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Sample records for 10-acre infill wells

  1. Application of Integrated Reservoir Management and Reservoir Characterization to Optimize Infill Drilling.

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-15

    A total of 18 wells, 14 producers and 4 injection wells, were drilled and completed during the Field Demonstration portion of the project. These 18 wells are all currently in service, with the producing wells going on-line between May and September 1996, and the injection wells going into service between August and December 1996. Current Unit production is approximately 3,100 BOPD, of which approximately 800 BOPD is being contributed from the 14 Project 10-acre producing wells (Figure 1). A revision in the Statement of Work was approved to allow for the drilling of additional 10-acre infill wells or injection well conversions as budget constraints allow.

  2. Application of Integrated Reservoir Management and Reservoir Characterization to Optimize Infill Drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Fina Oil and Chemical Company

    1999-11-03

    The eighteen 10-acre infill wells which were drilled as part of the field demonstration portion of the project are all currently in service with no operational problems. These wells consist of fourteen producing wells and four injection wells. The producing wells are currently producing a total of approximately 376 bopd, down from a peak rate of 900 bopd. The four injection wells are currently injecting a total of 140 bwipd. Unit production is currently averaging approximately 2,600 bopd, 12,000 bwpd and 18,000 bwipd.

  3. Application of integrated reservoir management and reservoir characterization to optimize infill drilling. Quarterly technical progress report, September 13--December 12, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-07-01

    The eighteen 10-acre infill wells which were drilled as part of the field demonstration portion of the project are all currently in service with no operational problems. These wells consist of fourteen producing wells and four injection wells. The producing wells are currently producing a total of approximately 450 bopd, down from a peak rate of 900 bopd. Unit production is currently averaging approximately 2,700 bopd, 12,000 bwpd and 18,000 bwipd. The paper describes progress on hydraulic fracture design, reservoir surveillance, data analysis procedures, and deterministic modeling and simulation.

  4. Boston Infill Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stull, Don; Heder, Lajos

    Concepts and recommendations are presented regarding a proposed system of dispersed classroom clusters or 'infill schools'. These small independent urban schools would be housed in prefabricated structures developed for infill housing in Boston. The infill unit uses pre-designed building components and can be constructed in a few weeks. The infill…

  5. Application of integrated reservoir management and reservoir characterization to optimize infill drilling. Quarterly technical progress report, March 13--June 12, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-31

    The eighteen 10-acre infill wells which were drilled as part of the field demonstration portion of the project are all currently in service with no operational problems. These wells consist of fourteen producing wells and four injection wells. The producing wells are currently producing a total of approximately 650 bopd, down from a peak rate of 900 bopd. Unit production is currently averaging approximately 3,000 bopd, 12,000 bwpd and 18,000 bwipd. The paper describes progress in core analysis, reservoir surveillance, well stimulation, validation of reservoir characterization (includes thin section analyses, depositional environments, and paleontologic analysis), material balance decline curve analysis, and validation of reservoir simulation (includes geostatistical and deterministic).

  6. Application of integrated reservoir management and reservoir characterization to optimize infill drilling. Quarterly technical progress report, June 13--September 12, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-31

    The eighteen 10-acre infill wells which were drilled as part of the field demonstration portion of the project are all currently in service with no operational problems. These wells consist of fourteen producing wells and four injection wells. The producing wells are currently producing a total of approximately 500 bopd, down from a peak rate of 900 bopd. Unit production is currently averaging approximately 2,800 bopd, 12,000 bwpd and 17,000 bwipd. The paper describes progress on core analysis, gas-oil/oil-gas permeability tests, water-oil/oil-water permeability tests, water-gas permeability tests, electrical resistivity measurements, capillary pressure tests, reservoir surveillance, and paleontologic analysis.

  7. Fracturing improvements enhance infill drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, B.J.; Gillstrom, R.L.

    1995-12-31

    The production history of a one thousand well field extension drilled in the early 1980`s showed that additional wells could not be drilled at current oil prices and oil recovery. Step out drilling and production history showed that an additional one hundred infill and development wells could be drilled if the recovery could be increased. Multiple production logs indicated the upper half of the zone was not open at the well bore. Thus, if the upper zone could be more effectively completed, the well recovery had the potential to be increased to a level where future development would be feasible. The low reservoir pressure and high permeability contrast requirements demanded that a much higher viscosity fluid system needed to be used that also had the ability to clean up easily. The nitrogen foam frac yielded these desired characteristics. Five infill wells were drilled in 1991 and 1993 utilizing a nitrogen foam frac system. Production from the wells has shown a projected ultimate recovery from the wells of approximately twice the original wells.

  8. The TALE Infill Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergman, Douglas

    2009-05-01

    The TALE Infill Array in conjunction with the TALE Tower Detector will provide hybrid coverage of the cosmic ray energy spectrum down to 3x10^16 eV. It will consist of about 100, two square meter scintillators on the surface spaced at 400 m; and 24 buried twelve square meter scintillators. The combination of surface and underground detectors will allow for the determination of the muon content of showers and thus give a handle on cosmic ray composition.

  9. Testing of clay tile infilled frames

    SciTech Connect

    Flanagan, R.D.; Bennett, R.M.; Burdette, E.G.; Goodpasture, D.W.

    1992-08-21

    Several large-scale static tests of clay tile infilled frames were recently conducted. For in-plane racking tests, the effects of cyclic loading, varying frame stiffness, varying infill size, infill offset from frame centerline, and single and double wythe infill construction were investigated. Out-of-plane tests examined infilled frame response to inertial loadings and inter-story drift loadings. Multiple loadings were performed to determine in-plane strength and stiffness degradation from both out-of-plane loadings. To determine constitutive properties of the infills, prism compression, mortar compression and various unit tile tests were performed.

  10. Masonry infill performance during the Northridge earthquake

    SciTech Connect

    Flanagan, R.D.; Bennett, R.M.; Fischer, W.L.; Adham, S.A.

    1996-03-08

    The response of masonry infills during the 1994 Northridge, California earthquake is described in terms of three categories: (1) lowrise and midrise structures experiencing large near field seismic excitations, (2) lowrise and midrise structures experiencing moderate far field excitation, and (3) highrise structures experiencing moderate far field excitation. In general, the infills provided a positive beneficial effect on the performance of the buildings, even those experiencing large peak accelerations near the epicenter. Varying types of masonry infills, structural frames, design conditions, and construction deficiencies were observed and their performance during the earthquake indicated. A summary of observations of the performance of infills in other recent earthquakes is given. Comparison with the Northridge earthquake is made and expected response of infill structures in lower seismic regions of the central and eastern United States is discussed.

  11. OPTIMIZATION OF INFILL DRILLING IN NATURALLY-FRACTURED TIGHT-GAS RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence W. Teufel; Her-Yuan Chen; Thomas W. Engler; Bruce Hart

    2004-05-01

    A major goal of industry and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) fossil energy program is to increase gas reserves in tight-gas reservoirs. Infill drilling and hydraulic fracture stimulation in these reservoirs are important reservoir management strategies to increase production and reserves. Phase II of this DOE/cooperative industry project focused on optimization of infill drilling and evaluation of hydraulic fracturing in naturally-fractured tight-gas reservoirs. The cooperative project involved multidisciplinary reservoir characterization and simulation studies to determine infill well potential in the Mesaverde and Dakota sandstone formations at selected areas in the San Juan Basin of northwestern New Mexico. This work used the methodology and approach developed in Phase I. Integrated reservoir description and hydraulic fracture treatment analyses were also conducted in the Pecos Slope Abo tight-gas reservoir in southeastern New Mexico and the Lewis Shale in the San Juan Basin. This study has demonstrated a methodology to (1) describe reservoir heterogeneities and natural fracture systems, (2) determine reservoir permeability and permeability anisotropy, (3) define the elliptical drainage area and recoverable gas for existing wells, (4) determine the optimal location and number of new in-fill wells to maximize economic recovery, (5) forecast the increase in total cumulative gas production from infill drilling, and (6) evaluate hydraulic fracture simulation treatments and their impact on well drainage area and infill well potential. Industry partners during the course of this five-year project included BP, Burlington Resources, ConocoPhillips, and Williams.

  12. Application of Integrated Reservoir management and Reservoir Characterization to Optimize Infill Drilling

    SciTech Connect

    B. Pregger; D. Davies; D. Moore; G. Freeman; J. Callard; J.W. Nevans; L. Doublet; R. Vessell; T. Blasingame

    1997-08-31

    Infill drilling if wells on a uniform spacing without regard to reservoir performance and characterization foes not optimize reservoir development because it fails to account for the complex nature of reservoir heterogeneities present in many low permeability reservoirs, and carbonate reservoirs in particular. New and emerging technologies, such as geostatistical modeling, rigorous decline curve analysis, reservoir rock typing, and special core analysis can be used to develop a 3-D simulation model for prediction of infill locations.

  13. Application of Integrated Reservoir Management and Reservoir Characterization to Optimize Infill Drilling

    SciTech Connect

    1998-03-12

    Infill drilling if wells on a uniform spacing without regard to reservoir performance and characterization foes not optimize reservoir development because it fails to account for the complex nature of reservoir heterogeneities present in many low permeability reservoirs, and carbonate reservoirs in particular. New and emerging technologies, such as geostatistical modeling, rigorous decline curve analysis, reservoir rock typing, and special core analysis can be used to develop a 3-D simulation model for prediction of infill locations.

  14. Application of Integrated Reservoir Management and Reservoir Characterization to Optimize Infill Drilling

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-01

    Infill drilling if wells on a uniform spacing without regard to reservoir performance and characterization foes not optimize reservoir development because it fails to account for the complex nature of reservoir heterogeneities present in many low permeability reservoirs, and carbonate reservoirs in particular. New and emerging technologies, such as geostatistical modeling, rigorous decline curve analysis, reservoir rock typing, and special core analysis can be used to develop a 3-D simulation model for prediction of infill locations.

  15. Infilling missing hydrological data - methods and consequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bardossy, A.; Pegram, G. G.

    2013-12-01

    Hydrological observations are often incomplete - equipment malfunction, transmission errors and other technical problems lead to unwanted gaps in observation time series. Furthermore, due to financial and organizational problems, many observation networks are in continuous decline. As an ameliorating stratagem, short time gaps can be filled using information from other locations. The statistics of abandoned stations provide useful information for the process of extending records. In this contribution the authors present different methods for infilling gaps using: - nearest neighbours - simple and multiple linear regression - black box methods (fuzzy and neural nets) - Expectation Maximization - Copula based estimation The methods are used at different time scales for infilling precipitation from daily through pentads and months to years. The copula based estimation provides not only an estimator for the expected value, but also a probability distribution for each of the missing values. Thus the method can be used for conditional simulation of realizations. Observed precipitation data from the Cape region in South Africa are used to illustrate the intercomparison of the methodologies. The consequences of using [or not using] infilling and data extension are illustrated using a hydrological modelling example from South-West Germany.

  16. Flow rate decline of steam wells in fractured geothermal reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Bodvarsson, G.S.; Witherspoon, P.A.

    1985-01-01

    Decline curves are commonly used at The Geysers geothermal field to assess the generating capacity of a producing lease. It is generally assumed that wells will initially be drilled using 40-acre (400 m) spacing, with infill drilling used later to provide additional producing wells as needed. It is commonly believed that the final well spacing should not be less than 10 acres (200 m). Decline curves are used with this approach to estimate the number of make-up wells during a project lifetime (up to 30 years), as well as the appropriate plant size (MWe). A rather simple two-dimensional model was used to investigate the factors that control flow rate decline in steam wells. The effects of parameters such as fracture spacing and permeability are considered, as well as the effects of permeability, porosity and initial liquid saturation in the rock matrix. Also, the conventional P/z method that is commonly used in analyzing gas well production is investigated in terms of its applicability to fractured vapor dominated systems.

  17. Tender mooring for infill drilling operations: A case study

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    The Tapis-pump platform is a four-leg jacket structure located 230 ft south of the Tapis-D platform and connected to it by a walkway bridge. All crude production (360,000 B/D) from Esso Production Malaysia Inc. (EPMI) wells in the South China Sea offshore Terengganu is piped to the Tapais-pump platform for pumping to an onshore terminal. The continuous operation of this platform is essential. The Tapis-D platform is a manned production platform that also acts as a central communication center and emergency response command center for EPMI`s offshore operations in the South China Sea. A total of nine wells is planned for an infill drilling program at the Tapis-D platform. The rig selected for this infill drilling program is a self-erecting tender-assisted rig that uses an eight-point wire rope mooring system. Eleven pipelines are connected to the Tapis-pump/Tapis-D platform complex. All the pipelines were laid on the seafloor without any special external protection and were not tied down or anchored. The paper describes the planning of the mooring system for drilling.

  18. Large-scale testing of structural clay tile infilled frames

    SciTech Connect

    Flanagan, R.D.; Bennett, R.M.

    1993-03-18

    A summary of large-scale cyclic static tests of structural clay tile infilled frames is given. In-plane racking tests examined the effects of varying frame stiffness, varying infill size, infill offset from frame centerline, and single and double wythe infill construction. Out-of-plane tests examined infilled frame response to inertial loadings and inter-story drift loadings. Sequential in-plane and out-of-plane loadings were performed to determine the effects of orthogonal damage and degradation on both strength and stiffness. A combined out-of-plane inertial and in-plane racking test was conducted to investigate the interaction of multi-directional loading. To determine constitutive properties of the infills, prism compression, mortar compression and various unit tile tests were performed.

  19. Experimental testing of hollow clay tile infilled frames

    SciTech Connect

    Flanagan, R.D. ); Bennett, R.M.; Barclay, G.A. . Dept. of Civil Engineering)

    1992-02-27

    A common building construction of the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant is structural steel framing with infilled unreinforced hollow clay tile walls. A comprehensive program is underway to evaluate the resistance of this construction to natural phenomena loadings, particularly earthquake. This paper presents the results of the first series of large-scale infilled frame tests which were statically loaded in-plane to failure. Varying frame to infill stiffness was examined within the range of actual building construction.

  20. Seismic safety assessment of existing masonry infill structures in Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaulagain, Hemchandra; Rodrigues, Hugo; Spacone, Enrico; Varum, Humberto

    2016-06-01

    Reinforced concrete (RC) buildings in Nepal are constructed with RC frames and masonry infill panels. These structures exhibit a highly non-linear inelastic behavior resulting from the interaction between the panels and frames. This paper presents an extensive case study of existing RC buildings in Nepal. Non-linear analyses were performed on structural models of the buildings considered as a bare frame and with masonry infill, in order to evaluate the influence of infill walls on the failure mechanisms. Five three-storey buildings with different structural configurations and detailing were selected. The effect of masonry infill panels on structural response was delineated by comparing the bare-framed response with the infill response. Seismic performance is evaluated with regard to global strength, stiffness, energy dissipation, inter-storey drift, and total deflection of the structure. A parametric analysis of structures with masonry infill is also performed. For this, the influence of different material properties is studied, namely diagonal compressive stress, modulus of elasticity and tensile stress of masonry infill panels. Study results show that masonry infill increases the global strength and stiffness of the structures; it decreases the inter-storey drift and hence the total displacement of the structure. The results quantify the influence of the infill panels on structural response and, in particular, the effect of the diagonal compressive strength of the masonry wall.

  1. Horizontal spacing, depletion, and infill potential in the Austin Chalk

    SciTech Connect

    Kyte, D.G.; Meehan, D.N.

    1996-12-31

    There have been more than 4500 laterals drilled in the Austin Chalk. This paper looks at estimated ultimate recoveries (EUR) on a barrels/acre basis for these Austin Chalk wells. Baffels/acre recoveries were computed by estimating ultimate per-well recoveries, drilled density and the impact of vertical production. The data were then analyzed for depletion and infill potential. Certain areas were selected for further study using an artificial neural network. The network was built and used to study the effects of parameters such as lateral length, first production date, structure of the Austin Chalk, etc. on these recoverable barrel/acre numbers. The methodology and regional results of the study are reviewed with detailed analyses shown in selected areas.

  2. No-infill 3D Printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Xiao-Ran; Zhang, Yu-He; Geng, Guo-Hua

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we examined how printing the hollow objects without infill via fused deposition modeling, one of the most widely used 3D-printing technologies, by partitioning the objects to shell parts. More specifically, we linked the partition to the exact cover problem. Given an input watertight mesh shape S, we developed region growing schemes to derive a set of surfaces that had inside surfaces that were printable without support on the mesh for the candidate parts. We then employed Monte Carlo tree search over the candidate parts to obtain the optimal set cover. All possible candidate subsets of exact cover from the optimal set cover were then obtained and the bounded tree was used to search the optimal exact cover. We oriented each shell part to the optimal position to guarantee the inside surface was printed without support, while the outside surface was printed with minimum support. Our solution can be applied to a variety of models, closed-hollowed or semi-closed, with or without holes, as evidenced by experiments and performance evaluation on our proposed algorithm.

  3. 5. DETAIL OF MUD INFILL (MIXED WITH STRAW), LATHS AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. DETAIL OF MUD INFILL (MIXED WITH STRAW), LATHS AND STRUCTURAL COMPONENTS (CORNER POST, SILL AND STUD), SOUTHEAST CORNER OF EAST SIDE OF ORIGINAL SECTION. - Thomas Threlkeld House, Benson Pike, Shelbyville, Shelby County, KY

  4. 58. THIRD LEVEL, WORKING HOUSE SECTION, DETAIL OF INFILLED CONVEYOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    58. THIRD LEVEL, WORKING HOUSE SECTION, DETAIL OF INFILLED CONVEYOR WHICH LED TO STANDARD MILL; LOOKING NORTH - Northwestern Consolidated Elevator "A", 119 Fifth Avenue South, Minneapolis, Hennepin County, MN

  5. 8. DETAIL, FIRST FLOOR, INFILL SECTION, SOUTH (FRONT) ROOM, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. DETAIL, FIRST FLOOR, INFILL SECTION, SOUTH (FRONT) ROOM, LOOKING SOUTH (UP) AT PORTION OF EARLY PANELED CEILING ABOVE LATER ACOUSTICAL TILE CEILING - 90 Broad Street (Commercial Building), Charleston, Charleston County, SC

  6. Holocene Infilling History of Tampa Bay, Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, G. R.; Larson, R. A.; Cronin, T.; Willard, D.

    2007-05-01

    Tampa Bay is a shallow, sediment-starved estuary located along the central Florida Gulf coast. Based upon sedimentologic, biostratigraphic, and geochronologic analyses of 120 sediment cores and 190 surface sediment samples, karst-controlled basins located in the mid to upper estuary were found to contain a continuous sedimentary record documenting the Holocene sea-level rise and infilling history. The basal unit sampled in cores consists of organic-rich and/or carbonate-rich sediments containing freshwater fauna. Interpreted as lake deposits, the surficial sediments of these units were dated at approximately 8-9 ka suggesting that isolated sinkhole lakes occupied the region prior to being flooded by the Holocene sea-level rise. Overlying the lake deposits, dm-scale, organic-rich muds containing brackish water fauna, represent the transition from fresh to marine conditions as sea level flooded the region. The flooding surface itself is generally undefined, but sometimes represented by a mm-scale layer of shell fragments likely representing a lag deposit. Age dates bracketing this layer show that flooding occurred approximately 6-7 ka. Overlying sediments consist of 3-4 m of organic-rich, sandy muds with typical estuarine fauna. Age dates from the base of this unit indicate estuarine conditions became established approximately 5.5-6 ka. The modern expression of karst basins is a series of shallow, bathymetric depressions, likely reflecting the historically slow rate (0.030-0.065 cm/yr) of fine- grained sediment accumulation. These shallow depressions continue to function as fine-grained sediment sinks, but are now rapidly filling as the rate of accumulation has dramatically increased by approximately one order-of-magnitude (0.16-0.32 cm/yr) within the past 100 years, likely due to human activities.

  7. Strength and stiffness reduction factors for infilled frames with openings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Decanini, Luis D.; Liberatore, Laura; Mollaioli, Fabrizio

    2014-09-01

    Framed structures are usually infilled with masonry walls. They may cause a significant increase in both stiffness and strength, reducing the deformation demand and increasing the energy dissipation capacity of the system. On the other hand, irregular arrangements of the masonry panels may lead to the concentration of damage in some regions, with negative effects; for example soft story mechanisms and shear failures in short columns. Therefore, the presence of infill walls should not be neglected, especially in regions of moderate and high seismicity. To this aim, simple models are available for solid infills walls, such as the diagonal no-tension strut model, while infilled frames with openings have not been adequately investigated. In this study, the effect of openings on the strength and stiffness of infilled frames is investigated by means of about 150 experimental and numerical tests. The main parameters involved are identified and a simple model to take into account the openings in the infills is developed and compared with other models proposed by different researchers. The model, which is based on the use of strength and stiffness reduction factors, takes into account the opening dimensions and presence of reinforcing elements around the opening. An example of an application of the proposed reduction factors is also presented.

  8. Infilling missing precipitation records - A comparison of a new copula-based method with other techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bárdossy, András; Pegram, Geoffrey

    2014-11-01

    Infilling missing data might be an unpleasant and tedious task, but is necessary for analysis and water resources management, so it should not be done in a lackadaisical manner. The important thing about the infilled values is that they need to be as good as possible, because poor infilling is likely to lead to poor decisions. Traditionally, a range of methods is routinely employed, e.g. Nearest Neighbor substitution through to Kriging, but few methods attach a quality estimate to the infilled values. In this paper a new copula based method is developed for infilling missing daily and monthly rain gauge data and is compared against six other commonly used methods, in a semi-arid environment with a range of rain-rates and interstation distances, in the Southern Cape region of South Africa. For daily data it is clear that the copula-based methods are superior to the others in terms of point estimation and have the added benefit of providing an estimate of the precision of the interpolation, not provided by the others. In our case, the addition of atmospheric circulation patterns designed to add information for infilling has a relatively small positive effect on the quality of the estimation. The main reason for this is that a small number of wet days does not allow a good estimation of the conditional distribution of precipitation amounts; we note that the average probability of a dry day in this region is 86%. An improvement of the estimate of the probability of a dry day was however observed. In other regions, with a higher number of wet days, an atmospheric Circulation Pattern (CP) based method is likely to lead to further improvements. Using copula-based methods, the estimated probabilities of a dry day correspond well to the observed frequencies of dry days. The monthly data yield the same conclusion, with the qualification that the Expectation Maximisation [EM] algorithm performs as well as the copula method (because of the low count of dry months in this

  9. Numerical analysis for in-plane behavior of infilled frames

    SciTech Connect

    Jamal, B.D.; Bennett, R.M.; Flanagan, R.D.

    1992-02-27

    A nonlinear finite element study was conducted for the Y-12 Plant to evaluate the in-plane behavior of masonry infilled steel frames. ABAQUS was used to develop the finite element model and perform a parametric analysis. The model was verified by comparing the results with the experimental program series carried out at the University of Brunswick, Canada. The initial stiffness could be matched using an elastic model with an interface element. The ultimate load could be matched using the ABAQUS nonlinear concrete model for the infill. A softened interface was used to account for the localized mortar crushing that tends to occur at the corners of infilled frames. This model was used to match the secant stiffness at approximately 50% of the ultimate load. A parametric study was performed on the initial stiffness. Results indicated that an appropriate equivalent strut could closely match the behavior.

  10. Shake table testing of structural clay tile infilled frames

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, R.M.; Fowler, J.J.; Flanagan, R.D.

    1996-03-08

    Two steel frames with structural clay tile infills were tested under simulated seismic loads in both the out-of-plane and in-plane direction. Out-of-plane testing showed that infill panels separate from their bounding frame, and respond at their own natural frequency during a seismic excitation. Due to arching, the panels remain stable. In-plane seismic testing showed similar behavior patterns to previous static testing. The natural frequency was adequately predicted using a piecewise linear equivalent strut analytical method. The structure was then subjected to over one thousand cycles of loading using a sine sweep before failure.

  11. Numerical methods for analysis of clay tile infills

    SciTech Connect

    Flanagan, R.D.; Tenbus, M.A.; Bennett, R.M.

    1993-10-20

    Recent Department of Energy requirements have led to a comprehensive evaluation of the industrial facilities at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The structures consist of simply connected steel frames infilled with structural clay tile walls. The objective of the evaluation was to determine the stability of the unreinforced infills, and whether they provide the lateral capacity necessary to resist the moderate seismic hazard at the site. Due to lack of information on the behavior of structural clay tile infills, various large-scale tests were performed to investigate the in-plane, out-of-plane and combined in-plane and out-of-plane behavior. The results of these tests are briefly summarized, and the development of analytical guidelines based on these tests is given. Little interaction between in-plane and out-of-plane loads was observed, both in terms of stiffness and strength. Out-of-plane stability can be examined panel by panel based on arching action. Inter-story drift does not appear to present a stability problem for the type of infill construction investigated. In-plane behavior may be adequately modeled with a nonlinear compression strut. A typical building is chosen for an illustrative application. The methodology and results of the seismic analysis are presented for this structure.

  12. The Telescope Array Low-Energy Extension (TALE) Infill Ground Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belz, J.

    The physics goals of the The Telescope Array Low-Energy Extension (TALE) include the hybrid measurement of spectrum and composition of cosmic rays down to energies below 1017 eV. To achieve composition measurements from observation of extensive air showers, a ground array detector must have the ability to distinguish the muonic and electromagnetic components of a shower. Here, we consider the design issues relevant to the infill ground array component of the TALE hybrid detector, and present results of prototype studies as well as preliminary detector designs and the envisioned array layout.

  13. View from intersection. Ninestory reinforced concrete building infilled with brick. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View from intersection. Nine-story reinforced concrete building infilled with brick. The street facades on beaubien and east grand are faced with stone accents and elaborate brick work. Brick pilasters run the entire height of the building. Steel tiebacks are apparent running up the height of the building on the east side. The large tower appears at the northeast and southeast corners - Detroit Storage Company, 2937 East Grand Boulevard, Detroit, MI

  14. Lacunae infills for in situ treatment of historic glazed tiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendes, Marta T.; Esteves, Lurdes; Ferreira, Teresa A.; Candeias, António; Tennent, Norman H.; Rodrigues, José Delgado; Pereira, Sílvia R. M.

    2016-05-01

    Knowledge of current conservation materials and methods together with those adopted in the past is essential to aid research and improve or develop better conservation options. The infill and painting of tile lacunae are subjected to special requirements mainly when used in outdoor settings. A selection of the most commonly used materials was undertaken and performed based on inquiries to practitioners working in the field. The infill pastes comprised organic (epoxy, polyester), inorganic (slaked lime, hydraulic lime and zinc hydroxychloride) and mixed organic-inorganic (slaked lime mixed with a vinylic resin) binders. The selected aggregates were those most commonly used or those already present in the commercially formulated products. The infill pastes were characterised by SEM, MIP, open porosity, water absorption by capillarity, water vapour permeability, thermal and hydric expansibilities and adhesion to the ceramic body. Their performance was assessed after curing, artificial ageing (salt ageing and UV-Temp-RH cycles) and natural ageing. The results were interpreted in terms of their significance as indicators of effectiveness, compatibility and durability.

  15. Robust, functional nanocrystal solids by infilling with atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yao; Gibbs, Markelle; Perkins, Craig L.; Tolentino, Jason; Zarghami, Mohammad H.; Bustamante, Jr., Jorge; Law, Matt

    2011-12-14

    Thin films of colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) are inherently metatstable materials prone to oxidative and photothermal degradation driven by their large surface-to-volume ratios and high surface energies. The fabrication of practical electronic devices based on NC solids hinges on preventing oxidation, surface diffusion, ripening, sintering, and other unwanted physicochemical changes that can plague these materials. Here we use low-temperature atomic layer deposition (ALD) to infill conductive PbSe NC solids with metal oxides to produce inorganic nanocomposites in which the NCs are locked in place and protected against oxidative and photothermal damage. Infilling NC field-effect transistors and solar cells with amorphous alumina yields devices that operate with enhanced and stable performance for at least months in air. Furthermore, ALD infilling with ZnO lowers the height of the inter-NC tunnel barrier for electron transport, yielding PbSe NC films with electron mobilities of 1 cm² V-1 s-1. Our ALD technique is a versatile means to fabricate robust NC solids for optoelectronic devices.

  16. Evaluation and analysis of the performance of masonary infills during the Northridge earthquake

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, R.M.; Fischer, W.L.; Flanagan, R.D.; Tenbus, M.A.

    1996-02-01

    Observations were made of the behavior of masonry infills in structural frames during the Northridge earthquake, and an analytical technique was developed for analyzing infilled frame structures. Infills near the epicenter suffered significant damage, but in several cases contributed to the seismic resistance and life safety performance. Older infill buildings in downtown Los Angeles experienced intensity of shaking similar to that expected in central/eastern United States earthquakes. The infills experienced some cracking, but otherwise complemented the lateral resistance of the weak building frames. This suggests infill frame buildings in moderate seismic zones may provide at least life safety functions without the need for expensive retrofit. A developed analytical technique was used to analyze two buildings for which the observed behavior and records from the Northridge earthquake were available. The analytical technique was based on using a piecewise linear equivalent strut for the infill. Parameters for the strut were obtained by examining the results of a wide variety of experimental infill tests. The strut method is easy to incorporate in standard linear analyses, and converges quite rapidly. The strut method was applied to two structures that had records from the Northridge earthquake. Very favorable comparisons between the analytical method and observed response were obtained. Recommendations were made concerning evaluation of the vulnerability of infills to earthquakes, and the construction of infills.

  17. Efficient infill sampling for unconstrained robust optimization problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehman, Samee Ur; Langelaar, Matthijs

    2016-08-01

    A novel infill sampling criterion is proposed for efficient estimation of the global robust optimum of expensive computer simulation based problems. The algorithm is especially geared towards addressing problems that are affected by uncertainties in design variables and problem parameters. The method is based on constructing metamodels using Kriging and adaptively sampling the response surface via a principle of expected improvement adapted for robust optimization. Several numerical examples and an engineering case study are used to demonstrate the ability of the algorithm to estimate the global robust optimum using a limited number of expensive function evaluations.

  18. Influence of Reservoir Infill on Coastal Deep Water Hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Linker, Lewis C; Batiuk, Richard A; Cerco, Carl F; Shenk, Gary W; Tian, Richard; Wang, Ping; Yactayo, Guido

    2016-05-01

    Ecological restoration of the Chesapeake through the Chesapeake Bay total maximum daily load (TMDL) requires the reduction of nitrogen, phosphorus, and sediment loads in the Chesapeake watershed because of the tidal water quality impairments and damage to living resources they cause. Within the Chesapeake watershed, the Conowingo Reservoir has been filling in with sediment for almost a century and is now in a state of near-full capacity called . The development of the Chesapeake TMDL in 2010 was with the assumption that the Conowingo Reservoir was still effectively trapping sediment and nutrients. This is now known not to be the case. In a TMDL, pollutant loads beyond the TMDL allocation, which are brought about by growth or other conditions, must be offset. Using the analysis tools of the Chesapeake TMDL for assessing the degree of water quality standard attainment, the estimated nutrient and sediment loads from a simulated dynamic equilibrium infill condition of the Conowingo Reservoir were determined. The influence on Chesapeake water quality by a large storm and scour event of January 1996 on the Susquehanna River was estimated, and the same storm and scour events were also evaluated in the more critical living resource period of June. An analysis was also made on the estimated influence of more moderate high flow events. The infill of the Conowingo reservoir had estimated impairments of water quality, primarily on deep-water and deep-channel dissolved oxygen, because of increased discharge and transport of organic and particulate inorganic nutrients from the Conowingo Reservoir. PMID:27136155

  19. Influence of Reservoir Infill on Coastal Deep Water Hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Linker, Lewis C; Batiuk, Richard A; Cerco, Carl F; Shenk, Gary W; Tian, Richard; Wang, Ping; Yactayo, Guido

    2016-05-01

    Ecological restoration of the Chesapeake through the Chesapeake Bay total maximum daily load (TMDL) requires the reduction of nitrogen, phosphorus, and sediment loads in the Chesapeake watershed because of the tidal water quality impairments and damage to living resources they cause. Within the Chesapeake watershed, the Conowingo Reservoir has been filling in with sediment for almost a century and is now in a state of near-full capacity called . The development of the Chesapeake TMDL in 2010 was with the assumption that the Conowingo Reservoir was still effectively trapping sediment and nutrients. This is now known not to be the case. In a TMDL, pollutant loads beyond the TMDL allocation, which are brought about by growth or other conditions, must be offset. Using the analysis tools of the Chesapeake TMDL for assessing the degree of water quality standard attainment, the estimated nutrient and sediment loads from a simulated dynamic equilibrium infill condition of the Conowingo Reservoir were determined. The influence on Chesapeake water quality by a large storm and scour event of January 1996 on the Susquehanna River was estimated, and the same storm and scour events were also evaluated in the more critical living resource period of June. An analysis was also made on the estimated influence of more moderate high flow events. The infill of the Conowingo reservoir had estimated impairments of water quality, primarily on deep-water and deep-channel dissolved oxygen, because of increased discharge and transport of organic and particulate inorganic nutrients from the Conowingo Reservoir.

  20. RC Infilled Frame-RC Plane Frame Interactions for Seismic Resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arulselvan, Suyamburaja; Subramanian, K.; Perumal Pillai, E. B.; Santhakumar, A. R.

    Experimental investigation was planned and conducted to study the influence of brick masonry infill in a reinforced cement concrete frame. The analytical methods available needs validation by comparison with experimental results and more accurate methods of analysis like finite element analysis has to be used for the above purpose. In this study, RC frame with middle bay brick infilled representing a five-stories, three bay building in quarter-scale has been taken for experimental investigation and the available methods of theoretical analysis and finite element analysis using ANSYS software for the frames have been carried out. Until the cracks developed in infills, the contribution of the infill to both lateral stiffness and strength was very significant. The change in lateral stiffness, strength, ductility and natural period of the framed structure due to the presence of infills change the behaviour of the building under seismic action. The object of this study was to investigate the behaviour of such infilled frames under seismic loads. For this purpose, five stories, three bay frames with central portion infilled with brick were tested under static cyclic loading simulating seismic action. Analytical works was done to understand the stiffness, strength and behaviour of these types of frames.

  1. Documentation of Computer Program INFIL3.0 - A Distributed-Parameter Watershed Model to Estimate Net Infiltration Below the Root Zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2008-01-01

    illustrates application of the code to a field setting. Brief descriptions of the main program routine and of each of the modules and subroutines of the INFIL3.0 code, as well as definitions of the variables used in each subroutine, are provided in an appendix.

  2. Application of Integrated Reservoir Management and Reservoir Characterization to Optimize Infill Drillings. Annual technical progress report, June 13, 1996 to June 12, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Nevans, Jerry W.; Blasingame, Tom; Doublet, Louis; Kelkar, Mohan; Freeman, George; Callard, Jeff; Moore, David; Davies, David; Vessell, Richard; Pregger, Brian; Dixon, Bill

    1999-04-27

    Infill drilling of wells on a uniform spacing, without regard to reservoir performance and characterization, does not optimize reservoir development because it fails to account for the complex nature of reservoir heterogeneities present in many low permeability reservoirs, and carbonate reservoirs in particular. New and emerging technologies, such as geostatistical modeling, rigorous decline curve analysis, reservoir rock typing, and special core analysis can be used to develop a 3-D simulation model for prediction of infill locations. Other technologies, such as inter-well injection tracers and magnetic flow conditioners, can also aid in the efficient evaluation and operation of both injection and producing wells. The purpose of this project was to demonstrate useful and cost effective methods of exploitation of the shallow shelf carbonate reservoirs of the Permian Basin located in West Texas.

  3. Geodynamic evolution and sedimentary infill of the northern Levant Basin: A source to sink-perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawie, N.

    2013-12-01

    Nicolas Hawie a,b,c (nicolas.hawie@upmc.fr) Didier Granjeon c (didier.granjeon@ifpen.fr) Christian Gorini a,b (christian.gorini@upmc.fr) Remy Deschamps c (remy.deschamps@ifpen.fr) Fadi H. Nader c (fadi-henri.nader@ifpen.fr) Carla Müller Delphine Desmares f (delphine.desmares@upmc.fr) Lucien Montadert e (lucien.montadert@beicip.com) François Baudin a (francois.baudin@upmc.fr) a UMR 7193 Institut des Sciences de la Terre de Paris, Université Pierre et Marie Curie/ Univ. Paris 06, case 117. 4, place Jussieu 75252 Paris Cedex 05, France b iSTEP, UMR 7193, CNRS, F-75005, Paris, France c IFP Energies nouvelles, 1-4 avenue du Bois Préau 92852 Rueil Malmaison Cedex, France d UMR 7207, Centre de Recherche sur la Paleobiodiversité et les Paleoenvironnements. Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Tour 46-56 5ème. 4, place Jussieu 75252 Paris Cedex 05, France e Beicip Franlab, 232 Av. Napoléon Bonaparte, 95502 Rueil-Malmaison, France Sedimentological and biostratigraphic investigations onshore Lebanon coupled with 2D offshore reflection seismic data allowed proposing a new Mesozoic-Present tectono-stratigraphic framework for the northern Levant Margin and Basin. The seismic interpretation supported by in-depth facies analysis permitted to depict the potential depositional environments offshore Lebanon as no well has yet been drilled. The Levant region has been affected by successive geodynamic events that modified the architecture of its margin and basin from a Late Triassic to Middle Jurassic rift into a Late Cretaceous subduction followed by collision and Miocene-Present strike slip motion. The interplay between major geodynamic events as well as sea level fluctuations impacted on the sedimentary infill of the basin. During Jurassic and Cretaceous, the Levant Margin is dominated by the aggradation of a carbonate platform while deepwater mixed-systems prevailed in the basin. During the Oligo-Miocene, three major sedimentary pathways are expected to drive important

  4. Spatial and temporal variability in sedimentation rates associated with cutoff channel infill deposits: Ain River, France

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Piegay, H.; Hupp, C.R.; Citterio, A.; Dufour, S.; Moulin, B.; Walling, D.E.

    2008-01-01

    Floodplain development is associated with lateral accretion along stable channel geometry. Along shifting rivers, the floodplain sedimentation is more complex because of changes in channel position but also cutoff channel presence, which exhibit specific overflow patterns. In this contribution, the spatial and temporal variability of sedimentation rates in cutoff channel infill deposits is related to channel changes of a shifting gravel bed river (Ain River, France). The sedimentation rates estimated from dendrogeomorphic analysis are compared between and within 14 cutoff channel infills. Detailed analyses along a single channel infill are performed to assess changes in the sedimentation rates through time by analyzing activity profiles of the fallout radionuclides 137Cs and unsupported 210Pb. Sedimentation rates are also compared within the channel infills with rates in other plots located in the adjacent floodplain. Sedimentation rates range between 0.65 and 2.4 cm a -1 over a period of 10 to 40 years. The data provide additional information on the role of distance from the bank, overbank flow frequency, and channel geometry in controlling the sedimentation rate. Channel infills, lower than adjacent floodplains, exhibit higher sedimentation rates and convey overbank sediment farther away within the floodplain. Additionally, channel degradation, aggradation, and bank erosion, which reduce or increase the distance between the main channel and the cutoff channel aquatic zone, affect local overbank flow magnitude and frequency and therefore sedimentation rates, thereby creating a complex mosaic of sedimentation zones within the floodplain and along the cutoff channel infills. Last, the dendrogeomorphic and 137Cs approaches are cross validated for estimating the sedimentation rate within a channel infill. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  5. Application of integrated reservoir management and reservoir characterization to optimize infill drilling. Annual technical progress report, June 13, 1996--June 12, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Nevans, J.W.; Pregger, B.; Blasingame, T.; Doublet, L.; Freeman, G.; Callard, J.; Moore, D.; Davies, D.; Vessell, R.

    1997-08-01

    Infill drilling of wells on a uniform spacing, without regard to reservoir performance and characterization, does not optimize reservoir development because it fails to account for the complex nature of reservoir heterogeneities present in many low permeability reservoirs, and carbonate reservoirs in particular. New and emerging technologies, such as geostatistical modeling, rigorous decline curve analysis, reservoir rock typing, and special core analysis can be used to develop a 3-D simulation model for prediction of infill locations. The purpose of this project is to demonstrate the application of advanced secondary recovery technologies to remedy producibility problems in typical shallow shelf carbonate reservoirs of the Permian Basin, Texas. Typical problems include poor sweep efficiency, poor balancing of injection and production rates, and completion techniques that are inadequate for optimal production and injection.

  6. Analysis of dynamic testing performed on structural clay tile infilled frames

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, J.J.

    1994-12-18

    The behavior of two structural clay tile infilled frames subjected to dynamic loading is investigated. The testing was performed by USACERL using a biaxial shake table machine on which two framed infills were spaced nine feet apart and connected by steel trusses and an eight inch concrete roof slab. The infills were composed of structural clay tile block which were laid with the cores horizontal. The specimen was loaded in both the out-of-plane and in-plane directions using a site specific time history record. The testing focused on determining frame and panel load-deflection behavior, acceleration amplification, and frequency degradation characteristics. The out-of-plane tests resulted in little degradation of frequency which means there was little loss of stiffness. There was no evidence of the infill {open_quotes}walking-out{close_quotes} of the steel frame; in fact the infill still had substantial stability after completion of the out-of-plane tests. As a result of the gradual increase in ground motion in the in-plane testing, the stiffness of the specimen gradually decreased. Strength and stiffness characteristics obtained from the dynamic testing were comparable to results and behavior seen in static tests. Degradation in the panel was much more rapid under the stronger ground motions which were produced during the sine sweep tests.

  7. Tectonic Complexity within Volcanically Infilled Impact Features on Mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrne, Paul; Klimczak, Christian; Blair, David; Ferrari, Sabrina; Solomon, Sean; Freed, Andrew; Watters, Thomas; Murchie, Scott

    2013-04-01

    Extensional tectonic deformation on Mercury is almost entirely restricted to impact features that host volcanic smooth plains. However, tectonic landforms within such features vary enormously in structural complexity. Here, we describe the progression in tectonic complexity within four representative volcanically flooded impact sites — a "ghost crater," the Mozart basin, the Rembrandt basin, and the Caloris basin — together with the implications of recent numerical modeling for the Caloris basin in particular, the largest recognized impact feature on the innermost planet. Ghost craters are volcanically buried impact features marked by a ring of tectonic landforms. Interior to many ghost craters are graben of no preferred orientation that divide the plains infill into polygonal blocks. The 235-km-diameter Mozart basin (centered at 7.8°N, 169.6°E) contains graben and ridges within its peak ring. Wrinkle ridges deform the basin center and are enclosed by an annulus of basin-circumferential graben. Outward from this annulus to the peak ring, mixed-orientation graben form a less-organized pattern. This general tectonic configuration is also observed within the similarly sized Raditladi and Rachmaninoff basins. Rembrandt basin (centered at 33.5°S, 88°E; diameter 715 km) has a basin floor heavily deformed by extensional and contractional structures. Basin-radial graben and ridges form fan-like patterns that are bounded by a mix of circumferential ridges and graben. Local clusters of ridges with mixed orientations lay farther outward on the southwestern and eastern portions of the interior smooth plains. The greatest tectonic complexity occurs within the 1,640-km-diameter Caloris basin, centered at 30°N, 161°E. A basin-radial graben set termed Pantheon Fossae originates from a point near the basin center and extends over half-way to the basin rim. Here, the Pantheon Fossae graben are bound by circumferential graben that form a near-complete annulus. Outward of

  8. Field Demonstration of Horizontal Infill Drilling Using Cost-effective Integrated Reservoir Modeling--Mississippian Carbonates, Central Kansas

    SciTech Connect

    Saibal Bhattacharya

    2005-08-31

    Mississippian carbonate reservoirs have produced in excess of 1 billion barrels of oil in Kansas accounting for over 16% of the state's production. With declining production from other age reservoirs, the contribution of Mississippian reservoirs to Kansas's oil production has risen to 43% as of 2004. However, solution-enhanced features such as vertical shale intervals extending from the karst erosional surface at the top introduce complexities/compartmentalizations in Mississippian carbonate reservoirs. Coupled with this, strong water drives charge many of these reservoirs resulting in limited drainage from vertical wells due to high water cuts after an initial period of low water production. Moreover, most of these fields are operated by small independent operators without access to the knowledge bank of modern research in field characterization and exploitation/development practices. Thus, despite increasing importance of Mississippian fields to Kansas production, these fields are beset with low recovery factors and high abandonment rates leaving significant resources in the ground. Worldwide, horizontal infill wells have been successful in draining compartmentalized reservoirs with limited pressure depletion. The intent of this project was to demonstrate the application of horizontal wells to successfully exploit the remaining potential in mature Mississippian fields of the mid-continent. However, it is of critical importance that for horizontal wells to be economically successful, they must be selectively targeted. This project demonstrated the application of initial and secondary screening methods, based on publicly available data, to quickly shortlist fields in a target area for detailed studies to evaluate their potential to infill horizontal well applications. Advanced decline curve analyses were used to estimate missing well-level production data and to verify if the well produced under unchanging bottom-hole conditions--two commonly occurring data

  9. The effect of prior out-of-plane damage on the in-plane behavior of unreinforced masonry infilled frames

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, R.C.; Jones, W.D.; Burdette, E.G.; Porter, M.L.

    1993-08-25

    In order to address the effect of prior out-of-plane damage on the in-plane behavior of unreinforced masonry infills, two full-scale (24 feet tall by 28 feet long) structural clay tile infills and one frame-only (no infilling) were constructed and tested. The infilled frame, consisting of two wide flange columns surrounded by masonry plasters and an eccentric wide flange purlin, was identical to many of the infills located at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The masonry infill was approximately 12.5 inches thick and was composed of individual four- and eight-inch hollow clay tile (HCT) units. One of the infill panels was tested out-of-plane by four quasi-static actuators -- two on each column. The test structure was deflected out-of-plane equally at all four actuator locations in order to simulate the computed deflection path of the top and bottom chords of a roof truss framing into the columns at these locations. Prior to the infill testing, a bare frame was loaded similarly in order to determine the behavior and stiffness contribution of the frame only. Following the out-of-plane test of the infilled panel, the structure was loaded in-plane to failure in order to ascertain residual strength. A second, identical infilled frame was then constructed and tested in-plane to failure. In this way, in-plane behavior with and without prior out-of-plane damage could be established and compared. For both out-of-plane and in-plane testing, reversed-cyclic quasi-static loading was used in order to obtain full tension/compression hystereses. Also, natural frequencies of the first infilled panel were determined before and after the out-of-plane testing. This paper describes the test series and discusses the conclusions pertinent to the effect of out-of-plane cracking on in-plane stiffness and behavior.

  10. Postglacial sedimentary infill of the Bricial peatland (Cantabrian Mountains, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correia, Antonio; Ruiz-Fernández, Jesús; Oliva, Marc; Fernández, Antonio; García-Hernández, Cristina; Gallinar, David

    2016-04-01

    Bricial is a peatland located in a glaciokarst depression of the Western Massif of the Picos de Europa (NW Spain). The depression is 425 m long and 245 m wide, and it is surrounded by moraines built during the stage of glacial expansion after the maximum advance within the Last Glaciation. In contrast to what happens in other karstic depressions existing in this massif (e.g. Comeya), the thickness and sedimentary infill of this depression is still unknown. With the purpose of better knowing the depression's structure, two electrical resistivity tomographies (ERT)s with different lengths across the Bricial depression were conducted along perpendicular directions; the shortest ERT was done in a NNE-SSW direction with an electrode spacing of 2 m and a total length of 78 m; the longest ERT was done in a WNW-ESE direction with a 5 m electrode spacing and a total length of 195 m. Both ERTs used 40 electrodes in a Wenner configuration. The two ERTs were done in such way that they intersected near an 8 m deep borehole drilled in the area in 2006. A two-dimensional electrical inversion software was used for inverting the apparent electrical resistivity data obtained during the field work into two-dimensional models of electrical resistivity of the ground. The models are a representation of the distribution of the electrical resistivity of the ground to depths of about 14 m along the shortest ERT and 35 m along the longest. In both geoelectrical models the electrical structure is approximately horizontal at the surface (i.e., between 3 to 5 m depth) and is more complex as depth increases. Low resistivity values prevail in most part of the profiles, which is consistent with the sedimentary sequence collected in the area. The 8 m long sedimentary sequence collected from Bricial consists of homogeneous organic-rich sediments. The base of the sequence was dated at 11,150 ± 900 cal yr BP. Taking into account the sedimentation rates and the data inferred from the electrical

  11. Study on the effect of the infill walls on the seismic performance of a reinforced concrete frame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Cuiqiang; Zhou, Ying; Zhou, Deyuan; Lu, Xilin

    2011-12-01

    Motivated by the seismic damage observed to reinforced concrete (RC) frame structures during the Wenchuan earthquake, the effect of infill walls on the seismic performance of a RC frame is studied in this paper. Infill walls, especially those made of masonry, offer some amount of stiffness and strength. Therefore, the effect of infill walls should be considered during the design of RC frames. In this study, an analysis of the recorded ground motion in the Wenchuan earthquake is performed. Then, a numerical model is developed to simulate the infill walls. Finally, nonlinear dynamic analysis is carried out on a RC frame with and without infill walls, respectively, by using CANNY software. Through a comparative analysis, the following conclusions can be drawn. The failure mode of the frame with infill walls is in accordance with the seismic damage failure pattern, which is strong beam and weak column mode. This indicates that the infill walls change the failure pattern of the frame, and it is necessary to consider them in the seismic design of the RC frame. The numerical model presented in this paper can effectively simulate the effect of infill walls on the RC frame.

  12. Prediction of the Fundamental Period of Infilled RC Frame Structures Using Artificial Neural Networks

    PubMed Central

    Asteris, Panagiotis G.; Tsaris, Athanasios K.; Cavaleri, Liborio; Repapis, Constantinos C.; Papalou, Angeliki; Di Trapani, Fabio; Karypidis, Dimitrios F.

    2016-01-01

    The fundamental period is one of the most critical parameters for the seismic design of structures. There are several literature approaches for its estimation which often conflict with each other, making their use questionable. Furthermore, the majority of these approaches do not take into account the presence of infill walls into the structure despite the fact that infill walls increase the stiffness and mass of structure leading to significant changes in the fundamental period. In the present paper, artificial neural networks (ANNs) are used to predict the fundamental period of infilled reinforced concrete (RC) structures. For the training and the validation of the ANN, a large data set is used based on a detailed investigation of the parameters that affect the fundamental period of RC structures. The comparison of the predicted values with analytical ones indicates the potential of using ANNs for the prediction of the fundamental period of infilled RC frame structures taking into account the crucial parameters that influence its value. PMID:27066069

  13. Masonry Infilling Effect On Seismic Vulnerability and Performance Level of High Ductility RC Frames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghalehnovi, M.; Shahraki, H.

    2008-07-01

    In last years researchers preferred behavior-based design of structure to force-based one for designing and construction of the earthquake-resistance structures, this method is named performance based designing. The main goal of this method is designing of structure members for a certain performance or behavior. On the other hand in most of buildings, load bearing frames are infilled with masonry materials which leads to considerable changes in mechanical properties of frames. But usually infilling wall's effect has been ignored in nonlinear analysis of structures because of complication of the problem and lack of simple logical solution. As a result lateral stiffness, strength, ductility and performance of the structure will be computed with less accuracy. In this paper by use of Smooth hysteretic model for masonry infillings, some high ductile RC frames (4, 8 stories including 1, 2 and 3 spans) designed according to Iranian code are considered. They have been analyzed by nonlinear dynamic method in two states, with and without infilling. Then their performance has been determined with criteria of ATC 40 and compared with recommended performance in Iranian seismic code (standard No. 2800).

  14. Masonry Infilling Effect On Seismic Vulnerability and Performance Level of High Ductility RC Frames

    SciTech Connect

    Ghalehnovi, M.; Shahraki, H.

    2008-07-08

    In last years researchers preferred behavior-based design of structure to force-based one for designing and construction of the earthquake-resistance structures, this method is named performance based designing. The main goal of this method is designing of structure members for a certain performance or behavior. On the other hand in most of buildings, load bearing frames are infilled with masonry materials which leads to considerable changes in mechanical properties of frames. But usually infilling wall's effect has been ignored in nonlinear analysis of structures because of complication of the problem and lack of simple logical solution. As a result lateral stiffness, strength, ductility and performance of the structure will be computed with less accuracy. In this paper by use of Smooth hysteretic model for masonry infillings, some high ductile RC frames (4, 8 stories including 1, 2 and 3 spans) designed according to Iranian code are considered. They have been analyzed by nonlinear dynamic method in two states, with and without infilling. Then their performance has been determined with criteria of ATC 40 and compared with recommended performance in Iranian seismic code (standard No. 2800)

  15. High Resolution Seismic Study of the Holocene Infill of the Elkhorn Slough, Central California

    EPA Science Inventory

    The seismic analysis of the sedimentary infill of the Elkhorn Slough, central California, reveals a succession of three main seismic units: U1, U2, U3, with their correspondent discontinuities d2, d3. These units are deposited over a paleorelief representing the channel location ...

  16. Estuarine infill and coastal progradation, southern van diemen gulf, northern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodroffe, C. D.; Mulrennan, M. E.; Chappell, J.

    1993-03-01

    There are several estuaries associated with the pronouncedly seasonal rivers which drain northwards from the Middle Proterozoic sandstone Arnhem Land plateau, and the Tertiary Koolpinyah land surface, into the macrotidal van Diemen Gulf, in the Northern Territory of Australia. The Holocene development of these, investigated in greatest detail for the South Alligator River with an upland catchment of > 10,000 km 2. through drilling, palynology and radiocarbon dating, comprises both estuarine infill and coastal progradation. Three phases of estuarine infill can be recognised: (i) a transgressive phase (8000-6800 years B.P.) of marine incursion; (ii) a big swamp phase (6800-5300 years B.P.) of widespread mangrove forest development; and (iii) a sinuous/cuspate phase of floodplain development since 5300 years B.P., during which the tidal river has meandered and reworked earlier estuarine sediments. Since 6000 years B.P., the South Alligator coastal plain has prograded at a decelerating rate, with two phases of chenier ridge formation. A similar pattern of estuarine infill, and decelerating coastal plain progradation, is demonstrated for the Adelaide and Mary Rivers, both with catchments of > 6000 km 2. The southern shore of van Diemem Gulf appears to have changed its overall position little during the last 2000 years. The major source for the clay, silt and fine sands which have infilled the estuary and coastal plain has been from seaward. Dispite the similarity of development, coastal sediment build up has had different effects on the morphology of each tidal river. The Adelaide has undergone a major diversion and no longer flows directly into van Diemen Gulf, but occupies a former fluvial course, and the Mary has been blocked entirely, and its former estuarine palaeochannels have been infilled with tide-transported sediment.

  17. Targeted infill drilling at Stratton field using 3-D seismic

    SciTech Connect

    Suydam, J.R.; Reitz, D.T.

    1994-12-31

    Stratton field is located on the Vicksburg flexure trend in Nueces and Kleberg Counties, South Texas. It has produced more than 2.8 Tcf of gas since 1937 from Frio fluvial/deltaic sandstones and Vicksburg shallow-marine sandstones. The field is a combination stratigraphic and faulted structural trap, and contains numerous highly compartmentalized sandstone reservoirs. Continuous infield drilling is required to keep the field producing, and 3-D seismic data have been used to select the best locations for these wells. In 1992, an 8-mi{sup 2} seismic survey was completed in the southern end of the field, and the resulting structural interpretation presented many more fault traps than were apparent in the 2-D seismic interpretation. So far, all of the new wells drilled within the survey have encountered untapped compartments enclosed by fault traps. Furthermore, fault cuts in the new wells have always been within 20 ft of the position predicted by seismic data.

  18. Targeted infill drilling at Stratton Field using 3-D seismic

    SciTech Connect

    Suydam, J.; Reitz, D.

    1994-09-01

    Stratton field is located on the Vicksburg flexure trend in Nueces and Kleberg counties, south Texas. It has produced over 2.8 tcf of gas since 1937 from Frio fluvial/deltaic sandstones and Vicksburg shallow marine sandstones. The field is a combination stratigraphic and faulted structural trap, and contains numerous highly compartmentalized sandstone reservoirs. Continuous infield drilling is required to keep the field producing, and 3-D seismic data have been used to select the best locations for these wells. In 1992, the Bureau of Economic Geology shot an 8-mi{sup 2} survey in the southern end of the field, and the resulting structural interpretation presented many more fault traps that were not apparent in the 2-D seismic interpretation. So far, all of the new wells drilled within the survey have encountered untapped compartments enclosed by fault traps. Furthermore, fault cuts in the new wells have always been within 20 ft of the position predicted by seismic data.

  19. An experimental investigation on the ultimate strength of epoxy repaired braced partial infilled RC frames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubey, Shailendra Kumar Damodar; Kute, Sunil

    2014-09-01

    Due to earthquake, buildings are damaged partially or completely. Particularly structures with soft storey are mostly affected. In general, such damaged structures are repaired and reused. In this regard, an experimental investigation was planned and conducted on models of single-bay, single-storey of partial concrete infilled reinforced concrete (RC) frames up to collapse with corner, central and diagonal steel bracings. Such collapsed frames were repaired with epoxy resin and retested. The initiative was to identify the behaviour, extent of restored ultimate strength and deflection of epoxy-retrofitted frames in comparison to the braced RC frames. The performance of such frames has been considered only for lateral loads. In comparison to bare RC frames, epoxy repaired partial infilled frames have significant increase in the lateral load capacity. Central bracing is more effective than corner and diagonal bracing. For the same load, epoxy repaired frames have comparable deflection than similar braced frames.

  20. INFIL1D: a quasi-analytical model for simulating one-dimensional, constant flux infiltration

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, C.S.; McKeon, T.J.

    1984-04-01

    The program INFIL1D is designed to calculate approximate wetting-front advance into an unsaturated, uniformly moist, homogeneous soil profile, under constant surface-flux conditions. The code is based on a quasi-analytical method, which utilizes an assumed invariant functional relationship between reduced (normalized) flux and water content. The code uses general hydraulic property data in tabular form to simulate constant surface-flux infiltration. 10 references, 4 figures.

  1. Out-of-plane behavior of hollow clay tile walls infilled between steel frames

    SciTech Connect

    Butala, M.B.; Jones, W.D.; Beavers, J.E.

    1991-08-16

    Several buildings at Y-12 Plant rely on unreinforced hollow clay tile walls (HCTW) infilled between unbraced, non-moment resisting steel frames to resist natural phenomena forces, seismic and wind. One critical building relies on moment resisting steel frames in one direction while relying on unreinforced HCTWs infilled between the columns in the orthogonal direction to resist these forces. The HCTWs must act as shear walls while maintaining out-of-plane lateral stability. In assessing the safety of these buildings to seismic forces, several models to study the in- and out-of-plane effects were made and analyzed. The study of the moment resisting steel framed building indicated that bending stresses in the walls were induced by building drift and not by inertial forces per se. The discovery of this phenomenon was some what of a surprise in that the analysis performed is not typically used in design of these structures. The study indicated that the walls began to crack at their interface with the foundation at a low ``g`` level and that horizontal cracking at different elevations continued until the walls exhibited little bending resistance. This paper presents results of the study for out-of-plane behavior of unreinforced HCTWs infilled between adjacent moment resisting steel frames and discusses the problems of assessing the in-plane behavior given the horizontal cracks induced by building drift in the out-of-plane direction.

  2. Infill and mire evolution of a typical kettle hole: young ages at great depths (Jackenmoos, Austria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Götz, Joachim; Salcher, Bernhard

    2015-04-01

    Kettle holes are very common features in proglacial environments. Myriads of small, often circular shaped lakes are indicative of dead ice slowly melting out after the collapse of glaciers and subsequent burial of glaciofluvial sediments. Many of these lakes transformed into mires during the Postglacial and the Holocene. Still, little is known about the mechanisms leading to mire formation in such environments. We aim to analyse the shape and the postglacial history of infilling and peat accumulation of a typical dead ice kettle using 2D resistivity surveying, core-drilling, 14C dating and palynologic analyses. The kettle hole mire is located within a small kame delta deposit just south of the LGM extend of the Salzach Piedmont glacier (Austria/Germany). Today, the mire is a spot of exceptional high biodiversity and under protection. Sediment core samples extracted in the deepest (c. 10-14 m) and central part of the kettle directly overly lacustrine fine sediments and yielded young ages covering the subatlantic period only. Young ages are in agreement with palynologic results comprising e.g. pollen of secale (rye) and juglans (walnut). However, these deposits are situated beneath a massive water body (10 m), only covered by a thin floating mat. A second, more distally situated drill core indicates the thinning of this water body at the expense of peat deposits covering the Late Glacial to Middle Holocene. Multiple 2D resistivity data support drilling information and enabled us to reconstruct the shape of the basin. The transition from lacustrine sediments to the water body above is characterised by a sharp increase in resistivity. Furthermore, the resistivity pattern within the entire kettle indicates an increase towards the centre, most probably as a result of the changing nutrient content. The postglacial evolution of the mire is in agreement with the concept of "floating mat terrestrialisation", representing a horizontal growth of the floating mat from the edges

  3. Basement depth and sedimentary infill from deep seismic reflection data at the western tip of the offshore Corinth Rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckers, Arnaud; Tripsanas, Efthymios; Hubert-Ferrari, Aurélia; Beck, Christian; Sakellariou, Dimitris

    2015-04-01

    The Corinth rift is a young continental rift located in central Greece. The active part of the rift forms an E-W striking depression - the Gulf of Corinth - that is the deepest in its central part. Extensive seismic surveys have imaged the basin's basement and allowed to estimate the total extension across most of the Gulf except its western tip. Extension is high in the central part and decreases westward and eastward, as reflected in the present-day bathymetry. Two decades of GPS measurements have shown that the extension rate increases westwards from ~5 to 10-15 mm yr-1, but this is not consistent with the long term pattern. However, no data allowed so far to estimate the basement depth at the western tip of the Gulf, where the geodetic extension rate is the largest. Such data would allow to check the apparent inconsistency between the present rate and the long-term estimates of crustal extension. We present here an unpublished multichannel seismic line dating from 1979 and crossing the western tip of the Gulf of Corinth. The line is 22 km long and strikes WNW-ESE, from the Mornos delta to the West-Channel fault. A Maxipulse source has been used, allowing to image the basement below the synrift sedimentary infill. To the east, a ~1.6 km deep basin is imaged between the southern margin of the Gulf and an inactive south-dipping fault located between the Aigion and the Trizonia faults. The sedimentary infill consists in an alternation between basin-focused bodies made of incoherent reflections and more extensive high-amplitude reflectors. Attributing this alternation to eustatic variations give an age of 300-350 ka to the oldest well imaged deposits. Northwest of the Trizonia fault, the basement is imaged at shallower depth, i.e. ~450 m. The western tip of the seismic line reaches the Mornos delta, close to the northern shoreline. There, the depth to the basement is larger, reaching ~1.2 km. The infill is made of 3 units : on the basement lies a thin unit of

  4. Incidence, Mechanisms, and Severity of Game-Related High School Football Injuries across Artificial Turf Systems of Various Infill Weight

    PubMed Central

    Meyers, Michael Clinton

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Today’s new generations of artificial turf are increasingly being installed to duplicate or exceed playing characteristics of natural grass. Rather than playing on the polyethylene turf fibers, shoe: surface interaction actually occurs between the cleat and the various proprietary sand/rubber infill composites of varying weight. At this time, the influence of surface infill weight on football trauma is unknown. Therefore, this study was conducted to quantify incidence, mechanisms, and severity of game-related high school football trauma across artificial turf systems of various infill weight. Methods: Artificial turf systems were divided into four sand/rubber infill weight groups based on lbs per square foot: (A) > 9.0, (B) 6.0 - 8.9, (C) 3.1 - 5.9 and, (D) 0.0 - 3.0. A total of 52 high schools participating across four states over 5 competitive seasons were evaluated for injury incidence, injury category, time of injury, injury time loss, player position, injury mechanism and situation, primary type of injury, injury grade and anatomical location, field location at time of injury, injury severity, head, shoulder, and lower extremity trauma, elective imaging and surgical procedures, cleat design, turf age, and environmental factors. Results: Of the 1,467 high school games documented, 494 games (33.7%) were played on infill (A), 404 (27.5%) on infill (B), 379 (25.8%) on infill (C), and 190 (13.0%) on infill (D). A total of 3,741 injuries were documented, with significantly lower total injury incidence rates (IIR), [18.4 (95% CI, 18.0-18.7) vs 27.5 (26.8-27.9) vs 33.5 (32.7-34.0) and 23.7 (22.7-24.4)], substantial IIRs [3.4 (95% CI, 3.0-3.8) vs 6.6 (6.2-7.1), 8.5 (8.2-8.9) and 6.5 (5.8-7.1)], trauma from shoe: surface interaction during contact [4.6 (95% CI, 4.1-5.0) vs 7.5 (7.0-7.9), 6.4 (5.9-6.9) and 6.9 (6.2-7.5)], playing surface impact trauma [2.4 (95% CI, 2.1-2.8) vs 4.9 (4.4-5.4), 6.1 (5.6-6.6) and 4.4 (3.7-5.1)], and less total elective imaging

  5. Nonlinear finite element model updating of an infilled frame based on identified time-varying modal parameters during an earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asgarieh, Eliyar; Moaveni, Babak; Stavridis, Andreas

    2014-11-01

    A model updating methodology is proposed for calibration of nonlinear finite element (FE) models simulating the behavior of real-world complex civil structures subjected to seismic excitations. In the proposed methodology, parameters of hysteretic material models assigned to elements (or substructures) of a nonlinear FE model are updated by minimizing an objective function. The objective function used in this study is the misfit between the experimentally identified time-varying modal parameters of the structure and those of the FE model at selected time instances along the response time history. The time-varying modal parameters are estimated using the deterministic-stochastic subspace identification method which is an input-output system identification approach. The performance of the proposed updating method is evaluated through numerical and experimental applications on a large-scale three-story reinforced concrete frame with masonry infills. The test structure was subjected to seismic base excitations of increasing amplitude at a large outdoor shake-table. A nonlinear FE model of the test structure has been calibrated to match the time-varying modal parameters of the test structure identified from measured data during a seismic base excitation. The accuracy of the proposed nonlinear FE model updating procedure is quantified in numerical and experimental applications using different error metrics. The calibrated models predict the exact simulated response very accurately in the numerical application, while the updated models match the measured response reasonably well in the experimental application.

  6. First Infilling of the Venda Nova II Unlined High-Pressure Tunnel: Observed Behaviour and Numerical Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamas, Luís N.; Leitão, Noemí S.; Esteves, Carlos; Plasencia, Nadir

    2014-05-01

    The underground structures of the Venda Nova II reversible hydroelectric power scheme present features that make it an interesting case study. Worthy of mention are the inclination and length of the unlined pressure tunnel, the high water head and the great depth of the powerhouse cavern. In projects of this type, the main effect of the internal water pressure in the pressure tunnel is the establishment of seepage from the tunnel into the rock mass, which can reach the adits and the powerhouse cavern. This seepage is influenced by several factors, such as the geometry of the underground openings, the rock mass properties—namely, the joints characteristics—and the stress state resulting from the excavation and from the internal water pressure. This article presents the main features of the underground structures of the Venda Nova II scheme and a detailed description of the observed behaviour during the first infilling of the pressure tunnel. A three-dimensional multi-laminated numerical model of the rock mass hydromechanical behaviour was developed to help understand the observed behaviour. The model assumptions in regard to the geometry of the openings, the jointing pattern, the rock mass hydraulic and mechanical behaviour, as well as the hydromechanical interaction, are described. Results obtained with the numerical model are presented and compared with the observed behaviour. Finally, the validity and importance of the numerical tools for the interpretation of the rock mass hydromechanical behaviour is discussed.

  7. Catchment clearing accelerates the infilling of a shallow subtropical bay in east coast Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coates-Marnane, Jack; Olley, Jon; Burton, Joanne; Sharma, Ashneel

    2016-06-01

    Understanding processes that govern the transport and distribution of terrestrial sediments to and within bays is critical for interpreting the drivers of long-term changes in these ecosystems. On the east coast of Australia increased soil erosion and sediment delivery following extensive land clearing in the contributing catchments, associated with European settlement, is highlighted as a key driver of the decline of numerous nearshore habitats including seagrass meadows and in-shore coral reefs. Here we use optical, radiocarbon and radionuclide dating to estimate mass accumulation rates and type of terrestrial sedimentation in central Moreton Bay during the Holocene. We compare the long-term rates of infilling within the central basin with the recent past and show a 3-9 fold increase in sediment accretion over the last 100 years compared to the long term (last ∼ 1500 to 3000 yrs) average. Infilling during the Holocene is not spatially uniform, with preferential deposition occurring within the now submerged palaeochannels of the Brisbane and Pine rivers. We suggest that modern turbidity regimes in Moreton Bay are the result of the compounded effect of both a historical increase in fine sediment supply and a rapid decline in the effective storage capacity of the basin.

  8. Rapid assessment for seismic vulnerability of low and medium rise infilled RC frame buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Nimry, Hanan; Resheidat, Musa; Qeran, Saddam

    2015-06-01

    An indexing method for rapid evaluation of the seismic vulnerability of infilled RC frame buildings in Jordan is proposed. The method aims at identifying low and medium rise residential buildings as safe or in need of further detailed evaluation. Following a rapid visual screening, the building is assigned a Basic Capacity Index (BCI); five performance modifiers are identified and multiplied by the BCI to arrive at the Capacity Index (CI) of the building. A Capacity Index lower than a limit CI value indicates that the screened building could experience moderate earthquake damage whereas a higher value implies that minor damage, if any, would take place. To establish the basic evaluation parameters; forty RC frame buildings were selected, designed and analyzed using static nonlinear analysis and incorporating the effect of infill walls. Effects of seismicity, local site conditions, horizontal irregularities (setbacks and re-entrant corners), vertical irregularities (soft story at ground floor level) and overhangs on the seismic performance of local buildings were examined. Assessment forms were designed and used to evaluate and rank 112 sample buildings. About 40% of the surveyed buildings were found to be in need of detailed evaluation to better define their seismic vulnerabilities.

  9. Infilling and interpolation of precipitation at different temporal scales in South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pegram, Geoff; Bárdossy, András

    2014-05-01

    Hydrological observations are often incomplete - equipment malfunction, transmission errors and other technical problems lead to unwanted gaps in observation time series. Furthermore, due to financial and organizational problems, many observation networks are in continuous decline. As an ameliorating stratagem, short time gaps can be filled using information from other locations or other variables, such as circulation patterns. The statistics of abandoned stations provide useful information for the process of extending records. In this contribution the authors present a comparison of different methods for infilling gaps using: - nearest neighbours - simple and multiple linear regression - black box methods (fuzzy rules and neural nets) - Expectation Maximization - Copula based estimation The methods are used at different time scales for infilling precipitation from daily through pentads and months to years. The copula based estimation provides not only an estimator for the expected value, but also a probability distribution for each of the missing values. Thus the method can be used for conditional simulation of realizations. Observed precipitation data from the Cape region in South Africa are used to illustrate the intercomparison of the methodologies. An outlook suggesting how to use these data for spatial interpolation concludes the presentation.

  10. Repeated catastrophic valley infill following medieval earthquakes in the Nepal Himalaya.

    PubMed

    Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Bernhardt, Anne; Stolle, Amelie; Hoelzmann, Philipp; Adhikari, Basanta R; Andermann, Christoff; Tofelde, Stefanie; Merchel, Silke; Rugel, Georg; Fort, Monique; Korup, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Geomorphic footprints of past large Himalayan earthquakes are elusive, although they are urgently needed for gauging and predicting recovery times of seismically perturbed mountain landscapes. We present evidence of catastrophic valley infill following at least three medieval earthquakes in the Nepal Himalaya. Radiocarbon dates from peat beds, plant macrofossils, and humic silts in fine-grained tributary sediments near Pokhara, Nepal's second-largest city, match the timing of nearby M > 8 earthquakes in ~1100, 1255, and 1344 C.E. The upstream dip of tributary valley fills and x-ray fluorescence spectrometry of their provenance rule out local sources. Instead, geomorphic and sedimentary evidence is consistent with catastrophic fluvial aggradation and debris flows that had plugged several tributaries with tens of meters of calcareous sediment from a Higher Himalayan source >60 kilometers away.

  11. Reconstructing the infilling history within Robert Sharp Crater, Mars: Insights from morphology and stratigraphy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brossier, J.; Le Deit, L.; Hauber, E.; Mangold, N.; Carter, J.; Jaumann, R.

    2015-10-01

    Robert Sharp (133.59°E, -4.12°N) is a 150 km diameter impact crater , located in the equatorial region of Mars, near Gale Crater, where the MSL rover Curiosity landed in August 2012. Using orbital data, an iron chlorine hydroxide named akaganéite that typically forms in highly saline and chlorinated aqueous environments on Earth has been detected in Robert Sharp crater [1]. Interestingly, akaganéite has also been detected in Gale Crater from the ground [2,3]. In order to reconstruct the paleo-environments in the region, we produce a geological map of Robert Sharp(Fig.1). Crater counts provide time constraints on its infilling history.

  12. Repeated catastrophic valley infill following medieval earthquakes in the Nepal Himalaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Bernhardt, Anne; Stolle, Amelie; Hoelzmann, Philipp; Adhikari, Basanta R.; Andermann, Christoff; Tofelde, Stefanie; Merchel, Silke; Rugel, Georg; Fort, Monique; Korup, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Geomorphic footprints of past large Himalayan earthquakes are elusive, although they are urgently needed for gauging and predicting recovery times of seismically perturbed mountain landscapes. We present evidence of catastrophic valley infill following at least three medieval earthquakes in the Nepal Himalaya. Radiocarbon dates from peat beds, plant macrofossils, and humic silts in fine-grained tributary sediments near Pokhara, Nepal’s second-largest city, match the timing of nearby M > 8 earthquakes in ~1100, 1255, and 1344 C.E. The upstream dip of tributary valley fills and x-ray fluorescence spectrometry of their provenance rule out local sources. Instead, geomorphic and sedimentary evidence is consistent with catastrophic fluvial aggradation and debris flows that had plugged several tributaries with tens of meters of calcareous sediment from a Higher Himalayan source >60 kilometers away.

  13. Repeated catastrophic valley infill following medieval earthquakes in the Nepal Himalaya.

    PubMed

    Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Bernhardt, Anne; Stolle, Amelie; Hoelzmann, Philipp; Adhikari, Basanta R; Andermann, Christoff; Tofelde, Stefanie; Merchel, Silke; Rugel, Georg; Fort, Monique; Korup, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Geomorphic footprints of past large Himalayan earthquakes are elusive, although they are urgently needed for gauging and predicting recovery times of seismically perturbed mountain landscapes. We present evidence of catastrophic valley infill following at least three medieval earthquakes in the Nepal Himalaya. Radiocarbon dates from peat beds, plant macrofossils, and humic silts in fine-grained tributary sediments near Pokhara, Nepal's second-largest city, match the timing of nearby M > 8 earthquakes in ~1100, 1255, and 1344 C.E. The upstream dip of tributary valley fills and x-ray fluorescence spectrometry of their provenance rule out local sources. Instead, geomorphic and sedimentary evidence is consistent with catastrophic fluvial aggradation and debris flows that had plugged several tributaries with tens of meters of calcareous sediment from a Higher Himalayan source >60 kilometers away. PMID:26676354

  14. Acceptance and Angular Resolution of an Infill Array for the Pierre Auger Surface Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Medina, C.; Gomez Berisso, M.; Allekotte, I.; Etchegoyen, A.; Supanitsky, D.; Medina-Tanco, G.

    2007-02-12

    The Pierre Auger Observatory has been designed to study the highest-energy cosmic rays in nature (E {>=} 1019 eV). The determination of their arrival direction, energy and composition is performed by the analysis of the atmospheric showers they produce. The Auger Surface Array will consist of 1600 water Cerenkov detectors placed in an equilateral triangular grid of 1.5 km. In this paper we show how adding a ''small'' area of surface detectors at half the above mentioned spacing would make it possible to lower the detection threshold by one order of magnitude, thus allowing the Observatory to reach lower energies where the cross-over from galactic to extragalactic sources is expected. We also analyze the angular resolution that can be attained with such an infill array.

  15. Transverse, supraglacially derived crevasse infillings in a Pleistocene ice-sheet margin zone (eastern Poland): Genesis and sedimentary record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godlewska, Anna; Terpiłowski, Sławomir

    2012-08-01

    The so-called 'crevasse infillings' in the marginal zone of the Saalian ice sheet in eastern Poland are atypical relief forms for lowlands glaciated in the Pleistocene. They are located on a high of the Cretaceous/Palaeogene substratum and form isolated ridges arranged in trains parallel to the former ice-sheet margin, i.e., transverse to the movement of the ice sheet. The sedimentary succession of the crevasse infillings consists mainly of undeformed glaciodeltaic deposits. We propose a model of the crevasse infilling development in three phases against the background of ice mass dynamics: 1) ice-sheet advance over a high of the substratum — compressive ice flow that bumped against the high's slope and enrichment of the ice with debris; 2) an overriding of the substratum high by ice masses — a tensional ice-flow regime resulted in significant crevassing; and 3) ice mass stagnation — low energy, supraglacial deltaic sedimentation in isolated ponds between disintegrated ice blocks under frozen bed conditions. Considering this genesis, we suggest classifying these forms as kames instead of crevasse infillings.

  16. Late Quaternary valley infill and dissection in the Indus River, western Tibetan Plateau margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blöthe, Jan H.; Munack, Henry; Korup, Oliver; Fülling, Alexander; Garzanti, Eduardo; Resentini, Alberto; Kubik, Peter W.

    2014-06-01

    The Indus, one of Earth's major rivers, drains large parts of the NW Himalaya and the Transhimalayan ranges that form part of the western Tibetan Plateau margin. In the western Himalayan syntaxis, where local topographic relief exceeds 7 km, the Indus has incised a steep bedrock gorge at rates of several mm yr-1. Upstream, however, the upper Indus and its tributaries alternate between bedrock gorges and broad alluvial flats flanked by the Ladakh and Zanskar ranges. We review the late Quaternary valley history in this region with a focus on the confluence of the Indus and Zanskar Rivers, where vast alluvial terrace staircases and lake sediments record major episodes of aggradation and incision. New absolute dating of high-level fluvial terrace remnants using cosmogenic 10Be, optically and infrared stimulated luminescence (OSL, IRSL) indicates at least two phases of late Quaternary valley infilling. These phases commenced before ˜200 ka and ˜50-20 ka, judging from terrace treads stranded >150 m and ˜30-40 m above modern river levels, respectively. Numerous stacks of lacustrine sediments that straddle the Indus River >200 km between the city of Leh and the confluence with the Shyok River share a distinct horizontal alignment. Constraints from IRSL samples of lacustrine sequences from the Leh-Spituk area reveal a protracted lake phase from >177 ka to 72 ka, locally accumulating >50-m thick deposits. In the absence of tectonic faulting, major lithological differences, and stream capture, we attribute the formation of this and other large lakes in the region to natural damming by large landslides, glaciers, and alluvial fans. The overall patchy landform age constraints from earlier studies can be reconciled by postulating a major deglacial control on sediment flux, valley infilling, and subsequent incision that has been modulated locally by backwater effects of natural damming. While comparison with Pleistocene monsoon proxies reveals no obvious correlation, a late

  17. Basin Dynamics and Sedimentary Infilling of Miocene Sandstone Reservoir Systems In Eastern Tunisian African Margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bédir, Mourad; Khomsi, Sami

    2015-04-01

    Most of hydrocarbon accumulations and aquifers within the Cap Bon, Gulf of Hammamet and Sahel basins in eastern tunisian foreland are reservoired within the Upper Miocene Birsa and Saouaf sandstones and shales Formations. In the gulf of Hammamet, these sandstones constitutes oil and gas fields and are exploited on anticline highs and described as varying from shoreface to shallow marine and typically exhibit excellent reservoir quality of 30% to 35% porosity and good permeability from 500 to 1100 md. In addition, the fracturing of faults enhanced the reservoir quality potential. In contrary, the same hydrocarbon reservoirs are important hydrogeologic ones in the Cap Bon and Sahel basins with huge amount of hundred millions of cubic meters of water only partially exploited. Integrated wire line logging correlations, seismic sequence stratigraphic, tectonics and outcrop geologic analogue studies had permitted to highlight the basin structuring and sedimentary environments of sequence deposits infilling of the reservoir distribution between high platforms to subsiding graben and syncline basins bounded by deep-seated transtensive and transpressive flower faults. Seven third order sequence deposits limited by downlap prograding and onlap/toplap aggrading/retrograding system tracts extend along the eastern margin around the three basins by facies and thickness variances. System tracts exhibit around high horst and graben a channelized and levee infillings extending from 100 meters to more than a kilometer of width. They present a stacked single story and multistory channels types showing space lateral and vertical migrations along NE-SW, E-W and N-S directions. Paleogeographic depositional reservoir fair maps distribution highlight deltaic horst domain with floodplain and incised valley of fluvial amalgamed and braided sandstones distributary channels that occupy the high folded horsts. Whereas folded horst-graben and syncline borders domain of Shelf prodelta are

  18. Seismic Evaluation and Preliminary Design of Regular Setback Masonry Infilled Open Ground Storey RC Frame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashmi, Arshad K.

    2016-06-01

    Current seismic code presents certain stringent factors for defining frame as regular and irregular. Thereby these stringent factors only decide the type of analysis (i.e. equivalent static analysis or dynamic analysis) to be done. On the contrary, development of new simplified methods such as pushover analysis can give lateral load capacity of any structure (e.g. regular or irregular frame etc.) easily. Design by iterative procedure with the help of pushover analysis for serviceability requirement (i.e. inter storey drift limitation) provided by present seismic code, can provide an alternative to present practicing procedure. Present paper deals with regular setback frame in combination with vulnerable layout of masonry infill walls over the frame elevation (i.e. probable case of "Vertical Stiffness Irregularities"). Nonlinear time history analysis and Capacity Spectrum Method have been implemented to investigate the seismic performance of these frames. Finally, recently developed preliminary design procedure satisfying the serviceability criterion of inter storey drift limitation has been employed for the preliminary design of these frames.

  19. Project evaluates POSC specifications for infill drilling. [Petrochemical Open Software Corp

    SciTech Connect

    Zahniser, D.L. ); Merritt, R.W. ); Chan, C.K. )

    1994-05-16

    A project is under way to build data-loading tools and create an integrated oil and gas production data base using specifications developed during the last 3 years by the Petrotechnical Open Software Corp. (POSC). The Industry Pilot Project (IPP) Phase 1 is a collaborative effort between seven oil companies. The participating oil companies have provided a large set of data from a producing North American oil and gas field and money, hardware, and personnel. Many companies have already streamlined their infill drilling processes and receive significant incremental benefits. But current information technology can often be a stumbling block. Cross-disciplinary use of information is the key goal of these streamlining efforts, but much time is lost in finding, reformatting, accessing, and determining the quality of data. This project sets out to prove how POSC specifications can help reduce the cost and time for developing a field, improved the quality of the decision-making process, minimize the number of communication barriers and, most importantly, change technology from a hurdle to a seamless step. The project demonstrates that POSC specifications are an enabling technology that can dramatically improve the way oil companies and suppliers operate.

  20. Strontium Distribution Coefficients of Basalt and Sediment Infill Samples from the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    M. N. Pace; R. C. Bartholomay; J. J. Rosentreter

    1999-07-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey and Idaho State University, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, are conducting a study to determine and evaluate strontium distribution coefficients (Kds) of subsurface materials at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The purpose of this study is to aid in assessing the variability of strontium Kds at the INEEL as part of an ongoing investigation of chemical transport of strontium-90 in the Snake River Plain aquifer. Batch experimental techniques were used to determine Kds of six basalt core samples, five samples of sediment infill of vesicles and fractures, and six standard material samples. Analyses of data from these experiments indicate that the Kds of the sediment infill samples are significantly larger than those of the basalt samples. Quantification of such information is essential of furthering the understanding of transport processes of strontium-90 in the Snake River Plain aquifer and in similar environments.

  1. Assessing metal contamination from construction and demolition (C&D) waste used to infill wetlands: using Deroceras reticulatum (Mollusca: Gastropoda).

    PubMed

    Staunton, John A; Mc Donnell, Rory J; Gormally, Michael J; Williams, Chris D; Henry, Tiernan; Morrison, Liam

    2014-11-01

    Large quantities of construction and demolition waste (C&D) are produced globally every year, with little known about potential environmental impacts. In the present study, the slug, Deroceras reticulatum (Mollusca: Gastropoda) was used as the first biomonitor of metals (Ag, As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Ti, Tl, V and Zn) on wetlands post infilling with construction and demolition (C&D) waste. The bioaccumulation of As, Ba, Cd, Co, Sb, Se and Tl were found to be significantly elevated in slugs collected on C&D waste when compared to unimproved pastures (control sites), while Mo, Se and Sr had significantly higher concentrations in slugs collected on C&D waste when compared to known contaminated sites (mining locations), indicating the potential hazardous nature of C&D waste to biota. Identifying exact sources for these metals within the waste can be problematic, due to its heterogenic nature. Biomonitors are a useful tool for future monitoring and impact studies, facilitating policy makers and regulations in other countries regarding C&D waste infill. In addition, improving separation of C&D waste to allow increased reuse and recycling is likely to be effective in reducing the volume of waste being used as infill, subsequently decreasing potential metal contamination.

  2. Surface-geophysical techniques used to detect existing and infilled scour holes near bridge piers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Placzek, Gary; Haeni, F.P.

    1995-01-01

    Surface-geophysical techniques were used with a position-recording system to study riverbed scour near bridge piers. From May 1989 to May 1993. Fathometers, fixed- and swept-frequency con- tinuous seismic-reflection profiling (CSP) systems, and a ground-penetrating radar (GPR) system were used with a laser-positioning system to measure the depth and extent of existing and infilled scour holes near bridge piers. Equipment was purchased commercially and modified when necessary to interface the components and (or) to improve their performance. Three 200-kHz black-and-white chart- recording Fathometers produced profiles of the riverbed that included existing scour holes and exposed pier footings. The Fathometers were used in conjunction with other geophysical techniques to help interpret the geophysical data. A 20-kHz color Fathometer delineated scour-hole geometry and, in some cases, the thickness of fill material in the hole. The signal provided subbottom information as deep as 10 ft in fine-grained materials and resolved layers of fill material as thin as 1 foot thick. Fixed-frequency and swept-frequency CSP systems were evaluated. The fixed-frequency system used a 3.5-, 7.0-, or 14-kHz signal. The 3.5-kHz signal pene- trated up to 50 ft of fine-grained material and resolved layers as thin as 2.5-ft thick. The 14-kHz signal penetrated up to 20 ft of fine-grained material and resolved layers as thin as 1-ft thick. The swept-frequency systems used a signal that swept from 2- to 16-kHz. With this system, up to 50 ft of penetration was achieved, and fill material as thin as 1 ft was resolved. Scour-hole geometry, exposed pier footings, and fill thickness in scour holes were detected with both CSP systems. The GPR system used an 80-, 100-, or 300-megahertz signal. The technique produced records in water up to 15 ft deep that had a specific conductance less than 200x11ms/cm. The 100-MHz signal penetrated up to 40 ft of resistive granular material and resolved layers as

  3. Sediment infilling and wetland formation dynamics in an active crevasse splay of the Mississippi River delta

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cahoon, Donald R.; White, David A.; Lynch, James C.

    2011-01-01

    Crevasse splay environments provide a mesocosm for evaluating wetland formation and maintenance processes on a decadal time scale. Site elevation, water levels, vertical accretion, elevation change, shallow subsidence, and plant biomass were measured at five habitats along an elevation gradient to evaluate wetland formation and development in Brant Pass Splay; an active crevasse splay of the Balize delta of the Mississippi River. The processes of vertical development (vertical accretion, elevation change, and shallow subsidence) were measured with the surface elevation table–marker horizon method. There were three distinct stages to the accrual of elevation capital and wetland formation in the splay: sediment infilling, vegetative colonization, and development of a mature wetland community. Accretion, elevation gain, and shallow subsidence all decreased by an order of magnitude from the open water (lowest elevation) to the forest (highest elevation) habitats. Vegetative colonization occurred within the first growing season following emergence of the mud surface. An explosively high rate of below-ground production quickly stabilized the loosely consolidated sub-aerial sediments. After emergent vegetation colonization, vertical development slowed and maintenance of marsh elevation was driven both by sediment trapping by the vegetation and accumulation of plant organic matter in the soil. Continued vertical development and survival of the marsh then depended on the health and productivity of the plant community. The process of delta wetland formation is both complex and nonlinear. Determining the dynamics of wetland formation will help in understanding the processes driving the past building of the delta and in developing models for restoring degraded wetlands in the Mississippi River delta and other deltas around the world.

  4. Sediment infilling and wetland formation dynamics in an active crevasse splay of the Mississippi River delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahoon, Donald R.; White, David A.; Lynch, James C.

    2011-08-01

    Crevasse splay environments provide a mesocosm for evaluating wetland formation and maintenance processes on a decadal time scale. Site elevation, water levels, vertical accretion, elevation change, shallow subsidence, and plant biomass were measured at five habitats along an elevation gradient to evaluate wetland formation and development in Brant Pass Splay; an active crevasse splay of the Balize delta of the Mississippi River. The processes of vertical development (vertical accretion, elevation change, and shallow subsidence) were measured with the surface elevation table-marker horizon method. There were three distinct stages to the accrual of elevation capital and wetland formation in the splay: sediment infilling, vegetative colonization, and development of a mature wetland community. Accretion, elevation gain, and shallow subsidence all decreased by an order of magnitude from the open water (lowest elevation) to the forest (highest elevation) habitats. Vegetative colonization occurred within the first growing season following emergence of the mud surface. An explosively high rate of below-ground production quickly stabilized the loosely consolidated sub-aerial sediments. After emergent vegetation colonization, vertical development slowed and maintenance of marsh elevation was driven both by sediment trapping by the vegetation and accumulation of plant organic matter in the soil. Continued vertical development and survival of the marsh then depended on the health and productivity of the plant community. The process of delta wetland formation is both complex and nonlinear. Determining the dynamics of wetland formation will help in understanding the processes driving the past building of the delta and in developing models for restoring degraded wetlands in the Mississippi River delta and other deltas around the world.

  5. Welding of pyroclastic conduit infill: A mechanism for cyclical explosive eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolzenburg, S.; Russell, J. K.

    2014-07-01

    Vulcanian-style eruptions are small- to moderate-sized, singular to cyclical events commonly having volcanic explosivity indices of 1-3. They produce pyroclastic flows, disperse tephra over considerable areas, and can occur as precursors to larger (e.g., Plinian) eruptions. The fallout deposits of the 2360 B.P. eruption of Mount Meager, BC, Canada, contain bread-crusted blocks of welded breccia as accessory lithics. They display a range of compaction/welding intensity and provide a remarkable opportunity to constrain the nature and timescales of mechanical processes operating within explosive volcanic conduits during repose periods between eruptive cycles. We address the deformation and porosity/permeability reduction within natural pyroclastic deposits infilling volcanic conduits. We measure the porosity, permeability, and ultrasonic wave velocities for a suite of samples and quantify the strain recorded by pumice clasts. We explore the correlations between the physical properties and deformation fabric. Based on these correlations, we reconstruct the deformation history within the conduit, model the permeability reduction timescales, and outline the implications for the repressurization of the volcanic conduit. Our results highlight a profound directionality in the measured physical properties of these samples related to the deformation-induced fabric. Gas permeability varies drastically with increasing strain and decreasing porosity along the compaction direction of the fabric but varies little along the elongation direction of the fabric. The deformation fabric records a combination of compaction within the conduit and postcompaction stretching associated with subsequent eruption. Model timescales of these processes are in good agreement with repose periods of cyclic vulcanian eruptions.

  6. Infilling and flooding of the Mekong River incised valley during deglacial sea-level rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tjallingii, Rik; Stattegger, Karl; Wetzel, Andreas; Van Phach, Phung

    2010-06-01

    The abrupt transition from fluvial to marine deposition of incised-valley-fill sediments retrieved from the southeast Vietnamese shelf, accurately records the postglacial transgression after 14 ka before present (BP). Valley-filling sediments consist of fluvial mud, whereas sedimentation after the transgression is characterized by shallow-marine carbonate sands. This change in sediment composition is accurately marked in high-resolution X-ray fluorescence (XRF) core scanning records. Rapid aggradation of fluvial sediments at the river mouth nearly completely filled the Mekong incised valley prior to flooding. However, accumulation rates strongly reduced in the valley after the river-mouth system flooded and stepped back. This also affected the sediment supply to deeper parts of the southeast Vietnamese shelf. Comparison of the Mekong valley-filling with the East Asian sea-level history of sub- and inter-tidal sediment records shows that the transgressive surface preserved in the incised-valley-fill records is a robust sea-level indicator. The valley was nearly completely filled with fluvial sediments between 13.0 and 9.5 ka BP when sea-level rose rather constantly with approximately 10 mm/yr, as indicated by the East Asian sea-level record. At shallower parts of the shelf, significant sediment reworking and the establishment of estuarine conditions at the final stage of infilling complicates accurate dating of the transgressive surface. Nevertheless, incised-valley-fill records and land-based drill sites indicate a vast and rapid flooding of the shelf from the location of the modern Vietnamese coastline to the Cambodian lowlands between 9.5 ka and 8.5 ka BP. Fast flooding of this part of the shelf is related with the low shelf gradient and a strong acceleration of the East Asian sea-level rise from 34 to 9 meter below modern sea level (mbsl) corresponding to the sea-level jump of melt water pulse (MWP) 1C.

  7. Infilling of Cobble Substrate used by White Sturgeon on the Nechako River, at Vanderhoof BC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmermann, A. E.; Argast, T.; Sary, Z.

    2013-12-01

    Nechako white sturgeon are experiencing a recruitment failure, which has been attributed to the failure of eggs and larvae to survive as a result of changes in the substrate at the locations where they are known to spawn. As part of the overall recovery effort initiative, cobble substrate was placed at two locations to provide clean spawning substrate. Subsequently, the condition of the substrate has been investigated using an underwater camera and freeze core sampling. These observations have shown that coarse sand and fine gravels (fine bedoad) have in-filled the coarse substrate where it was placed along the inside corner of the bends, while placed substrate located on the outside of the bends has remained free of this size fraction. This observation has lead to the quandary: Is placed cobble substrate on the outside corner of the bends not being filled in with fine bedload because fine bedload is not moving past these sites, or are post-regulation flood flows sufficient to ensure fines remain suspended and are not deposited in the interstitial spaces? To assess this question a number of field based techniques will be used in August of 2013 during high flows to examine the movement of fine bedload. The techniques employed will include an underwater camera, P61 suspended sediment sampler, a HellySmith and KAROLYI bedload sampler and an ADCP with RTK for bottom tracking. The intent is to examine the movement of fine bedload across the channel at a number of potential spawning sites. The poster will summarize the observations to date about the movement of fine bedload at the spawning sites, and discuss the implications for spawning substrate improvement efforts.

  8. Infilling stratigraphy of macrotidal tide-dominated estuaries. Controlling mechanisms: Sea-level fluctuations, bedrock morphology, sediment supply and climate changes (The examples of the Seine estuary and the Mont-Saint-Michel Bay, English Channel, NW France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tessier, Bernadette; Billeaud, Isabelle; Sorrel, Philippe; Delsinne, Nicolas; Lesueur, Patrick

    2012-11-01

    This article presents a synthesis of recent works performed on two macrotidal tide-dominated estuaries located along the southern coast of the English Channel, the Seine estuary and the Mont-Saint-Michel Bay (NW France). On the basis of very high resolution seismic data combined with sediment cores and AMS dating, these works allow reconstructing the Holocene infill of such singular estuaries, yet rarely documented in the literature. Rate in sea-level rise, bedrock morphology, sediment supply are the main controlling factors of the general infill pattern. Both infills are composed of two units, the transgressive systems tract (TST) and highstand systems tract (HST). The maximum flooding surface (MFS) is dated around 6500 cal BP when the Holocene sea-level rise slowed down, and corresponds to the main architectural change. The TST is poorly preserved compared with the HST that constitutes the main depositional unit, making this incised valley fill deviating from the classical models. The HST is composed above the axis of the incised valley of a highly wandering estuarine channel belt characterized by deep tidal reworking throughout its building. On the margin of this high-energy estuarine system, the HST is made of wave-dominated barriers, tidal flats and offshore tidal banks.. They constitute dominantly aggradational systems, the aggradation rate of which is in accordance with the rate of sea-level rise from 6500 cal BP onwards. Consequently, the impacts of the rapid climate changesthat characterized mid- to late Holocene times can be preserved in these marginal successions. Various sedimentary and geometrical signatures indicate that periodic enhanced storminess episodes, probably related to the Bond Cold Events (~ 1500 years periodicity), are responsible for the most drastic environmental changes in these macrotidal tide-dominated settings. The role of long term tidal cycles as well as the impact of human activities are also considered.

  9. The Role of Conjoining (Tie) Channels in Lowland Floodplain Development and Lake Infilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowland, J. C.; Dietrich, W. E.; Day, G.; Lepper, K.; Wilson, C. J.

    2003-12-01

    In simple models of lowland river systems, water and sediment enter the main stem via tributary and secondary channels and are only redistributed to the floodplain during overbank and crevasse splay events. Along numerous river systems across the globe, however, water and sediment are regularly exchanged between the river and off river water bodies via stable, narrow channels. These channels, known as tie channels on the Fly River in Papua New Guinea and batture channels along the lower Mississippi, are largely overlooked but important components of floodplain sediment dispersal where they exist. These channels become pathways of sediment dispersal to the floodplain system when elevated river stages force sediment-laden flows into the off-river water bodies. On the Fly River, it is estimated that about 50% of the sediment delivery to the floodplain is via these channels, and along low gradient tributary channels during flood driven flow reversals. During low flow, tie channels serve to drain the floodplain. With the outgoing flows, large amounts sediment can be carried and lost to the floodplain; floodplain lakes progressively infill with sediment as the mouth of these channels steadily prograde lakeward. These lake deposits not only become significant stratigraphic components of floodplains (traditionally referred to as clay plugs), but are important local sinks recording hundreds to thousands of years of river history. As with all sinks, the proper interpretation of these stratigraphic records requires understanding the processes by which sediment is delivered to the sink and how these processes alter the paleohydraulic and climatic signals of interest. We have conducted field investigations of conjoining channels in Papua New Guinea (the Fly and Strickland Rivers), Louisiana (Raccourci Old River ~ 65 km upriver of Baton Rouge) and Alaska (Birch Creek). These field investigations include extensive surveys of both cross and along channel morphological trends

  10. CHRONOLOGICAL CONSTRAINTS ON FLUID CIRCULATION IN MESOZOIC FORMATIONS OF THE EASTERN PART OF THE PARIS BASIN INFERRED FROM U-Pb DATING OF SECONDARY INFILLING CARBONATES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisapia, C.; Deschamps, P.; Hamelin, B.; Buschaert, S.

    2009-12-01

    The French agency for nuclear waste management (ANDRA) developed an Underground Research Laboratory in the Mesozoic formations of Eastern part of the Paris Basin (France) to assess the feasibility of a high-level radioactive wastes repository in sedimentary formations. The target host formation is a low-porosity detrital argillite (Callovo-Oxfordian) embedded between two shelf limestones formations (of Bajocian-Bathonian and Oxfordian-Kimmeridgian ages). These formations are affected by fracture networks, likely inherited mainly from the Eocene-Oligocene extension tectonics, also responsible of the Rhine graben formation in the same region. The limestones have very low permeability, the primary and secondary porosity being infilled by secondary carbonated minerals. The inter-particle porosity is filled with euhedral calcite spar cements. Similarly, macro-cavities and connected micro-fractures are almost sealed by euhedral calcite. Geochemical evidences (δ18O) suggest that the secondary carbonates likely derived from a common parent fluid (Buschaert et al., 2004, Appl. Geochem. (19) 1201-1215p). This late carbonated precipitation phase is responsible for the intense cementation of the limestone formations and bears witness of a major phase of fluids circulation that marked the late diagenetic evolution of the system. Knowledge of the chronology of the different precipitation phases of secondary minerals is thus of critical importance in order to determine the past hydrological conditions of the geological site. The aim of this study is to provide chronological constraints on the secondary carbonate mineral precipitation using U/Th and U/Pb methods. Analyses are performed on millimeter to centimeter scale secondary calcites collected within fractures outcropping in the regional fault zone of Gondrecourt and in cores from the ANDRA exploration-drilling program. Preliminary U-Th analyses obtained on secondary carbonates from surface fractures infillings yield secular

  11. Effects of Two Football Stud Types on Knee and Ankle Kinetics of Single-Leg Land-Cut and 180° Cut Movements on Infilled Synthetic Turf.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Hunter J; Brock, Elizabeth; Brosnan, James T; Sorochan, John C; Zhang, Songning

    2015-10-01

    Higher ACL injury rates have been recorded in cleats with higher torsional resistance in American football, which warrants better understanding of shoe/stud-dependent joint kinetics. The purpose of this study was to determine differences in knee and ankle kinetics during single-leg land cuts and 180° cuts on synthetic infilled turf while wearing 3 types of shoes. Fourteen recreational football players performed single-leg land cuts and 180° cuts in nonstudded running shoes (RS) and in football shoes with natural (NTS) and synthetic turf studs (STS). Knee and ankle kinetic variables were analyzed with a 3 × 2 (shoe × movement) repeated-measures ANOVA (P < .05). A significant shoe-by-movement interaction was found in loading response peak knee adduction moments, with NTS producing smaller moments compared with both STS and RS only in 180° cuts. Reduced peak negative plantar flexor powers were also found in NTS compared with STS. The single-leg land cut produced greater loading response and push-off peak knee extensor moments, as well as peak negative and positive extensor and plantar flexor powers, but smaller loading peak knee adduction moments and push-off peak ankle eversion moments than 180° cuts. Overall, the STS and 180° cuts resulted in greater frontal plane knee loading and should be monitored for possible increased ACL injury risks.

  12. Feedback Loop of Data Infilling Using Model Result of Actual Evapotranspiration from Satellites and Hydrological Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdi Hartanto, Isnaeni; Alexandridis, Thomas K.; van Andel, Schalk Jan; Solomatine, Dimitri

    2014-05-01

    Using satellite data in a hydrological model has long been occurring in modelling of hydrological processes, as a source of low cost regular data. The methods range from using satellite products as direct input, model validation, and data assimilation. However, the satellite data frequently face the missing value problem, whether due to the cloud cover or the limited temporal coverage. The problem could seriously affect its usefulness in hydrological model, especially if the model uses it as direct input, so data infilling becomes one of the important parts in the whole modelling exercise. In this research, actual evapotranspiration product from satellite is directly used as input into a spatially distributed hydrological model, and validated by comparing the catchment's end discharge with measured data. The instantaneous actual evapotranspiration is estimated from MODIS satellite images using a variation of the energy balance model for land (SEBAL). The eight-day cumulative actual evapotranspiration is then obtained by a temporal integration that uses the reference evapotranspiration calculated from meteorological data [1]. However, the above method cannot fill in a cell if the cell is constantly having no-data value during the eight-day periods. The hydrological model requires full set of data without no-data cells, hence, the no-data cells in the satellite's evapotranspiration map need to be filled in. In order to fills the no-data cells, an output of hydrological model is used. The hydrological model is firstly run with reference evapotranspiration as input to calculate discharge and actual evapotranspiration. The no-data cells in the eight-day cumulative map from the satellite are then filled in with the output of the first run of hydrological model. The final data is then used as input in a hydrological model to calculate discharge, thus creating a loop. The method is applied in the case study of Rijnland, the Netherlands where in the winter, cloud cover is

  13. Amateur football pitches: mechanical properties of the natural ground and of different artificial turf infills and their biomechanical implications.

    PubMed

    Zanetti, Elisabetta M; Bignardi, Cristina; Franceschini, Giordano; Audenino, Alberto L

    2013-01-01

    Artificial turf is being used more and more often. It is more available than natural turf for use, requires much less maintenance and new products are able to comply with sport performance and athletes' safety. The purpose of this paper is to compare the mechanical and biomechanical responses of two different artificial turf infills (styrene butadiene rubber, from granulated vehicle tires, and thermoplastic rubber granules) and to compare them to the performance of natural fields where amateurs play (beaten earth, substantially). Three mechanical parameters have been calculated from laboratory tests: energy storage, energy losses and surface traction coefficient; results have been correlated with peak accelerations recorded on an instrumented athlete, on the field. The natural ground proved to be stiffer (-15% penetration depth for a given load), and to have a lower dynamic traction coefficient (-48%); the different kinds of infill showed significantly different stiffnesses (varying by more than 23%) and damping behaviour (varying by more than 31%). In running, peak vertical accelerations were lowest in the artificial ground with thermoplastic rubber granules, while, in slalom, both artificial grounds produced higher horizontal peak accelerations compared to the natural ground. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for athletic performance and injury risk. PMID:23230960

  14. In-filled reservoirs serving as sediment archives to analyse soil organic carbon erosion - Taking a closer look at the Karoo rangelands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krenz, Juliane; Greenwood, Philip; Kuhn, Brigitte; Heckrath, Goswin; Foster, Ian; Boardman, John; Meadows, Michael; Kuhn, Nikolaus

    2016-04-01

    The semi-arid rangelands of the Great Karoo region in South Africa, which are nowadays characterized by badlands on the foot slopes of upland areas and complex gully systems in valley bottoms, have experienced a number of environmental changes. With the settlement of European farmers in the late 18th century agricultural activities increased, leading to overgrazing which probably acted as a trigger to land degradation. As a consequence of higher water demands and shifting rainfall patterns, many dams and small reservoirs have been constructed to provide drinking water for cattle or to facilitate irrigation during dry periods. Most of these dams are now filled with sediment and many have become breached, revealing sediment archives that can be used to analyse land use changes as well as carbon erosion and deposition during the last ca. 100 years. In this ongoing project, a combination of analytical methods that include drone imagery, landscape mapping, erosion modelling and sediment analysis have been employed to trace back the sediment origin and redistribution within the catchment, setting a special focus on the carbon history. Sediment deposits from a silted-up reservoir were analysed for varying physicochemical parameters, in order to analyse erosional and depositional patterns. A sharp decrease in total carbon content with decreasing depth suggests that land degradation during and after the post-European settlement most likely triggered erosion of the relatively fertile surface soils which presumably in-filled the reservoirs. It is assumed that the carbon-rich bottom layers of the dam deposits originate from these eroded surface soils. A combination of erosion modelling and sediment analysis will be used to determine the source areas of the depositional material and might clarify the question if land degradation in the Karoo has resulted in its return from being a net sink of carbon into a net source of carbon.

  15. Recording of the Holocene sediment infilling in a confined tide-dominated estuary: the bay of Brest (Britanny, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregoire, Gwendoline; Le Roy, Pascal; Ehrhold, Axel; Jouet, Gwenael; Garlan, Thierry

    2016-04-01

    Modern estuaries constitute key areas for the preservation of sedimentary deposits related to the Holocene period. Several previous studies using stratigraphic reconstructions in such environments allowed to characterise the major parameters controlling the Holocene transgressive sequence and to decipher their respective role in the sedimentary infill: (1) the evolution of main hydrologic factors (wave or tide-dominated environment), (2) the sea level fluctuation and (3) the morphologies of the bedrock and the coastline. Nevertheless, the timing of the transgressive deposits and the detailed facies need to be precise in regard to the stratigraphic schemes. The Bay of Brest (Western Brittany, France) offers the opportunity to examine these points and to compare with previous studies. It constitutes an original tide-dominated estuary that communicates to the open sea (Iroise Sea) by a narrow strait. Two main rivers (Aulne and Elorn) are connected to a submerged paleovalleys network that was incised in the Paleozoic basement during lowstands and still preserved in the present morphology. It delineates the central basin surrounded by tidal flat located in sheltered area. The analysis of high and very-high resolution seismic lines recorded through the whole bay combined with sediment cores (up to 4.5 m long) and radiocarbon dating allow to precise the architecture and the timing of the thick Holocene coastal wedge. It is preserved from the valley network to the shore and presents a longitudinal variability (downstream-upstream evolution). The infill is divided into two successive stages (corresponding to the transgressive and highstand system tracts) which laterally evolve from the paleo-valley to the coast. Two units constitute the transgressive system tract. The oldest, dated from 8200 to 7000 cal B.P. is composed of fine-grained, organic-rich tidal flat deposits located in the sheltered area and organised in levees on the terrace bordering the paleo-valley. A tidal

  16. High rates of bedload transport measured from infilling rate of large strudelscour craters in the Beaufort Sea, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reimnitz, Erk; Kempema, E.W.

    1982-01-01

    Strudel scours are craters as much as 20 m wide and 4 m deep, that are excavated by vertical drainage flow during the yearly spring flooding of vast reaches of fast ice surrounding arctic deltas; they form at a rate of about 2.5 km^-2 yr^-1. Monitoring two such craters in the Beaufort Sea, we found that in relatively unprotected sites they fill in by deposition from bedload in 2 to 3 years. Net westward sediment transport results in sand layers dipping at the angle of repose westward into the strudel-scour crater, whereas the west wall of the crater remains steep to vertical. Initially the crater traps almost all bedload: sand, pebbles, and organic detritus; as infilling progresses, the materials are increasingly winnowed, and bypassing must occur. Over a 20-m-wide sector, an exposed strudel scour trapped 360 m3 of bedload during two seasons; this infilling represents a bedload transport rate of 9 m3 yr^-1 m^-1. This rate should be applicable to a 4.5-km-wide zone with equal exposure and similar or shallower depth. Within this zone, the transport rate is 40,500 m3 yr^-1, similar to estimated longshore transport rates on local barrier beaches. On the basis of the established rate of cut and fill, all the delta-front deposits should consist of strudel-scour fill. Vibracores typically show dipping interbedded sand and lenses of organic material draped over very steep erosional contacts, and an absence of horizontal continuity of strata--criteria that should uniquely identify high-latitude deltaic deposits. Given a 2- to 3-year lifespan, most strudel scours seen in surveys must be old. The same holds true for ice gouges and other depressions not adjusted to summer waves and currents, although these features record events of only the past few years. In view of such high rates of bottom reworking of the shallow shelf, any human activities creating turbidity, such as dredging, would have little effect on the environment. However, huge amounts of transitory material

  17. Impediments and constraints in the uptake of water sensitive urban design measures in greenfield and infill developments.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ashok K; Cook, Stephen; Tjandraatmadja, Grace; Gregory, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Water sensitive urban developments are designed with integrated urban water management concepts and water sensitive urban design measures. The initiatives that may be included are the substitution of imported drinking water with alternative sources using a fit-for-purpose approach and structural and non-structural measures for the source control of stormwater. A water sensitive approach to urban development can help in achieving sustainability objectives by minimising disturbance to ecological and hydrological processes, and also relieve stress on conventional water systems. Water sensitive urban developments remain novel in comparison with conventional approaches, so the understanding and knowledge of the systems in regards to their planning; design; implementation; operation and maintenance; health impacts and environmental impacts is still developing and thus the mainstream uptake of these approaches faces many challenges. A study has been conducted to understand these challenges through a detailed literature review, investigating a large number of local greenfield and infill developments, and conducting extensive consultation with water professionals. This research has identified the social, economic, political, institutional and technological challenges faced in implementing water sensitive urban design in greenfield and infill developments. The research found in particular that there is the need for long-term monitoring studies of water sensitive urban developments. This monitoring is important to validate the performance of novel approaches implemented and improve associated guidelines, standards, and regulatory and governance frameworks, which can lead to mainstream acceptance of water sensitive urban development approaches. The dissemination of this research will help generate awareness among water professionals, water utilities, developers, planners and regulators of the research challenges to be addressed in order to achieve more mainstream acceptance of

  18. Aragonite infill in overgrown conceptacles of coralline Lithothamnion spp. (Hapalidiaceae, Hapalidiales, Rhodophyta): new insights in biomineralization and phylomineralogy.

    PubMed

    Krayesky-Self, Sherry; Richards, Joseph L; Rahmatian, Mansour; Fredericq, Suzanne

    2016-04-01

    New empirical and quantitative data in the study of calcium carbonate biomineralization and an expanded coralline psbA framework for phylomineralogy are provided for crustose coralline red algae. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectrometry (SEM-EDS) pinpointed the exact location of calcium carbonate crystals within overgrown reproductive conceptacles in rhodolith-forming Lithothamnion species from the Gulf of Mexico and Pacific Panama. SEM-EDS and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis confirmed the elemental composition of these calcium carbonate crystals to be aragonite. After spore release, reproductive conceptacles apparently became overgrown by new vegetative growth, a strategy that may aid in sealing the empty conceptacle chamber, hence influencing the chemistry of the microenvironment and in turn promoting aragonite crystal growth. The possible relevance of various types of calcium carbonate polymorphs present in the complex internal structure and skeleton of crustose corallines is discussed. This is the first study to link SEM, SEM-EDS, XRD, Microtomography and X-ray microscopy data of aragonite infill in coralline algae with phylomineralogy. The study contributes to the growing body of literature characterizing and speculating about how the relative abundances of carbonate biominerals in corallines may vary in response to changes in atmospheric pCO2 , ocean acidification, and global warming. PMID:27037582

  19. Infilling of missing rainfall and streamflow data in the Shire River basin, Malawi - A self organizing map approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mwale, F. D.; Adeloye, A. J.; Rustum, R.

    A major requirement for the assessment, development and sustainable use of water resources is the availability of good quality hydrological time series data of sufficiently long duration. However, it is not uncommon to find data that are riddled with gaps, characterized by questionable quality and short durations. Sometimes, the data are just not available. Such situations are most prevalent in developing countries and the consequence is a high degree of uncertainty in the assessed characteristics of water management schemes and ultimately its ineffectual performance. Thus dealing with these problems is an important exercise in hydrological analyses. This paper focuses on the multivariate infilling of gaps for rainfall and streamflow data in the Shire River basin in Malawi, using a self organizing map (SOM) approach, which is a form of unsupervised artificial neural networks. The results show that this approach can produce reliable estimates of hydro-meteorological data thus offering promise for reducing the uncertainties associated with the use of insufficient data for water resources assessment.

  20. Infilled masonry walls contribution in mitigating progressive collapse of multistory reinforced concrete structures according to UFC guidelines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helmy, Huda; Hadhoud, Hamed; Mourad, Sherif

    2015-09-01

    A structure is subjected to progressive collapse when an element fails, resulting in failure of adjoining structural elements which, in their turn, cause further structural failure leading eventually to partial or total collapse. The failure of a primary vertical support might occur due to extreme loadings such as bomb explosion in a terrorist attack, gas explosion and huge impact of a car in the parking area. Different guidelines such as the General Services Administration (GSA 2003) and the Unified Facilities Criteria (UFC 2009) addressed the structural progressive collapse due to the sudden loss of a main vertical support. In the current study, a progressive collapse assessment according to the UFC guidelines is carried out for a typical ten-story reinforced concrete framed structure designed according to codes [(ACI 318-08) and (ASCE 7-10)] for minimum design loads for buildings and other structures. Fully nonlinear dynamic analysis for the structure was carried out using Applied Element Method (AEM). The investigated cases included the removal of a corner column, an edge column, an edge shear wall, internal columns and internal shear wall. The numerical analysis showed that simplification of the problem into 3D bare frames would lead to uneconomical design. It was found for the studied case that, the infilled masonry walls have a valuable contribution in mitigating progressive collapse of the reinforced concrete framed structures. Neglecting these walls would lead to uneconomical design.

  1. High density infill in cracks and protrusions from the articular calcified cartilage in osteoarthritis in standardbred horse carpal bones.

    PubMed

    Laverty, Sheila; Lacourt, Mathieu; Gao, Chan; Henderson, Janet E; Boyde, Alan

    2015-01-01

    We studied changes in articular calcified cartilage (ACC) and subchondral bone (SCB) in the third carpal bones (C3) of Standardbred racehorses with naturally-occurring repetitive loading-induced osteoarthritis (OA). Two osteochondral cores were harvested from dorsal sites from each of 15 post-mortem C3 and classified as control or as showing early or advanced OA changes from visual inspection. We re-examined X-ray micro-computed tomography (µCT) image sets for the presence of high-density mineral infill (HDMI) in ACC cracks and possible high-density mineralized protrusions (HDMP) from the ACC mineralizing (tidemark) front (MF) into hyaline articular cartilage (HAC). We hypothesized and we show that 20-µm µCT resolution in 10-mm diameter samples is sufficient to detect HDMI and HDMP: these are lost upon tissue decalcification for routine paraffin wax histology owing to their predominant mineral content. The findings show that µCT is sufficient to discover HDMI and HDMP, which were seen in 2/10 controls, 6/9 early OA and 8/10 advanced OA cases. This is the first report of HDMI and HDMP in the equine carpus and in the Standardbred breed and the first to rely solely on µCT. HDMP are a candidate cause for mechanical tissue destruction in OA. PMID:25927581

  2. High Density Infill in Cracks and Protrusions from the Articular Calcified Cartilage in Osteoarthritis in Standardbred Horse Carpal Bones

    PubMed Central

    Laverty, Sheila; Lacourt, Mathieu; Gao, Chan; Henderson, Janet E.; Boyde, Alan

    2015-01-01

    We studied changes in articular calcified cartilage (ACC) and subchondral bone (SCB) in the third carpal bones (C3) of Standardbred racehorses with naturally-occurring repetitive loading-induced osteoarthritis (OA). Two osteochondral cores were harvested from dorsal sites from each of 15 post-mortem C3 and classified as control or as showing early or advanced OA changes from visual inspection. We re-examined X-ray micro-computed tomography (µCT) image sets for the presence of high-density mineral infill (HDMI) in ACC cracks and possible high-density mineralized protrusions (HDMP) from the ACC mineralizing (tidemark) front (MF) into hyaline articular cartilage (HAC). We hypothesized and we show that 20-µm µCT resolution in 10-mm diameter samples is sufficient to detect HDMI and HDMP: these are lost upon tissue decalcification for routine paraffin wax histology owing to their predominant mineral content. The findings show that µCT is sufficient to discover HDMI and HDMP, which were seen in 2/10 controls, 6/9 early OA and 8/10 advanced OA cases. This is the first report of HDMI and HDMP in the equine carpus and in the Standardbred breed and the first to rely solely on µCT. HDMP are a candidate cause for mechanical tissue destruction in OA. PMID:25927581

  3. High density infill in cracks and protrusions from the articular calcified cartilage in osteoarthritis in standardbred horse carpal bones.

    PubMed

    Laverty, Sheila; Lacourt, Mathieu; Gao, Chan; Henderson, Janet E; Boyde, Alan

    2015-04-28

    We studied changes in articular calcified cartilage (ACC) and subchondral bone (SCB) in the third carpal bones (C3) of Standardbred racehorses with naturally-occurring repetitive loading-induced osteoarthritis (OA). Two osteochondral cores were harvested from dorsal sites from each of 15 post-mortem C3 and classified as control or as showing early or advanced OA changes from visual inspection. We re-examined X-ray micro-computed tomography (µCT) image sets for the presence of high-density mineral infill (HDMI) in ACC cracks and possible high-density mineralized protrusions (HDMP) from the ACC mineralizing (tidemark) front (MF) into hyaline articular cartilage (HAC). We hypothesized and we show that 20-µm µCT resolution in 10-mm diameter samples is sufficient to detect HDMI and HDMP: these are lost upon tissue decalcification for routine paraffin wax histology owing to their predominant mineral content. The findings show that µCT is sufficient to discover HDMI and HDMP, which were seen in 2/10 controls, 6/9 early OA and 8/10 advanced OA cases. This is the first report of HDMI and HDMP in the equine carpus and in the Standardbred breed and the first to rely solely on µCT. HDMP are a candidate cause for mechanical tissue destruction in OA.

  4. Photogeologic map of the Hellas basin floor, Mars: Nature, origin, and sequence of major infill units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernhardt, H.; Hiesinger, H.; Ivanov, M.; Erkeling, G.; Ruesch, O.; Reiss, D.

    2015-10-01

    Based on all state- of -the-art datasets and USGS -mapping guidelines [1,2], we produced a comprehensive photogeological map of the Hellas basin floor and its immediate surroundings (scale 1:2,000,000; Fig. 1). We compiled a self-consistent geologic history of the area, incorporating absolute and relative dating of identified units, as well as insights gained by previous investigations in and around the Hellas basin [e.g.,3-5]. Based on their ages, derived approximate volumes, as well as other characteristics, we suggest potential circum-Hellas source regions for specific basin floor units. Large deposits and erosional units in the basin show ages very similar to those of volcanic units in and around Hellas (~3.7 Ga), which is in agreement with certain volcanic outgassing models enabling liquid water runoff during that time.

  5. Application of Integrated Reservoir Management and Reservoir Characterization to Optimize Infill Drilling

    SciTech Connect

    P. K. Pande

    1998-10-29

    Initial drilling of wells on a uniform spacing, without regard to reservoir performance and characterization, must become a process of the past. Such efforts do not optimize reservoir development as they fail to account for the complex nature of reservoir heterogeneities present in many low permeability reservoirs, and carbonate reservoirs in particular. These reservoirs are typically characterized by: o Large, discontinuous pay intervals o Vertical and lateral changes in reservoir properties o Low reservoir energy o High residual oil saturation o Low recovery efficiency

  6. Using self-organizing maps to infill missing data in hydro-meteorological time series from the Logone catchment, Lake Chad basin.

    PubMed

    Nkiaka, E; Nawaz, N R; Lovett, J C

    2016-07-01

    Hydro-meteorological data is an important asset that can enhance management of water resources. But existing data often contains gaps, leading to uncertainties and so compromising their use. Although many methods exist for infilling data gaps in hydro-meteorological time series, many of these methods require inputs from neighbouring stations, which are often not available, while other methods are computationally demanding. Computing techniques such as artificial intelligence can be used to address this challenge. Self-organizing maps (SOMs), which are a type of artificial neural network, were used for infilling gaps in a hydro-meteorological time series in a Sudano-Sahel catchment. The coefficients of determination obtained were all above 0.75 and 0.65 while the average topographic error was 0.008 and 0.02 for rainfall and river discharge time series, respectively. These results further indicate that SOMs are a robust and efficient method for infilling missing gaps in hydro-meteorological time series. PMID:27282595

  7. A Siliciclastic-Infilled Sedimentary Basin Within a Large Carbonate Platform, Tampa Bay, Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suthard, B. C.; Hine, A. C.; Locker, S. D.; Duncan, D. S.; Morton, R. A.; Hansen, M. E.; Edgar, N. T.

    2002-12-01

    A seismic stratigraphic framework based on over 800 km of seismic reflection data collected within the Tampa Bay estuary and approximately 200 boreholes in and around the estuary shows three separate subsurface regions. In the north-central portion of the bay there is an irregular east-west oriented subsurface trough in the Miocene limestone that reaches depths of 30 m below the seafloor (mbsf). This trough contains steeply dipping clinoforms that indicate it has been filled from the south and east and borehole data show that these clinoforms are siliciclastic sediments. South of the trough in the center of Tampa Bay there is a broad carbonate bedrock high. This area is characterized by less than two meters of siliciclastic sediment cover as well as small-scale shallow karst features (10's m in width and up to 10 m in relief). In the southern portion of the Bay the seismic reflection data shows the Miocene limestone has large-scale warping as well as larger-scale karst features (100's m in width and 30+ m in relief) creating another deep basin (up to 40 mbsf) that has been filled by siliciclastics from the south and the east. The sedimentary basin underlying the modern estuary reveals that accommodation space can form within the center of large carbonate platforms and that this accommodation space may be filled by remobilized siliciclastics. Based upon the age of the underlying limestones, and recent work in south Florida by others, we propose that the Tampa Basin was filled during multiple Late Neogene and Quaternary sea-level fluctuations. Additionally, we speculate that the observed multiple buried sinkholes, and sag-and-warp deformation indicate spatially selective subsurface collapse probably initiated by deep-seated dissolution produced by karst processes. Overlying stratigraphic units subsided as a result of solution collapse, creating a surficial topographic low. This surficial basin may have controlled subsequent non-marine, estuarine and even open marine

  8. Determining the concentration of individual eruptive events of the CAMP: Distinguishing interflow hiatuses from subterranean alteration and void infilling.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, P. E.; Kent, D. V.; Et-Touhami, M.

    2012-04-01

    More important than the total volume of eruptives in a LIP is the concentration in time of individual eruptions with timescales relevant for environmental change. In CAMP lavas, interflow sedimentary and reddened levels are interpreted as evidence of significant time between flows of hundreds to thousands of years allowing soil development and sediment deposition. Additionally, cross-cutting or enclosed sediment bodies, and basalt and sediment mixtures are interpreted as clastic intrusions and phreatic mixing (peperites). Here we show that most such occurrences are more consistent with post-emplacement alteration and void infill by sediment. Criteria for recognizing void fillings in cross-cutting, enclosed or mixed basalt include: 1) paleo-horizontal sediment stratification independent of basalt clasts or void walls - i.e., geopedal; 2) presence of clasts alien to underlying units such as lithic clasts or bones, the latter analogous to karst occurrences; 3) presence of current structures such as ripples; 4) lack of basalt chill margins; and 5) preserved stratigraphy related to overlying units. Criteria for recognizing flow-contact-parallel sediment bodies and reddened and altered contacts as post-emplacement alteration and void infill include: 1) reddening and alteration of both the upper surface of the older flow AND the lower surface of the overlying flow (caused by post-emplacement ground-water-flow); 2) presence of clasts derived from the bottom of the overlying flow; 3) location of tabular sediment bodies within blisters and paleosurface-parallel crack-sheets of the older flow, rather than at the contact between flows; and 4) physical connection between paleosurface-parallel sediment bodies and sediment bodies that cross-cutting the younger flow exhibiting post-emplacement features described above. Features that might be indicative of deposition at the land surface but are not include: 1) roots, which can penetrate for tens of meters through sediment

  9. Influence of vegetation on the infilling of a macrotidal embayment: examples from salt marshes and shingle spit of the Baie de Somme (North France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Bot, Sophie; Forey, Estelle; Lafite, Robert; Langlois, Estelle

    2015-04-01

    As many estuaries in the English Channel, the Baie de Somme is currently filling with a mean seabed elevation between 1.3 and 1.8 cm/yr. Embankments and polders, as well as sea level rise, increase this natural accretion process, which leads to important modifications of environment uses. Interactions between vegetation and sediment dynamics constitute a key-point to consider, in order to better understand the infilling processes in estuaries. To estimate the effect of vegetation on these processes, two particular environments have been studied in the bay: (i) the mid salt marsh covered with Halimione portulacoides, associated with a silty sedimentation, and (ii) the shingle spit, that closes the bay from the South, on which the sea kale (Crambe maritime), a protected pioneer species, develops. Salt marshes progress with a rate of 5-10 m/yr (mean value calculated on the 1947-2011 period). Sedimentological analysis have been conducted on 9 cores (50cm long) collected in three Halimione communities of the bay. They are associated with a silty-dominated (38-84 micrometer) sedimentation under the influence of decantation processes. Rhythmicity is observed in the sedimentation, due to the repetition of a two-layer pattern, that includes a dark layer composed of vegetal rests and that would represent annual sedimentation. Annual sedimentation rates (0.7 to 5.8 cm/yr) are consistent with mean values previously recorded. The shingle spit progresses to the North under the influence of the littoral drift at a rate of 7 m/yr (mean value calculated on the 1947-2011 period). Sea kales are observed on parts formed since several years, above the level of the highest astronomical tides. TLS surveys and sedimentation bars have allowed to measure erosion/sedimentation volumes at the scale of the spit and of sea kale individuals, during spring 2013. Individuals of this species facilitate the trapping of sand, transported by winds from the intertidal flats. Sea kale thus contributes

  10. Displaced/re-worked rhodolith deposits infilling parts of a complex Miocene multistorey submarine channel: A case history from the Sassari area (Sardinia, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murru, Marco; Bassi, Davide; Simone, Lucia

    2015-08-01

    In the Sassari area (north-western Sardinia, Italy), the Miocene Porto Torres sub-basin sequences represent the complex multistorey mixed carbonate-siliciclastic submarine feature called the Sassari Channel. During the late Burdigalian-early Serravallian, repeated terrigenous supplies from uplifted Paleozoic crystalline substrata fed the Sassari Channel system by means of turbidity and locally hyper-concentrated turbidity flows. Shelfal areas were the source of terrigenous clasts, but open shelf rhodalgal/foramol carbonate areas were very productive and largely also contributed to the channel infilling. Re-worked sands and skeletal debris were discontinuously re-sedimented offshore as pure terrigenous, mixed and/or carbonate deposits. Major sediment supply was introduced between the latest Burdigalian and the start of the middle Langhian, during which a large amount of carbonate, mixed and siliciclastic sediments reached the Porto Torres Basin (Sassari Channel I). Contributions from shallow proximal source areas typify the lower intervals (Unit A) in marginal sectors of the channel. Upward, these evolve into autochthonous rhodolith deposits, winnowed by strong currents in relatively shallow well lit settings within a complex network of narrow tidally-controlled channels (Unit D) locally bearing coral assemblages. Conversely, re-sedimented rhodoliths from the Units B and C accumulated under conditions of higher turbidity. In deeper parts of the channel taxonomically diversified rhodoliths point to the mixing of re-deposited skeletal components from different relatively deep bathmetric settings. In the latest early Langhian, major re-sedimentation episodes, resulting in large prograding bodies (Unit D), triggered by repeated regression pulses in a frame of persistent still stand. During these episodes photophile assemblages dwelled in the elevated margin sectors of the channel. A significant latest early Langhian drop in relative sea-level resulted in impressive mass

  11. On the Possible Role of Bedload Transport of Mud for the Infilling of Epicontinental Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schieber, J.

    2012-12-01

    Flume experiments with clays and other fine-grained suspensions have shown that low energy settings are not a prerequisite for the accumulation of muds and shales. Deposition occurs in form of floccules that pass through the basal shear layer and once in bedload form ripples that geometrically are like sand ripples, though of much lower density. These bedload ripples form at flow velocities in the 15 to 35 cm/s range (5 cm flow depth), and under those conditions sandy sediments would produce ripples as well. Floccule ripples are cross-laminated, but due to their high water content (80-90 % by volume) they are subject to substantial compaction. Thus, original cross-laminae become severely flattened and are difficult to recognize in the rock record. Nonetheless, examination of multiple ancient shales has shown that certain intrinsic features of cross-lamination, such as basal downlap and top truncation of laminae, are still recognizable and allow identification of current deposited muds. It is therefore likely that many laminated shales in the rock record were emplaced by currents in bedload, rather than by simply settling out of the water column. In sediment mixtures of silt and clay, experiments show that transport segregation of clay floccules, silt, and other components leads to laminated deposits as the residuals of successive ripples vertically accrete. Flume experiments can probe a wide variety of depositional scenarios of mud deposition when properly designed, and the continued accumulation of data will significantly change our perception of the depositional setting of mudstone successions. Whereas traditional depositional models make the assumption that much mud is deposited in basin marginal settings due to salinity induced flocculation, probing the record of for example Devonian shales in epicontinental basins suggests the presence of numerous erosional truncations that are continuous between multiple depocenters (such as the Illinois, Appalachian and

  12. Hanford wells

    SciTech Connect

    McGhan, V.L.

    1989-06-01

    The Site Characterization and Assessment Section of the Geosciences Department at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has compiled a list of wells located on or near the Hanford Site. Information has been updated on wells existing from the days before construction of the Hanford Works to the present. This work was funded by the US Department of Energy (DOE). The list of wells will be used by DOE contractors who need condensed, tabular information on well location, construction, and completion dates. This report does not include data on lithologic logs and ground-water contamination. Moreover, the completeness of this list is limited because of new well construction and existing well modifications, which are continually under way. Despite these limitations, this list represents the most complete description possible of data pertaining to wells on or adjacent to the Hanford Site. 7 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  13. How do how internal and external processes affect the behaviors of coupled marsh mudflat systems; infill, stabilize, retreat, or drown?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, J. A.; Mariotti, G.; Wiberg, P.; Fagherazzi, S.; McGlathery, K.

    2013-12-01

    an eventual lateral equilibrium are possible only with large allochthonous sediment supply. Once marshes expanded, marsh retreat can be prevented by a sediment supply smaller than the one that filled the basin. At the GCE, the Altamaha River allows for enhanced allochthonous supply directly to the salt marsh platform, reducing the importance of waves on the tidal flat. As a result, infilling or retreat become the prevalent behaviors. For the VCR, the presence of seagrass decreases near bed shear stresses and sediment flux to the salt marsh platform, however, seagrass also reduces the wave energy acting on the boundary of the marsh reducing boundary erosion. Results indicate that the reduction in wave power allows for seagrass to provide a strong stabilizing affect on the coupled salt marsh tidal flat system, but as external sediment supply increases and light conditions decline the system reverts to that of a bare tidal flat. Across all systems and with current rates of sea level rise, retreat is a more likely marsh loss modality than drowning.

  14. Towards a mechanical failure model for degrading permafrost rock slopes representing changes in rock toughness and infill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamot, Philipp; Krautblatter, Michael; Scandroglio, Riccardo

    2016-04-01

    The climate-induced degradation of permafrost in mountain areas can reduce the stability of rock slopes. An increasing number of rockfalls and rockslides originate from permafrost-affected rock faces. Discontinuity patterns and their geometrical and mechanical properties play a decisive role in controlling rock slope stability. Under thawing conditions the shear resistance of rock reduces due to lower friction along rock-rock contacts, decreasing fracture toughness of rock-ice contacts, diminishing fracture toughness of cohesive rock bridges and altered creep or fracture of the ice itself. Compressive strength is reduced by 20 to 50 % and tensile strength decreases by 15 to 70 % when intact saturated rock thaws (KRAUTBLATTER ET AL. 2013). Elevated water pressures in fractures can lead to reduced effective normal stresses and thus to lower shear strengths of fractures. However, the impact of degrading permafrost on the mechanical properties of intact or fractured rock still remains poorly understood. In this study, we develop a new approach for modeling the influence of degrading permafrost on the stability of high mountain rock slopes. Hereby, we focus on the effect of rock- and ice-mechanical changes along striking discontinuities onto the whole rock slope. We aim at contributing to a better rock-ice mechanical process understanding of degrading permafrost rocks. For parametrisation and subsequent calibration of our model, we chose a test site (2885 m a.s.l.) close by the Zugspitze summit in Germany. It reveals i) a potential rockslide at the south face involving 10E4m³ of rock and ii) permafrost occurrence due to ice-filled caves and fractures. Here we combine kinematic, geotechnical and thermal monitoring in the field with rock-mechanical laboratory tests and a 2D numerical failure modeling. Up to date, the following results underline the potential effects of thawing rock and fracture infill on the stability of steep rock slopes in theory and praxis: i. ERT and

  15. Reservoir visualization for geosteering of horizontal wells

    SciTech Connect

    Bryant, I.D.; Baygun, B.; Frass, M.; Casco, R.

    1996-08-01

    Horizontal infill wells in the Lower Lagunillas reservoir of Bloque IV, Lake Maracaibo are being drilled in thin, oil-bearing zones that have been bypassed by gas. Steering the horizontal sections of these wells requires high resolution reservoir models that can be updated during drilling. An example from well VLD-1152 serves to illustrate how these models are generated and used. Resistivity images collected by wireline and logging-while-drilling (LWD) tools in the pilot well formed the basis of prejob, high resolution modeling of the formation properties. 3-D seismic data and data from an offset vertical seismic profile collected in the pilot well provided the structural model. During drilling information from cuttings and LWD tools was used to continuously update these models. After the well had been drilled, analysis of LWD resistivity images provided a detailed model of the relationship between the well trajectory and the dip of the formation. This information is used to improve interpretation of the LWD logs to provide a petrophysical evaluation of the well.

  16. Hanford wells

    SciTech Connect

    Chamness, M.A.; Merz, J.K.

    1993-08-01

    Records describing wells located on or near the Hanford Site have been maintained by Pacific Northwest Laboratory and the operating contractor, Westinghouse Hanford Company. In support of the Ground-Water Surveillance Project, portions of the data contained in these records have been compiled into the following report, which is intended to be used by those needing a condensed, tabular summary of well location and basic construction information. The wells listed in this report were constructed over a period of time spanning almost 70 years. Data included in this report were retrieved from the Hanford Envirorunental Information System (HEIS) database and supplemented with information not yet entered into HEIS. While considerable effort has been made to obtain the most accurate and complete tabulations possible of the Hanford Site wells, omissions and errors may exist. This document does not include data on lithologic logs, ground-water analyses, or specific well completion details.

  17. Modeling of horizontal well and lifting mechanisms to improve ultimate recovery in a depleted field in Lake Maracaibo, Venezuela

    SciTech Connect

    Saputelli, L.; Mata, T.; Jimenez, Z.

    1995-12-31

    Recovery of the remaining reserve of millions of oil barrels is inhibited by depleted reservoir pressures and existing exploitation policies in Lower Lagunillas Reservoir in Lake Maracaibo, Venezuela. Numerical simulation results indicated that proper production and reservoir management policies such as, controlled drawdown, producing wells at rates below the critical rates, low gas-oil-ratio production will promote efficient gravity segregation process, and subsequent optimum final recovery. Combination of infill horizontal wells and adequate lifting mechanisms yielded the recovery of additional reserves.

  18. Well tool

    SciTech Connect

    Sable, D.E.

    1992-06-09

    This patent describes a stabilizer rod conductible in a sucker rod string to constitute the bottom end portion of a rod sting and connect it to a reciprocable member of a well pump, the sucker rod string having sucker rods whose elongate shanks are provided.

  19. Wellness Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arteaga, Brenda

    2011-01-01

    Creating a healthier school in today's world of budget cuts and seemingly endless to-do lists is not only possible, but it is also imperative. Beyond the health implications, one of the most compelling reasons for creating healthier schools is that wellness serves as a power booster for learning. Numerous studies have documented what educators…

  20. Monitoring well

    DOEpatents

    Hubbell, J.M.; Sisson, J.B.

    1999-06-29

    A monitoring well is described which includes: a conduit defining a passageway, the conduit having a proximal and opposite, distal end; a coupler connected in fluid flowing relationship with the passageway; and a porous housing borne by the coupler and connected in fluid flowing relation thereto. 8 figs.

  1. Liver Wellness

    MedlinePlus

    ... to liver wellness. • There are more than 100 liver diseases. • Liver disease is one of the top 10 causes of ... out of every 10 Americans is affected by liver disease. • Some liver diseases such as hepatitis A, hepatitis ...

  2. Monitoring well

    DOEpatents

    Hubbell, Joel M.; Sisson, James B.

    2002-01-01

    The present invention relates to a monitoring well which includes an enclosure defining a cavity and a water reservoir enclosed within the cavity and wherein the reservoir has an inlet and an outlet. The monitoring well further includes a porous housing borne by the enclosure and which defines a fluid chamber which is oriented in fluid communication with the outlet of the reservoir, and wherein the porous housing is positioned in an earthen soil location below-grade. A geophysical monitoring device is provided and mounted in sensing relation relative to the fluid chamber of the porous housing; and a coupler is selectively moveable relative to the outlet of reservoir to couple the porous housing and water reservoir in fluid communication. An actuator is coupled in force transmitting relation relative to the coupler to selectively position the coupler in a location to allow fluid communication between the reservoir and the fluid chamber defined by the porous housing.

  3. Dynamic casting of a graben complex: Syn-sedimentary infill and differential subsidence during the permo-carboniferous; Peace River Embayment, western Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Barclay, J.E. Univ. of Calgary, Alberta ); Krause, F.F. ); Campbell, R.R. Calamity Resources, Calgary, Alberta )

    1991-03-01

    The Carboniferous Stoddart Group and Permian Belloy Formation record infill of a long-lived graben complex in the center of the Peace River Embayment. The Dawson Creek Graben Complex began down-dropping during deposition of the Rundle Group and Golata Formation and reached its maximum during Kiskatinaw time. The overlying Taylor Flat Formation shows graben filling and graben decay; whereas the flat Permian Belloy Formation beds within and beyond graben limits indicate tectonic stability. The complex comprised the larger Fort St. John Graben and satellite Hines Creek, Whitelaw, and Cindy grabens. The grabens consist of kilometer-scale horst and graben blocks bounded by normal faults. The internal blocks subsided at various rates, with differential subsidence occurring in the form of horsts subsiding slower than neighboring grabens. Syn- and post-depositional growth-type normal faults controlled formation and bed thickness, as did inter- and intra-formation unconformities. From these observations, a structural/stratigraphic model can be constructed that explains the complex stratigraphy and depositional interpretations. This model describes a basin dominated by tectonic controls rather than global sea-level events. Syn- and post-sedimentary growth-type block faulting, differential subsidence of fault blocks, sedimentary infill, and unconformity truncation were the major controls on the basin. The model provides an analog to grabens and block-faulted basins of growth-faulted basins occurring elsewhere. The implications of the model to petroleum exploration are that all beds can be correlated by assuming that beds were essentially flat-lying prior to and during faulting. The combination of the block-faulted character and complex facies changes provides many structural and stratigraphic petroleum traps.

  4. Results of a detailed infill lake-sediment survey in the Snow Lake area: Evaluation and comparison of grab sample and short core data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friske, P.W.B.

    1996-01-01

    As part of the Exploration Science and Technology Initiative (EXTECH) program a detailed infill lake-sediment and water survey was undertaken in the Snow Lake area during the fall of 1991. This involved the collection of 346 lake sediment grab samples and concomitant waters. In 1993, additional work was undertaken involving the collection of 23 short cores from selected grab sample sites. The primary objectives of the infill survey and short core work were to: 1) evaluate the effectiveness of lake sediment geochemistry in detecting known mineralization in the Snow Lake area; 2) evaluate and develop new approaches in the use of lake sediment geochemistry; and, 3) define, if possible, new exploration targets. At most sites, data from the cores verify the original grab sample results. However, at a few sites the original anomalous grab sample results are interpreted as being related to contamination as opposed to naturally elevated levels. An unusually thick sequence of contaminated surface sediments with extremely high concentrations of trace metals is a likely contributing factor, a condition which is restricted to lakes in the immediate vicinity of local anthropogenic activity. Collection of lake cores provides a useful new approach to the follow-up of grab sample data and to the application of lake sediment geochemistry, particularly in areas with significant local contamination. Much of the known mineralization in the area is clearly reflected by the lake sediment data. Character of the anomalies mirror the composition of the nearby mineralization. The lake sediment data also identify a number of areas that warrant further investigation, several of which are discussed.

  5. Well pump

    DOEpatents

    Ames, Kenneth R.; Doesburg, James M.

    1987-01-01

    A well pump includes a piston and an inlet and/or outlet valve assembly of special structure. Each is formed of a body of organic polymer, preferably PTFE. Each includes a cavity in its upper portion and at least one passage leading from the cavity to the bottom of the block. A screen covers each cavity and a valve disk covers each screen. Flexible sealing flanges extend upwardly and downwardly from the periphery of the piston block. The outlet valve block has a sliding block and sealing fit with the piston rod.

  6. Well pump

    SciTech Connect

    Page, J.S.

    1983-03-08

    Well fluid pumping apparatus comprises: (A) body structure defining an upright plunger bore, (B) a plunger reciprocable in that bore, (C) the body structure also defining a chamber sidewardly offset from an axis defined by the plunger bore and communicating with the bore, and (D) valving carried by the body structure to pass intake fluid via the chamber into the plunger bore in response to stroking of the plunger in one direction in the bore, and to pass discharge fluid from the plunger bore into and from the chamber in response to stroking of the plunger in the opposite direction in the bore.

  7. Sedimentary infill dynamic and associated trace element temporal trends in a dam reservoir: evidence of high polluted sediment storage after major flood events (Upper Loire river, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhivert, Elie; Grosbois, Cécile; Desmet, Marc; Coynel, Alexandra; Lefevre, Irène

    2014-05-01

    The Villerest Dam, was built in the Upper Loire river during the early 1980's, 80 km downstream of the most important industrial and coal mining area of the basin. It constitutes an important trap of sediments and associated pollutants since its operation in 1984. A 154 cm long core was sampled in 2010, in a former channel levee in the reservoir. This study highlights (i) important sediment accumulation rate during flood events in the reservoir, (ii) the influence of high discharge events in sedimentary infill in terms of stored sediment quality, geochemical markers and anthropogenic sources influence. Coupling sedimentological analyses and 137Cs datation allows to define 3 sedimentary units in this core. The deepest unit corresponds to transported and/or reworked fluvial sediments undated, the uppermost unit to lacustrine sediments post 1984 and between, to a transition unit resulting from the reservoir water infilling in 1983-1984. In addition, the upper unit shows 3 turbiditic-like layers (of 6, 20 and 13 cm thick) corresponding respectively to 1996, 2003 and 2008 major flood events (more than 20-year flood average daily outflow). These flood sequences result from underflow sedimentary inputs and contribute to 43% of the 151 kg/m² of accumulated sediments since 1984. Over the 1984-2010 period, sediments show a general contamination decrease but major flood events transport highly impacted sediments (highest enrichment factor > 20 for Hg and >10 for Cd and Bi), never reached during interflood periods. During these events, trace elements (TE) are mostly associated to organic fraction and clays. Rich-TE solid sources appear to be only solicited, and/or severely amplified, during important flood events over the recording period. In addition to these pollutants inputs, floods also bring an important detrital fraction, diluting anthropogenic TE signal. In details, flood deposits show variations of sedimentological and geochemical signals delimiting two distinct

  8. Well completion practices in active U. S. areas

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-05-01

    This work presents results of field visits and meetings with oil companies and independent operators to determine the latest in drilling and well completion practices in active US areas. Those areas and practices include S. Texas (operations to control annular gas flow during cementing); offshore Texas (rapidly changing pressure gradients require numerous casing strings); Cotton Valley (large sandstone frac jobs); Sonora Basin (smaller, low-rate fracturing); W. Texas (minor Permian basin infill drilling problems); Tuscaloosa trend (drilling operations planned around pressure transition zones); offshore Louisiana (geology and directional work complicate drilling); Overthrust Belt (abnormally low pressure zones and hydrogen sulfide problems); Williston basin (logistics problems); and California (well designs used for steam stimulated production).

  9. The mechanics of American football cleats on natural grass and infill-type artificial playing surfaces with loads relevant to elite athletes.

    PubMed

    Kent, Richard; Forman, Jason L; Lessley, David; Crandall, Jeff

    2015-06-01

    This study quantified the mechanical interactions of 19 American football cleats with a natural grass and an infill-type artificial surface under loading conditions designed to represent play-relevant manoeuvres of elite athletes. Variation in peak forces and torques was observed across cleats when tested on natural grass (2.8-4.2 kN in translation, 120-174 Nm in rotation). A significant (p < 0.05) relationship was found between the peak force and torque on natural grass. Almost all of the cleats caused shear failure of the natural surface, which generated a divot following a test. This is a force-limiting cleat release mode. In contrast, all but one of the cleat types held fast in the artificial turf, resulting in force and torque limited by the prescribed input load from the test device (nom. 4.8 kN and 200 Nm). Only one cleat pattern, consisting of small deformable nubs, released on the artificial surface and generated force (3.9 kN) comparable to the range observed with natural grass. These findings (1) should inform the design of cleats intended for use on natural and artificial surfaces and (2) suggest a mechanical explanation for a higher lower-limb injury rate in elite athletes playing on artificial surfaces.

  10. Tectono-sedimentary evolution of southern part of Benue Trough: from an asymmetric basin in middle Albian to an infilled basin in mid-Cenomanian

    SciTech Connect

    Ojoh, K.A.; Popoff, M.

    1989-03-01

    Before the opening of the Equatorial domain of the South Atlantic, the initiation and installation of most intracontinental basins within Gondwanaland took place before the Albian in northeastern Brazil and west Africa. The first pronounced marine incursion in the southern part of the Benue Trough was in the middle Albian. Subsidence was localized in the deep asymmetrical middle Albian basin. The latter, combined with a lowstand marine ingression in the southern Benue Trough and the progressive rifting-drifting of Africa and South America, engendered an unstable, tectonically active, over-supplied basin characterized by megaslumps and turbidites. During the late Albian, differential subsidence installed a stable platform with organic-rich fossiliferous black shales and littoral deposits contemporaneous with a highstand of sea level and the interconnection of the Central and South Atlantic oceans in the proto Gulf of Guinea. Volcanosedimentary tendencies have been documented from the littoral deposits, and pyroclastics containing molluscan fragments in the southern Benue Trough have also been attributed to the upper Albian. The high rate of subsidence during the Albian became very slow in the Cenomanian. It corresponds to a period of eustatic fall of sea level during the early and middle Cenomanian with high clastic influx into the basin. The middle Cenomanian is characterized as the period of an infilled basin with subaerial-submarine erosional surface (unconformity type 2) in the southern Benue Trough. This may be attributed to the global character of the Cenomanian lowstand of sea level.

  11. The infill timing of a quaternary intermontane basin: new chrono-stratigraphic and palaeoenvironmental data by a 900 m deep borehole from Campochiaro (central-southern Apennine, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amato, Vincenzo; Aucelli, Pietro P. C.; Cesarano, Massimo; Cifelli, Francesca; Leone, Natalia; Mattei, Massimo; Russo Ermolli, Elda; Petrosino, Paola; Rosskopf, Carmen M.

    2016-04-01

    The axial zone of the central-southern Apennine (Molise sector), is characterized by the presence of several quaternary tectonic depressions (Venafro, Isernia, Carpino, Sessano, Boiano and Sepino), generally NW-SE and NE-SW elongated, filled by very thick fluvial-marshy successions. Transtensive and extensional tectonic phases, alternating by relative stable tectonic periods with prevailing climatic variation induced processes, contributed to the infilling. In fact, during Early Pleistocene, the transtensive tectonic phases and, from the end of Early Pleistocene, the extensional tectonic phases, were responsible to enhance the subsidence into the basins, thanks to the activity of the high angle faults, generally NW-SE, NESW and E-O oriented, influencing also their environmental and sedimentary evolution. Between the late Middle Pleistocene and the early Upper Pleistocene, the subsidence reduced, and alluvial plain and alluvial fans environments improved. In the last years, several studies on the Boiano intermontane basin, bounded at south by Matese massif, were carried out. A detailed morpho-stratigraphic and tectonic evolution of the basin was proposed since Middle Pleistocene (MIS 13, 500 ka BP), thanks to field surveys and boreholes facies analyses, supported by Ar/Ar datings, tephrostratigraphical and pollen data. However, still now, the presence of Early Pleistocene eposits was only supposed. Succession. A deep continuous core (900 m) was carried out in the Campochiaro sector of the basin. Facies analyses, supported by preliminary paleomagnetic and tephrostratigraphic data, allow us to recognize the top of the prequaternary bedrock (Molise Flysch, Miocene) at 240 m of depth and to divide the whole succession in 4 main stratigraphic units. From the bottom to the top, the infilling is made of: Unit 1 (240-150 m), presenting lacustrine-palustrine environments, alternating clays and clayey-silts layers, constrained to Early Pleistocene; Unit 2 (150-123 m

  12. Basin infilling of a schematic 1D estuary using two different approaches: an aggregate diffusive type model and a processed based model.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laginha Silva, Patricia; Martins, Flávio A.; Boski, Tomász; Sampath, Dissanayake M. R.

    2010-05-01

    processes. In this viewpoint the system is broken down into its fundamental components and processes and the model is build up by selecting the important processes regardless of its time and space scale. This viewpoint was only possible to pursue in the recent years due to improvement in system knowledge and computer power (Paola, 2000). The primary aim of this paper is to demonstrate that it is possible to simulate the evolution of the sediment river bed, traditionally studied with synthetic models, with a process-based hydrodynamic, sediment transport and morphodynamic model, solving explicitly the mass and momentum conservation equations. With this objective, a comparison between two mathematical models for alluvial rivers is made to simulate the evolution of the sediment river bed of a conceptual 1D embayment for periods in the order of a thousand years: the traditional synthetic basin infilling aggregate diffusive type model based on the diffusion equation (Paola, 2000), used in the "synthesist" viewpoint and the process-based model MOHID (Miranda et al., 2000). The simulation of the sediment river bed evolution achieved by the process-based model MOHID is very similar to those obtained by the diffusive type model, but more complete due to the complexity of the process-based model. In the MOHID results it is possible to observe a more comprehensive and realistic results because this type of model include processes that is impossible to a synthetic model to describe. At last the combined effect of tide, sea level rise and river discharges was investigated in the process based model. These effects cannot be simulated using the diffusive type model. The results demonstrate the feasibility of using process based models to perform studies in scales of 10000 years. This is an advance relative to the use of synthetic models, enabling the use of variable forcing. REFERENCES • Briggs, L.I. and Pollack, H.N., 1967. Digital model of evaporate sedimentation. Science, 155, 453

  13. Submersible well pump and well completion system

    SciTech Connect

    Bayh, R.I.

    1990-04-03

    This patent describes a well completion system for a downhole submersible pump and motor. It comprises: a production tubing string with a landing nipple forming an integral part thereof and defining in part a downhole location for releasably anchoring a submersible pump and related components within the production tubing string; a power cable having electrical conductors and fluid conductors to supply both electricity and treating fluid from the well surface to the submersible pump and related components; and a fluid flow path extending through the submersible pump motor and its related components to receive treating fluid from the power cable. Also described is the method of installing and operating a downhole submersible pump and motor.

  14. Principles of well diagnosis

    SciTech Connect

    McLeod, H.O.

    1994-12-31

    Well performance analysis provides an effective engineering resource for the analysis of well problems and the benefit possible from well workovers or well stimulation to improve well performance. Transient pressure testing and analysis has long been used to identify formation potential and to disclose wellbore restrictions; however, this methodology does not identify the source of restricted flow or a realistic potential of a well completion change. Well diagnosis not only involves pressure transient testing and analysis, but also well completion procedure analysis, well log analysis, special petrographic analysis, and flowing well system analysis (often called Nodal Analysis). Although reservoir flow and tubular flow are important in this systems analysis, well completion modeling is often the key to improvements through workover or stimulation. Several completion or wellbore models have been developed and presented in the last 20 years. Those models dealing with perforated wells and gravel packed wells will be reviewed and illustrated with case histories that demonstrate how well systems analysis leads to improved well performance. The geology of the formation is often critical in the analysis of formation damage and interpretation of well production problems, especially when flow is not sufficient to allow pressure transient testing. Well completion operation analysis is a developing art which incorporates an understanding of the latest research and a familiarity with field practice, and a strategy for this analysis will be provided.

  15. Well pumping apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, E.D.

    1981-12-15

    A pumping apparatus that may be used with a well in which a sucker rod is connected with the well so as to remain in axial alignment with the same during shifting of the well and the sucker rod is supported clear of the well and the structure for operating the same.

  16. Taking stock of wellness.

    PubMed

    Fitch, Kathryn; Pyenson, Bruce

    2008-01-01

    The health cost crisis has spawned a thriving cost-control industry that offers an ever-growing number of "solutions." The authors of this article encourage employers to go back to the basics in evaluating these offerings, including their wellness policies and programs. This article describes the many ways different employers do wellness, the evidence base for wellness, how employers should target wellness candidates, and the elements of success and failure for wellness initiatives. PMID:18590182

  17. Application of integrated reservoir management and reservoir characterization to optimize infill drilling. Quarterly technical progress report, September 13, 1995--December 12, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-12

    The main emphasis this quarter was on the geostatistics and reservoir simulation. Assimilation of data with the geostatistics was conducted to determine the specific well locations for the demonstration program. Reservoir characterization and performance information is also included.

  18. Raising Your Wellness Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Council of Life Insurance, Washington, DC.

    Through an effective wellness program, one can improve his/her lifestyle to achieve a healthy, long life. The concept of wellness is defined in the beginning of this booklet. Next, the benefits of a wellness program are noted. A section is devoted to a "healthstyle" self-test developed by the U.S. Public Health Service. Once the health-style…

  19. HYDRAULICS OF WELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water wells have been used and continue to be used as devices for extracting ground water from aquifers. The importance of wells is not limited to the development of groundwater resources. Wells are used for environmental purposes, among others, the removal of contaminants from g...

  20. Well perforating methods

    SciTech Connect

    Revett, L. W.

    1985-09-17

    A well completion method comprising suspending NaCl crystals in the interval of the well bore to be perforated where the NaCl crystals are sized to bridge the perforations when the hydraulic pressure in the well bore exceeds the hydraulic pressure in the earth formation. The perforator is arranged to produce penetrations in the well bore in a radial pattern about the circumference of the well bore so as to effectively penetrate the entire circumference over a short interval. This enhances the perforation of vertical fractures in the earth formations.

  1. Well Log ETL tool

    SciTech Connect

    Good, Jessica

    2013-08-01

    This is an executable python script which offers two different conversions for well log data: 1) Conversion from a BoreholeLASLogData.xls model to a LAS version 2.0 formatted XML file. 2) Conversion from a LAS 2.0 formatted XML file to an entry in the WellLog Content Model. Example templates for BoreholeLASLogData.xls and WellLogsTemplate.xls can be found in the package after download.

  2. Wellness in Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hackleman, Karen T.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Reports on efforts of three institutions in response to need for consumer health information: Health Education Center (promotes health in southwestern Pennsylvania), Tulsa City-County Library (Oklahoma), and Wellness Council of the Midlands (WELCOM) (promotes wellness at work site in Omaha, Nebraska, area). WELCOM's 62-item reference list is…

  3. Staying Well at Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blai, Boris, Jr.

    Employee wellness directly affects business/industry operations and costs. When employees are helped and encouraged to stay well, this people-positive policy results in triple benefits: reduced worker absenteeism, increased employee productivity, and lower company expenditures for health costs. Health care programs at the worksite offer these…

  4. Water Treatment Technology - Wells.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on wells provides instructional materials for five competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: dug, driven, and chilled wells, aquifer types, deep well…

  5. Penrose Well Temperatures

    DOE Data Explorer

    Christopherson, Karen

    2013-03-15

    Penrose Well Temperatures Geothermal waters have been encountered in several wells near Penrose in Fremont County, Colorado. Most of the wells were drilled for oil and gas exploration and, in a few cases, production. This ESRI point shapefile utilizes data from 95 wells in and around the Penrose area provided by the Colorado Oil and Gas Conservation Commission (COGCC) database at http://cogcc.state.co.us/ . Temperature data from the database were used to calculate a temperature gradient for each well. This information was then used to estimate temperatures at various depths. Projection: UTM Zone 13 NAD27 Extent: West -105.224871 East -105.027633 North 38.486269 South 38.259507 Originators: Colorado Oil and Gas Conservation Commission (COGCC) Karen Christopherson

  6. Application of integrated reservoir management and reservoir characterization to optimize infill drilling. Quarterly technical progress report, September 13, 1994--December 12, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-12

    This document is a progress report by Fina Oil and Chemical Company for a U.S. DOE funded project being carried out by the North Robertson Unit located in the Permian Basin oil fields. Crosswell seismic tomography and reservoir geostatistics are being used to assess the potential for enhanced recovery and to identify the optimum completion and stimulation practices for the North Robertson Unit wells.

  7. Pumping potential wells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hershkowitz, N.; Forest, C.; Wang, E. Y.; Intrator, T.

    1987-01-01

    Nonmonotonic plasma potential structures are a common feature of many double layers and sheaths. Steady state plasma potential wells separating regions having different plasma potentials are often found in laboratory experiments. In order to exist, all such structures must find a solution to a common problem. Ions created by charge exchange or ionization in the region of the potential well are electrostatically confined and tend to accumulate and fill up the potential well. The increase in positive charge should eliminate the well. Nevertheless, steady state structures are found in which the wells do not fill up. This means that it is important to take into account processes which pump ions from the well. As examples of ion pumping of plasma wells, potential dips in front of a positively biased electron collecting anode in a relatively cold, low density, multidipole plasma are considered. Pumping is provided by ion leaks from the edges of the potential dip or by oscillating the applied potential. In the former case the two-dimensional character of the problem is shown to be important.

  8. Hydraulics of wells

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McLaughlin, Thad G.

    1955-01-01

    Although the subject of this lecture is supposed to be concerned primarily with the hydraulics of wells, Professor Weers has asked that I also discuss the effects tat geological formations have on the quantity and quality of water available to wells. I will discuss the geology of Colorado in relation to the availability and quality of water with particular reference to the most productive aquifers or water-bearing formations in the State. I will then discuss the hydraulics of wells with the aim of emphasizing the differences between water-table and artesian conditions.

  9. Oil well pump

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, R.L.

    1980-10-21

    An oil well subsurface pump comprising a housing having one end thereof adapted to be secured to the lowermost end of a sucker rod, or the like, and the opposite end thereof in open communication with the fluid reservoir in a well bore, a ball check valve carried by the housing, a ball stop member disposed within the housing for limiting the movement of the ball member in one direction and having ports therein for passage of fluid upwardly through the housing, resilient sealing assembly interposed between the outer periphery of the housing and the inner periphery of the barrel and slidable with respect to the barrel during a pumping operation, and discharge ports provided in the housing in spaced relation to the sealing assembly for directing well fluid from the interior of the housing to the annulus between the housing and the working barrel for transportation of the fluid to the surface of the well bore.

  10. Live Your Life Well

    MedlinePlus

    ... about reasonable steps that if used consistently can increase your comfort and boost your ability to build a rewarding life. About the Live Your Life Well Campaign Mental Health America is the country's leading non-profit ...

  11. Personal Wellness Tools

    MedlinePlus

    ... Agitation Kit for Medical Staff Publications for Your Office Mental Health Research Learn About Research Find Research Studies Peer Support Research WeSearchTogether Personal Wellness Tools The Merriam-Webster dictionary gives several definitions for ...

  12. Hydraulic well pumping apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, C.P.

    1987-03-03

    This patent describes a hydraulic powered well pumping apparatus for operation of a sucker rod well pump in a well borehole, the apparatus comprising: (a) an elongate polished rod having upper and lower ends, the rod being aligned above and adapted to connect to a string of sucker rods in a well borehole therebelow; (b) an adjustably positioned sleeve means aligned above and enclosing a portion of the polished rod and having a shorter length than the polished rod to enable the polished rod to extend above the sleeve means and below the sleeve means for connection to the string of sucker rods in the well borehole; (c) an axially hollow upstanding cylinder slideably receiving the sleeve means therethrough and enclosing a piston therein, the piston being: (1) moved on admitting hydraulic oil to the cylinder, and (2) joined to the sleeve means for moving the sleeve means and thereby moving the polished rod; (d) means for mounting the upstanding cylinder directly aligned with and above a casing at the top of a well adapted to have a sucker rod string positioned therein; (e) means for adjusting the stroke length imparted to the sucker rod string between minimum and maximum stroke lengths; and (f) means for adjusting the location of the sleeve means relative to the polished rod to vary the relative length of polished rod below the sleeve means and wherein a portion of the polished rod extends above the sleeve means dependent on the relative respective portions thereof.

  13. Isobaric groundwater well

    DOEpatents

    Hubbell, Joel M.; Sisson, James B.

    1999-01-01

    A method of measuring a parameter in a well, under isobaric conditions, including such parameters as hydraulic gradient, pressure, water level, soil moisture content and/or aquifer properties the method as presented comprising providing a casing having first and second opposite ends, and a length between the ends, the casing supporting a transducer having a reference port; placing the casing lengthwise into the well, second end first, with the reference port vented above the water table in the well; and sealing the first end. A system is presented for measuring a parameter in a well, the system comprising a casing having first and second opposite ends, and a length between the ends and being configured to be placed lengthwise into a well second end first; a transducer, the transducer having a reference port, the reference port being vented in the well above the water table, the casing being screened across and above the water table; and a sealing member sealing the first end. In one embodiment, the transducer is a tensiometer transducer and in other described embodiments, another type transducer is used in addition to a tensiometer.

  14. Oil well pump

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, R.L.

    1983-07-26

    An oil well subsurface pump is disclosed comprising a housing for reciprocal disposition within a working barrel and havone end thereof adapted to be secured to the lowermost end of a sucker rod, or the like, and the opposite end thereof in open communication with the fluid reservoir in a well bore, a ball check valve carried by the housing and disposed within a ball chamber having one end closed for limiting the movement of the ball member in one direction and the opposite end open to the well fluid, resilient sealing assembly interposed between the outer periphery of the housing and the inner periphery of the working barrel and slidable with respect to the barrel during a pumping operation, longitudinally disposed passageways provided in the housing and extending from the ball chamber to a position beyond the upper limit of the sealing assembly to provide communication through the housing to the annulus between the housing and the working barrel for passage of the well fluid from the fluid reservoir to the annulus for transportation of the fluid to the surface of the well bore, the sealing assembly comprising a plurality of superimposed flanged rings having sealing members secured around the outer periphery thereof and a locking ring outboard of the flanged rings for securing the flanged rings in position around the outer periphery of the housing.

  15. Well servicing industry finds

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, S.D

    1989-07-01

    The U.S. well servicing industry showed modest growth last year, continuing a slow recovery that started in 1987. Even with crude oil prices up significantly during the first half of 1989, the year looks destined to be a repeat of 1988 slow but steady growth. According to this annual well servicing survey, U.S. operators spent $2.6 billion for well servicing in 1988 compared with $2.1 billion in 1987, a slight increase of 12%. Expenditures peaked in 1981 at more than $4 billion before bottoming out in 1986 at $1.65 billion. Most well servicing categories included in the PEI survey were down last year from 1987 levels, even though expenditures were up. This anomaly resulted from the service and supply companies' ability to increase prices for their products and services, even though the market for these products and services failed to expand noticeably. Total 1988 well servicing activities covered in this survey recompletions, lift and tubular repairs, remedial stimulation, and abandonment were off compared with 1987, dropping 10% from 415,000 to 372,000 jobs.

  16. Gratitude and Well Being

    PubMed Central

    Sansone, Lori A.

    2010-01-01

    The word “gratitude” has a number of different meanings, depending on the context. However, a practical clinical definition is as follows—gratitude is the appreciation of what is valuable and meaningful to oneself; it is a general state of thankfulness and/or appreciation. The majority of empirical studies indicate that there is an association between gratitude and a sense of overall well being. However, there are several studies that indicate potential nuances in the relationship between gratitude and well being as well as studies with negative findings. In terms of assessing gratitude, numerous assessment measures are available. From a clinical perspective, there are suggested therapeutic exercises and techniques to enhance gratitude, and they appear relatively simple and easy to integrate into psychotherapy practice. However, the therapeutic efficacy of these techniques remains largely unknown. Only future research will clarify the many questions around assessment, potential benefits, and enhancement of gratitude. PMID:21191529

  17. Geothermal Well Stimulation

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, D. A.; Morris, C. W.; Sinclair, A. R.; Hanold, R. J.; Vetter, O. J.

    1981-03-01

    The stimulation of geothermal wells presents some new and challenging problems. Formation temperatures in the 300-600 F range can be expected. The behavior of stimulation fluids, frac proppants, and equipment at these temperatures in a hostile brine environment must be carefully evaluated before performance expectations can be determined. In order to avoid possible damage to the producing horizon of the formation, high temperature chemical compatibility between the in situ materials and the stimulation materials must be verified. Perhaps most significant of all, in geothermal wells the required techniques must be capable of bringing about the production of very large amounts of fluid. This necessity for high flow rates represents a significant departure from conventional petroleum well stimulation and demands the creation of very high near-wellbore permeability and/or fractures with very high flow conductivity.

  18. Thermal indicator for wells

    DOEpatents

    Gaven, Jr., Joseph V.; Bak, Chan S.

    1983-01-01

    Minute durable plate-like thermal indicators are employed for precision measuring static and dynamic temperatures of well drilling fluids. The indicators are small enough and sufficiently durable to be circulated in the well with drilling fluids during the drilling operation. The indicators include a heat resistant indicating layer, a coacting meltable solid component and a retainer body which serves to unitize each indicator and which may carry permanent indicator identifying indicia. The indicators are recovered from the drilling fluid at ground level by known techniques.

  19. Child Wellness and Happiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rettew, David C.

    2009-01-01

    Wellness and happiness should be considered in the clinical treatment of child and adolescent psychiatry, in addition with thinking about illness. Meanwhile, various studies on child and adolescent psychiatry,which includes an article from the "Journal of Happiness Studies," are discussed.

  20. Fallon FORGE Well Lithologies

    DOE Data Explorer

    Doug Blankenship

    2016-03-01

    x,y,z text file of the downhole lithologic interpretations in the wells in and around the Fallon FORGE site. All the relevant information is in the file header (the spatial reference, the projection etc.) In addition all the fields in the data file are identified in the header.

  1. Offshore well support miniplatform

    SciTech Connect

    Blandford, J.W.

    1987-07-14

    This patent describes a protective well support system installed on an offshore well having an upstanding conductor pipe extending above the seabed, the system comprising: (a) an upstanding conductor clamp (adapts to encircle the conductor pipe) formed by two upstanding facing members supported by a bottom engaging frame; (b) the frame including frame members joined together defining a substantially horizontal rectangular support frame for engaging the seabed; (c) angularly extending brace members secured at one end to the conductor clamp and at the other end to the frame; (d) the conductor clamp attaches to the frame and extending upright to enable the conductor clamp to fasten about the conductor pipe; (e) a boat landing mounts about the conductor pipe, the boat landing formed by at least two sectional components fixedly secured to semicircular clamp members adapted to encircle the conductor pipe for mounting the boat landing components; and (f) well platform means supported on bracket means adapted to encircle the conductor pipe for removably securing the well platform means.

  2. Wellness and Counselor Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yager, Geoffrey G.; Tovar-Blank, Zoila G.

    2007-01-01

    Given the emotional nature of the counseling profession, stress, fatigue, and burnout are constant threats. Although such difficulties cannot be eliminated, counseling training can ensure that future counselors are ready to deal more effectively with such issues. The authors present 10 suggestions for promoting student wellness during counselor…

  3. Telling It Well

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffert, Barbara; Burns, Ann, Comp.

    2007-01-01

    Everybody has a story to tell, but not everybody can tell it well, which it why some first novels jump to the best sellers lists and others fade away. This year's crop of successful first novelists come from all walks of life--there's journalist Vanora Bennett and historian Alison Weir, dance critic Anita Amirrezvani, and financial analyst manque…

  4. Doing good & doing well.

    PubMed

    Barnett, K; Pittman, M

    2001-01-01

    Leaders cannot make the "business case" for community benefit in the traditional sense of near-term financial returns on investment. The concept of returns must be expanded to encompass more long-term--yet concrete and measurable--benefits that may be accrued both by nonprofit hospitals and local communities. Hospitals can "do well" economically through a more strategic approach to "doing good."

  5. Wellness Factors among Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sleet, David A.; Dane, J. K.

    1985-01-01

    Content for wellness-learning games aimed at youth was derived from the professional judgment of an advisory panel composed of experts in preventive medicine, health education, and adolescent development using a Delphi-like series of structured inquiries. Thirty-nine attributes considered important in the development of healthy adolescents were…

  6. The organic and mineral matter contents in deposits infilling floodplain basins: Holocene alluviation record from the Kłodnica and Osobłoga river valleys, southern Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wójcicki, K. J.; Marynowski, L.

    2012-07-01

    The work examines the timing and environmental conditions of floodplain sedimentation in the valleys of the upland Kłodnica and piedmont Osobłoga rivers in the Upper Odra River basin. A distribution of 52 14C-ages shows relatively high floodplain sedimentation at the Late Glacial-Holocene transition, more stable floodplain environments since the Early (in the Kłodnica Valley) and Middle Holocene (in the Osobłoga Valley) and a gradual increase in floodplain deposition in the Late Holocene (since < 3.4 kyr BP). Organic matter [OM] and mineral matter [MM] fluctuations were correlated with variables responsible for the activation of erosion (i.e. vegetation changes, human impact and hydrological events) as well as factors affecting the local record of sedimentation (i.e. valley morphology, hydrologic conditions and episodes of local erosion). A clear relationship is shown between an increase in alluviation and climate- or human-induced extension of unforested areas. The deposition of mineral-rich sediments increases rapidly during periods characterized by non-arboreal pollen values exceeding approximately 8% in pollen diagrams. On the other hand, the results obtained do not confirm significant interactions between Holocene changes in forest composition and alluviation. Despite the settlement of agrarian groups, the sedimentary record of human activity in the Osobłoga catchment is very poor during the Neolithic and early Bronze Age. A large-scale alluviation of the Osobłoga and Kłodnica valleys was initiated during the settlement of people of the Lusatian culture from the middle Bronze Age and escalated in the early Middle Ages and Modern Times. The deposition of products of soil erosion was limited to between ca. 1.9-1.2 kyr BP, probably due to demographic regression during the Migration Period. Comparison of OM/MM fluctuations with phases of increased fluvial activity does not show a relationship between Holocene wetter phases and catchment sediment yield

  7. Well blowout prevention device

    SciTech Connect

    Chambers, R.A.

    1983-03-22

    The invention provides a device for preventing well blowouts in sucker rod pumping systems and particularly for sensing the parting of the polish rod from the stuffing box and preventing fluid flow through the stuffing box to the atmosphere. The device includes a valve body inserted between the stuffing box and the production-tee, a valve which is selectively capable of being opened or closed in the valve body, means for actuating the valve, and a wear block abutting against a polish rod for sensing when the polish rod parts from the stuffing box. When the polish rod parts from the stuffing box, the lever causes the valve to rapidly close to prevent blowout of the fluid in the well bore. When the wear block wears down to a predetermined amount, the lever senses and effectuates a signaling system to indicate that the wear block should be replaced.

  8. Well valve control system

    SciTech Connect

    Schwendemann, K.L.; McCracken, O.W.; Mondon, C.G.; Wortham, L.C.

    1987-01-13

    A system is described for controlling well testing through an upper and lower test string with a subsea test tree connected therebetween and latch means to release the upper test string from the subsea test tree comprising: a. first and second selectively programmable microprocessor means; b. means for storing system operating limits in each microprocessor means; c. means for changing the operating limits in response to changes in well conditions; d. means for communicating operating fluid pressure to the subsurface test tree and the latch means; e. solenoid pilot valves controlling the flow of the operating fluid pressure to the subsea test tree and the latch means; f. the first microprocessor means located at a central control console; g. the second microprocessor means located near the solenoid valves; h. means for transmitting signals between the first and second microprocessor means and validating the accuracy of the signals; and i. electronic circuits to control operation of the solenoid valves in response to validated signals.

  9. Caregiver Well-Being

    PubMed Central

    Dujela, Carren; Smith, André

    2015-01-01

    We know much about caregiving women compared with caregiving men and caregiving spouses compared with caregiving adult children. We know less about the intersections of relationship and gender. This article explores this intersection through the well-being (burden and self-esteem) of caregivers to family members with dementia. Throughout British Columbia, Canada, 873 caregivers were interviewed in person for on average, over 1½ hours. The results reveal that daughters experience the highest burden but also the highest self-esteem, suggesting the role is less salient for their self-identities. Wives emerge as the most vulnerable of the four groups when both burden and self-esteem are considered. The data confirm the usefulness of the intersectionality framework for understanding co-occupancy of more than one status and indicate that positive cognitive well-being and negative affective well-being can be differentially related. Multivariate analyses confirm the importance of caregiver, not patient, characteristics for burden and self-esteem. PMID:25651586

  10. Method for well production

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, J.R. Jr.

    1992-09-15

    This patent describes the method for operating a well installation having a control valve regulating the flow of fluid hydrocarbon from a well tubing string to a sales line which is selectively actuated between an on-state and an off-state, and wherein a plunger is located within the the tubing string of the well for movement between a lower region and a wellhead sensing position, it comprises: assigning first values; assigning second values; assigning a predetermined value for the time interval of the on-state; assigning a predetermined value for time interval of the off-state; actuating the control value to transition from an off-state to an on-state; then detecting the arrival of the plunger at the wellhead prior to expiration of the predetermined value for the time interval of the on-state, and determining the time elapsed from the actuation; determining the presence of any coincidence of the time elapsed from the actuation of the control valve with the assigned second values; then increasing the predetermined value for the time interval of the off-state by a predetermined first time increment when a the coincidence with the assigned second value is present; and terminating the the on-state in response to the plunger detection, and actuating the control valve to transition from the on-state to the next off-state in response to the termination of the on-state.

  11. Subsea well choke system

    SciTech Connect

    Lochte, G.E.

    1989-07-18

    This patent describes an apparatus for a subsea well completion. It comprises: a wellhead connector having a tubing flow passageway in fluid communication with a well tubing and an annulus passageway in fluid communication with a well annulus; a tubing connection conduit having a first end operatively connected to the wellhead connector and in fluid communication with the tubing flow passageway and further comprising a tubing shut-off valve; an annulus connecting conduit having a first end operatively connected to the wellhead connector and in fluid communication with the annulus flow passageway; and further comprising an annulus shut-off valve;. an annulus wing conduit connected to the annulus connecting conduit above the annulus shut-off valve and further comprising an annulus wing conduit shut-off valve; further comprising an annulus wing conduit shut-off valve; a treecap connected to a second end of the tubing connecting conduit and the annulus connection conduit; a tubing wing conduit connected to the treecap and the production return conduit and further comprising a tubing wing conduit shut-off valve.

  12. Hydraulic well pump

    SciTech Connect

    Dollison, W.W.

    1987-09-08

    This patent describes a system for operating a sucker rod string connected with a well pump comprising: a double-acting fluid cylinder having opposing power ends; means for connecting the cylinder with the sucker rod string for raising and lowering the string to operate the pump; hydraulic pump means for supplying pressurized fluid alternately to the cylinder ends including a direction control movable between extend and retract conditions to extend and retract the cylinder; drive means for shifting the direction control; control means for operating the drive means responsive to the extend and retract movements of the cylinder; and means for applying a fluid counterbalancing force into the cylinder for offsetting the combined weights of the sucker rod string. A production fluid column in a well bore above the pump, and movable surface equipment supported on the cylinder include an accumulator connected with the hydraulic pump means and the direction control for supercharging the intake of the pump during the extend movement of the cylinder and for applying an opposing hydraulic force to the cylinder during the retract movement.

  13. Hydraulic well pump

    SciTech Connect

    Dollison, W.W.

    1986-02-25

    This patent describes a system for operating a sucker rod string connected with a well pump. This pump consists of: a double-acting fluid cylinder having opposing power ends; means for connecting the cylinder with the sucker rod string for raising and lowering the string to operate the pump; means for supplying pressurized fluid alternately to the cylinder ends including a direction control movable between extend and retract conditions to extend and retract the cylinder; drive means for shifting the direction control; control means for operating the drive means responsive to the extend and retract movements of the cylinder; including limit valves positioned to simulate the hydraulic cylinder extend and retract stroke end locations, the limit valves being movably mounted for changing the location of each limit valve and the distance between the limit valves for selectively adjusting the length of the strokes of the hydraulic cylinder and the end limit of the extend and retract strokes of the cylinder. A cam operator is for opening and closing each of the limit valves at the end locations and means connecting the cam operator means with the hydraulic cylinder. Cable is reeved over the movable and fixed sheave means and secured along the second end thereof at a fixed location; and means for applying a fluid counterbalancing force into the cylinder for offsetting the combined weights of the sucker rods string, a production fluid column in a well core above the pump, and movable surface equipment supported on the cylinder.

  14. Drilling the ``perfect'' well

    SciTech Connect

    1999-12-01

    In northeastern British Columbia, near Fort St. John, Calahoo Petroleum is chasing the elusive finger channels of a vast alluvial fan formed by runoff from the Rocky Mountains. The Cadomin formation is a thin, shallow, tight Cretaceous sandstore lying about 1,150m below the surface and loaded with gas at virgin pressure. Reserves are estimated at 3 Bcf per section. The formation is extremely fragile, and subject to damage if drilled improperly. Pores are lined with a thin layer of kaolinite, which when invaded will flocculate and clog pore throats, reducing permeability is estimated at 1 to 2 md, and wells that strike a channel can produce up to 3 MMcf/d of gas. Miss the sweet spot in the channel, and the best one can hope for is 0.5 md and 0.5 MMcf/d of gas. Finding the channels is a real challenge. There are only a few 2D spec seismic lines criss-crossing the play, few offset wells to correlate and a blanket of shallow coal seams above the Cadomin that tunes the seismic image and makes interpretation difficult. The combination of limited formation data and drilling challenges presents a complex set of problems. The paper discusses these challenges and what Calahoo is doing to meet them using a multidisciplinary team approach.

  15. Oil well pumping apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Whatley, D. L.; Chaviers, W. M.

    1985-07-23

    The present system and apparatus for pumping an oil well damps out the stretch and over travel in sucker rod over travel particularly when the rod string approaches its point of reversal of direction either up or down. This is accomplished by decelerating the rate of travel of the rod string and at its end of travel pausing for a time period sufficient to allow rod string oscillations to damp out prior to reversal of rod string direction which due to the long length of the rod string, its weight and the weight of the trapped oil avoids breaking the rod string and the time loss occasioned thereby in both loss of well production and costly replacement of equipment and the time loss resulting therefrom. The present invention also achieves substantial recovery of hi-viscosity oil not recoverable at present by standard recovery procedures. This is accomplished with a sensor positioned to be actuated by the ram of the hydraulic drive. When the sensor is actuated, it energizes a time delay relay which holds the sucker rod string in the upper most raised position allowing the suction to be maintained on the bottom hole pump with the standing valve open. This allows the hi-viscus oil to enter the bottom hole pump barrel. When the time delay relay is released, the sucker rod string starts its downward movement closing the bottom hole standing valve. This traps the hi-viscus oil in the pump barrel which is then displaced by the downward-movement of the plunger in the bottom hole pump.

  16. Abandoning wells working group

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    The primary objective of this working group is to identify major technical, regulatory, and environmental issues that are relevant to the abandonment of offshore wellbores. Once the issues have been identified, the working group also has the objective of making recommendations or providing potential solutions for consideration. Areas for process improvement will be identified and {open_quotes}best practices{close_quotes} will be discussed and compared to {open_quotes}minimum standards.{close_quotes} The working group will primarily focus on wellbore abandonment in the Gulf of Mexico. However, workshop participants are encouraged to discuss international issues which may be relevant to wellbore abandonment practices in the Gulf of Mexico. The Abandoning Wells Group has identified several major areas for discussion that have concerns related to both operators and service companies performing wellbore abandonments in the Gulf of Mexico. The following broad topics were selected for the agenda: (1) MMS minimum requirements and state regulations. (2) Co-existence of best practices, new technology, and P & A economics. (3) Liability and environmental issues relating to wellbore abandonment.

  17. Well production control system

    SciTech Connect

    Chandra, R.S.; Quen, S.G.; Eineicher, D.E.; Lastra, J.E.

    1986-06-10

    An apparatus is described for monitoring the operation of a well pumping unit having a sucker-rod string and a power unit to reciprocate the rod string to produce fluid from an underground location, the apparatus having means for continuously compensating for a drift in characteristics of transducers used in monitoring the operation. The apparatus consists of: first transducer means for generating a signal representative of a load on the rod string; second transducer means for generating a signal representative of a position of the rod string; means for using the load signal and the position signal to generate a dynagraph of load vs. position of the sucker-rod string; means for calculating the area of the dynagraph; means for comparing the calculated area of the dynagraph with a predetermined set of area limits; means for comparing a maximum value of load signal against an acceptable maximum value of load signal; means for comparing a minimum value of load signal against an acceptable minimum value of load signal; means for combining current values of load signals with previous values of load signals to establish a selected value, and for combining a current value of rod position signal with previous values of rod position signals to establish a reference position of the rod string when the maximum value of the load, the minimum value of the load and the dynagraph area are each within acceptable limits; means for monitoring the load signal when the rod string reaches the reference position; and means for disabling the power unit when the value of the load signal exceeds the selected value at the reference position.

  18. 3-D seismic and offset VSP data for delineation of a horizontal well trajectory: Bloque IV, Lake Maracaibo

    SciTech Connect

    Barrientos, C.; Johnston, S.; Leon, K.; Stewart, L.; Bryant, I.D.

    1996-08-01

    3-D seismic data were combined with well data to provide the broad structural framework necessary to define a horizontal infill well location in the Lower Lagunillas reservoir of Bloque IV; however, the low vertical resolution of the data precluded detailed interpretation of the thin (c. 30 ft) target horizon. Horizon slices through the 3-D volume indicated lineations that might represent faults or flexures that are below resolution of the data. An offset VSP was recorded in the pilot well with a source location positioned so as to illuminate the planned well path. The frequency content of the VSP (up to 50 Hz) was much higher the dominant frequency of the surface seismic (10 Hz). The VSP provided indications of good reservoir continuity and possible improvement in reservoir quality downdip. The dip of the formation in the plane of the well path, a critical parameter for steering the well, was confirmed as close to 3 degrees. The well subsequently confirmed these indications. it appears that offset VSPs offer the potential to significantly reduce drilling risks associated with horizontal wells in Lake Maracaibo, even when 3-D surface seismic is already available.

  19. Applying probabilistic well-performance parameters to assessments of shale-gas resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy

    2010-01-01

    In assessing continuous oil and gas resources, such as shale gas, it is important to describe not only the ultimately producible volumes, but also the expected well performance. This description is critical to any cost analysis or production scheduling. A probabilistic approach facilitates (1) the inclusion of variability in well performance within a continuous accumulation, and (2) the use of data from developed accumulations as analogs for the assessment of undeveloped accumulations. In assessing continuous oil and gas resources of the United States, the U.S. Geological Survey analyzed production data from many shale-gas accumulations. Analyses of four of these accumulations (the Barnett, Woodford, Fayetteville, and Haynesville shales) are presented here as examples of the variability of well performance. For example, the distribution of initial monthly production rates for Barnett vertical wells shows a noticeable change with time, first increasing because of improved completion practices, then decreasing from a combination of decreased reservoir pressure (in infill wells) and drilling in less productive areas. Within a partially developed accumulation, historical production data from that accumulation can be used to estimate production characteristics of undrilled areas. An understanding of the probabilistic relations between variables, such as between initial production and decline rates, can improve estimates of ultimate production. Time trends or spatial trends in production data can be clarified by plots and maps. The data can also be divided into subsets depending on well-drilling or well-completion techniques, such as vertical in relation to horizontal wells. For hypothetical or lightly developed accumulations, one can either make comparisons to a specific well-developed accumulation or to the entire range of available developed accumulations. Comparison of the distributions of initial monthly production rates of the four shale-gas accumulations that were

  20. Wellness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online-Offline, 1999

    1999-01-01

    This theme issue includes resources on nutrition, fitness, hygiene, and various illnesses, particularly those common to children. Resources include Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, and books, with age levels specified. Appropriate activities are also suggested. (LRW)

  1. Wellness

    MedlinePlus

    ... Prior Awards Opportunities to Participate How to Contribute NETWORKING Post-Polio Directory Post-Polio Support Groups Community ... maintain a balance among the physical, emotional, mental, social and spiritual aspects of life. Make conscious and ...

  2. Application of new and novel fracture stimulation technologies to enhance the deliverability of gas storage wells

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    Based on the information presented in this report, our conclusions regarding the potential for new and novel fracture stimulation technologies to enhance the deliverability of gas storage wells are as follows: New and improved gas storage well revitalization methods have the potential to save industry on the order of $20-25 million per year by mitigating deliverability decline and reducing the need for costly infill wells Fracturing technologies have the potential to fill this role, however operators have historically been reluctant to utilize this approach due to concerns with reservoir seal integrity. With advanced treatment design tools and methods, however, this risk can be minimized. Of the three major fracturing classifications, namely hydraulic, pulse and explosive, two are believed to hold potential to gas storage applications (hydraulic and pulse). Five particular fracturing technologies, namely tip-screenout fracturing, fracturing with liquid carbon dioxide, and fracturing with gaseous nitrogen, which are each hydraulic methods, and propellant and nitrogen pulse fracturing, which are both pulse methods, are believed to hold potential for gas storage applications and will possibly be tested as part of this project. Field evidence suggests that, while traditional well remediation methods such as blowing/washing, mechanical cleaning, etc. do improve well deliverability, wells are still left damaged afterwards, suggesting that considerable room for further deliverability enhancement exists. Limited recent trials of hydraulic fracturing imply that this approach does in fact provide superior deliverability results, but further RD&D work is needed to fully evaluate and demonstrate the benefits and safe application of this as well as other fracture stimulation technologies.

  3. Wellness among African American Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day-Vines, Norma L.; Holcomb-McCoy, Cheryl

    2007-01-01

    Although there are various definitions of wellness, few conceptual definitions have addressed the contextual dimensions of wellness relative to African American counselors. The authors present an overview of generic models of wellness, discuss factors that both inhibit and promote wellness, offer some culture-specific models of wellness, and…

  4. Well-pump alignment system

    DOEpatents

    Drumheller, Douglas S.

    1998-01-01

    An improved well-pump for geothermal wells, an alignment system for a well-pump, and to a method for aligning a rotor and stator within a well-pump, wherein the well-pump has a whistle assembly formed at a bottom portion thereof, such that variations in the frequency of the whistle, indicating misalignment, may be monitored during pumping.

  5. Hanford well custodians. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Schatz, A.L.; Underwood, D.J.

    1995-02-02

    The Hanford Site Groundwater Protection Management Program recognized the need to integrate monitoring well activities in a centralized manner. A key factor to Hanford Site well integration was the need to clearly identify a responsible party for each of the wells. WHC was asked to identify all wells on site, the program(s) using each well, and the program ultimately responsible for the well. This report lists the custodian and user(s) for each Hanford well and supplies a comprehensive list of all decommissioned and orphaned wells on the Hanford Site. This is the first update to the original report released in December 1993.

  6. Pulse Wave Well Development Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Burdick, S.

    2001-02-23

    Conventional methods of well development at the Savannah River Site generate significant volumes of investigative derived waste (IDW) which must be treated and disposed of at a regulated Treatment, Storage, or Disposal (TSD) facility. Pulse Wave technology is a commercial method of well development utilizing bursts of high pressure gas to create strong pressure waves through the well screen zone, extending out into the formation surrounding the well. The patented process is intended to reduce well development time and the amount of IDW generated as well as to micro-fracture the formation to improve well capacity.

  7. Well-pump alignment system

    DOEpatents

    Drumheller, D.S.

    1998-10-20

    An improved well-pump for geothermal wells, an alignment system for a well-pump, and to a method for aligning a rotor and stator within a well-pump are disclosed, wherein the well-pump has a whistle assembly formed at a bottom portion thereof, such that variations in the frequency of the whistle, indicating misalignment, may be monitored during pumping. 6 figs.

  8. EcoWellness: The Missing Factor in Holistic Wellness Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Ryan F.; Myers, Jane E.

    2012-01-01

    A growing body of multidisciplinary literature has delineated the benefits that natural environments have on physical and mental health. Current wellness models in counseling do not specifically address the impact of nature on wellness or how the natural world can be integrated into counseling. The concept of EcoWellness is presented as the…

  9. Raft River well stimulation experiments: geothermal reservoir well stimulation program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-08-01

    The Geothermal Reservoir Well Stimulation Program (GRWSP) performed two field experiments at the Raft River KGRA in 1979. Wells RRGP-4 and RRGP-5 were selected for the hydraulic fracture stimulation treatments. The well selection process, fracture treatment design, field execution, stimulation results, and pre- and post-job evaluations are presented.

  10. Well posedness and physical possibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gyenis, Balazs

    There is a sentiment shared among physicists that well posedness is a necessary condition for physical possibility. The arguments usually offered for well posedness have an epistemic flavor and thus they fall short of establishing the metaphysical claim that lack of well posedness implies physical impossibility. In this work we analyze the relationship of well posedness to prediction and confirmation as well as the notion of physical possibility and we devise three novel and independent argumentative strategies that may succeed where the usual epistemic arguments fail. Keywords: determinism, laws of nature, metaphysics, philosophy of physics, physical possibility, prediction, well posed problem.

  11. Private Well Water and Fluoride

    MedlinePlus

    ... from my well has less than the recommended level of fluoride for preventing tooth decay? The recommended ... if the water from my well has fluoride levels that are higher than the recommended level for ...

  12. Creating Wellness in Your Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tager, Mark J.

    1983-01-01

    Wellness programs emphasize positive motivation and usually include health awareness campaigns, behavior change programs, and cost containment strategies. Guides are offered for beginning wellness programs in school districts. (MLF)

  13. Estimation of lithofacies proportions using well and well test data

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, L.Y.; Blanc, G.; Noetinger, B.

    1996-12-31

    A crucial step of the commonly used geostatistical methods for modeling heterogeneous reservoirs (e.g. the sequential indicator simulation and the truncated Gaussian functions) is the estimation of the lithofacies local proportion (or probability density) functions. Well-test derived permeabilities show good correlation with lithofacies proportions around wells. Integrating well and well-test data in estimating lithofacies proportions could permit the building of more realistic models of reservoir heterogeneity. However this integration is difficult because of the different natures and measurement scales of these two types of data. This paper presents a two step approach to integrating well and well-test data into heterogeneous reservoir modeling. First lithofacies proportions in well-test investigation areas are estimated using a new kriging algorithm called KISCA. KISCA consists in kriging jointly the proportions of all lithofacies in a well-test investigation area so that the corresponding well-test derived permeability is respected through a weighted power averaging of lithofacies permeabilities. For multiple well-tests, an iterative process is used in KISCA to account for their interaction. After this, the estimated proportions are combined with lithofacies indicators at wells for estimating proportion (or probability density) functions over the entire reservoir field using a classical kriging method. Some numerical examples were considered to test the proposed method for estimating lithofacies proportions. In addition, a synthetic lithofacies reservoir model was generated and a well-test simulation was performed. The comparison between the experimental and estimated proportions in the well-test investigation area demonstrates the validity of the proposed method.

  14. Thermal well-test method

    DOEpatents

    Tsang, Chin-Fu; Doughty, Christine A.

    1985-01-01

    A well-test method involving injection of hot (or cold) water into a groundwater aquifer, or injecting cold water into a geothermal reservoir. By making temperature measurements at various depths in one or more observation wells, certain properties of the aquifer are determined. These properties, not obtainable from conventional well test procedures, include the permeability anisotropy, and layering in the aquifer, and in-situ thermal properties. The temperature measurements at various depths are obtained from thermistors mounted in the observation wells.

  15. Insomnia and Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Nancy A.; Gallagher, Matthew W.; Preacher, Kristopher J.; Stevens, Natalie; Nelson, Christy A.; Karlson, Cynthia; McCurdy, Danyale

    2007-01-01

    Most Americans have occasional problems with insomnia. The relationship of insomnia to illness is well known. However, insomnia may also relate to lower levels of well-being. Although there are various definitions of well-being, one of the most clearly articulated and comprehensive models identifies 2 overarching constructs, psychological…

  16. The School Counselor Practices Wellness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Street, Sue

    1994-01-01

    Notes that counseling profession has adopted wellness concept. Sees concepts of wellness and holism affiliating to create holistic health. Identifies five major tenets of wellness and holistic health: the system of interrelated systems; optimal functioning; preventative approach; personal responsibility; and a healthy lifestyle. Discusses each…

  17. Well having inhibited microbial growth

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Brady D.; Dooley, Kirk J.

    2006-08-15

    The invention includes methods of inhibiting microbial growth in a well. A packing material containing a mixture of a first material and an antimicrobial agent is provided to at least partially fill a well bore. One or more access tubes are provided in an annular space around a casing within the well bore. The access tubes have a first terminal opening located at or above a ground surface and have a length that extends from the first terminal opening at least part of the depth of the well bore. The access tubes have a second terminal opening located within the well bore. An antimicrobial material is supplied into the well bore through the first terminal opening of the access tubes. The invention also includes well constructs.

  18. Influence of In-Well Convection on Well Sampling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vroblesky, Don A.; Casey, Clifton C.; Lowery, Mark A.

    2006-01-01

    Convective transport of dissolved oxygen (DO) from shallow to deeper parts of wells was observed as the shallow water in wells in South Carolina became cooler than the deeper water in the wells due to seasonal changes. Wells having a relatively small depth to water were more susceptible to thermally induced convection than wells where the depth to water was greater because the shallower water levels were more influenced by air temperature. The potential for convective transport of DO to maintain oxygenated conditions in a well was diminished as ground-water exchange through the well screen increased and as oxygen demand increased. Convective flow did not transport oxygen to the screened interval when the screened interval was deeper than the range of the convective cell. The convective movement of water in wells has potential implications for passive, or no-purge, and low-flow sampling approaches. Transport of DO to the screened interval can adversely affect the ability of passive samplers to produce accurate concentrations of oxygen-sensitive solutes, such as iron. Other potential consequences include mixing the screened-interval water with casing water and potentially allowing volatilization loss at the water surface. A field test of diffusion samplers in a convecting well during the winter, however, showed good agreement of chlorinated solvent concentrations with pumped samples, indicating that there was no negative impact of the convection on the utility of the samplers to collect volatile organic compound concentrations in that well. In the cases of low-flow sampling, convective circulation can cause the pumped sample to be a mixture of casing water and aquifer water. This can substantially increase the equilibration time of oxygen as an indicator parameter and can give false indications of the redox state. Data from this investigation show that simple in-well devices can effectively mitigate convective transport of oxygen. The devices can range from

  19. Well Integrity and Sealing in CO2 Sequestration Wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweatman, R.; Santra, A.; Kulakofsky, D.

    2009-12-01

    CO2 sequestration is a cost-effective and safe way to help mitigate climate change. Sustained well integrity and zonal isolation of CO2 by cement for the required 1000 year trapping period may be challenging. Some researchers report that cement fails when exposed to CO2 leading to potential leakage into the atmosphere or other underground zones. Others show cement samples from 30-50 year old CO2 wells that maintain the well’s sealing integrity, even though carbonization was found. This presentation provides reasons likely for this disparity between research lab test results and actual well performance data along with best practices to provide efficient cement-based systems for maintaining CO2 containment in storage and EOR (enhanced oil recovery) reservoirs. This discussion includes the geochemical conditions surrounding wells and the positive, long-term effects on cement durability, sealing integrity, and the protection of well casing from CO2 induced corrosion. Also discussed are recent laboratory results testing cement samples surrounded by formation material treated at two different downhole conditions. In one case the cement specimens were treated with a 40% humid CO2 at 140°F and 2000 psi whereas in the second case they were treated with saturated CO2 in water at 200°F and 2000 psi for various time intervals. Results show that samples of carefully designed cement systems had carbonization without any sign of loss of mechanical or sealing integrity which could lead to zonal isolation and well integrity failures. We also will report on a new lab method proposed to determine CO2 sealing performance by cement in a relatively short time period compared to previous methods. In summary, we will discuss a comprehensive approach that may be taken to help ensure longer term effective well integrity and CO2 containment in new CO2 wells and remedial solutions for old wells and for plugging and abandoning wells.

  20. Session: Long Valley Exploratory Well

    SciTech Connect

    Tennyson, George P. Jr.; Finger, John T.; Eichelberger, John C.; Hickox, Charles E.

    1992-01-01

    This session at the Geothermal Energy Program Review X: Geothermal Energy and the Utility Market consisted of four presentations: ''Long Valley Exploratory Well - Summary'' by George P. Tennyson, Jr.; ''The Long Valley Well - Phase II Operations'' by John T. Finger; ''Geologic results from the Long Valley Exploratory Well'' by John C. Eichelberger; and ''A Model for Large-Scale Thermal Convection in the Long Valley Geothermal Region'' by Charles E. Hickox.

  1. Remediation using nested, horizontal wells

    SciTech Connect

    Desantis, P.J.; Andrilenas, J.S.; Cheng, S.; Esler, C.; Miller, R.S.; Lew, K.V.

    1995-11-01

    A pair of nested, horizontal wells (one for vapor extraction, one for groundwater extraction) were utilized to remediate a mixed aromatic volatile organic compound (AVOC) and halogenated volatile organic compound (HVOC) soil and groundwater plume. The project site is an operating gasoline service station located in Portland, Oregon. The site has low permeability soils, a thin unconfined aquifer, with a relatively steep groundwater gradient. Each of the nested horizontal wells was drilled using the continuous borehole directional drilling method. The wells are each 110 meters long employing 73 meters of pre-packed well screen. The groundwater extraction well was pumped via vacuum-enhanced methods utilizing a two-pump configuration to eliminate the need for installation of a pump within the horizontal well and to increase both flow and radius of influence in fine-grained soils. Two groundwater models, a 2D analytical model and a finite element model, were utilized to analyze the potential and actual performance of the well. Of the two models used, the finite element model has produced results closely matching the actual performance of the well. After one year of operation, both AVOCs and HVOCs concentrations have been reduced by between 70 to 100%. All but two downgradient site wells have met cleanup standards for AVOCs; all have met substantial compliance for HVOCs.

  2. Wellness in the healing ministry.

    PubMed

    Burke, B K

    1993-09-01

    Wellness has gained a foothold in most healthcare delivery systems because of its focus: Keeping people well is the ultimate goal of a healthcare system. Three generations of wellness models have evolved over the past 16 years. First-generation wellness efforts focus on reducing health risks. Hospitals have developed programs and services to improve customers' and employees' health status. And corporations are lowering health risks by offering employees worksite fitness centers, cholesterol and other screenings, and smoking-cessation programs. Second-generation wellness efforts link wellness to benefits. Hospitals and corporations have implemented health incentive programs, structured to reward people for maintaining low ranges in their controllable health risk factors. Third-generation wellness efforts show that connectedness can improve health. Such efforts emphasize the importance of spiritual and emotional well-being as an inextricable part of physical health and healing. Today prayer and support groups, guided imagery, and prayerful meditation are becoming more mainstream. Such wellness approaches encourage persons to think and care for themselves more holistically.

  3. Thermal well-test method

    DOEpatents

    Tsang, C.F.; Doughty, C.A.

    1984-02-24

    A well-test method involving injection of hot (or cold) water into a groundwater aquifer, or injecting cold water into a geothermal reservoir is disclosed. By making temperature measurements at various depths in one or more observation wells, certain properties of the aquifer are determined. These properties, not obtainable from conventional well test procedures, include the permeability anisotropy, and layering in the aquifer, and in-situ thermal properties. The temperature measurements at various depths are obtained from thermistors mounted in the observation wells.

  4. The new frontier of wellness.

    PubMed

    Clark, Ann D

    2008-01-01

    Businesses should focus on a proactive solution to rising health care costs, using integrated wellness programs that emphasize condition management and total health and well-being. If corporations wish to remain competitive, profitable and successful in attracting and retaining topnotch talent from all generations, they are going to have to start investing in and thinking creatively about wellness offerings. Not only do wellness programs have a proven track record of success in reducing health care costs, they also resonate loud and clear with modern-day employees who are determined to work for a company that understands their needs and is willing to make progress with the employee's best interests in mind.

  5. Transcultural Wellness: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, K. Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    This study explored differences in wellness scores between a transcultural sample and the normative sample of the Five Factor Wellness Inventory (5F-Wel; Myers & Sweeney, 2005c). Differences between the two groups were found on all scales of the 5F-Wel, with transculturals scoring higher than the normative sample. Implications for practitioners…

  6. Multiple-well invasion percolation.

    PubMed

    Araújo, A D; Romeu, M C; Moreira, A A; Andrade, R F S; Andrade, J S

    2008-04-01

    When the invasion percolation model is applied as a simplified model for the displacement of a viscous fluid by a less viscous one, the distribution of displaced mass follows two distinct universality classes, depending on the criteria used to stop the displacement. Here we study the distribution of mass for this process, in the case where four extraction wells are placed around a single injection well in the middle of a square lattice. Our analysis considers the limit where the pressure of the extraction well Pe is zero; in other words, an extraction well is capped as soon as less viscous fluid reaches that extraction well. Our results show that, as expected, the probability of stopping the production with small amounts of displaced mass is greatly reduced. We also investigate whether or not creating extra extraction wells is an efficient strategy. We show that the probability of increasing the amount of displaced fluid by adding an extra extraction well depends on the total recovered mass obtained before adding this well. The results presented here could be relevant to determine efficient strategies in oil exploration. PMID:18517620

  7. Building Wellness Lifestyles: Counselor's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koss, Larry; Ketcham, Michael

    A camp program is described which reflects the Young Men's Christian Association's traditional commitment to the development of the whole person, introducing the development of a "wellness" lifestyle. A wellness lifestyle is described as one that involves living fully and abundantly while recognizing and assuming responsibility for one's own…

  8. Community College Employee Wellness Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, L. Jay; Johnson, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the prevalence and characteristics of employee wellness programs in public community colleges accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools (SACS). A random sample of 250 public community colleges accredited by SACS was mailed a 46-item employee-wellness program survey. The survey solicited program information…

  9. Well Logging with Californium-252

    SciTech Connect

    Boulogne, A.R.

    2003-01-06

    Californium-252 is an intense neutron emitter that has only recently become available for experimental well logging. The purpose of this research is to investigate the application of well logging to groundwater hydrology; however, most of the techniques and purposes are quite similar to applications in the petroleum industry.

  10. The future of wellness care.

    PubMed

    Best, J A; Lovato, C; Learmonth, C; Williams, R M

    1995-09-01

    The current restructuring of the US healthcare system will result in a new emphasis on wellness services. Hospitals are challenged to define the wellness role they will play within managed care. This article reports on interviews with wellness experts and hospital CEOs, who reflect on these challenges and define strategic priorities. The interviews highlight the need to understand that this challenge requires a powerful paradigm shift from illness to preventive services, and a major rethinking of how hospitals operate to offer cost-effective preventive services. The interviewees see great opportunity, but also great need for thorough planning, careful design, and implementation. Hospital leaders must understand clearly what wellness means, and how best to position their hospital for strategic advantage. In the final analysis, wellness emerges as an integral strategy in the overall process of managing change.

  11. Modeling multiaquifer wells with MODFLOW.

    PubMed

    Neville, Christopher J; Tonkin, Matthew J

    2004-01-01

    Multiaquifer wells, i.e., wells that are open across more than one aquifer, can have a profound effect on the hydraulics of a ground water system. These wells change the physical system by establishing direct hydraulic links between otherwise isolated strata. Several methods are available to simulate multiaquifer wells in the context of comprehensive ground water flow simulators. In this paper, we review four methods to represent multiaquifer wells with the widely used code MODFLOW. These methods include a specialized code developed, but never formally released, by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the Multi-Aquifer Well (MAW1) Package. An expanded implementation of the techniques in the MAW1 Package has been incorporated in the Multi-Node Well Package released recently by the USGS (Halford and Hanson 2002). We examine the performance of the methods in the context of a benchmarking study against the analytical solutions of Papadopulos (1966) and Sokol (1963). Our results demonstrate that results obtained with the MAW1 Package closely match exact solutions for pumping and nonpumping conditions, using both coarse and refined grids.

  12. Dead bodies found in wells.

    PubMed

    Dogan, Kamil Hakan; Demirci, Serafettin; Erkol, Zerrin; Gulmen, Mete Korkut; Deniz, Idris

    2010-09-01

    Corpses found in wells or lime pits must be identified and the cause and manner of death must be determined. There are several circumstances that may lead to the presence of corpses in wells. In this study, 3940 death examinations and autopsies, performed at the Konya Branch of Forensic Medicine Council (Turkey) between 2000 and 2007, were retrospectively investigated, and it was found that 18 (0.46%) of the bodies had been recovered from wells. The cases were evaluated in terms of their demographic features, manner of death (accidental, suicidal, or homicidal), autopsy findings, cause of death, and the characteristics of the wells in which they were found. The ages of the victims ranged from 4 to 74 years, and the average age was 40. 4 +/- 20.6 years. Of total, 16 cases were males and 2 were females. The manner of death was determined to be accidental in 10 of the cases, suicide in 6 of the cases, and homicide in the remaining 2 cases. In 7 of the cases, death had occurred as a result of drowning in water. A comprehensive scene investigation and autopsy must be performed for corpses recovered from wells and pits for both identification and determination of the cause and manner of death. Wells should be covered and kept closed at all times to reduce the number of accidental deaths resulting from falls into wells. PMID:20177365

  13. Geothermal-well design handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-02-01

    A simplified process is presented for estimating the performance of geothermal wells which are produced by natural, flashing flows. The well diameter and depth, and reservoir conditions must be known; then it is possible to determine the total pressure drop in a flowing well, and therefore to find the fluid pressure, temperature, and steam quality at the wellhead. By applying the handbook process to several input data sets, the user can compile sufficient information to determine the interdependence of input and output parameters. (MHR)

  14. Geothermal Well Site Restoration and Plug and Abandonment of Wells

    SciTech Connect

    Rinehart, Ben N.

    1994-08-01

    A report is presented on the final phase of an energy research program conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) involving two geothermal well sites in the State of Louisiana-the Gladys McCall site and the Willis Hulin site. The research program was intended to improve geothermal technology and to determine the efficacy of producing electricity commercially from geopressured resource sites. The final phase of the program consisted of plug and abandonment (P&A) of the wells and restoration of the well sites. Restoration involved (a) initial soil and water sampling and analysis; (b) removal and disposal of well pads, concrete, utility poles, and trash; (c) plugging of monitor and freshwater wells; and (d) site leveling and general cleanup. Restoration of the McCall site required removal of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM), which was costly and time-consuming. Exhibits are included that provide copies of work permits and authorizations, P&A reports and procedures, daily workover and current conditions report, and cost and salvage reports. Site locations, grid maps, and photographs are provided.

  15. Medicare Update: Annual Wellness Visit

    MedlinePlus

    ... make sure the heart, lungs, and other body systems are working properly. The doctor will probably ask questions about your daily routine, medical history, memory, as well as take certain routine measurements like ...

  16. Eating Well and Losing Weight

    MedlinePlus

    ... Smoking - Eating Well and Losing Weight • Tools & Resources Sodium & High Blood Pressure Popular Articles 1 Understanding Blood Pressure Readings 2 Sodium and Salt 3 All About Heart Rate (Pulse) ...

  17. Wellness strategies for smaller businesses.

    PubMed

    Neely, Marc

    2012-01-01

    While innovative smaller companies are implementing employee wellness programs, many smaller firms may point to a lack of resources, such as staffing and financial resources, to establish and sustain a wellness program. The uncertain economy and rising health care costs have caused many smaller businesses to focus on core business strategies to keep the doors open and the business going. However, innovative companies realize that building a culture of health is a long-term business strategy directly related to improving the bottom line. This article highlights one company's approach to wellness and the results of the company's programs. It also outlines the components of a successful wellness program and suggests practical implementation steps for smaller businesses.

  18. Fallon FORGE Well Temp data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Doug Blankenship

    2016-03-01

    x,y,z downhole temperature data for wells in and around the Fallon FORGE site. Data for the following wells are included: 82-36, 82-19, 84.31, 61-36, 88-24, FOH-3D, FDU-1, and FDU-2. Data are formatted in txt format and in columns for importing into Earthvision Software. Column headers and coordinate system information is stored in the file header.

  19. Quantum well multijunction photovoltaic cell

    DOEpatents

    Chaffin, Roger J.; Osbourn, Gordon C.

    1987-01-01

    A monolithic, quantum well, multilayer photovoltaic cell comprises a p-n junction comprising a p-region on one side and an n-region on the other side, each of which regions comprises a series of at least three semiconductor layers, all p-type in the p-region and all n-type in the n-region; each of said series of layers comprising alternating barrier and quantum well layers, each barrier layer comprising a semiconductor material having a first bandgap and each quantum well layer comprising a semiconductor material having a second bandgap when in bulk thickness which is narrower than said first bandgap, the barrier layers sandwiching each quantum well layer and each quantum well layer being sufficiently thin that the width of its bandgap is between said first and second bandgaps, such that radiation incident on said cell and above an energy determined by the bandgap of the quantum well layers will be absorbed and will produce an electrical potential across said junction.

  20. Quantum well multijunction photovoltaic cell

    DOEpatents

    Chaffin, R.J.; Osbourn, G.C.

    1983-07-08

    A monolithic, quantum well, multilayer photovoltaic cell comprises a p-n junction comprising a p-region on one side and an n-region on the other side, each of which regions comprises a series of at least three semiconductor layers, all p-type in the p-region and all n-type in the n-region; each of said series of layers comprising alternating barrier and quantum well layers, each barrier layer comprising a semiconductor material having a first bandgap and each quantum well layer comprising a semiconductor material having a second bandgap when in bulk thickness which is narrower than said first bandgap, the barrier layers sandwiching each quantum well layer and each quantum well layer being sufficiently thin that the width of its bandgap is between said first and second bandgaps, such that radiation incident on said cell and above an energy determined by the bandgap of the quantum well layers will be absorbed and will produce an electrical potential across said junction.

  1. Worksite Wellness Media Report Research Update 1988. Worksite Wellness Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behrens, Ruth; Weiss, Joanne

    This report is the 15th in a series of updates on worksite health promotion activities in the United States. The first section summarizes the results of three recent surveys: a study of the extent of worksite wellness activities in the United States (funded by the Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion); a 1986 Harris poll of Americans…

  2. All's Well That Ends Well: Shakespeare's treatment of anal fistula.

    PubMed

    Cosman, B C

    1998-07-01

    Textual and contextual evidence suggests that the French king's fistula, a central plot device in Shakespeare's play All's Well That Ends Well, is a fistula-in-ano. Anal fistula was known to the lay public in Shakespeare's time. In addition, Shakespeare may have known of the anal fistula treatise of John Arderne, an ancestor on Shakespeare's mother's side. Shakespeare's use of anal fistula differs from all previous versions of the story, which first appeared in Boccaccio's Decameron and from its possible historical antecedent, the fistula of Charles V of France. This difference makes sense given the conventions of Elizabethan comedy, which included anal humor. It is also understandable when one looks at what wounds in different locations mean in European legend. In this light, it is not surprising that subsequent expurgations treat Boccaccio's and Shakespeare's fistulas differently, censoring only Shakespeare's. This reading has implications for the staging of All's Well That Ends Well, and for our view of the place of anal fistulas in cultural history.

  3. High-pressure well design

    SciTech Connect

    Krus, H.; Prieur, J.M. )

    1991-12-01

    Shell U.K. E and P (Shell Expro), operator in the U.K. North Sea on behalf of Shell and Esso, plans to drill 20 high-pressure oil and gas wells during the next 2 years. This paper reports that the well design is based on new standards developed after the U.K. Dept. of Energy restriction on high-pressure drilling in the autumn of 1988. Studies were carried out to optimize casing design and drilling performance on these wells. Several casing schemes, including a slim-hole option, were analyzed. The material specifications for casing and drillpipe were reviewed to ensure that they met the loads imposed during drilling, well- control, and well-testing operations. The requirement for sour-service material was weighted against possible H{sub 2}S adsorption by the mud film. As a result, a new drillstring and two high-pressure casing schemes have been specified. The high-pressure casing scheme used depends on the maximum expected surface pressure.

  4. Is there health in wellness?

    PubMed

    Levenstein, S

    1996-09-01

    In the last 20 years, patient autonomy has vastly increased and a "well-being" movement has flourished, with great benefits but with definite drawbacks as well. Exaggeration of the individual's potential for prevention and self-healing can foster a crude psychological reductionism that hampers potential for subtle etiologic understanding and may weaken research, as well as creating a tendency to blame the victim. Probing of the health effects of any activity before engaging in it can lead to healthier-than-thouness and a fear of living. The well-being movement tends to ignore social causes of disease in favor of individual ones and therefore to disregard a need for social remedies. Both theory and practice can be contaminated by economic motives: Medicine is expensive, meditation is cheap. The chasm between the "mind-body" school and the dominant medical model may have widened as some holistically minded individuals, finding a haven in the well-being movement, give up on affecting the medical mainstream. Thus, the advance of holistic medicine has aided in conceptualizing the health-illness continuum, in understanding pathogenesis, and in discovering new preventive and therapeutic tools, but its emphasis on internal causes and therapies should not be allowed to detract resources from the equally important ones lying outside the realm of lifestyle.

  5. Well christmas tree guard apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Camos, W.M.; Doize, W.L.

    1981-11-17

    An oil or gas well christmas tree guard apparatus provides an annular guard body which is protectively secured about a bolted flanged connection of the well christmas tree, the guard so placed forming an envelope about the flanged connection and preventing access by a thief to the bolts and thus discouraging removal of the bolts from the bolted connection. The protective guard body thus prevents removal of the christmas tree from its location at the well head by theft denying access to the bolted connection which flanges the christmas tree to the remainder of the well. In the preferred embodiment the guard body provides a pair of annular shroud halves which are hingedly connected allowing them to be pivotally moved from an outer position allowing removal from the flanged connection to an inner closed operative position providing an overall annular guard body which is latched into position about the desired bolted connection. The guard body hinge as well as the latch structure can be protectively covered by a connected shroud or housing about the latch structure, or the hinge respectively.

  6. Geothermal down well pumping system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matthews, H. B.; Mcbee, W. D.

    1974-01-01

    A key technical problem in the exploitation of hot water geothermal energy resources is down-well pumping to inhibit mineral precipitation, improve thermal efficiency, and enhance flow. A novel approach to this problem involves the use of a small fraction of the thermal energy of the well water to boil and super-heat a clean feedwater flow in a down-hole exchanger adjacent to the pump. This steam powers a high-speed turbine-driven pump. The exhaust steam is brought to the surface through an exhaust pipe, condensed, and recirculated. A small fraction of the high-pressure clean feedwater is diverted to lubricate the turbine pump bearings and prevent leakage of brine into the turbine-pump unit. A project demonstrating the feasibility of this approach by means of both laboratory and down-well tests is discussed.

  7. Quantum-Well Thermophotovoltaic Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freudlich, Alex; Ignatiev, Alex

    2009-01-01

    Thermophotovoltaic cells containing multiple quantum wells have been invented as improved means of conversion of thermal to electrical energy. The semiconductor bandgaps of the quantum wells can be tailored to be narrower than those of prior thermophotovoltaic cells, thereby enabling the cells to convert energy from longer-wavelength photons that dominate the infrared-rich spectra of typical thermal sources with which these cells would be used. Moreover, in comparison with a conventional single-junction thermophotovoltaic cell, a cell containing multiple narrow-bandgap quantum wells according to the invention can convert energy from a wider range of wavelengths. Hence, the invention increases the achievable thermal-to-electrical energy-conversion efficiency. These thermophotovoltaic cells are expected to be especially useful for extracting electrical energy from combustion, waste-heat, and nuclear sources having temperatures in the approximate range from 1,000 to 1,500 C.

  8. Tunable quantum well infrared detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maserjian, Joseph (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A novel infrared detector (20, 20', 20), is provided, which is characterized by photon-assisted resonant tunneling between adjacent quantum wells (22a, 22b) separated by barrier layers (28) in an intrinsic semiconductor layer (24) formed on an n.sup.+ substrate (26), wherein the resonance is electrically tunable over a wide band of wavelengths in the near to long infrared region. An n.sup.+ contacting layer (34) is formed over the intrinsic layer and the substrate is n.sup.+ doped to provide contact to the quantum wells. The detector permits fabrication of arrays (30) (one-dimensional and two-dimensional) for use in imaging and spectroscopy applications.

  9. Oil well pump driving unit

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbertson, T.A.

    1984-02-21

    An oil well pump driving unit with a horizontally disposed hydraulic cylinder having a cylinder rod coupled to a drive rope extending into a pumping tee-stuffing box arrangement for driving the sucker rod string leading to a conventional oil well reciprocating pump. The drive rope extends over a first rotating sheave mounted near the wellhead and passes over a second rotating sheave mounted on a carriage which traverses a carriage channel in a draw works on which the hydraulic cylinder is mounted. A hydraulic drive/control system utilizing limit switches on the draw works provides control over the stroke position, the stroke length, and the stroke rate.

  10. ADVANCED CEMENTS FOR GEOTHERMAL WELLS

    SciTech Connect

    SUGAMA,T.

    2007-01-01

    Using the conventional well cements consisting of the calcium silicate hydrates (CaO-SiO{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O system) and calcium aluminum silicate hydrates (CaO-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O system) for the integrity of geothermal wells, the serious concern confronting the cementing industries was their poor performance in mechanically supporting the metallic well casing pipes and in mitigating the pipe's corrosion in very harsh geothermal reservoirs. These difficulties are particularly acute in two geological regions: One is the deep hot downhole area ({approx} 1700 m depth at temperatures of {approx} 320 C) that contains hyper saline water with high concentrations of CO{sub 2} (> 40,000 ppm) in conjunction with {approx} 100 ppm H{sub 2}S at a mild acid of pH {approx} 5.0; the other is the upper well region between the well's surface and {approx} 1000 m depth at temperatures up to 200 C. The specific environment of the latter region is characterized by highly concentrated H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} (pH < 1.5) brine containing at least 5000 ppm CO{sub 2}. When these conventional cements are emplaced in these harsh environments, their major shortcoming is their susceptibility to reactions with hot CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}SO4, thereby causing their deterioration brought about by CO{sub 2}-catalyzed carbonation and acid-initiated erosion. Such degradation not only reduced rapidly the strength of cements, lowering the mechanical support of casing pipes, but also increased the extent of permeability of the brine through the cement layer, promoting the rate of the pipe's corrosion. Severely carbonated and acid eroded cements often impaired the integrity of a well in less than one year; in the worst cases, casings have collapsed within three months, leading to the need for costly and time-consuming repairs or redrilling operations. These were the reasons why the geothermal well drilling and cementing industries were concerned about using conventional well cements, and further

  11. Bleeding Characteristics of Geothermal Wells

    SciTech Connect

    James, Russell; Gould, Tom

    1987-01-20

    Discharging small flows (order of 1 t/h) from wells is known as bleeding and is to relieve the build-up of gas pressure at the wellhead and to arrest corrosion in the bore. First tests over a range of bleeding flows indicate it as a fruitful subject for study in that temperature and pressure measurements at the wellhead can indicate the well enthalpy and the non-condensible gas content of the production system. Because of environmental restrictions on testing with large discharges in the future, bleeding may soon be the only valid alternative for proving a well’s potential. 1 tab., 4 figs., 6 refs.

  12. Health and Wellness Policy Ethics

    PubMed Central

    Cavico, Frank J.; Mujtaba, Bahaudin G.

    2013-01-01

    This perspective is an ethical brief overview and examination of “wellness” policies in the modern workplace using practical examples and a general application of utilitarianism. Many employers are implementing policies that provide incentives to employees who lead a “healthy” lifestyle. The authors address how these policies could adversely affect “non-healthy” employees. There are a wide variety of ethical issues that impact wellness policies and practices in the workplace. The authors conclude that wellness programs can be ethical, while also providing a general reflective analysis of healthcare challenges in order to reflect on the externalities associated with such policies in the workplace. PMID:24596847

  13. Wellness for welders. Prevention strategies.

    PubMed

    Walz, Judy Ann; Wehse, Krista Lynn

    2002-07-01

    The practical application and workplace implications are numerous. Decreasing the risks for heavy metal toxicity and promoting healthy liver and renal function for welders could increase their life expectancy and improve their quality of life. Wellness promotion is the educational basis of nursing practice. PMID:12141092

  14. Oil well pump driving unit

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbertson, T.A.

    1982-03-23

    An oil well pumping apparatus which includes a submerged reciprocating pump mounted in a tubing arrangement communicating with the well head, a sucker rod string extending through the tubing arrangement and connected in driving relation with the pump, and a pumping tee and stuffing box arrangement mounted on the casing of the well at the well head and including a sealed drive rod arrangement in the stuffing box connected in driving relation to said sucker rod string, and a pump driving unit. The pump driving unit includes a hydraulic cylinder and support means for supporting the hydraulic cylinder over the stuffing box with the axis of the cylinder rod aligned with the axis of said stuffing box. A coupling means is provided for coupling the cylinder rod to the seal drive rod arrangement. A hydraulic drive -control unit is coupled to said in-out fluid line for operating the hydraulic cylinder to produce an operating cycle consisting of a hydraulic power upstroke and a gravity power downstroke.

  15. Quantum Well Infrared Photodetectors (QWIP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, B. F.

    1990-01-01

    There has been a lot of interest in III-V long wavelength detectors in the lambda = 8 to 12 micron spectral range as alternatives to HgCdTe. Recently high performance quantum well infrared photodetectors (QWIP) have been demonstrated. They have a responsivity of R = 1.2 A/W, and a detectivity D(exp asterisk) sub lambda = 2 times 10(exp 10) cm Hz(exp 1/2)/W at 68 K for a QWIP with a cutoff wavelength of lambda sub c = 10.7 micron and a R = 1.0 A/W, and D(exp asterisk) sub lambda = 2 times 10(exp 10) cm Hz(exp 1/2)/W at T = 77 K for lambda sub c = 8.4 micron. These detectors consist of 50 periods of molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) grown layers doped n = 1 times 10(exp 18)cm(exp -3) having GaAs quantum well widths of 40 A and barrier widths of 500 A of Al sub x Ga sub 1-x As. Due to the well-established GaAs growth and processing techniques, these detectors have the potential for large, highly uniform, low cost, high performance arrays as well as monolithic integration with GaAs electronics, high speed and radiation hardness. Latest results on the transport physics, device performance and arrays are discussed.

  16. Life Span Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Mary Alice

    2005-01-01

    This chapter, rooted in life span developmental research and theory, examines domains of subjective well-being: emotional, social, and psychological. What is the impact of these domains on the learner's experience of education? It invites the reader to consider implications for learning through the use of learners' narratives.

  17. Process for cementing geothermal wells

    DOEpatents

    Eilers, Louis H.

    1985-01-01

    A pumpable slurry of coal-filled furfuryl alcohol, furfural, and/or a low molecular weight mono- or copolymer thereof containing, preferably, a catalytic amount of a soluble acid catalyst is used to cement a casing in a geothermal well.

  18. Two definitions of waiting well.

    PubMed

    Sweeny, Kate; Reynolds, Chandra A; Falkenstein, Angelica; Andrews, Sara E; Dooley, Michael D

    2016-02-01

    Waiting for uncertain news is often distressing, at times even more distressing than facing bad news. The goal of this article was to investigate strategies for "waiting well" during these periods of uncertainty. Specifically, we propose 2 definitions of waiting well. First, people can wait in such a way as to ease their distress during the waiting period. Second, people could wait in such a way as to ease the pain of bad news or enhance the thrill of good news. We conducted a longitudinal study of law graduates (N = 230) awaiting their result on the California bar exam. Participants completed questionnaires prior to the exam, every 2 weeks during the 4-month waiting period, and shortly after learning whether they passed or failed. Cross-lagged models revealed that participants were quite unsuccessful at waiting well by our first definition. That is, their coping strategies were ineffective for reducing distress associated with uncertainty, apparently even backfiring in some cases. However, multiple regression analyses examining relationships between waiting experiences and responses to good and bad news found that many participants were successful at waiting well according to our second definition: Participants who suffered through a waiting period marked by anxiety, rumination, and pessimism responded more productively to bad news and more joyfully to good news, as compared with participants who suffered little during the wait. These findings substantiate the difficulty of enduring a stressful waiting period but suggest that this difficulty may pay off once the news arrives. PMID:26461244

  19. Physical Activity & Well-being.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seefeldt, Vern, Ed.

    This book reviews evidence in the biological and behavioral sciences relating physical activity to human well-being. The following articles are included: (1) "Physical Growth and Maturation" (Robert M. Malina); (2) "Acquisition of Motor Skills During Childhood" (John L. Haubenstricker and Vern D. Seefeldt); (3) "Development of Sensory-Motor…

  20. Hydrocarbon generation potential of the Cretaceous section from Well ALP-6, Perija Region, Venezuela

    SciTech Connect

    Pratt, L. ); Mompart, L.; Murat, B. )

    1993-02-01

    Geochemistry and sedimentology have been integrated in order to provide a better understanding of the source rock potential and depositional environments of the La Luna Formation and Machiques Member in Well ALP-6 (Perija region). These two units, the dominant source rocks in the Maracaibo Basin, are mainly shales with high to very high organic content, while thin interbeds of limestones are poor in organic matter. A detailed sedimentological study and sequence analysis indicates that both shaly units represent a period of platform infilling subsequent to drowning. Periods of progressive back stepping culminating in the deposition of organic-rich condensed intervals are recognized, based on sedimentology of cores and wireline log analysis. A succession of fining-upward sequences, 1' to 5' thick, with distinct sedimentological and geochemical signatures have been identified in the La Luna Formation. Phenomena of early diagenesis (intrashale calcite growth due to organic matter degradation; sulfur precipitated in local paleolows) to late diagenesis (pressure-solution effects with development of laterally correlatable cone-in-cone layers) are all indicators that the hydrocarbon generation potential of La Luna is not uniform and can only be assessed by detailed geological, sedimentological and geochemical investigations. Two geochemically distinct facies can be identified in both La Luna and Machiques. A sulfur-rich facies is characterized by Corg/AVSul ratios averaging 1.9 and by exceptionally high concentrations of sulfur-bearing aromatic compounds. A sulfur-poor facies is characterized by Corg/AVSul ratios averaging 9.2 and by trace concentrations or absence of sulfur-bearing aromatic compounds.

  1. Geothermal wells drilled in Transcarpathians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzma, A.

    1984-12-01

    The lion's share of the Earth's electric power is known to be produced by thermal electric power plants wwich burn coal and gas. New storehouses of energy must be sought. It became known that the main reserves of heat in the Earth's interior are concentrated in rock. In simple terms, the technology of delivering the Earth's heat to the surface is as follows: water injected under high pressure from a river into one well comes in contact with hot beds situated at enormous depth, after which it returns by a second well in the form of a steam-water mixture, which then operates turbines of an electric power plant. The water would be used many times over in a closed cycle. This method promises many advantages. It will provide a possibility for generating cheap electric power while excluding all pollution of the environment.

  2. Hydraulic oil well pumping apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    McDuffie, T.F.

    1983-09-27

    The preferred embodiment is directed to an oil well pumping apparatus incorporating a walking beam having a horsehead at one end which connects to the sucker rods in the oil well. The opposite end of the walking beam is supported on a fixed pivot. A hydraulic and pneumatic combination unit connects from a supporting platform to a central point on the beam to raise and lower the beam. The improved apparatus utilizes air pressure to balance the static load on the apparatus and dynamically strokes the sucker rod string by imparting a reciprocating motion through hydraulic power applied at a specified rate to raise and lower the walking beam. A pump and motor system for a closed hydraulic loop is included. Alternate preferred embodiments are disclosed. In one form, a lubricating system is incorporated. First and second alternate forms of pickoff apparatus which powers the pneumatically balanced pumping apparatus is also included.

  3. Apparatus for protecting subsea wells

    SciTech Connect

    Ames, T.J.; Krenek, M.J.; Piazza, A.L.

    1981-06-16

    Apparatus for protecting subsea structures, and in particular Christmas trees from damage by fishing nets, trawl boards, anchors and other marine equipment, includes a protective structure which is placed over the Christmas tree. The protective structure has an opening in the top portion to allow access to the Christmas tree when such access is needed and a protective cap which closes the opening to prevent damage from silt, sand, trash and overhead falling objects. The entire protective structure is secured in place by one or more piles which are driven into the sea floor or by cementing one or more steel piles in place in the sea floor. The protective structure and the cap are guided into place around the well by guide cables attached to the guide base of the well. A lifting device in the protective cap facilitates removal of the cap by a single cable.

  4. Sweden's Siljan ring well evaluated

    SciTech Connect

    Gold, T.

    1991-01-14

    The final results are in from the first major drilling operation undertaken to explore the deeper levels of the Siljan ring impactor crater in Central Sweden. The results demonstrate that hydrocarbon gases from methane to pentane-as well as a light, largely saturated oil-are present deep in the granitic rock. The impact crater, generated 360 million year ago by a major meteorite, is now a circular area about 44 km across.

  5. Spacecraft Architecture and well being

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ören, Ayşe

    2016-07-01

    As we embark on a journey for new homes in the new worlds to lay solid foundations, we should consider not only the survival of frontiers but also well-being of those to live in zero gravity. As a versatile science, architecture encompasses abstract human needs as well. On our new different direction in the course of the Homo sapiens evolution, we can do this with designs addressing both our needs and senses. Well-being of humans can be achieved by creating environments supporting the cognitive and social stages in the evolution process. Space stations are going through their own evolution process. Any step taken can serve as a reference for further attempts. When studying the history of architecture, window designing is discussed in a later phase, which is the case for building a spaceship as well. We lean on the places we live both physically and metaphorically. The feeling of belonging is essential here, entailing trans-humanism, which is significant since the environment therein is like a dress comfortable enough to fit in, meeting needs without any burden. Utilizing the advent of technology, we can create moods and atmospheres to regulate night and day cycles, thus we can turn claustrophobic places into cozy or dream-like places. Senses provoke a psychological sensation going beyond cultural codes as they are rooted within consciousness, which allows designers to create a mood within a space that tells a story and evokes an emotional impact. Color, amount of light, sound and odor are not superficial. As much as intangible, they are real and powerful tools with a physical presence. Tapping into induction, we can solve a whole system based on a part thereof. Therefore, fractal designs may not yield good results unless used correctly in terms of design although they are functional, which makes geometric arrangement critical.

  6. Gelled compositions and well treating

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, B.L.

    1984-04-03

    Gelled compositions suitable as fracture fluids and water diversion agents comprising water, a polymeric viscosifier, an aldehyde component, and at least one phenolic component such as resorcinol, catechol, and the like, as well as selected oxidized phenolic materials such as 1,4-benzoquinone of natural or synthetic origin and natural and modified tannins. The gelled compositions can additionally contain gel stabilizers and chemical buffering agents.

  7. Gelled compositions and well treating

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, B.L.

    1981-01-20

    Gelled compositions suitable as fracture fluids and water diversion agents comprising water, a polymeric viscosifier, an aldehyde component, and at least one phenolic component such as resorcinol, catechol, and the like, as well as selected oxidized phenolic materials such as 1,4-benzoquinone of natural or synthetic origin and natural and modified tannins. The gelled compositions can additionally contain gel stabilizers and chemical buffering agents.

  8. Gelled compositions and well treating

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, B.L.

    1982-04-06

    Gelled compositions are disclosed suitable as fracture fluids and water diversion agents comprising water, a polymeric viscosifier, an aldehyde component, and at least one phenolic component such as resorcinol, catechol, and the like, as well as selected oxidized phenolic materials such as 1,4-benzoquinone of natural or synthetic origin and natural and modified tannins. The gelled compositions can additionally contain gel stabilizers and chemical buffering agents.

  9. Well casing grip assurance system

    SciTech Connect

    Mosing, D.E.; Webre, C.M.

    1987-06-30

    An apparatus is described for assuring that at least one of the elevator or the spider of well casing installation apparatus is fully closed in gripping connection about a well casing before the other of the elevator or the spider may be released from fully closed gripping connection about the well casing, the continuation comprising: (a) two-position elevator valve means connected to admit fluid pressure and to optionally direct it to open and close the elevator; (b) two-position spider valve means connected to admit fluid pressure into the spider and to optionally direct the fluid pressure to open and to close the spider; (c) two-position spider position valve means connected to the elevator valve means. The spider position valve means is mechanically connected for passing the fluid pressure to the elevator valve means only when the spider is fully closed into gripping position; and (d) two-position elevator position valve means connected to the spider valve means. The elevator position valve is mechanically connected to the elevator for passing fluid pressure to the spider valve when the elevator is fully closed into gripping position.

  10. Long Valley Exploratory Well - Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Tennyson, George P. Jr.

    1992-03-24

    As was stated by the first presenter, the Long Valley Exploratory Well represents a vital linking of geothermal theory, technology and applications. The five presenters take us through that linking to the extent the current progress at the well makes that possible. The site is, of course, a geothermally rich resource, a ''recently active'' caldera. In many ways, the site has a wealth of data preceding the present work. It is a site which has excited the interest of the geothermal community for a long time. As is often the case in geothermal work, the prior data has raised as many questions as were answered. It is on this basis that the further exploration of a probable high temperature resource is being explored to great depths. The first presentation represents the cooperation and coordination maintained between similar elements of the Basic Energy Sciences programs and those in the Geothermal programs of DOE's Conservation and Renewable Energy activities. Similarly, the work exemplifies the close coordination of the DOE work with the U. S. Geological Survey, the National Science Foundation, and the U. S. Continental Scientific Drilling Program. The first presentation also represents the theoretical and modeling portion of the session. Appropriate to geothermal technology, the central programmatic theme is geophysical and geochemical aspects of fluid flow and interaction in porous and fractured rocks. It was interesting to note that even the theoretical work and modeling addressed the applicability to earth-based energy resources, and as well their utilization in a manner such as to assure environmental acceptability. Topics addressed included: (1) fundamental properties and interactions of rocks, mineral, and fluids; (2) transport and flow of fluids in rocks; and (3) structure of geologic units. The session continued with the description of the Phase II operations at the Long Valley Exploratory Well. The drilling operations were described as relatively trouble

  11. Well treatment compositions and method

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, T.R.; Dill, W.R.; Ford, W.G.F.; King, K.

    1991-04-16

    This patent describes a concentrate which forms an acid and/or water external microemulsion when added to a treatment fluid. The concentrate comprises an alkyl alcohol having in the range of from 4 to 18 carbon atoms, an emulsifying agent, a mutual solvent selected from the group consisting of glycol ethers and alkyoxylates of glycol ethers, and a co-solvent selected from the group consisting of polyethylene glycol, primary alcohols and alkyoxylates of alkyl alcohols. Also disclosed are an acid and/or water external microemulsion well treatment composition and a method of treating a subterranean formation to increase the production of hydrocarbons therefrom.

  12. 95 stimulations in 63 wells

    SciTech Connect

    Horton, A.I.

    1982-02-01

    Since 1976, extensive studies on the nature of the Eastern gas shales and the production potential from stimulated shale wells have been conducted through joint efforts of industry and the Department of Energy (DOE). Prior to development of this project, the conventional method of stimulating the shales was borehole shooting, and conventional hydraulic fracturing of the shale was just beginning. DOE-industry investigations under the Eastern Gas Shales Project have experimented with other types of stimulations, including massive hydraulic fracturing, foam fracturing, cryogenic fracturing, chemical explosives, and novel treatments. Two of the latter have used (1) nitrogen and (2) oil assisted with nitrogen. Two other treatments, which were unsuccessful, were (1) an open hole packer-stage frac and (2) a kerosene frac. These were operational and conceptual failures. Details of the stimulations and production data, where available, have been complied and studied. The experience that has been gained may prove helpful to those considering stimulation technology in future well drilling ventures in the shale. However, the limited data available in regions of similar geologic factors preclude a thorough analysis of stimulation effectiveness.

  13. Oil well pump driving unit

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbertson, T. A.

    1984-11-06

    An oil well pumping apparatus which includes a submerged reciprocating pump mounted in a tubing arrangement communicating with the wellhead, a sucker rod string extending through the tubing arrangement and connected in driving relation with the pump, and a pumping tee and stuffing box arrangement mounted on the casing of the well at the wellhead and including a sealed drive rod arrangement in the stuffing box connected in driving relation to said sucker rod string, and a pump driving unit. The pump driving unit includes a hydraulic cylinder and support means including a gimbal arrangement for supporting the hydraulic cylinder over the stuffing box with the axis of the cylinder rod aligned with the axis of said stuffing box. A coupling means is provided for coupling the cylinder rod to the sealed drive rod arrangement. A hydraulic drive/control unit is coupled to said in/out fluid line for operating cycle consisting of a hydraulic power upstroke and a gravity power downstroke. An assist cylinder and accumulator combination are provided to counteract part of the weight of the rod string and thus reduce the workload on t

  14. Excitons in asymmetric quantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoryev, P. S.; Kurdyubov, A. S.; Kuznetsova, M. S.; Ignatiev, I. V.; Efimov, Yu. P.; Eliseev, S. A.; Petrov, V. V.; Lovtcius, V. A.; Shapochkin, P. Yu.

    2016-09-01

    Resonance dielectric response of excitons is studied for the high-quality InGaAs/GaAs heterostructures with wide asymmetric quantum wells (QWs). To highlight effects of the QW asymmetry, we have grown and studied several heterostructures with nominally square QWs as well as with triangle-like QWs. Several quantum confined exciton states are experimentally observed as narrow exciton resonances. A standard approach for the phenomenological analysis of the profiles is generalized by introducing different phase shifts for the light waves reflected from the QWs at different exciton resonances. Good agreement of the phenomenological fit to the experimentally observed exciton spectra for high-quality structures allowed us to reliably obtain parameters of the exciton resonances: the exciton transition energies, the radiative broadenings, and the phase shifts. A direct numerical solution of the Schrödinger equation for the heavy-hole excitons in asymmetric QWs is used for microscopic modeling of the exciton resonances. Remarkable agreement with the experiment is achieved when the effect of indium segregation is taken into account. The segregation results in a modification of the potential profile, in particular, in an asymmetry of the nominally square QWs.

  15. Silicon Germanium Quantum Well Thermoelectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, Anthony Lee, III

    Today's growing energy demands require new technologies to provide high efficiency clean energy. Thermoelectrics that convert heat to electrical energy directly can provide a method for the automobile industry to recover waste heat to power vehicle electronics, hence improving fuel economy. If large enough efficiencies can be obtained then the internal combustion engine could even be replaced. Exhaust temperature for automotive application range from 400 to 800 K. In this temperature range the current state of the art materials are bulk Si1-xGex alloys. By alternating layers of Si and Si1-xGex alloy device performance may be enhanced through quantum well effects and variations in material thermal properties. In this study, superlattices designed for in-plane operation with varying period and crystallinity are examined to determine the effect on electrical and thermal properties. In-plane electrical resistivity of these materials was found to be below the bulk material at a similar doping at room temperature, confirming the role of quantum wells in electron transport. As period is reduced in the structures boundary scattering limits electron propagation leading to increased resistivity. The Seebeck coefficient measured at room temperature is higher than the bulk material, additionally lending proof to the effects of quantum wells. When examining cross-plane operation the low doping in the Si layers of the device produce high resistivity resulting from boundary scattering. Thermal conductivity was measured from 77 K up to 674 K and shows little variation due to periodicity and temperature, however an order of magnitude reduction over bulk Si1-xGex is shown in all samples. A model is developed that suggests a combination of phonon dispersion effects and strong boundary scattering. Further study of the phonon dispersion effects was achieved through the examination of the heat capacity by combining thermal diffusivity with thermal conductivity. All superlattices show a

  16. Well acidizing compositions and method

    SciTech Connect

    Gardener, T.R.; Dill, W.R.; Ford, W.G.F.; King, K.L.

    1991-07-23

    This patent describes a concentrate which forms an acid internal microemulsion well treatment composition when added to an acid treatment fluid. It comprises in the range of from about 20% to about 98% by weight of a hydrocarbon carrier fluid; in the range of from about 1% to about 50% by weight of an alkyl alcohol having in the range of from about 4 to 18 carbon atoms; and in the range of from about 1% to about 50% by weight of an emulsifying agent comprising at least one compound selected from the group consisting of amine salts having ester or amide linkages and propoxylated alcohols, each of the components being different compounds or different mixtures of compounds.

  17. Ultra Thin Quantum Well Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Dr Saeid Ghamaty

    2012-08-16

    This project has enabled Hi-Z technology Inc. (Hi-Z) to understand how to improve the thermoelectric properties of Si/SiGe Quantum Well Thermoelectric Materials. The research that was completed under this project has enabled Hi-Z Technology, Inc. (Hi-Z) to satisfy the project goal to understand how to improve thermoelectric conversion efficiency and reduce costs by fabricating ultra thin Si/SiGe quantum well (QW) materials and measuring their properties. In addition, Hi-Z gained critical new understanding on how thin film fabrication increases the silicon substrate's electrical conductivity, which is important new knowledge to develop critical material fabrication parameters. QW materials are constructed with alternate layers of an electrical conductor, SiGe and an electrical insulator, Si. Film thicknesses were varied, ranging from 2nm to 10nm where 10 nm was the original film thickness prior to this work. The optimum performance was determined at a Si and SiGe thickness of 4nm for an electrical current and heat flow parallel to the films, which was an important conclusion of this work. Essential new information was obtained on how the Si substrate electrical conductivity increases by up to an order of magnitude upon deposition of QW films. Test measurements and calculations are accurate and include both the quantum well and the substrate. The large increase in substrate electrical conductivity means that a larger portion of the electrical current passes through the substrate. The silicon substrate's increased electrical conductivity is due to inherent impurities and thermal donors which are activated during both molecular beam epitaxy and sputtering deposition of QW materials. Hi-Z's forward looking cost estimations based on future high performance QW modules, in which the best Seebeck coefficient and electrical resistivity are taken from separate samples predict that the electricity cost produced with a QW module could be achieved at <$0.35/W. This price would

  18. Biomedical wellness challenges and opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tangney, John F.

    2012-06-01

    The mission of ONR's Human and Bioengineered Systems Division is to direct, plan, foster, and encourage Science and Technology in cognitive science, computational neuroscience, bioscience and bio-mimetic technology, social/organizational science, training, human factors, and decision making as related to future Naval needs. This paper highlights current programs that contribute to future biomedical wellness needs in context of humanitarian assistance and disaster relief. ONR supports fundamental research and related technology demonstrations in several related areas, including biometrics and human activity recognition; cognitive sciences; computational neurosciences and bio-robotics; human factors, organizational design and decision research; social, cultural and behavioral modeling; and training, education and human performance. In context of a possible future with automated casualty evacuation, elements of current science and technology programs are illustrated.

  19. Hydraulically actuated well shifting tool

    SciTech Connect

    Roth, B.A.

    1992-10-20

    This patent describes a hydraulically actuated shifting tool for actuating a sliding member in a well tool. It comprises: a housing having a hydraulic fluid bore therein; shifting dog means positioned on the housing for movement away and toward the housing; locking dog means positioned on the housing for movement away and toward the body; shifting dog hydraulic actuating means in fluid communication with the bore for causing engagement of the shifting dogs with the sliding member; locking dog hydraulic actuating means in communication with the bore for causing engagement of the locking dogs with the locking means; and hydraulic shifting means in communication with the bore for causing relative movement between the shifting dog means and the locking dog means for shifting the sliding sleeve.

  20. Oil well fluid processing system

    SciTech Connect

    Cobb, J.R.

    1988-10-25

    This patent describes an oil well fluid processing system, comprising: a skid having a first skid section and a second skid section separable from the first skid section; means for connecting one end of the first skid section to one end of the second skid section; a cylindrical fluid processing apparatus pivotally mounted at a lower end thereof on the first skid section for pivoting movement between a raised position wherein the fluid processing apparatus extends vertically from the first skid section and a lowered position wherein the fluid processing apparatus overlays the second skid section at such times that the two sections of the skid are connected together; and means mounted on the second skid section and connectable to the fluid processing apparatus for moving the fluid processing apparatus between the raised and lowered positions at such times that the two sections of the skid are connected together.

  1. Family Wellness, Not HIV Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Swendeman, Dallas; Flannery, Diane

    2010-01-01

    HIV exceptionalism (and disease-specific programs generally) garner both unbalanced funding and the most talented personnel, distorting local health priorities. In support of HIV exceptionalism, the successful mobilization of significant global health sector resources was not possible prior to HIV. Both sides of the debate have merits; rather than perpetuating polarization, we suggest that sustained improvements in global health require creating a prevention infrastructure to meet multiple health challenges experienced by local communities. We propose four fundamental shifts in HIV and disease prevention: (1) horizontally integrating prevention at one site locally, with priorities tailored to local health challenges and managed by local community leaders; (2) using a family wellness metaphor for services, not disease prevention; (3) implementing evidence-based prevention programs (EBPP) based on common principles, factors, and processes, rather than replication of specific programs; and (4) utilizing the expertise of private enterprise to re-design EBPP into highly attractive, engaging, and accessible experiences. PMID:19148744

  2. The adult well male examination.

    PubMed

    Heidelbaugh, Joel J; Tortorello, Michelle

    2012-05-15

    The adult well male examination should incorporate evidence-based guidance toward the promotion of optimal health and well-being, including screening tests shown to improve health outcomes. Nearly one-third of men report not having a primary care physician. The medical history should include substance use; risk factors for sexually transmitted infections; diet and exercise habits; and symptoms of depression. Physical examination should include blood pressure and body mass index screening. Men with sustained blood pressures greater than 135/80 mm Hg should be screened for diabetes mellitus. Lipid screening is warranted in all men 35 years and older, and in men 20 to 34 years of age who have cardiovascular risk factors. Ultrasound screening for abdominal aortic aneurysm should occur between 65 and 75 years of age in men who have ever smoked. There is insufficient evidence to recommend screening men for osteoporosis or skin cancer. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force has provisionally recommended against prostate-specific antigen-based screening for prostate cancer because the harms of testing and overtreatment outweigh potential benefits. Screening for colorectal cancer should begin at 50 years of age in men of average risk and continue until at least 75 years of age. Screening should be performed by high-sensitivity fecal occult blood testing every year, flexible sigmoidoscopy every five years combined with [corrected] fecal occult blood testing every three years. [corrected]. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommends against screening for testicular cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Immunizations should be recommended according to guidelines from the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. PMID:22612046

  3. The adult well male examination.

    PubMed

    Heidelbaugh, Joel J; Tortorello, Michelle

    2012-05-15

    The adult well male examination should incorporate evidence-based guidance toward the promotion of optimal health and well-being, including screening tests shown to improve health outcomes. Nearly one-third of men report not having a primary care physician. The medical history should include substance use; risk factors for sexually transmitted infections; diet and exercise habits; and symptoms of depression. Physical examination should include blood pressure and body mass index screening. Men with sustained blood pressures greater than 135/80 mm Hg should be screened for diabetes mellitus. Lipid screening is warranted in all men 35 years and older, and in men 20 to 34 years of age who have cardiovascular risk factors. Ultrasound screening for abdominal aortic aneurysm should occur between 65 and 75 years of age in men who have ever smoked. There is insufficient evidence to recommend screening men for osteoporosis or skin cancer. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force has provisionally recommended against prostate-specific antigen-based screening for prostate cancer because the harms of testing and overtreatment outweigh potential benefits. Screening for colorectal cancer should begin at 50 years of age in men of average risk and continue until at least 75 years of age. Screening should be performed by high-sensitivity fecal occult blood testing every year, flexible sigmoidoscopy every five years combined with [corrected] fecal occult blood testing every three years. [corrected]. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommends against screening for testicular cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Immunizations should be recommended according to guidelines from the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

  4. Welded oil well pump rod

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, R.F.

    1986-06-10

    A friction welded multiple component oil well sucker rod is described which consists of an elongated cylindrical rod section and apposed coupling end portions welded to opposite ends of the rod section, the coupling end portions being of a nominal maximum diameter at least 1.5 times greater than the rod section and including means for connecting the sucker rod to an adjacent rod in end to end relationship. The couplings end portions each include an axial tapered portion between the connecting means and an end face adapted to be butted to the rod section, the coupling end portions being butted against the opposed end portions of the rod section during a friction welding operation to form a radially outward projecting bulge of displaced material on the rod section and the coupling end portions, respectively. A greater cross-sectional area is formed at the transition of the rod section to the coupling end portion to reduce the unit tensile stress on the sucker rod in the vicinity of the weld, wherein the displaced material is machined to form a tapered surface between the rod section and the axial tapered portion of the coupling end portion, the tapered surface having an angle of taper with respect to the longitudinal axis of the sucker rod less than the angle of taper of the coupling end portion.

  5. Oil well pump traveling valve

    SciTech Connect

    Blassingame, D.L.

    1988-05-03

    A traveling valve for a sucker rod operated oil well pump having a standing valve and a working barrel is described comprising: pump head means vertically reciprocated by the depending end of the sucker rod and having a depending tubular end portion provided with fluid outlet ports; first sleeve means depending from the tubular end portion for forming a fluid passageway therewith; second sleeve means surrounding the first sleeve means for connecting the pump head to the working barrel, crosshead means including a generally rectangular crosshead extending transversely through the first sleeve means and connecting the first sleeve means to the second sleeve means by its respective end surfaces confronting the inner wall surface of the second sleeve means through the respective first sleeve slot; an outstanding pin on each end of the crosshead and projecting through the wall of the second sleeve means; and, valve means tethered in the first sleeve means for opening and closing the fluid passageway in response to and in cooperative sequence with the reciprocating fluid pumping movement of the first sleeve means.

  6. Are proteins well-packed?

    PubMed

    Liang, J; Dill, K A

    2001-08-01

    The average packing density inside proteins is as high as in crystalline solids. Does this mean proteins are well-packed? We go beyond average densities, and look at the full distribution functions of free volumes inside proteins. Using a new and rigorous Delaunay triangulation method for parsing space into empty and filled regions, we introduce formal definitions of interior and surface packing densities. Although proteins look like organic crystals by the criterion of average density, they look more like liquids and glasses by the criterion of their free volume distributions. The distributions are broad, and the scalings of volume-to-surface, volume-to-cluster-radius, and numbers of void versus volume show that the interiors of proteins are more like randomly packed spheres near their percolation threshold than like jigsaw puzzles. We find that larger proteins are packed more loosely than smaller proteins. And we find that the enthalpies of folding (per amino acid) are independent of the packing density of a protein, indicating that van der Waals interactions are not a dominant component of the folding forces. PMID:11463623

  7. Linking individual and organizational wellness.

    PubMed

    Canosa, J F; Lewandowski, L M

    1993-09-01

    In addition to intervening when workers have substance abuse or stress problems, many hospital employee assistance programs (EAPs) now include a wellness component that emphasizes prevention and organizational wholeness. The EAP at St. Joseph's Hospital & Medical Center, Paterson, NJ, has taken a number of steps to improve its responsiveness to employees' needs and promote constructive organizational changes. To meet increasing requests for mental health services, St. Joseph's EAP implemented a short-term (up to 12 sessions) counseling program that focuses on problem-solving techniques. The EAP has also used feedback from clients to address organizational issues. For example, a survey that revealed differences between managers' and employees' perceptions of managers' leadership skills has led St. Joseph's to consider development of further workshops to train managers on how to be more effective leaders. And in response to complaints from nurses about a lack of communication with physicians, St. Joseph's invested $8,000 to implement nursing support groups and seminars to enhance nurse-physician collaboration. Additional EAP activities include consulting services for other corporations and help for employees in overcoming financial barriers to access to healthcare and social services. As budgets tighten, effective marketing of EAPs will be essential to their continued growth. In particular, EAP administrators must learn how to document the strategic and financial benefits of their programs.

  8. Improved characterization of reservoir behavior by integration of reservoir performances data and rock type distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Davies, D.K.; Vessell, R.K.; Doublet, L.E.

    1997-08-01

    An integrated geological/petrophysical and reservoir engineering study was performed for a large, mature waterflood project (>250 wells, {approximately}80% water cut) at the North Robertson (Clear Fork) Unit, Gaines County, Texas. The primary goal of the study was to develop an integrated reservoir description for {open_quotes}targeted{close_quotes} (economic) 10-acre (4-hectare) infill drilling and future recovery operations in a low permeability, carbonate (dolomite) reservoir. Integration of the results from geological/petrophysical studies and reservoir performance analyses provide a rapid and effective method for developing a comprehensive reservoir description. This reservoir description can be used for reservoir flow simulation, performance prediction, infill targeting, waterflood management, and for optimizing well developments (patterns, completions, and stimulations). The following analyses were performed as part of this study: (1) Geological/petrophysical analyses: (core and well log data) - {open_quotes}Rock typing{close_quotes} based on qualitative and quantitative visualization of pore-scale features. Reservoir layering based on {open_quotes}rock typing {close_quotes} and hydraulic flow units. Development of a {open_quotes}core-log{close_quotes} model to estimate permeability using porosity and other properties derived from well logs. The core-log model is based on {open_quotes}rock types.{close_quotes} (2) Engineering analyses: (production and injection history, well tests) Material balance decline type curve analyses to estimate total reservoir volume, formation flow characteristics (flow capacity, skin factor, and fracture half-length), and indications of well/boundary interference. Estimated ultimate recovery analyses to yield movable oil (or injectable water) volumes, as well as indications of well and boundary interference.

  9. 7 CFR 51.2653 - Well formed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Standards for Grades for Sweet Cherries 1 Definitions § 51.2653 Well formed. Well formed means that the cherry has the normal shape characteristic of the variety, except that mature well developed...

  10. Industry survey for horizontal wells. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, D.D.; Kaback, D.S.; Denhan, M.E.; Watkins, D.

    1993-07-01

    An international survey of horizontal environmental wells was performed during May and June of 1993. The purpose of the survey was to provide the environmental industry with an inventory of horizontal environmental wells and information pertaining to the extent of the use of horizontal environmental wells, the variety of horizontal environmental well applications, the types of geologic and hydrogeologic conditions within which horizontal environmental wells have been installed, and the companies that perform horizontal environmental well installations. Other information, such as the cost of horizontal environmental well installations and the results of tests performed on the wells, is not complete but is provided as general information with the caveat that the information should not be used to compare drilling companies. The result of the survey is a catalogue of horizontal environmental wells that are categorized by the objective or use of the wells, the vertical depth of the wells, and the drilling company contracted to install the wells.

  11. SW New Mexico Oil Well Formation Tops

    DOE Data Explorer

    Shari Kelley

    2015-10-21

    Rock formation top picks from oil wells from southwestern New Mexico from scout cards and other sources. There are differing formation tops interpretations for some wells, so for those wells duplicate formation top data are presented in this file.

  12. Middle Pleistocene infill of Tibetan Plateau margin rivers, Zanskar, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munack, Henry; Blöthe, Jan; Korup, Oliver; Fülöp, Réka-Hajnalka; Codilean, Alexandru T.; Fink, David

    2015-04-01

    The Indus, one of Asia's premier rivers, drains the NW Himalaya and the Transhimalayan ranges that fringe the western Tibetan Plateau margin. There, upstream of the western Himalayan syntaxis, river valleys alternate between deeply incised bedrock gorges and broad alluviated reaches, while average denudation rates decrease by an order of magnitude towards the Tibetan Plateau margin to rates of ~10 mm ka-1. Vast fill terrace staircases, the highest of them located up to 400 m above current river level, and intercalated lake sediments indicate alternating phases of incision and aggradation within the region, underlining the high landform preservation potential in the rain shadow of the High Himalaya. However, despite a broad interest in a better understanding of mechanisms that modulate plateau erosion, age constraints on the generation of these impressive features are sparse, though indicate mainly Pleistocene formation ages. We present new age constraints from the More Plains section in the headwaters of the Zanskar River, a major tributary to the upper Indus. The vast sedimentary successions of the More Plains originally belonged to a former endorheic basin that has been tapped by the Zanskar River, today revealing exposures of >250 m of sedimentary fill that continues to smother a previously dissected alpine headwater landscape. We combine 10Be surface exposure dating and catchment-averaged denudation rates, morphometric analysis and field observation to constrain the late Quaternary history of this section. Analysis of a 10Be depth profile on top of the More Plains, together with the dating of nearby amalgamated surface samples, indicate a surface exposure of ~170 +/- 20 ka such that deposition of this valley fill ceased during a Middle Pleistocene cold stage (MIS 6). Using GIS-based algorithms we estimate that ~3.6 km3 was removed from this section by fluvial erosion, requiring a specific sediment yield of >130 t km-2 yr-1 averaged over the past 170 ka. This outweighs the 10Be-constrained flux of sediment from adjacent catchments by a factor of 2-4, suggesting that dissection of large Pleistocene valley fills may be a significant source of sediment in Transhimalayan rivers, potentially offsetting estimates of bedrock denudation in the region.

  13. On the True Indium Content of In-Filled Skutterudites.

    PubMed

    Visnow, Eduard; Heinrich, Christophe P; Schmitz, Andreas; de Boor, Johannes; Leidich, Patrick; Klobes, Benedikt; Hermann, Raphael P; Müller, Wolf Eckhard; Tremel, Wolfgang

    2015-08-17

    The incongruently melting single-filled skutterudite InxCo4Sb12 is known as a promising bulk thermoelectric material. However, the products of current bulk syntheses contain always impurities of InSb, Sb, CoSb, or CoSb2, which prevent an unbiased determination of its thermoelectric properties. We report a new two-step synthesis of high-purity InxCo4Sb12 with nominal compositions x = 0.12, 0.15, 0.18, and 0.20 that separates the kieftite (CoSb3) formation from the topotactic filler insertion. This approach allows conducting the reactions at lower temperatures with shorter reaction times and circumventing the formation of impurity phases. The synthesis can be extended to other filled skutterudites. High-density (>98%) pellets for thermoelectric characterization were prepared by current-assisted short-time sintering. Sample homogeneity was demonstrated by potential and Seebeck microprobe measurements of the complete pellet surfaces. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction showed a purity of 99.9% product with traces (≤0.1%) of InSb in samples of nominal composition In0.18Co4Sb12 and In0.20Co4Sb12. Rietveld refinements revealed a linear correlation between the true In occupancy and the lattice parameter a. This allows the determination of the true In filling in skutterudites and predicting the In content of unknown AxCo4Sb12. The high purity of InxCo4Sb12 allowed studying the transport properties without bias from side phases. A figure of merit close to unity at 420 °C was obtained for a sample of a true composition of In0.160(2)Co4Sb12 (nominal composition In0.18Co4Sb12). The lower degree of In filling has a dramatic effect on the thermoelectric properties as demonstrated by the sample of nominal composition In0.20Co4Sb12. The presence of InSb in amounts of ∼0.1 vol% led to a substantially lower degree of interstitial site filling of 0.144, and the figure of merit zT decreased by 18%, which demonstrates the significance of the true filler atom content in skutterudite materials.

  14. Geohydrologic reconnaissance of drainage wells in Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kimrey, J.O.; Fayard, L.D.

    1984-01-01

    Drainage wells are used to inject surface waters directly into an aquifer, or shallow ground waters directly into a deeper aquifer, primarily by gravity. Such wells in Florida may be grouped into two broad types: (1) surface-water injection wells, and (2) interaquifer connector wells. Drainage wells of the first type are further categorized as either Floridan aquifer drainage wells or Biscayne aquifer drainage wells. Floridan aquifer drainage wells are commonly used to supplement drainage for urban areas in karst terranes of central and north Florida. Data are available for 25 wells in the Ocala, Live Oak, and Orlando areas that allow comparison of the quality of water samples from these Floridan aquifer drainage wells with allowable contaminant levels. Comparison indicates that maximum contaminant levels for turbidity, color, and iron, manganese, and lead concentrations are equaled or exceeded in some drainage-well samples, and relatively high counts for coliform bacteria are present in most wells. Biscayne aquifer drainage wells are used locally to dispose of stormwater runoff and other surplus water in southeast Florida, where large numbers of these wells have been permitted in Dade and Broward Counties. The majority of these wells are used to dispose of water from swimming pools or to dispose of heated water from air-conditioning units. The use of Biscayne aquifer drainage wells may have minimal effect on aquifer potability so long as injection of runoff and industrial wates is restricted to zones where chloride concentrations exceed 1,500 milligrams per liter. Interaquifer connector wells are used in the phosphate mining areas of Polk and Hillsborough Counties, to drain mines and recharge the Floridan aquifer. Water-quality data available from 13 connector wells indicate that samples from most of these wells exceed standards values for iron concentration and turbidity. One well yielded a highly mineralized water, and samples from 6 of the other 12 wells exceed

  15. Counselor Wellness and Impairment: A National Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Gerard

    2007-01-01

    Counselor wellness has a direct impact on the quality of services clients receive, but little is known about the overall wellness of counselors. This study begins the process of better understanding counselor wellness by examining responses to a national survey that assessed both counselor wellness and impairment variables. (Contains 2 tables.)

  16. 30 CFR 250.1619 - Well records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... days after completion of such operations for each well. (e) If the District Manager determines that... AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Sulphur Operations § 250.1619 Well records. (a) Complete and accurate records for each well and all well operations shall be retained for a period of...

  17. 30 CFR 250.1619 - Well records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... not later than 30 days after completion of such operations for each well. (e) If the District Manager... OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Sulphur Operations § 250.1619 Well records. (a) Complete and accurate records for each well and all well operations shall be...

  18. 30 CFR 250.1619 - Well records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... days after completion of such operations for each well. (e) If the District Manager determines that... AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Sulphur Operations § 250.1619 Well records. (a) Complete and accurate records for each well and all well operations shall be retained for a period of...

  19. 30 CFR 250.1619 - Well records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... days after completion of such operations for each well. (e) If the District Manager determines that... AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Sulphur Operations § 250.1619 Well records. (a) Complete and accurate records for each well and all well operations shall be retained for a period of...

  20. 25 CFR 213.32 - Wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Wells. 213.32 Section 213.32 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN... CIVILIZED TRIBES, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING Operations § 213.32 Wells. The lessee shall agree (a) to drill and produce all wells necessary to offset or protect the leased land from drainage by wells on adjoining...

  1. Yields of bedrock wells in Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, B.P.; Simcox, A.C.

    1994-01-01

    Six to seven percent of the population of Massachusetts obtains its water from domestic bedrock wells. Additional public, commercial, industrial, and domestic supplies from bedrock will be needed in the future. Information about the factors that are related to large well yields is needed. The factors associated with well yields were identified by use of statistical analysis of reported data from 4,218 bedrock wells. The median reported yield of all bedrock wells was 7 gallons per minute, and the median depth was 170 feet. Wells in valleys and lowlands had the largest median yield--I0 gallons per minute. The median well yield on hilltops and slopes was 6 gallons per minute. In valleys and lowlands, significant increases in well yields corresponded to increasing thickness of overburden. On hilltops and slopes, only small increases in well yield corresponded to increases in overburden thickness. Increases in well diameter corresponded to significant increases in well yields for all well locations, depths, and use categories. The common assumptions that fractured crystalline rocks generally yield only small quantities of water to wells and that the fractures that yield water to wells pinch out or are closed because of lithostatic pressure at depths greater than 300 to 400 feet may be in error. Analysis of well data indicates that the median yield of all bedrock wells decreased as well depth increased to 400 feet and increased slightly with well depths greater than 600 feet. The median yield of bedrock wells located in valleys and lowlands reached 50 gallons per minute at depths of 600 to 700 feet. The median yield of wells located on hilltops and slopes reached 15 gallons per minute at depths of 600 to 700 feet. Carbonate bedrock, with a median well yield of 25 gallons per minute, seemed to be the most productive bedrock type. A reported yield of 1,700 gallons per minute from an industrial well completed in carbonate bedrock is the largest reported yield from a bedrock

  2. Desalination of brackish water from oil wells

    SciTech Connect

    Fenton, D.M.

    1991-12-31

    This patent describes an apparatus for producing non-brackish water from brackish water found in an inactivated oil well. It comprises at least one inactive oil well located on an offshore oil platform, the well having a perforated well casing at a level of a geological formation known to contain flowable brackish water; a desalination plant located on the offshore platform receiving flowable brackish water from the inactive oil well; and means to transport the non-brackish water produced by the desalination plant. This patent also describes a method of using an inactivated oil well. It comprises ceasing oil production in an inactive oil well having a well casing that penetrates a plurality of geological formations; recovering brackish water from the inactive oil well from a geological formation containing flowable brackish water; and desalinating the brackish water producing non-brackish water.

  3. Closure of shallow underground injection wells

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J.A.; Grunewald, B.

    1993-10-01

    Shallow injection wells have long been used for disposing liquid wastes. Some of these wells have received hazardous or radioactive wastes. According to US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations, Class IV wells are those injection wells through which hazardous or radioactive wastes are injected into or above an underground source of drinking water (USDW). These wells must be closed. Generally Class V wells are injection wells through which fluids that do not contain hazardous or radioactive wastes are injected into or above a USDW. Class V wells that are responsible for violations of drinking water regulations or that pose a threat to human health must also be closed. Although EPA regulations require closure of certain types of shallow injection wells, they do not provide specific details on the closure process. This paper describes the regulatory background, DOE requirements, and the steps in a shallow injection well closure process: Identification of wells needing closure; monitoring and disposal of accumulated substances; filling and sealing of wells; and remediation. In addition, the paper describes a major national EPA shallow injection well enforcement initiative, including closure plan guidance for wells used to dispose of wastes from service station operations.

  4. Vapor port and groundwater sampling well

    DOEpatents

    Hubbell, Joel M.; Wylie, Allan H.

    1996-01-01

    A method and apparatus has been developed for combining groundwater monitoring wells with unsaturated-zone vapor sampling ports. The apparatus allows concurrent monitoring of both the unsaturated and the saturated zone from the same well at contaminated areas. The innovative well design allows for concurrent sampling of groundwater and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the vadose (unsaturated) zone from a single well, saving considerable time and money. The sample tubes are banded to the outer well casing during installation of the well casing.

  5. Vapor port and groundwater sampling well

    DOEpatents

    Hubbell, J.M.; Wylie, A.H.

    1996-01-09

    A method and apparatus have been developed for combining groundwater monitoring wells with unsaturated-zone vapor sampling ports. The apparatus allows concurrent monitoring of both the unsaturated and the saturated zone from the same well at contaminated areas. The innovative well design allows for concurrent sampling of groundwater and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the vadose (unsaturated) zone from a single well, saving considerable time and money. The sample tubes are banded to the outer well casing during installation of the well casing. 10 figs.

  6. 7 CFR 51.3747 - Well formed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Honey Dew and Honey Ball Type Melons Definitions § 51.3747 Well formed. Well formed means that the melon has the normal shape characteristic of...

  7. 7 CFR 51.3747 - Well formed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Honey Dew and Honey Ball Type Melons Definitions § 51.3747 Well formed. Well formed means that the melon has the normal shape characteristic of...

  8. Eating Well As You Get Older

    MedlinePlus

    ... for people over age 50. Eating Well Promotes Energy Eating well helps keep up your energy level, too. By consuming enough calories -- a way to measure the energy you get from food --you give your body ...

  9. 25 CFR 213.32 - Wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... CIVILIZED TRIBES, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING Operations § 213.32 Wells. The lessee shall agree (a) to drill and... such wells to the number necessary, in his opinion, to insure reasonable diligence in the...

  10. 25 CFR 213.32 - Wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... CIVILIZED TRIBES, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING Operations § 213.32 Wells. The lessee shall agree (a) to drill and... such wells to the number necessary, in his opinion, to insure reasonable diligence in the...

  11. 7 CFR 51.2653 - Well formed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades for Sweet Cherries 1 Definitions § 51.2653 Well formed. Well formed means that the cherry has the normal shape characteristic of the variety, except...

  12. 7 CFR 51.1317 - Well formed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Standards for Winter Pears 1 Definitions § 51.1317 Well formed. Well formed means having the shape characteristic of the variety. Slight irregularities of shape from type which do not appreciably detract from...

  13. 7 CFR 51.1317 - Well formed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Standards for Winter Pears 1 Definitions § 51.1317 Well formed. Well formed means having the shape characteristic of the variety. Slight irregularities of shape from type which do not appreciably detract from...

  14. 7 CFR 51.568 - Well developed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Standards for Celery Definitions § 51.568 Well developed. Well developed means that the branches are of good width and thickness in relation to the length of midribs and type of celery and that the heart...

  15. 7 CFR 51.604 - Well developed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Consumer Standards for Celery Stalks Definitions § 51.604 Well developed. Well developed means that the outer branches are of good width in relation to the length of midribs and type of celery....

  16. 7 CFR 51.568 - Well developed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Celery Definitions § 51.568 Well developed. Well... type of celery and that the heart branches are of reasonable number, length and stockiness....

  17. 7 CFR 51.568 - Well developed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Celery Definitions § 51.568 Well developed. Well... type of celery and that the heart branches are of reasonable number, length and stockiness....

  18. 7 CFR 51.568 - Well developed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Standards for Celery Definitions § 51.568 Well developed. Well developed means that the branches are of good width and thickness in relation to the length of midribs and type of celery and that the heart...

  19. 7 CFR 51.604 - Well developed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Consumer Standards for Celery Stalks Definitions § 51.604 Well developed. Well developed means that the outer branches are of good width in relation to the length of midribs and type of celery....

  20. 7 CFR 51.568 - Well developed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Standards for Celery Definitions § 51.568 Well developed. Well developed means that the branches are of good width and thickness in relation to the length of midribs and type of celery and that the heart...

  1. 7 CFR 51.604 - Well developed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Consumer Standards for Celery Stalks Definitions § 51.604 Well developed. Well developed means that the outer branches are of good width in relation to the length of midribs and type of celery....

  2. 7 CFR 51.1219 - Well formed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Standards for Grades of Peaches Definitions § 51.1219 Well formed. “Well formed” means that the shape of the peach may be slightly irregular but not to the extent that its appearance is materially affected....

  3. 7 CFR 51.1219 - Well formed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Peaches Definitions § 51.1219 Well formed. “Well formed” means that the shape of the peach may be slightly irregular but not to the extent that...

  4. 7 CFR 51.1219 - Well formed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Peaches Definitions § 51.1219 Well formed. “Well formed” means that the shape of the peach may be slightly irregular but not to the extent that...

  5. Calculator program aids well cost management

    SciTech Connect

    Doyle, C.J.

    1982-01-18

    A TI-59 calculator program designed to track well costs on daily and weekly bases can dramatically facilitate the task of monitoring well expenses. The program computes the day total, cumulative total, cumulative item-row totals, and day-week total. For carrying these costs throughout the drilling project, magnetic cards can store the individual and total cumulative well expenses.

  6. Wellness Model of Supervision: A Comparative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenz, A. Stephen; Sangganjanavanich, Varunee Faii; Balkin, Richard S.; Oliver, Marvarene; Smith, Robert L.

    2012-01-01

    This quasi-experimental study compared the effectiveness of the Wellness Model of Supervision (WELMS; Lenz & Smith, 2010) with alternative supervision models for developing wellness constructs, total personal wellness, and helping skills among counselors-in-training. Participants were 32 master's-level counseling students completing their…

  7. Gratitude and Adolescent Athletes' Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Lung Hung; Kee, Ying Hwa

    2008-01-01

    Two cross-sectional studies were conducted to examine the relationships between gratitude and athletes' well-being. Study 1 examines the relationship between dispositional gratitude and well-being, while Study 2 investigates the relationship between sport-domain gratitude and well-being. In Study 1, 169 Taiwanese senior high school athletes (M =…

  8. 7 CFR 51.569 - Well formed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Standards for Celery Definitions § 51.569 Well formed. Well formed means that the branches are fairly... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Well formed. 51.569 Section 51.569 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections,...

  9. 7 CFR 51.569 - Well formed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Standards for Celery Definitions § 51.569 Well formed. Well formed means that the branches are fairly... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Well formed. 51.569 Section 51.569 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections,...

  10. Following Passionate Interests to Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dik, Bryan J.; Hansen, Jo-Ida C.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the relationship between interests and well-being by conceptualizing interest as both an emotional state and a stable disposition. First, interest is explored as a distinct emotion or affective state, itself a form of well-being that also leads to other forms of well-being by facilitating the development of diverse life…

  11. Measuring Well-Being and Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Acci, Luca

    2011-01-01

    Well-being is becoming a concept which is more and more involved in any world development consideration. A large amount of work is being carried out to study measurements of well-being, including a more holistic vision on the development and welfare of a country. This paper proposes an idea of well-being and progress being in equilibrium with each…

  12. Promoting Subjective Well-Being at Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Joyce E. A.

    2008-01-01

    Research has clearly shown the relationship between subjective well-being and work performance, even though there is debate over the causality of that relationship (i.e., does subjective well-being cause higher work performance or does greater work performance lead to subjective well-being?). Regardless, researchers and practitioners would agree…

  13. Innovativeness and Subjective Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binder, Martin

    2013-01-01

    What are the effects of innovativeness on well-being? This paper argues that research on subjective well-being has progressed to a point where measures of subjective well-being (or: happiness) can usefully be employed to assess the welfare effects of innovative change. Based on a discussion of the prospects and pitfalls associated with subjective…

  14. Apprenticeship Training: Water Well Driller Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Advanced Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This is the course outline for apprenticeship requirements for a water well driller in Alberta. A graduate of Water Well Driller apprenticeship training is a journeyman who, through skill and knowledge, is capable of operating the machines used to produce bore holes. They will be able to complete a bore hole into a finished productive well,…

  15. 7 CFR 51.1556 - Well shaped.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Well shaped. 51.1556 Section 51.1556 Agriculture... Standards for Grades of Potatoes 1 Definitions § 51.1556 Well shaped. Well shaped means that the potato has the normal shape for the variety....

  16. 7 CFR 51.1556 - Well shaped.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Well shaped. 51.1556 Section 51.1556 Agriculture... Standards for Grades of Potatoes 1 Definitions § 51.1556 Well shaped. Well shaped means that the potato has the normal shape for the variety....

  17. STIMULATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR DEEP WELL COMPLETIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Stephen Wolhart

    2003-06-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring a Deep Trek Program targeted at improving the economics of drilling and completing deep gas wells. Under the DOE program, Pinnacle Technologies is conducting a project to evaluate the stimulation of deep wells. The objective of the project is to assess U.S. deep well drilling & stimulation activity, review rock mechanics & fracture growth in deep, high pressure/temperature wells and evaluate stimulation technology in several key deep plays. Phase 1 was recently completed and consisted of assessing deep gas well drilling activity (1995-2007) and an industry survey on deep gas well stimulation practices by region. Of the 29,000 oil, gas and dry holes drilled in 2002, about 300 were drilled in the deep well; 25% were dry, 50% were high temperature/high pressure completions and 25% were simply deep completions. South Texas has about 30% of these wells, Oklahoma 20%, Gulf of Mexico Shelf 15% and the Gulf Coast about 15%. The Rockies represent only 2% of deep drilling. Of the 60 operators who drill deep and HTHP wells, the top 20 drill almost 80% of the wells. Six operators drill half the U.S. deep wells. Deep drilling peaked at 425 wells in 1998 and fell to 250 in 1999. Drilling is expected to rise through 2004 after which drilling should cycle down as overall drilling declines.

  18. Child Well-Being Index (CWI), 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foundation for Child Development, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Each year, the Foundation for Child Development and the Child and Youth Well-Being Index Project at Duke University issue a comprehensive measure of how children are faring in the United States. The Overall Composite Child Well-Being Index (CWI) is based on a composite of 28 "Key Indicators" of well-being that are grouped into seven…

  19. 25 CFR 227.23 - Wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... well spacing or production allotments authorized and approved under the applicable law or regulations... production of such wells to the number necessary, in his opinion, to insure reasonable diligence in the... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Wells. 227.23 Section 227.23 Indians BUREAU OF...

  20. Well integrity failure in the UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worrall, F.

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to consider the potential legacy of increased onshore, unconventional gas production by examining the integrity of decommissioned, onshore, oil and gas wells in the UK. In the absence of a history of unconventional hydrocarbon exploitation in the UK, conventional onshore sites were considered and an examination of pollution incidents records had suggested that only a small fraction of operational, onshore wells could show integrity failures. A consideration of groundwater and surface water quality monitoring could find no regional impact of historic or current conventional oil and gas exploitation in the UK. As a more direct measure of well legacy this study considered the fugitive emissions of methane from former oil and gas wells onshore in the UK as a measure of well integrity. The survey considered 102 decommissioned (abandoned) wells from 4 different basins that were between 8 and 78 years old; all but one of these wells would be considered as having been decommissioned properly, i.e. wells cut, sealed and buried by soil cover to the extent that the well sites were being used for agriculture. For each well site the soil gas methane was analysed multiple times and assessed relative to a nearby control site of similar land-use and soil type. The results showed that of the 102 wells surveyed, 30% had soil gas CH4 at the soil surface that was significantly greater than their respective control. Conversely, 39% of well sites had significant lower surface soil gas CH4 concentrations than their respective control. We interpret elevated soil gas CH4 concentrations to be the result of well integrity failure, but do not know the source of the gas nor the route to the surface. Where elevated CH4 was detected it appears to have occurred within a decade of the well being decommissioned. The flux of CH4 from wells was 364 ± 677 kg CO2eq/well/yr with a 27% chance that any well would be a net sink of CH4 independent of well age. This flux is low

  1. Geothermal well cost sensitivity analysis: current status

    SciTech Connect

    Carson, C.C.; Lin, Y.T.

    1980-01-01

    The geothermal well-cost model developed by Sandia National Laboratories is being used to analyze the sensitivity of well costs to improvements in geothermal drilling technology. Three interim results from this modeling effort are discussed. The sensitivity of well costs to bit parameters, rig parameters, and material costs; an analysis of the cost reduction potential of an advanced bit; and a consideration of breakeven costs for new cementing technology. All three results illustrate that the well-cost savings arising from any new technology will be highly site-dependent but that in specific wells the advances considered can result in significant cost reductions.

  2. Helicopter magnetic survey conducted to locate wells

    SciTech Connect

    Veloski, G.A.; Hammack, R.W.; Stamp, V.; Hall, R.; Colina, K.

    2008-07-01

    A helicopter magnetic survey was conducted in August 2007 over 15.6 sq mi at the Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3’s (NPR-3) Teapot Dome Field near Casper, Wyoming. The survey’s purpose was to accurately locate wells drilled there during more than 90 years of continuous oilfield operation. The survey was conducted at low altitude and with closely spaced flight lines to improve the detection of wells with weak magnetic response and to increase the resolution of closely spaced wells. The survey was in preparation for a planned CO2 flood for EOR, which requires a complete well inventory with accurate locations for all existing wells. The magnetic survey was intended to locate wells missing from the well database and to provide accurate locations for all wells. The ability of the helicopter magnetic survey to accurately locate wells was accomplished by comparing airborne well picks with well locations from an intense ground search of a small test area.

  3. Nevada test site water-supply wells

    SciTech Connect

    Gillespie, D.; Donithan, D.; Seaber, P.

    1996-05-01

    A total of 15 water-supply wells are currently being used at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The purpose of this report is to bring together the information gleaned from investigations of these water-supply wells. This report should serve as a reference on well construction and completion, static water levels, lithologic and hydrologic characteristics of aquifers penetrated, and general water quality of water-supply wells at the NTS. Possible sources for contamination of the water-supply wells are also evaluated. Existing wells and underground nuclear tests conducted near (within 25 meters (m)) or below the water table within 2 kilometers (km) of a water-supply were located and their hydrogeologic relationship to the water-supply well determined.

  4. Potential hydrologic characterization wells in Amargosa Valley

    SciTech Connect

    Lyles, B.; Mihevc, T.

    1994-09-01

    More than 500 domestic, agricultural, and monitoring wells were identified in the Amargosa Valley. From this list, 80 wells were identified as potential hydrologic characterization wells, in support of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Underground Test Area/Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study (UGTA/RIFS). Previous hydrogeologic studies have shown that groundwater flow in the basin is complex and that aquifers may have little lateral continuity. Wells located more than 10 km or so from the Nevada Test Site (NTS) boundary may yield data that are difficult to correlate to sources from the NTS. Also, monitoring well locations should be chosen within the guidelines of a hydrologic conceptual model and monitoring plan. Since these do not exist at this time, recompletion recommendations will be restricted to wells relatively close (approximately 20 km) to the NTS boundary. Recompletion recommendations were made for two abandoned agricultural irrigation wells near the town of Amargosa Valley (previously Lathrop Wells), for two abandoned wildcat oil wells about 10 km southwest of Amargosa Valley, and for Test Well 5 (TW-5), about 10 km east of Amargosa Valley.

  5. Improving reservoir management with complex well architectures

    SciTech Connect

    Corlay, P.; Bossie-Codreanu, D.; Sabathier, J.C.; Delamaide, E.R.

    1997-01-01

    After 20 years of research and pilot applications, horizontal wells are now widely used as standard procedure. Further, new developments in drilling technology are starting to strongly modify concepts of well architecture. The new techniques of lateral arms, cluster wells or extended reach drilling can improve reservoir management, giving economical access to new reserves and optimizing marginal or mature fields. This article shows how complex well architectures can improve oil production through judicious placement by taking into account reservoir heterogeneity as well as the drive mechanisms involved. Production can be optimized by monitoring different sections within a well architecture, thus extending well life. Potential applications for Middle East reservoir conditions are reviewed. The appealing potential use of complex well architecture for characterization purposes at an early development stage is also introduced. Identification of the types of well architectures which could optimize pertinent data to be used by geostatistical models is presented. Methods of data acquisition within such complex well architectures are shown and new avenues in this field of research are investigated. Finally, from the above, a new characterization methodology based on hard data acquisition and geostatistical methods is proposed.

  6. Stimulation Technologies for Deep Well Completions

    SciTech Connect

    2003-09-30

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring the Deep Trek Program targeted at improving the economics of drilling and completing deep gas wells. Under the DOE program, Pinnacle Technologies is conducting a study to evaluate the stimulation of deep wells. The objective of the project is to assess U.S. deep well drilling & stimulation activity, review rock mechanics & fracture growth in deep, high pressure/temperature wells and evaluate stimulation technology in several key deep plays. An assessment of historical deep gas well drilling activity and forecast of future trends was completed during the first six months of the project; this segment of the project was covered in Technical Project Report No. 1. The second progress report covers the next six months of the project during which efforts were primarily split between summarizing rock mechanics and fracture growth in deep reservoirs and contacting operators about case studies of deep gas well stimulation.

  7. Electrothermal micromixing in 96 well plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauffmann, Paul; Loire, Sophie; Mezic, Igor

    2011-11-01

    Diagnostic and pharmacology processes could be greatly accelerated by appropriate mixing. Here electrothermal flows are explored to provide mixing of conductive physiological solutions (=1.6 S/m) in a 96 well plate. Three interdigitated electrodes provide an electric field (< 15Vpp, 1MHz) beneath each well. Polarization and conduction phenomenon of the fluid in a well will be first modeled numerically and compared to an electrical circuit model. Due to high conductivity and permittivity of the fluid, the impedance of the array of filled wells collapse dramatically (96 wells: R = 1Ohm, C=250nF). The power supply challenges accordingly raised by arrays of electrothermal micromixers will be then analyzed. The efficiency of different methods of mixing in those wells will be also compared: the addition of low frequency signal leading to AC electro-osmotic perturbations, a blinking vortices method. The experimental results will be compared to simulations.

  8. Expandable slotted tubes offer well design benefits

    SciTech Connect

    Metcalfe, P.

    1996-10-01

    Multilateral wells can reduce well count by accessing multiple targets from one main overburden penetration. However, isolated laterals capable of handling increased production require a larger casing scheme than normal, along with whipstocks, plugs, gauges and downhole control valves. All this equipment is difficult to include in a slimhole or monobore multilateral well design. In many instances slimhole technology and multilateral designs are not compatible. Expanded slotted tubing (EST) technology was designed to complement multilateral and slimhole monobore applications as well as conventional wells. The paper describes the concept, alternative borehole liner, downhole forces, a case history from a southwestern Texas field, objectives, formation pressure testing, EST running and cementing, EST expansion, drill-out, log and pressure test, and EST as a completion liner for multilateral wells.

  9. Understanding wellness center loyalty through lifestyle analysis.

    PubMed

    Suresh, Satya; Ravichandran, Swathi; P, Ganesan

    2011-01-01

    Many changes taking place at a macro-level in Indian society along with the popularity of services that are native to India, such as Yoga and Ayurveda, have generated significant interest in wellness services. To assist wellness centers in gaining loyal clients, the goal of this study was to understand the influence of customer lifestyle factors on wellness center loyalty. The activities, interests, and opinions model was used to understand the lifestyles of wellness center clients. Data were collected from clients of five wellness centers. Regression results indicate that overworked individuals and those seeking a balance between work and family life would be the most loyal to wellness centers. Managerial implications of results are discussed. PMID:21347940

  10. Morphologic Evolution of a Well-Constrained, Complete Subaerial-Subaqueous Source to Sink System: Wabush Lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turmel, D.; Locat, J.; Parker, G.

    2013-12-01

    Since 1964, Iron Ore Company of Canada has deposited iron tailings resulting from mining operation into Wabush Lake. Multibeam bathymetric surveys were carried out between 1999 and 2011 as well as sampling surveys, seismic surveys, airborne Lidar survey and a photogrammetric survey. The objective of this study is to present the evolution throughout the years of this anthropic source-to-sink system, from the pipes to the bottom of the Lake. The information acquired throughout the years allows following the evolution of the Lake, which is subjected to accumulation of more than 10 x 106 m3 of sediments each year. Furthermore, in order to refine our understanding of the dynamic of this system, physical modeling was also done. Analysis of the subaerial and the subaqueous dataset allows evaluating the effect of disposal strategies on the delta topset and on tailings accumulation. Disposal strategies influence the evolution of the channels on the topset, thus influencing the accumulation of tailings throughout the Lake as well as the shoreline advancement rate. Subaqueous erosional channels are present in the Lake: they influence the depositional pattern of the tailings as well as their granulometric distribution. These erosional channels are created by the upstream migration of knickpoints. In some places, this migration can be described over multiple surveys. The formation of these knickpoints were studied throughout physical modeling and were found to be, most of the time, initiated when there is disequilibrium between the slope angle of the foreset and the equilibrium slope angle dictated by the turbidity current characteristics. This disequilibrium is typically caused by a change in the flow dynamics on the topset, i.e. the transition between sheet flow and channelized flow. Experimental results show that migration of the knickpoints is controlled by two factors: erosion by the turbidity current and a landsliding process in the knickpoint head scarp. Finally, the

  11. Process for removing carbonate from wells

    SciTech Connect

    Derowisch, R.W.

    1989-11-14

    This patent describes a method of removing carbonate deposited in a water supply well by inflowing groundwater. It comprises: treating a supply of water by means of a membrane system for desalinization which places the water in an aggressive state of chemical inequilibrium and ion imbalance having a keen affinity for carbonate; pumping a fluid comprising the treated supply of water, without restabilization, into the well to react with the deposited carbonate; and flushing the product of the reaction from the well.

  12. Arsenic management through well modification and simulation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Halford, Keith J.; Stamos, Christina L.; Nishikawa, Tracy; Martin, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Arsenic concentrations can be managed with a relatively simple strategy of grouting instead of completely destroying a selected interval of well. The strategy of selective grouting was investigated in Antelope Valley, California, where groundwater supplies most of the water demand. Naturally occurring arsenic typically exceeds concentrations of 10 (mu or u)g/L in the water produced from these long-screened wells. The vertical distributions of arsenic concentrations in intervals of the aquifer contributing water to selected supply wells were characterized with depth-dependent water-quality sampling and flow logs. Arsenic primarily entered the lower half of the wells where lacustrine clay deposits and a deeper aquifer occurred. Five wells were modified by grouting from below the top of the lacustrine clay deposits to the bottom of the well, which reduced produced arsenic concentrations to less than 2 (mu or u)g/L in four of the five wells. Long-term viability of well modification and reduction of specific capacity was assessed for well 4-54 with AnalyzeHOLE, which creates and uses axisymmetric, radial MODFLOW models. Two radial models were calibrated to observed borehole flows, drawdowns, and transmissivity by estimating hydraulicconductivity values in the aquifer system and gravel packs of the original and modified wells. Lithology also constrained hydraulic-conductivity estimates as regularization observations. Well encrustations caused as much as 2 (mu or u)g/L increase in simulated arsenic concentration by reducing the contribution of flow from the aquifer system above the lacustrine clay deposits. Simulated arsenic concentrations in the modified well remained less than 3 (mu or u)g/L over a 20-year period.

  13. Feasibility of EGS Well Control Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Norann, Randy A; Darlow, Richard

    2015-02-03

    This report covers the 8th major objective listed in Grant DE-FG36-08GO18185. This objective takes the information and experience gained from the development of 300°C well monitoring system and applies them to concepts envisioned for future geothermal well control systems supporting EGS power production. This report covers a large number of instrumentation and control system engineering issues for EGS wells while also providing a window into existing technology to address those issues.

  14. 25 CFR 213.32 - Wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Wells. 213.32 Section 213.32 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF RESTRICTED LANDS OF MEMBERS OF FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING Operations § 213.32 Wells. The lessee shall agree (a) to drill and produce all wells necessary to offset...

  15. Characterization Well R-22 Geochemistry Report

    SciTech Connect

    Patrick Longmire

    2002-09-01

    This report provides analytical results for groundwater collected during four characterization-sampling rounds conducted at well R-22 from March 2001 through March 2002. Characterization well R-22 was sampled from March 6 through 13, 2001; June 19 through 26, 2001; November 30 through December 10, 2001; and February 27 through March 7, 2002. The goal of the characterization efforts was to assess the hydrochemistry and to determine whether or not contaminants are present in the regional aquifer in the vicinity of the well. A geochemical evaluation of the analytical results for the well is also presented in this report.

  16. Gas well deliquification. 2nd. ed.

    SciTech Connect

    James Lea; Henry Nickens; Mike Wells

    2008-03-15

    Chapter 1: Introduction; Chapter 2: Recognizing Symptoms of Liquid Loading in Gas Wells; Chapter 3: Critical Velocity; Chapter 4: Systems Nodal Analysis; Chapter 5: Sizing Tubing; Chapter 6: Compression; Chapter 7: Plunger Lift; Chapter 8: Use of Foam to Deliquefy Gas Wells; Chapter 9: Hydraulic Pumping; Chapter 10: Use of Beam Pumps to Deliquefy Gas Wells; Chapter 11: Gas Lift; Chapter 12: Electric Submersible Pumps; Chapter 13: Progressing Cavity Pumps; Chapter 14: Coal Bed Methane; Chapter 15: Production Automation. Chapter 14, by David Simpson, based in the San Juan Basin, addresses issues in coal bed methane, low pressure operations, gas compression, gas measurement, oil field construction, gas well deliquification and project management.

  17. Well for life: a way of life.

    PubMed

    Kruger, Wendi A; Thompson, Catherine E; McKenzie, Rosemary A; Naccarella, Lucio

    2007-10-01

    Well for Life is an innovative public program in Victoria, Australia that focuses on improving nutrition and increasing physical activity to promote healthy aging. For more than 4 years Aged Care has funded projects for frail older people who live in Public Sector Residential Aged Care (PSRAC) facilities or attend Home and Community Care (HACC) Planned Activity Groups (PAGs). Many stereotypes exist around what frail older people can or cannot do. Well for Life challenges many of these through organizational culture and policy change and workforce development. A person-centered approach to care is adopted that emphasizes improving participants' activities of daily living and encouraging exercise and involvement. An external provider used a participatory evaluation approach to support the first phase of Well for Life. This approach enabled funded agencies to plan, implement, and monitor progress in their projects and assist them to embed Well for Life into policy and practice. The evaluation not only revealed insight into the delivery and adoption of Well for Life, but also assisted management and staff to make Well for Life a reality. Many PSRAC residents and PAG participants have reported significant gains from their involvement in Well for Life. These achievements reflect staff enthusiasm and organizational commitment to Well for Life principles. Evidence supports the benefit of improved nutrition and physical activity for people of any age and Well for Life is adding to the evidence-base for frail older people.

  18. Microplate well coverage mixing using superhydrophobic contact.

    PubMed

    Vuong, Thach; Cheong, Brandon Huey-Ping; Lye, Jonathan Kok Keung; Liew, Oi Wah; Ng, Tuck Wah

    2012-11-01

    Two important challenges in microplate instrumentation are to achieve full well sample coverage and complete mixing. An effective approach of using superhydrophobic rods to accomplish these challenges is reported here. Experiments conducted showed that analytes above 50μl could be made to completely cover the bottom of 96-well standard and transparency microplates. Complete mixing was accomplished by moving the rod parallel to the well bottom while contacting the liquid. The approach is simple and controlled, and it minimizes the problems of spillage and cross-contamination. It works with analytes with varied volumes and of different viscosities present in each well of the microplate. PMID:22864233

  19. Oil and gas well diversionary spool assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, L.T.

    1989-02-14

    In combination with an oil and gas well that includes a casing head from which a string of tubing extends downwardly in a bore hole to a fluid producing zone, a diversionary spool assembly is described situated in a fixed position relative to the well head to control fluid flow from the well and also serve as a temporary mounting for a Christmas tree array of valves when maintenance work is to be performed on the well, the array of valves including an anchor flange on a lower end thereof.

  20. Electric power supplying well head assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, L. T.

    1985-01-01

    A well head assembly that terminates on the upper end in a horizontal mounting flange on which the flange of a christmas tree array of valves may be sealingly mounted to control the flow of fluid from the well associated therewith, and the well head assembly including slidably engageable first and second electrical conducting cartridges below the mounting flange for supplying electric power to a number of insulated electrical conductors that extend downwardly in the well to an electric motor driven down hole pump or other electrical apparatus. The positioning of the christmas tree array of valves at a minimum height relative to the well head is most desirable in those situations where a number of wells are drilled close together, such as on an off shore island, and equipment must be periodically moved over the array of valves for maintenance or drilling purposes. The well head assembly also includes means for pressurizing a normally open pressure actuated valve in communication with a tubing string operatively associated with the assembly to place the valve in a closed position. closing of the valve eliminates the possibility of continued undesired fluid discharge from the well in the event of a catastrophe or malfunctioning of the well.

  1. Stimulation Technologies for Deep Well Completions

    SciTech Connect

    Stephen Wolhart

    2005-06-30

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring the Deep Trek Program targeted at improving the economics of drilling and completing deep gas wells. Under the DOE program, Pinnacle Technologies conducted a study to evaluate the stimulation of deep wells. The objective of the project was to review U.S. deep well drilling and stimulation activity, review rock mechanics and fracture growth in deep, high-pressure/temperature wells and evaluate stimulation technology in several key deep plays. This report documents results from this project.

  2. A well-developed cleanup technology

    SciTech Connect

    Schrauf, T.W.

    1996-05-01

    This article describes a new in-well aeration systems (density-driven convection-DDC) which remediates hydrocarbons in ground water and soil by injecting oxygen into well to promote natural aerobic activity. Topics include biodegradation process; in situ pump and treat method; advantages over conventional air sparging; how the DDC works.

  3. Sleep and Psychological Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, N. A.; Nelson, C. A.; Stevens, N.; Kitzman, Heather

    2007-01-01

    Although many studies have linked sleep problems with symptoms of psychopathology, fewer studies have examined the relationship between sleep and dimensions of psychological health as well as depression. To fill this gap, 502 community residents were surveyed about sleep habits, symptoms of anxiety and depression, as well as Ryff's six dimensions…

  4. 77 FR 25587 - Anchorage Regulations; Wells, ME

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-01

    ... Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public meeting. But, you may... in Wells Harbor, Wells, Maine through a published final rule (76 FR 76295). This action was necessary... Guard that the coordinates in the final rule for the three special anchorage areas were out of...

  5. Social Fathers and Child Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bzostek, Sharon H.

    2008-01-01

    Many young children born to unwed parents currently live with their biological mothers and their mothers' new partners (social fathers). This study uses data from the Fragile Families and Child Well-Being Study (N = 1,350) to assess whether involvement by resident social fathers is as beneficial for child well-being as involvement by resident…

  6. Concepts of Literacy: The Role of WELL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millar, Pat

    The Workplace English Language and Literacy (WELL) program is intended to provide Australian workers with the language, literacy, and numeracy skills needed to meet their current and ongoing employment and training needs. A research methodology based on the principles of naturalistic inquiry was used to examine the extent to which WELL projects…

  7. 25 CFR 227.23 - Wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wells. 227.23 Section 227.23 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF CERTAIN LANDS IN WIND RIVER INDIAN RESERVATION, WYOMING, FOR OIL AND GAS MINING Operations § 227.23 Wells. The lessee shall agree (a) to...

  8. 25 CFR 227.23 - Wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Wells. 227.23 Section 227.23 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF CERTAIN LANDS IN WIND RIVER INDIAN RESERVATION, WYOMING, FOR OIL AND GAS MINING Operations § 227.23 Wells. The lessee shall agree (a) to...

  9. 25 CFR 227.23 - Wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Wells. 227.23 Section 227.23 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF CERTAIN LANDS IN WIND RIVER INDIAN RESERVATION, WYOMING, FOR OIL AND GAS MINING Operations § 227.23 Wells. The lessee shall agree (a) to...

  10. ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES FOR STRIPPER GAS WELL ENHANCEMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald J. MacDonald

    2005-04-27

    As part of Task 1 in Advanced Technologies for Stripper Gas Well Enhancement, Schlumberger Data & Consulting Services (DCS) joined with two Appalachian Basin producers, Great Lakes Energy Partners, LLC, and Belden & Blake Corporation to develop methodologies for identification and enhancement of stripper wells with economic upside potential. These industry partners previously provided us with data for more than 700 wells in northwestern Pennsylvania. Phase 1 goals of this project were to develop and validate methodologies that can quickly and cost-effectively identify underperforming wells with remediation potential. We enhanced and streamlined our software and are using it with Microsoft's{trademark} Access and Excel programs. During the last quarter of 2002, Great Lakes provided us with additional data for approximately 2,200 wells located in their Cooperstown field situated in northwestern Pennsylvania. We identified approximately 220 potential remediation candidates and Great Lakes personnel reviewed this list for viability and selected more than twenty five wells to be reworked. Approximately fifteen wells have been successfully reworked as of year-end 2004. This field provided a rigorous test of our software and analytical methods. We processed all the information provided to us including the Cooperstown data. Great Lakes also provided supplemental data listing the original operator of the wells.

  11. Geothermal Reservoir Well Stimulation Program: technology transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-05-01

    Each of the following types of well stimulation techniques are summarized and explained: hydraulic fracturing; thermal; mechanical, jetting, and drainhole drilling; explosive and implosive; and injection methods. Current stimulation techniques, stimulation techniques for geothermal wells, areas of needed investigation, and engineering calculations for various techniques. (MHR)

  12. Transparency and Oversight in Local Wellness Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chriqui, Jamie F.; Chaloupka, Frank J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Advocates have called for increased wellness policy transparency and oversight through the use of health advisory councils. This study examines (1) wellness policy transparency, (2) advisory council requirements, (3) factors associated with each, and (4) whether transparency or advisory council requirements are indicative of a stronger…

  13. Kids Do Well If They Can

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Ross

    2008-01-01

    Viewing challenging behavior as the result of lagging skills (kids do well if they can) rather than as poor motivation (kids do well if they want to) has significant ramifications for how adults interact with kids with behavioral challenges and try to help them. A wide range of lagging skills can set the stage for challenging behavior. Challenging…

  14. Adaptive control system for gas producing wells

    SciTech Connect

    Fedor, Pashchenko; Sergey, Gulyaev; Alexander, Pashchenko

    2015-03-10

    Optimal adaptive automatic control system for gas producing wells cluster is proposed intended for solving the problem of stabilization of the output gas pressure in the cluster at conditions of changing gas flow rate and changing parameters of the wells themselves, providing the maximum high resource of hardware elements of automation.

  15. 25 CFR 227.23 - Wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Wells. 227.23 Section 227.23 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF CERTAIN LANDS IN WIND RIVER INDIAN RESERVATION, WYOMING, FOR OIL AND GAS MINING Operations § 227.23 Wells. The lessee shall agree (a) to...

  16. Leveling Sweet Lake Geopressured Well Site

    SciTech Connect

    1984-07-01

    First Order leveling surveys to be conducted as part of an environmental monitoring program for geopressured test well. Conduct first order leveling to determine the elevation of the previously installed and leveled bench marks in the area of the Sweetlake geothermal well. All leveling surveys to conform to NGS standards and specifications.

  17. Work, Welfare, and Family Well-Being.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sing, Merrile; Hill, Heather; Mendenko, Linda

    As more families move from welfare to work, little is known about the implications of employment for family well-being. This survey and case study examined the effects of employment on the economic, social, and emotional well-being of parents, children, and families. Survey respondents received assistance through Iowa's Family Investment Program…

  18. A Collaborative University Model for Employee Wellness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Melondie R.; Kelly, Rebecca C.; Alexander, Chelley K.; Holmes, Lauren M.

    2011-01-01

    Universities are taking a more active approach in understanding and monitoring employees' modifiable health risk factors and chronic care conditions by developing strategies to encourage employees to start and sustain healthy behaviors. WellBama, the University of Alabama's signature health and wellness program, utilizes a collaborative model in…

  19. Wellness Programming for Preschoolers with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huettig, Carol; O'Connor, John

    1999-01-01

    This guide to developing a physical fitness and wellness program for preschool children with disabilities stresses a holistic approach to wellness, the importance of play choices and food preferences, play experiences which develop spiritual values and ethics, emotional health, social development, and intellectual aspects of development. (DB)

  20. 7 CFR 51.1829 - Well colored.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Florida Tangerines Definitions § 51.1829 Well colored. Well colored means that a good yellow or better ground color predominates over the green color on the entire fruit surface with no distinct green color present, and that some portion of...

  1. Necessary Competencies for Corporate Wellness Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorman, Dean R.; And Others

    A research study attempted to identify necessary components of a strong corporate wellness training program and to establish a sound research base from which valid curricular decisions could be made concerning program design. Responses from a 52-item questionnaire were received from 248 corporate wellness professionals. Results indicated that the…

  2. Marketing hospital wellness products to service companies.

    PubMed

    Andrus, D M; Paul, R; Michaud, J

    1995-01-01

    The authors examine service firm employee attitudes towards wellness programs among twenty-three service companies in three states. Program components that were considered to be most desirable by service industry workers are identified in a regression model. The results indicate that hospital administrators need to adopt a marketing approach during the design phase of employee wellness programs. PMID:10156185

  3. Holistic Flow Model of Spiritual Wellness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purdy, Melanie; Dupey, Peggy

    2005-01-01

    The Holistic Flow Model of Spiritual Wellness is a conceptualization of spiritual health and well-being that has implications for clinical practice and research. The model is unique in its placement of the spirit at the center of Life and in its fluid vision of the spirit. The authors present the model after a discussion of spirituality and the…

  4. Airlift recirculation well test results -- Southern sector

    SciTech Connect

    White, R.M.; Hiergesell, R.A.

    1997-08-01

    Chlorinated solvents used in the A and M-Areas at the Savannah River Site (SRS) from 1952--1982 have contaminated the groundwater under the site. A plume of groundwater contaminated with trichloroethylene (TCE) and perchloroethylene (PCE) in the Lost Lake aquifer is moving generally southward with the natural flow of groundwater. To comply with the requirements of the current SCDHEC Part B Permit, a series of wells is being installed to contain and treat the plume. Airlift Recirculation Wells (ARW) are a new and innovative technology with potential for more cost effective implementation than conventional pump and treat systems. Two Airlift Recirculation Wells have been installed and tested to quantify performance parameters needed to locate a line of these wells along the leading edge of the contaminant plume. The wells proved to be very sensitive to proper development, but after this requirement was met, performance was very good. The Zone of Capture has been estimated to be within a radius of 130--160 ft. around the wells. Thus a line of wells spaced at 250 ft. intervals could intercept the contaminant plume. At SSR-012, TCE was stripped from the groundwater at approximately 1.2 lb./day. The longer term effect of the recirculation wells upon the plume and the degree of recirculation within the aquifer itself will require additional data over a longer time period for an accurate review. Data collection is ongoing.

  5. Personal Well-Being in Urban China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smyth, Russell; Nielsen, Ingrid; Zhai, Qingguo

    2010-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a survey administering the personal well-being index (PWI) in six Chinese cities (N = 3,390) to ascertain the personal well-being of China's urban population. The specific aims of the study were: (a) ascertain whether Chinese urban residents are satisfied with their lives; (b) validate the PWI using an urban…

  6. Direct combustion stimulation of a producing well

    SciTech Connect

    Kirkpatrick, J.W.; Mower, L.N.

    1980-11-18

    In the course of completing a production well in a heavy oil or tar sand reservoir arranged for frontal displacement, thermal drive from at least one injection well, the well is divided into separate, non-communicating lower and upper zones. The lower is connected with the reservoir by perforations; the upper by a large gravel packed zone and preferably a sand screen. The completion process involves starting a local combustion drive adjacent to the bottom of the well by injecting compressed air through the perforations while preventing upward migration of the combustion zone in the vicinity of the well by injection of water or dilute aqueous soap solution through the screen and gravel packed zone. After a suitable time, generally of the order of a month or less, air injection is stopped. Production is started through the screen (No workover or killing operation needed). After producing some or all of the combustion product gas and locally heated oil, the well is still hot, with a region of high permeability adjacent to the gravel packed zone, ready to produce fluids and/or gas from a distant injection well. Should further heating be needed later in the life of this well, the annular space normally used for production can be displaced with a soap solution after which the local heating step is repeated.

  7. 25 CFR 213.32 - Wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., That the right to drill and produce such other wells shall be subject to any system of well spacing or production allotments authorized and approved under applicable law or regulations, approved by the Secretary... Interior may, within 10 days after due notice in writing, either require the drilling and production...

  8. Well-Being Narratives and Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estola, Eila; Farquhar, Sandy; Puroila, Anna-Maija

    2014-01-01

    Whereas research on children's well-being in education has largely focused on adult perspectives rather than on children's understandings, recent scholarship argues for a stronger focus on children's experience and perceptions of their own well-being. Adopting a narrative approach, this article puts children's stories centre…

  9. ESSA's Well-Rounded Education. Special Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Scott D.; Workman, Emily

    2016-01-01

    As questions regarding the Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) flow in to Education Commission of the States, one frequent inquiry is about the concept of a "well-rounded education," referenced more than 20 times and included within the majority of Titles in the Act. State education leaders want to know what constitutes a well-rounded…

  10. College Student Perception of Wellness Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, James; Lockwood, Park

    2006-01-01

    Dealing with the public perception of Physical Education and wellness has been a constant struggle for many professionals in this area of study. Many perceive Physical Education/ wellness as an "easy" course or simply non-essential. These perceptions may contribute to the gap between one's explicit knowledge (i.e., perception of knowledge) and…

  11. Social isolation and well-being.

    PubMed

    Chappell, N L; Badger, M

    1989-09-01

    We examined 10 common indicators of social isolation and assessed which, if any, are related to subjective well-being among elderly individuals. The quantitative measures (no daily contact and minimal weekly contact), no children, having no children plus being unmarried, and having no children plus living alone, were unrelated to either global happiness or life satisfaction. The combined indicators of living alone and being unmarried as well as single indicators of having no companions or having no confidants were related at the bivariate level to both measures of well-being. When controlling for demographic, economic, and health factors, having no confidants and no companions were significantly and independently related to subjective well-being. These findings suggest that practitioners who seek information on living arrangements or marital status as proxy measures of lower psychological well-being are utilizing the wrong predictors.

  12. Coiled tubing velocity strings keep wells unloaded

    SciTech Connect

    Wesson, H.R.; Shursen, J.L.

    1989-07-01

    Liquid loading is a problem in many older and even some newer gas wells, particularly in pressure depletion type reservoirs. This liquid loading results in decreased production and may even kill the well. The use of coiled tubing as a velocity string (or siphon string) has proved to be an economically viable alternative to allow continued and thus, increased cumulative production for wells experiencing liquid loading problems. Coiled tubing run inside the existing production string reduces the flow area, whether the well is produced up the tubing or up the annulus. This reduction in flow area results in an increase in flow velocity and thus, an increase in the well's ability to unload fluids.

  13. Geopressured-geothermal well activities in Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    John, C.J.

    1992-10-01

    Since September 1978, microseismic networks have operated continuously around US Department of Energy (DOE) geopressured-geothermal well sites to monitor any microearthquake activity in the well vicinity. Microseismic monitoring is necessary before flow testing at a well site to establish the level of local background seismicity. Once flow testing has begun, well development may affect ground elevations and/or may activate growth faults, which are characteristic of the coastal region of southern Louisiana and southeastern Texas where these geopressured-geothermal wells are located. The microseismic networks are designed to detest small-scale local earthquakes indicative of such fault activation. Even after flow testing has ceased, monitoring continues to assess any microearthquake activity delayed by the time dependence of stress migration within the earth. Current monitoring shows no microseismicity in the geopressured-geothermal prospect areas before, during, or after flow testing.

  14. Leadership behavior and subordinate well-being.

    PubMed

    van Dierendonck, Dirk; Haynes, Clare; Borrill, Carol; Stride, Chris

    2004-04-01

    The authors used a longitudinal design to investigate the relation between leadership behavior and the well-being of subordinates. Well-being is conceptualized as people's feelings about themselves and the settings in which they live and work. Staff members (N = 562) of 2 Community Trusts participated 4 times in a 14-month period. Five models were formulated to answer 2 questions: What is the most likely direction of the relation between leadership and well-being, and what is the time frame of this relation? The model with the best fit suggested that leadership behavior and subordinate responses are linked in a feedback loop. Leadership behavior at Time 1 influenced leadership behavior at Time 4. Subordinate well-being at Time 2 synchronously influenced leadership behavior at Time 2. Leadership behavior at Time 4 synchronously influenced subordinate well-being at Time 4. PMID:15053715

  15. Realization of qudits in coupled potential wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landau, Ariel; Aharonov, Yakir; Cohen, Eliahu

    2016-08-01

    Quantum computation strongly relies on the realization, manipulation, and control of qubits. A central method for realizing qubits is by creating a double-well potential system with a significant gap between the first two eigenvalues and the rest. In this work, we first revisit the theoretical grounds underlying the double-well qubit dynamics, then proceed to suggest novel extensions of these principles to a triple-well qutrit with periodic boundary conditions, followed by a general d-well analysis of qudits. These analyses are based on representations of the special unitary groups SU(d) which expose the systems’ symmetry and employ them for performing computations. We conclude with a few notes on coherence and scalability of d-well systems.

  16. Quantum beats in conductance oscillations in graphene-based asymmetric double velocity wells and electrostatic wells

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Lei; Li, Yu-Xian; Zhang, Ying-Tao; Liu, Jian-Jun

    2014-01-14

    The transport properties in graphene-based asymmetric double velocity well (Fermi velocity inside the well less than that outside the well) and electrostatic well structures are investigated using the transfer matrix method. The results show that quantum beats occur in the oscillations of the conductance for asymmetric double velocity wells. The beating effect can also be found in asymmetric double electrostatic wells, but only if the widths of the two wells are different. The beat frequency for the asymmetric double well is exactly equal to the frequency difference between the oscillation rates in two isolated single wells with the same structures as the individual wells in the double well structure. A qualitative interpretation is proposed based on the fact that the resonant levels depend upon the sizes of the quantum wells. The beating behavior can provide a new way to identify the symmetry of double well structures.

  17. Financial Well-being in Active Ageing.

    PubMed

    Rajola, Federico; Frigerio, Chiara; Parrichi, Monica

    2014-01-01

    In developed countries, economic and financial well-being is playing a crucial positive role in ageing and inclusion processes. Due to the complexity and pervasiveness of financial economy in the real life, more and more social as well as individual well-being are perceived as influenced by financial conditions. On the other hand, the demographic circumstances drive scholars as well as politicians to reflect on ageing dynamics. Bridging the two domains, the following research focuses on the role of the financial well-being as a mediating role of general well-being in elder people. The assumption is that elderly people have specific financial needs that sometimes are not covered by financial providers' offers. The motivation is mainly on the role of information asymmetries between elder consumers and financial institutions. On the dynamics of these asymmetries, the research will specifically investigate the role of financial literacy, as the ability of comprehension of elder people of their needs and of financial information. The applicative implication of this research work consists in finding the determinants of financial well-being for elders and the definition of their specific financial competencies, in order to 1) identify educational and regulatory guidelines for policy makers in charge of creating financial market transparency conditions, and to 2) support design of organizational mechanisms as well as financial product/services for this specific target of client. The following chapter presents preliminary explorative results of a survey delivered on 200 elder individuals (65-80 yrs.) leaving in Milan. Findings show that active elders consider the ability of managing personal wealth as one of the core determinant of well-being, although the economic and financial literacy is limited. Furthermore, the chapter proposes a research agenda for scholars interested in exploring the relationship between financial well-being and ageing.

  18. Financial Well-being in Active Ageing.

    PubMed

    Rajola, Federico; Frigerio, Chiara; Parrichi, Monica

    2014-01-01

    In developed countries, economic and financial well-being is playing a crucial positive role in ageing and inclusion processes. Due to the complexity and pervasiveness of financial economy in the real life, more and more social as well as individual well-being are perceived as influenced by financial conditions. On the other hand, the demographic circumstances drive scholars as well as politicians to reflect on ageing dynamics. Bridging the two domains, the following research focuses on the role of the financial well-being as a mediating role of general well-being in elder people. The assumption is that elderly people have specific financial needs that sometimes are not covered by financial providers' offers. The motivation is mainly on the role of information asymmetries between elder consumers and financial institutions. On the dynamics of these asymmetries, the research will specifically investigate the role of financial literacy, as the ability of comprehension of elder people of their needs and of financial information. The applicative implication of this research work consists in finding the determinants of financial well-being for elders and the definition of their specific financial competencies, in order to 1) identify educational and regulatory guidelines for policy makers in charge of creating financial market transparency conditions, and to 2) support design of organizational mechanisms as well as financial product/services for this specific target of client. The following chapter presents preliminary explorative results of a survey delivered on 200 elder individuals (65-80 yrs.) leaving in Milan. Findings show that active elders consider the ability of managing personal wealth as one of the core determinant of well-being, although the economic and financial literacy is limited. Furthermore, the chapter proposes a research agenda for scholars interested in exploring the relationship between financial well-being and ageing. PMID:26630513

  19. Advanced Technologies For Stripper Gas Well Enhancement

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald J. MacDonald; Charles M. Boyer; Joseph H. Frantz Jr; Paul A. Zyglowicz

    2005-04-01

    Stripper gas and oil well operators frequently face a dilemma regarding maximizing production from low-productivity wells. With thousands of stripper wells in the United States covering extensive acreage, it is difficult to identify easily and efficiently marginal or underperforming wells. In addition, the magnitude of reviewing vast amounts of data places a strain on an operator's work force and financial resources. Schlumberger DCS, in cooperation with the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), has created software and developed in-house analysis methods to identify remediation potential in stripper wells relatively easily. This software is referred to as Stripper Well Analysis Remediation Methodology (SWARM). SWARM was beta-tested with data pertaining to two gas fields located in northwestern Pennsylvania and had notable results. Great Lakes Energy Partners, LLC (Great Lakes) and Belden & Blake Corporation (B&B) both operate wells in the first field studied. They provided data for 729 wells, and we estimated that 41 wells were candidates for remediation. However, for reasons unbeknownst to Schlumberger these wells were not budgeted for rework by the operators. The second field (Cooperstown) is located in Crawford, Venango, and Warren counties, Pa and has more than 2,200 wells operated by Great Lakes. This paper discusses in depth the successful results of a candidate recognition study of this area. We compared each well's historical production with that of its offsets and identified 339 underperformers before considering remediation costs, and 168 economically viable candidates based on restimulation costs of $50,000 per well. From this data, we prioritized a list based on the expected incremental recoverable gas and 10% discounted net present value (NPV). For this study, we calculated the incremental gas by subtracting the volumes forecasted after remediation from the production projected at its current

  20. Satellite technology applied at the well site

    SciTech Connect

    Linger, D.B.; Dill, P.H.

    1988-01-01

    The full potential of satellite technology is making itself known in the oil field. Well site data can be sent directly to the operator giving fast, cost-saving answers. Direct linkage from the field to the operator and to computing resources represents a radical change in existing methods of handling well site data. One system, developed by Schlumberger, employs satellite technology to handle well site log data. The service, called Lognet, uses a small transportable earth station at the well site to provide a high speed data and voice link from the well site, via satellite, to the operator, his partners, or to any of the well logging company's offices. The system can deliver both well log graphics and digital taped data to an appropriate receiving terminal, allowing up to 10 delivery points to receive the information simultaneously. Delivery to standard office or portable facsimile machines permits direct reception of logs at the office or any other location. This capability allows the operator and his partners to view the log information within 1 hour after logging and to discuss the log results. Voice communication also is possible with telephone calls being made both to and from the logging unit to any point in the public telephone network. These capabilities result in a more efficient use of staff, information, time, and ultimately, cost savings.

  1. Wellness Among Dental Students: An Institutional Study.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Peter L; Shaddox, Luciana M; Garvan, Cynthia W; Behar-Horenstein, Linda S

    2016-09-01

    The high prevalence of distress among health professionals during their education has fostered increased interest in the study of student well-being. The aim of this study was to assess the self-perceived wellness of dental students and determine the relationship between factors affecting wellness and demographic variables. An online questionnaire was distributed to 334 first-through fourth-year dental students at one U.S. dental school. The questionnaire consisted of modified versions of the Perceived Wellness Survey, Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Survey, and Mental Health Inventory and also collected demographic information. The response rate was 78% (N=261). More than 80% of the respondents reported that they were happy all, most, or a good bit of the time. These students exhibited a strong sense of self-worth, were positive about their friendships, and perceived they had good social support. Less than 20% of respondents did not view their physical health as excellent and identified a lack of self-perceived wellness. First-year and single students reported statistically less social support. Students who were parents perceived their wellness less favorably. Hispanic and Asian students were less happy regarding their mental health than white and African American students. These findings suggest that students, especially Hispanic and Asian students, may benefit from programs that promote student well-being. Academic programs that encourage students to work together and promote peer-to-peer involvement may be beneficial, especially for first-year and single students. PMID:27587579

  2. ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES FOR STRIPPER GAS WELL ENHANCEMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald J. MacDonald

    2004-07-14

    As part of Task 1 in Advanced Technologies for Stripper Gas Well Enhancement, Schlumberger Data & Consulting Services (DCS) joined with two Appalachian Basin producers, Great Lakes Energy Partners, LLC, and Belden & Blake Corporation to develop methodologies for identification and enhancement of stripper wells with economic upside potential. These industry partners previously provided us with data for more than 700 wells in northwestern Pennsylvania. Phase 1 goals of this project are to develop and validate methodologies that can quickly and cost-effectively identify underperforming wells with remediation potential. We have enhanced and streamlined our software and are using it with the latest versions of Microsoft's{trademark} Access and Excel programs. During the last quarter of 2002, Great Lakes provided us with additional data for approximately 2,200 wells located in their Cooperstown field situated in northwestern Pennsylvania. We identified approximately 130 potential remediation candidates, and Great Lakes personnel are currently reviewing this list for viable remediation. Within the last few weeks, a list of five candidates have been chosen for refract, in addition to two alternate wells. This field has provided a rigorous test of our software and analytical methods. We have processed all the information provided to us including the Cooperstown data. Great Lakes also provided supplemental data listing the original operator of the wells. We have determined whether a statistically significant number of underperformers correlate to specific operators and/or their associated completion/stimulation methods. In addition, the DOE has reviewed a draft version of a final report.

  3. Adaptive interpretation of gas well deliverability tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sergeev, V. L.; Thac Hoai Phuong, Nguyen; Strelnikova, A. B.

    2016-09-01

    The paper considers topical issues of improving accuracy of data obtained from gas well deliverability tests, decreasing the number of test stages and well test time, and reducing gas emissions. The aim of the research is to develop the method of adaptive interpretation of gas well deliverability tests with resulting IPR curve conducted in gas wells with steady-state filtration, which allows obtaining and taking into account additional a priori data on the formation pressure and flow coefficients, setting the number of test stages adequate for efficient well testing and reducing test time. The present research is based on the previous theoretical and practical findings in the spheres of gas well deliverability tests, systems analysis, system identification, function optimization and linear algebra. To test the method, the authors used the field data of deliverability tests run in the Urengoy gas and condensate field, Tyumen Oblast. The authors suggest the method of adaptive interpretation of gas well deliverability tests with resulting IPR curve, which is based on the law for gas filtration with variables dependent on the number of test stage and account of additional a priori data. The suggested method allows defining the estimates of the formation pressure and flow coefficients, optimal in terms of preassigned measures of quality, and setting the adequate number of test stages in the course of well testing. The case study of IPR curve data processing has indicated that adaptive interpretation provides more accurate estimates on the formation pressure and flow coefficients, as well as reduces the number of test stages.

  4. The nucleolus is well-posed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fragnelli, Vito; Patrone, Fioravante; Torre, Anna

    2006-02-01

    The lexicographic order is not representable by a real-valued function, contrary to many other orders or preorders. So, standard tools and results for well-posed minimum problems cannot be used. We prove that under suitable hypotheses it is however possible to guarantee the well-posedness of a lexicographic minimum over a compact or convex set. This result allows us to prove that some game theoretical solution concepts, based on lexicographic order are well-posed: in particular, this is true for the nucleolus.

  5. Ion trapping and separation using potential wells

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, M.A.

    2000-01-04

    A new mode of operation for an ion mobility spectrometer (IMS) has been demonstrated that uses potential wells to trap and separate ions by their mobility. This mode of operation has been made feasible by the improvements in personal computers that now allow real-time control of the potentials on ring electrodes in the IMS drift tube. This mode of operation does not require a shutter grid and allows the accumulation of ions in the potential well to enhance the ion signal. Loss of ions from the potential well is controlled by the radial electric fields required by Gauss's law.

  6. Religion, health, and psychological well-being.

    PubMed

    Green, Morgan; Elliott, Marta

    2010-06-01

    This study compares the effects of religiosity on health and well-being, controlling for work and family. With 2006 GSS data, we assess the effects of religiosity on health and well-being, net of job satisfaction, marital happiness, and financial status. The results indicate that people who identify as religious tend to report better health and happiness, regardless of religious affiliation, religious activities, work and family, social support, or financial status. People with liberal religious beliefs tend to be healthier but less happy than people with fundamentalist beliefs. Future research should probe how religious identity and beliefs impact health and well-being. PMID:19283486

  7. Drilling and construction data for well 3-3407-37, Kiikii exploratory well, Oahu, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Presley, T.K.; Oki, D.S.

    1996-01-01

    The Kiikii exploratory well (State well number 3-3407-37) was drilled about 1.4 miles southwest of the town of Haleiwa and 4,000 feet west- southwest of Weed Circle. The well is on agricultural land in the Waialua ground-water area. The well penetrates through sedimentary deposits (caprock) and into the underlying basalt aquifer. Well-construction data, logs of drilling notes, and geologic descriptions for the samples are presented for the well. The well is one of 12 exploratory wells drilled in the north-central Oahu area between July, 1993 and May, 1994 in cooperation with the Honolulu Board of Water Supply.

  8. Remote actuation system speeds deepwater well completions

    SciTech Connect

    Bussear, T.

    1996-10-07

    Substantial savings in rig time, operating expenses, and overall completion costs, particularly in extended-reach and deepwater wells, can be realized with advanced wireless communication techniques and electronically enhanced pulse-actuation systems for completing wells. With drilling and completion costs climbing steadily, especially offshore, operators need to minimize rig time without sacrificing reliability, safety, or ultimate well productivity. During the past several months, Baker Oil Tools` EDGE remote actuation system, a surface-controlled communications system that relies on pressure-wave pulses to actuate electronics-equipped downhole completion tools, has been deployed commercially in a number of deep, high-pressure, high-temperature wells in the Gulf of Mexico. The paper discusses the system basics, the Mars installation, benefits and limitations, a simulator that was developed, time improvements, tangible savings, and further tools being manufactured for other jobs.

  9. MARGINAL EXPENSE OIL WELL WIRELESS SURVEILLANCE MEOWS

    SciTech Connect

    Mason M. Medizade; John R. Ridgely; Donald G. Nelson

    2004-11-01

    A marginal expense oil well wireless surveillance system to monitor system performance and production from rod-pumped wells in real time from wells operated by Vaquero Energy in the Edison Field, Main Area of Kern County in California has been successfully designed and field tested. The surveillance system includes a proprietary flow sensor, a programmable transmitting unit, a base receiver and receiving antenna, and a base station computer equipped with software to interpret the data. First, the system design is presented. Second, field data obtained from three wells is shown. Results of the study show that an effective, cost competitive, real-time wireless surveillance system can be introduced to oil fields across the United States and the world.

  10. Model for an Employee Wellness Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, Marybeth; And Others

    1981-01-01

    The evaluation of a health promotion program indicated that it had successfully used several approaches, including: psychophysical tests, individual health consultants, group programs, mass media, and wellness-oriented social activities. (CJ)

  11. Annual Checkups Are Becoming Wellness Visits

    MedlinePlus

    ... family history and lifestyle, medication reviews, checks of vital signs and scheduling preventive screenings and vaccinations. "When you ... another important element of wellness visits. "Electronic medical records have the potential to be powerful tools to ...

  12. Personality dimensions and subjective well-being.

    PubMed

    Chico Librán, Eliseo

    2006-05-01

    This work examines the association between personality dimensions (extraversion and neuroticism) and subjective well-being. Subjective well-being is associated both with extraversion and neuroticism, and currently, neuroticism is generally considered the more important. A total of 368 students from the University of Rovira i Virgili completed the Extraversion and Neuroticism subscales of the revised Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (Eysenck, Eysenck, and Barrett, 1985), the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS; Diener, Emmons, Larsen, and Griffin, 1985), and the Positive and Negative Affect Scale (Watson, Clark, and Tellegen, 1988). Regression analyses revealed the personality variable of neuroticism as one of the most important correlates of subjective well-being. Regression analyses also showed that 44% of the variance of subjective well-being was accounted for by neuroticism, whereas extraversion only explained 8% of the variance.

  13. Groundwater well with reactive filter pack

    DOEpatents

    Gilmore, Tyler J.; Holdren, Jr., George R.; Kaplan, Daniel I.

    1998-01-01

    A method and apparatus for the remediation of contaminated soil and ground water wherein a reactive pack material is added to the annular fill material utilized in standard well construction techniques.

  14. Groundwater well with reactive filter pack

    DOEpatents

    Gilmore, T.J.; Holdren, G.R. Jr.; Kaplan, D.I.

    1998-09-08

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for the remediation of contaminated soil and ground water wherein a reactive pack material is added to the annular fill material utilized in standard well construction techniques. 3 figs.

  15. AGRICULTURAL DRAINAGE WELLS: IMPACT ON GROUND WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document discusses agricultural drainage well practices, potential contamination problems that may occur, and possible management practices or regulatory solutions that could be used to alleviate those problems. The document has been written for use by state and Agency deci...

  16. Multigrid applied to implicit well problems

    SciTech Connect

    Dendy, J.E. Jr.; Tchelepi, Hamdi

    1996-10-01

    This paper discusses the application of multigrid techniques to the solution of implicit well equations, which arise in the numerical simulation of oil reservoirs. The emphasis is on techniques which can exploit parallel computation.

  17. Modelling flow to leachate wells in landfills

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Thani, A.A.; Beaven, R.P.; White, J.K

    2004-07-01

    Vertical wells are frequently used as a means of controlling leachate levels in landfills. They are often the only available dewatering option for both old landfills without any basal leachate collection layer and for newer sites where the installed drainage infrastructure has failed. When the well is pumped, a seepage face develops at the entry into the well so that the drawdown in the surrounding waste will not be as great as might be expected. The numerical groundwater flow model MODFLOW-SURFACT, which contains the functionality to model seepage surfaces, has been used to investigate the transient dewatering of a landfill. The study concludes that the position of the seepage face and information about the characteristics of the induced seepage flow field are important and should not be neglected when designing wells in landfills.

  18. Tree snubbing operation solves well control problem

    SciTech Connect

    Gebhardt, F.; Thompson, J.D.

    1987-09-01

    Wild Well Control, Inc. has used a unique method to remove a Christmas tree under high pressure and install BOPs without a rig. This allowed workover of a gas-condensate well with a shallow tubing break that could not be killed by surface pumping due to casing pressure limitations. The procedure eliminated the need for drilling a relief well. The tree-stripping procedure is applicable to wells with Christmas trees that are screwed to the tubing string and equipped with wrap-around tubing hangers. The method would not be required if the tree were provided with a mandrel hanger that could receive a back-pressure valve. The step-by-step procedure used to remove the tree under pressure is described.

  19. 7 CFR 51.1868 - Well developed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... shows normal growth. Tomatoes which are ridged and peaked at the stem end, contain dry tissue, and usually contain open spaces below the level of the stem scar, are not considered well developed....

  20. 7 CFR 51.1868 - Well developed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... shows normal growth. Tomatoes which are ridged and peaked at the stem end, contain dry tissue, and usually contain open spaces below the level of the stem scar, are not considered well developed....

  1. 7 CFR 51.1868 - Well developed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... shows normal growth. Tomatoes which are ridged and peaked at the stem end, contain dry tissue, and usually contain open spaces below the level of the stem scar, are not considered well developed....

  2. San Bernardino National Wildlife Refuge Well 10

    SciTech Connect

    Ensminger, J.T.; Easterly, C.E.; Ketelle, R.H.; Quarles, H.; Wade, M.C.

    1999-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), at the request of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, evaluated the water production capacity of an artesian well in the San Bernardino National Wildlife Refuge, Arizona. Water from the well initially flows into a pond containing three federally threatened or endangered fish species, and water from this pond feeds an adjacent pond/wetland containing an endangered plant species.

  3. High temperature well bore cement slurry

    SciTech Connect

    Nahm, J.J.W.; Vinegar, H.J.; Karanikas, J.M.; Wyant, R.E.

    1993-07-13

    A low density well bore cement slurry composition is described suitable for cementing well bores with high reservoir temperatures comprising: (a) a high alumina cement in an amount of about 40 pounds per barrel of slurry or greater: (b) graphite in an amount greater than about one quarter, by volume, of the solids in the cement slurry; and (c) and a carrier fluid comprising drilling mud.

  4. Communication joint for use in a well

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, R.P.

    1986-11-18

    This patent describes a communication joint for use in a well, comprising: a solid body having an exterior surface adapted to form a slidable fluid seal with a wellhead member of the well such that the solid body may slide within the wellhead member while maintaining the seal therewith; the solid body including first and second conduits positioned in and extending axially within the solid body, each conduit having the capability of providing a fluid passageway independent of the other conduit.

  5. Ultrabroad stimulated emission from quantum well laser

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Huolei; Zhou, Xuliang; Yu, Hongyan; Mi, Junping; Wang, Jiaqi; Bian, Jing; Wang, Wei; Pan, Jiaoqing; Ding, Ying; Chen, Weixi

    2014-06-23

    Observation of ultrabroad stimulated emission from a simplex quantum well based laser at the center wavelength of 1.06 μm is reported. With increased injection current, spectrum as broad as 38 nm and a pulsed output power of ∼50 mW have been measured. The experiments show evidence of an unexplored broad emission regime in the InGaAs/GaAs quantum well material system, which still needs theoretical modeling and further analysis.

  6. Using informatics to capture older adults’ wellness

    PubMed Central

    Demiris, George; Thompson, Hilaire J.; Reeder, Blaine; Wilamowska, Katarzyna; Zaslavsky, Oleg

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this paper is to demonstrate how informatics applications can support the assessment and visualization of older adults’ wellness. A theoretical framework is presented that informs the design of a technology enhanced screening platform for wellness. We highlight an ongoing pilot demonstration in an assisted living facility where a community room has been converted into a living laboratory for the use of diverse technologies (including a telehealth component to capture vital signs and customized questionnaires, a gait analysis component and cognitive assessment software) to assess the multiple aspects of wellness of older adults. Methods A demonstration project was introduced in an independent retirement community to validate our theoretical framework of informatics and wellness assessment for older adults. Subjects are being recruited to attend a community room and engage in the use of diverse technologies to assess cognitive performance, physiological and gait variables as well as psychometrics pertaining to social and spiritual components of wellness for a period of eight weeks. Data are integrated from various sources into one study database and different visualization approaches are pursued to efficiently display potential correlations between different parameters and capture overall trends of wellness. Results Preliminary findings indicate that older adults are willing to participate in technology-enhanced interventions and embrace different information technology applications given appropriate and customized training and hardware and software features that address potential functional limitations and inexperience with computers. Conclusion Informatics can advance health care for older adults and support a holistic assessment of older adults’ wellness. The described framework can support decision making, link formal and informal caregiving networks and identify early trends and patterns that if addressed could reduce adverse health events

  7. PrimeEnergy/DOE/GRI slant well

    SciTech Connect

    Drimal, C.E.; Muncey, G.; Carden, R.

    1991-12-01

    This report presents final results of the Sterling Boggs 1240 slant well. Objectives of the project were (1) to test the potential for improved recovery efficiency in a fractured Devonian Shale reservoir from a directionally drilled well, (2) to perform detailed tests of reservoir properties and completion methods, and (3) to provide technology to industry which may ultimately improve the economics of drilling in the Devonian Shale and thereby stimulate development of its resources.

  8. Description of calls from private well owners to a national well water hotline, 2013.

    PubMed

    Ridpath, Alison; Taylor, Ethel; Greenstreet, Charlene; Martens, Margaret; Wicke, Heather; Martin, Colleen

    2016-02-15

    Water Systems Council (WSC) is a national, non-profit organization providing education and resources to private household well owners. Since 2003, WSC has provided wellcare®, a toll-free telephone hotline to answer questions from the public regarding well stewardship. In order to identify knowledge gaps regarding well stewardship among private well owners, we obtained data from WSC and reviewed calls made during 2013 to wellcare®. WSC records data from each wellcare® call-including caller information, primary reason for call, main use of well water, and if they were calling about a cistern, private well, shared well, or spring. We searched for calls with key words indicating specific contaminants of interest and reviewed primary reasons for calls. Calls classified as primarily testing-related were further categorized depending on whether the caller asked about how to test well water or how to interpret testing results. During 2013, wellcare® received 1100 calls from private well owners who were residents of 48 states. Among these calls, 87 (8%) mentioned radon, 83 (8%) coliforms, 51 (5%) chemicals related to fracking, 34 (3%) arsenic, and 32 (3%) nitrates key words. Only 38% of private well owners reported conducting any well maintenance activities, such as inspecting, cleaning, repairing the well, or testing well water, during the previous 12 months. The primary reason for calls were related to well water testing (n=403), general information relating to wells (n=249), contaminants (n=229), and well water treatment (n=97). Among calls related to testing, 319 had questions about how to test their well water, and 33 had questions about how to interpret testing results. Calls from private well owners to the wellcare® Hotline during 2013 identified key knowledge gaps regarding well stewardship; well owners are generally not testing or maintaining their wells, have questions about well water testing treatment, and concerns about well water contaminants. PMID

  9. ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES FOR STRIPPER GAS WELL ENHANCEMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald J. MacDonald

    2003-04-01

    As part of Task 1 in Advanced Technologies for Stripper Gas Well Enhancement, Schlumberger Data & Consulting Services (DCS) joined with two Appalachian Basin producers, Great Lakes Energy Partners, LLC, and Belden & Blake Corporation to develop methodologies for identification and enhancement of stripper wells with economic upside potential. These industry partners previously provided us with data for more than 700 wells in northwestern Pennsylvania. Phase 1 goals of this project are to develop and validate methodologies that can quickly and cost-effectively identify wells with enhancement potential. We have enhanced and streamlined our software, and we are using the final version of our new Microsoft{trademark} Access/Excel programs. During the last quarter of 2002, we received additional data for approximately 2,200 wells from Great Lakes. This information pertains to their Cooperstown field located in northwestern Pennsylvania. We recognized approximately 130 potential remediation candidates, and Great Lakes' personnel are currently reviewing this list for viable remediation. This field has provided a rigorous test of our software and analytical methods. We have processed all the information provided to us including the Cooperstown data. Great Lakes also provided supplemental data listing the original operator of the wells. We are also determining whether a statistically significant number of underperformers correlate to specific operators and/or their associated completion/stimulation methods. In addition, the DOE has reviewed a draft version of a final report.

  10. ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES FOR STRIPPER GAS WELL ENHANCEMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald J. MacDonald

    2003-04-04

    As part of Task 1 in Advanced Technologies for Stripper Gas Well Enhancement, Schlumberger Data & Consulting Services (DCS) joined with two Appalachian Basin producers, Great Lakes Energy Partners, LLC, and Belden & Blake Corporation to develop methodologies for identification and enhancement of stripper wells with economic upside potential. These industry partners previously provided us with data for more than 700 wells in northwestern Pennsylvania. Phase 1 goals of this project are to develop and validate methodologies that can quickly and cost-effectively identify wells with enhancement potential. We have enhanced and streamlined our software, and we are using the final version of our new Microsoft{trademark} Access/Excel programs. During the last quarter of 2002, we received additional data for approximately 2,200 wells from Great Lakes. This information pertains to their Cooperstown field located in northwestern Pennsylvania. We recognized approximately 130 potential remediation candidates, and Great Lakes' personnel are currently reviewing this list for viable remediation. This field has provided a rigorous test of our software and analytical methods. We have processed all the information provided to us including the Cooperstown data. Great Lakes also provided supplemental data listing the original operator of the wells. We have determined whether a statistically significant number of underperformers correlate to specific operators and/or their associated completion/stimulation methods. In addition, the DOE has reviewed a draft version of a final report.

  11. ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES FOR STRIPPER GAS WELL ENHANCEMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald J. MacDonald

    2003-01-01

    As part of Task 1 in Advanced Technologies for Stripper Gas Well Enhancement, Schlumberger Data & Consulting Services (DCS) joined with two Appalachian Basin producers, Great Lakes Energy Partners, LLC, and Belden & Blake Corporation to develop methodologies for identification and enhancement of stripper wells with economic upside potential. These industry partners previously provided us with data for more than 700 wells in northwestern Pennsylvania. Phase 1 goals of this project are to develop and validate methodologies that can quickly and cost-effectively identify wells with enhancement potential. We have enhanced and streamlined our software, and we are using the final version of our new Microsoft{trademark} Access/Excel based software. We have received additional data from Great Lakes pertaining to a Cooperstown field that is expected to have numerous remediation candidates. This field will provide a rigorous test of out software and analytical methods. We have processed all the information provided to us before receiving the Cooperstown data and are currently analyzing the new data. Great Lakes will be providing supplemental data in the near future that will identify the original operator of the wells. This will prove valuable in determining whether a statistically significant number of underperformers are a result of specific operators and their associated completion/stimulation methods. We have identified potential candidate wells for Phase 2 to validate the new methodologies. In addition, a draft version of a final report has been reviewed by DOE.

  12. National accounts of subjective well-being.

    PubMed

    Diener, Ed; Oishi, Shigehiro; Lucas, Richard E

    2015-04-01

    Diener (2000) proposed that National Accounts of Well-Being be created to complement existing economic and social indicators that reflect the quality of life in nations. These national accounts can provide valuable information to policymakers and other leaders. Systematic measurement of subjective well-being provides novel information about the quality of life in societies, and it allows for the accumulation of detailed information regarding the circumstances that are associated with high subjective well-being. Thus, accounts of subjective well-being can help decision makers evaluate policies that improve societies beyond economic development. Progress with well-being accounts has been notable: Prestigious scientific and international institutions have recommended the creation of such national accounts, and these recommendations have been adopted in some form in over 40 nations. In addition, increasing research into policy-relevant questions reveals the importance of the accounts for policy. Psychologists can enlarge their role in the formulation and adoption of policies by actively studying and using accounts of subjective well-being to evaluate and support the policies they believe are needed.

  13. Production characteristics of some Cerro Prieto wells

    SciTech Connect

    Goyal, K.P.; Halfman, S.E.; Truesdell, A.H.; Howard, J.H.

    1982-08-01

    An areal distribution of heat and mass production in the Cerro Prieto field has been presented for two different times to determine the initial state of the ..cap alpha.. and ..beta.. aquifers and the behavior of the field under production. It was found that, initially, the ..cap alpha.. and ..beta.. aquifers were hot and very hot respectively. Cold boundaries to the field were found to be located toward the west and northeast. Initially, fluid production from most wells was very high. M-53 and some wells southeast of Fault H produced very hot fluids at very high rates. Production from most wells declined over the years, possibly due to scaling in the wellbore, reduced recharge to the aquifer, high resistance to flow due to silica precipitation in the reservoir pores and/or relative permeability effects in the two-phase regions surrounding the wells. In most wells fluid enthalpies declined over the years, perhaps due to mixing with colder waters either drawn in from upper strata and/or from the cold lateral boundaries depending upon well location.

  14. Determining blowout risks for producing wells

    SciTech Connect

    Woodyard, A.

    1981-04-01

    A method for estimating the probability that a producing well will blow out uses a fault tree to analyze how each piece of completion equipment affects the well's overall integrity. The technique attempts to predict blowout frequency and to pinpoint changes that could be made to a well completion to maximize its reliability. The simplified well-completion diagram includes the Christmas tree, casing, tubing, packer, and safety valve. A basic problem in reliability analysis is the lack of accurate, universally accepted component failure rates. By properly representing the relationships that cause the top event probability, a realistic failure tree, along with a sensitivity analysis, can partially compensate for the deficiencies in the component failure rate. Also, in comparisons of similar systems having many common components, inaccuracies in three failure rates of those common components, inaccuracies in the failure rates of those common components tend to have little effect on the overall ranking. An important element of each well system's leak probability is the risk that accompanies workover procedures; when workover is included in the computation, the well completion's leak probability rises significantly due to the higher risk.

  15. Stimulation Technologies for Deep Well Completions

    SciTech Connect

    2004-03-31

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring the Deep Trek Program targeted at improving the economics of drilling and completing deep gas wells. Under the DOE program, Pinnacle Technologies is conducting a study to evaluate the stimulation of deep wells. The objective of the project is to assess U.S. deep well drilling and stimulation activity, review rock mechanics and fracture growth in deep, high-pressure/temperature wells and evaluate stimulation technology in several key deep plays. An assessment of historical deep gas well drilling activity and forecast of future trends was completed during the first six months of the project; this segment of the project was covered in Technical Progress Report No. 1. During the next six months, efforts were primarily split between summarizing rock mechanics and fracture growth in deep reservoirs and contacting operators about case studies of deep gas well stimulation as documented in Technical Progress Report No. 2. This report details work done with Anadarko and ChevronTexaco in the Table Rock Field in Wyoming.

  16. Characterization Well R-7 Geochemistry Report

    SciTech Connect

    P.Longmire; F.Goff

    2002-12-01

    This report provides analytical results for four groundwater-sampling rounds conducted at characterization well R-7. The goal of the characterization efforts was to assess the hydrochemistry and to determine if contaminants from Technical Area (TA)-2 and TA-21 of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Laboratory) are present in the regional aquifer in the vicinity of the well. Figure 1.0-1 shows the well's location in the narrow upper part of Los Alamos Canyon, between the inactive Omega West reactor and the mouth of DP Canyon. Well R-7 is in an excellent location to characterize the hydrology and groundwater chemistry in both perched groundwater and the regional aquifer near sites of known Laboratory effluent release, including radionuclides and inorganic chemicals (Stone et al. 2002, 72717). The Risk Reduction and Environmental Stewardship-Remediation (RRES-R) Program (formerly the Environmental Restoration [ER] Project) installed well R-7 as part of groundwater investigations to satisfy requirements of the ''Hydrogeologic Workplan'' (LANL 1998, 59599) and to support the Laboratory's ''Groundwater Protection Management Program Plan'' (LANL 1996, 70215). Well R-7 was designed primarily to provide geochemical or water quality and hydrogeologic data for the regional aquifer within the Puye Formation. This report also presents a geochemical evaluation of the analytical results for well R-7 and provides hydrogeochemical interpretations using analytical results for groundwater samples collected at the well. Discussion of other hydrogeochemical data collected within the east-central portion of the Laboratory, however, is deferred until they can be evaluated in the context of sitewide information collected from other RRES and Hydrogeologic Workplan characterization wells (R-8A, R-9, and R-9i). Once all deep groundwater investigations in the east-central portion of the Laboratory are completed, geochemical and hydrogeologic conceptual models for the Los Alamos

  17. Selecting Aquifer Wells for Planned Gyroscopic Logging

    SciTech Connect

    Rohe, Michael James; Studley, Gregory Wayne

    2002-04-01

    Understanding the configuration of the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer's water table is made difficult, in part, due to borehole deviation in aquifer wells. A borehole has deviation if it is not vertical or straight. Deviation impairs the analysis of water table elevation measurements because it results in measurements that are greater than the true distance from the top of the well to the water table. Conceptual models of the water table configuration are important to environmental management decision-making at the INEEL; these models are based on measurements of depth to the water table taken from aquifer wells at or near the INEEL. When accurate data on the amount of deviation in any given borehole is acquired, then measurements of depth-to-water can be adjusted to reflect the true depth so more accurate conceptual models can be developed. Collection of additional borehole deviation data with gyroscopic logging is planned for selected wells to further our confidence in the quality of water level measurements. Selection of wells for the planned logging is based on qualitative and quantitative screening criteria. An existing data set from magnetic deviation logs was useful in establishing these criteria however, are considered less accurate than gyroscopic deviation logs under certain conditions. Population distributions for 128 aquifer wells with magnetic deviation data were used to establish three quantitative screening thresholds. Qualitative criteria consisted of administrative controls, accessibility issues, and drilling methods. Qualitative criteria eliminated all but 116 of the 337 aquifer wells, in the vicinity of the INEEL, that were initially examined in this screening effort. Of these, 72 have associated magnetic deviation data; 44 do not. Twenty-five (25) of the 72 wells with magnetic deviation data have deviation greater than one of the three quantitative screening thresholds. These 25 are recommended for the planned gyroscopic borehole deviation

  18. Microscope Cells Containing Multiple Micromachined Wells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, Walter; Skupinski, Robert

    2003-01-01

    Tech Briefs, May 2003 19 Manufacturing Microscope Cells Containing Multiple Micromachined Wells The cost per cell has been reduced substantially. John H. Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio An improved design for multiple-well microscope cells and an associated improved method of fabricating them have been devised. [As used here, "well" denotes a cavity that has a volume of about 1 or 2 L and that is used to hold a sample for examination under a microscope. As used here, "cell" denotes a laminate, based on a standard 1- by 3-in. (2.54- by 7.62-cm) microscope slide, that comprises (1) the slide as the lower layer, (2) an intermediate layer that contains holes that serve as the wells, and (3) a top layer that either consists of, or is similar to, a standard microscope-slide cover slip.] The improved design and method of fabrication make it possible to increase (relative to a prior design and method of fabrication) the number of wells per cell while reducing the fabrication loss and reducing the cost per cell to about one-tenth of the prior value. In the prior design and method, the slide, well, and cover-slip layers were made from silicate glass. The fabrication of each cell was a labor-intensive process that included precise cutting and grinding of the glass components, fusing of the glass components, and then more grinding and polishing to obtain desired dimensions. Cells of the prior design were expensive and fragile, the rate of loss in fabrication was high, and the nature of the glass made it difficult to increase the number of cells per well. Efforts to execute alternative prior designs in plastic have not yielded satisfactory results because, for typical applications, plastics are not sufficiently thermally or chemically stable, not sufficiently optically clear, and/or not hard enough to resist scratching. The figure depicts a cell of the present improved type. The slide and cover-slip layers are made of a low-thermal-expansion glass (Pyrex(TradeMark) or

  19. Additional potential for older, Antrim Shale wells

    SciTech Connect

    Frantz, J.H. Jr.; Hopkins, C.W.; Hill, D.G.

    1995-09-01

    The Gas Research Institute (GRI) has been performing evaluations to estimate the recompletion and restimulation potential in older, Antrim Shale wells. The recompletion potential is two-fold: (1) wells that can be deepened to the productive Norwood interval, and (2) wells with Upper Antrim potential. There are also numerous restimulation candidates due to sand flowback and/or other problems. The Antrim Shale is an organic-rich naturally fractured formation which produces both gas and water. Operators today typically complete the Lachine and Norwood intervals but many older wells were not drilled deep enough to encounter to Norwood. We performed an evaluation to determine the optimal deepening method using actual and simulated data. We estimate there are over 500 deepening candidates with total potential reserve additions of 50 Bscf. The Upper antrim formation can be added in approximately 1,500 existing wells throughout several counties. This interval is uphole from the Lachine and Norwood. In this phase of the project, we collected production and reservoir data from several Upper Antrim tests across the basin. We estimate the Upper Antrim could add total new reserves of 100 to 200 Bscf from al the recompletion candidates across the basin. In the restimulation evaluation, we developed a novel injection test unit to help operators identify the best restimulation candidates in a cost effective manner. The injection test determines if an effective hydraulic fracture is connected to the wellbore. Based on 60 test wells, we estimate the restimulations could add 50 to 200 Bscf of future reserves from the 500 to 1,000 candidate wells.

  20. Personality and well-being in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, Paulo A. S.; Cloninger, C. Robert; Dinis, Liliana; Sá, Laura; Oliveira, João T.; Dias, Adelaide; Oliveira, Joana

    2015-01-01

    Different profiles of the character dimensions of self-directedness, cooperativeness and self-transcendence result in different levels of wellbeing among adults. However, the influence of the multidimensional character profiles on adolescents' composite wellbeing remains unexplored. This study builds on previous studies with adults, and examines the linear and non-linear associations between the dimensions of the psychobiological model of personality and well-being in adolescents. Participated in this study 1540 adolescents (M = 15.44, SD = 1.731). Personality was assessed using the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). Well-being was evaluated in a composite perspective: satisfaction with social support, health-related quality of life, satisfaction with life and affect. Variable-centered and individual-centered analyses were performed. Self-directedness was strongly associated with all dimensions of affective and cognitive well-being regardless of the other two character traits. Cooperativeness was associated with non-affective well-being and with positive affect, but only when associated to elevation of Self-directedness and Self-transcendence. Self-Directedness and Cooperativeness explained 15.5% of the non-affective well-being variance. Self-Directedness and Self-Transcendence explained 10.4% of the variance in affective well-being. This study confirms the tendencies found in previous studies with adults from other societies, where each character dimension gives an independent contribution to well-being depending on the interactions with other Character dimensions. Also, this study highlights the importance of considering the non-linear influences of the character dimensions in understanding of adolescents' wellbeing. These results have strong implications for youth positive mental health promotion, including for school-based policies and practices. PMID:25610408

  1. Effects of Livestock Grazing and Well Construction on Prairie Vegetation Structure Surrounding Shallow Natural Gas Wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koper, N.; Molloy, K.; Leston, L.; Yoo, J.

    2014-11-01

    Short and sparse vegetation near shallow gas wells has generally been attributed to residual effects from well construction, but other mechanisms might also explain these trends. We evaluated effects of distance to shallow gas wells on vegetation and bare ground in mixed-grass prairies in southern Alberta, Canada, from 2010 to 2011. We then tested three hypotheses to explain why we found shorter vegetation and more bare ground near wells, using cattle fecal pat transects from 2012, and our vegetation quadrats. We evaluated whether empirical evidence suggested that observed patterns were driven by (1) higher abundance of crested wheatgrass ( Agropyron cristatum) near wells, (2) residual effects of well construction, or (3) attraction of livestock to wells. Crested wheatgrass occurrence was higher near wells, but this did not explain effects of wells on vegetation structure. Correlations between distance to wells and litter depth were the highest near newer wells, providing support for the construction hypothesis. However, effects of distance to wells on other vegetation metrics did not decline as time since well construction increased, suggesting that other mechanisms explained observed edge effects. Cattle abundance was substantially higher near wells, and this effect corresponded with changes in habitat structure. Our results suggest that both residual effects of well construction and cattle behavior may explain effects of shallow gas wells on habitat structure in mixed-grass prairies, and thus, to be effective, mitigation strategies must address both mechanisms.

  2. Effects of livestock grazing and well construction on prairie vegetation structure surrounding shallow natural gas wells.

    PubMed

    Koper, N; Molloy, K; Leston, L; Yoo, J

    2014-11-01

    Short and sparse vegetation near shallow gas wells has generally been attributed to residual effects from well construction, but other mechanisms might also explain these trends. We evaluated effects of distance to shallow gas wells on vegetation and bare ground in mixed-grass prairies in southern Alberta, Canada, from 2010 to 2011. We then tested three hypotheses to explain why we found shorter vegetation and more bare ground near wells, using cattle fecal pat transects from 2012, and our vegetation quadrats. We evaluated whether empirical evidence suggested that observed patterns were driven by (1) higher abundance of crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum) near wells, (2) residual effects of well construction, or (3) attraction of livestock to wells. Crested wheatgrass occurrence was higher near wells, but this did not explain effects of wells on vegetation structure. Correlations between distance to wells and litter depth were the highest near newer wells, providing support for the construction hypothesis. However, effects of distance to wells on other vegetation metrics did not decline as time since well construction increased, suggesting that other mechanisms explained observed edge effects. Cattle abundance was substantially higher near wells, and this effect corresponded with changes in habitat structure. Our results suggest that both residual effects of well construction and cattle behavior may explain effects of shallow gas wells on habitat structure in mixed-grass prairies, and thus, to be effective, mitigation strategies must address both mechanisms. PMID:25078539

  3. Entiat 4Mile WELLs Completion Report, 2006.

    SciTech Connect

    Malinowksi, Richard

    2007-01-01

    The Entiat 4-mile Wells (Entiat 4-mile) project is located in the Entiat subbasin and will benefit Upper Columbia steelhead, spring Chinook and bull trout. The goal of this project is to prevent juvenile fish from being diverted into an out-of-stream irrigation system and to eliminate impacts due to the annual maintenance of an instream pushup dam. The objectives include eliminating a surface irrigation diversion and replacing it with two wells, which will provide Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) with a Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) BiOp metric credit of one. Wells were chosen over a new fish screen based on biological benefits and costs. Long-term biological benefits are provided by completely eliminating the surface diversion and the potential for fish entrainment in a fish screen. Construction costs for a new fish screen were estimated at $150,000, which does not include other costs associated with implementing and maintaining a fish screening project. Construction costs for a well were estimated at $20,000 each. The diversion consisted of a pushup dam that diverted water into an off-channel pond. Water was then pumped into a pressurized system for irrigation. There are 3 different irrigators who used water from this surface diversion, and each has multiple water right claims totaling approximately 5 cfs. Current use was estimated at 300 gallons per minute (approximately 0.641 cfs). Some irrigated acreage was taken out of orchard production less than 5 years ago. Therefore, approximately 6.8 acre-feet will be put into the State of Washington Trust Water Right program. No water will be set aside for conservation savings. The construction of the two irrigation wells for three landowners was completed in September 2006. The Lower Well (Tippen/Wick) will produce up to 175 gpm while the Upper Well (Griffith) will produce up to 275 gpm during the irrigation season. The eight inch diameter wells were

  4. Leak Path Development in CO2 Wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torsater, M.; Todorovic, J.; Opedal, N.; Lavrov, A.

    2014-12-01

    Wells have in numerous scientific works been denoted the "weak link" of safe and cost-efficient CO2 Capture and Storage (CCS). Whether they are active or abandoned, all wells are man-made intrusions into the storage reservoir with sealing abilities depending on degradable materials like steel and cement. If dense CO2 is allowed to expand (e.g. due to leakage) it will cool down its surroundings and cause strong thermal and mechanical loading on the wellbore. In addition, CO2 reacts chemically with rock, cement and steel. To ensure long-term underground containment, it is therefore necessary to study how, why, where and when leakage occurs along CO2wells. If cement bonding to rock or casing is poor, leak paths can form already during drilling and completion of the well. In the present work, we have mapped the bonding quality of cement-rock and cement-steel interfaces - and measured their resistance towards CO2 flow. This involved a large experimental matrix including different rocks, steels, cement types and well fluids. The bonding qualities were measured on composite cores using micro computed tomography (µ-CT), and CO2 was flooded through the samples to determine leakage rates. These were further compared to numerical simulations of leakage through the digitalized µ-CT core data, and CO2chemical interactions with the materials were mapped using electron microscopy. We also present a new laboratory set-up for measuring how well integrity is affected by downhole temperature variations - and we showcase some initial results. Our work concludes that leak path development in CO2 wells depends critically on the drilling fluids and presflushes/spacers chosen already during drilling and completion of a well. Fluid films residing on rock and casing surfaces strongly degrade the quality of cement bonding. The operation of the well is also important, as even slight thermal cycling (between 10°C and 95°C on casing) leads to significant de-bonding of the annular cement.

  5. Computer analysis of digital well logs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, James H.

    1984-01-01

    A comprehensive system of computer programs has been developed by the U.S. Geological Survey for analyzing digital well logs. The programs are operational on a minicomputer in a research well-logging truck, making it possible to analyze and replot the logs while at the field site. The minicomputer also serves as a controller of digitizers, counters, and recorders during acquisition of well logs. The analytical programs are coordinated with the data acquisition programs in a flexible system that allows the operator to make changes quickly and easily in program variables such as calibration coefficients, measurement units, and plotting scales. The programs are designed to analyze the following well-logging measurements: natural gamma-ray, neutron-neutron, dual-detector density with caliper, magnetic susceptibility, single-point resistance, self potential, resistivity (normal and Wenner configurations), induced polarization, temperature, sonic delta-t, and sonic amplitude. The computer programs are designed to make basic corrections for depth displacements, tool response characteristics, hole diameter, and borehole fluid effects (when applicable). Corrected well-log measurements are output to magnetic tape or plotter with measurement units transformed to petrophysical and chemical units of interest, such as grade of uranium mineralization in percent eU3O8, neutron porosity index in percent, and sonic velocity in kilometers per second.

  6. Religiosity and psychological well-being.

    PubMed

    Leondari, Angeliki; Gialamas, Vasilios

    2009-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between religiosity and psychological well-being in a sample of Greek Orthodox Christians. Previous research has documented that personal devotion, participation in religious activities, and religious salience are positively associated with different criteria of psychological well-being. The sample (83 men and 280 women) with an age range from 18 to 48 years, was strongly skewed with respect to sex (77% female) and education level (95% were university students or university graduates). Religiosity was operationalized as church attendance, frequency of prayer and belief salience. In addition, a single item referring to beliefs about God was used. Depression, anxiety, loneliness, and general life satisfaction were selected as dependent variables because they reflect important dimensions of psychological well-being. Preliminary analyses showed that sex was significantly related to the three religiosity variables (church attendance, frequency of prayer, belief salience), with women being more religious than men. Consistent with previous research, correlations suggested that church attendance and belief salience were associated with better life satisfaction. The results of hierarchical regression analysis showed a significant positive association between anxiety and frequency of personal prayer. Finally, personal beliefs about God did not seem to relate to any of the psychological well-being measures. The results of the present study partially support the hypothesized association between religiosity and psychological well-being.

  7. A laboratory investigation of cementing horizontal wells

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, M.A.; Sabins, F.L. )

    1988-09-01

    Obtaining a successful cement job will remain one of the most important factors to the productive life of any well and will be especially critical for horizontal-well completions. Achieving a high mud-displacement efficiency under highly deviated or horizontal-well conditions requires that special attention be given to the many aspects of drilling/completion practices - e.g., drill-fluid systems and properties and casing and hole sizes - to obtain optimum mud displacement and cementing results. A study of factors affecting mud-displacement efficiency focused on cementing an ultralow-permeability formation that is being evaluated as a subject for horizontal completion. Realistic laboratory testing was conducted on a large-scale test model that has been used for many years to evaluate factors influencing drilling-fluid displacement efficiency. Factors evaluated for this study included influence of hold and pipe sizes, pipe centralization, displacement rates, and spacer systems. Findings from this study provided specific recommendations for low-permeability reservoirs that also can be applied to horizontally drilled wells. Various techniques for cementing horizonal wells will be discussed and general recommendations will be given.

  8. Worldwide experience shows horizontal well success

    SciTech Connect

    Karlsson, H.; Bitto, R.

    1989-03-01

    The convergence of technology and experience has made horizontal drilling an important tool in increasing production and solving a variety of completion problems. Since the early 1980s, horizontal drilling has been used to improve production on more than 700 oil and gas wells throughout the world. Approximately 200 horizontal wells were drilled in 1988 alone. Interest in horizontal drilling has been accelerating rapidly as service companies have developed and offered new technology for drilling and producing horizontal wells. Simultaneously, oil companies have developed better methods for evaluating reservoirs for potential horizontal applications, while their production departments have gained experience at completing and producing them. To date, most horizontal wells have been drilled in the United States. A major application is to complete naturally fractured formations, such as the Austin chalk in Texas, the Bakken shale in the Williston basin, the Spraberry in West Texas and the Devonian shale in the Eastern states. In addition, many horizontal wells have been drilled to produce the Niagaran reefs and the irregular Antrim shale reservoirs in Michigan.

  9. ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES FOR STRIPPER GAS WELL ENHANCEMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Charles M. Boyer II; Ronald J. MacDonald P.G.

    2002-01-01

    As part of Task 1 in Advanced Technologies for Stripper Gas Well Enhancement, Schlumberger-Holditch Reservoir Technologies (H-RT) has joined with two Appalachian Basin producers, Great Lakes Energy Partners, LLC, and Belden & Blake Corporation to develop methodologies for identification and enhancement of stripper wells with economic upside potential. These industry partners have provided us with data for more than 700 wells in northwestern Pennsylvania. Phase 1 goals of this project are to develop and validate methodologies that can quickly and cost-effectively identify wells with enhancement potential. We have continued to enhance and streamline our software, and we are testing the final stages of our new Microsoft{trademark} Access/Excel based software. We are continuing to process the information and are identifying potential candidate wells that can be used in Phase 2 to validate the new methodologies. In addition, preparation of the final technical report is underway. During this quarter, we have presented our project and discussed the software to numerous Petroleum Technology Transfer Council (PTTC) workshops located in various regions of the United States.

  10. Snubdrilling a new well in Venezuela

    SciTech Connect

    Aasen, J.

    1995-12-01

    A new well was successfully drilled using a snubbing jack. The drill bit was rotated using a rotary table, downhole motors and combination of the two. Expected high-pressure zones prompted this use of ``snubdrilling.`` The primary objective was to drill a vertical well through underlying sands and gain information about formation pressures. This data would aid in the drilling of a relief well using a conventional drilling rig. The secondary objective was to relieve pressure by putting this new well on production. In addition to special high-pressure drilling jobs, there are other drilling applications where snubbing jacks are a feasible alternative to conventional rotary drilling rigs or coiled tubing units. Slimhole, underbalanced and flow drilling, and sidetracking of existing wells are excellent applications for snubdrilling. Advantages of snubdrilling vs. coiled tubing drilling, include ability to rotate drillstrings, use high-torque downhole motors, pump at high rates and pressures, apply significant overpull in case of stuck pipe, and run casing and liners without rigging down. Shortcomings of drilling with snubbing jacks compared to coiled tubing are the need to stop circulation while making new connections and inability to run continuous cable inside workstrings.

  11. Optimal groundwater contamination monitoring using pumping wells.

    PubMed

    Shlomi, Shahar; Ostfeld, Avi; Rubin, Hillel; Shoemaker, Christine

    2010-01-01

    This study presents a new method for selecting monitoring wells for optimal evaluation of groundwater quality. The basic approach of this work is motivated by difficulties in interpolating groundwater quality from information collected for only few sampled wells. The well selection relies on other existing data relevant to contaminant distribution in the sampling domain, e.g. predictions of models which rely on past measurements. The objective of this study is to develop a method of selecting the optimal wells, from which measurements could best serve some external model, e.g. a kriging system for characterizing the entire plume distribution, a flow-and-transport model for predicting a future distribution, or an inverse model for locating contaminant sources or estimating aquifer parameters. The decision variable at each sampling round determines the specific wells to be sampled. The study objective is accomplished through a spatially-continuous utility density function (UDF) which describes the utility of sampling at every point. The entire methodology which utilizes the UDF in conjunction with a sampling algorithm is entitled the UDF method. By applying calculations in steady and unsteady state sampling domains the effectiveness of the UDF method is demonstrated.

  12. Thermometric well testing on the Vietnam offshore

    SciTech Connect

    San, T.N.; Shtyrlin, V.F.; Vakhitov, G.G.; Loi, L.M.; Listengarten, L.; Hien, D.L.

    1994-12-31

    It is impossible to control and adjust an oil and gas field development without determining the flow intervals of production wells. For that it is preferable to get production profiles by using the downhole flowmeter. There are, however, some main restrictions for wide-spread application of them on the offshore of Vietnam as follows: the flowmeter spinner velocity cannot indicate correctly in the open hole wells having a nonuniform diameter; it is unable to carry out in the case when the tubing shoe is lower than top formation on 300--500m. In this paper, the authors present a summary of temperature profile method to determine the flowing and intaking intervals of wells drilled in basement of the White Tiger Field on Vietnam offshore. For the last 2 years more than 30 wells were surveyed by this method in the above mentioned conditions. This paper presents the theory and practice of well temperature profile surveys, the concrete examples of data interpretation using the software Oiltest.

  13. Survey of rural, private wells. Statistical design

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mehnert, Edward; Schock, Susan C.; ,

    1991-01-01

    Half of Illinois' 38 million acres were planted in corn and soybeans in 1988. On the 19 million acres planted in corn and soybeans, approximately 1 million tons of nitrogen fertilizer and 50 million pounds of pesticides were applied. Because groundwater is the water supply for over 90 percent of rural Illinois, the occurrence of agricultural chemicals in groundwater in Illinois is of interest to the agricultural community, the public, and regulatory agencies. The occurrence of agricultural chemicals in groundwater is well documented. However, the extent of this contamination still needs to be defined. This can be done by randomly sampling wells across a geographic area. Key elements of a random, water-well sampling program for regional groundwater quality include the overall statistical design of the program, definition of the sample population, selection of wells to be sampled, and analysis of survey results. These elements must be consistent with the purpose for conducting the program; otherwise, the program will not provide the desired information. The need to carefully design and conduct a sampling program becomes readily apparent when one considers the high cost of collecting and analyzing a sample. For a random sampling program conducted in Illinois, the key elements, as well as the limitations imposed by available information, are described.

  14. Photovoltaic driven multiple quantum well optical modulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maserjian, Joseph (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    Multiple quantum well (MQW) structures (12) are utilized to provide real-time, reliable, high-performance, optically-addressed spatial-light modulators (SLM) (10). The optically-addressed SLM comprises a vertical stack of quantum well layers (12a) within the penetration depth of an optical write signal 18, a plurality of space charge barriers (12b) having predetermined tunneling times by control of doping and thickness. The material comprising the quantum well layers has a lower bandgap than that of the space charge barrier layers. The write signal modulates a read signal (20). The modulation sensitivity of the device is high and no external voltage source is required. In a preferred embodiment, the SLM having interleaved doped semiconductor layers for driving the MQW photovoltaically is characterized by the use of a shift analogous to the Moss-Burnstein shift caused by the filling of two-dimensional states in the multiple quantum wells, thus allowing high modulation sensitivity in very narrow wells. Arrays (30) may be formed with a plurality of the modulators.

  15. The social context of well-being.

    PubMed

    Helliwell, John F; Putnam, Robert D

    2004-09-29

    Large samples of data from the World Values Survey, the US Benchmark Survey and a comparable Canadian survey are used to estimate equations designed to explore the social context of subjective evaluations of well-being, of happiness, and of health. Social capital, as measured by the strength of family, neighbourhood, religious and community ties, is found to support both physical health and subjective well-being. Our new evidence confirms that social capital is strongly linked to subjective well-being through many independent channels and in several different forms. Marriage and family, ties to friends and neighbours, workplace ties, civic engagement (both individually and collectively), trustworthiness and trust: all appear independently and robustly related to happiness and life satisfaction, both directly and through their impact on health.

  16. Subsurface steam sampling in Geysers wells

    SciTech Connect

    Lysne, P.; Koenig, B.; Hirtz, P.; Normann, R.; Henfling, J.

    1997-01-01

    A new downhole sampling tool has been built for use in steam wells at The Geysers geothermal reservoir. The tool condenses specimens into an initially evacuated vessel that is opened down hole at the direction of an on-board computer. The tool makes a temperature log of the well as it is deployed, and the pressure and temperature of collected specimens are monitored for diagnostic purposes. Initial tests were encouraging, and the Department of Energy has funded an expanded effort that includes data gathering needed to develop a three-dimensional model of The Geysers geochemical environment. Collected data will be useful for understanding the origins of hydrogen chloride and non-condensable gases in the steam, as well as tracking the effect of injection on the composition of produced steam. Interested parties are invited to observe the work and to join the program.

  17. Geothermal well drilling manual at Cerro Prieto

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez P., A.; Flores S., M.

    1982-08-10

    The objective of the drilling manual is to solve all problems directly related to drilling during the construction of a well. In this case, the topics dealt which are drilling fluids and hydraulics to be applied in the field to improve drilling progress, eliminate risks and achieve good well-completion. There are other topics that are applicable such as drill bits and the drilling string, which are closely linked to drilling progress. On this occasion drilling fluid and hydraulics programs are presented, in addition to a computing program for a Casio FX-502P calculator to be applied in the field to optimize hydraulics and in the analysis of hydraulics for development and exploration wells at their different intervals.

  18. Unconventional neutron sources for oil well logging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frankle, C. M.; Dale, G. E.

    2013-09-01

    Americium-Beryllium (AmBe) radiological neutron sources have been widely used in the petroleum industry for well logging purposes. There is strong desire on the part of various governmental and regulatory bodies to find alternate sources due to the high activity and small size of AmBe sources. Other neutron sources are available, both radiological (252Cf) and electronic accelerator driven (D-D and D-T). All of these, however, have substantially different neutron energy spectra from AmBe and thus cause significantly different responses in well logging tools. We report on simulations performed using unconventional sources and techniques to attempt to better replicate the porosity and carbon/oxygen ratio responses a well logging tool would see from AmBe neutrons. The AmBe response of these two types of tools is compared to the response from 252Cf, D-D, D-T, filtered D-T, and T-T sources.

  19. Treatment of well tubulars with gelatin

    SciTech Connect

    Lowther, F.E.

    1992-08-04

    This patent describes a method for treating a tubular in a well. It comprises: passing a mass of gelatin downward through the tubular; and passing the mass of gelating, upward in the well tubular toward the surface. This patent also describes a method of treating tubulars in a cased well having at least one string of tubing therein. It comprises positioning a mass in the annulus formed between the casing and the at least one string of tubing; and passing the mass downward in the annulus and in contact with both the inner wall of the casing and the outer wall of the tubing to deposit a protective layer on each of the walls.

  20. Maximize revenue from gas condensate wells

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, S.R. )

    1988-09-01

    A computerized oil/gas modeling program called C.O.M.P. was used to analyze comparative recovery, losses and revenues from six different producing systems on a given wellstream as tested on initial completion. A multi-stage separation/stabilization/compression system (HERO system) manufactured by U.S. Enertek, Inc., was subsequently installed to produce the well, plus five other wells in the immediate area. This article compares theoretical gains forecast by the modeling program with actual gains recorded during later testing of the same well with a two-stage separation hookup and the multi-stage unit. The test using two-stage separation was run as a basis for comparison. Operating temperatures and pressures for each test are shown.

  1. Strained quantum well photovoltaic energy converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freundlich, Alexandre (Inventor); Renaud, Philippe (Inventor); Vilela, Mauro Francisco (Inventor); Bensaoula, Abdelhak (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    An indium phosphide photovoltaic cell is provided where one or more quantum wells are introduced between the conventional p-conductivity and n-conductivity indium phosphide layer. The approach allows the cell to convert the light over a wider range of wavelengths than a conventional single junction cell and in particular convert efficiently transparency losses of the indium phosphide conventional cell. The approach hence may be used to increase the cell current output. A method of fabrication of photovoltaic devices is provided where ternary InAsP and InGaAs alloys are used as well material in the quantum well region and results in an increase of the cell current output.

  2. Overbalance perforating and stimulation method for wells

    SciTech Connect

    Dees, J.M.; Handren, P.J.; Jupp, T.B.

    1992-07-21

    This patent describes a method for decreasing the resistance to fluid flow in a subterranean formation around a well having unpreforated casing fixed therein, the casing extending at least partially through the formation. It comprises providing a liquid in the casing opposite the formation to be treated; placing perforating means in the casing at a depth opposite the formation to be treated; injecting gas into the well until the pressure in the liquid opposite the formation to be treated will be at least as large as the fracturing pressure of the formation when the liquid pressure is applied to the formation; activating the perforating means; and at a time before pressure in the well at the depth of the formation to be treated has substantially decreased, injecting fluid at an effective rate to fracture the formation.

  3. Extreme overbalance perforating improves well performance

    SciTech Connect

    Dees, J.M.; Handren, P.J.

    1994-01-01

    The application of extreme overbalance perforating, by Oryx Energy Co., is consistently outperforming the unpredictable, tubing-conveyed, underbalance perforating method which is generally accepted as the industry standard. Successful results reported from more than 60 Oryx Energy wells, applying this technology, support this claim. Oryx began this project in 1990 to address the less-than-predictable performance of underbalanced perforating. The goal was to improve the initial completion efficiency, translating it into higher profits resulting from earlier product sales. This article presents the concept, mechanics, procedures, potential applications and results of perforating using overpressured well bores. The procedure can also be used in wells with existing perforations if an overpressured surge is used. This article highlights some of the case histories that have used these techniques.

  4. Mental health and global well-being.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Peter; Jané-Llopis, Eva

    2011-12-01

    A range of evidence-based, cost-effective interventions can be implemented in parenting, at schools, at the workplace and in older age to promote mental health and well-being. Such programmes need to be supplemented with actions to build mental health capital and promote resilience to manage and cope with the global risks that face humankind over the coming years. Actions need to connect mental and physical health and individuals need to be connected through health-promoting social networks; living environments need to be designed to support mental health and well-being; well-being indicators that include material living conditions, quality of life and sustainability can help drive healthy public policy. There is an urgent need to invest in skills training in decision-making, social interactions, building trust and cooperative behaviour that support the family of humanity as a whole as it faces the unprecedented stressors resulting from climate change. PMID:22079934

  5. Well-test data from geothermal reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Bodvarsson, M.G.; Benson, S.M.

    1982-09-01

    Extensive well testing in geothermal resources has been carried out throughout the western United States and in northern Mexico since 1975. Each resource tested and each well test conducted by LBL during the eight-year period are covered in brief. The information, collected from published reports and memoranda, includes test particulars, special instrumentation, data interpretation when available, and plots of actual data. Brief geologic and hydrologic descriptions of the geothermal resources are also presented. The format is such that well test descriptions are grouped, in the order performed, into major sections according to resource, each section containing a short resource description followed by individual test details. Additional information regarding instrumentation is provided. Source documentation is provided throughout to facilitate access to further information and raw data.

  6. Investigation of well redevelopment techniques for the MWD Well Field, Savannah River Site, South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Kroening, D.E.; Snipes, D.S.; Falta, R.W.; Benson, S.M. . Dept. of Earth Sciences); Janssen, J. )

    1994-03-01

    Clemson University, in cooperation with the Savannah River Site (SRS) is investigating well treatment techniques at the Mixed Waste Disposal (MWD) Well Field at SRS. This well field consists of fifteen wells screened in three aquifers with a downward trending head gradient. Based on aquifer performance tests of the MWD wells, it has been determined that many of the wells exhibit low well efficiencies and high skin factors, indicative of damaged wells. Bacterial investigations show that the biological activity in these wells is low, probably due to a high pH environment. Evaluation of the Calcite Saturation Index for each well indicates that nearly all of the MWD wells have the potential for precipitating calcite and calcite deposits have been observed on downhole equipment. The calcite deposits may occur due to the dissolution of the grout mixtures by waters infiltrating down the well annulus driven by the downward head gradient with subsequent precipitation of calcite in the higher pH sand pack. Well rehabilitation techniques currently under investigation include acidification, hydraulic fracturing and traditional physical methods. In addition to treating the wells at MWD, the authors plan to perform aquifer performance tests and evaluate post-treatment skin factors. Further research into the long term effects of well treatment will be conducted, focusing on long term chemical changes brought about by the treatments.

  7. Batch treatment controls corrosion in pumping wells

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, S.; Doran, C.R.

    1984-02-01

    Conoco recently developed a batch treatment program to control corrosion in sucker rod pumped wells. The program was intended to prolong equipment life, reduce pulling jobs and cut operating costs. Tested on MCA Unit near Maljamar in southeast New Mexico, and since applied to more than 400 producing wells near Hobbs, the new program has been remarkably successful. Pulling jobs, which had totaled 178 a year at MCA Unit, dropped to 50 a year, reduced inhibitor requirements cut treatment costs by an estimated $6,100 per month and production increased.

  8. Tide effects removed from well tests

    SciTech Connect

    Aase, E.P.B.; Jelmert, T.A.; Vik, S.A.

    1995-05-01

    To avoid distorted data when analyzing well pressure tests of permeable offshore reservoirs, one needs to account for periodic ocean tidal stress. Quartz-crystal bottom hole pressure recorders provide a high resolution of reservoir pressure but also measures pressure fluctuations from tidal effects during well testing. Periodic oscillations in the reservoir pressure are due to the three mechanisms: solid earth tide; barometric tide/effect; and ocean tide. The paper uses sample data from an offshore reservoir to illustrate how tide effects can be identified in the data and the correction procedure to use to remove these effects.

  9. The power of integrating consumerism and wellness.

    PubMed

    William, C Sharon; Tacker, Linh

    2010-01-01

    One aspect in our troubling economy that seems to be flourishing is the growing number of employers implementing consumer-driven health (CDH) plans and wellness programs. This article describes the primary areas of participant behavior that consumerism seeks to change and the fundamental factors a "consumer-focused" health care strategy must include. The authors outline issues employers must address when designing a successful incentive program and its accompanying communications strategy. A case study of a company that has a 70% enrollment rate in its CDH plans shows how an integrated consumerism and wellness strategy can slow the rate of health care cost increases for both the employee and employer. PMID:20608110

  10. The power of integrating consumerism and wellness.

    PubMed

    William, C Sharon; Tacker, Linh

    2010-01-01

    One aspect in our troubling economy that seems to be flourishing is the growing number of employers implementing consumer-driven health (CDH) plans and wellness programs. This article describes the primary areas of participant behavior that consumerism seeks to change and the fundamental factors a "consumer-focused" health care strategy must include. The authors outline issues employers must address when designing a successful incentive program and its accompanying communications strategy. A case study of a company that has a 70% enrollment rate in its CDH plans shows how an integrated consumerism and wellness strategy can slow the rate of health care cost increases for both the employee and employer.

  11. Well Spoken: Teaching Speaking to All Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Erik

    2011-01-01

    All teachers at all grade levels in all subjects have speaking assignments for students, but many teachers believe they don't know how to teach speaking, and many even fear public speaking themselves. In his new book, "Well Spoken", veteran teacher and education consultant Erik Palmer shares the art of teaching speaking in any classroom. Teachers…

  12. Well waters fluoride in Enugu, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ogbu, I Si; Okoro, O Io; Ugwuja, E I

    2012-04-01

    Abnormal fluoride levels in drinking water have been associated with adverse health effects. To determine the fluoride content of well waters in Enugu, southeastern Nigeria, water samples from 50 artisan wells chosen by multistage sampling procedure from the 5 zones of Enugu municipality were analyzed in duplicates for their fluoride content. The zonal mean values were 0.60, 0.70, 0.62, 0.62, and 0.63 mg/L for Abakpa Nike, Achara Layout, Obiagu/ Ogui, Trans Ekulu and Uwani, respectively (p<0.05). The mean value for the whole city was 0.63 mg/L. Although, the mean level of fluoride recorded in this study is currently within safe limits (1.5 mg/L, WHO 2011), it is important to monitor continuously the fluoride content of well waters in the municipality in view of the increasing industrial activities going on in the city and heavy reliance on well water for domestic purposes and the widespread use of consumer products containing fluoride. PMID:23022857

  13. Finding the Way for Getting to Wellness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchanan, Bruce

    2005-01-01

    Faced with child obesity rates that have reached record highs, schools across America will soon go on a fitness plan prescribed by Congress. The wellness mandate requires districts that participate in the federal school lunch program to have a policy in place by the start of the 2006-2007 school year. The law is not nearly as far-reaching as the…

  14. JCE Resources for Chemistry: Health and Wellness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobsen, Erica K.

    2004-01-01

    Many simple actions such as eating or reaching for a pain reliever, which we perform without thinking, are tied to chemistry. The American Chemical Society has capitalized on this ubiquitousness with their chosen theme for National Chemistry Week (NCW) 2004: "Health and Wellness."

  15. Incentives, Choice, Education and Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Barry

    2009-01-01

    It is a truism that giving people multiple reasons to engage in some activity will increase the chances of that activity--that two reasons are better than one. It is another truism, in the developed, Western world, that more freedom brings more well-being, and that more choice brings more freedom. In education, these truisms have led to the use of…

  16. 7 CFR 51.571 - Well trimmed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Well trimmed. 51.571 Section 51.571 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF...

  17. 7 CFR 51.571 - Well trimmed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Well trimmed. 51.571 Section 51.571 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF...

  18. 7 CFR 51.607 - Well trimmed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Well trimmed. 51.607 Section 51.607 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF...

  19. 7 CFR 51.607 - Well trimmed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Well trimmed. 51.607 Section 51.607 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF...

  20. H. G. Wells and Peace Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlichtmann, Klaus

    2007-01-01

    H. G. Wells produced some of the best literature and practical ideas on peace, providing essential clues for achieving a mutually beneficial federal human unity through an "Open Conspiracy", as he put it, i.e. an intellectual and political transformation, and a revolution in education. It is possible to abolish war and ensure lasting human…

  1. Marginal Expense Oil Well Wireless Surveillance (MEOWWS)

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Donald G.

    2002-03-11

    The objective of this study was to identify and field test a new, low cost, wireless oil well surveillance system. A variety of suppliers and technologies were considered. One supplier and system was chosen that was low cost, new to the oil field, and successfully field tested.

  2. Well Screen Analysis Report Reveiw and Recommendations

    EPA Science Inventory

    Personnel at the EPA Ground Water and Ecosystems Restoration Division (GWERD) of the National Risk Management Research Laboratory were requested by the EPA Region 6 to review current revisions of documents describing the assessment of the impacts of well drilling practices at the...

  3. African American Women Counselors, Wellness, and Spirituality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knowles, Debora; Bryant, Rhonda M.

    2011-01-01

    Given their tremendous professional responsibilities, professional counselors face daunting challenges to remaining healthy and avoiding role stress and overload. This article explores the intersection of race, gender, wellness, and spirituality in the self-care of African American women counselors. The authors give particular attention to…

  4. Flexible tubing production system for well installation

    SciTech Connect

    Walling, J. B.

    1984-10-16

    An improved system for lifting formation fluid from a well bore to a surface facility is disclosed. Rigid production tubing and sucker rods are replaced by flexible, composite production tubing in which a production conduit, power conductors, signal conductors, hydraulic/pneumatic conduits and a load-bearing tension member are enclosed by a flexible, tubular covering. The load-bearing member of the flexible production tubing is mechanically coupled to a submersible pump. The pump includes driving means such as an electrical motor, hydraulic motor or pneumatic motor which is driven downhole by electrical or hydraulic/pneumatic power transmitted through auxiliary conduits in the flexible production tubing. The flexible production tubing is wound about a truck-mounted reel for convenient transport to and from a well site. A submersible pump is attached to the end of the flexible tubing and is played out from the reel through the well casing to the producing formation. Withdrawal of the pump from the well is accomplished by taking up the flexible production tubing around the truck-mounted reel.

  5. Wellness health care and the architectural environment.

    PubMed

    Verderber, S; Grice, S; Gutentag, P

    1987-01-01

    The stress management-wellness health care environment is emerging as a distinct facility type in the 1980s. Yet the idea is not a new one, with roots based in the Greek Asklepieon dating from 480 B.C. This and later Western transformations for health promotion embraced the therapeutic amenity inherent in meditation, solace and communality with nature based on the premise that the need for refuge from the stress inherent in one's daily life is deep-rooted in humans. A two-phase study is reported on wellness health care provider priorities, relative to the architectural features of stress-wellness centers. Representatives of 11 health care organizations responded to a telephone survey questionnaire, and 128 respondents completed a user needs questionnaire. Four major issues were addressed: image and appearance, location and setting, services provided and costs, and patterns of use. Convenience to one's place of work, a balanced mixture of clinical and nonclinical programs, a noninstitutional retreat-like environment, and membership cost structures were found to be major user considerations with respect to planning and design concepts for wellness health care environments. Directions for further research are discussed.

  6. Persuasion = Stating and Arguing Claims Well

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapp, Diane; Fisher, Douglas

    2012-01-01

    Inside a ninth-grade classroom, we witness one teacher's very intentional instructional attempts that resulted in her students being able to convey well-crafted reasoning and text-supported evidence to mount persuasive arguments. Through personal examples and Internet resources, the teacher concretized pathos, logos, and ethos. The teacher and…

  7. Sports Drove Silva to Teach Wellness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deschenie, Tina

    2008-01-01

    This article profiles teacher Leroy Silva (Laguna), 27, a.k.a. "Buster". Silva describes himself as an active guy who stays busy working out, playing basketball, softball, and more recently golf, soccer, and lacrosse. He teaches personal wellness and sports (not physical education), a job he began in 2006. Before that he was a trainer at the…

  8. Subjective Well-Being among University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuzgol Dost, Meliha

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of subjective well-being to gender, perceived economic status, perceived parental attitudes, satisfaction with physical appearance, religious belief, and locus of control among university students. The sample of the study consisted of 700 university students of Hacettepe University during…

  9. Career Construction and Subjective Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartung, Paul J.; Taber, Brian J.

    2008-01-01

    Experienced happiness and reported life contentment represent cardinal elements of subjective well-being (SWB). Achieving happiness and contentment with work and other domains, such as love, play, and community, constitute fundamental life goals. Career construction offers a developmental theory of vocational behavior and a career assessment and…

  10. Avoiding Faculty Burnout through the Wellness Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eastman, Wayne

    Burnout affects all professions but tends to be more pervasive in the human service occupations such as education. Symptoms include dissatisfaction, negativism, boredom, unpreparedness, testiness, frequent illness, forgetfulness, depression, and tiredness. The wellness approach can lessen or prevent burnout in a community college setting. Centered…

  11. Child Well-Being as Human Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wulczyn, Fred

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the author explores how the general principles of child development intersect with the emerging interest in child well-being as an outcome for children who come in contact with the child welfare system. Drawing on the idea of trajectories within the life course perspective, the author also borrows on the notion of human capital.…

  12. Author Profile: An Interview with Rosemary Wells.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marantz, Sylvia; Marantz, Ken

    1999-01-01

    This interview with author and illustrator Rosemary Wells focuses on her picture books for children. Topics include reading aloud, saving and retelling the classics, influences on her work, page-design preferences, emotional content, the development process, working with other illustrators, and material from other cultures. (LRW)

  13. Use of Select Nutrients to Foster Wellness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassel, Russell N.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses how to be healthy through one's diet. Lists 20 nutrients necessary for one's well being and explains role of each nutrient. Describes how nutrients complement one another and asserts that the right combination of nutrients can sometimes substitute for medication. Also lists 20 diagnostic categories of problems and suggests nutrients to…

  14. Well-Prepared Teachers Inspire Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pecheone, Raymond L.; Whittaker, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    This is an era of transformation in the preparation, induction, and assessment of prospective teachers. The tension between local and state control is at the heart of the debate. States should be responsible for establishing performance standards that ensure that new teachers are well-prepared, competent, and ready to teach. This is why the…

  15. Wellness of Minority Female Counselor Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shillingford, M. Ann; Trice-Black, Shannon; Butler, S. Kent

    2013-01-01

    Minority female counselor educators are faced with numerous challenges. This qualitative study revealed that for female minority counselor educators, these challenges continue to negatively affect their professional and personal experiences. It is through operational wellness practices and optimal balance and functioning that minority female…

  16. A Comprehensive Wellness Program for International Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Millard J.; Ozaki, Roger H.

    This document presents a model wellness program for international college students in the United States and strategies to aid them in staying healthy during their stay. It notes that, without parents or other support groups, international students run the risk of developing serious health problems because of inadequate diet and sleep, substandard…

  17. Health Wellness and Hospital Learning Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bromberg, Bonnie; And Others

    This paper describes activities conducted by an early childhood classroom in its health play center. A major purpose of this play center was to reduce children's fears and anxieties about medical personnel and emergency vehicles, and to raise awareness of the many aspects of health and wellness. The classroom environment contained a variety of…

  18. Monitoring well systems in geothermal areas

    SciTech Connect

    Lofgren, B.E.; O'Rourke, J.; Sterrett, R.; Thackston, J.; Fain, D.

    1982-03-01

    The ability to monitor the injection of spent geothermal fluids at reasonable cost might be greatly improved by use of multiple-completion techniques. Several such techniques, identified through contact with a broad range of experts from the groundwater and petroleum industries, are evaluated relative to application in the typical geologic and hydrologic conditions of the Basin and Range Province of the Western United States. Three basic monitor well designs are suggested for collection of pressure and temperature data: Single standpipe, multiple standpipe, and closed-system piezometers. A fourth design, monitor well/injection well dual completions, is determined to be inadvisable. Also, while it is recognized that water quality data is equally important, designs to allow water sampling greatly increase costs of construction, and so such designs are not included in this review. The single standpipe piezometer is recommended for use at depths less than 152 m (500 ft); several can be clustered in one area to provide information on vertical flow conditions. At depths greater than 152 m (500 ft), the multiple-completion standpipe and closed-system piezometers are likely to be more cost effective. Unique conditions at each monitor well site may necessitate consideration of the single standpipe piezometer even for deeper completions.

  19. Method of gravel packing a well

    SciTech Connect

    Almond, S. W.; Himes, R. E.

    1985-11-12

    The present invention relates to a thermally stable crosslinked gel gravel packing fluid for use in the treatment of highly deviated well bores penetrating a subterranean formation. The gravel packing fluid comprises an aqueous liquid, a gelling agent comprising a selected modified cellulose ether, a crosslinking agent, a breaker, a particulate agent and any additional additives that may be present.

  20. The Subjective Well-Being of Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ishii-Kuntz, Masako; Ihinger-Tallman, Marilyn

    1991-01-01

    Using a national sample of Americans, compared effects of marital and parental status on three domains of well-being (marital quality, parental satisfaction, and global life satisfaction) by examining three types of parents: first-married biological parents, remarried biological parents, and stepparents. First-married biological parents reported…

  1. Does Globalization Affect Human Well-Being?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Ming-Chang

    2007-01-01

    The prevailing theorizing of globalization's influence of human well-being suggests to assess both the favorable and unfavorable outcomes. This study formulates a dialectical model, adopts a comprehensive globalization measure and uses a three-wave panel data during 1980-2000 to empirically test direct and indirect effects of global flows' human…

  2. Constructing and exploring wells of energy landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubin, Jean-Pierre; Lesne, Annick

    2005-04-01

    Landscape paradigm is ubiquitous in physics and other natural sciences, but it has to be supplemented with both quantitative and qualitatively meaningful tools for analyzing the topography of a given landscape. We here consider dynamic explorations of the relief and introduce as basic topographic features "wells of duration T and altitude y." We determine an intrinsic exploration mechanism governing the evolutions from an initial state in the well up to its rim in a prescribed time, whose finite-difference approximations on finite grids yield a constructive algorithm for determining the wells. Our main results are thus (i) a quantitative characterization of landscape topography rooted in a dynamic exploration of the landscape, (ii) an alternative to stochastic gradient dynamics for performing such an exploration, (iii) a constructive access to the wells, and (iv) the determination of some bare dynamic features inherent to the landscape. The mathematical tools used here are not familiar in physics: They come from set-valued analysis (differential calculus of set-valued maps and differential inclusions) and viability theory (capture basins of targets under evolutionary systems) that have been developed during the last two decades; we therefore propose a minimal Appendix exposing them at the end of this paper to bridge the possible gap.

  3. School Wellness in a Rural Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramson, Richard A.

    2008-01-01

    The list of issues confronting education leaders today seems to be growing longer, with school wellness being pushed to the forefront by the surge in childhood obesity rates. Whether walking the halls of the schools or the local shopping mall, it is easy to see why society needs to adopt healthier lifestyles. That is why more community leaders,…

  4. Spectroscopy of GaAs quantum wells

    SciTech Connect

    West, L.C.

    1985-07-01

    A new type of optical dipole transition in GaAs quantum wells has been observed. The dipole occurs between two envelope states of the conduction band electron wavefunction, and is called a quantum well envelope state transition (QWEST). The QWEST is observed by infrared absorption in three different samples with quantum well thicknesses 65, 82, and 92 A and resonant energies of 152, 121, and 108 MeV, respectively. The oscillator strength is found to have values of over 12, in good agreement with prediction. The linewidths are seen as narrow as 10 MeV at room temperature and 7 MeV at low temperature, thus proving a narrow line resonance can indeed occur between transitions of free electrons. Techniques for the proper growth of these quantum well samples to enable observation of the QWEST have also been found using (AlGa)As compounds. This QWEST is considered to be an ideal material for an all optical digital computer. The QWEST can be made frequency matched to the inexpensive Carbon Dioxide laser with an infrared wavelength of 10 microns. The nonlinearity and fast relaxation time of the QWEST indicate a logic element with a subpicosecond switch time can be built in the near future, with a power level which will eventually be limited only by the noise from a lack of quanta to above approximately 10 microwatts. 64 refs., 35 figs., 6 tabs.

  5. Flow tests of the Willis Hulin well

    SciTech Connect

    Randolph, P.L.; Hayden, C.G.; Rogers, L.A.

    1992-02-01

    The Hulin well was tested between 20,100 and 20,700 feet down in layers of brine-saturated clean sand with occasional intervening layers of shale. The characteristics of the brine and gas were determined in this interval and an initial determination of the reservoir properties were made.

  6. Geochemistry of the Lathrop Wells volcanic center

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, F.V.; Straub, K.T.

    1996-03-01

    Over 100 samples have been gathered from the Lathrop Wells volcanic center to assess different models of basalt petrogenesis and constrain the physical mechanisms of magma ascent in the Yucca Mountain region. Samples have been analyzed for major and trace-element chemistry, Nd, Sr and Ph isotopes, and mineral chemistry. All eruptive units contain olivine phenocrysts, but only the oldest eruptive units contain plagioclase phenocrysts. Compositions of minerals vary little between eruptive units. Geochemical data show that most of the eruptive units at Lathrop Wells defined by field criteria can be distinguished by major and trace-element chemistry. Normative compositions of basalts at Lathrop Wells correlate with stratigraphic position. The oldest basalts are primarily nepheline normative and the youngest basalts are exclusively hypersthene normative, indicating increasing silica saturation with time. Trace-element and major-element variations among eruptive units are statistically significant and support the conclusion that eruptive units at Lathrop Wells represent separate and independent magma batches. This conclusion indicates that magmas in the Yucca Mountain region ascend at preferred eruption sites rather than randomly.

  7. Health and Wellness Begin with You.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Karla A.

    1997-01-01

    The seven habits of healthy camp directors and staff members include setting realistic goals; developing positive health habits such as eating well-balanced meals, getting plenty of rest, and exercising regularly; setting time aside for daily solitude; practicing relaxation techniques; developing a social support system; maintaining a positive…

  8. Infrared Multiple-Quantum-Well Phototransistor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borenstain, Shmuel I.

    1992-01-01

    Proposed npn AlxGa1-xAs phototransistor incorporates multiple-quantum-well (MQW) infrared photodetector. Has n-doped contacts and is embedded between p-doped base region and n-doped collector region of transistor. Photocurrent amplified, and dark current suppressed.

  9. Improving Indicators of Child Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stagner, Matthew; Goerge, Robert; Ballard, Pete

    2009-01-01

    This report makes a number of recommendations on new directions for the development of child well-being indicators. For developmental transitions throughout early childhood, the authors call for standardizing birth records across states, collecting additional data at immunization visits, and creating common assessments at kindergarten entry. For…

  10. Subsea well with retrievable piping deck

    SciTech Connect

    Pokladnik, R.L.; Valka, W.A.

    1984-03-27

    An apparatus and method for drilling and completing a subsea well located at the seabed using a retrievable piping deck. The apparatus includes a template supported on the seabed, the retrievable piping deck supported on the template, a plurality of wellheads supported on the template and a plurality of Christmas trees supported on the wellheads. The piping deck has preinstalled flow lines and hydraulic lines to conduct well fluid from the Christmas trees to the surface and to conduct hydraulic control fluid from the surface to the trees. In addition to the Christmas trees, a well fluid manifold and a gaseous-liquid component separator can be supported on the template. The fluid connections between the Christmas trees and the hydraulic and flow lines and between the manifold and separator and the hydraulic and flow lines are accomplished by vertically oriented stab-in connectors. After installation of the template and drilling of the wells, the piping deck is lowered independently to the template and coupled thereto and then the Christmas trees and manifold-separator are lowered to the template and into fluid communication with the piping deck hydraulic and flow lines.

  11. Promoting wellness of peer providers through coaching.

    PubMed

    Brice, George H; Swarbrick, Margaret A; Gill, Kenneth J

    2014-01-01

    Peer wellness coaching is workforce innovation that empowers individuals with mental and substance use disorders to achieve recovery. This article briefly describes how this approach can help peer providers develop self-care skills to improve job tenure and promote satisfaction. Promising results of this new approach are presented.

  12. Government Partisanship and Human Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsubayashi, Tetsuya; Ueda, Michiko

    2012-01-01

    This paper shows that the partisan composition of government is strongly related to the well-being of citizens, measured by the reported level of life satisfaction and suicide rates in industrial countries. Our analysis, using survey data of 14 nations between 1980 and 2002, shows that the presence of left-leaning parties in government is…

  13. 76 FR 76295 - Anchorage Regulations; Wells, ME

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-07

    ... rulemaking (NPRM) entitled ``Anchorage Regulations; Wells, Maine'' in the Federal Register (76 FR 52599). We... understanding the rule so that they could better evaluate its effects on them and participate in the rulemaking... under Executive Order 13132, Federalism, if it has a substantial direct effect on State or...

  14. Read Well. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2006

    2006-01-01

    "Read Well" is a research-based reading curriculum designed to improve student literacy. This program includes explicit, systematic instruction in English decoding, sustained practice of decoding skills and fluency, and instruction in vocabulary and concepts presented in text. It also provides support for English language learner (ELL) students…

  15. Evaluating the Effectiveness of "Read Well Kindergarten"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunn, Barbara; Smolkowski, Keith; Vadasy, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    This article reports the outcomes of an experimental evaluation of "Read Well Kindergarten" (RWK), a program that focuses on the development of vocabulary, phonological awareness, alphabetic understanding, and decoding. Kindergarten teachers in 24 elementary schools in New Mexico and Oregon were randomly assigned, by school, to teach RWK or their…

  16. School Wellness Policies: Opportunities for Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoxie-Setterstrom, Gail; Hoglund, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    School districts are required to comply with a 2004 federal mandate to guide nutrition and physical activity environments of schools by developing and implementing wellness policies. The purposes of this article are to (a) discuss the implications of the federal mandate and (b) analyze policies from nine school districts in one large suburban…

  17. Indian Wells Valley FORGE Aeromagnetic Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Doug Blankenship

    1994-11-01

    Aeromagnetic data was collected over the Indian Wells Valley, CA in November 1994. It consisted of 9,033 line-kilometers covering ~4,150 square kilometers, flown at a 250 meter drape with principal line spacing of 0.54 kilometers and 10% cross-lines. The principal orientation is N65E.

  18. Electron Confinement in Cylindrical Potential Well

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baltenkov, A. S.; Msezane, A. Z.

    2016-05-01

    We show that studying the solutions of the wave equation for an electron confined in a cylindrical potential well offers the possibility to analyze the confinement behavior of an electron executing one- or two-dimensional motion in the remaining three-dimensional space within the framework of the same mathematical model of the potential well. Some low-lying electronic states with different symmetries are considered and the corresponding wave functions are calculated. The behavior of their nodes and their peak positions with respect to the parameters of the cylindrical well is analyzed. Additionally, the momentum distributions of electrons in these states are calculated. The limiting cases of the ratio of the cylinder length H to its radius R0 are considered; when H significantly exceeds R0 and when R0 is much greater than H. The possible application of the results obtained here for the description of the general features in the behavior of electrons in nanowires with metallic type of conductivity (or nanotubes) and ultrathin epitaxial films (or graphene sheets) are discussed. Possible experiments are suggested as well where the quantum confinement can be manifested. Work supported by the Uzbek Foundation (ASB) and by the U.S. DOE, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences and Biosciences, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Office of Energy Research (AZM).

  19. An Update: The Cardiac Wellness Training Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zinn, Lorraine; Long, Patrick

    1983-01-01

    This article reports on the scope of activities and the effectiveness of a Colorado program that trained community park and recreation personnel to carry out local cardiac wellness services. Participants were trained to provide rehabilitation and fitness activities for those recovering from heart attacks or surgery and for other high-risk persons.…

  20. Consortium for Petroleum & Natural Gas Stripper Wells

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, Joel

    2011-12-01

    The United States has more oil and gas wells than any other country. As of December 31, 2004, there were more than half a million producing oil wells in the United States. That is more than three times the combined total for the next three leaders: China, Canada, and Russia. The Stripper Well Consortium (SWC) is a partnership that includes domestic oil and gas producers, service and supply companies, trade associations, academia, the Department of Energy’s Strategic Center for Natural Gas and Oil (SCNGO) at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), and the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA). The Consortium was established in 2000. This report serves as a final technical report for the SWC activities conducted over the May 1, 2004 to December 1, 2011 timeframe. During this timeframe, the SWC worked with 173 members in 29 states and three international countries, to focus on the development of new technologies to benefit the U.S. stripper well industry. SWC worked with NETL to develop a nationwide request-for-proposal (RFP) process to solicit proposals from the U.S. stripper well industry to develop and/or deploy new technologies that would assist small producers in improving the production performance of their stripper well operations. SWC conducted eight rounds of funding. A total of 132 proposals were received. The proposals were compiled and distributed to an industry-driven SWC executive council and program sponsors for review. Applicants were required to make a formal technical presentation to the SWC membership, executive council, and program sponsors. After reviewing the proposals and listening to the presentations, the executive council made their funding recommendations to program sponsors. A total of 64 projects were selected for funding, of which 59 were fully completed. Penn State then worked with grant awardees to issue a subcontract for their approved work. SWC organized and hosted a total of 14 meetings