in Higher Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a list of the top Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) degree producers in the U.S. This list is broken down into seven categories: (1) Total Minority Research/Scholarship and Other Doctoral: Mathematics and Statistics; (2) Total Minority Bachelors: Biological and Biomedical Sciences; (3) Total Minority…

  9. The potentiation of human C1-inhibitor by dextran sulphate is transient in vivo: studies in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Bos, I G; van Mierlo, G J; Bleeker, W K; Rigter, G M; te Velthuis, H; Dickneite, G; Hack, C E

    2001-08-01

    C1-inhibitor (C1-Inh) is an important regulator of inflammatory reactions because it is a potent inhibitor of the contact and complement system. C1-Inh application in inflammatory disease is, however, restricted because of the high doses required. The glycosaminoglycan-like molecule dextran sulphate (DXS) enhances C1-Inh function in vitro. Hence, we investigated whether co-administration with dextran sulphate reduces the amount of C1-Inh required, through enhancement in vivo. C1-Inh potentiation was measured in a newly developed C1s-inactivation assay that is based on activation of C4 by purified C1s. Activated C4 in rat plasma was quantified with a newly developed ELISA. Human C1-Inh (2.5 microM) inhibited C1s in rat plasma 55-fold faster in the presence of dextran sulphate (15 kDa, 5 microM). To study the stability of the complex in vivo, rats were given a mixture of C1-Inh (10 mg/kg) and dextran sulphate (3 mg/kg). C1-Inh activity during 5 h was analyzed ex vivo with the C1s inactivation assay. The noncovalent C1-Inh-dextran sulphate complex resulted in a transient enhancement of the inhibitory capacity of C1-Inh, lasting for 60-90 min. Dextran sulphate did not affect plasma clearance of C1-Inh. We conclude that the enhanced inhibitory capacity of C1-Inh complexed to dextran sulphate is transient in vivo. Hence, co-administration of these compounds seems a feasible approach to achieve short-term inhibition of complement in vivo.

  10. Center is at Latitude 30 Degrees North, Longitude 270 Degrees

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Center of the orthographic projection is at latitude 30 degrees N., longitude 270 degrees. The north polar residual ice cap of the Planum Boreum region, which is cut by spiral-patterned troughs, is located at top. The upper part is marked by a large depression, Isidis basin, which contains light-colored plains. The upper part also includes the light-colored smooth plains of Elysium Planitia and dark plains of Vastitas Borealis. Together, these form a vast expanse of contiguous plains. Toward the bottom, on the other hand, the southern hemisphere is almost entirely made up of heavily cratered highlands. At bottom left, a conspicuous, relatively bright circular depression marks the ancient large Hellas impact basin.

  11. An amphioxus gC1q protein binds human IgG and initiates the classical pathway: Implications for a C1q-mediated complement system in the basal chordate.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhan; Li, Mengyang; Ma, Jie; Zhang, Shicui

    2014-12-01

    The origin of the classical complement pathway remains open during chordate evolution. A C1q-like member, BjC1q, was identified in the basal chordate amphioxus. It is predominantly expressed in the hepatic caecum, hindgut, and notochord, and is significantly upregulated following challenge with bacteria or lipoteichoic acid and LPS. Recombinant BjC1q and its globular head domain specifically interact with lipoteichoic acid and LPS, but BjC1q displays little lectin activity. Moreover, rBjC1q can assemble to form the high molecular weight oligomers necessary for binding to proteases C1r/C1s and for complement activation, and binds human C1r/C1s/mannan-binding lectin-associated serine protease-2 as well as amphioxus serine proteases involved in the cleavage of C4/C2, and C3 activation. Importantly, rBjC1q binds with human IgG as well as an amphioxus Ig domain containing protein, resulting in the activation of the classical complement pathway. This is the first report showing that a C1q-like protein in invertebrates is able to initiate classical pathway, raising the possibility that amphioxus possesses a C1q-mediated complement system. It also suggests a new scenario for the emergence of the classical complement pathway, in contrast to the proposal that the lectin pathway evolved into the classical pathway.

  12. An amphioxus gC1q protein binds human IgG and initiates the classical pathway: Implications for a C1q-mediated complement system in the basal chordate.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhan; Li, Mengyang; Ma, Jie; Zhang, Shicui

    2014-12-01

    The origin of the classical complement pathway remains open during chordate evolution. A C1q-like member, BjC1q, was identified in the basal chordate amphioxus. It is predominantly expressed in the hepatic caecum, hindgut, and notochord, and is significantly upregulated following challenge with bacteria or lipoteichoic acid and LPS. Recombinant BjC1q and its globular head domain specifically interact with lipoteichoic acid and LPS, but BjC1q displays little lectin activity. Moreover, rBjC1q can assemble to form the high molecular weight oligomers necessary for binding to proteases C1r/C1s and for complement activation, and binds human C1r/C1s/mannan-binding lectin-associated serine protease-2 as well as amphioxus serine proteases involved in the cleavage of C4/C2, and C3 activation. Importantly, rBjC1q binds with human IgG as well as an amphioxus Ig domain containing protein, resulting in the activation of the classical complement pathway. This is the first report showing that a C1q-like protein in invertebrates is able to initiate classical pathway, raising the possibility that amphioxus possesses a C1q-mediated complement system. It also suggests a new scenario for the emergence of the classical complement pathway, in contrast to the proposal that the lectin pathway evolved into the classical pathway. PMID:25174509

  13. Complimentary action: C1q increases ganglion cell survival in an in vitro model of retinal degeneration.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Linnéa; Arnér, Karin; Blom, Anna M; Ghosh, Fredrik

    2016-09-15

    Using a previously described retinal explant culture system as an acute injury model, we here explore the role of C1q, the initiator of the classical complement pathway, in neuronal cell survival and retinal homeostasis. Full-thickness adult rat retinal explants were divided into four groups, receiving the following supplementation: C1q (50nM), C1-inhibitor (C1-inh; Berinert; 500mg/l), C1q+C1-inh, and no supplementation (culture controls). Explants were kept for 12h or 2days after which they were examined morphologically and with a panel of immunohistochemical markers. C1q supplementation protects ganglion cells from degeneration within the explant in vitro system. This effect is correlated to an attenuated endogenous production of C1q, and a quiesced gliotic response. PMID:27609284

  14. 40 CFR Table C-1 to Subpart C of... - Test Concentration Ranges, Number of Measurements Required, and Maximum Discrepancy Specification

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Measurements Required, and Maximum Discrepancy Specification C Table C-1 to Subpart C of Part 53 Protection of... Reference Methods Pt. 53, Subpt. C, Table C-1 Table C-1 to Subpart C of Part 53—Test Concentration Ranges... 0.25 to 0.35 2 2 .03 Total 7 8 Effective Date Note: At 75 FR 35601, June 22, 2010, table C-1...

  15. 26 CFR 1.412(c)(1)-1 - Determinations to be made under funding method-terms defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...-terms defined. 1.412(c)(1)-1 Section 1.412(c)(1)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT..., Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.412(c)(1)-1 Determinations to be made under funding method—terms defined. (a... collectively bargained plans, see § 1.412(c)(1)-2; for principles applicable to funding methods in......

  16. 26 CFR 1.412(c)(1)-1 - Determinations to be made under funding method-terms defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...-terms defined. 1.412(c)(1)-1 Section 1.412(c)(1)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT..., Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.412(c)(1)-1 Determinations to be made under funding method—terms defined. (a... collectively bargained plans, see § 1.412(c)(1)-2; for principles applicable to funding methods in......

  17. 26 CFR 1.412(c)(1)-1 - Determinations to be made under funding method-terms defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...-terms defined. 1.412(c)(1)-1 Section 1.412(c)(1)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT..., Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.412(c)(1)-1 Determinations to be made under funding method—terms defined. (a... collectively bargained plans, see § 1.412(c)(1)-2; for principles applicable to funding methods in......

  18. Characterization of complement 1q binding protein of tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon, and its C1q binding activity.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lishi; Liu, Xianjun; Liu, Wenjing; Li, Xiaolan; Qiu, Lihua; Huang, Jianhua; Jiang, Shigui

    2013-01-01

    The receptor for the globular heads of C1q, C1qBP/gC1qR/p33, is a multicompartmental, multifunctional cellular protein with an important role in infection and in inflammation. In the present study, we identified and characterized the complement component 1q subcomponent binding protein (C1qBP) from the tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon (designated as PmC1qBP). The open reading frame of PmC1qBP encodes 262 amino acid residues with a conserved MAM33 domain, an arginine-glycine-aspartate cell adhesion motif, and a mitochondrial targeting sequence in the first 53 amino acids. PmC1qBP shares 32%-81% similarity with known C1qBPs and clusters with lobster gC1qR under phylogenetic analysis. The temporal PmC1qBP mRNA expression in the hepatopancreas was significantly enhanced at 9 h after Vibrio vulnificus challenge. The native PmC1qBP was expressed in the gills, hepatopancreas, ovaries, and intestines as a precursor (38 kDa) and the active peptide (35 kDa). The recombinant PmC1qBP protein was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21, and was purified using nickel-nitrilotriacetic acid agarose. A complement 1q binding assay indicated that the rC1qBP protein competitively binds to C1q in mouse serum. The data reveal that PmC1qBP is not only involved in shrimp immune responses to pathogenic infections, but also cross-binding to the mouse C1q.

  19. 26 CFR 1.412(c)(1)-1 - Determinations to be made under funding method-terms defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...-terms defined. 1.412(c)(1)-1 Section 1.412(c)(1)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT..., Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.412(c)(1)-1 Determinations to be made under funding method—terms defined. (a... collectively bargained plans, see § 1.412(c)(1)-2; for principles applicable to funding methods in......

  20. 26 CFR 31.3302(c)-1 - Limit on total credits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Limit on total credits. 31.3302(c)-1 Section 31... credits. (a) In general. Paragraph (b) of this section relates to the limitation on the aggregate of the credits allowable under section 3302 (a) and (b). Paragraph (c) of this section relates to...

  1. 26 CFR 31.3302(c)-1 - Limit on total credits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Limit on total credits. 31.3302(c)-1 Section 31... credits. (a) In general. Paragraph (b) of this section relates to the limitation on the aggregate of the credits allowable under section 3302 (a) and (b). Paragraph (c) of this section relates to...

  2. 26 CFR 41.4482(c)-1 - Definition of State, taxable period, use, and customarily used.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... VEHICLES Tax on Use of Certain Highway Motor Vehicles § 41.4482(c)-1 Definition of State, taxable period...”, as used in the regulations in this part with reference to a highway motor vehicle, means the use of the highway motor vehicle on the public highways in the United States, that is, operation of...

  3. 26 CFR 1.412(c)(1)-2 - Shortfall method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Shortfall method. 1.412(c)(1)-2 Section 1.412(c... Shortfall method. (a) In general—(1) Shortfall method. The shortfall method is a funding method that adapts a plan's underlying funding method for purposes of section 412. As such, the use of the...

  4. Administration of C1 inhibitor reduces neutrophil activation in patients with sepsis.

    PubMed

    Zeerleder, Sacha; Caliezi, Christoph; van Mierlo, Gerard; Eerenberg-Belmer, Anke; Sulzer, Irmela; Hack, C Erik; Wuillemin, Walter A

    2003-07-01

    Forty patients with severe sepsis or septic shock recently received C1 inhibitor. In the present study we studied the effect of C1 inhibitor therapy on circulating elastase-alpha(1)-antitrypsin complex (EA) and lactoferrin (LF) levels in these patients to gain further insight about agonists involved in the activation of neutrophils in human sepsis. Elevated levels of EA and LF were found in 65 and 85% of the septic patients, respectively. Patients with elevated EA levels had higher organ dysfunction scores, higher levels of cytokines, and higher levels of complement activation products than patients with normal EA levels. C1 inhibitor therapy reduced EA as well as complement activation and IL-8 release in the patients with elevated EA on admission. We conclude that neutrophil activation in human sepsis correlates with the severity of organ dysfunction and involves complement and interleukin-8 as agonists. The effect of C1 inhibitor therapy on neutrophils may provide an explanation for the beneficial, although mild, effects of this treatment on organ dysfunction in sepsis.

  5. A South American Prehistoric Mitogenome: Context, Continuity, and the Origin of Haplogroup C1d

    PubMed Central

    Sans, Mónica; Figueiro, Gonzalo; Hughes, Cris E.; Lindo, John; Hidalgo, Pedro C.; Malhi, Ripan S.

    2015-01-01

    Based on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), it has been estimated that at least 15 founder haplogroups peopled the Americas. Subhaplogroup C1d3 was defined based on the mitogenome of a living individual from Uruguay that carried a lineage previously identified in hypervariable region I sequences from ancient and modern Uruguayan individuals. When complete mitogenomes were studied, additional substitutions were found in the coding region of the mitochondrial genome. Using a complete ancient mitogenome and three modern mitogenomes, we aim to clarify the ancestral state of subhaplogroup C1d3 and to better understand the peopling of the region of the Río de la Plata basin, as well as of the builders of the mounds from which the ancient individuals were recovered. The ancient mitogenome, belonging to a female dated to 1,610±46 years before present, was identical to the mitogenome of one of the modern individuals. All individuals share the mutations defining subhaplogroup C1d3. We estimated an age of 8,974 (5,748–12,261) years for the most recent common ancestor of C1d3, in agreement with the initial peopling of the geographic region. No individuals belonging to the defined lineage were found outside of Uruguay, which raises questions regarding the mobility of the prehistoric inhabitants of the country. Moreover, the present study shows the continuity of Native lineages over at least 6,000 years. PMID:26509686

  6. View to starboard, starboard engine room, compartment C1; salt water ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View to starboard, starboard engine room, compartment C-1; salt water circulating pipe at center. Note annunciator to right of pipe and engine room telegraph at left center. Gage at left top center is a vacuum gage. (060) - USS Olympia, Penn's Landing, 211 South Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  7. Rhucin, a recombinant C1 inhibitor for the treatment of hereditary angioedema and cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Longhurst, Hilary

    2008-03-01

    Pharming NV and Esteve are developing Rhucin, a recombinant human C1 esterase inhibitor. Rhucin is currently undergoing phase III clinical trials in North America and is awaiting regulatory approval in Western Europe for the treatment of prophylactic and acute hereditary angioedema. Pharming is also investigating Rhucin for the potential treatment of cerebral ischemic injury.

  8. 2. VIEW OF THE BELL FAMILY RESIDENCE (FEATURE C1), WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW OF THE BELL FAMILY RESIDENCE (FEATURE C-1), WEST END, FACING SOUTHEAST. PRIVY (FEATURE C-2) IS VISIBLE IN BACKGROUND, UPPER LEFT SIDE OF FRAME. - Bell Family Residence, House, East slope of Buckskin Mountain, Paradise Valley, Humboldt County, NV

  9. 26 CFR 1.512(c)-1 - Special rules applicable to partnerships; in general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Special rules applicable to partnerships; in... Exempt Organizations § 1.512(c)-1 Special rules applicable to partnerships; in general. In the event an organization to which section 511 applies is a member of a partnership regularly engaged in a trade or...

  10. 17 CFR 270.18c-1 - Exemption of privately held indebtedness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) RULES AND REGULATIONS, INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940 § 270.18c-1 Exemption of privately held... small business investment company, licensed under the Small Business Investment Act of 1958, shall not be prohibited by section 18(c) so long as such small business investment company does not...

  11. Cleanup Verification Package for the 118-C-1, 105-C Solid Waste Burial Ground

    SciTech Connect

    M. J. Appel and J. M. Capron

    2007-07-25

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 118-C-1, 105-C Solid Waste Burial Ground. This waste site was the primary burial ground for general wastes from the operation of the 105-C Reactor and received process tubes, aluminum fuel spacers, control rods, reactor hardware, spent nuclear fuel and soft wastes.

  12. A strategy for exploiting the pseudosymmetry of the C1-C13 stretch of discodermolide.

    PubMed

    Parker, Kathlyn A; Katsoulis, Ioannis A

    2004-04-29

    [reaction: see text] The pseudo-C(2)() symmetry of the C1 to C13 stretch of the discodermolide structure offers a potential strategic advantage for synthetic design. Two approaches based on this recognition were devised, and one was shown to be effective in a model series.

  13. Stereoselective synthesis of the C1-C13 fragment of (+)-discodermolide using asymmetric allyltitanations.

    PubMed

    BouzBouz, Samir; Cossy, Janine

    2003-08-21

    [reaction: see text] The synthesis of the C1-C13 fragment of (+)-discodermolide has been achieved. The configurations of the stereogenic centers have been controlled by enantioselective allyl- and crotyltitanations of aldehydes, and the Z configuration of the olefin at C8-C9 was controlled by a ring-closing metathesis.

  14. Compartment C1, engine room. View down compionway of top of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Compartment C-1, engine room. View down compionway of top of engine cylinder heads; note slots in frame at left of photograph, slots hold steel bars which form a protective grating above the engines during battle. (081) - USS Olympia, Penn's Landing, 211 South Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  15. 4. PROPOSED C1 ASSEMBLY AND TESTING FACILITIES FOR THE ORDINANCE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. PROPOSED C-1 ASSEMBLY AND TESTING FACILITIES FOR THE ORDINANCE GUIDED MISSILE CENTER AT REDSTONE ARSENAL, NEAR THE SOUTH END OF MADKIN MOUNTAIN. OCTOBER 1950, HANNES LUEHRSEN COLLECTION, MSFC MASTER PLANNING OFFICE. - Marshall Space Flight Center, East Test Area, Dodd Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  16. Rhucin, a recombinant C1 inhibitor for the treatment of hereditary angioedema and cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Longhurst, Hilary

    2008-03-01

    Pharming NV and Esteve are developing Rhucin, a recombinant human C1 esterase inhibitor. Rhucin is currently undergoing phase III clinical trials in North America and is awaiting regulatory approval in Western Europe for the treatment of prophylactic and acute hereditary angioedema. Pharming is also investigating Rhucin for the potential treatment of cerebral ischemic injury. PMID:18311668

  17. 17 CFR 240.15c1-2 - Fraud and misrepresentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fraud and misrepresentation... Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Rules Relating to Over-The-Counter Markets § 240.15c1-2 Fraud and... any act, practice, or course of business which operates or would operate as a fraud or deceit upon...

  18. 17 CFR 240.15c1-2 - Fraud and misrepresentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Fraud and misrepresentation... Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Rules Relating to Over-The-Counter Markets § 240.15c1-2 Fraud and... any act, practice, or course of business which operates or would operate as a fraud or deceit upon...

  19. 17 CFR 240.15c1-2 - Fraud and misrepresentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Fraud and misrepresentation... Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Rules Relating to Over-The-Counter Markets § 240.15c1-2 Fraud and... any act, practice, or course of business which operates or would operate as a fraud or deceit upon...

  20. 17 CFR 240.15c1-2 - Fraud and misrepresentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Fraud and misrepresentation... Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Rules Relating to Over-The-Counter Markets § 240.15c1-2 Fraud and... any act, practice, or course of business which operates or would operate as a fraud or deceit upon...

  1. 17 CFR 240.15c1-2 - Fraud and misrepresentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Fraud and misrepresentation... Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Rules Relating to Over-The-Counter Markets § 240.15c1-2 Fraud and... any act, practice, or course of business which operates or would operate as a fraud or deceit upon...

  2. χc 1 and χc 2 production at e+e- colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    CzyŻ, Henryk; Kühn, Johann H.; Tracz, Szymon

    2016-08-01

    Direct, resonant production of the charmonium states χc 1 and χc 2 in electron-positron annihilation is investigated. Depending on details of the model, a sizeable variation of the prediction for the production cross section is anticipated. It is demonstrated that resonant production could be observed under favorable circumstances.

  3. C1 anterior arch preservation in transnasal odontoidectomy using three-dimensional endoscope: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Zenga, Francesco; Marengo, Nicola; Pacca, Paolo; Pecorari, Giancarlo; Ducati, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Background: The transoral ventral corridor is the most common approach used to reach the craniovertebral junction (CVJ). Over the last decade, many case reports have demonstrated the transnasal corridor to the odontoid peg represents a practicable route to remove the tip of the odontoid process. The biomechanical consequences of the traditional odontoidectomy led to the necessity of a cervical spine stabilization. Preserving the inferior portion of the C1 anterior arch should prevent instability. Case Description: This is the first report in which the technique to remove the tip of the odontoid while preserving the C1 anterior arch is described by means of a three-dimensional (3D) endoscope. A 53-year-old man underwent a transnasal 3D endoscopic approach because of a complex CVJ malformation. The upper-medial portion of the C1 anterior arch was removed preserving its continuity, and the odontoidectomy was performed. After surgery, a dynamic X-ray scan showed no difference in CVJ motility in comparison with the preoperative one. Conclusions: The stereoscopic perception augmented the precision of the surgical gesture in the deep field. The importance of a 3D view relates to the depth of field, which a two-dimensional endoscopy cannot provide. This affects the preservation of the C1 anterior arch because of the presence of critical structures that are exposed to potential damage if not displayed. PMID:26759737

  4. View forward, starboard engine room, compartment C1; note RPM indicator ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View forward, starboard engine room, compartment C-1; note RPM indicator at top right of photograph, bilge drain manifold at lower right; worm gear at left is probably part of a hydraulic reversing gear. (057) - USS Olympia, Penn's Landing, 211 South Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  5. 26 CFR 1.404(c)-1 - Certain negotiated plans; effect of section 404(c).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Certain negotiated plans; effect of section 404... Plans, Etc. § 1.404(c)-1 Certain negotiated plans; effect of section 404(c). (a) Section 404(a) does not... to maintain a sound position in the labor market producing the commodity. Thus, for example, if...

  6. 26 CFR 1.404(c)-1 - Certain negotiated plans; effect of section 404(c).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certain negotiated plans; effect of section 404.... § 1.404(c)-1 Certain negotiated plans; effect of section 404(c). (a) Section 404(a) does not apply to... would therefore be expected to establish such a trust as a reasonable measure to maintain a...

  7. A South American Prehistoric Mitogenome: Context, Continuity, and the Origin of Haplogroup C1d.

    PubMed

    Sans, Mónica; Figueiro, Gonzalo; Hughes, Cris E; Lindo, John; Hidalgo, Pedro C; Malhi, Ripan S

    2015-01-01

    Based on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), it has been estimated that at least 15 founder haplogroups peopled the Americas. Subhaplogroup C1d3 was defined based on the mitogenome of a living individual from Uruguay that carried a lineage previously identified in hypervariable region I sequences from ancient and modern Uruguayan individuals. When complete mitogenomes were studied, additional substitutions were found in the coding region of the mitochondrial genome. Using a complete ancient mitogenome and three modern mitogenomes, we aim to clarify the ancestral state of subhaplogroup C1d3 and to better understand the peopling of the region of the Río de la Plata basin, as well as of the builders of the mounds from which the ancient individuals were recovered. The ancient mitogenome, belonging to a female dated to 1,610±46 years before present, was identical to the mitogenome of one of the modern individuals. All individuals share the mutations defining subhaplogroup C1d3. We estimated an age of 8,974 (5,748-12,261) years for the most recent common ancestor of C1d3, in agreement with the initial peopling of the geographic region. No individuals belonging to the defined lineage were found outside of Uruguay, which raises questions regarding the mobility of the prehistoric inhabitants of the country. Moreover, the present study shows the continuity of Native lineages over at least 6,000 years. PMID:26509686

  8. Tetrahydrofolate and tetrahydromethanopterin compared: functionally distinct carriers in C1 metabolism.

    PubMed Central

    Maden, B E

    2000-01-01

    In most organisms, tetrahydrofolate (H(4)folate) is the carrier of C(1) fragments between formyl and methyl oxidation levels. The C(1) fragments are utilized in several essential biosynthetic processes. In addition, C(1) flux through H(4)folate is utilized for energy metabolism in some groups of anaerobic bacteria. In methanogens and several other Archaea, tetrahydromethanopterin (H(4)MPT) carries C(1) fragments between formyl and methyl oxidation levels. At first sight H(4)MPT appears to resemble H(4)folate at the sites where C(1) fragments are carried. However, the two carriers are functionally distinct, as discussed in the present review. In energy metabolism, H(4)MPT permits redox-flux features that are distinct from the pathway on H(4)folate. In the reductive direction, ATP is consumed in the entry of carbon from CO(2) into the H(4)folate pathway, but not in entry into the H(4)MPT pathway. In the oxidative direction, methyl groups are much more readily oxidized on H(4)MPT than on H(4)folate. Moreover, the redox reactions on H(4)MPT are coupled to more negative reductants than the pyridine nucleotides which are generally used in the H(4)folate pathway. Thermodynamics of the reactions of C(1) reduction via the two carriers differ accordingly. A major underlying cause of the thermodynamic differences is in the chemical properties of the arylamine nitrogen N(10) on the two carriers. In H(4)folate, N(10) is subject to electron withdrawal by the carbonyl group of p-aminobenzoate, but in H(4)MPT an electron-donating methylene group occurs in the corresponding position. It is also proposed that the two structural methyl groups of H(4)MPT tune the carrier's thermodynamic properties through an entropic contribution. H(4)MPT appears to be unsuited to some of the biosynthetic functions of H(4)folate, in particular the transfer of activated formyl groups, as in purine biosynthesis. Evidence bearing upon whether H(4)MPT participates in thymidylate synthesis is discussed

  9. [Marginal indications for the Magerl method of fixation of C1-C2 (case report)].

    PubMed

    Stulík, J; Krbec, M; Havránek, P

    2002-01-01

    The authors present a 4-year old girl who had a car accident as a passenger and hurt her head, chest and limbs as well as upper cervical spine. The patient with multiple injuries was taken to the FTN Centre of Children's traumatology, Prague. Here the basic vital functions were ensured and a diagnosis was made of contusion of the brain with quadriparesis and inhibition of the respiratory centre, contusion of the chest, epiphysiolysis of the distal femur and later also instability of C1-C2. A censor for measuring or intracranial pressure was immediately inserted with a subsequent reduction of the distal femur and elastic fixation. External lumbar drainage was performed in the next week instability of C1-C2 was not found out and therefore not treated. Three months after the injury a ventriculoperitoneal shunt for intracranial hypertension was inserted. MRI showed stenosis in the region of occipitocervical passage and dorsal decompression of craniocervical passage was performed which consisted in the removal of the posterior arch of C1 and a significant extension of foramen magnun dorsally and laterally to both sides. Due to persisting ligamentous instability of C1-C2 with a spastic quadriparesis and inhibition of the respiratory centre a surgical atlantoaxial stabilization was indicated, i.e. causal treatment of instability. Seven months after the injury Magerl fixation of C1-C2 was performed by 2.7 mm titanicum screws (Synthes). Preoperative stability of C1-C2 in the reduced position was satisfactory but with regard to iatrogenic instability the C0-C1 fixation was combined with occipitocervical fussion by Ransford loop extending over C0-C3. Further, the triangular flap of periost was overturned from the external occipital protuberance to C3 and all this was bridged by cortical cancellous bone grafts from iliac crest. After two months a check simple and functional x-ray examination showed a stable fusion of C0-C2. The neurological finding remained the same even after

  10. Distribution of real algebraic numbers of arbitrary degree in short intervals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernik, V. I.; Götze, F.

    2015-02-01

    We consider real algebraic numbers α of degree \\operatorname{deg}α=n and height H=H(α). There are intervals I\\subset{R} of length \\vert I\\vert whose interiors contain no real algebraic numbers α of any degree with H(α)\\lt\\frac12\\vert I\\vert-1. We prove that one can always find a constant c_1=c_1(n) such that if Q is a positive integer and Q \\gt c_1\\vert I\\vert-1, then the interior of I contains at least c_2(n)Qn+1\\vert I\\vert real algebraic numbers α with \\operatorname{deg}α=n and H(α)≤ Q. We use this result to solve a problem of Bugeaud on the regularity of the set of real algebraic numbers in short intervals.

  11. Photo-electrochemical Oxidation of Organic C1 Molecules over WO3 Films in Aqueous Electrolyte: Competition Between Water Oxidation and C1 Oxidation.

    PubMed

    Reichert, Robert; Zambrzycki, Christian; Jusys, Zenonas; Behm, R Jürgen

    2015-11-01

    To better understand organic-molecule-assisted photo-electrochemical water splitting, photo-electrochemistry and on-line mass spectrometry measurements are used to investigate the photo-electrochemical oxidation of the C1 molecules methanol, formaldehyde, and formic acid over WO3 film anodes in aqueous solution and its competition with O2 evolution from water oxidation O2 (+) and CO2 (+) ion currents show that water oxidation is strongly suppressed by the organic species. Photo-electro-oxidation of formic acid is dominated by formation of CO2 , whereas incomplete oxidation of formaldehyde and methanol prevails, with the selectivity for CO2 formation increasing with increasing potential and light intensity. The mechanistic implications for the photo-electro-oxidation of the organic molecules and its competition with water oxidation, which could be derived from this novel approach, are discussed.

  12. 26 CFR 301.6227(c)-1 - Administrative adjustment request by the tax matters partner on behalf of the partnership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... matters partner on behalf of the partnership. 301.6227(c)-1 Section 301.6227(c)-1 Internal Revenue... ADMINISTRATION Assessment In General § 301.6227(c)-1 Administrative adjustment request by the tax matters partner... tax matters partner on behalf of the partnership shall be filed on the form prescribed by the...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10108 - Naphthalenedisulfonic acid, hydrozy-[[[(hydroxyl-disulfo-naphthaleneyl)azo]-alkyl(C=1-5...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...- -alkyl(C=1-5)-(sulfoalkoxy)cyclic]azo]-substituted azo-, metal salt (generic). 721.10108 Section 721... Naphthalenedisulfonic acid, hydrozy- -alkyl(C=1-5)-(sulfoalkoxy)cyclic]azo]-substituted azo-, metal salt (generic). (a... generically as naphthalenedisulfonic acid, hydrozy- -alkyl(C=1-5)-(sulfoalkoxy)cyclic]azo]-substituted...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10108 - Naphthalenedisulfonic acid, hydrozy-[[[(hydroxyl-disulfo-naphthaleneyl)azo]-alkyl(C=1-5...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...- -alkyl(C=1-5)-(sulfoalkoxy)cyclic]azo]-substituted azo-, metal salt (generic). 721.10108 Section 721... Naphthalenedisulfonic acid, hydrozy- -alkyl(C=1-5)-(sulfoalkoxy)cyclic]azo]-substituted azo-, metal salt (generic). (a... generically as naphthalenedisulfonic acid, hydrozy- -alkyl(C=1-5)-(sulfoalkoxy)cyclic]azo]-substituted...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10108 - Naphthalenedisulfonic acid, hydrozy-[[[(hydroxyl-disulfo-naphthaleneyl)azo]-alkyl(C=1-5...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...- -alkyl(C=1-5)-(sulfoalkoxy)cyclic]azo]-substituted azo-, metal salt (generic). 721.10108 Section 721... Naphthalenedisulfonic acid, hydrozy- -alkyl(C=1-5)-(sulfoalkoxy)cyclic]azo]-substituted azo-, metal salt (generic). (a... generically as naphthalenedisulfonic acid, hydrozy- -alkyl(C=1-5)-(sulfoalkoxy)cyclic]azo]-substituted...

  16. 40 CFR Table C-1 to Subpart C of... - Test Concentration Ranges, Number of Measurements Required, and Maximum Discrepancy Specifications

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Test Concentration Ranges, Number of Measurements Required, and Maximum Discrepancy Specifications C Table C-1 to Subpart C of Part 53 Protection of... Reference Methods Pt. 53, Subpt. C, Table C-1 Table C-1 to Subpart C of Part 53—Test Concentration...

  17. 40 CFR Table C-1 to Subpart C of... - Test Concentration Ranges, Number of Measurements Required, and Maximum Discrepancy Specifications

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Test Concentration Ranges, Number of Measurements Required, and Maximum Discrepancy Specifications C Table C-1 to Subpart C of Part 53 Protection of... Reference Methods Pt. 53, Subpt. C, Table C-1 Table C-1 to Subpart C of Part 53—Test Concentration...

  18. 40 CFR Table C-1 to Subpart C of... - Test Concentration Ranges, Number of Measurements Required, and Maximum Discrepancy Specifications

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Test Concentration Ranges, Number of Measurements Required, and Maximum Discrepancy Specifications C Table C-1 to Subpart C of Part 53 Protection of... Reference Methods Pt. 53, Subpt. C, Table C-1 Table C-1 to Subpart C of Part 53—Test Concentration...

  19. 40 CFR Table C-1 to Subpart C of... - Test Concentration Ranges, Number of Measurements Required, and Maximum Discrepancy Specifications

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Test Concentration Ranges, Number of Measurements Required, and Maximum Discrepancy Specifications C Table C-1 to Subpart C of Part 53 Protection of... Reference Methods Pt. 53, Subpt. C, Table C-1 Table C-1 to Subpart C of Part 53—Test Concentration...

  20. 26 CFR 1.263(c)-1 - Intangible drilling and development costs in the case of oil and gas wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... case of oil and gas wells. 1.263(c)-1 Section 1.263(c)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... § 1.263(c)-1 Intangible drilling and development costs in the case of oil and gas wells. For rules relating to the option to deduct as expenses intangible drilling and development costs in the case of...

  1. 26 CFR 1.263(c)-1 - Intangible drilling and development costs in the case of oil and gas wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... case of oil and gas wells. 1.263(c)-1 Section 1.263(c)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... § 1.263(c)-1 Intangible drilling and development costs in the case of oil and gas wells. For rules relating to the option to deduct as expenses intangible drilling and development costs in the case of...

  2. 26 CFR 1.263(c)-1 - Intangible drilling and development costs in the case of oil and gas wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... case of oil and gas wells. 1.263(c)-1 Section 1.263(c)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... § 1.263(c)-1 Intangible drilling and development costs in the case of oil and gas wells. For rules relating to the option to deduct as expenses intangible drilling and development costs in the case of...

  3. 26 CFR 1.263(c)-1 - Intangible drilling and development costs in the case of oil and gas wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... case of oil and gas wells. 1.263(c)-1 Section 1.263(c)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... § 1.263(c)-1 Intangible drilling and development costs in the case of oil and gas wells. For rules relating to the option to deduct as expenses intangible drilling and development costs in the case of...

  4. 17 CFR 230.160 - Registered investment company exemption from Section 101(c)(1) of the Electronic Signatures in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... exemption from Section 101(c)(1) of the Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act. 230.160...(c)(1) of the Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act. A prospectus for an... 101(c)(1) of the Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act....

  5. 17 CFR 230.160 - Registered investment company exemption from Section 101(c)(1) of the Electronic Signatures in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... exemption from Section 101(c)(1) of the Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act. 230.160...(c)(1) of the Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act. A prospectus for an... 101(c)(1) of the Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act....

  6. 17 CFR 230.160 - Registered investment company exemption from Section 101(c)(1) of the Electronic Signatures in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... exemption from Section 101(c)(1) of the Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act. 230.160...(c)(1) of the Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act. A prospectus for an... 101(c)(1) of the Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act....

  7. 17 CFR 230.160 - Registered investment company exemption from Section 101(c)(1) of the Electronic Signatures in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... exemption from Section 101(c)(1) of the Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act. 230.160...(c)(1) of the Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act. A prospectus for an... 101(c)(1) of the Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act....

  8. 17 CFR 230.160 - Registered investment company exemption from Section 101(c)(1) of the Electronic Signatures in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... exemption from Section 101(c)(1) of the Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act. 230.160...(c)(1) of the Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act. A prospectus for an... 101(c)(1) of the Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act....

  9. 26 CFR 1.1033(c)-1 - Disposition of excess property within irrigation project deemed to be involuntary conversion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... irrigation project deemed to be involuntary conversion. 1.1033(c)-1 Section 1.1033(c)-1 Internal Revenue... (CONTINUED) Common Nontaxable Exchanges § 1.1033(c)-1 Disposition of excess property within irrigation... irrigation project or division in order to conform to acreage limitations of the Federal reclamation...

  10. 26 CFR 1.1033(c)-1 - Disposition of excess property within irrigation project deemed to be involuntary conversion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... irrigation project deemed to be involuntary conversion. 1.1033(c)-1 Section 1.1033(c)-1 Internal Revenue... (CONTINUED) Common Nontaxable Exchanges § 1.1033(c)-1 Disposition of excess property within irrigation... irrigation project or division in order to conform to acreage limitations of the Federal reclamation...

  11. 26 CFR 1.1033(c)-1 - Disposition of excess property within irrigation project deemed to be involuntary conversion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... irrigation project deemed to be involuntary conversion. 1.1033(c)-1 Section 1.1033(c)-1 Internal Revenue... (CONTINUED) Common Nontaxable Exchanges § 1.1033(c)-1 Disposition of excess property within irrigation... irrigation project or division in order to conform to acreage limitations of the Federal reclamation...

  12. Six degree of freedom sensor

    DOEpatents

    Vann, C.S.

    1999-03-16

    This small, non-contact optical sensor increases the capability and flexibility of computer controlled machines by detecting its relative position to a workpiece in all six degrees of freedom (DOF). At a fraction of the cost, it is over 200 times faster and up to 25 times more accurate than competing 3-DOF sensors. Applications range from flexible manufacturing to a 6-DOF mouse for computers. Until now, highly agile and accurate machines have been limited by their inability to adjust to changes in their tasks. By enabling them to sense all six degrees of position, these machines can now adapt to new and complicated tasks without human intervention or delay--simplifying production, reducing costs, and enhancing the value and capability of flexible manufacturing. 3 figs.

  13. Six degree of freedom sensor

    DOEpatents

    Vann, Charles S.

    1999-01-01

    This small, non-contact optical sensor increases the capability and flexibility of computer controlled machines by detecting its relative position to a workpiece in all six degrees of freedom (DOF). At a fraction of the cost, it is over 200 times faster and up to 25 times more accurate than competing 3-DOF sensors. Applications range from flexible manufacturing to a 6-DOF mouse for computers. Until now, highly agile and accurate machines have been limited by their inability to adjust to changes in their tasks. By enabling them to sense all six degrees of position, these machines can now adapt to new and complicated tasks without human intervention or delay--simplifying production, reducing costs, and enhancing the value and capability of flexible manufacturing.

  14. A novel multi-domain C1qDC protein from Zhikong scallop Chlamys farreri provides new insights into the function of invertebrate C1qDC proteins.

    PubMed

    Wang, Leilei; Wang, Lingling; Zhang, Daoxiang; Jiang, Qiufen; Sun, Rui; Wang, Hao; Zhang, Huan; Song, Linsheng

    2015-10-01

    The C1q domain containing (C1qDC) proteins are a family of proteins possessing globular C1q (gC1q) domains, and they rely on this domain to recognize various ligands such as PAMPs, immunoglobulins, ligands on apoptotic cell. In the present study, a novel multi-domain C1qDC protein (CfC1qDC-2) was identified from scallop Chlamys farreri, and its full length cDNA was composed of 1648 bp, encoding a signal peptide and three typical gC1q domains. BLAST analysis revealed significant sequence similarity between CfC1qDC-2 and C1qDC proteins from mollusks. Three gC1q domains were predicted in its tertiary structure to form a tightly packed bell-shaped trimer, and each one adopted a typical 10-stranded sandwich fold with a jelly-roll topology and contained six aromatic amino acids forming the hydrophobic core. The mRNA transcripts of CfC1qDC-2 were mainly detected in the tissues of hepatopancreas and gonad of adult scallops, and the expression level was up-regulated in hemocytes after stimulated by LPS, PGN and β-glucan. During the embryonic development of scallop, the mRNA transcripts of CfC1qDC-2 were presented in all the detected stages, and the expression level was up-regulated from D-hinged larvae and reached the highest at eye-spot larvae. The recombinant protein of MBP-CfC1qDC-2 (rCfC1qDC-2) could bind various PAMPs including LPS, PGN, LTA, β-glucan, mannan as well as polyI:C, and different microorganisms including three Gram-negative bacteria, three Gram-positive bacteria and two yeasts, as well as scallop apoptotic cells. Meanwhile, rCfC1qDC-2 could interact with human heat-aggregated IgG and IgM, and inhibit the C1q-dependent hemolysis of rabbit serum. All these results indicated that CfC1qDC-2 could recognize not only PAMPs as a PRR, but also the apoptotic cells. Moreover, the similar structures and functions shared by CfC1qDC-2 and complement C1q provided a new insight into the evolution of C1qDC proteins in complement system.

  15. Genomic RNA sequence of feline coronavirus strain FCoV C1Je

    PubMed Central

    Dye, Charlotte; Siddell, Stuart G.

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports the first genomic RNA sequence of a field strain feline coronavirus (FCoV). Viral RNA was isolated at post mortem from the jejunum and liver of a cat with feline infectious peritonitis (FIP). A consensus sequence of the jejunum-derived genomic RNA (FCoV C1Je) was determined from overlapping cDNA fragments produced by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) amplification. RT-PCR products were sequenced by a reiterative sequencing strategy and the genomic RNA termini were determined using a rapid amplification of cDNA ends PCR strategy. The FCoV C1Je genome was found to be 29,255 nucleotides in length, excluding the poly(A) tail. Comparison of the FCoV C1Je genomic RNA sequence with that of the laboratory strain FCoV FIP virus (FIPV) 79-1146 showed that both viruses have a similar genome organisation and predictions made for the open reading frames and cis-acting elements of the FIPV 79-1146 genome hold true for FCoV C1Je. In addition, the sequence of the 3′-proximal third of the liver derived genomic RNA (FCoV C1Li), which encompasses the structural and accessory protein genes of the virus, was also determined. Comparisons of the enteric (jejunum) and non-enteric (liver) derived viral RNA sequences revealed 100% nucleotide identity, a finding that questions the well accepted ‘internal mutation theory’ of FIPV pathogenicity. PMID:17363313

  16. Identification of IgE sequential epitopes of lentil (Len c 1) by peptide microarray immunoassay

    PubMed Central

    Vereda, Andrea; Andreae, Doerthe A.; Lin, Jing; Shreffler, Wayne G.; Ibañez, Maria Dolores; Cuesta-Herranz, Javier; Bardina, Luda; Sampson, Hugh A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Lentils are oftentimes responsible for allergic reactions to legumes in Mediterranean children. Though the primary sequence of the major allergen, Len c 1 is known, the location of the IgE binding epitopes remains undefined. Objective We sought to identify IgE-binding epitopes of Len c 1 and relate epitope binding to clinical characteristics. Methods 135 peptides corresponding to the primary sequence of Len c 1 were probed with sera from 33 lentil-allergic individuals and 15 non-atopic controls by means of microarray immunoassay. Lentil-specific IgE, Skin Prick Tests and clinical reactions to lentil were determined. Epitopes were defined as overlapping signal above inter- and intra-slide cut-offs and confirmed by inhibition assays using a peptide from the respective region. Hierarchical clustering of microarray data was used to correlate binding patterns with clinical findings. Results The lentil-allergic patients specifically recognized IgE-binding epitopes located in the C-terminal region, between peptide 107 and 135. Inhibition experiments confirmed the specificity of IgE binding in this region, identifying different epitopes. Linkage of cluster results with clinical data and lentil specific IgE levels displayed a positive correlation between lentil-specific IgE levels, epitope recognition and respiratory symptoms. Modeling based on the three-dimensional structure of a homologous soy vicilin suggests that the Len c 1 epitopes identified are exposed on the surface of the molecule. Conclusion Several IgE-binding sequential epitopes of Len c 1 have been identified. Epitopes are located in the C-terminal region, and are predicted to be exposed on the surface of the protein. Epitope diversity is positively correlated with IgE levels, pointing to a more polyclonal IgE response. PMID:20816193

  17. Degree Attainment. Snapshot™ Report, Winter 2015

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Student Clearinghouse, 2015

    2015-01-01

    This Snapshot Report presents information on student degree attainment in science and engineering disciplines for 2004 and 2014. It offers data on the following: (1) Science and Engineering Degrees as Percentage of All Degrees; (2) Gender Distribution of Science and Engineering Degrees by Level; (3) Gender Distribution of Bachelor's Degrees in…

  18. Procyanidin C1 Causes Vasorelaxation Through Activation of the Endothelial NO/cGMP Pathway in Thoracic Aortic Rings

    PubMed Central

    Byun, Eui-Baek; Sung, Nak-Yun; Yang, Mi-So; Song, Du-Sup; Byun, Eui-Hong; Kim, Jae-Kyung; Park, Jong-Heum; Song, Beom-Seok; Lee, Ju-Woon; Park, Sang-Hyun; Byun, Myung-Woo

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to clarify the efficacy of procyanidin C1 (Pro C1) for modulating vascular tone. Pro C1 induced a potent vasorelaxant effect on phenylephrine-constricted endothelium-intact thoracic aortic rings, but had no effect on denuded thoracic aortic rings. Moreover, Pro C1 caused a significant increase in nitric oxide (NO) production in endothelial cells. Pro C1-induced vasorelaxation and Pro C1-induced NO production were significantly decreased in the presence of a nonspecific potassium channel blocker (tetraethylammonium chloride [TEA]), an endothelial NO synthase inhibitor (NG-monomethyl-L-arginine [L-NMMA]), and a store-operated calcium entry inhibitor (2-aminoethyl diphenylborinate [2-APB]). Pro C1-induced vasorelaxation was also completely abolished by an inhibitor of soluble guanyl cyclase, which suggests that the Pro C1 effects observed involved cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) production. Interestingly, Pro C1 significantly enhanced basal cGMP levels. Taken together, these results indicate that Pro C1-induced vasorelaxation is associated with the activation of the calcium-dependent NO/cGMP pathway, involving potassium channel activation. Thus, Pro C1 may represent a novel and potentially therapeutically relevant compound for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:24971771

  19. Dispersion relations and the nonlinear generation of C1-surface exciton polaritons in spatially dispersive ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukui, M.; So, V. C.-Y.; Stegeman, G. I.

    1980-07-01

    The recent experiments of DeMartini, Colocci, Kohn, and Shen [

    Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 1223 (1977)
    ] on the nonlinear generation of C1- (n=1 in the series) surface exciton polaritons in spatially dispersive ZnO are analyzed. It is shown for a prism-air-sample geometry that the air-gap thickness plays an important role in determining the polariton attenuation, and to a lesser degree the polariton energy. Reasonably good agreement with the experimental dispersion relations of DeMartini and co-workers is obtained by including spatial dispersion via the additional boundary condition (ABC) ∂P→ex/∂z=0 for the excitonic polarization P→ex at the surface: The ABC P→ex=0 does not yield a good fit. The theory of the nonlinear generation of surface exciton polaritons in isotropic, spatially dispersive media is developed and applied to angle- and frequency-scanning experimental geometries. Numerical estimates of both the power radiated out via the prism (in the absence of surface roughness) and the line shape were also found to be in reasonable agreement with experiment for the ABC ∂P→ex/∂x=0, but not for P→ex=0.

  20. Up-regulation of C1GALT1 promotes breast cancer cell growth through MUC1-C signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Chih-Hsing; Huang, Miao-Juei; Chen, Chi-Hau; Shyu, Ming-Kwang; Huang, John; Hung, Ji-Shiang; Huang, Chiun-Sheng; Huang, Min-Chuan

    2015-01-01

    Aberrant glycosylation is frequently observed in cancers. Core 1 β1,3-galactosyltransferase (C1GALT1) is an exclusive enzyme in humans that catalyzes the biosynthesis of core 1 O-glycan structure, Gal-GalNAc-O-Ser/Thr, whose expression is commonly up-regulated during tumorigenesis. Little is known about the function of C1GALT1 in breast cancer. This study aims to determine the correlation between C1GALT1 expression and breast cancer clinicopathological features and roles of C1GALT1 in breast cancer malignant phenotypes. Public databases and our data showed that C1GALT1 mRNA and C1GALT1 protein are frequently up-regulated in breast cancer; and increased C1GALT1 expression correlates with higher histological grade and advanced tumor stage. Overexpression of C1GALT1 enhanced breast cancer cell growth, migration, and invasion in vitro as well as tumor growth in vivo. Conversely, C1GALT1 knockdown suppressed these malignant phenotypes. Furthermore, C1GALT1 modulates O-glycan structures on Mucin (MUC) 1 and promotes MUC1-C/β-catenin signaling in breast cancer cells. These findings suggest that C1GALT1 enhances breast cancer malignant progression through promoting MUC1-C/β-catenin signaling pathway. Unveiling the function of C1GALT1 in breast cancer opens new insights to the roles of C1GALT1 and O-glycosylation in tumorigenesis and renders the potential of C1GALT1 as a target of novel therapeutic agent development. PMID:25762620

  1. Fishing for biodiversity: Novel methanopterin-linked C1 transfergenes deduced from the Sargasso Sea metagenome

    SciTech Connect

    Kalyuzhnaya, Marina G.; Nercessian, Olivier; Lapidus, Alla; Chistoserdova, Ludmila

    2004-07-01

    The recently generated database of microbial genes from anoligotrophic environment populated by a calculated 1,800 of major phylotypes (the Sargasso Sea metagenome) presents a great source for expanding local databases of genes indicative of a specific function. In this paper we analyze the Sargasso Sea metagenome in terms of the presence of methanopterin-linked C1 transfer genes that are signature for methylotrophy. We conclude that more than 10 phylotypes possessing genes of interest are present in this environment, and a few of these are relatively abundant species. The sequences representative of the major phylotypes do not appear to belong to any known microbial group capable of methanopterin-linked C1 transfer. Instead, they separate from all known sequences on phylogenetic trees, pointing towards their affiliation with a novel microbial phylum. These data imply a broader distribution of methanopterin-linked functions in the microbial world than previously known.

  2. Plasma-derived C1-INH for managing hereditary angioedema in pediatric patients: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Craig, Timothy J; Schneider, Lynda C; MacGinnitie, Andrew J

    2015-09-01

    Presently, medications approved for children with Hereditary Angioedema (HAE) are extremely limited. This is especially the case for children under 12 years of age. For this reason we reviewed and summarized the data on treatment of children with HAE. Available data indicate that plasma derived C1-inhibitor is a safe, effective treatment option for HAE in pediatric patients, including those below 12 years of age. Other therapies are also appear safe for the under 12 year of age, but less data are available. Importantly, home-based treatment of HAE in this age group appears to be safe and effective and can improve quality of life. These findings support current HAE consensus guidelines which strongly recommend the use of plasma derived C1-inhibitor as a first-line treatment in children and encourage home and self-treatment.

  3. C1 CHEMISTRY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ULTRA-CLEAN LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND HYDROGEN

    SciTech Connect

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2003-03-31

    Faculty and students from five universities--the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University--are collaborating in a research program to develop C1 chemistry processes to produce ultra-clean liquid transportation fuels and hydrogen, the zero-emissions transportation fuel of the future. The feedstocks contain one carbon atom per molecular unit. They include synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. An important objective is to develop C1 technology for the production of transportation fuel from domestically plentiful resources such as coal, coalbed methane, and natural gas. An Industrial Advisory Board with representatives from Chevron-Texaco, Eastman Chemical, Conoco-Phillips, Energy International, the Department of Defense, and Tier Associates provides guidance on the practicality of the research.

  4. Block of transmitter release by botulinum C1 action on syntaxin at the squid giant synapse.

    PubMed

    Marsal, J; Ruiz-Montasell, B; Blasi, J; Moreira, J E; Contreras, D; Sugimori, M; Llinás, R

    1997-12-23

    Electrophysiological, morphological, and biochemical approaches were combined to study the effect of the presynaptic injection of the light chain of botulinum toxin C1 into the squid giant synapse. Presynaptic injection was accompanied by synaptic block that occurred progressively as the toxin filled the presynaptic terminal. Neither the presynaptic action potential nor the Ca2+ currents in the presynaptic terminal were affected by the toxin. Biochemical analysis of syntaxin moiety in squid indicates that the light chain of botulinum toxin C1 lyses syntaxin in vitro, suggesting that this was the mechanism responsible for synaptic block. Ultrastructure of the injected synapses demonstrates an enormous increase in the number of presynaptic vesicles, suggesting that the release rather than the docking of vesicles is affected by biochemical lysing of the syntaxin molecule.

  5. Presence of C1q-reactive immune complexes in patients with leprosy

    PubMed Central

    Rojas-Espinosa, O.; Mendez-Navarrete, I.; Estrada-Parra, S.

    1972-01-01

    Presence of soluble immune complexes was investigated in sera from persons with a well documented clinical diagnosis of leprosy. The complexes were detected by their reactivity with the C1q component of complement. More than 70% of the studied patients with lepromatous-leprosy had immune complexes demonstrable by this method (39/51), while only a small proportion of the healthy control group (1/35 or about 3%) had precipitable complexes. Two out of nine sera from patients with tuberculoid leprosy reacted when tested with C1q component. The presence of free-antibody to mycobacterial antigens was determined as well. The possible relationship between the presence of such immune complexes and the pathology of some reactional states of the disease is discussed. ImagesFig. 1 PMID:4630778

  6. Asteroseismology of Solar-Type Stars with K2: Detection of Oscillations in C1 Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaplin, W. J.; Lund, M. N.; Handberg, R.; Basu, S.; Buchhave, L. A.; Campante, T. L.; Davies, G. R.; Huber, D.; Latham, D. W.; Latham, C. A.; Serenelli, A.; Antia, H. M.; Appourchaux, T.; Ball, W. H.; Benomar, O.; Casagrande, L.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.; Coelho, H. R.; Creevey, O. L.; Elsworth, Y.; García, R. A.; Gaulme, P.; Hekker, S.; Kallinger, T.; Karoff, C.; Kawaler, S. D.; Kjeldsen, H.; Lundkvist, M. S.; Marcadon, F.; Mathur, S.; Miglio, A.; Mosser, B.; Régulo, C.; Roxburgh, I. W.; Silva Aguirre, V.; Stello, D.; Verma, K.; White, T. R.; Bedding, T. R.; Barclay, T.; Buzasi, D. L.; Dehuevels, S.; Gizon, L.; Houdek, G.; Howell, S. B.; Salabert, D.; Soderblom, D. R.

    2015-10-01

    We present the first detections by the NASA K2 mission of oscillations in solar-type stars, using short-cadence data collected during K2 Campaign 1 (C1). We understand the asteroseismic detection thresholds for C1-like levels of photometric performance, and we can detect oscillations in subgiants having dominant oscillation frequencies around 1000 μHz. Changes to the operation of the fine-guidance sensors are expected to give significant improvements in the high-frequency performance from C3 onwards. A reduction in the excess high-frequency noise by a factor of 2.5 in amplitude would bring main-sequence stars with dominant oscillation frequencies as high as sime2500 μHz into play as potential asteroseismic targets for K2.

  7. Nonvortical Rashba Spin Structure on a Surface with C1 h Symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Annese, Emilia; Kuzumaki, Takuya; Müller, Beate; Yamamoto, Yuta; Nakano, Hiroto; Kato, Haruki; Araki, Atsushi; Ohtaka, Minoru; Aoki, Takashi; Ishikawa, Hirotaka; Hayashida, Takashi; Osiecki, Jacek R.; Miyamoto, Koji; Takeichi, Yasuo; Harasawa, Ayumi; Yaji, Koichiro; Shirasawa, Tetsuroh; Nittoh, Koh-ichi; Yang, Wooil; Miki, Kazushi; Oda, Tatsuki; Yeom, Han Woong; Sakamoto, Kazuyuki

    2016-07-01

    A totally anisotropic peculiar Rashba-Bychkov (RB) splitting of electronic bands was found on the Tl /Si (110 )-(1 ×1 ) surface with C1 h symmetry by angle- and spin-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy and first-principles theoretical calculation. The constant energy contour of the upper branch of the RB split band has a warped elliptical shape centered at a k point located between Γ ¯ and the edge of the surface Brillouin zone, i.e., at a point without time-reversal symmetry. The spin-polarization vector of this state is in-plane and points almost the same direction along the whole elliptic contour. This novel nonvortical RB spin structure is confirmed as a general phenomenon originating from the C1 h symmetry of the surface.

  8. Environmental variability and the evolution of the glucocorticoid receptor (Nr3c1) in African starlings.

    PubMed

    Hofmeister, Natalie R; Rubenstein, Dustin R

    2016-10-01

    One of the primary ways that organisms cope with environmental change is through regulation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, the neuroendocrine system that controls reactions to stress. Variation in genes regulating the HPA axis - particularly the glucocorticoid receptor - may facilitate adaptation to changing climatic conditions by altering expression. Here we examine signatures of selection on the glucocorticoid receptor gene (Nr3c1) in African starlings that inhabit a range of environments, including those with variable climatic conditions. To investigate potential adaptive mechanisms underlying the vertebrate stress response, we sequence the Nr3c1 gene in 27 species of African starlings. Although we find some evidence of positive selection, substitution rate is negatively correlated with variance in precipitation. This suggests climatic cycling in sub-Saharan Africa may have resulted in lower substitution rates to maintain a successful coping strategy. When environmental conditions fluctuate rapidly, variation in the strength of purifying selection can explain evolutionary rate variation. PMID:27500971

  9. Comparative computational analysis of the Cahn-Hilliard equation with emphasis on C1-continuous methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaessmair, S.; Steinmann, P.

    2016-10-01

    The numerical treatment of the fourth-order Cahn-Hilliard equation is nonstandard. Using a Galerkin-method necessitates, for instance, piecewise smooth and globally C1-continuous basis functions or a mixed formulation. The latter is obtained introducing an auxiliary field which allows to rephrase the Cahn-Hilliard equation as a set of two coupled second-order equations. In view of this, the formulation in terms of the primal unknown appears to be a more intuitive and natural choice but requires a C1-continuous interpolation. Therefore, isogeometric analysis, using a spline basis, and natural element analysis are addressed in the present contribution. Mixed second-order finite element methods introducing the chemical potential or alternatively a nonlocal concentration as auxiliary field serve as references to which both higher-order methods are compared in terms of accuracy and efficiency.

  10. Nonvortical Rashba Spin Structure on a Surface with C_{1h} Symmetry.

    PubMed

    Annese, Emilia; Kuzumaki, Takuya; Müller, Beate; Yamamoto, Yuta; Nakano, Hiroto; Kato, Haruki; Araki, Atsushi; Ohtaka, Minoru; Aoki, Takashi; Ishikawa, Hirotaka; Hayashida, Takashi; Osiecki, Jacek R; Miyamoto, Koji; Takeichi, Yasuo; Harasawa, Ayumi; Yaji, Koichiro; Shirasawa, Tetsuroh; Nittoh, Koh-Ichi; Yang, Wooil; Miki, Kazushi; Oda, Tatsuki; Yeom, Han Woong; Sakamoto, Kazuyuki

    2016-07-01

    A totally anisotropic peculiar Rashba-Bychkov (RB) splitting of electronic bands was found on the Tl/Si(110)-(1×1) surface with C_{1h} symmetry by angle- and spin-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy and first-principles theoretical calculation. The constant energy contour of the upper branch of the RB split band has a warped elliptical shape centered at a k point located between Γ[over ¯] and the edge of the surface Brillouin zone, i.e., at a point without time-reversal symmetry. The spin-polarization vector of this state is in-plane and points almost the same direction along the whole elliptic contour. This novel nonvortical RB spin structure is confirmed as a general phenomenon originating from the C_{1h} symmetry of the surface. PMID:27419582

  11. C1 fractures: a review of diagnoses, management options, and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Mead, Loren B; Millhouse, Paul W; Krystal, Jonathan; Vaccaro, Alexander R

    2016-09-01

    The atlas is subject to fracture under axial load, often due to traumatic injuries such as shallow dives and automobile accidents. These fractures account for 2-13 % of injuries to the cervical spine [Marcon RM et al. Clinics (Sao Paulo) 68(11):1455-61, 2013]. Fractures of the C1 vertebra are often difficult to diagnose, as there is often no neurological deficit or easily identifiable findings on radiographs. However, injuries to the atlas can be associated with vertebral artery injury and atlantoaxial or atlanto-occipital instability, making prompt and accurate diagnosis imperative. A detailed understanding of the anatomy, inherent stability, and common injury patterns is essential for any surgeon treating spinal trauma. This chapter explores the diagnosis and management of C1 fractures, as well as outcomes after treatment.

  12. 45 CFR 2400.41 - Degree programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... degree in education that permits a concentration in American history, American government, social studies, or political science. Graduate degrees under which study is excluded from fellowship support...

  13. 45 CFR 2400.41 - Degree programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... degree in education that permits a concentration in American history, American government, social studies, or political science. Graduate degrees under which study is excluded from fellowship support...

  14. 45 CFR 2400.41 - Degree programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... degree in education that permits a concentration in American history, American government, social studies, or political science. Graduate degrees under which study is excluded from fellowship support...

  15. Degrees with Almost Universal Cupping Property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jiang; Wu, Guohua

    The notion of cupping/noncupping has played an essential role in the study of various degree structures in the Ershov hierarchy. As an approach to refute Shoenfield conjecture, Yates (see [2]) proved the existence of a nonzero noncuppable r.e. degree, a degree cupping no incomplete r.e. degree to 0'. In contrast to this, Arslanov proved in [1] that nonzero noncuppable degrees do not exist in the structure of d.r.e. degrees, which shows that the structures of r.e. degrees and d.r.e. degrees are not elementary equivalent.

  16. Rapid Reactivation of Deep Subsurface Microbes in the Presence of C-1 Compounds.

    PubMed

    Rajala, Pauliina; Bomberg, Malin; Kietäväinen, Riikka; Kukkonen, Ilmo; Ahonen, Lasse; Nyyssönen, Mari; Itävaara, Merja

    2015-02-05

    Microorganisms in the deep biosphere are believed to conduct little metabolic activity due to low nutrient availability in these environments. However, destructive penetration to long-isolated bedrock environments during construction of underground waste repositories can lead to increased nutrient availability and potentially affect the long-term stability of the repository systems, Here, we studied how microorganisms present in fracture fluid from a depth of 500 m in Outokumpu, Finland, respond to simple carbon compounds (C-1 compounds) in the presence or absence of sulphate as an electron acceptor. C-1 compounds such as methane and methanol are important intermediates in the deep subsurface carbon cycle, and electron acceptors such as sulphate are critical components of oxidation processes. Fracture fluid samples were incubated in vitro with either methane or methanol in the presence or absence of sulphate as an electron acceptor. Metabolic response was measured by staining the microbial cells with fluorescent dyes that indicate metabolic activity and transcriptional response with RT-qPCR. Our results show that deep subsurface microbes exist in dormant states but rapidly reactivate their transcription and respiration systems in the presence of C-1 substrates, particularly methane. Microbial activity was further enhanced by the addition of sulphate as an electron acceptor. Sulphate- and nitrate-reducing microbes were particularly responsive to the addition of C-1 compounds and sulphate. These taxa are common in deep biosphere environments and may be affected by conditions disturbed by bedrock intrusion, as from drilling and excavation for long-term storage of hazardous waste.

  17. The geologic mapping of Venus using C-1 format: Sheets 75N254, 60N263

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shalimov, I. V.

    1992-01-01

    The results of geologic mapping of Venus, produced on the base of Magellan images, are presented. We submit two C-1 format geologic maps with the appropriate legend. The mapping territory was taken from Venera 15 and 16 missions and geologic maps were composed. Magellan images allow us to divide some types of the plains units to determine the lava flow direction and to map with better accuracy.

  18. View forward in starboard engine room, compartment C1. Lagged cylinders ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View forward in starboard engine room, compartment C-1. Lagged cylinders at lower right are part of a steam engine that poers the salt water circulating pumps. Note main throttle wheel at lower center of photograph. Handles at lower center are cylinder manifold drains. Handles to the right are engine starting valves. (062) - USS Olympia, Penn's Landing, 211 South Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  19. Focal facial dermal dysplasia, type IV, is caused by mutations in CYP26C1.

    PubMed

    Slavotinek, Anne M; Mehrotra, Pavni; Nazarenko, Irina; Tang, Paul Ling-Fung; Lao, Richard; Cameron, Don; Li, Ben; Chu, Catherine; Chou, Chris; Marqueling, Ann L; Yahyavi, Mani; Cordoro, Kelly; Frieden, Ilona; Glaser, Tom; Prescott, Trine; Morren, Marie-Anne; Devriendt, Koen; Kwok, Pui-yan; Petkovich, Martin; Desnick, Robert J

    2013-02-15

    Focal facial dermal dysplasia (FFDD) Type IV is a rare syndrome characterized by facial lesions resembling aplasia cutis in a preauricular distribution along the line of fusion of the maxillary and mandibular prominences. To identify the causative gene(s), exome sequencing was performed in a family with two affected siblings. Assuming autosomal recessive inheritance, two novel sequence variants were identified in both siblings in CYP26C1-a duplication of seven base pairs, which was maternally inherited, c.844_851dupCCATGCA, predicting p.Glu284fsX128 and a missense mutation, c.1433G>A, predicting p.Arg478His, that was paternally inherited. The duplication predicted a frameshift mutation that led to a premature stop codon and premature chain termination, whereas the missense mutation was not functional based on its in vitro expression in mammalian cells. The FFDD skin lesions arise along the sites of fusion of the maxillary and mandibular prominences early in facial development, and Cyp26c1 was expressed exactly along the fusion line for these facial prominences in the first branchial arch in mice. Sequencing of four additional, unrelated Type IV FFDD patients and eight Type II or III TWIST2-negative FFDD patients revealed that three of the Type IV patients were homozygous for the duplication, whereas none of the Type II or III patients had CYP26C1 mutations. The seven base pairs duplication was present in 0.3% of healthy controls and 0.3% of patients with other birth defects. These findings suggest that the phenotypic manifestations of FFDD Type IV can be non-penetrant or underascertained. Thus, FFDD Type IV results from the loss of function mutations in CYP26C1.

  20. The global uniqueness and C 1-regularity of geodesics in expanding impulsive gravitational waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podolský, J.; Sämann, C.; Steinbauer, R.; Švarc, R.

    2016-10-01

    We study geodesics in the complete family of expanding impulsive gravitational waves propagating in spaces of constant curvature, that is Minkowski, de Sitter and anti-de Sitter universes. Employing the continuous form of the metric we rigorously prove existence and global uniqueness of continuously differentiable geodesics (in the sense of Filippov) and study their interaction with the impulsive wave. Thereby we justify the ‘C 1-matching procedure’ used in the literature to derive their explicit form.

  1. Rapid Reactivation of Deep Subsurface Microbes in the Presence of C-1 Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Rajala, Pauliina; Bomberg, Malin; Kietäväinen, Riikka; Kukkonen, Ilmo; Ahonen, Lasse; Nyyssönen, Mari; Itävaara, Merja

    2015-01-01

    Microorganisms in the deep biosphere are believed to conduct little metabolic activity due to low nutrient availability in these environments. However, destructive penetration to long-isolated bedrock environments during construction of underground waste repositories can lead to increased nutrient availability and potentially affect the long-term stability of the repository systems, Here, we studied how microorganisms present in fracture fluid from a depth of 500 m in Outokumpu, Finland, respond to simple carbon compounds (C-1 compounds) in the presence or absence of sulphate as an electron acceptor. C-1 compounds such as methane and methanol are important intermediates in the deep subsurface carbon cycle, and electron acceptors such as sulphate are critical components of oxidation processes. Fracture fluid samples were incubated in vitro with either methane or methanol in the presence or absence of sulphate as an electron acceptor. Metabolic response was measured by staining the microbial cells with fluorescent dyes that indicate metabolic activity and transcriptional response with RT-qPCR. Our results show that deep subsurface microbes exist in dormant states but rapidly reactivate their transcription and respiration systems in the presence of C-1 substrates, particularly methane. Microbial activity was further enhanced by the addition of sulphate as an electron acceptor. Sulphate- and nitrate-reducing microbes were particularly responsive to the addition of C-1 compounds and sulphate. These taxa are common in deep biosphere environments and may be affected by conditions disturbed by bedrock intrusion, as from drilling and excavation for long-term storage of hazardous waste.

  2. Rapid Reactivation of Deep Subsurface Microbes in the Presence of C-1 Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Rajala, Pauliina; Bomberg, Malin; Kietäväinen, Riikka; Kukkonen, Ilmo; Ahonen, Lasse; Nyyssönen, Mari; Itävaara, Merja

    2015-01-01

    Microorganisms in the deep biosphere are believed to conduct little metabolic activity due to low nutrient availability in these environments. However, destructive penetration to long-isolated bedrock environments during construction of underground waste repositories can lead to increased nutrient availability and potentially affect the long-term stability of the repository systems, Here, we studied how microorganisms present in fracture fluid from a depth of 500 m in Outokumpu, Finland, respond to simple carbon compounds (C-1 compounds) in the presence or absence of sulphate as an electron acceptor. C-1 compounds such as methane and methanol are important intermediates in the deep subsurface carbon cycle, and electron acceptors such as sulphate are critical components of oxidation processes. Fracture fluid samples were incubated in vitro with either methane or methanol in the presence or absence of sulphate as an electron acceptor. Metabolic response was measured by staining the microbial cells with fluorescent dyes that indicate metabolic activity and transcriptional response with RT-qPCR. Our results show that deep subsurface microbes exist in dormant states but rapidly reactivate their transcription and respiration systems in the presence of C-1 substrates, particularly methane. Microbial activity was further enhanced by the addition of sulphate as an electron acceptor. Sulphate- and nitrate-reducing microbes were particularly responsive to the addition of C-1 compounds and sulphate. These taxa are common in deep biosphere environments and may be affected by conditions disturbed by bedrock intrusion, as from drilling and excavation for long-term storage of hazardous waste. PMID:27682076

  3. Polygonumnolides C1-C4; minor dianthrone glycosides from the roots of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jian-Bo; Li, Li; Dai, Zhong; Wu, Yu; Geng, Xing-Chao; Li, Bo; Ma, Shuang-Cheng; Wang, Ai-Guo; Su, Ya-Lun

    2016-09-01

    Four new dianthrone glycosides, named polygonumnolides C1-C4 (1-4), were isolated from the dried roots of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb, together with two known emodin dianthrones (5-6). Their hepatotoxicities were evaluated against L-02 cell lines. Compounds 1-4 showed weak hepatotoxicity against L-02 cell lines with IC50 values of 313.05, 205.20, 294.20, and 207.35 μM, respectively. PMID:27139982

  4. Clinical presentation of human C1q deficiency: How much of a lupus?

    PubMed

    Stegert, Mihaela; Bock, Merete; Trendelenburg, Marten

    2015-09-01

    Hereditary human C1q deficiency has been well described to be associated with high susceptibility for the development of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The majority of subjects present a clinical syndrome closely related to SLE. However, limited information is available about the primary diagnosis and particular clinical manifestations of SLE in this specific subgroup of patients. In this review, we performed a comprehensive search of electronic databases up to November 2014 to identify and analyze reports on patients with C1q deficiency. We identified 71 C1q-deficient patients descending from 45 families that had been published. According to the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) diagnostic criteria for SLE 39/71 (55%) subjects could be classified as having SLE. Another 16/71 (22.5%) presented a SLE-like syndrome (defined as 3 positive ACR criteria) whereas in 16/71 (22.5%) no SLE could be diagnosed at time of publication. Symptoms began at a median age of 5 years, male and females being equally affected. Discoid rash (56% versus 10%, p<0.001) and oral ulcers (49% versus 24%, p<0.001) occurred significantly more frequent in C1q deficiency-associated SLE/SLE-like disease than in sporadic SLE, whereas arthritis (38% versus 84%, p<001) and anti-ds-DNA (18% versus 78%, p<0.001) occurred less frequently. Renal and neurological manifestations were found to occur similarly frequent. The severe course of disease in some patients seemed to be mostly due to severe infections at early ages and not in particular due to more aggressive SLE manifestations.

  5. 26 CFR 31.3405(c)-1 - Withholding on eligible rollover distributions; questions and answers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., interest, or penalties for failure to withhold 20 percent from an eligible rollover distribution that... appears in § 1.403(b)-2T of this chapter (as it appeared in the April 1, 1995 edition of 26 CFR part 1... October 19, 1995, § 31.3405(c)-1T (as it appeared in the April 1, 1995 edition of 26 CFR part 1),...

  6. 26 CFR 31.3405(c)-1 - Withholding on eligible rollover distributions; questions and answers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., interest, or penalties for failure to withhold 20 percent from an eligible rollover distribution that... appears in § 1.403(b)-2T of this chapter (as it appeared in the April 1, 1995 edition of 26 CFR part 1... October 19, 1995, § 31.3405(c)-1T (as it appeared in the April 1, 1995 edition of 26 CFR part 1),...

  7. 26 CFR 31.3405(c)-1 - Withholding on eligible rollover distributions; questions and answers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Withholding on eligible rollover distributions... appears in § 1.403(b)-2T of this chapter (as it appeared in the April 1, 1995 edition of 26 CFR part 1... October 19, 1995, § 31.3405(c)-1T (as it appeared in the April 1, 1995 edition of 26 CFR part 1),...

  8. Sulforaphane Enhances Nrf2 Expression in Prostate Cancer TRAMP C1 Cells through Epigenetic Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chengyue; Su, Zheng-Yuan; Khor, Tin Oo; Shu, Limin; Kong, Ah-Ng Tony

    2014-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests epigenetic alteration is involved during the development and progression of prostate cancer. Previously, we found Nrf2, a key regulator of cellular antioxidant defense systems, was silenced through epigenetic mechanism during tumorigenesis in vivo TRAMP mice and in vitro TRAMP C1 cells. Sulforaphane (SFN) in cruciferous vegetable has been demonstrated to be a potent cancer prevention agent for years. The aim of this study is to investigate the potential of SFN to restore Nrf2 expression in TRAMP C1 cells through epigenetic modifications. Bisulfite genomic sequencing results indicated that SFN treatment led to demethylation of the first 5 CpGs in the promoter region of the Nrf2 gene in TRAMP C1 cells. Using methylation DNA immunoprecipitation (MeDIP) assay, SFN significantly reduced the ratio of anti-mecyt antibody binding to the Nrf2 promoter containing the first 5 CpGs. SFN increased mRNA and protein expressions of Nrf2 and Nrf2 downstream target gene NQO-1. In addition, SFN decreased the protein levels of DNMT1 and DNMT3a. SFN treatment also attenuated the protein expression levels of HDACs 1, 4, 5, and 7 while increased the level of active chromatin marker acetyl-Histone 3 (Ac-H3). SFN treatments also increased chromatin-immunoprecipitated DNA of Nrf2 gene promoter using anti-Ac-H3 antibody. Taken together, our current study shows that SFN regulates Nrf2's CpGs demethylation and reactivation in TRAMP C1 cells, suggesting SFN may exert its chemopreventive effect in part via epigenetic modifications of Nrf2 gene with subsequent induction of its downstream anti-oxidative stress pathway. PMID:23416117

  9. Two-dimensional String Theory from the c = 1 Matrix Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhar, Avinash

    1996-02-01

    We identify the nonlocal and nonlinear operator in the c = 1 matrix model which satisfies the tachyron β-function equation of 2-dimensional string theory in flat-space and linear-dilaton background. This reinforces the viewpoint thata nonlocal transform is required to extract the space-time physics of the 2-dimensional strong theory from the matrix model. We also comment on the realization of the W-infinity symmetry of the matrix model in the string theory.

  10. Kinetic modeling of hyperpolarized 13C 1-pyruvate metabolism in normal rats and TRAMP mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zierhut, Matthew L.; Yen, Yi-Fen; Chen, Albert P.; Bok, Robert; Albers, Mark J.; Zhang, Vickie; Tropp, Jim; Park, Ilwoo; Vigneron, Daniel B.; Kurhanewicz, John; Hurd, Ralph E.; Nelson, Sarah J.

    2010-01-01

    PurposeTo investigate metabolic exchange between 13C 1-pyruvate, 13C 1-lactate, and 13C 1-alanine in pre-clinical model systems using kinetic modeling of dynamic hyperpolarized 13C spectroscopic data and to examine the relationship between fitted parameters and dose-response. Materials and methodsDynamic 13C spectroscopy data were acquired in normal rats, wild type mice, and mice with transgenic prostate tumors (TRAMP) either within a single slice or using a one-dimensional echo-planar spectroscopic imaging (1D-EPSI) encoding technique. Rate constants were estimated by fitting a set of exponential equations to the dynamic data. Variations in fitted parameters were used to determine model robustness in 15 mm slices centered on normal rat kidneys. Parameter values were used to investigate differences in metabolism between and within TRAMP and wild type mice. ResultsThe kinetic model was shown here to be robust when fitting data from a rat given similar doses. In normal rats, Michaelis-Menten kinetics were able to describe the dose-response of the fitted exchange rate constants with a 13.65% and 16.75% scaled fitting error (SFE) for kpyr→lac and kpyr→ala, respectively. In TRAMP mice, kpyr→lac increased an average of 94% after up to 23 days of disease progression, whether the mice were untreated or treated with casodex. Parameters estimated from dynamic 13C 1D-EPSI data were able to differentiate anatomical structures within both wild type and TRAMP mice. ConclusionsThe metabolic parameters estimated using this approach may be useful for in vivo monitoring of tumor progression and treatment efficacy, as well as to distinguish between various tissues based on metabolic activity.

  11. Phase equilibria of NdC1 3NaClKCl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosoya, Yuji; Terai, Takayuki; Tanaka, Satoru; Takahashi, Yoichi

    1997-08-01

    Molten chloride is considered to be applied to a fast-breeder-reactor fuel and a solvent in the pyrochemical reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel. In this work, phase diagrams for molten chloride systems were constructed, using NdCl 3 as an imitative substance in place of UCl 3 or PuCl 3. A compound of 3NdC1 3 · NaCl, which melts incongruently at 540°C to NdCl 3 and liquid and a eutectic at 437°C were found in the NdC1 3NaCl system. In the NdCl 3KCl system, many invariant reactions were observed: the decomposition of NdCl 3 · 2KCl and 2NdCl 3 · KCl at 444 and 474°C, respectively; a eutectic at 489°C; a peritectic at 506°C and a monotectic at 624°C. It is thought that there should be a peritectic compound of 6NdCl 3 · KCl above 474°C. A compound of 2NdC1 3 · NaCl · KCl was considered to exist in the ternary system of NdCl 3NaClKCl, to which attention should be paid in determining the composition of the fuel of the molten-salt fast breeder reactor.

  12. Use of the Fluidigm C1 platform for RNA sequencing of single mouse pancreatic islet cells

    PubMed Central

    Xin, Yurong; Kim, Jinrang; Ni, Min; Wei, Yi; Okamoto, Haruka; Lee, Joseph; Adler, Christina; Cavino, Katie; Murphy, Andrew J.; Yancopoulos, George D.; Lin, Hsin Chieh; Gromada, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    This study provides an assessment of the Fluidigm C1 platform for RNA sequencing of single mouse pancreatic islet cells. The system combines microfluidic technology and nanoliter-scale reactions. We sequenced 622 cells, allowing identification of 341 islet cells with high-quality gene expression profiles. The cells clustered into populations of α-cells (5%), β-cells (92%), δ-cells (1%), and pancreatic polypeptide cells (2%). We identified cell-type–specific transcription factors and pathways primarily involved in nutrient sensing and oxidation and cell signaling. Unexpectedly, 281 cells had to be removed from the analysis due to low viability, low sequencing quality, or contamination resulting in the detection of more than one islet hormone. Collectively, we provide a resource for identification of high-quality gene expression datasets to help expand insights into genes and pathways characterizing islet cell types. We reveal limitations in the C1 Fluidigm cell capture process resulting in contaminated cells with altered gene expression patterns. This calls for caution when interpreting single-cell transcriptomics data using the C1 Fluidigm system. PMID:26951663

  13. Gene Expression and Methylation Signatures of MAN2C1 are Associated with PTSD

    PubMed Central

    Uddin, Monica; Galea, Sandro; Chang, Shun-Chiao; Aiello, Allison E.; Wildman, Derek E.; de los Santos, Regina; Koenen, Karestan C.

    2011-01-01

    As potential regulators of DNA accessibility and activity, epigenetic modifications offer a mechanism by which the environment can moderate the effects of genes. To date, however, there have been relatively few studies assessing epigenetic modifications associated with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Here we investigate PTSD-associated methylation differences in 33 genes previously shown to differ in whole blood-derived gene expression levels between those with vs. without the disorder. Drawing on DNA samples similarly obtained from whole blood in 100 individuals, 23 with and 77 without lifetime PTSD, we used methylation microarray data to assess whether these 33 candidate genes showed epigenetic signatures indicative of increased risk for, or resilience to, PTSD. Logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the main and interacting effects of candidate genes’ methylation values and number of potentially traumatic events (PTEs), adjusting for age and other covariates. Results revealed that only one candidate gene–MAN2C1–showed a significant methylation x PTE interaction, such that those with both higher MAN2C1 methylation and greater exposure to PTEs showed a marked increase in risk of lifetime PTSD (OR 4.35, 95% CI: 1.07, 17.77, p = 0.04). These results indicate that MAN2C1 methylation levels modify cumulative traumatic burden on risk of PTSD, and suggest that both gene expression and epigenetic changes at specific loci are associated with this disorder. PMID:21508515

  14. Quantification of the Raf-C1 interaction with solid-supported bilayers.

    PubMed

    Eing, Andreas; Janshoff, Andreas; Galla, Hans-Joachim; Block, Christoph; Steinem, Claudia

    2002-03-01

    By use of the quartz crystal microbalance technique, the interaction of the Raf-Ras binding domain (RafRBD) and the cysteine-rich domain Raf-C1 with lipids was quantified by using solid-supported bilayers immobilized on gold electrodes deposited on 5 MHz quartz plates. Solid-supported lipid bilayers were composed of an initial octanethiol monolayer chemisorbed on gold and a physisorbed phospholipid monolayer varying in its lipid composition as the outermost layer. The integrity of bilayer preparation was monitored by impedance spectroscopy. For binding experiments, a protein construct comprising the RafRBD and Raf-C1 linked to the maltose binding protein and a His tag, termed MBP-Raf-C1, was used. Dissociation constants and rate constants of the association and dissociation were obtained for various 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC)/1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoserine (DMPS) lipid mixtures. Independently of the phosphatidylserine (PS) content, the dissociation constants were in the order of 5x10(-7) M, while the on-rate constants were in the range of 2x10(3) (M s)(-1) and the off-rate constants in the range of 1x10(-3) s(-1). The maximum frequency shift increased significantly with increasing amounts of DMPS; this indicates that this negatively charged lipid is the primary binding site for MBP-Raf-C1. Exchange of DMPS for 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoglycerol (DMPG) did not alter the thermodynamics and kinetics of protein binding, which implies that the protein interaction is mainly electrostatically driven. Scanning force microscopy (SFM) was employed to render protein adsorption visible and to confirm the assumption of a protein monolayer on the lipid layer. SFM images clearly revealed that the protein binds preferentially, but not solely, to negatively charged phosphatidylserine headgroups. We hypothesize that PS-enriched domains are initial binding sites with high affinity for Raf-C1, but that lateral interactions may account for

  15. Perspective View of Venus (Center Latitude 0 Degree N., Center Longitude 163 Degrees E.)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This perspective view of Venus, generated by computer from Magellan data and color-coded with emissivity, shows the impact crater Markham, named after the English aviator Beryl Markham (The crater was briefly known unofficially as Franklin; the earlier name was not approved by the Nomenclature Committee of the International Astronomical Union). Markham, with a diameter of 71 km, is one of more than 400 Venusian craters whose formation triggered the outflow of highly fluid materials. Such outflows are thought to consist of mixtures of melted and fractured rock, and studies of their lobate margins and surface roughnesses suggest that they behave like a cross between lava flows and debris flows on Earth. The flow from this crater's ejecta traversed a slope of extremely low gradient (less than 0.1 degree) for 450 km, leaving an extremely rough, radar-bright surface. The ground-hugging nature of the flow is indicated by its being diverted by the foreground hill, which is less than 200 m high. Magellan MIDR quadrangle* containing this image: C1- 00N163. Image resolution (m): 225. Size of region shown (E-W x N-S, in km): 473 x 360. Range of emissivities from violet to red: 0.80 -- 0.95. Vertical exaggeration: 200. Azimuth of viewpoint (deg clockwise from East): 300. Elevation of viewpoint (km): 500. *Quadrangle name indicates approximate center latitude (N=north, S=south) and center longitude (East).

  16. Complexes between C1q and C3 or C4: novel and specific markers for classical complement pathway activation.

    PubMed

    Wouters, Diana; Wiessenberg, Hans D; Hart, Margreet; Bruins, Peter; Voskuyl, Alexandre; Daha, Mohamed R; Hack, C Erik

    2005-03-01

    Classical pathway activation is often assessed by measuring circulating levels of activated C4. However, this parameter does not discriminate between activation through the classical or the lectin pathway. We hypothesized that during classical pathway activation, complexes are formed between C1q and activated C4 or C3. Using ELISA, we investigated whether such complexes constitute specific markers for classical pathway activation. In vitro, C1q-C3d/C4d complexes were generated upon incubation of normal recalcified plasma with aggregated IgG or an anti-C1q mAb that activates C1 (mAb anti-C1q-130). In contrast, during incubation with C1s or trypsin, C1q-C3d/C4d complexes were not generated, which excludes an innocent bystander effect. Additionally, C1q-C3d/C4d complexes were not generated during activation of the alternative or the lectin pathway. Repeated freezing and thawing did not influence levels of C1q-C3d/C4d complexes in recalcified plasma. To measure C1q-complement complexes in plasma samples, we separated unbound complement proteins from C1q-C3d/C4d complexes in the samples prior to testing with ELISA. In samples from patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass surgery or suffering from rheumatoid arthritis, we found higher levels of C1q-C4 complexes than in samples from healthy individuals. We conclude that complexes between C1q and C4 or C3 are specific markers of classical complement pathway activation.

  17. Characterization of a gC1qR from the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    PubMed

    Ye, Ting; Huang, Xin; Wang, Xian-Wei; Shi, Yan-Ru; Hui, Kai-Min; Ren, Qian

    2015-03-01

    gC1qR, as a multicompartmental and a multifunctional protein, plays an important role in innate immunity. In this study, a gC1qR homolog (MrgC1qR) in the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii was identified. MrgC1qR, a 258-amino-acid polypeptide, shares high identities with gC1qR from other species. MrgC1qR gene was expressed in different tissues and was highest expressed in the hepatopancreas. In addition, the MrgC1qR transcript was significantly enhanced after 6 h of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection or post 2 h, 24 h of Vibrio anguillarum challenge compared to appropriate controls. Moreover, recombinant MrgC1qR (rMrgC1qR) had bacterial binding activity, the result also revealed that rMrgC1qR could bind pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) such as LPS or PGN, suggesting that MrgC1qRmight function as a pathogen-recognition receptor (PRR). Furthermore, glutathione S-transferase (GST) pull-down assays showed that rMrgC1qR with GST-tag could bind to rMrFicolin1 or rMrFicolin2 with His-tag. Altogether, these results may demonstrate a role for MrgC1qR in innate immunity in the giant freshwater prawns.

  18. Proteolytic inactivation of nuclear alarmin high-mobility group box 1 by complement protease C1s during apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Yeo, J G; Leong, J; Arkachaisri, T; Cai, Y; Teo, B H D; Tan, J H T; Das, L; Lu, J

    2016-01-01

    Effective clearance of apoptotic cells by phagocytes prevents the release of intracellular alarmins and manifestation of autoimmunity. This prompt efferocytosis is complemented by intracellular proteolytic degradation that occurs within the apoptotic cells and in the efferosome of the phagocytes. Although the role of extracellular proteases in apoptotic cells clearance is unknown, the strong association of congenital C1s deficiency with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus highlights the protective nature that this extracellular protease has against autoimmunity. The archetypical role of serine protease C1s as the catalytic arm of C1 complex (C1qC1r2C1s2) involve in the propagation of the classical complement pathway could not provide the biological basis for this association. However, a recent observation of the ability of C1 complex to cleave a spectrum of intracellular cryptic targets exposed during apoptosis provides a valuable insight to the underlying protective mechanism. High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), an intracellular alarmin that is capable of inducing the formation of antinuclear autoantibodies and causes lupus-like conditions in mice, is identified as a novel potential target by bioinformatics analysis. This is verified experimentally with C1s, both in its purified and physiological form as C1 complex, cleaving HMGB1 into defined fragments of 19 and 12 kDa. This cleavage diminishes HMGB1 ability to enhance lipopolysaccharide mediated pro-inflammatory cytokines production from monocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells. Further mass spectrometric analysis of the C1 complex treated apoptotic cellular proteins demonstrated additional C1s substrates and revealed the complementary role of C1s in apoptotic cells clearance through the proteolytic cleavage of intracellular alarmins and autoantigens. C1 complex may have evolved as, besides the bacteriolytic arm of antibodies in which it activates the complement cascade, a tissue renewal mechanism that reduces the

  19. Proteolytic inactivation of nuclear alarmin high-mobility group box 1 by complement protease C1s during apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Yeo, J G; Leong, J; Arkachaisri, T; Cai, Y; Teo, B H D; Tan, J H T; Das, L; Lu, J

    2016-01-01

    Effective clearance of apoptotic cells by phagocytes prevents the release of intracellular alarmins and manifestation of autoimmunity. This prompt efferocytosis is complemented by intracellular proteolytic degradation that occurs within the apoptotic cells and in the efferosome of the phagocytes. Although the role of extracellular proteases in apoptotic cells clearance is unknown, the strong association of congenital C1s deficiency with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus highlights the protective nature that this extracellular protease has against autoimmunity. The archetypical role of serine protease C1s as the catalytic arm of C1 complex (C1qC1r2C1s2) involve in the propagation of the classical complement pathway could not provide the biological basis for this association. However, a recent observation of the ability of C1 complex to cleave a spectrum of intracellular cryptic targets exposed during apoptosis provides a valuable insight to the underlying protective mechanism. High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), an intracellular alarmin that is capable of inducing the formation of antinuclear autoantibodies and causes lupus-like conditions in mice, is identified as a novel potential target by bioinformatics analysis. This is verified experimentally with C1s, both in its purified and physiological form as C1 complex, cleaving HMGB1 into defined fragments of 19 and 12 kDa. This cleavage diminishes HMGB1 ability to enhance lipopolysaccharide mediated pro-inflammatory cytokines production from monocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells. Further mass spectrometric analysis of the C1 complex treated apoptotic cellular proteins demonstrated additional C1s substrates and revealed the complementary role of C1s in apoptotic cells clearance through the proteolytic cleavage of intracellular alarmins and autoantigens. C1 complex may have evolved as, besides the bacteriolytic arm of antibodies in which it activates the complement cascade, a tissue renewal mechanism that reduces the

  20. Mutation of the Conserved Calcium-Binding Motif in Neisseria gonorrhoeae PilC1 Impacts Adhesion but Not Piliation

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Yuan; Johnson, Michael D. L.; Burillo-Kirch, Christine; Mocny, Jeffrey C.; Anderson, James E.; Garrett, Christopher K.; Redinbo, Matthew R.

    2013-01-01

    Neisseria gonorrhoeae PilC1 is a member of the PilC family of type IV pilus-associated adhesins found in Neisseria species and other type IV pilus-producing genera. Previously, a calcium-binding domain was described in the C-terminal domains of PilY1 of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and in PilC1 and PilC2 of Kingella kingae. Genetic analysis of N. gonorrhoeae revealed a similar calcium-binding motif in PilC1. To evaluate the potential significance of this calcium-binding region in N. gonorrhoeae, we produced recombinant full-length PilC1 and a PilC1 C-terminal domain fragment. We show that, while alterations of the calcium-binding motif disrupted the ability of PilC1 to bind calcium, they did not grossly affect the secondary structure of the protein. Furthermore, we demonstrate that both full-length wild-type PilC1 and full-length calcium-binding-deficient PilC1 inhibited gonococcal adherence to cultured human cervical epithelial cells, unlike the truncated PilC1 C-terminal domain. Similar to PilC1 in K. kingae, but in contrast to the calcium-binding mutant of P. aeruginosa PilY1, an equivalent mutation in N. gonorrhoeae PilC1 produced normal amounts of pili. However, the N. gonorrhoeae PilC1 calcium-binding mutant still had partial defects in gonococcal adhesion to ME180 cells and genetic transformation, which are both essential virulence factors in this human pathogen. Thus, we conclude that calcium binding to PilC1 plays a critical role in pilus function in N. gonorrhoeae. PMID:24002068

  1. Proteolytic inactivation of nuclear alarmin high-mobility group box 1 by complement protease C1s during apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Yeo, J G; Leong, J; Arkachaisri, T; Cai, Y; Teo, B H D; Tan, J H T; Das, L; Lu, J

    2016-01-01

    Effective clearance of apoptotic cells by phagocytes prevents the release of intracellular alarmins and manifestation of autoimmunity. This prompt efferocytosis is complemented by intracellular proteolytic degradation that occurs within the apoptotic cells and in the efferosome of the phagocytes. Although the role of extracellular proteases in apoptotic cells clearance is unknown, the strong association of congenital C1s deficiency with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus highlights the protective nature that this extracellular protease has against autoimmunity. The archetypical role of serine protease C1s as the catalytic arm of C1 complex (C1qC1r2C1s2) involve in the propagation of the classical complement pathway could not provide the biological basis for this association. However, a recent observation of the ability of C1 complex to cleave a spectrum of intracellular cryptic targets exposed during apoptosis provides a valuable insight to the underlying protective mechanism. High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), an intracellular alarmin that is capable of inducing the formation of antinuclear autoantibodies and causes lupus-like conditions in mice, is identified as a novel potential target by bioinformatics analysis. This is verified experimentally with C1s, both in its purified and physiological form as C1 complex, cleaving HMGB1 into defined fragments of 19 and 12 kDa. This cleavage diminishes HMGB1 ability to enhance lipopolysaccharide mediated pro-inflammatory cytokines production from monocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells. Further mass spectrometric analysis of the C1 complex treated apoptotic cellular proteins demonstrated additional C1s substrates and revealed the complementary role of C1s in apoptotic cells clearance through the proteolytic cleavage of intracellular alarmins and autoantigens. C1 complex may have evolved as, besides the bacteriolytic arm of antibodies in which it activates the complement cascade, a tissue renewal mechanism that reduces the

  2. Changing Doctoral Degrees: An International Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noble, Keith Allan

    This book examines the origin and development of doctoral degrees and offers recommendations for the improvement of doctoral programs and degrees. It discusses the birth of universities and doctoral degrees in medieval Europe and reviews the spread of the degree to the United States, Britain, Canada, and Australia. Contemporary concerns about…

  3. Evidence of ϒ (1 S )→J /ψ +χc 1 and search for double-charmonium production in ϒ (1 S ) and ϒ (2 S ) decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, S. D.; Shen, C. P.; Ban, Y.; Abdesselam, A.; Adachi, I.; Aihara, H.; Al Said, S.; Arinstein, K.; Asner, D. M.; Aulchenko, V.; Aushev, T.; Ayad, R.; Bakich, A. M.; Bansal, V.; Behera, P.; Bhuyan, B.; Bobrov, A.; Bozek, A.; Bračko, M.; Browder, T. E.; Červenkov, D.; Chekelian, V.; Chen, A.; Cheon, B. G.; Chilikin, K.; Chistov, R.; Cho, K.; Chobanova, V.; Choi, S.-K.; Choi, Y.; Cinabro, D.; Dalseno, J.; Danilov, M.; Dingfelder, J.; Doležal, Z.; Drásal, Z.; Drutskoy, A.; Dutta, K.; Eidelman, S.; Farhat, H.; Fast, J. E.; Ferber, T.; Gaur, V.; Gabyshev, N.; Ganguly, S.; Garmash, A.; Gillard, R.; Goh, Y. M.; Golob, B.; Haba, J.; Hara, T.; Hayasaka, K.; Hayashii, H.; He, X. H.; Hou, W.-S.; Huschle, M.; Iijima, T.; Inami, K.; Ishikawa, A.; Itoh, R.; Jaegle, I.; Joffe, D.; Joo, K. K.; Julius, T.; Kawasaki, T.; Kim, D. Y.; Kim, H. J.; Kim, J. B.; Kim, J. H.; Kim, K. T.; Kinoshita, K.; Ko, B. R.; Kodyš, P.; Korpar, S.; Križan, P.; Krokovny, P.; Kuzmin, A.; Kwon, Y.-J.; Lange, J. S.; Li, J.; Li, Y.; Li Gioi, L.; Libby, J.; Liventsev, D.; Lukin, P.; Miyabayashi, K.; Miyata, H.; Moll, A.; Mussa, R.; Nakano, E.; Nakao, M.; Nanut, T.; Nisar, N. K.; Nishida, S.; Okuno, S.; Ostrowicz, W.; Park, C. W.; Park, H.; Pedlar, T. K.; Pestotnik, R.; Petrič, M.; Piilonen, L. E.; Ribežl, E.; Ritter, M.; Rostomyan, A.; Sakai, Y.; Sandilya, S.; Santelj, L.; Sanuki, T.; Schneider, O.; Schnell, G.; Schwanda, C.; Semmler, D.; Senyo, K.; Shebalin, V.; Shibata, T.-A.; Shiu, J.-G.; Shwartz, B.; Sibidanov, A.; Simon, F.; Sohn, Y.-S.; Sokolov, A.; Starič, M.; Steder, M.; Sumiyoshi, T.; Tamponi, U.; Tanida, K.; Tatishvili, G.; Teramoto, Y.; Uchida, M.; Uehara, S.; Uglov, T.; Unno, Y.; Uno, S.; Urquijo, P.; Usov, Y.; Vahsen, S. E.; Van Hulse, C.; Vanhoefer, P.; Varner, G.; Vinokurova, A.; Vorobyev, V.; Vossen, A.; Wagner, M. N.; Wang, C. H.; Wang, M.-Z.; Wang, P.; Wang, X. L.; Watanabe, M.; Watanabe, Y.; Won, E.; Yamaoka, J.; Yashchenko, S.; Yook, Y.; Yuan, C. Z.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhilich, V.; Zhulanov, V.; Belle Collaboration

    2014-12-01

    Using data samples of 102 ×106 ϒ (1 S ) and 158 ×106 ϒ (2 S ) events collected with the Belle detector, a first experimental search has been made for double-charmonium production in the exclusive decays ϒ (1 S ,2 S )→J /ψ (ψ')+X , where X =ηc, χc J(J =0 ,1 ,2 ), ηc(2 S ), X (3940 ), and X (4160 ). No significant signal is observed in the spectra of the mass recoiling against the reconstructed J /ψ or ψ' except for the evidence of χc 1 production with a significance of 4.6 σ for ϒ (1 S )→J /ψ +χc 1 . The measured branching fraction B (ϒ (1 S )→J /ψ +χc 1) is [3.90 ±1.21 (stat)±0.23 (syst)]×10-6 . The 90% C.L. upper limits on the branching fractions of the other modes having a significance of less than 3 σ are determined. These results are consistent with theoretical calculations using the nonrelativistic QCD factorization approach.

  4. Potential therapeutic benefit of C1-esterase inhibitor in neuromyelitis optica evaluated in vitro and in an experimental rat model.

    PubMed

    Tradtrantip, Lukmanee; Asavapanumas, Nithi; Phuan, Puay-Wah; Verkman, A S

    2014-01-01

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an autoimmune demyelinating disease of the central nervous system in which binding of anti-aquaporin-4 (AQP4) autoantibodies (NMO-IgG) to astrocytes causes complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) and inflammation resulting in oligodendrocyte and neuronal injury. There is compelling evidence for a central role of complement in NMO pathogenesis. Here, we evaluated the potential of C1-esterase inhibitor (C1-inh) for complement-targeted therapy of NMO. C1-inh is an anti-inflammatory plasma protein with serine protease inhibition activity that has a broad range of biological activities on the contact (kallikrein), coagulation, fibrinolytic and complement systems. C1-inh is approved for therapy of hereditary angioedema (HAE) and has been studied in a small safety trial in acute NMO relapses (NCT 01759602). In vitro assays of NMO-IgG-dependent CDC showed C1-inh inhibition of human and rat complement, but with predicted minimal complement inhibition activity at a dose of 2000 units in humans. Inhibition of complement by C1-inh was potentiated by ∼10-fold by polysulfated macromolecules including heparin and dextran sulfate. In rats, intravenous C1-inh at a dose 30-fold greater than that approved to treat HAE inhibited serum complement activity by <5%, even when supplemented with heparin. Also, high-dose C1-inh did not reduce pathology in a rat model of NMO produced by intracerebral injection of NMO-IgG. Therefore, although C1r and C1s are targets of C1-inh, our in vitro data with human serum and in vivo data in rats suggest that the complement inhibition activity of C1-inh in serum is too low to confer clinical benefit in NMO.

  5. An evaluation of fusion gain in the compact helical fusion reactor FFHR-c1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyazawa, J.; Goto, T.; Sakamoto, R.; Sagara, A.; the FFHR Design Group

    2014-01-01

    A new procedure to predict achievable fusion gain in a sub-ignition fusion reactor is proposed. This procedure uses the direct profile extrapolation (DPE) method based on the gyro-Bohm model. The DPE method has been developed to predict the radial profiles in a fusion reactor sustained without auxiliary heating (i.e., in the self-ignition state) from the experimental data. To evaluate the fusion gain in a fusion reactor sustained with auxiliary heating (i.e., in the sub-ignition state), the DPE method is modified to include the influence of the auxiliary heating. The beta scale factor from experiment to reactor is assumed to be 1. Under this assumption, it becomes reasonable to apply the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equilibrium (which is calculated to reproduce the experimental data) to the reactor. At the same time, the MHD stability of the reactor plasma is also guaranteed to a certain extent since that beta was already proven in the experiment. The fusion gain in the helical type nuclear test machine FFHR-c1 has been evaluated using this modified DPE method. FFHR-c1 is basically a large duplication of the Large Helical Device (LHD) with a scale factor of 10/3, which corresponds to the major radius of the helical coils of 13.0 m and the plasma volume of ∼1000 m3. Two options with different magnetic field strengths are considered. The fusion gain in FFHR-c1 extrapolated from a set of radial profile data obtained in LHD ranges from 1 to 7, depending on the profiles used together with the assumptions of the magnetic field strength and the alpha heating efficiency.

  6. Hyperlipidemia and cutaneous abnormalities in transgenic mice overexpressing human apolipoprotein C1.

    PubMed

    Jong, M C; Gijbels, M J; Dahlmans, V E; Gorp, P J; Koopman, S J; Ponec, M; Hofker, M H; Havekes, L M

    1998-01-01

    Transgenic mice were generated with different levels of human apolipoprotein C1 (APOC1) expression in liver and skin. At 2 mo of age, serum levels of cholesterol, triglycerides (TG), and FFA were strongly elevated in APOC1 transgenic mice compared with wild-type mice. These elevated levels of serum cholesterol and TG were due mainly to an accumulation of VLDL particles in the circulation. In addition to hyperlipidemia, APOC1 transgenic mice developed dry and scaly skin with loss of hair, dependent on the amount of APOC1 expression in the skin. Since these skin abnormalities appeared in two independent founder lines, a mutation related to the specific insertion site of the human APOC1 gene as the cause for the phenotype can be excluded. Histopathological analysis of high expressor APOC1 transgenic mice revealed a disorder of the skin consisting of epidermal hyperplasia and hyperkeratosis, and atrophic sebaceous glands lacking sebum. In line with these results, epidermal lipid analysis showed that the relative amounts of the sebum components TG and wax diesters in the epidermis of high expressor APOC1 transgenic mice were reduced by 60 and 45%, respectively. In addition to atrophic sebaceous glands, the meibomian glands were also found to be severely atrophic in APOC1 transgenic mice. High expressor APOC1 transgenic mice also exhibited diminished abdominal adipose tissue stores (a 60% decrease compared with wild-type mice) and a complete deficiency of subcutaneous fat. These results indicate that, in addition to the previously reported inhibitory role of apoC1 on hepatic remnant uptake, overexpression of apoC1 affects lipid synthesis in the sebaceous gland and/or epidermis as well as adipose tissue formation. These APOC1 transgenic mice may serve as an interesting in vivo model for the investigation of lipid homeostasis in the skin.

  7. Azaspiracid substituent at C1 is relevant to in vitro toxicity.

    PubMed

    Vilariño, Natalia; Nicolaou, K C; Frederick, Michael O; Cagide, Eva; Alfonso, Carmen; Alonso, Eva; Vieytes, Mercedes R; Botana, Luis M

    2008-09-01

    The azaspiracids are a group of marine toxins recently described that currently includes 20 analogues. Not much is known about their mechanism of action, although effects on some cellular functions have been found in vitro. We used the reported effects on cell viability, actin cytoskeleton, and caspase activation to study the structure-activity relationship of AZA-1 and AZA-2 and the role of the carboxylic acid moiety in toxicity. AZA-1, AZA-2, and the synthetic AZA-2-methyl ester (AZA-2-ME), where the C1 carboxylic acid moiety of AZA-2 was esterified to the corresponding methyl ester moiety, induced a reduction of cell viability in neuroblastoma and hepatocyte cell lines with similar potency and kinetics. Interestingly, the mast cell line HMC-1 was resistant to AZA-induced cytotoxicity. Actin cytoskeleton alterations and caspase activation appeared after treatment with AZA-1, AZA-2, AZA-2-ME, and biotin-AZA-2 (AZA-2 labeled with biotin at C1) in neuroblastoma cells with similar qualitative, quantitative, and kinetics characteristics. Irreversibility of AZA effects on the actin cytoskeleton and cell morphology after short incubations with the toxin were common to AZA-1, AZA-2, and AZA-2-ME; however, 10-fold higher concentrations of biotin-AZA-2 were needed for irreversible effects. AZA-2-ME was rapidly metabolized in the cell to AZA-2, while transformation of biotin-AZA-2 into AZA-2 was less efficient, which explains the different potency in short exposure times. The moiety present at C1 is related to AZA toxicity in vitro. However, the presence of a methyl moiety at C8 is irrelevant to AZA toxicity since AZA-1 and AZA-2 were equipotent regardless of the readout effect.

  8. Clinical Presentation of Cervical Myelopathy at C1–2 Level

    PubMed Central

    Takebayashi, Tsuneo; Terashima, Yoshinori; Tsuda, Hajime; Yoshimoto, Mitsunori; Yamashita, Toshihiko

    2016-01-01

    Study Design Single-center retrospective study. Purpose To clarify the clinical features of cervical myelopathy at the C1–2 level. Overview of Literature Methods for distinguishing the affected level based on myelomere symptoms or dysfunction of the conducting pathway were established. However, no symptoms have been identified as being specific to the C1–2 level segment. Methods We evaluated 24 patients with cervical myelopathy due to spinal cord compression at the C1–2 level. Preoperative neurological assessment were investigated and compared with the rate and site of compression of the spinal cord using computed tomography-myelography. Results Impaired temperature and pain sensation were confirmed in 18 of the 24 patients with that localized to the upper arms (n=3), forearm (n=9), both (n=2), and whole body (n=4). Muscle weakness was observed in 18 patients, muscle weakness extended from the biceps brachii to the abductor digiti minimi in 10 patients, and in the whole body in 8 patients. Deep tendon reflexes were normal in 10 patients, whereas hyperactive deep tendon reflexes were noted in 14 patients. The rate of spinal cord compression was significantly higher in patients with perceptual dysfunction and muscle weakness compared with those with no dysfunction. However, no significant difference in the rate and site of compression was identified in those with dysfunction. Conclusions Perceptual dysfunction and muscle weakness localized to the upper limbs was observed in 58% and 42% of patients, respectively. Neurological abnormalities, such as perceptual dysfunction and muscle weakness, were visualized in patients with marked compression. PMID:27559458

  9. Relativistic Force Field: Parametrization of (13)C-(1)H Nuclear Spin-Spin Coupling Constants.

    PubMed

    Kutateladze, Andrei G; Mukhina, Olga A

    2015-11-01

    Previously, we reported a reliable DU8 method for natural bond orbital (NBO)-aided parametric scaling of Fermi contacts to achieve fast and accurate prediction of proton-proton spin-spin coupling constants (SSCC) in (1)H NMR. As sophisticated NMR experiments for precise measurements of carbon-proton SSCCs are becoming more user-friendly and broadly utilized by the organic chemistry community to guide and inform the process of structure determination of complex organic compounds, we have now developed a fast and accurate method for computing (13)C-(1)H SSCCs. Fermi contacts computed with the DU8 basis set are scaled using selected NBO parameters in conjunction with empirical scaling coefficients. The method is optimized for inexpensive B3LYP/6-31G(d) geometries. The parametric scaling is based on a carefully selected training set of 274 ((3)J), 193 ((2)J), and 143 ((1)J) experimental (13)C-(1)H spin-spin coupling constants reported in the literature. The DU8 basis set, optimized for computing Fermi contacts, which by design had evolved from optimization of a collection of inexpensive 3-21G*, 4-21G, and 6-31G(d) bases, offers very short computational (wall) times even for relatively large organic molecules containing 15-20 carbon atoms. The most informative SSCCs for structure determination, i.e., (3)J, were computed with an accuracy of 0.41 Hz (rmsd). The new unified approach for computing (1)H-(1)H and (13)C-(1)H SSCCs is termed "DU8c".

  10. Relativistic Force Field: Parametrization of (13)C-(1)H Nuclear Spin-Spin Coupling Constants.

    PubMed

    Kutateladze, Andrei G; Mukhina, Olga A

    2015-11-01

    Previously, we reported a reliable DU8 method for natural bond orbital (NBO)-aided parametric scaling of Fermi contacts to achieve fast and accurate prediction of proton-proton spin-spin coupling constants (SSCC) in (1)H NMR. As sophisticated NMR experiments for precise measurements of carbon-proton SSCCs are becoming more user-friendly and broadly utilized by the organic chemistry community to guide and inform the process of structure determination of complex organic compounds, we have now developed a fast and accurate method for computing (13)C-(1)H SSCCs. Fermi contacts computed with the DU8 basis set are scaled using selected NBO parameters in conjunction with empirical scaling coefficients. The method is optimized for inexpensive B3LYP/6-31G(d) geometries. The parametric scaling is based on a carefully selected training set of 274 ((3)J), 193 ((2)J), and 143 ((1)J) experimental (13)C-(1)H spin-spin coupling constants reported in the literature. The DU8 basis set, optimized for computing Fermi contacts, which by design had evolved from optimization of a collection of inexpensive 3-21G*, 4-21G, and 6-31G(d) bases, offers very short computational (wall) times even for relatively large organic molecules containing 15-20 carbon atoms. The most informative SSCCs for structure determination, i.e., (3)J, were computed with an accuracy of 0.41 Hz (rmsd). The new unified approach for computing (1)H-(1)H and (13)C-(1)H SSCCs is termed "DU8c". PMID:26414291

  11. Global modeling of the C1-C3 alkyl nitrates using STOCHEM-CRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, M. A. H.; Cooke, M. C.; Utembe, S. R.; Morris, W. C.; Archibald, A. T.; Derwent, R. G.; Jenkin, M. E.; Orr-Ewing, A. J.; Higgins, C. M.; Percival, C. J.; Leather, K. E.; Shallcross, D. E.

    2015-12-01

    The atmospheric global budget and distribution of C1-C3 alkyl nitrates have been investigated using a global three-dimensional chemistry transport model, STOCHEM-CRI. Alkyl nitrates (RONO2) are significant NOx reservoir species and the more detailed VOC oxidation mechanism (CRI v2-R5) leads to greater photochemical production. RONO2 are significant sources of NOx in regions remote from NOx sources. The study shows that the global burden and the atmospheric life-time of C1-C3 alkyl nitrates are 113 Gg and 9-10 days, respectively, which are in excellent agreement with estimates established by previous studies. The abundance of alkyl nitrates have been found to be higher in the continental atmosphere, with CH3ONO2 mixing ratios up to 20 ppt over the Amazon rainforest. Up to 15, 10, 2, and 5 ppt of modelled CH3ONO2, C2H5ONO2, n-C3H7ONO2 and i-C3H7ONO2 have been found in the northern hemisphere over regions with large anthropogenic emissions of NOx and VOCs. The combination of atmospheric production and long-range transport led to high alkyl nitrate levels at high latitudes. The model performance for C1-C3 alkyl nitrates was established using observations from nine flights and nine field campaigns. The comparison shows a tendency towards model under-prediction of the observations, particularly in the southern hemispheric marine boundary layer, possibly due to the absence of oceanic production mechanisms and air-sea exchange processes in the model. The discrepancies between model and observed seasonal cycles, especially of CH3ONO2, in both hemispheres are discussed.

  12. Human and pneumococcal cell surface glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) proteins are both ligands of human C1q protein.

    PubMed

    Terrasse, Rémi; Tacnet-Delorme, Pascale; Moriscot, Christine; Pérard, Julien; Schoehn, Guy; Vernet, Thierry; Thielens, Nicole M; Di Guilmi, Anne Marie; Frachet, Philippe

    2012-12-14

    C1q, a key component of the classical complement pathway, is a major player in the response to microbial infection and has been shown to detect noxious altered-self substances such as apoptotic cells. In this work, using complementary experimental approaches, we identified the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) as a C1q partner when exposed at the surface of human pathogenic bacteria Streptococcus pneumoniae and human apoptotic cells. The membrane-associated GAPDH on HeLa cells bound the globular regions of C1q as demonstrated by pulldown and cell surface co-localization experiments. Pneumococcal strains deficient in surface-exposed GAPDH harbored a decreased level of C1q recognition when compared with the wild-type strains. Both recombinant human and pneumococcal GAPDHs interacted avidly with C1q as measured by surface plasmon resonance experiments (K(D) = 0.34-2.17 nm). In addition, GAPDH-C1q complexes were observed by transmission electron microscopy after cross-linking. The purified pneumococcal GAPDH protein activated C1 in an in vitro assay unlike the human form. Deposition of C1q, C3b, and C4b from human serum at the surface of pneumococcal cells was dependent on the presence of surface-exposed GAPDH. This ability of C1q to sense both human and bacterial GAPDHs sheds new insights on the role of this important defense collagen molecule in modulating the immune response. PMID:23086952

  13. Photometric narrowband CCD imaging of comets P/Brorsen-Metcalf and Austin (1989c1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schleicher, David G.; Osip, David J.; Millis, Robert L.; Thompson, Andrea; Sauter, Linda M.

    1990-01-01

    Simultaneous wide-field CCD images and conventional aperture photometry were obtained of Comets P/Brorsen/Metcalf (1989o) and Austin (1989c1). These data allow direct testing of absolute calibration of the CCD images and the ability to generate full-come, continuum-subtracted emission band images. Preliminary photometric calibration for a portion of the Brorsen-Metcalf observations yields reduced emission band and continuum fluxes which agree to within about 10 percent with those from the photoelectric observations. Conventional photometry of Comet Austin shows unusual variations among the production rates of the different species as a function of heliocentric distance.

  14. Development of Cotton leaf curl virus resistant transgenic cotton using antisense ßC1 gene.

    PubMed

    Sohrab, Sayed Sartaj; Kamal, Mohammad A; Ilah, Abdul; Husen, Azamal; Bhattacharya, P S; Rana, D

    2016-05-01

    Cotton leaf curl virus (CLCuV) is a serious pathogen causing leaf curl disease and affecting the cotton production in major growing areas. The transgenic cotton (Gossypium hirsutum cv. Coker 310) plants were developed by using βC1 gene in antisense orientation gene driven by Cauliflower mosaic virus-35S promoter and nos (nopaline synthase) terminator and mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens transformation and somatic embryogenesis system. Molecular confirmation of the transformants was carried out by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Southern blot hybridization. The developed transgenic and inoculated plants remained symptomless till their growth period. In conclusion, the plants were observed as resistant to CLCuV. PMID:27081361

  15. Exact [ital S] matrix of the deformed [ital c]=1 matrix model

    SciTech Connect

    Demeterfi, K.; Klebanov, I.R. ); Rodrigues, J.P. )

    1993-11-22

    We consider the [ital c]=1 matrix model deformed by the operator 1/2[ital M] [ital Tr][Phi][sup [minus]2], which was conjectured by Jevicki and Yoneya to describe a two-dimensional black hole of mass [ital M]. We calculate the exact nonperturbative [ital S] matrix and show that all the amplitudes involving an odd number of particles vanish at least to all orders of perturbation theory. We conjecture that these amplitudes vanish nonperturbatively and prove this for the 2[ital n][r arrow]1 scattering. For the two- and four-particle amplitudes we give some leading terms of the perturbative expansion.

  16. Hypervelocity Impact (HVI). Volume 3; WLE Small-Scale Fiberglass Panel Flat Target C-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorman, Michael R.; Ziola, Steven M.

    2007-01-01

    During 2003 and 2004, the Johnson Space Center's White Sands Testing Facility in Las Cruces, New Mexico conducted hypervelocity impact tests on the space shuttle wing leading edge. Hypervelocity impact tests were conducted to determine if Micro-Meteoroid/Orbital Debris impacts could be reliably detected and located using simple passive ultrasonic methods. The objective of Target C-1 was to study hypervelocity impacts on the reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) panels of the Wing Leading Edge. Fiberglass was used in place of RCC in the initial tests. Impact damage was detected using lightweight, low power instrumentation capable of being used in flight.

  17. Development of Cotton leaf curl virus resistant transgenic cotton using antisense ßC1 gene

    PubMed Central

    Sohrab, Sayed Sartaj; Kamal, Mohammad A.; Ilah, Abdul; Husen, Azamal; Bhattacharya, P.S.; Rana, D.

    2014-01-01

    Cotton leaf curl virus (CLCuV) is a serious pathogen causing leaf curl disease and affecting the cotton production in major growing areas. The transgenic cotton (Gossypium hirsutum cv. Coker 310) plants were developed by using βC1 gene in antisense orientation gene driven by Cauliflower mosaic virus-35S promoter and nos (nopaline synthase) terminator and mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens transformation and somatic embryogenesis system. Molecular confirmation of the transformants was carried out by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Southern blot hybridization. The developed transgenic and inoculated plants remained symptomless till their growth period. In conclusion, the plants were observed as resistant to CLCuV. PMID:27081361

  18. Modified pseudomonas oleovorans phaC1 nucleic acids encoding bispecific polyhydroxyalkanoate polymerase

    DOEpatents

    Srienc, Friedrich; Jackson, John K.; Somers, David A.

    2000-01-01

    A genetically engineered Pseudomonas oleovorans phaC1 polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) polymerase having tailored substrate specificity is provided. The modified PHA polymerase is preferably a "bispecific" PHA polymerase capable of copolymerizing a short chain length monomer and a medium chain length monomer is provided. Methods for making the modified PHA polymerase and for making nucleic acids encoding the modified PHA polymerase are also disclosed, as are methods of producing PHA using the modified PHA polymerase. The invention further includes methods to assay for altered substrate specificity.

  19. Structural and spectral characterizations of C1C2 channelrhodopsin and its mutants by molecular simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamiya, Motoshi; Kato, Hideaki E.; Ishitani, Ryuichiro; Nureki, Osamu; Hayashi, Shigehiko

    2013-01-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and excitation energy calculations of C1C2 chimera channelrhodopsin, a light-gated ion channel protein utilized as a biotechnological tool for optogenetics, based on a protein structure determined recently by X-ray crystallography were performed to investigate its structural and spectral properties. The MD simulations showed stability of hydrogen-bonds responsible for the channel gating observed in the crystallographic structural model. Analysis of electrostatic contribution of the surrounding protein groups to the absorption energy proposes several site-specific mutations that shift absorption maxima significantly, and provides a clear and controlled guide for engineering design of color variant proteins utilized in optogenetics.

  20. iAK692: A genome-scale metabolic model of Spirulina platensis C1

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Spirulina (Arthrospira) platensis is a well-known filamentous cyanobacterium used in the production of many industrial products, including high value compounds, healthy food supplements, animal feeds, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics, for example. It has been increasingly studied around the world for scientific purposes, especially for its genome, biology, physiology, and also for the analysis of its small-scale metabolic network. However, the overall description of the metabolic and biotechnological capabilities of S. platensis requires the development of a whole cellular metabolism model. Recently, the S. platensis C1 (Arthrospira sp. PCC9438) genome sequence has become available, allowing systems-level studies of this commercial cyanobacterium. Results In this work, we present the genome-scale metabolic network analysis of S. platensis C1, iAK692, its topological properties, and its metabolic capabilities and functions. The network was reconstructed from the S. platensis C1 annotated genomic sequence using Pathway Tools software to generate a preliminary network. Then, manual curation was performed based on a collective knowledge base and a combination of genomic, biochemical, and physiological information. The genome-scale metabolic model consists of 692 genes, 837 metabolites, and 875 reactions. We validated iAK692 by conducting fermentation experiments and simulating the model under autotrophic, heterotrophic, and mixotrophic growth conditions using COBRA toolbox. The model predictions under these growth conditions were consistent with the experimental results. The iAK692 model was further used to predict the unique active reactions and essential genes for each growth condition. Additionally, the metabolic states of iAK692 during autotrophic and mixotrophic growths were described by phenotypic phase plane (PhPP) analysis. Conclusions This study proposes the first genome-scale model of S. platensis C1, iAK692, which is a predictive metabolic platform