Science.gov

Sample records for 10-8 m3 kg-1

  1. 32 CFR 10.8 - Amendment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amendment. 10.8 Section 10.8 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE MILITARY COMMISSIONS MILITARY COMMISSION INSTRUCTIONS § 10.8 Amendment. The General Counsel may issue, supplement, amend, or revoke any...

  2. Bacterial treatment of alkaline cement kiln dust using Bacillus halodurans strain KG1

    PubMed Central

    Kunal; Rajor, Anita; Siddique, Rafat

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to isolate an acid-producing, alkaliphilic bacterium to reduce the alkalinity of cement industry waste (cement kiln dust). Gram-positive isolate KG1 grew well at pH values of 6–12, temperatures of 28–50 °C, and NaCl concentrations of 0–16% and thus was further screened for its potential to reduce the pH of an alkaline medium. Phenotypic characteristics of the KG1 isolate were consistent with those of the genus Bacillus, and the highest level of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity was found with Bacillus halodurans strain DSM 497 (94.7%). On the basis of its phenotypic characteristics and genotypic distinctiveness from other phylogenetic neighbors belonging to alkaliphilic Bacillus species, the isolated strain was designated B. halodurans strain KG1, with GenBank accession number JQ307184 (= NCIM 5439). Isolate KG1 reduced the alkalinity (by 83.64%) and the chloride content (by 86.96%) of cement kiln dust and showed a potential to be used in the cement industry for a variety of applications. PMID:26887220

  3. Bacterial treatment of alkaline cement kiln dust using Bacillus halodurans strain KG1.

    PubMed

    Kunal; Rajor, Anita; Siddique, Rafat

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to isolate an acid-producing, alkaliphilic bacterium to reduce the alkalinity of cement industry waste (cement kiln dust). Gram-positive isolate KG1 grew well at pH values of 6-12, temperatures of 28-50°C, and NaCl concentrations of 0-16% and thus was further screened for its potential to reduce the pH of an alkaline medium. Phenotypic characteristics of the KG1 isolate were consistent with those of the genus Bacillus, and the highest level of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity was found with Bacillus halodurans strain DSM 497 (94.7%). On the basis of its phenotypic characteristics and genotypic distinctiveness from other phylogenetic neighbors belonging to alkaliphilic Bacillus species, the isolated strain was designated B. halodurans strain KG1, with GenBank accession number JQ307184 (= NCIM 5439). Isolate KG1 reduced the alkalinity (by 83.64%) and the chloride content (by 86.96%) of cement kiln dust and showed a potential to be used in the cement industry for a variety of applications.

  4. Bacterial treatment of alkaline cement kiln dust using Bacillus halodurans strain KG1.

    PubMed

    Kunal; Rajor, Anita; Siddique, Rafat

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to isolate an acid-producing, alkaliphilic bacterium to reduce the alkalinity of cement industry waste (cement kiln dust). Gram-positive isolate KG1 grew well at pH values of 6-12, temperatures of 28-50°C, and NaCl concentrations of 0-16% and thus was further screened for its potential to reduce the pH of an alkaline medium. Phenotypic characteristics of the KG1 isolate were consistent with those of the genus Bacillus, and the highest level of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity was found with Bacillus halodurans strain DSM 497 (94.7%). On the basis of its phenotypic characteristics and genotypic distinctiveness from other phylogenetic neighbors belonging to alkaliphilic Bacillus species, the isolated strain was designated B. halodurans strain KG1, with GenBank accession number JQ307184 (= NCIM 5439). Isolate KG1 reduced the alkalinity (by 83.64%) and the chloride content (by 86.96%) of cement kiln dust and showed a potential to be used in the cement industry for a variety of applications. PMID:26887220

  5. Augmented sensitivity to methotrexate by curcumin induced overexpression of folate receptor in KG-1 cells.

    PubMed

    Dhanasekaran, Sugapriya; Biswal, Bijesh K; Sumantran, Venil N; Verma, Rama S

    2013-08-01

    Folate receptors are targets of various strategies aimed at efficient delivery of anti-cancer drugs. Folate receptors also play a role in the uptake of antifolate drugs which are used for therapeutic intervention in leukemia. Therefore, it is important to identify compounds which regulate expression of folate receptors in leukemic cells. The present study examined if curcumin could modulate the uptake and cytotoxicity of the antifolate drug methotrexate, in KG-1 leukemic cells. This is the first report to show that curcumin (10-50 μM) causes a significant, dose-dependent, 2-3 fold increase in uptake of radiolabelled folic acid and methotrexate into KG-1 cells both at 24 h and 48 h of treatment. Interestingly, pre-treatment of KG-1 leukemic cells with curcumin (10 μM and 25 μM) also caused a statistically significant enhancement in the cytotoxicity of methotrexate. We performed Real Time Quantitative RT-PCR to confirm the upregulation of FRβ mRNA in curcumin treated cells. Immunocytochemistry and Western blotting showed that curcumin caused increased expression of folate receptor βin KG-1 cells. Our data show that the mechanism of curcumin action involves up-regulation of folate receptor β mRNA and protein in KG-1 cells. Therefore, combination of non-toxic concentrations of curcumin and methotrexate, may be a viable strategy for therapeutic intervention for leukemias using a folate receptor-targeted drug delivery system. PMID:23624207

  6. Effects of the combination of decitabine and homoharringtonine in SKM-1 and Kg-1a cells.

    PubMed

    Geng, Suxia; Yao, Han; Weng, Jianyu; Tong, Jiaqi; Huang, Xin; Wu, Ping; Deng, Chengxin; Li, Minming; Lu, Zesheng; Du, Xin

    2016-05-01

    The methylation inhibitor decitabine (DAC) has great therapeutic value for myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). However, DAC monotherapy is associated with relatively low rates of overall response and complete remission. Previous studies have shown promising results for combination treatment regimens including DAC. Homoharringtonine (HHT), an alkaloid from Chinese natural plants and Cephalotaxus, has demonstrated potential for leukemia treatment. Our studies have suggested that the combination of DAC and HHT has synergistic effects for inhibiting the viability of SKM-1 and Kg-1a cells. This combination leads to enhanced inhibition of colony formation and apoptosis induction compared with DAC alone in SKM-1 but not Kg-1a cells. Only high-dose DAC and HHT significantly up-regulate caspase-3 and caspase-9 and inhibit BCL-XL in the SKM-1 cell line. The combined effects of DAC plus HHT on apoptosis may not only depend on regulation of the apoptosis-related genes we examined but others as well. HHT had no demethylation effects, and HHT in combination with DAC had no enhanced effects on hypomethylation and DNMT1, DNMT3A and DNMT3B mRNA expression in SKM-1 cells. Overall, these results suggest that DAC used in combination with HHT may have clinical potential for MDS treatment.

  7. 15 CFR 10.8 - Standing Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... PRODUCT STANDARDS § 10.8 Standing Committee. (a) The Department shall establish and appoint the members of..., distributors, and users or consumers of the product covered by the standard, and representatives of appropriate...) The product or products covered by the standard; (2) The standard itself; and (3) Industry and...

  8. 24 CFR 10.8 - Notice of proposed rulemaking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice of proposed rulemaking. 10.8 Section 10.8 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development RULEMAKING: POLICY AND PROCEDURES Procedures § 10.8 Notice of proposed rulemaking. Each notice...

  9. 28 CFR 10.8 - Information to be kept current.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Information to be kept current. 10.8... kept current. A supplemental statement must be filed with the Attorney General within thirty days after... information and documents previously filed accurate and current with respect to the preceding six...

  10. 28 CFR 10.8 - Information to be kept current.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Information to be kept current. 10.8... kept current. A supplemental statement must be filed with the Attorney General within thirty days after... information and documents previously filed accurate and current with respect to the preceding six...

  11. 28 CFR 10.8 - Information to be kept current.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Information to be kept current. 10.8... kept current. A supplemental statement must be filed with the Attorney General within thirty days after... information and documents previously filed accurate and current with respect to the preceding six...

  12. 28 CFR 10.8 - Information to be kept current.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Information to be kept current. 10.8... kept current. A supplemental statement must be filed with the Attorney General within thirty days after... information and documents previously filed accurate and current with respect to the preceding six...

  13. 28 CFR 10.8 - Information to be kept current.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Information to be kept current. 10.8... kept current. A supplemental statement must be filed with the Attorney General within thirty days after... information and documents previously filed accurate and current with respect to the preceding six...

  14. Salinomycin overcomes ABC transporter-mediated multidrug and apoptosis resistance in human leukemia stem cell-like KG-1a cells

    SciTech Connect

    Fuchs, Dominik; Daniel, Volker; Sadeghi, Mahmoud; Opelz, Gerhard; Naujokat, Cord

    2010-04-16

    Leukemia stem cells are known to exhibit multidrug resistance by expression of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters which constitute transmembrane proteins capable of exporting a wide variety of chemotherapeutic drugs from the cytosol. We show here that human promyeloblastic leukemia KG-1a cells exposed to the histone deacetylase inhibitor phenylbutyrate resemble many characteristics of leukemia stem cells, including expression of functional ABC transporters such as P-glycoprotein, BCRP and MRP8. Consequently, KG-1a cells display resistance to the induction of apoptosis by various chemotherapeutic drugs. Resistance to apoptosis induction by chemotherapeutic drugs can be reversed by cyclosporine A, which effectively inhibits the activity of P-glycoprotein and BCRP, thus demonstrating ABC transporter-mediated drug resistance in KG-1a cells. However, KG-1a are highly sensitive to apoptosis induction by salinomycin, a polyether ionophore antibiotic that has recently been shown to kill human breast cancer stem cell-like cells and to induce apoptosis in human cancer cells displaying multiple mechanisms of drug and apoptosis resistance. Whereas KG-1a cells can be adapted to proliferate in the presence of apoptosis-inducing concentrations of bortezomib and doxorubicin, salinomycin does not permit long-term adaptation of the cells to apoptosis-inducing concentrations. Thus, salinomycin should be regarded as a novel and effective agent for the elimination of leukemia stem cells and other tumor cells exhibiting ABC transporter-mediated multidrug resistance.

  15. Consequences of combining siRNA-mediated DNA methyltransferase 1 depletion with 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine in human leukemic KG1 cells

    PubMed Central

    Vispé, Stéphane; Deroide, Arthur; Davoine, Emeline; Desjobert, Cécile; Lestienne, Fabrice; Fournier, Lucie; Novosad, Natacha; Bréand, Sophie; Besse, Jérôme; Busato, Florence; Tost, Jörg; De Vries, Luc; Cussac, Didier; Riond, Joëlle; Arimondo, Paola B.

    2015-01-01

    5-azacytidine and 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine are clinically used to treat patients with blood neoplasia. Their antileukemic property is mediated by the trapping and the subsequent degradation of a family of proteins, the DNA methyltransferases (DNMT1, DNMT3A, and DNMT3B) leading to DNA demethylation, tumor suppressor gene re-expression and DNA damage. Here we studied the respective role of each DNMT in the human leukemia KG1 cell line using a RNA interference approach. In addition we addressed the role of DNA damage formation in DNA demethylation by 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine. Our data show that DNMT1 is the main DNMT involved in DNA methylation maintenance in KG1 cells and in mediating DNA damage formation upon exposure to 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine. Moreover, KG1 cells express the DNMT1 protein at a level above the one required to ensure DNA methylation maintenance, and we identified a threshold for DNMT1 depletion that needs to be exceeded to achieve DNA demethylation. Most interestingly, by combining DNMT1 siRNA and treatment with low dose of 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine, it is possible to uncouple DNA damage formation from DNA demethylation. This work strongly suggests that a direct pharmacological inhibition of DNMT1, unlike the use of 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine, should lead to tumor suppressor gene hypomethylation and re-expression without inducing major DNA damage in leukemia. PMID:25948775

  16. Transfer Partial Molar Isentropic Compressibilities of ( l-Alanine/ l-Glutamine/Glycylglycine) from Water to 0.512 {mol} \\cdot {kg}^{-1} Aqueous {KNO}3/0.512 {mol} \\cdot {kg}^{-1} Aqueous {K}2{SO}4 Solutions Between 298.15 K and 323.15 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riyazuddeen; Gazal, Umaima

    2013-03-01

    Speeds of sound of ( l-alanine/ l-glutamine/glycylglycine + 0.512 {mol}\\cdot {kg}^{-1} aqueous {KNO}3/0.512 {mol}\\cdot {kg}^{-1} aqueous {K}2{SO}4) systems have been measured for several molal concentrations of amino acid/peptide at different temperatures: T = (298.15 to 323.15) K. Using the speed-of-sound and density data, the parameters, partial molar isentropic compressibilities φ _{kappa }0 and transfer partial molar isentropic compressibilities Δ _{tr} φ _{kappa }0, have been computed. The trends of variation of φ _{kappa }0 and Δ _{tr} φ _{kappa }0 with changes in molal concentration of the solute and temperature have been discussed in terms of zwitterion-ion, zwitterion-water dipole, ion-water dipole, and ion-ion interactions operative in the systems.

  17. Final report on key comparison CCQM-K73: Amount content of H+ in hydrochloric acid (0.1 mol kg-1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratt, Kenneth W.; Ortiz-Aparicio, Jose Luis; Matehuala-Sanchez, Francisco Javier; Pawlina, Monika; Kozlowski, Wladyslaw; Borges, Paulo P.; da Silva Junior, Wiler B.; Borinsky, Mónica B.; Hernandez-Mabel Puelles, Ana; Hatamleh, Nadia; Acosta, Osvaldo; Nunes, João; Guiomar Lito, M. J.; Camões, M. Filomena; Filipe, Eduarda; Hwang, Euijin; Lim, Youngran; Bing, Wu; Qian, Wang; Chao, Wei; Hioki, Akiharu; Asakai, Toshiaki; Máriássy, Michal; Hanková, Zuzana; Nagibin, Sergey; Manska, Olexandra; Gavrilkin, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    This key comparison (KC), CCQM-K73, was performed to demonstrate the capability of the participating National Metrology Institutes (NMIs) to measure the amount content of H+, νH+, in an HCl solution with a nominal νH+ of 0.1 mol kg-1. The comparison was a joint activity of the Electrochemical Working Group (EAWG) and Inorganic Analysis Working Group (IAWG) of the CCQM and was coordinated by NIST (USA) and CENAM (Mexico). The agreement of the results was not commensurate with the claimed uncertainties of the subset of participants that claimed small uncertainties for this determination. A workshop on technical issues relating to the CCQM-K73 measurements was conducted at the joint IAWG-EAWG meeting at the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM), Paris (Sèvres) in April 2010. Several possible sources of bias were investigated, but none could explain the observed dispersion among the participants' results. In the absence of a specific cause for the dispersion, the IAWG and EAWG decided to assign a Key Comparison Reference Value, KCRV, and standard uncertainty of the KCRV, uKCRV, based on the DerSimonian-Laird statistical estimator. The uKCRV is dominated by the between-laboratory scatter of results in CCQM-K73. The uncertainty estimates from the participants with the lowest reported uncertainties remain unsupported by this KC. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCQM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  18. log(MPl/m3/2)

    SciTech Connect

    Loaiza-Brito, Oscar; Martin, Johannes; Nilles, Hans Peter; Ratz, Michael

    2005-12-02

    Flux compactifications of string theory seem to require the presence of a fine-tuned constant in the superpotential. We discuss a scheme where this constant is replaced by a dynamical quantity which we argue to be a 'continuous Chern-Simons term'. In such a scheme, the gaugino condensate generates the hierarchically small scale of supersymmetry breakdown rather than adjusting its size to a constant. A crucial ingredient is the appearance of the hierarchically small quantity exp(-) which corresponds to the scale of gaugino condensation. Under rather general circumstances, this leads to a scenario of moduli stabilization, which is endowed with a hierarchy between the mass of the lightest modulus, the gravitino mass and the scale of the soft terms, mmodulus {approx} m3/2 {approx} 2 msoft. The 'little hierarchy' is given by the logarithm of the ratio of the Planck scale and the gravitino mass, {approx} log(MPl/m3/2) {approx} 4{pi}2. This exhibits a new mediation scheme of supersymmetry breakdown, called mirage mediation. We highlight the special properties of the scheme, and their consequences for phenomenology and cosmology.

  19. The hydrolysis and precipitation of Pd(II) in 0.6 mol kg-1 NaCl: A potentiometric, spectrophotometric, and EXAFS study

    SciTech Connect

    Boily, Jean F.; Seward, Terry M.; Charnock, John M.

    2007-10-15

    The hydrolysis of palladium was investigated in 0.6 mol•kg-1 NaCl at 298.2 K. Potentiometric titrations of solutions at various total concentrations of palladium(II) revealed that dilute (millimolar) conditions can be used to monitor the proton release due to hydrolysis reactions up to 2 protons per palladium(II) as long as the equilibration time is kept small. Spectrophotometric titrations were used to corroborate the homogeneous changes in speciation for the PdCl3OH2- species and to extract its correlative molar absorption coefficients in the 210-320 nm range. The molar absorption coefficients are similar to those of PdCl42- but exhibit a broader distribution of excitation energies resulting from the blue shift of the dominant charge transfer bands due to the presence of OH-. The longer-term potentiometric titrations systematically yielded, on the other hand, precipitates which matured over a period of 6 weeks and resulted in a more extensive release of protons to the solution. Precipitation experiments at six different total palladium(II) concentrations in the 3-11 pH range showed the dominant precipitating phase as Pd(OH)1.72Cl0.28. The coordination environment of Pd in this solid was investigated by extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS) and yielded an average 1.75 O and 0.25 Cl per Pd atoms with a Pd-O distance of 2.0 Å and Pd-Cl of 2.1 Å. Finally, the precipitation experiments showed the final products to be of larger solubility than a literature Pd(OH)2 solubility study in which the KCl media induced a solid phase transformation to Pd(OH)1.72Cl0.28. Polynuclear complexes Pdq(OH)r2q-r with q=r=[3,9] explain the combined precipitation and hydrolysis data and may represent subsets of [Pd(OH)2]n and/or [Pd(OH)1.72Cl0.28]n chains coiled into nanometer-sized spheroids previously described in the literature.

  20. 19 CFR 10.8a - Imported articles exported and reimported.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Imported articles exported and reimported. 10.8a...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. General Provisions Articles Exported and Returned § 10.8a Imported articles exported and reimported. (a) In addition...

  1. 19 CFR 10.8a - Imported articles exported and reimported.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Imported articles exported and reimported. 10.8a...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. General Provisions Articles Exported and Returned § 10.8a Imported articles exported and reimported. (a) In addition...

  2. 19 CFR 10.8a - Imported articles exported and reimported.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Imported articles exported and reimported. 10.8a...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. General Provisions Articles Exported and Returned § 10.8a Imported articles exported and reimported. (a) In addition...

  3. 19 CFR 10.8a - Imported articles exported and reimported.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Imported articles exported and reimported. 10.8a...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. General Provisions Articles Exported and Returned § 10.8a Imported articles exported and reimported. (a) In addition...

  4. 44 CFR 10.8 - Determination of requirement for environmental review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Determination of requirement for environmental review. 10.8 Section 10.8 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS Agency...

  5. Formando planetas habitables en estrellas M3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dugaro, A.; de Elía, G. C.; Brunini, A.

    2016-08-01

    Studies of stellar evolution allow us to infer that the low-mass stars are the most abundant in the galaxy. In the present investigation, we analyze the formation of planetary systems without gas giants around M3-type stars, which have a mass of 0.29 M. In particular, we are interested in studying the terrestrial-like planet formation processes and water delivery in the Habitable Zone (HZ) of those systems. To develop this investigation, we assume massive protoplanetary disks for such stars, which have 5 of the mass of the central star. Once defined the working disk, we use a semi-analytical model, which is able to determine the distribution of planetary embryos and planetesimals at the end of the gaseous phase. Then, these distributions are used as initial conditions for running -body simulations. Due to the stochastic nature of the accretion process, we carry out ten -body simulations in order to analyze the evolution of the planetary systems after the gas dissipation. Our results suggest the efficient formation of terrestrial-like planets in the HZ with a wide range of masses and water contents. The planets formed in the HZ of the system have masses between 0.07 M and 0.15 M and final water contents between 5.4 and 29 by mass. The physical properties of the terrestrial-like planets formed in the HZ of our simulations suggest that they should be able to retain a permanent and substantial atmosphere.

  6. Muscovy duck reovirus p10.8 protein localizes to the nucleus via a nonconventional nuclear localization signal

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background It was previously report that the first open reading frame of Muscovy duck reocvirus S4 gene encodes a 95-amino-acid protein, designed p10.8, which has no sequence similarity to other known proteins. Its amino acid sequence offers no clues about its function. Results Subcellular localization and nuclear import signal of p10.8 were characterized. We found that p10.8 protein localizes to the nucleus of infected and transfected cells, suggesting that p10.8 nuclear localization is not facilitated by viral infection or any other viral protein. A functional non-canonical nuclear localization signal (NLS) for p10.8 was identified and mapped to N-terminus residues 1–40. The NLS has the ability to retarget a large cytoplasmic protein to the nucleus. Conclusions p10.8 imported into the nucleus might via a nonconventional signal nuclear signal. PMID:24564937

  7. The Moon mineralogy mapper (M3) on Chandrayaan-1

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pieters, C.M.; Boardman, J.; Buratti, B.; Chatterjee, A.; Clark, R.; Glavich, T.; Green, R.; Head, J.; Isaacson, P.; Malaret, E.; McCord, T.; Mustard, J.; Petro, N.; Runyon, C.; Staid, M.; Sunshine, J.; Taylor, L.; Tompkins, S.; Varanasi, P.; White, M.

    2009-01-01

    The Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) is a NASA-supported guest instrument on ISRO's remote sensing mission to Moon, Chandrayaan-1. The M3 is an imaging spectrometer that operates from the visible into the near-infrared (0.42-3.0 ??m) where highly diagnostic mineral absorption bands occur. Over the course of the mission M3 will provide low resolution spectroscopic data for the entire lunar surface at 140 m/pixel (86 spectral channels) to be used as a base-map and high spectral resolution science data (80 m/pixel; 260 spectral channels) for 25-50% of the surface. The detailed mineral assessment of different lunar terrains provided by M3 is principal information needed for understanding the geologic evolution of the lunar crust and lays the foundation for focused future in-depth exploration of the Moon.

  8. Mars Methane Analogue Mission (M3): Analytical Techniques and Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cloutis, E.; Vrionis, H.; Qadi, A.; Bell, J. F.; Berard, G.; Boivin, A.; Ellery, A.; Jamroz, W.; Kruzelecky, R.; Mann, P.; Samson, C.; Stromberg, J.; Strong, K.; Tremblay, A.; Whyte, L.; Wing, B.

    2011-03-01

    The Mars Methane Analogue Mission (M3) project is designed to simulate a rover-based search for, and analysis of, methane sources on Mars at a serpentinite open pit mine in Quebec, using a variety of instruments.

  9. M3D project for simulation studies of plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Park, W.; Belova, E.V.; Fu, G.Y.; Strauss, H.R.; Sugiyama, L.E.

    1998-12-31

    The M3D (Multi-level 3D) project carries out simulation studies of plasmas of various regimes using multi-levels of physics, geometry, and mesh schemes in one code package. This paper and papers by Strauss, Sugiyama, and Belova in this workshop describe the project, and present examples of current applications. The currently available physics models of the M3D project are MHD, two-fluids, gyrokinetic hot particle/MHD hybrid, and gyrokinetic particle ion/two-fluid hybrid models. The code can be run with both structured and unstructured meshes.

  10. Quality Assurance Information for R Packages "aqfig" and "M3"

    EPA Science Inventory

    R packages “aqfig" and “M3" are optional modules for use with R statistical software (http://www.r-project.org). Package “aqfig" contains functions to aid users in the preparation of publication-quality figures for the display of air quality and other environmental data (e.g., le...

  11. Exploring the Mineralogy of the Moon with M3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pieters, C. M.; Boardman, J.; Buratti, B.; Clark, R.; Green, R.; Head, J. W. III; McCord, T. B.; Mustard, J.; Runyon, C.; Staid, M.

    2006-01-01

    From the initial era or lunar exploration, we have learned that many processes active on the early Moon are common to most terrestrial planets, including the record of early and late impact bombardment. Since most major geologic activity ceased on the Moon approx. 3 Gy ago, the Moon's surface provides a record of the earliest era of terrestrial planet evolution. The type and composition of minerals that comprise a planetary surface are a direct result of the initial composition and subsequent thermal and physical processing. Lunar mineralogy seen today is thus a direct record of the early evolution of the lunar crust and subsequent geologic processes. Specifically, the distribution and concentration of specific minerals is closely tied to magma ocean products, lenses of intruded or remelted plutons, basaltic volcanism and fire-fountaining, and any process (e.g. cratering) that might redistribute or transform primary and secondary lunar crustal materials. The Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3, or "m-cube") is a state-of-the-art imaging spectrometer that will fly on Chandrayaan-1, the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) mission to be launched late 2007 to early 2008. M3 is one of several foreign instruments chosen by ISRO to be flown on Chandrayaan-1 to complement the strong ISRO payload package. M3 was selected through a peer-review process as part of NASA s Discovery Program. It is under the oversight of PI Carle Pieters at Brown University and is being built by an experienced team at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Data analysis and calibration are carried out by a highly qualified and knowledgeable Science Team. To characterize diagnostic properties of lunar minerals, M3 acquires high spectral resolution reflectance data from 700 to 3000 nm (optional to 430 nm). M3 operates as a pushbroom spectrometer with a slit oriented orthogonal to the S/C orbital motion. Measurements are obtained simultaneously for 640 cross track spatial elements and 261 spectral elements

  12. Higher Order Lagrange Finite Elements In M3D

    SciTech Connect

    J. Chen; H.R. Strauss; S.C. Jardin; W. Park; L.E. Sugiyama; G. Fu; J. Breslau

    2004-12-17

    The M3D code has been using linear finite elements to represent multilevel MHD on 2-D poloidal planes. Triangular higher order elements, up to third order, are constructed here in order to provide M3D the capability to solve highly anisotropic transport problems. It is found that higher order elements are essential to resolve the thin transition layer characteristic of the anisotropic transport equation, particularly when the strong anisotropic direction is not aligned with one of the Cartesian coordinates. The transition layer is measured by the profile width, which is zero for infinite anisotropy. It is shown that only higher order schemes have the ability to make this layer converge towards zero when the anisotropy gets stronger and stronger. Two cases are considered. One has the strong transport direction partially aligned with one of the element edges, the other doesn't have any alignment. Both cases have the strong transport direction misaligned with the grid line by some angles.

  13. Extremal Positive Maps on M3(ℂ) and Idempotent Matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Marek; Olkiewicz, Robert

    2016-03-01

    A new method of analysing positive bistochastic maps on the algebra of complex matrices M3 has been proposed. By identifying the set of such maps with a convex set of linear operators on ℝ8, one can employ techniques from the theory of compact semigroups to obtain results concerning asymptotic properties of positive maps. It turns out that the idempotent elements play a crucial role in classifying the convex set into subsets, in which representations of extremal positive maps are to be found. It has been shown that all positive bistochastic maps, extremal in the set of all positive maps of M3, that are not Jordan isomorphisms of M3 are represented by matrices that fall into two possible categories, determined by the simplest idempotent matrices: one by the zero matrix, and the other by a one-dimensional orthogonal projection. Some norm conditions for matrices representing possible extremal maps have been specified and examples of maps from both categories have been brought up, based on the results published previously.

  14. Metal Matrix Microencapsulated (M3) fuel neutronics performance in PWRs

    SciTech Connect

    Fratoni, Massimiliano; Terrani, Kurt A

    2012-01-01

    Metal Matrix Microencapsulated (M3) fuel consists of TRISO or BISO coated fuel particles directly dispersed in a matrix of zirconium metal to form a solid rod (Fig. 1). In this integral fuel concept the cladding tube and the failure mechanisms associated with it have been eliminated. In this manner pellet-clad-interactions (PCI), thin tube failure due to oxidation and hydriding, and tube pressurization and burst will be absent. M3 fuel, given the high stiffness of the integral rod design, could as well improve grid-to-rod wear behavior. Overall M3 fuel, compared to existing fuel designs, is expected to provide greatly improved operational performance. Multiple barriers to fission product release (ceramic coating layers in the coated fuel particle and te metal matrix) and the high thermal conductivity zirconium alloy metal matrix contribute to the enhancement in fuel behavior. The discontinuous nature of fissile material encapsulated in coated particles provides additional assistance; for instance if the M3 fuel rod is snapped into multiple pieces, only the limited number of fuel particles at the failure cross section are susceptible to release fission products. This is in contrast to the conventional oxide fuel where the presence of a small opening in the cladding provides the pathway for release of the entire inventory of fission products from the fuel rod. While conventional metal fuels (e.g. U-Zr and U-Mo) are typically expected to experience large swelling under irradiation due to the high degree of damage from fission fragments and introduction of fission gas into the lattice, this is not the case for M3 fuels. The fissile portion of the fuel is contained within the coated particle where enough room is available to accommodate fission gases and kernel swelling. The zirconium metal matrix will not be exposed to fission products and its swelling is known to be very limited when exposed solely to neutrons. Under design basis RIA and LOCA, fuel performance will be

  15. Identification of an H2-M3-Restricted Listeria Epitope: Implications for Antigen Presentation by M3

    PubMed Central

    Lenz, Laurel L.; Dere, Beverley; Bevan, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Using expression cloning, we have identified an H2-M3-restricted epitope of the intracellular bacterial pathogen Listeria monocytogenes. Picomolar concentrations of an amino-terminal N-formylated hexapeptide, fMIGWII, targeted cells for lysis by CD8+ cytotoxic T cells, while the nonformylated peptide was approximately 100-fold less active. The sequence of the 185 aa protein source of this epitope predicts a transmembrane protein that retains its N terminus and assumes an Nout–Cin topology. This membrane orientation offers an explanation for the protection of the epitope from deformylases present in the bacterial cell and suggests an explanation for the ability of phagocytes to present H2-M3-restricted bacterial epitopes via a vacuolar TAP-independent mechanism. PMID:8758895

  16. Structure and dynamics of the M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Kruse, Andrew C.; Hu, Jianxin; Pan, Albert C.; Arlow, Daniel H.; Rosenbaum, Daniel M.; Rosemond, Erica; Green, Hillary F.; Liu, Tong; Chae, Pil Seok; Dror, Ron O.; Shaw, David E.; Weis, William I.; Wess, Jürgen; Kobilka, Brian K.

    2012-03-01

    Acetylcholine, the first neurotransmitter to be identified, exerts many of its physiological actions via activation of a family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) known as muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs). Although the five mAChR subtypes (M1-M5) share a high degree of sequence homology, they show pronounced differences in G-protein coupling preference and the physiological responses they mediate. Unfortunately, despite decades of effort, no therapeutic agents endowed with clear mAChR subtype selectivity have been developed to exploit these differences. We describe here the structure of the G{sub q/11}-coupled M3 mAChR ('M3 receptor', from rat) bound to the bronchodilator drug tiotropium and identify the binding mode for this clinically important drug. This structure, together with that of the G{sub i/o}-coupled M2 receptor, offers possibilities for the design of mAChR subtype-selective ligands. Importantly, the M3 receptor structure allows a structural comparison between two members of a mammalian GPCR subfamily displaying different G-protein coupling selectivities. Furthermore, molecular dynamics simulations suggest that tiotropium binds transiently to an allosteric site en route to the binding pocket of both receptors. These simulations offer a structural view of an allosteric binding mode for an orthosteric GPCR ligand and provide additional opportunities for the design of ligands with different affinities or binding kinetics for different mAChR subtypes. Our findings not only offer insights into the structure and function of one of the most important GPCR families, but may also facilitate the design of improved therapeutics targeting these critical receptors.

  17. The Chemical Composition Contrast between M3 and M13 Revisited: New Abundances for 28 Giant Stars in M3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sneden, Christopher; Kraft, Robert P.; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Peterson, Ruth C.; Fulbright, Jon P.

    2004-04-01

    We report new chemical abundances of 23 bright red giant members of the globular cluster M3, based on high-resolution (R~45,000) spectra obtained with the Keck I telescope. The observations, which involve the use of multislits in the HIRES Keck I spectrograph, are described in detail. Combining these data with a previously reported small sample of M3 giants obtained with the Lick 3 m telescope, we compare metallicities and [X/Fe] ratios for 28 M3 giants with a 35-star sample in the similar-metallicity cluster M13, and with Galactic halo field stars having [Fe/H]<-1. For elements having atomic number A>=A(Si), we derive little difference in [X/Fe] ratios in the M3, M13, or halo field samples. All three groups exhibit C depletion with advancing evolutionary state beginning at the level of the red giant branch ``bump,'' but the overall depletion of about 0.7-0.9 dex seen in the clusters is larger than that associated with the field stars. The behaviors of O, Na, Mg, and Al are distinctively different among the three stellar samples. Field halo giants and subdwarfs have a positive correlation of Na with Mg, as predicted from explosive or hydrostatic carbon burning in Type II supernova sites. Both M3 and M13 show evidence of high-temperature proton-capture synthesis from the ON, NeNa, and MgAl cycles, while there is no evidence for such synthesis among halo field stars. But the degree of such extreme proton-capture synthesis in M3 is smaller than it is in M13: the M3 giants exhibit only modest deficiencies of O and corresponding enhancements of Na, less extreme overabundances of Al, fewer stars with low Mg and correspondingly high Na, and no indication that O depletions are a function of advancing evolutionary state, as has been claimed for M13. We have also considered NGC 6752, for which Mg isotopic abundances have been reported by Yong et al. Giants in NGC 6752 and M13 satisfy the same anticorrelation of O abundances with the ratio (25Mg+26Mg)/24Mg, which measures the

  18. Rise of [Ca²⁺]i and apoptosis induced by M-3M3FBS in SCM1 human gastric cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Chuan; Chou, Chiang-Ting; Liou, Wen-Chin; Liu, Shiuh-Inn; Lin, Ko-Long; Lu, Ti; Lu, Yi-Chau; Hsu, Shu-Shong; Tsai, Jeng-Yu; Liao, Wei-Chuan; Liang, Wei-Zhe; Jan, Chung-Ren

    2014-02-28

    M-3M3FBS (2,4,6-trimethyl-N-(meta-3-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-benzenesulfonamide is a presumed phospholipase C activator which induced Ca²⁺ movement and apoptosis in different cell models. How- ever, the effect of m-3M3FBS on cytosolic free Ca²⁺ concentrations ([Ca²⁺]i) and apoptosis in SCM1 human gastric cancer cells is unclear. This study explored whether m-3M3FBS elevated basal [Ca²⁺]i levels in suspended cells by using fura-2 as a Ca²⁺-sensitive fluorescent dye. M-3M3FBS at concentrations between 5-50 μM increased [Ca²⁺]i in a concentration-dependent manner. The Ca²⁺ signal was reduced by half by removing extracellular Ca²⁺. M-3M3FBS-induced Ca²⁺ influx was inhibited by nifedipine, econazole, SK&F96365, aristolochic acid, and GF109203X. In Ca²⁺-free medium, 50 μM m-3M3FBS pretreatment inhibited the [Ca²⁺]i rise induced by the endoplasmic reticulum Ca²⁺ pump inhibitor thapsigargin. Conversely, pretreatment with thapsigargin partly reduced m-3M3FBS-induced [Ca²⁺]i rise. Suppression of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate production with U73122 did not change m-3M3FBS- induced [Ca²⁺]i rise. At concentrations between 25 and 50 μM m-3M3FBS killed cells in a concentration- dependent manner. The cytotoxic effect of m-3M3FBS was not reversed by prechelating cytosolic Ca²⁺ with acetoxy-methyl ester of bis-(o-aminophenoxy)-ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (BAPTA/AM). Annexin V/propidium iodide staining data suggest that m-3M3FBS induced apoptosis at 25 and 50 μM. M-3M3FBS also increased levels of superoxide. Together, in human gastric cancer cells, m-3M3FBS induced a [Ca²⁺]i rise by inducing phospholipase C-independent Ca²⁺ release from the endoplasmic reticulum and Ca²⁺ entry via protein kinase C-sensitive store-operated Ca²⁺ channels. M-3M3FBS induced cell death that might involve apoptosis via reactive oxygen species production.

  19. Tissue Regeneration in Urodela on Foton-M3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoryan, E. N.; Poplinskaya, V. A.; Domaratskaya, E. I.; Novikova, Y. P.; Aleinikova, K. S.; Dvorochkin, N.; Almeida, E. A. C.

    2008-06-01

    In the experiment "Regeneration" flown on Foton-M3 in 2007 we continued our study of tissue and organ regeneration in Urodela. Special attention was given to the regulatory mechanisms that could induce peculiarities of regeneration during the spaceflight. The results obtained showed that lens regeneration in space-flown animals was synchronized and about 0.5 to 1 stage more advanced than in synchronous 1g controls. In both groups of animals cytokine FGFb expression increased in parallel with lens cell mitotic activity and was localized in the growth zone and iris of regenerating eyes. Lens regeneration was also accompanied by an increase of stress protein (HSP90) expression in retinal macroglia. Evaluation of HSP90 and FGFb expression by immuno-staining showed that it was higher in the eyes of space-flown animals than in synchronous controls. BrdU assay demonstrated incorporation of the precursor into populations of DNA synthesizing cells in both animal groups and mirrored cell growth in regenerating tissues. Tail regeneration in space-flown and synchronous control animals reached the stages IV to V. Computer morphometry showed that tail size parameters were similar though the tail area was slightly decreased in the space-flown newts. In contrast, remarkable changes in tail tip morphology were found between animal groups: flight and aquarium-control tail regenerates were identical in shape, while synchronous controls developed distinct dorsoventral asymmetry. Histological examinations suggested that morphogenetic differences were caused by different rates of epidermal cell growth in tail regenerates of newts exposed to microgravity and 1 g.

  20. Low-temperature M =3 flow deceleration by Lorentz force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishihara, Munetake; Rich, J. William; Lempert, Walter R.; Adamovich, Igor V.; Gogineni, Sivaram

    2006-08-01

    This paper presents results of cold magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flow deceleration experiments using repetitively pulsed, short pulse duration, high voltage discharge to produce ionization in M =3 nitrogen and air flows in the presence of transverse direct current electric field and transverse magnetic field. MHD effect on the flow is detected from the flow static pressure measurements. Retarding Lorentz force applied to the flow produces a static pressure increase of up to 17%-20%, while accelerating force of the same magnitude results in static pressure increase of up to 5%-7%. The measured static pressure changes are compared with modeling calculations using quasi-one-dimensional MHD flow equations. Comparison of the experimental results with the modeling calculations shows that the retarding Lorentz force increases the static pressure rise produced by Joule heating of the flow, while the accelerating Lorentz force reduces the pressure rise. The effect is produced for two possible combinations of the magnetic field and transverse current directions producing the same Lorentz force direction (both for accelerating and retarding force). This demonstrates that the observed static pressure change is indeed due to the MHD interaction, and not due to Joule heating of the flow in the crossed discharge. No discharge polarity effect on the static pressure was detected in the absence of the magnetic field. The fraction of the discharge input power going into Joule heat in nitrogen and dry air, inferred from the present experiments, is low, α =0.1, primarily because energy remains frozen in the vibrational energy mode of nitrogen. This result provides first direct evidence of cold supersonic flow deceleration by Lorentz force.

  1. Low-temperature M=3 flow deceleration by Lorentz force

    SciTech Connect

    Nishihara, Munetake; Rich, J. William; Lempert, Walter R.; Adamovich, Igor V.; Gogineni, Sivaram

    2006-08-15

    This paper presents results of cold magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flow deceleration experiments using repetitively pulsed, short pulse duration, high voltage discharge to produce ionization in M=3 nitrogen and air flows in the presence of transverse direct current electric field and transverse magnetic field. MHD effect on the flow is detected from the flow static pressure measurements. Retarding Lorentz force applied to the flow produces a static pressure increase of up to 17%-20%, while accelerating force of the same magnitude results in static pressure increase of up to 5%-7%. The measured static pressure changes are compared with modeling calculations using quasi-one-dimensional MHD flow equations. Comparison of the experimental results with the modeling calculations shows that the retarding Lorentz force increases the static pressure rise produced by Joule heating of the flow, while the accelerating Lorentz force reduces the pressure rise. The effect is produced for two possible combinations of the magnetic field and transverse current directions producing the same Lorentz force direction (both for accelerating and retarding force). This demonstrates that the observed static pressure change is indeed due to the MHD interaction, and not due to Joule heating of the flow in the crossed discharge. No discharge polarity effect on the static pressure was detected in the absence of the magnetic field. The fraction of the discharge input power going into Joule heat in nitrogen and dry air, inferred from the present experiments, is low, {alpha}=0.1, primarily because energy remains frozen in the vibrational energy mode of nitrogen. This result provides first direct evidence of cold supersonic flow deceleration by Lorentz force.

  2. Test of Equivalence Principle at 10(-8) Level by a Dual-Species Double-Diffraction Raman Atom Interferometer.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lin; Long, Shitong; Tang, Biao; Chen, Xi; Gao, Fen; Peng, Wencui; Duan, Weitao; Zhong, Jiaqi; Xiong, Zongyuan; Wang, Jin; Zhang, Yuanzhong; Zhan, Mingsheng

    2015-07-01

    We report an improved test of the weak equivalence principle by using a simultaneous 85Rb-87Rb dual-species atom interferometer. We propose and implement a four-wave double-diffraction Raman transition scheme for the interferometer, and demonstrate its ability in suppressing common-mode phase noise of Raman lasers after their frequencies and intensity ratios are optimized. The statistical uncertainty of the experimental data for Eötvös parameter η is 0.8×10(-8) at 3200 s. With various systematic errors corrected, the final value is η=(2.8±3.0)×10(-8). The major uncertainty is attributed to the Coriolis effect. PMID:26182096

  3. Test of Equivalence Principle at 10(-8) Level by a Dual-Species Double-Diffraction Raman Atom Interferometer.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lin; Long, Shitong; Tang, Biao; Chen, Xi; Gao, Fen; Peng, Wencui; Duan, Weitao; Zhong, Jiaqi; Xiong, Zongyuan; Wang, Jin; Zhang, Yuanzhong; Zhan, Mingsheng

    2015-07-01

    We report an improved test of the weak equivalence principle by using a simultaneous 85Rb-87Rb dual-species atom interferometer. We propose and implement a four-wave double-diffraction Raman transition scheme for the interferometer, and demonstrate its ability in suppressing common-mode phase noise of Raman lasers after their frequencies and intensity ratios are optimized. The statistical uncertainty of the experimental data for Eötvös parameter η is 0.8×10(-8) at 3200 s. With various systematic errors corrected, the final value is η=(2.8±3.0)×10(-8). The major uncertainty is attributed to the Coriolis effect.

  4. Diode laser spectra of CCl2F2 near 10.8 muon M: Air-broadening effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jennings, D. E.

    1977-01-01

    Laboratory spectra of CCL2F2 in the 10.8 micron region was recorded, using a tuneable diode laser spectrometer. Effects of air-broadening at pressures up to 48 Torr show that spectral structure should be exhibited under high resolution at altitudes as low as 19 Km. The single line, pressure-broadening coefficient for CCL2F2 was estimated to be 8 MHz/Torr FWHM.

  5. Hemopoietic tissue in newts flown aboard Foton M3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domaratskaya, Elena I.; Almeida, Eduardo; Butorina, Nina N.; Nikonova, Tatyana M.; Grigoryan, Eleonora N.; Poplinskaya, Valentina A.; Souza, Kenneth; Skidmore, Mike

    The effect of 12-day spaceflight aboard the Foton-M3 biosatellite on the hematopoietic tissue of P. waltl newts was studied. These animals used at the same time in regeneration experiments after lens and tail tip amputation. In flight and synchronous groups there were performed video recording, temperature and radiation monitoring and continuous contact (via skin) with thymidine analog BrdU. We took differential blood counts and assessed histologically the liver in the flight (F), basal (BC) and synchronous (SC)control groups of animals. In the peripheral blood, we identified neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, lymphocytes, and monocytes. Lymphocytes (L) and neutrophils (N) prevailed, accounting for about 60 and 20% of white blood cells, respectively. The spaceflight had no apparent effect on the differential blood count in the F group: neither the L and N contents nor the maturing to mature N - ratio differed from those in the control groups. No significant differences between F, SC and BC groups were observed with respect to the structure of hematopoietic areas and the liver morphology. As in Foton-M2, BrdU labeled cells revealed in blood as well as in the hemopoietic areas of the liver. However, in previous experiments performed at satellites Bion-10 and Foton-M2 the changes in peripheral blood contents were registered in operated F newts, and we supposed it could be the result of additive effects of spaceflight factors and stimulation of reparative potency and stress due to surgical operation. Possibly, the temperature conditions also may provide some influence on blood cell content of newts that belong to poikilothermic animals. Thus, in present experiment F and SC groups were reared in the same temperature regims, whereas it was nearly 3o C differences between SC and F groups exposed on Foton-M2. At the same time as it was found in experiments on Bion-11 and Foton-M2 spaceflight factors did not affect on differential blood counts of intact non

  6. Mercury thiogallate nanosecond optical parametric oscillator continuously tunable from 4.2 to 10.8 μm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostyukova, N. Yu; Kolker, D. B.; Zenov, K. G.; Boyko, A. A.; Starikova, M. K.; Sherstov, I. V.; Karapuzikov, A. A.

    2015-09-01

    We demonstrate an optical parametric oscillator based on two HgGa2S4 crystals with an extremely wide tuning range from 4.2 to 10.8 μm. The HgGa2S4 optical parametric oscillator was pumped by a Q-switched nanosecond Nd : YLF laser at 1.053 μm. The absorption spectrum of ammonia was presented to demonstrate the feasibility of the developed optical parametric oscillator system for spectroscopic measurements and gas detection.

  7. Dihydropyridines' metabolites-induced early apoptosis after myocardial infarction in rats; new outlook on preclinical study with M-2 and M-3.

    PubMed

    Mitręga, Katarzyna A; Nożyński, Jerzy; Porc, Maurycy; Spałek, Adrianna M; Krzemiński, Tadeusz F

    2016-02-01

    Our previous studies established cardio-protective effects of furnidipine and its active metabolites called M-2 and M-3. The aim of current research was to compare the effects of single oral pretreatment with 20 mg kg(-1) of M-2 and M-3 on mortality, different forms of arrhythmias, blood pressures parameters and ST-segment changes during occlusion (for 90 min) and reperfusion in the model of myocardial infarction in rats evoked by left anterior descending coronary artery occlusion. Additionally, the development of programmed cell death and biochemical parameters in blood serum were studied at 4th day after infarction. Furnidipines' metabolites effectively reduced mortality index while did not markedly influence on blood pressures parameters, arrhythmias, ST-segment changes as well as biochemical parameters. Intriguingly, programmed cell death study (TUNEL) showed distinct increase in the amount of apoptotic nuclei in post-infarcted myocardium, granulation tissue and what is more in arteriolar walls after M-2 and M-3 application. Moreover, M-2 turned out to be more powerful in stimulation of apoptosis in granulation tissue surrounding infarcted area whereas M-3 presented balanced profile in this matter. Taking into account that programmed cell death plays positive role in post-infarcted heart healing, M-2 presents itself as more attractive agent for oral pretreatment in early stages of ischemia by non-stable individuals due to its more specific action in stimulation repairing processes in granulation tissue as well as in arteriolar walls. While M-2 and M-3 are common metabolites present in degradation pathways of many widely used dihydropyridines in clinic, this key fact put the new outlook on understanding additional mechanism and effects of not only furnidipines' metabolites but also other dihydropyridines.

  8. Behavior of welds in liquid lead containing 10-6 wt% and 10-8 wt% oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinzel, A.; Müller, G.; Weisenburger, A.

    2013-06-01

    Specimens with welded joints of P91 TIG (tungsten inert gas welding), P91 EB (electron beam welding) and frictions stir welding, with P92 (EB), PM2000 (EB) and combination of P91-PM2000 EB were tested 2000 h in stagnant liquid Pb at 550 °C with an oxygen concentration of 10-6 wt% and 10-8 wt%. After exposure at 10-6 wt% all specimens showed an oxide layer on the surface. If the grain size of the welds varies strongly from that of the bulk material like in the friction stir welds, a change in oxide thickness could be observed. Also precipitations which pin the oxide formers or reduce the diffusion rate can lead to thicker oxide layers or a stronger dissolution attack like it was observed on the dissimilar weld P91/PM2000 EB. The specimens have similar microstructures in all regions (weld, heat affected zone and bulk material) and due to a post-weld heat treatment show everywhere the same behavior.

  9. Retinal overexpression of Ten-m3 alters ipsilateral retinogeniculate projections in the wallaby (Macropus eugenii).

    PubMed

    Carr, Owen P; Glendining, Kelly A; Leamey, Catherine A; Marotte, Lauren R

    2014-04-30

    The dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) contains a retinotopic map where input from the two eyes map in register to provide a substrate for binocular vision. Ten-m3, a transmembrane protein, mediates homophilic interactions and has been implicated in the patterning of ipsilateral visual projections. Ease of access to early developmental stages in a marsupial wallaby has been used to manipulate levels of Ten-m3 during the development of retinogeniculate projections. In situ hybridisation showed a high dorsomedial to low ventrolateral gradient of Ten-m3 in the developing dLGN, matching retinotopically with the previously reported high ventral to low dorsal retinal gradient. Overexpression of Ten-m3 in ventronasal but not dorsonasal retina resulted in an extension of ipsilateral projections beyond the normal binocular zone. These results demonstrate that Ten-m3 influences ipsilateral projections and support a role for it in binocular mapping. PMID:24602979

  10. Upregulation of M3 muscarinic receptor inhibits cardiac hypertrophy induced by angiotensin II

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (M3-mAChR) is stably expressed in the myocardium, but its pathophysiological role remains largely undefined. This study aimed to investigate the role of M3-mAChR in cardiac hypertrophy induced by angiotensin II (Ang II) and elucidate the underlying mechanisms. Methods Cardiac-specific M3-mAChR overexpression transgenic (TG) mice and rat H9c2 cardiomyoblasts with ectopic expression of M3-mAChR were established. Models of cardiac hypertrophy were induced by transverse aortic constriction (TAC) or Ang II infusion in the mice in vivo, and by isoproterenol (ISO) or Ang II treatment of H9c2 cells in vitro. Cardiac hypertrophy was evaluated by electrocardiography (ECG) measurement, hemodynamic measurement and histological analysis. mRNA and protein expression were detected by real-time RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. Results M3-mAChR was upregulated in hypertrophic heart, while M2-mAChR expression did not change significantly. M3-mAChR overexpression significantly attenuated the increased expression of atrial natriuretic peptide and β-myosin heavy chain induced by Ang II both in vivo and in vitro. In addition, M3-mAChR overexpression downregulated AT1 receptor expression and inhibited the activation of MAPK signaling in the heart. Conclusion The upregulation of M3-mAChR during myocardial hypertrophy could relieve the hypertrophic response provoked by Ang II, and the mechanism may involve the inhibition of MAPK signaling through the downregulation of AT1 receptor. PMID:24028210

  11. M3S: the local network for electric wheelchairs and rehabilitation equipment.

    PubMed

    Linnman, S

    1996-09-01

    M3S is an open electric network standard for connecting rehabilitation equipment, especially electric modules in a wheelchair. It provides bidirectional communication at 250 kbaud via a CAN bus and extra safety lines for "Dead Man's Switch" and a TURN ON key. In an M3S system, the same input device may be used for controlling many different output devices in different operating modes. It provides flexible configuration tools for adapting the system for the individual user. M3S has been demonstrated and tested in more than ten different European development projects.

  12. Wall-touching kink mode calculations with the M3D code

    SciTech Connect

    Breslau, J. A. Bhattacharjee, A.

    2015-06-15

    This paper seeks to address a controversy regarding the applicability of the 3D nonlinear extended MHD code M3D [W. Park et al., Phys. Plasmas 6, 1796 (1999)] and similar codes to calculations of the electromagnetic interaction of a disrupting tokamak plasma with the surrounding vessel structures. M3D is applied to a simple test problem involving an external kink mode in an ideal cylindrical plasma, used also by the Disruption Simulation Code (DSC) as a model case for illustrating the nature of transient vessel currents during a major disruption. While comparison of the results with those of the DSC is complicated by effects arising from the higher dimensionality and complexity of M3D, we verify that M3D is capable of reproducing both the correct saturation behavior of the free boundary kink and the “Hiro” currents arising when the kink interacts with a conducting tile surface interior to the ideal wall.

  13. The Distribution and Mineralogy of Anorthosite in the Orientale Basin: New Perspectives from M^3 Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheek, L. C.; Donaldson Hanna, K. L.; Pieters, C. M.; Head, J. W.; Whitten, J. L.

    2012-07-01

    A detailed mineralogic analysis of the Orientale Basin using M^3 data reveals that crystalline anorthosite (shocked to <25 GPa) is abundant, and that the most highly pure examples (> ~98% plagioclase) are concentrated in the Inner Rook Mountains.

  14. 27. Naval Facility Engineering Command Drawing 6068752 (463M3) (1975), 'Electrolite ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. Naval Facility Engineering Command Drawing 6068752 (463-M-3) (1975), 'Electrolite Aerosol Removal System' - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Acid Mixing Facility, California Avenue & E Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  15. The Mars Methane Analogue Mission (M3): Results of the 2011 Field Deployment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cloutis, E. A.; Whyte, L.; Qadi, A.; Bell, J. F.; Berard, G.; Boivin, A.; Ellery, A.; Haddad, E.; Jamroz, W.; Kruzelecky, R.; Mann, P.; Olsen, K.; Perrot, M.; Popa, D.; Rhind, T.; Samson, C.; Sharma, R.; Stromberg, J.; Strong, K.; Tremblay, A.; Wilhelm, R.; Wing, B.; Wong, B.

    2012-03-01

    The M3 mission simulated a rover mission to Mars to search for sources of methane. The 2011 campaign found that methane plumes from serpentinite are very localized and target selection based on imagery is preferred over direct methane detection.

  16. Dual GPCR and GAG mimicry by the M3 chemokine decoy receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander-Brett, Jennifer M.; Fremont, Daved H.

    2008-09-23

    Viruses have evolved a myriad of evasion strategies focused on undermining chemokine-mediated immune surveillance, exemplified by the mouse {gamma}-herpesvirus 68 M3 decoy receptor. Crystal structures of M3 in complex with C chemokine ligand 1/lymphotactin and CC chemokine ligand 2/monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 reveal that invariant chemokine features associated with G protein-coupled receptor binding are primarily recognized by the decoy C-terminal domain, whereas the N-terminal domain (NTD) reconfigures to engage divergent basic residue clusters on the surface of chemokines. Favorable electrostatic forces dramatically enhance the association kinetics of chemokine binding by M3, with a primary role ascribed to acidic NTD regions that effectively mimic glycosaminoglycan interactions. Thus, M3 employs two distinct mechanisms of chemical imitation to potently sequester chemokines, thereby inhibiting chemokine receptor binding events as well as the formation of chemotactic gradients necessary for directed leukocyte trafficking.

  17. Transduction of Recombinant M3-p53-R12 Protein Enhances Human Leukemia Cell Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Tsung Chi; Zhao, Guan- Hao; Chen, Yao Yun; Chien, Chia-Ying; Huang, Chi-Hung; Lin, Kwang Hui; Chen, Shen Liang

    2016-01-01

    Tumor suppressor protein p53 plays important roles in initiating cell cycle arrest and promoting tumor cell apoptosis. Previous studies have shown that p53 is either mutated or defective in approximately 50% of human cancers; therefore restoring normal p53 activity in cancer cells might be an effective anticancer therapeutic approach. Herein, we designed a chimeric p53 protein flanked with the MyoD N-terminal transcriptional activation domain (amino acids 1-62, called M3) and a poly-arginine (R12) cell penetrating signal in its N-and C-termini respectively. This chimeric protein, M3-p53-R12, can be expressed in E. coli and purified using immobilized metal ion chromatography followed by serial refolding dialysis. The purified M3-p53-R12 protein retains DNA-binding activity and gains of cell penetrating ability. Using MTT assay, we demonstrated that M3-p53-R12 inhibited the growth of K562, Jurkat as well as HL-60 leukemia cells carrying mutant p53 genes. Results from FACS analysis also demonstrated that transduction of M3-p53-R12 protein induced cell cycle arrest of these leukemia cells. Of special note, M3-p53-R12 has no apoptotic effect on normal mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) and leukocytes, highlighting its differential effects on normal and tumor cells. To sum up, our results reveal that purified recombinant M3-p53-R12 protein has functions of suppressing the leukemia cell lines' proliferation and launching cell apoptosis, suggesting the feasibility of using M3-p53-R12 protein as an anticancer drug. In the future we will test whether this chimeric protein can preferentially trigger the death of malignant cancer cells without affecting normal cells in animals carrying endogenous or xenographic tumors. PMID:27390612

  18. Critical metabolic roles of β-cell M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors

    PubMed Central

    de Azua, Inigo Ruiz; Gautam, Dinesh; Jain, Shalini; Guettier, Jean-Marc; Wess, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    Muscarinic acetylcholine (ACh) receptors (mAChRs; M1–M5) regulate the activity of an extraordinarily large number of important physiological processes. We and others previously demonstrated that pancreatic β-cells are endowed with M3 mAChRs which are linked to G proteins of the Gq family. The activation of these receptors by ACh or other muscarinic agonists leads to the augmentation of glucose-induced insulin release via multiple mechanisms. Interestingly, in humans, ACh acting on human β-cell mAChRs is released from adjacent α-cells which express both choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and the vesicular acetylcholine transporter (vAChT), indicative of the presence of a non-neuronal cholinergic system in human pancreatic islets. In order to shed light on the physiological roles of β-cell M3 receptors, we recently generated and analyzed various mutant mouse models. Specifically, we carried out studies with mice which overexpressed M3 receptors or mutant M3 receptors in pancreatic β-cells or which selectively lacked M3 receptors or M3-receptor-associated proteins in pancreatic β-cells. Our findings indicate that β-cell M3 receptors play a key role in maintaining proper insulin release and whole body glucose homeostasis and that strategies aimed at enhancing signaling through β-cell M3 receptors may prove useful to improve β-cell function for the treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2D). PMID:22525375

  19. Isolation and characterization of rabbit anti-m3 2,2,7G antibodies.

    PubMed

    Luhrmann, R; Appel, B; Bringmann, P; Rinke, J; Reuter, R; Rothe, S; Bald, R

    1982-11-25

    Antibodies specific for intact 2,2,7-trimethylguanosine (m3 2,2,7G) were induced by immunization of rabbits with a nucleoside-human serum albumen (HSA) conjugate. Competition radioimmunoassay showed that the antibody distinguishes well between intact m3 2,2,7G and its alkali-hydrolysed form (m3 2,2,7G*). Antibody specificity is largely dependent on the presence of all three methyl groups in m3 2,2,7G: none of the less extensively methylated nucleosides m7G, m2G and m2 2,2G is able to compete efficiently with the homologous hapten. Little or no competition was observed with m1G, m1A, m6A, m5U and each of the four unmodified ribonucleosides. Binding studies with nucleoplasmic RNAs from Ehrlich ascites cells suggest that the antibody reacts specifically with the m3 2,2,7G-containing cap structure of the small nuclear U-RNAs (U-snRNAs). Thus the antibody should be a valuable tool for studying the role of the 5'-terminal regions of the U-snRNAs of eucaryotic cells. PMID:7155893

  20. A Discussion of the High Energy Density Primary Battery Employed in the FOTON M3 Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennetti, A.; Reece, D.; Spurrett, R.; Schautz, M.; Green, K.

    2008-09-01

    In 2005, ABSL Space Products (ABSL) was contracted by QinetiQ to deliver the lithium sulfuryl chloride primary battery system for the FOTON M3 ESA (European Space Agency) mission. FOTON M3 was led by the ESA Directorate of Human Spaceflight & Exploration and carried a number of materials science, fluid physics and biology experiments as well as technology demonstration payloads. A number of the experiments required a very high energy density primary battery power source. This battery was manufactured by ABSL, and the mission was successfully completed in September 2007 following a twelve days orbiting in Low Earth Orbit (LEO).

  1. Development of RT-components for the M-3 Strawberry Harvesting Robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamashita, Tomoki; Tanaka, Motomasa; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Hayashi, Shigehiko; Saito, Sadafumi; Sugano, Shigeki

    We are now developing the strawberry harvest robot called “M-3” prototype robot system under the 4th urgent project of MAFF. In order to develop the control software of the M-3 robot more efficiently, we innovated the RT-middleware “OpenRTM-aist” software platform. In this system, we developed 9 kind of RT-Components (RTC): Robot task sequence player RTC, Proxy RTC for image processing software, DC motor controller RTC, Arm kinematics RTC, and so on. In this paper, we discuss advantages of RT-middleware developing system and problems about operating the RTC-configured robotic system by end-users.

  2. Seeing the Moon In a New Light: Educational Resources Developed in Association with M3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Runyon, C. J.; Shupla, C.; Shipp, S. S.; Hallau, K.; Boyce, K.; Pieters, C. M.

    2009-12-01

    M3 is a high spatial and spectral resolution spectrometer designed to help scientists better understand the compositional variation of the Moon’s surface. Flown on India’s first spacecraft to the Moon, Chandrayaan-1, M3 collected over 4.6 billion spectra! To facilitate student awareness and understanding of these data and resulting imagery, our team co-sponsors an on-line course, Geology of the Moon, for pre- and in-service teachers through Montana State University and has generated an educator guide: Seeing the Moon: Using Light to Investigate the Moon. This guide is a series of educational inquiry-based and hands-on activity modules created in support of the M3 science. In these modules, students investigate the physics of light and the geologic history of the Moon. Through these dynamic activities, 5th to 8th grade students experiment with light and color; collect and analyze authentic spectral data from rock samples using an ALTA hand-held reflectance spectrometer; map the rock types of the Moon; and develop theories of the Moon's history. M3 classroom loaner kits that include a lunar globe, rock samples, sets of the ALTA reflectance spectrometers, and more are available upon request.

  3. Foton-M3 Unmanned Russian Research Satellite- Development, Implementation and Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilyin, Eugene A.; Skidmore, Michael G.

    2008-06-01

    The Foton-M3 spacecraft launched from Baikonur Cosmodrome (Kazakhstan) on 14 September 2007 and landed 12 days later approximately 130 km south of Kustanay, Northern Kazakhstan. Following the successful National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and Institute for Biomedical Problems (IMBP) collaboration on the Russian Foton-M2 spaceflight (June 2005), IMBP invited NASA to continue and broaden its participation in four Russian biomedical studies on the Foton-M3 spaceflight. Where the Foton-M2 collaboration had been accomplished without an exchange of funds, the basis for the ongoing bilateral interaction on Foton-M3 was both a cooperative Space Act Agreement and a NASA contract with IMBP. As in Foton-M2, NASA scientists agreed to focus their efforts on research that would be complementary and would facilitate the accomplishment of the original Russian science goals. Foton-M3 hardware enhancements included NASA inserts installed in the IMBP flight hardware to provide programmable in-flight video recording for newts and geckos, drinking water for the geckos, and a preflight "shower" of Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) for the newts.

  4. Divergent evolution of the M3A family of metallopeptidases in plants.

    PubMed

    Kmiec, Beata; Teixeira, Pedro F; Murcha, Monika W; Glaser, Elzbieta

    2016-07-01

    Plants, as stationary organisms, have developed mechanisms allowing them efficient resource reallocation and a response to changing environmental conditions. One of these mechanisms is proteome remodeling via a broad peptidase network present in various cellular compartments including mitochondria and chloroplasts. The genome of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana encodes as many as 616 putative peptidase-coding genes organized in 55 peptidase families. In this study, we describe the M3A family of peptidases, which comprises four members: mitochondrial and chloroplastic oligopeptidase (OOP), cytosolic oligopeptidase (CyOP), mitochondrial octapeptidyl aminopeptidase 1 (Oct1) and plant-specific protein of M3 family (PSPM3) of unknown function. We have analyzed the evolutionary conservation of M3A peptidases across plant species and the functional specialization of the three distinct subfamilies. We found that the subfamily-containing OOP and CyOP-like peptidases, responsible for oligopeptide degradation in the endosymbiotic organelles (OOP) or in the cytosol (CyOP), are highly conserved in all kingdoms of life. The Oct1-like peptidase subfamily involved in pre-protein maturation in mitochondria is conserved in all eukaryotes, whereas the PSPM3-like protein subfamily is strictly conserved in higher plants only and is of unknown function. Specific characteristics within PSPM3 sequences, i.e. occurrence of a N-terminal transmembrane domain and amino acid changes in distal substrate-binding motif, distinguish PSPM3 proteins from other members of M3A family. We performed peptidase activity measurements to analyze the role of substrate-binding residues in the different Arabidopsis M3A paralogs. PMID:27100569

  5. M3S-based electrical wheelchair with head-controlled device.

    PubMed

    Chen, Show-Hong; Chen, Yu-Luen; Kuo, Te-Son; Chu, Chiung-Yu; Hung, Chao-Nan

    2006-01-01

    The motivation of this research is to improve the ability of ambulation for people with a certain degree of disability. The control of the wheelchair is using two tilt sensors as an input-controlling module. One of the tilt sensors detects the anterior/posterior tilting of the head and moves the wheelchair forward/backward, the other distinguishes the left/right swing of the head. In order to increase the safety of this system, the M3S protocol established by the European Commission is also applied to this research. The system based on M3S protocol has the advantage of real-time signal transmission and emergent status monitoring for SCI patients with C2-C4 level. PMID:17946659

  6. A supersoft variable low-luminosity X-ray source in the globular cluster M3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hertz, P.; Grindlay, J. E.; Bailyn, C. D.

    1993-01-01

    The globular cluster M3 (NGC 5272) was observed twice with the ROSAT high-resolution imager in order to study the low-luminosity X-ray source 1E 1339.8 + 2837. In 1992 January 1E 1339.8 + 2837 had an X-ray luminosity of 2 x 10 exp 35 ergs/s over an order of magnitude brighter than it was when observed with the Einstein Observatory. The source was unresolved and very soft; such supersoft outbursts would be difficult to detect in the vast majority of globular clusters which are more heavily absorbed than M3. In 1992 June the source was too faint to be detected. The soft outburst luminosity and the blackbody radius suggest that 1E 1339.8 + 2837 is a cataclysmic variable in which much of the luminosity is generated by steady nuclear burning of accreted material on the surface of the white dwarf primary.

  7. The M3A multi-sensor buoy network of the Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nittis, K.; Tziavos, C.; Bozzano, R.; Cardin, V.; Thanos, Y.; Petihakis, G.; Schiano, M. E.; Zanon, F.

    2007-05-01

    A network of three multi-sensor timeseries stations able to deliver real time physical and biochemical observations of the upper thermocline has been developed for the needs of the Mediterranean Forecasting System during the MFSTEP project. They follow the experience of the prototype M3A system that was developed during the MFSPP project and has been tested during a pilot pre-operational period of 22 months (2000-2001). The systems integrate sensors for physical (temperature, salinity, turbidity, current speed and direction) as well as optical and chemical observations (dissolved oxygen, chlorophyll-a, PAR, nitrate). The south Aegean system (E1-M3A) follows a modular design using independent mooring lines and collects biochemical data in the upper 100 m and physical data in the upper 500 m of the water column. The south Adriatic buoy system (E2-M3A) uses similar instrumentation but on a single mooring line and also tests a new method of pumping water samples from relatively deep layers, performing analysis in the protected "dry" environment of the buoy interior. The Ligurian Sea system (W1-M3A) is an ideal platform for air-sea interaction processes since it hosts a large number of meteorological sensors while its ocean instrumentation, with real time transmission capabilities, is confined in the upper 50 m layer. Despite their different architecture, the three systems have common sampling strategy, quality control and data management procedures. The network operates in the Mediterranean Sea since autumn 2004 collecting timeseries data for calibration and validation of the forecasting system as well for process studies of regional dynamics.

  8. The M3A multi-sensor buoy network of the Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nittis, K.; Tziavos, C.; Bozzano, R.; Cardin, V.; Thanos, Y.; Petihakis, G.; Schiano, M. E.; Zanon, F.

    2006-08-01

    A network of three multi-sensor timeseries stations able to deliver real time physical and biochemical observations of the upper thermocline has been developed for the needs of the Mediterranean Forecasting System during the MFSTEP project. They follow the experience of the prototype M3A system that was developed during the MFSPP project and has been tested during a pilot pre-operational period of 22 months (2000-2001). The systems integrate sensors for physical (temperature, salinity, turbidity, current speed and direction) as well as optical and chemical observations (dissolved oxygen, chlorophyll-a, PAR, nitrate). The south Aegean system (E1-M3A) follows a modular design using independent mooring lines and collects biochemical data in the upper 100 m and physical data in the upper 500 m of the water column. The south Adriatic buoy system (E2-M3A) uses similar instrumentation but on a single mooring line and also tests a new method of pumping water samples from relatively deep layers, performing analysis in the protected ''dry'' environment of the buoy interior. The Ligurian Sea system (W1-M3A) is an ideal platform for air-sea interaction processes since it hosts a large number of meteorological sensors while its ocean instrumentation, with real time transmission capabilities, is confined in the upper 50 m layer. Despite their different architecture, the three systems have common sampling strategy, quality control and data management procedures. The network operates in the Mediterranean Sea since autumn 2004 collecting timeseries data for calibration and validation of the forecasting system as well for process studies of regional dynamics.

  9. Contractions of the mouse prostate elicited by acetylcholine are mediated by M(3) muscarinic receptors.

    PubMed

    White, Carl W; Short, Jennifer L; Haynes, John M; Matsui, Minoru; Ventura, Sabatino

    2011-12-01

    Increased smooth muscle tone in the human prostate contributes to the symptoms associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia. In the mouse prostate gland, cholinergic innervation is responsible for a component of the nerve-mediated contractile response. This study investigates the muscarinic receptor subtype responsible for the cholinergic contractile response in the mouse prostate gland. To characterize the muscarinic receptor subtype, mouse prostates taken from wild-type or M(3) muscarinic receptor knockout mice were mounted in organ baths. The isometric force that tissues developed in response to electrical-field stimulation or exogenously applied cholinergic agonists in the presence or absence of a range of muscarinic receptor antagonists was evaluated. Carbachol elicited reproducible and concentration-dependent contractions of the isolated mouse prostate, which were antagonized by the presence of muscarinic receptor antagonists. Calculation of antagonist affinities (pA(2) values) indicated a rank order of antagonist potencies in the mouse prostate of: darifenacin (9.08) = atropine (9.07) = 1,1-dimethyl-4-diphenylacetoxypiperidinium iodide (9.02) > cyclohexyl-hydroxy-phenyl-(3-piperidin-1-ylpropyl)silane (7.85) > cyclohexyl-(4-fluorophenyl)-hydroxy-(3-piperidin-1-ylpropyl)silane (7.39) > himbacine (7.19) > pirenzipine (6.88) > methoctramine (6.20). Furthermore, genetic deletion of the M(3) muscarinic receptor inhibited prostatic contractions to electrical-field stimulation or exogenous administration of acetylcholine. In this study we identified that the cholinergic component of contraction in the mouse prostate is mediated by the M(3) muscarinic receptor subtype. Pharmacological antagonism of the M(3) muscarinic receptor may be a beneficial additional target for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia in the human prostate gland.

  10. Ten-m3 Is Required for the Development of Topography in the Ipsilateral Retinocollicular Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Dharmaratne, Nuwan; Glendining, Kelly A.; Young, Timothy R.; Tran, Heidi; Sawatari, Atomu; Leamey, Catherine A.

    2012-01-01

    Background The alignment of ipsilaterally and contralaterally projecting retinal axons that view the same part of visual space is fundamental to binocular vision. While much progress has been made regarding the mechanisms which regulate contralateral topography, very little is known of the mechanisms which regulate the mapping of ipsilateral axons such that they align with their contralateral counterparts. Results Using the advantageous model provided by the mouse retinocollicular pathway, we have performed anterograde tracing experiments which demonstrate that ipsilateral retinal axons begin to form terminal zones (TZs) in the superior colliculus (SC), within the first few postnatal days. These appear mature by postnatal day 11. Importantly, TZs formed by ipsilaterally-projecting retinal axons are spatially offset from those of contralaterally-projecting axons arising from the same retinotopic location from the outset. This pattern is consistent with that required for adult visuotopy. We further demonstrate that a member of the Ten-m/Odz/Teneurin family of homophilic transmembrane glycoproteins, Ten-m3, is an essential regulator of ipsilateral retinocollicular topography. Ten-m3 mRNA is expressed in a high-medial to low-lateral gradient in the developing SC. This corresponds topographically with its high-ventral to low-dorsal retinal gradient. In Ten-m3 knockout mice, contralateral ventrotemporal axons appropriately target rostromedial SC, whereas ipsilateral axons exhibit dramatic targeting errors along both the mediolateral and rostrocaudal axes of the SC, with a caudal shift of the primary TZ, as well as the formation of secondary, caudolaterally displaced TZs. In addition to these dramatic ipsilateral-specific mapping errors, both contralateral and ipsilateral retinocollicular TZs exhibit more subtle changes in morphology. Conclusions We conclude that important aspects of adult visuotopy are established via the differential sensitivity of ipsilateral and

  11. Aluminum-air power cell: The M3-3 experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maimoni, A.; Muelder, S. A.

    1985-03-01

    The M3-3 experiment was a test of the M3 cell coupled to a crystallizer and hydrocyclone for separation of coarse solids before return of electrolyte to the cell. It was essentially a repeat of the M3-2 experiment, but with increased emphasis to understand the sources of experimental error and the evolution of the particle size distributions during the course of the experiment. A new hydrocyclone, scaled to operation with 1 to 5 cells, was tested in conjunction with peristaltic pumps. The test ran at 14 A for 101 min, followed by 122 A for 269 min at 60 C. The main operational problem was failure of the rubber tubing in the peristaltic pump feeding the hydrocyclone. Primary results include reasonable agreement in the material balances and with the calculated crystallization rates, the 50% cut point of the new hydrocyclone at about 8 (MU)m, and the aluminate concentration decreased from 2.4 M to 1.4 M in 21 h at 30 C in a subsequent batch crystallization experiment. The particle size distributions do not change significantly on aging de-ionized water.

  12. MHD Simulations of Spherical Tori and Compact Stellarators Using M3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strauss, H. R.; Park, W.; Tang, X.; Fu, G. Y.; Sugiyama, L.

    1999-11-01

    The M3D++ unstructured mesh version of the M3D code is being applied to low aspect ratio spherical torus disruption simulations. In addition to spherical tokamaks (ST), similar to NSTX, we also study spherical pinches (SP). It is possible to produce SP equilibria with 1 > q > 1/2, and toroidal current decreasing to zero at the wall. These SP equilibria have reverse magnetic shear except in a narrow layer near the wall. The equilibria are free of the global m=1 modes that plague low q pinches such as RFPs. However there can be unstable (m,n) = (2,3) modes. The M3D++ code has been extended to have the capability of using a 3D mesh in configuration space, suitable for stellarator equilibrium, stability, and nonlinear studies, including resistive effects. Equilibria can be initialized with VMEC output or generated from initial data. Applications to compact stellarator configurations such as the PPPL quasi axisymmetric design will be presented.

  13. Goldschmidt crater and the Moon's north polar region: Results from the Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cheek, L.C.; Pieters, C.M.; Boardman, J.W.; Clark, R.N.; Combe, J.-P.; Head, J.W.; Isaacson, P.J.; McCord, T.B.; Moriarty, D.; Nettles, J.W.; Petro, N.E.; Sunshine, J.M.; Taylor, L.A.

    2011-01-01

    Soils within the impact crater Goldschmidt have been identified as spectrally distinct from the local highland material. High spatial and spectral resolution data from the Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) on the Chandrayaan-1 orbiter are used to examine the character of Goldschmidt crater in detail. Spectral parameters applied to a north polar mosaic of M3 data are used to discern large-scale compositional trends at the northern high latitudes, and spectra from three widely separated regions are compared to spectra from Goldschmidt. The results highlight the compositional diversity of the lunar nearside, in particular, where feldspathic soils with a low-Ca pyroxene component are pervasive, but exclusively feldspathic regions and small areas of basaltic composition are also observed. Additionally, we find that the relative strengths of the diagnostic OH/H2O absorption feature near 3000 nm are correlated with the mineralogy of the host material. On both global and local scales, the strongest hydrous absorptions occur on the more feldspathic surfaces. Thus, M3 data suggest that while the feldspathic soils within Goldschmidt crater are enhanced in OH/H2O compared to the relatively mafic nearside polar highlands, their hydration signatures are similar to those observed in the feldspathic highlands on the farside. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  14. The Moon Mineralogy (M3) Imaging Spectrometer: Early Assessment of the Spectral, Radiometric, Spatial and Uniformity Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Robert O.; Pieters, C. M.; Boardman, J.; Barr, D.; Bruce, C.; Bousman, J.; Chatterjee, A.; Eastwood, M.; Essandoh, V.; Geier, S.; Glavich, T.; Green, R.; Haemmerle, V.; Hyman, S.; Hovland, L.; Koch, T.; Lee, K.; Lundeen, S.; Motts, E.; Mouroulis, P.; Paulson, S.; Plourde, K.; Racho, C.; Robinson, D.; Rodriquez, J.

    2009-01-01

    The Moon Mineralogy Mapper's (M3) is a high uniformity and high signal-to-noise ratio NASA imaging spectrometer that is a guest instrument on the Indian Chandrayaan-1 Mission to the Moon. The laboratory measured spectral, radiometric, spatial, and uniformity characteristics of the M3 instrument are given. The M3 imaging spectrometer takes advantage of a suite of critical enabling capabilities to achieve its measurement requirement with a mass of 8 kg, power usage of 15 W, and volume of 25X18X12 cm. The M3 detector and spectrometer are cooled by a multi-stage passive cooler. This paper presents early M3 performance assessment results.

  15. Repeated high-dose (5 × 10(8) TCID50) toxicity study of a third generation smallpox vaccine (IMVAMUNE) in New Zealand white rabbits.

    PubMed

    Tree, Julia A; Hall, Graham; Rees, Peter; Vipond, Julia; Funnell, Simon G P; Roberts, Allen D

    2016-07-01

    Concern over the release of variola virus as an agent of bioterrorism remains high and a rapid vaccination regimen is desirable for use in the event of a confirmed release of virus. A single, high-dose (5×10(8) TCID50) of Bavarian Nordic's IMVAMUNE was tested in a Phase-II clinical trial, in humans, as a substitute for the standard (1×10(8) TCID50), using a 2-dose, 28-days apart regimen. Prior to this clinical trial taking place a Good Laboratory Practice, repeated high-dose, toxicology study was performed using IMVAMUNE, in New Zealand white rabbits and the results are reported here. Male and female rabbits were dosed twice, subcutaneously, with 5×10(8) TCID50 of IMVAMUNE (test) or saline (control), 7-days apart. The clinical condition, body-weight, food consumption, haematology, blood chemistry, immunogenicity, organ-weight, and macroscopic and microscopic pathology were investigated. Haematological investigations indicated changes within the white blood cell profile that were attributed to treatment with IMVAMUNE; these comprised slight increases in neutrophil and monocyte numbers, on study days 1-3 and a marginal increase in lymphocyte numbers on day 10. Macroscopic pathology revealed reddening at the sites of administration and thickened skin in IMVAMUNE, treated animals. After the second dose of IMVAMUNE 9/10 rabbits seroconverted, as detected by antibody ELISA on day 10, by day 21, 10/10 rabbits seroconverted. Treatment-related changes were not detected in other parameters. In conclusion, the subcutaneous injection of 2 high-doses of IMVAMUNE, to rabbits, was well tolerated producing only minor changes at the site of administration. Vaccinia-specific antibodies were raised in IMVAMUNE-vaccinated rabbits only.

  16. Repeated high-dose (5 × 10(8) TCID50) toxicity study of a third generation smallpox vaccine (IMVAMUNE) in New Zealand white rabbits.

    PubMed

    Tree, Julia A; Hall, Graham; Rees, Peter; Vipond, Julia; Funnell, Simon G P; Roberts, Allen D

    2016-07-01

    Concern over the release of variola virus as an agent of bioterrorism remains high and a rapid vaccination regimen is desirable for use in the event of a confirmed release of virus. A single, high-dose (5×10(8) TCID50) of Bavarian Nordic's IMVAMUNE was tested in a Phase-II clinical trial, in humans, as a substitute for the standard (1×10(8) TCID50), using a 2-dose, 28-days apart regimen. Prior to this clinical trial taking place a Good Laboratory Practice, repeated high-dose, toxicology study was performed using IMVAMUNE, in New Zealand white rabbits and the results are reported here. Male and female rabbits were dosed twice, subcutaneously, with 5×10(8) TCID50 of IMVAMUNE (test) or saline (control), 7-days apart. The clinical condition, body-weight, food consumption, haematology, blood chemistry, immunogenicity, organ-weight, and macroscopic and microscopic pathology were investigated. Haematological investigations indicated changes within the white blood cell profile that were attributed to treatment with IMVAMUNE; these comprised slight increases in neutrophil and monocyte numbers, on study days 1-3 and a marginal increase in lymphocyte numbers on day 10. Macroscopic pathology revealed reddening at the sites of administration and thickened skin in IMVAMUNE, treated animals. After the second dose of IMVAMUNE 9/10 rabbits seroconverted, as detected by antibody ELISA on day 10, by day 21, 10/10 rabbits seroconverted. Treatment-related changes were not detected in other parameters. In conclusion, the subcutaneous injection of 2 high-doses of IMVAMUNE, to rabbits, was well tolerated producing only minor changes at the site of administration. Vaccinia-specific antibodies were raised in IMVAMUNE-vaccinated rabbits only. PMID:26836234

  17. Optimized anisotropic magnetoelectric response of Fe61.6Co16.4Si10.8B11.2/PVDF/Fe61.6Co16.4Si10.8B11.2 laminates for AC/DC magnetic field sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reis, S.; Silva, M. P.; Castro, N.; Correia, V.; Gutierrez, J.; Lasheras, A.; Lanceros-Mendez, S.; Martins, P.

    2016-05-01

    The anisotropic magnetoelectric (ME) effect on a Fe61.6Co16.4Si10.8B11.2/PVDF Fe61.6Co16.4Si10.8B11.2 laminate composite has been used for the development of a magnetic field sensor able to detect both the magnitude and direction of AC and DC magnetic fields. The accuracy (99% for both AC and DC sensors), linearity (92% for the DC sensor and 99% for the AC sensor) and reproducibility (99% for both sensors) indicate the suitability of the sensor for applications. Furthermore, the sensitivity of the Fe61.6Co16.4Si10.8B11.2/PVDF/Fe61.6Co16.4Si10.8B11.2 anisotropic magnetic sensor—15 and 1400 mV Oe-1 for the DC and AC fields, respectively—are the highest reported in the literature for polymer-based ME materials. Such features, combined with its flexibility, versatility, light weight, low cost and low-temperature fabrication, lead to the suitability of the developed sensor for use in magnetic sensor applications.

  18. Phase Equilibrium Study of ZnO-"FeO"-SiO2 System at Fixed Po2 10-8 atm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hongquan; Cui, Zhixiang; Chen, Mao; Zhao, Baojun

    2016-02-01

    Experimental studies of phase equilibria and liquidus temperatures have been carried out in the systems "FeO"-SiO2 and ZnO-"FeO"-SiO2 at Po2 10-8 atm. Research techniques have been developed to enable the ZnO-containing system to be investigated under reducing conditions controlled by CO-CO2 gas mixture. The experimental approach includes master slag preparation, high-temperature equilibration, quench, and electron probe X-ray microanalysis (EPMA). Phase compositions in the quenched samples were measured by EPMA and used for construction of phase diagram. It was found that the isotherms of the system ZnO-"FeO"-SiO2 at Po2 10-8 atm are significantly different from those in equilibrium with metallic iron and those predicted by FactSage. The presence of ZnO in copper smelting slag significantly increases the liquidus temperature in spinel primary phase field. Partitioning of ZnO in liquid and spinel is also discussed in this paper.

  19. AT on Buried LPG Tanks Over 13 m3: An Innovative and Practical Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Fratta, Crescenzo; Ferraro, Antonio; Tscheliesnig, Peter; Lackner, Gerald; Correggia, Vincenzo; Altamura, Nicola

    In Italy, since 2005, techniques based on Acoustic Emission have been introduced for testing of underground LPG tanks up to 13 m3, according to the European standard EN 12818:2004. The testing procedure for these tanks plans to install one or more pairs of sensors inside the "dome" suited for the access to the valves and fittings of the tank, directly on the accessible metal shell. This methodology is not applicable for the underground LPG buried tanks, where it is necessary to install a larger number of AE sensors, in order to cover at 100% the whole tank shell, even at very deep positions. Already in 2004, the European standard EN 12820 (Appendix C - Informative)give the possibility to use Acoustic Emission testing of LPG underground or buried tanks with a capacity exceeding 13 m3, but no technique was specified for the application. In 2008, TÜV AUSTRIA ITALIA - BLU SOLUTIONS srl - Italian company of TÜV AUSTRIA Group - has developed a technique to get access at tank shell, where tank capacity is greater than 13 m3 and its' diameter greater than 3,5 m. This methodology was fully in comply with the provisions of the European Standard EN 12819:2010, becoming an innovative solution widely appreciated and is used in Italy since this time. Currently, large companies and petrochemical plants, at the occurrence of the tank's requalification, have engaged TÜV AUSTRIA ITALIA - BLU SOLUTIONS to install such permanent predispositions, which allow access to the tank shell - test object - with diameters from 4 to 8 m. Through this access, you can install the AE sensors needed to cover at 100% the tank surface and then to perform AE test. In an economic crisis period, this technique is proving a valid and practically applicable answer, in order to reduce inspection costs and downtime by offering a technically advanced solution (AT), increasing the safety of the involved operators, protecting natural resources and the environment.

  20. Lunar Exploration Insights Recognized from Chandrayaan-1 M3 Imaging Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pieters, Carle; Green, Robert O.; Boardman, Joseph

    2016-07-01

    One of the most important lessons learned from the renaissance of lunar exploration over the last decade is that new discoveries and surprises occur with every new mission to the Moon. Although the color of the Moon had been measured using Earth-based telescopes even before Apollo, modern instruments sent to orbit the Moon provide a scope of inquiry unimaginable during the last century. Spacecraft have now been successfully sent to the Moon by six different space agencies from around the world and the number is growing. The Indian Chandrayaan- 1 spacecraft carried a suite of indigenous instruments as well as several guest instruments from other countries, including the Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M-cube) supplied by NASA. Even though Chandrayaan's lifetime in orbit was shortened by technical constraints, M3 provided a taste of the power of near-infrared imaging spectroscopy used for science and exploration at the Moon. Contrary to expectations, the lunar surface was discovered to be hydrated, which is now known to result from solar wind H combining with O of rocks and soil. Surficial hydration was found to be pervasive across the Moon and the limited data hint at both local concentrations and temporal variations. The prime objective of M3 was to characterize lunar mineralogy in a spatial context. Working in tandem with related instruments on JAXA's SELENE, M3 readily recognized and mapped known minerals from mare and highland terrains (pyroxenes, olivine) at high resolution, but also detected diagnostic properties of crystalline plagioclase which, when mapped across a spatial context, enabled the unambiguous identification of a massive crustal layer of plagioclase that clearly resulted from an early magma ocean. An additional surprise came with the discovery of a new rock type on the Moon that had not been recognized in samples returned by Apollo and Luna: a Mg-rich spinel anorthosite associated with material excavated from some of the greatest lunar depths. In

  1. Lunar Magma Ocean Bedrock Anorthosites Detected at Orientale Basin by M3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pieters, C. M.; Boardman, J. W.; Burratti, B.; Cheek, L.; Clark, R. N.; Combe, J.; Green, R. O.; Head, J. W.; Hicks, M.; Isaacson, P.; Klima, R.; Kramer, G. Y.; Lundeen, S.; Malaret, E.; McCord, T. B.; Mustard, J. F.; Nettles, J. W.; Petro, N. E.; Runyon, C. J.; Staid, M.; Sunshine, J. M.; Taylor, L. A.; Tompkins, S.; Varanasi, P.

    2009-12-01

    The lunar crust is thought to have formed as a result of global melting of the outer parts of the Moon in its earliest history, a lunar magma ocean (LMO). Crystallization of this magma ocean set the stage for the ensuing history of the planet. Models for the formation of the lunar crust and the evolution of the LMO were derived from individual Apollo samples that could not be placed directly in the context of crustal bedrock with remote sensing data that was available. Data from modern sensors, such as the Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) on Chandrayaan-1, now allow such bedrock issues to be addressed. The ~930 km diameter Orientale multi-ringed impact basin in the western highlands provides an opportunity to evaluate the mineralogy of the in situ crust of the Moon in the search for LMO mineralogy and structure. Orientale is the youngest large basin on the Moon, and the basin deposits and ring structures expose progressively deeper bedrock layering that can be used to determine lunar crustal structure and test the LMO model. With its high spatial and spectral resolution, M3 data show that the ejecta of the basin is composed of mixed assemblages of processed feldspathic breccias with small amounts of low-Ca pyroxene comprising the upper kilometers-thick mega-regolith layer of the crust. Exposures in the outermost (Cordillera) ring reveal less processed examples of this material. The M3 data show that the next interior ring (Outer Rook), representing deeper material, is characterized by distinctly more crystalline blocks of impact-shocked anorthosite and noritic anorthosite. Most importantly, M3 data reveal that the mountains of the closest ring toward the basin interior (Inner Rook) consist of pure anorthosite, including outcrops of the unshocked crystalline form. This massive exposure of anorthosite across the entire mountain range provides validation for the LMO hypothesis. These mountains are believed to have originated in the upper crust below the impact fragmented

  2. Two-Fluid Extensions to the M3D CDX-U Validation Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breslau, J.; Strauss, H.; Sugiyama, L.

    2005-10-01

    As part of a cross-code verification and validation effort, both the M3D code [1] and the NIMROD code [2] have qualitatively reproduced the nonlinear behavior of a complete sawtooth cycle in the CDX-U tokamak, chosen for the study because its low temperature and small size puts it in a parameter regime easily accessible to both codes. Initial M3D studies on this problem used a resistive MHD model with a large, empirical perpendicular heat transport value and with modest toroidal resolution (24 toroidal planes). The success of this study prompted the pursuit of more quantitatively accurate predictions by the application of more sophisticated physical models and higher numerical resolution. The results of two consequent follow-up studies are presented here. In the first, the toroidal resolution of the original run is doubled to 48 planes. The behavior of the sawtooth in this case is essentially the same as in the lower- resolution study. The sawtooth study has also been repeated using a two-fluid plasma model, with the effects of the &*circ;i term emphasized. The resulting mode rotation, as well as the effects on the reconnection rate (sawtooth crash time), sawtooth period, and overall stability are presented. [1] W. Park, et al., Phys. Plasmas 6, 1796 (1999). [2] C. Sovinec, et al., J. Comp. Phys. 195, 355 (2004).

  3. Verrucotoxin inhibits KATP channels in cardiac myocytes through a muscarinic M3 receptor-PKC pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian-Wu; Yazawa, Kazuto; Hao, Li-Ying; Onoue, Yoshio; Kameyama, Masaki

    2007-06-01

    Verrucotoxin is the major component of venom from the stonefish (Synanceia verrucosa). Stings from the dorsal spines of the stonefish produce intensive pain, convulsions, hypotension, paralysis, respiratory weakness and collapse of the cardiovascular system, occasionally leading to death. It has been reported that verrucotoxin might modulate ATP-sensitive K+ (KATP) current in frog atrial fibers. However, the mechanism by which verrucotoxin acts on KATP current remains unclear. In this study, we examined whether verrucotoxin inhibited KATP current in guinea pig ventricular myocytes, using the patch clamp method. Verrucotoxin suppressed KATP current induced by pinacidil (KATP channel opener) in a concentration-dependent manner, with a half maximum concentration of 16.3 microg/ml. The effect of verrucotoxin on KATP current was suppressed by atropine (1 microM), a muscarinic receptor antagonist, or by 4-diphenylacetoxy-N-methylpiperidine (100 nM), a muscarinic M3 receptor antagonist. Furthermore, the effect of verrucotoxin on KATP current was attenuated by the protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor chelerythrine (10 microM) and calphostin C (10 microM), yet not by the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) inhibitor H-89 (0.5 microM). These results suggest that verrucotoxin inhibits KATP current through the muscarinic M3 receptor-PKC pathway. These findings enhance our understanding of the toxic effects of verrucotoxin from the stonefish. PMID:17362922

  4. ON THE MODULATION OF RR LYRAE STARS IN THE GLOBULAR CLUSTER M3

    SciTech Connect

    Jurcsik, J.; Smitola, P.; Nuspl, J.; Hajdu, G.

    2014-12-10

    New, extended time-series photometry of M3 RR Lyrae stars has revealed that 4 of the 10 double-mode stars show large-amplitude Blazhko modulation of both radial modes. The first, detailed analysis of the peculiar behavior of the unique, Blazhko RRd stars is given. While the P1/P0 period ratio is normal, and the overtone mode is dominant in the other RRd stars of the cluster, the period ratio is anomalous and the fundamental mode has a larger (or similar) mean amplitude than the overtone has in Blazhko RRd stars. The modulations of the fundamental and overtone modes are synchronized only in one of the Blazhko RRd stars. No evidence of any connection between the modulations of the modes in the other three stars is found. The Blazhko modulation accounts, at least partly, for the previously reported amplitude and period changes of these stars. Contrary to the ∼50% Blazhko statistics of RRab and RRd stars, Blazhko modulation occurs only in 10% of the overtone variables in M3. Four of the five Blazhko RRc stars are bright, evolved objects, and one has a period and brightness similar to those of Blazhko RRd stars. The regions of the instability strip with high and low occurrence rates of the Blazhko modulation overlap with the regions populated by first- and second-generation stars according to theoretical and observational studies, raising up the possibility that the Blazhko modulation occurs preferentially in first-generation RR Lyrae stars.

  5. Expression of the rat muscarinic receptor gene m3 in Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Voith, G; Kramm, H; Zündorf, I; Winkler, T; Dingermann, T

    1998-10-01

    We functionally expressed the rat muscarinic m3 receptor (rm3) in the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum under the control of the homologous discoidin I gamma promoter. Cells transfected with the authentic rm3 receptor gene expressed about 100 functional receptor molecules per cell, corresponding to a Bmax for [3H]-NMS of 36 +/- 9 fmol/mg of protein in isolated membranes. Genetic fusion of the Dictyostelium contact site A (csA) leader peptide to the amino terminus of rm3 increased the receptor expression by about 17-fold. Remarkable, in [3H]-NMS ligand binding experiments performed with whole cells no characteristic saturable binding was observed and there was no significant difference in [3H]-NMS binding to whole cells of rm3 and csA/rm3 transformants. The recombinant rm3 receptor showed an about 10-fold higher affinity to the M3-selective antagonist p-F-HHSiD compared to the M2-selective antagonist AQ-RA 741, suggesting that membranes derived from transgenic D. discoideum cells may be useful for the search of new subtype-specific muscarinic receptor ligands. PMID:9812338

  6. Stability and Uncertainty of Full Moment Tensor Solutions for M < 3.5 Induced Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyd, O. S.; Dreger, D. S.

    2014-12-01

    The increase in earthquakes associated with industrial activities has created a need to investigate and characterize the source physics of induced seismicity. Many techniques and approaches are available to determine representative source parameters of these events. For M > 3.5 events, high quality seismic data from regional networks can be used to provide reasonable estimates of moment tensor solutions. In this investigation we explore various techniques and datasets to constrain full moment tensor solutions of M < 3.5 induced events, expanding upon the approach developed by Guilhem et al., 2014. Small magnitude events recorded by local seismic networks can yield good quality data with distinct body wave and converted phases depending upon the velocity structure and frequency range. Generating synthetic seismograms or Green's functions to accurately model these high frequency phases can be challenging. To investigate the variability associated with the choice of Green's functions, we test available codes to see how well they capture body wave phases. Other stability and uncertainty measures include the F-test, Jackknife test, residual bootstrap, and Network Sensitivity Solution, (Ford et al., 2009; Ford et al., 2010). Additional datasets to constrain the full moment tensor solution include P-wave first motions and amplitude ratios.

  7. Ionization of Au{sup 78+} and electron capture by Au{sup 79+} at 10.8 GeV/nucleon

    SciTech Connect

    Claytor, N.; Belkacem, A.; Dinneen, T.; Feinberg, B.; Gould, H.

    1997-02-01

    We have measured the cross sections for ionizating one-electron Au{sup 78+} and the total cross sections for electron capture by bare Au{sup 79+} at 10.8 GeV/nucleon in C, Al, Cu, Ag, and Au targets. We made the measurement by magnetically separating the charge states and measuring the fraction of Au{sup 78+} as a function of target thickness for each element. In contrast to the results reported by Westphal and He [Phys. Rev. Lett. {bold 71}, 1160 (1993)], our ionization measurements agree with the calculation of Anholt and Becker [Phys. Rev. A {bold 36}, 4628 (1987)]. Our capture cross-section measurements are in agreement with theory for those targets where radiative electron capture is the dominant capture process. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  8. A multilevel multiscale mimetic (M 3) method for two-phase flows in porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipnikov, K.; Moulton, J. D.; Svyatskiy, D.

    2008-07-01

    We describe a multilevel multiscale mimetic (M 3) method for solving two-phase flow (water and oil) in a heterogeneous reservoir. The governing equations are the elliptic equation for the reservoir pressure and the hyperbolic equation for the water saturation. On each time step, we first solve the pressure equation and then use the computed flux in an explicit upwind finite volume method to update the saturation. To reduce the computational cost, the pressure equation is solved on a much coarser grid than the saturation equation. The coarse-grid pressure discretization captures the influence of multiple scales via the subgrid modeling technique for single-phase flow recently proposed in [Yu. A. Kuznetsov. Mixed finite element method for diffusion equations on polygonal meshes with mixed cells. J. Numer. Math., 14 (4) (2006) 305-315; V. Gvozdev. discretization of the diffusion and Maxwell equations on polyhedral meshes. Technical Report Ph.D. Thesis, University of Houston, 2007; Yu. Kuznetsov. Mixed finite element methods on polyhedral meshes for diffusion equations, in: Computational Modeling with PDEs in Science and Engineering, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, in press]. We extend significantly the applicability of this technique by developing a new robust and efficient method for estimating the flux coarsening parameters. Specifically, with this advance the M 3 method can handle full permeability tensors and general coarsening strategies, which may generate polygonal meshes on the coarse grid. These problem dependent coarsening parameters also play a critical role in the interpolation of the flux, and hence, in the advection of saturation for two-phase flow. Numerical experiments for two-phase flow in highly heterogeneous permeability fields, including layer 68 of the SPE Tenth Comparative Solution Project, demonstrate that the M 3 method retains good accuracy for high coarsening factors in both directions, up to 64 for the considered models. Moreover, we demonstrate

  9. M3D-K simulations of sawteeth and energetic particle transport in tokamak plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Wei; Sheng, Zheng-Mao; Fu, G. Y.; Breslau, J. A.; Wang, Feng

    2014-09-15

    Nonlinear simulations of sawteeth and related energetic particle transport are carried out using the kinetic/magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) hybrid code M3D-K. MHD simulations show repeated sawtooth cycles for a model tokamak equilibrium. Furthermore, test particle simulations are carried out to study the energetic particle transport due to a sawtooth crash. The results show that energetic particles are redistributed radially in the plasma core, depending on pitch angle and energy. For trapped particles, the redistribution occurs for particle energy below a critical value in agreement with existing theories. For co-passing particles, the redistribution is strong with little dependence on particle energy. In contrast, the redistribution level of counter-passing particles decreases with increasing particle energy.

  10. Constraints on Helium Enhancement in the Globular Cluster M3 (NGC 5272): The Horizontal Branch Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Catelan, M.; Grundahl, F.; Sweigart, A. V.; Valcarce, A. A. R.; Cortes, C.

    2007-01-01

    It has recently been suggested that the presence of multiple populations showing various amounts of helium enhancement is a common feature among globular star clusters. In this scenario, such a helium enhancement would be particularly apparent in the enhanced luminosity of thc blue horizontal branch (HB) stars compared to the red HB stars. In this Letter, wc test this scenario in the case of the Galactic globular cluster M3 (NGC 5272), using high-precision Stromgren photometry and spectroscopic gravities for blue HB stars. We find that any helium enhancement among the cluster's blue HB stars must be significantly less than I%, thus ruling out the much higher helium enhancements that have been proposed in the literature.

  11. Magnetic, Thermal and Dynamical Evolution of AN M3.2 Two-Ribbon Flare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collados, Manuel; Kuckein, Christoph; Manso Sainz, Rafael; Asensio Ramos, Andres

    On 2013, 17th May, a two-ribbon M3.2 flare took place in the solar atmosphere on the active region AR 11748. The flare evolution was observed at the German VTT of the Observatorio del Teide using the instrument TIP-II, with spectropolarimetric measurements of the photosphere (Si I at 1082.7 nm) and the chromosphere (Helium triplet at 1083 nm). Simultaneous spectroscopic data of the chromospheric spectral line of Ca II at 854.2 nm and filtergrams at Halpha were also obtained. The flare evolution as observed from the ground can be compared with the changes observed by AIA@SDO at different ultraviolet wavelengths. The ground observations covered several hours, including the pre-flare, impulsive, gradual and post-flare phases. We present maps of the magnetic field, thermal and dynamical properties of the region during its evolution from pre- to post-flare phase.

  12. The phase 0/A study of the ESA M3 mission candidate EChO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puig, Ludovic; Isaak, Kate; Linder, Martin; Escudero, Isabel; Crouzet, Pierre-Elie; Walker, Roger; Ehle, Matthias; Hübner, Jutta; Timm, Rainer; de Vogeleer, Bram; Drossart, Pierre; Hartogh, Paul; Lovis, Christophe; Micela, Giusi; Ollivier, Marc; Ribas, Ignasi; Snellen, Ignas; Swinyard, Bruce; Tinetti, Giovanna; Eccleston, Paul

    2015-12-01

    EChO, the Exoplanet Characterisation Observatory, has been one of the five M-class mission candidates competing for the M3 launch slot within the science programme Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 of the European Space Agency (ESA). As such, EChO has been the subject of a Phase 0/A study that involved European Industry, research institutes and universities from ESA member states and that concluded in September 2013. EChO is a concept for a dedicated mission to measure the chemical composition and structure of hundreds of exoplanet atmospheres using the technique of transit spectroscopy. With simultaneous and uninterrupted spectral coverage from the visible to infrared wavelengths, EChO targets extend from gas giants (Jupiter or Neptune-like) to super-Earths in the very hot to temperate zones of F to M-type host stars, opening up the way to large-scale, comparative planetology that would place our own solar system in the context of other planetary systems in the Milky Way. A review of the performance requirements of the EChO mission was held at ESA at the end of 2013, with the objective of assessing the readiness of the mission to progress to the Phase B1 study phase. No critical issues were identified from a technical perspective, however a number of recommendations were made for future work. Since the mission was not selected for the M3 launch slot, EChO is no longer under study at ESA. In this paper we give an overview of the final mission concept for EChO as of the end of the study, from scientific, technical and operational perspectives.

  13. An Extremely Lithium-rich Bright Red Giant in the Globular Cluster M3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraft, Robert P.; Peterson, Ruth C.; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Sneden, Christopher; Fulbright, Jon P.; Langer, G. Edward

    1999-06-01

    We have serendipitously discovered an extremely lithium-rich star on the red giant branch of the globular cluster M3 (NGC 5272). An echelle spectrum obtained with the Keck I High-Resolution Echelle Spectrograph reveals a Li I λ6707 resonance doublet of 520 mÅ equivalent width, and our analysis places the star among the most Li-rich giants known: logε(Li)~=+3.0. We determine the elemental abundances of this star, IV-101, and three other cluster members of similar luminosity and color and conclude that IV-101 has abundance ratios typical of giants in M3 and M13 that have undergone significant mixing. We discuss mechanisms by which a low-mass star may be so enriched in Li, focusing on the mixing of material processed by the hydrogen-burning shell just below the convective envelope. While such enrichment could conceivably happen only rarely, it may in fact regularly occur during giant-branch evolution but be rarely detected because of rapid subsequent Li depletion. Based on observations obtained with the Keck I Telescope of the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated by the California Association for Research in Astronomy (CARA), Inc., on behalf of the University of California and the California Institute of Technology. This Letter is dedicated to the memory of our beloved colleague Ed Langer, who died after a brief illness on February 16, 1999. Ed brought a unique theoretical perspective to our globular cluster abundance studies. His career truly embodied the academic ideals of inspiration in both teaching and research. He made friends wherever he traveled, and was an inspiration to students. We will miss him greatly.

  14. 12 CFR Appendix M3 to Part 226 - Sample Calculations of Generic Repayment Estimates and Actual Repayment Disclosures

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sample Calculations of Generic Repayment Estimates and Actual Repayment Disclosures M3 Appendix M3 to Part 226 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM TRUTH IN LENDING (REGULATION Z)...

  15. Soluble M3 proteins of murine gammaherpesviruses 68 and 72 expressed in Escherichia coli: analysis of chemokine-binding properties.

    PubMed

    Matúšková, R; Pančík, P; Štibrániová, I; Belvončíková, P; Režuchová, I; Kúdelová, M

    2015-12-01

    M3 protein of murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV-68) was identified as a viral chemokine-binding protein 3 (vCKBP-3) capable to bind a broad spectrum of chemokines and their receptors. During both acute and latent infection MHV-68 M3 protein provides a selective advantage for the virus by inhibiting the antiviral and inflammatory response. A unique mutation Asp307Gly was identified in the M3 protein of murine gammaherpesvirus 72 (MHV-72), localized near chemokine-binding domain. Study on chemokine-binding properties of MHV-72 M3 protein purified from medium of infected cells implied reduced binding to some chemokines when compared to MHV-68 M3 protein. It was suggested that the mutation in the M3 protein might be involved in the attenuation of immune response to infection with MHV-72. Recently, Escherichia coli cells were used to prepare native recombinant M3 proteins of murine gammaherpesviruses 68 and 72 (Pančík et al., 2013). In this study, we assessed the chemokine-binding properties of three M3 proteins prepared in E. coli Rosetta-gami 2 (DE3) cells, the full length M3 protein of both MHV-68 and MHV-72 and MHV-68 M3 protein truncated in the signal sequence (the first 24 aa). They all displayed binding activity to human chemokines CCL5 (RANTES), CXCL8 (IL-8), and CCL3 (MIP-1α). The truncated MHV-68 M3 protein had more than twenty times reduced binding activity to CCL5, but only about five and three times reduced binding to CXCL8 and CCL3 when compared to its full length counterpart. Binding of the full length MHV-72 M3 protein to all chemokines was reduced when compared to MHV-68 M3 protein. Its binding to CCL5 and CCL3 was reduced over ten and seven times. However, its binding to CXCL8 was only slightly reduced (64.8 vs 91.8%). These data implied the significance of the signal sequence and also of a single mutation (at aa 307) for efficient M3 protein binding to some chemokines.

  16. Spectral Signature of Lunar Pyroclastic Deposits in Moon Mineralogy (M3) data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besse, Sebastien; Jawin, Erica; Mazrouei, Sara; Gaddis, Lisa; Sunshine, Jessica

    2013-04-01

    Over 100 pyroclastic deposits, or Dark Mantle Deposits (DMDs) have been identified on the Moon, with areas ranging from 10 km2 to over 50,000 km2. These regions of low-albedo, fine-grained material can vary significantly in composition. Larger DMDs such as those at Taurus-Littrow and Mare Vaporum are known to contain iron- and titanium-rich glass and devitrified beads, while smaller DMDs are typically comprised of iron-bearing mafic minerals such as pyroxene and olivine in juvenile and non-juvenile volcanic components. More recently at the large DMD in Sinus Aestuum, chromite spinel has been discovered. In this project we use spectroscopic data from the Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) to characterize the composition of various pyroclastic deposits across the lunar nearside. Using these data, we characterized the 1- and 2 μm mafic absorption bands for each pyroclastic region of interest, and analyzed the variation in composition between all regions. DMD compositional variations will help us to understand both the origin and mode of emplacement of these deposits. The four regions of interest chosen for this study include pyroclastic deposits in J. Herschel crater (36.6°W, 61.7°N), Alphonsus crater (3°W, 13.6°S), near the Apollo 17 landing site in the Taurus-Littrow valley (30.7°E, 20.2°N), and western Mare Vaporum (7.9°E, 10°N). There is complete or near-complete coverage of M3 data in these regions, including coverage in orbital periods OP1A, OP1B, OP2A, OP2C1, and OP2C3. Additionally, there is coverage over all four regions of interest in OP1B. This configuration allows studies of the DMDs with the same resolution and detector temperature, factors which can drastically change the spectral behavior of the M3 data. Several color composite images were created to highlight surface composition and to characterize the four pyroclastic deposits. The pyroclastic deposits within a given region of interest share similar spectral characteristics, even at sites where the

  17. Real-time monitoring of genetically modified Chlamydomonas reinhardtii during the Foton M3 space mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambreva, M.; Rea, G.; Antonacci, A.; Serafini, A.; Damasso, M.; Pastorelli, S.; Margonelli, A.; Johanningmeier, U.; Bertalan, I.; Pezzotti, G.; Giardi, M. T.

    2008-09-01

    Long-term space exploration, colonization or habitation requires biological life support systems capable to cope with the deleterious space environment. The use of oxygenic photosynthetic microrganisms is an intriguing possibility mainly for food, O2 and nutraceutical compounds production. The critical points of utilizing plants- or algae-based life support systems are the microgravity and the ionizing radiation, which can influence the performance of these organisms. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of space environment on the photosynthetic activity of various microrganisms and to select space stresstolerant strains. Photosystem II D1 protein sitedirected and random mutants of the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii [1] were used as a model system to test and select the amino acid substitutions capable to account for space stress tolerance. We focussed our studies also on the accumulation of the Photosystem II photoprotective carotenoids (the xantophylls violaxanthin, anteraxanthin and zeaxanthin), powerful antioxidants that epidemiological studies demonstrated to be human vision protectors. For this purpose some mutants modified at the level of enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of xanthophylls were included in the study [2]. To identify the consequences of the space environment on the photosynthetic apparatus the changes in the Photosystem II efficiency were monitored in real time during the ESA-Russian Foton- M3 mission in September 2007. For the space flight a high-tech, multicell fluorescence detector, Photo-II, was designed and built by the Centre for Advanced Research in Space Optics in collaboration with Kayser-Italy, Biosensor and DAS. Photo-II is an automatic device developed to measure the chlorophyll fluorescence and to provide a living conditions for several different algae strains (Fig.1). Twelve different C. reinhardti strains were analytically selected and two replications for each strain were brought to space

  18. The BIOPAN experiment MARSTOX II of the FOTON M-3 mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rettberg, P.; Moeller, R.; Rabbow, E.; Panitz, C.; Horneck, G.; Meyer, C.; Lammer, H.; Douki, T.; Cadet, J.

    2008-09-01

    The experiment MARSTOX II on FOTON M-3 mission (September 14 - 26, 2007) was a further step in the study of the Responses of Organisms to the Martian Environment (ROME) which already started with first ground-based experiments in Mars simulation chambers and with the space experiment MARSTOX I, flown in 2005 in the ESA facility BIOPAN (Fig. 1) on FOTON M-2. The survivability of bacterial spores of B. subtilis, a well-characterized model system for highly resistant microorganisms, was investigated under the extreme environmental conditions as they exist on the surface of Mars. By use of exterrestrial UV radiation and cut-off filters the photoprotection and potential UV-phototoxicity of different minerals of the Martian soil were investigated.In MARSTOX II two further aspects were addressed (i) the influence of different concentrations of dust in the Martian atmosphere, which change the solar irradiance on the surface significantly compared to vacuum exposure under the same conditions (experiment parts 'DUST MARS' and 'DUST SPACE'), and (ii) the survivability of spores under martian atmosphere and pressure exposed to a mars-like spectral irradiance compared to vacuum exposure under the same conditions (experiment parts 'MIXED MARS' and 'MIXED SPACE') (Fig. 2 and 3). After exposure to space during the FOTON M-3 mission the sample analysis was performed at CEA in Grenoble, F, and at DLR in Cologne, D, together with parallel samples from the corresponding ground control experiment performed in the space simulation facilities at DLR. As biological endpoints in these investigations survival and UV-induced DNAphotoproducts were analysed.From the results of MARSTOX II the following conclusions can be drawn: (i) Spores mixed with martian soil analogue are protected only to a low degree against UV radiation. The protective effect of several defined layers of spores mixed with Martian soil analogue were quantified. (ii) The two investigated martian soil analogues, MRS07 (47

  19. Perovskite CH3NH3PbI3(Cl) Single Crystals: Rapid Solution Growth, Unparalleled Crystalline Quality, and Low Trap Density toward 10(8) cm(-3).

    PubMed

    Lian, Zhipeng; Yan, Qingfeng; Gao, Taotao; Ding, Jie; Lv, Qianrui; Ning, Chuangang; Li, Qiang; Sun, Jia-Lin

    2016-08-01

    Single crystal reflects the intrinsic physical properties of a material, and single crystals with high-crystalline quality are highly desired for the acquisition of high-performance devices. We found that large single crystals of perovskite CH3NH3PbI3(Cl) could be grown rapidly from chlorine-containing solutions. Within 5 days, CH3NH3PbI3(Cl) single crystal as large as 20 mm × 18 mm × 6 mm was harvested. As a most important index to evaluate the crystalline quality, the full width at half-maximum (fwhm) in the high-resolution X-ray rocking curve (HR-XRC) of as-grown CH3NH3PbI3(Cl) single crystal was measured as 20 arcsec, which is far superior to so far reported CH3NH3PbI3 single crystals (∼1338 arcsec). The unparalleled crystalline quality delivered a low trap-state density of down to 7.6 × 10(8) cm(-3), high carrier mobility of 167 ± 35 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1), and long transient photovoltaic carrier lifetime of 449 ± 76 μs. The improvement in the crystalline quality, together with the rapid growth rate and excellent carrier transport property, provides state-of-the-art single crystalline hybrid perovskite materials for high-performance optoelectronic devices. PMID:27458057

  20. CO2 laser photoacoustic measurements of ethanol absorption coefficients within infrared region of 9.2-10.8 μm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivascu, I. R.; Matei, C. E.; Patachia, M.; Bratu, A. M.; Dumitras, D. C.

    2016-06-01

    Absorption coefficients of the ethanol vapors at atmospheric pressure and room temperature were measured by photoacoustic technique using a cw, line-tunable, frequency-stabilized CO2 laser as radiation source. The spectrum of the employed CO2 laser includes 54 lines with wavelengths in the infrared region of 9.2-10.8 μm and power levels up to 4.7 W. Measurements revealed a predominant absorption for ethanol within 9.4 μm band of the CO2 laser spectrum, where the highest values of the absorption coefficients were recorded: 3.68 cm- 1 atm- 1 at 9R(20) line and 3.65 cm- 1 atm- 1 at 9R(22) line. The estimated detection range covers six orders of magnitude, from a minimum of 30 ppbV to a maximum of 4% concentration of ethanol in nitrogen, which proves the suitability of the photoacoustic technique for accurate measurements of the ethanol concentration in various applications.

  1. CO2 laser photoacoustic measurements of ethanol absorption coefficients within infrared region of 9.2-10.8 μm.

    PubMed

    Ivascu, I R; Matei, C E; Patachia, M; Bratu, A M; Dumitras, D C

    2016-06-15

    Absorption coefficients of the ethanol vapors at atmospheric pressure and room temperature were measured by photoacoustic technique using a cw, line-tunable, frequency-stabilized CO2 laser as radiation source. The spectrum of the employed CO2 laser includes 54 lines with wavelengths in the infrared region of 9.2-10.8μm and power levels up to 4.7W. Measurements revealed a predominant absorption for ethanol within 9.4μm band of the CO2 laser spectrum, where the highest values of the absorption coefficients were recorded: 3.68cm(-1)atm(-1) at 9R(20) line and 3.65cm(-1)atm(-1) at 9R(22) line. The estimated detection range covers six orders of magnitude, from a minimum of 30ppbV to a maximum of 4% concentration of ethanol in nitrogen, which proves the suitability of the photoacoustic technique for accurate measurements of the ethanol concentration in various applications.

  2. CO2 laser photoacoustic measurements of ethanol absorption coefficients within infrared region of 9.2-10.8 μm.

    PubMed

    Ivascu, I R; Matei, C E; Patachia, M; Bratu, A M; Dumitras, D C

    2016-06-15

    Absorption coefficients of the ethanol vapors at atmospheric pressure and room temperature were measured by photoacoustic technique using a cw, line-tunable, frequency-stabilized CO2 laser as radiation source. The spectrum of the employed CO2 laser includes 54 lines with wavelengths in the infrared region of 9.2-10.8μm and power levels up to 4.7W. Measurements revealed a predominant absorption for ethanol within 9.4μm band of the CO2 laser spectrum, where the highest values of the absorption coefficients were recorded: 3.68cm(-1)atm(-1) at 9R(20) line and 3.65cm(-1)atm(-1) at 9R(22) line. The estimated detection range covers six orders of magnitude, from a minimum of 30ppbV to a maximum of 4% concentration of ethanol in nitrogen, which proves the suitability of the photoacoustic technique for accurate measurements of the ethanol concentration in various applications. PMID:27045783

  3. Comparison of human and porcine gastric clasp and sling fiber contraction by M2 and M3 muscarinic receptors

    PubMed Central

    Vegesna, Anil K.; Braverman, Alan S.; Miller, Larry S.; Tallarida, Ronald J.; Tiwana, Mansoor I.; Khayyam, Umar

    2010-01-01

    To compare the gastroesophageal junction of the human with the pig, M2 and M3 receptor densities and the potencies of M2 and M3 muscarinic receptor subtype selective antagonists were determined in gastric clasp and sling smooth muscle fibers. Total muscarinic and M2 receptors are higher in pig than human clasp and sling fibers. M3 receptors are higher in human compared with pig sling fibers but lower in human compared with pig clasp fibers. Clasp fibers have fewer M3 receptors than sling fibers in both humans and pigs. Similar to human clasp fibers, pig clasp fibers contract significantly less than pig sling fibers. Analysis of the methoctramine Schild plot suggests that M2 receptors are involved in mediating contraction in pig clasp and sling fibers. Darifenacin potency suggests that M3 receptors mediate contraction in pig sling fibers and that M2 and M3 receptors mediate contraction in pig clasp fibers. Taken together, the data suggest that both M2 and M3 muscarinic receptors mediate the contraction in both pig clasp and sling fibers similar to human clasp and sling fibers. PMID:20133950

  4. M3Ag17(SPh)12 Nanoparticles and Their Structure Prediction.

    PubMed

    Wickramasinghe, Sameera; Atnagulov, Aydar; Yoon, Bokwon; Barnett, Robert N; Griffith, Wendell P; Landman, Uzi; Bigioni, Terry P

    2015-09-16

    Although silver nanoparticles are of great fundamental and practical interest, only one structure has been determined thus far: M4Ag44(SPh)30, where M is a monocation, and SPh is an aromatic thiolate ligand. This is in part due to the fact that no other molecular silver nanoparticles have been synthesized with aromatic thiolate ligands. Here we report the synthesis of M3Ag17(4-tert-butylbenzene-thiol)12, which has good stability and an unusual optical spectrum. We also present a rational strategy for predicting the structure of this molecule. First-principles calculations support the structural model, predict a HOMO-LUMO energy gap of 1.77 eV, and predict a new "monomer mount" capping motif, Ag(SR)3, for Ag nanoparticles. The calculated optical absorption spectrum is in good correspondence with the measured spectrum. Heteroatom substitution was also used as a structural probe. First-principles calculations based on the structural model predicted a strong preference for a single Au atom substitution in agreement with experiment.

  5. Molecular Modeling of the M3 Acetylcholine Muscarinic Receptor and Its Binding Site

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Archundia, Marlet; Cordomi, Arnau; Garriga, Pere; Perez, Juan J.

    2012-01-01

    The present study reports the results of a combined computational and site mutagenesis study designed to provide new insights into the orthosteric binding site of the human M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor. For this purpose a three-dimensional structure of the receptor at atomic resolution was built by homology modeling, using the crystallographic structure of bovine rhodopsin as a template. Then, the antagonist N-methylscopolamine was docked in the model and subsequently embedded in a lipid bilayer for its refinement using molecular dynamics simulations. Two different lipid bilayer compositions were studied: one component palmitoyl-oleyl phosphatidylcholine (POPC) and two-component palmitoyl-oleyl phosphatidylcholine/palmitoyl-oleyl phosphatidylserine (POPC-POPS). Analysis of the results suggested that residues F222 and T235 may contribute to the ligand-receptor recognition. Accordingly, alanine mutants at positions 222 and 235 were constructed, expressed, and their binding properties determined. The results confirmed the role of these residues in modulating the binding affinity of the ligand. PMID:22500107

  6. THE SWIFT UVOT STARS SURVEY. II. RR LYRAE STARS IN M3 AND M15

    SciTech Connect

    Siegel, Michael H.; Porterfield, Blair L.; Balzer, Benjamin G.; Hagen, Lea M. Z. E-mail: blp14@psu.edu E-mail: lea.zernow.hagen@gmail.com

    2015-10-15

    We present the first results of a near-ultraviolet (NUV) survey of RR Lyrae stars from the Ultraviolet Optical Telescope (UVOT) on board the Swift Gamma-ray Burst Mission. It is well-established that RR Lyrae stars have large amplitudes in the far- and near-ultraviolet. We have used UVOT’s unique wide-field NUV imaging capability to perform the first systematic NUV survey of variable stars in the Galactic globular clusters M3 and M15. We identify 280 variable stars, comprised of 275 RR Lyrae, 2 anomalous Cepheids, 1 classical Cepheid, 1 SX Phoenicis star, and 1 possible long-period or irregular variable. Only two of these are new discoveries. We compare our results to previous investigations and find excellent agreement in the periods with significantly larger amplitudes in the NUV. We map out, for the first time, an NUV Bailey diagram from globular clusters, showing the usual loci for fundamental mode RRab and first overtone RRc pulsators. We show the unique sensitivity of NUV photometry to both the temperatures and the surface gravities of RR Lyrae stars. Finally, we show evidence of an NUV period–metallicity–luminosity relationship. Future investigations will further examine the dependence of NUV pulsation parameters on metallicity and Oosterhoff classification.

  7. Discovery of a wide planetary-mass companion to the young M3 star GU PSC

    SciTech Connect

    Naud, Marie-Eve; Artigau, Étienne; Malo, Lison; Albert, Loïc; Doyon, René; Lafrenière, David; Gagné, Jonathan; Boucher, Anne; Saumon, Didier; Morley, Caroline V.; Allard, France; Homeier, Derek; Beichman, Charles A.; Gelino, Christopher R.

    2014-05-20

    We present the discovery of a comoving planetary-mass companion ∼42'' (∼2000 AU) from a young M3 star, GU Psc, a likely member of the young AB Doradus Moving Group (ABDMG). The companion was first identified via its distinctively red i – z color (>3.5) through a survey made with Gemini-S/GMOS. Follow-up Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope/WIRCam near-infrared (NIR) imaging, Gemini-N/GNIRS NIR spectroscopy and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer photometry indicate a spectral type of T3.5 ± 1 and reveal signs of low gravity which we attribute to youth. Keck/Adaptive Optics NIR observations did not resolve the companion as a binary. A comparison with atmosphere models indicates T {sub eff} = 1000-1100 K and log g = 4.5-5.0. Based on evolution models, this temperature corresponds to a mass of 9-13 M {sub Jup} for the age of ABDMG (70-130 Myr). The relatively well-constrained age of this companion and its very large angular separation to its host star will allow its thorough characterization and will make it a valuable comparison for planetary-mass companions that will be uncovered by forthcoming planet-finder instruments such as Gemini Planet Imager and SPHERE 9.

  8. M3D Simulations of Energetic Particle-driven MHD Mode with Unstructured Mesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, G. Y.; Park, W.; Strauss, H. R.

    2001-10-01

    The energetic particle-driven MHD modes are studied using a multi-level extended MHD code M3D(W. Park et al., Phys. Plasmas 6, 1796 (1999)). In a Extended-MHD model, the plasma is divided into the bulk part and the energetic particle component. The bulk plasma is treated as either a single fluid or two fluids. The energetic particles are described by gyrokinetic particles following the self-consistent electromagnetic field. The model is self-consistent, including nonlinear effects of hot particles on the MHD dynamics and the nonlinear MHD mode coupling. Previously we had shown the results of nonlinear saturation of TAEfootnote G.Y. Fu and W. Park, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1594 (1995), energetic particle stabilization of an internal kink and excitation of fishbone^2, and nonlinear saturation of fishbone in circular tokamaks (G.Y. Fu et al, 2000 Sherwood Meeting, Paper 2C2.). In this work, we extend the simulations to general geometry using unstructured mesh(H.R. Strauss and W. Park, Phys. Plasmas 5, 2676 (1998). We also use a gyrofluid model for fishbone in order to study the role of MHD nonlinearity in saturation near the marginal stability. Results of applications to tokamaks and spherical tokamaks will be presented.

  9. Characterization of the microbiology within a 21 m(3)section of rock from the deep subsurface.

    PubMed

    Haldeman, D L; Amy, P S; Ringelberg, D; White, D C

    1993-09-01

    The distribution of aerobic chemoheterotrophic microorganisms within a 21 m3 section of deep subsurface rock was determined. Nineteen samples for microbiological analysis were aseptically taken by hand from the walls of a 400 m deep subsurface tunnel after an alpine miner created fresh rock faces 0.76, 1.52, 2.28, and 3.04 m into the tunnel wall. The direct counts were several orders of magnitude greater than viable counts in all samples. One of each morphologically distinct bacterial type from each sample was purified and analyzed for fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) using the Microbial Identification System (MIDI). Numbers of bacterial types, diversity, and equitability of recoverable microbial communities were the same or similar using either morphotype or FAME analyses as the basis for distinguishing between bacterial types. Twenty-nine genera (Euclidean distance of [Symbol: see text]25) were found within the rock section, while 28 of the 210 bacterial types isolated were nonculturable under the growth regime required for cluster analysis. Most isolates clustered at the genus level with Arthrobacter, Gordona, and Acinetobacter. Two genera, containing 16 isolates, were unmatched to known organisms within the MIDI data base and clustered with other isolates at a Euclidean distance greater than 50. While some species (Euclidean distance [Symbol: see text]10) were recovered from multiple sites within the rock section, most were found at 1-3 sites and usually without a definitive pattern of distribution.

  10. Conclusions of the M3D/NIMROD Cross-Code Benchmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breslau, J.; Park, W.; Jardin, S.; Strauss, H.; Schnack, D.; Pankin, A.

    2004-11-01

    Cross-validation of the nonlinear M3D [1] and NIMROD [2] codes in the resistive MHD regime in tokamaks has been brought to a successful conclusion. The small but well-diagnosed CDX-U device was selected for the benchmark because its low temperature (S < 10^5) is readily handled by the two codes. The test problem consisted of determining the growth rates, eigenfunctions, and nonlinear evolution of resistive internal kink modes from a base equilibrium with q_0≈ 0.92. Good agreement between the codes is observed in all three predictions. However, there is an unexpected lack of agreement between these predictions and experimental observations: whereas the 1,1 sawtooth crash in the device is a repeating phenomenon consistent with the survival of the discharge, both codes predict a spectrum of unstable resistive ballooning modes whose growth rate increases with toroidal mode number n>1, occurring near the plasma boundary and present even when q_0>1. These findings call into question the applicability of the resistive MHD model even to low temperature tokamak plasmas and suggest the need for the addition of two-fluid terms or other new physics to make accurate predictions of their behavior. [1] W. Park, et al., Phys. Plasmas 6, 1796 (1999). [2] C.R. Sovinec, et al., Phys. Plasmas 10, 1727 (2003).

  11. Light Curves for Type II Cepheids in M3 and M5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabidoux, K.; Smith, H. A.; Wells, K.; Randall, J.; Hartley, D.; LaCluyze, A.; De Lee, N.; Ingber, M.; Ireland, M.; KInemuchi, K.; Pellegrini, E.; Purdum, L. E.; Pritzl, B. J.; Lustig, R.; Osborn, W.; Lacy, J.; Curtis, M.; Smolinski, J.

    2005-12-01

    Many of the longer period Cepheids within globular clusters do not have modern light curves in the standard B, V, and Cousins-I photometric bandpasses. As part of a larger program to secure B, V, and I band photometry for these type II Cepheids, we have obtained CCD images of the globular clusters M3 and M5. Data were obtained with the 60-cm telescope at Michigan State University and the 40-cm telescopes at Macalester College and Central Michigan University. Light curves are presented for several Cepheids in these clusters. V84 in M5 shows evidence of alternating high and low maxima, indicative of RV Tauri behavior, and may mark the dividing line between pulsations of the type II Cepheid and RV Tauri variety. Observations have also been obtained for type II Cepheids in the globular clusters M2, M10, M12, and M13. Light curves for these variables will be used to investigate the period-luminosity relation for globular cluster Cepheids and to study their pulsational properties. This work has been supported in part by the National Science Foundation.

  12. Discovery of a Wide Planetary-mass Companion to the Young M3 Star GU Psc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naud, Marie-Eve; Artigau, Étienne; Malo, Lison; Albert, Loïc; Doyon, René; Lafrenière, David; Gagné, Jonathan; Saumon, Didier; Morley, Caroline V.; Allard, France; Homeier, Derek; Beichman, Charles A.; Gelino, Christopher R.; Boucher, Anne

    2014-05-01

    We present the discovery of a comoving planetary-mass companion ~42'' (~2000 AU) from a young M3 star, GU Psc, a likely member of the young AB Doradus Moving Group (ABDMG). The companion was first identified via its distinctively red i - z color (>3.5) through a survey made with Gemini-S/GMOS. Follow-up Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope/WIRCam near-infrared (NIR) imaging, Gemini-N/GNIRS NIR spectroscopy and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer photometry indicate a spectral type of T3.5 ± 1 and reveal signs of low gravity which we attribute to youth. Keck/Adaptive Optics NIR observations did not resolve the companion as a binary. A comparison with atmosphere models indicates T eff = 1000-1100 K and log g = 4.5-5.0. Based on evolution models, this temperature corresponds to a mass of 9-13 M Jup for the age of ABDMG (70-130 Myr). The relatively well-constrained age of this companion and its very large angular separation to its host star will allow its thorough characterization and will make it a valuable comparison for planetary-mass companions that will be uncovered by forthcoming planet-finder instruments such as Gemini Planet Imager and SPHERE.

  13. Radiation environment on board Foton-M 3: the neutron component

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falzetta, Giuseppe; Zanini, Alba; Chiorra, Katia; Briccarello, Mauro; Belluco, Maurizio; Longo, Francesco; Jerse, Giovanna

    The recoverable capsule Foton-M 3 (ESA mission) was launched from Baikonur on 2007 September 14 and landed on the Russian-Kazakh border 12 days later. The spacecraft carried on board several ESA experiments. During this space mission a study has been performed on the neutron component of the radiation environment inside the capsule. Neutrons are a not avoidable component of the secondary radiation produced by interaction of primary radiation with the spacecraft shielding. Because of their high LET, neutrons could represent a main risk for both the electronic instruments and the health of the astronauts during space missions. Monte Carlo simulations performed by Geant4 code have been carried out using as input primary proton and alpha spectra, obtained by various tools (i.e. Creme 96, Omere, etc . . . ) and the neutron fluxes and doses, as a function of neutron energies, have been evaluated. The simulation results are compared with experimental data obtained by passive neutron detectors. In this study the effectiveness of various shielding materials useful in space mission has been also investigated.

  14. Extension of RAPTOR-M3G to r-θ-z Geometry for Use in Reactor Dosimetry Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunter, Melissa A.; Longoni, Gianluca; Anderson, Stanwood L.

    2009-08-01

    The RAPTOR-M3G (RApid Parallel Transport Of Radiation - Multiple 3-D Geometries) is a new deterministic radiation transport code that was originally developed for x-y-z geometry. The development of the r-θ-z version of RAPTOR-M3G and its application to determine ex-vessel neutron dosimetry responses in the cavity of a typical 2-loop pressurized water reactor is presented. The neutron dosimetry responses determined from RAPTOR-M3G and TORT 3-D r-θ-z calculations are compared to actual measured responses.

  15. Level of helium enhancement among M3's horizontal branch stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valcarce, A. A. R.; Catelan, M.; Alonso-García, J.; Contreras Ramos, R.; Alves, S.

    2016-05-01

    Context. The color and luminosity distribution of horizontal branch (HB) stars in globular clusters (GCs) are sensitive probes of the original helium abundances of those clusters. In this sense, recently the distributions of HB stars in GC color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) have been extensively used as indicators of possible variations in the helium content Y among the different generations of stars within individual GCs. However, recent analyses based on visual and near-ultraviolet (UV) CMDs have provided conflicting results. Aims: To clarify the situation, we address the optimum ranges of applicability (in terms of the Teff range covered by the HB stars) for visual and near-UV CMDs, as far as application of this "HB Y test" goes. Methods: We considered both Strömgren and Hubble Space Telescope (HST) bandpasses. In particular, we focus on the F336W filter of the HST, but also discuss several bluer UV bandpasses, such as F160BW, F255W, and F300W. Using the Princeton-Goddard-PUC (PGPUC) code, we computed a large set of zero-age HB (ZAHB) loci and HB evolutionary models for masses ranging from MHB = 0.582 to 0.800 M⊙, assuming an initial helium abundance Y = 0.246, 0.256, and 0.266, with a global metallicity Z = 0.001. The results of these calculations were compared against the observations of M3 (NGC 5272), with special attention on the y vs. (b - y) and F336W vs. (F336W-F555W) CMDs. Results: Our results indicate that, from an evolutionary perspective, the distributions of HB stars in the y vs. (b - y) plane can be a reliable indicator of the He content in cool blue HB (BHB) stars, particularly when a differential comparison between blue and red HB stars is carried out in the range Teff ≲ 8300 K. Conversely, we demonstrate that CMDs using the F336W filter have a much less straightforward interpretation at the cool end of the BHB because the distributions of HB stars in the F336W vs. (F336W-F555W) plane, for instance, are affected by a triple degeneracy effect. In

  16. Fabry-Perot Velocities For Globular Cluster Stars: M15, M3, and M4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebhardt, Karl; Pryor, Carlton; Williams, T. B.; Hesser, James E.

    1994-12-01

    We are engaged in a continuing project that uses an imaging Fabry-Perot spectrophotometer on the 3.6-m CFHT and the 4 m and 1.5 m telescopes at CTIO to measure both absorption-line integrated-light velocity maps for globular clusters and velocities for large samples of cluster stars (Gebhardt, K., Pryor, C., Williams, T.B., & Hesser, J.E. 1994, AJ, 107, 2067; Gebhardt, et al. 1994, submitted). Our goals are to study such kinematic properties as rotation and the number of high-velocity stars, and to use the velocity dispersion profiles to determine non-parametric mass profiles using the technique of Gebhardt & Fischer (1995, January AJ). Here we present radial velocities with accuracies of 1--5 \\kms\\ for about 600 stars in the cusp cluster M15, 400 stars in the centrally-concentrated cluster M3, and 1900 stars in the nearby cluster M4. The M15 dataset contains three times more stellar velocities throughout the whole cluster and five times more in the inner 10'' than the previous study of Gebhardt & Fischer. This larger sample continues to show no evidence for a central cusp in the velocity dispersion profile. The M4 data constitute one of the largest radial velocity samples yet obtained for a globular cluster. The stars in the sample range from magnitude V=10 to V=18.5. V=18.5 is 2.5 magnitudes below the main-sequence turn-off, so these data are valuable first-epoch information for determining the main-sequence binary fraction. We present two-dimensional velocity maps, velocity dispersion profiles, and radial mass profiles for the three clusters.

  17. MAGNETIC AND DYNAMICAL PHOTOSPHERIC DISTURBANCES OBSERVED DURING AN M3.2 SOLAR FLARE

    SciTech Connect

    Kuckein, C.; Collados, M.; Sainz, R. Manso

    2015-02-01

    This Letter reports on a set of full-Stokes spectropolarimetric observations in the near-infrared He i 10830 Å spectral region covering the pre-flare, flare, and post-flare phases of an M3.2 class solar flare. The flare originated on 2013 May 17 and belonged to active region NOAA 11748. We detected strong He i 10830 Å emission in the flare. The red component of the He i triplet peaks at an intensity ratio to the continuum of about 1.86. During the flare, He i Stokes V is substantially larger and appears reversed compared to the usually larger Si i Stokes V profile. The photospheric Si i inversions of the four Stokes profiles reveal the following: (1) the magnetic field strength in the photosphere decreases or is even absent during the flare phase, as compared to the pre-flare phase. However, this decrease is not permanent. After the flare, the magnetic field recovers its pre-flare configuration in a short time (i.e., 30 minutes after the flare). (2) In the photosphere, the line of sight velocities show a regular granular up- and downflow pattern before the flare erupts. During the flare, upflows (blueshifts) dominate the area where the flare is produced. Evaporation rates of ∼10{sup −3} and ∼10{sup −4} g cm{sup −2} s{sup −1} have been derived in the deep and high photosphere, respectively, capable of increasing the chromospheric density by a factor of two in about 400 s.

  18. Signal transduction by M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor in prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    GUO, LIQIANG; LIU, YUQIANG; DING, ZHIBO; SUN, WENDONG; YUAN, MINGZHEN

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the potential mechanisms used during signal transduction by M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (CHRM3) in prostate cancer. The microarray datasets of GSE3325, including 5 clinically localized primary prostate cancers and 4 benign prostate tissues, were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. The differentially-expressed genes (DEGs) in primary prostate cancer tissues compared with benign controls were screened using the Limma package. Gene Ontology and pathway enrichment analyses were performed using the Database for Annotation Visualization and Integrated Discovery. Next, a protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was constructed. Additionally, microRNAs (miRNAs) associated with DEGs were predicted and miRNA-target DEG analysis was performed using a Web-based Gene Set Analysis Toolkit. Finally, the PPI network and the miRNA-target DEG network were integrated using Cytoscape. In total, 224 DEGs were screened in the prostate cancer tissues, including 113 upregulated and 111 downregulated genes. CHRM3 and epidermal growth factor (EGF) were enriched in the regulation of the actin cytoskeleton. EGF and v-myc avian myelocytomatosis viral oncogene homolog (Myc) were enriched in the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway. EGF with the highest degree of connectivity was the hub node in the PPI network, and miR-34b could interact with Myc directly in the miRNA-target DEG network. EGF and Myc may exhibit significant roles in the progression of prostate cancer via regulation of the actin cytoskeleton and the MAPK signaling pathway. CHRM3 may activate these two pathways in prostate cancer progression. Thus, these two key factors and pathways may be crucial mechanisms during signal transduction by CHRM3 in prostate cancer. PMID:26870222

  19. Remote compositional analysis of lunar olivine-rich lithologies with Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) spectra

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Isaacson, P.J.; Pieters, C.M.; Besse, S.; Clark, R.N.; Head, J.W.; Klima, R.L.; Mustard, J.F.; Petro, N.E.; Staid, M.I.; Sunshine, J.M.; Taylor, L.A.; Thaisen, K.G.; Tompkins, S.

    2011-01-01

    A systematic approach for deconvolving remotely sensed lunar olivine-rich visible to near-infrared (VNIR) reflectance spectra with the Modified Gaussian Model (MGM) is evaluated with Chandrayaan-1 Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M 3) spectra. Whereas earlier studies of laboratory reflectance spectra focused only on complications due to chromite inclusions in lunar olivines, we develop a systematic approach for addressing (through continuum removal) the prominent continuum slopes common to remotely sensed reflectance spectra of planetary surfaces. We have validated our continuum removal on a suite of laboratory reflectance spectra. Suites of olivine-dominated reflectance spectra from a small crater near Mare Moscoviense, the Copernicus central peak, Aristarchus, and the crater Marius in the Marius Hills were analyzed. Spectral diversity was detected in visual evaluation of the spectra and was quantified using the MGM. The MGM-derived band positions are used to estimate the olivine's composition in a relative sense. Spectra of olivines from Moscoviense exhibit diversity in their absorption features, and this diversity suggests some variation in olivine Fe/Mg content. Olivines from Copernicus are observed to be spectrally homogeneous and thus are predicted to be more compositionally homogeneous than those at Moscoviense but are of broadly similar composition to the Moscoviense olivines. Olivines from Aristarchus and Marius exhibit clear spectral differences from those at Moscoviense and Copernicus but also exhibit features that suggest contributions from other phases. If the various precautions discussed here are weighed carefully, the methods presented here can be used to make general predictions of absolute olivine composition (Fe/Mg content). Copyright ?? 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  20. New Halo Stars of the Galactic Globular Clusters M3 and M13 in the LAMOST DR1 Catalog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navin, Colin A.; Martell, Sarah L.; Zucker, Daniel B.

    2016-10-01

    M3 and M13 are Galactic globular clusters with previous reports of surrounding stellar halos. We present the results of a search for members and extratidal cluster halo stars within and outside of the tidal radius of these clusters in the LAMOST Data Release 1. We find seven candidate cluster members (inside the tidal radius) of both M3 and M13, respectively. In M3 we also identify eight candidate extratidal cluster halo stars at distances up to ∼9.8 times the tidal radius, and in M13 we identify 12 candidate extratidal cluster halo stars at distances up to ∼13.8 times the tidal radius. These results support previous indications that both M3 and M13 are surrounded by extended stellar halos, and we find that the GC destruction rates corresponding to the observed mass loss are generally significantly higher than theoretical studies predict.

  1. Non-Ideal ELM Stability and Non-Axisymmetric Field Penetration Calculations with M3D-C1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferraro, N. M.; Chu, M. S.; Snyder, P. B.; Jardin, S. C.; Luo, X.

    2009-11-01

    Numerical studies of ELM stability and non-axisymmetric field penetration in diverted DIII-D and NSTX equilibria are presented, with resistive and finite Larmor radius effects included. These results are obtained with the nonlinear two-fluid code M3D-C1, which has recently been extended to allow linear non-axisymmetric calculations. Benchmarks of M3D-C1 with ideal codes ELITE and GATO show good agreement for the linear stability of peeling-ballooning modes in the ideal limit. New calculations of the resistive stability of ideally stable DIII-D equilibria are presented. M3D-C1 has also been used to calculate the linear response to non-axisymmetric external fields; these calculations are benchmarked with Surfmn and MARS-F. New numerical methods implemented in M3D-C1 are presented, including the treatment of boundary conditions with C^1 elements in a non-rectangular mesh.

  2. Improving the Apollo 12 landing site mapping with Chandrayaan M3 data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chemin, Yann; Crawford, Ian; Bugiolacchi, Roberto; Irfan, Huma; Alexander, Louise

    2014-05-01

    The geology of the Apollo 12 landing site has been the subject of many studies, including recently by Korotev et al. (2011) and Snape et al. (2013). This research attempts to bring additional understanding from a remote sensing perspective using the Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) sensor data, onboard the Chandrayaan lunar orbiter. This has a higher spatial-spectral resolution sensor than the Clementine UV-Vis sensor and provides the opportunity to study the lunar surface with detailed spectral signatures. Mapping of FeO (wt%) and TiO2 (wt%) is done using the methods of Lucey et al. (2000) and Wilcox et al. (2005). A FeO & TiO2 processing module (i.feotio2) is made specifically for this research within the Free & Open Source Software GRASS GIS. Attempts will be made to estimate the lava flow thickness using the method of Bugiolacchi et al. (2006) and individual lava layers thicknesses (Weider et al., 2010). Integration of this new information will be put in perspective and integrated with previous work. Analysis from the combined higher spatial and spectral resolutions will improve the accuracy of the geological mapping at the Apollo 12 landing site. References Bugiolacchi, R., Spudis, P.D., Guest, J.E., 2006. Stratigraphy and composition of lava flows in Mare Nubium and Mare Cognitum. Meteoritics & Planetary Science. 41(2):285-304. Korotev, R.L., Jolliff, B.L., Zeigler, R.A., Seddio, S.M., Haskin, L.A., 2011. Apollo 12 revisited. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta. 75(6):1540-1573. Lucey, P.G., Blewett, D.T., Jolliff, B.L., 2000. Lunar iron and titanium abundance algorithms based on final processing of Clementine ultraviolet-visible images. J. Geophys. Res. 105(E8): 20297-20305. Snape, J.F., Alexander, L., Crawford, I.A., Joy, K.H., 2013. Basaltic Regolith Sample 12003,314: A New Member of the Apollo 12 Feldspathic Basalt Suite? Lunar and Planetary Institute Science Conference Abstracts 44:1044. Weider, S.Z., Crawford, I.A. and Joy, K.H., "Individual lava flow

  3. Peculiarities of lens and tail regeneration detected in newts after spaceflight aboard Foton M3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoryan, Eleonora N.; Almeida, Eduardo; Poplinskaya, Valentina; Novikova, Julia; Domaratskaya, Elena; Aleinikova, Karina; Souza, Kenneth; Skidmore, Mike; Grigoryan, Eleonora N.

    In September 2007 the joint, 12 day long experiment was carried out aboard Russian satellite Foton M3. The goal of the experiment was to study eye lens, tail and forelimb toe regeneration in adult 16 newts (Pl. waltl.) operated 10 days before taking-off. In spaceflight and synchronous ground control we used video recording, temperature and irradiation control, as well as constant availability of thymidine analog BrdU for its absorption via animals' skin. New techniques allowed us to analyze animals' behavior in hyperand microgravity periods of time, to take proper account of spaceflight factors, and measure accumulated pools of DNA-synthesizing cells in regenerating tissues. All tissue specimens obtained from animals were isolated in the day of landing and then prepared for morphological, immunochemical and molecular investigations. Synchronous control was shifted for two days and reproduced flight conditions except changes of gravity influence. As a result in flown animals as compared with synchronous ground control we found lens regeneration of 0.5-1 stage speeded up and an increased BrdU+ (S-phase) cell number in eye cornea, growth zone, limbus and newly forming lens. These features of regeneration were accompanied by an increase of FGF2 expression in eye growth zone and heat shock protein (HSP90) induction purely in retinal macroglial cells of regenerating eyes. Toe regeneration rate was equal and achieved the stage of accomplished healing of amputation area in both groups - "flown" and control animals. We found no essential differences in tail regeneration rate and tail regenerate sizes in the newts exposed to space and on ground. In both groups tail regeneration reached the stage IV-V when tail length and square were around 4.4 mm and 15.5 mm2, correspondingly. However we did observe remarkable changes of tail regenerate form and some of pigmentation. Computer morphometrical analysis showed that only in ground control animals the evident dorso

  4. Origin of Aristarchus Olivine Deposits Based on M3, WAC, and Diviner Analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiseman, S. M.; Mustard, J. F.; Donaldson Hanna, K. L.; Isaacson, P.; Jolliff, B. L.; Besse, S.; Staid, M.; Pieters, C. M.

    2011-12-01

    The Aristarchus region contains geologically diverse deposits and the Aristarchus impact crater, located on the SE margin of the plateau near the contact between plateau materials and western Procellarum basalts, has exposed materials with variable compositions. Of particular interest is the origin of olivine-bearing deposits that occur on the SE portion of the crater rim and ejecta in association with impact melt [1]. NW portions of the rim and ejecta expose plateau materials and are spectrally dominated by pyroxene in the VNIR. Spectra of the NW rim and ejecta are consistent with a noritic composition and with the inferred origin of the plateau as uplifted upper crust [2,3,4]. Therefore, it is unlikely that the olivine- bearing materials, which exhibit a strong 1 micron olivine absorption and only minor pyroxene contributions, are derived from plateau materials similar to those exposed in the NW portion of the crater. Potential sources of the olivine-bearing material excavated by the impact include western Procellarum basalts or buried material associated with the Marius Hills volcanic complex. Alternatively, the olivine-bearing deposits could be derived from a shallow pluton that is not represented by other surface exposures or could have formed as re-crystallized impact melt. Both the western Procellarum basalts [5,6] and some units associated with the Marius Hills [7] are olivine-bearing. In order to differentiate between these hypotheses, we are integrating spectral data in the UV/VIS (LRO WAC), VIS/NIR (Chandrayaan-1 M3), and TIR (LRO Diviner) to further characterize the assemblages of minerals that occur in association with the olivine-bearing deposits in Aristarchus crater, western Procellarum, and units within the Marius Hills volcanic complex. [1] Mustard et al., 2011, JGR 116. [2] McEwen et al., 1994, Science 266. [3] Lucey et al., 1986, LPSC 16. [4] Chevrel et al., 2009, Icarus 199. [5] Staid and Pieters 2001, JGR. [6] Staid et al., 2011, JGR 116. [7

  5. Theoretical study of nascent solvation in Ni+ (benzene)m, m = 3 and 4, clusters.

    PubMed

    Castro, Miguel; Flores, Raul; Duncan, Michael A

    2013-11-27

    The ligand versus solvent behavior of Ni(+)(C6H6)3,4 complexes was studied using density functional theory all-electron calculations. Dispersion corrections were included with the BPW91-D2 method using the 6-311++G(2d,2p) basis set. The ground state (GS) for Ni(+)(C6H6)3 has three benzene rings 3d-π bonded to the metal. A two-layer isomer with two moieties coordinated η(3)-η(2) with Ni(+), and the other one adsorbed by van der Waals interactions to the Ni(+)(C6H6)2 subcluster, i.e., a 2 + 1 structure, is within about 8.4 kJ/mol of the GS. Structures with 3 + 1 and 2 + 2 ligand coordination were found for Ni(+)(C6H6)4. The binding energies (D0) of 28.9 and 26.0 kJ/mol for the external moieties of Ni(+)(C6H6)3,4 are much smaller than that for Ni(+)(C6H6)2, 193.0 kJ/mol, obtained also with BPW91-D2. This last D0 overestimates somehow the experimental value, of 146.7 ± 11.6 kJ/mol, for Ni(+)(C6H6)2. The abrupt fall for D0(Ni(+)(C6H6)3,4) shows that such molecules are bound externally as solvent species. These results agree with the D0(Ni(+)(C6H6)3) < 37.1 kJ/mol limit found experimentally for this kind of two-layer clusters. The ionization energies also decrease for m = 2, 3, and 4 (580.8, 573.1, and 558.6 kJ/mol). For Ni(+)(C6H6)3,4, each solvent moiety bridges the benzenes of Ni(+)(C6H6)2; their position and that of one internal ring mimics the tilted T-shape geometry of the benzene dimer (Bz2). The distances from the center of the external to the center of the internal rings for m = 3 (4.686 Å) and m = 4 (4.523 Å) are shorter than that for Bz2 (4.850 Å). This and charge transfer effects promote the (C(δ-)-H(δ+))(int) dipole-π(ext) interactions in Ni(+)(C6H6)3,4; π-π interactions also occur. The predicted IR spectra, having multiplet structure in the C-H region, provide insight into the experimental spectra of these ions. PMID:24218987

  6. Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptor M3 Modulates Odorant Receptor Activity via Inhibition of β-Arrestin-2 Recruitment

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yue; Li, Yun Rose; Tian, Huikai; Ma, Minghong; Matsunami, Hiroaki

    2015-01-01

    The olfactory system in rodents serves a critical function in social, reproductive, and survival behaviors. Processing of chemosensory signals in the brain is dynamically regulated in part by an animal's physiological state. We previously reported that type 3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (M3-Rs) physically interact with odorant receptors (ORs) to promote odor-induced responses in a heterologous expression system. However, it is not known how M3-Rs affect the ability of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) to respond to odors. Here, we show that an M3-R antagonist attenuates odor-induced responses in OSNs from wild-type, but not M3-R-null mice. Using a novel molecular assay, we demonstrate that the activation of M3-Rs inhibits the recruitment of β-arrestin-2 to ORs, resulting in a potentiation of odor-induced response in OSNs. These results suggest a role for acetylcholine in modulating olfactory processing at the initial stages of signal transduction in the olfactory system. PMID:25800153

  7. Hypocholesterolemic effects of Kluyveromyces marxianus M3 isolated from Tibetan mushrooms on diet-induced hypercholesterolemia in rat.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yuanhong; Zhang, Hongxing; Liu, Hui; Xiong, Lixia; Gao, Xiuzhi; Jia, Hui; Lian, Zhengxing; Tong, Nengsheng; Han, Tao

    2015-06-01

    To investigate the effects of Kluyveromyces marxianus M3 isolated from Tibetan mushrooms on diet-induced hypercholesterolemia in rats, female Wistar rats were fed a high-cholesterol diet (HCD) for 28 d to generate hyperlipidemic models. Hyperlipidemic rats were assigned to four groups, which were individually treated with three different dosages of K. marxianus M3+HCD or physiological saline+HCD via oral gavage for 28 d. The total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels in the serum and liver of the rats were measured using commercially available enzyme kits. In addition, the liver morphology was also examined using hematoxylin and eosin staining and optical microscopy. According to our results, the serum and liver TC, TG, LDL-C levels and atherogenic index (AI) were significantly decreased in rats orally administered K. marxianus M3 (p <0.01), and the HDL-C levels and anti atherogenic index (AAI) were significantly increased (p <0.01) compared to the control group. Moreover, K. marxianus M3 treatment also reduced the build-up of lipid droplets in the liver and exhibited normal hepatocytes, suggesting a protective effect of K. marxianus M3 in hyperlipidemic rats.

  8. Genetic environments of the transferable plasmid-mediated blaCTX-M-3 gene in Serratia marcescens isolates.

    PubMed

    Chu, Pei-Yu; Peng, Chien-Fang

    2014-01-01

    In this study, genetic environments of the transferable plasmid-mediated blaCTX-M-3 gene were characterized among 14 isolates of cefotaxime-resistant Serratia marcescens using PCR and BLAST DNA sequence analysis. A total of 3 types of genetic architectures in the regions surrounding this blaCTX-M-3 gene were identified. Type I architecture was characterized by the presence of a complete insertion sequence of tnpA-ISEcp1, identified as interrupting a reverse IS26 sequence in the upstream region of the blaCTX-M-3 gene. A reverse-directional orf477 fragment was located downstream of the blaCTX-M-3 gene, which was in the same direction of the mucA gene. A common region containing the orf513 element was located upstream of the mucA gene. Moreover, a copy of the 3'-CS2 element was located immediately upstream of the orf513 element. A novel complex class 1 integron was characterized by the presence of the dfrA19 gene, which was flanked by two copies of class 1 integrons. This is the first report to describe the dfrA19 gene within a novel complex class 1 integron in S. marcescens isolates from Taiwan. This novel complex class 1 integron structure was located distantly upstream of the blaCTX-M-3 gene.

  9. Hypocholesterolemic effects of Kluyveromyces marxianus M3 isolated from Tibetan mushrooms on diet-induced hypercholesterolemia in rat

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Yuanhong; Zhang, Hongxing; Liu, Hui; Xiong, Lixia; Gao, Xiuzhi; Jia, Hui; Lian, Zhengxing; Tong, Nengsheng; Han, Tao

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the effects of Kluyveromyces marxianus M3 isolated from Tibetan mushrooms on diet-induced hypercholesterolemia in rats, female Wistar rats were fed a high-cholesterol diet (HCD) for 28 d to generate hyperlipidemic models. Hyperlipidemic rats were assigned to four groups, which were individually treated with three different dosages of K. marxianus M3+HCD or physiological saline+HCD via oral gavage for 28 d. The total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels in the serum and liver of the rats were measured using commercially available enzyme kits. In addition, the liver morphology was also examined using hematoxylin and eosin staining and optical microscopy. According to our results, the serum and liver TC, TG, LDL-C levels and atherogenic index (AI) were significantly decreased in rats orally administered K. marxianus M3 (p <0.01), and the HDL-C levels and anti atherogenic index (AAI) were significantly increased (p <0.01) compared to the control group. Moreover, K. marxianus M3 treatment also reduced the build-up of lipid droplets in the liver and exhibited normal hepatocytes, suggesting a protective effect of K. marxianus M3 in hyperlipidemic rats. PMID:26273253

  10. Evidence for a 3 X 10^8 M_⊙ Black Hole in NGC 7052 from Hubble Space Telescope Observations of the Nuclear Gas Disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Marel, Roeland P.; van den Bosch, Frank C.

    1998-11-01

    We present a Hubble Space Telescope (HST) study of the nuclear region of the E4 radio galaxy NGC 7052, which has a nuclear disk of dust and gas. The Second Wide Field and Planetary Camera (WFPC2) was used to obtain B, V, and I broadband images and an Hα + [N II] narrowband image. The images yield the stellar surface brightness profile, the optical depth of the dust, and the flux distribution of the ionized gas. The Faint Object Spectrograph was used to obtain Hα + [N II] spectra at six different positions along the major axis, using a 0.26" diameter circular aperture. The emission lines yield the rotation curve of the ionized gas and the radial profile of its velocity dispersion. The observed rotation velocity at r = 0.2" from the nucleus is V = 155 +/- 17 km s^-1. The Gaussian dispersion of the emission lines increases from sigma ~ 70 km s^-1 at r = 1" to sigma ~ 400 km s^-1 on the nucleus. To interpret the gas kinematics, we construct axisymmetric models in which the gas and dust reside in a disk in the equatorial plane of the stellar body and are viewed at an inclination of 70 deg. It is assumed that the gas moves on circular orbits, with an intrinsic velocity dispersion due to turbulence (or otherwise nongravitational motion). The latter is required to fit the observed increase in the line widths toward the nucleus and must reach a value in excess of 500 km s^-1 in the central 0.1". The circular velocity is calculated from the combined gravitational potential of the stars and a possible nuclear black hole. Models without a black hole predict a rotation curve that is shallower than observed (V_pred = 92 km s^-1 at r = 0.2") and are ruled out at greater than 99% confidence. Models with a black hole of mass M_a=3.3^+2.3_-1.3x10^8 M_⊙ provide an acceptable fit. The best-fitting model with a black hole adequately reproduces the observed emission-line shapes on the nucleus, which have a narrower peak and broader wings than a Gaussian. NGC 7052 can be added to the

  11. Characterization of V0162, a new long-acting antagonist at human M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Heusler, Peter; Cussac, Didier; Naline, Emmanuel; Tardif, Stéphanie; Clerc, Thierry; Devillier, Philippe

    2015-10-01

    The anticholinergic properties of the mequitazine enantiomer V0162 make it a drug candidate for the treatment of chronic obstructive airway diseases. Here, we compared V0162's in vitro pharmacological activity at recombinant human M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (hM3Rs) with that of other anticholinergics, using (i) a radioligand binding assay, (ii) a functional reporter gene assay and (iii) a bronchoconstriction inhibition assay on human bronchial preparations. V0162 had high affinity for hM3Rs, with a pKi varying from 9.01 after a 2 h incubation to 9.21 after 23 h. The other mequitazine enantiomer (V0114) was less potent. V0162 displayed rapid off-kinetics and a biphasic time course of binding. V0162 was found to be an antagonist behaving as an inverse agonist for hM3R-mediated reporter gene activation, with much the same efficacy as atropine, ipratropium and tiotropium. However, in contrast to ipratropium and atropine, V0162's inhibitory potency was only slightly affected by compound washout. V0162 antagonized acetylcholine-mediated contractions in a human bronchial preparation; the pA2 values increased with the incubation time (up to 2 h). Moreover, there was a progressive increase in V0162's ability to inhibit electrically-induced contractions, which persisted after compound washout. In conclusion, V0162 is the most active mequitazine enantiomer at hM3Rs and shows a complex pattern of binding to the membrane compartment. These particular features may be of therapeutic value when persistent antagonism at hM3Rs is required. PMID:26241178

  12. Characterization of V0162, a new long-acting antagonist at human M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Heusler, Peter; Cussac, Didier; Naline, Emmanuel; Tardif, Stéphanie; Clerc, Thierry; Devillier, Philippe

    2015-10-01

    The anticholinergic properties of the mequitazine enantiomer V0162 make it a drug candidate for the treatment of chronic obstructive airway diseases. Here, we compared V0162's in vitro pharmacological activity at recombinant human M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (hM3Rs) with that of other anticholinergics, using (i) a radioligand binding assay, (ii) a functional reporter gene assay and (iii) a bronchoconstriction inhibition assay on human bronchial preparations. V0162 had high affinity for hM3Rs, with a pKi varying from 9.01 after a 2 h incubation to 9.21 after 23 h. The other mequitazine enantiomer (V0114) was less potent. V0162 displayed rapid off-kinetics and a biphasic time course of binding. V0162 was found to be an antagonist behaving as an inverse agonist for hM3R-mediated reporter gene activation, with much the same efficacy as atropine, ipratropium and tiotropium. However, in contrast to ipratropium and atropine, V0162's inhibitory potency was only slightly affected by compound washout. V0162 antagonized acetylcholine-mediated contractions in a human bronchial preparation; the pA2 values increased with the incubation time (up to 2 h). Moreover, there was a progressive increase in V0162's ability to inhibit electrically-induced contractions, which persisted after compound washout. In conclusion, V0162 is the most active mequitazine enantiomer at hM3Rs and shows a complex pattern of binding to the membrane compartment. These particular features may be of therapeutic value when persistent antagonism at hM3Rs is required.

  13. Mineralogy of the Lunar Crust in Spatial Context: First Results from the Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pieters, C. M.; Boardman, J.; Buratti, B.; Clark, R.; Combe, J-P; Green, R.; Goswami, J. N.; Head, J. W., III; Hicks, M.; Isaacson, P.; Klima, R.; Kramer, G.; Kumar, S.; Lundeen, S.; Malaret, E.; McCord, T. B.; Mustard, J.; Nettles, J.; Petro, N.; Runyon, C.; Staid, M. I.; Sunshine, J.; Taylor, L.; Tompkins, S.; Varanasi, P.

    2009-01-01

    India's Chandrayaan-1 successfully launched October 22, 2008 and went into lunar orbit a few weeks later. Commissioning of instruments began in late November and was near complete by the end of the year. Initial data for NASA's Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) were acquired across the Orientale Basin and the science results are discussed here. M 3 image-cube data provide mineralogy of the surface in geologic context. A major new result is that the existence and distribution of massive amounts of anorthosite as a continuous stratigraphic crustal layer is now irrefutable.

  14. Observation of M3 isomeric transition from 156mPm through the βdecay of 156Nd

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibata, M.; Suematsu, O.; Kojima, Y.; Kawade, K.; Taniguchi, A.; Kawase, Y.

    2007-02-01

    An M3 transition in a doubly odd nucleus of 156Pm was identified by internal conversion electron measurement through the β-decay of 156Nd which was separated from the fission products of 235U using the on-line mass separator KUR-ISOL. The isomeric state at 150.3keV de-excites to the ground state with the M3 transition, and the spin-parity is considered to be 1-. Nilsson configurations are also discussed on the basis of the systematics.

  15. Observing RR Lyrae Variables in the M3 Globular Cluster with the BYU West Mountain Observatory (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joner, M. D.

    2016-06-01

    (Abstract only) We have utilized the 0.9-meter telescope of the Brigham Young University West Mountain Observatory to secure data on the northern hemisphere globular cluster NGC 5272 (M3). We made 216 observations in the V filter spaced between March and August 2012. We present light curves of the M3 RR Lyrae stars using different techniques. We compare light curves produced using DAOPHOT and ISIS software packages for stars in both the halo and core regions of this globular cluster. The light curve fitting is done using FITLC.

  16. Reactor Dosimetry Applications Using RAPTOR-M3G:. a New Parallel 3-D Radiation Transport Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longoni, Gianluca; Anderson, Stanwood L.

    2009-08-01

    The numerical solution of the Linearized Boltzmann Equation (LBE) via the Discrete Ordinates method (SN) requires extensive computational resources for large 3-D neutron and gamma transport applications due to the concurrent discretization of the angular, spatial, and energy domains. This paper will discuss the development RAPTOR-M3G (RApid Parallel Transport Of Radiation - Multiple 3D Geometries), a new 3-D parallel radiation transport code, and its application to the calculation of ex-vessel neutron dosimetry responses in the cavity of a commercial 2-loop Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR). RAPTOR-M3G is based domain decomposition algorithms, where the spatial and angular domains are allocated and processed on multi-processor computer architectures. As compared to traditional single-processor applications, this approach reduces the computational load as well as the memory requirement per processor, yielding an efficient solution methodology for large 3-D problems. Measured neutron dosimetry responses in the reactor cavity air gap will be compared to the RAPTOR-M3G predictions. This paper is organized as follows: Section 1 discusses the RAPTOR-M3G methodology; Section 2 describes the 2-loop PWR model and the numerical results obtained. Section 3 addresses the parallel performance of the code, and Section 4 concludes this paper with final remarks and future work.

  17. Lead generation using pharmacophore mapping and three-dimensional database searching: application to muscarinic M(3) receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Marriott, D P; Dougall, I G; Meghani, P; Liu, Y J; Flower, D R

    1999-08-26

    By using a pharmacophore model, a geometrical representation of the features necessary for molecules to show a particular biological activity, it is possible to search databases containing the 3D structures of molecules and identify novel compounds which may possess this activity. We describe our experiences of establishing a working 3D database system and its use in rational drug design. By using muscarinic M(3) receptor antagonists as an example, we show that it is possible to identify potent novel lead compounds using this approach. Pharmacophore generation based on the structures of known M(3) receptor antagonists, 3D database searching, and medium-throughput screening were used to identify candidate compounds. Three compounds were chosen to define the pharmacophore: a lung-selective M(3) antagonist patented by Pfizer and two Astra compounds which show affinity at the M(3) receptor. From these, a pharmacophore model was generated, using the program DISCO, and this was used subsequently to search a UNITY 3D database of proprietary compounds; 172 compounds were found to fit the pharmacophore. These compounds were then screened, and 1-[2-(2-(diethylamino)ethoxy)phenyl]-2-phenylethanone (pA(2) 6.67) was identified as the best hit, with N-[2-(piperidin-1-ylmethyl)cycohexyl]-2-propoxybenz amide (pA(2) 4. 83) and phenylcarbamic acid 2-(morpholin-4-ylmethyl)cyclohexyl ester (pA(2) 5.54) demonstrating lower activity. As well as its potency, 1-[2-(2-(diethylamino)ethoxy)phenyl]-2-phenylethanone is a simple structure with limited similarity to existing M(3) receptor antagonists.

  18. Image-Subtraction Photometry of the Globular Cluster M3: Identification of New Double-Mode RR Lyrae Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clementini, Gisella; Corwin, T. Michael; Carney, Bruce W.; Sumerel, Andrew N.

    2004-02-01

    We have applied the image subtraction method of Alard and Lupton to the extensive M3 data set previously analyzed by Corwin and Carney using DAOPHOT and ALLSTAR. This new analysis has produced light curves and periods for 15 variables not found in the previous study but already known to be variables, and it has also resulted in improved periods for several other variables. The additional variables recovered with the image subtraction analysis are in the very central region of M3, where crowding is severe and the photometry was not of sufficient quality that it could be put on the standard system. The present study brings to 222 the total number of RR Lyrae variables in Corwin and Carney's M3 data set for which light curves and periods are available. Among them we have identified three new candidate double-mode pulsating variables (V13, V200, and V251), reported here for the first time. This brings to eight the total number of double-mode RR Lyrae (RRd's) identified in M3. Of the newly discovered RRd's V13 is unusual in that it has the fundamental as the dominant pulsation mode. M3 is unique among the globular clusters in having RRd variables with a dominant fundamental mode. Two of the new candidate RRd's (V13 and V200) have period ratios as low as 0.738-0.739. They lie well separated from all previously known double-mode variable stars in the Petersen diagram in positions implying a large spread in mass and/or, less likely, in heavy element mass fraction, among the M3 horizontal-branch (HB) stars. We explore mass transfer and helium enhancement as possible explanations for the apparent spread in HB masses. We also note that the masses derived from the double-mode analyses now favor little mass loss on the red giant branch. We find that V200 has changed its dominant pulsation mode from fundamental to first overtone, while V251 has changed its dominant mode from first overtone to fundamental in the interval 1992 to 1993. Together with M3-V166 this is the first time

  19. A synthetic snRNA m3G-CAP enhances nuclear delivery of exogenous proteins and nucleic acids.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Pedro M D; Wenska, Malgorzata; Lundin, Karin E; Wrange, Orjan; Strömberg, Roger; Smith, C I Edvard

    2009-04-01

    Accessing the nucleus through the surrounding membrane poses one of the major obstacles for therapeutic molecules large enough to be excluded due to nuclear pore size limits. In some therapeutic applications the large size of some nucleic acids, like plasmid DNA, hampers their access to the nuclear compartment. However, also for small oligonucleotides, achieving higher nuclear concentrations could be of great benefit. We report on the synthesis and possible applications of a natural RNA 5'-end nuclear localization signal composed of a 2,2,7-trimethylguanosine cap (m(3)G-CAP). The cap is found in the small nuclear RNAs that are constitutive part of the small nuclear ribonucleoprotein complexes involved in nuclear splicing. We demonstrate the use of the m(3)G signal as an adaptor that can be attached to different oligonucleotides, thereby conferring nuclear targeting capabilities with capacity to transport large-size cargo molecules. The synthetic capping of oligos interfering with splicing may have immediate clinical applications.

  20. Electrochemical properties of mixed conducting (La,M)(CoFe) oxide perovskites (M=3DSr, Ca, and Ba)

    SciTech Connect

    Stevenson, J.W.; Armstrong, T.R.; Bates, J.L.

    1996-04-01

    Electrical properties and oxygen permeation properties of solid mixed-conducting electrolytes (La,M)(CoFe) oxide perovskites (M=3DSr, Ca, and Ba) have been characterized. These materials are potentially useful as passive membranes to separate high purity oxygen from air and as the cathode in a fuel cell. Dilatometric linear expansion measurements were performed as a function of temperature and oxygen partial pressure to evaluate the stability.

  1. Meeting Report: "Metagenomics, Metadata and Meta-analysis" (M3) Workshop at the Pacific Symposium on Biocomputing 2010.

    PubMed

    Hirschman, Lynette; Sterk, Peter; Field, Dawn; Wooley, John; Cochrane, Guy; Gilbert, Jack; Kolker, Eugene; Kyrpides, Nikos; Meyer, Folker; Mizrachi, Ilene; Nakamura, Yasukazu; Sansone, Susanna-Assunta; Schriml, Lynn; Tatusova, Tatiana; White, Owen; Yilmaz, Pelin

    2010-06-15

    This report summarizes the M3 Workshop held at the January 2010 Pacific Symposium on Biocomputing. The workshop, organized by Genomic Standards Consortium members, included five contributed talks, a series of short presentations from stakeholders in the genomics standards community, a poster session, and, in the evening, an open discussion session to review current projects and examine future directions for the GSC and its stakeholders.

  2. Biphasic MO2+x-M3O8-z domain of the U-Pu-O phase diagram.

    PubMed

    Strach, Michal; Belin, Renaud C; Richaud, Jean-Christophe; Rogez, Jacques

    2015-09-21

    The reduction of six mixed-oxide samples containing 14, 24, 35, 46, 54, and 62 mol % Pu was studied in situ by X-ray diffraction. The samples were first oxidized in air and subsequently reduced in a controlled atmosphere corresponding to a stoichiometric composition with an O/M = 2.00. After oxidation, we observed two structures, one cubic and one orthorhombic, MO2+x and M3O8-z. The two phases were subsequently reduced back to their stoichiometric O/M = 2.00 in a controlled atmosphere. The plutonium contents of the two resulting cubic structures differed from the initial one. We conclude that strong cation transport took place during oxidation, according to the shape of the tie lines in the biphasic MO2+x/M4O9-M3O8-z domain. The resulting overall O/M after oxidation was estimated. We propose the shape of the tie lines in the aforementioned biphasic domain and suggest a maximal plutonium solubility in the M3O8 structure at 8 ± 2 mol % (Pu/U + Pu) at 1573 K. PMID:26360606

  3. Drop by drop backscattered signal of a 50 × 50 × 50 m3 volume: A numerical experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gires, A.; Tchiguirinskaia, I.; Schertzer, D.

    2016-09-01

    The goal of this paper is to analyse the influence of individual drop positions on a backscattered radar signal. This is achieved through a numerical experiment: a 3D rain drop field generator is developed and implemented over a volume of 50 × 50 × 50 m3, and then the sum of the electromagnetic waves backscattered by its hydrometeors is computed. Finally the temporal evolution over 1 s is modelled with simplistic assumptions. For the rainfall generator, the liquid water content (LWC) distribution is represented with the help of a multiplicative cascade down to 0.5 m, below which it is considered as homogeneous. Within each 0.5 × 0.5 × 0.5 m3 patch, liquid water is distributed into drops, located randomly uniformly according to a pre-defined drop size distribution (DSD). Such configuration is compared with the one consisting of the same drops being uniformly distributed over the entire 50 × 50 × 50 m3 volume. Due to the fact that the radar wave length is much smaller than the size of a rainfall "patch", it appears that, in agreement with the theory, we retrieve an exponential distribution for potential measures on horizontal reflectivity. Much thinner dispersion is noticed for differential reflectivity. We show that a simple ballistic assumption for drop velocities does not enable the reproduction of radar observations, and turbulence should be taken into account. Finally the sensitivity of these outputs to the various model parameters is quantified.

  4. Pilocarpine modulates the cellular electrical properties of mammalian hearts by activating a cardiac M3 receptor and a K+ current

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Huizhen; Shi, Hong; Lu, Yanjie; Yang, Baofeng; Wang, Zhiguo

    1999-01-01

    Pilocarpine, a muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) agonist, is widely used for treatment of xerostomia and glaucoma. It can also cause many other cellular responses by activating different subtypes of mAChRs in different tissues. However, the potential role of pilocarpine in modulating cardiac function remained unstudied.We found that pilocarpine produced concentration-dependent (0.1–10 μM) decrease in sinus rhythm and action potential duration, and hyperpolarization of membrane potential in guinea-pig hearts. The effects were nearly completely reversed by 1 μM atropine or 2 nM 4DAMP methiodide (an M3-selective antagonist).Patch-clamp recordings in dispersed myocytes from guinea-pig and canine atria revealed that pilocarpine induces a novel K+ current with delayed rectifying properties. The current was suppressed by low concentrations of M3-selective antagonists 4DAMP methiodide (2–10 nM), 4DAMP mustard (4–20 nM, an ackylating agent) and p-F-HHSiD (20–200 nM). Antagonists towards other subtypes (M1, M2 or M4) all failed to alter the current.The affinity of pilocarpine (KD) at mAChRs derived from displacement binding of [3H]-NMS in the homogenates from dog atria was 2.2 μM (65% of the total binding) and that of 4DAMP methiodide was 2.8 nM (70% of total binding), consistent with the concentration of pilocarpine needed for the current induction and for the modulation of the cardiac electrical activity and the concentration of 4DAMP to block pilocarpine effects.Our data indicate, for the first time, that pilocarpine modulates the cellular electrical properties of the hearts, likely by activating a K+ current mediated by M3 receptors. PMID:10372814

  5. Scale-up of industrial biodiesel production to 40 m(3) using a liquid lipase formulation.

    PubMed

    Price, Jason; Nordblad, Mathias; Martel, Hannah H; Chrabas, Brent; Wang, Huali; Nielsen, Per Munk; Woodley, John M

    2016-08-01

    In this work, we demonstrate the scale-up from an 80 L fed-batch scale to 40 m(3) along with the design of a 4 m(3) continuous process for enzymatic biodiesel production catalyzed by NS-40116 (a liquid formulation of a modified Thermomyces lanuginosus lipase). Based on the analysis of actual pilot plant data for the transesterification of used cooking oil and brown grease, we propose a method applying first order integral analysis to fed-batch data based on either the bound glycerol or free fatty acid content in the oil. This method greatly simplifies the modeling process and gives an indication of the effect of mixing at the various scales (80 L to 40 m(3) ) along with the prediction of the residence time needed to reach a desired conversion in a CSTR. Suitable process metrics reflecting commercial performance such as the reaction time, enzyme efficiency, and reactor productivity were evaluated for both the fed-batch and CSTR cases. Given similar operating conditions, the CSTR operation on average, has a reaction time which is 1.3 times greater than the fed-batch operation. We also showed how the process metrics can be used to quickly estimate the selling price of the enzyme. Assuming a biodiesel selling price of 0.6 USD/kg and a one-time use of the enzyme (0.1% (w/woil ) enzyme dosage); the enzyme can then be sold for 30 USD/kg which ensures that that the enzyme cost is not more than 5% of the biodiesel revenue. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 1719-1728. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Adsorption of aromatics on the (111) surface of PtM and PtM3 (M = Fe, Ni) alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Hensley, Alyssa; Schneider, Sebastian; Wang, Yong; McEwen, Jean-Sabin

    2015-09-18

    The adsorption of benzene and phenol was studied on PtM and PtM3 (111) surfaces, with M being either Ni or Fe. Under vacuum, the most favorable near surface structures showed an enrichment in Pt over the M species. An analysis of the electronic structure of the metal species in the clean surfaces with different near surface structures was done with the d-band model and showed that the Pt's d-states are significantly shifted away from the Fermi level due to the Pt-M interactions while the M species' d-states were less affected, with Ni's d-band shifting closer to the Fermi level and Fe's d-band shifting away from the Fermi level. The adsorption of aromatics, benzene and phenol, on several near surface structures for the PtM and PtM3 (111) surfaces showed that higher surface M concentrations resulted in a stronger adsorption due to the larger amount of charge transferred between the adsorbate and surface. However, compared to the adsorption of benzene and phenol on monometallic surfaces, the adsorption of these species on the PtM and PtM3 (111) surfaces was significantly weakened. Overall, our results show that the observed behavior of these Pt/Fe and Pt/Ni alloys is similar to that seen for the previously studied Pd/Fe surfaces. Furthermore, balancing the weakly adsorbing Pt surface species with the more strongly interacting Fe or Ni species can lead to the tailored adsorption of aromatics with applications in both hydrodeoxygenation and hydrogenation reactions by increasing the desorption rate of wanted aromatic products.

  7. Scale-up of industrial biodiesel production to 40 m(3) using a liquid lipase formulation.

    PubMed

    Price, Jason; Nordblad, Mathias; Martel, Hannah H; Chrabas, Brent; Wang, Huali; Nielsen, Per Munk; Woodley, John M

    2016-08-01

    In this work, we demonstrate the scale-up from an 80 L fed-batch scale to 40 m(3) along with the design of a 4 m(3) continuous process for enzymatic biodiesel production catalyzed by NS-40116 (a liquid formulation of a modified Thermomyces lanuginosus lipase). Based on the analysis of actual pilot plant data for the transesterification of used cooking oil and brown grease, we propose a method applying first order integral analysis to fed-batch data based on either the bound glycerol or free fatty acid content in the oil. This method greatly simplifies the modeling process and gives an indication of the effect of mixing at the various scales (80 L to 40 m(3) ) along with the prediction of the residence time needed to reach a desired conversion in a CSTR. Suitable process metrics reflecting commercial performance such as the reaction time, enzyme efficiency, and reactor productivity were evaluated for both the fed-batch and CSTR cases. Given similar operating conditions, the CSTR operation on average, has a reaction time which is 1.3 times greater than the fed-batch operation. We also showed how the process metrics can be used to quickly estimate the selling price of the enzyme. Assuming a biodiesel selling price of 0.6 USD/kg and a one-time use of the enzyme (0.1% (w/woil ) enzyme dosage); the enzyme can then be sold for 30 USD/kg which ensures that that the enzyme cost is not more than 5% of the biodiesel revenue. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 1719-1728. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26806356

  8. Globular cluster photometry with the Hubble Space Telescope. 3: Blue stragglers and variable stars in the core of M3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guhathakurta, Puragra; Yanny, Brian; Bahcall, John N.; Schneider, Donald P.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/Planetary Camera-I images of the core of the dense globular cluster M3 (NGC 5272). Stellar photometry in the F555W (V) and F785LP (I) bands, with a 1-sigma photometric accuracy of about 0.1 mag, has been used to construct color-magnitude diagrams of about 4700 stars above the main-sequence turnoff within r less than or approximately equal to 1 min of the cluster center. We have also analyzed archival HST F336W (U) images of M3 obtained by the Wide Field/Planetary Camera-I Instrument Definition Team. The UVI data are used to identify 28 blue straggler (BS) stars within the central 0.29 sq. arcmin. The specific frequency of BSs in this region of M3, N(sub BS)/N(sub V less than (V(HB)+2)) = 0.094 +/- 0.019, is about a factor of 2 - 3 higher than that found by Bolte et al. in a recent ground-based study of the same region, but comparable to that seen in the sparse outer parts of the same cluster and in HST observations of the core of the higher density cluster 47 Tuc. The BSs in M3 are slightly more centrally concentrated than red giant branch stars while horizontal branch stars are somewhat less concentrated red giants. The radial distribution of V-selected subgiant and turnoff stars is well fit by a King model with a core radius r(sub core) = 28 arcmin +/- 2 arcmin (90% confidence limits), which corresponds to 1.4 pc. Red giant and horizontal branch stars selected in the ultraviolet data (U less than 18) have a somewhat more compact distribution (r(sub core) = 22.5 arcmin). The HST U data consist of 17 exposures acquired over a span of three days. We have used these data to isolate 40 variable stars for which relative astrometry, brightnesses, colors, and light curves are presented. A Kolmogorov-Smirnov test indicates that, typically, the variability for each star is significant at the 95% level. We identify two variable BS candidates (probably of the SX Phe type), out of a sample of approximately 25 BSs in which

  9. Successful management of pulmonary hemorrhage and aspergillosis in a patient with acute myeloid leukemia (AML-M3).

    PubMed

    Gunbatar, Hulya; Demir, Cengiz; Kara, Erdal; Esen, Ramazan; Sertogullarindan, Bunyamin; Asker, Selvi

    2015-01-01

    A 35-year-old man presented with a one month history of gingival bleeding. He was diagnosed with Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML-M3). During treatment he developed alveolar hemorrhage for which he was treated with a steroid. After the steroid treatment he developed a nodule, a cavitary lesion and atelectasia in the left lung. He was treated with voriconazole. After therapy with voriconazole his lesion significantly decreased. This case illustrates the efficacy and safety of antifungal therapy with voriconazole for aspergillosis complicated by AML. PMID:26744658

  10. Successful management of pulmonary hemorrhage and aspergillosis in a patient with acute myeloid leukemia (AML-M3)

    PubMed Central

    Gunbatar, Hulya; Demir, Cengiz; Kara, Erdal; Esen, Ramazan; Sertogullarindan, Bunyamin; Asker, Selvi

    2015-01-01

    A 35-year-old man presented with a one month history of gingival bleeding. He was diagnosed with Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML-M3). During treatment he developed alveolar hemorrhage for which he was treated with a steroid. After the steroid treatment he developed a nodule, a cavitary lesion and atelectasia in the left lung. He was treated with voriconazole. After therapy with voriconazole his lesion significantly decreased. This case illustrates the efficacy and safety of antifungal therapy with voriconazole for aspergillosis complicated by AML. PMID:26744658

  11. Machining of Christmas tree parts of 06Kh20N8M3D2L corrosion-resistant steel

    SciTech Connect

    Rubinov, S.R.; Balaoglanov, M.M.; Baluyants, E.G.

    1983-09-01

    To address the problem of corrosion cracking, equipment has been developed of 06Kh20N8M3D21 austenitic-ferritic corrosion-resistant multiply alloyed steel. But as this steel is difficult to machine investigations were made to determine the parameters and conditions for machining Christmas tree parts made of this steel. Turning, drilling, thread cutting, and milling are specified. The optimum conditions for machining Christmas tree parts were established in tests. The tests also showed that the coefficient of machinability of the steel is 3 or 4 times less than that of 20KhGSL steel, which is normally used for Christmas tree production.

  12. Multiwire proportional chambers in M1 and M3 spectrometers of charmed baryon experiment (E781) at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Kaya, Mithat; /Iowa U.

    1997-08-01

    The status of the multiwire proportional chambers in the FERMILAB E781 experiment and a general description of the readout system are given. This essay will describe the system of multiwire proportional chambers (MWPC) that are part of the Fermilab experiment E781 setup. Multiwire proportional chambers are often used in particle physics experiments because they can determine the position of charged particles very accurately (less than a millimeter). The E781 experiment which is also called SELEX (SEgmented LargE-X) is a spectrometer designed to study the production and decay of charmed baryons. MWPCs are part of the 3-stage charged particle spectrometer (Figure 1). Each spectrometer stage includes a bending magnet and chambers. More information about E781 experiment is given in the Appendix. In the following, some basic concepts of MWPCs will be given briefly. After that the multiwire proportional chambers (M1PWC and M3PWC) that are used in the E781 fixed target experiment will be described. Then a general description of the readout system for both M1PWC and M3PWC setups will follow. Finally the tests done on both sets of chambers will be explained in detail.

  13. M3-subtype muscarinic receptor that controls intracellular calcium release and inositol phosphate accumulation in gastric parietal cells.

    PubMed

    Leonard, A; Cuq, P; Magous, R; Bali, J P

    1991-07-25

    The muscarinic receptor subtype which triggers acid secretion was investigated in isolated rabbit gastric parietal cells. Cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i), measured with the fluorescent indicator FURA-2, increased rapidly after full agonist (carbachol) stimulation (6-8 sec), then returned to an intermediate sustained value. Other M2-agonists, oxotremorine and arecoline, produced a partial [Ca2+]i increase, whereas M1-agonists, pilocarpine and [4-m-chlorophenylcarbamoyloxyl]-2-butynyl-trimethylammonium, were without any significant effect. [Ca2+]i rise was inhibited by selective muscarinic antagonists: atropine greater than 4-diphenylacetoxy-N-methyl-piperidine methbromide greater than quinuclidinylbenzilate (QNB) greater than pirenzepine greater than 11-[[2-[(diethylamino)methyl]-1-piperidinyl]acetyl]-5,11-dihydro-6H- pyrido[2,3-b][1,4]benzodiazepine-6-one, this sequence being characteristic of the involvement of an M3-subtype. This inhibition was shown to be stereoselective; dexetimide and (-)QNB were more potent than levetimide and (+)QNB. The IC50 values for inhibition of [Ca2+]i increase by muscarinic antagonists were in good agreement with those obtained for inhibition of phospholipase C activation. In conclusion, the muscarinic receptor that controls acid secretion appears to be of the M3-subtype and the biochemical events coupled to the activation of this receptor system are also controlled through the same subtype. PMID:1651079

  14. Allosteric Effects of Sodium Ion Binding on Activation of the M3 Muscarinic G-Protein-Coupled Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Yinglong; Caliman, Alisha D.; McCammon, J. Andrew

    2015-01-01

    G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are important membrane proteins that mediate cellular signaling and represent primary targets for about one-third of currently marketed drugs. Recent x-ray crystallographic studies identified distinct conformations of GPCRs in the active and inactive states. An allosteric sodium ion was found bound to a highly conserved D2.50 residue in inactive GPCRs, whereas the D2.50 allosteric pocket became collapsed in active GPCR structures. However, the dynamic mechanisms underlying these observations remain elusive. In this study, we aimed to understand the mechanistic effects of sodium ion binding on dynamic activation of the M3 muscarinic GPCR through long-timescale accelerated molecular dynamics (aMD) simulations. Results showed that with the D2.50 residue deprotonated, the M3 receptor is bound by an allosteric sodium ion and confined mostly in the inactive state with remarkably reduced flexibility. In contrast, the D2.50-protonated receptor does not exhibit sodium ion binding to the D2.50 allosteric site and samples a significantly larger conformational space. The receptor activation is captured and characterized by large-scale structural rearrangements of the transmembrane helices via dynamic hydrogen bond and salt bridge interactions. The residue motions are highly correlated during receptor activation. Further network analysis revealed that the allosteric signaling between residue D2.50 and key residues in the intracellular, extracellular, and orthosteric pockets is significantly weakened upon sodium ion binding. PMID:25863070

  15. 43 CFR 10.8 - Summaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... REGULATIONS Human Remains, Funerary Objects, Sacred Objects, or Objects of Cultural Patrimony in Museums and... may contain unassociated funerary objects, sacred objects, or objects of cultural patrimony must... repatriation of such objects. The summary serves in lieu of an object-by-object inventory of these...

  16. 43 CFR 10.8 - Summaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NATIVE AMERICAN GRAVES PROTECTION AND REPATRIATION REGULATIONS Human Remains, Funerary Objects, Sacred Objects, or Objects of Cultural Patrimony in Museums and... may contain unassociated funerary objects, sacred objects, or objects of cultural patrimony...

  17. 43 CFR 10.8 - Summaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NATIVE AMERICAN GRAVES PROTECTION AND REPATRIATION REGULATIONS Human Remains, Funerary Objects, Sacred Objects, or Objects of Cultural Patrimony in Museums and... may contain unassociated funerary objects, sacred objects, or objects of cultural patrimony...

  18. 43 CFR 10.8 - Summaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... of a deceased Native American individual with whom unassociated funerary objects and sacred objects...: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NATIVE AMERICAN GRAVES PROTECTION AND REPATRIATION REGULATIONS Human Remains, Funerary Objects, Sacred Objects, or Objects of Cultural Patrimony in Museums...

  19. 43 CFR 10.8 - Summaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... of a deceased Native American individual with whom unassociated funerary objects and sacred objects...: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NATIVE AMERICAN GRAVES PROTECTION AND REPATRIATION REGULATIONS Human Remains, Funerary Objects, Sacred Objects, or Objects of Cultural Patrimony in Museums...

  20. 15 CFR 10.8 - Standing Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... practices relating to the standard. (e) The committee shall: (1) Keep itself informed of any advancing technology that might affect the standard; (2) Provide the Department with interpretations of provisions...

  1. 15 CFR 10.8 - Standing Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... practices relating to the standard. (e) The committee shall: (1) Keep itself informed of any advancing technology that might affect the standard; (2) Provide the Department with interpretations of provisions...

  2. 15 CFR 10.8 - Standing Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... practices relating to the standard. (e) The committee shall: (1) Keep itself informed of any advancing technology that might affect the standard; (2) Provide the Department with interpretations of provisions...

  3. 15 CFR 10.8 - Standing Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... practices relating to the standard. (e) The committee shall: (1) Keep itself informed of any advancing technology that might affect the standard; (2) Provide the Department with interpretations of provisions...

  4. The first rubidium rare-earth(III) thiophosphates: Rb 3M3[PS 4] 4 ( M=Pr, Er)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komm, Theresa; Schleid, Thomas

    2005-02-01

    The two non-isotypical rubidium rare-earth(III) thiophosphates Rb 3M3[PS 4] 4 of praseodymium and erbium can easily be obtained by the stoichiometric reaction of the respective rare-earth metal, red phosphorus and sulfur with an excess of rubidium bromide (RbBr) as flux and rubidium source at 950°C for 14 days in evacuated silica tubes. The pale green platelet-shaped single crystals of Rb 3Pr 3[PS 4] 4 as well as the pink rods of Rb 3Er 3[PS 4] 4 are moisture sensitive. Rb 3Pr 3[PS 4] 4 crystallizes triclinically in the space group P1¯ ( a=926.79(5) pm, b=1050.83(5) pm, c=1453.28(7) pm, α=84.329(4)°, β=88.008(4)°, γ=80.704(4)°; Z=2), Rb 3Er 3[PS 4] 4 monoclinically in the space group P21/n ( a=915.97(5) pm, b=1575.86(7) pm, c=1843.32(9) pm, β=95.601(6)°; Z=4). In both structures, there are three crystallographically different rare-earth cations present. ( M1) 3+ is eightfold coordinated in the shape of a square antiprism, ( M2) 3+ and ( M3) 3+ are both surrounded by eight sulfur atoms as bicapped trigonal prisms each with a coordination number of eight as well as for the praseodymium, but better described as CN=7+1 in the case of the erbium compound. These [ MS 8] 13- polyhedra form a layer according to ∞2{[M3[PS]4]} by sharing edges with the isolated [PS 4] 3- tetrahedra ( d(P-S)=200-209 pm, ∢(S-P-S)=102-116°). These layers are stacked with a repetition period of three in the case of the praseodymium compound, but of only two for the erbium analog. The rubidium cation (Rb1) + is located in cavities of these layers and tenfold coordinated in the shape of a tetracapped trigonal antiprism. The also tenfold but more irregularly coordinated rubidium cations (Rb2) + and (Rb3) + reside between the layers.

  5. M3 spectral analysis of lunar swirls and the link between optical maturation and surface hydroxyl formation at magnetic anomalies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kramer, G.Y.; Besse, S.; Dhingra, D.; Nettles, J.; Klima, R.; Garrick-Bethell, I.; Clark, R.N.; Combe, J.-P.; Head, J. W.; Taylor, L.A.; Pieters, C.M.; Boardman, J.; McCord, T.B.

    2011-01-01

    We examined the lunar swirls using data from the Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3). The improved spectral and spatial resolution of M3 over previous spectral imaging data facilitates distinction of subtle spectral differences, and provides new information about the nature of these enigmatic features. We characterized spectral features of the swirls, interswirl regions (dark lanes), and surrounding terrain for each of three focus regions: Reiner Gamma, Gerasimovich, and Mare Ingenii. We used Principle Component Analysis to identify spectrally distinct surfaces at each focus region, and characterize the spectral features that distinguish them. We compared spectra from small, recent impact craters with the mature soils into which they penetrated to examine differences in maturation trends on- and off-swirl. Fresh, on-swirl crater spectra are higher albedo, exhibit a wider range in albedos and have well-preserved mafic absorption features compared with fresh off-swirl craters. Albedoand mafic absorptions are still evident in undisturbed, on-swirl surface soils, suggesting the maturation process is retarded. The spectral continuum is more concave compared with off-swirl spectra; a result of the limited spectral reddening being mostly constrained to wavelengths less than ???1500 nm. Off-swirl spectra show very little reddening or change in continuum shape across the entire M3 spectral range. Off-swirl spectra are dark, have attenuated absorption features, and the narrow range in off-swirl albedos suggests off-swirl regions mature rapidly. Spectral parameter maps depicting the relative OH surface abundance for each of our three swirl focus regions were created using the depth of the hydroxyl absorption feature at 2.82 ??m. For each of the studied regions, the 2.82 ??m absorption feature is significantly weaker on-swirl than off-swirl, indicating the swirls are depleted in OH relative to their surroundings. The spectral characteristics of the swirls and adjacent terrains from

  6. Helix 8 and the i3 Loop of the Muscarinic M3 Receptor Are Crucial Sites for Its Regulation by the Gβ5-RGS7 Complex

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The muscarinic M3 receptor (M3R) is a Gq-coupled receptor and is known to interact with many intracellular regulatory proteins. One of these molecules is Gβ5-RGS7, the permanently associated heterodimer of G protein β-subunit Gβ5 and RGS7, a regulator of G protein signaling. Gβ5-RGS7 can attenuate M3R-stimulated release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores or enhance the influx of Ca2+ across the plasma membrane. Here we show that deletion of amino acids 304–345 from the central portion of the i3 loop renders M3R insensitive to regulation by Gβ5-RGS7. In addition to the i3 loop, interaction of M3R with Gβ5-RGS7 requires helix 8. According to circular dichroism spectroscopy, the peptide corresponding to amino acids 548–567 in the C-terminus of M3R assumes an α-helical conformation. Substitution of Thr553 and Leu558 with Pro residues disrupts this α-helix and abolished binding to Gβ5-RGS7. Introduction of the double Pro substitution into full-length M3R (M3RTP/LP) prevents trafficking of the receptor to the cell surface. Using atropine or other antagonists as pharmacologic chaperones, we were able to increase the level of surface expression of the TP/LP mutant to levels comparable to that of wild-type M3R. However, M3R-stimulated calcium signaling is still severely compromised. These results show that the interaction of M3R with Gβ5-RGS7 requires helix 8 and the central portion of the i3 loop. PMID:25551629

  7. Helix 8 and the i3 loop of the muscarinic M3 receptor are crucial sites for its regulation by the Gβ5-RGS7 complex.

    PubMed

    Karpinsky-Semper, Darla; Tayou, Junior; Levay, Konstantin; Schuchardt, Brett J; Bhat, Vikas; Volmar, Claude-Henry; Farooq, Amjad; Slepak, Vladlen Z

    2015-02-01

    The muscarinic M3 receptor (M3R) is a Gq-coupled receptor and is known to interact with many intracellular regulatory proteins. One of these molecules is Gβ5-RGS7, the permanently associated heterodimer of G protein β-subunit Gβ5 and RGS7, a regulator of G protein signaling. Gβ5-RGS7 can attenuate M3R-stimulated release of Ca(2+) from intracellular stores or enhance the influx of Ca(2+) across the plasma membrane. Here we show that deletion of amino acids 304-345 from the central portion of the i3 loop renders M3R insensitive to regulation by Gβ5-RGS7. In addition to the i3 loop, interaction of M3R with Gβ5-RGS7 requires helix 8. According to circular dichroism spectroscopy, the peptide corresponding to amino acids 548-567 in the C-terminus of M3R assumes an α-helical conformation. Substitution of Thr553 and Leu558 with Pro residues disrupts this α-helix and abolished binding to Gβ5-RGS7. Introduction of the double Pro substitution into full-length M3R (M3R(TP/LP)) prevents trafficking of the receptor to the cell surface. Using atropine or other antagonists as pharmacologic chaperones, we were able to increase the level of surface expression of the TP/LP mutant to levels comparable to that of wild-type M3R. However, M3R-stimulated calcium signaling is still severely compromised. These results show that the interaction of M3R with Gβ5-RGS7 requires helix 8 and the central portion of the i3 loop.

  8. The ultraviolet spectrum of noncoronal late-type stars - The Gamma Crucis (M3.4 III) reference spectrum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, Kenneth G.; Pesce, Joseph E.; Stencel, Robert E.; Brown, Alexander; Johansson, Sveneric

    1988-01-01

    A guide is presented to the UV spectrum of M-type giants and supergiants whose outer atmospheres contain warm chromospheres but not coronae. The M3 giant Gamma Crucis is taken as the archetype of the cooler, oxygen-rich, noncoronal stars. Line identifications and integrated line flux measurements of the chromospheric emission features seen in the 1200-3200 A range of IUE high-resolution spectra are presented. The major fluorescence processes operating in the outer atmosphere of Gamma Crucis, including eight previously unknown pumping processes and 21 new fluorescent line products, are summarized, and the enhancements of selected line strengths by 'line leakage' is discussed. A set of absorption features toward the longer wavelength end of this range is identified which can be used to characterize the radial velocity of the stellar photospheres. The applicability of the results to the spectra of noncoronal stars with different effective temperatures and gravities is discussed.

  9. Anomalous Hall hysteresis in T m3F e5O12/Pt with strain-induced perpendicular magnetic anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Chi; Sellappan, Pathikumar; Liu, Yawen; Xu, Yadong; Garay, Javier E.; Shi, Jing

    2016-10-01

    We demonstrate robust interface strain-induced perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in atomically flat ferrimagnetic insulator T m3F e5O12 (TIG) films grown with pulsed laser deposition on a substituted G d3G a5O12 substrate which maximizes the tensile strain at the interface. In bilayers consisting of Pt and TIG, we observe large squared Hall hysteresis loops over a wide range of thicknesses of Pt at room temperature. When a thin Cu layer is inserted between Pt and TIG, the Hall hysteresis magnitude decays but stays finite as the thickness of Cu increases up to 5 nm. However, if the Cu layer is placed atop Pt instead, the Hall hysteresis magnitude is consistently larger than when the Cu layer with the same thickness is inserted in between for all Cu thicknesses. These results suggest that both the proximity-induced ferromagnetism and spin current contribute to the anomalous Hall effect.

  10. Multiple stellar populations in the globular cluster M3 (NGC 5272): a Strömgren perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massari, Davide; Lapenna, Emilio; Bragaglia, Angela; Dalessandro, Emanuele; Contreras Ramos, Rodrigo; Amigo, Pía

    2016-06-01

    We present Strömgren photometry of the Galactic Globular Cluster M3 to study its multiple generations phenomenon. The use of different colour-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) and especially of the notoriously efficient cy index allowed us to detect a double red giant branch in the cluster CMD. After decontamination from fore- and background sources, the two sequences turned out to be equally populated. The two components also show a bimodal radial distribution well corresponding to that predicted by numerical simulations for clusters living in an intermediate dynamical evolutive state and with a population with modified chemical composition that was born more centrally concentrated than the primordial. The analysis of high-resolution spectra quantitatively demonstrates that the two detected sequences correspond to the first (Na-poor) generation and the second (Na-rich) generation, thus confirming the importance of synergy between photometry and spectroscopy.

  11. L-689,660, a novel cholinomimetic with functional selectivity for M1 and M3 muscarinic receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Hargreaves, R. J.; McKnight, A. T.; Scholey, K.; Newberry, N. R.; Street, L. J.; Hutson, P. H.; Semark, J. E.; Harley, E. A.; Patel, S.; Freedman, S. B.

    1992-01-01

    1. L-689,660, 1-azabicyclo[2.2.2]octane, 3-(6-chloropyrazinyl)maleate, a novel cholinomimetic, demonstrated high affinity binding (pKD (apparent) 7.42) at rat cerebral cortex muscarinic receptors. L-689,660 had a low ratio (34) of pKD (apparent) values for the displacement of binding of the antagonist ([3H]-N-methylscopolamine ([3H]-NMS) compared with the displacement of the agonist [3H]-oxotremorine-M ([3H]-Oxo-M), in rat cerebral cortex. Low NMS/Oxo-M ratios have been shown previously to be a characteristic of compounds that are low efficacy partial agonists with respect to stimulation of phosphatidyl inositol turnover in the cerebral cortex. 2. L-689,660 showed no muscarinic receptor subtype selectivity in radioligand binding assays but showed functional selectivity in pharmacological assays. At M1 muscarinic receptors in the rat superior cervical ganglion, L-689,660 was a potent (pEC50 7.3 +/- 0.2) full agonist in comparison with (+/-)-muscarine. At M3 receptors in the guinea-pig ileum myenteric plexus-longitudinal muscle or in trachea, L-689,660 was again a potent agonist (pEC50 7.5 +/- 0.2 and 7.7 +/- 0.3 respectively) but had a lower maximum response than carbachol. In contrast L-689,660 was an antagonist at M2 receptors in guinea-pig atria (pA2 7.2 (95% confidence limits 7, 7.4)) and at muscarinic autoreceptors in rat hippocampal slices. 3. The putative M1-selective muscarinic agonist, AF102B (cis-2-methylspiro-(1,3-oxathiolane 5,3')-quinuclidine hydrochloride) was found to have a profile similar to L-689,660 but had up to 100 times less affinity in binding and functional assays.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1422595

  12. Activation of T84 cell chloride channels by carbachol involves a phosphoinositide-coupled muscarinic M3 receptor.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, K E; Frizzell, R A; Sekar, M C

    1992-04-10

    Muscarinic agonists stimulate Cl- secretion across monolayers of the colon tumor epithelial cell line, T84. The muscarinic receptor has been characterized in T84 cell homogenates by radioligand binding using [3H]N-methylscopolamine ([3H]NMS). [3H]NMS bound to a single population of sites at 25 degrees C in 100 mM NaCl, 20 mM HEPES, 10 mM MgCl2, pH 7.4 buffer, with calculated Kd = 278 (+/- 44) pM and Bmax = 40 (+/- 6) fmol/mg protein (n = 4). Binding was reversible (diss. t1/2 = 18 +/- 3 min) and stereoselective (dexetimide Ki = 0.3 nM) much greater than levetimide (Ki = 8300 nM). Antagonists exhibited the following rank order of potencies and Ki values (nM): atropine (0.54) greater than 4-diphenylacetoxy-N-methylpiperidine methobromide (4-DAMP) (0.84) greater than dicyclomine (14) = hexahydrosiladifenidol (18) greater than pirenzepine (136) greater than AF-DX 116 (3610). The same sequence was observed for inhibition of carbachol-induced 125I efflux from T84 monolayers. This is indicative of an M3 'glandular' muscarinic receptor. Coupling to second messenger systems was examined by labelling monolayers with [14C]arachidonic acid (AA) or [3H]inositol. Carbachol (0.3 mM) did not release [14C]AA from labelled lipids, but ionomycin produced a dose-dependent increase in media [14C]AA. Carbachol (0.3 mM) elevated inositol monophosphate 14-fold. The results suggest that muscarinic agonists stimulate Cl- secretion by interacting with an M3 receptor coupled to inositide lipid hydrolysis. PMID:1379932

  13. Magnetic and structural phase transitions of multiferroic boracites M3B7O13X (M =3 d transition metal Cr-Zn or Mg; X =halogen Cl, Br, I)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnelle, Walter; Schmid, Hans

    2015-05-01

    The specific heat capacity of mostly single-crystalline samples of 21 boracite compounds M3B7O13X with M a 3 d transition metal (Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn) or Mg and X a halogen (Cl, Br, I) is determined. In combination with magnetic susceptibility data the magnetic ordering of the M2 + ions at TN is investigated in detail. The fully ferroelectric/fully ferroelastic structural phase transitions at higher temperatures are measured by differential scanning calorimetry. In the Cr-Br, Cr-I, Cu-Cl, and Cu-Br compounds, previously unknown magnetic phases were found. Magnetic order in the boracites is characterized by the quantum and classical spin states of the M2 + ions, a variable degree of structural distortion, orbital effects, and competing exchange interactions. The Cu-Cl, Cu-Br, and Ni-Cl boracites exhibit broad maxima of magnetic specific heat and of magnetic susceptibility above TN caused by low-dimensional or frustrated magnetic interactions. Co boracites display additional broad anomalies below TN originating from continuous spin reorientations and effective S =1 /2 ground states. Indications for spin reorientations are also observed for Fe boracites. New phases appear in high magnetic fields for some Co and Fe boracites, which is not the case for the Mn compounds. Stronger magnetic frustration is deduced for the cubic Cr compounds. For the latter compounds and Ni-I boracite magnetostructural phase transitions are observed.

  14. Molecular organization of the complex between the muscarinic M3 receptor and the regulator of G protein signaling, Gbeta(5)-RGS7.

    PubMed

    Sandiford, Simone L; Wang, Qiang; Levay, Konstantin; Buchwald, Peter; Slepak, Vladlen Z

    2010-06-22

    The complex of the regulator of G protein signaling (RGS), Gbeta(5)-RGS7, can inhibit signal transduction via the M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (M3R). RGS7 consists of three distinct structural entities: the DEP domain and its extension DHEX, the Ggamma-like (GGL) domain, which is permanently bound to Gbeta subunit Gbeta(5), and the RGS domain responsible for the interaction with Galpha subunits. Inhibition of the M3R by Gbeta(5)-RGS7 is independent of the RGS domain but requires binding of the DEP domain to the third intracellular loop of the receptor. Recent studies identified the dynamic intramolecular interaction between the Gbeta(5) and DEP domains, which suggested that the Gbeta(5)-RGS7 dimer could alternate between the "open" and "closed" conformations. Here, we identified point mutations that weaken DEP-Gbeta(5) binding, presumably stabilizing the open state, and tested their effects on the interaction of Gbeta(5)-RGS7 with the M3R. We found that these mutations facilitated binding of Gbeta(5)-RGS7 to the recombinant third intracellular loop of the M3R but did not enhance its ability to inhibit M3R-mediated Ca(2+) mobilization. This led us to the idea that the M3R can effectively induce the Gbeta(5)-RGS7 dimer to open; such a mechanism would require a region of the receptor distinct from the third loop. Indeed, we found that the C-terminus of M3R interacts with Gbeta(5)-RGS7. Truncation of the C-terminus rendered the M3R insensitive to inhibition by wild-type Gbeta(5)-RGS7; however, the open mutant of Gbeta(5)-RGS7 was able to inhibit signaling by the truncated M3R. The GST fusion of the M3R C-tail could not bind to wild-type Gbeta(5)-RGS7 but could associate with its open mutant as well as with the separated recombinant DEP domain or Gbeta(5). Taken together, our data are consistent with the following model: interaction of the M3R with Gbeta(5)-RGS7 causes the DEP domain and Gbeta(5) to dissociate from each other and bind to the C-tail, and the DEP

  15. Electronic and structural properties of M3(HITP)2 (M = Ni, Cu and Co) metal-organic frameworks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silveira, Orlando; Chacham, Helio; Alexandre, Simone

    Theoretical and experimental works have demonstrated that electrical and structural properties of metal-organic frameworks (MOF) can be significantly changed by the identity of the metal center, leading to a potential strategy for tuning the selectivity of the material toward different types of technological applications. In this work, we use first principle calculations to investigate the electronic properties of 2D MOF M3(HITP)2 (M is Ni, Cu and Co and HITP = 2,3,6,7,10,11 - hexaiminotriphenylene). Our results show that for M=Ni and Co, the structures are perfect planar and there is a full charge delocalization in the 2D plane of stacking due to the predominance of π - π bonding. The band structure for M = Ni shows that this material is a semiconductor with an indirect band gap of 132 meV, whilst for M = Co the band structure shows that this material is a ferromagnetic semiconductor with a direct band gap of 386 meV for spin down and a indirect band gap of 246 meV for spin up. For M=Cu, the material is a metal and adopts a distorted structure due to a different hybridization of the metal atom in comparison with its counterparts. We also propose a tight binding model that can represent the electronic structure near the Fermi level of this family of MOF.

  16. Reactor performance of a 750 m(3) anaerobic digestion plant: varied substrate input conditions impacting methanogenic community.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Andreas Otto; Malin, Cornelia; Lins, Philipp; Gstraunthaler, Gudrun; Illmer, Paul

    2014-10-01

    A 750 m(3) anaerobic digester was studied over a half year period including a shift from good reactor performance to a reduced one. Various abiotic parameters like volatile fatty acids (VFA) (formic-, acetic-, propionic-, (iso-)butyric-, (iso-)valeric-, lactic acid), total C, total N, NH4 -N, and total proteins, as well as the organic matter content and dry mass were determined. In addition several process parameters such as temperature, pH, retention time and input of substrate and the concentrations of CH4, H2, CO2 and H2S within the reactor were monitored continuously. The present study aimed at the investigation of the abundance of acetogens and total cell numbers and the microbial methanogenic community as derived from PCR-dHPLC analysis in order to put it into context with the determined abiotic parameters. An influence of substrate quantity on the efficiency of the anaerobic digestion process was found as well as a shift from a hydrogenotrophic in times of good reactor performance towards an acetoclastic dominated methanogenic community in times of reduced reactor performance. After the change in substrate conditions it took the methano-archaeal community about 5-6 weeks to be affected but then changes occurred quickly.

  17. The photospheric magnetic field of the dM3.5e flare star AD Leonis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saar, S. H.; Linsky, J. L.

    1985-01-01

    A high-resolution infrared spectrum of the dM3.5e flare star AD Leo, obtained with the Kitt Peak 4 m Fourier Transform Spectrometer, clearly shows the presence of strong magnetic fields. Five absorption lines in the 4400-4600 per cm region have been modeled, and it is inferred that 73 percent + or - 6 percent of the surface of AD Leo is covered by active regions outside of dark spots containing a mean field strength of 3800 + or - 260 G. If these active regions are brighter than the quiet photosphere, the surface filling factor will be somewhat smaller. Since simultaneous H-alpha observations exhibited no evidence of flares, the observations probably represent the quiescent magnetic flux level. The inferred field strength is consistent with equipartition of magnetic and thermal pressures in the photosphere and is similar to values derived using the scaling laws of Golub. The large observed filling factor is consistent with efficient dynamo generation of magnetic flux in this rapidly rotating star.

  18. Tests of shielding effectiveness of Kevlar and Nextel onboard the International Space Station and the Foton-M3 capsule.

    PubMed

    Pugliese, M; Bengin, V; Casolino, M; Roca, V; Zanini, A; Durante, M

    2010-08-01

    Radiation assessment and protection in space is the first step in planning future missions to the Moon and Mars, where mission and number of space travelers will increase and the protection of the geomagnetic shielding against the cosmic radiation will be absent. In this framework, the shielding effectiveness of two flexible materials, Kevlar and Nextel, were tested, which are largely used in the construction of spacecrafts. Accelerator-based tests clearly demonstrated that Kevlar is an excellent shield for heavy ions, close to polyethylene, whereas Nextel shows poor shielding characteristics. Measurements on flight performed onboard of the International Space Station and of the Foton-M3 capsule have been carried out with special attention to the neutron component; shielded and unshielded detectors (thermoluminescence dosemeters, bubble detectors) were exposed to a real radiation environment to test the shielding properties of the materials under study. The results indicate no significant effects of shielding, suggesting that thin shields in low-Earth Orbit have little effect on absorbed dose.

  19. Pyroxene-type compounds NaM3+Ge2O6, with M = Ga, Mn, Sc and In.

    PubMed

    Redhammer, Günther J; Tippelt, Gerold

    2014-09-01

    The four title compounds, namely sodium gallium germanate, NaGaGe2O6, sodium manganese vanadate germanate, NaMnV0.1Ge1.9O6, sodium scandium germanate, NaScGe2O6, and sodium indium germanate, NaInGe2O6, adopt the high-temperature structure of the pyroxene-type chain germanates, with monoclinic symmetry and space group C2/c. The lattice parameters, the individual and average bond lengths involving M1, and the distortion parameters scale well with the ionic radius of the M1 cation. NaGaGe2O6 has more distorted M1 sites and more extended tetrahedral chains than NaInGe2O6, in which a high degree of kinking is required to maintain the connection between the octahedral and tetrahedral building units of the pyroxene structure. An exceptional case is NaMnGe2O6, in which the strong Jahn-Teller effect of Mn(3+) results in more distorted octahedral sites than expected according to linear extrapolation from the other NaM(3+)Ge2O6 pyroxenes. In contrast with the literature, minor incorporations of V(5+) in the tetrahedral site and a corresponding reduction of Mn(3+) to Mn(2+) in the octahedral sites in the present sample lower the Jahn-Teller distortion and stabilize the Mn-bearing pyroxene, even allowing its synthesis at ambient pressure. PMID:25186356

  20. Signalling pathway leading to an activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase by stimulating M3 muscarinic receptor.

    PubMed

    Kim, J Y; Yang, M S; Oh, C D; Kim, K T; Ha, M J; Kang, S S; Chun, J S

    1999-01-15

    The signalling pathway leading to an activation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase subtypes Erk-1 and -2 upon stimulation of muscarinic receptor with carbachol in human neuroblastoma SK-N-BE2(C) cells was investigated. Carbachol activated Erk-1/-2 by stimulating M3 muscarinic receptor, as determined by specific antagonists for individual muscarinic receptors. The activation of Erk-1/-2 by carbachol was blocked by the inhibition or down-regulation of protein kinase C (PKC). Among the multiple PKC isoforms expressed in SK-N-BE2(C) cells, only PKCepsilon was activated by the treatment of carbachol, and selective down-regulation of PKCepsilon was sufficient to block Erk-1/-2 activation. Carbachol treatment induced activation of the serine/threonine protein kinase Raf, and an inhibition of Raf blocked Erk-1/-2 activation. Ectopic expression of inhibitory small GTPase Ras, RasN17, blocked the carbachol-induced Raf activation without affecting the activation of PKCepsilon, while the inhibition of PKC blocked the Raf activation. Thus, these results suggest that carbachol-induced activation of PKCepsilon mediates Erk-1/-2 activation by a sequential activation of Ras, Raf and MAP kinase kinase.

  1. Full Stokes observations in the He i 1083 nm spectral region covering an M3.2 flare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuckein, Christoph; Collados, Manuel; Sainz, Rafael Manso; Ramos, Andrés Asensio

    2015-10-01

    We present an exceptional data set acquired with the Vacuum Tower Telescope (Tenerife, Spain) covering the pre-flare, flare, and post-flare stages of an M3.2 flare. The full Stokes spectropolarimetric observations were recorded with the Tenerife Infrared Polarimeter in the He i 1083.0 nm spectral region. The object under study was active region NOAA 11748 on 2013 May 17. During the flare the chomospheric He i 1083.0 nm intensity goes strongly into emission. However, the nearby photospheric Si i 1082.7 nm spectral line profile only gets shallower and stays in absorption. Linear polarization (Stokes Q and U) is detected in all lines of the He i triplet during the flare. Moreover, the circular polarization (Stokes V) is dominant during the flare, being the blue component of the He i triplet much stronger than the red component, and both are stronger than the Si i Stokes V profile. The Si i inversions reveal enormous changes of the photospheric magnetic field during the flare. Before the flare magnetic field concentrations of up to ~1500 G are inferred. During the flare the magnetic field strength globally decreases and in some cases it is even absent. After the flare the magnetic field recovers its strength and initial configuration.

  2. An intracellular redox sensor for reactive oxygen species at the M3-M4 linker of GABAAρ1 receptors

    PubMed Central

    Beltrán González, Andrea N; Gasulla, Javier; Calvo, Daniel J

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are normally involved in cell oxidative stress but also play a role as cellular messengers in redox signalling; for example, modulating the activity of neurotransmitter receptors and ion channels. However, the direct actions of ROS on GABAA receptors were not previously demonstrated. In the present work, we studied the effects of ROS on GABAAρ1 receptor function. Experimental Approach GABAAρ1 receptors were expressed in oocytes and GABA-evoked responses electrophysiologically recorded in the presence or absence of ROS. Chemical protection of cysteines by selective sulfhydryl reagents and site-directed mutagenesis studies were used to identify protein residues involved in ROS actions. Key Results GABAAρ1 receptor-mediated responses were significantly enhanced in a concentration-dependent and reversible manner by H2O2. Potentiating effects were attenuated by a free radical scavenger, lipoic acid or an inhibitor of the Fenton reaction, deferoxamine. Each ρ1 subunit contains only three cysteine residues, two extracellular at the Cys-loop (C177 and C191) and one intracellular (C364) at the M3-M4 linker. Mutant GABAAρ1 receptors in which C364 was exchanged by alanine were completely insensitive to modulation, implying that this site, rather than a cysteine in the Cys-loop, is essential for ROS modulation. Conclusion and Implications Our results show that the function of GABAAρ1 receptors is enhanced by ROS and that the intracellular C364 is the sensor for ROS actions. PMID:24428763

  3. Acute effects of exposure to 1 mg/m(3) of vaporized 2-ethyl-1-hexanol in humans.

    PubMed

    Ernstgård, L; Norbäck, D; Nordquist, T; Wieslander, G; Wålinder, R; Johanson, G

    2010-04-01

    The objective was to assess acute effects from controlled exposure of volunteers to 2-ethyl-1-hexanol, a volatile organic compound that is often found in indoor air. Sixteen males and fourteen females were in random order exposed to 1 mg/m(3) of vapors of 2-ethyl-1-hexanol or to clean air (control exposure) in an exposure chamber during 2 h at rest. The subjects performed symptom ratings on Visual Analog Scales. During exposure to 2-ethyl-1-hexanol subjective ratings of smell and eye discomfort were minimally but significantly increased. Ratings of nasal irritation, throat irritation, headache, dyspnoea, fatigue, dizziness, nausea, and intoxication were not significantly affected. No exposure-related effects on measurement of blinking frequency by electromyography, measurement of the eye break-up time, vital staining of the eye, nasal lavage biomarkers, transfer tests, spirometric and rhinometric measures were seen. No differences in response were seen between sexes or between atopics and non-atopics. Practical Implications It is important to assess acute effects in volatile organic compounds like 2-ethyl-1-hexanol. 2-ethyl-1-hexanol is often found in indoor air generated by degradation of plastic building materials or in new buildings. There are associations between 2-ethyl-1-hexanol in indoor air and respiratory effects, eye irritation, headache, and blurred vision. A controlled chamber exposure study in acute effects was performed. In conclusion, this study showed weak subjective symptom of irritation in the eyes. PMID:20409194

  4. Mechanized welding of a Christmans tree of 06Kh20N8M3D2L steel

    SciTech Connect

    Leibzon, V.M.; kakhramanov, V.T.; Eshtokin, V.I.; Fataliev, S.O.; Fisher, V.O.; Pavlov, A.A.

    1986-03-01

    The most critical fitting of a well for the recovery of petroleum and gas with a high content of corrosive constituents is made of 06Kh20N8M3D2L steel. The quality, reliability, and life of a Christmas tree are determined primarily by the mechanical and corrosion properties of the weld joint. The authors report on the improvement of the existing method for welding the units of a Christmas tree. Argon and carbon dioxide were used as the protective medium in semiautomatic welding. The welding was done with a reverse polarity dc. An analysis of the data presented shows that the closest content to the base metal of chromium and nickel in the joint are provided in welding with OZL-41 electrodes. The molybdenum content in the joints welded with NZh-13 electrodes and Sv-08Kh19N10M38B wire in argon and carbon dioxide is at the level of the content of this element in the base metal.

  5. Tests of shielding effectiveness of Kevlar and Nextel onboard the International Space Station and the Foton-M3 capsule.

    PubMed

    Pugliese, M; Bengin, V; Casolino, M; Roca, V; Zanini, A; Durante, M

    2010-08-01

    Radiation assessment and protection in space is the first step in planning future missions to the Moon and Mars, where mission and number of space travelers will increase and the protection of the geomagnetic shielding against the cosmic radiation will be absent. In this framework, the shielding effectiveness of two flexible materials, Kevlar and Nextel, were tested, which are largely used in the construction of spacecrafts. Accelerator-based tests clearly demonstrated that Kevlar is an excellent shield for heavy ions, close to polyethylene, whereas Nextel shows poor shielding characteristics. Measurements on flight performed onboard of the International Space Station and of the Foton-M3 capsule have been carried out with special attention to the neutron component; shielded and unshielded detectors (thermoluminescence dosemeters, bubble detectors) were exposed to a real radiation environment to test the shielding properties of the materials under study. The results indicate no significant effects of shielding, suggesting that thin shields in low-Earth Orbit have little effect on absorbed dose. PMID:20364264

  6. Structure and Function of the Snail Statocyst System after Orbital Missions on Foton M-2 and M-3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balaban, P. M.; Malyshev, A. Y.; Ierusalimsky, V. N.; Aseev, N. A.; Korshunova, T. A.; Bravarenko, N. I.; Lemak, M. S.; Roschin, M. V.; Zakharov, I. S.; Popova, Y.; Boyle, R.

    2008-06-01

    In terrestrial gastropod snail Helix lucorum L. we studied the changes after a 16-day (Foton M-2) and 12-day (Foton M-3) exposure to microgravity in: behavior, neural responses to adequate motion stimulation, intersensory interactions between the photo- and the statocyst receptors, and in expression of the HPeP and FMRFa genes in the statoreceptors. Experiments were performed in the interval 13-30 hours after landing. In behavioral experiments it was found that the latency of body position response to sudden orientation change (90° pitch head-down from horizontal position) was significantly reduced in the postflight snails. Responses recorded extracellularly from the statocyst nerve to adequate motion stimulation in the postflight snails were independent of the motion direction, while in the control animals differences in responses to different directions were observed. In electrophysiological recordings it was possible to distinguish firing patterns of up to 11 of the 13 receptors that constitute the statocyst. A significantly higher firing rate in statocyst responses to body orientation at all tested speeds were observed in postflight snails, while in control snails similar dependence of statocyst responses on speed of body position change was observed, but firing rate at each speed was significantly less. Significant differences in the HPeP gene mRNA expression pattern in the statocyst receptor neurons were observed between postflight and control snails. No differences in expression of FMRFa gene expression was noted in the nervous system or statocyst after the flight. Results suggest a possibility to describe the subcellular mechanisms of changes in gravireceptors due to microgravity exposure using this simple model animal.

  7. Mineralogy of young lunar mare basalts: Assessment of temporal and spatial heterogeneity using M3 data from Chandrayaan-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varatharajan, Indhu; Srivastava, Neeraj; Murty, Sripada V. S.

    2014-07-01

    A comparative assessment of the mineralogy of young basalts (∼1.2 Ga to ∼2.8 Ga) from the western nearside, Moscoviense basin, and the Orientale basin of the Moon has been made using Level 2 Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) data from the Chandrayaan-1 mission. Spectral data characteristics of the individual units have been generated from fresh small craters to minimize the complications due to space weathering. Representative spectra for individual units and the derived spectral parameters (band centers and integrated band depth ratio) have been used to study composition of these young basalts. A modified approach of Gaffey et al. (Gaffey, M.J., Cloutis, E.A., Kelley, M.S., Reed, K.L. [2002]. Mineralogy of asteroids. In: Asteroids III. The University of Arizona Press, Tucson, pp. 183-204) (for olivine-pyroxene mixtures) and the methodology of Adams (Adams, J.B. [1974]. J. Geophys. Res. 79, 4829-4836. http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/JB079i032p04829) (for interpreting pyroxene type) have been used to improve our understanding of the spectral behavior of these basalts. Most of the young basalts of Oceanus Procellarum are characterized by abundant olivines and they show complex volcanic history. Vast exposures of olivine concentrated units having higher abundance of olivine content than high-Ca pyroxenes are emplaced in the northern Oceanus Procellarum region. Mostly, they show distinct stratigraphic gradation with the immediately underlying units of relatively lower olivine content. The Moscoviense unit shows signatures of Fe-rich glasses along with clinopyroxenes. The basalts of Orientale basin are typically devoid of olivine and are rich in high-Ca pyroxene. Thus, mineralogy of these mare basalts which erupted during the late stage volcanism vary across the Moon’s surface; however, broader observations reveal apparently higher FeO content in the younger basalts of western nearside and Orientale region.

  8. Draft Genome Sequence of the Bacteriocin-Producing Strain Enterococcus faecium M3K31, Isolated from Griffon Vultures (Gyps fulvus subsp. fulvus).

    PubMed

    Arbulu, Sara; Frantzen, Cyril; Lohans, Christopher T; Cintas, Luis M; Herranz, Carmen; Holo, Helge; Diep, Dzung B; Vederas, John C; Hernández, Pablo E

    2016-03-24

    Enterococcus faeciumM3K31 is a bacteriocinogenic lactic acid bacterium (LAB) isolated from griffon vulture (Gyps fulvussubsp.fulvus) feces. The draft genome sequence of this strain provides genetic data that support its biotechnological potential.

  9. Real-time fluid dynamics investigation and physiological response for erythromycin fermentation scale-up from 50 L to 132 m3 fermenter.

    PubMed

    Zou, Xiang; Xia, Jian-ye; Chu, Ju; Zhuang, Ying-ping; Zhang, Si-liang

    2012-06-01

    The physiological response of erythromycin fermentation scale-up from 50 L to 132 m(3) scale was investigated. A relatively high oxygen uptake rate (OUR) in early phase of fermentation was beneficial for erythromycin biosynthesis. Correspondingly, the maximal consistency coefficient (K) reflecting non-Newtonian fluid characteristics in 50 L and 132 m(3) fermenter also appeared in same phase. Fluid dynamics in different scale bioreactor was further investigated by real-time computational fluid dynamics modeling. The results of simulation showed that the impeller combination in 50 L fermenter could provide more modest flow field environment compared with that in 132 m(3) fermenter. The decrease of oxygen transfer rate (OTR) in 132 m(3) fermenter was the main cause for impairing cell physiological metabolism and erythromycin biosynthesis. These results were helpful for understanding the relationship between hydrodynamic environment and physiological response of cells in bioreactor during the scale-up of fermentation process. PMID:22139481

  10. Draft Genome Sequence of the Bacteriocin-Producing Strain Enterococcus faecium M3K31, Isolated from Griffon Vultures (Gyps fulvus subsp. fulvus)

    PubMed Central

    Arbulu, Sara; Frantzen, Cyril; Lohans, Christopher T.; Cintas, Luis M.; Herranz, Carmen; Holo, Helge; Diep, Dzung B.; Vederas, John C.

    2016-01-01

    Enterococcus faecium M3K31 is a bacteriocinogenic lactic acid bacterium (LAB) isolated from griffon vulture (Gyps fulvus subsp. fulvus) feces. The draft genome sequence of this strain provides genetic data that support its biotechnological potential. PMID:27013035

  11. Draft Genome Sequence of the Bacteriocin-Producing Strain Enterococcus faecium M3K31, Isolated from Griffon Vultures (Gyps fulvus subsp. fulvus).

    PubMed

    Arbulu, Sara; Frantzen, Cyril; Lohans, Christopher T; Cintas, Luis M; Herranz, Carmen; Holo, Helge; Diep, Dzung B; Vederas, John C; Hernández, Pablo E

    2016-01-01

    Enterococcus faeciumM3K31 is a bacteriocinogenic lactic acid bacterium (LAB) isolated from griffon vulture (Gyps fulvussubsp.fulvus) feces. The draft genome sequence of this strain provides genetic data that support its biotechnological potential. PMID:27013035

  12. Investigation of internal friction in fused quartz, steel, Plexiglass, and Westerly granite from 0.01 to 1.00 Hertz at 10- 8 to 10-7 strain amplitude.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hsi-Ping, Liu; Peselnick, L.

    1983-01-01

    A detailed evaluation on the method of internal friction measurement by the stress-strain hysteresis loop method from 0.01 to 1 Hz at 10-8-10-7 strain amplitude and 23.9oC is presented. Significant systematic errors in relative phase measurement can result from convex end surfaces of the sample and stress sensor and from end surface irregularities such as nicks and asperities. Preparation of concave end surfaces polished to optical smoothness having a radius of curvature >3.6X104 cm reduces the systematic error in relative phase measurements to <(5.5+ or -2.2)X10-4 radians. -from Authors

  13. Unique Footprint in the scl1.3 Locus Affects Adhesion and Biofilm Formation of the Invasive M3-Type Group A Streptococcus

    PubMed Central

    Bachert, Beth A.; Choi, Soo J.; LaSala, Paul R.; Harper, Tiffany I.; McNitt, Dudley H.; Boehm, Dylan T.; Caswell, Clayton C.; Ciborowski, Pawel; Keene, Douglas R.; Flores, Anthony R.; Musser, James M.; Squeglia, Flavia; Marasco, Daniela; Berisio, Rita; Lukomski, Slawomir

    2016-01-01

    The streptococcal collagen-like proteins 1 and 2 (Scl1 and Scl2) are major surface adhesins that are ubiquitous among group A Streptococcus (GAS). Invasive M3-type strains, however, have evolved two unique conserved features in the scl1 locus: (i) an IS1548 element insertion in the scl1 promoter region and (ii) a nonsense mutation within the scl1 coding sequence. The scl1 transcript is drastically reduced in M3-type GAS, contrasting with a high transcription level of scl1 allele in invasive M1-type GAS. This leads to a lack of Scl1 expression in M3 strains. In contrast, while scl2 transcription and Scl2 production are elevated in M3 strains, M1 GAS lack Scl2 surface expression. M3-type strains were shown to have reduced biofilm formation on inanimate surfaces coated with cellular fibronectin and laminin, and in human skin equivalents. Repair of the nonsense mutation and restoration of Scl1 expression on M3-GAS cells, restores biofilm formation on cellular fibronectin and laminin coatings. Inactivation of scl1 in biofilm-capable M28 and M41 strains results in larger skin lesions in a mouse model, indicating that lack of Scl1 adhesin promotes bacterial spread over localized infection. These studies suggest the uniquely evolved scl1 locus in the M3-type strains, which prevents surface expression of the major Scl1 adhesin, contributed to the emergence of the invasive M3-type strains. Furthermore these studies provide insight into the molecular mechanisms mediating colonization, biofilm formation, and pathogenesis of group A streptococci. PMID:27630827

  14. Infusion Rate Dependent Pharmacokinetics of Bendamustine with Altered Formation of γ-hydroxybendamustine (M3) Metabolite Following 30- and 60-min Infusion of Bendamustine in Rats.

    PubMed

    Srinivas, N R; Richter, W; Devaraj, V C; Suresh, P S; Bhamdipati, R K; Mullangi, R

    2016-07-01

    Bendamustine is an alkylating agent administered as 1 h intravenous infusion in the clinic for the treatment of malignant haematological cancers. The aim of the study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of bendamustine and its key cytochrome P 450 (CYP) 1A2 mediated γ-hydroxybendamustine (M3) metabolite after 30- and 60-min intravenous infusion of bendamustine in rats. 2 groups were assigned to receive bendamustine either as 30- or 60-min infusion and doses were normalized to 15 mg/kg for the sake of statistical evaluation. Serial pharmacokinetic samples were collected and were analysed for the circulatory levels of bendamustine and its M3 metabolite. Standard pharmacokinetic parameters were generated for bendamustine and its M3 metabolite. Regardless of the intravenous regimens, Cmax coincided with end of infusion for both bendamustine and its M3 metabolite. Immediately after stoppage of infusion, a rapid decline in the plasma levels occurred for both bendamustine and M3 metabolite. The Cmax and AUC0-∞ parameters for bendamustine after 60-min infusion were 1.90 and 1.34-fold higher; while CL was lower by 1.32-fold as compared to the 30-min infusion. In contrast, the Cmax and AUC0-∞ after 30-min infusion for the M3 metabolite was 2.15- and 2.78-fold greater; while CL was 2.32-fold lower when compared to the 60-min infusion. However, T1/2 and Vz values were similar between the 2 intravenous treatments for bendamustine or the M3 metabolite. The data unequivocally confirmed the existence of differential pharmacokinetics of bendamustine and its M3 metabolite as the function of the duration of intravenous infusion.

  15. Unique Footprint in the scl1.3 Locus Affects Adhesion and Biofilm Formation of the Invasive M3-Type Group A Streptococcus.

    PubMed

    Bachert, Beth A; Choi, Soo J; LaSala, Paul R; Harper, Tiffany I; McNitt, Dudley H; Boehm, Dylan T; Caswell, Clayton C; Ciborowski, Pawel; Keene, Douglas R; Flores, Anthony R; Musser, James M; Squeglia, Flavia; Marasco, Daniela; Berisio, Rita; Lukomski, Slawomir

    2016-01-01

    The streptococcal collagen-like proteins 1 and 2 (Scl1 and Scl2) are major surface adhesins that are ubiquitous among group A Streptococcus (GAS). Invasive M3-type strains, however, have evolved two unique conserved features in the scl1 locus: (i) an IS1548 element insertion in the scl1 promoter region and (ii) a nonsense mutation within the scl1 coding sequence. The scl1 transcript is drastically reduced in M3-type GAS, contrasting with a high transcription level of scl1 allele in invasive M1-type GAS. This leads to a lack of Scl1 expression in M3 strains. In contrast, while scl2 transcription and Scl2 production are elevated in M3 strains, M1 GAS lack Scl2 surface expression. M3-type strains were shown to have reduced biofilm formation on inanimate surfaces coated with cellular fibronectin and laminin, and in human skin equivalents. Repair of the nonsense mutation and restoration of Scl1 expression on M3-GAS cells, restores biofilm formation on cellular fibronectin and laminin coatings. Inactivation of scl1 in biofilm-capable M28 and M41 strains results in larger skin lesions in a mouse model, indicating that lack of Scl1 adhesin promotes bacterial spread over localized infection. These studies suggest the uniquely evolved scl1 locus in the M3-type strains, which prevents surface expression of the major Scl1 adhesin, contributed to the emergence of the invasive M3-type strains. Furthermore these studies provide insight into the molecular mechanisms mediating colonization, biofilm formation, and pathogenesis of group A streptococci. PMID:27630827

  16. σ-Aromatic cyclic M3(+) (M = Cu, Ag, Au) clusters and their complexation with dimethyl imidazol-2-ylidene, pyridine, isoxazole, furan, noble gases and carbon monoxide.

    PubMed

    Pan, Sudip; Saha, Ranajit; Mandal, Subhajit; Chattaraj, Pratim K

    2016-04-28

    The σ-aromaticity of M3(+) (M = Cu, Ag, Au) is analyzed and compared with that of Li3(+) and a prototype σ-aromatic system, H3(+). Ligands (L) like dimethyl imidazol-2-ylidene, pyridine, isoxazole and furan are employed to stabilize these monocationic M3(+) clusters. They all bind M3(+) with favorable interaction energy. Dimethyl imidazol-2-ylidene forms the strongest bond with M3(+) followed by pyridine, isoxazole and furan. Electrostatic contribution is considerably more than that of orbital contribution in these M-L bonds. The orbital interaction arises from both L → M σ donation and L ← M back donation. M3(+) clusters also bind noble gas atoms and carbon monoxide effectively. In general, among the studied systems Au3(+) binds a given L most strongly followed by Cu3(+) and Ag3(+). Computation of the nucleus-independent chemical shift (NICS) and its different extensions like the NICS-rate and NICS in-plane component vs. NICS out-of-plane component shows that the σ-aromaticity in L bound M3(+) increases compared to that of bare clusters. The aromaticity in pyridine, isoxazole and furan bound Au3(+) complexes is quite comparable with that in the recently synthesized Zn3(C5(CH3)5)3(+). The energy gap between the highest occupied molecular orbital and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital also increases upon binding with L. The blue-shift and red-shift in the C-O stretching frequency of M3(CO)3(+) and M3(OC)3(+), respectively, are analyzed through reverse polarization of the σ- and π-orbitals of CO as well as the relative amount of OC → M σ donation and M → CO π back donation. The electron density analysis is also performed to gain further insight into the nature of interaction. PMID:26624276

  17. Natural Disruption of Two Regulatory Networks in Serotype M3 Group A Streptococcus Isolates Contributes to the Virulence Factor Profile of This Hypervirulent Serotype

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Tram N.; Liu, Zhuyun; Cao, Tran H.; Pflughoeft, Kathryn J.; Treviño, Jeanette; Danger, Jessica L.; Beres, Stephen B.; Musser, James M.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the public health challenges associated with the emergence of new pathogenic bacterial strains and/or serotypes, there is a dearth of information regarding the molecular mechanisms that drive this variation. Here, we began to address the mechanisms behind serotype-specific variation between serotype M1 and M3 strains of the human pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes (the group A Streptococcus [GAS]). Spatially diverse contemporary clinical serotype M3 isolates were discovered to contain identical inactivating mutations within genes encoding two regulatory systems that control the expression of important virulence factors, including the thrombolytic agent streptokinase, the protease inhibitor-binding protein-G-related α2-macroglobulin-binding (GRAB) protein, and the antiphagocytic hyaluronic acid capsule. Subsequent analysis of a larger collection of isolates determined that M3 GAS, since at least the 1920s, has harbored a 4-bp deletion in the fasC gene of the fasBCAX regulatory system and an inactivating polymorphism in the rivR regulator-encoding gene. The fasC and rivR mutations in M3 isolates directly affect the virulence factor profile of M3 GAS, as evident by a reduction in streptokinase expression and an enhancement of GRAB expression. Complementation of the fasC mutation in M3 GAS significantly enhanced levels of the small regulatory RNA FasX, which in turn enhanced streptokinase expression. Complementation of the rivR mutation in M3 GAS restored the regulation of grab mRNA abundance but did not alter capsule mRNA levels. While important, the fasC and rivR mutations do not provide a full explanation for why serotype M3 strains are associated with unusually severe invasive infections; thus, further investigation is warranted. PMID:24516115

  18. Unique Footprint in the scl1.3 Locus Affects Adhesion and Biofilm Formation of the Invasive M3-Type Group A Streptococcus

    PubMed Central

    Bachert, Beth A.; Choi, Soo J.; LaSala, Paul R.; Harper, Tiffany I.; McNitt, Dudley H.; Boehm, Dylan T.; Caswell, Clayton C.; Ciborowski, Pawel; Keene, Douglas R.; Flores, Anthony R.; Musser, James M.; Squeglia, Flavia; Marasco, Daniela; Berisio, Rita; Lukomski, Slawomir

    2016-01-01

    The streptococcal collagen-like proteins 1 and 2 (Scl1 and Scl2) are major surface adhesins that are ubiquitous among group A Streptococcus (GAS). Invasive M3-type strains, however, have evolved two unique conserved features in the scl1 locus: (i) an IS1548 element insertion in the scl1 promoter region and (ii) a nonsense mutation within the scl1 coding sequence. The scl1 transcript is drastically reduced in M3-type GAS, contrasting with a high transcription level of scl1 allele in invasive M1-type GAS. This leads to a lack of Scl1 expression in M3 strains. In contrast, while scl2 transcription and Scl2 production are elevated in M3 strains, M1 GAS lack Scl2 surface expression. M3-type strains were shown to have reduced biofilm formation on inanimate surfaces coated with cellular fibronectin and laminin, and in human skin equivalents. Repair of the nonsense mutation and restoration of Scl1 expression on M3-GAS cells, restores biofilm formation on cellular fibronectin and laminin coatings. Inactivation of scl1 in biofilm-capable M28 and M41 strains results in larger skin lesions in a mouse model, indicating that lack of Scl1 adhesin promotes bacterial spread over localized infection. These studies suggest the uniquely evolved scl1 locus in the M3-type strains, which prevents surface expression of the major Scl1 adhesin, contributed to the emergence of the invasive M3-type strains. Furthermore these studies provide insight into the molecular mechanisms mediating colonization, biofilm formation, and pathogenesis of group A streptococci.

  19. Specificity of g protein-coupled receptor kinase 6-mediated phosphorylation and regulation of single-cell m3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor signaling.

    PubMed

    Willets, Jonathon M; Mistry, Rajendra; Nahorski, Stefan R; Challiss, R A John

    2003-11-01

    Previously we have shown that G protein-coupled receptor kinase (GRK) 6 plays a major role in the regulation of the human M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (M3 mAChR) in the human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y. However, 30-fold overexpression of the catalytically inactive, dominant-negative K215RGRK6 produced only a 50% suppression of M3 mAChR phosphorylation and desensitization. Here, we have attempted to determine whether other endogenous kinases play a role in the regulation of M3 mAChR signaling. In contrast to the clear attenuating effect of K215RGRK6 expression on M3 mAChR regulation, dominant-negative forms of GRKs (K220RGRK2, K220RGRK3, K215RGRK5) and casein kinase 1alpha (K46RCK1alpha) were without effect. In addition, inhibition of a variety of second-messenger-regulated kinases and the tyrosine kinase Src also had no effect upon agonist-stimulated M3 mAChR regulation. To investigate further the desensitization process we have followed changes in inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate in single SHSY5Y cells using the pleckstrin homology domain of PLCdelta1 tagged with green fluorescent protein (eGFP-PHPLCdelta1). Stimulation of cells with approximate EC50 concentrations of agonist before and after a desensitizing period of agonist exposure resulted in a marked attenuation of the latter response. Altered GRK6 activity, through overexpression of wild-type GRK6 or K215RGRK6, enhanced or reduced the degree of M3 mAChR desensitization, respectively. Taken together, our data indicate that M3 mAChR desensitization is mediated by GRK6 in human SH-SY5Y cells, and we show that receptor desensitization of phospholipase C signaling can be monitored in 'real-time' in single, living cells. PMID:14573754

  20. The insect repellent N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET) induces angiogenesis via allosteric modulation of the M3 muscarinic receptor in endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Legeay, Samuel; Clere, Nicolas; Hilairet, Grégory; Do, Quoc-Tuan; Bernard, Philippe; Quignard, Jean-François; Apaire-Marchais, Véronique; Lapied, Bruno; Faure, Sébastien

    2016-01-01

    The insect repellent N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET) has been reported to inhibit AChE (acetylcholinesterase) and to possess potential carcinogenic properties with excessive vascularization. In the present paper, we demonstrate that DEET specifically stimulates endothelial cells that promote angiogenesis which increases tumor growth. DEET activates cellular processes that lead to angiogenesis including proliferation, migration and adhesion. This is associated with an enhancement of NO production and VEGF expression in endothelial cells. M3 silencing or the use of a pharmacological M3 inhibitor abrogates all of these effects which reveals that DEET-induced angiogenesis is M3 sensitive. The experiments involving calcium signals in both endothelial and HEK cells overexpressing M3 receptors, as well as binding and docking studies demonstrate that DEET acts as an allosteric modulator of the M3 receptor. In addition, DEET inhibited AChE which increased acetylcholine bioavailability and binding to M3 receptors and also strengthened proangiogenic effects by an allosteric modulation. PMID:27345502

  1. The insect repellent N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET) induces angiogenesis via allosteric modulation of the M3 muscarinic receptor in endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Legeay, Samuel; Clere, Nicolas; Hilairet, Grégory; Do, Quoc-Tuan; Bernard, Philippe; Quignard, Jean-François; Apaire-Marchais, Véronique; Lapied, Bruno; Faure, Sébastien

    2016-01-01

    The insect repellent N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET) has been reported to inhibit AChE (acetylcholinesterase) and to possess potential carcinogenic properties with excessive vascularization. In the present paper, we demonstrate that DEET specifically stimulates endothelial cells that promote angiogenesis which increases tumor growth. DEET activates cellular processes that lead to angiogenesis including proliferation, migration and adhesion. This is associated with an enhancement of NO production and VEGF expression in endothelial cells. M3 silencing or the use of a pharmacological M3 inhibitor abrogates all of these effects which reveals that DEET-induced angiogenesis is M3 sensitive. The experiments involving calcium signals in both endothelial and HEK cells overexpressing M3 receptors, as well as binding and docking studies demonstrate that DEET acts as an allosteric modulator of the M3 receptor. In addition, DEET inhibited AChE which increased acetylcholine bioavailability and binding to M3 receptors and also strengthened proangiogenic effects by an allosteric modulation. PMID:27345502

  2. Real-time monitoring of genetically modified Chlamydomonas reinhardtii during the Foton M3 space mission and ground irradiation experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambreva, Maya; Rea, Giuseppina; Antonacci, Amina; Serafini, Agnese; Damasso, Mario; Margonelli, Andrea; Johanningmeier, Udo; Bertalan, Ivo; Pezzotti, Gianni; Giardi, Maria Teresa

    Long-term space exploration, colonization or habitation requires biological life support systems capable to cope with the deleterious space environment. The use of oxygenic photosynthetic microrganisms is an intriguing possibility mainly for food, O2 and nutraceutical compounds production. The critical points of utilizing plantsor algae-based life support systems are the microgravity and the ionizing radiation, which can influence the performance of these organisms. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of space environment on the photosynthetic activity of various microrganisms and to select space stress-tolerant strains. Site-directed and random mutants of the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii of Photosystem II D1 protein were used as a model system to test and select the amino acid substitutions capable to account for space stress tolerance. We focussed our studies also on the accumulation of the Photosystem II photoprotective carotenoids (the xantophylls violaxanthin, anteraxanthin and zeaxanthin), powerful antioxidants that epidemiological studies demonstrated to be human vision protectors. Metabolite profiling by quantitative HPLC methods revealed the organisms and the stress conditions capable to accumulate the highest pigment levels. In order to develop a project for a rationale metabolic engineering of algal secondary metabolites overproduction, we are performing expression analyses on the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway under physiological and mimicked space conditions. To identify the consequences of the space environment on the photosynthetic apparatus the changes in the Photosystem II efficiency were monitored in real time during the ESA-Russian Foton-M3 mission in September 2007. For the space flight a high-tech, multicell fluorescence biosensor, Photo-II, was designed and built by the Centre for Advanced Research in Space Optics in collaboration with Kayser-Italy, Biosensor and DAS. Photo-II is an automatic device

  3. Magnetic properties as indicators of heavy metals pollution in urban topsoils: a case study from the city of Luoyang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, S. G.; Bai, S. Q.; Xue, Q. F.

    2007-11-01

    This paper deals with the magnetic properties [magnetic susceptibility, saturation isothermal remanent magnetization (SIRM), magnetomineralogicl parameters], the contents of heavy metals (Fe, Mn, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn) and their mutual relationship in the urban topsoils of Luoyang, China. Magnetic susceptibility measured on 215 urban topsoil samples ranged from 31 × 10-8 to 1128 × 10-8 m3 kg-1 (average 215 × 10-8 m3 kg-1) and showed that high magnetic susceptibility values were obtained on topsoil samples from industrial areas (average 313 × 10-8 m3 kg-1) and roadside (236 × 10-8 m3 kg-1), whereas lower susceptibility values were observed in parks and green areas (123 × 10-8 m3 kg-1). The urban topsoils were enriched with Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn, with average contents of 1.71, 30.51, 85.40, 65.92 and 215.75 mg kg-1, respectively. The heavy metals Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn show a statistically significant correlation with magnetic susceptibility and SIRM. The Tomlinson Pollution Load Index (PLI) also shows significant correlation with magnetic susceptibility and SIRM, indicating that the magnetic parameters can provide a proxy method for identifying the heavy metal pollution in urban topsoils. Rock magnetism and X-ray diffraction analyses revealed that the dominant magnetic mineral in the urban topsoils is anthropogenic pseudo-single domain (PSD)-multidomain (MD) magnetite. These magnetic particles are associated with the industrial activities, traffic exhaust and deposition of atmospheric particulate.

  4. The M3 Phosphorylation Site Is Required for Trafficking and Biological Roles of PIN-FORMED1, 2, and 7 in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Ki, Daeeun; Sasayama, Daisuke; Cho, Hyung-Taeg

    2016-01-01

    Asymmetrically localized PIN-FORMED (PIN) auxin efflux carriers play key roles in regulating directional intercellular auxin movement, generating local auxin gradients, and diverse auxin-mediated growth and development. The polar localization of PINs is controlled by phosphorylation in the central hydrophilic loop (HL) of PINs. Although the M3 phosphorylation site, including phosphorylatable 5 Ser/Thr residues, is conserved among long HL-PINs, its native role has only been characterized in PIN3. In this study, we examined the role of M3 phosphorylation site of PIN1, PIN2, and PIN7 in intracellular trafficking, phosphorylation, and biological functions of those PINs in their native expressing tissues. Phosphorylation-defective mutations of the phosphorylatable residues in the M3 site of PIN1-HL led to alteration in subcellular polarity of PIN1 and caused defects in PIN1-mediated biological functions such as cotyledon development, phyllotaxy of vegetative leaves, and development of reproductive organs. The M3 mutations of PIN7 interfered with its polar recycling in the root columella cell in response to gravity stimulus and partially disrupted root gravitropism. On the other hand, the M3 site of PIN2 was shown to be necessary for its targeting to the plasma membrane. In vitro phosphorylation assay showed that the M3 phosphorylation residues of PIN1 are the partial targets by PINOID kinase. Our data suggest that the M3 phosphorylation site is functionally conserved among long HL-PINs by playing roles for their subcellular trafficking and auxin-mediated developmental processes. PMID:27733863

  5. Functional selectivity of muscarinic receptor antagonists for inhibition of M3-mediated phosphoinositide responses in guinea pig urinary bladder and submandibular salivary gland.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Carl P; Gupta, Paul; Napier, Carolyn M; Nahorski, Stefan R; Challiss, R A John

    2004-09-01

    Binding and functional affinities of the muscarinic acetylcholine (mACh) receptor antagonists darifenacin, tolterodine, oxybutynin, and atropine were assessed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells expressing the human recombinant M2 (CHO-m2) or M3 (CHO-m3) receptors, and in guinea pig bladder and submandibular gland. In [N-methyl-3H]scopolamine methyl chloride binding studies in CHO cells, darifenacin displayed selectivity (14.8-fold) for the M3 versus M2 mACh receptor subtype. Oxybutynin was nonselective, whereas atropine and tolterodine were weakly M2-selective (5.1- and 6.6-fold, respectively). Antagonist functional affinity estimates were determined by the inhibition of agonist-induced [3H]inositol phosphate accumulation in CHO-m3 cells and antagonism of the agonist-induced inhibition of forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP accumulation in CHO-m2 cells. Darifenacin was the most M3-selective antagonist (32.4-fold), whereas oxybutynin, atropine, and tolterodine exhibited lesser selectivity. Functional affinity estimates in guinea pig urinary bladder and submandibular salivary gland using indices of phosphoinositide turnover revealed that oxybutynin, darifenacin, and tolterodine each displayed selectivity for the response in the bladder, relative to that seen in the submandibular gland (9.3-, 7.9-, and 7.4-fold, respectively). In contrast, atropine displayed a similar affinity in both tissues. These data demonstrate that in bladder, compared with submandibular gland from a single species, the mACh receptor antagonists darifenacin, tolterodine, and oxybutynin display selectivity to inhibit agonist-mediated phosphoinositide responses. It is proposed that both responses are mediated via M3 mACh receptor activation and that differential functional affinities displayed by some, but not all, antagonists are indicative of the influence of cell background upon the pharmacology of the M3 mACh receptor. PMID:15140916

  6. Theoretical exploration of the nanoscale host-guest interactions between [n]cycloparaphenylenes (n = 10, 8 and 9) and fullerene C₆₀: from single- to three-potential well.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Kun; Zhou, Cai-Hua; Zhu, Yuan-Cheng; Zhao, Xiang

    2015-07-28

    The nanoscale host-guest interactions between [n]cycloparaphenylene ([n]CPP; n = 10, 8 and 9) nano-ring and fullerene C60 were explored theoretically. It is found that relatively small variations in the sizes of the [n]CPP host lead to very significant changes in encapsulation property toward the fullerene C60 guest. Expectedly, one stable inclusion-configuration of [10]CPP⊃C60 and one floating-configuration of [8]CPP⊃C60 are located on the potential surfaces of the two complexes, respectively. Unexpectedly, besides a floating-configuration (F-[9]CPP⊃C60), another stable inclusion-configuration (I-[9]CPP⊃C60) is also located on the potential surface of [9]CPP⊃C60 host-guest complex. Interaction energies and natural steric analysis show that these complexes are stabilized by balancing concave-convex π-π attractive and steric repulsive host-guest interactions. In contrast, the steric repulsive energy (Es) between host and guest of I-[9]CPP⊃C60 is as high as 233.12 kJ mol(-1), which is much larger than those in other complexes. The movements of C60 guest through the cavities of [n]CPP host (n = 10, 8 and 9) are simulated by calculating the energy profile, and the results interestingly reveal that the encapsulation of C60 by [10]CPP is in the manner of a single-potential well, by [8]CPP in the manner of a double-potential well, and by [9]CPP in the special manner of a three-potential well. We predict that the movement of C60 guest through the cavity of [9]CPP host should be experimentally observable owing to the relatively low energy barrier (<50 kJ mol(-1), M06-2X/6-31G(d)). Charge population analysis shows that an obvious charge transfer between host and guest takes place during the formation of I-[9]CPP⊃C60, which is different from those during the formation of [8]CPP⊃C60, [10]CPP⊃C60 and F-[9]CPP⊃C60. Additionally, the host-guest interaction regions were detected and visualized in real space based on the electron density and reduced density

  7. M3B2 and M5B3 Formation in Diffusion-Affected Zone During Transient Liquid Phase Bonding Single-Crystal Superalloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, Naicheng; Hu, Xiaobing; Liu, Jide; Jin, Tao; Sun, Xiaofeng; Hu, Zhuangqi

    2015-04-01

    Precipitates in the diffusion-affected zone (DAZ) during transient liquid phase bonding (TLP) single-crystal superalloys were observed and investigated. Small size and dendritic-shaped precipitates were identified to be M3B2 borides and intergrowth of M3B2/M5B3 borides. The orientation relationships among M3B2, M5B3, and matrix were determined using transmission electron microscope (TEM). Composition characteristics of these borides were also analyzed by TEM energy-dispersive spectrometer. Because this precipitating phenomenon deviates from the traditional parabolic transient liquid phase bonding model which assumed a precipitates free DAZ during TLP bonding, some correlations between the deviation of the isothermal solidification kinetics and these newly observed precipitating behaviors were discussed and rationalized when bonding the interlayer containing the high diffusivity melting point depressant elements and substrates of low solubility.

  8. CTX-M-1, CTX-M-3, and CTX-M-14 β-Lactamases from Enterobacteriaceae Isolated in France

    PubMed Central

    Dutour, C.; Bonnet, R.; Marchandin, H.; Boyer, M.; Chanal, C.; Sirot, D.; Sirot, J.

    2002-01-01

    Six clinical CTX-M-producing isolates of the family Enterobacteriaceae were detected between 1999 and 2000 in different French hospitals. Two strains produced CTX-M-1 and CTX-M-3 and four strains produced CTX-M-14, a mutant Ala-231→Val of CTX-M-9. A putative transposable element, ISEcp-1, was located 43 bp upstream of all the blaCTX-M genes. Two CTX-M-14-encoding plasmids exhibited similar restriction patterns. The CTX-M-1- and CTX-M-3-encoding plasmids were related to the CTX-M-1- and CTX-M-3-encoding plasmids previously reported in 1990 in France and in 1998 in Poland, respectively. PMID:11796372

  9. The dual specificity phosphatases M3/6 and MKP-3 are highly selective for inactivation of distinct mitogen-activated protein kinases.

    PubMed

    Muda, M; Theodosiou, A; Rodrigues, N; Boschert, U; Camps, M; Gillieron, C; Davies, K; Ashworth, A; Arkinstall, S

    1996-11-01

    The mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase family includes extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase/stress-activated protein kinase (JNK/SAPK) and p38/RK/CSBP (p38) as structurally and functionally distinct enzyme classes. Here we describe two new dual specificity phosphatases of the CL100/MKP-1 family that are selective for inactivating ERK or JNK/SAPK and p38 MAP kinases when expressed in COS-7 cells. M3/6 is the first phosphatase of this family to display highly specific inactivation of JNK/SAPK and p38 MAP kinases. Although stress-induced activation of p54 SAPKbeta, p46 SAPKgamma (JNK1) or p38 MAP kinases is abolished upon co-transfection with increasing amounts of M3/6 plasmid, epidermal growth factor-stimulated ERK1 is remarkably insensitive even to the highest levels of M3/6 expression obtained. In contrast to M3/6, the dual specificity phosphatase MKP-3 is selective for inactivation of ERK family MAP kinases. Low level expression of MKP-3 blocks totally epidermal growth factor-stimulated ERK1, whereas stress-induced activation of p54 SAPKbeta and p38 MAP kinases is inhibited only partially under identical conditions. Selective regulation by M3/6 and MKP-3 was also observed upon chronic MAP kinase activation by constitutive p21(ras) GTPases. Hence, although M3/6 expression effectively blocked p54 SAPKbeta activation by p21(rac) (G12V), ERK1 activated by p21(ras) (G12V) was insensitive to this phosphatase. ERK1 activation by oncogenic p21(ras) was, however, blocked totally by co-expression of MKP-3. This is the first report demonstrating reciprocally selective inhibition of different MAP kinases by two distinct dual specificity phosphatases.

  10. Length and Amino Acid Sequence of Peptides Substituted for the 5-HT3A Receptor M3M4 Loop May Affect Channel Expression and Desensitization

    PubMed Central

    McKinnon, Nicole K.; Bali, Moez; Akabas, Myles H.

    2012-01-01

    5-HT3A receptors are pentameric neurotransmitter-gated ion channels in the Cys-loop receptor family. Each subunit contains an extracellular domain, four transmembrane segments (M1, M2, M3, M4) and a 115 residue intracellular loop between M3 and M4. In contrast, the M3M4 loop in prokaryotic homologues is <15 residues. To investigate the limits of M3M4 loop length and composition on channel function we replaced the 5-HT3A M3M4 loop with two to seven alanine residues (5-HT3A-An = 2–7). Mutants were expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes and characterized using two electrode voltage clamp recording. All mutants were functional. The 5-HT EC50's were at most 5-fold greater than wild-type (WT). The desensitization rate differed significantly among the mutants. Desensitization rates for 5-HT3A-A2, 5-HT3A-A4, 5-HT3A-A6, and 5-HT3A-A7 were similar to WT. In contrast, 5-HT3A-A3 and 5-HT3A-A5 had desensitization rates at least an order of magnitude faster than WT. The one Ala loop construct, 5-HT3A-A1, entered a non-functional state from which it did not recover after the first 5-HT application. These results suggest that the large M3M4 loop of eukaryotic Cys-loop channels is not required for receptor assembly or function. However, loop length and amino acid composition can effect channel expression and desensitization. We infer that the cytoplasmic ends of the M3 and M4 segments may undergo conformational changes during channel gating and desensitization and/or the loop may influence the position and mobility of these segments as they undergo gating-induced conformational changes. Altering structure or conformational mobility of the cytoplasmic ends of M3 and M4 may be the basis by which phosphorylation or protein binding to the cytoplasmic loop alters channel function. PMID:22539982

  11. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M1 and M3 subtypes mediate acetylcholine-induced endothelium-independent vasodilatation in rat mesenteric arteries.

    PubMed

    Tangsucharit, Panot; Takatori, Shingo; Zamami, Yoshito; Goda, Mitsuhiro; Pakdeechote, Poungrat; Kawasaki, Hiromu; Takayama, Fusako

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated pharmacological characterizations of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR) subtypes involving ACh-induced endothelium-independent vasodilatation in rat mesenteric arteries. Changes in perfusion pressure to periarterial nerve stimulation and ACh were measured before and after the perfusion of Krebs solution containing muscarinic receptor antagonists. Distributions of muscarinic AChR subtypes in mesenteric arteries with an intact endothelium were studied using Western blotting. The expression level of M1 and M3 was significantly greater than that of M2. Endothelium removal significantly decreased expression levels of M2 and M3, but not M1. In perfused mesenteric vascular beds with intact endothelium and active tone, exogenous ACh (1, 10, and 100 nmol) produced concentration-dependent and long-lasting vasodilatations. In endothelium-denuded preparations, relaxation to ACh (1 nmol) disappeared, but ACh at 10 and 100 nmol caused long-lasting vasodilatations, which were markedly blocked by the treatment of pirenzepine (M1 antagonist) or 4-DAMP (M1 and M3 antagonist) plus hexamethonium (nicotinic AChR antagonist), but not methoctramine (M2 and M4 antagonist). These results suggest that muscarinic AChR subtypes, mainly M1, distribute throughout the rat mesenteric arteries, and that activation of M1 and/or M3 which may be located on CGRPergic nerves releases CGRP, causing an endothelium-independent vasodilatation.

  12. Comparison of the space radiation environment at Foton M3 satellite altitudes and on aircraft altitudes for minimum of solar activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ploc, Ondrej; Dachev, Tsvetan; Spurny, Frantisek; Tomov, Borislav; Dimitrov, Plamen; Matviichuk, Yury; Bankov, Nikolay

    The space radiation environments at Foton M3 and aircraft altitudes were measured by using of practically equal silicon detector based on a deposited energy spectrometers in the fall of 2007. The aircraft measurements were performed on commercial flights of CSA airlines, while the Foton M3 measurements were inside of the ESA Biopan 6 experiment. Foton M3 orbit was close to circular between 260 and 289 km altitude and about 63° inclination. The relatively high inclination and small shielding of the detector (0.81 g/cm2 ) allow us to observe doses by electrons in the outer radiation belt as high as 2.3 mGy/hour. The comparison of the total GCR deposited doses for the Foton M3 time interval, which coincides with the absolute cycle 23 minimum of the solar activity is about 15% higher than the measured during the Foton M2 satellite doses in 2005. Comparisons of the latitudinal profiles for ISS in 2001, Foton 2 and 3 satellites and aircrafts show that the ratio of doses is as 1:2:3. Aircraft measurements are characterised through average values of exposure during frequent, statistically well based measurements on the routes Prague - New York. Dose absorbed in Si-detector per flight on these routes was about 8% higher in 2007 than in 2005. Different comparisons with the existing models for the radiation environment on aircraft and spacecraft altitudes are presented in the paper also and discussed.

  13. Reduction in HLA-DR, HLA-DQ and HLA-DP expression by Leu-M3+ cells from the peripheral blood of patients with thermal injury.

    PubMed Central

    Gibbons, R A; Martinez, O M; Lim, R C; Horn, J K; Garovoy, M R

    1989-01-01

    Monocytes that bear HLA Class II antigens, such as HLA-DR, HLA-DQ, or HLA-DP, are obligatory for many cell-mediated immunological processes. Patients with thermal injury suffer from hypoimmunity and are at risk for developing life-threatening septic episodes. To determine whether an alteration in expression of HLA Class II antigens is involved in the defect, monocytes from the peripheral blood of burn patients and controls were double-stained with anti-Leu-M3 and either anti-HLA-DR, HLA-DQ, or HLA-DP monoclonal antibodies. As analysed by flow cytometry the percentage of Leu-M3+ monocytes from the peripheral blood from patients and controls was the same. The percentage of Leu-M3+ monocytes bearing the HLA Class II antigens and the density of antigen on the monocytes, however, was significantly reduced post-burn compared with controls. In nearly all cases these changes were detected as early as 24 h post-burn before any drug therapy was implemented. In-vivo re-expression of normal levels of HLA Class II coincided with patient recovery. In-vitro exposure of post-burn Leu-M3+ cells to IFN-gamma for 72 h restored HLA Class II expression to control levels. It is possible that the reductions in HLA Class II expression may be involved in the general immunosuppression that follows thermal injury. PMID:2495202

  14. Draft Genome Sequence of Aeribacillus pallidus Strain 8m3, a Thermophilic Hydrocarbon-Oxidizing Bacterium Isolated from the Dagang Oil Field (China)

    PubMed Central

    Poltaraus, Andrey B.; Sokolova, Diyana S.; Grouzdev, Denis S.; Ivanov, Timophey M.; Malakho, Sophia G.; Korshunova, Alena V.; Rozanov, Aleksey S.; Tourova, Tatiyana P.

    2016-01-01

    The draft genome sequence of Aeribacillus pallidus strain 8m3, a thermophilic aerobic oil-oxidizing bacterium isolated from production water from the Dagang high-temperature oil field, China, is presented here. The genome is annotated to provide insights into the genomic and phenotypic diversity of the genus Aeribacillus. PMID:27284131

  15. Identification and molecular characterization of the cDNA encoding Cucumis melo allergen, Cuc m 3, a plant pathogenesis-related protein

    PubMed Central

    Sankian, Mojtaba; Hajavi, Jafar; Moghadam, Malihe; Varasteh, Abdol-Reza

    2014-01-01

    Background: Melon (Cucumis melo) allergy is one of the most common food allergies, characterized by oral allergy syndrome. To date, two allergen molecules, Cuc m 1 and Cuc m 2, have been fully characterized in melon pulp, but there are few reports about the molecular characteristics of Cuc m 3. Methods: The Cuc m 3 cDNA has been characterized by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE), which revealed a 456 base-pair (bp) fragment encoding a 151-amino acid polypeptide with a predicted molecular mass of 16.97 kDa, and identified 79 and 178 bp untranslated sequences at the 5′ and 3´ ends, respectively. Results: In silico analysis showed strong similarities between Cuc m 3 and other plant pathogen-related protein 1s from cucumber, grape, bell pepper, and tomato. Conclusion: Here we report the identification and characterization of the Cuc m 3 cDNA, which will be utilized for further analyses of structural and allergenic features of this allergen. PMID:26989726

  16. Serotype M3 and M28 Group A Streptococci Have Distinct Capacities to Evade Neutrophil and TNF-α Responses and to Invade Soft Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Stetzner, Zachary W.; Li, Dengfeng; Feng, Wenchao; Liu, Mengyao; Liu, Guanghui; Wiley, James; Lei, Benfang

    2015-01-01

    The M3 Serotype of Group A Streptococcus (GAS) is one of the three most frequent serotypes associated with severe invasive GAS infections, such as necrotizing fasciitis, in the United States and other industrialized countries. The basis for this association and hypervirulence of invasive serotype M3 GAS is not fully understood. In this study, the sequenced serotype M3 strain, MGAS315, and serotype M28 strain, MGAS6180, were characterized in parallel to determine whether contemporary M3 GAS has a higher capacity to invade soft tissues than M28 GAS. In subcutaneous infection, MGAS315 invaded almost the whole skin, inhibited neutrophil recruitment and TNF-α production, and was lethal in subcutaneous infection of mice, whereas MGAS6180 did not invade skin, induced robust neutrophil infiltration and TNF-α production, and failed to kill mice. In contrast to MGAS6180, MGAS315 had covS G1370T mutation. Either replacement of the covS1370T gene with wild-type covS in MGAS315 chromosome or in trans expression of wild-type covS in MGAS315 reduced expression of CovRS-controlled virulence genes hasA, spyCEP, and sse by >10 fold. MGAS315 covSwt lost the capacity to extensively invade skin and to inhibit neutrophil recruitment and had attenuated virulence, indicating that the covS G1370T mutation critically contribute to the hypervirulence of MGAS315. Under the background of functional CovRS, MGAS315 covSwt still caused greater lesions than MGAS6180, and, consistently under the background of covS deletion, MGAS6180 ΔcovS caused smaller lesions than MGAS315 ΔcovS. Thus, contemporary invasive M3 GAS has a higher capacity to evade neutrophil and TNF-α responses and to invade soft tissue than M28 GAS and that this skin-invading capacity of M3 GAS is maximized by natural CovRS mutations. These findings enhance our understanding of the basis for the frequent association of M3 GAS with necrotizing fasciitis. PMID:26047469

  17. Character and spatial distribution of OH/H2O on the surface of the Moon seen by M3 on Chandrayaan-1.

    PubMed

    Pieters, C M; Goswami, J N; Clark, R N; Annadurai, M; Boardman, J; Buratti, B; Combe, J-P; Dyar, M D; Green, R; Head, J W; Hibbitts, C; Hicks, M; Isaacson, P; Klima, R; Kramer, G; Kumar, S; Livo, E; Lundeen, S; Malaret, E; McCord, T; Mustard, J; Nettles, J; Petro, N; Runyon, C; Staid, M; Sunshine, J; Taylor, L A; Tompkins, S; Varanasi, P

    2009-10-23

    The search for water on the surface of the anhydrous Moon had remained an unfulfilled quest for 40 years. However, the Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) on Chandrayaan-1 has recently detected absorption features near 2.8 to 3.0 micrometers on the surface of the Moon. For silicate bodies, such features are typically attributed to hydroxyl- and/or water-bearing materials. On the Moon, the feature is seen as a widely distributed absorption that appears strongest at cooler high latitudes and at several fresh feldspathic craters. The general lack of correlation of this feature in sunlit M3 data with neutron spectrometer hydrogen abundance data suggests that the formation and retention of hydroxyl and water are ongoing surficial processes. Hydroxyl/water production processes may feed polar cold traps and make the lunar regolith a candidate source of volatiles for human exploration. PMID:19779151

  18. Clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamases: prevalence of CTX-M-3 at a hospital in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Kelkar, Swathi; Wu, Weiyuan; Chen, Minjun; Quinn, John P

    2003-02-01

    The prevalence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing strains was demonstrated in 5 of 44 (11.4%) Escherichia coli, 17 of 43 (39.5%) Klebsiella pneumoniae, 3 of 50 (6.0%) Enterobacter cloacae, and 2 of 25 (8.0%) Citrobacter freundii strains at a teaching hospital in China. Nineteen of these 27 strains expressed CTX-M-3 beta-lactamase (pI 8.6). A subset of the clinical isolates expressing the CTX-M-3 enzyme, tested by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, revealed multiple clones. Five isolates expressed a novel enzyme, SHV-43 (pI 8.0), which had two substitutions (Leu113Phe and Thr149Ser) compared with SHV-1.

  19. NOTE: Adapting a generic BEAMnrc model of the BrainLAB m3 micro-multileaf collimator to simulate a local collimation device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kairn, T.; Aland, T.; Franich, R. D.; Johnston, P. N.; Kakakhel, M. B.; Kenny, J.; Knight, R. T.; Langton, C. M.; Schlect, D.; Taylor, M. L.; Trapp, J. V.

    2010-09-01

    This work is focussed on developing a commissioning procedure so that a Monte Carlo model, which uses BEAMnrc's standard VARMLC component module, can be adapted to match a specific BrainLAB m3 micro-multileaf collimator (µMLC). A set of measurements are recommended, for use as a reference against which the model can be tested and optimized. These include radiochromic film measurements of dose from small and offset fields, as well as measurements of µMLC transmission and interleaf leakage. Simulations and measurements to obtain µMLC scatter factors are shown to be insensitive to relevant model parameters and are therefore not recommended, unless the output of the linear accelerator model is in doubt. Ultimately, this note provides detailed instructions for those intending to optimize a VARMLC model to match the dose delivered by their local BrainLAB m3 µMLC device.

  20. Polymorphisms in Regulator of Protease B (RopB) Alter Disease Phenotype and Strain Virulence of Serotype M3 Group A Streptococcus

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, Randall J.; Laucirica, Daniel R.; Watkins, M. Ebru; Feske, Marsha L.; Garcia-Bustillos, Jesus R.; Vu, Chau; Cantu, Concepcion; Shelburne, Samuel A.; Fittipaldi, Nahuel; Kumaraswami, Muthiah; Shea, Patrick R.; Flores, Anthony R.; Beres, Stephen B.; Lovgren, Maguerite; Tyrrell, Gregory J.; Efstratiou, Androulla; Low, Donald E.; Van Beneden, Chris A.; Musser, James M.

    2012-01-01

    Whole-genome sequencing of serotype M3 group A streptococci (GAS) from oropharyngeal and invasive infections in Ontario recently showed that the gene encoding regulator of protease B (RopB) is highly polymorphic in this population. To test the hypothesis that ropB is under diversifying selective pressure among all serotype M3 GAS strains, we sequenced this gene in 1178 strains collected from different infection types, geographic regions, and time periods. The results confirmed our hypothesis and discovered a significant association between mutant ropB alleles, decreased activity of its major regulatory target SpeB, and pharyngitis. Additionally, isoallelic strains with ropB polymorphisms were significantly less virulent in a mouse model of necrotizing fasciitis. These studies provide a model strategy for applying whole-genome sequencing followed by deep single-gene sequencing to generate new insight to the rapid evolution and virulence regulation of human pathogens. PMID:22262791

  1. Character and spatial distribution of OH/H2O on the surface of the moon seen by M3 on chandrayaan-1

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pieters, C.M.; Goswami, J.N.; Clark, R.N.; Annadurai, M.; Boardman, J.; Buratti, B.; Combe, J.-P.; Dyar, M.D.; Green, R.; Head, J.W.; Hibbitts, C.; Hicks, M.; Isaacson, P.; Klima, R.; Kramer, G.; Kumar, S.; Livo, E.; Lundeen, S.; Malaret, E.; McCord, T.; Mustard, J.; Nettles, J.; Petro, N.; Runyon, C.; Staid, M.; Sunshine, J.; Taylor, L.A.; Tompkins, S.; Varanasi, P.

    2009-01-01

    The search for water on the surface of the anhydrous Moon had remained an unfulfilled quest for 40 years. However, the Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M 3) on Chandrayaan-1 has recently detected absorption features near 2.8 to 3.0 micrometers on the surface of the Moon. For silicate bodies, such features are typically attributed to hydroxyl- and/or water-bearing materials. On the Moon, the feature is seen as a widely distributed absorption that appears strongest at cooler high latitudes and at several fresh feldspathic craters. The general lack of correlation of this feature in sunlit M3 data with neutron spectrometer hydrogen abundance data suggests that the formation and retention of hydroxyl and water are ongoing surficial processes. Hydroxyl/water production processes may feed polar cold traps and make the lunar regolith a candidate source of volatiles for human exploration.

  2. Character and spatial distribution of OH/H2O on the surface of the Moon seen by M3 on Chandrayaan-1.

    PubMed

    Pieters, C M; Goswami, J N; Clark, R N; Annadurai, M; Boardman, J; Buratti, B; Combe, J-P; Dyar, M D; Green, R; Head, J W; Hibbitts, C; Hicks, M; Isaacson, P; Klima, R; Kramer, G; Kumar, S; Livo, E; Lundeen, S; Malaret, E; McCord, T; Mustard, J; Nettles, J; Petro, N; Runyon, C; Staid, M; Sunshine, J; Taylor, L A; Tompkins, S; Varanasi, P

    2009-10-23

    The search for water on the surface of the anhydrous Moon had remained an unfulfilled quest for 40 years. However, the Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) on Chandrayaan-1 has recently detected absorption features near 2.8 to 3.0 micrometers on the surface of the Moon. For silicate bodies, such features are typically attributed to hydroxyl- and/or water-bearing materials. On the Moon, the feature is seen as a widely distributed absorption that appears strongest at cooler high latitudes and at several fresh feldspathic craters. The general lack of correlation of this feature in sunlit M3 data with neutron spectrometer hydrogen abundance data suggests that the formation and retention of hydroxyl and water are ongoing surficial processes. Hydroxyl/water production processes may feed polar cold traps and make the lunar regolith a candidate source of volatiles for human exploration.

  3. RR Lyrae stars in the outer region of the globular cluster M 3: A shortage of long periods at r ˜ 3.5 to 6 arcmin?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, D. J.

    2004-06-01

    An analysis of the radial distribution of ab-type RR Lyrae star periods in the outer region of the globular cluster M 3 at r ≥0.83' has been performed. That analysis points towards a real shortage of stars with long periods in the radial distance range 3.5' to 6' (or about 7 to 12 core radii). A brief discussion is presented. The origin of the phenomenon remains an open question.

  4. Comparison of Analysis Results Between 2D/1D Synthesis and RAPTOR-M3G in the Korea Standard Nuclear Plant (KSNP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joung Lim, Mi; Maeng, Young Jae; Fero, Arnold H.; Anderson, Stanwood L.

    2016-02-01

    The 2D/1D synthesis methodology has been used to calculate the fast neutron (E > 1.0 MeV) exposure to the beltline region of the reactor pressure vessel. This method uses the DORT 3.1 discrete ordinates code and the BUGLE-96 cross-section library based on ENDF/B-VI. RAPTOR-M3G (RApid Parallel Transport Of Radiation-Multiple 3D Geometries) which performs full 3D calculations was developed and is based on domain decomposition algorithms, where the spatial and angular domains are allocated and processed on multi-processor computer architecture. As compared to traditional single-processor applications, this approach reduces the computational load as well as the memory requirement per processor. Both methods are applied to surveillance test results for the Korea Standard Nuclear Plant (KSNP)-OPR (Optimized Power Reactor) 1000 MW. The objective of this paper is to compare the results of the KSNP surveillance program between 2D/1D synthesis and RAPTOR-M3G. Each operating KSNP has a reactor vessel surveillance program consisting of six surveillance capsules located between the core and the reactor vessel in the downcomer region near the reactor vessel wall. In addition to the In-Vessel surveillance program, an Ex-Vessel Neutron Dosimetry (EVND) program has been implemented. In order to estimate surveillance test results, cycle-specific forward transport calculations were performed by 2D/1D synthesis and by RAPTOR-M3G. The ratio between measured and calculated (M/C) reaction rates will be discussed. The current plan is to install an EVND system in all of the Korea PWRs including the new reactor type, APR (Advanced Power Reactor) 1400 MW. This work will play an important role in establishing a KSNP-specific database of surveillance test results and will employ RAPTOR-M3G for surveillance dosimetry location as well as positions in the KSNP reactor vessel.

  5. In vivo and in vitro pharmacological characterization of SVT-40776, a novel M3 muscarinic receptor antagonist, for the treatment of overactive bladder

    PubMed Central

    Salcedo, C; Davalillo, S; Cabellos, J; Lagunas, C; Balsa, D; Pérez-del-Pulgar, S; Ballarín, M; Fernández, AG

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose: Highly selective M3 muscarinic receptor antagonists may represent a better treatment for overactive bladder syndrome, diminishing side effects. Cardiac side effects of non-selective antimuscarinics have been associated with activity at M2 receptors as these receptors are mainly responsible for muscarinic receptor-dependent bradycardia. We have investigated a novel antimuscarinic, SVT-40776, highly selective for M3 over M2 receptors (Ki = 0.19 nmol·L−1 for M3 receptor affinity). This study reports the functional activity of SVT-40776 in the bladder, relative to its activity in atria. Experimental approach: In vitro and ex vivo (oral dosing) inhibition of mouse detrusor and atrial contractile responses to carbachol were used to study the functional activity of SVT-40776. The in vivo efficacy of SVT-40776 was characterized by suppression of isovolumetric spontaneous bladder contractions in anaesthetized guinea pigs after intravenous administration. Key results: SVT-40776 was the most potent in inhibiting carbachol-induced bladder contractions of the anti-cholinergic agents tested, without affecting atrial contractions over the same range of concentrations. SVT-40776 exhibited the highest urinary versus cardiac selectivity (199-fold). In the guinea pig in vivo model, SVT-40776 inhibited 25% of spontaneous bladder contractions at a very low dose (6.97 µg·kg−1 i.v), without affecting arterial blood pressure. Conclusions and implications: SVT-40776 is a potent inhibitor of M3 receptor-related detrusor contractile activity. The absence of effects on isolated atria preparations represents an interesting characteristic and suggests that SVT-40776 may lack unwanted cardiac effects; a feature especially relevant in a compound intended to treat mainly elderly patients. British Journal of Pharmacology (2009) doi:10.1111/j.1476-5381.2008.00082.x PMID:19222482

  6. Effects of ginger constituents on the gastrointestinal tract: role of cholinergic M3 and serotonergic 5-HT3 and 5-HT4 receptors.

    PubMed

    Pertz, Heinz H; Lehmann, Jochen; Roth-Ehrang, René; Elz, Sigurd

    2011-07-01

    The herbal drug ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) may be effective for treating nausea, vomiting, and gastric hypomotility. In these conditions, cholinergic M (3) receptors and serotonergic 5-HT (3) and 5-HT (4) receptors are involved. The major chemical constituents of ginger are [6]-gingerol, [8]-gingerol, [10]-gingerol, and [6]-shogaol. We studied the interaction of [6]-gingerol, [8]-gingerol, [10]-gingerol (racemates), and [6]-shogaol with guinea pig M (3) receptors, guinea pig 5-HT (3) receptors, and rat 5-HT (4) receptors. In whole segments of guinea pig ileum (bioassay for contractile M (3) receptors), [6]-gingerol, [8]-gingerol, [10]-gingerol, and [6]-shogaol slightly but significantly depressed the maximal carbachol response at an antagonist concentration of 10 µM. In the guinea pig myenteric plexus preparation (bioassay for contractile 5-HT (3) receptors), 5-HT maximal responses were depressed by [10]-gingerol from 93 ± 3 % to 65 ± 6 % at an antagonist concentration of 3 µM and to 48 ± 3 % at an antagonist concentration of 5 µM following desensitization of 5-HT (4) receptors and blockade of 5-HT (1) and 5-HT (2) receptors. [6]-Shogaol (3 µM) induced depression to 61 ± 3 %. In rat esophageal tunica muscularis mucosae (bioassay for relaxant 5-HT (4) receptors), [6]-gingerol, [8]-gingerol, [10]-gingerol, and [6]-shogaol (2-6.3 µM) showed no agonist effects. The maximal 5-HT response remained unaffected in the presence of the compounds. It is concluded that the efficiency of ginger in reducing nausea and vomiting may be based on a weak inhibitory effect of gingerols and shogaols at M (3) and 5-HT (3) receptors. 5-HT (4) receptors, which play a role in gastroduodenal motility, appear not to be involved in the action of these compounds. PMID:21305447

  7. Sources and physical processes responsible for OH/H2O in the lunar soil as revealed by the Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCord, T.B.; Taylor, L.A.; Combe, J.-P.; Kramer, G.; Pieters, C.M.; Sunshine, J.M.; Clark, R.N.

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of two absorption features near 3 m in the lunar reflectance spectrum, observed by the orbiting M3 spectrometer and interpreted as being due to OH and H2O, is presented, and the results are used to discuss the processes producing these molecules. This analysis focuses on the dependence of the absorptions on lunar physical properties, including composition, illumination, latitude, and temperature. Solar wind proton-induced hydroxylation is proposed as the creation process, and its products could be a source for other reported types of hydrogen-rich material and water. The irregular and damaged fine-grained lunar soil seems especially adapted for trapping solar wind protons and forming OH owing to abundant dangling oxygen bonds. The M3 data reveal that the strengths of the two absorptions are correlated and widespread, and both are correlated with lunar composition but in different ways. Feldspathic material seems richer in OH. These results seem to rule out water from the lunar interior and cometary infall as major sources. There appear to be correlations of apparent band strengths with time of day and lighting conditions. However, thermal emission from the Moon reduces the apparent strengths of the M3 absorptions, and its removal is not yet completely successful. Further, many of the lunar physical properties are themselves intercorrelated, and so separating these dependencies on the absorptions is difficult, due to the incomplete M3 data set. This process should also operate on other airless silicate surfaces, such as Mercury and Vesta, which will be visited by the Dawn spacecraft in mid-2011. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  8. Activation of muscarinic M3 receptors inhibits large-conductance voltage- and Ca2+-activated K+ channels in rat urinary bladder smooth muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    Parajuli, Shankar P.

    2013-01-01

    Large conductance voltage- and Ca2+-activated K+ (BK) channels are key regulators of detrusor smooth muscle (DSM) contraction and relaxation during urine voiding and storage. Here, we explored whether BK channels are regulated by muscarinic receptors (M-Rs) in native freshly isolated rat DSM cells under physiological conditions using the perforated whole cell patch-clamp technique and pharmacological inhibitors. M-R activation with carbachol (1 μM) initially evoked large transient outward BK currents, followed by inhibition of the spontaneous transient outward BK currents (STBKCs) in DSM cells. Carbachol (1 μM) also inhibited the amplitude and frequency of spontaneous transient hyperpolarizations (STHs) and depolarized the DSM cell membrane potential. Selective inhibition of the muscarinic M3 receptors (M3-Rs) with 4-diphenylacetoxy-N-methylpiperidine (4-DAMP; 0.1 μM), but not muscarinic M2 receptors with methoctramine (1 μM), blocked the carbachol inhibitory effects on STBKCs. Furthermore, blocking the inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3) receptors with xestospongin-C (1 μM) inhibited the carbachol-induced large transient outward BK currents without affecting carbachol inhibitory effects on STBKCs. Upon pharmacological inhibition of all known cellular sources of Ca2+ for BK channel activation, carbachol (1 μM) did not affect the voltage-step-induced steady-state BK currents, suggesting that the muscarinic effects in DSM cells are mediated by mobilization of intracellular Ca2+. In conclusion, our findings provide strong evidence that activation of M3-Rs leads to inhibition of the STBKCs, STHs, and depolarization of DSM cells. Collectively, the data suggest the existence of functional interactions between BK channels and M3-Rs at a cellular level in DSM. PMID:23703523

  9. Ferroelectric and magnetic properties of Aurivillius Bi{sub m+1}Ti{sub 3}Fe{sub m−3}O{sub 3m+3} thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Jia, Tingting Kimura, Hideo; Cheng, Zhenxiang; Zhao, Hongyang

    2015-11-15

    Aurivillius Bi{sub m+1}Ti{sub 3}Fe{sub m−3}O{sub 3m+3} (m = 4, 5, 6) thin films have been deposited by a pulsed laser deposition system. The x-ray diffraction patterns indicate the formation of orthorhombic phase. The remanent polarization (2P{sub r}) of Bi{sub m+1}Ti{sub 3}Fe{sub m−3}O{sub 3m+3} thin films is decreased with the m-number. Positive-up-negative-down measurements indicate the presence of ferroelectric (FE) polarization in as-obtained thin films. Piezoresponse force microscopy investigations confirm the existence of FE domains and the switchable polarization. Weak magnetic moment is detected in the Aurivillius films at room temperature. The present work suggests the possibility of Aurivillius Bi{sub m+1}Ti{sub 3}Fe{sub m−3}O{sub 3m+3} (m = 4, 5, 6) materials as potential room-temperature multiferroics.

  10. Sleep as spatiotemporal integration of biological processes that evolved to periodically reinforce neurodynamic and metabolic homeostasis: The 2m3d paradigm of sleep.

    PubMed

    Mader, Edward Claro; Mader, Annie Cielo Llave

    2016-08-15

    Sleep continues to perplex scientists and researchers. Despite decades of sleep research, we still lack a clear understanding of the biological functions and evolution of sleep. In this review, we will examine sleep from a functional and phylogenetic perspective and describe some important conceptual gaps in understanding sleep. Classical theories of the biology and evolution of sleep emphasize sensory activation, energy balance, and metabolic homeostasis. Advances in electrophysiology, functional neuroimaging, and neuroplasticity allow us to view sleep within the framework of neural dynamics. With this paradigm shift, we have come to realize the importance of neurodynamic homeostasis in shaping the biology of sleep. Evidently, animals sleep to achieve neurodynamic and metabolic homeostasis. We are not aware of any framework for understanding sleep where neurodynamic, metabolic, homeostatic, chronophasic, and afferent variables are all taken into account. This motivated us to propose the two-mode three-drive (2m3d) paradigm of sleep. In the 2m3d paradigm, local neurodynamic/metabolic (N/M) processes switch between two modes-m0 and m1-in response to three drives-afferent, chronophasic, and homeostatic. The spatiotemporal integration of local m0/m1 operations gives rise to the global states of sleep and wakefulness. As a framework of evolution, the 2m3d paradigm allows us to view sleep as a robust adaptive strategy that evolved so animals can periodically reinforce neurodynamic and metabolic homeostasis while remaining sensitive to their internal and external environment.

  11. Describing the heavy-ion above-barrier fusion using the bare potentials resulting from Migdal and M3Y double-folding approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gontchar, I. I.; Chushnyakova, M. V.

    2016-08-01

    Systematic calculations of the Coulomb barrier parameters for collisions of spherical nuclei are performed within the framework of the double folding approach. The value of the parameter {B}Z={Z}P{Z}T/({A}P{1/3}+{A}T{1/3}) (which estimates the Coulomb barrier height) varies in these calculations from 10 MeV up to 150 MeV. The nuclear densities came from the Hartree-Fock calculations which reproduce the experimental charge densities with good accuracy. For the nucleon-nucleon effective interaction two analytical approximations known in the literature are used: the M3Y and Migdal forces. The calculations show that Migdal interaction always results in the higher Coulomb barrier. Moreover, as B Z increases the difference between the M3Y and Migdal barrier heights systematically increases as well. As the result, the above barrier fusion cross sections calculated dynamically with the M3Y forces and surface friction are in agreement with the data. The cross sections calculated with the Migdal forces are always below the experimental data even without accounting for the dissipation.

  12. Reclamation of the wastewater from an industrial park using hollow-fibre and spiral-wound membranes: 50 m3 d(-1) pilot testing and cost evaluation.

    PubMed

    Chu, C P; Jiaoa, S R; Hung, J M; Lu, C J; Chung, Y J

    2009-08-01

    The feasibility of reclaiming effluent from industrial park wastewater treatment plants through a membrane process was evaluated in three phases. In phase 1 we selected nine wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), each with a design capacity exceeding 10,000 m3 d(-1), and analyzed the corresponding effluent composition. 'Potential recycling percentage', R, ranged from 50% to 80% for the industrial park WWTPs, indicating a high feasibility for the reuse of effluent. In phase 2, a 50 m3 d(-1) pilot plant was installed in one of the selected WWTPs and underwent testing for one year. The quality of the reclaimed water was suitable for general-purpose industrial use. In the two ultrafiltration (UF) modules tested, the hydrophilic polyethersulfone hollow-fibre module was more tolerant to variable properties, and had higher recycling percentages than those of backwashable hydrophobic polyvinylidene difluoride spiral-wound module. Using the spiral-wound UF module helped reduce the cost for producing 1 m3 of reclaimed water (US$0.80) compared with a hollow-fibre module (US$0.88). In phase 3, we evaluated the negative effects of refluxing the reverse osmosis retentate, containing high total dissolved solids and non-biodegradable organics, with the biological treatment unit of the upstream WWTP. Biological compactibility tests showed that the refluxed retentate ratio should be reduced to maintain the conductivity of mixed liquor in the aeration tank at less than 110% of the original value.

  13. Hot HB Stars in Globular Clusters: Physical Parameters and Consequences for Theory. VI; The Second Parameter Pair M 3 and M 13

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moehler, S.; Landsman, W. B.; Sweigart, A. V.; Grundahl, F.

    2003-01-01

    We present the results of spectroscopic analyses of hot horizontal branch (HB) stars in M 13 and M 3, which form a famous "second parameter" pair. F rom the spectra and Stromgren photometry we derived - for the first time in M 13 - atmospheric parameters (effective temperature and surface gravity). For stars with Stromgren temperatures between 10,000 and 12,000 K we found excellent agreement between the atmospheric parameters derived from Stromgren photometry and those derived from Balmer line profile fits. However, for cooler stars there is a disagreement in the parameters derived by the two methods, for which we have no satisfactory explanation. Stars hotter than 12,000 K show evidence for helium depletion and iron enrichment, both in M 3 and M 13. Accounting for the iron enrichment substantially improves the agreement with canonical evolutionary models, although the derived gravities and masses are still somewhat too low. This remaining discrepancy may be an indication that scaled-solar metal-rich model atmospheres do not adequately represent the highly non-solar abundance ratios found in blue HB stars affected by diffusion. We discuss the effects of an enhancement in the envelope helium abundance on the atmospheric parameters of the blue HB stars, as might be caused by deep mixing on the red giant branch or primordial pollution from an earlier generation of intermediate mass asymptotic giant branch stars. Key words. Stars: atmospheres - Stars: evolution - Stars: horizontal branch - Globular clusters: individual: M 3 - Globular clusters: individual: M 13

  14. Analysis of the behavior of the 3-µm absorptions in the M3 lunar reflectance observations and indications of OH sources and processes for airless bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCord, T. B.; Combe, J.

    2010-12-01

    Absorptions in the 3-µm region of the lunar reflectance spectrum acquired by the Chandrayaan-1 Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) visual-IR imaging spectrometer were interpreted as indicating OH and H2O in the lunar soil (Pieters et al., 2009). Analysis of the dependence of these absorptions on the physical properties of the surface (i.e., temperature, composition, lighting geometry, latitude) was first reported by Pieters et al. (2009) and subsequently expanded (McCord et al., 2010). These dependences could be important in understanding the sources and processes concerning the OH and related molecules. A favored process is hydroxylation cause by solar wind proton implantation, and the behavior of the absorptions is consistent with this hypothesis, as will be presented. However, the incomplete M3 data set (contact was lost with the spacecraft prematurely) and removal of thermal emission (affects estimates of absorption strengths) are major complications. Thermal information from other sources, such as the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Diviner measurements (Paige et al., 2010) and subsequent models, and better knowledge of surface topography are aiding our analysis of the 3-µm absorptions strength and behavior with lunar conditions, as will be reported. More detailed investigation will help determine whether all the spectral features related to hydration are due to surficial processes only. Characterization of the formation, distribution and variations of OH and H2O on the Moon is key to understand interactions of any airless body’s surface with the space environment. Indeed, this study is also relevant for the preparation of orbital observations of the surface of Vesta by the Visible and Infrared (VIR) imaging spectrometer onboard the Dawn spacecraft (Russell et al., 2007) that will begin in summer 2011. References Pieters, C. M. and the M3 team (2009), Character and spatial distribution of OH/H2O on the surface of the Moon seen by M3 on Chandrayaan-1, Science

  15. Differential Effects of the Gβ5-RGS7 Complex on Muscarinic M3 Receptor–Induced Ca2+ Influx and Release

    PubMed Central

    Karpinsky-Semper, Darla; Volmar, Claude-Henry; Brothers, Shaun P.

    2014-01-01

    The G protein β subunit Gβ5 uniquely forms heterodimers with R7 family regulators of G protein signaling (RGS) proteins (RGS6, RGS7, RGS9, and RGS11) instead of Gγ. Although the Gβ5-RGS7 complex attenuates Ca2+ signaling mediated by the muscarinic M3 receptor (M3R), the route of Ca2+ entry (i.e., release from intracellular stores and/or influx across the plasma membrane) is unknown. Here, we show that, in addition to suppressing carbachol-stimulated Ca2+ release, Gβ5-RGS7 enhanced Ca2+ influx. This novel effect of Gβ5-RGS7 was blocked by nifedipine and 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate. Experiments with pertussis toxin, an RGS domain–deficient mutant of RGS7, and UBO-QIC {L-threonine,(3R)-N-acetyl-3-hydroxy-L-leucyl-(aR)-a-hydroxybenzenepropanoyl-2,3-idehydro-N-methylalanyl-L-alanyl-N-methyl-L-alanyl-(3R)-3-[[(2S,3R)-3-hydroxy-4- methyl-1-oxo-2-[(1-oxopropyl)amino]pentyl]oxy]-L-leucyl-N,O-dimethyl-,(7→1)-lactone (9CI)}, a novel inhibitor of Gq, showed that Gβ5-RGS7 modulated a Gq-mediated pathway. These studies indicate that Gβ5-RGS7, independent of RGS7 GTPase-accelerating protein activity, couples M3R to a nifedipine-sensitive Ca2+ channel. We also compared the action of Gβ5-RGS7 on M3R-induced Ca2+ influx and release elicited by different muscarinic agonists. Responses to Oxo-M [oxotremorine methiodide N,N,N,-trimethyl-4-(2-oxo-1-pyrrolidinyl)-2-butyn-1-ammonium iodide] were insensitive to Gβ5-RGS7. Pilocarpine responses consisted of a large release and modest influx components, of which the former was strongly inhibited whereas the latter was insensitive to Gβ5-RGS7. McN-A-343 [(4-hydroxy-2-butynyl)-1-trimethylammonium-3-chlorocarbanilate chloride] was the only compound whose total Ca2+ response was enhanced by Gβ5-RGS7, attributed to, in part, by the relatively small Ca2+ release this partial agonist stimulated. Together, these results show that distinct agonists not only have differential M3R functional selectivity, but also confer specific

  16. A miniaturized microbial fuel cell with three-dimensional graphene macroporous scaffold anode demonstrating a record power density of over 10 000 W m-3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Hao; Tian, He; Gardner, Cameron L.; Ren, Tian-Ling; Chae, Junseok

    2016-02-01

    A microbial fuel cell (MFC) is a bio-inspired renewable energy converter which directly converts biomass into electricity. This is accomplished via the unique extracellular electron transfer (EET) of a specific species of microbe called the exoelectrogen. Many studies have attempted to improve the power density of MFCs, yet the reported power density is still nearly two orders of magnitude lower than other power sources/converters. Such a low performance can primarily be attributed to two bottlenecks: (i) ineffective electron transfer from microbes located far from the anode and (ii) an insufficient buffer supply to the biofilm. This work takes a novel approach to mitigate these two bottlenecks by integrating a three-dimensional (3D) macroporous graphene scaffold anode in a miniaturized MFC. This implementation has delivered the highest power density reported to date in all MFCs of over 10 000 W m-3. The miniaturized configuration offers a high surface area to volume ratio and improved mass transfer of biomass and buffers. The 3D graphene macroporous scaffold warrants investigation due to its high specific surface area, high porosity, and excellent conductivity and biocompatibility which facilitates EET and alleviates acidification in the biofilm. Consequently, the 3D scaffold houses an extremely thick and dense biofilm from the Geobacter-enriched culture, delivering an areal/volumetric current density of 15.51 A m-2/31 040 A m-3 and a power density of 5.61 W m-2/11 220 W m-3, a 3.3 fold increase when compared to its planar two-dimensional (2D) control counterparts.A microbial fuel cell (MFC) is a bio-inspired renewable energy converter which directly converts biomass into electricity. This is accomplished via the unique extracellular electron transfer (EET) of a specific species of microbe called the exoelectrogen. Many studies have attempted to improve the power density of MFCs, yet the reported power density is still nearly two orders of magnitude lower than

  17. Study of the continuum removal method for the Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) and its application to Mare Humorum and Mare Nubium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xun-Yu; Ouyang, Zi-Yuan; Zhang, Xiao-Meng; Chen, Yuan; Tang, Xiao; Xu, Ao-Ao; Tang, Ze-Sheng; Wu, Yun-Zhao

    2016-07-01

    The absorption band center of visible and near infrared reflectance spectra is a key spectral parameter for lunar mineralogical studies, especially for the mafic minerals (olivine and pyroxene) of mare basalts, which have two obvious absorption bands at 1000 nm (Band I) and 2000nm (Band II). Removal of the continuum from spectra, which was developed by Clark and Roush and used to isolate the particular absorption feature, is necessary to estimate this parameter. The Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) data are widely used for lunar mineral identification. However, M3 data show a residual thermal effect, which interferes with the continuum removal, and systematic differences exist among optical data taken during different optical periods. This study investigated a suitable continuum removal method and compared the difference between two sets of M3 data taken during different optical periods, Optical Period 1B (OP1B) and Optical Period 2A (OP2A). Two programs for continuum removal are reported in this paper. Generally, a program respectively constructs two straight lines across Band I and Band II to remove the continuum, which is recommended for locating band centers, because it can find the same Band I center with different right endpoints. The optimal right endpoint for continuum removal is mainly dominated by two optical period data at approximately 2480 and 2560nm for OP1B and OP2A data, respectively. The band center values derived from OP1B data are smaller than those derived from OP2A data in Band I but larger in Band II, especially for the spectra using longer right endpoints (>2600 nm). This may be due to the spectral slopes of OP1B data being steeper than those of OP2A data in Band I but gentler in Band II. These results were applied to Mare Humorum and Mare Nubium, and the measurements were found to mainly vary from intermediate- to high-Ca pyroxene.

  18. Insight into the pseudo π-hole interactions in the M3H6(NCF)n (M = C, Si, Ge, Sn, Pb; n = 1, 2, 3) complexes.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Zeng, Yanli; Li, Xiaoyan; Sun, Zheng; Meng, Lingpeng

    2016-09-21

    For cyclopropane and its derivatives M3H6 (M = C, Si, Ge, Sn, Pb), "pseudo π-hole" regions above and below the M-M-M three-membered ring have been discovered, and pseudo π-hole interactions between M3H6 and F-CN have been designed and investigated by MP2/aug-cc-pVTZ and MP2/aug-cc-pVTZ-pp calculations. To investigate the enhancing effects of FN halogen bonds on the pseudo π-hole interactions, the termolecular and tetramolecular complexes M3H6(NCF)n (n = 2, 3) were constructed. Energy decomposition analysis shows that the dispersion term contributes the most among the three attractive components in the C3H6(NCF)n (n = 1, 2, 3) complexes while in the Si3H6(NCF)n and Ge3H6(NCF)n complexes, the electrostatic term has the largest contribution. The electrostatic and polarization energies have more effect than the dispersion energy for the enhancement of the FN halogen bond on the pseudo π-hole interactions. With the increase in the number of NCF units from 1 to 3, the VS,min values outside the nitrogen atom of NCF become increasingly negative, the electric field of the lone pair of nitrogen becomes greater and causes a further increase of electron density outside the nitrogen atom and a further decrease of electron density outside the pseudo π-hole region, resulting in a stronger pseudo π-hole interaction.

  19. Insight into the pseudo π-hole interactions in the M3H6(NCF)n (M = C, Si, Ge, Sn, Pb; n = 1, 2, 3) complexes.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Zeng, Yanli; Li, Xiaoyan; Sun, Zheng; Meng, Lingpeng

    2016-09-21

    For cyclopropane and its derivatives M3H6 (M = C, Si, Ge, Sn, Pb), "pseudo π-hole" regions above and below the M-M-M three-membered ring have been discovered, and pseudo π-hole interactions between M3H6 and F-CN have been designed and investigated by MP2/aug-cc-pVTZ and MP2/aug-cc-pVTZ-pp calculations. To investigate the enhancing effects of FN halogen bonds on the pseudo π-hole interactions, the termolecular and tetramolecular complexes M3H6(NCF)n (n = 2, 3) were constructed. Energy decomposition analysis shows that the dispersion term contributes the most among the three attractive components in the C3H6(NCF)n (n = 1, 2, 3) complexes while in the Si3H6(NCF)n and Ge3H6(NCF)n complexes, the electrostatic term has the largest contribution. The electrostatic and polarization energies have more effect than the dispersion energy for the enhancement of the FN halogen bond on the pseudo π-hole interactions. With the increase in the number of NCF units from 1 to 3, the VS,min values outside the nitrogen atom of NCF become increasingly negative, the electric field of the lone pair of nitrogen becomes greater and causes a further increase of electron density outside the nitrogen atom and a further decrease of electron density outside the pseudo π-hole region, resulting in a stronger pseudo π-hole interaction. PMID:27545836

  20. A miniaturized microbial fuel cell with three-dimensional graphene macroporous scaffold anode demonstrating a record power density of over 10,000 W m(-3) .

    PubMed

    Ren, Hao; Tian, He; Gardner, Cameron L; Ren, Tian-Ling; Chae, Junseok

    2016-02-14

    A microbial fuel cell (MFC) is a bio-inspired renewable energy converter which directly converts biomass into electricity. This is accomplished via the unique extracellular electron transfer (EET) of a specific species of microbe called the exoelectrogen. Many studies have attempted to improve the power density of MFCs, yet the reported power density is still nearly two orders of magnitude lower than other power sources/converters. Such a low performance can primarily be attributed to two bottlenecks: (i) ineffective electron transfer from microbes located far from the anode and (ii) an insufficient buffer supply to the biofilm. This work takes a novel approach to mitigate these two bottlenecks by integrating a three-dimensional (3D) macroporous graphene scaffold anode in a miniaturized MFC. This implementation has delivered the highest power density reported to date in all MFCs of over 10,000 W m(-3). The miniaturized configuration offers a high surface area to volume ratio and improved mass transfer of biomass and buffers. The 3D graphene macroporous scaffold warrants investigation due to its high specific surface area, high porosity, and excellent conductivity and biocompatibility which facilitates EET and alleviates acidification in the biofilm. Consequently, the 3D scaffold houses an extremely thick and dense biofilm from the Geobacter-enriched culture, delivering an areal/volumetric current density of 15.51 A m(-2)/31,040 A m(-3) and a power density of 5.61 W m(-2)/11,220 W m(-3), a 3.3 fold increase when compared to its planar two-dimensional (2D) control counterparts.

  1. A miniaturized microbial fuel cell with three-dimensional graphene macroporous scaffold anode demonstrating a record power density of over 10,000 W m(-3) .

    PubMed

    Ren, Hao; Tian, He; Gardner, Cameron L; Ren, Tian-Ling; Chae, Junseok

    2016-02-14

    A microbial fuel cell (MFC) is a bio-inspired renewable energy converter which directly converts biomass into electricity. This is accomplished via the unique extracellular electron transfer (EET) of a specific species of microbe called the exoelectrogen. Many studies have attempted to improve the power density of MFCs, yet the reported power density is still nearly two orders of magnitude lower than other power sources/converters. Such a low performance can primarily be attributed to two bottlenecks: (i) ineffective electron transfer from microbes located far from the anode and (ii) an insufficient buffer supply to the biofilm. This work takes a novel approach to mitigate these two bottlenecks by integrating a three-dimensional (3D) macroporous graphene scaffold anode in a miniaturized MFC. This implementation has delivered the highest power density reported to date in all MFCs of over 10,000 W m(-3). The miniaturized configuration offers a high surface area to volume ratio and improved mass transfer of biomass and buffers. The 3D graphene macroporous scaffold warrants investigation due to its high specific surface area, high porosity, and excellent conductivity and biocompatibility which facilitates EET and alleviates acidification in the biofilm. Consequently, the 3D scaffold houses an extremely thick and dense biofilm from the Geobacter-enriched culture, delivering an areal/volumetric current density of 15.51 A m(-2)/31,040 A m(-3) and a power density of 5.61 W m(-2)/11,220 W m(-3), a 3.3 fold increase when compared to its planar two-dimensional (2D) control counterparts. PMID:26804041

  2. Constraints on olivine-rich rock types on the Moon as observed by Diviner and M3: Implications for the formation of the lunar crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, J. A.; Glotch, T. D.; Lucey, P. G.; Song, E.; Thomas, I. R.; Bowles, N. E.; Greenhagen, B. T.

    2016-07-01

    We place upper limits on lunar olivine abundance using midinfrared (5-25 µm) data from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment (Diviner) along with effective emissivity spectra of mineral mixtures in a simulated lunar environment. Olivine-bearing, pyroxene-poor lithologies have been identified on the lunar surface with visible-near-infrared (VNIR) observations. Since the Kaguya Spectral Profiler (SP) VNIR survey of olivine-rich regions is the most complete to date, we focus this work on exposures identified by that study. We first confirmed the locations with VNIR data from the Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) instrument. We then developed a Diviner olivine index from our laboratory data which, along with M3 and Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera wide-angle camera data, was used to select the geographic area over which Diviner emissivity data were extracted. We calculate upper limits on olivine abundance for these areas using laboratory emissivity spectra of anorthite-forsterite mixtures acquired under lunar-like conditions. We find that these exposures have widely varying olivine content. In addition, after applying an albedo-based space weathering correction to the Diviner data, we find that none of the areas are unambiguously consistent with concentrations of forsterite exceeding 90 wt %, in contrast to the higher abundance estimates derived from VNIR data.

  3. The Coexistence of Two Different Pearlites, Lamellae of (Ferrite + M3C), and Lamellae of (Ferrite + M23C6) in a Mn-Al Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Wei-Chun; Li, Yu-Cheng

    2012-06-01

    Two different pearlites after two separate eutectoid reactions were observed in an Fe-19.8 Mn-1.64 Al-1.03 C (wt pct) steel. The steel specimens were processed under solution heat treatment at 1373 K (1100 °C) and received isothermal holding at temperatures from 1073 K to 773 K (800 °C to 500 °C). The constituent phase of the steel is single austenite at temperatures between 1373 K and 1073 K (1100 °C and 800 °C). At temperatures below 1048 K (775 °C), M3C and M23C6 carbides coprecipitate at the austenitic grain boundaries. Two different pearlites appear in the austenite matrix simultaneously at temperatures below 923 K (650 °C). One is lamellae of ferrite and M3C carbide, and the other is lamellae of ferrite and M23C6 carbide. These two pearlites are product phases from two separate eutectoid reactions, i.e., austenite → ferrite + cementite and austenite → ferrite + M23C6. Therefore, the supersaturated austenite has decomposed into two different pearlites, separately.

  4. Reactivity of Hydride Bridges in High-Spin [3M-3(μ-H)] Clusters (M = FeII, CoII).

    PubMed

    Lee, Yousoon; Anderton, Kevin J; Sloane, Forrest T; Ermert, David M; Abboud, Khalil A; García-Serres, Ricardo; Murray, Leslie J

    2015-08-26

    The designed [3M-3(μ-H)] clusters (M = Fe(II), Co(II)) Fe3H3L (1-H) and Co3H3L (2-H) [where L(3-) is a tris(β-diketiminate) cyclophane] were synthesized by treating the corresponding M3Br3L complexes with KBEt3H. From single-crystal X-ray analysis, the hydride ligands are sterically protected by the cyclophane ligand, and these complexes selectively react with CO2 over other unsaturated substrates (e.g., CS2, Me3SiCCH, C2H2, and CH3CN). The reaction of 1-H or 2-H with CO2 at room temperature yielded Fe3(OCHO)(H)2L (1-CO2) or Co3(OCHO)(H)2L (2-CO2), respectively, which evidence the differential reactivity of the hydride ligands within these complexes. The analogous reactions at elevated temperatures revealed a distinct difference in the reactivity pattern for 2-H as compared to 1-H; Fe3(OCHO)3L (1-3CO2) was generated from 1-H, while 2-H afforded only 2-CO2.

  5. Hot HB Stars in Globular Clusters - Physical Parameters and Consequences for Theory. VI. The Second Parameter Pair M3 and M13

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moehler, S.; Landsman, W. B.; Sweigart, A. V.; Grundahl, F.

    2002-01-01

    We present the results of spectroscopic analyses of hot horizontal branch (HB) stars in M13 and M3, which form a famous second parameter pair. From the spectra we derived - for the first time in M13 - atmospheric parameters (effective temperature and surface gravity) as well as abundances of helium, magnesium, and iron. Consistent with analyses of hot HB stars in other globular clusters we find evidence for helium depletion and iron enrichment in stars hotter than about 12,000 K in both M3 and M13. Accounting for the iron enrichment substantially improves the agreement with canonical evolutionary models, although the derived gravities and masses are still somewhat too low. This remaining discrepancy may be an indication that scaled-solar metal-rich model atmospheres do not adequately represent the highly non-solar abundance ratios found in blue HB stars with radiative levitation. We discuss the effects of an enhancement in the envelope helium abundance on the atmospheric parameters of the blue HB stars, as might be caused by deep mixing on the red giant branch or primordial pollution from an earlier generation of intermediate mass asymptotic giant branch stars.

  6. The Wyckoff positional order and polyhedral intergrowth in the M3B2- and M5B3-type boride precipitated in the Ni-based superalloys.

    PubMed

    Hu, X B; Zhu, Y L; Sheng, N C; Ma, X L

    2014-01-01

    Ni-based single superalloys play a crucial role in the hottest parts of jet engines. However, due to the complex geometry and macro-segregation during the solidification process, the cast defect such as stray grains is inevitable. Therefore, the transient liquid phase (TLP) bonding which can join several small single crystalline castings together is gradually believed to be an effective method for improving the yields of production of the complex components. The melting point depressant element B is always added into the interlayer filler material. Consequently, borides including the M3B2 and M5B3 phase usually precipitate during the TLP bonding process. So a comprehensive knowledge of the fine structural characteristics of the borides is very critical for an accurate evaluation of the TLP bonding process. In this work, by means of the aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy, we show, at an atomic scale, the Wyckoff positional order phenomenon of the metal atoms in the unit cell of M3B2- and M5B3-type boride. Meanwhile, the defect along the (001) plane of the above two types of boride are determined to be the polyhedral intergrowth with complex configurations. PMID:25482386

  7. Relations structurales entre U 3O 8 et quelques fluorures mixtes de formules M2M' 3F 11, MM' 2F 7 et MM' 3F 10

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aléonard, S.; Le Fur, Y.; Champarnaud-Mesjard, J. C.; Frit, B.; Roux, M. Th.

    1983-01-01

    U 3O 8 oxide, as well as M2M' 3F 11, MM' 2F 7 and MM' 3F 10 fluorides, with M = Rb, Tl, Cs, NH 4 and M' = In, Lu, Yb, Tm, is described as the regular repetition according to the … A-A-A … sequence of identical and parallel sheets of edge-and corner-sharing M'F 7 or UO 7 pentagonal bipyramids and M'F 6 octahedra. M' and U atoms are systematically located at the lattice points of a pseudohexagonal network, but in the fluorides some of these lattice points are vacant, producing hexagonal tunnels in which M atoms are located. It is shown that in the two kinds of compounds the same linear chains and M' 3X17 groups of pentagonal bipyramids are present, and that the transformation of the U 3O 8 structure into the fluorides can be achieved by an ordered substitution of some linear … UOUO … chains by … M- M- M … chains. All these structures can be described with the same structural model based on the chemical twinning principle.

  8. Dissemination of Proteus mirabilis isolates harboring CTX-M-14 and CTX-M-3 beta-lactamases at 2 hospitals in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lii-Tzu; Wu, Hwa-Jen; Chung, Jing-Gung; Chuang, Yin-Ching; Cheng, Kuo-Chen; Yu, Wen-Liang

    2006-02-01

    From February to June 2003, 111 clinical isolates of Proteus mirabilis were mainly isolated from patients with respiratory or urinary tract infections hospitalized at 3 district hospitals (A, B, C) in central Taiwan. Among them, 34 (30.6%) strains, isolated within 2 hospitals (A and B), exhibited nonsusceptibility to cefotaxime with significant reduction of MIC (> or = 3 log2 dilution) by the effect of clavulanic acid, which confirmed the phenotype of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs). These ESBL producers were coresistant to gentamicin, isepamicin, and amikacin, but remained susceptible to ceftazidime (MIC, < or = 0.5 microg/mL) and meropenem (MIC, <0.5 microg/mL). By isoelectric focusing analysis, polymerase chain reaction, and nucleotide sequencing, we detected the presence of CTX-M-14 in 33 strains and CTX-M-3 in 6 strains (5 strains harboring both CTX-M-14 and CTX-M-3 enzymes). These beta-lactamase genes can be successfully transferred by the conjugative plasmid. Molecular epidemiology of the 34 ESBL-producing P. mirabilis strains by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis using SfiI restriction enzyme revealed 9 different genotypes, suggesting epidemic clones with intra- and interhospital spread. In conclusion, the broadly extended clonal spreading of CTX-M-type P. mirabilis was first discovered at the district hospitals in Taiwan.

  9. Compositional diversity of near-, far-side transitory zone around Naonobu, Webb and Sinus Successus craters: Inferences from Chandrayaan-1 Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bharti, Rishikesh; Ramakrishnan, D.; Singh, K. D.

    2014-02-01

    This study investigated the potential of Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) data for studying compositional variation in the near-, far-side transition zone of the lunar surface. For this purpose, the radiance values of the M3 data were corrected for illumination and emission related effects and converted to apparent reflectance. Dimensionality of the calibrated reflectance image cube was reduced using Independent Component Analysis (ICA) and endmembers were extracted by using Pixel Purity Index (PPI) algorithm. The selected endmembers were linearly unmixed and resolved for mineralogy using United States Geological Survey (USGS) library spectra of minerals. These mineralogically resolved endmembers were used to map the compositional variability within, and outside craters using Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) algorithm. Cross validation for certain litho types was attempted using band ratios like Optical Maturity (OMAT), Color Ratio Composite and Integrated Band Depth ratio (IBD). The identified lithologies for highland and basin areas match well with published works and strongly support depth related magmatic differentiation. Prevalence of pigeonite-basalt, pigeonite-norite and pyroxenite in crater peaks and floors are unique to the investigated area and are attributed to local, lateral compositional variability in magma composition due to pressure, temperature, and rate of cooling.

  10. Tardigrade Resistance to Space Effects: First Results of Experiments on the LIFE-TARSE Mission on FOTON-M3 (September 2007)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebecchi, Lorena; Altiero, Tiziana; Guidetti, Roberto; Cesari, Michele; Bertolani, Roberto; Negroni, Manuela; Rizzo, Angela M.

    2009-08-01

    The Tardigrade Resistance to Space Effects (TARSE) project, part of the mission LIFE on FOTON-M3, analyzed the effects of the space environment on desiccated and active tardigrades. Four experiments were conducted in which the eutardigrade Macrobiotus richtersi was used as a model species. Desiccated (in leaf litter or on paper) and hydrated tardigrades (fed or starved) were flown on FOTON-M3 for 12 days in September 2007, which, for the first time, allowed for a comparison of the effects of the space environment on desiccated and on active animals. In this paper, we report the experimental design of the TARSE project and data on tardigrade survival. In addition, data on survival, genomic DNA integrity, Hsp70 and Hsp90 expressions, antioxidant enzyme contents and activities, and life history traits were compared between hydrated starved tardigrades flown in space and those maintained on Earth as a control. Microgravity and radiation had no effect on survival or DNA integrity of active tardigrades. Hsp expressions between the animals in space and the control animals on Earth were similar. Spaceflight induced an increase of glutathione content and its related enzymatic activities. Catalase and superoxide dismutase decreased with spaceflight, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances did not change. During the flight mission, tardigrades molted, and females laid eggs. Several eggs hatched, and the newborns exhibited normal morphology and behavior.

  11. Tardigrade Resistance to Space Effects: first results of experiments on the LIFE-TARSE mission on FOTON-M3 (September 2007).

    PubMed

    Rebecchi, Lorena; Altiero, Tiziana; Guidetti, Roberto; Cesari, Michele; Bertolani, Roberto; Negroni, Manuela; Rizzo, Angela M

    2009-01-01

    The Tardigrade Resistance to Space Effects (TARSE) project, part of the mission LIFE on FOTON-M3, analyzed the effects of the space environment on desiccated and active tardigrades. Four experiments were conducted in which the eutardigrade Macrobiotus richtersi was used as a model species. Desiccated (in leaf litter or on paper) and hydrated tardigrades (fed or starved) were flown on FOTON-M3 for 12 days in September 2007, which, for the first time, allowed for a comparison of the effects of the space environment on desiccated and on active animals. In this paper, we report the experimental design of the TARSE project and data on tardigrade survival. In addition, data on survival, genomic DNA integrity, Hsp70 and Hsp90 expressions, antioxidant enzyme contents and activities, and life history traits were compared between hydrated starved tardigrades flown in space and those maintained on Earth as a control. Microgravity and radiation had no effect on survival or DNA integrity of active tardigrades. Hsp expressions between the animals in space and the control animals on Earth were similar. Spaceflight induced an increase of glutathione content and its related enzymatic activities. Catalase and superoxide dismutase decreased with spaceflight, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances did not change. During the flight mission, tardigrades molted, and females laid eggs. Several eggs hatched, and the newborns exhibited normal morphology and behavior.

  12. The elastic, electronic and magnetism structure of the MAl and M3Al (M=Fe and Ni) alloy with and without hydrogen atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mubarak, A. A.

    2016-03-01

    The energetic stability, electronic and magnetism of the MAl, M3Al alloy (M=Fe, Ni) and variant surfaces of MAl (001) with and without hydrogen atoms are investigated by utilizing DFT and GGA as the exchange-correlation potential. All presented alloys with and without the H atom absorption is found elastically and thermodynamically stable. The calculated absorption energy shows that H is more energetically stable in the bridge and octahedral site in MAl and M3Al alloys, respectively. Hydrogen atoms absorption is expanded and brittle the studied host alloys. The ability of absorption of H atom at more than one site in the MAl alloy is found energetically and thermodynamically stable. The H adsorption on the variant surfaces of MAl (001) is predicted too. Fourfold and top sites are found more energetically stable to adsorbed the H atom on the above surface layer of H/MAl-M and H/MAl-Al, respectively. The obvious changes are observed in the interlayer spacing for studied surfaces which yields to decrease the LDOS and magnetic moments of the surface and subsurface layers.

  13. The Wyckoff positional order and polyhedral intergrowth in the M3B2- and M5B3-type boride precipitated in the Ni-based superalloys.

    PubMed

    Hu, X B; Zhu, Y L; Sheng, N C; Ma, X L

    2014-12-08

    Ni-based single superalloys play a crucial role in the hottest parts of jet engines. However, due to the complex geometry and macro-segregation during the solidification process, the cast defect such as stray grains is inevitable. Therefore, the transient liquid phase (TLP) bonding which can join several small single crystalline castings together is gradually believed to be an effective method for improving the yields of production of the complex components. The melting point depressant element B is always added into the interlayer filler material. Consequently, borides including the M3B2 and M5B3 phase usually precipitate during the TLP bonding process. So a comprehensive knowledge of the fine structural characteristics of the borides is very critical for an accurate evaluation of the TLP bonding process. In this work, by means of the aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy, we show, at an atomic scale, the Wyckoff positional order phenomenon of the metal atoms in the unit cell of M3B2- and M5B3-type boride. Meanwhile, the defect along the (001) plane of the above two types of boride are determined to be the polyhedral intergrowth with complex configurations.

  14. The Wyckoff positional order and polyhedral intergrowth in the M3B2- and M5B3-type boride precipitated in the Ni-based superalloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, X. B.; Zhu, Y. L.; Sheng, N. C.; Ma, X. L.

    2014-12-01

    Ni-based single superalloys play a crucial role in the hottest parts of jet engines. However, due to the complex geometry and macro-segregation during the solidification process, the cast defect such as stray grains is inevitable. Therefore, the transient liquid phase (TLP) bonding which can join several small single crystalline castings together is gradually believed to be an effective method for improving the yields of production of the complex components. The melting point depressant element B is always added into the interlayer filler material. Consequently, borides including the M3B2 and M5B3 phase usually precipitate during the TLP bonding process. So a comprehensive knowledge of the fine structural characteristics of the borides is very critical for an accurate evaluation of the TLP bonding process. In this work, by means of the aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy, we show, at an atomic scale, the Wyckoff positional order phenomenon of the metal atoms in the unit cell of M3B2- and M5B3-type boride. Meanwhile, the defect along the (001) plane of the above two types of boride are determined to be the polyhedral intergrowth with complex configurations.

  15. The Wyckoff positional order and polyhedral intergrowth in the M3B2- and M5B3-type boride precipitated in the Ni-based superalloys

    PubMed Central

    Hu, X. B.; Zhu, Y. L.; Sheng, N. C.; Ma, X. L.

    2014-01-01

    Ni-based single superalloys play a crucial role in the hottest parts of jet engines. However, due to the complex geometry and macro-segregation during the solidification process, the cast defect such as stray grains is inevitable. Therefore, the transient liquid phase (TLP) bonding which can join several small single crystalline castings together is gradually believed to be an effective method for improving the yields of production of the complex components. The melting point depressant element B is always added into the interlayer filler material. Consequently, borides including the M3B2 and M5B3 phase usually precipitate during the TLP bonding process. So a comprehensive knowledge of the fine structural characteristics of the borides is very critical for an accurate evaluation of the TLP bonding process. In this work, by means of the aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy, we show, at an atomic scale, the Wyckoff positional order phenomenon of the metal atoms in the unit cell of M3B2- and M5B3-type boride. Meanwhile, the defect along the (001) plane of the above two types of boride are determined to be the polyhedral intergrowth with complex configurations. PMID:25482386

  16. The horizontal branch in the UV colour-magnitude diagrams - II. The case of M3, M13 and M79

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalessandro, E.; Salaris, M.; Ferraro, F. R.; Mucciarelli, A.; Cassisi, S.

    2013-03-01

    We present a detailed comparison between far-ultraviolet (UV)/optical colour-magnitude diagrams obtained with high-resolution Hubble Space Telescope data and suitable theoretical models for three Galactic globular clusters: M3, M13 and M79. These systems represents a `classical' example of clusters in the intermediate-metallicity regime that, even sharing similar metal content and age, show remarkably different horizontal branch morphologies. As a consequence, the observed differences in the colour distributions of horizontal branch stars cannot be interpreted in terms of either first (metallicity) or a second parameter such as age. We investigate here the possible role of variations of initial helium abundance (Y). Thanks to the use of a proper setup of far-UV filters, we are able to put strong constraints on the maximum Y (Ymax) values compatible with the data. We find differences Δ Y_max˜ 0.02-0.04 between the clusters with M13 showing the largest value (Ymax ˜ 0.30) and M3 the smallest (Ymax ˜ 0.27). In general, we observe that these values are correlated with the colour extensions of their horizontal branches and with the range of the observed NaO anticorrelations.

  17. Gβ4γ1 as a modulator of M3 muscarinic receptor signalling and novel roles of Gβ1 subunits in the modulation of cellular signalling.

    PubMed

    Khan, Shahriar M; Min, Adam; Gora, Sarah; Houranieh, Geeda M; Campden, Rhiannon; Robitaille, Mélanie; Trieu, Phan; Pétrin, Darlaine; Jacobi, Ashley M; Behlke, Mark A; Angers, Stéphane; Hébert, Terence E

    2015-08-01

    Much is known about the how Gβγ subunits regulate effectors in response to G protein-coupled receptor stimulation. However, there is still a lot we don't know about how specific combinations of Gβ and Gγ are wired into different signalling pathways. Here, using an siRNA screen for different Gβ and Gγ subunits, we examined an endogenous M3 muscarinic receptor signalling pathway in HEK 293 cells. We observed that Gβ(4) subunits were critical for calcium signalling and a downstream surrogate measured as ERK1/2 MAP kinase activity. A number of Gγ subunits could partner with Gβ(4) but the best coupling was seen via Gβ(4)γ(1). Intriguingly, knocking down Gβ(1) actually increased signalling through the M3-mAChR most likely via an increase in Gβ(4) levels. We noted that Gβ(1) occupies the promoter of Gβ(4) and may participate in maturation of its mRNA. This highlights a new role for Gβγ signalling beyond their canonical roles in cellular signalling. PMID:25916507

  18. Joint M3 and Diviner Analysis of the Mineralogy, Glass Composition, and Country Rock Content of Pyroclastic Deposits in Oppenheimer Crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Kristen A.; Horgan, Briony H. N.; Greenhagen, Benjamin T.; Allen, Carlton C.; Paige, David A.; Bell, James F., III

    2013-01-01

    Here we present our analysis of the near- and mid-infrared spectral properties of pyroclastic deposits within the floor fractured Oppenheimer Crater that are hypothesized to be Vulcanian in origin. These are the first results of our global study of lunar pyroclastic deposits aimed at constraining the range of eruption processes on the Moon. In the near-infrared, we have employed a new method of spectral analysis developed in Horgan et al. (2013) of the 1 ?m iron absorption band in Chandrayaan-1 Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) spectra. By analyzing both the position and shape of the 1 ?m band we can detect and map the distribution of minerals, glasses, and mixtures of these phases in pyroclastic deposits. We are also using mid-infrared spectra from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment to develop 200 m/pixel Christiansen Feature (CF) maps, which correlate with silica abundance. One of the benefits of using CF maps for analysis of pyroclastic deposits is that they can be used to detect silicic country rock that may have been emplaced by Vulcanian-style eruptions, and are sensitive to iron abundance in glasses, neither of which is possible in the near-infrared. M3 analysis reveals that the primary spectral endmembers are low-calcium pyroxene and iron-bearing glass, with only minor high-calcium pyroxene, and no detectable olivine. The large deposit in the south shows higher and more extensive glass concentrations than the surrounding deposits. We interpret the M3 spectra of the pyroclastic deposits as indicating a mixture of low-calcium pyroxene country rock and juvenile glass, and no significant olivine. Analysis of Diviner CF maps of the Oppenheimer crater floor indicates an average CF value of 8.16, consistent with a mixture of primarily plagioclase and some pyroxene. The average CF values of the pyroclastic deposits range from 8.31 in the SW to 8.24 in the SE. Since CF values within the deposits are as high as 8.49, the lower average CF

  19. The central dynamics of M3, M13, and M92: stringent limits on the masses of intermediate-mass black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamann, S.; Wisotzki, L.; Roth, M. M.; Gerssen, J.; Husser, T.-O.; Sandin, C.; Weilbacher, P.

    2014-06-01

    We used the PMAS integral field spectrograph to obtain large sets of radial velocities in the central regions of three northern Galactic globular clusters: M3, M13, and M92. By applying the novel technique of crowded field 3D spectroscopy, we measured radial velocities for about 80 stars within the central ~10″ of each cluster. These are by far the largest spectroscopic datasets obtained in the innermost parts of these clusters up to now. To obtain kinematical data across the whole extent of the clusters, we complement our data with measurements available in the literature. We combine our velocity measurements with surface brightness profiles to analyse the internal dynamics of each cluster using spherical Jeans models, and investigate whether our data provide evidence for an intermediate-mass black hole in any of the clusters. The surface brightness profiles reveal that all three clusters are consistent with a core profile, although shallow cusps cannot be excluded. We find that spherical Jeans models with a constant mass-to-light ratio provide a good overall representation of the kinematical data. A massive black hole is required in none of the three clusters to explain the observed kinematics. Our 1σ (3σ) upper limits are 5300 M⊙ (12 000 M⊙) for M3, 8600 M⊙ (13 000 M⊙) for M13, and 980 M⊙ (2700 M⊙) for M92. A puzzling circumstance is the existence of several potential high velocity stars in M3 and M13, as their presence can account for the majority of the discrepancies that we find in our mass limits compared to M92. Based on observations collected at the Centro Astronómico Hispano-Alemán (CAHA) at Calar Alto, operated jointly by the Max-Planck Institut für Astronomie and the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC).Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.orgTables D.1 to D.6 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc

  20. Down-regulation of muscarinic receptors and the m3 subtype in white-footed mice by dietary exposure to parathion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jett, D.A.; Hill, E.F.; Fernando, J.C.; Eldefrawi, M.E.; Eldefrawi, A.T.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of ad libitum dietary exposure (as occurs in the field) to parathion for 14 d was investigated on the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) in brains and submaxillary glands of adults of a field species, the white-footed mouse Peromyscus leucopus. Immunoprecipitation using subtype selective antibodies revealed that the relative ratios of the m1-m5 mAChR subtypes in Peromyscus brain were similar to those in rat brain. There was little variability in acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in control mice brains but large variability in 39 exposed mice, resulting from differences in food ingestion and parathion metabolism. Accordingly, data on radioligand binding to mAChRs in each mouse brain were correlated with brain AChE activity in the same mouse, and AChE inhibition served as a biomarker of exposure reflecting in situ paraoxon concentrations. Exposure to parathion for 14 d reduced maximal binding (Bmax) of [3H]quinuclidinyl benzilate ([3H]QNB), [3H]-N-methylscopolamine ([3H]NMS), and [3H]-4-diphenylacetoxy-N-methylpiperidine methiodide ([3H]-4-DAMP) by up to approximately 58% without affecting receptor affinities for these ligands. Maximal reduction in Bmax of [3H]QNB and [3H]-4-DAMP binding occurred in mice with highest AChE inhibition, while equivalent maximal reduction in Bmax of [3H]NMS occurred in mice with only approximately 10% AChE inhibition, without further change at higher parathion doses. This is believed to be due to the hydrophilicity of [3H]NMS, which limits its accessibility to internalized desensitized receptors. In submaxillary glands (mAChRs are predominantly m3 subtype), there were significant dose-dependent reductions in [3H]QNB binding and m3 mRNA levels in exposed mice, revealed by Northern blot analyses. The reduction in m3 receptors is suggested to result mostly from reduced synthesis at the transcription level, rather than from translational or posttranslational events. The data suggest that down-regulation of mAChRs occurs

  1. [Population characteristics of mucous tissue basocytes in the Mongolian gerbil's jejunum following the 12-day orbital flight onboard space platform "Foton-M3"].

    PubMed

    Atyakshin, D A; Bykov, E G

    2013-01-01

    Optical (light) microscopy and histochemical techniques were used for the first-ever studies of the population characteristics of tissue basocytes in the jejunum mucous membrane in three groups of gerbils Meriones unguiculatus: flown over 12 days aboard space platform Foton-M3, subjected to spaceflight factors simulation (SFS) in dedicated system Kontur-L (2) and maintained in standard vivarium conditions (control). Space flight was shown to induce quantitative and qualitative changes in the population of jejunum mucus labrocytes. Reduction of the basocytes population, alterations in age composition and ratio of the morphofunctional cell types in microgravity were indicative of cytoplasmic aggregation intensity, paths of biosynthesis products release into the intersticium, and their tinctorial properties. Also, heparin maturation and liberalization into the extracellular space in support of the jejunum mucus adaptive functions progressed with greater intensity. SFS did not affect size of the basocytes population significantly although it did cause qualitative rearrangements in the population structure.

  2. Analysis of dosimetry from the H.B. Robinson unit 2 pressure vessel benchmark using RAPTOR-M3G and ALPAN

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, G.A.

    2011-07-01

    Document available in abstract form only, full text of document follows: The dosimetry from the H. B. Robinson Unit 2 Pressure Vessel Benchmark is analyzed with a suite of Westinghouse-developed codes and data libraries. The radiation transport from the reactor core to the surveillance capsule and ex-vessel locations is performed by RAPTOR-M3G, a parallel deterministic radiation transport code that calculates high-resolution neutron flux information in three dimensions. The cross-section library used in this analysis is the ALPAN library, an Evaluated Nuclear Data File (ENDF)/B-VII.0-based library designed for reactor dosimetry and fluence analysis applications. Dosimetry is evaluated with the industry-standard SNLRML reactor dosimetry cross-section data library. (authors)

  3. Milestone M3FT-15OR0203112. Build redesigned HFIR rabbit capsules and make ready for insertion for irradiation in HFIR

    SciTech Connect

    Howard, Richard H; McDuffee, Joel Lee; Okuniewski, Maria A.

    2015-09-01

    This report details the fabrication and delivery of two Fuel Cycle Research and Development irradiation capsules (FCRP20 and FCRP03), with associated quality assurance documentation, to the High Flux Isotope Reactor. The capsules and documentation were delivered by September 30, 2015, thus meeting the deadline for milestone M3FT-15OR0203112. These irradiation experiments irradiate metal parallelepiped specimens that may consist of various compositions including uranium metal, steel, etc. This document contains a copy of the completed capsule fabrication request sheets, which detail all constituent components, pertinent drawings, etc., along with a detailed summary of the capsule assembly process performed by the Thermal Hydraulics and Irradiation Engineering Group (THIEG) in the Reactor and Nuclear Systems Division. A complete fabrication package record is maintained by THIEG and is available upon request.

  4. In Situ Temperature-Dependent Transmission Electron Microscopy Studies of Pseudobinary mGeTe·Bi₂Te₃ (m = 3-8) Nanowires and First-Principles Calculations.

    PubMed

    Jung, Chan Su; Kim, Han Sung; Im, Hyung Soon; Park, Kidong; Park, Jeunghee; Ahn, Jae-Pyoung; Yoo, Seung Jo; Kim, Jin-Gyu; Kim, Jae Nyeong; Shim, Ji Hoon

    2015-06-10

    Phase-change nanowires (NWs) have emerged as critical materials for fast-switching nonvolatile memory devices. In this study, we synthesized a series of mGeTe·Bi2Te3 (GBT) pseudobinary alloy NWs-Ge3Bi2Te6 (m = 3), Ge4Bi2Te7 (m = 4), Ge5Bi2Te8 (m = 5), Ge6Bi2Te9 (m = 6), and Ge8Bi2Te11 (m = 8)-and investigated their composition-dependent thermal stabilities and electrical properties. As m decreases, the phase of the NWs evolves from the cubic (C) to the hexagonal (H) phase, which produces unique superlattice structures that consist of periodic 2.2-3.8 nm slabs for m = 3-8. In situ temperature-dependent transmission electron microscopy reveals the higher thermal stability of the compositions with lower m values, and a phase transition from the H phase into the single-crystalline C phase at high temperatures (400 °C). First-principles calculations, performed for the superlattice structures (m = 1-8) of GBT and mGeTe·Sb2Te3 (GST), show an increasing stability of the H phase (versus the C phase) with decreasing m; the difference in stability being more marked for GBT than for GST. The calculations explain remarkably the phase evolution of the GBT and GST NWs as well as the composition-dependent thermal stabilities. Measurement of the current-voltage curves for individual GBT NWs shows that the resistivity is in the range 3-25 mΩ·cm, and the resistivity of the H phase is lower than that of the C phase, which has been supported by the calculations.

  5. Characterization of hydromechanical stress in aerated stirred tanks up to 40 m3 scale by measurement of maximum stable drop size

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Turbulence intensity, or hydromechanical stress, is a parameter that influences a broad range of processes in the fields of chemical engineering and biotechnology. Fermentation processes are often characterized by high agitation and aeration intensity resulting in high gas void fractions of up to 20% in large scale reactors. Very little experimental data on hydromechanical stress for such operating conditions exists because of the problems associated with measuring hydromechanical stress under aeration and intense agitation. Results An indirect method to quantify hydromechanical stress for aerated operating conditions by the measurement of maximum stable drop size in a break-up controlled dispersion was applied to characterize hydromechanical stress in reactor scales of 50 L, 3 m3 and 40 m3 volume with a broad range of operating conditions and impeller geometries (Rushton turbines). Results for impellers within each scale for the ratio of maximum to specific energy dissipation rate ϕ based on measured values of maximum stable drop size for aerated operating conditions are qualitatively in agreement with results from literature correlations for unaerated operating conditions. Comparison of data in the different scales shows that there is a scale effect that results in higher values for ϕ in larger reactors. This behavior is not covered by the classic theory of turbulent drop dispersion but is in good agreement with the theory of turbulence intermittency. The data for all impeller configurations and all aeration rates for the three scales can be correlated within ±20% when calculated values for ϕ based on the measured values for dmax are used to calculate the maximum local energy dissipation rate. A correlation of the data for all scales and all impeller configurations in the form ϕ = 2.3∙(ϕunaerated)0.34∙(DR)0.543 is suggested that successfully models the influence of scale and impeller geometry on ϕ for aerated operating conditions

  6. Coexistence of tetrasomy 8 and trisomy 8 in acute promyelocytic leukemia (AML-M3) with t(15;17)(q22;q12).

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui-Ping; Li, Guo-Xia; Qiao, Zhen-Hua; Ren, Wen-Ying; Wang, Hong-Wei

    2004-08-01

    This study was purposed to characterize the first case of acute promyelocitic leukemia (AML-M(3a)) with t(15;17), trisomy 8 and tetrasomy 8, and explore its characteristics of morphology, cytogenetics, molecular biology, immunology and clinical features. Morphological changes of peripheral blood and bone marrow smears were observed under microscope. Chromosome specimen was prepared by 24 h short-term culture of bone marrow cell, RHG-banding technique was used for karyotypic analysis. PML-RARa fusion gene transcript was detected by nested-reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (nested RT-PCR). Interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using chromosome 8 centromere specific probe were carried out to detect abnormal numbers of chromosome 8. Immunophenotypic analysis was performed by flow cytometry. The results showed that peripheral blood smear revealed 65% promyelocyte, and bone marrow aspirate was hypercellular with 72.4% promyelocyte, moderately basophilic cytoplasm with numerous azurophilic granules. Karyotype analysis demonstrated 48, XY, +8, +8, t(15;17)(q22;q12) [16]/47, XY, +8, t(15;17)(q22;q12) [3]/46, XY, t(15;17)(q22;q12) [1]. RT-PCR assay revealed PML-RARa fusion gene transcript (+). FISH showed that the percentages of cells exhibiting 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 green fluorescence signals were 0.5, 7, 19, 55, 18 and 0.5, respectively. This confirmed the presence of tetrasomy 8 and trisomy 8 and also revealed a low percentage of a pentasomy 8 clone. Immunophenotypes of the blasts displayed that CD13 (96.2%), CD33 (55.9%), CYMPO (93.5%) were positive. All the lymphoid markers tested were negative. The patient survival time was just 10 days. It is concluded that tetrasomy 8 is secondary cytogenetic event after t(15;17) in this case. It may be a consequence of clonal evolution of trisomy 8. t(15;17) AML-M(3) with tetrasomy 8 heralds a poor prognosis. PMID:15363120

  7. Effect of metal in M3(btc)2 and M2(dobdc) MOFs for O2/N2 separations: A combined density functional theory and experimental study

    DOE PAGES

    Parkes, Marie V.; Sava Gallis, Dorina F.; Greathouse, Jeffery A.; Nenoff, Tina M.

    2015-03-02

    Computational screening of metal-organic framework (MOF) materials for selective oxygen adsorption from air could lead to new sorbents for the oxyfuel combustion process feedstock streams. A comprehensive study on the effect of MOF metal chemistry on gas binding energies in two common but structurally disparate metal-organic frameworks has been undertaken. Dispersion-corrected density functional theory methods were used to calculate the oxygen and nitrogen binding energies with each of fourteen metals, respectively, substituted into two MOF series, M2(dobdc) and M3(btc)2. The accuracy of DFT methods was validated by comparing trends in binding energy with experimental gas sorption measurements. A periodic trendmore » in oxygen binding energies was found, with greater oxygen binding energies for early transition-metal-substituted MOFs compared to late transition metal MOFs; this was independent of MOF structural type. The larger binding energies were associated with oxygen binding in a side-on configuration to the metal, with concomitant lengthening of the O-O bond. In contrast, nitrogen binding energies were similar across the transition metal series, regardless of both MOF structural type and metal identity. Altogether, these findings suggest that early transition metal MOFs are best suited to separating oxygen from nitrogen, and that the MOF structural type is less important than the metal identity.« less

  8. Structure determination of niobium palladium arsenide, Nb 5Pd 4As 4, from a 5×5×5 μm 3 crystal with synchrotron radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Meitian; Mar, Arthur; MacLean, Elizabeth J.

    2003-04-01

    Niobium palladium arsenide, Nb 5Pd 4As 4, is the second phase found in the Nb-Pd-As system. It was synthesized by direct reaction of the elements and its crystal structure was determined from X-ray diffraction data obtained with synchrotron radiation on a 5×5×5 μm 3 single crystal at 150 K. Nb 5Pd 4As 4 is isostructural to Nb 5Pd 4P 4 and adopts the Nb 5Cu 4Si 4-type structure (tetragonal, space group I4/ m, Z=2, a=10.4457(17) Å, c=3.7868(6) Å). The structure can be described as being built up of As-centered trigonal prisms whose vertices are Nb and Pd atoms, or as chains of octahedral Nb 6 clusters embedded in As 8 cubes parallel to chains of edge-sharing tetrahedral Pd 4 clusters. Extended Hückel calculations show that metal-metal bonding constitutes the most important contribution to the stability of the structure, and that the Pd atoms are close to being zero-valent.

  9. M3D-C1 simulations of plasma response in ELM-mitigated ASDEX Upgrade and DIII-D discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyons, B. C.; Ferraro, N. M.; Haskey, S. R.; Logan, N. C.

    2015-11-01

    The extended magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) code M3D-C1 is used to study the time-independent, linear response of tokamak equilibria to applied, 3D magnetic perturbations. In doing so, we seek to develop a more complete understanding of what MHD phenomena are responsible for the mitigation and suppression of edge-localized modes (ELMs) and to explain why the success of ELM suppression experiments differs both within a single tokamak and across different tokamaks. We consider such experiments on ASDEX Upgrade and DIII-D. We examine how resonant and non-resonant plasma responses are affected by varying the relative magnitude and phase of sets of magnetic coils. The importance of two-fluid effects, rotation profiles, plasma β, collisionality, bootstrap current profiles, and various numerical parameters are explored. The results are verified against other MHD codes (e.g., IPEC, MARS), correlated to observations of ELM mitigation or suppression, and validated against observed magnetic responses. Work supported in part by US DOE under DE-FC02-04ER54698, DE-AC02-09CH11466, and the FES Postdoctoral Research Program.

  10. Mainstream partial nitritation and anammox in a 200,000 m3/day activated sludge process in Singapore: scale-down by using laboratory fed-batch reactor.

    PubMed

    Yeshi, Cao; Hong, Kwok Bee; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M; Daigger, Glen T; Yi, Png Hui; Wah, Yuen Long; Chye, Chua Seng; Ghani, Yahya Abd

    2016-01-01

    A laboratory fed-batch reactor has been used to study under controlled conditions the performance of partial nitritation/anammox for the 200,000 m(3)/day step-feed activated sludge process at the Changi Water Reclamation Plant, Singapore. The similarity of the concentrations of NH(4), NO(2), NO(3), PO(4), suspended chemical oxygen demand (sCOD), pH, and alkalinity (ALK) between the on-site process and laboratory reactor illustrates that the laboratory fed-batch reactor can be used to simulate the site performance. The performance of the reactor fed by primary effluent illustrated the existence of anammox and heterotrophic denitrification and apparent excessive biological phosphorus removal as observed from the site. The performance of the reactor fed by final effluent proved the presence of anammox process on site. Both the laboratory reactor and on-site process showed that higher influent 5-day biochemical oxygen demand/total nitrogen (BOD(5)/TN) (COD/TN) ratio increases the nitrogen removal efficiency of the process.

  11. Lower bound on the gravitino mass m3/2>O(100) TeV in R-symmetry breaking new inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harigaya, Keisuke; Ibe, Masahiro; Yanagida, Tsutomu T.

    2014-03-01

    In supersymmetric theories, the R symmetry plays a unique role in suppressing a constant term in the superpotential. In single chiral field models of spontaneous breaking of a discrete R symmetry, an R-breaking field can be a good candidate for an inflaton in new inflation models. In this paper, we revisit the compatibility of the single-field R-breaking new inflation model with the results of the Planck experiment. As a result, we find that the model predicts a lower limit on the gravitino mass, m3/2>O(100) TeV, assuming that the R-symmetry breaking is dominantly induced by the inflaton and the inflaton dynamics is not affected by the supersymmetry-breaking sector, which can be guaranteed by symmetry or compositeness of the supersymmetry-breaking sector. This lower limit is consistent with the observed Higgs mass of 126 GeV when the masses of the top squarks are of order the gravitino mass scale. We also show that the baryon asymmetry of the Universe as well as the observed dark matter density can be consistently explained along with the R-breaking new inflation model, assuming leptogenesis and that the wino is the lightest supersymmetric particle.

  12. (2 + 2) Cycloaddition of Benzyne to Endohedral Metallofullerenes M3N@C80 (M = Sc, Y): A Rotating-Intermediate Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tao; Nagase, Shigeru; Akasaka, Takeshi; Poblet, Josep M; Houk, K N; Ehara, Masahiro; Zhao, Xiang

    2015-06-01

    The reaction mechanism and origin of regioselectivity of (2 + 2) cycloadditions of benzyne to endohedral metallofullerenes M3N@C80 (M = Sc, Y) were investigated with density functional calculations. The reaction was demonstrated to follow a diradical mechanism rather than a carbene mechanism, in which the formation of the diradical intermediate is the rate-determining step. Through rotation of benzyne moiety on the fullerene surface, the diradical intermediate on 566 site could isomerize to two new diradical intermediates which give rise to two distinct [5,6] and [6,6] benzoadducts, respectively. However, the diradical intermediate on 666 site only produces the [6,6] benzoadduct. The nature of the endohedral cluster not only influences the regioselectivity, but also determines the cycloadduct geometry. For Sc3N@C80, the [5,6] benzoadduct is preferred kinetically and thermodynamically, whereas in the case of Y3N@C80, both [5,6] and [6,6] benzoadducts are favorable. In contrast to closed-cage benzoadducts of Sc3N@C80, Y3N@C80 affords open-cage benzoadducts, making it the first example that the endohedral cluster could alter cycloadducts from the closed cage to open cage. With further analysis, it is revealed that the origin of regioselectivity results from the local strain energy of the fullerene cage.

  13. THE CHROMOSPHERIC ACTIVITY OF [HH97] FS Aur-79: A CLOSE BINARY WITH LATE-TYPE ACTIVE (dK7e+dM3e) COMPONENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Austin, S. J.; Robertson, J. W.; De Souza, T. R.; Tycner, C.; Honeycutt, R. K. E-mail: jrobertson@atu.edu E-mail: c.tycner@cmich.edu

    2011-04-15

    Using Doppler tomography we show that FS Aur-79, a near-contact close binary system with late-type active dK7e+dM3e components, has chromospheric prominences in two distinct emission regions associated with the primary star and a larger amount of chromospheric activity associated with the cooler secondary star. The line profiles, equivalent widths, and equivalent width ratios of the H{alpha} and H{beta} emission lines as a function of orbital phase further support that the majority of the chromospheric emission originates above the secondary star and near the neck region. Analysis of high-resolution spectra using the technique of broadening functions has enabled us to determine the radial velocity of the secondary star near quadratures to be approximately 224 km s{sup -1}. A Wilson-Devinney model of the system fitting the UBV light curves and radial velocities shows that there are star spots near the chromospherically active regions. Finally, the absence of Li I {lambda}6708 in the spectra lets us put a lower limit on the age of this system to at least 500 Myr.

  14. Electronic properties, magnetic properties and phase stability of alloyed cementite (Fe,M) 3C (M=Co,Ni) from density-functional theory calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, C. X.; Lv, Z. Q.; Fu, W. T.; Li, Y.; Sun, S. H.; Wang, B.

    2011-08-01

    First-principles calculations have been performed to investigate the magnetic properties and phase stability of alloyed cementite with Co or Ni. The calculations show Co and Ni reduce the stability of cementite and (Fe,M) 3C (X = Co/Ni) form more difficultly than cementite. We predict that Ni and Co additions in high Co and Ni alloyed steels will promote the dissolution of the cementite. The magnetic moments (Ms) of Fe 2CoC, Co 2FeC, Fe 2NiC and Ni 2FeC are 4.86, 4.23, 3.95 and 2.41 μ B/f.u, respectively. The Ms of Co in Fe 2CoC (1.03 μ B) and Co 2FeC (1.09 μ B) are different due to replacing different Fe atoms. The Ms of Ni in Fe 2NiC and Ni 2FeC are 0.14 μ B and 0.15 μ B, respectively. The Ms of alloyed cementite are mainly contributed by 3d electrons of metal atoms.

  15. Skylab ATM/S-056 X-ray event analyzer: Instrument description, parameter determination, and analysis example (15 June 1973 1B/M3 flare)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, R. M.

    1976-01-01

    The Skylab ATM/S-056 X-Ray Event Analyzer, part of an X-ray telescope experiment, is described. The techniques employed in the analysis of its data to determine electron temperatures and emission measures are reviewed. The analysis of a sample event - the 15 June 1973 1B/M3 flare - is performed. Comparison of the X-Ray Event Analyzer data with that of the SolRad 9 observations indicates that the X-Ray Event Analyzer accurately monitored the sun's 2.5 to 7.25 A X-ray emission and to a lesser extent the 6.1 to 20 A emission. A mean average peak temperature of 15 million K at 1,412 UT and a mean average peak electron density (assuming a flare volume of 10 to the 13 power cu km) of 27 million/cu mm at 1,416 to 1,417 UT are deduced for the event. The X-Ray Event Analyzer data, having a 2.5 s time resolution, should be invaluable in comparisons with other high-time resolution data (e.g., radio bursts).

  16. Effects of the A-site cation number on the properties of Ln5/8M3/8MnO 3 manganites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collado, J. A.; García-Muñoz, J. L.; Aranda, M. A. G.

    2010-05-01

    The properties of manganites can be tuned by changing the doping level x in Ln1-xM xMnO 3. A second mechanism allows tuning of magnetic and electronic properties, for fixed x values, by varying the average A-cation radius, < r A>. Moreover, for fixed x and < r A> values, the changes in the A-cation size variance, σ2, also modify the ferromagnetic and metal-insulator transition temperatures. Here, we investigate the influence of the number of A-site cations on Ln5/8M3/8MnO 3 manganites, where x, < r A> and σ2 values are kept constant, and in the absence of phase separation phenomena. We have found that the number of cation species at the A site ( N A) has a strong influence on the width of the ferromagnetic and metal-insulator transitions, and a small influence on the average transition temperature. This behavior is opposite to that observed for increasing values of the variance σ2 in manganites, with the same x and < r A> values, where average transition temperatures are strongly reduced.

  17. Effect of initial absolute monocyte count on survival outcome of patients with de novo non-M3 acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jianhua; Zhang, Wei; Wu, Junqing; Gao, Shenmeng; Ye, Haige; Sun, Lan; Chen, Yi; Yu, Kang; Xing, Chong-Yun

    2016-11-01

    Increased absolute monocyte count (AMC) at presentation has recently been associated with clinical outcome in different types of hematological malignancies. This study aimed to assess the prognostic value of AMC on survival in 193 adult patients with de novo non-M3 acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The median AMC for all patients at diagnosis was 0.26 × 10(9)/L, with 41.4, 31.1 and 27.5% of patients showed low (<0.12 × 10(9)/L), normal (0.12-0.80 × 10(9)/L), and high AMC (>0.80 × 10(9)/L), respectively. Univariate analysis revealed that high AMC appeared as a poor prognostic factor for overall survival (OS) (p = 0.0055), but not for disease free survival (DFS) (p = 0.1195). On multivariate analysis, initial high AMC remained an independent predictor of OS (hazard ratio 2.01, p = 0.017). Our results suggest that AMC at diagnosis, which provides additional prognostic information independently from conventional factors related to patient clinical characteristics or tumor biological features, could be a novel prognostic marker for AML.

  18. A fusant of Amycolatopsis sp. M3-1 and Pseudomonas sp. Nai8 with high capacity of degrading novel pyrimidynyloxybenzoic herbicide ZJ0273 and naphthalene.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaohong; Cai, Zhiqiang

    2016-02-01

    ZJ0273 (propyl 4-(2-(4, 6-demethoxy pyrimidin-2-yloxy) benzylamino) benzoate) is a novel pyrimidynyloxybenzoic-based herbicide developed in China for oilseed crop. This study was aimed to construct new strains capable of degrading naphthalene and ZJ0273 by protoplast fusion between Amycolatopsis sp. M3-1 and Pseudomonas sp. Nai8. Eight recombinant strains were successfully produced, and the strains could simultaneously utilize ZJ0273 and naphthalene as the sole carbon and energy source, respectively. One of recombinant strains, MN6 with higher degrading efficiency, was chosen for further study. Under the condition of pH 7.0, 30 °C, ZJ0273 and naphthalene degradation percent by the recombinant strain MN6 could reach 65.10% (20 days) and 88.46% (48 h), respectively. According to the identified six metabolites (M1-M6) by LC-MS/MS, biodegradation pathway of ZJ0273 was proposed. ZJ0273 biodegradation catalyzed by the recombinant strain MN6 involved continuous biocatalytic reactions such as de-estering, hydrolysis, acylation, C-N cleavage, de-methyl, and ether cleavage reactions.

  19. Mainstream partial nitritation and anammox in a 200,000 m3/day activated sludge process in Singapore: scale-down by using laboratory fed-batch reactor.

    PubMed

    Yeshi, Cao; Hong, Kwok Bee; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M; Daigger, Glen T; Yi, Png Hui; Wah, Yuen Long; Chye, Chua Seng; Ghani, Yahya Abd

    2016-01-01

    A laboratory fed-batch reactor has been used to study under controlled conditions the performance of partial nitritation/anammox for the 200,000 m(3)/day step-feed activated sludge process at the Changi Water Reclamation Plant, Singapore. The similarity of the concentrations of NH(4), NO(2), NO(3), PO(4), suspended chemical oxygen demand (sCOD), pH, and alkalinity (ALK) between the on-site process and laboratory reactor illustrates that the laboratory fed-batch reactor can be used to simulate the site performance. The performance of the reactor fed by primary effluent illustrated the existence of anammox and heterotrophic denitrification and apparent excessive biological phosphorus removal as observed from the site. The performance of the reactor fed by final effluent proved the presence of anammox process on site. Both the laboratory reactor and on-site process showed that higher influent 5-day biochemical oxygen demand/total nitrogen (BOD(5)/TN) (COD/TN) ratio increases the nitrogen removal efficiency of the process. PMID:27386982

  20. Current Concept and Update of the Macrophage Plasticity Concept: Intracellular Mechanisms of Reprogramming and M3 Macrophage “Switch” Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Malyshev, Igor; Malyshev, Yuri

    2015-01-01

    Macrophages play a key role in immunity. In this review, we consider the traditional notion of macrophage plasticity, data that do not fit into existing concepts, and a hypothesis for existence of a new switch macrophage phenotype. Depending on the microenvironment, macrophages can reprogram their phenotype toward the proinflammatory M1 phenotype or toward the anti-inflammatory M2 phenotype. Macrophage reprogramming involves well-coordinated changes in activities of signalling and posttranslational mechanisms. Macrophage reprogramming is provided by JNK-, PI3K/Akt-, Notch-, JAK/STAT-, TGF-β-, TLR/NF-κB-, and hypoxia-dependent pathways. Posttranscriptional regulation is based on micro-mRNA. We have hypothesized that, in addition to the M1 and M2 phenotypes, an M3 switch phenotype exists. This switch phenotype responds to proinflammatory stimuli with reprogramming towards the anti-inflammatory M2 phenotype or, contrarily, it responds to anti-inflammatory stimuli with reprogramming towards the proinflammatory M1 phenotype. We have found signs of such a switch phenotype in lung diseases. Understanding the mechanisms of macrophage reprogramming will assist in the selection of new therapeutic targets for correction of impaired immunity. PMID:26366410

  1. Adsorption Properties of Hydrogen and Carbon Dioxide in Prussian Blue Analogues M3[Co(CN)6]2, M ) Co, Zn

    SciTech Connect

    Natesakhawat, S.; Culp, J.T.; Matranga, C.S.; Bockrath, B.C.

    2007-01-18

    H2 and CO2 adsorption were studied in dehydrated Prussian blue analogues M3[Co(CN)6]2 (M ) Co, Zn) using volumetric isotherm measurements. Both materials adsorbed 1.2-1.3 wt % of H2 at 77 K and 760 Torr with isosteric heats of adsorption ranging from 5.9 to 6.8 kJ/mol. High-pressure H2 isotherms at 77 K showed that Co3[Co(CN)6]2 started to saturate well above 6 atm with a saturation coverage of ~1.9 wt %. These materials adsorbed approximately 17.6-19.7 wt % of CO2 at 253 K and 760 Torr with isosteric heats of adsorption of ~25-28 kJ/mol. The CO2 saturation coverages from high-pressure isotherms at 263 K and 15 atm were ~27.4-29.0 wt %. The displacement of CO2 by H2 in these compounds was investigated with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The FTIR experiments showed that CO2 physisorption at cryogenic temperatures produced an infrared peak at 2335 cm-1. Co-adsorption experiments revealed that H2 was able to displace preadsorbed CO2 if the PH2/PCO2 ratio was well above 100. The infrared results from the co-adsorption experiments also showed that H2 and CO2 competed for adsorption in the same pores under these conditions.

  2. The influence of polymorphisms of glutathione S-transferases M1 and M3 on the development of human urothelial cancer.

    PubMed

    Golka, Klaus; Schmidt, Tobias; Seidel, Thilo; Dietrich, Holger; Roemer, Hermann C; Lohlein, Dietrich; Reckwitz, Thomas; Sokeland, Jurgen; Weistenhofer, Wobbeke; Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Selinski, Silvia

    2008-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is the most important risk factor for development of transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder. The effect of polymorphisms of glutathione S-transferases M1 (GSTM1) and M3 (GSTM3) on the influence of cigarette smoking on urinary bladder carcinogenesis was investigated. In total, 293 bladder cancer patients from hospitals in Dortmund and Wittenberg as well as 176 patients without any malignancy from a Department of Surgery from Dortmund were genotyped for GSTM1 and GSTM3 according to standard PCR/RFLP methods. Smoking habits were quantified by a standardized interview. The proportion of GSTM1 negative cases was 63% in the entire bladder cancer cases group compared to 50% in controls. The GSTM3*A/*A genotype was 76% in cancer cases versus 74% in controls. Smokers and ex-smokers were overrepresented in bladder cancer cases. A significant association between smoking status and GSTM1 or GSTM3 genotype was not detected. The elevated proportion of GSTM1 negative bladder cancer cases shows an effect of this polymorphic enzyme on development of bladder cancer. In contrast to other studies, an influence of GSTM1 on the risk due to cigarette smoking was not observed.

  3. Does microgranular variant morphology of acute promyelocytic leukemia independently predict a less favorable outcome compared with classical M3 APL? A joint study of the North American Intergroup and the PETHEMA Group.

    PubMed

    Tallman, Martin S; Kim, Haesook T; Montesinos, Pau; Appelbaum, Frederick R; de la Serna, Javier; Bennett, John M; Deben, Guillermo; Bloomfield, Clara D; Gonzalez, Jose; Feusner, James H; Gonzalez, Marcos; Gallagher, Robert; Miguel, Jose D Gonzalez-San; Larson, Richard A; Milone, Gustavo; Paietta, Elisabeth; Rayon, Chelo; Rowe, Jacob M; Rivas, Concha; Schiffer, Charles A; Vellenga, Edo; Shepherd, Lois; Slack, James L; Wiernik, Peter H; Willman, Cheryl L; Sanz, Miguel A

    2010-12-16

    Few studies have examined the outcome of large numbers of patients with the microgranular variant (M3V) of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) in the all-trans retinoic acid era. Here, the outcome of 155 patients treated with all-trans retinoic acid-based therapy on 3 clinical trials, North American Intergroup protocol I0129 and Programa para el Estudio de la Terapéutica en Hemopatía Maligna protocols LPA96 and LPA99, are reported. The complete remission rate for all 155 patients was 82%, compared with 89% for 748 patients with classical M3 disease. The incidence of the APL differentiation syndrome was 26%, compared with 25% for classical M3 patients, and the early death rate was 13.6% compared with 8.4% for patients with classical M3 morphology. With a median follow-up time among survivors of 7.6 years (range 3.6-14.5), the 5-year overall survival, disease-free survival, and cumulative incidence of relapse for patients with M3V were 70%, 73%, and 24%, respectively. With a median follow-up time among survivors of 7.6 years (range 0.6-14.3), the 5-year overall survival, disease-free survival, and cumulative incidence of relapse among patients with classical M3 morphology were 80% (P = .006 compared with M3V), 81% (P = .07), and 15% (P = .005), respectively. When outcomes were adjusted for the white blood cell count or the relapse risk score, none of these outcomes were significantly different between patients with M3V and classical M3 APL.

  4. Slow strain steps observed by two Ishii strainmeters within an M3 source area at a 2.9km depth, Mponeng gold mine, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasutake, G.; Ogawasara, H.; Kawakata, H.; Morishita, K.; Yamamoto, A.; Takeuchi, J.; Shimoda, N.; Naoi, M.; Nakatani, M.; Kato, A.; Ishii, H.; Nakao, S.; Otsuki, K.; Yamauchi, T.; Iio, Y.; Carlsten, R.; McGill, R.; Tony, T.; Aswegen, G. V.; Mendecki, A. J.; Lenegan, P.; Reserch Group Seesa

    2007-12-01

    The Research Group for Semi-controlled Earthquake-generation Experiments in South African gold mines (SeeSA) has attempted to observe the details of the source fault behavior near the Mw2-3 earthquake source area [e.g., Iio and Fukao, 1992]. At a depth of 2.9km in Mponeng gold mine, one of our observational sites, two Ishii strainmeters were installed near the fault where M3 earthquakes were anticipated [e.g., Ogasawara et al., 2005]. We analyzed the ~8-month strainmeter recordings. During this period, a high seismicity was induced by active mining, more than 5000 earthquakes (-3m3 volume around the strainmeters. In the Mponeng recordings, we found 6 steps with much longer durations than seen in normal earthquakes. In a preceding study, Naoi et al. [2006] found similar steps (slow-strain step) at the Bambanani mine site. The slow- steps found at both sites are possibly aseismic events because they had no corresponding catalogued earthquakes. 5 of 6 slow-steps at Mponeng were recorded with both strainmeters and they are synchronized with each other. Hereafter, we refer to the 5 slow-steps as SstM. The strain changes for one of SstM was on the order of 1E-6 and with a duration of ~8-minute. This is the largest, clearest slow-step ever recorded in SeeSA projects. Hereafter, we refer to this as SstML. The remaining 4 of 5 SstMs was on the order of 1E-7 and with duration of from 10-minutes to 1-hour. We successfully constrained the source distances and Mw of SstM, taking into accounts the ratio of magnitudes of strain changes and geometrical settings of strainmeters. In the result, the source of SstML was within ~3m from one strainmeter and Mw<-1.5. Mws for the other 4 SstMs were also constrained to be between -1.2 and 0.7. There have never been observed these small slow events. Ide et al. [2007] proposed a new scaling law to unify slow events that were recently found at subducting plate boundaries, including

  5. Novel Rechargeable M3V2(PO4)3//Zinc (M = Li, Na) Hybrid Aqueous Batteries with Excellent Cycling Performance

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, H. B.; Hu, C. J.; Cheng, H. W.; Fang, J. H.; Xie, Y. P.; Fang, W. Y.; Doan, T. N. L.; Hoang, T. K. A.; Xu, J. Q.; Chen, P.

    2016-01-01

    A rechargeable hybrid aqueous battery (ReHAB) containing NASICON-type M3V2(PO4)3 (M = Li, Na) as the cathodes and Zinc metal as the anode, working in Li2SO4-ZnSO4 aqueous electrolyte, has been studied. Both of Li3V2(PO4)3 and Na3V2(PO4)3 cathodes can be reversibly charge/discharge with the initial discharge capacity of 128 mAh g−1 and 96 mAh g−1 at 0.2C, respectively, with high up to 84% of capacity retention ratio after 200 cycles. The electrochemical assisted ex-XRD confirm that Li3V2(PO4)3 and Na3V2(PO4)3 are relative stable in aqueous electrolyte, and Na3V2(PO4)3 showed more complicated electrochemical mechanism due to the co-insertion of Li+ and Na+. The effect of pH of aqueous electrolyte and the dendrite of Zn on the cycling performance of as designed MVP/Zn ReHABs were investigated, and weak acidic aqueous electrolyte with pH around 4.0–4.5 was optimized. The float current test confirmed that the designed batteries are stable in aqueous electrolytes. The MVP//Zn ReHABs could be a potential candidate for future rechargeable aqueous battery due to their high safety, fast dynamic speed and adaptable electrochemical window. Moreover, this hybrid battery broadens the scope of battery material research from single-ion-involving to double-ions -involving rechargeable batteries. PMID:27174224

  6. Novel Rechargeable M3V2(PO4)3//Zinc (M = Li, Na) Hybrid Aqueous Batteries with Excellent Cycling Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, H. B.; Hu, C. J.; Cheng, H. W.; Fang, J. H.; Xie, Y. P.; Fang, W. Y.; Doan, T. N. L.; Hoang, T. K. A.; Xu, J. Q.; Chen, P.

    2016-05-01

    A rechargeable hybrid aqueous battery (ReHAB) containing NASICON-type M3V2(PO4)3 (M = Li, Na) as the cathodes and Zinc metal as the anode, working in Li2SO4-ZnSO4 aqueous electrolyte, has been studied. Both of Li3V2(PO4)3 and Na3V2(PO4)3 cathodes can be reversibly charge/discharge with the initial discharge capacity of 128 mAh g-1 and 96 mAh g-1 at 0.2C, respectively, with high up to 84% of capacity retention ratio after 200 cycles. The electrochemical assisted ex-XRD confirm that Li3V2(PO4)3 and Na3V2(PO4)3 are relative stable in aqueous electrolyte, and Na3V2(PO4)3 showed more complicated electrochemical mechanism due to the co-insertion of Li+ and Na+. The effect of pH of aqueous electrolyte and the dendrite of Zn on the cycling performance of as designed MVP/Zn ReHABs were investigated, and weak acidic aqueous electrolyte with pH around 4.0-4.5 was optimized. The float current test confirmed that the designed batteries are stable in aqueous electrolytes. The MVP//Zn ReHABs could be a potential candidate for future rechargeable aqueous battery due to their high safety, fast dynamic speed and adaptable electrochemical window. Moreover, this hybrid battery broadens the scope of battery material research from single-ion-involving to double-ions -involving rechargeable batteries.

  7. Phenotypic and molecular characterization of a novel beta-lactamase carried by Klebsiella pneumoniae, CTX-M-72, derived from CTX-M-3.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jun; Wang, Qian; Chen, Yan; Ye, Ying; Li, Hui; Li, Xu; Li, Jia-Bin

    2009-06-01

    This study reports phenotypic and molecular characterization of a novel CTX-M beta-lactamase carried by two Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates collected from two hospitals in China. Conjugation experiment, Southern hybridization, susceptibility testing, isoelectric focusing, PCR, and sequencing techniques as well as clone, expression, purification and kinetics were carried out to describe the characterization of the novel CTX-M-type enzyme. The analyses of plasmid profiling and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of the novel enzyme were performed to investigate epidemiology. The PCR products had 967 nucleotides and a novel CTX-M enzyme with a pI of 8.5 was implicated in this resistance: CTX-M-72. Two strains exhibited a clavulanic acid-inhibited substrate profile that included extended-spectrum cephalosporins. The amino acid sequence of the CTX-M-72 beta-lactamase differed from that of the CTX-M-3 beta-lactamase by the Arg-->Gly change at position 164. The novel enzyme was susceptible to ceftazidime, the same response being observed for other CTX-M enzymes. The substrates of the beta-lactamase were also characterized. Furthermore, two resistant genes of clinical strains were closely related. The emergence of a novel CTX-M-type extended-spectrum beta-lactamase was rarely described in other areas. This study illustrated the importance of molecular surveillance in tracking CTX-M-producing strains in large teaching hospitals, suggested the horizontal transfer of plasmid-borne bla(CTX-M) genes contributed to the dissemination of CTX-M enzymes in hospital environments, and emphasized the need for epidemiological monitoring.

  8. Measurement method of compressibility and thermal expansion coefficients for density standard liquid at 2329 kg/m3 based on hydrostatic suspension principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jintao; Liu, Ziyong; Xu, Changhong; Li, Zhanhong

    2014-07-01

    The accurate measurement on the compressibility and thermal expansion coefficients of density standard liquid at 2329kg/m3 (DSL-2329) plays an important role in the quality control for silicon single crystal manufacturing. A new method is developed based on hydrostatic suspension principle in order to determine the two coefficients with high measurement accuracy. Two silicon single crystal samples with known density are immersed into a sealed vessel full of DSL-2329. The density of liquid is adjusted with varying liquid temperature and static pressure, so that the hydrostatic suspension of two silicon single crystal samples is achieved. The compression and thermal expansion coefficients are then calculated by using the data of temperature and static pressure at the suspension state. One silicon single crystal sample can be suspended at different state, as long as the liquid temperature and static pressure function linearly according to a certain mathematical relationship. A hydrostatic suspension experimental system is devised with the maximal temperature control error ±50 μK; Silicon single crystal samples can be suspended by adapting the pressure following the PID method. By using the method based on hydrostatic suspension principle, the two key coefficients can be measured at the same time, and measurement precision can be improved due to avoiding the influence of liquid surface tension. This method was further validated experimentally, where the mixture of 1, 2, 3-tribromopropane and 1,2-dibromoethane is used as DSL-2329. The compressibility and thermal expansion coefficients were measured, as 8.5×10-4 K-1 and 5.4×1010 Pa-1, respectively.

  9. Effect of cation site-disorder on the structure and magneto-transport properties of Ln5/8M3/8MnO 3 manganites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collado, J. A.; Frontera, C.; García-Muñoz, J. L.; Aranda, M. A. G.

    2005-06-01

    Five members of Ln5/8M3/8MnO 3 series with A-cation size variance ( σ2) ranging between 3×10 -4 and 71×10 -4 Å 2, and the same A-cation size =1.2025 Å, have been synthesized by the ceramic method. The five manganites are single phase and they crystallize in the Pnma perovskite superstructure. The five compositions display ferromagnetic-paramagnetic transitions at temperatures ranging between 130 and 270 K, for the highest and lowest variance sample, respectively. The samples with smaller variances show sharp magnetization transitions and the samples with the larger variances display broad transitions. These transitions have also been studied by differential scanning calorimetry, DSC, and some enthalpy changes are reported. The resistivity study indicates that all samples display the expected metal-to-insulator transitions at temperatures ranging between 140 and 270 K. The samples have been analysed at room temperature by ultra-high-resolution synchrotron powder diffraction and the structural and microstructural features are reported. Furthermore, Nd 5/8Sr 0.255Ca 0.12MnO 3 ( σ2=40×10-4 Å2) and Sm 0.225Nd 0.4Sr 0.308Ca 0.067MnO 3 ( σ2=53×10-4 Å2) samples have also been studied by synchrotron powder diffraction at 140 K, below the transition temperatures. Both samples are found to be single phase above and below the transition by ultra-high-resolution synchrotron powder diffraction. The microstructure of the samples has been investigated through Williamson-Hall plots. Sample broadenings are markedly anisotropic and strongly dominated by microstrains with average values of the Δ d/ d term close to 14×10 -4. A direct correlation is found between the microstrain values and the widths of the magnetization transitions.

  10. Fluorescence Processes in the Outer Atmospheres of the Evolved M-Stars Alpha Ori (M2 Iab) and Gamma Cru (M3.4 III)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, Kenneth; Kober, Gladys; Nielsen, Krister; Ayres, Thomas; Wahlgren, Glenn

    2015-08-01

    The prototypical M-giant and M-supergiant stars, Gamma Cru (M3.4 III)) and Alpha Ori (M2Iab), have been observed as part of the "Advanced Spectral Library (ASTRAL) Project: Cool Stars" (PI = T. Ayres). "ASTRAL-Cool Stars" is an HST Cycle 18 Treasury Program designed to collect, using the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS), a definitive set of representative, high-resolution (R~46,000 in the FUV up to ~1700 Å, R~30,000 for 1700-2150 Å, and R~114,000 >2150 Å) and high signal/noise (S/N>100) UV spectra of eight F-M evolved cool stars. These extremely high-quality UV echelle spectra are available from the HST archive and through the University of Colorado (http://casa.colorado.edu/~ayres/ASTRAL/). In this paper, we use the very rich emission-line spectra of the two evolved M stars in the sample, Gamma Cru (GaCrux) and Alpha Ori (Betelgeuse), to study the fluorescence processes operating in their outer atmospheres. We summarize the pumping transitions and fluorescent line products known on the basis of previous work and newly identified in our on-going analysis of these extraordinary new “Treasury” spectra. Detailed descriptions of selected processes are given to illustrate their operation. The wide variety of fluorescence processes in operation in these outer atmospheres, both molecular and atomic, suggest that there is a mixture of warm and cool plasmas present and that H I Ly-alpha in particular is locally very strong, even though, in the case of Alpha Ori, no flux is seen at earth due to strong circumstellar absorption at that wavelength. Many new fluorescence line products and several new processes have been identified in these spectra, which are more complete and of higher S/N than previously available for these stars.

  11. NMR study of the electric field gradient in the paramagnetic phase of M3V2O8 (M = Co, Ni) compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smol'Nikov, A. G.; Ogloblichev, V. V.; Sadykov, A. F.; Piskunov, Yu. V.; Gerashchenko, A. P.; Verkhovskii, S. V.; Yakubovskii, A. Yu.; Barilo, S. N.; Bychkov, G. L.; Shiryaev, S. V.

    2011-06-01

    The NMR spectra and the decay of a spin echo signal from 51V nuclei in Kagome-staircase Co3V2O8 (CVO) and Ni3V2O8 (NVO) single crystals are measured in the temperature range 30-300 K and a magnetic field H 0 = 20 kOe. The orientation dependences of the 51V NMR line shape are used to determine the electric field gradient (EFG) parameters, namely, quadrupole frequency ν Q and asymmetry parameter η. These parameters for NVO and CVO are ν Q = 180(10) kHz, η = 0.5(1) and ν Q = 130(10) kHz, η = 0.6(1), respectively. A comparison of the results of calculating EFG tensors with a point charge model and the NMR data indicates that the crystallographically equivalent vanadium atoms in the Ni3V2O8 and Co3V2O8 compounds differ in the EFG axis orientation. M3V2O8 crystals are found to have vanadium positions (V1, V2) with different orientations of the z axis, which specifies the direction of the principal value of EFG ( V zz ): these orientations lie in the bc plane and make an angle of either +51(5)° (V1) or -51(5)° (V2) with axis c. In the temperature range 30-300 K, the EFG tensor components and the local symmetry of the charge surrounding of the vanadium positions in NVO and CVO oxides are found to change insignificantly.

  12. Inhibition of N-type Ca2+ channel currents in human neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y) cells by muscarine via stimulation of M3 receptors.

    PubMed

    Reeve, H L; Vaughan, P F; Peers, C

    1995-03-01

    The effects of muscarine on whole-cell Ca2+ channel currents in SH-SY5Y cells were studied using conventional and perforated-patch-clamp techniques, with 10 mM Ba2+ as charge carrier. Muscarine (10-300 microM) caused concentration-dependent inhibitions of Ca2+ channel currents which were only reversible when perforated-patch recordings were used. Inhibition of currents was associated with slowing of activation kinetics in approximately 50% of cells. In the presence of 5 microM nifedipine, muscarine was still able to inhibit currents, but after pre-exposure of cells to 1 microM omega-conotoxin GVIA the inhibitory effects of muscarine were almost completely lost. In the presence of 100 microM muscarine, Bay K 8644 (5 microM) was still able to enhance current amplitudes. Pre-treatment of cells with pertussis toxin (250 ng/ml for 16-24 hr) or inclusion of 1 mM GDP-beta-S in the patch-pipette prevented the inhibitory actions of muscarine. Hexahydrosiladifenidol (0.1-1 microM) antagonized the actions of muscarine (calculated pA2 7.1) but the presence of 10 microM pirenzipine or 0.1 microM methoctramine in the bath solution did not alter the degree of current inhibition caused by 100 microM muscarine. In summary, these results indicate that muscarine in SH-SY5Y cells causes inhibition of N-type Ca2+ channels via a M3 receptor coupled to a pertussis toxin-sensitive G-protein. PMID:7630487

  13. Mapping technologically and economically important materials at lunar and terrestrial sites using Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) and Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Standart, Douglas Laurence

    Project I: Using results from the Lunar Prospector Gamma Ray Spectrometer (LP-GRS), we selected thorium (Th) anomalies on the Moon in an effort to detect material rich in KREEP (potassium, rare earth elements, phosphorus) using hyperspectral imagery. Four sites were chosen: Lassell Crater, Hansteen Alpha, Gruithuisen Domes, and Compton-Belkovich Thorium Anomaly (CBTA). Three of these sites are non-mare volcanic features within the Procellarum KREEP Terrane (PKT), while Compton-Belkovich is located on the lunar farside. The Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) hyperspectral imager was used to analyze the composition of these locations. The spectra gathered from all four study sites all show pronounced absorptions at ~2.8 μm, indicating hydroxyl or water. This is significant for three reasons: (1) the strong absorption of hydroxyl/water shown at each of these volcanic sites supports the hypothesis that the lunar mantle is more hydrous than previously thought; (2) it suggests that KREEP may lie, possibly as uncoupled pods, beneath the anorthositic highlands near Compton-Belkovich as well as underlying other areas outside the previously defined PKT; and (3) it suggests that non-mare silicic volcanic features would have erupted prior to mare basalts due to their increased abundance of magmatic water, consistent with basaltic underplating. Project II: By targeting areas with anomalously high Th signatures, as seen by LP-ThGRS, we attempt to determine if Th hotspots are associated with ilmenite-rich basalts. To map ilmenite (FeTiO3), we employ a band depth technique that takes advantage of the fact that the visible-infrared reflectance spectrum of ilmenite exhibits low reflectance and a flat continuum slope. As a result, the spectra of ilmenite-bearing mare basalts will have a reduced 1-μm absorption. We demonstrate this effect by plotting ilmenite concentrations from Apollo basalt samples against the M3-derived, 1-μm absorption depths associated with the locations from which

  14. Mapping technologically and economically important materials at lunar and terrestrial sites using Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) and Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Standart, Douglas Laurence

    Project I: Using results from the Lunar Prospector Gamma Ray Spectrometer (LP-GRS), we selected thorium (Th) anomalies on the Moon in an effort to detect material rich in KREEP (potassium, rare earth elements, phosphorus) using hyperspectral imagery. Four sites were chosen: Lassell Crater, Hansteen Alpha, Gruithuisen Domes, and Compton-Belkovich Thorium Anomaly (CBTA). Three of these sites are non-mare volcanic features within the Procellarum KREEP Terrane (PKT), while Compton-Belkovich is located on the lunar farside. The Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) hyperspectral imager was used to analyze the composition of these locations. The spectra gathered from all four study sites all show pronounced absorptions at ~2.8 μm, indicating hydroxyl or water. This is significant for three reasons: (1) the strong absorption of hydroxyl/water shown at each of these volcanic sites supports the hypothesis that the lunar mantle is more hydrous than previously thought; (2) it suggests that KREEP may lie, possibly as uncoupled pods, beneath the anorthositic highlands near Compton-Belkovich as well as underlying other areas outside the previously defined PKT; and (3) it suggests that non-mare silicic volcanic features would have erupted prior to mare basalts due to their increased abundance of magmatic water, consistent with basaltic underplating. Project II: By targeting areas with anomalously high Th signatures, as seen by LP-ThGRS, we attempt to determine if Th hotspots are associated with ilmenite-rich basalts. To map ilmenite (FeTiO3), we employ a band depth technique that takes advantage of the fact that the visible-infrared reflectance spectrum of ilmenite exhibits low reflectance and a flat continuum slope. As a result, the spectra of ilmenite-bearing mare basalts will have a reduced 1-μm absorption. We demonstrate this effect by plotting ilmenite concentrations from Apollo basalt samples against the M3-derived, 1-μm absorption depths associated with the locations from which

  15. Humanizing murine IgG3 anti-GD2 antibody m3F8 substantially improves antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity while retaining targeting in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Nai-Kong V.; Guo, Hongfen; Hu, Jian; Tassev, Dimiter V.; Cheung, Irene Y.

    2012-01-01

    Murine IgG3 anti-GD2 antibody m3F8 has shown anti-neuroblastoma activity in Phase I/II studies, where antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) played a key role. Humanization of m3F8 should circumvent human anti-mouse antibody (HAMA) response and enhance its ADCC properties to reduce dosing and pain side effect. Chimeric 3F8 (ch3F8) and humanized 3F8 (hu3F8-IgG1 and hu3F8-IgG4) were produced and purified by protein A affinity chromatography. In vitro comparison was made with m3F8 and other anti-GD2 antibodies in binding, cytotoxicity, and cross-reactivity assays. In GD2 binding studies by SPR, ch3F8 and hu3F8 maintained KD comparable to m3F8. Unlike other anti-GD2 antibodies, m3F8, ch3F8 and hu3F8 had substantially slower koff.. Similar to m3F8, both ch3F8 and hu3F8 inhibited tumor cell growth in vitro, while cross-reactivity with other gangliosides was comparable to that of m3F8. Both peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC)-ADCC and polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN)-ADCC of ch3F8 and hu3F8-IgG1 were more potent than m3F8. This superiority was consistently observed in ADCC assays, irrespective of donors or NK-92MI-transfected human CD16 or CD32, whereas complement mediated cytotoxicity (CMC) was reduced. As expected, hu3F8-IgG4 had near absent PBMC-ADCC and CMC. Hu3F8 and m3F8 had similar tumor-to-non tumor ratios in biodistribution studies. Anti-tumor effect against neuroblastoma xenografts was better with hu3F8-IgG1 than m3F8. In conclusion, humanizing m3F8 produced next generation anti-GD2 antibodies with substantially more potent ADCC in vitro and anti-tumor activity in vivo. By leveraging ADCC over CMC, they may be clinically more effective, while minimizing pain and HAMA side effects. A Phase I trial using hu3F8-IgG1 is ongoing. PMID:22754766

  16. THE LICK-CARNEGIE EXOPLANET SURVEY: A 3.1 M{sub +} PLANET IN THE HABITABLE ZONE OF THE NEARBY M3V STAR GLIESE 581

    SciTech Connect

    Vogt, Steven S.; Rivera, E. J.; Haghighipour, N.; Henry, Gregory W.; Williamson, Michael H.

    2010-11-01

    We present 11 years of HIRES precision radial velocities (RVs) of the nearby M3V star Gliese 581, combining our data set of 122 precision RVs with an existing published 4.3-year set of 119 HARPS precision RVs. The velocity set now indicates six companions in Keplerian motion around this star. Differential photometry indicates a likely stellar rotation period of {approx}94 days and reveals no significant periodic variability at any of the Keplerian periods, supporting planetary orbital motion as the cause of all the RV variations. The combined data set strongly confirms the 5.37-day, 12.9-day, 3.15-day, and 67-day planets previously announced by Bonfils et al., Udry et al., and Mayor et al.. The observations also indicate a fifth planet in the system, GJ 581f, a minimum-mass 7.0 M{sub +} planet orbiting in a 0.758 AU orbit of period 433 days, and a sixth planet, GJ 581g, a minimum-mass 3.1 M{sub +} planet orbiting at 0.146 AU with a period of 36.6 days. The estimated equilibrium temperature of GJ 581g is 228 K, placing it squarely in the middle of the habitable zone of the star and offering a very compelling case for a potentially habitable planet around a very nearby star. That a system harboring a potentially habitable planet has been found this nearby, and this soon in the relatively early history of precision RV surveys, indicates that {eta}{sub +}, the fraction of stars with potentially habitable planets, is likely to be substantial. This detection, coupled with statistics of the incompleteness of present-day precision RV surveys for volume-limited samples of stars in the immediate solar neighborhood, suggests that {eta}{sub +} could well be on the order of a few tens of percent. If the local stellar neighborhood is a representative sample of the galaxy as a whole, our Milky Way could be teeming with potentially habitable planets.

  17. Experiment lithopanspermia: test of interplanetary transfer and re-entry process of epi- and endolithic microbial communities in the FOTON-M3 Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de La Torre Noetzel, Rosa

    The Lithopanspermia hypothesis assumes that impact-expelled rocks serve as interplanetary transfer vehicles for microorganisms colonizing those rocks. It requires that the microorganisms survive (1) the impact ejection process from the planet of origin; (2) travelling through space; (3) capture and landing on another planet. In the experiment "Lithopanspermia" on board of the FOTON-M3 satellite (14.09.07) steps 2 and 3 of this scenario have been experimentally tested. Assay systems for step 2 were the bipolar epilithic lichen species Rhizocarpon geographicum and Xanthoria elegans on their natural rock substrate as well as their reproduction structures, microbial communities from atacamás halites Chroococcidiopsiss, endolithic communities of Anabaena and Nostoc, and the vagrant lichen species Aspicilia fruticulosa. The samples were exposed to outer space conditions within the BIOPAN-6 facility of ESA. Preparatory space simulation studies (UV solar spectrum radiation and vacuum at 10-2 Pa) performed at the Spasolab-Laboratory of INTA (March-April 2007), have demonstrated the suitability of those lichen species. After flight (10 days exposure to harsh space conditions in low Earth orbit at about 300 km altitude) and recovery, the survival capacity of the microbial communities has been assayed. First analyses have confirmed a fast recovery of the biological activity (chlorophyll a- fluorescence) of the lichens, similar to the high survival rates observed in the experiment LICHENS onboard of the Foton-M2 mission (de la Torre et al., 2007; Sancho et al., 2007). There were no significant changes in relation with the pre-flight values of the epilithic-, endolithicand vagrant lichen samples. First results of Confocal Scanning Laser Microscopy have demonstrated a high vitality of epilithic samples. Ultrastructural changes are being analyzed by Transmission Electron Microscopy and Cryoscanning. Furthermore, concerning the germination capacity of ascospores of Xanthoria

  18. Mining the HST "Advanced Spectral Library (ASTRAL)": Winds of the Evolved M Stars Alpha Ori (M2 Iab) and Gamma Cru (M3.4 III)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, Kenneth G.; Nielsen, Krister E.; Kober, Gladys V.; Ayres, Thomas R.

    2015-01-01

    The "Advanced Spectral Library (ASTRAL) Project: Cool Stars" (PI = T. Ayres) is an HST Cycle 18 Treasury Program that collected a definitive set of representative, high-resolution (R=30,000-100,000) and high signal/noise (S/N>100) UV spectra of eight F-M evolved cool stars. These extremely high-quality STIS UV echelle spectra are available from the HST archive and through the ASTRAL website at the University of Colorado at http://casa.colorado.edu/~ayres/ASTRAL/ and will enable investigations of a broad range of problems -- stellar, interstellar, and beyond -- for many years. In this paper, we examine the wealth of wind diagnostics contained in the very rich spectra of the two evolved M stars in the sample, the M3.4 III giant Gamma Crucis (GaCrux) and the M2 Iab supergiant Alpha Orionis (Betelgeuse) and characterize the winds at the time of these STIS observations in 2011 and compare the results with those obtained from more limited data taken at earlier epochs with HST/GHRS and IUE. In particular we study the variation of the numerous Fe II profiles with intrinsic strength in the two stars. The shifting wavelengths of the wind absorptions relative to the emission peaks and the changes in relative strengths of the emission peaks reflect the acceleration of the wind from the base of the chromosphere. Although the characteristics of the Gamma Cru wind are relatively stable with time, the Alpha Ori wind outflow appears significantly smaller than seen by Carpenter et al. (1997, ApJ, 479, 970) in GHRS observations taken in 1992 (and in earlier IUE observations). There might in fact be evidence in these STIS spectra that the outflow has turned into an inflow, as reported at epochs prior to IUE by Boesgaard and Magnan (1975 ApJ 198, 369) and Boesgaard (1979 ApJ 232, 485) based on a limited number of lines in the extreme blue end of ground-based spectra.

  19. Sexual recruitment of the corals Favia fragum and Agaricia humilis in a 30-m(3) exhibit aquarium: species-specific limitations and implications on reproductive ecology.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Dirk; Laterveer, Michaël; Visser, Gerard

    2007-03-01

    We studied the recruitment of the Caribbean reef building corals Favia fragum (F. fragum) and Agaricia humilis(A. humilis) in captivity. Thirty colonies of each species collected in Curaçao, Netherlands Antilles, reproduced sexually during a temporary stay in a 30-m(3) closed system from November 2001-January 2002. Twelve months later, the F1 generation of F. fragum started reproducing and formed an F2 generation. No reproduction of the F1 recruits of A. humilis was observed. Two years after the introduction of the field colonies, sexual recruits of both species were assessed using two different methods: recruits were estimated using quadrats (quadrat sampling method) and the total number of recruits was counted by creating a map of the artificial rock work divided in distinct areas (area census method). Recruitment rates of F. fragum were highest for the F2 generation on horizontal surfaces (area census method: 137.9+/-191.7 recruits m(-2); quadrat sampling method: 272.0+/-254.8 recruits m(-2); mean+/-SD) and were overall lowest for the F1 generation on overhanging areas of the tank (area census method: 3.8+/-4.0 recruits m(-2); quadrat sampling method: 4.0+/-6.1 recruits m(-2); mean+/-SD recruits m(-2)). The populations of both species showed similar patterns independent of the applied assessment method with highest densities on horizontal surfaces followed by vertical surfaces and lowest densities on overhanging surfaces; however, both methods showed conflicting results when the influence of the surface orientation on the population densities was statistically analyzed. The maximum density of A. humilis (1.4+/-2.7 recruits m(-2) on horizontal surfaces) was much lower than the maximum density of the F1 generation of F. fragum (24.7+/-18.3 recruits m(-2)). Colony sizes of recruits within each population (F. fragum F1: 3.12+/-0.98 cm, F2: 0.83+/-0.41 cm; A. humilis F1: 3.79+/-1.35 cm; maximum diameter+/-SD) did not differ between different orientations (horizontal

  20. GHRS observations of cool, low-gravity star. 2: Flow and turbulent velocities in the outer atmosphere of gamma CRU CIS (M3.4 III)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, Kenneth G.; Robinson, Richard D.; Judge, Philip G.

    1995-01-01

    The Goddard High Resoulution Spectrograph (GHRS) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) has been used to obtain medium (R = 20,000) and high (R = 85,000) resoultion UV spectra of chromosphere emission features for the M3.4 III star gamma Cru. Small Science Aperture (SSA) G270M and Echelle-B spectra of selected regions in the 2300-2850 A range were obtained to determine the kinematics of the chromosphere using lines of C2), Fe2, Co2, Si1/2), Ni2, Mn2, and Mg2. Profiles of C2) (UV 0.01) lines and fluorescently excited lines of low optical depth indicate average turbulent velocities (Doppler FWHM) of 30.2 +/- 1.3 and 28.8 +/- 1.3 km/s, respectively. The fluorescent emission lines (mean RV = 21.3 +/- 0.9 km/s) and the wings of the emission components of Fe2 lines (mean RV = 22.8 +/- 0.4 km/s) are approximately at rest relative to the radial velocity of the star (21 km/s), while the C2) lines show a modest inflow (mean RV = 23.1 +/- 0.9 km/s). The more opaque lines of Fe2 and Mg2 exhibit complex profiles resulting from line formation in an optically thick, extended expanding atmosphere. The emission wings of these lines are broadened by multiple scattering, and they are centered near the photospheric radial velocity. Closer to line center, these strong lines show a strong blueshifted self-absorption feature (already seen in IUE data), indicative of formation in an expanding chromosphere, and a previously unseen dip in the profiles on the red side of line center. The absorption components, when extracted using simple Gaussian fits, show strong correlations with the relative optical depths of the lines. The derived absorption flow velocities converge to the photospheric velocity as one examines spectra features formed deeper in the atmosphere. The blueward abosrption velocity increases in magnitude from about 7 to 14 km/s with increasing line optical depth - the strong absorptions directly map the acceleration of the outflowing stellar wind, while the interpretation of the

  1. Occurrence of CTX-M-3, CTX-M-15, CTX-M-14, and CTX-M-9 Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamases in Enterobacteriaceae Clinical Isolates in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jungmin; Lim, Yu-Mi; Jeong, Young-Sook; Seol, Sung-Yong

    2005-01-01

    Among 603 isolates of Enterobacteriaceae collected between June and November 2003 from three university hospitals within Korea, blaCTX-M-3, blaCTX-M-15, blaCTX-M-14, and blaCTX-M-9 were detected in 41 isolates of species from five different genera of Enterobacteriaceae, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Citrobacter freundii, Enterobacter spp., and Serratia marcescens. PMID:15793142

  2. Magnetic field reversal of electric polarization and magnetoelectric phase diagram of the hexaferrite Ba{sub 1.3}Sr{sub 0.7}Co{sub 0.9}Zn{sub 1.1}Fe{sub 10.8}Al{sub 1.2}O{sub 22}

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Shipeng; Yan, Liqin; Chai, Yisheng; Cong, Junzhuang; Sun, Young

    2014-01-20

    Low magnetic field reversal of electric polarization has been demonstrated in the multiferroic Y-type hexaferrite Ba{sub 1.3}Sr{sub 0.7}Co{sub 0.9}Zn{sub 1.1}Fe{sub 10.8}Al{sub 1.2}O{sub 22} single crystal. The maximum magnetoelectric coefficient at 200 K reaches 1065 ps/m near zero magnetic field. By a systematic investigation of magnetic field dependence of magnetic and dielectric responses at various temperatures, we obtained the magnetoelectric phase diagram describing the detailed evolution of the spin-induced ferroelectric phases with temperature and magnetic field. Below 225 K, the transverse spin cone can be stabilized at zero magnetic field, which is responsible for the reversal behavior of electric polarization. Our study reveals how to eventually achieve magnetic field reversal of electric polarization in hexaferrites at room temperature.

  3. H2-M3 Major Histocompatibility Complex Class Ib-Restricted CD8 T Cells Induced by Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Infection Recognize Proteins Released by Salmonella Serovar Typhimurium

    PubMed Central

    Ugrinovic, S.; Brooks, C. G.; Robson, J.; Blacklaws, B. A.; Hormaeche, C. E.; Robinson, J. H.

    2005-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium causes a typhoid-like disease in mice which has been studied extensively as a model for typhoid fever in humans. CD8 T cells contribute to protection against S. enterica serovar Typhimurium in mice, but little is known about the specificity and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) restriction of the response. We report here that CD8 T-cell lines derived from S. enterica serovar Typhimurium-infected BALB/c mice lysed bone marrow macrophages infected with S. enterica serovar Typhimurium or pulsed with proteins from S. enterica serovar Typhimurium culture supernatants. Cytoxicity was beta-2-microglobulin dependent and largely TAP dependent, although not MHC class Ia restricted, as target cells of several different MHC haplotypes were lysed. The data suggested the participation of class Ib MHC molecules although no evidence for the presence of Qa1-restricted T cells could be found, unlike in previous reports. Instead, the T-cell lines lysed H2-M3-transfected fibroblasts infected with S. enterica serovar Typhimurium SL3261 or treated with Salmonella culture supernatants. Thus, this report increases the number of MHC class Ib antigen-presenting molecules known for Salmonella antigens to three: Qa-1, HLA-E, and now H2-M3. It also expands the range of pathogens that induce H2-M3-restricted CD8 T cells to include an example of gram-negative bacteria. PMID:16299293

  4. Down-regulation of the G-proteins Gq alpha and G11 alpha by transfected human M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in Chinese hamster ovary cells is independent of receptor down-regulation.

    PubMed Central

    van de Westerlo, E; Yang, J; Logsdon, C; Williams, J A

    1995-01-01

    Chinese hamster ovary cells stably transfected with human M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors show a 40-50% reduction in the immunoreactive G-proteins Gq alpha and G11 alpha when stimulated with the cholinergic agonist carbachol. This effect is seen after 9 h, is maximal after 24 h, and occurs over a range of carbachol concentrations that activate phosphoinositide hydrolysis in these cells. The effect is specific for Gq alpha family proteins as Gs alpha was slightly increased after carbachol treatment and G13 alpha was unchanged. Using a urea gel system, we were able to resolve Gq alpha and G11 alpha, both of which were down-regulated by carbachol. An M3 receptor mutant, with C-terminal threonines changed to alanines as described previously, binds ligand and activates phosphoinositide hydrolysis normally but is not down-regulated in response to carbachol. This receptor, however, induces Gq alpha/G11 alpha down-regulation similarly to wild-type M3 receptors, indicating that G-protein down-regulation is not directly coupled to receptor down-regulation. Thus down-regulation of Gq alpha and G11 alpha may contribute to heterologous desensitization particularly at longer times of agonist exposure. Images Figure 1 Figure 4 PMID:7654194

  5. Characterization of boron resistant and accumulating bacteria Lysinibacillus fusiformis M1, Bacillus cereus M2, Bacillus cereus M3, Bacillus pumilus M4 isolated from former mining site, Hokkaido, Japan.

    PubMed

    Raja, Chellaiah Edward; Omine, Kiyoshi

    2012-01-01

    Boron is known to be widespread environmental contaminant that is relatively mobile in soil when compared to other metal contaminants. The present study made an attempt to isolate and characterize the boron resistant and accumulating bacteria from former mining site at Hokkaido, Japan. Four potential strains M1, M2, M3 and M4 were selected based on high degree of boron and heavy metal resistances. The morphological, biochemical and 16S rDNA sequencing analysis of mining bacteria revealed that the isolates were highly homology to Lysinibacillus fusiformis M1 (99 %), Bacillus cereus M2 (99 %), Bacillus cereus M3 (99 %) and Bacillus pumilus M4 (99 %) respectively. The strains M1, M2, M3 and M4 showed resistance to several heavy metals such as As (III), As (V) and Cr (VI), Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn. The selected strains were found to be arsenic oxidizing bacteria confirmed by Silver nitrate test. The resting and growing cells of mining bacteria were used for boron accumulation analysis. Selected strains were found to be efficiently accumulating boron concentration ranging from 0.1-2.3 mg L (-1) and 1.5-4.7 mg L (-1) at 24 h and 168 h, respectively. The following results conclude that the mining bacteria act as potent bioaccumulator of boron and its resistant, removal characteristic can be valuable in boron bioremediation. PMID:22571522

  6. Characterization of boron resistant and accumulating bacteria Lysinibacillus fusiformis M1, Bacillus cereus M2, Bacillus cereus M3, Bacillus pumilus M4 isolated from former mining site, Hokkaido, Japan.

    PubMed

    Raja, Chellaiah Edward; Omine, Kiyoshi

    2012-01-01

    Boron is known to be widespread environmental contaminant that is relatively mobile in soil when compared to other metal contaminants. The present study made an attempt to isolate and characterize the boron resistant and accumulating bacteria from former mining site at Hokkaido, Japan. Four potential strains M1, M2, M3 and M4 were selected based on high degree of boron and heavy metal resistances. The morphological, biochemical and 16S rDNA sequencing analysis of mining bacteria revealed that the isolates were highly homology to Lysinibacillus fusiformis M1 (99 %), Bacillus cereus M2 (99 %), Bacillus cereus M3 (99 %) and Bacillus pumilus M4 (99 %) respectively. The strains M1, M2, M3 and M4 showed resistance to several heavy metals such as As (III), As (V) and Cr (VI), Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn. The selected strains were found to be arsenic oxidizing bacteria confirmed by Silver nitrate test. The resting and growing cells of mining bacteria were used for boron accumulation analysis. Selected strains were found to be efficiently accumulating boron concentration ranging from 0.1-2.3 mg L (-1) and 1.5-4.7 mg L (-1) at 24 h and 168 h, respectively. The following results conclude that the mining bacteria act as potent bioaccumulator of boron and its resistant, removal characteristic can be valuable in boron bioremediation.

  7. Theoretical study of the structure, bonding and electronic behaviour of sandwich complexes [M3(C7H7)2X3]- (M = Ni, Pd, Pt; X = F, Cl)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Ke; Min, Suotian; Xue, Ganglin; Huang, Wendeng

    2014-08-01

    The correlations between the structural and electronic properties of the clusters [M3X3]3- and sandwich complexes [M3(C7H7)2X3]- (where M = Ni, Pd, Pt; X = F, Cl) were studied with density functional theory (B3PW91). All of the sandwich complexes are donating and back-donating metal-ligand bonding structures. The influence of the ligand, significant variations in the Msbnd C, Msbnd X, Msbnd M, Csbnd C bond lengths and binding energies were examined to obtain qualitative and quantitative pictures of the intramolecular C7R7+-M3X33- interactions. Our theoretical investigations show that the binding energies of the sandwich complexes gradually reduce from Ni to Pt, as well as from F to Cl. Meanwhile, the geometric and electronic structures and the relative stabilities have a strong relation to each other.

  8. Treatment of Acute Promyelocytic (M3) Leukemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... to give ATRA plus another differentiating drug called arsenic trioxide (Trisenox). This is often used in patients ... anthracycline plus cytarabine for at least 2 cycles Arsenic trioxide for 2 cycles (over about 2½ months), ...

  9. Emergence of CTX-M-3, TEM-1 and a new plasmid-mediated MOX-4 AmpC in a multiresistant Aeromonas caviae isolate from a patient with pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Ye, Ying; Xu, Xi-Hai; Li, Jia-Bin

    2010-07-01

    Aeromonas species rarely cause pulmonary infection. We report, for what is believed to be the first time, a case of severe pneumonia in a cancer patient caused by Aeromonas caviae. Detailed microbiological investigation revealed that this isolate carried three beta-lactamase-encoding genes (encoding MOX-4, CTX-M-3 and TEM-1) conferring resistance to all beta-lactams but imipenem. The beta-lactamase with a pI of 9.0 was transferred by conjugation and associated with a 7.3 kb plasmid, as demonstrated by Southern blot hybridization. Analysis of the nucleotide and amino acid sequences showed a new ampC gene that was closely related to those encoding the MOX-1, MOX-2 and MOX-3 beta-lactamases. This new plasmid-mediated AmpC beta-lactamase from China was named MOX-4. This is believed to be the first report of MOX-4, CTX-M-3 and TEM-1 beta-lactamases in a multiresistant A. caviae.

  10. The all0458/lti46.2 gene encodes a low temperature-induced Dps protein homologue in the cyanobacteria Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 and Anabaena variabilis M3.

    PubMed

    Sato, Naoki; Moriyama, Takashi; Toyoshima, Masakazu; Mizusawa, Mika; Tajima, Naoyuki

    2012-10-01

    DNA-binding proteins from starved cells (Dps), which are encoded by many bacterial genomes, protect genomic DNA via non-specific DNA binding, as well as inhibition of free radical formation by chelating Fe(II). In the filamentous cyanobacterium Anabaena, the second gene (lti46.2) in the low temperature-induced gene operon lti46 in strain M3 was found to encode a homologue of Dps, but for a long time this gene remained poorly characterized. A gene cluster, all0459-all0458-all0457, was found later to be 100% identical to the lti46 gene cluster in a closely related strain, PCC 7120. In the present study, we detected ferroxidase activity of the Lti46.2/All0458 protein, which formed a dodecamer, as found in other Dps proteins. In addition, three homologues of all0458 were found in strain PCC 7120, namely, all1173, alr3808 and all4145. We analysed expression of the lti46 or all0459-8-7 gene cluster in both strains, M3 and PCC 7120, and confirmed its induction by low temperature. We found that the All0458-GFP fusion protein and the All1173-GFP fusion protein were localized to the nucleoids. In the all0458 null mutant, the transcript of the alr3808 gene accumulated. These results suggest that there might be complex cooperation of various members of the dps family in protecting the genome from environmental stresses such as changing temperature.

  11. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of the variable domain of Scl2.3, a streptococcal collagen-like protein from invasive M3-type Streptococcus pyogenes.

    PubMed

    Squeglia, Flavia; Bachert, Beth; Romano, Maria; Lukomski, Slawomir; Berisio, Rita

    2013-09-01

    Streptococcal collagen-like proteins (Scls) are widely expressed by the well recognized human pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes. These surface proteins contain a signature central collagen-like region and an amino-terminal globular domain, termed the variable domain, which is protruded away from the cell surface by the collagen-like domain. Despite their recognized importance in bacterial pathogenicity, no structural information is presently available on proteins of the Scl class. The variable domain of Scl2 from invasive M3-type S. pyogenes has successfully been crystallized using vapour-diffusion methods. The crystals diffracted to 1.5 Å resolution and belonged to space group H32, with unit-cell parameters a = 44.23, b = 44.23, c = 227.83 Å. The crystal structure was solved by single-wavelength anomalous dispersion using anomalous signal from a europium chloride derivative.|

  12. Strontium and oxygen isotope study of M-1, M-3 and M-4 drill core samples from the Manson impact structure, Iowa: Comparison with Haitian K-T impact glasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blum, Joel D.; Chamberlain, C. Page; Hingston, Michael P.; Koeberl, Christian

    1993-01-01

    Strontium and oxygen isotope analyses were performed on 8 samples from the M-1, M-3, and M-4 cores recently drilled at the Manson impact structure. The samples were three elastic sedimentary rocks (of probable Cretaceous age) which occurred as clasts within the sedimentary clast breccia, two samples of crystalline rock breccia matrix, and three samples of dolomite and limestone. The Sr-87/Sr-86 (corrected to 65 Ma) ratios were much higher than those in impact glasses from the Haitian Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary. Isotope mixing calculations demonstrate that neither the silicate or carbonate rocks analyzed from the Manson crater, or mixtures of these rocks are appropriate source materials for the Haitian impact glasses. However, the Sr-87/Sr-86 (65Ma) ratio and delta O-18 value of the Ca-rich Haitian glasses are well reproduced by mixtures of Si-rich Haitian glass with platform carbonate of K-T age.

  13. Full exploration of the Diels-Alder cycloaddition on metallofullerenes M3N@C80 (M = Sc, Lu, Gd): the D(5h) versus I(h) isomer and the influence of the metal cluster.

    PubMed

    Osuna, Sílvia; Valencia, Ramón; Rodríguez-Fortea, Antonio; Swart, Marcel; Solà, Miquel; Poblet, Josep M

    2012-07-16

    In this work a detailed investigation of the exohedral reactivity of the most important and abundant endohedral metallofullerene (EMF) is provided, that is, Sc(3)N@I(h)-C(80) and its D(5h) counterpart Sc(3)N@D(5h)-C(80) , and the (bio)chemically relevant lutetium- and gadolinium-based M(3)N@I(h)/D(5h)-C(80) EMFs (M = Sc, Lu, Gd). In particular, we analyze the thermodynamics and kinetics of the Diels-Alder cycloaddition of s-cis-1,3-butadiene on all the different bonds of the I(h)-C(80) and D(5h)-C(80) cages and their endohedral derivatives. First, we discuss the thermodynamic and kinetic aspects of the cycloaddition reaction on the hollow fullerenes and the two isomers of Sc(3)N@C(80). Afterwards, the effect of the nature of the metal nitride is analyzed in detail. In general, our BP86/TZP//BP86/DZP calculations indicate that [5,6] bonds are more reactive than [6,6] bonds for the two isomers. The [5,6] bond D(5h)-b, which is the most similar to the unique [5,6] bond type in the icosahedral cage, I(h)-a, is the most reactive bond in M(3)N@D(5h)-C(80) regardless of M. Sc(3)N@C(80) and Lu(3)N@C(80) give similar results; the regioselectivity is, however, significantly reduced for the larger and more electropositive M = Gd, as previously found in similar metallofullerenes. Calculations also show that the D(5h) isomer is more reactive from the kinetic point of view than the I(h) one in all cases which is in good agreement with experiments.

  14. Multipole (E1, M1, E2, M2, E3, M3) transition wavelengths and rates between 3l-15l' excited and ground states in nickel-like ions

    SciTech Connect

    Safronova, U I; Safronova, A S; Beiersdorfer, P

    2006-05-04

    A relativistic many-body method is developed to calculate energy and transition rates for multipole transitions in many-electron ions. This method is based on relativistic many-body perturbation theory (RMBPT), agrees with MCDF calculations in lowest-order, includes all second-order correlation corrections and includes corrections from negative energy states. Reduced matrix elements, oscillator strengths, and transition rates are calculated for electric-multipole (dipole (E1), quadrupole (E2), and octupole (E3)) and magnetic-multipole (dipole (M1), quadrupole (M2), and octupole (M3)) transitions between 3l{sup -1}5l{prime} excited and ground states in Ni-like ions with nuclear charges ranging from Z = 30 to 100. The calculations start from a 1s{sup 2}s{sup 2}2p{sup 6}3s{sup 2}3p{sup 6}3d{sup 10} Dirac-Fock potential. First-order perturbation theory is used to obtain intermediate-coupling coefficients, and second-order RMBPT is used to determine the matrix elements. A detailed discussion of the various contributions to the dipole matrix elements and energy levels is given for nickel-like tungsten (Z = 74). The contributions from negative-energy states are included in the second order E1, M1, E2, M2, E3 and M3 matrix elements. The resulting transition energies and transition rates are compared with experimental values and with results from other recent calculations. These atomic data are important in modeling of M-shell radiation spectra of heavy ions generated in electron beam ion trap experiments and in M-shell diagnostics of plasmas.

  15. Constraints on the Distance Moduli, Helium and Metal Abundances, and Ages of Globular Clusters from their RR Lyrae and Non-variable Horizontal-branch Stars. I. M3, M15, and M92

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    VandenBerg, Don A.; Denissenkov, P. A.; Catelan, Márcio

    2016-08-01

    Up-to-date isochrones, zero-age horizontal-branch (ZAHB) loci, and evolutionary tracks for core He-burning stars are applied to the color-magnitude diagrams of M3, M15, and M92, focusing in particular on their RR Lyrae populations. Periods for the ab- and c-type variables are calculated using the latest theoretical calibrations of {log} {P}{ab} and {log} {P}c as a function of luminosity, mass, effective temperature ({T}{{eff}}), and metallicity. Our models are generally able to reproduce the measured periods to well within the uncertainties implied by the stellar properties on which pulsation periods depend, as well as the mean periods and cluster-to-cluster differences in < {P}{ab}> and < {P}c> , on the assumption of well-supported values of E(B-V), {(m-M)}V, and [Fe/H]. While many of RR Lyrae in M3 lie close to the same ZAHB that fits the faintest horizontal-branch (HB) stars at bluer or redder colors, the M92 variables are all significantly evolved stars from ZAHB locations on the blue side of the instability strip. M15 appears to contain a similar population of HB stars as M92, along with additional helium-enhanced populations not present in the latter which comprise most of its RR Lyrae stars. The large number of variables in M15 and the similarity of the observed values of < {P}{ab}> and < {P}c> in M15 and M92 can be explained by HB models that allow for variations in Y. Similar ages (˜12.5 Gyr) are found for all three clusters, making them significantly younger than the field halo subgiant HD 140283. Our analysis suggests a preference for stellar models that take diffusive processes into account.

  16. Constraints on the Distance Moduli, Helium and Metal Abundances, and Ages of Globular Clusters from their RR Lyrae and Non-variable Horizontal-branch Stars. I. M3, M15, and M92

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    VandenBerg, Don A.; Denissenkov, P. A.; Catelan, Márcio

    2016-08-01

    Up-to-date isochrones, zero-age horizontal-branch (ZAHB) loci, and evolutionary tracks for core He-burning stars are applied to the color–magnitude diagrams of M3, M15, and M92, focusing in particular on their RR Lyrae populations. Periods for the ab- and c-type variables are calculated using the latest theoretical calibrations of {log} {P}{ab} and {log} {P}c as a function of luminosity, mass, effective temperature ({T}{{eff}}), and metallicity. Our models are generally able to reproduce the measured periods to well within the uncertainties implied by the stellar properties on which pulsation periods depend, as well as the mean periods and cluster-to-cluster differences in < {P}{ab}> and < {P}c> , on the assumption of well-supported values of E(B-V), {(m-M)}V, and [Fe/H]. While many of RR Lyrae in M3 lie close to the same ZAHB that fits the faintest horizontal-branch (HB) stars at bluer or redder colors, the M92 variables are all significantly evolved stars from ZAHB locations on the blue side of the instability strip. M15 appears to contain a similar population of HB stars as M92, along with additional helium-enhanced populations not present in the latter which comprise most of its RR Lyrae stars. The large number of variables in M15 and the similarity of the observed values of < {P}{ab}> and < {P}c> in M15 and M92 can be explained by HB models that allow for variations in Y. Similar ages (˜12.5 Gyr) are found for all three clusters, making them significantly younger than the field halo subgiant HD 140283. Our analysis suggests a preference for stellar models that take diffusive processes into account.

  17. Multipole (E1, M1, E2, M2, E3, M3) transition wavelengths and rates between 3l-15l' excited and ground states in nickel-like ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safronova, U. I.; Safronova, A. S.; Beiersdorfer, P.

    2006-11-01

    A relativistic many-body method is used to calculate energy and transition rates for multipole transitions in many-electron ions. This method is based on relativistic many-body perturbation theory (RMBPT), agrees with MCDF calculations in lowest order, includes all second-order correlation corrections and includes corrections from negative energy states. Reduced matrix elements, oscillator strengths and transition rates are calculated for electric-multipole (dipole (E1), quadrupole (E2) and octupole (E3)) and magnetic-multipole (dipole (M1), quadrupole (M2) and octupole (M3)) transitions between 3l-15l' excited and ground states in Ni-like ions with nuclear charges ranging from Z = 30 to 100. The calculations start from a 1s22s22p63s23p63d10 Dirac-Fock potential. First-order perturbation theory is used to obtain intermediate-coupling coefficients, and second-order RMBPT is used to determine the matrix elements. A detailed discussion of the various contributions to the dipole matrix elements and energy levels is given for nickel-like tungsten (Z = 74). The contributions from negative-energy states are included in the second-order E1, M1, E2 M2, E3 and M3 matrix elements. The resulting transition energies and transition rates are compared with experimental values and with results from other recent calculations. These atomic data are important in modelling of M-shell radiation spectra of heavy ions generated in electron beam ion trap experiments and in M-shell diagnostics of plasmas.

  18. High-pressure/high-temperature synthesis and characterization of the first palladium or platinum containing lithium transition-metal sulfides Li2M3S4 (M=Pd, Pt)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heymann, Gunter; Niehaus, Oliver; Krüger, Hannes; Selter, Philipp; Brunklaus, Gunther; Pöttgen, Rainer

    2016-10-01

    The new lithium transition-metal sulfides Li2M3S4 (M=Pd, Pt) were obtained via multianvil high-pressure/high-temperature syntheses at 8 GPa and 1150 °C starting from a stoichiometric mixture of lithium nitride, sulfur, and palladium or platinum. Single crystal structure analyses indicated the space group P21/c (no. 14) with the following lattice parameters and refinement results: a=492.9(1), b=1005.9(2), c=614.9(2) pm, β=110.9 (1)°, R1=0.0165, wR2=0.0308 (all data) for Li2Pd3S4 and a=498.2(1), b=1005.5(2), c=613.0(2) pm, β=110.8(1)°, R1=0.0215, wR2=0.0450 (all data) for Li2Pt3S4. The crystal structures are built up from two distinct Pd/Pt sites, one of which is a special position (0,0,0), two sulfur sites, and one lithium site. The atoms Pd2/Pt2 form isolated square planar PdS4/PtS4 units, whereas the Pd1/Pt1 atoms form pairs of square planar PdS4/PtS4 units, which are connected via a common edge. These two structural motives built up a three-dimensional network structure by linking through common corners. The lithium atoms are positioned inside of the so formed channels. Li2M3S4 (M=Pd, Pt) are isostructural to the minerals jaguéite, Cu2Pd3Se4 and chrisstanleyite, Ag2Pd3Se4, which are up to now the only representatives of this structure type. Both compounds were studied with respect to their magnetic properties and can be classified as Pauli paramagnetic or diamagnetic. Regarding the possibility of lithium mobility inside the channels, of the structure, solid state 7Li NMR and high-temperature single crystal investigations revealed localization of the lithium atoms on their crystallographic sites.

  19. Assessment of the Hf N, Zr N and Ti N phase diagrams at high pressures and temperatures: balancing between MN and M3N4 (M = Hf, Zr, Ti)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kroll, Peter

    2004-04-01

    We study the nitrogen-rich part of the phase diagram Hf-N, Zr-N and Ti-N, employing first-principle calculations for an assessment of energy and enthalpy as a function of pressure. At zero pressure the novel cubic Th3P4-type structures are metastable modifications of M3N4 (M = Hf,Zr). The lowest energy configuration of both compounds is an orthorhombic Zr3N4-type. This orthorhombic structure will transform into the Th3P4-type at 9 and 6 GPa, for Hf3N4 and Zr3N4, respectively. The lowest energy configuration of Ti3N4 is a CaTi2O4-type structure. It will first transform into the orthorhombic Zr3N4-type at 3.8 GPa, then further transform into the cubic Th3P4-type at 15 GPa. The spinel type is metastable throughout the phase diagram for all three systems. The phase boundary between mononitrides MN and the M3N4-phases is accessed as a function of pressure. We include the entropy of gaseous nitrogen from tabulated data to estimate the free enthalpy DgrG of the nitride phases. The orthorhombic modification of Hf3N4 turns out to be thermodynamically stable with respect to a decomposition into the mononitrides and nitrogen for temperatures up to about 1000 °C. The stability of Zr3N4 is in question; within the estimated error no final conclusion can be drawn. Ti3N4, on the other hand, will only be metastable. At higher pressures, however, the free energy of nitrogen is substantially reduced and the 3:4 compositions become more stable. We reproduce the experimental requirements (18 GPa and 2800 K) for the synthesis of the novel Hf3N4. At 2800 K the pressures needed to synthesize cubic phases of Zr3N4 and Ti3N4 are estimated to be 40 and 100 GPa, respectively.

  20. Lunar mare deposits associated with the Orientale impact basin: New insights into mineralogy, history, mode of emplacement, and relation to Orientale Basin evolution from Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) data from Chandrayaan-1

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitten, J.; Head, J.W.; Staid, M.; Pieters, C.M.; Mustard, J.; Clark, R.; Nettles, J.; Klima, R.L.; Taylor, L.

    2011-01-01

    Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) image and spectral reflectance data are combined to analyze mare basalt units in and adjacent to the Orientale multiring impact basin. Models are assessed for the relationships between basin formation and mare basalt emplacement. Mare basalt emplacement on the western nearside limb began prior to the Orientale event as evidenced by the presence of cryptomaria. The earliest post-Orientale-event mare basalt emplacement occurred in the center of the basin (Mare Orientale) and postdated the formation of the Orientale Basin by about 60-100 Ma. Over the next several hundred million years, basalt patches were emplaced first along the base of the Outer Rook ring (Lacus Veris) and then along the base of the Cordillera ring (Lacus Autumni), with some overlap in ages. The latest basalt patches are as young as some of the youngest basalt deposits on the lunar nearside. M3 data show several previously undetected mare patches on the southwestern margins of the basin interior. Regardless, the previously documented increase in mare abundance from the southwest toward the northeast is still prominent. We attribute this to crustal and lithospheric trends moving from the farside to the nearside, with correspondingly shallower density and thermal barriers to basaltic magma ascent and eruption toward the nearside. The wide range of model ages for Orientale mare deposits (3.70-1.66 Ga) mirrors the range of nearside mare ages, indicating that the small amount of mare fill in Orientale is not due to early cessation of mare emplacement but rather to limited volumes of extrusion for each phase during the entire period of nearside mare basalt volcanism. This suggests that nearside and farside source regions may be similar but that other factors, such as thermal and crustal thickness barriers to magma ascent and eruption, may be determining the abundance of surface deposits on the limbs and farside. The sequence, timing, and elevation of mare basalt deposits

  1. Coincident signalling between the Gi/Go-coupled delta-opioid receptor and the Gq-coupled m3 muscarinic receptor at the level of intracellular free calcium in SH-SY5Y cells.

    PubMed

    Yeo, A; Samways, D S; Fowler, C E; Gunn-Moore, F; Henderson, G

    2001-03-01

    In SH-SY5Y cells, activation of delta-opioid receptors with [D-Pen(2,5)]-enkephalin (DPDPE; 1 microM) did not alter the intracellular free Ca(2+) concentration [Ca(2+)](i). However, when DPDPE was applied during concomitant Gq-coupled m3 muscarinic receptor stimulation by carbachol or oxotremorine-M, it produced an elevation of [Ca(2+)](i). The DPDPE-evoked increase in [Ca(2+)](i) was abolished when the carbachol-sensitive intracellular Ca(2+) store was emptied. There was a marked difference between the concentration-response relationship for the elevation of [Ca(2+)](i) by carbachol (EC(50) 13 microM, Hill slope 1) and the concentration-response relationship for carbachol's permissive action in revealing the delta-opioid receptor-mediated elevation of [Ca(2+)] (EC(50) 0.7 mM; Hill slope 1.8). Sequestration of free G protein beta gamma dimers by transient transfection of cells with a beta gamma binding protein (residues 495-689 of the C terminal tail of G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2) reduced the ability of delta opioid receptor activation to elevate [Ca(2+)](i). However, DPDPE did not elevate either basal or oxotremorine-M-evoked inositol phosphate production indicating that delta-opioid receptor activation did not stimulate phospholipase C. Furthermore, delta-opioid receptor activation did not result in the reversal of muscarinic receptor desensitization, membrane hyperpolarization or stimulation of sphingosine kinase. There was no coincident signalling between the delta-opioid receptor and the lysophosphatidic acid receptor which couples to elevation of [Ca(2+)](i) in SH-SY5Y cells by a PLC-independent mechanism. In SH-SY5Y cells the coincident signalling between the endogenously expressed delta-opioid and m3 muscarinic receptors appears to occur in the receptor activation-Ca(2+) release signalling pathway at a step after the activation of phospholipase C. PMID:11259487

  2. Effect of gold subsurface layer on the surface activity and segregation in Pt/Au/Pt3M (where M = 3d transition metals) alloy catalyst from first-principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Chang-Eun; Lim, Dong-Hee; Jang, Jong Hyun; Kim, Hyoung Juhn; Yoon, Sung Pil; Han, Jonghee; Nam, Suk Woo; Hong, Seong-Ahn; Soon, Aloysius; Ham, Hyung Chul

    2015-01-01

    The effect of a subsurface hetero layer (thin gold) on the activity and stability of Pt skin surface in Pt3M system (M = 3d transition metals) is investigated using the spin-polarized density functional theory calculation. First, we find that the heterometallic interaction between the Pt skin surface and the gold subsurface in Pt/Au/Pt3M system can significantly modify the electronic structure of the Pt skin surface. In particular, the local density of states projected onto the d states of Pt skin surface near the Fermi level is drastically decreased compared to the Pt/Pt/Pt3M case, leading to the reduction of the oxygen binding strength of the Pt skin surface. This modification is related to the increase of surface charge polarization of outmost Pt skin atoms by the electron transfer from the gold subsurface atoms. Furthermore, a subsurface gold layer is found to cast the energetic barrier to the segregation loss of metal atoms from the bulk (inside) region, which can enhance the durability of Pt3M based catalytic system in oxygen reduction condition at fuel cell devices. This study highlights that a gold subsurface hetero layer can provide an additional mean to tune the surface activity toward oxygen species and in turn the oxygen reduction reaction, where the utilization of geometric strain already reaches its practical limit.

  3. The crystal structure of the streptococcal collagen-like protein 2 globular domain from invasive M3-type group A Streptococcus shows significant similarity to immunomodulatory HIV protein gp41.

    PubMed

    Squeglia, Flavia; Bachert, Beth; De Simone, Alfonso; Lukomski, Slawomir; Berisio, Rita

    2014-02-21

    The arsenal of virulence factors deployed by streptococci includes streptococcal collagen-like (Scl) proteins. These proteins, which are characterized by a globular domain and a collagen-like domain, play key roles in host adhesion, host immune defense evasion, and biofilm formation. In this work, we demonstrate that the Scl2.3 protein is expressed on the surface of invasive M3-type strain MGAS315 of Streptococcus pyogenes. We report the crystal structure of Scl2.3 globular domain, the first of any Scl. This structure shows a novel fold among collagen trimerization domains of either bacterial or human origin. Despite there being low sequence identity, we observed that Scl2.3 globular domain structurally resembles the gp41 subunit of the envelope glycoprotein from human immunodeficiency virus type 1, an essential subunit for viral fusion to human T cells. We combined crystallographic data with modeling and molecular dynamics techniques to gather information on the entire lollipop-like Scl2.3 structure. Molecular dynamics data evidence a high flexibility of Scl2.3 with remarkable interdomain motions that are likely instrumental to the protein biological function in mediating adhesive or immune-modulatory functions in host-pathogen interactions. Altogether, our results provide molecular tools for the understanding of Scl-mediated streptococcal pathogenesis and important structural insights for the future design of small molecular inhibitors of streptococcal invasion.

  4. Investigation of the synthesis, activation, and isosteric heats of CO2 adsorption of the isostructural series of metal-organic frameworks M3(BTC)2 (M = Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, Mo, Ru).

    PubMed

    Wade, Casey R; Dincă, Mircea

    2012-07-14

    The synthesis, activation, and heats of CO(2) adsorption for the known members of the M(3)(BTC)(2) (HKUST-1) isostructural series (M = Cr, Fe, Ni, Zn, Ni, Cu, Mo) were investigated to gain insight into the impact of CO(2)-metal interactions for CO(2) storage/separation applications. With the use of modified syntheses and activation procedures, improved BET surface areas were obtained for M = Ni, Mo, and Ru. The zero-coverage isosteric heats of CO(2) adsorption were measured for the Cu, Cr, Ni, Mo, and Ru analogues and gave values consistent with those reported for MOFs containing coordinatively unsaturated metal sites, but lower than for amine functionalized materials. Notably, the Ni and Ru congeners exhibited the highest CO(2) affinities in the studied series. These behaviors were attributed to the presence of residual guest molecules in the case of Ni(3)(BTC)(2)(Me(2)NH)(2)(H(2)O) and the increased charge of the dimetal secondary building unit in [Ru(3)(BTC)(2)][BTC](0.5).

  5. Effect of gold subsurface layer on the surface activity and segregation in Pt/Au/Pt{sub 3}M (where M = 3d transition metals) alloy catalyst from first-principles

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Chang-Eun; Lim, Dong-Hee; Jang, Jong Hyun; Kim, Hyoung Juhn; Yoon, Sung Pil; Han, Jonghee; Nam, Suk Woo; Hong, Seong-Ahn; Soon, Aloysius E-mail: hchahm@kist.re.kr; Ham, Hyung Chul E-mail: hchahm@kist.re.kr

    2015-01-21

    The effect of a subsurface hetero layer (thin gold) on the activity and stability of Pt skin surface in Pt{sub 3}M system (M = 3d transition metals) is investigated using the spin-polarized density functional theory calculation. First, we find that the heterometallic interaction between the Pt skin surface and the gold subsurface in Pt/Au/Pt{sub 3}M system can significantly modify the electronic structure of the Pt skin surface. In particular, the local density of states projected onto the d states of Pt skin surface near the Fermi level is drastically decreased compared to the Pt/Pt/Pt{sub 3}M case, leading to the reduction of the oxygen binding strength of the Pt skin surface. This modification is related to the increase of surface charge polarization of outmost Pt skin atoms by the electron transfer from the gold subsurface atoms. Furthermore, a subsurface gold layer is found to cast the energetic barrier to the segregation loss of metal atoms from the bulk (inside) region, which can enhance the durability of Pt{sub 3}M based catalytic system in oxygen reduction condition at fuel cell devices. This study highlights that a gold subsurface hetero layer can provide an additional mean to tune the surface activity toward oxygen species and in turn the oxygen reduction reaction, where the utilization of geometric strain already reaches its practical limit.

  6. BRET-monitoring of the dynamic changes of inositol lipid pools in living cells reveals a PKC-dependent PtdIns4P increase upon EGF and M3 receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Tóth, József T; Gulyás, Gergő; Tóth, Dániel J; Balla, András; Hammond, Gerald R V; Hunyady, László; Balla, Tamás; Várnai, Péter

    2016-03-01

    Deciphering many roles played by inositol lipids in signal transduction and membrane function demands experimental approaches that can detect their dynamic accumulation with subcellular accuracy and exquisite sensitivity. The former criterion is met by imaging of fluorescence biosensors in living cells, whereas the latter is facilitated by biochemical measurements from populations. Here, we introduce BRET-based biosensors able to detect rapid changes in inositol lipids in cell populations with both high sensitivity and subcellular resolution in a single, convenient assay. We demonstrate robust and sensitive measurements of PtdIns4P, PtdIns(4,5)P2 and PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 dynamics, as well as changes in cytoplasmic Ins(1,4,5)P3 levels. Measurements were made during either experimental activation of lipid degradation, or PI 3-kinase and phospholipase C mediated signal transduction. Our results reveal a previously unappreciated synthesis of PtdIns4P that accompanies moderate activation of phospholipase C signaling downstream of both EGF and muscarinic M3 receptor activation. This signaling-induced PtdIns4P synthesis relies on protein kinase C, and implicates a feedback mechanism in the control of inositol lipid metabolism during signal transduction.

  7. Comparison of the ionizing radiation fields observed by Liulin-Photo and R3D-B3 spectrum-dosimeters inside and outside Foton-M3 spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damasso, Mario; Dachev, Tsvetan; Zanini, Alba; Falzetta, Giuseppe; Lambreva, Maya; Rea, Giuseppina; Giardi, Maria Teresa

    Foton-M3 ESA space mission flew in Low Earth Orbit (250÷290 km) from 14 to 26 September 2007, carrying more than 40 experiments related to different scientific disciplines. During the mission, the dose and particle flux variations inside and outside the capsule have been monitored in real time by Liulin-Photo e R3D-B3 spectrum-dosimeters respectively, the latter housed in the Biopan-6 facility containing experiments directly exposed to the space environment. Liulin-Photo and R3D-B3 are both composed of a silicon detector (area=2 cm2 ) and they measure the energies deposited by the incident ionizing particles (R3D-B3 measuring also solar UV radiation). Inside the capsule, Liulin-Photo was mounted on the top of the space biology experiment Photo-II to monitor the radiation field around this experiment. The device Photo- II is a system of optical sensors that measured in real time the chlorophyll fluorescence to study the effects of the mixed ionizing space radiations on the photosynthetic activity of several microrganisms modified at the level of the photosynthetic electron transfer chain of Photosystem II. In this study we present the results obtained comparing the dose and flux data collected from the two instruments, in order to get information about the effects produced by the capsule shielding. In particular, we analyse in deeper detail the data corresponding to the passages of the spacecraft above the South Atlantic magnetic Anomaly (SAA) and inside the outer electron belt. A comparison between experimental data and predictions of ionizing radiation environment models is also performed. Moreover, an analysis of some space weather data is conducted to better characterize the space environment in relation to the effect on the biological material during the mission.

  8. Mechanisms, Monitoring and Modeling Earth Fissure generation and Fault activation due to subsurface Fluid exploitation (M3EF3): A UNESCO-IGCP project in partnership with the UNESCO-IHP Working Group on Land Subsidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teatini, P.; Carreon-Freyre, D.; Galloway, D. L.; Ye, S.

    2015-12-01

    Land subsidence due to groundwater extraction was recently mentioned as one of the most urgent threats to sustainable development in the latest UNESCO IHP-VIII (2014-2020) strategic plan. Although advances have been made in understanding, monitoring, and predicting subsidence, the influence of differential vertical compaction, horizontal displacements, and hydrostratigraphic and structural features in groundwater systems on localized near-surface ground ruptures is still poorly understood. The nature of ground failure may range from fissuring, i.e., formation of an open crack, to faulting, i.e., differential offset of the opposite sides of the failure plane. Ground ruptures associated with differential subsidence have been reported from many alluvial basins in semiarid and arid regions, e.g. China, India, Iran, Mexico, Saudi Arabia, Spain, and the United States. These ground ruptures strongly impact urban, industrial, and agricultural infrastructures, and affect socio-economic and cultural development. Leveraging previous collaborations, this year the UNESCO Working Group on Land Subsidence began the scientific cooperative project M3EF3 in collaboration with the UNESCO International Geosciences Programme (IGCP n.641; www.igcp641.org) to improve understanding of the processes involved in ground rupturing associated with the exploitation of subsurface fluids, and to facilitate the transfer of knowledge regarding sustainable groundwater management practices in vulnerable aquifer systems. The project is developing effective tools to help manage geologic risks associated with these types of hazards, and formulating recommendations pertaining to the sustainable use of subsurface fluid resources for urban and agricultural development in susceptible areas. The partnership between the UNESCO IHP and IGCP is ensuring that multiple scientific competencies required to optimally investigate earth fissuring and faulting caused by groundwater withdrawals are being employed.

  9. A transmission electron microscopy study of radiation damages to β-dicalcium (Ca2SiO4) and M3-tricalcium (Ca3SiO5) orthosilicates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Noirfontaine, Marie-Noëlle; Dunstetter, Frédéric; Courtial, Mireille; Signes-Frehel, Marcel; Wang, Guillaume; Gorse-Pomonti, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present results of a first study of electron radiation damages to β-dicalcium silicate (Ca2SiO4:C2S) and M3-tricalcium silicate (Ca3SiO5:C3S) in a Transmission Electron Microscope. Electron irradiation is used here as a means to bring to light a difference of reactivity under the electron beam between these two complex ceramic oxides, keeping in mind that C3S reacts faster with water than C2S and that this property remains unexplained, owing to the complex structural characteristics of these ceramics which have not yet been fully elucidated. The following results were obtained by coupling TEM imaging and EDS analysis: i) Rapid decomposition of both silicate particles into CaO nano-crystals separated by (presumably SiO2-rich) amorphous areas at low flux for both silicates; ii) once reached a threshold electron flux, formation of an amorphous crater in both silicates, fully calcium-depleted in C3S but never in C2S; iii) significant post-mortem structural evolution of the craters that at least partially recrystallize in C2S, to be compared to the quasi frozen damaged area in C3S; iv) hole drilling at high flux but only in C3S once reached a threshold flux, ϕth ˜ 7.9 × 1021 e- cm-2 s-1, of the same order of magnitude than previously estimated in a number of ceramic materials, whereas C2S still amorphizes under the electron beam for a flux as high as 2.2 × 1022 e- cm-2 s-1. The radiation damages and their post-mortem evolution differ largely between C2S and C3S. We attempted to relate the obtained results, and especially the evolution of the Ca content in the damaged areas under the electron beam to the available structural characteristics of these two orthosilicates.

  10. Environmental pollution at Linfen and its change - magnetic monitoring of leaves and soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, L.; Appel, E.; Hu, S. Y.; Yin, G.; Rösler, W.

    2012-04-01

    Linfen city (Shanxi Province, China) is one of the world's most polluted city due to coal mining, refineries and other industries. During recent years the local government took enormous efforts to improve the environmental standard. In this study, we are testing the efficiency of magnetic susceptibility (MS) measurements for the assessment of this pollution "hot spot" where the environmental issues dictate the questions and up turning methodical obstacles have to be mastered. In particular we are testing to which extent the combination of MS results from soil and dust-loaded tree leaves allow to discriminate in between historical and present pollution. MS signals in the large abandoned industrial area and in new industrial areas are strongly enhanced with surface soil mass-specific MS (χ) between (232-3126)×10-8m3kg-1, while in the agricultural areas they range from (88-179)×10-8m3kg-1. Temperature dependence of MS identifies magnetite as the major magnetic phase in all topsoil samples; additionally a variable content of a harder coercive phase indicated by S-ratios of 0.82-0.99. Low χfd% (<5%) and hysteresis properties show that magnetite particles occur in PSD+MD domain state. In contrast to soil samples which accumulate pollutants over a long time span, dust-loaded tree leaf samples reflect the current air spread of pollution. Leaf samples were taken from the wider Linfen city area at intervals of about 2 km. Values of χ (normalized to the mass of the dried leaf) range from (2.2-501.1)×10-8m3kg-1 with a median of 23.16×10-8m3kg-1, and gradually decrease with distance from pollution sources. Rock magnetic parameters again identify a dominance of PSD+MD low-coercivity magnetite. Strong enhancement of MS occurs in the new urban industrial area and in the southern part of city, which is also controlled by the prevailing wind direction and the typical basin topography. XRF results show an enrichment of heavy metals for topsoils and leaves, which were outlined

  11. 44 CFR 10.8 - Determination of requirement for environmental review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Agency actions (see 40 CFR 1508.18) significantly (see 40 CFR 1508.27) affecting the quality of the human... ecosystems, including endangered species; (vi) If an action will result in a major adverse impact upon air or... emergency. (d) Categorical Exclusions (CATEXs). CEQ regulations at 40 CFR 1508.4 provide for the...

  12. 44 CFR 10.8 - Determination of requirement for environmental review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Agency actions (see 40 CFR 1508.18) significantly (see 40 CFR 1508.27) affecting the quality of the human... ecosystems, including endangered species; (vi) If an action will result in a major adverse impact upon air or... emergency. (d) Categorical Exclusions (CATEXs). CEQ regulations at 40 CFR 1508.4 provide for the...

  13. 44 CFR 10.8 - Determination of requirement for environmental review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Agency actions (see 40 CFR 1508.18) significantly (see 40 CFR 1508.27) affecting the quality of the human... ecosystems, including endangered species; (vi) If an action will result in a major adverse impact upon air or... emergency. (d) Categorical Exclusions (CATEXs). CEQ regulations at 40 CFR 1508.4 provide for the...

  14. 44 CFR 10.8 - Determination of requirement for environmental review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Agency actions (see 40 CFR 1508.18) significantly (see 40 CFR 1508.27) affecting the quality of the human... ecosystems, including endangered species; (vi) If an action will result in a major adverse impact upon air or... emergency. (d) Categorical Exclusions (CATEXs). CEQ regulations at 40 CFR 1508.4 provide for the...

  15. Pharmacy Specialist, 10-8. Military Curriculum Materials for Vocational and Technical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    These teacher and student materials for a postsecondary-level course in pharmacy comprise one of a number of military-developed curriculum packages selected for adaptation to vocational instruction and curriculum development in a civilian setting. The purpose stated for the 256-hour course is to train students in the basic technical phases of…

  16. A 10.8-kg layered (Muong-Nong-type) tektite from Wenchang, Hainan, China

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Futrell, Darryl S.; Wasson, John T.

    1993-01-01

    A 10.79-kg layered tektite from Hainan is the largest tektite from China, and the fifth largest reported to date. It, together with a 1.9-kg Hainan tektite described by Yuan (1981), greatly extends the area of the Australasian field within which layered tektites having masses greater than 1 kg have been found.

  17. 19 CFR 10.8 - Articles exported for repairs or alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., foreign customs invoice, foreign landing certificate, bill of lading, or an airway bill. (c) If the port... invoice and entry papers as the basis for the assessment of duty under subheading 9802.00.40 or 9802.00.50..., preparation of plans or specifications, furnishing of tools or equipment for doing the repairs or...

  18. Magnetic signature of indoor air pollution: Household dust study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Górka-Kostrubiec, Beata; Jeleńska, Maria; Król, Elżbieta

    2014-12-01

    The combination of magnetic and geochemical methods was used to determine the mineralogy, grain size and domain structure of magnetic particles in indoor dust collected in 195 sites in Warsaw, Poland. Data show an asymmetric distribution of magnetic susceptibility (χ) in the wide range of 20-1514 × 10-8 m3 kg-1. Comparison of magnetic parameters shows that the internal dust contains outside pollution characteristic for air and soil. More than 90% of indoor dust samples were characterized by roughly uniform magnetic mineralogy, typical for fine grained magnetite (diameter of 0.2-5 μm), and grain size between pseudo-single-domain and small multi-domain with small contribution of superpara-magnetic particles (˜10%). Samples with χ larger than 220 × 10-8 m3 kg-1 contain mainly magnetite and an anthropogenic metallic Fe with T C > 700°C. The indoor dust contains, characteristic for the urban areas, spherical magnetic particles originated from fossil fuel combustion processes and mixture of irregular angular iron-oxides grains containing other elements, including Na, Ca, Al, Si, K, S, Mn, Cl, and Mg.

  19. The M3 from the international point of view.

    PubMed

    Damas, F; Bonhomme, V

    2014-02-01

    Deciding to cease treatment in intensive care unit patients whose prognosis is hopeless allows programming the moment of death, and hence, post mortem transplantable organ donation. Such organ donations are more frequent in Anglo-Saxon countries. In the context of growing organ needs, they have significantly increased the number of organs that are available for transplant. Progressive experience has shown that crystal-clear procedures must be set up in order to avoid lack of understanding, opposition, or even conflict between involved medical teams and immediate relatives of potential donors. The decision of organ transplantation must totally be separated from the decision of treatment cessation. Supportive treatment cessation must be done according to previously established procedures. Medications that are compatible with organ transplantation must be listed. Finally, the needs of patient relatives must be met.

  20. New acceptor-bridge-donor strategy for enhancing NLO response with long-range excess electron transfer from the NH2...M/M3O donor (M = Li, Na, K) to inside the electron hole cage C20F19 acceptor through the unusual σ chain bridge (CH2)4.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yang; Zhou, Zhong-Jun; Wang, Jia-Jun; Li, Ying; Wu, Di; Chen, Wei; Li, Zhi-Ru; Sun, Chia-Chung

    2013-04-01

    Using the strong electron hole cage C20F19 acceptor, the NH2...M/M3O (M = Li, Na, and K) complicated donors with excess electron, and the unusual σ chain (CH2)4 bridge, we construct a new kind of electride molecular salt e(-)@C20F19-(CH2)4-NH2...M(+)/M3O(+) (M = Li, Na, and K) with excess electron anion inside the hole cage (to be encapsulated excess electron-hole pair) serving as a new A-B-D strategy for enhancing nonlinear optical (NLO) response. An interesting push-pull mechanism of excess electron generation and its long-range transfer is exhibited. The excess electron is pushed out from the (super)alkali atom M/M3O by the lone pair of NH2 in the donor and further pulled inside the hole cage C20F19 acceptor through the efficient long σ chain (CH2)4 bridge. Owing to the long-range electron transfer, the new designed electride molecular salts with the excess electron-hole pair exhibit large NLO response. For the e(-)@C20F19-(CH2)4-NH2...Na(+), its large first hyperpolarizability (β0) reaches up to 9.5 × 10(6) au, which is about 2.4 × 10(4) times the 400 au for the relative e(-)@C20F20...Na(+) without the extended chain (CH2)4-NH2. It is shown that the new strategy is considerably efficient in enhancing the NLO response for the salts. In addition, the effects of different bridges and alkali atomic number on β0 are also exhibited. Further, three modulating factors are found for enhancing NLO response. They are the σ chain bridge, bridge-end group with lone pair, and (super)alkali atom. The new knowledge may be significant for designing new NLO materials and electronic devices with electrons inside the cages. They may also be the basis of establishing potential organic chemistry with electron-hole pair.

  1. Endohedral metal or a fullerene cage based oxidation? Redox duality of nitride clusterfullerenes CexM3-xN@C78-88 (x = 1, 2; M = Sc and Y) dictated by the encaged metals and the carbon cage size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yang; Popov, Alexey A.; Dunsch, Lothar

    2013-12-01

    Redox behavior of endohedral metallofullerenes, in particular their oxidation process, can be classified as a fullerene-based or endohedral species-based process according to the mechanism of the electron transfer. Here we report on the phenomenon of the strain-driven electrochemical behavior achieved by encapsulating the cerium-containing clusters into a series of carbon cages ranging from C78 to C88. The Ce-based mixed metal nitride clusterfullerenes CexM3-xN@C2n (x = 1, 2; M = Sc or Y; 2n = 78-88) were synthesized and characterized. The magnitude of the inherent strain caused by the limited inner space of the carbon cage for the relatively large nitride clusters can be varied by choosing different scaffold metals (Sc, Lu, or Y) to tailor the size of the encaged CexM3-xN cluster and by matching the nitride cluster with different fullerene cages in the size range from C78 to C88. The redox properties of CexM3-xN@C2n were investigated by cyclic and square wave voltammetry. The mechanism of the electrochemical oxidation of Ce-based mixed metal nitride clusterfullerenes, in particular whether the fullerene-based oxidation or the CeIII --> CeIV process is observed, is found to be dependent on the scaffold metal and the size of the fullerene cage. The endohedral oxidation of CeIII to CeIV was observed for a number of compounds as revealed by the negative shift of their oxidation potentials with respect to the values measured for the non-Ce analogues. Experimental studies are supported by DFT calculations. We conclude that the prerequisites for the Ce-based endohedral oxidation process are suitable inherent cluster-cage strain and sufficiently high oxidation potential of the fullerene cage.Redox behavior of endohedral metallofullerenes, in particular their oxidation process, can be classified as a fullerene-based or endohedral species-based process according to the mechanism of the electron transfer. Here we report on the phenomenon of the strain-driven electrochemical

  2. Magnetic properties, microstructure and mineralogical phases of technogenic magnetic particles (TMPs) in urban soils: Their source identification and environmental implications.

    PubMed

    Lu, Shenggao; Yu, Xiuling; Chen, Yuyin

    2016-02-01

    Magnetic measurement is an effective method to determine spatial distribution and the degree of heavy metal pollution and to identify various anthropogenic sources of heavy metals. The objectives of this investigation are to characterize the magnetic properties, microstructure and mineralogical phases of technogenic magnetic particles (TMPs) in urban soils and to discuss their potential environmental implications. The TMPs are separated from the urban topsoils of Luoyang city, China. The magnetic properties, morphology, and mineral phase of TMPs are studied using mineral magnetic measurement, scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDS), X-ray diffraction, and synchrotron-radiation-based microprobe. The content of TMPs in urban topsoils ranges from 0.05 to 1.95% (on average 0.32%). The magnetic susceptibility of TMPs ranges from 4559×10(-8) to 23,661×10(-8) m(3) kg(-1) (on average 13,637×10(-8) m(3) kg(-1)). Thermomagnetic and bulk X-ray diffraction analyses indicate that main magnetic minerals of TMPs are magnetite (Fe3O4) and hematite (α-Fe2O3). The morphology of TMPs observed by SEM includes three shape types: spherule, irregular-shaped, and aggregate particles. The size of spherical TMPs ranges from 30 to about 200 μm, with the largest percentage of 30-50 μm. Synchrotron-radiation-based microprobe (μ-XRF and μ-XRD) indicates that TMPs are enriched with heavy metals Pb, Cd, Zn, Cu, and Cr, which are incorporated into lattice or adsorbed on the surface of magnetite/hematite. The content of TMPs significantly relates with the Tomlinson Pollution Load Index (PLI) (R(2)=0.467), suggesting that it can be used as proxy indicator of degree of heavy metal contamination in urban soils. The magnetic properties, microstructure and mineralogical phases of TMPs can serve as the identification of pollution sources in urban soils.

  3. WARP3D-Release 10.8: Dynamic Nonlinear Analysis of Solids using a Preconditioned Conjugate Gradient Software Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koppenhoefer, Kyle C.; Gullerud, Arne S.; Ruggieri, Claudio; Dodds, Robert H., Jr.; Healy, Brian E.

    1998-01-01

    This report describes theoretical background material and commands necessary to use the WARP3D finite element code. WARP3D is under continuing development as a research code for the solution of very large-scale, 3-D solid models subjected to static and dynamic loads. Specific features in the code oriented toward the investigation of ductile fracture in metals include a robust finite strain formulation, a general J-integral computation facility (with inertia, face loading), an element extinction facility to model crack growth, nonlinear material models including viscoplastic effects, and the Gurson-Tver-gaard dilatant plasticity model for void growth. The nonlinear, dynamic equilibrium equations are solved using an incremental-iterative, implicit formulation with full Newton iterations to eliminate residual nodal forces. The history integration of the nonlinear equations of motion is accomplished with Newmarks Beta method. A central feature of WARP3D involves the use of a linear-preconditioned conjugate gradient (LPCG) solver implemented in an element-by-element format to replace a conventional direct linear equation solver. This software architecture dramatically reduces both the memory requirements and CPU time for very large, nonlinear solid models since formation of the assembled (dynamic) stiffness matrix is avoided. Analyses thus exhibit the numerical stability for large time (load) steps provided by the implicit formulation coupled with the low memory requirements characteristic of an explicit code. In addition to the much lower memory requirements of the LPCG solver, the CPU time required for solution of the linear equations during each Newton iteration is generally one-half or less of the CPU time required for a traditional direct solver. All other computational aspects of the code (element stiffnesses, element strains, stress updating, element internal forces) are implemented in the element-by- element, blocked architecture. This greatly improves vectorization of the code on uni-processor hardware and enables straightforward parallel-vector processing of element blocks on multi-processor hardware.

  4. Magnetic properties, microstructure and mineralogical phases of technogenic magnetic particles (TMPs) in urban soils: Their source identification and environmental implications.

    PubMed

    Lu, Shenggao; Yu, Xiuling; Chen, Yuyin

    2016-02-01

    Magnetic measurement is an effective method to determine spatial distribution and the degree of heavy metal pollution and to identify various anthropogenic sources of heavy metals. The objectives of this investigation are to characterize the magnetic properties, microstructure and mineralogical phases of technogenic magnetic particles (TMPs) in urban soils and to discuss their potential environmental implications. The TMPs are separated from the urban topsoils of Luoyang city, China. The magnetic properties, morphology, and mineral phase of TMPs are studied using mineral magnetic measurement, scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDS), X-ray diffraction, and synchrotron-radiation-based microprobe. The content of TMPs in urban topsoils ranges from 0.05 to 1.95% (on average 0.32%). The magnetic susceptibility of TMPs ranges from 4559×10(-8) to 23,661×10(-8) m(3) kg(-1) (on average 13,637×10(-8) m(3) kg(-1)). Thermomagnetic and bulk X-ray diffraction analyses indicate that main magnetic minerals of TMPs are magnetite (Fe3O4) and hematite (α-Fe2O3). The morphology of TMPs observed by SEM includes three shape types: spherule, irregular-shaped, and aggregate particles. The size of spherical TMPs ranges from 30 to about 200 μm, with the largest percentage of 30-50 μm. Synchrotron-radiation-based microprobe (μ-XRF and μ-XRD) indicates that TMPs are enriched with heavy metals Pb, Cd, Zn, Cu, and Cr, which are incorporated into lattice or adsorbed on the surface of magnetite/hematite. The content of TMPs significantly relates with the Tomlinson Pollution Load Index (PLI) (R(2)=0.467), suggesting that it can be used as proxy indicator of degree of heavy metal contamination in urban soils. The magnetic properties, microstructure and mineralogical phases of TMPs can serve as the identification of pollution sources in urban soils. PMID:26588801

  5. [The phosphorus supply of pigs in the body weight category of 11-38 kg. 1. The effect of the phosphorus supply on the performance, nutrient digestibility, protein and fat content in soft tissue and skeleton and protein and fat deposits].

    PubMed

    Lüdke, H; Schöne, F; Gruhn, K

    1989-01-01

    The influence of phosphorus supply on performance and nutrient composition of the empty body was studied in two individual feeding experiments with two and three groups resp. (7 or 8 animals per group). The phosphorus content of the unsupplemented diet was in the experiments I and II 2.97 and 2.41 g/kg, the supplemented phosphorus (as monocalcium phosphate) amounted of 2.5 and 2.33 g/kg diet respectively. The phosphorus supplementation increased live weight gain in both experiments by 84 and 45% and improved feed conversion by 35 and 23% respectively. Phosphorus deficiency did not influence the digestibility of nutrients. The fat content of soft tissue and skeleton of the phosphorus deficient animals was increased. They deposited 0.7 kg more fat (in both experiments) and 1.5 or 0.7 kg less protein in experiment I and II respectively. The utilisation of energy for deposition was not influenced by the different phosphorus supply.

  6. Nondestructive Testing Introduction RQA/M1 and M3-5330.9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Huntsville, AL. George C. Marshall Space Flight Center.

    As the first in the series of programmed instruction handbooks, prepared by the U. S. space program, home study material is presented in this volume concerning familiarization and orientation on nondestructive testing. The subject is presented under the following headings: The Need for Higher Quality; Working the Billet; Forging Discontinuities;…

  7. M3: Microscope-based maskless micropatterning with dry film photoresist

    PubMed Central

    Leigh, Steven Y.; Tattu, Aashay; Mitchell, Joseph S. B.

    2011-01-01

    We present a maskless micropatterning system that utilizes a fluorescence microscope with programmable X-Y stage and dry film photoresist to realize feature sizes in the sub-millimeter range (40–700 μm). The method allows for flexible in-house maskless photolithography without a dedicated microfabrication facility and is well-suited for rapid prototyping of microfluidic channels, scaffold templates for protein/cell patterning or optically-guided cell encapsulation for biomedical applications. PMID:21190086

  8. Recurrent Arterial Thrombosis as a Presenting Feature of a Variant M3-Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Chotai, Pranit N.; Kasangana, Kalenda; Chandra, Abhinav B.; Rao, Atul S.

    2016-01-01

    Acute limb ischemia (ALI) is a common vascular emergency. Hematologic malignancies are commonly associated with derangement of normal hemostasis and thrombo-hemorrhagic symptoms during the course of the disease are common. However, ALI as an initial presenting feature of acute leukemia is rare. Due to the rarity of this presentation, there is a scarcity of prospective randomized data to optimally guide the management of these patients. Current knowledge is mainly based on isolated cases. We report our experience managing a patient who presented with ALI and was found to have occult leukemia. A review of all cases with ALI as a presenting feature of acute leukemia is also presented. PMID:27386455

  9. Report on Fission Time Projection Chamber M3FT-12IN0210052

    SciTech Connect

    James K. Jewell

    2012-08-01

    The Time Projection Chamber is a collaborative effort to implement an innovative approach and deliver unprecedented fission measurements to DOE programs. This 4?-detector system will provide unrivaled 3-D data about the fission process. Shown here is a half populated TPC (2?) at the LLNL TPC laboratory as it undergoes testing before being shipped to LANSCE for beam experiments.

  10. Modeling Volatile Species Retention Experiments: Interim Progress Report (M3FT-12LA0202053)

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, Neil N.

    2012-07-06

    Metal nuclear fuel is a candidate transmutation fuel form for advanced fuel cycles. One constituent of the fuel, americium, has a high vapor pressure, and there is a concern that excessive volatility losses of americium will occur during casting of the metal. A number of experiments have been performed using americium and surrogate metals, including experiments slated for FY12, to address the concern. The present task is to model and numerically simulate these experiments. This report describes a system-level model of the relevant experiments that has been developed together with some results. It also describes some initial 3D, full-physics simulations of portions of the experiments that have been performed.

  11. The ultraviolet-bright stars of Omega Centauri, M3, and M13

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landsman, Wayne B.; O'Connell, Robert W.; Whitney, Jonathan H.; Bohlin, Ralph C.; Hill, Robert S.; Maran, Stephen P.; Parise, Ronald A.; Roberts, Morton S.; Smith, Andrew A.; Stecher, Theodore P.

    1992-01-01

    Two new UV-bright stars detected within 2 arcmin of the center of Omega Cen are spectroscopically investigated with the short-wavelength spectrograph of the IUE. The IUE spectra of the UV-bright stars UIT-1 and UIT-2 in the core of Omega Cen superficially resemble those of Population I mid-B stars. The absorption lines of the core UV-bright stars are significantly weaker than in Population I stars, consistent with their membership in the cluster. Synthetic spectra calculated from low-metallicity Kurucz model stellar atmospheres are compared with the spectra. These objects are insufficiently luminous to be classical hydrogen-burning post-AGB stars. They may be evolved hot horizontal branch stars which have been brightened by more than 3 mag since leaving the zero-age horizontal branch. It is inferred from the spectra and luminosity of the core UV-bright stars that similar objects could provide the source of the UV light in elliptical galaxies.

  12. Primary treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (non M3) in elderly: a review.

    PubMed

    Ramamoorthy, K; Ramesh, P; Al Bahar, S

    2008-07-01

    Treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in the elderly has always been a challenging task. Acute myeloid leukemia in older adults is a biologically and clinically distinct entity. Based on analysis of cytogenetic and molecular data, it is known that leukemic cells in older patients are intrinsically resistant to standard chemotherapy. Due to comorbid disease and impaired bone marrow stem cell reserve, older adults tolerate myelosuppressive chemotherapy poorly, with a treatment-related mortality rate of 25%. In spite of various available targeted therapies, the overall survival has not improved dramatically in the past decade. The ideal post remission regimen in this population has always been a matter of debate. Standard allogeneic bone marrow transplantation is too dangerous to be considered as a mean to eradicate minimal residual disease after remission is obtained and myelointensive chemotherapy is not a beneficial post-remission strategy in this age cohort. These disappointing results call for more effective and less toxic therapeutic options. The advent of non-myeloablative regimens has shown some prospects in select group of patients with good performance status. This review focuses on current therapeutic options available in this group of patients. PMID:20084771

  13. Automated measurement and monitoring of bioprocesses: key elements of the M(3)C strategy.

    PubMed

    Sonnleitner, Bernhard

    2013-01-01

    The state-of-routine monitoring items established in the bioprocess industry as well as some important state-of-the-art methods are briefly described and the potential pitfalls discussed. Among those are physical and chemical variables such as temperature, pressure, weight, volume, mass and volumetric flow rates, pH, redox potential, gas partial pressures in the liquid and molar fractions in the gas phase, infrared spectral analysis of the liquid phase, and calorimetry over an entire reactor. Classical as well as new optical versions are addressed. Biomass and bio-activity monitoring (as opposed to "measurement") via turbidity, permittivity, in situ microscopy, and fluorescence are critically analyzed. Some new(er) instrumental analytical tools, interfaced to bioprocesses, are explained. Among those are chromatographic methods, mass spectrometry, flow and sequential injection analyses, field flow fractionation, capillary electrophoresis, and flow cytometry. This chapter surveys the principles of monitoring rather than compiling instruments.

  14. Lunar Field Geological Interpretations Assisted by LROC, Mini-RF and M3: Taurus-Littrow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, H. H.; Petro, N. E.; Robinson, M. S.; Wells, R.; Weiss, B. P.; Mercer, C. M.

    2015-12-01

    Integration of Apollo 17 field observations and photographs, sample investigations, Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera images, Moon Mineralogical Mapper data, and Mini-RF images provides new insights into the geology of the valley of Taurus Littrow. Samples from the North Massif and the Sculptured Hills appear to represent a stratigraphic sequence of ejecta from the Cranium and Serenitatis basin-forming events. Published analyses of these samples provide the approximate ages for those events that appear consistent with this sequence; however, within current 2 sigma error limits, these ages overlap. Strong evidence exists that the Sculptured Hills physiographic unit consists of Imbrium ejecta made up of a layered, Mg-suite pluton. Rim boulders at Camelot Crater constitute wall rocks of the crater rather than ejecta and provide a potential opportunity for investigations of remnant magnetic field orientation at the time of the eruption of late mare basalt lavas in the valley. A second and older light mantle avalanche deposit has been identified, and the origin, potential fluidized flow mechanisms, and geology of the two avalanches from the South Massif have been clarified, including the probability of significant agitation heating during flow. The structure, potential effects, and timing of the Lee-Lincoln thrust fault, and of an ancillary fault revealed by radar, have been defined and raise doubts about the association of the light mantle avalanche with secondary impacts related to the Tycho event.

  15. M3FT-15OR0202212: SUBMIT SUMMARY REPORT ON THERMODYNAMIC EXPERIMENT AND MODELING

    SciTech Connect

    McMurray, Jake W.; Brese, Robert G.; Silva, Chinthaka M.; Besmann, Theodore M.

    2015-09-01

    Modeling the behavior of nuclear fuel with a physics-based approach uses thermodynamics for key inputs such as chemical potentials and thermal properties for phase transformation, microstructure evolution, and continuum transport simulations. Many of the lanthanide (Ln) elements and Y are high-yield fission products. The U-Y-O and U-Ln-O ternaries are therefore key subsystems of multi-component high-burnup fuel. These elements dissolve in the dominant urania fluorite phase affecting many of its properties. This work reports on an effort to assess the thermodynamics of the U-Pr-O and U-Y-O systems using the CALPHAD (CALculation of PHase Diagrams) method. The models developed within this framework are capable of being combined and extended to include additional actinides and fission products allowing calculation of the phase equilibria, thermochemical and material properties of multicomponent fuel with burnup.

  16. Understanding the spin-driven polarizations in Bi MO3 (M = 3 d transition metals) multiferroics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kc, Santosh; Lee, Jun Hee; Cooper, Valentino R.

    Bismuth ferrite (BiFeO3) , a promising multiferroic, stabilizes in a perovskite type rhombohedral crystal structure (space group R3c) at room temperature. Recently, it has been reported that in its ground state it possess a huge spin-driven polarization. To probe the underlying mechanism of this large spin-phonon response, we examine these couplings within other Bi based 3 d transition metal oxides Bi MO3 (M = Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni) using density functional theory. Our results demonstrate that this large spin-driven polarization is a consequence of symmetry breaking due to competition between ferroelectric distortions and anti-ferrodistortive octahedral rotations. Furthermore, we find a strong dependence of these enhanced spin-driven polarizations on the crystal structure; with the rhombohedral phase having the largest spin-induced atomic distortions along [111]. These results give us significant insights into the magneto-electric coupling in these materials which is essential to the magnetic and electric field control of electric polarization and magnetization in multiferroic based devices. Research is supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences, Materials Science and Engineering Division and the Office of Science Early Career Research Program (V.R.C) and used computational resources at NERSC.

  17. Recurrent Arterial Thrombosis as a Presenting Feature of a Variant M3-Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia.

    PubMed

    Chotai, Pranit N; Kasangana, Kalenda; Chandra, Abhinav B; Rao, Atul S

    2016-06-01

    Acute limb ischemia (ALI) is a common vascular emergency. Hematologic malignancies are commonly associated with derangement of normal hemostasis and thrombo-hemorrhagic symptoms during the course of the disease are common. However, ALI as an initial presenting feature of acute leukemia is rare. Due to the rarity of this presentation, there is a scarcity of prospective randomized data to optimally guide the management of these patients. Current knowledge is mainly based on isolated cases. We report our experience managing a patient who presented with ALI and was found to have occult leukemia. A review of all cases with ALI as a presenting feature of acute leukemia is also presented. PMID:27386455

  18. Milestone Report - M3FT-15OR03120215 - Recommend HIP Conditions for AgZ

    SciTech Connect

    Bruffey, Stephanie H.; Jubin, Robert Thomas

    2015-09-18

    The purpose of this study was to continue research to determine if HIPing could directly convert I-Ag0Z into a suitable waste form. Fiscal year (FY) 2015 work completed studies of Phase IIA, IIB, and IIC samples. Product consistency testing (PCT) of Phase IIA samples resulted in iodine release below detection limit for six of twelve samples. This is promising and indicates that a durable waste form may be produced through HIPing even if transformation of the zeolite to a distinct mineral phase does not occur. From PCT results of Phase IIA samples, it was determined that future pressing should be conducted at a temperature of 900°C. Phase IIC testing continued production of samples to examine the effects of multiple source materials, compositional variations, and an expanded temperature range. The density of each sample was determined and x-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns were obtained. In all cases, there was nothing in the XRD analyses to indicate the creation of any AgI-containing silicon phase; the samples were found to be largely amorphous.

  19. A NORMETEX MODEL 15 M3/HR WATER VAPOR PUMPING TEST

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, J.; Fowley, M.; Steeper, T.

    2010-12-20

    Tests were performed using a Model 15 m{sup 3}/hr Normetex vacuum pump to determine if pump performance degraded after pumping a humid gas stream. An air feed stream containing 30% water vapor was introduced into the pump for 365 hours with the outlet pressure of the pump near the condensation conditions of the water. Performance of the pump was tested before and after the water vapor pumping test and indicated no loss in performance of the pump. The pump also appeared to tolerate small amounts of condensed water of short duration without increased noise, vibration, or other adverse indications. The Normetex pump was backed by a dual-head diaphragm pump which was affected by the condensation of water and produced some drift in operating conditions during the test.

  20. Aviation Support Equipment Technician M 3 & 2. Rate Training Manual and Nonresident Career Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naval Education and Training Command, Pensacola, FL.

    One of a series of training manuals prepared for enlisted personnel in the Navy and Naval Reserve, this self-study unit relates directly to the occupational qualifications of the Aviation Support Equipment Technician M rating. Contents include a 15-chapter text followed by a subject index, qualifications for advancement, and the associated…

  1. Mars Methane Analogue Mission (M3): Near Subsurface Electromagnetic Techniques and Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boivin, A.; Samson, C.; Holladay, J. S.; Cloutis, E. A.; Ernst, R. E.

    2012-03-01

    As part of the Canadian Space Agency's Mars Methane Analogue Mission, a micro-rover mission, an Electromagnetic Induction Sounder (EMIS) was used with the goal of demonstrating its value as a potential science instrument onboard future rovers.

  2. Growth of semiconductor compound single crystal InSb by floating zone method (M-3)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakatani, I.

    1993-01-01

    Floating zone methods have potential applications in growing single high-quality semi-conductor crystals. In this method, melts can be sustained without containers and, therefore, are free from contamination from the containers. The main objective of this project is to use the Image Furnace to study a large diameter, (20 mm) single crystal of InSb under microgravity conditions. The behavior of the liquid column is recorded on the VTR tapes and is compared with what is expected theoretically. The single crystal grown in space is characterized by comparing it with single crystals grown on the ground with respect to crystallographic and electronic properties. The goal of this project is to confirm the effects of the microgravity on the single crystals.

  3. Multicolor multicycle molecular profiling (M3P) with quantum dots for single-cell analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zrazhevskiy, Pavel; True, Lawrence D.; Gao, Xiaohu

    2014-01-01

    Here we present a detailed protocol for molecular profiling of individual cultured mammalian cells using multicolor multicycle immunofluorescence with quantum dot probes. It includes instructions for cell culture growth and processing (2 h + 48–72 h for cell growth), preparation and characterization of universal quantum dot probes (4.5 h + overnight incubation), cyclic cell staining (~4.5 h per cycle), and image analysis (varies by application). Use of quantum dot fluorescent probes enables highly multiplexed, robust quantitative molecular imaging with a conventional fluorescence microscopy setup, whereas the probe preparation methodology employing self-assembly between Protein A-decorated universal quantum dots and intact primary antibodies offers fast, simple, and purification-free route for on-demand preparation of antibody-functionalized quantum dot libraries. As a result, this protocol can be employed by biomedical researchers for a variety of cell staining applications and, with further optimization, for staining of other biological specimens (e.g., clinical tissue sections). PMID:24008381

  4. 1450 m^3 at 10^-9 Pa: One of the KATRIN Challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Christian Day; R. Gumbsheimer; W. Herz; J. Wolf; J. Bonn; R. Reid; G.R. Myneni

    2006-11-12

    The KATRIN project is a challenging experiment to measure the mass of the electron neutrino directly with a sensitivity of 0.2 eV. It is a next generation tritium beta-decay experiment scaling up the size and precision of previous experiments by an order of magnitude as well as the intensity of the tritium beta source. Ultrafine spectrometric analysis of the energy distribution of the decay electrons at their very endpoint of 18.57 keV is the key to derive the neutrino mass. This is provided by a high-resolution spectrometer of unique size (10 m in diameter, 22 m in length). To avoid any negative influence from residual gas, the spectrometer vessel is designed to UHV/XHV conditions (an ultimate total pressure of below 10{sup -9} Pa and a wall outgassing rate below 10{sup -13} Pam{sup 3}/scm{sup 2}). The paper shortly describes the experimental idea behind KATRIN. The emphasis will then be given to the pumping concept for how to achieve the target parameters and to the manufacturing of the spectrometer tank. Critical issues will also be discussed (surface treatment, welding, transportation). Finally, a description of the current status and an outlook on the overall KATRIN schedule completes the paper.

  5. Recurrent Arterial Thrombosis as a Presenting Feature of a Variant M3-Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia.

    PubMed

    Chotai, Pranit N; Kasangana, Kalenda; Chandra, Abhinav B; Rao, Atul S

    2016-06-01

    Acute limb ischemia (ALI) is a common vascular emergency. Hematologic malignancies are commonly associated with derangement of normal hemostasis and thrombo-hemorrhagic symptoms during the course of the disease are common. However, ALI as an initial presenting feature of acute leukemia is rare. Due to the rarity of this presentation, there is a scarcity of prospective randomized data to optimally guide the management of these patients. Current knowledge is mainly based on isolated cases. We report our experience managing a patient who presented with ALI and was found to have occult leukemia. A review of all cases with ALI as a presenting feature of acute leukemia is also presented.

  6. Syntheses, structures, and magnetic properties of acetato- and diphenolato-bridged 3d-4f binuclear complexes [M(3-MeOsaltn)(MeOH)x(ac)Ln(hfac)2] (M = Zn(II), Cu(II), Ni(II), Co(II); Ln = La(III), Gd(III), Tb(III), Dy(III); 3-MeOsaltn = N,N'-bis(3-methoxy-2-oxybenzylidene)-1,3-propanediaminato; ac = acetato; hfac = hexafluoroacetylacetonato; x = 0 or 1).

    PubMed

    Towatari, Masaaki; Nishi, Koshiro; Fujinami, Takeshi; Matsumoto, Naohide; Sunatsuki, Yukinari; Kojima, Masaaki; Mochida, Naotaka; Ishida, Takayuki; Re, Nazzareno; Mrozinski, Jerzy

    2013-05-20

    A series of 3d-4f binuclear complexes, [M(3-MeOsaltn)(MeOH)x(ac)Ln(hfac)2] (x = 0 for M = Cu(II), Zn(II); x = 1 for M = Co(II), Ni(II); Ln = Gd(III), Tb(III), Dy(III), La(III)), have been synthesized and characterized, where 3-MeOsaltn, ac, and hfac denote N,N'-bis(3-methoxy-2-oxybenzylidene)-1,3-propanediaminato, acetato, and hexafluoroacetylacetonato, respectively. The X-ray analyses demonstrated that all the complexes have an acetato- and diphenolato-bridged M(II)-Ln(III) binuclear structure. The Cu(II)-Ln(III) and Zn(II)-Ln(III) complexes are crystallized in an isomorphous triclinic space group P1, where the Cu(II) or Zn(II) ion has square pyramidal coordination geometry with N2O2 donor atoms of 3-MeOsaltn at the equatorial coordination sites and one oxygen atom of the bridging acetato ion at the axial site. The Co(II)-Ln(III) and Ni(II)-Ln(III) complexes are crystallized in an isomorphous monoclinic space group P2(1)/c, where the Co(II) or Ni(II) ion at the high-spin state has an octahedral coordination environment with N2O2 donor atoms of 3-MeOsaltn at the equatorial sites, and one oxygen atom of the bridged acetato and a methanol oxygen atom at the two axial sites. Each Ln(III) ion for all the complexes is coordinated by four oxygen atoms of two phenolato and two methoxy oxygen atoms of "ligand-complex" M(3-MeOsaltn), four oxygen atoms of two hfac(-), and one oxygen atom of the bridging acetato ion; thus, the coordination number is nine. The temperature dependent magnetic susceptibilities from 1.9 to 300 K and the field-dependent magnetization up to 5 T at 1.9 K were measured. Due to the important orbital contributions of the Ln(III) (Tb(III), Dy(III)) and to a lesser extent the M(II) (Ni(II), Co(II)) components, the magnetic interaction between M(II) and Ln(III) ions were investigated by an empirical approach based on a comparison of the magnetic properties of the M(II)-Ln(III), Zn(II)-Ln(III), and M(II)-La(III) complexes. The differences of χ(M)T and M

  7. Search for anomalous deuterons in the reaction /sup 3/He+C. -->. d+X at p3He = 10. 8 GeV/c

    SciTech Connect

    Ableev, V.G.; Vorob'ev, G.G.; Gasparyan, A.P.; Grigalashvili, N.S.; Dzhmukhadze, S.V.; Zaporozhets, S.A.; Nomofilov, A.A.; Piskunov, N.M.; Sitnik, I.M.; Strokovskii, E.A.

    1985-07-01

    The Alpha apparatus in a beam of 10.78-GeV/c /sup 3/He nuclei has been used to search for anomalous deuterons (demons) in the reaction /sup 3/He+C ..-->.. d+X. The deuteron yield was measured at angles theta< or approx. =20 mrad as a function of the target thickness, which varied from 0.6 to 70 cm. The data obtained exclude the production of demons in this reaction over a wide range of expected values of the cross sections for their production and interaction with matter. The technique used can be applied also to beams of relativistic nuclei in experiments to search for anomalons.

  8. "Freely Ye Have Received, Freely Give" (Matthew 10: 8)--How Giving Away Religious Digital Books Influences the Print Sales of Those Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilton, John, III.

    2010-01-01

    Lack of access prevents many from benefiting from educational resources. Digital technologies now enable educational resources, such as books, to be openly available to those with access to the Internet. This study examined the financial viability of a religious publisher's putting free digital versions of eight of its books on the Internet. The…

  9. Characteristics of current roadside pollution of soils in Upper Silesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wawer, M.; Szuszkiewicz, M.; Magiera, T.

    2012-04-01

    The aim of the study was qualitative recognition of contemporary roadside pollutants deposited on topsoils in areas located in close vicinity to roads with high traffic volume (main roads, ring roads). So far, the determination of pollutant content in soil samples has shown only the amount of pollutants deposited on soils over long time period, without the possibility to assess the quality changes in type of deposition and to determine the present structure of roadside pollution. Moreover, in many cases, it is difficult to distinguish roadside pollution from other industrial sources. In order to avoid this issue and recognize currently emergent threats of road traffic origin, three monitoring plots filled with quartz sand had been installed in Zabrze, Gliwice and Opole (Poland) close to arteries with high traffic volume. For installation of monitoring plots 7 cm of topsoil had been removed and replaced by boxes filled with clean quartz sand with known chemical composition and neutral magnetic properties (diamagnetic). This sand was treated as neutral matrix for the accumulation of traffic pollution. Results of chemical analyses of heavy metal contents and magnetic susceptibility measurements of removed topsoils have shown that the highest content of Fe, Mn, Zn, Pb, Cu, Cr and Ni were observed in Zabrze. Amount of Zn and Pb exceeded threshold values. Magnetic susceptibility values were also the highest in Zabrze. In all investigated areas magnetic susceptibility values and heavy metal contents decreased with the distance from the road. Measurements of sand from monitoring plots which were executed after 3, 6 and 12 months of exposure have shown that values of magnetic susceptibility have increased during these time periods. It is visible especially in surface layer of sand. Initially magnetic susceptibility value of quartz sand which was used as matrix after first year of exposure increased from 0,25 - 10-8 m3kg-1 to 300 in Zabrze, 50 in Gliwice and 30- 10-8 m3kg-1

  10. Natural radioactivity in and radon exhalation from Finnish building materials.

    PubMed

    Mustonen, R

    1984-06-01

    A total of 369 samples of Finnish building materials were tested for their 226Ra, 232Th and 40K concentrations. The rate of radon exhalation was measured from 19 samples of material and 34 dwellings were tested for their room air ventilation rate and radon concentration. The mean values of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K concentrations in ballast materials for concrete production were 34.2 Bq X kg-1, 39.0 Bq X kg-1 and 964 Bq X kg-1, with standard deviations of 18.7 Bq X kg-1, 19.5 Bq X kg-1 and 265 Bq X kg-1, respectively. The activity concentrations were higher in clay bricks than in concrete, the mean values being 79.8 Bq X kg-1, 61.6 Bq X kg-1 and 986 Bq X kg-1 for 226Ra, 232Th and 40K, respectively. The normalized radon exhalation rates from 15-cm-thick concrete, slag-aggregate concrete and by-product gypsum were 0.38 (Bq X m-2 X h-1)/(Bq X kg-1), 0.15 (Bq X m-2 X h-1)/(Bq X kg-1), and 0.06 (Bq X m-2 X h-1)/(Bq X kg-1), respectively. The ventilation rates in dwellings varied between 0.27 and 1.99 air changes per h, the mean value being 0.60 h-1, and the corresponding steady state radon concentrations in room air varied from 17.0 to 149 Bq X m-3 in blocks of flats made of concrete and from 11.2 to 61.9 Bq X m-3 in blocks of flats made of brick.

  11. The relationship between magnetic parameters and heavy metal contents of indoor dust in e-waste recycling impacted area, Southeast China.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zongmin; Han, Zhixuan; Bi, Xiangyang; Yang, Wenlin

    2012-09-01

    Environmental contamination due to uncontrolled e-waste recycling is an emerging global problem. The aim of this study is to test the applicability of magnetic methods for detecting the metal pollutants emitted from e-waste recycling activities. Dust samples collected from a typical e-waste recycling region in Guiyu, Guangdong Province, China, were investigated using magnetic, geochemical, micro-morphological and mineralogical analysis. The values of mass-specific susceptibility (χ) and saturation isothermal remanent magnetization (SIRM) in dusts from e-waste recycling impacted areas ranged from 101 to 636×10(-8) m(3) kg(-1) and from 10.5 to 85.2×10(-3) Am(2) kg(-1), respectively. There was a significant correlation between SIRM and χ (r(2)=0.747, p<0.001), indicating that ferrimagnetic minerals were dominating χ in the dust samples. The values of χ(fd)% varied from 2.6 to 4.6% with a mean of 3.4%, which suggested that magnetic carriers in the dusts are predominately coarse-grained particles. Two shapes of magnetic particles, spherule (10-150 μm) and angular-shaped particles (30-300 μm), were identified by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDX) analyses. κ-T curves, magnetic hysteresis loops and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis indicated that these magnetic particles were magnetite and goethite. There were significant correlations between SIRM and heavy metals (especially Cd, Co, Fe, Ni and Zn) as well as the Tomlinson pollution load index (PLI) of the dust, indicating that SIRM can be used as an efficient proxy for metal pollution in the e-waste recycling impacted area. PMID:22796729

  12. Magnetic mineralogy of pyroxenite xenoliths from Hannuoba basalts, northern North China Craton: Implications for magnetism in the continental lower crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhiyong; Zheng, Jianping; Zeng, Qingli; Liu, Qingsheng; Griffin, W. L.

    2014-02-01

    Studies of the petrology, mineral chemistry, and rock magnetic properties of nine pyroxenite xenoliths from Hannuoba basalts, northern North China Craton, have been made to determine the magnetization signature of the continental lower crust. These pyroxenites are weakly magnetic with low average susceptibility (χ) and saturation isothermal remanent magnetization (Mrs) of 39.59 × 10-8 m3 kg-1 and 12.05 × 10-3 Am2 kg-1, respectively. The magnetic minerals are mainly magnetite, pyrrhotite, and Fe-rich spinel, which significantly contribute to χ and natural remanent magnetization. Magnetite occurs as interstitial microcrystals together with zeolite aggregates, indicating a secondary origin in a supergene environment. In contrast, pyrrhotite and Fe-rich spinel were formed prior to the xenoliths' ascent to the surface, as evidenced by their dominant occurrence as tiny inclusions and thin exsolution lamellae in pyroxene. The Fe-rich spinel has ~ 50% mole fraction of Fe3O4 and corresponds to the strongest magnetization, and its coexistence with Mg-rich spinel implies a reheating event due to the underplating of basaltic magma. Besides, armalcolite and ilmenite were found in the reaction rims between xenoliths and the basalt, but they contribute little to the whole rock magnetization. However, these pyroxenite xenoliths would be nonmagnetic at in situ depths, as well as peridotite and mafic granulite xenoliths derived from the crust-mantle transition zone (~ 32-42 km). Therefore, we suggest the limiting depth of magnetization at the boundary between weakly magnetic deep-seated (lower crust and upper mantle) xenoliths and strongly magnetic Archean granulite facies rocks (~ 32 km) in Hannuoba, northern North China Craton.

  13. The relationship between magnetic parameters and heavy metal contents of indoor dust in e-waste recycling impacted area, Southeast China.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zongmin; Han, Zhixuan; Bi, Xiangyang; Yang, Wenlin

    2012-09-01

    Environmental contamination due to uncontrolled e-waste recycling is an emerging global problem. The aim of this study is to test the applicability of magnetic methods for detecting the metal pollutants emitted from e-waste recycling activities. Dust samples collected from a typical e-waste recycling region in Guiyu, Guangdong Province, China, were investigated using magnetic, geochemical, micro-morphological and mineralogical analysis. The values of mass-specific susceptibility (χ) and saturation isothermal remanent magnetization (SIRM) in dusts from e-waste recycling impacted areas ranged from 101 to 636×10(-8) m(3) kg(-1) and from 10.5 to 85.2×10(-3) Am(2) kg(-1), respectively. There was a significant correlation between SIRM and χ (r(2)=0.747, p<0.001), indicating that ferrimagnetic minerals were dominating χ in the dust samples. The values of χ(fd)% varied from 2.6 to 4.6% with a mean of 3.4%, which suggested that magnetic carriers in the dusts are predominately coarse-grained particles. Two shapes of magnetic particles, spherule (10-150 μm) and angular-shaped particles (30-300 μm), were identified by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDX) analyses. κ-T curves, magnetic hysteresis loops and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis indicated that these magnetic particles were magnetite and goethite. There were significant correlations between SIRM and heavy metals (especially Cd, Co, Fe, Ni and Zn) as well as the Tomlinson pollution load index (PLI) of the dust, indicating that SIRM can be used as an efficient proxy for metal pollution in the e-waste recycling impacted area.

  14. Geochemistry and magnetic measurements of suspended sediment in urban sewage water vis-à-vis quantification of heavy metal pollution in Ganga and Yamuna Rivers, India.

    PubMed

    Chakarvorty, Munmun; Dwivedi, Akhil Kumar; Shukla, Anil Dutt; Kumar, Sujeet; Niyogi, Ambalika; Usmani, Mavera; Pati, Jayanta Kumar

    2015-09-01

    Sewage water is becoming a key source of heavy metal toxicity in large river systems worldwide and the two major Himalayan Rivers in India (Ganga and Yamuna) are severely affected. The high population density in the river banks combined with increased anthropogenic and industrial activities is contributing to the heavy metal pollution in these rivers. Geochemical data shows a significant increase in the concentration of all heavy metals (Pb, 48-86 ppm; Zn, 360-834 ppm; V, 45-101 ppm; Ni, 20-143 ppm; Cr, 79-266 ppm; Co, 8.62-22.12 ppm and Mn, 313-603 ppm) in sewage and mixed water (sewage and river water confluence site) samples due to increased effluent discharge from the catchment area. The ΣREE content of sewage water (129 ppm) is lower than the average mixed water samples (142 ppm). However, all the samples show similar REE pattern. The mass magnetic susceptibility (Xlf) values of suspended sediments (28 to 1000 × 10(-8) m(3) kg(-1)) indicate variable concentration of heavy metals. The Xlf values show faint positive correlation with their respective bulk heavy metal contents in a limited sample population. The present study comprising geochemical analysis and first magnetic measurement data of suspended sediments in water samples shows a strongly polluted nature of Ganga and Yamuna Rivers at Allahabad contrary to the previous report mainly caused by overtly polluted city sewage water. PMID:26318318

  15. Geochemistry and magnetic measurements of suspended sediment in urban sewage water vis-à-vis quantification of heavy metal pollution in Ganga and Yamuna Rivers, India.

    PubMed

    Chakarvorty, Munmun; Dwivedi, Akhil Kumar; Shukla, Anil Dutt; Kumar, Sujeet; Niyogi, Ambalika; Usmani, Mavera; Pati, Jayanta Kumar

    2015-09-01

    Sewage water is becoming a key source of heavy metal toxicity in large river systems worldwide and the two major Himalayan Rivers in India (Ganga and Yamuna) are severely affected. The high population density in the river banks combined with increased anthropogenic and industrial activities is contributing to the heavy metal pollution in these rivers. Geochemical data shows a significant increase in the concentration of all heavy metals (Pb, 48-86 ppm; Zn, 360-834 ppm; V, 45-101 ppm; Ni, 20-143 ppm; Cr, 79-266 ppm; Co, 8.62-22.12 ppm and Mn, 313-603 ppm) in sewage and mixed water (sewage and river water confluence site) samples due to increased effluent discharge from the catchment area. The ΣREE content of sewage water (129 ppm) is lower than the average mixed water samples (142 ppm). However, all the samples show similar REE pattern. The mass magnetic susceptibility (Xlf) values of suspended sediments (28 to 1000 × 10(-8) m(3) kg(-1)) indicate variable concentration of heavy metals. The Xlf values show faint positive correlation with their respective bulk heavy metal contents in a limited sample population. The present study comprising geochemical analysis and first magnetic measurement data of suspended sediments in water samples shows a strongly polluted nature of Ganga and Yamuna Rivers at Allahabad contrary to the previous report mainly caused by overtly polluted city sewage water.

  16. Structure - property relationship of permutite-like amorphous silicates, Nax+2yM3+xSi1-xO2+y(M3+= Al, Mn, Fe, Y), for ion-exchange reactions.

    SciTech Connect

    Pless, Jason D.; Nenoff, Tina Maria; Maxwell, Robert S.; Phillips, Mark L. F.; Axness, Marlene

    2005-03-01

    A series of amorphous silicate materials with the general formula Na{sub x+2y}M{sub x}{sup 3+}Si{sub 1-x}O{sub 2+y}(M{sup 3+} = Al, Mn, Fe, Y) were studied. Samples were synthesized by a precipitation reaction at room temperature. The results indicate that the ion-exchange capacity (IEC) decreases as follows: Al > Fe > Mn > Y. Additionally, the IEC increases with increasing aluminum concentration. Structural studies show that the relative amount of octahedrally coordinated aluminum increases with increasing Al content, as does the total amount of AlO{sub 4} species increases. The data suggest that the IEC value of these amorphous aluminosilicates is dependent on the tetrahedrally coordinated aluminum. Regeneration of the Al-silicate with acetic acid does not decrease the IEC significantly.

  17. 75 FR 3471 - International Conference on Harmonisation; Guidance on M3(R2) Nonclinical Safety Studies for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-21

    ...) Nonclinical Safety Studies for the Conduct of Human Clinical Trials and Marketing Authorization for... Safety Studies for the Conduct of Human Clinical Trials and Marketing Authorization for Pharmaceuticals... their relation to the conduct of human clinical trials and marketing authorization for...

  18. New Technologies for Repairing Aging Cables in Nuclear Power Plants: M3LW-14OR0404015 Cable Rejuvenation Report

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, Kevin L.; Fifield, Leonard S.; Westman, Matthew P.; Roberts, John A.

    2014-09-08

    The goal of this project is to conceptually demonstrate techniques to repair cables that have degraded through subjection to long-term thermal and radiation exposure in nuclear power plants. In fiscal year 2014 (FY14) we focused on commercially available ethylene-propylene rubber (EPR) as the relevant test material, isolated a high surface area form of the EPR material to facilitate chemical treatment screening and charaterization, and measured chemical changes in the material due to aging and treatment using Fourier Transfrom Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy.

  19. The Long wave (11-16 μm) spectrograph for the EChO M3 Mission Candidate study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowles, N. E.; Tecza, M.; Barstow, J. K.; Temple, J. M.; Irwin, P. G. J.; Fletcher, L. N.; Calcutt, S.; Hurley, J.; Ferlet, M.; Freeman, D.

    2015-12-01

    The results for the design study of the Long Wave Infrared Module (LWIR), a goal spectroscopic channel for the EChO ESA medium class candidate mission, are presented. The requirements for the LWIR module were to provide coverage of the 11-16 μm spectral range at a moderate resolving power of at least R = 30, whilst minimising noise contributions above photon due to the thermal background of the EChO instrument and telescope, and astrophysical sources such as the zodiacal light. The study output module design is a KRS-6 prism spectrograph with aluminium mirror beam expander and coated germanium lenses for the final focusing elements. Thermal background considerations led to enclosing the beam in a baffle cooled to approximately 25-29 K. To minimise diffuse astrophysical background contributions due to the zodiacal light, anamorphic designs were considered in addition to the elliptical input beam provided by the EChO telescope. Given the requirement that measurements in this waveband place on the performance of the infrared detector array, an additional study on the likely scientific return with lower resolving power ( R < 30) is included. If specific high priority molecules on moderately warm giant planets (e.g. CO2, H2O) are targeted, the LWIR channel can still provide improvements in determining the atmospheric temperature structure and molecular abundances. Thus, the inclusion of even a coarse-resolution (R≈10) LWIR module would still make an important contribution to measurements of exoplanet atmospheres made by EChO.

  20. 75 FR 24626 - Order Finding That the TETCO-M3 Financial Basis Contract Traded on the IntercontinentalExchange...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-05

    ....pdf . TETCO transports natural gas from production areas in Texas, Louisiana, and the Gulf of Mexico... of Commercial Energy Firms (``WGCEF''), Platts, ICE, Economists Incorporated (``EI''), Natural Gas... gas price indices from natural gas trade data submitted to Platts by energy marketers. Platts...

  1. 75 FR 24592 - Order Finding that the TETCO-M3 Financial Basis Contract Traded on the IntercontinentalExchange...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-05

    ....pdf . TETCO transports natural gas from production areas in Texas, Louisiana, and the Gulf of Mexico... of Commercial Energy Firms (``WGCEF''), Platts, ICE, Economists Incorporated (``EI''), Natural Gas... gas price indices from natural gas trade data submitted to Platts by energy marketers. Platts...

  2. Morphology and Distribution of Volcanic Vents in the Orientale Basin from Chandrayaan-1 Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Head, James; Pieters, C.; Staid, M.; Mustard, J.; Taylor, L.; McCord, T.; Isaacson, P.; Klima, R.; Petro, N.; Clark, R.; Nettles, J.; Whitten, J.

    2010-01-01

    One of the most fundamental questions in the geological and thermal evolution of the Moon is the nature and history of mantle melting and its relationship to the formation and evolution of lunar multi-ringed basins. Mare volcanic deposits provide evidence for the nature, magnitude and composition of mantle melting as a function of space and time [1]. Many argue that mantle partial melts are derived from depths well below the influence of multiringed basin impact events [1], while others postulate that the formation of these basins can cause mantle perturbations that are more directly linked to the generation ascent and eruption of mare basalts [2,3]. In any case, longer-term basin evolution will considerably influence the state and orientation of stress in the lithosphere, and the location of mare volcanic vents in basins as a function of time [4]. Thus, the location, nature and ages of volcanic vents and deposits in relation to multi-ringed impact basins provides evidence for the role that these basins played in the generation of volcanism or in the influence of the basins on surface volcanic eruption and deposit concentration. Unfortunately, most lunar multi-ringed impact basins have been eroded by impacts or filled with lunar mare deposits [5-8], with estimates of the thickness of mare fill extending up to more than six km in the central part of some basins [9-11]. The interior of most basins (e.g., Crisium, Serenitatis, Imbrium, Humorum) are almost completely covered and obscured. Although much is known about the lava filling of multi-ringed basins, and particularly the most recent deposits [5-8], little is known about initial stages of mare volcanism and its relationship to the impact event. One multi-ringed basin, Orientale, offers substantial clues to the relationships of basin interiors and mare basalt volcanism.

  3. Dynamic Single-Use Bioreactors Used in Modern Liter- and m(3)- Scale Biotechnological Processes: Engineering Characteristics and Scaling Up.

    PubMed

    Löffelholz, Christian; Kaiser, Stephan C; Kraume, Matthias; Eibl, Regine; Eibl, Dieter

    2014-01-01

    During the past 10 years, single-use bioreactors have been well accepted in modern biopharmaceutical production processes targeting high-value products. Up to now, such processes have mainly been small- or medium-scale mammalian cell culture-based seed inoculum, vaccine or antibody productions. However, recently first attempts have been made to modify existing single-use bioreactors for the cultivation of plant cells and tissue cultures, and microorganisms. This has even led to the development of new single-use bioreactor types. Moreover, due to safety issues it has become clear that single-use bioreactors are the "must have" for expanding human stem cells delivering cell therapeutics, the biopharmaceuticals of the next generation. So it comes as no surprise that numerous different dynamic single-use bioreactor types, which are suitable for a wide range of applications, already dominate the market today. Bioreactor working principles, main applications, and bioengineering data are presented in this review, based on a current overview of greater than milliliter-scale, commercially available, dynamic single-use bioreactors. The focus is on stirred versions, which are omnipresent in R&D and manufacturing, and in particular Sartorius Stedim's BIOSTAT family. Finally, we examine development trends for single-use bioreactors, after discussing proven approaches for fast scaling-up processes.

  4. Differential Virulence Gene Expression of Group A Streptococcus Serotype M3 in Response to Co-Culture with Moraxella catarrhalis

    PubMed Central

    Verhaegh, Suzanne J. C.; Flores, Anthony R.; van Belkum, Alex; Musser, James M.; Hays, John P.

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes (group A Streptococcus, GAS) and Moraxella catarrhalis are important colonizers and (opportunistic) pathogens of the human respiratory tract. However, current knowledge regarding colonization and pathogenic potential of these two pathogens is based on work involving single bacterial species, even though the interplay between respiratory bacterial species is increasingly important in niche occupation and the development of disease. Therefore, to further define and understand polymicrobial species interactions, we investigated whether gene expression (and hence virulence potential) of GAS would be affected upon co-culture with M. catarrhalis. For co-culture experiments, GAS and M. catarrhalis were cultured in Todd-Hewitt broth supplemented with 0.2% yeast extract (THY) at 37°C with 5% CO2 aeration. Each strain was grown in triplicate so that triplicate experiments could be performed. Bacterial RNA was isolated, cDNA synthesized, and microarray transcriptome expression analysis performed. We observed significantly increased (≥4-fold) expression for genes playing a role in GAS virulence such as hyaluronan synthase (hasA), streptococcal mitogenic exotoxin Z (smeZ) and IgG endopeptidase (ideS). In contrast, significantly decreased (≥4-fold) expression was observed in genes involved in energy metabolism and in 12 conserved GAS two-component regulatory systems. This study provides the first evidence that M. catarrhalis increases GAS virulence gene expression during co-culture, and again shows the importance of polymicrobial infections in directing bacterial virulence. PMID:23626831

  5. Amount of water needed to save 1 m3 of water: life cycle assessment of a flow regulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, Markus; Söchtig, Michael; Weis, Christoph; Finkbeiner, Matthias

    2015-09-01

    Water saving devices in the sanitary equipment, such as flow regulators, are assumed to be environmentally advantageous even though their environmental benefit has never been compared to the environmental burden caused during their production und disposal. Therefore, a life cycle assessment according to ISO 14044 has been conducted to identify and quantify the environmental effects throughout the lifespan of a flow regulator. The analysis comprises the production of materials, manufacturing of components at suppliers, the assembly at NEOPERL®, all transports, savings of water and thermal energy during use as well as waste incineration including energy recovery in the end-of-life stage. Results show that the production of one flow regulator causes 0.12 MJ primary energy demand, a global warming potential of 5.9 g CO2-equivalent, and a water consumption of 30.3 ml. On the other hand, during a use of 10 years, it saves 19,231 MJ primary energy, 1223 kg CO2-equivalent, and avoids a water consumption of 790 l (166,200 l water use). Since local impacts of water consumption are more relevant than volumes, consequences of water consumption have been analyzed using recently developed impact assessment models. Accordingly, the production of a flow regulator causes 8.5 ml freshwater depletion, 1.4 × 10-13 disability adjusted life years, and 4.8 × 10-6 potentially disappeared fractions of species m2 a. Even though avoided environmental impacts resulting from water savings highly depend on the region where the flow regulator is used, the analysis has shown that environmental benefits are at least 15,000 times higher than impacts caused during the production.

  6. Internet Co-Governance: Towards a Multilayer Multiplayer Mechanism of Consultation, Coordination and Cooperation (M3C3)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleinwachter, Wolfgang

    2006-01-01

    This article addresses issues central to the task of Internet governance and, especially, to the management of the Internet's core resources. Early conceptions of the Internet as a virtual space that required no regulation resisted initial governance activity. More recently, work by people like Lawrence Lessig has clarified the complex…

  7. 77 FR 64848 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Form 1120S, Schedule D, Schedule K-1, and Schedule M-3

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-23

    ... Internal Revenue Service Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Form 1120S, Schedule D, Schedule K-1, and... With Total Assets of $10 Million or More, and Schedule K-1 (Form 1120S), Shareholder's Share of Income... Losses and Built-in Gains, Schedule K-1 (Form 1120S), Shareholder's Share of Income, Credits,...

  8. M3FT-15OR0202237: Submit Report on Results From Initial Coating Layer Development For UN TRISO Particles

    SciTech Connect

    Jolly, Brian C.; Lindemer, Terrence; Terrani, Kurt A.

    2015-02-01

    In support of fully ceramic matrix (FCM) fuel development, coating development work has begun at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to produce tri-isotropic (TRISO) coated fuel particles with UN kernels. The nitride kernels are used to increase heavy metal density in these SiC-matrix fuel pellets with details described elsewhere. The advanced gas reactor (AGR) program at ORNL used fluidized bed chemical vapor deposition (FBCVD) techniques for TRISO coating of UCO (two phase mixture of UO2 and UCx) kernels. Similar techniques were employed for coating of the UN kernels, however significant changes in processing conditions were required to maintain acceptable coating properties due to physical property and dimensional differences between the UCO and UN kernels.

  9. MarcoPolo-R: Near Earth Asteroid Sample Return Mission candidate as ESA-M3 class mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, Patrick; Lara, Luisa-M.; Marty, Bernard; Koschny, Detlef; Barucci, Maria Antonietta; Cheng, Andy; Bohnhardt, Hermann; Brucato, John R.; Dotto, Elisabetta; Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Franchi, Ian A.; Green, Simon F.

    2015-03-01

    MarcoPolo-R is a sample return mission to a primitive Near-Earth Asteroid (NEA) selected in February 2011 for the Assessment Study Phase at ESA in the framework of ESAfs Cosmic Vision 2 program. MarcoPolo-R is a European-led mission with a proposed NASA contribution. MarcoPolo-R takes advantage of three industrial studies completed as part of the previous Marco Polo mission (see ESA/SRE (2009)3). The aim of the new Assessment Study is to reduce the cost of the mission while maintaining its high science level, on the basis of advanced studies and technologies, as well as optimization of the mission. MarcoPolo-R will rendezvous with a unique kind of target, a primitive binary NEA, scientifically characterize it at multiple scales, and return a unique pristine sample to Earth unaltered by the atmospheric entry process or terrestrial weathering. The baseline target of MarcoPolo-R is the primitive binary NEA (175706) 1996 FG3, which offers a very efficient operational and technical mission profile. A binary target also provides enhanced science return: the choice of this target will allow new investigations to be performed more easily compared to a single object, and also enables investigations of the fascinating geology and geophysics of asteroids that are impossible to obtain from a single object. Precise measurements of the mutual orbit and rotation state of both components can be used to probe higher-level harmonics of the gravitational potential, and therefore the internal structure. A unique opportunity is offered to study the dynamical evolution driven by the YORP/Yarkovsky thermal effects. Possible migration of regolith on the primary from poles to equator allows the increasing maturity of asteroidal regolith with time to be expressed as a latitude-dependent trend, with the most-weathered material at the equator matching what is seen in the secondary. MarcoPolo-R will allow us to study the most primitive materials available to investigate early solar system formation processes. Moreover, MarcoPolo-R will provide a sample from a known target with known geological context. Direct investigation of both the regolith and fresh interior fragments is also impossible by any means other than sample return. The main goal of the MarcoPolo-R mission is to return unaltered NEA material for detailed analysis in ground-based laboratories. The limited sampling provided by meteorites does not offer the most primitive material available in near-Earth space. More primitive material, having experienced less alteration on the asteroid, will be more friable and would not survive atmospheric entry in any discernible amount. Only in the laboratory can instruments with the necessary precision and sensitivity be applied to individual components of the complex mixture of materials that forms an asteroid regolith, to determine their precise chemical and isotopic composition. Such measurements are vital for revealing the evidence of stellar, interstellar medium, pre-solar nebula and parent body processes that are retained in primitive asteroidal material, unaltered by atmospheric entry or terrestrial contamination. It is no surprise therefore that sample return missions are considered a priority by a number of the leading space agencies.

  10. Lunar Net—a proposal in response to an ESA M3 call in 2010 for a medium sized mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Alan; Crawford, I. A.; Gowen, Robert Anthony; Ambrosi, R.; Anand, M.; Banerdt, B.; Bannister, N.; Bowles, N.; Braithwaite, C.; Brown, P.; Chela-Flores, J.; Cholinser, T.; Church, P.; Coates, A. J.; Colaprete, T.; Collins, G.; Collinson, G.; Cook, T.; Elphic, R.; Fraser, G.; Gao, Y.; Gibson, E.; Glotch, T.; Grande, M.; Griffiths, A.; Grygorczuk, J.; Gudipati, M.; Hagermann, A.; Heldmann, J.; Hood, L. L.; Jones, A. P.; Joy, K. H.; Khavroshkin, O. B.; Klingelhoefer, G.; Knapmeyer, M.; Kramer, G.; Lawrence, D.; Marczewski, W.; McKenna-Lawlor, S.; Miljkovic, K.; Narendranath, S.; Palomba, E.; Phipps, A.; Pike, W. T.; Pullan, D.; Rask, J.; Richard, D. T.; Seweryn, K.; Sheridan, S.; Sims, M.; Sweeting, M.; Swindle, T.; Talboys, D.; Taylor, L.; Teanby, N.; Tong, V.; Ulamec, S.; Wawrzaszek, R.; Wieczorek, M.; Wilson, L.; Wright, I.

    2012-04-01

    Emplacement of four or more kinetic penetrators geographically distributed over the lunar surface can enable a broad range of scientific exploration objectives of high priority and provide significant synergy with planned orbital missions. Whilst past landed missions achieved a great deal, they have not included a far-side lander, or investigation of the lunar interior apart from a very small area on the near side. Though the LCROSS mission detected water from a permanently shadowed polar crater, there remains in-situ confirmation, knowledge of concentration levels, and detailed identification of potential organic chemistry of astrobiology interest. The planned investigations will also address issues relating to the origin and evolution of the Earth-Moon system and other Solar System planetary bodies. Manned missions would be enhanced with use of water as a potential in-situ resource; knowledge of potential risks from damaging surface Moonquakes, and exploitation of lunar regolith for radiation shielding. LunarNet is an evolution of the 2007 LunarEX proposal to ESA (European Space Agency) which draws on recent significant advances in mission definition and feasibility. In particular, the successful Pendine full-scale impact trials have proved impact survivability for many of the key technology items, and a penetrator system study has greatly improved the definition of descent systems, detailed penetrator designs, and required resources. LunarNet is hereby proposed as an exciting stand-alone mission, though is also well suited in whole or in-part to contribute to the jigsaw of upcoming lunar missions, including that of a significant element to the ILN (International Lunar Network).

  11. Moon Mineral Mapper (M3): A High Uniformity and High Precision Science Imaging Spectrometer in the Solar Reflected Spectrum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Robert O.; Pieters, Carle; Mouroulis, Pantazis

    2006-01-01

    The Moon Mineralogy Mapper was selected as a NASA Discovery Mission of Opportunity in February 2005. At the core of this mission is an imaging spectrometer instrument with high spectral-spatial uniformity and high signal-to-noise ratio for the expected illumination conditions. The spectral range of the Moon Mineralogy Mapper is from 430 to 3000 nm with 10 nm spectral sampling. The radiometric range is from 0 to maximum expected radiance with 14 bit sampling. The spatial swath is nominally 40 Ian with 70 m spatial sampling. The Moon Mineralogy Mapper has both a global and target mode of data acquisition. In global spectral and spatial resolution full coverage of the Moon will be acquired. Target mode will be used to examine selected areas a full spectral and spatial resolution. The science objectives and mission and instrument characteristics are presented.

  12. Role of various kinases in muscarinic M3 receptor-mediated contraction of longitudinal muscle of rat colon

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Charles D.; Kendig, Derek M.; Al-Qudah, Mohammad; Mahavadi, Sunila; Murthy, Karnam S.; Grider, John R.

    2016-01-01

    The longitudinal muscle layer in gut is the functional opponent to the circular muscle layer during peristalsis. Differences in innervation of the layers allow for the contraction of one layer concurrently with the relaxation of the other, enabling the passage of gut contents in a controlled fashion. Differences in development have given the cells of the two layers differences in receptor populations, membrane lipid handling, and calcium handling profiles/behaviors. The contractile activity of the longitudinal muscle is largely mediated by cholinergic neural input from myenteric plexus. Activation of muscarinic receptors leads to rapid activation of several kinases including MLC kinase, ERK1/2, CaMKII and Rho kinase. Phosphorylation of myosin light chain (MLC20) by MLC kinase (MLCK) is a prerequisite for contraction in both circular and longitudinal muscle cells. In rat colonic longitudinal muscle strips, we measured muscarinic receptor-mediated contraction following incubation with kinase inhibitors. Basal tension was differentially regulated by Rho kinase, ERK1/2, CaMKII and CaMKK. Selective inhibitors of Rho kinase, ERK1/2, CaMKK/AMPK, and CaMKII each reduced carbachol-induced contraction in the innervated muscle strips. These inhibitors had no direct effect on MLCK activity. Thus unlike previously reported for isolated muscle cells where CaMKII and ERK1/2 are not involved in contraction, we conclude that the regulation of carbachol-induced contraction in innervated longitudinal muscle strips involves the interplay of Rho kinase, ERK1/2, CaMKK/AMPK, and CAMKII. PMID:25891767

  13. Experimental and analytical investigation of thermal coating effectiveness for 3m(3) LPG tanks engulfed by fire.

    PubMed

    Landucci, Gabriele; Molag, Menso; Reinders, Johan; Cozzani, Valerio

    2009-01-30

    Two large-scale diesel pool fire engulfment tests were carried out on LPG tanks protected with intumescing materials to test the effectiveness of thermal coatings in the prevention of hot BLEVE accidental scenarios in the road and rail transport of LPG. A specific test protocol was defined to enhance reproducibility of experimental tests. The geometrical characteristics of the test tanks were selected in order to obtain shell stresses similar to those present in full-size road tankers complying to ADR standards. In order to better understand the stress distribution on the vessel and to identify underlying complicating phenomena, a finite element model was also developed to better analyze the experimental data. A non-homogeneous and time-dependent effectiveness of the fire protection given by the intumescing coating was evidenced both by finite element simulations and by the analysis of the coating after the tests. The results of the fire tests pointed out that the coating assured an effective protection of the tanks, consistently increasing the expected time to failure. The data obtained suggest that the introduction of fire protection coatings may be a viable route to improve the safety of the LPG distribution chain.

  14. Magnetic properties of soils from landslide potential area (Case study: Pasir Ipis-Lembang, West Bandung)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramdhani, Rifat; Fitriani, Dini; Hajar Kirana, Kartika; Wijatmoko, Bambang; Sutanto, Ogi

    2016-08-01

    In this study we have analized magnetic properties of soils from landslide potential area. Top soil and four soil cores from Pasir Ipis as study area were taken as samples. All samples measured by rock magnetism method, magnetic susceptibility, to describe the characteristic of the physical property of samples. Magnetic susceptibility values of top soil samples are ranging from 193 × 10-8 m3/kg to 545 × 10-8 m3/kg, whereas for soil cores the magnetic susceptibility values range from 245 × 10-8 m3/kg to 674 × 10-8 m3/kg. It implies that the soil samples are dominated by ferrimagnetic minerals. Relative difference of magnetic susceptibility values measured at two frequencies or χfd f (%) for all samples range from 2 to 10%, indicating that the samples contain a mixture of ultrafine superparamagnetic grains and non superparamagnetic grains.

  15. Effects of low molecular weight agar and Lactobacillus plantarum on growth performance, immunity, and disease resistance of basa fish (Pangasius bocourti, Sauvage 1880).

    PubMed

    Van Doan, Hien; Doolgindachbaporn, Sompong; Suksri, Amnuaysilpa

    2014-12-01

    This study evaluated effects of low molecular weight agar (LMWA) and Lactobacillus plantarum singly or combined on growth performance, immunity and disease resistance of basa fish (Pangasius bocourti). Two hundred forty fish were divided into four treatments, i.e. 0 g kg(-1) LMWA (Control), 2 g kg(-1) LMWA, 10(8) cfu g(-1)L. plantarum, and 2 g kg(-1) LMWA + 10(8) cfu g(-1)L. plantarum. Following 7, 14 and 28 days of the treatment, specific growth rate (SGR), feed conversion ratio (FCR), serum lysozyme, phagocytosis, respiratory burst and alternative complement activity (ACP) were measured. A Completely Randomized Design with four replications was applied. At the end of the feeding trial, five fish were randomly selected for a challenge test against Aeromonas hydrophila. The results showed that fish fed diet of 2 g kg(-1) LMWA and 10(8) cfu g(-1) of L. plantarum singly or combined significantly enhanced SGR, FCR, serum lysozyme, phagocytosis, respiratory burst, alternative complement activities and post-challenge survival rate of P. bocourti. The results inferred that dietary of LMWA and L. plantarum stimulated growth, immunity and disease resistance of the P. bocourti.

  16. The effects of water content and water resistivity on the dispersion of resistivity and dielectric constant in quartz sand in the frequency range 10^2 to 10^8 Hz

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eberle, W.R.

    1983-01-01

    Using modifications of previously developed methods, measurements were made of the resistivity and the dielectric constant of two similar quartz sands of different porosity over the frequency range 102-108 Hertz for various water contents and water resistivities. Dispersion is pronounced in all the resistivity data above 106 Hz. As water content decreases, resistivity dispersion becomes noticeable at lower frequencies. The resistivity data at all frequencies, however, fit an empirical prediction formula relating observed resistivity to water saturation and resistivity of the saturated sample. The data suggest that the dispersion of resistivity of some earth materials with frequency may be predicted on the basis of curve matching of the data obtained in this investigation with the resistivity of the material at a frequency of 100 Hz or lower. The dispersion of dielectric constant with frequency is pronounced at all frequencies, being more pronounced with increasing water content. The shape of the dispersion curve is dependent on the resistivity of the water in the sample.

  17. Phase Equilibria of ``Cu2O''-``FeO''-CaO-MgO-Al2O3 Slags at PO2 of 10-8.5 atm in Equilibrium with Metallic Copper for a Copper Slag Cleaning Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henao, Hector M.; Pizarro, Claudio; Font, Jonkion; Moyano, Alex; Hayes, Peter C.; Jak, Evgueni

    2010-12-01

    Limited data are available on phase equilibria of the multicomponent slag system at the oxygen partial pressures used in the copper smelting, converting, and slag-cleaning processes. Recently, experimental procedures have been developed and have been applied successfully to characterize several complex industrial slags. The experimental procedures involve high-temperature equilibration on a substrate and quenching followed by electron probe X-ray microanalysis. This technique has been used to construct the liquidus for the “Cu2O”-“FeO”-SiO2-based slags with 2 wt pct of CaO, 0.5 wt pct of MgO, and 4.0 wt pct of Al2O3 at controlled oxygen partial pressures in equilibrium with metallic copper. The selected ranges of compositions and temperatures are directly relevant to the copper slag-cleaning processes. The new experimental equilibrium results are presented in the form of ternary sections and as a liquidus temperature vs Fe/SiO2 weight ratio diagram. The experimental results are compared with the FactSage thermodynamic model calculations.

  18. Natural radioactivity measurements in building materials in Southern Lebanon.

    PubMed

    Kobeissi, M A; El Samad, O; Zahraman, K; Milky, S; Bahsoun, F; Abumurad, K M

    2008-08-01

    Using gamma-spectroscopy and CR-39 detector, concentration C of naturally occurring radioactive nuclides (226)Ra, (222)Rn, (214)Bi, (228)Ac, (212)Pb, (212)Bi and (40)K, has been measured in sand, cement, gravel, gypsum, and paint, which are used as building materials in Lebanon. Sand samples were collected from 10 different sandbank locations in the southern part of the country. Gravel samples of different types and forms were collected from several quarries. White and gray cement fabricated by Shaka Co. were obtained. gamma-spectroscopy measurements in sand gave Ra concentration ranging from 4.2+/-0.4 to 60.8+/-2.2 Bq kg(-1) and Ra concentration equivalents from 8.8+/-1.0 to 74.3+/-9.2 Bq kg(-1). The highest Ra concentration was in gray and white cement having the values 73.2+/-3.0 and 76.3+/-3.0 Bq kg(-1), respectively. Gravel results showed Ra concentration between 20.2+/-1.0 and 31.7+/-1.4 Bq kg(-1) with an average of 27.5+/-1.3 Bq kg(-1). Radon concentration in paint was determined by CR-39 detector. In sand, the average (222)Rn concentration ranged between 291+/-69 and 1774+/-339 Bq m(-3) among the sandbanks with a total average value of 704+/-139 Bq m(-3). For gravel, the range was found to be from 52+/-9 to 3077+/-370 Bq m(-3) with an average value of 608+/-85 Bq m(-3). Aerial and mass exhalation rates of (222)Rn were also calculated and found to be between 44+/-7 and 2226+/-267 mBq m(-2)h(-1), and between 0.40+/-0.07 and 20.0+/-0.3 mBq kg(-1)h(-1), respectively.

  19. Thermophilic anaerobic digestion of industrial orange waste.

    PubMed

    Kaparaju, P L N; Rintala, J A

    2006-06-01

    Thermophilic anaerobic digestion of industrial orange waste (pulp and peel) with subsequent aerobic post-treatment of the digestate was evaluated. Methane production potential was first determined in batch assays and the effects of operational parameters such as hydraulic retention times (HRT) and organic loading rates (OLR) on process performance were studied through semi-continuous digestion. In batch assays, methane production potential of about 0.49 m(3) kg(-1) volatile solids (VS)(added waste) was achieved. In semi-continuous digestion, loading at 2.8 kgVS m(-3) d(-1) (2.9 kg total solids (TS) m(-3) d(-1)) and HRT of 26 d produced specific methane yields of 0.6 m(3) kg(-1) VS (added waste) (0.63 m(3) kg(-1) VS(added waste)). Operating at a higher OLR of 4.2 kgVS m(-3) d(-1) (4.4 kg TS m(-3) d(-1)) and 40 d HRT produced 0.5 m(3) of methane kg(-1) VS (added waste) (0.63-0.52 m(3) kg(-1) TS (added waste). Up to 70% of TS of industrial orange waste (11.6% TS) was methanised. Further increase in OLR to 5.6 kg VS m(-3) d(-1) (5.9 kg TS m(-3) d(-1); HRT of 20 d) resulted in an unstable and non-functional digester process shown directly through complete cessation of methanogenesis, drop in methane content, reduced pH and increase in volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations, especially acetate and soluble chemical oxygen demand. A pH adjustment (from an initial 3.2 to ca. 8) for the low pH orange waste was necessary and was found to be a crucial factor for stable digester operation as the process showed a tendency to be inhibited due to accumulation of VFAs and decrease in digester pH. Aerobic post-treatment of digestate resulted in removal of ammonia and VFAs. PMID:16865918

  20. A preliminary magnetic study of Sawa lake sediments, Southern Iraq

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ameen, Nawrass

    2016-04-01

    A preliminary magnetic study combined with chemical analyses was carried out in Sawa Lake in Al-Muthanna province, southern Iraq, about 22 km south west of Samawa city (31°18'48.80"N, 45°0'25.25"E). The lake is about 4.74 km length, 1.75 km width and 5.5 m height, it is surrounded by a salt rim which is higher than the lake water by about 2.8 m and sea water by about 18.5 m (Naqash et al., 1977 in Hassan, 2007). The lake is an elongated closed basin with no surface water available to it, it may be fed by groundwater of the Euphrates and Dammam aquifers through system of joints and cracks. This study aims to investigate the concentrations of selected heavy metals as pollutants and magnetic susceptibility (MS) and other magnetic properties of sediment samples from fifty sites collected from the bottom of the lake, the study area lies in an industrial area. The results show spatial variations of MS with mean value of about 4.58 x 10-8 m3 kg-1. Scanning electron microscopy and magnetic mineralogy parameters indicate the dominance of soft magnetic phase like magnetite and presence of hard magnetic phase like hematite. Spatial variations of MS combined with the concentrations of heavy metals suggests the efficiency of magnetic methods as effective, inexpensive and non-time consuming method to outlining the heavy metal pollution. References: Hassan W.F., 2007. The Physio-chemical characteristic of Sawa lake water in Samawa city-Iraq. Marine Mesopotamica, 22(2), 167-179.

  1. Grain-size dependence of the magnetic properties of street dusts from Warsaw, Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dytłow, Sylwia; Winkler, Aldo; Sagnotti, Leonardo

    2015-04-01

    In recent years, in connection with a substantial development of transportation in urban areas, vehicular traffic increased its importance as source of pollution and consequent cause of health problems in urban environments. In fact, it is well established that the concentration and size of pollution related particulate matter (PM) are important factors affecting human health. The aim of this study is to identify the variations of the magnetic properties and of the chemical composition of different granulometric fractions from street dusts collected at four locations in Warsaw: the city center, a suburb, a tramline and a big crossroad. Dust samples were mechanically sieved and classified using the laboratory shaker with a standard sieve set (0.5 mm, 0.25 mm, 0.1 mm and 0.071 mm). Data show a distribution of magnetic susceptibility (χ) in the wide range of 80-370 × 10-8 m3kg-1. Comparison of magnetic parameters shows that the street dust contains the pollution characteristics for air and soil. The samples were characterized by uniform magnetic mineralogy, typical for fine-grained magnetite, in a grain size range between pseudo-single-domain and fine multi-domain, with a small contribution from ultrafine superparamagnetic particles (~2-3.5 %). The street dust contains, as usual for the urban areas, spherical magnetic particles produced by fossil fuel combustion processes and mixture of irregular angular iron-oxides grains containing other elements. The magnetic susceptibility and hysteresis properties of the dusts have been analyzed in detail; the temperature variation of the saturation of remanent magnetization and of the magnetic susceptibility revealed that the main magnetic mineral, for all the fractions, is almost stoichiometric magnetite, with the finest fractions (d=0.1 mm, 0.071 mm and d

  2. Fracture-controlled nitrate and atrazine transport in four Iowa till units.

    PubMed

    Helmke, Martin F; Simpkins, William W; Horton, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Fractures in till may provide pathways for agricultural chemicals to contaminate aquifers and surface waters. This study was conducted to quantify the influence of fractures on solute fate and transport using three conservative and two nonconservative tracers. The conservative tracers were potassium bromide (KBr), pentafluorobenzoic acid (PFBA), and 1,4-piperazinediethanesulfonic acid disodium salt (PIPES); the nonconservative tracers were nitrate and atrazine [6-chloro-N-ethyl-N'-(1-methylethyl)-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine]. Three sites in Iowa were investigated, including four late Wisconsinan and Pre-Illinoian tills. Laboratory tracer experiments were conducted using eight large (0.4-0.45 m long by 0.43 m in diameter), undisturbed columns of till collected from depths of 1 to 28 m. The tills were densely fractured, with fracture spacing ranging from 3.8 to 10.4 cm. First arrival velocities of Br- ranged from 0.004 to 64.8 m d(-1), 10 to 100 times faster than predicted for unfractured media. Nitrate behaved as a conservative tracer in weathered till columns, but degraded during experiments using deeper tills. Sorption caused retardation of atrazine in the shallowest four columns. Atrazine degradation occurred in deeper columns as demonstrated by deviations between atrazine and the conservative tracers. Mobile-immobile model (MIM) simulations estimated first-order exchange coefficients (alpha) ranging from 1 x 10(-8) to 1.7 x 10(-2) s(-1), sorption coefficients (K(d)) for atrazine ranging from 2.6 x 10(-5) to 1 x 10(-3) m3 kg(-1), and degradation half-lives ranging from 0.24 to 67 d (nitrate) and 1.6 to 277 d (atrazine). This study suggests that aquifers and surface waters associated with thin, fractured till units may be vulnerable to contamination, yet deeper aquifers may be protected by these materials due to increased residence times provided by matrix diffusion.

  3. [Effects of crop rotation and bio-organic manure on soil microbial characteristics of Chrysanthemum cropping system].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Xin; Zhu, Wei; Du, Chao; Shi, Ya-dong; Wang, Jian-fei

    2015-06-01

    We conducted a field experiment to evaluate the effects of rotation system and bio-organic manure on soil microbial characteristics of Chrysanthemum cropping system. Taking Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat and wheat as experimental plants, treatments under Chrysanthemum continuous cropping system (M1), conventional Chrysanthemum-wheat rotation system (M2), and Chrysanthemum-wheat rotation system receiving bio-organic manure application of 200 kg · 667 m(-2) (M3) were designed. Soil chemical properties, soil microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and nitrogen (MBN), and the amounts of different types of soil microorganisms were determined. Results showed that compared with M1, treatments of M2 and M3 significantly increased soil pH, organic matter, available N, P, and K, MBC, MBN, and the amounts of bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes, but decreased the ratio of MBC/MBN, and the relative percentage of fungi in the total amount of microorganisms. Treatment of M3 had the highest contents of soil organic matter, available N, available P, available K, MBC, MBN, and the amounts of bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes, with the values being 15.62 g · kg(-1), 64.75 mg · kg(-1), 83.26 mg · kg(-1), 96.72 mg · kg(-1), 217.40 mg · kg(-1), 38.41 mg · kg(-1), 22.31 x 10(6) cfu · g(-1), 56.36 x 10(3) cfu · g(-1), 15.90 x 10(5) cfu · g(-1), respectively. We concluded that rational crop rotation and bio-organic manure application could weaken soil acidification, improve soil fertility and microbial community structure, increase the efficiency of nutrition supply, and have a positive effect on reducing the obstacles of continuous cropping. PMID:26572032

  4. [Effects of crop rotation and bio-organic manure on soil microbial characteristics of Chrysanthemum cropping system].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Xin; Zhu, Wei; Du, Chao; Shi, Ya-dong; Wang, Jian-fei

    2015-06-01

    We conducted a field experiment to evaluate the effects of rotation system and bio-organic manure on soil microbial characteristics of Chrysanthemum cropping system. Taking Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat and wheat as experimental plants, treatments under Chrysanthemum continuous cropping system (M1), conventional Chrysanthemum-wheat rotation system (M2), and Chrysanthemum-wheat rotation system receiving bio-organic manure application of 200 kg · 667 m(-2) (M3) were designed. Soil chemical properties, soil microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and nitrogen (MBN), and the amounts of different types of soil microorganisms were determined. Results showed that compared with M1, treatments of M2 and M3 significantly increased soil pH, organic matter, available N, P, and K, MBC, MBN, and the amounts of bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes, but decreased the ratio of MBC/MBN, and the relative percentage of fungi in the total amount of microorganisms. Treatment of M3 had the highest contents of soil organic matter, available N, available P, available K, MBC, MBN, and the amounts of bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes, with the values being 15.62 g · kg(-1), 64.75 mg · kg(-1), 83.26 mg · kg(-1), 96.72 mg · kg(-1), 217.40 mg · kg(-1), 38.41 mg · kg(-1), 22.31 x 10(6) cfu · g(-1), 56.36 x 10(3) cfu · g(-1), 15.90 x 10(5) cfu · g(-1), respectively. We concluded that rational crop rotation and bio-organic manure application could weaken soil acidification, improve soil fertility and microbial community structure, increase the efficiency of nutrition supply, and have a positive effect on reducing the obstacles of continuous cropping.

  5. Laser-tissue interaction of a continuous-wave 2-μm, 3-μm cascade oscillation fiber laser: sharp incision with controlled coagulation layer thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arai, Tsunenori; Sumiyoshi, Tetsumi; Naruse, Kyota; Ishihara, Miya; Sato, Shunichi; Kikuchi, Makoto; Kasamatsu, Tadashi; Sekita, Hitoshi; Obara, Minoru

    2000-06-01

    We studied coagulation layer controlled incision with newly developed continuous wave 2 micrometer, 3 micrometer cascade oscillation fiber laser in vitro. Since this laser device simultaneously oscillates 2 micrometer and 3 micrometer radiation, we could change tissue interaction by arranging power ratio of 2 micrometer to 3 micrometer radiation. About one watt of total irradiation power with various power ratios was focused to extracted fresh porcine myocardium or anesthetized rabbit on an automatic moving stage to obtain line incision. Macro photograph and microscopic histology were used to observe tissue interaction phenomenon. The incised specimen showed that precise cutting groove with thin coagulation layer was attained by a 3 micrometer based radiation, meanwhile addition of 2 micrometer radiation to 3 micrometer radiation made coagulation layer thicker. A heat conduction simulator using finite-element method was used to qualitatively explain obtained coagulation layer thickness. This precise incision with controllable side coagulation layer may effective to control bleeding during incision, for instance, for skin, liver, and kidney incisions. Pure continuous wave radiation of 2 micrometer and 3 micrometer may eliminate stress wave induced tissue damage which is frequently found in Ho:YAG and/or Er:YAG tissue interactions. Moreover, sapphire fiber might offer flexible power delivery to this new laser to establish endoscopic application and/or to improved beam handling.

  6. Ternary rare earth silicides RE2M3Si4 (RE = Sc, Y, Lu; M = Mo, W): crystal structure, coloring and electronic properties.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Morten B; Xie, Weiwei; Cava, Robert J

    2016-03-01

    The ternary compounds Sc2Mo3Si4, Y2Mo3Si4, Lu2Mo3Si4 and Sc2W3Si4 have been synthesized using arc melting and structurally characterized using single crystal X-ray diffraction. The compounds are isostructural with Gd5Si4 but with coloring (order of the rare earth and transition metals) on the Gd site. In contrast to group 4 and 5 ternaries of the same type, we observe no site mixing between the rare earth and transition metals. The Y compound displays a different, less common coloring from the others and through DFT calculations and investigation of the solid solution between Sc2Mo3Si4 and Y2Mo3Si4 it is shown that the different coloring of the latter is only marginally more stable. The electronic structures of the ternary compounds have been investigated using DFT calculations, yielding densities of states very similar to Gd5Si4. These predict metallic behavior and no magnetism, which is confirmed through resistivity and magnetization measurements. PMID:26817679

  7. Identification and lateral membrane localization of cyclin M3, likely to be involved in renal Mg2+ handling in seawater fish.

    PubMed

    Islam, Zinia; Hayashi, Naoko; Inoue, Hana; Umezawa, Takahiro; Kimura, Yuuri; Doi, Hiroyuki; Romero, Michael F; Hirose, Shigehisa; Kato, Akira

    2014-09-01

    The kidney of marine teleosts is the major site of Mg(2+) excretion and produces urine with a high Mg(2+) concentration. However, the transporters involved in Mg(2+) excretion are poorly understood. The cyclin M (Cnnm; also known as ancient conserved domain protein) family comprises membrane proteins homologous to the bacterial Mg(2+) and Co(2+) efflux protein, CorC. To understand the molecular mechanism of Mg(2+) homeostasis in marine teleosts, we analyzed the expression of the Cnnm family genes in the seawater (SW) pufferfish, torafugu (Takifugu rubripes), and the closely related euryhaline species, mefugu (Takifugu obscurus). Database mining and phylogenetic analysis indicated that the Takifugu genome contains six members of the Cnnm family: two orthologs of Cnnm1, one of Cnnm2, one of Cnnm3, and two of Cnnm4. RT-PCR analyses indicated that Cnnm2, Cnnm3, and Cnnm4a are expressed in the kidney, whereas other members are mainly expressed in the brain. Renal expression of Cnnm3 was upregulated in SW mefugu, whereas renal expression of Cnnm2 was upregulated in freshwater (FW) mefugu. No significant difference was observed in renal expression of Cnnm4a between SW and FW mefugu. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemical analyses of the SW mefugu kidney revealed that Cnnm3 is expressed in the proximal tubule, and its product localizes to the lateral membrane. When Cnnm3 was expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes, whole cellular Mg(2+) content and free intracellular Mg(2+) activity significantly decreased. These results suggest that Cnnm3 is involved in body fluid Mg(2+) homeostasis in marine teleosts.

  8. MEST-Do the ``rubble-pile'' asteroid-1950 DA, with low 1700 kg/m3 density, has a structure with spacetime center?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Dayong

    2015-04-01

    According to Einstein's equation and observation of flat universe, the paper gives new ideas both of dark massenergy and spacetime center, and supporses that some asteroids were comets which have spacetime center, and some comets were wraped up by rock in 2012. It explains of a observation about low density of the asteroid-1950 DA by spacetime center of the asteroid. (see Ben Rozitis, ``Cohesive forces prevent the rotational breakup of rubble-pile asteroid (29075) 1950 DA,'' http://www. nature.com / nature / journal / v512 / n7513/full/nature13632.html) It also can explain of a rock hull of 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. (see Jonathan O'Callaghan, ``Comets are like deep fried ICE CREAM: Nasa ice-box experiment confirms 67P is hard on the outside but fluffy on the inside,'' http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-2949020/Comets-like-deep-fried-ICE-CREAM-Nasa-ice-box-experiment-confirms-67P-hard-outside-fluffy-inside.html) (See Dayong Cao, ``MEST-The dark hole, dark comet and dark matter are the space-time center'' and ``MEST- avoid next extinction by a space-time effect'') http://meetings.aps.org/link/BAPS.2014.APR.L1.3 http://meetings.aps.org/link/BAPS.2014.APR.L1.2 http://meetings.aps.org/link/BAPS.2015.APR.L1.2 http://meeting.aps.org/Meeting/CAL12/Session/H1.8 http://meetings.aps.org/link/BAPS.2012.APR.K1.79

  9. A STUDY OF FISCHER 344 RATS EXPOSED TO SILICA DUST FOR SIX MONTHS AT CONCENTRATIONS OF 0, 2, 10 OR 20 MG / M3.

    SciTech Connect

    KUTZMAN,R.S.

    1984-02-01

    The major objective of this study was to relate the results of a series of functional tests to the compositional and structural alterations in the rat lung induced by subchronic exposure to silica dust. Fischer-344 rats were exposed for 6 hours/day, 5 days/week for 6 months to either 0, 2, 10, or 20 mg SiO{sub 2}/m{sup 3}. The general appearance of the exposed rats was not different from that of the controls. Interestingly, female rats exposed to silica dust, at all tested concentrations, gained more weight than the controls. The lung weight and the lung-to-body weight ratio was greater in the male rats exposed to the highest concentration of silica dust.

  10. The Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) imaging spectrometer for lunar science: Instrument description, calibration, on-orbit measurements, science data calibration and on-orbit validation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Green, R.O.; Pieters, C.; Mouroulis, P.; Eastwood, M.; Boardman, J.; Glavich, T.; Isaacson, P.; Annadurai, M.; Besse, S.; Barr, D.; Buratti, B.; Cate, D.; Chatterjee, A.; Clark, R.; Cheek, L.; Combe, J.; Dhingra, D.; Essandoh, V.; Geier, S.; Goswami, J.N.; Green, R.; Haemmerle, V.; Head, J.; Hovland, L.; Hyman, S.; Klima, R.; Koch, T.; Kramer, G.; Kumar, A.S.K.; Lee, Kenneth; Lundeen, S.; Malaret, E.; McCord, T.; McLaughlin, S.; Mustard, J.; Nettles, J.; Petro, N.; Plourde, K.; Racho, C.; Rodriquez, J.; Runyon, C.; Sellar, G.; Smith, C.; Sobel, H.; Staid, M.; Sunshine, J.; Taylor, L.; Thaisen, K.; Tompkins, S.; Tseng, H.; Vane, G.; Varanasi, P.; White, M.; Wilson, D.

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Discovery Moon Mineralogy Mapper imaging spectrometer was selected to pursue a wide range of science objectives requiring measurement of composition at fine spatial scales over the full lunar surface. To pursue these objectives, a broad spectral range imaging spectrometer with high uniformity and high signal-to-noise ratio capable of measuring compositionally diagnostic spectral absorption features from a wide variety of known and possible lunar materials was required. For this purpose the Moon Mineralogy Mapper imaging spectrometer was designed and developed that measures the spectral range from 430 to 3000 nm with 10 nm spectral sampling through a 24 degree field of view with 0.7 milliradian spatial sampling. The instrument has a signal-to-noise ratio of greater than 400 for the specified equatorial reference radiance and greater than 100 for the polar reference radiance. The spectral cross-track uniformity is >90% and spectral instantaneous field-of-view uniformity is >90%. The Moon Mineralogy Mapper was launched on Chandrayaan-1 on the 22nd of October. On the 18th of November 2008 the Moon Mineralogy Mapper was turned on and collected a first light data set within 24 h. During this early checkout period and throughout the mission the spacecraft thermal environment and orbital parameters varied more than expected and placed operational and data quality constraints on the measurements. On the 29th of August 2009, spacecraft communication was lost. Over the course of the flight mission 1542 downlinked data sets were acquired that provide coverage of more than 95% of the lunar surface. An end-to-end science data calibration system was developed and all measurements have been passed through this system and delivered to the Planetary Data System (PDS.NASA.GOV). An extensive effort has been undertaken by the science team to validate the Moon Mineralogy Mapper science measurements in the context of the mission objectives. A focused spectral, radiometric, spatial, and uniformity validation effort has been pursued with selected data sets including an Earth-view data set. With this effort an initial validation of the on-orbit performance of the imaging spectrometer has been achieved, including validation of the cross-track spectral uniformity and spectral instantaneous field of view uniformity. The Moon Mineralogy Mapper is the first imaging spectrometer to measure a data set of this kind at the Moon. These calibrated science measurements are being used to address the full set of science goals and objectives for this mission. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  11. NEAMS-ATF M3 Milestone Report: Literature Review of Modeling of Radiation-Induced Swelling in Fe-Cr-Al Steels

    SciTech Connect

    Bai, Xianming; Biner, Suleyman Bulent; Jiang, Chao

    2015-12-01

    Fe-Cr-Al steels are proposed as accident-tolerant-fuel (ATF) cladding materials in light water reactors due to their excellent oxidation resistance at high temperatures. Currently, the understanding of their performance in reactor environment is still limited. In this review, firstly we reviewed the experimental studies of Fe-Cr-Al based alloys with particular focus on the radiation effects in these alloys. Although limited data are available in literature, several previous and recent experimental studies have shown that Fe-Cr-Al based alloys have very good void swelling resistance at low and moderate irradiation doses but the growth of dislocation loops is very active. Overall, the behavior of radiation damage evolution is similar to that in Fe-Cr ferritic/martensitic alloys. Secondly, we reviewed the rate theory-based modeling methods for modeling the coevolution of voids and dislocation loops in materials under irradiation such as Frenkel pair three-dimensional diffusion model (FP3DM) and cluster dynamics. Finally, we summarized and discussed our review and proposed our future plans for modeling radiation damage in Fe-Cr-Al based alloys.

  12. Use of data from X-ray screening program for coal workers to evaluate effectiveness of 2 mg/m3 coal dust standard

    SciTech Connect

    Althouse, R.; Attfield, M.; Kellie, S.

    1986-08-01

    The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health administers the X-ray Screening Program for underground coal miners, a program mandated by the Federal Mine Health and Safety Act of 1969. The screening file, with over 200,000 x-ray films, affords an excellent source for the study of prevalence and progression of Coal Workers' Pneumoconiosis. Two epidemiological analyses have recently been completed. One, a prevalence study of miners with 10 or fewer years of mining tenure, converted screening readings to median epidemiological readings. Converted prevalences were 0.44% for the group with 0 to 1 year tenure and 0.79% for the group with 1 to 9 years tenure. This result is similar to prevalence observed in a study of nonexposed blue collar workers. A second analysis reread x-ray films of a subgroup of 1,834 repeat miners with roughly 9 years exposure only under mandated dust standards. Net progression from category 0/0 was observed to be 1.2%. This value is consistent with 1.9%, based on an average dust exposure, predicted by British research. Results must be interpreted in light of several possible sources of bias.

  13. OAST Space Theme Workshop. Volume 3: Working group summary. 9: Aerothermodynamics (M-3). A: Statement. B: Technology needs (form 1). C. Priority assessment (form 2). D. Additional assessments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Twelve aerothermodynamic space technology needs were identified to reduce the design uncertainties in aerodynamic heating and forces experienced by heavy lift launch vehicles, orbit transfer vehicles, and advanced single stage to orbit vehicles for the space transportation system, and for probes, planetary surface landers, and sample return vehicles for solar system exploration vehicles. Research and technology needs identified include: (1) increasing the fluid dynamics capability by at least two orders of magnitude by developing an advanced computer processor for the solution of fluid dynamic problems with improved software; (2) predicting multi-engine base flow fields for launch vehicles; and (3) developing methods to conserve energy in aerothermodynamic ground test facilities.

  14. Milestone Report - M3FT-15OR03120211 - Complete Iodine Loading of NO Aged Ag0-functionalized Aerogel

    SciTech Connect

    Bruffey, Stephanie H.; Patton, Kaara K.; Jubin, Robert Thomas

    2015-05-29

    In off-gas treatment systems within a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant, capture materials will be exposed to a gas stream for extended periods during their lifetime. This gas stream may be at elevated temperature and could contain water, NOx gas, or a variety of other constituents. For this reason, it is important to understand the effects of long-term exposure, or aging, on proposed capture materials. One material under consideration for iodine sequestration is silver-functionalized silica aerogel (Ag0-aerogel). The aim of this study was to determine the effect of extended exposure at 150°C to an air stream containing NO on the iodine capture capacity of Ag0-aerogel. Ag0-aerogel was provided by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), which manufactures the material at a lab scale. Prior to aging, the material has an iodine loading capacity of approximately 290 mg I/g Ag0-aerogel. Previous studies have aged the material in a dry air stream or in a moist air stream for up to 6 months. Both tests resulted in a 22% loss in iodine capacity. Aging the material in a static 2% NO2 environment for up to 2 months results in a 15% loss of iodine capacity.3 In this study, exposure of Ag0-aerogel to 1% NO at 150°C for 2 months produced a loss of 43% in iodine loading capacity. This is largest loss observed for aerogel aging studies to date. The performance of Ag0-aerogel in this study was compared to the performance of reduced silver mordenite (Ag0Z) in similar studies. Ag0Z is a zeolite mineral considered to be the current standard technology for iodine removal from off-gas streams of a potential US used fuel processing plant. In an aging study exposing Ag0Z to 1% NO for 2 months, an iodine capacity loss of over 80% was observed. This corresponds to a silver utilization of 13.5% for 2 month NO-aged Ag0Z, compared to 57% silver utilization for 2 month NO-aged aerogel. While iodine loading capacity and silver utilization are critical parameters in evaluating these materials, other properties must also be considered when selecting the appropriate material (e.g., relative material densities and potential waste form production technology). The resistance of Ag0-aerogel to NO is promising, and investigations of this material for use in iodine capture should continue to be pursued.

  15. Initial experimentation on the nonvented fill of a 0.14m3 (5 ft. 3) dewar with nitrogen and hydrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chato, David J.; Moran, Matthew E.; Nyland, Ted W.

    1990-01-01

    A series of nonvented fills were performed on a 0.14 cu m (5 cu ft) stainless steel dewar. Fills were conducted with a 120 deg cone angle spray nozzle over a range of inflow and initial wall temperatures with both liquid nitrogen and liquid hydrogen. Fill levels in excess of 85 percent liquid were achieved for four out of four nitrogen and two out of five hydrogen tests. Previously developed analytical models were compared to the test results and shown to have general trend agreement.

  16. Involvement of the 5'-untranslated region in cold-regulated expression of the rbpA1 gene in the cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis M3.

    PubMed Central

    Sato, N; Nakamura, A

    1998-01-01

    Transcript of the rbpA1 gene in Anabaena variabilis accumulates significantly at low growth temperatures below 28 degreesC. This accumulation was maximal at 16 degreesC. Accumulation of the rbpA1 transcript was completely abolished by rifampicin, but not by chloramphenicol. Photosynthesis was not required for this cold-induced accumulation. This accumulation of transcript was partly accounted for by increased stability of the rbpA1 transcript at low temperature. Expression of chimeric genes containing 3'-deleted rbpA1 sequences fused to the lacZ gene was regulated by low temperature when almost the entire 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) remained undeleted. Further deletion resulted in constitutive expression of the chimeric gene. The 5'-UTR sequence formed two types of complexes in vitro with protein extract from cells grown at 38 degreesC, but not with extract from the 22 degreesC grown cells. Affinity purification identified polypeptides of 75 and 32 kDa in Complex 1 and a 72 kDa polypeptide in Complex 2. These results are compatible with a model in which expression of the rbpA1 gene is regulated by transcriptional derepression at low temperature, although additional mechanisms, such as regulation of mRNA stability, might also contribute to temperature-dependent regulation. PMID:9547280

  17. 77 FR 76598 - Notice of Receipt of Petition for Decision That Nonconforming 2006-2010 BMW M3 Passenger Cars Are...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-28

    ... Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78). How to Read Comments submitted to the Docket: You... lamp; and (e) front and rear side reflex reflectors. Standard No. 110 Tire Selection and Rims for...

  18. Decontamination of hot cells K-1, K-3, M-1, M-3, and A-1, M-Wing, Building 200: Project final report Argonne National Laboratory-East

    SciTech Connect

    Cheever, C.L.; Rose, R.W.

    1996-09-01

    The purpose of this project was to remove radioactively contaminated materials and equipment from the hot cells, to decontaminate the hot cells, and to dispose of the radioactive waste. The goal was to reduce stack releases of Rn-220 and to place the hot cells in an emptied, decontaminated condition with less than 10 {micro}Sv/h (1 mrem/h) general radiation background. The following actions were needed: organize and mobilize a decontamination team; prepare decontamination plans and procedures; perform safety analyses to ensure protection of the workers, public, and environment; remotely size-reduce, package, and remove radioactive materials and equipment for waste disposal; remotely decontaminate surfaces to reduce hot cell radiation background levels to allow personnel entries using supplied air and full protective suits; disassemble and package the remaining radioactive materials and equipment using hands-on techniques; decontaminate hot cell surfaces to remove loose radioactive contaminants and to attain a less than 10 {micro}Sv/h (1 mrem/h) general background level; document and dispose of the radioactive and mixed waste; and conduct a final radiological survey.

  19. Muscarinic M(3) facilitation of acetylcholine release from rat myenteric neurons depends on adenosine outflow leading to activation of excitatory A(2A) receptors.

    PubMed

    Vieira, C; Duarte-Araújo, M; Adães, S; Magalhães-Cardoso, T; Correia-de-Sá, P

    2009-10-01

    Acetylcholine (ACh) is a major excitatory neurotransmitter in the myenteric plexus, and it regulates its own release acting via muscarinic autoreceptors. Adenosine released from stimulated myenteric neurons modulates ACh release preferentially via facilitatory A(2A) receptors. In this study, we investigated how muscarinic and adenosine receptors interplay to regulate ACh from the longitudinal muscle-myenteric plexus of the rat ileum. Blockade of the muscarinic M(2) receptor with 11-[[2-1[(diethylamino) methyl-1-piperidinyl]- acetyl

  20. FY-13 FCRD Milestone M3FT-13OR0202311 Weldability of ORNL Accident Tolerant Fuel Cladding Model Alloys For Thin Walled Tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Field, Kevin G; Gussev, Maxim N; Yamamoto, Yukinori

    2013-07-01

    Ferritic FeCrAl-based alloys show increased oxidation resistance for accident tolerant applications as fuel cladding. This study focuses on investigating the weldability of three model FeCrAl alloys with varying alloy compositions using laser-welding techniques. A detailed study of the mechanical properties of bead-on-plate welds was used to determine the quality of welds as a function of alloy composition. Laser welding resulted in defect free welds devoid of cracking or inclusions. Initial results indicate a reduction in the yield strength of weldments compared to the base material due to distinct changes in the microstructure within the fusion zone. Although a loss of yield strength was observed, there was no significant difference in the magnitude of the tensile property changes with varying Cr or Al content. Also, there was no evidence of embrittlement; the material in the fusion zones demonstrated ductile behavior with high local ductility.

  1. Cassava cyanogens and free amino acids in raw and cooked leaves.

    PubMed

    Ngudi, D Diasolua; Kuo, Y-H; Lambein, F

    2003-08-01

    Cassava leaves (Manihot esculenta Crantz) constitute the main daily source of protein as supplement to the major staple food, the processed cassava roots in remote rural areas of Africa. Konzo, an upper motoneurone disease with permanent spastic paralysis of both legs, has been reported among populations consuming this unbalanced diet. In commercial pounded cassava leaves residual cyanogens and the presence of inherent potentially toxic non-protein amino acids were analysed to check their safety. The initial total cyanogens before cooking ranged from 35.9+/-0.4 to 107.5+/-0.8 mg HCN (hydrogen cyanide) equivalent kg(-1) dry weight. After cooking, the residual cyanogens were significantly reduced (P<0.05) ranging from 0.30+/-0.04 to 1.9+/-0.2 mg HCN equivalent kg(-1) dry weight, and were below the recommended FAO/WHO safe limit set at 10 mg HCN equivalent kg(-1) dry weight. The total free amino acids and trigonelline (N-methyl-nicotinic acid) detected varied from 10.8 g kg(-1) dry weight to 38.2 g kg(-1) dry weight in the raw and from 7.4 g kg(-1) dry weight to 25.6 g kg(-1) dry weight in the cooked cassava leaves. The non-protein amino acids gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) and alpha-amino butyric acid (alpha-ABA) were detected. No known potentially toxic non-protein amino acid was found. In konzo-affected areas, cassava leaves with inadequate preparation and cooking can be a non-negligible source of dietary exposure to cyanogens apart from the cassava roots that are suggested to be involved in the aetiology of konzo.

  2. Sulphur cycling between terrestrial agroecosystem and atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Zgorelec, Zeljka; Pehnec, Gordana; Bašić, Ferdo; Kisić, Ivica; Mesić, Milan; Zužul, Silva; Jurišić, Aleksandra; Sestak, Ivana; Vađić, Vladimira; Cačković, Mirjana

    2012-09-01

    Central gas station of the natural gas borehole system Podravina is located near the village Molve. It delivers more than a quarter of total energy used in Croatia to its consumers. Over the years, adapting technology to increasingly demanding and rigorous standards in environmental protection has become paramount. Yet, despite all the industry has undertaken to address the risk of harmful substances entering the food chain, a multidisciplinary research team of independent scientists monitors the content of specific substances in all components of the ecosystem. This paper presents measurements of total sulphur contents in soil surface [(0 to 3) cm] and subsurface [(3 to 8) cm] layers (study period: autumn 2006 - spring 2010) and in plants (study period: spring 2000 - spring 2010), and the concentration of gaseous sulphur compounds in the air. Concentrations of hydrogen sulphide (H2S) and mercaptans (RSH) were measured from the summer of 2002 until the autumn of 2010, while concentrations of sulphur dioxide (SO2) were measured from the spring of 2008 until the autumn of 2010. The paper also shows total annual atmospheric sulphur (S-SO4) deposition at Bilogora measuring station (study period: 2001 - 2010). Average monthly concentrations of H2S in air varied between 0.2 μg m-3 and 2.0 μg m-3, RSH between 0.1 μg m-3 and 24.5 μg m-3, and SO2 between 0.4 μg m-3 and 2.8 μg m-3 depending on the location and the season of sampling. Mean values of total sulphur in soil and in Plantago lanceolata plant ranged between 610 mg kg-1 and 1,599 mg kg-1 and between 3,614 mg kg-1 and 4,342 mg kg-1, respectively, depending on the soil type, location, and sampling depth. Average values of total sulphur mass ratio for all examined single soil samples (n=80) were 1,080 mg kg-1 for both studied layers, and 4,108 mg kg-1 for all analysed plant samples (n=85). Average total annual atmospheric sulphur deposition at Bilogora measuring station was 6.3 kg of S-SO4 per hectare.

  3. Recovering biomethane and nutrients from anaerobic digestion of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) and its co-digestion with fruit and vegetable waste.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Shek, M A; Cadavid-Rodríguez, L S; Bolaños, I V; Agudelo-Henao, A C

    2016-01-01

    The potential to recover bioenergy from anaerobic digestion of water hyacinth (WH) and from its co-digestion with fruit and vegetable waste (FVW) was investigated. Initially, biogas and methane production were studied using the biochemical methane potential (BMP) test at 2 g volatile solids (VS) L(-1) of substrate concentration, both in the digestion of WH alone and in its co-digestion with FVW (WH-FVW ratio of 70:30). Subsequently, the biogas production was optimized in terms of total solids (TS) concentration, testing 4 and 6% of TS. The BMP test showed a biogas yield of 0.114 m(3) biogas kg(-1) VSadded for WH alone. On the other hand, the biogas potential from the WH-FVW co-digestion was 0.141 m(3) biogas kg(-1) VSadded, showing an increase of 23% compared to that of WH alone. Maximum biogas production of 0.230 m(3) biogas kg(-1) VSadded was obtained at 4% of TS in the co-digestion of WH-FVW. Using semi-continuously stirred tank reactors, 1.3 m(3) biogas yield kg(-1) VSadded was produced using an organic loading rate of 2 kg VS m(-3) d(-1) and hydraulic retention time of 15 days. It was also found that a WH-FVW ratio of 80:20 improved the process in terms of pH stability. Additionally, it was found that nitrogen can be recovered in the liquid effluent with a potential for use as a liquid fertilizer. PMID:26819391

  4. Recovering biomethane and nutrients from anaerobic digestion of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) and its co-digestion with fruit and vegetable waste.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Shek, M A; Cadavid-Rodríguez, L S; Bolaños, I V; Agudelo-Henao, A C

    2016-01-01

    The potential to recover bioenergy from anaerobic digestion of water hyacinth (WH) and from its co-digestion with fruit and vegetable waste (FVW) was investigated. Initially, biogas and methane production were studied using the biochemical methane potential (BMP) test at 2 g volatile solids (VS) L(-1) of substrate concentration, both in the digestion of WH alone and in its co-digestion with FVW (WH-FVW ratio of 70:30). Subsequently, the biogas production was optimized in terms of total solids (TS) concentration, testing 4 and 6% of TS. The BMP test showed a biogas yield of 0.114 m(3) biogas kg(-1) VSadded for WH alone. On the other hand, the biogas potential from the WH-FVW co-digestion was 0.141 m(3) biogas kg(-1) VSadded, showing an increase of 23% compared to that of WH alone. Maximum biogas production of 0.230 m(3) biogas kg(-1) VSadded was obtained at 4% of TS in the co-digestion of WH-FVW. Using semi-continuously stirred tank reactors, 1.3 m(3) biogas yield kg(-1) VSadded was produced using an organic loading rate of 2 kg VS m(-3) d(-1) and hydraulic retention time of 15 days. It was also found that a WH-FVW ratio of 80:20 improved the process in terms of pH stability. Additionally, it was found that nitrogen can be recovered in the liquid effluent with a potential for use as a liquid fertilizer.

  5. Assessment of environmental radioactivity for Batman, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Damla, Nevzat; Cevik, Ugur; Kobya, Ali Ihsan; Ataksor, Berna; Isik, Umit

    2010-01-01

    The province of Batman, located in southern Anatolia, has a population of approximately 500,000. To our knowledge, there exists no information regarding the environmental radioactivity in this province. Therefore, gamma activity measurements in soil, building materials and water samples and an indoor radon survey have been carried out in the Batman province. The mean activity concentrations of the natural radionuclides (226Ra, 232Th and 40K) and a fission product (137Cs) were 35+/-8, 25+/-10, 274+/-167 and 12+/-7 Bq kg(-1), respectively, in the soil samples. The concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in the selected building materials ranged from 18 to 48 Bq kg(-1), 8 to 49 Bq kg(-1) and 68 to 477 Bq kg(-1), respectively. All the calculated radium equivalent (Raeq) activity values of the building material samples are lower than the limit of 370 Bq kg(-1), equivalent to a gamma-dose of 1.5 mSv year(-1). The activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in tap waters collected from the study area were determined with mean specific activity concentrations of 42+/-15, 35+/-9 and 524+/-190 mBq L(-1), respectively. Indoor radon measurements were made at 95 dwellings in Batman using a CR-39 detector. The radon concentration levels were found to vary from 23 to 145 Bq m(-3). The arithmetic mean of the measured radon concentration levels was found to be 84 Bq m(-3) with a standard deviation value of 23 Bq m(-3). The measurement results obtained in this study did not significantly differ from those taken in other parts of the country. The data generated in this study can be used to determine whether the Batman province is in a normal or high background radiation area and provides a valuable database for future estimations of the impact of radioactive pollution.

  6. Monitoring 137Cs and 134Cs at marine coasts in Indonesia between 2011 and 2013.

    PubMed

    Suseno, Heny; Prihatiningsih, Wahyu Retno

    2014-11-15

    Environmental samples (seawater, sediments and biota) were collected along the eastern and western Indonesian coasts between 2011 and 2013 to anticipate the possible impacts of the Fukushima radioactive releases in Indonesia. On the eastern coasts (south and north Sulawesi), the (137)Cs concentrations in the seawater and sediments were 0.12-0.32 Bq m(-3) and 0.10-1.03 Bq kg(-1), respectively. On the western coasts (West Sumatra, Bangka Island, North Java, South Java and Madura island), the (137)Cs concentrations in the seawater and sediments were 0.12-0.66 Bq m(-3) and 0.19-1.64 Bq kg(-1), respectively. In general, the (137)Cs concentrations in the fish from several Indonesian coasts were kg(-1). In contrast, the (137)Cs concentrations in mollusk, crab and prawn were 10.65-38.78, 4.02 and 6.16 mBq kg(-1), respectively. (134)Cs was not detected in the seawater, sediments or biota. Thus, it was concluded that (137)Cs on the eastern and western Indonesian coasts originated from global fallout.

  7. Estimation of environmental flow requirements for the river ecosystem in the Haihe River Basin, China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tao; Liu, Jingling; Chen, Qiuying; Zhang, Jing; Yang, Yi

    2013-01-01

    The temporal and spatial environmental flow requirements (EFRs) for the river ecosystem of the Haihe River Basin were analyzed based mainly on the eco-functional regionalization of available water resources. The annual EFRs for the river ecosystem of the Haihe River Basin were 47.71 × 10(8) m(3), which accounted for 18% of the average annual flow (263.9 × 10(8) m(3)). The EFRs for river reaches, wetlands, and estuaries were 22.67, 15.32 and 9.72 × 10(8) m(3), respectively. Moreover, the EFRs for the river ecosystem during the wet (June to October), normal (April, May, November), and dry (December to March) periods were 29.99, 9.51 and 8.21 × 10(8) m(3), respectively. Thus, toward a more integrated water resource allocation in the Haihe River Basin, the primary effort should focus on meeting the EFRs for river systems located in protected areas during the dry period.

  8. Subsoil TPH contamination in two oil pipeline pumping stations and one pipeline right-of-way in north Mexico.

    PubMed

    Iturbe, R; Flores-Serrano, R M; Castro, A; Flores, C; Torres, L G

    2010-11-01

    This investigation deals with the characterization carried out in zones around two pipeline pumping stations and one pipeline right-of-way in the north of Mexico. In particular those areas where contamination was evaluated: (a) south area of the separation ditch in the Avalos station, (b) the area between the separation ditch at the Avalos station, (c) km 194+420 of the Moctuzma station, and (d) km 286+900 in the Candelaria station. Results of this investigation showed that only four samples showed TPH values higher than the Mexican limit for 2004: AVA 1B, with 21,191 mg kg(-1); AVA 1C, with 9348 mg kg(-1); AVA 2B, with 13,970 mg kg(-1); and MOC 2A, with 4108 mg kg(-1).None of the sampled points showed the presence of PAHs at values higher than those found in the Mexican or American legislations. PAH were detected in the range of 0.0004 and 13.05 mg kg(-1).It is suggested to implement surfactant soil washing as a remediation technique for the approximately 600 m(3) that need to be treated.

  9. Subsoil TPH contamination in two oil pipeline pumping stations and one pipeline right-of-way in north Mexico.

    PubMed

    Iturbe, R; Flores-Serrano, R M; Castro, A; Flores, C; Torres, L G

    2010-11-01

    This investigation deals with the characterization carried out in zones around two pipeline pumping stations and one pipeline right-of-way in the north of Mexico. In particular those areas where contamination was evaluated: (a) south area of the separation ditch in the Avalos station, (b) the area between the separation ditch at the Avalos station, (c) km 194+420 of the Moctuzma station, and (d) km 286+900 in the Candelaria station. Results of this investigation showed that only four samples showed TPH values higher than the Mexican limit for 2004: AVA 1B, with 21,191 mg kg(-1); AVA 1C, with 9348 mg kg(-1); AVA 2B, with 13,970 mg kg(-1); and MOC 2A, with 4108 mg kg(-1).None of the sampled points showed the presence of PAHs at values higher than those found in the Mexican or American legislations. PAH were detected in the range of 0.0004 and 13.05 mg kg(-1).It is suggested to implement surfactant soil washing as a remediation technique for the approximately 600 m(3) that need to be treated. PMID:20674145

  10. Buffer standards for the physiological pH of the zwitterionic compound of 3-(N-morpholino)propanesulfonic acid (MOPS) from T = (278.15 to 328.15) K.

    PubMed

    Roy, Lakshmi N; Roy, Rabindra N; Allen, Kathleen A; Mehrhoff, Casey J; Henson, Isaac B; Stegner, Jessica M

    2012-04-01

    This paper reports the pH values of five NaCl-free buffer solutions and eleven buffer compositions containing NaCl at I = 0.16 mol·kg(-1). Conventional pa(H) values are reported for sixteen buffer solutions with and without NaCl salt. The operational pH values have been calculated for five buffer solutions and are recommended as pH standards at T = (298.15 and 310.15) K after correcting the liquid junction potentials. For buffer solutions with the composition m(1) = 0.04 mol·kg(-1), m(2) = 0.08 mol·kg(-1), m(3) = 0.08 mol·kg(-1) at I = 0.16 mol·kg(-1), the pH at 310.15 K is 7.269, which is close to 7.407, the pH of blood serum. It is recommended as a pH standard for biological specimens.

  11. Dietary administration of chitooligosaccharides to enhance growth, innate immune response and disease resistance of Trachinotus ovatus.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shimei; Mao, Shuhong; Guan, Yong; Lin, Xin; Luo, Li

    2012-05-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary chitooligosaccharides (COS) supplementation on the innate immune response and protection against Vibrio harveyi infection in Trachinotus ovatus. A basal diet was supplemented with 0.0 (control), 2.0, 4.0 and 6.0 g COS kg(-1) to formulate four experimental diets. Each diet was randomly allocated to triplicate groups of fish in floating sea cages (1.5 × 1.0 × 2.0 m), and each cage was stocked with 80 fish (initial average weight 10.8 ± 0.05 g). After 8 weeks of feeding trial, Both the final weight and specific growth rate (SGR) significantly increased with increasing dietary COS levels up to 4.0 g kg(-1), whereas there were no significant differences for COS levels from 4.0 to 6.0 g kg(-1). A decreased feed conversion ratio (FCR) was observed with increasing dietary COS levels. The total leukocyte counts (WBC), differential leukocyte counts, respiratory burst activity, lysozyme and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were significantly increased with the increased levels of dietary COS (P < 0.05), and reached a maximum at level of 4.0 g kg(-1) COS. There were no significant differences in those immunological parameters between 4.0 and 6.0 g kg(-1) COS. Moreover, the dietary COS supplementation groups also exhibited a decrease in the cumulative symptom rates compared to the controls when challenged with V. harveyi. These results indicated that dietary intake containing COS could enhance the immune responses of fish and improve its resistance to infection by V. harveyi. Especially supplementation with 4.0 g kg(-1) COS to the fish for 56 days showed considerable improvement in the growth, survival and immune response of the fish.

  12. Effects of Methadone on the Minimum Anesthetic Concentration of Isoflurane, and Its Effects on Heart Rate, Blood Pressure and Ventilation during Isoflurane Anesthesia in Hens (Gallus gallus domesticus)

    PubMed Central

    Pypendop, Bruno Henri; Zangirolami Filho, Darcio; Sousa, Samuel Santos; Valadão, Carlos Augusto Araújo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the temporal effects of intramuscular methadone administration on the minimum anesthetic concentration (MAC) of isoflurane in hens, and to evaluate the effects of the isoflurane-methadone combination on heart rate and rhythm, blood pressure and ventilation. Thirteen healthy adult hens weighing 1.7 ± 0.2 kg were used. The MAC of isoflurane was determined in each individual using the bracketing method. Subsequently, the reduction in isoflurane MAC produced by methadone (3 or 6 mg kg-1, IM) was determined by the up-and-down method. Stimulation was applied at 15 and 30 minutes, and at 45 minutes if the bird had not moved at 30 minutes. Isoflurane MAC reduction was calculated at each time point using logistic regression. After a washout period, birds were anesthetized with isoflurane and methadone, 6 mg kg-1 IM was administered. Heart rate and rhythm, respiratory rate, blood gas values and invasive blood pressure were measured at 1.0 and 0.7 isoflurane MAC, and during 45 minutes after administration of methadone once birds were anesthetized with 0.7 isoflurane MAC. Fifteen minutes after administration of 3 mg kg-1 of methadone, isoflurane MAC was reduced by 2 (-9 to 13)% [logistic regression estimate (95% Wald confidence interval)]. Administration of 6 mg kg-1 of methadone decreased isoflurane MAC by 29 (11 to 46)%, 27 (-3 to 56)% and 10 (-8 to 28)% after 15, 30 and 45 minutes, respectively. Methadone (6 mg kg-1) induced atrioventricular block in three animals and ventricular premature contractions in two. Methadone caused an increase in arterial blood pressure and arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide, while heart rate and pH decreased. Methadone, 6 mg kg-1 IM significantly reduced isoflurane MAC by 30% in hens 15 minutes after administration. At this dose, methadone caused mild respiratory acidosis and increase in systemic blood pressure. PMID:27018890

  13. Probabilistic health risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and polychlorinated biphenyls in urban soils from a tropical city of India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Bhupander; Verma, Virendra Kumar; Kumar, Sanjay; Sharma, Chandra Shekhar

    2013-01-01

    Distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in urban soils, and their risk for humans was evaluated and presented in this article. The average concentration of ∑16PAHs, ∑carcinogenic PAHs, ∑28PCBs and ∑dioxin-like PCBs was 631.6 ± 244.5 μg kg(-1), 568.8 ± 238.8 μg kg(-1), 11.57 ± 2.00 μg kg(-1) and 2.58 ± 0.34 μg kg(-1), respectively. Environmental and human health risk assessment parameters such as benzo(a)pyrene total potency equivalent (BaP TPE), index of additive cancer risk (IACR), life time average daily dose (LADD) and incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) have been estimated and discussed. The average benzo(a)pyrene total potency equivalent (BaP TPE) estimate was 0.194 mg kg(-1) and ranging between 8.9×10(-4) to 0.87 mg kg(-1). The incremental life time cancer risk (ILCR) of PAHs through soil ingestion for adults and children was estimated as 8.1×10(-6) and 4.2×10(-5), respectively. However, the cancer risk (ILCR) from non-dioxin-like PCBs and dioxin-like PCBs for adults and children ranged between 3.31×10(-8) to 1.741×10(-7) and 1.46×10(-5) to 7.56×10(-5), respectively. These estimated risks were lower than acceptable limits, based on incremental cancer risk from soil exposure. Overall, index of additive cancer risk (IACR) and hazard quotient (HQ) for PAHs and PCBs was lower than safe limit of 1, indicating no environmental and human health risk from PAHs and PCBs in this area of study. PMID:23647116

  14. Erratum: The maraging-steel blades of the Virgo super attenuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braccini, S.; Casciano, C.; Cordero, F.; Corvace, F.; De Sanctis, M.; Franco, R; Frasconi, F.; Majorana, E.; Paparo, G.; Passaquieti, R.; Rapagnani, P.; Ricci, F.; Righetti, D.; Solina, A.; Valentini, R.

    2004-03-01

    In this article the same symbol cp was used on page 475 for unit volume and for unit mass. This has confused some readers. In equation (17) cp is expressed per unit mass (470 J kg-1 K-1), whereas in the text cp is expressed per unit volume (cp~3.7×106 J m-3 K-1). In terms of cp per unit volume, equation (17) becomes Dth = lambda/cp. The value of Dth remains valid.

  15. Simple pendulum determination of the gravitational constant.

    PubMed

    Parks, Harold V; Faller, James E

    2010-09-10

    We determined the Newtonian constant of gravitation G by interferometrically measuring the change in spacing between two free-hanging pendulum masses caused by the gravitational field from large tungsten source masses. We find a value for G of (6.672 34±0.000 14)×10(-11)  m3kg(-1)  s(-2). This value is in good agreement with the 1986 Committee on Data for Science and Technology (CODATA) value of (6.672 59±0.000 85)×10(-11)   m3kg(-1)  s(-2) [Rev. Mod. Phys. 59, 1121 (1987)] but differs from some more recent determinations as well as the latest CODATA recommendation of (6.674 28±0.000 67)×10(-11)   m3kg(-1)  s(-2) [Rev. Mod. Phys. 80, 633 (2008)].

  16. Development and validation of an indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for monitoring organoarsenic compounds in edible chicken and pork and feed.

    PubMed

    Peng, Dapeng; Feng, Liang; Pan, Yuanhu; Wang, Yulian; Chen, Dongmei; Wang, Juan; Yuan, Zonghui

    2016-04-15

    For the first time in this study, we used molecular modelling to design a suitable hapten (arsanilic acid, ASA) and produced a broad-specificity monoclonal antibody (mAb). This mAb exhibited the IC50 for ASA was 913.7 μg L(-1) and showed the cross-reactivity to ASA (100%), carbarsone (849.2%), and nitarsone (1159.5%), respectively. Based on this mAb, an optimised indirect competitive enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ic-ELISA) protocol was developed to monitor organoarsenic compounds (OAs) in edible chicken and pork and feed, which the detection limit for OAs in a muscle matrix ranged from 74.2 μg kg(-1) to 143.3 μg kg(-1) and in a feed matrix ranged from 7.4 mg kg(-1) to 11.8 mg kg(-1), the recoveries were 61.3-109.6% with a coefficient of variation of less than 10.8%. These data demonstrated that the developed ic-ELISA is a reliable and useful tool for screening OAs in edible chicken and pork and feed.

  17. Effect of dietary lysine on growth, intestinal enzymes activities and antioxidant status of sub-adult grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    PubMed

    Li, Xue-Yin; Tang, Ling; Hu, Kai; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Jiang, Jun; Wu, Pei; Chen, Gang-Fu; Li, Shu-Hong; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Feng, Lin; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu

    2014-06-01

    The dietary lysine requirement of sub-adult grass carp (460 ± 1.5 g) was assessed by feeding diets supplemented with grade levels of lysine (6.6, 8.5, 10.8, 12.9, 15.0 and 16.7 g kg(-1) diet) for 56 days. The test diets (28% CP) contained fish meal, casein and gelatin as sources of intact protein, supplemented with crystalline amino acids. Weight gain (WG), feed intake and feed efficiency were significantly improved with increasing levels of lysine up to 12.9 g kg(-1) diet and thereafter declined (P < 0.05). Quadratic regression analysis of WG at 95% maximum response indicated lysine requirement was 10.9 g kg(-1) diet. Activities of trypsin, chymotrypsin, lipase, Na(+), K(+)-ATPase and alkaline phosphatase in intestine, creatine kinase activity in proximal and mid-intestine responded similar to WG (P < 0.05). In addition, lipid and protein oxidation decreased with increasing levels of lysine up to certain values and increased thereafter (P < 0.05); the anti-hydroxyl radical capacity, dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activities and glutathione content were increased with increasing dietary lysine levels up to certain values in the detected tissues, except for hepatopancreatic GST. Requirement estimated on the basis of malondialdehyde content in intestine and hepatopancreas was 10.6 and 9.53 g lysine kg(-1) diet, respectively. PMID:24174167

  18. [Characteristics of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from biofuel combustion in China].

    PubMed

    Li, Xing-Hua; Wang, Shu-Xiao; Hao, Ji-Ming

    2011-12-01

    Biofuel combustion is an important source of VOCs in China. Measurements were conducted to determine the characteristics of VOCs emitted from combustion of 5 typical biofuels. A carbon mass balance method was used to determine VOCs emission factors. The emission factors of the total VOCs from agricultural residues and wood combustion are (4.37 +/- 2.23) g x kg(-1) and (2.12 +/- 0.77) g x kg(-1), respectively. The emission factors of the agricultural residues are higher than those of the wood. Aromatics and aldehydes dominate the VOC emissions, both accounting for over 25% of the total VOC emissions. Distribution of VOC components from agricultural residues and wood combustion are similar, except for halogenated hydrocarbons and nitriles. On the basis of measured emission factors and the published maximum incremental reactivity values for VOCs, the ozone forming potential (OFPs) of speciated VOCs is estimated. The results indicate that the average OFPs of the total VOCs from agricultural residues and wood combustion are (16.9 +/- 8.2) g x kg(-1) and (10.8 +/- 4.9) g x kg(-1), respectively. The components with the highest OFPs values are: aldehydes, aromatics and alkenes/alkynes. Aldehydes accounts for over 50% of the total OFPs.

  19. Development and validation of an indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for monitoring organoarsenic compounds in edible chicken and pork and feed.

    PubMed

    Peng, Dapeng; Feng, Liang; Pan, Yuanhu; Wang, Yulian; Chen, Dongmei; Wang, Juan; Yuan, Zonghui

    2016-04-15

    For the first time in this study, we used molecular modelling to design a suitable hapten (arsanilic acid, ASA) and produced a broad-specificity monoclonal antibody (mAb). This mAb exhibited the IC50 for ASA was 913.7 μg L(-1) and showed the cross-reactivity to ASA (100%), carbarsone (849.2%), and nitarsone (1159.5%), respectively. Based on this mAb, an optimised indirect competitive enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ic-ELISA) protocol was developed to monitor organoarsenic compounds (OAs) in edible chicken and pork and feed, which the detection limit for OAs in a muscle matrix ranged from 74.2 μg kg(-1) to 143.3 μg kg(-1) and in a feed matrix ranged from 7.4 mg kg(-1) to 11.8 mg kg(-1), the recoveries were 61.3-109.6% with a coefficient of variation of less than 10.8%. These data demonstrated that the developed ic-ELISA is a reliable and useful tool for screening OAs in edible chicken and pork and feed. PMID:26617022

  20. A simple and fast method for the inspection of preservatives in cheeses and cream by liquid chromatography- electrospray tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Molognoni, Luciano; de Sá Ploêncio, Leandro Antunes; Valese, Andressa Camargo; De Dea Lindner, Juliano; Daguer, Heitor

    2016-01-15

    In this work, a simplified extraction and short time of analysis method for the simultaneous determination of natamycin, nisin and sorbic acid in cheeses and cream by reverse phase liquid chromatography-electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry was developed. Full validation was performed according to the Commission Decision 2002/657/EC criteria and method applicability was checked on several samples, aiming to inspect their compliance with regulatory limits. The method was linear in the concentration ranges of 0-10mg kg(-1) (natamycin), 0-25mg kg(-1) (nisin) and 0 20mg kg(-1) (sorbic acid). Samples of the three most consumed types of cheese (fresh, pasta filata and ripened) in Brazil and cream (ultra high temperature and pasteurized, 20-30% fat content) were assessed. A surprising rate of non-compliance was observed, especially among ripened grated cheeses, since 80% of samples were above the maximum limit for sorbic acid with an average concentration of 2766.3±10.8mg kg(-1). Moreover, a major non-compliance for the cream samples was observed. The proposed method can be applied as an efficient tool for the inspection of preservatives in cheeses and cream. PMID:26592621

  1. A simple and fast method for the inspection of preservatives in cheeses and cream by liquid chromatography- electrospray tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Molognoni, Luciano; de Sá Ploêncio, Leandro Antunes; Valese, Andressa Camargo; De Dea Lindner, Juliano; Daguer, Heitor

    2016-01-15

    In this work, a simplified extraction and short time of analysis method for the simultaneous determination of natamycin, nisin and sorbic acid in cheeses and cream by reverse phase liquid chromatography-electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry was developed. Full validation was performed according to the Commission Decision 2002/657/EC criteria and method applicability was checked on several samples, aiming to inspect their compliance with regulatory limits. The method was linear in the concentration ranges of 0-10mg kg(-1) (natamycin), 0-25mg kg(-1) (nisin) and 0 20mg kg(-1) (sorbic acid). Samples of the three most consumed types of cheese (fresh, pasta filata and ripened) in Brazil and cream (ultra high temperature and pasteurized, 20-30% fat content) were assessed. A surprising rate of non-compliance was observed, especially among ripened grated cheeses, since 80% of samples were above the maximum limit for sorbic acid with an average concentration of 2766.3±10.8mg kg(-1). Moreover, a major non-compliance for the cream samples was observed. The proposed method can be applied as an efficient tool for the inspection of preservatives in cheeses and cream.

  2. [Research on the virtual water composition and virtual water trade for agriculture in Beijing].

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong-rui; Wang, Yan; Wang, Jun-hong; Dong, Yan-yan; Han, Zhao-xing

    2007-12-01

    Based on the irrigation norm of typical district and county, and revised by the isoline map of Chinese crops water demand, the change of crops program was analyzed as well as the agricultural water use and its GDP benefits. Then the virtual water was calculated for years. At last, the input-output method was used to calculate the trade of virtual water in Beijing. As the results, the virtual water for cereal crops has been decreasing in Beijing, from 1.832 x 10(9) m3 in 1990 to 4.283 x 10(8) m3 in 2004. Otherwise the virtual water for technical crops has been increasing, which is from 9.06 x 10(8) m3 in 1990 to 1.492 x 10(9) m3 in 2004. On the whole, the virtual water for crops has been decreasing in Beijing. From the angle of primary products Beijing is a virtual water importing area. Virtual water importing of annual average is 2.37 x 10(8) m3, which is about 5.93% of the total water of Beijing. Virtual water has been an important supplement of local real water of Beijing.

  3. Performance evaluation of upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor process for dairy wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Elangovan, C; Sekar, A S S

    2015-11-01

    Investigation on dairy wastewater treatment was undertaken at ambient temperature in 11 l effective volume of laboratory--scale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor receiving an average influent chemical oxygen demand of 2100 mg 1(-1) for 3 months of 24 hours, hydraulic retention time. The feeds of the synthetic dairy wastewater operated with HRT of 12 hrs, 16 hrs, 20 hrs and 24 hrs was equivalent to organic loading rates of 1.20 kg COD m(-3) d-7.20 kg COD m(-3) d, 0.9 kg COD m(-3) d-5.40 kg COD m(-3) d, 0.72 kg COD m(-3) d--4.32 kg COD m(-3) d and 0.60 kg COD m(-3) d-3.60 kg COD m(-3) d respectively. After steady state condition was reached, which took about 2 months, the effluent quality parameter were sampled and analysed to quantify treatment efficiencies. The following removal efficiency observed were 73-94.33% COD; 50.04- 56.66% total solids; 45.55-70.63% total dissolved solids; 66-86.67% total nitrogen and 72-94% total phosphorous. Maximum biogas production rate was 383 l kg(-1) COD removed with 260 l of methane gas. Estimation of biogas production was analysed using artificial neural network software model, and the results predicted coincided well with the experimental results. PMID:26688965

  4. Relevant magnetic and soil parameters as potential indicators of soil conservation status of Mediterranean agroecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quijano, Laura; Chaparro, Marcos A. E.; Marié, Débora C.; Gaspar, Leticia; Navas, Ana

    2014-09-01

    The main sources of magnetic minerals in soils unaffected by anthropogenic pollution are iron oxides and hydroxides derived from parent materials through soil formation processes. Soil magnetic minerals can be used as indicators of environmental factors including soil forming processes, degree of pedogenesis, weathering processes and biological activities. In this study measurements of magnetic susceptibility are used to detect the presence and the concentration of soil magnetic minerals in topsoil and bulk samples in a small cultivated field, which forms a hydrological unit that can be considered to be representative of the rainfed agroecosystems of Mediterranean mountain environments. Additional magnetic studies such as isothermal remanent magnetization (IRM), anhysteretic remanent magnetization (ARM) and thermomagnetic measurements are used to identify and characterize the magnetic mineralogy of soil minerals. The objectives were to analyse the spatial variability of the magnetic parameters to assess whether topographic factors, soil redistribution processes, and soil properties such as soil texture, organic matter and carbonate contents analysed in this study, are related to the spatial distribution pattern of magnetic properties. The medians of mass specific magnetic susceptibility at low frequency (χlf) were 36.0 and 31.1 × 10-8 m3 kg-1 in bulk and topsoil samples respectively. High correlation coefficients were found between the χlf in topsoil and bulk core samples (r = 0.951, p < 0.01). In addition, volumetric magnetic susceptibility was measured in situ in the field (κis) and values varied from 13.3 to 64.0 × 10-5 SI. High correlation coefficients were found between χlf in topsoil measured in the laboratory and volumetric magnetic susceptibility field measurements (r = 0.894, p < 0.01). The results obtained from magnetic studies such as IRM, ARM and thermomagnetic measurements show the presence of magnetite, which is the predominant magnetic carrier

  5. Mineral magnetism of atmospheric dust over southwest coast of India: Impact of anthropogenic activities and implications to public health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warrier, Anish Kumar; Shankar, R.; Manjunatha, B. R.; Harshavardhana, B. G.

    2014-03-01

    We have used rock magnetic techniques in this study to assess atmospheric pollution at five stations in and around Mangalore city on the southwestern coast of India. Samples of dust were collected from two suburban areas (Thokkottu and Pumpwell located respectively ~ 10 km and 3 km from the city center), the city center itself (Milagres) and industrial/port areas (Panambur and Mangalore Refinery and Petrochemicals Limited (MRPL)). Low-frequency magnetic susceptibility (χlf), frequency-dependent susceptibility (χfd), susceptibility of anhysteretic remanent magnetization (χARM) and isothermal remanent magnetization (IRM 20 to 1000 mT) were determined on 23 dust samples and inter-parametric ratios calculated. Results show that samples from suburban areas (particularly Thokkottu) are characterized by low χlf (< 314.1 × 10- 8 m3 kg- 1) and up to 6% χfd, suggesting low levels of pollution and the presence of pedogenic magnetite possibly derived from soils by wind erosion. However, the average χlf of Milagres, Panambur and MRPL dust samples is high by factors of 9.2, 3.3 and 2.6 compared to that of the Thokkottu sample. The Milagres sample contains magnetically "soft" minerals like magnetite, possibly indicating its derivation from motor vehicle exhaust. In contrast, the Panambur dust sample is characterized by magnetically "hard" minerals such as hematite and goethite as it has an 8-fold higher HIRM value compared to the Thokkottu sample. This magnetic signature is perhaps the result of dust particles derived from the grinding of hematite-rich iron ore by the Kudremukh Iron Ore Company Limited (KIOCL) at Panambur and its storage and export through the nearby New Mangalore Port. However, the dust sample from MRPL has magnetically "soft" minerals like magnetite. This magnetic mineral may have originated from petroleum refining processes at MRPL. Particulate pollution from industrial activities and motor vehicle exhaust is a threat to human health and is known to

  6. Concentration of cadmium in cacao beans and its relationship with soil cadmium in southern Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Chavez, E; He, Z L; Stoffella, P J; Mylavarapu, R S; Li, Y C; Moyano, B; Baligar, V C

    2015-11-15

    Cadmium (Cd) content in cacao beans above a critical level (0.6 mg kg(-1)) has raised concerns in the consumption of cacao-based chocolate. Little is available regarding Cd concentration in soil and cacao in Ecuador. The aim of this study was to determine the status of Cd in both, soils and cacao plants, in southern Ecuador. Soil samples were collected from 19 farms at 0-5, 5-15, 15-30, and 30-50 cm depths, whereas plant samples were taken from four nearby trees. Total recoverable and extractable Cd were measured at the different soil depths. Total recoverable Cd ranged from 0.88 to 2.45 and 0.06 to 2.59, averaged 1.54 and 0.85 mg kg(-1), respectively in the surface and subsurface soils whereas the corresponding values for M3-extractable Cd were 0.08 to 1.27 and 0.02 to 0.33 with mean values of 0.40 and 0.10 mg kg(-1). Surface soil in all sampling sites had total recoverable Cd above the USEPA critical level for agricultural soils (0.43 mg kg(-1)), indicating that Cd pollution occurs. Since both total recoverable and M3-extractable Cd significantly decreased depth wise, anthropogenic activities are more likely the source of contamination. Cadmium in cacao tissues decreased in the order of beans>shell>leaves. Cadmium content in cacao beans ranged from 0.02 to 3.00, averaged 0.94 mg kg(-1), and 12 out of 19 sites had bean Cd content above the critical level. Bean Cd concentration was highly correlated with M3- or HCl-extractable Cd at both the 0-5 and 5-15 cm depths (r=0.80 and 0.82 for M3, and r=0.78 and 0.82 for HCl; P<0.01). These results indicate that accumulation of Cd in surface layers results in excessive Cd in cacao beans and M3- or HCl-extractable Cd are suitable methods for predicting available Cd in the studied soils. PMID:26172587

  7. Concentration of cadmium in cacao beans and its relationship with soil cadmium in southern Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Chavez, E; He, Z L; Stoffella, P J; Mylavarapu, R S; Li, Y C; Moyano, B; Baligar, V C

    2015-11-15

    Cadmium (Cd) content in cacao beans above a critical level (0.6 mg kg(-1)) has raised concerns in the consumption of cacao-based chocolate. Little is available regarding Cd concentration in soil and cacao in Ecuador. The aim of this study was to determine the status of Cd in both, soils and cacao plants, in southern Ecuador. Soil samples were collected from 19 farms at 0-5, 5-15, 15-30, and 30-50 cm depths, whereas plant samples were taken from four nearby trees. Total recoverable and extractable Cd were measured at the different soil depths. Total recoverable Cd ranged from 0.88 to 2.45 and 0.06 to 2.59, averaged 1.54 and 0.85 mg kg(-1), respectively in the surface and subsurface soils whereas the corresponding values for M3-extractable Cd were 0.08 to 1.27 and 0.02 to 0.33 with mean values of 0.40 and 0.10 mg kg(-1). Surface soil in all sampling sites had total recoverable Cd above the USEPA critical level for agricultural soils (0.43 mg kg(-1)), indicating that Cd pollution occurs. Since both total recoverable and M3-extractable Cd significantly decreased depth wise, anthropogenic activities are more likely the source of contamination. Cadmium in cacao tissues decreased in the order of beans>shell>leaves. Cadmium content in cacao beans ranged from 0.02 to 3.00, averaged 0.94 mg kg(-1), and 12 out of 19 sites had bean Cd content above the critical level. Bean Cd concentration was highly correlated with M3- or HCl-extractable Cd at both the 0-5 and 5-15 cm depths (r=0.80 and 0.82 for M3, and r=0.78 and 0.82 for HCl; P<0.01). These results indicate that accumulation of Cd in surface layers results in excessive Cd in cacao beans and M3- or HCl-extractable Cd are suitable methods for predicting available Cd in the studied soils.

  8. Assessment of the risk of pollution by sulfur compounds and heavy metals in soils located in the proximity of a disused for 20 years sulfur mine (SE Poland).

    PubMed

    Sołek-Podwika, Katarzyna; Ciarkowska, Krystyna; Kaleta, Dorota

    2016-09-15

    The study assessed the long-term effects of anthropogenic pressure of the sulfur industry on turf-covered soils located in the vicinity of the sulfur mine Grzybów. The study assumes that 20 years which elapsed since the end of the exploitation of sulfur is a period sufficiently long for the content of sulfur compounds in soils not to exceed the permissible level and that soil of the region can be classified as not contaminated. A part of the study involved identification of changes in the contents Stot. and SSO4(2-) in soils collected in the 1970s and early twenty-first century. It was also traced the relationship between the content of sulfur compounds and selected soil properties and estimated risk of soil environment pollution by heavy metals. Mean contents of trace elements studied amounted to 10.2-10.8 mg kg(-1) for Pb, 14.3-39.4 mg kg(-1) for Zn, 0.2-0.4 mg kg(-1) for Cd, 3.8-32.2 mg kg(-1) for Cr, 2.7-15.1 mg kg(-1) for Cu and 2.9-18.7 mg kg(-1) for Ni. Based on the results of SSO4(2-) content in soils collected at a distance of 1 km from the mine, it was found out that despite the passage of years, the amount of this type of sulfur still is increased and exceeds 0.14 g kg(-1). As the distance from the mine grew lower (from 0.017 to 0.03 g kg(-1)) average content of the sulfur form was observed. In the studied soil material we found generally positive, strong correlation between the Stot. and SSO4(2-) content and analyzed trace elements. The degree of contamination of examined soils with heavy metals was estimated on the basis of the integrated pollution index, which pointed to a moderate and low level of antropogenization of this area. In addition, the relationship between the determined characteristics of soils (Corg. contents, the fraction <0.002 mm and pH) and heavy metals confirms that the trace elements present in soils do not occur in mobile forms in the soil solution. PMID:27266650

  9. Simultaneous presence of (Si3O10)8- and (Si2O7)6- groups in new synthetic mixed sorosilicates: BaY4(Si2O7)(Si3O10) and isotypic compounds, studied by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and DFT calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wierzbicka-Wieczorek, Maria; Többens, Daniel M.; Kolitsch, Uwe; Tillmanns, Ekkehart

    2013-11-01

    Three new, isotypic silicate compounds, BaY4(Si2O7)(Si3O10), SrYb4(Si2O7)(Si3O10) and SrSc4(Si2O7)(Si3O10), were synthesized using high-temperature flux growth techniques, and their crystal structures were solved from single-crystal X-ray intensity data: monoclinic, P21/m, with a=5.532(1)/5.469(1)/5.278(1), b=19.734(4)/19.447(4)/19.221(4), c=6.868(1)/6.785(1)/6.562(1) Å, β=106.53(3)/106.20(3)/106.50(3)°, V=718.8(2)/693.0(2)/638.3(2) Å3, R(F)=0.0225/0.0204/0.0270, respectively. The topology of the novel structure type contains isolated horseshoe-shaped Si3O10 groups (Si-Si-Si=93.15-95.98°), Si2O7 groups (Si-Obridge-Si=180°, symmetry-restricted) and edge-sharing M(1)O6 and M(2)O6 octahedra. Single-crystal Raman spectra of the title compounds were measured and compared with Raman spectroscopic data of chemically and topologically related disilicates and trisilicates, including BaY2(Si3O10) and SrY2(Si3O10). The band assignments are supported by additional theoretical calculation of Raman vibrations by DFT methods.

  10. The anthropogenic magnetic particles contain in indoor dust as markers of pollution emitted by different outside sources.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szczepaniak, Iga; Górka-Kostrubiec, Beata

    2015-04-01

    The aim of the study was to explain the impact of magnetic particles originated from different external sources of pollution on the air quality inside apartments. We used the indoor dust as an indicator of air pollution inside apartments. For the study, a small town was chosen, in which dominated the local sources of pollution: (1) vehicle traffic (in the city center), (2) local heating plant, (3) individual households (in the suburbs) and (4) re-emission of soil particles from the contaminated post-industrial area. In each of four areas were selected several private apartments as a sampling points. Dust samples were collected by the owners of apartments from the floor surface using vacuum cleaners in the same time period (September 2014). The concentration-dependent magnetic parameters (magnetic susceptibility - and magnetization MS) were used to determine the level of the magnetic pollution of the indoor dust. The properties of magnetic particles (mineralogy, domain structure and grain size), and their chemical composition were used to describe and identify the source of air pollution inside the apartments. Generally, the results showed that in each of studied areas were observed flats with both: very high and low values of parameters depending on the concentration of magnetic particles. The biggest differences between the areas were visible in mineralogy of magnetic fraction of pollution. The research of apartments exposed to pollution generated by vehicle traffic (located in the city center) show a wide range of values χ (75-1021 -10-8 m3kg-1) and MS (35-656 -10-3 Am2kg-1). These differences were due to the high contribution of pure iron to magnetic fraction of pollution. Detailed analysis of the M (T) curves revealed two magnetic transitions: first at a temperature Tc = 585oC for magnetite and the second at Tc = 760oC for pure iron. For the dust samples from the city center the high values of χ and MS well correlated with high level of anthropogenic elements

  11. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in indoor emission from decorative candles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orecchio, Santino

    2011-04-01

    This study investigates PAHs indoor emissions from burning decorative candle in an indoor environment because emissions from burning wax in home have rarely been addressed. A total of 12 air samples were collected during the entire burning period of the decorative candles. Particulate and gaseous PAHs emissions were simultaneously measured by passing effluent through a filter (to collect particulate-phase PAHs), a cold trap and ORBO 43 tubes (to capture gaseous-phase PAHs). Analysis involved ultrasound extraction, followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The measured total PAHs concentration (particulate + aqueous phase + gas phases) for the candles, reported as mass of PAHs emitted/mass of candle burning, was between 2.3 and 49.8 μg kg -1 and mean 15 μg kg -1. Considering the volume of sampled air, the concentrations of total PAHs ranged from 7 ng m -3 to 267 ng m -3. Concentrations of B[ a]P emitted by candles ranged from 0.1 to 7.5 ng m -3, while total carcinogenic PAHs, expressed as B[a] eq, ranged from 0.2 to 10.7 ng m -3. The values of all the isomeric indices calculated in this research are in good agreement to literature data for emissions from high temperature processes.

  12. Propofol infusion and the suppression of consciousness: the EEG and dose requirements.

    PubMed

    Forrest, F C; Tooley, M A; Saunders, P R; Prys-Roberts, C

    1994-01-01

    We have used Median Power Frequency (MPF) to study changes in the electroencephalogram during propofol infusions in 52 women about to undergo gynaecological surgery. Patients were allocated to receive propofol by one of nine different manually-controlled infusion schemes designed to achieve and maintain a stable blood propofol concentration between 1.0 and 6.0 micrograms ml-1, covering a range of states between conscious sedation and full anaesthesia. We recorded the changes in MPF and the response to clinical signs of loss of consciousness at these different doses and concentrations of propofol. Using probit analysis, we derived MPF values corresponding to 50% and 95% suppression of response to verbal (9.3 Hz and 6.8 Hz), eyelash (8.9 Hz and 6.7 Hz) and venepuncture (5.7 Hz and 3.0 Hz) stimuli. Likewise, we obtained dose and concentration requirements for propofol to suppress these stimuli. The mean (95% confidence intervals) ED50 (5.8 (3.5-6.8) mg kg-1 h-1) and ED95 (8.3 (7.1-16.9) mg kg-1 h-1) propofol doses for suppression of consciousness were similar to the values for suppression of the eyelash reflex (6.2 (5.3-6.8) mg kg-1 h-1 and 8.6 (7.8-10.8) mg kg-1 h-1, respectively). The EC50 for loss of consciousness was a propofol concentration of 2.3 (1.8-2.7) micrograms ml-1 and for 50% suppression of MPF was 3.1 (2.7-3.5) micrograms ml-1. The dose required for 50% suppression of MPF was 7.1 (6.2-8.0) mg kg-1 h-1. After 30 min, at blood propofol concentrations > 4.0 micrograms ml-1, consistent with stable anaesthesia, the mean MPF was 5.6 (4.5-6.3) Hz.

  13. Propofol infusion and the suppression of consciousness: the EEG and dose requirements.

    PubMed

    Forrest, F C; Tooley, M A; Saunders, P R; Prys-Roberts, C

    1994-01-01

    We have used Median Power Frequency (MPF) to study changes in the electroencephalogram during propofol infusions in 52 women about to undergo gynaecological surgery. Patients were allocated to receive propofol by one of nine different manually-controlled infusion schemes designed to achieve and maintain a stable blood propofol concentration between 1.0 and 6.0 micrograms ml-1, covering a range of states between conscious sedation and full anaesthesia. We recorded the changes in MPF and the response to clinical signs of loss of consciousness at these different doses and concentrations of propofol. Using probit analysis, we derived MPF values corresponding to 50% and 95% suppression of response to verbal (9.3 Hz and 6.8 Hz), eyelash (8.9 Hz and 6.7 Hz) and venepuncture (5.7 Hz and 3.0 Hz) stimuli. Likewise, we obtained dose and concentration requirements for propofol to suppress these stimuli. The mean (95% confidence intervals) ED50 (5.8 (3.5-6.8) mg kg-1 h-1) and ED95 (8.3 (7.1-16.9) mg kg-1 h-1) propofol doses for suppression of consciousness were similar to the values for suppression of the eyelash reflex (6.2 (5.3-6.8) mg kg-1 h-1 and 8.6 (7.8-10.8) mg kg-1 h-1, respectively). The EC50 for loss of consciousness was a propofol concentration of 2.3 (1.8-2.7) micrograms ml-1 and for 50% suppression of MPF was 3.1 (2.7-3.5) micrograms ml-1. The dose required for 50% suppression of MPF was 7.1 (6.2-8.0) mg kg-1 h-1. After 30 min, at blood propofol concentrations > 4.0 micrograms ml-1, consistent with stable anaesthesia, the mean MPF was 5.6 (4.5-6.3) Hz. PMID:8110547

  14. New field-based agricultural biomass burning trace gas, PM2.5, and black carbon emission ratios and factors measured in situ at crop residue fires in Eastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Tianran; Wooster, Martin J.; Green, David C.; Main, Bruce

    2015-11-01

    Despite policy attempts to limit or prevent agricultural burning, its use to remove crop residues either immediately after harvest (e.g. field burning of wheat stubble) or after subsequent crop processing (e.g. "bonfires" of rice straw and rapeseed residues) appears to remain widespread across parts of China. Emission factors for these types of small but highly numerous fire are therefore required to fully assess their impact on atmospheric composition and air pollution. Here we describe the design and deployment of a new smoke measurement system for the close-range sampling of key gases and particles within smoke from crop residue fires, using it to assess instantaneous mixing ratios of CO and CO2 and mass concentrations of black carbon (BC) and PM2.5 from wheat stubble, rice straw, and rapeseed residue fires. Using data of our new smoke sampling system, we find a strong linear correlation between the PM2.5 mass and BC, with very high PM2.5 to BC emission ratios found in the smouldering phase (up to 80.7 mg m-3.(mg m-3)-1) compared to the flaming phase (2.0 mg m-3.(mg m-3)-1). We conclude that the contribution of BC to PM2.5 mass was as high as 50% in the flaming phase of some burns, whilst during smouldering it sometimes decreased to little over one percent. A linear mixing model is used to quantify the relative contribution of each combustion phase to the overall measured smoke composition, and we find that flaming combustion dominated the total emission of most species assessed. Using time series of trace gas concentrations from different fire cases, we calculated 'fire integrated' trace gas emission factors (EFs) for wheat, rice and rapeseed residue burns as 1739 ± 19 g kg-1, 1761 ± 30 g kg-1and 1704 ± 27 g kg-1 respectively for CO2, and 60 ± 12 g kg-1, 47 ± 19 g kg-1 and 82 ± 17 g kg-1 respectively for CO. Where comparisons were possible, our EFs agreed well with those derived via a simultaneously-deployed open path Fourier transform infrared (OP

  15. [Application and benefit evaluation of tiered health risk assessment approach on site contaminated by benzene].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Lin; Zhong, Mao-Sheng; Liang, Jin; Yao, Jue-Jun; Xia, Tian-Xiang; Fan, Yan-Ling; Li, Jing-Dong; Tang, Zheng-Qiang

    2013-03-01

    The procedures of implementing tiered health risk assessment approach were introduced in detail, and took a large-scale site polluted by benzene in Beijing as an example, the difference on the remediation target of benzene in soil, as well as the corresponding soil remediation volume and costs, were compared. The results indicate that the benzene concentration in soil within 1.5 m in depth and the one below should be remediated to 0.26 mg x kg(-1) and 0.15 mg x kg(-1), respectively, in order to keep the cumulative carcinogenic health risk below 1 x 10(-6) based on tiered II assessment. However, according to tiered III assessment result, which is based on the benzene in soil gas within the contaminated areas in the investigated site, the soil in the corresponding depth should only be remediated to 2.6 mg x kg(-1) and 1.5 mg x kg(-1), respectively. That means the soil remediation volume delimited on tiered III assessment result is less than the one on tiered II by 139 537 m3 and the corresponding remediation costs will be reduced by 57 million Yuan, meaning the enormous economic benefits compared to the costs (around 100 thousands Yuan) spent to carry out tiered III assessment in the site.

  16. Buffer Standards for the Physiological pH of N-[2-hydroxy-1,1-bis(hydroxymethyl)ethyl]glycine (TRICINE) from T = (278.15 to 328.15) K.

    PubMed

    Roy, Rabindra N; Roy, Lakshmi N; Henson, Isaac B; Stegner, Jessica M; Dinga, John J; Summers, Clark E; Suhrheinrich, Gregory L; Veliz, Jaime A; Dieterman, Lauren A

    2012-09-01

    The pH values of two buffer solutions without NaCl and seven buffer solutions with added NaCl, having ionic strengths (I = 0.16 mol·kg(-1)) similar to those of physiological fluids, have been evaluated at 12 temperatures from T = (278.15 to 328.15) K by way of the extended form of the Debye-Hückel equation of the Bates-Guggenheim convention. The residual liquid junction potentials (δE(j)) between the buffer solutions of TRICINE and saturated KCl solution of the calomel electrode at T = (298.15 and 310.15) K have been estimated by measurement with a flowing junction cell. For the buffer solutions with the molality of TRICINE (m(1)) = 0.06 mol·kg(-1), NaTRICINE (m(2)) = 0.02 mol·kg(-1), and NaCl (m(3)) = 0.14 mol·kg(-1), the pH values at 310.15 K obtained from the extended Debye-Hückel equation and the inclusion of the liquid junction correction are 7.342 and 7.342, respectively. These are in excellent agreement. The zwitterionic buffer TRICINE is recommended as a secondary pH standard in the region for clinical application.

  17. Evidence for the Presence of Glucosensor Mechanisms Not Dependent on Glucokinase in Hypothalamus and Hindbrain of Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    PubMed Central

    Otero-Rodiño, Cristina; Librán-Pérez, Marta; Velasco, Cristina; López-Patiño, Marcos A.; Míguez, Jesús M.; Soengas, José L.

    2015-01-01

    We hypothesize that glucosensor mechanisms other than that mediated by glucokinase (GK) operate in hypothalamus and hindbrain of the carnivorous fish species rainbow trout and stress affected them. Therefore, we evaluated in these areas changes in parameters which could be related to putative glucosensor mechanisms based on liver X receptor (LXR), mitochondrial activity, sweet taste receptor, and sodium/glucose co-transporter 1 (SGLT-1) 6h after intraperitoneal injection of 5 mL.Kg-1 of saline solution alone (normoglycaemic treatment) or containing insulin (hypoglycaemic treatment, 4 mg bovine insulin.Kg-1 body mass), or D-glucose (hyperglycaemic treatment, 500 mg.Kg-1 body mass). Half of tanks were kept at a 10 Kg fish mass.m-3 and denoted as fish under normal stocking density (NSD) whereas the remaining tanks were kept at a stressful high stocking density (70 kg fish mass.m-3) denoted as HSD. The results obtained in non-stressed rainbow trout provide evidence, for the first time in fish, that manipulation of glucose levels induce changes in parameters which could be related to putative glucosensor systems based on LXR, mitochondrial activity and sweet taste receptor in hypothalamus, and a system based on SGLT-1 in hindbrain. Stress altered the response of parameters related to these systems to changes in glycaemia. PMID:25996158

  18. A method to measure the density of seawater accurately to the level of 10-6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Hannes; Wolf, Henning; Hassel, Egon

    2016-04-01

    A substitution method to measure seawater density relative to pure water density using vibrating tube densimeters was realized and validated. Standard uncertainties of 1 g m-3 at atmospheric pressure, 10 g m-3 up to 10 MPa, and 20 g m-3 to 65 MPa in the temperature range of 5 °C to 35 °C and for salt contents up to 35 g kg-1 were achieved. The realization was validated by comparison measurements with a hydrostatic weighing apparatus for atmospheric pressure. For high pressures, literature values of seawater compressibility were compared with substitution measurements of the realized apparatus.

  19. Occurrence of 222Rn, 226Ra, 228Ra and U in groundwater in Fujian Province, China.

    PubMed

    Zhuo, W; Iida, T; Yang, X

    2001-01-01

    222Rn, 226Ra, 228Ra and U were determined in a total of 552 groundwater samples collected throughout Fujian Province of China. The geometric mean concentrations of 222Rn, 226Ra, 228Ra and total U in the groundwater were 147.8 kBq m-3, 12.7 Bq m-3, 30.2 Bq m-3 and 0.54 microgram kg-1, respectively. High groundwater 222Rn was explained by the predominantly granitic rock aquifers in Fujian. A lifetime risk of 1.7 x 10(-3) was estimated for the ingestion of groundwater 222Rn. High ratios of 228Ra to 226Ra contents (geometric mean of 2.4) and their disproportion suggest that 228Ra should also be measured in the assessment of population doses from drinking water in the regions of high rock or soil 232Th. No significant correlation between the 222Rn concentrations in groundwater and air was found.

  20. On the Critical Effect of the Metal (Mo vs. W) on the [3+2] Cycloaddition Reaction of M3 S4 Clusters with Alkynes: Insights from Experiment and Theory.

    PubMed

    Bustelo, Emilio; Gushchin, Artem L; Fernández-Trujillo, M Jesús; Basallote, Manuel G; Algarra, Andrés G

    2015-10-12

    Whereas the cluster [Mo3 S4 (acac)3 (py)3 ](+) ([1](+) , acac=acetylacetonate, py=pyridine) reacts with a variety of alkynes, the cluster [W3 S4 (acac)3 (py)3 ](+) ([2](+) ) remains unaffected under the same conditions. The reactions of cluster [1](+) show polyphasic kinetics, and in all cases clusters bearing a bridging dithiolene moiety are formed in the first step through the concerted [3+2] cycloaddition between the C≡C atoms of the alkyne and a Mo(μ-S)2 moiety of the cluster. A computational study has been conducted to analyze the effect of the metal on these concerted [3+2] cycloaddition reactions. The calculations suggest that the reactions of cluster [2](+) with alkynes feature ΔG(≠) values only slightly larger than its molybdenum analogue, however, the differences in the reaction free energies between both metal clusters and the same alkyne reach up to approximately 10 kcal mol(-1) , therefore indicating that the differences in the reactivity are essentially thermodynamic. The activation strain model (ASM) has been used to get more insights into the critical effect of the metal center in these cycloadditions, and the results reveal that the change in reactivity is entirely explained on the basis of the differences in the interaction energies Eint between the cluster and the alkyne. Further decomposition of the Eint values through the localized molecular orbital-energy decomposition analysis (LMO-EDA) indicates that substitution of the Mo atoms in cluster [1](+) by W induces changes in the electronic structure of the cluster that result in weaker intra- and inter-fragment orbital interactions.

  1. Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP): Models AL-M3 and AL-M6 nuclear packaging (DOE C of C No. USA/5790/BLF and No. USA/5791/BLF)

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, H.L.; Whitney, M.A.; Williams, M.A.; Alexander, B.M.; Shapiro, A.

    1987-11-24

    This revised Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) satisfies the requirement of the US Department of Energy (DOE) for an updated formal safety analysis of the two insulated drum shipping containers identified as USA/5790/BLF and USA/5791/BLF. The report makes available to all potential users the technical information and limits pertinent to the construction and use of the shipping containers. This SARP includes discussions of structural integrity, thermal resistance, radiation shielding and radiological safety, nuclear criticality safety, and quality control. Complete physical and technical descriptions of the packages are presented. Each package consists of a cylindrical steel inner container centered within an insulating steel drum assembly. The contents may be any radioactive materials that satisfy the requirements established in this SARP. A shipment of plutonium-238 in the form of a solid oxide is evaluated in this SARP as an example. Design and development considerations, the tests and evaluations required to prove the ability of the containers to withstand normal transportation conditions, and the sequence of four hypothetical accident conditions (free drop, puncture, thermal, and water immersion) are discussed. Tables, graphs, dimensional sketches, photographs, technical references, loading and shipping procedures, Mound Facility experience in using the containers, and copies of the DOE Certificates of Compliance are included.

  2. A STUDY OF FISCHER 344 RATS EXPOSED TO SILICA DUST AT CONCENTRATIONS OF 0, 2, 10 OR 20 MG/M3, THEN MAINTAINED FOR SIX MONTHS PRIOR TO ASSESSMENT.

    SciTech Connect

    KUTZMAN,R.S.

    1984-11-01

    The major objective of this study was to relate the results of a series of functional tests to the compositional and structural alterations in the rat lung induced by subchronic exposure to silica dust. To induce a fibrotic lesion, Fischer-344 rats were exposed to either 0, 2, 10, or 20 mg Si0{sub 2}/m{sup 3} for 6 hours/day, 5 days/week for six months and then maintained in an animal room, equipped with a laminar flow unit, for six months prior to assessment of the end points.

  3. Magnetic and orbital orders coupled to negative thermal expansion in Mott insulators, Ca2Ru1--xM xO4 (M = 3d transition metal ion)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Tongfei

    Ca2RuO4 is a structurally-driven Mott insulator with a metal-insulator (MI) transition at TMI = 357K, followed by a well-separated antiferromagnetic order at T N = 110 K. Slightly substituting Ru with a 3d transition metal ion M effectively shifts TMI and induces exotic magnetic behavior below TN. Moreover, M doping for Ru produces negative thermal expansion in Ca2Ru1-- xMxO4 (M = Cr, Mn, Fe or Cu); the lattice volume expands on cooling with a total volume expansion ratio, DeltaV/V, reaching as high as 1%. The onset of the negative thermal expansion closely tracks TMI and TN, sharply contrasting classic negative thermal expansion that shows no relevance to electronic properties. In addition, the observed negative thermal expansion occurs near room temperature and extends over a wide temperature interval. These findings underscores new physics driven by a complex interplay between orbital, spin and lattice degrees of freedom. These materials constitute a new class of Negative Thermal Expansion (NTE) materials with novel electronic and magnetic functions. KEYWORDS: Transition Metal Oxide, Ruthenate, Negative Thermal Expansion, Single crystal XRD, Invar Effect, Orbital Ordering, Magnetic Ordering, Jahn-Teller Effect.

  4. Camera Ready Masters. B/M-1 Resource Assessment. B/M-2 Surveying. B/M-3 Tabulation. B/M-4 Selecting Program Goals. B/M-5 Producing CDU's. Career Planning Support System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational Education.

    This package of camera ready masters is one of a set of twelve documents describing the Career Planning Support System (CPSS) and its use. (CPSS is a comprehensive guidance program management system which (1) provides techniques to improve a high school's career guidance program, (2) focuses on the skills students need to make decisions about and…

  5. Evidence for radionuclide transport by sea ice

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meese, D.A.; Reimnitz, E.; Tucker, W. B.; Gow, A.J.; Bischof, J.; Darby, D.

    1997-01-01

    Ice and ice-borne sediments were collected across the Arctic Basin during the Arctic Ocean Section, 1994 (AOS-94), a recent US/Canada trans- Arctic expedition. Sediments were analysed for 137Cs, clay mineralogy and carbon. Concentrations of 137Cs ranged from 5 to 73 Bq kg-1 in the ice- borne sediments. Concentrations of ice samples without sediment were all less than 1 Bq m-3. The sediment sample with the highest 137Cs concentration (73 Bq kg-1)was collected in the Beaufort Sea. This concentration was significantly higher than in bottom sediments collected in the same area, indicating an ice transport mechanism from an area with correspondingly higher concentrations. Recent results from the application of ice transport models and sediment analyses indicate that it is very likely that sediments are transported by ice, from the Siberian shelf areas to the Beaufort Sea.

  6. Iodine-129 concentrations in marginal seas of the north Pacific and Pacific-influenced waters of the Arctic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Cooper, L W; Hong, G H; Beasley, T M; Grebmeier, J M

    2001-12-01

    Water sampling during the 1993 IV Russian-US Joint Expedition to the Bering and Chukchi Seas (BERPAC) indicates that Pacific Ocean burdens of the long-lived radionuclide 129I are relatively low in the Pacific-influenced Arctic, particularly compared to high latitude waters influenced by the North Atlantic. These low concentrations occur despite the presence of potential submerged anthropogenic sources in the East Sea (Sea of Japan), and in the northwest Pacific Ocean, east of the Kamchatka Peninsula. The concentration of 129I entering the Arctic Ocean through Bering Strait, approximately 0.7 x 10(8) atoms kg(-1), is only slightly higher than observed in deep Pacific waters. Similar concentrations (0.44-0.76 x 10(8) atoms kg(-1)) measured in Long Strait indicate no significant transfer of 129I eastward into the Chukchi Sea in the Siberian Coastal Current from the Siberian marginal seas to the west. However, the concentrations reported here are more than an order of magnitude higher than the Bering Strait input concentration estimated (1.0 x 10(6) atoms kg(-1)) from bomb fallout mass balances, which supports other existing evidence for a significant atmospheric deposition term for this radionuclide in surface ocean waters. Near-bottom water samples collected in productive waters of the Bering and Chukchi Seas also suggest that sediment regeneration may locally elevate 129I concentrations, and impact its utility as a water mass tracer. As part of this study, two deep 129I profiles were also measured in the East Sea in 1993-1994. The near-surface concentration of 129I ranged from 0.12 to 0.31 x 10(8) atoms kg(-1). The 129I concentration showed a steady decrease with depth, although because of active deep water ventilation, the entire 3000 m water column exceeded natural concentrations of the radionuclide. Atom ratios of 129I/137Cs in the East Sea also suggest an excess of 129I above bomb fallout estimates, also possibly resulting from atmospheric deposition ultimately

  7. High-Resolution Magnetic Analysis of the Nussloch Loess-Palaeosol Sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, S. N.; Lagroix, F.

    2012-12-01

    By performing a detailed rock magnetic analysis of loess-palaeosol sequences, it is possible to identify pedogenic, diagenetic and depositional processes while constraining climate variations (both local and regional). The Nussloch loess-palaeosol sequences are located on the Odenwald plateau near the right bank of the Rhine Valley in Germany (49°18'59''N; 8°43'54''E). This study uses a 13m section of the P4 sequence which has an age range of approximately 18kyrs to 33kyrs; with a tephra layer (Eltviller Tuff) marked at ~21kyrs. Using a 2cm sub-sampling resolution, the subsequent rock magnetic study of the P4 sequence includes on all samples hysteresis properties, their derived parameters, IRMs and ARMs and low-temperature magnetic properties on representative samples. The sequence divides magnetically into a series of 7 minor zones, identified from the hysteresis parameters, underlying 3 major zones from which also the stratigraphy shows: 1. fine-grained homogeneous loess from 0-8m, 2. coarser-grained homogeneous loess from 8-11m, 3. prominent interbedded gleys from 11-13m. High-coercivity grains dominate a fairly constant mineralogy in Zone 1 whereas in Zone 2 there is a transition into softer magnetic minerals. Zone 3 has a wide range of magnetic properties, a consequence of rapid changes in the stratigraphy. The bulk magnetic signal is fairly weak (χferri ranges from 5.19×10-8 to 1.55×10-7 m3kg-1 with the higher mean in Zone 2) and has a significant contribution of hard magnetic minerals with an absence of SP particles. Even though the signal from iron-bearing minerals dominates, the paramagnetic signal increases with depth, especially below 11m. In terms of the deposited material, the marked gleys generally show lower values of χ, MRS, MS and S-ratios and higher values of coercivity with respect to the unaltered loess. Not only is there a greater abundance of magnetic minerals in the loess but also the minerals are magnetically softer compared to those

  8. [Mercury Distribution Characteristics and Atmospheric Mercury Emission Factors of Typical Waste Incineration Plants in Chongqing].

    PubMed

    Duan, Zhen-ya; Su, Hai-tao; Wang, Feng-yang; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Shu-xiao; Yu, Bin

    2016-02-15

    Waste incineration is one of the important atmospheric mercury emission sources. The aim of this article is to explore the atmospheric mercury pollution level of waste incineration industry from Chongqing. This study investigated the mercury emissions from a municipal solid waste incineration plant and a medical waste incineration plant in Chongqing. The exhaust gas samples in these two incineration plants were obtained using USA EPA 30B method. The mercury concentrations in the fly ash and bottom ash samples were analyzed. The results indicated that the mercury concentrations of the municipal solid waste and medical waste incineration plant in Chongqing were (26.4 +/- 22.7) microg x m(-3) and (3.1 +/- 0.8) microg x m(-3) in exhaust gas respectively, (5279.2 +/- 798.0) microg x kg(-1) and (11,709.5 +/- 460.5) microg x kg(-1) in fly ash respectively. Besides, the distribution proportions of the mercury content from municipal solid waste and medical waste in exhaust gas, fly ash, and bottom ash were 34.0%, 65.3%, 0.7% and 32.3%, 67.5%, 0.2% respectively; The mercury removal efficiencies of municipal solid waste and medical waste incineration plants were 66.0% and 67.7% respectively. The atmospheric mercury emission factors of municipal solid waste and medical waste incineration plants were (126.7 +/- 109.0) microg x kg(-1) and (46.5 +/- 12.0) microg x kg(-1) respectively. Compared with domestic municipal solid waste incineration plants in the Pearl River Delta region, the atmospheric mercury emission factor of municipal solid waste incineration plant in Chongqing was lower.

  9. [Mercury Distribution Characteristics and Atmospheric Mercury Emission Factors of Typical Waste Incineration Plants in Chongqing].

    PubMed

    Duan, Zhen-ya; Su, Hai-tao; Wang, Feng-yang; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Shu-xiao; Yu, Bin

    2016-02-15

    Waste incineration is one of the important atmospheric mercury emission sources. The aim of this article is to explore the atmospheric mercury pollution level of waste incineration industry from Chongqing. This study investigated the mercury emissions from a municipal solid waste incineration plant and a medical waste incineration plant in Chongqing. The exhaust gas samples in these two incineration plants were obtained using USA EPA 30B method. The mercury concentrations in the fly ash and bottom ash samples were analyzed. The results indicated that the mercury concentrations of the municipal solid waste and medical waste incineration plant in Chongqing were (26.4 +/- 22.7) microg x m(-3) and (3.1 +/- 0.8) microg x m(-3) in exhaust gas respectively, (5279.2 +/- 798.0) microg x kg(-1) and (11,709.5 +/- 460.5) microg x kg(-1) in fly ash respectively. Besides, the distribution proportions of the mercury content from municipal solid waste and medical waste in exhaust gas, fly ash, and bottom ash were 34.0%, 65.3%, 0.7% and 32.3%, 67.5%, 0.2% respectively; The mercury removal efficiencies of municipal solid waste and medical waste incineration plants were 66.0% and 67.7% respectively. The atmospheric mercury emission factors of municipal solid waste and medical waste incineration plants were (126.7 +/- 109.0) microg x kg(-1) and (46.5 +/- 12.0) microg x kg(-1) respectively. Compared with domestic municipal solid waste incineration plants in the Pearl River Delta region, the atmospheric mercury emission factor of municipal solid waste incineration plant in Chongqing was lower. PMID:27363131

  10. Organophosphorus flame retardants and plasticizers in air from various indoor environments.

    PubMed

    Marklund, Anneli; Andersson, Barbro; Haglund, Peter

    2005-08-01

    Eleven organophosphorus compounds (OPs) that are used as plasticizers and flame retardants were analysed in duplicate samples of indoor air from 17 domestic and occupational environments. Solid-phase extraction (SPE) columns were used as adsorbents and analysis was performed using GC with a nitrogen phosphorus selective detector. The total amounts of OPs in the air samples ranged between 36 and 950 ng m(-3); tris(chloropropyl) phosphate (TCPP) and tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP) being the most abundant (0.4 to 730 ng m(-3)), followed by tributyl phosphate (0.5-120 ng m(-3)). Public buildings tended to have about 3-4 times higher levels of OPs than domestic buildings. The relative amounts of individual OPs varied between the sites and generally reflected the building materials, furniture and consumer products used in the sampled environments. Potential sources of these compounds include, inter alia, acoustic ceilings, upholstered furniture, wall coverings, floor polish and polyvinylchloride floor coverings. A correlation was observed between the TCEP concentrations in the air in the sampled environments and previously reported concentrations in dust, but no such correlation was seen for the heavier and less volatile tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBEP). Based on estimated amounts of indoor air inhaled and dust ingested, adults and children in the sampled environments would be exposed to up to 5.8 microg kg(-1) day(-1) and 57 microg kg(-1) day(-1) total OPs, respectively. PMID:16049584

  11. Thermal properties of an erythritol derivative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trhlikova, Lucie; Prikryl, Radek; Zmeskal, Oldrich

    2016-06-01

    Erythritol (C4H10O4) is a sugar alcohol (or polyol) that is commonly used in the food industry. Its molar mass is 122.12 g.mol-1 and mass density 1450 kg.m-3. Erythritol, an odorless crystalline powder, can also be characterized by other physical parameters like melting temperature (121 °C) and boiling temperature (329 °C). The substance can be used for the accumulation of energy in heat exchangers based on various oils or water. The PlusICE A118 product manufactured by the PCM Products Ltd. company (melting temperature Θ = 118 °C, specific heat capacity cp = 2.70 kJ.K-1.kg-1, mass density 1450 kg.m-3, latent heat capacity 340 kJ.kg-1, volumetric heat capacity 493 MJ.m-3) is based on an erythritol-type medium. Thermal properties of the PlusICE A118 product in both solid and liquid phase were investigated for this purpose in terms of potential applications. Temperature dependences of its thermal parameters (thermal diffusivity, thermal conductivity, and specific heat) were determined using a transient (step-wise) method. A fractal model of heat transport was used for determination of the above thermal parameters. This model is independent of geometry and type of sample heating. Moreover, it also considers heat losses. The experiment confirmed the formerly declared value of phase change temperature, about 120 °C.

  12. Organophosphorus flame retardants and plasticizers in air from various indoor environments.

    PubMed

    Marklund, Anneli; Andersson, Barbro; Haglund, Peter

    2005-08-01

    Eleven organophosphorus compounds (OPs) that are used as plasticizers and flame retardants were analysed in duplicate samples of indoor air from 17 domestic and occupational environments. Solid-phase extraction (SPE) columns were used as adsorbents and analysis was performed using GC with a nitrogen phosphorus selective detector. The total amounts of OPs in the air samples ranged between 36 and 950 ng m(-3); tris(chloropropyl) phosphate (TCPP) and tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP) being the most abundant (0.4 to 730 ng m(-3)), followed by tributyl phosphate (0.5-120 ng m(-3)). Public buildings tended to have about 3-4 times higher levels of OPs than domestic buildings. The relative amounts of individual OPs varied between the sites and generally reflected the building materials, furniture and consumer products used in the sampled environments. Potential sources of these compounds include, inter alia, acoustic ceilings, upholstered furniture, wall coverings, floor polish and polyvinylchloride floor coverings. A correlation was observed between the TCEP concentrations in the air in the sampled environments and previously reported concentrations in dust, but no such correlation was seen for the heavier and less volatile tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBEP). Based on estimated amounts of indoor air inhaled and dust ingested, adults and children in the sampled environments would be exposed to up to 5.8 microg kg(-1) day(-1) and 57 microg kg(-1) day(-1) total OPs, respectively.

  13. G measurements with time-of-swing method at HUST.

    PubMed

    Li, Qing; Liu, Jian-Ping; Zhao, Hui-Hui; Yang, Shan-Qing; Tu, Liang-Cheng; Liu, Qi; Shao, Cheng-Gang; Hu, Zhong-Kun; Milyukov, Vadim; Luo, Jun

    2014-10-13

    We review the G measurements with time-of-swing method at HUST. Two independent experiments have been completed and an improved experiment is in progress. The first G value was determined as 6.6699(7)×10(-11) m(3) kg(-1) s(-2) with a relative standard uncertainty (ur) of 105 ppm by using a long period torsion pendulum and two cylindrical source masses. Later, this result was corrected to be 6.6723(9)×10(-11) m(3) kg(-1) s(-2) with ur=130 ppm after considering the density distribution of the cylinders and the air buoyancy, which was 360 ppm larger than the previous value. In 2009, a new experiment by using a simple block pendulum and spherical source masses with more homogeneous density was carried out. A series of improvements were performed, and the G value was determined to be 6.67349(18)×10(-11) m(3) kg(-1) s(-2) with ur=26 ppm. To reduce the anelasticity of the torsion fibre, fused silica fibres with Q's of approximately 5×10(4) are used to measure G in the ongoing experiment. These fibres are coated with thin layers of germanium and bismuth in turn to reduce the electrostatic effect. Some other improvements include the gravity compensation, reduction of the coating layer effect, etc. The prospective uncertainty of the next G value is 20 ppm or lower.

  14. Home gardening near a mining site in an arsenic-endemic region of Arizona: assessing arsenic exposure dose and risk via ingestion of home garden vegetables, soils, and water.

    PubMed

    Ramirez-Andreotta, Monica D; Brusseau, Mark L; Beamer, Paloma; Maier, Raina M

    2013-06-01

    The human-health risk posed by gardening near a legacy mine and smelter in an arsenic-endemic region of Arizona was characterized in this study. Residential soils were used in a greenhouse study to grow common vegetables, and local residents, after training, collected soil, water, and vegetables samples from their home gardens. Concentrations of arsenic measured in water, soil, and vegetable samples were used in conjunction with reported US intake rates to calculate the daily dose, Incremental Excess Lifetime Cancer Risk (IELCR), and Hazard Quotient for arsenic. Relative arsenic intake dose decreased in order: water>garden soils>homegrown vegetables, and on average, each accounted for 77, 16, and 7% of a residential gardener's daily arsenic intake dose. The IELCR ranges for vegetables, garden soils, and water were 10(-8) to 10(-4), 10(-6) to 10(-4), and 10(-5) to 10(-2), respectively. All vegetables (greenhouse and home garden) were grouped by scientific family, and the risk posed decreased as: Asteraceae≫Fabaceae>Amaranthaceae>Liliaceae>Brassicaceae>Solanaceae≫Cucurbitaceae. Correlations observed between concentrations of arsenic in vegetables and soils were used to estimate a maximum allowable level of arsenic in soil to limit the excess cancer risk to 10(-6). The estimated values are 1.56 mg kg(-1), 5.39 mg kg(-1), 11.6 mg kg(-1) and 12.4 mg kg(-1) for the Asteraceae, Brassicaceae, Fabaceae, and Amaranthaceae families, respectively. It is recommended that home gardeners: sample their private wells annually, test their soils prior to gardening, and, if necessary, modify their gardening behavior to reduce incidental soil ingestion. This study highlights the importance of site-specific risk assessment, and the need for species-specific planting guidelines for communities.

  15. Radiological risk assessment of environmental radon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalid, Norafatin; Majid, Amran Ab; Yahaya, Redzuwan; Yasir, Muhammad Samudi

    2013-11-01

    , all building material samples have exceeded the radon concentration in concrete and building materials of 3 to 7 Bq m-3 estimated by ICRP. The annual effective dose, effective dose equivalent, and radon exhalation rates in tin tailings were calculated to be in the range of 2.47 to 11.46 mSv, 5.94 to 1090.56 mSv y-1, and 0.23 to 1.18 mBq kg-1 h-1. For building materials, the calculated risk assessment of the annual effective dose, effective dose equivalent, radon exhalation rates and fatal cancer risk were 0.72 to 10.00 mSv, 1.73 to 24.00 mSv y-1, 0.010 to 0.06 mBq kg-1 h-1 and 40 to 550 chances of persons will suffer the cancer per million (1 × 106), respectively.

  16. Radium-226 concentration in spring water sampled in high radon regions.

    PubMed

    Onishchenko, Aleksandra; Zhukovsky, Michael; Veselinovic, Nenad; Zunic, Zora S

    2010-01-01

    Water (226)Ra concentration in springs was measured in regions with high indoor radon: Ural, North Caucasus (Russia), Niska Banja (Serbia), Piestany (Slovakia), and Issyk-Kul (Kyrgyzstan). This paper presents the results for (226)Ra concentration above 0.03 Bq l(-1). Radium in water could indicate indoor radon problem in the region and water investigation is useful at the initial stage of radon survey. Even low (226)Ra concentration in water (0.1-0.6 Bq l(-1)) caused high (226)Ra activity in travertine (up to 1500 Bq kg(-1)), which resulted in indoor radon concentration above 2000 Bq m(-3) (Niska Banja). PMID:19853463

  17. Measuring the Newtonian constant of gravitation G with an atomic interferometer.

    PubMed

    Prevedelli, M; Cacciapuoti, L; Rosi, G; Sorrentino, F; Tino, G M

    2014-10-13

    We have recently completed a measurement of the Newtonian constant of gravitation G using atomic interferometry. Our result is G=6.67191(77)(62)×10(-11) m(3) kg(-1) s(-2) where the numbers in parenthesis are the type A and type B standard uncertainties, respectively. An evaluation of the measurement uncertainty is presented and the perspectives for improvement are discussed. Our result is approaching the precision of experiments based on macroscopic sensing masses showing that the next generation of atomic gradiometers could reach a total relative uncertainty in the 10 parts per million range. PMID:25202001

  18. Measuring the Newtonian constant of gravitation G with an atomic interferometer.

    PubMed

    Prevedelli, M; Cacciapuoti, L; Rosi, G; Sorrentino, F; Tino, G M

    2014-10-13

    We have recently completed a measurement of the Newtonian constant of gravitation G using atomic interferometry. Our result is G=6.67191(77)(62)×10(-11) m(3) kg(-1) s(-2) where the numbers in parenthesis are the type A and type B standard uncertainties, respectively. An evaluation of the measurement uncertainty is presented and the perspectives for improvement are discussed. Our result is approaching the precision of experiments based on macroscopic sensing masses showing that the next generation of atomic gradiometers could reach a total relative uncertainty in the 10 parts per million range.

  19. 40 CFR 63.1190 - How do I determine compliance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... = Emission rate of PM, kg/Mg (lb/ton) of melt. C = Concentration of PM, g/dscm (gr/dscf). Q = Volumetric flow rate of exhaust gases, dscm/hr (dscf/hr). K 51 = Conversion factor, 1 kg/1,000 g (1 lb/7,000 gr). P...,000 g (1 lb/453.6 g). K2 = Conversion factor, 1,000 L/m3 (28.3 L/ft3). K3 = Conversion factor, 24.45...

  20. The effect of boric acid on acethylcholine, bethanechol and potasssium-evoked responses on ileum of rat.

    PubMed

    Ince, S; Turkmen, R; Yavuz, H

    2011-01-01

    1 The aim of this study was to clarify the effect of boric acid on contractions of rat isolated ileum. 2 Contractile responses expressed as Emax and pD2 for acetylcholine (10(-3)-10(-8) m, Ach), bethanechol (10(-3)-10(-8) m) and potassium (10-80 × 10(-3) m, KCl) were determined in the absence and presence of boric acid (10(-3); 5 × 10(-4); 10(-4) m). 3 The contractile response to Ach in the presence of verapamil (10(-6) or 10(-8) m) or in calcium-free Tyrode's solution was also determined in the absence and presence of boric acid. 4 Boric acid did not affect the contractile response to Ach, bethanechol or KCl. Single or cumulative treatment of boric acid did not affect ileum muscle contraction evoked by KCl. The atropine-resistant component of Ach-induced contraction and 4-diphenyl-acetoxy-N-methyl-piperidine methiodide-resistant component of bethanechol-induced contraction were not inhibited by boric acid (10(-3) m). The contractile response to Ach was reduced in calcium-free Tyrode's solution, and the contractile response was not affected by (10(-8) m). The addition of boric acid (10(-3) m) in combination with verapamil (10(-8) m) did not significantly affect the contractile response to Ach. 5 In conclusion, boric acid does not affect contractions induced by Ach, bethanechol or potassium in rat isolated ileum.

  1. Estimation of absorption of aromatic hydrocarbons diffusing from interior materials in automobile cabins by inhalation toxicokinetic analysis in rats.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Toshiaki

    2010-08-01

    Aromatic hydrocarbons, as well as aliphatic hydrocarbons, diffusing from interior materials in automotive cabins are the most common compounds contributing to interior air pollution. In this study, the amounts of seven selected aromatic hydrocarbons absorbed by a car driver were estimated by evaluating their inhalation toxicokinetics in rats. Measured amounts of these substances were injected into a closed chamber system containing a rat, and the concentration changes in the chamber were examined. The toxicokinetics of the substances were evaluated on the basis of the concentration-time course using a nonlinear compartment model. The amounts absorbed in humans at actual concentrations in automobile cabins without ventilation were extrapolated from the results obtained from rats. The absorbed amounts estimated for a driver during a 2 h drive were as follows (per 60 kg of human body weight): 30 microg for toluene (interior median concentration, 40 microg m(-3) in our previous study), 10 microg for ethylbenzene (12 microg m(-3)), 6 microg for o-xylene (10 microg m(-3)), 8 microg for m-xylene (11 microg m(-3)), 9 microg for p-xylene (11 microg m(-3)), 11 microg for styrene (11 microg m(-3)) and 27 microg for 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene (24 microg m(-3)). Similarly, in a cabin where air pollution was marked, the absorbed amount of styrene (654 microg for 2 h in a cabin with an interior maximum concentration of 675 microg m(-3)) was estimated to be much higher than those of other substances. This amount (654 microg) was approximately 1.5 times the tolerable daily intake of styrene (7.7 microg kg(-1) per day) recommended by the World Health Organization. PMID:20809541

  2. Airborne molds and mycotoxins associated with handling of corn silage and oilseed cakes in agricultural environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanier, Caroline; Richard, Estelle; Heutte, Natacha; Picquet, Rachel; Bouchart, Valérie; Garon, David

    2010-05-01

    In agricultural areas, the contamination of feedstuffs with molds and mycotoxins presents major environmental and health concerns. During cattle feeding, fungi and mycotoxins were monitored in corn silage, oilseed cakes and bioaerosols collected in Normandy. Most of the corn silages were found to be contaminated by deoxynivalenol (mean concentration: 1883 μg kg -1) while a few of oilseed cakes were contaminated by alternariol, fumonisin B 1 or gliotoxin. In ambient bioaerosols, the values for fungi per cubic meter of air varied from 4.3 × 10 2 to 6.2 × 10 5 cfu m -3. Seasonal variations were observed with some species like Aspergillus fumigatus which significantly decreased between the 2 seasons ( P = 0.0186) while the Penicillium roqueforti group significantly increased during the second season ( P = 0.0156). In the personal bioaerosols, the values for fungi per cubic meter of air varied from 3.3 10 3 to 1.7 10 6 cfu m -3 and the number of A. fumigatus spores significantly decreased between the 2 seasons ( P = 0.0488). Gliotoxin, an immunosuppressive mycotoxin, was quantified in 3 personal filters at 3.73 μg m -3, 1.09 μg m -3 and 2.97 μg m -3.

  3. Submarine fresh groundwater discharge into Laizhou Bay comparable to the Yellow River flux.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuejing; Li, Hailong; Jiao, Jiu Jimmy; Barry, D A; Li, Ling; Luo, Xin; Wang, Chaoyue; Wan, Li; Wang, Xusheng; Jiang, Xiaowei; Ma, Qian; Qu, Wenjing

    2015-03-06

    Near- and off-shore fresh groundwater resources become increasingly important with the social and economic development in coastal areas. Although large scale (hundreds of km) submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) to the ocean has been shown to be of the same magnitude order as river discharge, submarine fresh groundwater discharge (SFGD) with magnitude comparable to large river discharge is never reported. Here, we proposed a method coupling mass-balance models of water, salt and radium isotopes based on field data of (223)Ra, (226)Ra and salinity to estimate the SFGD, SGD. By applying the method in Laizhou Bay (a water area of ~6000 km(2)), we showed that the SFGD and SGD are 0.57 ~ 0.88 times and 7.35 ~ 8.57 times the annual Yellow River flux in August 2012, respectively. The estimate of SFGD ranges from 4.12 × 10(7) m(3)/d to 6.36 × 10(7) m(3)/d, while SGD ranges from 5.32 × 10(8) m(3)/d to 6.20 × 10(8) m(3)/d. The proportion of the Yellow River input into Laizhou Bay was less than 14% of the total in August 2012. Our method can be used to estimate SFGD in various coastal waters.

  4. Submarine fresh groundwater discharge into Laizhou Bay comparable to the Yellow River flux.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuejing; Li, Hailong; Jiao, Jiu Jimmy; Barry, D A; Li, Ling; Luo, Xin; Wang, Chaoyue; Wan, Li; Wang, Xusheng; Jiang, Xiaowei; Ma, Qian; Qu, Wenjing

    2015-01-01

    Near- and off-shore fresh groundwater resources become increasingly important with the social and economic development in coastal areas. Although large scale (hundreds of km) submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) to the ocean has been shown to be of the same magnitude order as river discharge, submarine fresh groundwater discharge (SFGD) with magnitude comparable to large river discharge is never reported. Here, we proposed a method coupling mass-balance models of water, salt and radium isotopes based on field data of (223)Ra, (226)Ra and salinity to estimate the SFGD, SGD. By applying the method in Laizhou Bay (a water area of ~6000 km(2)), we showed that the SFGD and SGD are 0.57 ~ 0.88 times and 7.35 ~ 8.57 times the annual Yellow River flux in August 2012, respectively. The estimate of SFGD ranges from 4.12 × 10(7) m(3)/d to 6.36 × 10(7) m(3)/d, while SGD ranges from 5.32 × 10(8) m(3)/d to 6.20 × 10(8) m(3)/d. The proportion of the Yellow River input into Laizhou Bay was less than 14% of the total in August 2012. Our method can be used to estimate SFGD in various coastal waters. PMID:25742712

  5. [Analysis of composition characteristics of municipal solid waste in south China].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hai-long; Li, Xiang-ping; Qi, Jian-ying; Chen, Yong-heng; Fang, Jian-de

    2015-01-01

    Using the MSW (municipal solid waste) sampling and analysis methods, the composition characteristics of MSW in south China were investigated. The results showed that: the average MSW bulk density was 0.22 x 10(3) kg x m(-3), the percentages of water, ash and combustible were 55.0%-66.9%, 18.6%-30.3% and 69.7%-81.4%, respectively. The organic contents were 50.1%-58.0%. The waste low caloric value (wet base) ranged 6570-9652 kJ x kg(-1), and the average of waste low caloric value(wet base) was 8272 kJ x kg(-1), which was higher than the recommended value of World Bank(7000 kJ x kg(-1)). The percentage composition of MSW was: 39.8%-53.3% kitchen waste garbage, 16.5%-33.4% rubber and plastics, 5.61%-7.95% paper, 1.14%-5.16% textile products, 2.49%-5.12% bamboo products, 1.10%-1.47% glass, 5.86%-7.57% mixed materials, 2.46%-6.73% dust, 0.1%-0.32% metal, and 0.4%-0.69% ceramic. The correlation analysis and factor analysis showed that: the high proportions of textile, rubber and plastics, paper, and combustible materials had a positive effect on the MSW incineration, while the high proportions of kitchen waste garbage, glass, MSW bulk density, ash, water content and dust had a negative effect on the MSW incineration.

  6. [An experimental study of the effect of an artichoke preparation on the activity of the sympathetic-adrenal system in carbon disulfide exposure].

    PubMed

    Khalkova, Zh; Vangelova, K; Zaĭkov, Kh

    1995-01-01

    Artichoke, a new Bulgarian preparation based on the plant Cynara scolymus, was tested for influence on sympatho-adrenal system (SAS) activity in experimental inhalation exposure to carbon disulfide. This chronic (six-month) inhalation experiment was done on Wistar albino rats of either sex. Activity of SAS was assessed through excretion of noradrenalin and adrenalin. Findings indicated a phasic SAS response depending on concentration and duration of carbon disulfide exposure. With exposure to 30 mg.m3, SAS activity was observed to decrease in the second month, followed by increase in the fourth and sixth months. With exposure to 300 mg.m3, SAS activity was elevated over the whole period of study. Under the influence of the preparation artichoke at dosage 200 mg.kg-1, catecholamines, increased by carbon disulfide exposure, returned to normal. This trend was more marked for noradrenalin.

  7. Concentrations of radon and its daughter products in and around Bangalore city.

    PubMed

    Ningappa, C; Sannappa, J; Chandrashekara, M S; Paramesh, L

    2008-01-01

    Indoor radon and its progeny levels were measured during 2005-06 in Bangalore rural district and in Bangalore City by using Solid State Nuclear Track Detector (SSNTD)-based twin cup dosemeters, and the activity of radium present in soils and rocks was measured by using HPGe detector. Fifty dwellings of different types were chosen for the measurement. The dosimeters containing the detector (LR-115 Type II Film) used in each house were fixed 2 m above the floor. After an exposure time of 90 days, films were etched to reveal tracks. From the track density, the concentrations of radon were evaluated. The value of radon concentration in the indoor air near granite quarries varies from 55 to 300 Bq.m(-3) with a median of 155 Bq.m(-3) and its progeny varies from 0.24 to 19.6 mWL with a median of 8.4 mWL. In Bangalore City, the concentration of radon varies from 18.4 to 110 Bq.m(-3) with a median of 45 Bq.m(-3) and its progeny varies from 1.62 to 11.24 mWL with a median of 4.15 mWL. Higher concentrations of radon and its progeny were observed in granite quarries compared with Bangalore City. The main reason for the higher indoor radon and its progeny concentration is due to the mining activity and the types of the bedrock. The concentration of radon mainly depends on the activity of radium present in soils and rocks and the types of building materials used. The activity of radium varies in granitic regions of Bangalore rural district from 42.0 to 163.6 Bq.kg(-1) with a median of 112.8 Bq.kg(-1). The concentrations of indoor radon and its daughter products and equivalent effective dose are discussed.

  8. Novel Approach to Tar Removal from Biomass Producer Gas by Means of a Nickel-Based Catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vosecký, M.; Kameníková, P.; Pohořelý, M.; Skoblja, S.; Punčochář, M.

    The nickel-based catalyst was exposed to the raw gas from gasification of woody biomass with air in a fluidized-bed. After dust removal on a barrier filter and sulphur compounds capture, namely H2S, on an active sorbent made of CuO and ZnO, higher hydrocarbons as tar components were decomposed/reformed on aNi-catalyst. Steam reforming reactions led to decomposition of tar and all hydrocarbons higher than CH4 into mainly H2 and CO which further underwent reaction with steam via the water gas shift reaction to CO2. The reforming reactions caused approximately 10-20 % decrease in the lower heating values of the producer gas from the inlet values 5.0-6.5 MJ m-3. The gas yield increased fromvalues 2.4-2.6 m3 kg-1 to values 2.8-3.0 m3 kg-1 on dry biomass basis. The chosen tar removal concept based on combination of dolomite in the fluidized-bed with the secondary catalytic reactor was proved by 20 hours long experiment in which the finaltar content below 30 mg m-3 was attained corresponding to more than 97 % tar conversion. H2S content in producer gas was expected to be below 100 vol. ppm, bulk of which was captured on the sorbent. Only limited deactivation of thecatalyst by sulphur compounds was found in the front of the catalyst bed where sulphur content was determined as high as 173 wt. ppm compared to 22 wt. ppm in the fresh sample.

  9. The methane production of poultry slaughtering residues and effects of pre-treatments on the methane production of poultry feather.

    PubMed

    Salminen, E; Einola, J; Rintala, J

    2003-09-01

    The biological methane production rate and yield of different poultry slaughtering residues were studied. Poultry offal, blood, and bonemeal were rich in proteins and lipids and showed high methane yields, 0.7-0.9, 0.5, and 0.6-0.7 m3 kg(-1) volatile solids(added), respectively (270-340, 100, and 150-170 m3 ton(-1) wet weight). Blood and bonemeal produced methane rapidly, whereas the methane production of offal was more delayed probably due to long-chain fatty acid inhibition. The length of delay depended on the source and concentration of inoculum and incubation temperature, sewage sludge at 35 degrees C having the shortest delay of a few days, while granular sludge did not produce methane within 94 days of incubation. Feather showed a somewhat lower methane yield, 0.21 m3 kg(-1) volatile solids(added) (50 m3 ton(-1) wet weight). Combined thermal (120 degrees C, 5 min) and enzymatic (commercial alkaline endopeptidase, 2-10 g l(-1)) pre-treatments increased its methane yield by 37 to 51%. Thermal (70-120 degrees C, 5-60 min), chemical (NaOH 2-10 g l(-1), 2-24 h), and enzymatic pre-treatments were less effective, with methane yield increasing by 5 to 32%. Based on the present results, anaerobic digestion of the studied poultry slaughtering residues appears a promising possibility because of the high methane yield and nitrogen content of these residues (8 to 14% N of total solids), whereas pre-treatments were shown to improve the methane production of feather.

  10. Scenario analysis for sustainable development of Chongming Island: water resources sustainability.

    PubMed

    Ni, Xiong; Wu, Yanqing; Wu, Jun; Lu, Jian; Wilson, P Chris

    2012-11-15

    With the socioeconomic and urban development of Chongming Island (the largest alluvial island in the world), water demand is rapidly growing. To make adjustments to the water utilization structure of each industry, allocate limited water resources, and increase local water use efficiency, this study performed a scenario analysis for the water sustainability of Chongming Island. Four different scenarios were performed to assess the water resource availability by 2020. The growth rate for water demand will be much higher than that of water supply under a serious situation prediction. The water supply growth volume will be 2.22 × 10(8)m(3) from 2010 to 2020 under Scenario I and Scenario II while the corresponding water demand growth volume will be 2.74 × 10(8)m(3) and 2.64 × 10(8)m(3), respectively. There will be a rapid growth in water use benefit under both high and low development modes. The water use benefit will be about 50 CNY/m(3) under Scenarios I and II in 2020. The production structure will need to be adjusted for sustainable utilization of water resources. Sewage drainage but not the forest and grass coverage rate will be a major obstacle to future development and environmental quality. According to a multi-level fuzzy comprehensive evaluation, Scenario II is finally deemed to be the most desirable plan, suggesting that the policy of rapid socioeconomic development and better environmental protection may achieve the most sustainable development of Chongming Island in the future.

  11. Radioactive pollution in Athens, Greece due to the Fukushima nuclear accident.

    PubMed

    Kritidis, P; Florou, H; Eleftheriadis, K; Evangeliou, N; Gini, M; Sotiropoulou, M; Diapouli, E; Vratolis, S

    2012-12-01

    As a result of the nuclear accident in Fukushima Dai-ichi power plant, which started on March 11, 2011, radioactive pollutants were transferred by air masses to various regions of the Northern hemisphere, including Europe. Very low concentrations of (131)I, (137)Cs and (134)Cs in airborne particulate matter were measured in Athens, Greece during the period of March 24 to April 28, 2011. The maximum air concentration of (131)I was measured on April 6, 2011 and equaled 490 ± 35 μBq m(-3). The maximum values of the two cesium isotopes were measured on the same day and equaled 180 ± 40 μBq m(-3) for (137)Cs and 160 ± 30 μBq m(-3) for (134)Cs. The average activity ratio of (131)I/(137)Cs in air was 3.0 ± 0.5, while the corresponding ratio of (137)Cs/(134)Cs equaled 1.1 ± 0.3. No artificial radionuclides could be detected in air after April 28, 2011. Traces of (131)I as a result of radioactive deposition were measured in grass, soil, sheep milk and meat. The total deposition of (131)I (dry + wet) was 34 ± 4 Bq m(-2), and of (137)Cs was less than 10 Bq m(-2). The maximum concentration of (131)I in grass was 2.1 ± 0.4 Bg kg(-1), while (134)Cs was not detected. The maximum concentrations of (131)I and (137)Cs in sheep milk were 1.7 ± 0.16 Bq kg(-1) and 0.6 ± 0.12 Bq kg(-1) respectively. Concentrations of (131)I up to 1.3 ± 0.2 Bq kg(-1) were measured in sheep meat. Traces of (131)I were found in a number of soil samples. The radiological impact of the Fukushima nuclear accident in Athens region was practically negligible, especially as compared to that of the Chernobyl accident and also to that of natural radioactivity.

  12. Radioactive pollution in Athens, Greece due to the Fukushima nuclear accident.

    PubMed

    Kritidis, P; Florou, H; Eleftheriadis, K; Evangeliou, N; Gini, M; Sotiropoulou, M; Diapouli, E; Vratolis, S

    2012-12-01

    As a result of the nuclear accident in Fukushima Dai-ichi power plant, which started on March 11, 2011, radioactive pollutants were transferred by air masses to various regions of the Northern hemisphere, including Europe. Very low concentrations of (131)I, (137)Cs and (134)Cs in airborne particulate matter were measured in Athens, Greece during the period of March 24 to April 28, 2011. The maximum air concentration of (131)I was measured on April 6, 2011 and equaled 490 ± 35 μBq m(-3). The maximum values of the two cesium isotopes were measured on the same day and equaled 180 ± 40 μBq m(-3) for (137)Cs and 160 ± 30 μBq m(-3) for (134)Cs. The average activity ratio of (131)I/(137)Cs in air was 3.0 ±