Science.gov

Sample records for 10-acre infill wells

  1. Application of integrated reservoir management and reservoir characterization to optimize infill drilling. Quarterly technical progress report, September 13--December 12, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-12

    Eighteen 10-acre infill wells have been drilled and completed as part of the Field Demonstration phase of the project at the North Robertson (Clearfork) Unit (NRU). The fourteen producing wells are pumped-off and producing at stable rates. The four injection wells are completed and have been on injection for three to four weeks. Current Unit production is approximately 3,400 STBO/D, of which approximately 900 STBO/D is being produced from the 10-acre infill wells. A change in the Statement of Work has been approved so that additional 10-acre infill wells can be drilled and/or 20-acre producing wells can be converted to injection during the next quarter as budget constraints and rig availability allow. Technical progress is described for the quarter in many related areas: implementation of the field demonstration; reservoir characterization; reservoir management activities and performance analysis; reservoir simulation; and technology transfer.

  2. Application of Integrated Reservoir Management and Reservoir Characterization to Optimize Infill Drilling.

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-15

    A total of 18 wells, 14 producers and 4 injection wells, were drilled and completed during the Field Demonstration portion of the project. These 18 wells are all currently in service, with the producing wells going on-line between May and September 1996, and the injection wells going into service between August and December 1996. Current Unit production is approximately 3,100 BOPD, of which approximately 800 BOPD is being contributed from the 14 Project 10-acre producing wells (Figure 1). A revision in the Statement of Work was approved to allow for the drilling of additional 10-acre infill wells or injection well conversions as budget constraints allow.

  3. Application of Integrated Reservoir Management and Reservoir Characterization to Optimize Infill Drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Fina Oil and Chemical Company

    1999-11-03

    The eighteen 10-acre infill wells which were drilled as part of the field demonstration portion of the project are all currently in service with no operational problems. These wells consist of fourteen producing wells and four injection wells. The producing wells are currently producing a total of approximately 376 bopd, down from a peak rate of 900 bopd. The four injection wells are currently injecting a total of 140 bwipd. Unit production is currently averaging approximately 2,600 bopd, 12,000 bwpd and 18,000 bwipd.

  4. Application of integrated reservoir management and reservoir characterization to optimize infill drilling. Quarterly technical progress report, September 13--December 12, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-07-01

    The eighteen 10-acre infill wells which were drilled as part of the field demonstration portion of the project are all currently in service with no operational problems. These wells consist of fourteen producing wells and four injection wells. The producing wells are currently producing a total of approximately 450 bopd, down from a peak rate of 900 bopd. Unit production is currently averaging approximately 2,700 bopd, 12,000 bwpd and 18,000 bwipd. The paper describes progress on hydraulic fracture design, reservoir surveillance, data analysis procedures, and deterministic modeling and simulation.

  5. Boston Infill Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stull, Don; Heder, Lajos

    Concepts and recommendations are presented regarding a proposed system of dispersed classroom clusters or 'infill schools'. These small independent urban schools would be housed in prefabricated structures developed for infill housing in Boston. The infill unit uses pre-designed building components and can be constructed in a few weeks. The infill…

  6. Behavior of infilled frames

    SciTech Connect

    Flanagan, R.D.; Tenbus, M.A.; Bennett, R.M.; Jamal, B.D.

    1992-09-21

    A review of current analytical methods for infilled frame behavior is conducted. A subset of these methods are applied to experimental results. Parametric studies are used to find the sensitivity of the behavior to various parameters. In-plane loading, out-of-plane inertial loading, out-of-plane interstory drift loading, and combined loadings are examined. Particular reference is made to clay tile infilled frames, and the behavior of clay tile in compression.

  7. Application of integrated reservoir management and reservoir characterization to optimize infill drilling. Quarterly technical progress report, March 13--June 12, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-31

    The eighteen 10-acre infill wells which were drilled as part of the field demonstration portion of the project are all currently in service with no operational problems. These wells consist of fourteen producing wells and four injection wells. The producing wells are currently producing a total of approximately 650 bopd, down from a peak rate of 900 bopd. Unit production is currently averaging approximately 3,000 bopd, 12,000 bwpd and 18,000 bwipd. The paper describes progress in core analysis, reservoir surveillance, well stimulation, validation of reservoir characterization (includes thin section analyses, depositional environments, and paleontologic analysis), material balance decline curve analysis, and validation of reservoir simulation (includes geostatistical and deterministic).

  8. Application of integrated reservoir management and reservoir characterization to optimize infill drilling. Quarterly technical progress report, June 13--September 12, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-31

    The eighteen 10-acre infill wells which were drilled as part of the field demonstration portion of the project are all currently in service with no operational problems. These wells consist of fourteen producing wells and four injection wells. The producing wells are currently producing a total of approximately 500 bopd, down from a peak rate of 900 bopd. Unit production is currently averaging approximately 2,800 bopd, 12,000 bwpd and 17,000 bwipd. The paper describes progress on core analysis, gas-oil/oil-gas permeability tests, water-oil/oil-water permeability tests, water-gas permeability tests, electrical resistivity measurements, capillary pressure tests, reservoir surveillance, and paleontologic analysis.

  9. Infill development in an old field

    SciTech Connect

    New, K.T.C.; Slik, P.; Tan, B.C. )

    1988-01-01

    The Seria field, on the North Western coastline of Borneo, South East Asia, has been in production since 1930 and up to now some 34% of STOIIP has been produced by 760 wells. Ultimate Recovery, estimated from extrapolation of performance is 39% of STOIIP. This paper outlines the approach followed in planning of infill drilling and presents a recent experience for the Seria West (SW) block and three other blocks of field.

  10. Masonry infill performance during the Northridge earthquake

    SciTech Connect

    Flanagan, R.D.; Bennett, R.M.; Fischer, W.L.; Adham, S.A.

    1996-03-08

    The response of masonry infills during the 1994 Northridge, California earthquake is described in terms of three categories: (1) lowrise and midrise structures experiencing large near field seismic excitations, (2) lowrise and midrise structures experiencing moderate far field excitation, and (3) highrise structures experiencing moderate far field excitation. In general, the infills provided a positive beneficial effect on the performance of the buildings, even those experiencing large peak accelerations near the epicenter. Varying types of masonry infills, structural frames, design conditions, and construction deficiencies were observed and their performance during the earthquake indicated. A summary of observations of the performance of infills in other recent earthquakes is given. Comparison with the Northridge earthquake is made and expected response of infill structures in lower seismic regions of the central and eastern United States is discussed.

  11. Uniform lateral load capacity of infilled frames

    SciTech Connect

    Flanagan, R.D.; Bennett, R.M.

    1993-11-11

    Three tests were conducted on 2.4 meter by 2.4 meter steel frames infilled with structural clay tile to determine the behavior and capacity when subjected to uniform lateral loads. An air bag was used to apply the out-of-plane loads. The walls were subjected to increasing load-unload cycles until virtual destruction of the infill. Cracking in the mortar joints occurred early in the tests, and then the primary load resisting mechanism was arching of the infilled panel. Typically, vertical arching occurred until failure of the top and bottom course tiles. Following failure of these courses, horizontal arching developed enabling the walls to maintain stability.

  12. Potential of infill drilling to increase Devonian shale gas reserves in the Appalachian Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Layne, A.W.

    1989-01-01

    This report presents results of two studies to evaluate the potential of infill drilling as a production strategy in the Devonian shales. This study (Volume 2) uses data evolved during the Eastern Gas Shales research program to compile gas-in-place estimates and to analyze key production mechanisms. Each of the three states was partitioned into areas based on key geological parameters and tectonophysics that established the natural stress and fracture regimes. Within these partitioned areas, a simulation study of infill drilling was conducted to determine the impact of reduced well spacing on 40-year cumulative gas production. In this approach, one, three, and five infill wells were randomly located in a field of five existing wells that had been producing for 20 years. After 20 years of well production, the well recovery for each simulated infill well was evaluated. 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  13. Infilling of Vector Collision-Sequence Interference Dips in Collision-Induced Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courtenay Lewis, John

    2014-11-01

    The vector interference dip most clearly seen in the fundamental collision-induced band of H2 and H2 mixtures at densities upward of 20amagat, is well known to persist at densities down to 1 amagat. However, At lower densities it is not seen. Lewis and Herman gave a theory of this infilling. In this work we approach the problem from the simple statistical models for collision-induced absorption introduced by Lewis in 2000 and subsequently much elaborated. The statistical model shows infilling, but rather than a uniformly infilling dip the model shows a small central peak forming in the dip, then broadening with increasing amplitude.

  14. Effect of URM infills on seismic vulnerability of Indian code designed RC frame buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haldar, Putul; Singh, Yogendra; Paul, D. K.

    2012-03-01

    Unreinforced Masonry (URM) is the most common partitioning material in framed buildings in India and many other countries. Although it is well-known that under lateral loading the behavior and modes of failure of the frame buildings change significantly due to infill-frame interaction, the general design practice is to treat infills as nonstructural elements and their stiffness, strength and interaction with the frame is often ignored, primarily because of difficulties in simulation and lack of modeling guidelines in design codes. The Indian Standard, like many other national codes, does not provide explicit insight into the anticipated performance and associated vulnerability of infilled frames. This paper presents an analytical study on the seismic performance and fragility analysis of Indian code-designed RC frame buildings with and without URM infills. Infills are modeled as diagonal struts as per ASCE 41 guidelines and various modes of failure are considered. HAZUS methodology along with nonlinear static analysis is used to compare the seismic vulnerability of bare and infilled frames. The comparative study suggests that URM infills result in a significant increase in the seismic vulnerability of RC frames and their effect needs to be properly incorporated in design codes.

  15. OPTIMIZATION OF INFILL DRILLING IN NATURALLY-FRACTURED TIGHT-GAS RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence W. Teufel; Her-Yuan Chen; Thomas W. Engler; Bruce Hart

    2004-05-01

    A major goal of industry and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) fossil energy program is to increase gas reserves in tight-gas reservoirs. Infill drilling and hydraulic fracture stimulation in these reservoirs are important reservoir management strategies to increase production and reserves. Phase II of this DOE/cooperative industry project focused on optimization of infill drilling and evaluation of hydraulic fracturing in naturally-fractured tight-gas reservoirs. The cooperative project involved multidisciplinary reservoir characterization and simulation studies to determine infill well potential in the Mesaverde and Dakota sandstone formations at selected areas in the San Juan Basin of northwestern New Mexico. This work used the methodology and approach developed in Phase I. Integrated reservoir description and hydraulic fracture treatment analyses were also conducted in the Pecos Slope Abo tight-gas reservoir in southeastern New Mexico and the Lewis Shale in the San Juan Basin. This study has demonstrated a methodology to (1) describe reservoir heterogeneities and natural fracture systems, (2) determine reservoir permeability and permeability anisotropy, (3) define the elliptical drainage area and recoverable gas for existing wells, (4) determine the optimal location and number of new in-fill wells to maximize economic recovery, (5) forecast the increase in total cumulative gas production from infill drilling, and (6) evaluate hydraulic fracture simulation treatments and their impact on well drainage area and infill well potential. Industry partners during the course of this five-year project included BP, Burlington Resources, ConocoPhillips, and Williams.

  16. Application of Integrated Reservoir management and Reservoir Characterization to Optimize Infill Drilling

    SciTech Connect

    B. Pregger; D. Davies; D. Moore; G. Freeman; J. Callard; J.W. Nevans; L. Doublet; R. Vessell; T. Blasingame

    1997-08-31

    Infill drilling if wells on a uniform spacing without regard to reservoir performance and characterization foes not optimize reservoir development because it fails to account for the complex nature of reservoir heterogeneities present in many low permeability reservoirs, and carbonate reservoirs in particular. New and emerging technologies, such as geostatistical modeling, rigorous decline curve analysis, reservoir rock typing, and special core analysis can be used to develop a 3-D simulation model for prediction of infill locations.

  17. Application of Integrated Reservoir Management and Reservoir Characterization to Optimize Infill Drilling

    SciTech Connect

    1998-03-12

    Infill drilling if wells on a uniform spacing without regard to reservoir performance and characterization foes not optimize reservoir development because it fails to account for the complex nature of reservoir heterogeneities present in many low permeability reservoirs, and carbonate reservoirs in particular. New and emerging technologies, such as geostatistical modeling, rigorous decline curve analysis, reservoir rock typing, and special core analysis can be used to develop a 3-D simulation model for prediction of infill locations.

  18. Seismic Response of In-filled Fractures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acosta-Colon, A. A.; Pyrak-Nolte, L. J.; Olander, M.

    2008-12-01

    Current and ancient karsts environments contain mechanical discontinuities, such as fractures, pipes and caves that range in size from a few millimeters to several meters. These discontinuities are either unfilled, partially-filled or completely in-filled with sediments that range in size from a few microns (clays) to meters (boulders). Sediment within a fracture creates a sub-porosity that quite clearly affects fracture porosity, permeability and storativity. This study investigates the affect of a sub-porosity on the seismic response of in-filled fractures and consequently our ability to probe changes in the subsurface caused by the deposition or erosion of a sub-porosity. Experiments were performed to study the seismic response of a water-saturated fracture filled with sediments (acrylic spheres). The experimental setup consisted of a synthetic fracture created by the separation of two acrylic (Lucite) cylinders. The separation of the fracture was controlled by using computer-controlled linear actuators that incremented the aperture of the fracture in 50 μm steps over a distance of 20 mm. The fracture was water-saturated and filled with acrylic spheres (grains). The spheres ranged in size from 250 microns to 7.79 mm. Several different grain packings were used to infill the fracture. The packings included single layer and multiple layers with a single grain size, and layers composed of multiple grain sizes. Compressional and shear waves were propagated across the fracture using contact piezoelectric transducers (central frequency of 1 MHz) to send and receive the signal. A water-saturated fracture with no grains was used as a standard. The infill material affected the phase, spectral content and velocity of the transmitted compressional wave because of acoustic scattering and wave interference within the infill layer. To study these differences, a time-frequency analysis was performed to determine velocity dispersion and the spectral content of the waves. The

  19. Flow rate decline of steam wells in fractured geothermal reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Bodvarsson, G.S.; Witherspoon, P.A.

    1985-01-01

    Decline curves are commonly used at The Geysers geothermal field to assess the generating capacity of a producing lease. It is generally assumed that wells will initially be drilled using 40-acre (400 m) spacing, with infill drilling used later to provide additional producing wells as needed. It is commonly believed that the final well spacing should not be less than 10 acres (200 m). Decline curves are used with this approach to estimate the number of make-up wells during a project lifetime (up to 30 years), as well as the appropriate plant size (MWe). A rather simple two-dimensional model was used to investigate the factors that control flow rate decline in steam wells. The effects of parameters such as fracture spacing and permeability are considered, as well as the effects of permeability, porosity and initial liquid saturation in the rock matrix. Also, the conventional P/z method that is commonly used in analyzing gas well production is investigated in terms of its applicability to fractured vapor dominated systems.

  20. Infilling missing hydrological data - methods and consequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bardossy, A.; Pegram, G. G.

    2013-12-01

    Hydrological observations are often incomplete - equipment malfunction, transmission errors and other technical problems lead to unwanted gaps in observation time series. Furthermore, due to financial and organizational problems, many observation networks are in continuous decline. As an ameliorating stratagem, short time gaps can be filled using information from other locations. The statistics of abandoned stations provide useful information for the process of extending records. In this contribution the authors present different methods for infilling gaps using: - nearest neighbours - simple and multiple linear regression - black box methods (fuzzy and neural nets) - Expectation Maximization - Copula based estimation The methods are used at different time scales for infilling precipitation from daily through pentads and months to years. The copula based estimation provides not only an estimator for the expected value, but also a probability distribution for each of the missing values. Thus the method can be used for conditional simulation of realizations. Observed precipitation data from the Cape region in South Africa are used to illustrate the intercomparison of the methodologies. The consequences of using [or not using] infilling and data extension are illustrated using a hydrological modelling example from South-West Germany.

  1. Tender mooring for infill drilling operations: A case study

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    The Tapis-pump platform is a four-leg jacket structure located 230 ft south of the Tapis-D platform and connected to it by a walkway bridge. All crude production (360,000 B/D) from Esso Production Malaysia Inc. (EPMI) wells in the South China Sea offshore Terengganu is piped to the Tapais-pump platform for pumping to an onshore terminal. The continuous operation of this platform is essential. The Tapis-D platform is a manned production platform that also acts as a central communication center and emergency response command center for EPMI`s offshore operations in the South China Sea. A total of nine wells is planned for an infill drilling program at the Tapis-D platform. The rig selected for this infill drilling program is a self-erecting tender-assisted rig that uses an eight-point wire rope mooring system. Eleven pipelines are connected to the Tapis-pump/Tapis-D platform complex. All the pipelines were laid on the seafloor without any special external protection and were not tied down or anchored. The paper describes the planning of the mooring system for drilling.

  2. Large-scale testing of structural clay tile infilled frames

    SciTech Connect

    Flanagan, R.D.; Bennett, R.M.

    1993-03-18

    A summary of large-scale cyclic static tests of structural clay tile infilled frames is given. In-plane racking tests examined the effects of varying frame stiffness, varying infill size, infill offset from frame centerline, and single and double wythe infill construction. Out-of-plane tests examined infilled frame response to inertial loadings and inter-story drift loadings. Sequential in-plane and out-of-plane loadings were performed to determine the effects of orthogonal damage and degradation on both strength and stiffness. A combined out-of-plane inertial and in-plane racking test was conducted to investigate the interaction of multi-directional loading. To determine constitutive properties of the infills, prism compression, mortar compression and various unit tile tests were performed.

  3. Seismic safety assessment of existing masonry infill structures in Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaulagain, Hemchandra; Rodrigues, Hugo; Spacone, Enrico; Varum, Humberto

    2016-06-01

    Reinforced concrete (RC) buildings in Nepal are constructed with RC frames and masonry infill panels. These structures exhibit a highly non-linear inelastic behavior resulting from the interaction between the panels and frames. This paper presents an extensive case study of existing RC buildings in Nepal. Non-linear analyses were performed on structural models of the buildings considered as a bare frame and with masonry infill, in order to evaluate the influence of infill walls on the failure mechanisms. Five three-storey buildings with different structural configurations and detailing were selected. The effect of masonry infill panels on structural response was delineated by comparing the bare-framed response with the infill response. Seismic performance is evaluated with regard to global strength, stiffness, energy dissipation, inter-storey drift, and total deflection of the structure. A parametric analysis of structures with masonry infill is also performed. For this, the influence of different material properties is studied, namely diagonal compressive stress, modulus of elasticity and tensile stress of masonry infill panels. Study results show that masonry infill increases the global strength and stiffness of the structures; it decreases the inter-storey drift and hence the total displacement of the structure. The results quantify the influence of the infill panels on structural response and, in particular, the effect of the diagonal compressive strength of the masonry wall.

  4. Horizontal spacing, depletion, and infill potential in the Austin Chalk

    SciTech Connect

    Kyte, D.G.; Meehan, D.N.

    1996-12-31

    There have been more than 4500 laterals drilled in the Austin Chalk. This paper looks at estimated ultimate recoveries (EUR) on a barrels/acre basis for these Austin Chalk wells. Baffels/acre recoveries were computed by estimating ultimate per-well recoveries, drilled density and the impact of vertical production. The data were then analyzed for depletion and infill potential. Certain areas were selected for further study using an artificial neural network. The network was built and used to study the effects of parameters such as lateral length, first production date, structure of the Austin Chalk, etc. on these recoverable barrel/acre numbers. The methodology and regional results of the study are reviewed with detailed analyses shown in selected areas.

  5. No-infill 3D Printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Xiao-Ran; Zhang, Yu-He; Geng, Guo-Hua

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we examined how printing the hollow objects without infill via fused deposition modeling, one of the most widely used 3D-printing technologies, by partitioning the objects to shell parts. More specifically, we linked the partition to the exact cover problem. Given an input watertight mesh shape S, we developed region growing schemes to derive a set of surfaces that had inside surfaces that were printable without support on the mesh for the candidate parts. We then employed Monte Carlo tree search over the candidate parts to obtain the optimal set cover. All possible candidate subsets of exact cover from the optimal set cover were then obtained and the bounded tree was used to search the optimal exact cover. We oriented each shell part to the optimal position to guarantee the inside surface was printed without support, while the outside surface was printed with minimum support. Our solution can be applied to a variety of models, closed-hollowed or semi-closed, with or without holes, as evidenced by experiments and performance evaluation on our proposed algorithm.

  6. 5. DETAIL OF MUD INFILL (MIXED WITH STRAW), LATHS AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. DETAIL OF MUD INFILL (MIXED WITH STRAW), LATHS AND STRUCTURAL COMPONENTS (CORNER POST, SILL AND STUD), SOUTHEAST CORNER OF EAST SIDE OF ORIGINAL SECTION. - Thomas Threlkeld House, Benson Pike, Shelbyville, Shelby County, KY

  7. 58. THIRD LEVEL, WORKING HOUSE SECTION, DETAIL OF INFILLED CONVEYOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    58. THIRD LEVEL, WORKING HOUSE SECTION, DETAIL OF INFILLED CONVEYOR WHICH LED TO STANDARD MILL; LOOKING NORTH - Northwestern Consolidated Elevator "A", 119 Fifth Avenue South, Minneapolis, Hennepin County, MN

  8. Strength and stiffness reduction factors for infilled frames with openings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Decanini, Luis D.; Liberatore, Laura; Mollaioli, Fabrizio

    2014-09-01

    Framed structures are usually infilled with masonry walls. They may cause a significant increase in both stiffness and strength, reducing the deformation demand and increasing the energy dissipation capacity of the system. On the other hand, irregular arrangements of the masonry panels may lead to the concentration of damage in some regions, with negative effects; for example soft story mechanisms and shear failures in short columns. Therefore, the presence of infill walls should not be neglected, especially in regions of moderate and high seismicity. To this aim, simple models are available for solid infills walls, such as the diagonal no-tension strut model, while infilled frames with openings have not been adequately investigated. In this study, the effect of openings on the strength and stiffness of infilled frames is investigated by means of about 150 experimental and numerical tests. The main parameters involved are identified and a simple model to take into account the openings in the infills is developed and compared with other models proposed by different researchers. The model, which is based on the use of strength and stiffness reduction factors, takes into account the opening dimensions and presence of reinforcing elements around the opening. An example of an application of the proposed reduction factors is also presented.

  9. Holocene Infilling History of Tampa Bay, Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, G. R.; Larson, R. A.; Cronin, T.; Willard, D.

    2007-05-01

    Tampa Bay is a shallow, sediment-starved estuary located along the central Florida Gulf coast. Based upon sedimentologic, biostratigraphic, and geochronologic analyses of 120 sediment cores and 190 surface sediment samples, karst-controlled basins located in the mid to upper estuary were found to contain a continuous sedimentary record documenting the Holocene sea-level rise and infilling history. The basal unit sampled in cores consists of organic-rich and/or carbonate-rich sediments containing freshwater fauna. Interpreted as lake deposits, the surficial sediments of these units were dated at approximately 8-9 ka suggesting that isolated sinkhole lakes occupied the region prior to being flooded by the Holocene sea-level rise. Overlying the lake deposits, dm-scale, organic-rich muds containing brackish water fauna, represent the transition from fresh to marine conditions as sea level flooded the region. The flooding surface itself is generally undefined, but sometimes represented by a mm-scale layer of shell fragments likely representing a lag deposit. Age dates bracketing this layer show that flooding occurred approximately 6-7 ka. Overlying sediments consist of 3-4 m of organic-rich, sandy muds with typical estuarine fauna. Age dates from the base of this unit indicate estuarine conditions became established approximately 5.5-6 ka. The modern expression of karst basins is a series of shallow, bathymetric depressions, likely reflecting the historically slow rate (0.030-0.065 cm/yr) of fine- grained sediment accumulation. These shallow depressions continue to function as fine-grained sediment sinks, but are now rapidly filling as the rate of accumulation has dramatically increased by approximately one order-of-magnitude (0.16-0.32 cm/yr) within the past 100 years, likely due to human activities.

  10. Infilling missing precipitation records - A comparison of a new copula-based method with other techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bárdossy, András; Pegram, Geoffrey

    2014-11-01

    Infilling missing data might be an unpleasant and tedious task, but is necessary for analysis and water resources management, so it should not be done in a lackadaisical manner. The important thing about the infilled values is that they need to be as good as possible, because poor infilling is likely to lead to poor decisions. Traditionally, a range of methods is routinely employed, e.g. Nearest Neighbor substitution through to Kriging, but few methods attach a quality estimate to the infilled values. In this paper a new copula based method is developed for infilling missing daily and monthly rain gauge data and is compared against six other commonly used methods, in a semi-arid environment with a range of rain-rates and interstation distances, in the Southern Cape region of South Africa. For daily data it is clear that the copula-based methods are superior to the others in terms of point estimation and have the added benefit of providing an estimate of the precision of the interpolation, not provided by the others. In our case, the addition of atmospheric circulation patterns designed to add information for infilling has a relatively small positive effect on the quality of the estimation. The main reason for this is that a small number of wet days does not allow a good estimation of the conditional distribution of precipitation amounts; we note that the average probability of a dry day in this region is 86%. An improvement of the estimate of the probability of a dry day was however observed. In other regions, with a higher number of wet days, an atmospheric Circulation Pattern (CP) based method is likely to lead to further improvements. Using copula-based methods, the estimated probabilities of a dry day correspond well to the observed frequencies of dry days. The monthly data yield the same conclusion, with the qualification that the Expectation Maximisation [EM] algorithm performs as well as the copula method (because of the low count of dry months in this

  11. Numerical analysis for in-plane behavior of infilled frames

    SciTech Connect

    Jamal, B.D.; Bennett, R.M. . Dept. of Civil Engineering); Flanagan, R.D. )

    1992-02-27

    A nonlinear finite element study was conducted for the Y-12 Plant to evaluate the in-plane behavior of masonry infilled steel frames. ABAQUS was used to develop the finite element model and perform a parametric analysis. The model was verified by comparing the results with the experimental program series carried out at the University of Brunswick, Canada. The initial stiffness could be matched using an elastic model with an interface element. The ultimate load could be matched using the ABAQUS nonlinear concrete model for the infill. A softened interface was used to account for the localized mortar crushing that tends to occur at the corners of infilled frames. This model was used to match the secant stiffness at approximately 50% of the ultimate load. A parametric study was performed on the initial stiffness. Results indicated that an appropriate equivalent strut could closely match the behavior.

  12. SMART GROWTH: INFILL DEVELOPMENT ALONG A MULTILANE TRANSIT CORRIDOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Infill development along transit corridors is a key element of smart growth, and revitalization of older, low and moderate income neighborhoods and their business districts is an important smart growth strategy. In many such neighborhoods and business districts, the principal ...

  13. Numerical methods for analysis of clay tile infills

    SciTech Connect

    Flanagan, R.D.; Tenbus, M.A.; Bennett, R.M.

    1993-10-20

    Recent Department of Energy requirements have led to a comprehensive evaluation of the industrial facilities at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The structures consist of simply connected steel frames infilled with structural clay tile walls. The objective of the evaluation was to determine the stability of the unreinforced infills, and whether they provide the lateral capacity necessary to resist the moderate seismic hazard at the site. Due to lack of information on the behavior of structural clay tile infills, various large-scale tests were performed to investigate the in-plane, out-of-plane and combined in-plane and out-of-plane behavior. The results of these tests are briefly summarized, and the development of analytical guidelines based on these tests is given. Little interaction between in-plane and out-of-plane loads was observed, both in terms of stiffness and strength. Out-of-plane stability can be examined panel by panel based on arching action. Inter-story drift does not appear to present a stability problem for the type of infill construction investigated. In-plane behavior may be adequately modeled with a nonlinear compression strut. A typical building is chosen for an illustrative application. The methodology and results of the seismic analysis are presented for this structure.

  14. View from intersection. Ninestory reinforced concrete building infilled with brick. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View from intersection. Nine-story reinforced concrete building infilled with brick. The street facades on beaubien and east grand are faced with stone accents and elaborate brick work. Brick pilasters run the entire height of the building. Steel tiebacks are apparent running up the height of the building on the east side. The large tower appears at the northeast and southeast corners - Detroit Storage Company, 2937 East Grand Boulevard, Detroit, MI

  15. Robust, functional nanocrystal solids by infilling with atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yao; Gibbs, Markelle; Perkins, Craig L.; Tolentino, Jason; Zarghami, Mohammad H.; Bustamante, Jr., Jorge; Law, Matt

    2011-12-14

    Thin films of colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) are inherently metatstable materials prone to oxidative and photothermal degradation driven by their large surface-to-volume ratios and high surface energies. The fabrication of practical electronic devices based on NC solids hinges on preventing oxidation, surface diffusion, ripening, sintering, and other unwanted physicochemical changes that can plague these materials. Here we use low-temperature atomic layer deposition (ALD) to infill conductive PbSe NC solids with metal oxides to produce inorganic nanocomposites in which the NCs are locked in place and protected against oxidative and photothermal damage. Infilling NC field-effect transistors and solar cells with amorphous alumina yields devices that operate with enhanced and stable performance for at least months in air. Furthermore, ALD infilling with ZnO lowers the height of the inter-NC tunnel barrier for electron transport, yielding PbSe NC films with electron mobilities of 1 cm² V-1 s-1. Our ALD technique is a versatile means to fabricate robust NC solids for optoelectronic devices.

  16. Lacunae infills for in situ treatment of historic glazed tiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendes, Marta T.; Esteves, Lurdes; Ferreira, Teresa A.; Candeias, António; Tennent, Norman H.; Rodrigues, José Delgado; Pereira, Sílvia R. M.

    2016-05-01

    Knowledge of current conservation materials and methods together with those adopted in the past is essential to aid research and improve or develop better conservation options. The infill and painting of tile lacunae are subjected to special requirements mainly when used in outdoor settings. A selection of the most commonly used materials was undertaken and performed based on inquiries to practitioners working in the field. The infill pastes comprised organic (epoxy, polyester), inorganic (slaked lime, hydraulic lime and zinc hydroxychloride) and mixed organic-inorganic (slaked lime mixed with a vinylic resin) binders. The selected aggregates were those most commonly used or those already present in the commercially formulated products. The infill pastes were characterised by SEM, MIP, open porosity, water absorption by capillarity, water vapour permeability, thermal and hydric expansibilities and adhesion to the ceramic body. Their performance was assessed after curing, artificial ageing (salt ageing and UV-Temp-RH cycles) and natural ageing. The results were interpreted in terms of their significance as indicators of effectiveness, compatibility and durability.

  17. Evaluation and analysis of the performance of masonary infills during the Northridge earthquake

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, R.M.; Fischer, W.L.; Flanagan, R.D.; Tenbus, M.A.

    1996-02-01

    Observations were made of the behavior of masonry infills in structural frames during the Northridge earthquake, and an analytical technique was developed for analyzing infilled frame structures. Infills near the epicenter suffered significant damage, but in several cases contributed to the seismic resistance and life safety performance. Older infill buildings in downtown Los Angeles experienced intensity of shaking similar to that expected in central/eastern United States earthquakes. The infills experienced some cracking, but otherwise complemented the lateral resistance of the weak building frames. This suggests infill frame buildings in moderate seismic zones may provide at least life safety functions without the need for expensive retrofit. A developed analytical technique was used to analyze two buildings for which the observed behavior and records from the Northridge earthquake were available. The analytical technique was based on using a piecewise linear equivalent strut for the infill. Parameters for the strut were obtained by examining the results of a wide variety of experimental infill tests. The strut method is easy to incorporate in standard linear analyses, and converges quite rapidly. The strut method was applied to two structures that had records from the Northridge earthquake. Very favorable comparisons between the analytical method and observed response were obtained. Recommendations were made concerning evaluation of the vulnerability of infills to earthquakes, and the construction of infills.

  18. Efficient infill sampling for unconstrained robust optimization problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehman, Samee Ur; Langelaar, Matthijs

    2016-08-01

    A novel infill sampling criterion is proposed for efficient estimation of the global robust optimum of expensive computer simulation based problems. The algorithm is especially geared towards addressing problems that are affected by uncertainties in design variables and problem parameters. The method is based on constructing metamodels using Kriging and adaptively sampling the response surface via a principle of expected improvement adapted for robust optimization. Several numerical examples and an engineering case study are used to demonstrate the ability of the algorithm to estimate the global robust optimum using a limited number of expensive function evaluations.

  19. Retrofit of hollow concrete masonry infilled steel frames using glass fiber reinforced plastic laminates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hakam, Zeyad Hamed-Ramzy

    2000-11-01

    This study focuses on the retrofit of hollow concrete masonry infilled steel frames subjected to in-plane lateral loads using glass fiber reinforced plastic (GFRP) laminates that are epoxy-bonded to the exterior faces of the infill walls. An extensive experimental investigation using one-third scale modeling was conducted and consisted of two phases. In the first phase, 64 assemblages, half of which were retrofitted, were tested under various combined in-plane loading conditions similar to those which different regions of a typical infill wall are subjected to. In the second phase, one bare and four masonry-infilled steel frames representative of a typical single-story, single-bay panel were tested under diagonal loading to study the overall behavior and the infill-frame interaction. The relative infill-to-frame stiffness was varied as a test parameter by using two different steel frame sections. The laminates altered the failure modes of the masonry assemblages and reduced the variability and anisotropic nature of the masonry. For the prisms which failed due to shear and/or mortar joint slip, significant strength increases were observed. For those exhibiting compression failure modes, a marginal increase in strength resulted. Retrofitting the infilled frames resulted in an average increase in initial stiffness of two-fold compared to the unretrofitted infilled frames, and seemed independent of the relative infill-to-frame stiffness. However, the increase in the load-carrying capacity of the retrofitted frames compared to the unretrofitted counterparts was higher for those with the larger relative infill-to-frame stiffness parameter. Unlike the unretrofitted infill walls, the retrofitted panels demonstrated almost identical failure modes that were characterized as "strictly comer crushing" in the vicinity of the loaded comers whereas no signs of distress were evident throughout the remainder of the infill. The laminates also maintained the structural integrity of

  20. Influence of Reservoir Infill on Coastal Deep Water Hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Linker, Lewis C; Batiuk, Richard A; Cerco, Carl F; Shenk, Gary W; Tian, Richard; Wang, Ping; Yactayo, Guido

    2016-05-01

    Ecological restoration of the Chesapeake through the Chesapeake Bay total maximum daily load (TMDL) requires the reduction of nitrogen, phosphorus, and sediment loads in the Chesapeake watershed because of the tidal water quality impairments and damage to living resources they cause. Within the Chesapeake watershed, the Conowingo Reservoir has been filling in with sediment for almost a century and is now in a state of near-full capacity called . The development of the Chesapeake TMDL in 2010 was with the assumption that the Conowingo Reservoir was still effectively trapping sediment and nutrients. This is now known not to be the case. In a TMDL, pollutant loads beyond the TMDL allocation, which are brought about by growth or other conditions, must be offset. Using the analysis tools of the Chesapeake TMDL for assessing the degree of water quality standard attainment, the estimated nutrient and sediment loads from a simulated dynamic equilibrium infill condition of the Conowingo Reservoir were determined. The influence on Chesapeake water quality by a large storm and scour event of January 1996 on the Susquehanna River was estimated, and the same storm and scour events were also evaluated in the more critical living resource period of June. An analysis was also made on the estimated influence of more moderate high flow events. The infill of the Conowingo reservoir had estimated impairments of water quality, primarily on deep-water and deep-channel dissolved oxygen, because of increased discharge and transport of organic and particulate inorganic nutrients from the Conowingo Reservoir. PMID:27136155

  1. Reassessing Catastrophic Infill of the Pokhara Valley, Nepal Himalaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Bernhardt, Anne; Stolle, Amelie; Adhikari, Basantha; Korup, Oliver

    2014-05-01

    The Pokhara valley, home to Nepal's second largest city and a major tourist attraction (28°15'N, 83°58'E), is covered by 4-5 km3 and 50-100 m thick intramontane fan deposits that resulted from massive aggradation of the Seti Khola, a river draining the Annapurna Massif of the Greater Himalaya. Poorly sorted, gravelly fluvial facies intercalated with debris-flow and mud-flow facies known as the Pokhara Gravels attest to highly energetic transport conditions during one or several catastrophic flow events. In May 2012, a devastative flash flood/debris flow in the Seti Khola rekindled interest in the formation processes and timing of the Pokhara Gravels as they may provide constraints on the magnitudes and frequencies of similar past events. Interpretations of previous sedimentological work and radiocarbon dating (Yamanaka, 1982; Fort, 1987) culminated in the belief that the Pokhara Gravels were catastrophically emplaced only 500 to 1000 years ago, although the exact nature, timing, and triggers of the purported event(s) remain obscure. Specifically, it remains debated whether the Pokhara Gravels were deposited instantaneously, possibly within less than a year, or whether sedimentation was more protracted over perhaps decades to millennia. We present new geomorphological, sedimentological, geochemical, and radiocarbon data and re-assess a potential catastrophic infill of the Pokhara Valley during one or several high-magnitude events. Support for this scenario is given by laterally continuous long-runout (~40 km) debris-flow deposits topped by large (i.e. up to >11-m) boulders, a distinctly calcareous lithology diagnostic of a small Greater Himalayan source area tens of kilometres upstream, and by historical anecdotes of a large flood that destroyed an earlier settlement in the area. However, we show that dated outcrops of fine-grained sediments in tributaries blocked by the Pokhara Gravels yield asynchronous ages. Although our radiocarbon dates are consistent with

  2. Evaluation of the effect of infill walls on seismic performance of RC dual frames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razzaghi, M. S.; Javidnia, M.

    2015-03-01

    Masonry infill walls have many beneficial and disadvantageous effects on seismic performances of RC frames. Despite such remarkable effects, practicing engineers usually neglect the effects of infill walls on seismic behavior of structures. This study aims to demonstrate that neglecting the effects of infill walls during the nonlinear dynamic analysis of the RC frames may lead to the dramatic misunderstanding the seismic performance of the structure. To this end seismic response of 18 models of the same structure and different arrangements of the infill walls to four different ground motions were investigated using PERFORM 3D software. Results of this study revealed that changing the arrangement of infill walls may change the damage state of the building during an earthquake.

  3. The geology and emplacement of the volcaniclastic infill at the Voorspoed Group II kimberlite (orangeite) pipe, Kroonstad Cluster, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howarth, Geoffrey H.; Skinner, E. Michael W.

    2012-06-01

    The Voorspoed Group II kimberlite pipe is atypical in terms of South African kimberlite pipes. Located in the central region of the Kaapvaal Craton (South Africa), the Voorspoed pipe is one of six pipes comprising the Kroonstad Kimberlite Cluster. Reconstruction of the palaeo-stratigraphy at the time of emplacement, of the Kroonstad kimberlites, indicates that significant post-emplacement erosion has occurred and the pipes are currently exposed at ~ 1600 m depth from the original land surface. The volcaniclastic kimberlite (VK) infilling the pipe is distinctly different from typical tuffisitic kimberlite infilling other South African type kimberlite pipes. Three textural volcaniclastic kimberlite varieties are observed: massive volcaniclastic kimberlite (MVK), bedded volcaniclastic kimberlite (BVK) and fine-grained volcaniclastic kimberlite (fgVK) layers. The BVK and fgVK are volumetrically insignificant and the bulk of the pipe is infilled with MVK. The MVK can be further sub-divided into seven varieties. The two dominant varieties are described in detail, which include: main MVK (mMVK) and the juvenile-rich MVK (jrMVK). The MVKs are typically massive, clastic, poorly sorted and supported by an interclast material consisting of juvenile and xenocrystic crystals in a mud-rich matrix. Magmaclasts within the MVKs are spherical, crystalline with a typical coherent hypabyssal texture and different mineralogical varieties are typically juxtaposed. BVK units are composed of several normally graded beds of volcaniclastic material. fgVK layers are well sorted relative to the MVKs and all constituents are typically < 2 mm in size. The BVK and fgVK can be deposited only within an open vent in order to account for the sorting of the components. A distinct basalt and sandstone rich unit (bsBreccia), which is essentially devoid of kimberlite material, is also observed. Three volcaniclastic zones are identified based on consistent vertical variation in the internal stratigraphy

  4. RC Infilled Frame-RC Plane Frame Interactions for Seismic Resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arulselvan, Suyamburaja; Subramanian, K.; Perumal Pillai, E. B.; Santhakumar, A. R.

    Experimental investigation was planned and conducted to study the influence of brick masonry infill in a reinforced cement concrete frame. The analytical methods available needs validation by comparison with experimental results and more accurate methods of analysis like finite element analysis has to be used for the above purpose. In this study, RC frame with middle bay brick infilled representing a five-stories, three bay building in quarter-scale has been taken for experimental investigation and the available methods of theoretical analysis and finite element analysis using ANSYS software for the frames have been carried out. Until the cracks developed in infills, the contribution of the infill to both lateral stiffness and strength was very significant. The change in lateral stiffness, strength, ductility and natural period of the framed structure due to the presence of infills change the behaviour of the building under seismic action. The object of this study was to investigate the behaviour of such infilled frames under seismic loads. For this purpose, five stories, three bay frames with central portion infilled with brick were tested under static cyclic loading simulating seismic action. Analytical works was done to understand the stiffness, strength and behaviour of these types of frames.

  5. Experimental Study on the Shear Strength of Sandy Clay Infilled Regular Rough Rock Joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahanian, Homayoun; Sadaghiani, Mohammad Hosein

    2015-05-01

    Infill materials in rock joints usually cause a reduction in the joint shear strength. The shear behavior of rock discontinuities depends upon whether they are clean and unfilled or filled, so this concern invites accurate understanding of the shear behavior and strength of infilled joints. A series of constant normal load direct shear tests was performed to investigate the shear strength of artificial samples with infilled rough joint surfaces having different asperity and infill characteristics. The current study focuses on the effects of factors that influence the shear strength of infilled rock joints samples, with emphasis on forward and reverse shearing. In the forward cycle, the front joint wall is compressed and possibly sheared, and the back side fill is unbonded from the joint surface and slightly disturbed. In the reverse cycle, the disturbed and weakened back side fill is under shearing. The effect of the normal stress on the joint is studied, as this factor plays an important role on the shear behavior of infilled rock joint samples. The results show that joints with low asperity angle exhibit higher shear strength during the forward shearing cycle than the reverse cycle, but in joints with steeper asperity angle, the reverse cycle exhibits greater shear strength. In the reverse cycle, the joint infill has less influence compared to the effect of the rougher surface and higher asperity inclination, even in higher normal stress.

  6. Documentation of Computer Program INFIL3.0 - A Distributed-Parameter Watershed Model to Estimate Net Infiltration Below the Root Zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2008-01-01

    illustrates application of the code to a field setting. Brief descriptions of the main program routine and of each of the modules and subroutines of the INFIL3.0 code, as well as definitions of the variables used in each subroutine, are provided in an appendix.

  7. Application of Integrated Reservoir Management and Reservoir Characterization to Optimize Infill Drillings. Annual technical progress report, June 13, 1996 to June 12, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Nevans, Jerry W.; Blasingame, Tom; Doublet, Louis; Kelkar, Mohan; Freeman, George; Callard, Jeff; Moore, David; Davies, David; Vessell, Richard; Pregger, Brian; Dixon, Bill

    1999-04-27

    Infill drilling of wells on a uniform spacing, without regard to reservoir performance and characterization, does not optimize reservoir development because it fails to account for the complex nature of reservoir heterogeneities present in many low permeability reservoirs, and carbonate reservoirs in particular. New and emerging technologies, such as geostatistical modeling, rigorous decline curve analysis, reservoir rock typing, and special core analysis can be used to develop a 3-D simulation model for prediction of infill locations. Other technologies, such as inter-well injection tracers and magnetic flow conditioners, can also aid in the efficient evaluation and operation of both injection and producing wells. The purpose of this project was to demonstrate useful and cost effective methods of exploitation of the shallow shelf carbonate reservoirs of the Permian Basin located in West Texas.

  8. Monitoring And Strengthening Of Existing Facilities In The Neighbourhood Of In-Fill Building

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Runkiewicz, Leonard; Sieczkowski, Jan

    2015-09-01

    This paper focuses on the following issues: - technical issues regarding the construction of infill buildings and their influence on the old neighbouring buildings, - analysis of the dangers, damages and catastrophes of old traditional buildings, - rules regarding monitoring of the technical conditions of existing old buildings, - settlements of the ground and their influence on the neighbouring buildings, - examples of the ground settlements observed during construction of infill buildings in Warsaw, - examples of strengthenings realized near brick buildings and listed buildings.

  9. Geodynamic evolution and sedimentary infill of the northern Levant Basin: A source to sink-perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawie, N.

    2013-12-01

    Nicolas Hawie a,b,c (nicolas.hawie@upmc.fr) Didier Granjeon c (didier.granjeon@ifpen.fr) Christian Gorini a,b (christian.gorini@upmc.fr) Remy Deschamps c (remy.deschamps@ifpen.fr) Fadi H. Nader c (fadi-henri.nader@ifpen.fr) Carla Müller Delphine Desmares f (delphine.desmares@upmc.fr) Lucien Montadert e (lucien.montadert@beicip.com) François Baudin a (francois.baudin@upmc.fr) a UMR 7193 Institut des Sciences de la Terre de Paris, Université Pierre et Marie Curie/ Univ. Paris 06, case 117. 4, place Jussieu 75252 Paris Cedex 05, France b iSTEP, UMR 7193, CNRS, F-75005, Paris, France c IFP Energies nouvelles, 1-4 avenue du Bois Préau 92852 Rueil Malmaison Cedex, France d UMR 7207, Centre de Recherche sur la Paleobiodiversité et les Paleoenvironnements. Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Tour 46-56 5ème. 4, place Jussieu 75252 Paris Cedex 05, France e Beicip Franlab, 232 Av. Napoléon Bonaparte, 95502 Rueil-Malmaison, France Sedimentological and biostratigraphic investigations onshore Lebanon coupled with 2D offshore reflection seismic data allowed proposing a new Mesozoic-Present tectono-stratigraphic framework for the northern Levant Margin and Basin. The seismic interpretation supported by in-depth facies analysis permitted to depict the potential depositional environments offshore Lebanon as no well has yet been drilled. The Levant region has been affected by successive geodynamic events that modified the architecture of its margin and basin from a Late Triassic to Middle Jurassic rift into a Late Cretaceous subduction followed by collision and Miocene-Present strike slip motion. The interplay between major geodynamic events as well as sea level fluctuations impacted on the sedimentary infill of the basin. During Jurassic and Cretaceous, the Levant Margin is dominated by the aggradation of a carbonate platform while deepwater mixed-systems prevailed in the basin. During the Oligo-Miocene, three major sedimentary pathways are expected to drive important

  10. Sequence of infilling events in Gale Crater, Mars: Results from morphology, stratigraphy, and mineralogy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deit, Laetitia Le; Hauber, Ernst; Fueten, Frank; Pondrelli, Monica; Rossi, Angelo Pio; Jaumann, Ralf

    2013-12-01

    Crater is filled by sedimentary deposits including a mound of layered deposits, Aeolis Mons. Using orbital data, we mapped the crater infillings and measured their geometry to determine their origin. The sediment of Aeolis Mons is interpreted to be primarily air fall material such as dust, volcanic ash, fine-grained impact products, and possibly snow deposited by settling from the atmosphere, as well as wind-blown sands cemented in the crater center. Unconformity surfaces between the geological units are evidence for depositional hiatuses. Crater floor material deposited around Aeolis Mons and on the crater wall is interpreted to be alluvial and colluvial deposits. Morphologic evidence suggests that a shallow lake existed after the formation of the lowermost part of Aeolis Mons (the Small yardangs unit and the mass-wasting deposits). A suite of several features including patterned ground and possible rock glaciers are suggestive of periglacial processes with a permafrost environment after the first hundreds of thousands of years following its formation, dated to ~3.61 Ga, in the Late Noachian/Early Hesperian. Episodic melting of snow in the crater could have caused the formation of sulfates and clays in Aeolis Mons, the formation of rock glaciers and the incision of deep canyons and valleys along its flanks as well as on the crater wall and rim, and the formation of a lake in the deepest portions of Gale.

  11. Application of integrated reservoir management and reservoir characterization to optimize infill drilling. Annual technical progress report, June 13, 1996--June 12, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Nevans, J.W.; Pregger, B.; Blasingame, T.; Doublet, L.; Freeman, G.; Callard, J.; Moore, D.; Davies, D.; Vessell, R.

    1997-08-01

    Infill drilling of wells on a uniform spacing, without regard to reservoir performance and characterization, does not optimize reservoir development because it fails to account for the complex nature of reservoir heterogeneities present in many low permeability reservoirs, and carbonate reservoirs in particular. New and emerging technologies, such as geostatistical modeling, rigorous decline curve analysis, reservoir rock typing, and special core analysis can be used to develop a 3-D simulation model for prediction of infill locations. The purpose of this project is to demonstrate the application of advanced secondary recovery technologies to remedy producibility problems in typical shallow shelf carbonate reservoirs of the Permian Basin, Texas. Typical problems include poor sweep efficiency, poor balancing of injection and production rates, and completion techniques that are inadequate for optimal production and injection.

  12. Impact of active faulting on the post LGM infill of Le Bourget Lake (western Alps, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de La Taille, Camille; Jouanne, François; Crouzet, Christian; Beck, Christian; Jomard, Hervé; de Rycker, Koen; Van Daele, Maarten

    2015-11-01

    We have used high resolution seismic imaging to detect and characterize the recent deformation recorded by the Quaternary sediments of Le Bourget Lake. The last glacial episodes (MIS 6a and 2, i.e., Riss and Würm) scoured out an elongated over-deepened basin to more than 300 m below the present lake level and the basin accumulated 150 m of post-LGM to Holocene sediments. The well-stratified character of the infill is locally disturbed by tectonic deformations and gravity reworking. A northern fault zone, in continuation with the left-lateral strike-slip Culoz Fault, is imaged within the Holocene and Late Glacial accumulations. A southern fault zone is also detected, which can be related to the sub-lacustrine continuation of a much smaller fault affecting the Jura alpine foreland: the Col du Chat left lateral strike-slip fault. Different generations of fractures have been identified in the lake, allowing correlation and mapping. In pre-Quaternary substratum, the Culoz Fault has a N 160° orientation. Within the post-LGM sediments, fractures related to the Culoz Fault have an orientation between N135° and 95°. A Cloos model (1932) is thus proposed to explain the observed pattern of lacustrine deformations. The calculated horizontal slip rate for Culoz Fault during Holocene is about 1.3 mm·yr- 1, and for the Col du Chat Fault is around 0.6 mm·yr- 1.

  13. Field Demonstration of Horizontal Infill Drilling Using Cost-effective Integrated Reservoir Modeling--Mississippian Carbonates, Central Kansas

    SciTech Connect

    Saibal Bhattacharya

    2005-08-31

    Mississippian carbonate reservoirs have produced in excess of 1 billion barrels of oil in Kansas accounting for over 16% of the state's production. With declining production from other age reservoirs, the contribution of Mississippian reservoirs to Kansas's oil production has risen to 43% as of 2004. However, solution-enhanced features such as vertical shale intervals extending from the karst erosional surface at the top introduce complexities/compartmentalizations in Mississippian carbonate reservoirs. Coupled with this, strong water drives charge many of these reservoirs resulting in limited drainage from vertical wells due to high water cuts after an initial period of low water production. Moreover, most of these fields are operated by small independent operators without access to the knowledge bank of modern research in field characterization and exploitation/development practices. Thus, despite increasing importance of Mississippian fields to Kansas production, these fields are beset with low recovery factors and high abandonment rates leaving significant resources in the ground. Worldwide, horizontal infill wells have been successful in draining compartmentalized reservoirs with limited pressure depletion. The intent of this project was to demonstrate the application of horizontal wells to successfully exploit the remaining potential in mature Mississippian fields of the mid-continent. However, it is of critical importance that for horizontal wells to be economically successful, they must be selectively targeted. This project demonstrated the application of initial and secondary screening methods, based on publicly available data, to quickly shortlist fields in a target area for detailed studies to evaluate their potential to infill horizontal well applications. Advanced decline curve analyses were used to estimate missing well-level production data and to verify if the well produced under unchanging bottom-hole conditions--two commonly occurring data

  14. The effect of prior out-of-plane damage on the in-plane behavior of unreinforced masonry infilled frames

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, R.C.; Jones, W.D.; Burdette, E.G.; Porter, M.L.

    1993-08-25

    In order to address the effect of prior out-of-plane damage on the in-plane behavior of unreinforced masonry infills, two full-scale (24 feet tall by 28 feet long) structural clay tile infills and one frame-only (no infilling) were constructed and tested. The infilled frame, consisting of two wide flange columns surrounded by masonry plasters and an eccentric wide flange purlin, was identical to many of the infills located at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The masonry infill was approximately 12.5 inches thick and was composed of individual four- and eight-inch hollow clay tile (HCT) units. One of the infill panels was tested out-of-plane by four quasi-static actuators -- two on each column. The test structure was deflected out-of-plane equally at all four actuator locations in order to simulate the computed deflection path of the top and bottom chords of a roof truss framing into the columns at these locations. Prior to the infill testing, a bare frame was loaded similarly in order to determine the behavior and stiffness contribution of the frame only. Following the out-of-plane test of the infilled panel, the structure was loaded in-plane to failure in order to ascertain residual strength. A second, identical infilled frame was then constructed and tested in-plane to failure. In this way, in-plane behavior with and without prior out-of-plane damage could be established and compared. For both out-of-plane and in-plane testing, reversed-cyclic quasi-static loading was used in order to obtain full tension/compression hystereses. Also, natural frequencies of the first infilled panel were determined before and after the out-of-plane testing. This paper describes the test series and discusses the conclusions pertinent to the effect of out-of-plane cracking on in-plane stiffness and behavior.

  15. Postglacial sedimentary infill of the Bricial peatland (Cantabrian Mountains, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correia, Antonio; Ruiz-Fernández, Jesús; Oliva, Marc; Fernández, Antonio; García-Hernández, Cristina; Gallinar, David

    2016-04-01

    Bricial is a peatland located in a glaciokarst depression of the Western Massif of the Picos de Europa (NW Spain). The depression is 425 m long and 245 m wide, and it is surrounded by moraines built during the stage of glacial expansion after the maximum advance within the Last Glaciation. In contrast to what happens in other karstic depressions existing in this massif (e.g. Comeya), the thickness and sedimentary infill of this depression is still unknown. With the purpose of better knowing the depression's structure, two electrical resistivity tomographies (ERT)s with different lengths across the Bricial depression were conducted along perpendicular directions; the shortest ERT was done in a NNE-SSW direction with an electrode spacing of 2 m and a total length of 78 m; the longest ERT was done in a WNW-ESE direction with a 5 m electrode spacing and a total length of 195 m. Both ERTs used 40 electrodes in a Wenner configuration. The two ERTs were done in such way that they intersected near an 8 m deep borehole drilled in the area in 2006. A two-dimensional electrical inversion software was used for inverting the apparent electrical resistivity data obtained during the field work into two-dimensional models of electrical resistivity of the ground. The models are a representation of the distribution of the electrical resistivity of the ground to depths of about 14 m along the shortest ERT and 35 m along the longest. In both geoelectrical models the electrical structure is approximately horizontal at the surface (i.e., between 3 to 5 m depth) and is more complex as depth increases. Low resistivity values prevail in most part of the profiles, which is consistent with the sedimentary sequence collected in the area. The 8 m long sedimentary sequence collected from Bricial consists of homogeneous organic-rich sediments. The base of the sequence was dated at 11,150 ± 900 cal yr BP. Taking into account the sedimentation rates and the data inferred from the electrical

  16. Study on the effect of the infill walls on the seismic performance of a reinforced concrete frame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Cuiqiang; Zhou, Ying; Zhou, Deyuan; Lu, Xilin

    2011-12-01

    Motivated by the seismic damage observed to reinforced concrete (RC) frame structures during the Wenchuan earthquake, the effect of infill walls on the seismic performance of a RC frame is studied in this paper. Infill walls, especially those made of masonry, offer some amount of stiffness and strength. Therefore, the effect of infill walls should be considered during the design of RC frames. In this study, an analysis of the recorded ground motion in the Wenchuan earthquake is performed. Then, a numerical model is developed to simulate the infill walls. Finally, nonlinear dynamic analysis is carried out on a RC frame with and without infill walls, respectively, by using CANNY software. Through a comparative analysis, the following conclusions can be drawn. The failure mode of the frame with infill walls is in accordance with the seismic damage failure pattern, which is strong beam and weak column mode. This indicates that the infill walls change the failure pattern of the frame, and it is necessary to consider them in the seismic design of the RC frame. The numerical model presented in this paper can effectively simulate the effect of infill walls on the RC frame.

  17. Masonry Infilling Effect On Seismic Vulnerability and Performance Level of High Ductility RC Frames

    SciTech Connect

    Ghalehnovi, M.; Shahraki, H.

    2008-07-08

    In last years researchers preferred behavior-based design of structure to force-based one for designing and construction of the earthquake-resistance structures, this method is named performance based designing. The main goal of this method is designing of structure members for a certain performance or behavior. On the other hand in most of buildings, load bearing frames are infilled with masonry materials which leads to considerable changes in mechanical properties of frames. But usually infilling wall's effect has been ignored in nonlinear analysis of structures because of complication of the problem and lack of simple logical solution. As a result lateral stiffness, strength, ductility and performance of the structure will be computed with less accuracy. In this paper by use of Smooth hysteretic model for masonry infillings, some high ductile RC frames (4, 8 stories including 1, 2 and 3 spans) designed according to Iranian code are considered. They have been analyzed by nonlinear dynamic method in two states, with and without infilling. Then their performance has been determined with criteria of ATC 40 and compared with recommended performance in Iranian seismic code (standard No. 2800)

  18. High Resolution Seismic Study of the Holocene Infill of the Elkhorn Slough, Central California

    EPA Science Inventory

    The seismic analysis of the sedimentary infill of the Elkhorn Slough, central California, reveals a succession of three main seismic units: U1, U2, U3, with their correspondent discontinuities d2, d3. These units are deposited over a paleorelief representing the channel location ...

  19. Prediction of the Fundamental Period of Infilled RC Frame Structures Using Artificial Neural Networks

    PubMed Central

    Asteris, Panagiotis G.; Tsaris, Athanasios K.; Cavaleri, Liborio; Repapis, Constantinos C.; Papalou, Angeliki; Di Trapani, Fabio; Karypidis, Dimitrios F.

    2016-01-01

    The fundamental period is one of the most critical parameters for the seismic design of structures. There are several literature approaches for its estimation which often conflict with each other, making their use questionable. Furthermore, the majority of these approaches do not take into account the presence of infill walls into the structure despite the fact that infill walls increase the stiffness and mass of structure leading to significant changes in the fundamental period. In the present paper, artificial neural networks (ANNs) are used to predict the fundamental period of infilled reinforced concrete (RC) structures. For the training and the validation of the ANN, a large data set is used based on a detailed investigation of the parameters that affect the fundamental period of RC structures. The comparison of the predicted values with analytical ones indicates the potential of using ANNs for the prediction of the fundamental period of infilled RC frame structures taking into account the crucial parameters that influence its value. PMID:27066069

  20. Prediction of the Fundamental Period of Infilled RC Frame Structures Using Artificial Neural Networks.

    PubMed

    Asteris, Panagiotis G; Tsaris, Athanasios K; Cavaleri, Liborio; Repapis, Constantinos C; Papalou, Angeliki; Di Trapani, Fabio; Karypidis, Dimitrios F

    2016-01-01

    The fundamental period is one of the most critical parameters for the seismic design of structures. There are several literature approaches for its estimation which often conflict with each other, making their use questionable. Furthermore, the majority of these approaches do not take into account the presence of infill walls into the structure despite the fact that infill walls increase the stiffness and mass of structure leading to significant changes in the fundamental period. In the present paper, artificial neural networks (ANNs) are used to predict the fundamental period of infilled reinforced concrete (RC) structures. For the training and the validation of the ANN, a large data set is used based on a detailed investigation of the parameters that affect the fundamental period of RC structures. The comparison of the predicted values with analytical ones indicates the potential of using ANNs for the prediction of the fundamental period of infilled RC frame structures taking into account the crucial parameters that influence its value. PMID:27066069

  1. Estuarine infill and coastal progradation, southern van diemen gulf, northern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodroffe, C. D.; Mulrennan, M. E.; Chappell, J.

    1993-03-01

    There are several estuaries associated with the pronouncedly seasonal rivers which drain northwards from the Middle Proterozoic sandstone Arnhem Land plateau, and the Tertiary Koolpinyah land surface, into the macrotidal van Diemen Gulf, in the Northern Territory of Australia. The Holocene development of these, investigated in greatest detail for the South Alligator River with an upland catchment of > 10,000 km 2. through drilling, palynology and radiocarbon dating, comprises both estuarine infill and coastal progradation. Three phases of estuarine infill can be recognised: (i) a transgressive phase (8000-6800 years B.P.) of marine incursion; (ii) a big swamp phase (6800-5300 years B.P.) of widespread mangrove forest development; and (iii) a sinuous/cuspate phase of floodplain development since 5300 years B.P., during which the tidal river has meandered and reworked earlier estuarine sediments. Since 6000 years B.P., the South Alligator coastal plain has prograded at a decelerating rate, with two phases of chenier ridge formation. A similar pattern of estuarine infill, and decelerating coastal plain progradation, is demonstrated for the Adelaide and Mary Rivers, both with catchments of > 6000 km 2. The southern shore of van Diemem Gulf appears to have changed its overall position little during the last 2000 years. The major source for the clay, silt and fine sands which have infilled the estuary and coastal plain has been from seaward. Dispite the similarity of development, coastal sediment build up has had different effects on the morphology of each tidal river. The Adelaide has undergone a major diversion and no longer flows directly into van Diemen Gulf, but occupies a former fluvial course, and the Mary has been blocked entirely, and its former estuarine palaeochannels have been infilled with tide-transported sediment.

  2. The Lower Cretaceous strata in Svalbard and the Barents Sea; basin infill dynamics and palaeobathymetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Midtkandal, Ivar; Faleide, Jan Inge; Evensen Dahlberg, Maria; Dimitriou, Myrsini; Petter Nystuen, Johan

    2014-05-01

    Data from cliff sections on Svalbard and seismic sections from the Barents Sea indicate an Early Cretaceous depositional system of far greater reach than the Svalbard archipelago, with a source area to the northwest of Svalbard and a basin deepening to the southeast in the western Barents Sea. Seismic imagery shows large-scale, low-angle clinoforms that demonstrate progradation of shallow-marine clastic deposits hundreds of kilometres into the present day Barents Sea, sourced from areas near the High Arctic Large Igneous Province (HALIP) to the northwest. Field data and seismic imagery are coupled to map architectural patterns that provide information on basin physiography and scale. The results of the study show that the sediment infill of the epicontinental basin was largely controlled by availability of accommodation space, and how the formation of localized syn- and post-depositional troughs and highs altered the position and orientation of the Early Cretaceous shoreline, and thereby its corresponding facies distribution. The Early Cretaceous accommodation space covering a wider part of the Barents Shelf, was created by regional subsidence of a possible deep-seated origin. In the SW Barents Sea additional accommodation space was formed by prominent rift events during Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous times. Cenozoic uplift and erosion, increasing northwards, has removed most of the Lower Cretaceous strata in the NW Barents Sea. Thus, a direct tie between the prograding units in the southern Barents Sea and the exposed more proximal Lower Cretaceous strata on Svalbard is not possible. An on-going analysis of seismic profiles along with well data will provide new constraints for estimating palaeo-water depths and facies distribution for the Cretaceous in the Barents Sea.

  3. Targeted infill drilling at Stratton field using 3-D seismic

    SciTech Connect

    Suydam, J.R.; Reitz, D.T.

    1994-12-31

    Stratton field is located on the Vicksburg flexure trend in Nueces and Kleberg Counties, South Texas. It has produced more than 2.8 Tcf of gas since 1937 from Frio fluvial/deltaic sandstones and Vicksburg shallow-marine sandstones. The field is a combination stratigraphic and faulted structural trap, and contains numerous highly compartmentalized sandstone reservoirs. Continuous infield drilling is required to keep the field producing, and 3-D seismic data have been used to select the best locations for these wells. In 1992, an 8-mi{sup 2} seismic survey was completed in the southern end of the field, and the resulting structural interpretation presented many more fault traps than were apparent in the 2-D seismic interpretation. So far, all of the new wells drilled within the survey have encountered untapped compartments enclosed by fault traps. Furthermore, fault cuts in the new wells have always been within 20 ft of the position predicted by seismic data.

  4. Targeted infill drilling at Stratton Field using 3-D seismic

    SciTech Connect

    Suydam, J.; Reitz, D.

    1994-09-01

    Stratton field is located on the Vicksburg flexure trend in Nueces and Kleberg counties, south Texas. It has produced over 2.8 tcf of gas since 1937 from Frio fluvial/deltaic sandstones and Vicksburg shallow marine sandstones. The field is a combination stratigraphic and faulted structural trap, and contains numerous highly compartmentalized sandstone reservoirs. Continuous infield drilling is required to keep the field producing, and 3-D seismic data have been used to select the best locations for these wells. In 1992, the Bureau of Economic Geology shot an 8-mi{sup 2} survey in the southern end of the field, and the resulting structural interpretation presented many more fault traps that were not apparent in the 2-D seismic interpretation. So far, all of the new wells drilled within the survey have encountered untapped compartments enclosed by fault traps. Furthermore, fault cuts in the new wells have always been within 20 ft of the position predicted by seismic data.

  5. High resolution seismic study of the Holocene infill of the Elkhorn Slough, central California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-García, Ana; Levey, Matthew D.; Watson, Elizabeth B.

    2013-03-01

    The seismic analysis of the sedimentary infill of the Elkhorn Slough, central California, reveals a succession of three main seismic units: U1, U2, U3, with their correspondent discontinuities d2, d3. These units are deposited over a paleorelief representing the channel location at least 8k years ago. The location of that paleochannel has not changed with time, but the geometry of the infilling sedimentary packages has done so through the years. Discontinuities d2 and d3 show a relic island or relative high in the center of the Slough that separated the sedimentation into two main small basins at least 3k years ago. There is evidence of erosion in the last two sedimentary units showing that the present erosive pattern began decades ago at minimum. We have correlated radiocarbon data of selected cores with the high resolution chirp profiles and reconstructed the infill for the Elkhorn Slough. In the most recent unit, the occurrence of numerous lateral accretion surfaces on both ends of the main channel is discussed within their environmental setting, tidal currents and the net ebb flux of the area. We have interpreted the presence of gas in the sediments of the slough, with a gas front located at the tops of units 2 and 3, which are discontinuities that reflect an effective seal for the gas. Our data shows no obvious evidence for seepage, although the shallow presence of some of the fronts points out the fragility of the environment in the present erosive conditions.

  6. Out-of-plane behavior of hollow clay tile walls infilled between steel frames

    SciTech Connect

    Butala, M.B.; Jones, W.D.; Beavers, J.E.

    1991-08-16

    Several buildings at Y-12 Plant rely on unreinforced hollow clay tile walls (HCTW) infilled between unbraced, non-moment resisting steel frames to resist natural phenomena forces, seismic and wind. One critical building relies on moment resisting steel frames in one direction while relying on unreinforced HCTWs infilled between the columns in the orthogonal direction to resist these forces. The HCTWs must act as shear walls while maintaining out-of-plane lateral stability. In assessing the safety of these buildings to seismic forces, several models to study the in- and out-of-plane effects were made and analyzed. The study of the moment resisting steel framed building indicated that bending stresses in the walls were induced by building drift and not by inertial forces per se. The discovery of this phenomenon was some what of a surprise in that the analysis performed is not typically used in design of these structures. The study indicated that the walls began to crack at their interface with the foundation at a low ``g`` level and that horizontal cracking at different elevations continued until the walls exhibited little bending resistance. This paper presents results of the study for out-of-plane behavior of unreinforced HCTWs infilled between adjacent moment resisting steel frames and discusses the problems of assessing the in-plane behavior given the horizontal cracks induced by building drift in the out-of-plane direction.

  7. Modelling of masonry infill walls participation in the seismic behaviour of RC buildings using OpenSees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furtado, André; Rodrigues, Hugo; Arêde, António

    2015-06-01

    Recent earthquakes show that masonry infill walls should be taken into account during the design and assessment process of structures, since this type of non-structural elements increase the in-plane stiffness of the structure and consequently the natural period. An overview of the past researches conducted on the modelling of masonry infilled frame issues has been done, with discussion of past analytical investigations and different modelling approaches that many authors have proposed, including micro- and macro-modelling strategies. After this, the present work presents an improved numerical model, based on the Rodrigues et al. (J Earthq Eng 14:390-416, 2010) approach, for simulating the masonry infill walls behaviour in the computer program OpenSees. The main results of the in-plane calibration analyses obtained with one experimental test are presented and discussed. For last, two reinforced concrete regular buildings were studied and subjected to several ground motions, with and without infills' walls.

  8. Infill and mire evolution of a typical kettle hole: young ages at great depths (Jackenmoos, Austria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Götz, Joachim; Salcher, Bernhard

    2015-04-01

    Kettle holes are very common features in proglacial environments. Myriads of small, often circular shaped lakes are indicative of dead ice slowly melting out after the collapse of glaciers and subsequent burial of glaciofluvial sediments. Many of these lakes transformed into mires during the Postglacial and the Holocene. Still, little is known about the mechanisms leading to mire formation in such environments. We aim to analyse the shape and the postglacial history of infilling and peat accumulation of a typical dead ice kettle using 2D resistivity surveying, core-drilling, 14C dating and palynologic analyses. The kettle hole mire is located within a small kame delta deposit just south of the LGM extend of the Salzach Piedmont glacier (Austria/Germany). Today, the mire is a spot of exceptional high biodiversity and under protection. Sediment core samples extracted in the deepest (c. 10-14 m) and central part of the kettle directly overly lacustrine fine sediments and yielded young ages covering the subatlantic period only. Young ages are in agreement with palynologic results comprising e.g. pollen of secale (rye) and juglans (walnut). However, these deposits are situated beneath a massive water body (10 m), only covered by a thin floating mat. A second, more distally situated drill core indicates the thinning of this water body at the expense of peat deposits covering the Late Glacial to Middle Holocene. Multiple 2D resistivity data support drilling information and enabled us to reconstruct the shape of the basin. The transition from lacustrine sediments to the water body above is characterised by a sharp increase in resistivity. Furthermore, the resistivity pattern within the entire kettle indicates an increase towards the centre, most probably as a result of the changing nutrient content. The postglacial evolution of the mire is in agreement with the concept of "floating mat terrestrialisation", representing a horizontal growth of the floating mat from the edges

  9. Basement depth and sedimentary infill from deep seismic reflection data at the western tip of the offshore Corinth Rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckers, Arnaud; Tripsanas, Efthymios; Hubert-Ferrari, Aurélia; Beck, Christian; Sakellariou, Dimitris

    2015-04-01

    The Corinth rift is a young continental rift located in central Greece. The active part of the rift forms an E-W striking depression - the Gulf of Corinth - that is the deepest in its central part. Extensive seismic surveys have imaged the basin's basement and allowed to estimate the total extension across most of the Gulf except its western tip. Extension is high in the central part and decreases westward and eastward, as reflected in the present-day bathymetry. Two decades of GPS measurements have shown that the extension rate increases westwards from ~5 to 10-15 mm yr-1, but this is not consistent with the long term pattern. However, no data allowed so far to estimate the basement depth at the western tip of the Gulf, where the geodetic extension rate is the largest. Such data would allow to check the apparent inconsistency between the present rate and the long-term estimates of crustal extension. We present here an unpublished multichannel seismic line dating from 1979 and crossing the western tip of the Gulf of Corinth. The line is 22 km long and strikes WNW-ESE, from the Mornos delta to the West-Channel fault. A Maxipulse source has been used, allowing to image the basement below the synrift sedimentary infill. To the east, a ~1.6 km deep basin is imaged between the southern margin of the Gulf and an inactive south-dipping fault located between the Aigion and the Trizonia faults. The sedimentary infill consists in an alternation between basin-focused bodies made of incoherent reflections and more extensive high-amplitude reflectors. Attributing this alternation to eustatic variations give an age of 300-350 ka to the oldest well imaged deposits. Northwest of the Trizonia fault, the basement is imaged at shallower depth, i.e. ~450 m. The western tip of the seismic line reaches the Mornos delta, close to the northern shoreline. There, the depth to the basement is larger, reaching ~1.2 km. The infill is made of 3 units : on the basement lies a thin unit of

  10. Low velocity propagation in liquid in-filled photonic crystal waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rawal, Swati; Sinha, R. K.

    2010-08-01

    A low-loss low-velocity photonic crystal (PhC) waveguide having rectangular air holes in-filled with a liquid crystal in Si core is proposed. The possible propagation losses due to inefficient coupling are also investigated for proposed structure. It is found that high transmission is obtained for a broad bandwidth from the output of the finally designed heterogeneous waveguide consisting of a slow liquid crystal infiltrated PhC waveguide surrounded by fast PhC waveguides on both sides.

  11. Incidence, Mechanisms, and Severity of Game-Related High School Football Injuries Across Artificial Turf Systems of Various Infill Weight

    PubMed Central

    Meyers, Michael Clinton

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Today's new generations of artificial turf are increasingly being installed to duplicate or exceed playing characteristics of natural grass. Rather than playing on the polyethylene turf fibers, shoe:surface interaction actually occurs between the cleat and the various proprietary sand/rubber infill composites of varying weight. At this time, the influence of surface infill weight on football trauma is unknown. The purpose of this study was to quantify incidence, mechanisms, and severity of game-related high school football trauma across artificial turf systems of various infill weight. Methods: Artificial turf systems were divided into four sand/rubber infill weight groups based on lbs per square foot: (A) > 9.0, (B) 6.0 - 8.9, (C) 3.0 - 5.9 and, (D) 0.0 - 3.0. A total of 43 high schools participating across four states over 3 competitive seasons were evaluated for injury incidence, injury category, time of injury, injury time loss, player position, injury mechanism and situation, primary type of injury, injury grade and anatomical location, field location at time of injury, injury severity, head, shoulder, and lower extremity trauma, cleat design, turf age, and environmental factors. Results: Of the 847 high school games documented, 301 games (35.5%) were played on infill (A), 231 (27.3%) on infill (B), 189 (22.3%) on infill (C), and 126 (14.9%) on infill (D). A total of 1,979 injuries were documented, with significantly lower total injury incidence rates (IIR), [18.8 (95% CI, 18.3-19.1) vs 23.3 (22.4-24.0) vs 31.6 (30.5-32.2) and 22.1 (20.8-22.9)], substantial IIRs [3.9 (95% CI, 3.4-4.5) vs 4.8 (4.1-5.4), 7.7 (7.1-8.3) and 6.1 (5.2-5.9)], trauma from player-to-player collisions [8.7 (95% CI, 8.2-9.0) vs 11.0 (10.5-11.5), 16.4 (15.5-17.1) and 9.8 (9.4-10.0)], playing surface impact trauma [2.6 (95% CI, 2.1-3.1) vs 4.2 (3.6-4.8), 5.6 (4.8-6.2) and 4.4 (13.5-5.2)], and less muscle trauma [6.1 (95% CI, 5.5-6.6) vs 9.7 (9.4-9.9), 13.7 (12.8-24.4 and 8.7 (8

  12. Incidence, Mechanisms, and Severity of Game-Related High School Football Injuries across Artificial Turf Systems of Various Infill Weight

    PubMed Central

    Meyers, Michael Clinton

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Today’s new generations of artificial turf are increasingly being installed to duplicate or exceed playing characteristics of natural grass. Rather than playing on the polyethylene turf fibers, shoe: surface interaction actually occurs between the cleat and the various proprietary sand/rubber infill composites of varying weight. At this time, the influence of surface infill weight on football trauma is unknown. Therefore, this study was conducted to quantify incidence, mechanisms, and severity of game-related high school football trauma across artificial turf systems of various infill weight. Methods: Artificial turf systems were divided into four sand/rubber infill weight groups based on lbs per square foot: (A) > 9.0, (B) 6.0 - 8.9, (C) 3.1 - 5.9 and, (D) 0.0 - 3.0. A total of 52 high schools participating across four states over 5 competitive seasons were evaluated for injury incidence, injury category, time of injury, injury time loss, player position, injury mechanism and situation, primary type of injury, injury grade and anatomical location, field location at time of injury, injury severity, head, shoulder, and lower extremity trauma, elective imaging and surgical procedures, cleat design, turf age, and environmental factors. Results: Of the 1,467 high school games documented, 494 games (33.7%) were played on infill (A), 404 (27.5%) on infill (B), 379 (25.8%) on infill (C), and 190 (13.0%) on infill (D). A total of 3,741 injuries were documented, with significantly lower total injury incidence rates (IIR), [18.4 (95% CI, 18.0-18.7) vs 27.5 (26.8-27.9) vs 33.5 (32.7-34.0) and 23.7 (22.7-24.4)], substantial IIRs [3.4 (95% CI, 3.0-3.8) vs 6.6 (6.2-7.1), 8.5 (8.2-8.9) and 6.5 (5.8-7.1)], trauma from shoe: surface interaction during contact [4.6 (95% CI, 4.1-5.0) vs 7.5 (7.0-7.9), 6.4 (5.9-6.9) and 6.9 (6.2-7.5)], playing surface impact trauma [2.4 (95% CI, 2.1-2.8) vs 4.9 (4.4-5.4), 6.1 (5.6-6.6) and 4.4 (3.7-5.1)], and less total elective imaging

  13. Dynamic out-of-plane and in-plane testing of full-scale hollow clay tile infilled frames. [Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gambill, J.B.

    1994-12-31

    Many of the Y-12 Plant buildings are made of steel and concrete frames infilled with unreinforced clay tile walls; in many instances these infill walls comprise the major lateral load resisting capacity of the structures. A research program was begun to evaluate clay tile infill behavior. This test report describes testing done by USACERL as part of shake table testing; the tests were on a biaxial shock test machine.

  14. Nonlinear finite element model updating of an infilled frame based on identified time-varying modal parameters during an earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asgarieh, Eliyar; Moaveni, Babak; Stavridis, Andreas

    2014-11-01

    A model updating methodology is proposed for calibration of nonlinear finite element (FE) models simulating the behavior of real-world complex civil structures subjected to seismic excitations. In the proposed methodology, parameters of hysteretic material models assigned to elements (or substructures) of a nonlinear FE model are updated by minimizing an objective function. The objective function used in this study is the misfit between the experimentally identified time-varying modal parameters of the structure and those of the FE model at selected time instances along the response time history. The time-varying modal parameters are estimated using the deterministic-stochastic subspace identification method which is an input-output system identification approach. The performance of the proposed updating method is evaluated through numerical and experimental applications on a large-scale three-story reinforced concrete frame with masonry infills. The test structure was subjected to seismic base excitations of increasing amplitude at a large outdoor shake-table. A nonlinear FE model of the test structure has been calibrated to match the time-varying modal parameters of the test structure identified from measured data during a seismic base excitation. The accuracy of the proposed nonlinear FE model updating procedure is quantified in numerical and experimental applications using different error metrics. The calibrated models predict the exact simulated response very accurately in the numerical application, while the updated models match the measured response reasonably well in the experimental application.

  15. MOMBE selective infill growth of InP:Si and InGaAs:Si and large area MOMBE regrowth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schelhase, S.; Böttcher, J.; Gibis, R.; Künzel, H.; Paraskevopoulos, A.

    1996-07-01

    MOMBE selective infill growth (SIG) of silicon-doped InP and InGaAs was investigated by variation of the principal growth parameters, i.e. temperature, {V}/{III}- ratio and rate. Excellent surface morphology in conjunction with perfect selectivity and defect-free vertical interfaces between the grown layer and the etched substrate sidewall was achieved by an appropriate optimization of the selective growth conditions for InP as well as, for the first time, InGaAs. In the case of SIG of InP, smooth growth boundaries were obtained in the [01¯1] direction, whereas in the [01¯1¯] direction minor growth perturbations occur, which are related to a strong orientation dependent diffusion behavior of the growth species on the growth front. In the case of SIG of InGaAs, slight perturbations accompanied by facet formation at the edges of the selectively grown windows were observed. In the perspective of device application, homogeneous large area MOMBE InGaAs regrowth of the embedded structures was successfully achieved.

  16. Rapid assessment for seismic vulnerability of low and medium rise infilled RC frame buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Nimry, Hanan; Resheidat, Musa; Qeran, Saddam

    2015-06-01

    An indexing method for rapid evaluation of the seismic vulnerability of infilled RC frame buildings in Jordan is proposed. The method aims at identifying low and medium rise residential buildings as safe or in need of further detailed evaluation. Following a rapid visual screening, the building is assigned a Basic Capacity Index (BCI); five performance modifiers are identified and multiplied by the BCI to arrive at the Capacity Index (CI) of the building. A Capacity Index lower than a limit CI value indicates that the screened building could experience moderate earthquake damage whereas a higher value implies that minor damage, if any, would take place. To establish the basic evaluation parameters; forty RC frame buildings were selected, designed and analyzed using static nonlinear analysis and incorporating the effect of infill walls. Effects of seismicity, local site conditions, horizontal irregularities (setbacks and re-entrant corners), vertical irregularities (soft story at ground floor level) and overhangs on the seismic performance of local buildings were examined. Assessment forms were designed and used to evaluate and rank 112 sample buildings. About 40% of the surveyed buildings were found to be in need of detailed evaluation to better define their seismic vulnerabilities.

  17. Application of integrated reservoir management and reservoir characterization to optimize infill drilling

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    This project has used a multi-disciplinary approach employing geology, geophysics, and engineering to conduct advanced reservoir characterization and management activities to design and implement an optimized infill drilling program at the North Robertson (Clearfork) Unit in Gaines County, Texas. The activities during the first Budget Period consisted of developing an integrated reservoir description from geological, engineering, and geostatistical studies, and using this description for reservoir flow simulation. Specific reservoir management activities were identified and tested. The geologically targeted infill drilling program currently being implemented is a result of this work. A significant contribution of this project is to demonstrate the use of cost-effective reservoir characterization and management tools that will be helpful to both independent and major operators for the optimal development of heterogeneous, low permeability shallow-shelf carbonate (SSC) reservoirs. The techniques that are outlined for the formulation of an integrated reservoir description apply to all oil and gas reservoirs, but are specifically tailored for use in the heterogeneous, low permeability carbonate reservoirs of West Texas.

  18. Catchment clearing accelerates the infilling of a shallow subtropical bay in east coast Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coates-Marnane, Jack; Olley, Jon; Burton, Joanne; Sharma, Ashneel

    2016-06-01

    Understanding processes that govern the transport and distribution of terrestrial sediments to and within bays is critical for interpreting the drivers of long-term changes in these ecosystems. On the east coast of Australia increased soil erosion and sediment delivery following extensive land clearing in the contributing catchments, associated with European settlement, is highlighted as a key driver of the decline of numerous nearshore habitats including seagrass meadows and in-shore coral reefs. Here we use optical, radiocarbon and radionuclide dating to estimate mass accumulation rates and type of terrestrial sedimentation in central Moreton Bay during the Holocene. We compare the long-term rates of infilling within the central basin with the recent past and show a 3-9 fold increase in sediment accretion over the last 100 years compared to the long term (last ∼ 1500 to 3000 yrs) average. Infilling during the Holocene is not spatially uniform, with preferential deposition occurring within the now submerged palaeochannels of the Brisbane and Pine rivers. We suggest that modern turbidity regimes in Moreton Bay are the result of the compounded effect of both a historical increase in fine sediment supply and a rapid decline in the effective storage capacity of the basin.

  19. Catchment clearing accelerates the infilling of a shallow subtropical bay in east coast Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coates-Marnane, Jack; Olley, Jon; Burton, Joanne; Sharma, Ashneel

    2016-06-01

    Understanding processes that govern the transport and distribution of terrestrial sediments to and within bays is critical for interpreting the drivers of long-term changes in these ecosystems. On the east coast of Australia increased soil erosion and sediment delivery following extensive land clearing in the contributing catchments, associated with European settlement, is highlighted as a key driver of the decline of numerous nearshore habitats including seagrass meadows and in-shore coral reefs. Here we use optical, radiocarbon and radionuclide dating to estimate mass accumulation rates and type of terrestrial sedimentation in central Moreton Bay during the Holocene. We compare the long-term rates of infilling within the central basin with the recent past and show a 3-9 fold increase in sediment accretion over the last 100 years compared to the long term (last ∼ 1500 to 3000 yrs) average. Infilling during the Holocene is not spatially uniform, with preferential deposition occurring within the now submerged palaeochannels of the Brisbane and Pine rivers. We suggest that modern turbidity regimes in Moreton Bay are the result of the compounded effect of both a historical increase in fine sediment supply and a rapid decline in the effective storage capacity of the basin.

  20. The Deepest Lunar SPA Basin and its Unusual Infilling: Constraints Imposed by Angular Momentum Considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochemasov, G. G.

    1999-01-01

    Successful applications of planetary wave tectonics for predicting the shapes of small celestial bodies (asteroids, satellites), Phobos' rippling, the dumbbell shape of martian spheres, and fractionated martian crust, allow us to extend this method to lunar tectonics and related it to the chemistry of the enigmatic South Pole Aitken Basin. The accepted origin by many (but not all) planetologists is an impact hypothesis of the SPA basin; we alternatively, consider it as a part of a global lunar sectoral structure centered in the Mare Orientale. Sectoral structures of celestial bodies are a result of interference of standing inertia-gravity waves proceeding in four directions (ortho- and diagonal). These warping planetary waves arise in them as a result of their movements in elliptical orbits with periodically changing curvatures and cosmic accelerations. Fundamental waves of long 2-pi-R (R = body radius) produce tectonic dichotomy; waves of long pi-R (the first obertone) produce sectoring; and smaller waves length of which is proportional to orbital periods produce tectonic granulation. Segments, sectors, and granulas. of differing radius-vectors (risen + and fallen - tectonic domains) tend to equalize their angular momenta by density of infilling matter. That is why oceanic and mare basins normally are filled with denser material (basalts) than lighter highlands. On Earth one observes six antipodal centers of pi-R-structures (three pairs: (1) Equatorial Atlantic; (2) New Guinea; (3) The Pamirs-Hindukush; (4) Easter Island; (5) Bering Strait; and (6) Bouvet Island.) that regularly converge by common algorithm fallen normally oceanic and risen normally continental blocks. Around the Pamirs-Hindukush center, for example, are placed two differently risen sectors (African + +, Asian +) separated by 2 differently subsided ones (Eurasian -, Indoceanic - -). The six centers form vertices of an octahedron inscribed in the terrestrial sphere. The first antipodal pair lies in

  1. Repeated catastrophic valley infill following medieval earthquakes in the Nepal Himalaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Bernhardt, Anne; Stolle, Amelie; Hoelzmann, Philipp; Adhikari, Basanta R.; Andermann, Christoff; Tofelde, Stefanie; Merchel, Silke; Rugel, Georg; Fort, Monique; Korup, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Geomorphic footprints of past large Himalayan earthquakes are elusive, although they are urgently needed for gauging and predicting recovery times of seismically perturbed mountain landscapes. We present evidence of catastrophic valley infill following at least three medieval earthquakes in the Nepal Himalaya. Radiocarbon dates from peat beds, plant macrofossils, and humic silts in fine-grained tributary sediments near Pokhara, Nepal’s second-largest city, match the timing of nearby M > 8 earthquakes in ~1100, 1255, and 1344 C.E. The upstream dip of tributary valley fills and x-ray fluorescence spectrometry of their provenance rule out local sources. Instead, geomorphic and sedimentary evidence is consistent with catastrophic fluvial aggradation and debris flows that had plugged several tributaries with tens of meters of calcareous sediment from a Higher Himalayan source >60 kilometers away.

  2. Reconstructing the infilling history within Robert Sharp Crater, Mars: Insights from morphology and stratigraphy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brossier, J.; Le Deit, L.; Hauber, E.; Mangold, N.; Carter, J.; Jaumann, R.

    2015-10-01

    Robert Sharp (133.59°E, -4.12°N) is a 150 km diameter impact crater , located in the equatorial region of Mars, near Gale Crater, where the MSL rover Curiosity landed in August 2012. Using orbital data, an iron chlorine hydroxide named akaganéite that typically forms in highly saline and chlorinated aqueous environments on Earth has been detected in Robert Sharp crater [1]. Interestingly, akaganéite has also been detected in Gale Crater from the ground [2,3]. In order to reconstruct the paleo-environments in the region, we produce a geological map of Robert Sharp(Fig.1). Crater counts provide time constraints on its infilling history.

  3. Repeated catastrophic valley infill following medieval earthquakes in the Nepal Himalaya.

    PubMed

    Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Bernhardt, Anne; Stolle, Amelie; Hoelzmann, Philipp; Adhikari, Basanta R; Andermann, Christoff; Tofelde, Stefanie; Merchel, Silke; Rugel, Georg; Fort, Monique; Korup, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Geomorphic footprints of past large Himalayan earthquakes are elusive, although they are urgently needed for gauging and predicting recovery times of seismically perturbed mountain landscapes. We present evidence of catastrophic valley infill following at least three medieval earthquakes in the Nepal Himalaya. Radiocarbon dates from peat beds, plant macrofossils, and humic silts in fine-grained tributary sediments near Pokhara, Nepal's second-largest city, match the timing of nearby M > 8 earthquakes in ~1100, 1255, and 1344 C.E. The upstream dip of tributary valley fills and x-ray fluorescence spectrometry of their provenance rule out local sources. Instead, geomorphic and sedimentary evidence is consistent with catastrophic fluvial aggradation and debris flows that had plugged several tributaries with tens of meters of calcareous sediment from a Higher Himalayan source >60 kilometers away. PMID:26676354

  4. Transverse, supraglacially derived crevasse infillings in a Pleistocene ice-sheet margin zone (eastern Poland): Genesis and sedimentary record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godlewska, Anna; Terpiłowski, Sławomir

    2012-08-01

    The so-called 'crevasse infillings' in the marginal zone of the Saalian ice sheet in eastern Poland are atypical relief forms for lowlands glaciated in the Pleistocene. They are located on a high of the Cretaceous/Palaeogene substratum and form isolated ridges arranged in trains parallel to the former ice-sheet margin, i.e., transverse to the movement of the ice sheet. The sedimentary succession of the crevasse infillings consists mainly of undeformed glaciodeltaic deposits. We propose a model of the crevasse infilling development in three phases against the background of ice mass dynamics: 1) ice-sheet advance over a high of the substratum — compressive ice flow that bumped against the high's slope and enrichment of the ice with debris; 2) an overriding of the substratum high by ice masses — a tensional ice-flow regime resulted in significant crevassing; and 3) ice mass stagnation — low energy, supraglacial deltaic sedimentation in isolated ponds between disintegrated ice blocks under frozen bed conditions. Considering this genesis, we suggest classifying these forms as kames instead of crevasse infillings.

  5. Basin Dynamics and Sedimentary Infilling of Miocene Sandstone Reservoir Systems In Eastern Tunisian African Margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bédir, Mourad; Khomsi, Sami

    2015-04-01

    Most of hydrocarbon accumulations and aquifers within the Cap Bon, Gulf of Hammamet and Sahel basins in eastern tunisian foreland are reservoired within the Upper Miocene Birsa and Saouaf sandstones and shales Formations. In the gulf of Hammamet, these sandstones constitutes oil and gas fields and are exploited on anticline highs and described as varying from shoreface to shallow marine and typically exhibit excellent reservoir quality of 30% to 35% porosity and good permeability from 500 to 1100 md. In addition, the fracturing of faults enhanced the reservoir quality potential. In contrary, the same hydrocarbon reservoirs are important hydrogeologic ones in the Cap Bon and Sahel basins with huge amount of hundred millions of cubic meters of water only partially exploited. Integrated wire line logging correlations, seismic sequence stratigraphic, tectonics and outcrop geologic analogue studies had permitted to highlight the basin structuring and sedimentary environments of sequence deposits infilling of the reservoir distribution between high platforms to subsiding graben and syncline basins bounded by deep-seated transtensive and transpressive flower faults. Seven third order sequence deposits limited by downlap prograding and onlap/toplap aggrading/retrograding system tracts extend along the eastern margin around the three basins by facies and thickness variances. System tracts exhibit around high horst and graben a channelized and levee infillings extending from 100 meters to more than a kilometer of width. They present a stacked single story and multistory channels types showing space lateral and vertical migrations along NE-SW, E-W and N-S directions. Paleogeographic depositional reservoir fair maps distribution highlight deltaic horst domain with floodplain and incised valley of fluvial amalgamed and braided sandstones distributary channels that occupy the high folded horsts. Whereas folded horst-graben and syncline borders domain of Shelf prodelta are

  6. Project evaluates POSC specifications for infill drilling. [Petrochemical Open Software Corp

    SciTech Connect

    Zahniser, D.L. ); Merritt, R.W. ); Chan, C.K. )

    1994-05-16

    A project is under way to build data-loading tools and create an integrated oil and gas production data base using specifications developed during the last 3 years by the Petrotechnical Open Software Corp. (POSC). The Industry Pilot Project (IPP) Phase 1 is a collaborative effort between seven oil companies. The participating oil companies have provided a large set of data from a producing North American oil and gas field and money, hardware, and personnel. Many companies have already streamlined their infill drilling processes and receive significant incremental benefits. But current information technology can often be a stumbling block. Cross-disciplinary use of information is the key goal of these streamlining efforts, but much time is lost in finding, reformatting, accessing, and determining the quality of data. This project sets out to prove how POSC specifications can help reduce the cost and time for developing a field, improved the quality of the decision-making process, minimize the number of communication barriers and, most importantly, change technology from a hurdle to a seamless step. The project demonstrates that POSC specifications are an enabling technology that can dramatically improve the way oil companies and suppliers operate.

  7. Seismic Evaluation and Preliminary Design of Regular Setback Masonry Infilled Open Ground Storey RC Frame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashmi, Arshad K.

    2016-06-01

    Current seismic code presents certain stringent factors for defining frame as regular and irregular. Thereby these stringent factors only decide the type of analysis (i.e. equivalent static analysis or dynamic analysis) to be done. On the contrary, development of new simplified methods such as pushover analysis can give lateral load capacity of any structure (e.g. regular or irregular frame etc.) easily. Design by iterative procedure with the help of pushover analysis for serviceability requirement (i.e. inter storey drift limitation) provided by present seismic code, can provide an alternative to present practicing procedure. Present paper deals with regular setback frame in combination with vulnerable layout of masonry infill walls over the frame elevation (i.e. probable case of "Vertical Stiffness Irregularities"). Nonlinear time history analysis and Capacity Spectrum Method have been implemented to investigate the seismic performance of these frames. Finally, recently developed preliminary design procedure satisfying the serviceability criterion of inter storey drift limitation has been employed for the preliminary design of these frames.

  8. Seismic Evaluation and Preliminary Design of Regular Setback Masonry Infilled Open Ground Storey RC Frame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashmi, Arshad K.

    2016-03-01

    Current seismic code presents certain stringent factors for defining frame as regular and irregular. Thereby these stringent factors only decide the type of analysis (i.e. equivalent static analysis or dynamic analysis) to be done. On the contrary, development of new simplified methods such as pushover analysis can give lateral load capacity of any structure (e.g. regular or irregular frame etc.) easily. Design by iterative procedure with the help of pushover analysis for serviceability requirement (i.e. inter storey drift limitation) provided by present seismic code, can provide an alternative to present practicing procedure. Present paper deals with regular setback frame in combination with vulnerable layout of masonry infill walls over the frame elevation (i.e. probable case of "Vertical Stiffness Irregularities"). Nonlinear time history analysis and Capacity Spectrum Method have been implemented to investigate the seismic performance of these frames. Finally, recently developed preliminary design procedure satisfying the serviceability criterion of inter storey drift limitation has been employed for the preliminary design of these frames.

  9. Strontium Distribution Coefficients of Basalt and Sediment Infill Samples from the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    M. N. Pace; R. C. Bartholomay; J. J. Rosentreter

    1999-07-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey and Idaho State University, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, are conducting a study to determine and evaluate strontium distribution coefficients (Kds) of subsurface materials at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The purpose of this study is to aid in assessing the variability of strontium Kds at the INEEL as part of an ongoing investigation of chemical transport of strontium-90 in the Snake River Plain aquifer. Batch experimental techniques were used to determine Kds of six basalt core samples, five samples of sediment infill of vesicles and fractures, and six standard material samples. Analyses of data from these experiments indicate that the Kds of the sediment infill samples are significantly larger than those of the basalt samples. Quantification of such information is essential of furthering the understanding of transport processes of strontium-90 in the Snake River Plain aquifer and in similar environments.

  10. Application of integrated reservoir management and reservoir characterization to optimize infill drilling. [Quarterly] report, March 13, 1995--June 12, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Pande, P.K.

    1995-06-12

    The primary objective of this project is to conduct a cost-shared geologically targeted infill drilling filed demonstration that will enhance the domestic producibility of shallow shelf carbonate reservoirs by demonstration and technology transfer of the advanced recovery technologies employed, application of integrated reservoir management and reservoir characterization. Progress reports are presented for this past quarter for the following tasks: management and administration; reservoir characterization and analysis; integrated reservoir management; and technology transfer.

  11. Assessing metal contamination from construction and demolition (C&D) waste used to infill wetlands: using Deroceras reticulatum (Mollusca: Gastropoda).

    PubMed

    Staunton, John A; Mc Donnell, Rory J; Gormally, Michael J; Williams, Chris D; Henry, Tiernan; Morrison, Liam

    2014-11-01

    Large quantities of construction and demolition waste (C&D) are produced globally every year, with little known about potential environmental impacts. In the present study, the slug, Deroceras reticulatum (Mollusca: Gastropoda) was used as the first biomonitor of metals (Ag, As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Ti, Tl, V and Zn) on wetlands post infilling with construction and demolition (C&D) waste. The bioaccumulation of As, Ba, Cd, Co, Sb, Se and Tl were found to be significantly elevated in slugs collected on C&D waste when compared to unimproved pastures (control sites), while Mo, Se and Sr had significantly higher concentrations in slugs collected on C&D waste when compared to known contaminated sites (mining locations), indicating the potential hazardous nature of C&D waste to biota. Identifying exact sources for these metals within the waste can be problematic, due to its heterogenic nature. Biomonitors are a useful tool for future monitoring and impact studies, facilitating policy makers and regulations in other countries regarding C&D waste infill. In addition, improving separation of C&D waste to allow increased reuse and recycling is likely to be effective in reducing the volume of waste being used as infill, subsequently decreasing potential metal contamination. PMID:25298023

  12. Infilling stratigraphy of macrotidal tide-dominated estuaries. Controlling mechanisms: Sea-level fluctuations, bedrock morphology, sediment supply and climate changes (The examples of the Seine estuary and the Mont-Saint-Michel Bay, English Channel, NW France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tessier, Bernadette; Billeaud, Isabelle; Sorrel, Philippe; Delsinne, Nicolas; Lesueur, Patrick

    2012-11-01

    This article presents a synthesis of recent works performed on two macrotidal tide-dominated estuaries located along the southern coast of the English Channel, the Seine estuary and the Mont-Saint-Michel Bay (NW France). On the basis of very high resolution seismic data combined with sediment cores and AMS dating, these works allow reconstructing the Holocene infill of such singular estuaries, yet rarely documented in the literature. Rate in sea-level rise, bedrock morphology, sediment supply are the main controlling factors of the general infill pattern. Both infills are composed of two units, the transgressive systems tract (TST) and highstand systems tract (HST). The maximum flooding surface (MFS) is dated around 6500 cal BP when the Holocene sea-level rise slowed down, and corresponds to the main architectural change. The TST is poorly preserved compared with the HST that constitutes the main depositional unit, making this incised valley fill deviating from the classical models. The HST is composed above the axis of the incised valley of a highly wandering estuarine channel belt characterized by deep tidal reworking throughout its building. On the margin of this high-energy estuarine system, the HST is made of wave-dominated barriers, tidal flats and offshore tidal banks.. They constitute dominantly aggradational systems, the aggradation rate of which is in accordance with the rate of sea-level rise from 6500 cal BP onwards. Consequently, the impacts of the rapid climate changesthat characterized mid- to late Holocene times can be preserved in these marginal successions. Various sedimentary and geometrical signatures indicate that periodic enhanced storminess episodes, probably related to the Bond Cold Events (~ 1500 years periodicity), are responsible for the most drastic environmental changes in these macrotidal tide-dominated settings. The role of long term tidal cycles as well as the impact of human activities are also considered.

  13. Sediment infilling and wetland formation dynamics in an active crevasse splay of the Mississippi River delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahoon, Donald R.; White, David A.; Lynch, James C.

    2011-08-01

    Crevasse splay environments provide a mesocosm for evaluating wetland formation and maintenance processes on a decadal time scale. Site elevation, water levels, vertical accretion, elevation change, shallow subsidence, and plant biomass were measured at five habitats along an elevation gradient to evaluate wetland formation and development in Brant Pass Splay; an active crevasse splay of the Balize delta of the Mississippi River. The processes of vertical development (vertical accretion, elevation change, and shallow subsidence) were measured with the surface elevation table-marker horizon method. There were three distinct stages to the accrual of elevation capital and wetland formation in the splay: sediment infilling, vegetative colonization, and development of a mature wetland community. Accretion, elevation gain, and shallow subsidence all decreased by an order of magnitude from the open water (lowest elevation) to the forest (highest elevation) habitats. Vegetative colonization occurred within the first growing season following emergence of the mud surface. An explosively high rate of below-ground production quickly stabilized the loosely consolidated sub-aerial sediments. After emergent vegetation colonization, vertical development slowed and maintenance of marsh elevation was driven both by sediment trapping by the vegetation and accumulation of plant organic matter in the soil. Continued vertical development and survival of the marsh then depended on the health and productivity of the plant community. The process of delta wetland formation is both complex and nonlinear. Determining the dynamics of wetland formation will help in understanding the processes driving the past building of the delta and in developing models for restoring degraded wetlands in the Mississippi River delta and other deltas around the world.

  14. Sediment infilling and wetland formation dynamics in an active crevasse splay of the Mississippi River delta

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cahoon, Donald R.; White, David A.; Lynch, James C.

    2011-01-01

    Crevasse splay environments provide a mesocosm for evaluating wetland formation and maintenance processes on a decadal time scale. Site elevation, water levels, vertical accretion, elevation change, shallow subsidence, and plant biomass were measured at five habitats along an elevation gradient to evaluate wetland formation and development in Brant Pass Splay; an active crevasse splay of the Balize delta of the Mississippi River. The processes of vertical development (vertical accretion, elevation change, and shallow subsidence) were measured with the surface elevation table–marker horizon method. There were three distinct stages to the accrual of elevation capital and wetland formation in the splay: sediment infilling, vegetative colonization, and development of a mature wetland community. Accretion, elevation gain, and shallow subsidence all decreased by an order of magnitude from the open water (lowest elevation) to the forest (highest elevation) habitats. Vegetative colonization occurred within the first growing season following emergence of the mud surface. An explosively high rate of below-ground production quickly stabilized the loosely consolidated sub-aerial sediments. After emergent vegetation colonization, vertical development slowed and maintenance of marsh elevation was driven both by sediment trapping by the vegetation and accumulation of plant organic matter in the soil. Continued vertical development and survival of the marsh then depended on the health and productivity of the plant community. The process of delta wetland formation is both complex and nonlinear. Determining the dynamics of wetland formation will help in understanding the processes driving the past building of the delta and in developing models for restoring degraded wetlands in the Mississippi River delta and other deltas around the world.

  15. Welding of pyroclastic conduit infill: A mechanism for cyclical explosive eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolzenburg, S.; Russell, J. K.

    2014-07-01

    Vulcanian-style eruptions are small- to moderate-sized, singular to cyclical events commonly having volcanic explosivity indices of 1-3. They produce pyroclastic flows, disperse tephra over considerable areas, and can occur as precursors to larger (e.g., Plinian) eruptions. The fallout deposits of the 2360 B.P. eruption of Mount Meager, BC, Canada, contain bread-crusted blocks of welded breccia as accessory lithics. They display a range of compaction/welding intensity and provide a remarkable opportunity to constrain the nature and timescales of mechanical processes operating within explosive volcanic conduits during repose periods between eruptive cycles. We address the deformation and porosity/permeability reduction within natural pyroclastic deposits infilling volcanic conduits. We measure the porosity, permeability, and ultrasonic wave velocities for a suite of samples and quantify the strain recorded by pumice clasts. We explore the correlations between the physical properties and deformation fabric. Based on these correlations, we reconstruct the deformation history within the conduit, model the permeability reduction timescales, and outline the implications for the repressurization of the volcanic conduit. Our results highlight a profound directionality in the measured physical properties of these samples related to the deformation-induced fabric. Gas permeability varies drastically with increasing strain and decreasing porosity along the compaction direction of the fabric but varies little along the elongation direction of the fabric. The deformation fabric records a combination of compaction within the conduit and postcompaction stretching associated with subsequent eruption. Model timescales of these processes are in good agreement with repose periods of cyclic vulcanian eruptions.

  16. Infilling of Cobble Substrate used by White Sturgeon on the Nechako River, at Vanderhoof BC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmermann, A. E.; Argast, T.; Sary, Z.

    2013-12-01

    Nechako white sturgeon are experiencing a recruitment failure, which has been attributed to the failure of eggs and larvae to survive as a result of changes in the substrate at the locations where they are known to spawn. As part of the overall recovery effort initiative, cobble substrate was placed at two locations to provide clean spawning substrate. Subsequently, the condition of the substrate has been investigated using an underwater camera and freeze core sampling. These observations have shown that coarse sand and fine gravels (fine bedoad) have in-filled the coarse substrate where it was placed along the inside corner of the bends, while placed substrate located on the outside of the bends has remained free of this size fraction. This observation has lead to the quandary: Is placed cobble substrate on the outside corner of the bends not being filled in with fine bedload because fine bedload is not moving past these sites, or are post-regulation flood flows sufficient to ensure fines remain suspended and are not deposited in the interstitial spaces? To assess this question a number of field based techniques will be used in August of 2013 during high flows to examine the movement of fine bedload. The techniques employed will include an underwater camera, P61 suspended sediment sampler, a HellySmith and KAROLYI bedload sampler and an ADCP with RTK for bottom tracking. The intent is to examine the movement of fine bedload across the channel at a number of potential spawning sites. The poster will summarize the observations to date about the movement of fine bedload at the spawning sites, and discuss the implications for spawning substrate improvement efforts.

  17. The Role of Conjoining (Tie) Channels in Lowland Floodplain Development and Lake Infilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowland, J. C.; Dietrich, W. E.; Day, G.; Lepper, K.; Wilson, C. J.

    2003-12-01

    In simple models of lowland river systems, water and sediment enter the main stem via tributary and secondary channels and are only redistributed to the floodplain during overbank and crevasse splay events. Along numerous river systems across the globe, however, water and sediment are regularly exchanged between the river and off river water bodies via stable, narrow channels. These channels, known as tie channels on the Fly River in Papua New Guinea and batture channels along the lower Mississippi, are largely overlooked but important components of floodplain sediment dispersal where they exist. These channels become pathways of sediment dispersal to the floodplain system when elevated river stages force sediment-laden flows into the off-river water bodies. On the Fly River, it is estimated that about 50% of the sediment delivery to the floodplain is via these channels, and along low gradient tributary channels during flood driven flow reversals. During low flow, tie channels serve to drain the floodplain. With the outgoing flows, large amounts sediment can be carried and lost to the floodplain; floodplain lakes progressively infill with sediment as the mouth of these channels steadily prograde lakeward. These lake deposits not only become significant stratigraphic components of floodplains (traditionally referred to as clay plugs), but are important local sinks recording hundreds to thousands of years of river history. As with all sinks, the proper interpretation of these stratigraphic records requires understanding the processes by which sediment is delivered to the sink and how these processes alter the paleohydraulic and climatic signals of interest. We have conducted field investigations of conjoining channels in Papua New Guinea (the Fly and Strickland Rivers), Louisiana (Raccourci Old River ~ 65 km upriver of Baton Rouge) and Alaska (Birch Creek). These field investigations include extensive surveys of both cross and along channel morphological trends

  18. Infilling of the Younger Kathmandu-Banepa intermontane lake basin during the Late Quaternary (Lesser Himalaya, Nepal): a sedimentological study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dill, H. G.; Khadka, D. R.; Khanal, R.; Dohrmann, R.; Melcher, F.; Busch, K.

    2003-01-01

    The Kathmandu and Banepa Basins, Central Nepal, are located in a large syncline of the Lesser Himalayas. The Older Kathmandu Lake evolved during the Pliocene and early Pleistocene; the Younger Kathmandu Lake, which is the focus of this study, is infilled with late Quaternary sediments. Three formations, arranged in stratigraphical order, the Kalimati, Gokarna and Thoka Formations formed during the infilling stage of this lacustrine basin. Structural and textural sedimentological analyses, a chemical survey across the basin and mineralogical investigations of fine-grained sediments form the basis of this palaeogeographical study. The basin under investigation was covered by a perennial freshwater lake before 30 000 yr BP. The lake was infilled with alluvial and fluvial sediments delivered mainly from the mountains north of the basin. A fairly low gradient was favourable for the formation of diatomaceous earths, carbonaceous mudstones and siltstones, which were laid down in the centre of the lake and in small ponds. Towards the basin edge, lacustrine sediments gave way to deltaic deposits spread across the delta plain. Crevasse splays and anastomosing rivers mainly delivered suspended load for the widespread siltstones and mudstones. The proximal parts of the alluvial-fluvial sedimentary wedge contain debris flows that interfinger with fine-grained floodplain deposits. Three highstands of the water-level (>30 000 yr BP, 28 000-19 000 yr BP, 11 000-4000 yr BP (?)) have been recognised in the sedimentary record of the younger Kathmandu Lake in the Late Quaternary. Second-order water-level fluctuations are assumed to be triggered by local processes (damming by tectonically induced landslides). First-order water-level fluctuations are the result of climatic changes.

  19. CHRONOLOGICAL CONSTRAINTS ON FLUID CIRCULATION IN MESOZOIC FORMATIONS OF THE EASTERN PART OF THE PARIS BASIN INFERRED FROM U-Pb DATING OF SECONDARY INFILLING CARBONATES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisapia, C.; Deschamps, P.; Hamelin, B.; Buschaert, S.

    2009-12-01

    The French agency for nuclear waste management (ANDRA) developed an Underground Research Laboratory in the Mesozoic formations of Eastern part of the Paris Basin (France) to assess the feasibility of a high-level radioactive wastes repository in sedimentary formations. The target host formation is a low-porosity detrital argillite (Callovo-Oxfordian) embedded between two shelf limestones formations (of Bajocian-Bathonian and Oxfordian-Kimmeridgian ages). These formations are affected by fracture networks, likely inherited mainly from the Eocene-Oligocene extension tectonics, also responsible of the Rhine graben formation in the same region. The limestones have very low permeability, the primary and secondary porosity being infilled by secondary carbonated minerals. The inter-particle porosity is filled with euhedral calcite spar cements. Similarly, macro-cavities and connected micro-fractures are almost sealed by euhedral calcite. Geochemical evidences (δ18O) suggest that the secondary carbonates likely derived from a common parent fluid (Buschaert et al., 2004, Appl. Geochem. (19) 1201-1215p). This late carbonated precipitation phase is responsible for the intense cementation of the limestone formations and bears witness of a major phase of fluids circulation that marked the late diagenetic evolution of the system. Knowledge of the chronology of the different precipitation phases of secondary minerals is thus of critical importance in order to determine the past hydrological conditions of the geological site. The aim of this study is to provide chronological constraints on the secondary carbonate mineral precipitation using U/Th and U/Pb methods. Analyses are performed on millimeter to centimeter scale secondary calcites collected within fractures outcropping in the regional fault zone of Gondrecourt and in cores from the ANDRA exploration-drilling program. Preliminary U-Th analyses obtained on secondary carbonates from surface fractures infillings yield secular

  20. Effects of Two Football Stud Types on Knee and Ankle Kinetics of Single-Leg Land-Cut and 180° Cut Movements on Infilled Synthetic Turf.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Hunter J; Brock, Elizabeth; Brosnan, James T; Sorochan, John C; Zhang, Songning

    2015-10-01

    Higher ACL injury rates have been recorded in cleats with higher torsional resistance in American football, which warrants better understanding of shoe/stud-dependent joint kinetics. The purpose of this study was to determine differences in knee and ankle kinetics during single-leg land cuts and 180° cuts on synthetic infilled turf while wearing 3 types of shoes. Fourteen recreational football players performed single-leg land cuts and 180° cuts in nonstudded running shoes (RS) and in football shoes with natural (NTS) and synthetic turf studs (STS). Knee and ankle kinetic variables were analyzed with a 3 × 2 (shoe × movement) repeated-measures ANOVA (P < .05). A significant shoe-by-movement interaction was found in loading response peak knee adduction moments, with NTS producing smaller moments compared with both STS and RS only in 180° cuts. Reduced peak negative plantar flexor powers were also found in NTS compared with STS. The single-leg land cut produced greater loading response and push-off peak knee extensor moments, as well as peak negative and positive extensor and plantar flexor powers, but smaller loading peak knee adduction moments and push-off peak ankle eversion moments than 180° cuts. Overall, the STS and 180° cuts resulted in greater frontal plane knee loading and should be monitored for possible increased ACL injury risks. PMID:25950515

  1. Amateur football pitches: mechanical properties of the natural ground and of different artificial turf infills and their biomechanical implications.

    PubMed

    Zanetti, Elisabetta M; Bignardi, Cristina; Franceschini, Giordano; Audenino, Alberto L

    2013-01-01

    Artificial turf is being used more and more often. It is more available than natural turf for use, requires much less maintenance and new products are able to comply with sport performance and athletes' safety. The purpose of this paper is to compare the mechanical and biomechanical responses of two different artificial turf infills (styrene butadiene rubber, from granulated vehicle tires, and thermoplastic rubber granules) and to compare them to the performance of natural fields where amateurs play (beaten earth, substantially). Three mechanical parameters have been calculated from laboratory tests: energy storage, energy losses and surface traction coefficient; results have been correlated with peak accelerations recorded on an instrumented athlete, on the field. The natural ground proved to be stiffer (-15% penetration depth for a given load), and to have a lower dynamic traction coefficient (-48%); the different kinds of infill showed significantly different stiffnesses (varying by more than 23%) and damping behaviour (varying by more than 31%). In running, peak vertical accelerations were lowest in the artificial ground with thermoplastic rubber granules, while, in slalom, both artificial grounds produced higher horizontal peak accelerations compared to the natural ground. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for athletic performance and injury risk. PMID:23230960

  2. Application of integrated reservoir management and reservoir characterization to optimize infill drilling. Annual report, June 13, 1994--June 12, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Pande, P.K.

    1996-11-01

    This project has used a multi-disciplinary approach employing geology, geophysics, and engineering to conduct advanced reservoir characterization and management activities to design and implement an optimized infill drilling program at the North Robertson (Clearfork) Unit in Gaines County, Texas. The activities during the first Budget Period have consisted of developing an integrated reservoir description from geological, engineering, and geostatistical studies, and using this description for reservoir flow simulation. Specific reservoir management activities are being identified and tested. The geologically targeted infill drilling program will be implemented using the results of this work. A significant contribution of this project is to demonstrate the use of cost-effective reservoir characterization and management tools that will be helpful to both independent and major operators for the optimal development of heterogeneous, low permeability shallow-shelf carbonate (SSC) reservoirs. The techniques that are outlined for the formulation of an integrated reservoir description apply to all oil and gas reservoirs, but are specifically tailored for use in the heterogeneous, low permeability carbonate reservoirs of West Texas.

  3. Data-infilling in daily mean river flow records: first results using a visual analytics tool (gapIT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giustarini, Laura; Parisot, Olivier; Ghoniem, Mohammad; Trebs, Ivonne; Médoc, Nicolas; Faber, Olivier; Hostache, Renaud; Matgen, Patrick; Otjacques, Benoît

    2015-04-01

    Missing data in river flow records represent a loss of information and a serious drawback in water management. An incomplete time series prevents the computation of hydrological statistics and indicators. Also, records with data gaps are not suitable as input or validation data for hydrological or hydrodynamic modelling. In this work we present a visual analytics tool (gapIT), which supports experts to find the most adequate data-infilling technique for daily mean river flow records. The tool performs an automated calculation of river flow estimates using different data-infilling techniques. Donor station(s) are automatically selected based on Dynamic Time Warping, geographical proximity and upstream/downstream relationships. For each gap the tool computes several flow estimates through various data-infilling techniques, including interpolation, multiple regression, regression trees and neural networks. The visual application provides the possibility for the user to select different donor station(s) w.r.t. those automatically selected. The gapIT software was applied to 24 daily time series of river discharge recorded in Luxembourg over the period 01/01/2007 - 31/12/2013. The method was validated by randomly creating artificial gaps of different lengths and positions along the entire records. Using the RMSE and the Nash-Sutcliffe (NS) coefficient as performance measures, the method is evaluated based on a comparison with the actual measured discharge values. The application of the gapIT software to artificial gaps led to satisfactory results in terms of performance indicators (NS>0.8 for more than half of the artificial gaps). A case-by-case analysis revealed that the limited number of reconstructed record gaps characterized by a high RMSE values (NS>0.8) were caused by the temporary unavailability of the most appropriate donor station. On the other hand, some of the gaps characterized by a high accuracy of the reconstructed record were filled by using the data from

  4. Application of integrated reservoir management and reservoir characterization to optimize infill drilling. Quarterly technical progress report, December 13, 1995--March 12, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-13

    This project has used a multi-disciplinary approach employing geology, geophysics, and engineering to conduct advanced reservoir characterization and management activities to design and implement an optimized infill drilling program at the North Robertson Unit. The activities during the first Budget Period, which is now complete, consisted of developing an integrated reservoir description from geological, engineering, and geostatistical studies, and using this description for reservoir flow simulation. Specific reservoir management activities have been identified and tested. The geologically targeted infill drilling program to be implemented during Budget Period II is a result of this work.

  5. Single-grain optical dating of grave-infill associated with human burials at Lake Mungo, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olley, Jon M.; Roberts, Richard G.; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Bowler, James M.

    2006-10-01

    Recent age constraints on Australia's oldest human remains (Mungo I and III), found at Lake Mungo in western New South Wales, relied on optical dating of sands from the same stratigraphic units as those into which the remains had been inserted (42±3 ka) and those that overlay the graves (38±2 ka), giving a burial age of 40±2 ka. This indirect means of dating the burials was necessary because the original site from which the remains had been excavated had been completely eroded away. At the time of the original excavation of the Mungo III grave, blocks of sediment from the grave-infill were collected for sediment fabric analysis. These sediment blocks were impregnated with polyester resin, sectioned for analysis and the remaining resin-impregnated sediment blocks were then stored in a cupboard, where they have lain for the last 30 years. Here we report on optical dating of single grains of quartz extracted from one of these sediment blocks. Grains extracted from the centre of the block show a wide distribution of equivalent doses (0.0±0.3 to 43.7±8.3 Gy), indicating that not all of the grains have remained hidden from light (light-safe) following excavation. We show that the population of grains with the maximum equivalent dose produces an age consistent with that of the previous study, indicating that some of the grains have remained light-safe. We also use linearly modulated optically stimulated luminescence to identify light-safe grains. These yield an age of 41±4 ka, which represents a direct optical age for the grave-infill and which is consistent with the age obtained in the previous study for sands from the same stratigraphic unit as that containing the burial. The results reported here demonstrate the potential of applying optical dating to archived sediment samples that have not been stored in a light-safe environment.

  6. In-filled reservoirs serving as sediment archives to analyse soil organic carbon erosion - Taking a closer look at the Karoo rangelands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krenz, Juliane; Greenwood, Philip; Kuhn, Brigitte; Heckrath, Goswin; Foster, Ian; Boardman, John; Meadows, Michael; Kuhn, Nikolaus

    2016-04-01

    The semi-arid rangelands of the Great Karoo region in South Africa, which are nowadays characterized by badlands on the foot slopes of upland areas and complex gully systems in valley bottoms, have experienced a number of environmental changes. With the settlement of European farmers in the late 18th century agricultural activities increased, leading to overgrazing which probably acted as a trigger to land degradation. As a consequence of higher water demands and shifting rainfall patterns, many dams and small reservoirs have been constructed to provide drinking water for cattle or to facilitate irrigation during dry periods. Most of these dams are now filled with sediment and many have become breached, revealing sediment archives that can be used to analyse land use changes as well as carbon erosion and deposition during the last ca. 100 years. In this ongoing project, a combination of analytical methods that include drone imagery, landscape mapping, erosion modelling and sediment analysis have been employed to trace back the sediment origin and redistribution within the catchment, setting a special focus on the carbon history. Sediment deposits from a silted-up reservoir were analysed for varying physicochemical parameters, in order to analyse erosional and depositional patterns. A sharp decrease in total carbon content with decreasing depth suggests that land degradation during and after the post-European settlement most likely triggered erosion of the relatively fertile surface soils which presumably in-filled the reservoirs. It is assumed that the carbon-rich bottom layers of the dam deposits originate from these eroded surface soils. A combination of erosion modelling and sediment analysis will be used to determine the source areas of the depositional material and might clarify the question if land degradation in the Karoo has resulted in its return from being a net sink of carbon into a net source of carbon.

  7. Linking Grain Size and Sedimentary Structure to Autogenic and Allogenic Processes Associated with Holocene Valley Infill and Evolution, Brazos River, TX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moran, K. E.; Nittrouer, J.; Lorenzo-Trueba, J.; Anderson, J. B.

    2014-12-01

    The Brazos River exhibits extraordinarily well-constrained allogenic processes including sea level and climate change, and our understanding of these variables prime the Brazos River to be an excellent natural laboratory for the examination of fluvial morphodynamics under the influence of allogenic and autogenic processes. This research seeks to elucidate an understanding of autogenic and allogenic signatures on stratigraphy through morphodynamic modeling of aggradation and avulsions of the Brazos River in conjunction with climate and sea level changes throughout Holocene time. Backwater length scales are hypothesized to propel autogenic responses of the Brazos system by dictating the loci of aggradation, which back-step and fill the valley as sea level rises. The backwater length scale and sea level covary, thus inducing an intrinsic, but historically complex, relationship between autogenic and allogenic processes that is sought to be discerned using the morphodynamic model presented herein. We simulate Brazos fluvial evolution via changes in fluid flow, sediment transport, and bed topography under the influence of allogenic perturbations. The results are used to characterize and quantify the stratigraphic evolution of the Brazos incised valley fill and are readily comparable to numerous previous studies of the system. The infill model is informed by grain size data collected from modern deposits and by modern channel dimensions. This research attempts to link rising Holocene sea level with a backwater length scale which coincides with the extent of back-stepping aggradation within the Brazos incised valley. Modeling responses to perturbations of the Brazos fluvial system can be applied, more holistically, to predict future coastal dynamics and to inform interpretations of paleo-fluvial systems and hydrocarbon reservoirs.

  8. Recording of the Holocene sediment infilling in a confined tide-dominated estuary: the bay of Brest (Britanny, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregoire, Gwendoline; Le Roy, Pascal; Ehrhold, Axel; Jouet, Gwenael; Garlan, Thierry

    2016-04-01

    Modern estuaries constitute key areas for the preservation of sedimentary deposits related to the Holocene period. Several previous studies using stratigraphic reconstructions in such environments allowed to characterise the major parameters controlling the Holocene transgressive sequence and to decipher their respective role in the sedimentary infill: (1) the evolution of main hydrologic factors (wave or tide-dominated environment), (2) the sea level fluctuation and (3) the morphologies of the bedrock and the coastline. Nevertheless, the timing of the transgressive deposits and the detailed facies need to be precise in regard to the stratigraphic schemes. The Bay of Brest (Western Brittany, France) offers the opportunity to examine these points and to compare with previous studies. It constitutes an original tide-dominated estuary that communicates to the open sea (Iroise Sea) by a narrow strait. Two main rivers (Aulne and Elorn) are connected to a submerged paleovalleys network that was incised in the Paleozoic basement during lowstands and still preserved in the present morphology. It delineates the central basin surrounded by tidal flat located in sheltered area. The analysis of high and very-high resolution seismic lines recorded through the whole bay combined with sediment cores (up to 4.5 m long) and radiocarbon dating allow to precise the architecture and the timing of the thick Holocene coastal wedge. It is preserved from the valley network to the shore and presents a longitudinal variability (downstream-upstream evolution). The infill is divided into two successive stages (corresponding to the transgressive and highstand system tracts) which laterally evolve from the paleo-valley to the coast. Two units constitute the transgressive system tract. The oldest, dated from 8200 to 7000 cal B.P. is composed of fine-grained, organic-rich tidal flat deposits located in the sheltered area and organised in levees on the terrace bordering the paleo-valley. A tidal

  9. High rates of bedload transport measured from infilling rate of large strudel-scour craters in the Beaufort Sea, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reimnitz, Erk; Kempema, E. W.

    1983-01-01

    Strudel scours are craters in the sea floor as much as 25 m wide and 6 m deep, that are excavated by vertical drainage flow during the yearly spring flooding of vast reaches of shorefast ice surrounding arctic deltas; they form at a rate of about 2.5 km -2 y -1. We monitored two such craters in the Beaufort Sea and found that in relatively unprotected sites they fill in by deposition from bedload in 2 to 3 years. Net westward sediment transport results in sand layers dipping at the angle of repose westward into the strudel-scour crater, whereas the west wall of the crater remains steep to vertical. At the bottom the crater traps almost all bedload: sand, pebbles, and organic detritus. As infilling progresses, the materials are increasingly winnowed, and bypassing must occur. Over a 20m wide sector, an exposed strudel scour trapped 360 m 3 of bedload during two seasons; this infilling represents a bedload transport rate of 9 m 3 y -1 m -1. This rate should be applicable to a 4.5-km wide zone with equal exposure and similar or shallower depth. Within this zone, the transport rate is 40,500 m 3 y -1, similar to estimated longshore transport rates on local barrier beaches. Based on the established rate of cut and fill, all the delta-front deposits should consist of strudel-scour fill. Vibracores typically show dipping interbedded sand and lenses of organic material draped over steep erosional contacts, and an absence of horizontal continuity of strata—criteria that should uniquely identify high-latitude deltaic deposits. Given a short 2- to 3-year lifespan, most strudel scours seen in surveys must be old and partially filled. The same holds true for ice gouges and other depressions not adjusted to summer waves and currents, and therefore such features record events of only the past few years. In view of such high rates of bottom reworking of the shallow shelf, any human activities causing turbidity, such as dredging, would have little effect on the environment

  10. Impediments and constraints in the uptake of water sensitive urban design measures in greenfield and infill developments.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ashok K; Cook, Stephen; Tjandraatmadja, Grace; Gregory, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Water sensitive urban developments are designed with integrated urban water management concepts and water sensitive urban design measures. The initiatives that may be included are the substitution of imported drinking water with alternative sources using a fit-for-purpose approach and structural and non-structural measures for the source control of stormwater. A water sensitive approach to urban development can help in achieving sustainability objectives by minimising disturbance to ecological and hydrological processes, and also relieve stress on conventional water systems. Water sensitive urban developments remain novel in comparison with conventional approaches, so the understanding and knowledge of the systems in regards to their planning; design; implementation; operation and maintenance; health impacts and environmental impacts is still developing and thus the mainstream uptake of these approaches faces many challenges. A study has been conducted to understand these challenges through a detailed literature review, investigating a large number of local greenfield and infill developments, and conducting extensive consultation with water professionals. This research has identified the social, economic, political, institutional and technological challenges faced in implementing water sensitive urban design in greenfield and infill developments. The research found in particular that there is the need for long-term monitoring studies of water sensitive urban developments. This monitoring is important to validate the performance of novel approaches implemented and improve associated guidelines, standards, and regulatory and governance frameworks, which can lead to mainstream acceptance of water sensitive urban development approaches. The dissemination of this research will help generate awareness among water professionals, water utilities, developers, planners and regulators of the research challenges to be addressed in order to achieve more mainstream acceptance of

  11. Aragonite infill in overgrown conceptacles of coralline Lithothamnion spp. (Hapalidiaceae, Hapalidiales, Rhodophyta): new insights in biomineralization and phylomineralogy.

    PubMed

    Krayesky-Self, Sherry; Richards, Joseph L; Rahmatian, Mansour; Fredericq, Suzanne

    2016-04-01

    New empirical and quantitative data in the study of calcium carbonate biomineralization and an expanded coralline psbA framework for phylomineralogy are provided for crustose coralline red algae. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectrometry (SEM-EDS) pinpointed the exact location of calcium carbonate crystals within overgrown reproductive conceptacles in rhodolith-forming Lithothamnion species from the Gulf of Mexico and Pacific Panama. SEM-EDS and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis confirmed the elemental composition of these calcium carbonate crystals to be aragonite. After spore release, reproductive conceptacles apparently became overgrown by new vegetative growth, a strategy that may aid in sealing the empty conceptacle chamber, hence influencing the chemistry of the microenvironment and in turn promoting aragonite crystal growth. The possible relevance of various types of calcium carbonate polymorphs present in the complex internal structure and skeleton of crustose corallines is discussed. This is the first study to link SEM, SEM-EDS, XRD, Microtomography and X-ray microscopy data of aragonite infill in coralline algae with phylomineralogy. The study contributes to the growing body of literature characterizing and speculating about how the relative abundances of carbonate biominerals in corallines may vary in response to changes in atmospheric pCO2 , ocean acidification, and global warming. PMID:27037582

  12. High Density Infill in Cracks and Protrusions from the Articular Calcified Cartilage in Osteoarthritis in Standardbred Horse Carpal Bones

    PubMed Central

    Laverty, Sheila; Lacourt, Mathieu; Gao, Chan; Henderson, Janet E.; Boyde, Alan

    2015-01-01

    We studied changes in articular calcified cartilage (ACC) and subchondral bone (SCB) in the third carpal bones (C3) of Standardbred racehorses with naturally-occurring repetitive loading-induced osteoarthritis (OA). Two osteochondral cores were harvested from dorsal sites from each of 15 post-mortem C3 and classified as control or as showing early or advanced OA changes from visual inspection. We re-examined X-ray micro-computed tomography (µCT) image sets for the presence of high-density mineral infill (HDMI) in ACC cracks and possible high-density mineralized protrusions (HDMP) from the ACC mineralizing (tidemark) front (MF) into hyaline articular cartilage (HAC). We hypothesized and we show that 20-µm µCT resolution in 10-mm diameter samples is sufficient to detect HDMI and HDMP: these are lost upon tissue decalcification for routine paraffin wax histology owing to their predominant mineral content. The findings show that µCT is sufficient to discover HDMI and HDMP, which were seen in 2/10 controls, 6/9 early OA and 8/10 advanced OA cases. This is the first report of HDMI and HDMP in the equine carpus and in the Standardbred breed and the first to rely solely on µCT. HDMP are a candidate cause for mechanical tissue destruction in OA. PMID:25927581

  13. High density infill in cracks and protrusions from the articular calcified cartilage in osteoarthritis in standardbred horse carpal bones.

    PubMed

    Laverty, Sheila; Lacourt, Mathieu; Gao, Chan; Henderson, Janet E; Boyde, Alan

    2015-01-01

    We studied changes in articular calcified cartilage (ACC) and subchondral bone (SCB) in the third carpal bones (C3) of Standardbred racehorses with naturally-occurring repetitive loading-induced osteoarthritis (OA). Two osteochondral cores were harvested from dorsal sites from each of 15 post-mortem C3 and classified as control or as showing early or advanced OA changes from visual inspection. We re-examined X-ray micro-computed tomography (µCT) image sets for the presence of high-density mineral infill (HDMI) in ACC cracks and possible high-density mineralized protrusions (HDMP) from the ACC mineralizing (tidemark) front (MF) into hyaline articular cartilage (HAC). We hypothesized and we show that 20-µm µCT resolution in 10-mm diameter samples is sufficient to detect HDMI and HDMP: these are lost upon tissue decalcification for routine paraffin wax histology owing to their predominant mineral content. The findings show that µCT is sufficient to discover HDMI and HDMP, which were seen in 2/10 controls, 6/9 early OA and 8/10 advanced OA cases. This is the first report of HDMI and HDMP in the equine carpus and in the Standardbred breed and the first to rely solely on µCT. HDMP are a candidate cause for mechanical tissue destruction in OA. PMID:25927581

  14. Infilled masonry walls contribution in mitigating progressive collapse of multistory reinforced concrete structures according to UFC guidelines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helmy, Huda; Hadhoud, Hamed; Mourad, Sherif

    2015-09-01

    A structure is subjected to progressive collapse when an element fails, resulting in failure of adjoining structural elements which, in their turn, cause further structural failure leading eventually to partial or total collapse. The failure of a primary vertical support might occur due to extreme loadings such as bomb explosion in a terrorist attack, gas explosion and huge impact of a car in the parking area. Different guidelines such as the General Services Administration (GSA 2003) and the Unified Facilities Criteria (UFC 2009) addressed the structural progressive collapse due to the sudden loss of a main vertical support. In the current study, a progressive collapse assessment according to the UFC guidelines is carried out for a typical ten-story reinforced concrete framed structure designed according to codes [(ACI 318-08) and (ASCE 7-10)] for minimum design loads for buildings and other structures. Fully nonlinear dynamic analysis for the structure was carried out using Applied Element Method (AEM). The investigated cases included the removal of a corner column, an edge column, an edge shear wall, internal columns and internal shear wall. The numerical analysis showed that simplification of the problem into 3D bare frames would lead to uneconomical design. It was found for the studied case that, the infilled masonry walls have a valuable contribution in mitigating progressive collapse of the reinforced concrete framed structures. Neglecting these walls would lead to uneconomical design.

  15. Photogeologic map of the Hellas basin floor, Mars: Nature, origin, and sequence of major infill units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernhardt, H.; Hiesinger, H.; Ivanov, M.; Erkeling, G.; Ruesch, O.; Reiss, D.

    2015-10-01

    Based on all state- of -the-art datasets and USGS -mapping guidelines [1,2], we produced a comprehensive photogeological map of the Hellas basin floor and its immediate surroundings (scale 1:2,000,000; Fig. 1). We compiled a self-consistent geologic history of the area, incorporating absolute and relative dating of identified units, as well as insights gained by previous investigations in and around the Hellas basin [e.g.,3-5]. Based on their ages, derived approximate volumes, as well as other characteristics, we suggest potential circum-Hellas source regions for specific basin floor units. Large deposits and erosional units in the basin show ages very similar to those of volcanic units in and around Hellas (~3.7 Ga), which is in agreement with certain volcanic outgassing models enabling liquid water runoff during that time.

  16. Application of Integrated Reservoir Management and Reservoir Characterization to Optimize Infill Drilling

    SciTech Connect

    P. K. Pande

    1998-10-29

    Initial drilling of wells on a uniform spacing, without regard to reservoir performance and characterization, must become a process of the past. Such efforts do not optimize reservoir development as they fail to account for the complex nature of reservoir heterogeneities present in many low permeability reservoirs, and carbonate reservoirs in particular. These reservoirs are typically characterized by: o Large, discontinuous pay intervals o Vertical and lateral changes in reservoir properties o Low reservoir energy o High residual oil saturation o Low recovery efficiency

  17. Using self-organizing maps to infill missing data in hydro-meteorological time series from the Logone catchment, Lake Chad basin.

    PubMed

    Nkiaka, E; Nawaz, N R; Lovett, J C

    2016-07-01

    Hydro-meteorological data is an important asset that can enhance management of water resources. But existing data often contains gaps, leading to uncertainties and so compromising their use. Although many methods exist for infilling data gaps in hydro-meteorological time series, many of these methods require inputs from neighbouring stations, which are often not available, while other methods are computationally demanding. Computing techniques such as artificial intelligence can be used to address this challenge. Self-organizing maps (SOMs), which are a type of artificial neural network, were used for infilling gaps in a hydro-meteorological time series in a Sudano-Sahel catchment. The coefficients of determination obtained were all above 0.75 and 0.65 while the average topographic error was 0.008 and 0.02 for rainfall and river discharge time series, respectively. These results further indicate that SOMs are a robust and efficient method for infilling missing gaps in hydro-meteorological time series. PMID:27282595

  18. A Siliciclastic-Infilled Sedimentary Basin Within a Large Carbonate Platform, Tampa Bay, Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suthard, B. C.; Hine, A. C.; Locker, S. D.; Duncan, D. S.; Morton, R. A.; Hansen, M. E.; Edgar, N. T.

    2002-12-01

    A seismic stratigraphic framework based on over 800 km of seismic reflection data collected within the Tampa Bay estuary and approximately 200 boreholes in and around the estuary shows three separate subsurface regions. In the north-central portion of the bay there is an irregular east-west oriented subsurface trough in the Miocene limestone that reaches depths of 30 m below the seafloor (mbsf). This trough contains steeply dipping clinoforms that indicate it has been filled from the south and east and borehole data show that these clinoforms are siliciclastic sediments. South of the trough in the center of Tampa Bay there is a broad carbonate bedrock high. This area is characterized by less than two meters of siliciclastic sediment cover as well as small-scale shallow karst features (10's m in width and up to 10 m in relief). In the southern portion of the Bay the seismic reflection data shows the Miocene limestone has large-scale warping as well as larger-scale karst features (100's m in width and 30+ m in relief) creating another deep basin (up to 40 mbsf) that has been filled by siliciclastics from the south and the east. The sedimentary basin underlying the modern estuary reveals that accommodation space can form within the center of large carbonate platforms and that this accommodation space may be filled by remobilized siliciclastics. Based upon the age of the underlying limestones, and recent work in south Florida by others, we propose that the Tampa Basin was filled during multiple Late Neogene and Quaternary sea-level fluctuations. Additionally, we speculate that the observed multiple buried sinkholes, and sag-and-warp deformation indicate spatially selective subsurface collapse probably initiated by deep-seated dissolution produced by karst processes. Overlying stratigraphic units subsided as a result of solution collapse, creating a surficial topographic low. This surficial basin may have controlled subsequent non-marine, estuarine and even open marine

  19. Displaced/re-worked rhodolith deposits infilling parts of a complex Miocene multistorey submarine channel: A case history from the Sassari area (Sardinia, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murru, Marco; Bassi, Davide; Simone, Lucia

    2015-08-01

    In the Sassari area (north-western Sardinia, Italy), the Miocene Porto Torres sub-basin sequences represent the complex multistorey mixed carbonate-siliciclastic submarine feature called the Sassari Channel. During the late Burdigalian-early Serravallian, repeated terrigenous supplies from uplifted Paleozoic crystalline substrata fed the Sassari Channel system by means of turbidity and locally hyper-concentrated turbidity flows. Shelfal areas were the source of terrigenous clasts, but open shelf rhodalgal/foramol carbonate areas were very productive and largely also contributed to the channel infilling. Re-worked sands and skeletal debris were discontinuously re-sedimented offshore as pure terrigenous, mixed and/or carbonate deposits. Major sediment supply was introduced between the latest Burdigalian and the start of the middle Langhian, during which a large amount of carbonate, mixed and siliciclastic sediments reached the Porto Torres Basin (Sassari Channel I). Contributions from shallow proximal source areas typify the lower intervals (Unit A) in marginal sectors of the channel. Upward, these evolve into autochthonous rhodolith deposits, winnowed by strong currents in relatively shallow well lit settings within a complex network of narrow tidally-controlled channels (Unit D) locally bearing coral assemblages. Conversely, re-sedimented rhodoliths from the Units B and C accumulated under conditions of higher turbidity. In deeper parts of the channel taxonomically diversified rhodoliths point to the mixing of re-deposited skeletal components from different relatively deep bathmetric settings. In the latest early Langhian, major re-sedimentation episodes, resulting in large prograding bodies (Unit D), triggered by repeated regression pulses in a frame of persistent still stand. During these episodes photophile assemblages dwelled in the elevated margin sectors of the channel. A significant latest early Langhian drop in relative sea-level resulted in impressive mass

  20. Influence of vegetation on the infilling of a macrotidal embayment: examples from salt marshes and shingle spit of the Baie de Somme (North France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Bot, Sophie; Forey, Estelle; Lafite, Robert; Langlois, Estelle

    2015-04-01

    As many estuaries in the English Channel, the Baie de Somme is currently filling with a mean seabed elevation between 1.3 and 1.8 cm/yr. Embankments and polders, as well as sea level rise, increase this natural accretion process, which leads to important modifications of environment uses. Interactions between vegetation and sediment dynamics constitute a key-point to consider, in order to better understand the infilling processes in estuaries. To estimate the effect of vegetation on these processes, two particular environments have been studied in the bay: (i) the mid salt marsh covered with Halimione portulacoides, associated with a silty sedimentation, and (ii) the shingle spit, that closes the bay from the South, on which the sea kale (Crambe maritime), a protected pioneer species, develops. Salt marshes progress with a rate of 5-10 m/yr (mean value calculated on the 1947-2011 period). Sedimentological analysis have been conducted on 9 cores (50cm long) collected in three Halimione communities of the bay. They are associated with a silty-dominated (38-84 micrometer) sedimentation under the influence of decantation processes. Rhythmicity is observed in the sedimentation, due to the repetition of a two-layer pattern, that includes a dark layer composed of vegetal rests and that would represent annual sedimentation. Annual sedimentation rates (0.7 to 5.8 cm/yr) are consistent with mean values previously recorded. The shingle spit progresses to the North under the influence of the littoral drift at a rate of 7 m/yr (mean value calculated on the 1947-2011 period). Sea kales are observed on parts formed since several years, above the level of the highest astronomical tides. TLS surveys and sedimentation bars have allowed to measure erosion/sedimentation volumes at the scale of the spit and of sea kale individuals, during spring 2013. Individuals of this species facilitate the trapping of sand, transported by winds from the intertidal flats. Sea kale thus contributes

  1. Determining the concentration of individual eruptive events of the CAMP: Distinguishing interflow hiatuses from subterranean alteration and void infilling.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, P. E.; Kent, D. V.; Et-Touhami, M.

    2012-04-01

    More important than the total volume of eruptives in a LIP is the concentration in time of individual eruptions with timescales relevant for environmental change. In CAMP lavas, interflow sedimentary and reddened levels are interpreted as evidence of significant time between flows of hundreds to thousands of years allowing soil development and sediment deposition. Additionally, cross-cutting or enclosed sediment bodies, and basalt and sediment mixtures are interpreted as clastic intrusions and phreatic mixing (peperites). Here we show that most such occurrences are more consistent with post-emplacement alteration and void infill by sediment. Criteria for recognizing void fillings in cross-cutting, enclosed or mixed basalt include: 1) paleo-horizontal sediment stratification independent of basalt clasts or void walls - i.e., geopedal; 2) presence of clasts alien to underlying units such as lithic clasts or bones, the latter analogous to karst occurrences; 3) presence of current structures such as ripples; 4) lack of basalt chill margins; and 5) preserved stratigraphy related to overlying units. Criteria for recognizing flow-contact-parallel sediment bodies and reddened and altered contacts as post-emplacement alteration and void infill include: 1) reddening and alteration of both the upper surface of the older flow AND the lower surface of the overlying flow (caused by post-emplacement ground-water-flow); 2) presence of clasts derived from the bottom of the overlying flow; 3) location of tabular sediment bodies within blisters and paleosurface-parallel crack-sheets of the older flow, rather than at the contact between flows; and 4) physical connection between paleosurface-parallel sediment bodies and sediment bodies that cross-cutting the younger flow exhibiting post-emplacement features described above. Features that might be indicative of deposition at the land surface but are not include: 1) roots, which can penetrate for tens of meters through sediment

  2. Off-river waterbodies on tidal rivers: Human impact on rates of infilling and the accumulation of pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodruff, Jonathan D.; Martini, Anna P.; Elzidani, Emhmed Z. H.; Naughton, Thomas J.; Kekacs, Daniel J.; MacDonald, Daniel G.

    2013-02-01

    Cut-off meanders, backwater ponds, and blocked valley coves are all common features along the tidal reaches of lowland rivers. While significant progress has been made to understand sediment dynamics in similar off-river environments above the head of tides, less is known about the processes driving transport and sedimentation within these systems when tidally influenced. To provide insight we combine sedimentological observations with flux analyses for a series of tidal off-river waterbodies along the Lower Connecticut River spanning the river's entire 100 km tidal reach. Sedimentation rates exhibit a clear seaward increase with growing tidal influence, and are an order of magnitude higher than accumulation rates obtained previously from neighboring marsh and subtidal environments. A simplified mass balance can relate time-series measurements of water level and suspended sediment concentration to observed trends in sedimentation, and support flood-dominated asymmetry in tidal sediment flux (i.e. tidal pumping) as the primary mechanism for enhanced trapping. Relatively steady rates of deposition are observed in off-river waterbodies over the last century, with little evidence of deposition dominated by extreme events. Suspended sediment concentrations rise significantly in the main tidal river with increasing river discharge, while tidal range is damped with rising freshwater flow. The net result is an optimal freshwater discharge for maximizing the tidal pumping of sediment from the main river into tidal off-river waterbodies, with more routine discharge events largely responsible for driving long-term trends in deposition. A sudden shift in lithology towards more inorganic, fluvial derived sediment is commonly observed towards the end of the 19th century, along with over an order of magnitude increase in the rate of deposition. The timing of the onset of rapid infilling occurs contemporaneous with the documented creation and/or deepening of tidal tie

  3. Modern and subrecent spatial distribution and characteristics of sediment infill controlled by internal depositional dynamics, Laguna Potrok Aike (southern Patagonia, Argentina)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kastner, S.; Ohlendorf, C.; Haberzettl, T.; Lücke, A.; Maidana, N. I.; Mayr, C.; Schäbitz, F.; Zolitschka, B.

    2009-04-01

    Situated in the dry steppe environment of south-eastern Patagonia the 100 m deep and max. 770 ka old maar lake Laguna Potrok Aike (51°58'S, 70°23'W) has a high potential as a palaeolimnological key site for the reconstruction of terrestrial palaeoclimate conditions. As this area is sensitive to variations in southern hemispheric wind and pressure systems the lake holds a unique lacustrine record of palaeoclimatic and palaeoecological variability. Depositional changes inferred from the lacustrine sediment sequence as well as subaerial and subaquatic lake level terraces provide detailed information about the water budget of the lake related to the variability of the Southern Hemispheric Westerlies. For this reason the lake was chosen as an ICDP drilling site in 2008 within the "Potrok Aike maar lake sediment archive drilling project" (PASADO). Based on high resolution multi-proxy investigations of the last 16,000 years carried out on a 18.9 m long sediment record (Haberzettl et al., 2007; Mayr et al., 2009; Wille et al., 2007) this study focuses on the understanding of internal depositional dynamics which control the characteristics and spatial distribution of the sediment infill of this lake. Furthermore, it provides information improving the accuracy of the interpretation of the long sediment record recovered within the PASADO project. A survey of the spatial sediment distribution was carried out in 2005 using 46 gravity cores of up to 49 cm length covering a range of water depths from 9 to 100 m. All 46 cores were scanned with X-ray fluorescence technique and for magnetic susceptibility with up to 1 mm spatial resolution. Using Ca and Ti as well as magnetic susceptibility data the cores were correlated and linked to the established age model (Haberzettl et al., 2005). As these parameters vary considerably and not consistently within the suite of littoral cores, a correlation prior to the 2005 sediment surface is solely based on cores from water depths exceeding

  4. Hanford wells

    SciTech Connect

    McGhan, V.L.

    1989-06-01

    The Site Characterization and Assessment Section of the Geosciences Department at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has compiled a list of wells located on or near the Hanford Site. Information has been updated on wells existing from the days before construction of the Hanford Works to the present. This work was funded by the US Department of Energy (DOE). The list of wells will be used by DOE contractors who need condensed, tabular information on well location, construction, and completion dates. This report does not include data on lithologic logs and ground-water contamination. Moreover, the completeness of this list is limited because of new well construction and existing well modifications, which are continually under way. Despite these limitations, this list represents the most complete description possible of data pertaining to wells on or adjacent to the Hanford Site. 7 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  5. Hanford wells

    SciTech Connect

    McGhan, V.L.; Mitchell, P.J.; Argo, R.S.

    1985-02-01

    The report is comprised of a list of wells located on or near the Hanford Site. Information on location, construction and completion dates has been updated on wells existing from the days before construction of the Hanford Works to the present. 4 refs. (ACR)

  6. Physics-Based Simulation and Experiment on Blast Protection of Infill Walls and Sandwich Composites Using New Generation of Nano Particle Reinforced Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irshidat, Mohammad

    A critical issue for the development of nanotechnology is our ability to understand, model, and simulate the behavior of small structures and to make the connection between nano structure properties and their macroscopic functions. Material modeling and simulation helps to understand the process, to set the objectives that could guide laboratory efforts, and to control material structures, properties, and processes at physical implementation. These capabilities are vital to engineering design at the component and systems level. In this research, experimental-computational-analytical program was employed to investigate the performance of the new generation of polymeric nano-composite materials, like nano-particle reinforced elastomeric materials (NPREM), for the protection of masonry structures against blast loads. New design tools for using these kinds of materials to protect Infill Walls (e.g. masonry walls) against blast loading were established. These tools were also extended to cover other type of panels like sandwich composites. This investigation revealed that polymeric nano composite materials are strain rate sensitive and have large amount of voids distributed randomly inside the materials. Results from blast experiments showed increase in ultimate flexural resistance achieved by both unreinforced and nano reinforced polyurea retrofit systems applied to infill masonry walls. It was also observed that a thin elastomeric coating on the interior face of the walls could be effective at minimizing the fragmentation resulting from blast. More conclusions are provided with recommended future research.

  7. Towards a mechanical failure model for degrading permafrost rock slopes representing changes in rock toughness and infill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamot, Philipp; Krautblatter, Michael; Scandroglio, Riccardo

    2016-04-01

    The climate-induced degradation of permafrost in mountain areas can reduce the stability of rock slopes. An increasing number of rockfalls and rockslides originate from permafrost-affected rock faces. Discontinuity patterns and their geometrical and mechanical properties play a decisive role in controlling rock slope stability. Under thawing conditions the shear resistance of rock reduces due to lower friction along rock-rock contacts, decreasing fracture toughness of rock-ice contacts, diminishing fracture toughness of cohesive rock bridges and altered creep or fracture of the ice itself. Compressive strength is reduced by 20 to 50 % and tensile strength decreases by 15 to 70 % when intact saturated rock thaws (KRAUTBLATTER ET AL. 2013). Elevated water pressures in fractures can lead to reduced effective normal stresses and thus to lower shear strengths of fractures. However, the impact of degrading permafrost on the mechanical properties of intact or fractured rock still remains poorly understood. In this study, we develop a new approach for modeling the influence of degrading permafrost on the stability of high mountain rock slopes. Hereby, we focus on the effect of rock- and ice-mechanical changes along striking discontinuities onto the whole rock slope. We aim at contributing to a better rock-ice mechanical process understanding of degrading permafrost rocks. For parametrisation and subsequent calibration of our model, we chose a test site (2885 m a.s.l.) close by the Zugspitze summit in Germany. It reveals i) a potential rockslide at the south face involving 10E4m³ of rock and ii) permafrost occurrence due to ice-filled caves and fractures. Here we combine kinematic, geotechnical and thermal monitoring in the field with rock-mechanical laboratory tests and a 2D numerical failure modeling. Up to date, the following results underline the potential effects of thawing rock and fracture infill on the stability of steep rock slopes in theory and praxis: i. ERT and

  8. How do how internal and external processes affect the behaviors of coupled marsh mudflat systems; infill, stabilize, retreat, or drown?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, J. A.; Mariotti, G.; Wiberg, P.; Fagherazzi, S.; McGlathery, K.

    2013-12-01

    an eventual lateral equilibrium are possible only with large allochthonous sediment supply. Once marshes expanded, marsh retreat can be prevented by a sediment supply smaller than the one that filled the basin. At the GCE, the Altamaha River allows for enhanced allochthonous supply directly to the salt marsh platform, reducing the importance of waves on the tidal flat. As a result, infilling or retreat become the prevalent behaviors. For the VCR, the presence of seagrass decreases near bed shear stresses and sediment flux to the salt marsh platform, however, seagrass also reduces the wave energy acting on the boundary of the marsh reducing boundary erosion. Results indicate that the reduction in wave power allows for seagrass to provide a strong stabilizing affect on the coupled salt marsh tidal flat system, but as external sediment supply increases and light conditions decline the system reverts to that of a bare tidal flat. Across all systems and with current rates of sea level rise, retreat is a more likely marsh loss modality than drowning.

  9. Monitoring well

    DOEpatents

    Hubbell, J.M.; Sisson, J.B.

    1999-06-29

    A monitoring well is described which includes: a conduit defining a passageway, the conduit having a proximal and opposite, distal end; a coupler connected in fluid flowing relationship with the passageway; and a porous housing borne by the coupler and connected in fluid flowing relation thereto. 8 figs.

  10. Well tool

    SciTech Connect

    Sable, D.E.

    1992-06-09

    This patent describes a stabilizer rod conductible in a sucker rod string to constitute the bottom end portion of a rod sting and connect it to a reciprocable member of a well pump, the sucker rod string having sucker rods whose elongate shanks are provided.

  11. Wellness Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arteaga, Brenda

    2011-01-01

    Creating a healthier school in today's world of budget cuts and seemingly endless to-do lists is not only possible, but it is also imperative. Beyond the health implications, one of the most compelling reasons for creating healthier schools is that wellness serves as a power booster for learning. Numerous studies have documented what educators…

  12. Monitoring well

    DOEpatents

    Hubbell, Joel M.; Sisson, James B.

    1999-01-01

    A monitoring well including a conduit defining a passageway, the conduit having a proximal and opposite, distal end; a coupler connected in fluid flowing relationship with the passageway; and a porous housing borne by the coupler and connected in fluid flowing relation thereto.

  13. Liver Wellness

    MedlinePlus

    ... to liver wellness. • There are more than 100 liver diseases. • Liver disease is one of the top 10 causes of ... out of every 10 Americans is affected by liver disease. • Some liver diseases such as hepatitis A, hepatitis ...

  14. Monitoring well

    DOEpatents

    Hubbell, Joel M.; Sisson, James B.

    2002-01-01

    The present invention relates to a monitoring well which includes an enclosure defining a cavity and a water reservoir enclosed within the cavity and wherein the reservoir has an inlet and an outlet. The monitoring well further includes a porous housing borne by the enclosure and which defines a fluid chamber which is oriented in fluid communication with the outlet of the reservoir, and wherein the porous housing is positioned in an earthen soil location below-grade. A geophysical monitoring device is provided and mounted in sensing relation relative to the fluid chamber of the porous housing; and a coupler is selectively moveable relative to the outlet of reservoir to couple the porous housing and water reservoir in fluid communication. An actuator is coupled in force transmitting relation relative to the coupler to selectively position the coupler in a location to allow fluid communication between the reservoir and the fluid chamber defined by the porous housing.

  15. Camelid wellness.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Marty McGee; Richards, Nanci L M

    2015-05-01

    Wellness management and environmental enrichment of New World camelids is multifaceted and should include everything from how they are fed and housed to how they are interacted with and handled. Camelid feeding regimens should be based on sound nutritional concepts, designed for specific animal groups, and begin with an appropriate forage base. Provide housing, shelter, substrate, and feeders designed for the needs and behaviors of camelids. Herd management should include regularly obtaining weights and body condition scores. Handling and training should be of a positive nature, in keeping with the natural history and temperament of the animal. PMID:25902272

  16. Well pump

    DOEpatents

    Ames, Kenneth R.; Doesburg, James M.

    1987-01-01

    A well pump includes a piston and an inlet and/or outlet valve assembly of special structure. Each is formed of a body of organic polymer, preferably PTFE. Each includes a cavity in its upper portion and at least one passage leading from the cavity to the bottom of the block. A screen covers each cavity and a valve disk covers each screen. Flexible sealing flanges extend upwardly and downwardly from the periphery of the piston block. The outlet valve block has a sliding block and sealing fit with the piston rod.

  17. Dynamic casting of a graben complex: Syn-sedimentary infill and differential subsidence during the permo-carboniferous; Peace River Embayment, western Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Barclay, J.E. Univ. of Calgary, Alberta ); Krause, F.F. ); Campbell, R.R. Calamity Resources, Calgary, Alberta )

    1991-03-01

    The Carboniferous Stoddart Group and Permian Belloy Formation record infill of a long-lived graben complex in the center of the Peace River Embayment. The Dawson Creek Graben Complex began down-dropping during deposition of the Rundle Group and Golata Formation and reached its maximum during Kiskatinaw time. The overlying Taylor Flat Formation shows graben filling and graben decay; whereas the flat Permian Belloy Formation beds within and beyond graben limits indicate tectonic stability. The complex comprised the larger Fort St. John Graben and satellite Hines Creek, Whitelaw, and Cindy grabens. The grabens consist of kilometer-scale horst and graben blocks bounded by normal faults. The internal blocks subsided at various rates, with differential subsidence occurring in the form of horsts subsiding slower than neighboring grabens. Syn- and post-depositional growth-type normal faults controlled formation and bed thickness, as did inter- and intra-formation unconformities. From these observations, a structural/stratigraphic model can be constructed that explains the complex stratigraphy and depositional interpretations. This model describes a basin dominated by tectonic controls rather than global sea-level events. Syn- and post-sedimentary growth-type block faulting, differential subsidence of fault blocks, sedimentary infill, and unconformity truncation were the major controls on the basin. The model provides an analog to grabens and block-faulted basins of growth-faulted basins occurring elsewhere. The implications of the model to petroleum exploration are that all beds can be correlated by assuming that beds were essentially flat-lying prior to and during faulting. The combination of the block-faulted character and complex facies changes provides many structural and stratigraphic petroleum traps.

  18. Results of a detailed infill lake-sediment survey in the Snow Lake area: Evaluation and comparison of grab sample and short core data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friske, P.W.B.

    1996-01-01

    As part of the Exploration Science and Technology Initiative (EXTECH) program a detailed infill lake-sediment and water survey was undertaken in the Snow Lake area during the fall of 1991. This involved the collection of 346 lake sediment grab samples and concomitant waters. In 1993, additional work was undertaken involving the collection of 23 short cores from selected grab sample sites. The primary objectives of the infill survey and short core work were to: 1) evaluate the effectiveness of lake sediment geochemistry in detecting known mineralization in the Snow Lake area; 2) evaluate and develop new approaches in the use of lake sediment geochemistry; and, 3) define, if possible, new exploration targets. At most sites, data from the cores verify the original grab sample results. However, at a few sites the original anomalous grab sample results are interpreted as being related to contamination as opposed to naturally elevated levels. An unusually thick sequence of contaminated surface sediments with extremely high concentrations of trace metals is a likely contributing factor, a condition which is restricted to lakes in the immediate vicinity of local anthropogenic activity. Collection of lake cores provides a useful new approach to the follow-up of grab sample data and to the application of lake sediment geochemistry, particularly in areas with significant local contamination. Much of the known mineralization in the area is clearly reflected by the lake sediment data. Character of the anomalies mirror the composition of the nearby mineralization. The lake sediment data also identify a number of areas that warrant further investigation, several of which are discussed.

  19. Well completion practices in active U. S. areas

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-05-01

    This work presents results of field visits and meetings with oil companies and independent operators to determine the latest in drilling and well completion practices in active US areas. Those areas and practices include S. Texas (operations to control annular gas flow during cementing); offshore Texas (rapidly changing pressure gradients require numerous casing strings); Cotton Valley (large sandstone frac jobs); Sonora Basin (smaller, low-rate fracturing); W. Texas (minor Permian basin infill drilling problems); Tuscaloosa trend (drilling operations planned around pressure transition zones); offshore Louisiana (geology and directional work complicate drilling); Overthrust Belt (abnormally low pressure zones and hydrogen sulfide problems); Williston basin (logistics problems); and California (well designs used for steam stimulated production).

  20. Sedimentary infill dynamic and associated trace element temporal trends in a dam reservoir: evidence of high polluted sediment storage after major flood events (Upper Loire river, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhivert, Elie; Grosbois, Cécile; Desmet, Marc; Coynel, Alexandra; Lefevre, Irène

    2014-05-01

    The Villerest Dam, was built in the Upper Loire river during the early 1980's, 80 km downstream of the most important industrial and coal mining area of the basin. It constitutes an important trap of sediments and associated pollutants since its operation in 1984. A 154 cm long core was sampled in 2010, in a former channel levee in the reservoir. This study highlights (i) important sediment accumulation rate during flood events in the reservoir, (ii) the influence of high discharge events in sedimentary infill in terms of stored sediment quality, geochemical markers and anthropogenic sources influence. Coupling sedimentological analyses and 137Cs datation allows to define 3 sedimentary units in this core. The deepest unit corresponds to transported and/or reworked fluvial sediments undated, the uppermost unit to lacustrine sediments post 1984 and between, to a transition unit resulting from the reservoir water infilling in 1983-1984. In addition, the upper unit shows 3 turbiditic-like layers (of 6, 20 and 13 cm thick) corresponding respectively to 1996, 2003 and 2008 major flood events (more than 20-year flood average daily outflow). These flood sequences result from underflow sedimentary inputs and contribute to 43% of the 151 kg/m² of accumulated sediments since 1984. Over the 1984-2010 period, sediments show a general contamination decrease but major flood events transport highly impacted sediments (highest enrichment factor > 20 for Hg and >10 for Cd and Bi), never reached during interflood periods. During these events, trace elements (TE) are mostly associated to organic fraction and clays. Rich-TE solid sources appear to be only solicited, and/or severely amplified, during important flood events over the recording period. In addition to these pollutants inputs, floods also bring an important detrital fraction, diluting anthropogenic TE signal. In details, flood deposits show variations of sedimentological and geochemical signals delimiting two distinct

  1. The mechanics of American football cleats on natural grass and infill-type artificial playing surfaces with loads relevant to elite athletes.

    PubMed

    Kent, Richard; Forman, Jason L; Lessley, David; Crandall, Jeff

    2015-06-01

    This study quantified the mechanical interactions of 19 American football cleats with a natural grass and an infill-type artificial surface under loading conditions designed to represent play-relevant manoeuvres of elite athletes. Variation in peak forces and torques was observed across cleats when tested on natural grass (2.8-4.2 kN in translation, 120-174 Nm in rotation). A significant (p < 0.05) relationship was found between the peak force and torque on natural grass. Almost all of the cleats caused shear failure of the natural surface, which generated a divot following a test. This is a force-limiting cleat release mode. In contrast, all but one of the cleat types held fast in the artificial turf, resulting in force and torque limited by the prescribed input load from the test device (nom. 4.8 kN and 200 Nm). Only one cleat pattern, consisting of small deformable nubs, released on the artificial surface and generated force (3.9 kN) comparable to the range observed with natural grass. These findings (1) should inform the design of cleats intended for use on natural and artificial surfaces and (2) suggest a mechanical explanation for a higher lower-limb injury rate in elite athletes playing on artificial surfaces. PMID:26114885

  2. The infill timing of a quaternary intermontane basin: new chrono-stratigraphic and palaeoenvironmental data by a 900 m deep borehole from Campochiaro (central-southern Apennine, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amato, Vincenzo; Aucelli, Pietro P. C.; Cesarano, Massimo; Cifelli, Francesca; Leone, Natalia; Mattei, Massimo; Russo Ermolli, Elda; Petrosino, Paola; Rosskopf, Carmen M.

    2016-04-01

    The axial zone of the central-southern Apennine (Molise sector), is characterized by the presence of several quaternary tectonic depressions (Venafro, Isernia, Carpino, Sessano, Boiano and Sepino), generally NW-SE and NE-SW elongated, filled by very thick fluvial-marshy successions. Transtensive and extensional tectonic phases, alternating by relative stable tectonic periods with prevailing climatic variation induced processes, contributed to the infilling. In fact, during Early Pleistocene, the transtensive tectonic phases and, from the end of Early Pleistocene, the extensional tectonic phases, were responsible to enhance the subsidence into the basins, thanks to the activity of the high angle faults, generally NW-SE, NESW and E-O oriented, influencing also their environmental and sedimentary evolution. Between the late Middle Pleistocene and the early Upper Pleistocene, the subsidence reduced, and alluvial plain and alluvial fans environments improved. In the last years, several studies on the Boiano intermontane basin, bounded at south by Matese massif, were carried out. A detailed morpho-stratigraphic and tectonic evolution of the basin was proposed since Middle Pleistocene (MIS 13, 500 ka BP), thanks to field surveys and boreholes facies analyses, supported by Ar/Ar datings, tephrostratigraphical and pollen data. However, still now, the presence of Early Pleistocene eposits was only supposed. Succession. A deep continuous core (900 m) was carried out in the Campochiaro sector of the basin. Facies analyses, supported by preliminary paleomagnetic and tephrostratigraphic data, allow us to recognize the top of the prequaternary bedrock (Molise Flysch, Miocene) at 240 m of depth and to divide the whole succession in 4 main stratigraphic units. From the bottom to the top, the infilling is made of: Unit 1 (240-150 m), presenting lacustrine-palustrine environments, alternating clays and clayey-silts layers, constrained to Early Pleistocene; Unit 2 (150-123 m

  3. Optimum position for wells producing at constant wellbore pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Camacho-Velazquez, R.; Rodriguez de la Garza, F.; Galindo-Nava, A.; Prats, M.

    1994-12-31

    This paper deals with the determination of the optimum position of several wells, producing at constant different wellbore pressures from a two-dimensional closed-boundary reservoirs, to maximize the cumulative production or the total flow rate. To achieve this objective they authors use an improved version of the analytical solution recently proposed by Rodriguez and Cinco-Ley and an optimization algorithm based on a quasi-Newton procedure with line search. At each iteration the algorithm approximates the negative of the objective function by a cuadratic relation derived from a Taylor series. The improvement of rodriguez and Cinco`s solution is attained in four ways. First, an approximation is obtained, which works better at earlier times (before the boundary dominated period starts) than the previous solution. Second, the infinite sums that are present in the solution are expressed in a condensed form, which is relevant for reducing the computer time when the optimization algorithm is used. Third, the solution is modified to take into account the possibility of having wells starting to produce at different times. This point allows them to deal with the problem of getting the optimum position for an infill drilling program. Last, the solution is extended to include the possibility of changing the value of wellbore pressure or being able to stimulate any of the wells at any time. When the wells are producing at different wellbore pressures it is found that the optimum position is a function of time, otherwise the optimum position is fixed.

  4. Well testing and interpretation for horizontal wells

    SciTech Connect

    Kuchuk, F.J. )

    1995-01-01

    The use of transient well testing for determining reservoir parameters and productivity of horizontal wells has become common because of the upsurge in horizontal drilling. Initially, horizontal well tests were analyzed with the conventional techniques designed for vertical wells. During the last decade, analytic solutions have been presented for the pressure behavior of horizontal wells. New flow regimes have been identified, and simple equations and flow regime existence criteria have been presented for them. The flow regimes are now used frequently to estimate horizontal and vertical permeabilities of the reservoir, wellbore skin, and reservoir pressure. Although the existing tools and interpretation techniques may be sufficient for simple systems, innovation and improvement of the present technology are still essential for well testing of horizontal wells in many reservoirs with different geological environments and different well-completion requirements.

  5. High Resolution Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) in a Transition Zone Environment: Application for Detailed Internal Architecture and Infilling Processes Study of a Rhône River Paleo-channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maillet, Grégoire M.; Rizzo, Enzo; Revil, André; Vella, Claude

    2005-06-01

    Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) was applied in a sand-infilled paleo-channel located in the Rhône Delta, in Southern France. The detailed pattern and sedimentological evolution of the channel fill deposits - know from both historical and geological sources - made it the ideal site to test the ERT method. A geoelectrical survey was performed, using the ABEM SAS-4000 multi-electrode array system in March 2003. Very low electrical resistivity values were obtained, ranging from 0.3 to 10 Ohm m, consistent with the high salinity measured in situ (the pore water conductivity was found to range from 0.9 to 1.2 S/m at 25 °C). The electrical resistivity profiles reflect mainly salinity variations. Indeed, in this case, salinity is so high that surface conductivity associated with clay minerals can be safely neglected. ERT provided valuable high-resolution information that complemented other exiting data such as historical information, bathymetric, geological, and lithostratigraphic data, which allowed the architecture of the channel to be defined. The ERT was used to determine the infilling dynamics of the Pégoulier Channel, which opens new perspectives in terms of paleoenvironmental reconstruction and paleodynamic studies.

  6. Basin infilling of a schematic 1D estuary using two different approaches: an aggregate diffusive type model and a processed based model.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laginha Silva, Patricia; Martins, Flávio A.; Boski, Tomász; Sampath, Dissanayake M. R.

    2010-05-01

    processes. In this viewpoint the system is broken down into its fundamental components and processes and the model is build up by selecting the important processes regardless of its time and space scale. This viewpoint was only possible to pursue in the recent years due to improvement in system knowledge and computer power (Paola, 2000). The primary aim of this paper is to demonstrate that it is possible to simulate the evolution of the sediment river bed, traditionally studied with synthetic models, with a process-based hydrodynamic, sediment transport and morphodynamic model, solving explicitly the mass and momentum conservation equations. With this objective, a comparison between two mathematical models for alluvial rivers is made to simulate the evolution of the sediment river bed of a conceptual 1D embayment for periods in the order of a thousand years: the traditional synthetic basin infilling aggregate diffusive type model based on the diffusion equation (Paola, 2000), used in the "synthesist" viewpoint and the process-based model MOHID (Miranda et al., 2000). The simulation of the sediment river bed evolution achieved by the process-based model MOHID is very similar to those obtained by the diffusive type model, but more complete due to the complexity of the process-based model. In the MOHID results it is possible to observe a more comprehensive and realistic results because this type of model include processes that is impossible to a synthetic model to describe. At last the combined effect of tide, sea level rise and river discharges was investigated in the process based model. These effects cannot be simulated using the diffusive type model. The results demonstrate the feasibility of using process based models to perform studies in scales of 10000 years. This is an advance relative to the use of synthetic models, enabling the use of variable forcing. REFERENCES • Briggs, L.I. and Pollack, H.N., 1967. Digital model of evaporate sedimentation. Science, 155, 453

  7. Health protection well inventory

    SciTech Connect

    Janssen, J.

    1989-03-01

    This report is an inventory of the wells contained in Health Protection (HP) documents since the startup of the Savannah River Plan (SRP) and includes wells monitored by special request and SRL research wells.

  8. Submersible well pump and well completion system

    SciTech Connect

    Bayh, R.I.

    1990-04-03

    This patent describes a well completion system for a downhole submersible pump and motor. It comprises: a production tubing string with a landing nipple forming an integral part thereof and defining in part a downhole location for releasably anchoring a submersible pump and related components within the production tubing string; a power cable having electrical conductors and fluid conductors to supply both electricity and treating fluid from the well surface to the submersible pump and related components; and a fluid flow path extending through the submersible pump motor and its related components to receive treating fluid from the power cable. Also described is the method of installing and operating a downhole submersible pump and motor.

  9. Taking stock of wellness.

    PubMed

    Fitch, Kathryn; Pyenson, Bruce

    2008-01-01

    The health cost crisis has spawned a thriving cost-control industry that offers an ever-growing number of "solutions." The authors of this article encourage employers to go back to the basics in evaluating these offerings, including their wellness policies and programs. This article describes the many ways different employers do wellness, the evidence base for wellness, how employers should target wellness candidates, and the elements of success and failure for wellness initiatives. PMID:18590182

  10. Well testing apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, C.E.; Zitterich, C.L.; Holloman, R.M.

    1988-12-13

    This patient describes a system for testing a subterranean earth formation, comprising: a well bore penetrating the earth formation to be tested: a well casing in the well bore extending from the surface into the earth formation, the well casing being perforated opposite the earth formation to permit formation fluids to enter the well casing; a well tubing in the well casing, the well tubing having a well packer sealing between the exterior of the well tubing and the well casing at a location above the earth formation, the well tubing also having a landing receptacle located near the well packer; a test tool string means lowered from the surface on a single-conductor electric cable and lockingly and sealingly engaged in the landing receptacle, the test tool string including: valve means including telescoped tubular members having lateral flow ports in their walls, and being relatively slidable longitudinally between positions opening and closing the flow ports for permitting or preventing flow therethrough, first pressure sensing means for sensing fluid pressures below the valve means, second pressure sensing means for sensing fluid pressures above the valve means, and switching means connected to both the first and second pressure sensing means for alternately switching electric power, transmitted to it from the surface through the electric cable, therebetween, the pressure sensing means, in turn, generating a signal and transmitting the same to the surface to indicate the magnitude of the pressures sensed thereby.

  11. High Level Wellness Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ardell, Donald B.

    1977-01-01

    A system of health promotion is proposed based on wellness, rather than illness, in which the object is to move from lesser to greater stages of wellness instead of seeking only to minimize the impact of disease. (MJB)

  12. HYDRAULICS OF WELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water wells have been used and continue to be used as devices for extracting ground water from aquifers. The importance of wells is not limited to the development of groundwater resources. Wells are used for environmental purposes, among others, the removal of contaminants from g...

  13. Well perforating methods

    SciTech Connect

    Revett, L. W.

    1985-09-17

    A well completion method comprising suspending NaCl crystals in the interval of the well bore to be perforated where the NaCl crystals are sized to bridge the perforations when the hydraulic pressure in the well bore exceeds the hydraulic pressure in the earth formation. The perforator is arranged to produce penetrations in the well bore in a radial pattern about the circumference of the well bore so as to effectively penetrate the entire circumference over a short interval. This enhances the perforation of vertical fractures in the earth formations.

  14. Well production method

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, K.J.; Coats, E.A.

    1991-07-23

    This patent describes a method of producing methane gas from a coalbed. It includes drilling a well into an earth formation to a depth penetrating a coalbed seam; setting a casing in the well extending through the coalbed seam; perforating the casing at the coalbed seam; installing a production tubing string in the well casing, the string extending in spaced relation in the casing to the coalbed seam and defining a continuous annulus in the well between the production tubing string and the casing between a surface end of the well and the coalbed seam, the production tubing string including a side pocket mandrel and a tubing removable gas lift valve installed in the side pocket mandrel; installing a tubing lift gas injection line in the well annulus along with the production tubing string the lift gas injection line being connected into the side pocket mandrel to communicate into the gas lift valve; installing a wellhead on the well having separate flow line.

  15. Well Log ETL tool

    2013-08-01

    This is an executable python script which offers two different conversions for well log data: 1) Conversion from a BoreholeLASLogData.xls model to a LAS version 2.0 formatted XML file. 2) Conversion from a LAS 2.0 formatted XML file to an entry in the WellLog Content Model. Example templates for BoreholeLASLogData.xls and WellLogsTemplate.xls can be found in the package after download.

  16. Application of integrated reservoir management and reservoir characterization to optimize infill drilling. Quarterly technical progress report, September 13, 1995--December 12, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-12

    The main emphasis this quarter was on the geostatistics and reservoir simulation. Assimilation of data with the geostatistics was conducted to determine the specific well locations for the demonstration program. Reservoir characterization and performance information is also included.

  17. WELL PURGING STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Purging of wells with bailers has been a standard practice in the underground storage tank program as well as other groundwater regulatory programs for many years. Several studies in the Northeast and the West have shown that, under certain circumstances, samples collected witho...

  18. Staying Well at Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blai, Boris, Jr.

    Employee wellness directly affects business/industry operations and costs. When employees are helped and encouraged to stay well, this people-positive policy results in triple benefits: reduced worker absenteeism, increased employee productivity, and lower company expenditures for health costs. Health care programs at the worksite offer these…

  19. Water Treatment Technology - Wells.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on wells provides instructional materials for five competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: dug, driven, and chilled wells, aquifer types, deep well…

  20. Penrose Well Temperatures

    DOE Data Explorer

    Christopherson, Karen

    2013-03-15

    Penrose Well Temperatures Geothermal waters have been encountered in several wells near Penrose in Fremont County, Colorado. Most of the wells were drilled for oil and gas exploration and, in a few cases, production. This ESRI point shapefile utilizes data from 95 wells in and around the Penrose area provided by the Colorado Oil and Gas Conservation Commission (COGCC) database at http://cogcc.state.co.us/ . Temperature data from the database were used to calculate a temperature gradient for each well. This information was then used to estimate temperatures at various depths. Projection: UTM Zone 13 NAD27 Extent: West -105.224871 East -105.027633 North 38.486269 South 38.259507 Originators: Colorado Oil and Gas Conservation Commission (COGCC) Karen Christopherson

  1. Pumping potential wells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hershkowitz, N.; Forest, C.; Wang, E. Y.; Intrator, T.

    1987-01-01

    Nonmonotonic plasma potential structures are a common feature of many double layers and sheaths. Steady state plasma potential wells separating regions having different plasma potentials are often found in laboratory experiments. In order to exist, all such structures must find a solution to a common problem. Ions created by charge exchange or ionization in the region of the potential well are electrostatically confined and tend to accumulate and fill up the potential well. The increase in positive charge should eliminate the well. Nevertheless, steady state structures are found in which the wells do not fill up. This means that it is important to take into account processes which pump ions from the well. As examples of ion pumping of plasma wells, potential dips in front of a positively biased electron collecting anode in a relatively cold, low density, multidipole plasma are considered. Pumping is provided by ion leaks from the edges of the potential dip or by oscillating the applied potential. In the former case the two-dimensional character of the problem is shown to be important.

  2. Pumping potential wells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hershkowitz, N.; Forest, C.; Wang, E. Y.; Intrator, T.

    1987-01-01

    Nonmonotonic plasma potential structures are a common feature of many double layers and sheaths. Steady state plasma potential wells separating regions having different plasma potentials are often found in laboratory experiments. In order to exist, such structures all must find a solution to a common problem. Ions created by charge exchange or ionization in the region of the potential well are electrostatically confined and tend to accumulate and fill up the potential well. The increase in positive charge should eliminate the well. Nevertheless, steady state structures are found in which the wells do not fill up. This means that it is important to take into account processes which 'pump' ions from the well. As examples of ion pumping of plasma wells, potential dips in front of a positively biased electro collecting anode in a relatively cold, low density multidipole plasma is considered. Pumping is provided by ion leaks from the edges of the potential dip or by oscillating the applied potential. In the former case the two dimensional character of the problem is shown to be important.

  3. Geothermal well stimulation

    SciTech Connect

    Sinclair, A.R.; Pittard, F.J.; Hanold, R.J.

    1980-01-01

    All available data on proppants and fluids were examined to determine areas in technology that need development for 300 to 500/sup 0/F (150/sup 0/ to 265/sup 0/C) hydrothermal wells. While fluid properties have been examined well into the 450/sup 0/F range, proppants have not been previously tested at elevated temperatures except in a few instances. The latest test data at geothermal temperatures is presented and some possible proppants and fluid systems that can be used are shown. Also discussed are alternative stimulation techniques for geothermal wells.

  4. Hydraulics of wells

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McLaughlin, Thad G.

    1955-01-01

    Although the subject of this lecture is supposed to be concerned primarily with the hydraulics of wells, Professor Weers has asked that I also discuss the effects tat geological formations have on the quantity and quality of water available to wells. I will discuss the geology of Colorado in relation to the availability and quality of water with particular reference to the most productive aquifers or water-bearing formations in the State. I will then discuss the hydraulics of wells with the aim of emphasizing the differences between water-table and artesian conditions.

  5. Personal Wellness Tools

    MedlinePlus

    ... Agitation Kit for Medical Staff Publications for Your Office Mental Health Research Learn About Research Find Research Studies Peer Support Research WeSearchTogether Personal Wellness Tools The Merriam-Webster dictionary gives several definitions for ...

  6. Live Your Life Well

    MedlinePlus

    ... about reasonable steps that if used consistently can increase your comfort and boost your ability to build a rewarding life. About the Live Your Life Well Campaign Mental Health America is the country's leading non-profit ...

  7. Isobaric groundwater well

    DOEpatents

    Hubbell, Joel M.; Sisson, James B.

    1999-01-01

    A method of measuring a parameter in a well, under isobaric conditions, including such parameters as hydraulic gradient, pressure, water level, soil moisture content and/or aquifer properties the method as presented comprising providing a casing having first and second opposite ends, and a length between the ends, the casing supporting a transducer having a reference port; placing the casing lengthwise into the well, second end first, with the reference port vented above the water table in the well; and sealing the first end. A system is presented for measuring a parameter in a well, the system comprising a casing having first and second opposite ends, and a length between the ends and being configured to be placed lengthwise into a well second end first; a transducer, the transducer having a reference port, the reference port being vented in the well above the water table, the casing being screened across and above the water table; and a sealing member sealing the first end. In one embodiment, the transducer is a tensiometer transducer and in other described embodiments, another type transducer is used in addition to a tensiometer.

  8. Hantush Well Function revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veling, E. J. M.; Maas, C.

    2010-11-01

    SummaryIn this paper, we comment on some recent numerical and analytical work to evaluate the Hantush Well Function. We correct an expression found in a Comment by Nadarajah [Nadarajah, S., 2007. A comment on numerical evaluation of Theis and Hantush-Jacob well functions. Journal of Hydrology 338, 152-153] to a paper by Prodanoff et al. [Prodanoff, J.A., Mansur, W.J., Mascarenhas, F.C.B., 2006. Numerical evaluation of Theis and Hantush-Jacob well functions. Journal of Hydrology 318, 173-183]. We subsequently derived another analytic representation based on a generalized hypergeometric function in two variables and from the hydrological literature we cite an analytic representation by Hunt [Hunt, B., 1977. Calculation of the leaky aquifer function. Journal of Hydrology 33, 179-183]. We have implemented both representations and compared the results. Using a convergence accelerator Hunt's representation of Hantush Well Function is efficient and accurate. While checking our implementations we found that Bear's table of the Hantush Well Function [Bear, J., 1979. Hydraulics of Groundwater. McGraw-Hill, New York, Tables 8-6] contains a number of typographical errors that are not present in the original table published by Hantush [Hantush, M.S., 1956. Analysis of data from pumping tests in leaky aquifers. Transactions, American Geophysical Union 37, 702-714]. Finally, we offer a very fast approximation with a maximum relative error of 0.0033 for the parameter range in the table given by Bear.

  9. Gratitude and Well Being

    PubMed Central

    Sansone, Lori A.

    2010-01-01

    The word “gratitude” has a number of different meanings, depending on the context. However, a practical clinical definition is as follows—gratitude is the appreciation of what is valuable and meaningful to oneself; it is a general state of thankfulness and/or appreciation. The majority of empirical studies indicate that there is an association between gratitude and a sense of overall well being. However, there are several studies that indicate potential nuances in the relationship between gratitude and well being as well as studies with negative findings. In terms of assessing gratitude, numerous assessment measures are available. From a clinical perspective, there are suggested therapeutic exercises and techniques to enhance gratitude, and they appear relatively simple and easy to integrate into psychotherapy practice. However, the therapeutic efficacy of these techniques remains largely unknown. Only future research will clarify the many questions around assessment, potential benefits, and enhancement of gratitude. PMID:21191529

  10. A simple radon well

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahti, Katariina; Graeffe, Gunnar

    The development of a simple radon well, as effective but less expensive and technically easier to put into practice than is usual, was addressed. The wall was accomplished by a drill well technique. A long plastic tube, partly perforated, is put into the ground. To the top end of the tube an exhaust fan is connected to suck the air from the soil to make an underpressure. By this method radon is prevented from entering dwellings. Measurements were carried out in a one family house in four-day periods by a continuously monitoring radon detector. The radon concentration was usually 3000 to 4000 Bq/cu m without the use of the well. When the fan was turned on it reduced the radon concentration below 200 Bq/cu m.

  11. Application of integrated reservoir management and reservoir characterization to optimize infill drilling. Quarterly technical progress report, September 13, 1994--December 12, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-12

    This document is a progress report by Fina Oil and Chemical Company for a U.S. DOE funded project being carried out by the North Robertson Unit located in the Permian Basin oil fields. Crosswell seismic tomography and reservoir geostatistics are being used to assess the potential for enhanced recovery and to identify the optimum completion and stimulation practices for the North Robertson Unit wells.

  12. Physician health and wellness.

    PubMed

    McClafferty, Hilary; Brown, Oscar W

    2014-10-01

    Physician health and wellness is a critical issue gaining national attention because of the high prevalence of physician burnout. Pediatricians and pediatric trainees experience burnout at levels equivalent to other medical specialties, highlighting a need for more effective efforts to promote health and well-being in the pediatric community. This report will provide an overview of physician burnout, an update on work in the field of preventive physician health and wellness, and a discussion of emerging initiatives that have potential to promote health at all levels of pediatric training. Pediatricians are uniquely positioned to lead this movement nationally, in part because of the emphasis placed on wellness in the Pediatric Milestone Project, a joint collaboration between the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education and the American Board of Pediatrics. Updated core competencies calling for a balanced approach to health, including focus on nutrition, exercise, mindfulness, and effective stress management, signal a paradigm shift and send the message that it is time for pediatricians to cultivate a culture of wellness better aligned with their responsibilities as role models and congruent with advances in pediatric training. Rather than reviewing programs in place to address substance abuse and other serious conditions in distressed physicians, this article focuses on forward progress in the field, with an emphasis on the need for prevention and anticipation of predictable stressors related to burnout in medical training and practice. Examples of positive progress and several programs designed to promote physician health and wellness are reviewed. Areas where more research is needed are highlighted. PMID:25266440

  13. Horizontal well planning

    SciTech Connect

    Schuh, F.J. )

    1991-03-01

    Interest in horizontal drilling has exploded at a rate well above even the most optimistic projections. Certainly, this technique will not end with the Bakken and Austin Chalk plays. However, future reservoirs will undoubtedly require much more complicated well designs and multi-disciplined technical interaction than has been used so far. The horizontal drilling costs are too high to permit resolving of all the technical issues by trial and error. A multi-disciplinary team approach will be required in order for horizontal drilling to achieve its economic potential.

  14. Fallon FORGE Well Lithologies

    DOE Data Explorer

    Doug Blankenship

    2016-03-01

    x,y,z text file of the downhole lithologic interpretations in the wells in and around the Fallon FORGE site. All the relevant information is in the file header (the spatial reference, the projection etc.) In addition all the fields in the data file are identified in the header.

  15. Wellness and Counselor Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yager, Geoffrey G.; Tovar-Blank, Zoila G.

    2007-01-01

    Given the emotional nature of the counseling profession, stress, fatigue, and burnout are constant threats. Although such difficulties cannot be eliminated, counseling training can ensure that future counselors are ready to deal more effectively with such issues. The authors present 10 suggestions for promoting student wellness during counselor…

  16. Telling It Well

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffert, Barbara; Burns, Ann, Comp.

    2007-01-01

    Everybody has a story to tell, but not everybody can tell it well, which it why some first novels jump to the best sellers lists and others fade away. This year's crop of successful first novelists come from all walks of life--there's journalist Vanora Bennett and historian Alison Weir, dance critic Anita Amirrezvani, and financial analyst manque…

  17. Wellness Factors among Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sleet, David A.; Dane, J. K.

    1985-01-01

    Content for wellness-learning games aimed at youth was derived from the professional judgment of an advisory panel composed of experts in preventive medicine, health education, and adolescent development using a Delphi-like series of structured inquiries. Thirty-nine attributes considered important in the development of healthy adolescents were…

  18. Child Wellness and Happiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rettew, David C.

    2009-01-01

    Wellness and happiness should be considered in the clinical treatment of child and adolescent psychiatry, in addition with thinking about illness. Meanwhile, various studies on child and adolescent psychiatry,which includes an article from the "Journal of Happiness Studies," are discussed.

  19. Why Does Well

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sartorius, Tara Cady

    2010-01-01

    There is something disappointing about life. It is messy and out of control. It seems the more one tries to put life in order, the more ordering there is to do. The more one seeks explanations, the more confusing things become. Life's an impossible task. Maybe one should just give up. Or, then again, one might as well keep trying. It's this…

  20. Model Wellness Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Dakota Department of Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    In the Child Nutrition and WIC Reauthorization Act of 2004, PL 105-268, the U.S. Congress established a new requirement for all local agencies with a federally funded National School Lunch program. The local agencies are required to develop and implement wellness policies that address nutrition and physical activity by the start of the 2006-07…

  1. Well injection systems

    SciTech Connect

    Cooksev, A.G.

    1990-05-01

    This patent describes a well system. It comprises: a casing in the well, the casing having perforations opposite and earth formation; a flow conduit in the casing; a packer on the flow conduit. The packer set in the casing above the formation; perforations below the packer in the casing, the perforations communicating the formation with the inside of the casing; a landing nipple in the flow conduit below the packer, the nipple having therein upper profile grooving, a seal bore below the grooving, a no-go landing shoulder below the bore, orienting pins below the shoulder, wall flow openings in the nipple below the pins, and smaller seal bore below the openings, the orienting pins above the lower seal bore; and mandrel means.

  2. Hydraulic well penetration apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Schellstede, H.J.; McQueen, R.W.; Peters, A.D.

    1990-05-29

    This patent describes a well penetrator. It comprises: housing means capable of being lowered down the interior of a well casing, a work fluid input means in the housing means,a movable punch member having an inner end and an outer end and being movable between a retracted position and an extended position. The outer end of the movable punch member including casing cutting means for cutting an opening in a casing when moved forcefully outwardly toward the extended position, punch support means supporting the punch member for movement relative to the housing means between the retracted position in which the outer end of the punch member is positioned substantially within the confines of the housing means and the extended position in which the outer end of the punch member is positioned outwardly of the housing means.

  3. Oil well rabbit

    SciTech Connect

    Yerian, H.W.

    1983-10-18

    A well rabbit is described which has a high gas seal capacity as well as resistance to wear and structural failure. The rabbit comprises a one-piece elongated generally cylindrical body having external circumferential gas-sealing grooves spaced along its length and a set of helically oriented slots at its lower end. The circumferential grooves, which work collectively in the manner of a labyrinth seal, are undercut in a way to deflect escaping gas streams and promote turbulence to enhance their gas-sealing capability. The undercut profile and relative spacing of the grooves leaves a large surface area between the grooves for distributing radial forces and thereby decreasing the wear rate of the rabbit. The helically oriented slots convert energy of upward escaping gas into rotational energy in the rabbit. (3 claims.

  4. Oil well service rig

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, W.H.

    1981-03-24

    An oil well service rig having three reels, two of the reels actuated by a hydraulic pump through a gear box which provides for selective engagement or disengagement and a two speed gear ratio change for either reel, the hydraulic pump being driven by a gasoline engine. An independent hydraulically operated brake system is utilized on the reels wherein one side of each reel is provided with a greater diameter than the other side, the larger side having a brake caliper pad assembly in engagement therewith. A smaller reel, also controlled by the hydraulic motor, controls the inclination and disposition of a mast having a double sheave assembly at its top receiving cables from each main reel for raising and lowering tools into the oil well shaft.

  5. Quantum well lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Zory, P.S. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The semiconductor quantum well (QW) laser structure is rapidly becoming the preferred design in many applications because of its low threshold, design flexibility, and high reliability. The book begins with a brief, interesting foreword by C.H. Henry on the history of the QW laser concept and its early development. Following this introduction is a 79-page chapter by S.W. Corzine et al. on optical gain in III-V bulk and QW lasers. The next chapter on intraband relaxation and line broadening effects by M. Asada is an excellent expanded review of a topic introduced by Corzine. The remaining chapters describe multiple QW lasers, low-threshold QW laser, special aspects of AlGaAs and (short-wavelength) InGaAsP lasers, valence-band engineering, strained-layer QW lasers, AlGaInP QW lasers, and quantum wire lasers. These chapters are well written by recognized experts in the field.

  6. Doing good & doing well.

    PubMed

    Barnett, K; Pittman, M

    2001-01-01

    Leaders cannot make the "business case" for community benefit in the traditional sense of near-term financial returns on investment. The concept of returns must be expanded to encompass more long-term--yet concrete and measurable--benefits that may be accrued both by nonprofit hospitals and local communities. Hospitals can "do well" economically through a more strategic approach to "doing good." PMID:11372275

  7. Well bore tools

    SciTech Connect

    Burge, E.V.

    1984-08-28

    Well bore tools configured as centralizers/stabilizers, well bore reamers, and keyseat wipers each of which includes an elongate tubular body having a generally cylindrical outer surface and a diameter approximately equal to the diameter of the borehole being drilled are disclosed. Each tool affords an improved mode of drilling a borehole by increasing downhole directional control and stability, increasing tool wear reliability, and reducing return mud flow resistance. The outer surface of each tool has a plurality of longitudinal passages formed in pairs of upright intersecting right and left hand helicies or spirals about the exterior of said tool and extending from one end to the other end thereof. The intersecting right and left hand helical or spiral channels form raised pad areas therebetween to provide 360/sup 0/ contiguous well bore contact by each tool for enhanced stability and efficiency. In addition, the intersecting right and left hand helical channels afford greater surficial engagement area while providing unobstructed return mud flow paths between each tool and the wall of the borehole. The raised pad areas may have wear resistant surfaces which are arranged in a configuration for affording constant 360/sup 0/ contiguous contact with the wall of the borehole. Preferably, the wear resistance surfaces are provided by replaceable inserts mounted in recesses in the pad areas.

  8. Caregiver Well-Being

    PubMed Central

    Dujela, Carren; Smith, André

    2015-01-01

    We know much about caregiving women compared with caregiving men and caregiving spouses compared with caregiving adult children. We know less about the intersections of relationship and gender. This article explores this intersection through the well-being (burden and self-esteem) of caregivers to family members with dementia. Throughout British Columbia, Canada, 873 caregivers were interviewed in person for on average, over 1½ hours. The results reveal that daughters experience the highest burden but also the highest self-esteem, suggesting the role is less salient for their self-identities. Wives emerge as the most vulnerable of the four groups when both burden and self-esteem are considered. The data confirm the usefulness of the intersectionality framework for understanding co-occupancy of more than one status and indicate that positive cognitive well-being and negative affective well-being can be differentially related. Multivariate analyses confirm the importance of caregiver, not patient, characteristics for burden and self-esteem. PMID:25651586

  9. [Eosinophilic cellulitis (Wells' syndrome)].

    PubMed

    Cerri, D; Carabelli, A; Bertani, E; Portaluppi, F; Novi, C; Gianotti, R; Gelmetti, C

    1990-09-01

    The Authors report a case of eosinophilic cellulitis (Wells' syndrome). The patient was a 61 year old woman, diabetic, with a cardio-respiratory insufficiency and a maniaco-depressive psycosis. She presented, on the upper arms and trunk, a cutaneous eruption of erythematous-urticarial plaques, that histopathologically were characterized by a dermic leukocyte population, with a prevalence of eosinophils, distributed in the perivascular site. Laboratory tests revealed eosinophilia and circulating immune complexes. The etiopathogenesis of the disease is discussed as is the possible role of immune complexes in eosinophilic cellulitis. PMID:2079351

  10. Thermally isolated well instruments

    SciTech Connect

    Engelder, P.D.

    1984-04-03

    A well instrument is isolated from the high temperatures of a surrounding earth formation by enclosing the instrument within a heat insulative jacket structure, preferably a dewar having spaced walls with a vacuum therebetween, with a heat sink contained in the jacket above the instrument assembly, and with a heat pipe extending upwardly from the instrument assembly to the heat sink and containing a fluid which by evaporation at a lower point and condensation at a higher point will conduct heat upwardly from the instrument assembly to the heat sink but not downwardly therebetween. The heat pipe preferably projects upwardly beyond a top portion of the insulating jacket to the location of a convector element which is exposed to the temperature of fluid or air at the outside of the insulating jacket to transmit heat from within the jacket to its exterior but not in a reverse direction.

  11. Well surveying instrument sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Poquette, R.S.

    1981-01-20

    A surveying instrument sensor which includes a gimbal supported for rotation within a casing, a torquer coupled to rotate the gimbal with a first two-axis flexure suspended gyro supported on the gimbal with its spin axis perpendicular to the axis of the gimbal and one of its sensitive axes aligned with the axis of the gimbal, a second two-axis flexure suspended gyro disposed on the gimbal with its spin axis alinged with the axis of the gimbal and having two sensitive axes outputs orthogonal thereto. The output of the first gyro is coupled to the torquer to form a gimbal stabilized loop and the outputs and torquing inputs of the second gimbal coupled into rate capture loops with output signals obtained from the rate captured loops permitting fast and accurate surveying of a well pipe.

  12. Sediment Transport and Infilling of a Borrow Pit on an Energetic Sandy Ebb Tidal Delta Offshore of Hilton Head Island, South Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wren, A.; Xu, K.; Ma, Y.; Sanger, D.; Van Dolah, R.

    2014-12-01

    Bottom-mounted instrumentation was deployed at two sites on an ebb tidal delta to measure hydrodynamics, sediment transport, and seabed elevation. One site ('borrow site') was 2 km offshore and used as a dredging site for beach nourishment of nearby Hilton Head Island in South Carolina, and the other site ('reference site') was 10 km offshore and not directly impacted by the dredging. In-situ time-series data were collected during two periods after the dredging: March 15 - June 12, 2012('spring') and August 18 - November 18, 2012 ('fall'). At the reference site directional wave spectra and upper water column current velocities were measured, as well as high-resolution current velocity profiles and suspended sediment concentration profiles in the Bottom Boundary Layer (BBL). Seabed elevation and small-scale seabed changes were also measured. At the borrow site seabed elevation and near-bed wave and current velocities were collected using an Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter. Throughout both deployments bottom wave orbital velocities ranged from 0 - 110 m/s at the reference site. Wave orbital velocities were much lower at the borrow site ranging from 10-20 cm/s, as wave energy was dissipated on the extensive and rough sand banks before reaching the borrow site. Suspended sediment concentrations increased throughout the BBL when orbital velocities increased to approximately 20 cm/s. Sediment grain size and critical shear stresses were similar at both sites, therefore, re-suspension due to waves was less frequent at the borrow site. However, sediment concentrations were highly correlated with the tidal cycle at both sites. Semidiurnal tidal currents were similar at the two sites, typically ranging from 0 - 50 cm/s in the BBL. Maximum currents exceeded the critical shear stress and measured suspended sediment concentrations increased during the first hours of the tidal cycle when the tide switched to flood tide. Results indicate waves contributed more to sediment mobility at

  13. Abandoning wells working group

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    The primary objective of this working group is to identify major technical, regulatory, and environmental issues that are relevant to the abandonment of offshore wellbores. Once the issues have been identified, the working group also has the objective of making recommendations or providing potential solutions for consideration. Areas for process improvement will be identified and {open_quotes}best practices{close_quotes} will be discussed and compared to {open_quotes}minimum standards.{close_quotes} The working group will primarily focus on wellbore abandonment in the Gulf of Mexico. However, workshop participants are encouraged to discuss international issues which may be relevant to wellbore abandonment practices in the Gulf of Mexico. The Abandoning Wells Group has identified several major areas for discussion that have concerns related to both operators and service companies performing wellbore abandonments in the Gulf of Mexico. The following broad topics were selected for the agenda: (1) MMS minimum requirements and state regulations. (2) Co-existence of best practices, new technology, and P & A economics. (3) Liability and environmental issues relating to wellbore abandonment.

  14. Well logging system

    SciTech Connect

    Pitts, R.W.

    1980-02-19

    A well logging system includes a logging tool adapted to be passed through a borehole traversing an earth formation. The logging tool contains a sensor sensing a condition of the earth formation and providing electrical pulses corresponding in number and peak amplitude to the sensed condition. A first electrical pulse from the sensor occurring during each predetermined time period of a plurality of predetermined time periods, is stretched and then converted to parallel digital signals. A register receives the parallel digital signals and provides a serial digital signal in response to the shift pulses. A network provides an electrical synchronization pulse each time period prior to the occurrence of the shift pulses. A light emitting diode converts the synchronization pulses and the serial digital signals to corresponding light pulses. A cable including a fiber optic conductor transmits the light pulses uphole to the surface. Surface electronics includes a light-to-electrical converter for providing corresponding electrical pulses in accordance with the light pulses, so that the light-to-electrical converter provides a synchronization pulse followed by a serial digital signal each time period. Another circuit provides a set of shift pulses in response to the synchronizing pulse from the light-to-electrical converter, and an output circuit provides parallel output digital signals corresponding to the sensed condition in accordance with the shift pulses and the serial digital signals from the light-to -electrical converter.

  15. Neutron well logging

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, H. D. Jr.; Schultz, W. E.

    1985-01-08

    This invention relates to an improved method for determining the oil saturation of subsurface earth formations in the vicinity of a well borehole. High energy neutrons irradiate the subsurface earth formations and gamma rays caused by inelastic scatter with the subsurface earth formation constituent materials are measured. For a chosen borehole depth, gamma ray logs are taken in different situations: first, with the formation fluid water and oil mixture in an undisturbed state; second, after flushing the formation with alcohol to displace the formation water and oil mixture; and, finally, after flushing the alcohol from the formation with water to obtain a measurement with no oil in the formation. The gamma ray measurements obtained are then used to determine the oil saturation without requiring knowledge of the porosity of the earth formation, borehole conditions or formation type. When the original oil content of the formation is at a naturally flushed, or residual, oil saturation, the present invention may be used to determine the residual oil saturation.

  16. Well cementing in permafrost

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, W.N.

    1980-01-01

    A process for cementing a string of pipe in the permafrost region of a borehole of a well wherein aqueous drilling fluid actually used in drilling the wellbore in the permafrost region of a wellbore is employed. The drilling fluid contains or is adjusted to contain from about 2 to about 16 volume percent solids. Mixing with the drilling fluid (1) an additive selected from the group consisting of ligno-sulfonate, lignite, tannin, and mixtures thereof, (2) sufficient base to raise the pH of the drilling fluid into the range of from about 9 to about 12, and (3) cementitious material which will harden in from about 30 to about 40 hours at 40/sup 0/F. The resulting mixture is pumped into the permafrost region of a wellbore to be cemented and allowed to harden in the wellbore. There is also provided a process for treating an aqueous drilling fluid after it has been used in drilling the wellbore in permafrost, and a cementitious composition for cementing in a permafrost region of a wellbore.

  17. Oil well jar

    SciTech Connect

    Sutliff, W. N.

    1985-06-25

    A jar for use in imparting jarring blows to an object lodged in the bore of a well. The jar includes a mandrel member and outer telescopically related tubular member, the mandrel member and said tubular member being telescopically movable between an extended and a collapsed position of the jar. One of the members is connected to a drill string while the other of the members is connected to the object to be jarred. Telescopically overlapping portions of the members provide an annular chamber for confining an operating fluid. A sleeve and a cylinder extend into the chamber and into an essentially fluid tight fit with each other for a selected portion of the telescopic travel between the extended and collapsed positions. An operating fluid bypass is provided in the first one of the members, the bypass being in fluid communication with the operating fluid above and below the sleeve, the bypass including a channel. An orifice is disposed in the channel. A filter, distinct from said orifice, is provided by controlling the clearences between the sleeve and the first one of the members.

  18. Extended reach drilling advancements dramatically improve performance on Bass Strait wells

    SciTech Connect

    Santostefano, V.; Krepp, A.N.

    1994-12-31

    Esso Australia Ltd. (EAL) has been drilling deviated wells in Bass Strait since 1968. Recent technological developments have been employed on the Mackerel Infill Drilling Project, that have significantly improved EAL`s ability to drill Long Reach (LR)/Extended Reach (ER) wells more economically and consistently. The more notable achievements have been: advancements in hole condition reporting, utilizing torque and drag monitoring; the successful use of non-rotating drillpipe rubbers to reduce surface torque to acceptable levels; deeper casing setting depths, to minimize torque and drag, and to reduce time-dependent hole problems; the use of inhibitive/encapsulating mud systems for control of reactive clays/shales; and use of wellbore stability modeling. These advancements have helped EAL to drill 50% greater meterage than was expected in 1993, at 16% lower cost per meter. This paper chronicles the engineering decisions behind these advancements, their applications in the field, the success/failure story on Mackerel to date, and how these developments have been incorporated in EAL`s future well planning.

  19. Applying probabilistic well-performance parameters to assessments of shale-gas resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy

    2010-01-01

    In assessing continuous oil and gas resources, such as shale gas, it is important to describe not only the ultimately producible volumes, but also the expected well performance. This description is critical to any cost analysis or production scheduling. A probabilistic approach facilitates (1) the inclusion of variability in well performance within a continuous accumulation, and (2) the use of data from developed accumulations as analogs for the assessment of undeveloped accumulations. In assessing continuous oil and gas resources of the United States, the U.S. Geological Survey analyzed production data from many shale-gas accumulations. Analyses of four of these accumulations (the Barnett, Woodford, Fayetteville, and Haynesville shales) are presented here as examples of the variability of well performance. For example, the distribution of initial monthly production rates for Barnett vertical wells shows a noticeable change with time, first increasing because of improved completion practices, then decreasing from a combination of decreased reservoir pressure (in infill wells) and drilling in less productive areas. Within a partially developed accumulation, historical production data from that accumulation can be used to estimate production characteristics of undrilled areas. An understanding of the probabilistic relations between variables, such as between initial production and decline rates, can improve estimates of ultimate production. Time trends or spatial trends in production data can be clarified by plots and maps. The data can also be divided into subsets depending on well-drilling or well-completion techniques, such as vertical in relation to horizontal wells. For hypothetical or lightly developed accumulations, one can either make comparisons to a specific well-developed accumulation or to the entire range of available developed accumulations. Comparison of the distributions of initial monthly production rates of the four shale-gas accumulations that were

  20. Wellness

    MedlinePlus

    ... Prior Awards Opportunities to Participate How to Contribute NETWORKING Post-Polio Directory Post-Polio Support Groups Community ... maintain a balance among the physical, emotional, mental, social and spiritual aspects of life. Make conscious and ...

  1. Application of new and novel fracture stimulation technologies to enhance the deliverability of gas storage wells

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    Based on the information presented in this report, our conclusions regarding the potential for new and novel fracture stimulation technologies to enhance the deliverability of gas storage wells are as follows: New and improved gas storage well revitalization methods have the potential to save industry on the order of $20-25 million per year by mitigating deliverability decline and reducing the need for costly infill wells Fracturing technologies have the potential to fill this role, however operators have historically been reluctant to utilize this approach due to concerns with reservoir seal integrity. With advanced treatment design tools and methods, however, this risk can be minimized. Of the three major fracturing classifications, namely hydraulic, pulse and explosive, two are believed to hold potential to gas storage applications (hydraulic and pulse). Five particular fracturing technologies, namely tip-screenout fracturing, fracturing with liquid carbon dioxide, and fracturing with gaseous nitrogen, which are each hydraulic methods, and propellant and nitrogen pulse fracturing, which are both pulse methods, are believed to hold potential for gas storage applications and will possibly be tested as part of this project. Field evidence suggests that, while traditional well remediation methods such as blowing/washing, mechanical cleaning, etc. do improve well deliverability, wells are still left damaged afterwards, suggesting that considerable room for further deliverability enhancement exists. Limited recent trials of hydraulic fracturing imply that this approach does in fact provide superior deliverability results, but further RD&D work is needed to fully evaluate and demonstrate the benefits and safe application of this as well as other fracture stimulation technologies.

  2. Environmental protection well inventory (U)

    SciTech Connect

    Janssen, J.L.

    1990-03-01

    This report is an inventory of the wells contained in Environment Protection Department (EPD) documents since the startup of the Savannah River Site (SRS) and includes wells monitored by special request and SRS research wells. All wells listed in this inventory are monitoring wells unless otherwise indicated.

  3. Well-pump alignment system

    DOEpatents

    Drumheller, Douglas S.

    1998-01-01

    An improved well-pump for geothermal wells, an alignment system for a well-pump, and to a method for aligning a rotor and stator within a well-pump, wherein the well-pump has a whistle assembly formed at a bottom portion thereof, such that variations in the frequency of the whistle, indicating misalignment, may be monitored during pumping.

  4. Hanford well custodians. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Schatz, A.L.; Underwood, D.J.

    1995-02-02

    The Hanford Site Groundwater Protection Management Program recognized the need to integrate monitoring well activities in a centralized manner. A key factor to Hanford Site well integration was the need to clearly identify a responsible party for each of the wells. WHC was asked to identify all wells on site, the program(s) using each well, and the program ultimately responsible for the well. This report lists the custodian and user(s) for each Hanford well and supplies a comprehensive list of all decommissioned and orphaned wells on the Hanford Site. This is the first update to the original report released in December 1993.

  5. Well-pump alignment system

    DOEpatents

    Drumheller, D.S.

    1998-10-20

    An improved well-pump for geothermal wells, an alignment system for a well-pump, and to a method for aligning a rotor and stator within a well-pump are disclosed, wherein the well-pump has a whistle assembly formed at a bottom portion thereof, such that variations in the frequency of the whistle, indicating misalignment, may be monitored during pumping. 6 figs.

  6. EcoWellness: The Missing Factor in Holistic Wellness Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Ryan F.; Myers, Jane E.

    2012-01-01

    A growing body of multidisciplinary literature has delineated the benefits that natural environments have on physical and mental health. Current wellness models in counseling do not specifically address the impact of nature on wellness or how the natural world can be integrated into counseling. The concept of EcoWellness is presented as the…

  7. Raft River well stimulation experiments: geothermal reservoir well stimulation program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-08-01

    The Geothermal Reservoir Well Stimulation Program (GRWSP) performed two field experiments at the Raft River KGRA in 1979. Wells RRGP-4 and RRGP-5 were selected for the hydraulic fracture stimulation treatments. The well selection process, fracture treatment design, field execution, stimulation results, and pre- and post-job evaluations are presented.

  8. Well posedness and physical possibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gyenis, Balazs

    There is a sentiment shared among physicists that well posedness is a necessary condition for physical possibility. The arguments usually offered for well posedness have an epistemic flavor and thus they fall short of establishing the metaphysical claim that lack of well posedness implies physical impossibility. In this work we analyze the relationship of well posedness to prediction and confirmation as well as the notion of physical possibility and we devise three novel and independent argumentative strategies that may succeed where the usual epistemic arguments fail. Keywords: determinism, laws of nature, metaphysics, philosophy of physics, physical possibility, prediction, well posed problem.

  9. Private Well Water and Fluoride

    MedlinePlus

    ... from my well has less than the recommended level of fluoride for preventing tooth decay? The recommended ... if the water from my well has fluoride levels that are higher than the recommended level for ...

  10. Estimation of lithofacies proportions using well and well test data

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, L.Y.; Blanc, G.; Noetinger, B.

    1996-12-31

    A crucial step of the commonly used geostatistical methods for modeling heterogeneous reservoirs (e.g. the sequential indicator simulation and the truncated Gaussian functions) is the estimation of the lithofacies local proportion (or probability density) functions. Well-test derived permeabilities show good correlation with lithofacies proportions around wells. Integrating well and well-test data in estimating lithofacies proportions could permit the building of more realistic models of reservoir heterogeneity. However this integration is difficult because of the different natures and measurement scales of these two types of data. This paper presents a two step approach to integrating well and well-test data into heterogeneous reservoir modeling. First lithofacies proportions in well-test investigation areas are estimated using a new kriging algorithm called KISCA. KISCA consists in kriging jointly the proportions of all lithofacies in a well-test investigation area so that the corresponding well-test derived permeability is respected through a weighted power averaging of lithofacies permeabilities. For multiple well-tests, an iterative process is used in KISCA to account for their interaction. After this, the estimated proportions are combined with lithofacies indicators at wells for estimating proportion (or probability density) functions over the entire reservoir field using a classical kriging method. Some numerical examples were considered to test the proposed method for estimating lithofacies proportions. In addition, a synthetic lithofacies reservoir model was generated and a well-test simulation was performed. The comparison between the experimental and estimated proportions in the well-test investigation area demonstrates the validity of the proposed method.

  11. Thermal well-test method

    DOEpatents

    Tsang, Chin-Fu; Doughty, Christine A.

    1985-01-01

    A well-test method involving injection of hot (or cold) water into a groundwater aquifer, or injecting cold water into a geothermal reservoir. By making temperature measurements at various depths in one or more observation wells, certain properties of the aquifer are determined. These properties, not obtainable from conventional well test procedures, include the permeability anisotropy, and layering in the aquifer, and in-situ thermal properties. The temperature measurements at various depths are obtained from thermistors mounted in the observation wells.

  12. Social Relationships and Aging Well.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antonucci, Toni; Akiyama, Hiroko

    1991-01-01

    Research review suggests that differences in the quality and quantity of social relations are related to well-being and aging well. Some differences are socioeconomic, cultural, racial, and ethnic. The perception versus actuality of social relationships also has an effect on well-being. (SK)

  13. The School Counselor Practices Wellness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Street, Sue

    1994-01-01

    Notes that counseling profession has adopted wellness concept. Sees concepts of wellness and holism affiliating to create holistic health. Identifies five major tenets of wellness and holistic health: the system of interrelated systems; optimal functioning; preventative approach; personal responsibility; and a healthy lifestyle. Discusses each…

  14. Insomnia and Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Nancy A.; Gallagher, Matthew W.; Preacher, Kristopher J.; Stevens, Natalie; Nelson, Christy A.; Karlson, Cynthia; McCurdy, Danyale

    2007-01-01

    Most Americans have occasional problems with insomnia. The relationship of insomnia to illness is well known. However, insomnia may also relate to lower levels of well-being. Although there are various definitions of well-being, one of the most clearly articulated and comprehensive models identifies 2 overarching constructs, psychological…

  15. Well having inhibited microbial growth

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Brady D.; Dooley, Kirk J.

    2006-08-15

    The invention includes methods of inhibiting microbial growth in a well. A packing material containing a mixture of a first material and an antimicrobial agent is provided to at least partially fill a well bore. One or more access tubes are provided in an annular space around a casing within the well bore. The access tubes have a first terminal opening located at or above a ground surface and have a length that extends from the first terminal opening at least part of the depth of the well bore. The access tubes have a second terminal opening located within the well bore. An antimicrobial material is supplied into the well bore through the first terminal opening of the access tubes. The invention also includes well constructs.

  16. Influence of In-Well Convection on Well Sampling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vroblesky, Don A.; Casey, Clifton C.; Lowery, Mark A.

    2006-01-01

    Convective transport of dissolved oxygen (DO) from shallow to deeper parts of wells was observed as the shallow water in wells in South Carolina became cooler than the deeper water in the wells due to seasonal changes. Wells having a relatively small depth to water were more susceptible to thermally induced convection than wells where the depth to water was greater because the shallower water levels were more influenced by air temperature. The potential for convective transport of DO to maintain oxygenated conditions in a well was diminished as ground-water exchange through the well screen increased and as oxygen demand increased. Convective flow did not transport oxygen to the screened interval when the screened interval was deeper than the range of the convective cell. The convective movement of water in wells has potential implications for passive, or no-purge, and low-flow sampling approaches. Transport of DO to the screened interval can adversely affect the ability of passive samplers to produce accurate concentrations of oxygen-sensitive solutes, such as iron. Other potential consequences include mixing the screened-interval water with casing water and potentially allowing volatilization loss at the water surface. A field test of diffusion samplers in a convecting well during the winter, however, showed good agreement of chlorinated solvent concentrations with pumped samples, indicating that there was no negative impact of the convection on the utility of the samplers to collect volatile organic compound concentrations in that well. In the cases of low-flow sampling, convective circulation can cause the pumped sample to be a mixture of casing water and aquifer water. This can substantially increase the equilibration time of oxygen as an indicator parameter and can give false indications of the redox state. Data from this investigation show that simple in-well devices can effectively mitigate convective transport of oxygen. The devices can range from

  17. Texaco sets horizontal well marks

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-06

    This paper reports that Texaco Exploration and Production Inc. has completed the first dual lateral horizontal well in East Texas and claimed a horizontal oil well record in the Gulf of Mexico. The East Texas well, 1 Texaco Fee Brookeland, is the company's first dual lateral well. Site is in Newton County. The Brookeland well was drilled vertically to the top of Cretaceous Austin chalk at 9,138 ft. Texaco set casing, then drilled horizontally 3,242 ft to the southeast and 3,000 ft to the northwest for a total horizontal displacement of 6,242 ft. Texaco set an industry record offshore with its B19-ST well on its Teal prospect in Eugene Island Block 338, its first horizontal oil well in the gulf, by drilling a horizontal section of 1,414 ft. Measured depth (MD) is 7,500 ft and true vertical depth (TVD) 4,662 ft. Site is in 268 ft of water. Drilling horizontally through the Pleistocene prograding sand complex allowed Texaco to penetrate 50% more of the reservoir than would have been possible with a conventional well, Wallace the. In another industry first, Texaco isolated the Teal reservoir gas cap by setting intermediate casing 50 ft below the oil-gas contact with the 90{degrees} angle already established because of concern that the reservoir had an expanded gas cap. The dual lateral Brookeland well cost $500,000-700,000 less than two vertical wells capable of comparable production rates and recovery. Texaco expects the full cost of the well, production facilities, and gathering system to pay out in about 4 months. Texaco estimates the B19-ST well cost about 10% more than a Teal vertical well. A cross discipline team of Texaco geologists, geophysicists, engineers, and field technicians contributed to the success of both projects.

  18. Well Integrity and Sealing in CO2 Sequestration Wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweatman, R.; Santra, A.; Kulakofsky, D.

    2009-12-01

    CO2 sequestration is a cost-effective and safe way to help mitigate climate change. Sustained well integrity and zonal isolation of CO2 by cement for the required 1000 year trapping period may be challenging. Some researchers report that cement fails when exposed to CO2 leading to potential leakage into the atmosphere or other underground zones. Others show cement samples from 30-50 year old CO2 wells that maintain the well’s sealing integrity, even though carbonization was found. This presentation provides reasons likely for this disparity between research lab test results and actual well performance data along with best practices to provide efficient cement-based systems for maintaining CO2 containment in storage and EOR (enhanced oil recovery) reservoirs. This discussion includes the geochemical conditions surrounding wells and the positive, long-term effects on cement durability, sealing integrity, and the protection of well casing from CO2 induced corrosion. Also discussed are recent laboratory results testing cement samples surrounded by formation material treated at two different downhole conditions. In one case the cement specimens were treated with a 40% humid CO2 at 140°F and 2000 psi whereas in the second case they were treated with saturated CO2 in water at 200°F and 2000 psi for various time intervals. Results show that samples of carefully designed cement systems had carbonization without any sign of loss of mechanical or sealing integrity which could lead to zonal isolation and well integrity failures. We also will report on a new lab method proposed to determine CO2 sealing performance by cement in a relatively short time period compared to previous methods. In summary, we will discuss a comprehensive approach that may be taken to help ensure longer term effective well integrity and CO2 containment in new CO2 wells and remedial solutions for old wells and for plugging and abandoning wells.

  19. Controlled rate well cementing tool

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, D.J.

    1992-07-21

    This patent describes a method for controllably supplying a desired flowable material to a particular portion of a formation surrounding a well cased by a casing. It comprises lowering a tool mounted on a string of tool tubing into the well, the tool comprising: a housing adapted to be fixed in a desired position in a well; a movable valve member; a valve seat; an actuator; means for defining a choke orifice of desired size; and a packer fixed to the housing of the tool; employing the packer to fix the housing to the casing of the well; while the valve is in the open position, disposing a quantity of the desired material beneath the tool, in the vicinity of the particular portion of the formation; closing the valve by moving the actuator with respect to the housing; and pressurizing the well to force fluid disposed in the well above the tool through the choke orifice.

  20. Session: Long Valley Exploratory Well

    SciTech Connect

    Tennyson, George P. Jr.; Finger, John T.; Eichelberger, John C.; Hickox, Charles E.

    1992-01-01

    This session at the Geothermal Energy Program Review X: Geothermal Energy and the Utility Market consisted of four presentations: ''Long Valley Exploratory Well - Summary'' by George P. Tennyson, Jr.; ''The Long Valley Well - Phase II Operations'' by John T. Finger; ''Geologic results from the Long Valley Exploratory Well'' by John C. Eichelberger; and ''A Model for Large-Scale Thermal Convection in the Long Valley Geothermal Region'' by Charles E. Hickox.

  1. Photovoltaic quantum well infrared photodetectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyon, Steve A.; Goossen, Keith; Parihar, Sanjay; Alavi, Kambiz; Santos, Mike; Shayegan, Mansour

    1990-01-01

    Quantum well infrared photodetectors (QWIP) are a promising new approach to long-wavelength infrared detector arrays. Both single-well photovoltaic and multiple-well photoconductive devices have been demonstrated. The author discusses noise considerations as they apply to photovoltaic devices, grating coupling of the infrared light into QWIPs, and recently demonstrated electrically tunable detectors. The use of light trapping to enhance the quantum efficiency and reduce cross-talk in an array is addressed.

  2. Promoting Wellness in Lamaze Classes

    PubMed Central

    Hotelling, Barbara A.

    2005-01-01

    Lamaze childbirth educators are responsible for teaching wellness-based classes that do not add to the anxiety of the current, fear-based culture of maternity health care. Expectant parents' vulnerable months of pregnancy offer “teachable moments” for the childbirth educator, during which parents can be encouraged to alter their lifestyles and adopt the concept of wellness to their principles of living. In this article, concepts of wellness are examined, drawing from the writings of wellness advocates, midwifery researchers, and an anthropologist. Nutrition, physical exercise, breathing, and awareness of the five senses are components of potential class content explored in this article. PMID:17273442

  3. Thermal well-test method

    DOEpatents

    Tsang, C.F.; Doughty, C.A.

    1984-02-24

    A well-test method involving injection of hot (or cold) water into a groundwater aquifer, or injecting cold water into a geothermal reservoir is disclosed. By making temperature measurements at various depths in one or more observation wells, certain properties of the aquifer are determined. These properties, not obtainable from conventional well test procedures, include the permeability anisotropy, and layering in the aquifer, and in-situ thermal properties. The temperature measurements at various depths are obtained from thermistors mounted in the observation wells.

  4. Community College Employee Wellness Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, L. Jay; Johnson, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the prevalence and characteristics of employee wellness programs in public community colleges accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools (SACS). A random sample of 250 public community colleges accredited by SACS was mailed a 46-item employee-wellness program survey. The survey solicited program information…

  5. Sidewall penetrator for oil wells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, E. R., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Penetrator bores horizontal holes in well casing to increase trapped oil drainage. Several penetrators operated by common drive are inserted into well at once. Shaft, made from spiraling cable, rotates and thrusts simultaneously through rigid curvilinear guide tube forcing bit through casing into strata. Device pierces more deeply than armor-piercing bullets and shaped explosive charges.

  6. Multiple-well invasion percolation.

    PubMed

    Araújo, A D; Romeu, M C; Moreira, A A; Andrade, R F S; Andrade, J S

    2008-04-01

    When the invasion percolation model is applied as a simplified model for the displacement of a viscous fluid by a less viscous one, the distribution of displaced mass follows two distinct universality classes, depending on the criteria used to stop the displacement. Here we study the distribution of mass for this process, in the case where four extraction wells are placed around a single injection well in the middle of a square lattice. Our analysis considers the limit where the pressure of the extraction well Pe is zero; in other words, an extraction well is capped as soon as less viscous fluid reaches that extraction well. Our results show that, as expected, the probability of stopping the production with small amounts of displaced mass is greatly reduced. We also investigate whether or not creating extra extraction wells is an efficient strategy. We show that the probability of increasing the amount of displaced fluid by adding an extra extraction well depends on the total recovered mass obtained before adding this well. The results presented here could be relevant to determine efficient strategies in oil exploration. PMID:18517620

  7. Transcultural Wellness: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, K. Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    This study explored differences in wellness scores between a transcultural sample and the normative sample of the Five Factor Wellness Inventory (5F-Wel; Myers & Sweeney, 2005c). Differences between the two groups were found on all scales of the 5F-Wel, with transculturals scoring higher than the normative sample. Implications for practitioners…

  8. Well Logging with Californium-252

    SciTech Connect

    Boulogne, A.R.

    2003-01-06

    Californium-252 is an intense neutron emitter that has only recently become available for experimental well logging. The purpose of this research is to investigate the application of well logging to groundwater hydrology; however, most of the techniques and purposes are quite similar to applications in the petroleum industry.

  9. Building Wellness Lifestyles: Counselor's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koss, Larry; Ketcham, Michael

    A camp program is described which reflects the Young Men's Christian Association's traditional commitment to the development of the whole person, introducing the development of a "wellness" lifestyle. A wellness lifestyle is described as one that involves living fully and abundantly while recognizing and assuming responsibility for one's own…

  10. Well test tool and system

    SciTech Connect

    Rumbaugh, W.D.

    1987-06-02

    A system is described for testing a selected earth formation, comprising: a well bore penetrating and communicating with the selected earth formation; a flow conductor in the well bore and having its lower end in fluid communication with the selected earth formation, the flow conductor including receptacle means; means sealing the well bore about the flow conductor at the surface; valve means at the surface for controlling flow through the flow conductor; and test tool means removably locked and sealed in the receptacle means of the flow conductor.

  11. Health and wellness policy ethics.

    PubMed

    Cavico, Frank J; Mujtaba, Bahaudin G

    2013-08-01

    This perspective is an ethical brief overview and examination of "wellness" policies in the modern workplace using practical examples and a general application of utilitarianism. Many employers are implementing policies that provide incentives to employees who lead a "healthy" lifestyle. The authors address how these policies could adversely affect "non-healthy" employees. There are a wide variety of ethical issues that impact wellness policies and practices in the workplace. The authors conclude that wellness programs can be ethical, while also providing a general reflective analysis of healthcare challenges in order to reflect on the externalities associated with such policies in the workplace. PMID:24596847

  12. Geothermal Well Site Restoration and Plug and Abandonment of Wells

    SciTech Connect

    Rinehart, Ben N.

    1994-08-01

    A report is presented on the final phase of an energy research program conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) involving two geothermal well sites in the State of Louisiana-the Gladys McCall site and the Willis Hulin site. The research program was intended to improve geothermal technology and to determine the efficacy of producing electricity commercially from geopressured resource sites. The final phase of the program consisted of plug and abandonment (P&A) of the wells and restoration of the well sites. Restoration involved (a) initial soil and water sampling and analysis; (b) removal and disposal of well pads, concrete, utility poles, and trash; (c) plugging of monitor and freshwater wells; and (d) site leveling and general cleanup. Restoration of the McCall site required removal of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM), which was costly and time-consuming. Exhibits are included that provide copies of work permits and authorizations, P&A reports and procedures, daily workover and current conditions report, and cost and salvage reports. Site locations, grid maps, and photographs are provided.

  13. Hydrological and sedimentary analyses of well-preserved paleofluvial-paleolacustrine systems at Moa Valles, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salese, Francesco; Di Achille, Gaetano; Neesemann, Adrian; Ori, Gian Gabriele; Hauber, Ernst

    2016-02-01

    Moa Valles is a well-preserved, likely Amazonian (younger than 2 Ga old), paleodrainage system that is nearly 300 km long and carved into ancient highland terrains west of Idaeus Fossae. The fluvial system apparently originated from fluidized ejecta blankets, and it consists of a series of dam breach paleolakes with associated fan-shaped sedimentary deposits. The paleolakes are interconnected and drain eastward into Liberta crater, forming a complex and multilobate deltaic deposit exhibiting a well-developed channelized distributary pattern with evidence of switching on the delta plain. A breach area, consisting of three spillover channels, is present in the eastern part of the crater rim. These channels connect the Liberta crater to the eastward portion of the valley system, continuing toward Moa Valles with a complex pattern of anabranching channels that is more than 180 km long. Based on hydrological calculations of infilling and spillover discharges of the Liberta crater lake, the formation of the whole fluvial system is compatible with short to medium (<1000 year) timescales, although the length and morphology of the observed fluvial-lacustrine features suggest long-term periods of activity based on terrestrial analogs. Water for the 300 km long fluvial system may have been primarily sourced by the melting of shallow ice due to the thermal anomaly produced by impact craters. The occurrence of relatively recent (likely Amazonian) hydrological activity, which could have been primarily supported by groundwater replenishment, supports the hypothesis that hydrological activity could have been possible after the Noachian-Hesperian boundary, which is commonly considered as the onset epoch of the present cold-dry climate.

  14. Medicare Update: Annual Wellness Visit

    MedlinePlus

    ... make sure the heart, lungs, and other body systems are working properly. The doctor will probably ask questions about your daily routine, medical history, memory, as well as take certain routine measurements like ...

  15. Process for cementing geothermal wells

    SciTech Connect

    Eilers, L. H.

    1985-12-03

    A pumpable slurry of coal-filled furfuryl alcohol, furfural, and/or a low molecular weight monoor copolymer thereof containing, preferably, a catalytic amount of a soluble acid catalyst is used to cement a casing in a geothermal well.

  16. Eating Well and Losing Weight

    MedlinePlus

    ... Smoking - Eating Well and Losing Weight • Tools & Resources Sodium & High Blood Pressure Popular Articles 1 Understanding Blood Pressure Readings 2 Sodium and Salt 3 All About Heart Rate (Pulse) ...

  17. 7 Steps to Aging Well

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issue Past Issues Special Section 7 Steps to Aging Well Past Issues / Winter 2007 Table of Contents ... Exercise: A Guide from the National Institute on Aging is a publication from NIA that has strength, ...

  18. Fallon FORGE Well Temp data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Doug Blankenship

    2016-03-01

    x,y,z downhole temperature data for wells in and around the Fallon FORGE site. Data for the following wells are included: 82-36, 82-19, 84.31, 61-36, 88-24, FOH-3D, FDU-1, and FDU-2. Data are formatted in txt format and in columns for importing into Earthvision Software. Column headers and coordinate system information is stored in the file header.

  19. Pressure analysis for horizontal wells

    SciTech Connect

    Davlau, F.; Mouronval, G.; Bourdarot, G.; Curutchet, P.

    1988-12-01

    This paper presents horizontal-well test design and interpretation methods. Analytical solutions are developed that can be handled easily by a desktop computer to carry out design as well as interpretation with semilog and log-log analysis. These analytical solutions point out the distinctive behavior of horizontal wells: (1) at early time, there is a circular radial flow in a vertical plane perpendicular to the well, and (2) at late time, there is a horizontal pseudoradial flow. Each type of flow is associated with a semilog straight line to which semilog analysis has to be adapted. The horizontal pseudoradial flow takes into account a pseudoskin depending on system geometry, which is a priori defined and estimated. Practical time criteria are proposed to determine the beginning and the end of each type of flow and to provide a guide to semilog analysis and well test design. The authors study the behavior of uniform-flux or infinite-conductivity horizontal wells, with wellbore storage and skin. The homogeneous reservoir is infinite or limited by impermeable or constant-pressure boundaries. A method is also outlined to transform all our solutions for homogeneous reservoirs into corresponding solutions for double-porosity reservoirs.

  20. Quantum well multijunction photovoltaic cell

    DOEpatents

    Chaffin, Roger J.; Osbourn, Gordon C.

    1987-01-01

    A monolithic, quantum well, multilayer photovoltaic cell comprises a p-n junction comprising a p-region on one side and an n-region on the other side, each of which regions comprises a series of at least three semiconductor layers, all p-type in the p-region and all n-type in the n-region; each of said series of layers comprising alternating barrier and quantum well layers, each barrier layer comprising a semiconductor material having a first bandgap and each quantum well layer comprising a semiconductor material having a second bandgap when in bulk thickness which is narrower than said first bandgap, the barrier layers sandwiching each quantum well layer and each quantum well layer being sufficiently thin that the width of its bandgap is between said first and second bandgaps, such that radiation incident on said cell and above an energy determined by the bandgap of the quantum well layers will be absorbed and will produce an electrical potential across said junction.

  1. Quantum well multijunction photovoltaic cell

    DOEpatents

    Chaffin, R.J.; Osbourn, G.C.

    1983-07-08

    A monolithic, quantum well, multilayer photovoltaic cell comprises a p-n junction comprising a p-region on one side and an n-region on the other side, each of which regions comprises a series of at least three semiconductor layers, all p-type in the p-region and all n-type in the n-region; each of said series of layers comprising alternating barrier and quantum well layers, each barrier layer comprising a semiconductor material having a first bandgap and each quantum well layer comprising a semiconductor material having a second bandgap when in bulk thickness which is narrower than said first bandgap, the barrier layers sandwiching each quantum well layer and each quantum well layer being sufficiently thin that the width of its bandgap is between said first and second bandgaps, such that radiation incident on said cell and above an energy determined by the bandgap of the quantum well layers will be absorbed and will produce an electrical potential across said junction.

  2. Emergency well-control vessel

    SciTech Connect

    Petty, T.D.

    1982-06-29

    The emergency well-control vessel is capable of being moved above an offshore live oil or gas well, over which all normal controls have been lost. The vessel carries special purpose equipments and specially trained personnel for the purpose of bringing the erupted well under control, thereby stopping the pollution of the water body with the ejected formation fluids which form a so-called ''plume''. Such equipment is adapted to allow the vessel to move over and continue to dispel the plume while simultaneously attempting to regain control of the well. In one aspect, control of the abandoned wellhead and blowout preventers is established with divers working from the vessel or from an auxiliary craft. After control of the blowout preventer stack is confirmed and the same is fully operational, a kill string is lowered through the open blowout preventer stack and as deep down into the well as necessary. Thereafter, weighted fluid is circulated down the kill string and up through the annulus to thereby eventually overcome the formation fluid pressure with greater hydrostatic pressure. In other aspects, the flow can be sealed off with packoffs established against the well casing or against the formation.

  3. Worksite Wellness Media Report Research Update 1988. Worksite Wellness Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behrens, Ruth; Weiss, Joanne

    This report is the 15th in a series of updates on worksite health promotion activities in the United States. The first section summarizes the results of three recent surveys: a study of the extent of worksite wellness activities in the United States (funded by the Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion); a 1986 Harris poll of Americans…

  4. Cross well seismic reservoir characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Sheline, H.E.

    1995-08-01

    A striking example of how Cross Well Seismic reflection data can help characterize a reservoir, has resulted from an ongoing Multi-Discipline study of the carbonate Mishrif reservoir offshore Dubai, U.A.E. Because the study objectives include a more detailed description of intra reservoir structure and layering, Dubai Petroleum Company (DPC) analyzed the feasibility of Cross Well Seismic (CWS) and decided to acquire two surveys between three wells 337 to 523 feet apart. DPC has concluded that CWS can be cost effectively acquired offshore, in a Carbonate reservoir; as well as processed and interpreted. However, generally it is not often easy to acquire cross well seismic when and where it will be most useful. A CWS survey can provide multiple images such as a velocity Tomogram, P-wave reflections, and S-wave reflections. To date, Tomograms and P-wave reflections have been produced, and the reflection data has proven to be the most useful for reservoir characterization. Cross Well Seismic Reflection data have provided a level of vertical seismic reflection resolution of around 2 feet, which is more than 10 times better than surface seismic data (2D or 3D). The increase in vertical resolution has provided important detailed information about the reservoir, it`s continuity/heterogeneity; it`s detailed structure, stratigraphy and layering; and definition of any faults with more than 2 feet of offset. The CWS has shown detailed intra Mishrif reflectors. These reflectors have verified or changed detailed correlations between well bores, and show significant intra Mishrif thinning. These reflectors imply time stratigraphic layering which is consistent with tracer study results and regional sequence stratigraphy. This new data will be used to improve the reservoir model description.

  5. High-pressure well design

    SciTech Connect

    Krus, H.; Prieur, J.M. )

    1991-12-01

    Shell U.K. E and P (Shell Expro), operator in the U.K. North Sea on behalf of Shell and Esso, plans to drill 20 high-pressure oil and gas wells during the next 2 years. This paper reports that the well design is based on new standards developed after the U.K. Dept. of Energy restriction on high-pressure drilling in the autumn of 1988. Studies were carried out to optimize casing design and drilling performance on these wells. Several casing schemes, including a slim-hole option, were analyzed. The material specifications for casing and drillpipe were reviewed to ensure that they met the loads imposed during drilling, well- control, and well-testing operations. The requirement for sour-service material was weighted against possible H{sub 2}S adsorption by the mud film. As a result, a new drillstring and two high-pressure casing schemes have been specified. The high-pressure casing scheme used depends on the maximum expected surface pressure.

  6. Quantum-Well Thermophotovoltaic Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freudlich, Alex; Ignatiev, Alex

    2009-01-01

    Thermophotovoltaic cells containing multiple quantum wells have been invented as improved means of conversion of thermal to electrical energy. The semiconductor bandgaps of the quantum wells can be tailored to be narrower than those of prior thermophotovoltaic cells, thereby enabling the cells to convert energy from longer-wavelength photons that dominate the infrared-rich spectra of typical thermal sources with which these cells would be used. Moreover, in comparison with a conventional single-junction thermophotovoltaic cell, a cell containing multiple narrow-bandgap quantum wells according to the invention can convert energy from a wider range of wavelengths. Hence, the invention increases the achievable thermal-to-electrical energy-conversion efficiency. These thermophotovoltaic cells are expected to be especially useful for extracting electrical energy from combustion, waste-heat, and nuclear sources having temperatures in the approximate range from 1,000 to 1,500 C.

  7. Geothermal down well pumping system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matthews, H. B.; Mcbee, W. D.

    1974-01-01

    A key technical problem in the exploitation of hot water geothermal energy resources is down-well pumping to inhibit mineral precipitation, improve thermal efficiency, and enhance flow. A novel approach to this problem involves the use of a small fraction of the thermal energy of the well water to boil and super-heat a clean feedwater flow in a down-hole exchanger adjacent to the pump. This steam powers a high-speed turbine-driven pump. The exhaust steam is brought to the surface through an exhaust pipe, condensed, and recirculated. A small fraction of the high-pressure clean feedwater is diverted to lubricate the turbine pump bearings and prevent leakage of brine into the turbine-pump unit. A project demonstrating the feasibility of this approach by means of both laboratory and down-well tests is discussed.

  8. Determining between-well reservoir architecture in deltaic sandstones using only well data: Oligocene Frio formation, Tijerina-Canales-Blucher field, South Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Knox, P.R.

    1996-09-01

    Accurate prediction of compartment architecture and intra-compartment heterogeneity is necessary to locate and recover the estimated 15 billion barrels of mobile oil remaining in U.S. fluvial-dominated deltaic reservoirs. Complex architecture and rapid lateral variability in such reservoirs complicate subsurface prediction, particularly in mature fields where well logs are the only available subsurface data. A genetic-stratigraphy-based methodology has been developed that improves between-well prediction of deltaic reservoir architecture and, thus, reduces risks associated with infill-drilling. In the area of Tijerina-Canales-Blucher (T-C-B) field, the productive 3rd-order Lower Frio unit was subdivided into eight 4th-order genetic units. Delta-front positions were identified on the basis of regional and subregional cross sections. The 4th-order units (30 to 80 ft thick) were subdivided into two five 5th-order units (10 to 30 ft thick). Log patterns and n sandstone maps were used to identify facies, which include (1) distributary channels (up to 25 ft thick, <1,000 to >8,000 ft wide, and commonly narrower than 40-acre well spacing), (2) mouth bars (up to 15 ft thick, ranging in size from 40 to 640 acres in area, commonly <320 acres), (3) bayfill splays (up to 10 ft thick, 20 to 700 acres in area, and commonly <160 acres), (4) wave-reworked delta fronts (up to 35 ft thick, and >5,000 ft wide), and (5) washover fans (up to 10 ft thick, and 7,000 ft wide). Many reservoir compartments, including the prolific 21-B interval, contain a significant degree of stratigraphic trapping caused by updip pinchout of delta front or washover sandstones or convex-updip segments of meandering distributary channel sandstones. The methodology and results of this study are directly applicable to other Gulf Coast fluvial-deltaic reservoirs in the Frio Formation and Wilcox Group, as well as to deltaic reservoirs throughout the U.S.

  9. Health and Wellness Policy Ethics

    PubMed Central

    Cavico, Frank J.; Mujtaba, Bahaudin G.

    2013-01-01

    This perspective is an ethical brief overview and examination of “wellness” policies in the modern workplace using practical examples and a general application of utilitarianism. Many employers are implementing policies that provide incentives to employees who lead a “healthy” lifestyle. The authors address how these policies could adversely affect “non-healthy” employees. There are a wide variety of ethical issues that impact wellness policies and practices in the workplace. The authors conclude that wellness programs can be ethical, while also providing a general reflective analysis of healthcare challenges in order to reflect on the externalities associated with such policies in the workplace. PMID:24596847

  10. Interference effects in potential wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mullin, W. J.; Laloë, F.

    2015-05-01

    We propose using an array of potential wells as an interferometer in which the beam splitters are provided by tunneling during an appropriate time through the barrier between wells. This arrangement allows demonstration of generalized Hong-Ou-Mandel effects with multiple particles traversing one or several beam splitters. Other interferometer effects can occur, including a violation of the Bell-Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt form of the Bell inequality. With interactions, one sees various effects, including so-called fermionization, collective tunneling, and self-trapping.

  11. Tunable quantum well infrared detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maserjian, Joseph (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A novel infrared detector (20, 20', 20), is provided, which is characterized by photon-assisted resonant tunneling between adjacent quantum wells (22a, 22b) separated by barrier layers (28) in an intrinsic semiconductor layer (24) formed on an n.sup.+ substrate (26), wherein the resonance is electrically tunable over a wide band of wavelengths in the near to long infrared region. An n.sup.+ contacting layer (34) is formed over the intrinsic layer and the substrate is n.sup.+ doped to provide contact to the quantum wells. The detector permits fabrication of arrays (30) (one-dimensional and two-dimensional) for use in imaging and spectroscopy applications.

  12. ADVANCED CEMENTS FOR GEOTHERMAL WELLS

    SciTech Connect

    SUGAMA,T.

    2007-01-01

    Using the conventional well cements consisting of the calcium silicate hydrates (CaO-SiO{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O system) and calcium aluminum silicate hydrates (CaO-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O system) for the integrity of geothermal wells, the serious concern confronting the cementing industries was their poor performance in mechanically supporting the metallic well casing pipes and in mitigating the pipe's corrosion in very harsh geothermal reservoirs. These difficulties are particularly acute in two geological regions: One is the deep hot downhole area ({approx} 1700 m depth at temperatures of {approx} 320 C) that contains hyper saline water with high concentrations of CO{sub 2} (> 40,000 ppm) in conjunction with {approx} 100 ppm H{sub 2}S at a mild acid of pH {approx} 5.0; the other is the upper well region between the well's surface and {approx} 1000 m depth at temperatures up to 200 C. The specific environment of the latter region is characterized by highly concentrated H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} (pH < 1.5) brine containing at least 5000 ppm CO{sub 2}. When these conventional cements are emplaced in these harsh environments, their major shortcoming is their susceptibility to reactions with hot CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}SO4, thereby causing their deterioration brought about by CO{sub 2}-catalyzed carbonation and acid-initiated erosion. Such degradation not only reduced rapidly the strength of cements, lowering the mechanical support of casing pipes, but also increased the extent of permeability of the brine through the cement layer, promoting the rate of the pipe's corrosion. Severely carbonated and acid eroded cements often impaired the integrity of a well in less than one year; in the worst cases, casings have collapsed within three months, leading to the need for costly and time-consuming repairs or redrilling operations. These were the reasons why the geothermal well drilling and cementing industries were concerned about using conventional well cements, and further

  13. Floating platform well production apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Nobileau, P.C.

    1980-10-21

    A plurality of wells are clustered around a central riser which is maintained under tension from a floating platform. A plurality of spiders on the riser carry funnels in vertical alignment with the wells. The funnels are sufficiently large to permit the passage of wellhead connectors and master block valves, and the production risers include centralizers which brace the production riser from the funnels through a limited vertical range. Tensioning of the production riser is with a lower force and through a limited range which precludes disengagement of the centralizers from the funnel. Some centralizers are located to facilitate entry and attachment to the wellhead.

  14. Results of the TeachWell worksite wellness program.

    PubMed Central

    Resnicow, K; Davis, M; Smith, M; Baranowski, T; Lin, L S; Baranowski, J; Doyle, C; Wang, D T

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study examined whether providing a school-based teacher wellness program enhances the impact of a health curriculum on student outcomes and improves cognitive, behavioral, and physiological outcomes among participating teachers. METHODS: Thirty-two elementary schools were randomly assigned to experimental or comparison conditions. Comparison group schools received the Gimme-5 program, a curriculum designed to increase fourth and fifty graders' consumption of fruits and vegetables. Experimental schools received Gimme-5 and the teacher wellness program, which included 54 workshops over 2 years, along with several schoolwide health activities. Physiological, behavioral, and cognitive outcomes were assessed in teachers and students. RESULTS: There was no evidence that the intervention favorably modified any student or teacher end points; nor did intervention teachers deliver the Gimme-5 program with greater fidelity than comparison teachers. CONCLUSION: Confidence in the null results is bolstered by the randomized design, baseline sample equivalence, appropriate mixed-model analyses, and lack of selective or differential attrition. Insufficient participation in the wellness program appears a likely explanation for the lack of teacher and student effects. Factors specific to the school setting and intervention may have diminished participation and, thus, intervention effects. PMID:9491016

  15. Wellness for welders. Prevention strategies.

    PubMed

    Walz, Judy Ann; Wehse, Krista Lynn

    2002-07-01

    The practical application and workplace implications are numerous. Decreasing the risks for heavy metal toxicity and promoting healthy liver and renal function for welders could increase their life expectancy and improve their quality of life. Wellness promotion is the educational basis of nursing practice. PMID:12141092

  16. Quantum Well Infrared Photodetectors (QWIP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, B. F.

    1990-01-01

    There has been a lot of interest in III-V long wavelength detectors in the lambda = 8 to 12 micron spectral range as alternatives to HgCdTe. Recently high performance quantum well infrared photodetectors (QWIP) have been demonstrated. They have a responsivity of R = 1.2 A/W, and a detectivity D(exp asterisk) sub lambda = 2 times 10(exp 10) cm Hz(exp 1/2)/W at 68 K for a QWIP with a cutoff wavelength of lambda sub c = 10.7 micron and a R = 1.0 A/W, and D(exp asterisk) sub lambda = 2 times 10(exp 10) cm Hz(exp 1/2)/W at T = 77 K for lambda sub c = 8.4 micron. These detectors consist of 50 periods of molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) grown layers doped n = 1 times 10(exp 18)cm(exp -3) having GaAs quantum well widths of 40 A and barrier widths of 500 A of Al sub x Ga sub 1-x As. Due to the well-established GaAs growth and processing techniques, these detectors have the potential for large, highly uniform, low cost, high performance arrays as well as monolithic integration with GaAs electronics, high speed and radiation hardness. Latest results on the transport physics, device performance and arrays are discussed.

  17. Dual spectra well logging system

    SciTech Connect

    Nussbaum, T.W.

    1982-09-07

    A dual spectra well logging system includes a well logging tool which is adapted to pass through a bore hole in an earth formation. The well logging tool includes at least two sensors which sense at least one condition of the earth formation and provides corresponding pulse signals. A circuit connected to the sensors provides a combined pulse signal wherein the pulses of the pulse signal from one sensor has one polarity and the pulses of the pulse signal from the other sensor has pulses of an opposite polarity. A circuit applies the combined pulse signal to a well logging cable which conducts the combined pulse signal to the surface of the earth formation. Surface apparatus includes a network connected to the cable which provides control signals in accordance with the polarity of the pulses in the combined pulse signal. A network connected to the cable inverts the combined pulse signal and provides a combined pulse signal and an inverted combined pulse signal. A first switching network receiving the combined pulse signal passes the pulses derived from the pulses of the one polarity in acccordance with the control signals to provide a first pulse signal while a second switching network receiving the inverted combined pulse signal passes the pulses derived from the pulses of the opposite polarity in accordance with the control signals to provide a second pulse signal. An output network processes the two pulse signals to provide an indication of the earth's condition in accordance with the processed pulse signals.

  18. Life Span Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Mary Alice

    2005-01-01

    This chapter, rooted in life span developmental research and theory, examines domains of subjective well-being: emotional, social, and psychological. What is the impact of these domains on the learner's experience of education? It invites the reader to consider implications for learning through the use of learners' narratives.

  19. The Well Siblings of Schizophrenics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Laurel; Chase, Laura

    1979-01-01

    Explores the impact of having a schizophrenic sibling. Subjects functioned at high levels of adjustment. Separated from their families, there followed a period of reinvolvement, including responsibility for the ill sibling. Younger siblings expressed guilt over being well, whereas older siblings expressed guilt over earlier sibling rivalry.…

  20. Subterranean well casing perforating gun

    SciTech Connect

    Stout, G. W.; Nelson, J. A.

    1984-10-30

    The invention provides a subterranean well casing perforating gun device which employs shaped explosive charges to perforate the well casing. The device generally defines an outer tubular housing assembly concentrically insertable in the well and defining a vertical axis, cylindrical chamber. A tubular carrier of polygonal cross sectional configuration is insertable in the chamber in concentric relationship to the cylindrical wall of the cylindrical chamber. Each of the faces of the carrier have a plurality of spaced passages therethrough, each passage having a configuration substantially corresponding to the configuration of the polygonal face. A shaped charge container has its cylindrical body insertable in any selected one of the passages and a radial flange on the outer end for abutting the polygonal face portion adjacent the respective passage, thereby limiting the insertion of each of the containers into the selected passage. Selectively disengageable fastening means are operable from the exterior of the carrier for clamping the radial flange against the respective polygonal face and for selective disengagement therefrom from the exterior of the carrier. The invention also contemplates a method of utilization of the carrier and the gun, as well as to incorporation of same into a particular perforating and gravel packing method and apparatus.

  1. Process for cementing geothermal wells

    DOEpatents

    Eilers, Louis H.

    1985-01-01

    A pumpable slurry of coal-filled furfuryl alcohol, furfural, and/or a low molecular weight mono- or copolymer thereof containing, preferably, a catalytic amount of a soluble acid catalyst is used to cement a casing in a geothermal well.

  2. Physical Activity & Well-being.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seefeldt, Vern, Ed.

    This book reviews evidence in the biological and behavioral sciences relating physical activity to human well-being. The following articles are included: (1) "Physical Growth and Maturation" (Robert M. Malina); (2) "Acquisition of Motor Skills During Childhood" (John L. Haubenstricker and Vern D. Seefeldt); (3) "Development of Sensory-Motor…

  3. Evaluating an employee wellness program.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyay, Sankar; Wendel, Jeanne

    2013-12-01

    What criteria should be used to evaluate the impact of a new employee wellness program when the initial vendor contract expires? Published academic literature focuses on return-on-investment as the gold standard for wellness program evaluation, and a recent meta-analysis concludes that wellness programs can generate net savings after one or two years. In contrast, surveys indicate that fewer than half of these programs report net savings, and actuarial analysts argue that return-on-investment is an unrealistic metric for evaluating new programs. These analysts argue that evaluation of new programs should focus on contract management issues, such as the vendor's ability to: (i) recruit employees to participate and (ii) induce behavior change. We compute difference-in-difference propensity score matching estimates of the impact of a wellness program implemented by a mid-sized employer. The analysis includes one year of pre-implementation data and three years of post-implementation data. We find that the program successfully recruited a broad spectrum of employees to participate, and it successfully induced short-term behavior change, as manifested by increased preventive screening. However, the effects on health care expenditures are positive (but insignificant). If it is unrealistic to expect new programs to significantly reduce healthcare costs in a few years, then focusing on return-on-investment as the gold standard metric may lead to early termination of potentially useful wellness programs. Focusing short-term analysis of new programs on short-term measures may provide a more realistic evaluation strategy. PMID:23749214

  4. Cementing oil and gas wells

    SciTech Connect

    Bloys, J.B.; Wilson, W.N.; Bradshaw, R.D.

    1991-12-31

    This patent describes a cement composition for cementing in a well penetrating subterranean formations and having an aqueous drilling fluid containing at least one cement retarder. It comprises a major proportion of the drilling fluid from the well as it was drilled the fluid having a density in the range of about 9.0 - 18.0 ppg; water; a lesser proportion of dry cementitious material; about 0.5 to about 10.0 ppb of a dispersant selected from the group consisting of sulfonated styrene maleic anhydride, sulfonated styrene imide, and sulfonate styrene itaconic acid; and a compatible accelerator selected from the group consisting of acetic acid; the first 4 carbon esters thereof; acetamide; monoethanolamine; and diethanolamine.

  5. Temperature compensated well logging tool

    SciTech Connect

    Riedesel, R.G.; Nussbaum, T.W.; Warren, W.F.

    1984-01-24

    A well logging tool adapted for use in a borehole traversing an earth formation includes at least one sensor sensing at least one characteristic of the earth formation. Another sensor senses the ambient temperature and provides a corresponding temperature signal. An output circuit provides a temperature compensated output signal corresponding to the sensed characteristic of the earth formation in accordance with the temperature signal and the characteristic signal.

  6. Spacecraft Architecture and well being

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ören, Ayşe

    2016-07-01

    As we embark on a journey for new homes in the new worlds to lay solid foundations, we should consider not only the survival of frontiers but also well-being of those to live in zero gravity. As a versatile science, architecture encompasses abstract human needs as well. On our new different direction in the course of the Homo sapiens evolution, we can do this with designs addressing both our needs and senses. Well-being of humans can be achieved by creating environments supporting the cognitive and social stages in the evolution process. Space stations are going through their own evolution process. Any step taken can serve as a reference for further attempts. When studying the history of architecture, window designing is discussed in a later phase, which is the case for building a spaceship as well. We lean on the places we live both physically and metaphorically. The feeling of belonging is essential here, entailing trans-humanism, which is significant since the environment therein is like a dress comfortable enough to fit in, meeting needs without any burden. Utilizing the advent of technology, we can create moods and atmospheres to regulate night and day cycles, thus we can turn claustrophobic places into cozy or dream-like places. Senses provoke a psychological sensation going beyond cultural codes as they are rooted within consciousness, which allows designers to create a mood within a space that tells a story and evokes an emotional impact. Color, amount of light, sound and odor are not superficial. As much as intangible, they are real and powerful tools with a physical presence. Tapping into induction, we can solve a whole system based on a part thereof. Therefore, fractal designs may not yield good results unless used correctly in terms of design although they are functional, which makes geometric arrangement critical.

  7. Well casing grip assurance system

    SciTech Connect

    Mosing, D.E.; Webre, C.M.

    1987-06-30

    An apparatus is described for assuring that at least one of the elevator or the spider of well casing installation apparatus is fully closed in gripping connection about a well casing before the other of the elevator or the spider may be released from fully closed gripping connection about the well casing, the continuation comprising: (a) two-position elevator valve means connected to admit fluid pressure and to optionally direct it to open and close the elevator; (b) two-position spider valve means connected to admit fluid pressure into the spider and to optionally direct the fluid pressure to open and to close the spider; (c) two-position spider position valve means connected to the elevator valve means. The spider position valve means is mechanically connected for passing the fluid pressure to the elevator valve means only when the spider is fully closed into gripping position; and (d) two-position elevator position valve means connected to the spider valve means. The elevator position valve is mechanically connected to the elevator for passing fluid pressure to the spider valve when the elevator is fully closed into gripping position.

  8. Multicolor well-composed pictures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latecki, Longin J.

    1995-01-01

    As was noted early in the history of computer vision, using the same adjacency relation for the entire digital picture leads to so-called `paradoxes' related to the Jordan Curve Theorem. The most popular idea to avoid these paradoxes in binary images was using different adjacency relations for the foreground and the background: 8-adjacency for black points and 4-adjacency for white points, or vice versa. This idea cannot be extended in a straightforward way to multicolor pictures. In this paper a solution is presented which guarantees avoidance of the connectivity paradoxes related to the Jordan Curve Theorem for all multicolor pictures. Only one connectedness relation is used for the entire digital picture, i.e., for every component of every color. The idea is not to allow a certain `critical configuration' which can be detected locally to occur in digital pictures; such pictures are called `well-composed.' Well-composed pictures have very nice topological properties. For example, the Jordan Curve Theorem holds and the Euler characteristic is locally computable. This implies that properties of algorithms used in computer vision can be stated and proved in a clear way, and that the algorithms themselves become simpler and faster. Moreover, if a digitization process is guaranteed to preserve topology, then the obtained digital pictures must be well-composed.

  9. Long Valley Exploratory Well - Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Tennyson, George P. Jr.

    1992-03-24

    As was stated by the first presenter, the Long Valley Exploratory Well represents a vital linking of geothermal theory, technology and applications. The five presenters take us through that linking to the extent the current progress at the well makes that possible. The site is, of course, a geothermally rich resource, a ''recently active'' caldera. In many ways, the site has a wealth of data preceding the present work. It is a site which has excited the interest of the geothermal community for a long time. As is often the case in geothermal work, the prior data has raised as many questions as were answered. It is on this basis that the further exploration of a probable high temperature resource is being explored to great depths. The first presentation represents the cooperation and coordination maintained between similar elements of the Basic Energy Sciences programs and those in the Geothermal programs of DOE's Conservation and Renewable Energy activities. Similarly, the work exemplifies the close coordination of the DOE work with the U. S. Geological Survey, the National Science Foundation, and the U. S. Continental Scientific Drilling Program. The first presentation also represents the theoretical and modeling portion of the session. Appropriate to geothermal technology, the central programmatic theme is geophysical and geochemical aspects of fluid flow and interaction in porous and fractured rocks. It was interesting to note that even the theoretical work and modeling addressed the applicability to earth-based energy resources, and as well their utilization in a manner such as to assure environmental acceptability. Topics addressed included: (1) fundamental properties and interactions of rocks, mineral, and fluids; (2) transport and flow of fluids in rocks; and (3) structure of geologic units. The session continued with the description of the Phase II operations at the Long Valley Exploratory Well. The drilling operations were described as relatively trouble

  10. Well treatment compositions and method

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, T.R.; Dill, W.R.; Ford, W.G.F.; King, K.

    1991-04-16

    This patent describes a concentrate which forms an acid and/or water external microemulsion when added to a treatment fluid. The concentrate comprises an alkyl alcohol having in the range of from 4 to 18 carbon atoms, an emulsifying agent, a mutual solvent selected from the group consisting of glycol ethers and alkyoxylates of glycol ethers, and a co-solvent selected from the group consisting of polyethylene glycol, primary alcohols and alkyoxylates of alkyl alcohols. Also disclosed are an acid and/or water external microemulsion well treatment composition and a method of treating a subterranean formation to increase the production of hydrocarbons therefrom.

  11. Quantum well earth science testbed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, William R.; Hook, Simon J.; Mouroulis, Pantazis; Wilson, Daniel W.; Gunapala, Sarath D.; Hill, Cory J.; Mumolo, Jason M.; Eng, Bjorn T.

    2009-11-01

    A thermal hyperspectral imager is underdevelopment which utilizes the compact Dyson optical configuration and the broadband (8-12 μm) quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) focal plane array technology. The Dyson configuration uses a single monolithic prism-like grating design which allows for a high throughput instrument (F/1.6) with minimal ghosting, stray light and large swath width. The configuration has the potential to be the optimal high resolution imaging spectroscopy solution for aerial and space remote sensing applications due to its small form factor and relatively low power requirements. The planned instrument specifications are discussed as well as thermal design trade-offs. The current design uses a single high power cryocooler which allows operation of the QWIP at 40 K with adequate temperature stability. Calibration testing results (noise equivalent temperature difference, spectral linearity and spectral bandwidth) and laboratory emissivity plots from samples are shown using an operational testbed unit which has similar specifications as the final airborne system. Field testing of the testbed unit was performed to acquire plots of emissivity for various known standard minerals (quartz, opal, alunite). A comparison is made using data from the ASTER spectral library. The current single band (8-9 μm) testbed utilizes the high uniformity and operability of the QWIP array and shows excellent laboratory and field spectroscopic results.

  12. Oil well pump driving unit

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbertson, T. A.

    1984-11-06

    An oil well pumping apparatus which includes a submerged reciprocating pump mounted in a tubing arrangement communicating with the wellhead, a sucker rod string extending through the tubing arrangement and connected in driving relation with the pump, and a pumping tee and stuffing box arrangement mounted on the casing of the well at the wellhead and including a sealed drive rod arrangement in the stuffing box connected in driving relation to said sucker rod string, and a pump driving unit. The pump driving unit includes a hydraulic cylinder and support means including a gimbal arrangement for supporting the hydraulic cylinder over the stuffing box with the axis of the cylinder rod aligned with the axis of said stuffing box. A coupling means is provided for coupling the cylinder rod to the sealed drive rod arrangement. A hydraulic drive/control unit is coupled to said in/out fluid line for operating cycle consisting of a hydraulic power upstroke and a gravity power downstroke. An assist cylinder and accumulator combination are provided to counteract part of the weight of the rod string and thus reduce the workload on t

  13. Excitons in asymmetric quantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoryev, P. S.; Kurdyubov, A. S.; Kuznetsova, M. S.; Ignatiev, I. V.; Efimov, Yu. P.; Eliseev, S. A.; Petrov, V. V.; Lovtcius, V. A.; Shapochkin, P. Yu.

    2016-09-01

    Resonance dielectric response of excitons is studied for the high-quality InGaAs/GaAs heterostructures with wide asymmetric quantum wells (QWs). To highlight effects of the QW asymmetry, we have grown and studied several heterostructures with nominally square QWs as well as with triangle-like QWs. Several quantum confined exciton states are experimentally observed as narrow exciton resonances. A standard approach for the phenomenological analysis of the profiles is generalized by introducing different phase shifts for the light waves reflected from the QWs at different exciton resonances. Good agreement of the phenomenological fit to the experimentally observed exciton spectra for high-quality structures allowed us to reliably obtain parameters of the exciton resonances: the exciton transition energies, the radiative broadenings, and the phase shifts. A direct numerical solution of the Schrödinger equation for the heavy-hole excitons in asymmetric QWs is used for microscopic modeling of the exciton resonances. Remarkable agreement with the experiment is achieved when the effect of indium segregation is taken into account. The segregation results in a modification of the potential profile, in particular, in an asymmetry of the nominally square QWs.

  14. Silicon Germanium Quantum Well Thermoelectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, Anthony Lee, III

    Today's growing energy demands require new technologies to provide high efficiency clean energy. Thermoelectrics that convert heat to electrical energy directly can provide a method for the automobile industry to recover waste heat to power vehicle electronics, hence improving fuel economy. If large enough efficiencies can be obtained then the internal combustion engine could even be replaced. Exhaust temperature for automotive application range from 400 to 800 K. In this temperature range the current state of the art materials are bulk Si1-xGex alloys. By alternating layers of Si and Si1-xGex alloy device performance may be enhanced through quantum well effects and variations in material thermal properties. In this study, superlattices designed for in-plane operation with varying period and crystallinity are examined to determine the effect on electrical and thermal properties. In-plane electrical resistivity of these materials was found to be below the bulk material at a similar doping at room temperature, confirming the role of quantum wells in electron transport. As period is reduced in the structures boundary scattering limits electron propagation leading to increased resistivity. The Seebeck coefficient measured at room temperature is higher than the bulk material, additionally lending proof to the effects of quantum wells. When examining cross-plane operation the low doping in the Si layers of the device produce high resistivity resulting from boundary scattering. Thermal conductivity was measured from 77 K up to 674 K and shows little variation due to periodicity and temperature, however an order of magnitude reduction over bulk Si1-xGex is shown in all samples. A model is developed that suggests a combination of phonon dispersion effects and strong boundary scattering. Further study of the phonon dispersion effects was achieved through the examination of the heat capacity by combining thermal diffusivity with thermal conductivity. All superlattices show a

  15. Well acidizing compositions and method

    SciTech Connect

    Gardener, T.R.; Dill, W.R.; Ford, W.G.F.; King, K.L.

    1991-07-23

    This patent describes a concentrate which forms an acid internal microemulsion well treatment composition when added to an acid treatment fluid. It comprises in the range of from about 20% to about 98% by weight of a hydrocarbon carrier fluid; in the range of from about 1% to about 50% by weight of an alkyl alcohol having in the range of from about 4 to 18 carbon atoms; and in the range of from about 1% to about 50% by weight of an emulsifying agent comprising at least one compound selected from the group consisting of amine salts having ester or amide linkages and propoxylated alcohols, each of the components being different compounds or different mixtures of compounds.

  16. Hydraulically actuated well shifting tool

    SciTech Connect

    Roth, B.A.

    1992-10-20

    This patent describes a hydraulically actuated shifting tool for actuating a sliding member in a well tool. It comprises: a housing having a hydraulic fluid bore therein; shifting dog means positioned on the housing for movement away and toward the housing; locking dog means positioned on the housing for movement away and toward the body; shifting dog hydraulic actuating means in fluid communication with the bore for causing engagement of the shifting dogs with the sliding member; locking dog hydraulic actuating means in communication with the bore for causing engagement of the locking dogs with the locking means; and hydraulic shifting means in communication with the bore for causing relative movement between the shifting dog means and the locking dog means for shifting the sliding sleeve.

  17. Cementing oil and gas wells

    SciTech Connect

    Bloys, J.B.; Wilson, W.N.; Bradshaw, R.D.

    1991-08-13

    This patent describes a method for cementing a wellbore penetrating an earth formation to which a conduit extends, the wellbore having a space occupied by a fluid composition to be converted to cement for cementing the space to form a seal between spaced apart points in the formation. It comprises providing means for adding cementitious material and a dispersant to the fluid, circulating the fluid and adding the cementitious material and the dispersant to a quantity of the fluid in predetermined proportions to form a settable cement composition comprising a major portion of the drilling fluid in the well as it was drilled; and water; a lesser proportion of dry cementitious material; a minor amount of a dispersant that does not effect a satisfactory set cement within an acceptable time interval; and a compatible accelerator selected from the class consisting of acetic acid; the first four carbon esters thereof; and acedamide and filling the wellbore with the cement composition.

  18. Coal gas openhole well performance

    SciTech Connect

    Mavor, M.J.

    1994-12-31

    Gas production from coal seams has been highly successful due to the use of open-hole completion techniques in the high permeability fairway of the San Juan Basin (Colorado and New Mexico) Fruitland Formation. Based upon extensive formation evaluation data collected during Gas Research Institute funded research efforts, dynamic open-hole (cavity) completion production out-performed hydraulic fracture completion production regardless of the magnitude of natural fracture permeability due to lack of formation damage. This paper will illustrate four examples of the use of open-hole completion procedures that resulted in undamaged completions in reservoirs with absolute permeability ranging from 0.9 to 95 md. The formation evaluation data upon which the conclusions were based included open-hole logs, production logs, sonar logs, single well tests, and interference tests. The latest information has not been previously reported upon in the literature.

  19. Oil well fluid processing system

    SciTech Connect

    Cobb, J.R.

    1988-10-25

    This patent describes an oil well fluid processing system, comprising: a skid having a first skid section and a second skid section separable from the first skid section; means for connecting one end of the first skid section to one end of the second skid section; a cylindrical fluid processing apparatus pivotally mounted at a lower end thereof on the first skid section for pivoting movement between a raised position wherein the fluid processing apparatus extends vertically from the first skid section and a lowered position wherein the fluid processing apparatus overlays the second skid section at such times that the two sections of the skid are connected together; and means mounted on the second skid section and connectable to the fluid processing apparatus for moving the fluid processing apparatus between the raised and lowered positions at such times that the two sections of the skid are connected together.

  20. Biomedical wellness challenges and opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tangney, John F.

    2012-06-01

    The mission of ONR's Human and Bioengineered Systems Division is to direct, plan, foster, and encourage Science and Technology in cognitive science, computational neuroscience, bioscience and bio-mimetic technology, social/organizational science, training, human factors, and decision making as related to future Naval needs. This paper highlights current programs that contribute to future biomedical wellness needs in context of humanitarian assistance and disaster relief. ONR supports fundamental research and related technology demonstrations in several related areas, including biometrics and human activity recognition; cognitive sciences; computational neurosciences and bio-robotics; human factors, organizational design and decision research; social, cultural and behavioral modeling; and training, education and human performance. In context of a possible future with automated casualty evacuation, elements of current science and technology programs are illustrated.

  1. Ultra Thin Quantum Well Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Dr Saeid Ghamaty

    2012-08-16

    This project has enabled Hi-Z technology Inc. (Hi-Z) to understand how to improve the thermoelectric properties of Si/SiGe Quantum Well Thermoelectric Materials. The research that was completed under this project has enabled Hi-Z Technology, Inc. (Hi-Z) to satisfy the project goal to understand how to improve thermoelectric conversion efficiency and reduce costs by fabricating ultra thin Si/SiGe quantum well (QW) materials and measuring their properties. In addition, Hi-Z gained critical new understanding on how thin film fabrication increases the silicon substrate's electrical conductivity, which is important new knowledge to develop critical material fabrication parameters. QW materials are constructed with alternate layers of an electrical conductor, SiGe and an electrical insulator, Si. Film thicknesses were varied, ranging from 2nm to 10nm where 10 nm was the original film thickness prior to this work. The optimum performance was determined at a Si and SiGe thickness of 4nm for an electrical current and heat flow parallel to the films, which was an important conclusion of this work. Essential new information was obtained on how the Si substrate electrical conductivity increases by up to an order of magnitude upon deposition of QW films. Test measurements and calculations are accurate and include both the quantum well and the substrate. The large increase in substrate electrical conductivity means that a larger portion of the electrical current passes through the substrate. The silicon substrate's increased electrical conductivity is due to inherent impurities and thermal donors which are activated during both molecular beam epitaxy and sputtering deposition of QW materials. Hi-Z's forward looking cost estimations based on future high performance QW modules, in which the best Seebeck coefficient and electrical resistivity are taken from separate samples predict that the electricity cost produced with a QW module could be achieved at <$0.35/W. This price would

  2. Family Wellness, Not HIV Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Swendeman, Dallas; Flannery, Diane

    2010-01-01

    HIV exceptionalism (and disease-specific programs generally) garner both unbalanced funding and the most talented personnel, distorting local health priorities. In support of HIV exceptionalism, the successful mobilization of significant global health sector resources was not possible prior to HIV. Both sides of the debate have merits; rather than perpetuating polarization, we suggest that sustained improvements in global health require creating a prevention infrastructure to meet multiple health challenges experienced by local communities. We propose four fundamental shifts in HIV and disease prevention: (1) horizontally integrating prevention at one site locally, with priorities tailored to local health challenges and managed by local community leaders; (2) using a family wellness metaphor for services, not disease prevention; (3) implementing evidence-based prevention programs (EBPP) based on common principles, factors, and processes, rather than replication of specific programs; and (4) utilizing the expertise of private enterprise to re-design EBPP into highly attractive, engaging, and accessible experiences. PMID:19148744

  3. The adult well male examination.

    PubMed

    Heidelbaugh, Joel J; Tortorello, Michelle

    2012-05-15

    The adult well male examination should incorporate evidence-based guidance toward the promotion of optimal health and well-being, including screening tests shown to improve health outcomes. Nearly one-third of men report not having a primary care physician. The medical history should include substance use; risk factors for sexually transmitted infections; diet and exercise habits; and symptoms of depression. Physical examination should include blood pressure and body mass index screening. Men with sustained blood pressures greater than 135/80 mm Hg should be screened for diabetes mellitus. Lipid screening is warranted in all men 35 years and older, and in men 20 to 34 years of age who have cardiovascular risk factors. Ultrasound screening for abdominal aortic aneurysm should occur between 65 and 75 years of age in men who have ever smoked. There is insufficient evidence to recommend screening men for osteoporosis or skin cancer. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force has provisionally recommended against prostate-specific antigen-based screening for prostate cancer because the harms of testing and overtreatment outweigh potential benefits. Screening for colorectal cancer should begin at 50 years of age in men of average risk and continue until at least 75 years of age. Screening should be performed by high-sensitivity fecal occult blood testing every year, flexible sigmoidoscopy every five years combined with [corrected] fecal occult blood testing every three years. [corrected]. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommends against screening for testicular cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Immunizations should be recommended according to guidelines from the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. PMID:22612046

  4. Linking individual and organizational wellness.

    PubMed

    Canosa, J F; Lewandowski, L M

    1993-09-01

    In addition to intervening when workers have substance abuse or stress problems, many hospital employee assistance programs (EAPs) now include a wellness component that emphasizes prevention and organizational wholeness. The EAP at St. Joseph's Hospital & Medical Center, Paterson, NJ, has taken a number of steps to improve its responsiveness to employees' needs and promote constructive organizational changes. To meet increasing requests for mental health services, St. Joseph's EAP implemented a short-term (up to 12 sessions) counseling program that focuses on problem-solving techniques. The EAP has also used feedback from clients to address organizational issues. For example, a survey that revealed differences between managers' and employees' perceptions of managers' leadership skills has led St. Joseph's to consider development of further workshops to train managers on how to be more effective leaders. And in response to complaints from nurses about a lack of communication with physicians, St. Joseph's invested $8,000 to implement nursing support groups and seminars to enhance nurse-physician collaboration. Additional EAP activities include consulting services for other corporations and help for employees in overcoming financial barriers to access to healthcare and social services. As budgets tighten, effective marketing of EAPs will be essential to their continued growth. In particular, EAP administrators must learn how to document the strategic and financial benefits of their programs. PMID:10127981

  5. Visualizing motion in potential wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jolly, Pratibha; Zollman, Dean; Rebello, N. Sanjay; Dimitrova, Albena

    1998-01-01

    The concept of potential-energy diagrams is of fundamental importance in the study of quantum physics. Yet, students are rarely exposed to this powerful alternative description in introductory classes and thus have difficulty comprehending its significance when they encounter it in beginning-level quantum courses. We describe a learning unit that incorporates a sequence of computer-interfaced experiments using dynamics or air-track systems. This unit is designed to make the learning of potential-energy diagrams less abstract. Students begin by constructing the harmonic or square-well potential diagrams using either the velocity data and assuming conservation of energy or the force-displacement graph for the elastic interaction of an object constrained by springs or bouncing off springy blocks. Then, they investigate the motion of a rider magnet interacting with a configuration of field magnets and plot directly the potential-energy diagrams using a magnetic field sensor. The ease of measurement allows exploring the motion in a large variety of potential shapes in a short duration class.

  6. Care of the well newborn.

    PubMed

    Warren, Johanna B; Phillipi, Carrie A

    2012-01-01

    The birth of an infant is one of the most memorable experiences a family shares. Pediatric health care professionals are privileged to participate in this experience and recognize it as a time to promote the health of the newborn and family. Ideally, a well-designed care system would be replete with comprehensive supports during the prenatal period, birth, and transition to home. Opportunities exist to improve the care we deliver with universal screening of all pregnant women; coordinated assessments of family health, including mental health; and access to coordinated supports and services for mother and infant. If 90% of US families could comply with medical recommendations to breastfeed exclusively for 6 months, it is estimated the United States would save billions of dollars per year and prevent more than 900 deaths, nearly all of which would be in infants. All infants, whether breastfed or formula fed, should receive 400 IU supplemental vitamin D. Influenza and TdaP vaccination of postpartum mothers and other caregivers helps cocoon the vulnerable infant from influenza and pertussis until he or she can be fully vaccinated. When children reach the highest weight or length allowed by the manufacturer of their infant-only seat, they should continue to ride rear-facing in a convertible seat. It is best for children to ride rear-facing as long as possible to the highest weight and height allowed by the manufacturer of their convertible seat. PMID:22210929

  7. Are proteins well-packed?

    PubMed

    Liang, J; Dill, K A

    2001-08-01

    The average packing density inside proteins is as high as in crystalline solids. Does this mean proteins are well-packed? We go beyond average densities, and look at the full distribution functions of free volumes inside proteins. Using a new and rigorous Delaunay triangulation method for parsing space into empty and filled regions, we introduce formal definitions of interior and surface packing densities. Although proteins look like organic crystals by the criterion of average density, they look more like liquids and glasses by the criterion of their free volume distributions. The distributions are broad, and the scalings of volume-to-surface, volume-to-cluster-radius, and numbers of void versus volume show that the interiors of proteins are more like randomly packed spheres near their percolation threshold than like jigsaw puzzles. We find that larger proteins are packed more loosely than smaller proteins. And we find that the enthalpies of folding (per amino acid) are independent of the packing density of a protein, indicating that van der Waals interactions are not a dominant component of the folding forces. PMID:11463623

  8. Quantum well infrared photodetector FPA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlowski, L.

    1994-03-01

    The AT&T/Rockwell team met all the objectives of this collaborative program; AT&T supplied the QWIP detector arrays and Rockwell subsequently fabricated hybrid focal plane arrays using available high performance CMOS multiplexers, tested the hybrids, performed breadboard imaging demonstrations and delivered several hybrid FPA's. Eighteen hybrids were fabricated and evaluated. The collaboration yielded significant improvements in QWIP FPA performance and reliability and many milestones including: first BLIP LWIR FPA sensitivity demonstration at low photon backgrounds (less than 1 x 10(exp 12) photons/sq cm-sec) with the GaAs-based quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) technology, high LWIR FPA pixel operability; NE Delta T's as low as 5 mK at LWIR imaging backgrounds at f/1.4 and temperatures consistent with mechanical coolers (approx. 65K), increased coupling efficiency by over an order of magnitude; achieved effective quantum efficiency of approx. 10% with low crosstalk; effective quantum efficiencies of up to 30% under flood illumination, though with high crosstalk; mean D* of 1 x10(exp 14) cm-Hz(exp 1/2)/W at 3.0 x 10(exp 9) photons/sq cm-sec background at 32.5K operating temperature with greater than 98% operability; maximum temperature for 9.5 microns m FPA BLIP sensitivity as high as 62K; excellent hybrid reliability by mechanically thinning the QWIP; and responsivity nonuniformity less than 3% rms, thus enabling greater than 83 dB dynamic range.

  9. Improved characterization of reservoir behavior by integration of reservoir performances data and rock type distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Davies, D.K.; Vessell, R.K.; Doublet, L.E.

    1997-08-01

    An integrated geological/petrophysical and reservoir engineering study was performed for a large, mature waterflood project (>250 wells, {approximately}80% water cut) at the North Robertson (Clear Fork) Unit, Gaines County, Texas. The primary goal of the study was to develop an integrated reservoir description for {open_quotes}targeted{close_quotes} (economic) 10-acre (4-hectare) infill drilling and future recovery operations in a low permeability, carbonate (dolomite) reservoir. Integration of the results from geological/petrophysical studies and reservoir performance analyses provide a rapid and effective method for developing a comprehensive reservoir description. This reservoir description can be used for reservoir flow simulation, performance prediction, infill targeting, waterflood management, and for optimizing well developments (patterns, completions, and stimulations). The following analyses were performed as part of this study: (1) Geological/petrophysical analyses: (core and well log data) - {open_quotes}Rock typing{close_quotes} based on qualitative and quantitative visualization of pore-scale features. Reservoir layering based on {open_quotes}rock typing {close_quotes} and hydraulic flow units. Development of a {open_quotes}core-log{close_quotes} model to estimate permeability using porosity and other properties derived from well logs. The core-log model is based on {open_quotes}rock types.{close_quotes} (2) Engineering analyses: (production and injection history, well tests) Material balance decline type curve analyses to estimate total reservoir volume, formation flow characteristics (flow capacity, skin factor, and fracture half-length), and indications of well/boundary interference. Estimated ultimate recovery analyses to yield movable oil (or injectable water) volumes, as well as indications of well and boundary interference.

  10. 7 CFR 51.489 - Well netted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Well netted. 51.489 Section 51.489 Agriculture... Standards for Grades of Cantaloups 1 Definitions § 51.489 Well netted. Well netted means that to an extent characteristic of the variety the cantaloup is well covered with fully developed, well raised netting,...

  11. 7 CFR 51.1354 - Well formed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Well formed. 51.1354 Section 51.1354 Agriculture... Standards for Pears for Canning Definitions § 51.1354 Well formed. Well formed means that the pear has the... the pear shall be well formed. Bartlett pears shall have at least a fairly well developed neck....

  12. 7 CFR 51.489 - Well netted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Well netted. 51.489 Section 51.489 Agriculture... Standards for Grades of Cantaloups 1 Definitions § 51.489 Well netted. Well netted means that to an extent characteristic of the variety the cantaloup is well covered with fully developed, well raised netting,...

  13. 7 CFR 51.1354 - Well formed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Well formed. 51.1354 Section 51.1354 Agriculture... Standards for Pears for Canning Definitions § 51.1354 Well formed. Well formed means that the pear has the... the pear shall be well formed. Bartlett pears shall have at least a fairly well developed neck....

  14. 7 CFR 51.2653 - Well formed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Standards for Grades for Sweet Cherries 1 Definitions § 51.2653 Well formed. Well formed means that the cherry has the normal shape characteristic of the variety, except that mature well developed...

  15. SW New Mexico Oil Well Formation Tops

    DOE Data Explorer

    Shari Kelley

    2015-10-21

    Rock formation top picks from oil wells from southwestern New Mexico from scout cards and other sources. There are differing formation tops interpretations for some wells, so for those wells duplicate formation top data are presented in this file.

  16. 30 CFR 250.1619 - Well records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Sulphur Operations § 250.1619 Well records. (a..., directional-well surveys, and core analyses. Composite logs of multiple runs and directional-well...

  17. 30 CFR 250.1619 - Well records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Sulphur Operations § 250.1619 Well records. (a..., directional-well surveys, and core analyses. Composite logs of multiple runs and directional-well...

  18. 30 CFR 250.1619 - Well records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Sulphur Operations § 250.1619 Well records. (a..., directional-well surveys, and core analyses. Composite logs of multiple runs and directional-well...

  19. Uniform head in horizontal and vertical wells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The steady-state head within a fully penetrating well may be estimated by evaluating the Thiem equation at the radius of the well. A method is presented here to extend results from the Thiem equation to horizontal wells and to partially penetrating wells. The particular model used in this investigat...

  20. Counselor Wellness and Impairment: A National Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Gerard

    2007-01-01

    Counselor wellness has a direct impact on the quality of services clients receive, but little is known about the overall wellness of counselors. This study begins the process of better understanding counselor wellness by examining responses to a national survey that assessed both counselor wellness and impairment variables. (Contains 2 tables.)

  1. 7 CFR 51.1908 - Well developed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Well developed. 51.1908 Section 51.1908 Agriculture... Consumer Standards for Fresh Tomatoes Definitions § 51.1908 Well developed. Well developed means that the... usually open spaces, are not considered well developed....

  2. 7 CFR 51.1317 - Well formed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Well formed. 51.1317 Section 51.1317 Agriculture... Standards for Winter Pears 1 Definitions § 51.1317 Well formed. Well formed means having the shape... general appearance of the fruit shall be considered well formed....

  3. 7 CFR 51.1528 - Well formed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Well formed. 51.1528 Section 51.1528 Agriculture... Standards for Grades of Fresh Plums and Prunes Definitions § 51.1528 Well formed. “Well formed” means that the fruit has the shape characteristic of the variety. Doubles shall not be considered well formed....

  4. 7 CFR 51.1317 - Well formed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Well formed. 51.1317 Section 51.1317 Agriculture... Standards for Winter Pears 1 Definitions § 51.1317 Well formed. Well formed means having the shape... general appearance of the fruit shall be considered well formed....

  5. 7 CFR 51.1528 - Well formed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Well formed. 51.1528 Section 51.1528 Agriculture... Standards for Grades of Fresh Plums and Prunes Definitions § 51.1528 Well formed. “Well formed” means that the fruit has the shape characteristic of the variety. Doubles shall not be considered well formed....

  6. 7 CFR 51.1908 - Well developed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Well developed. 51.1908 Section 51.1908 Agriculture... Consumer Standards for Fresh Tomatoes Definitions § 51.1908 Well developed. Well developed means that the... usually open spaces, are not considered well developed....

  7. 7 CFR 51.2653 - Well formed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Well formed. 51.2653 Section 51.2653 Agriculture... Standards for Grades for Sweet Cherries 1 Definitions § 51.2653 Well formed. Well formed means that the cherry has the normal shape characteristic of the variety, except that mature well developed...

  8. 30 CFR 250.1619 - Well records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Well records. 250.1619 Section 250.1619 Mineral... OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Sulphur Operations § 250.1619 Well records. (a) Complete and accurate records for each well and all well operations shall be retained for a period of 2 years at...

  9. Experience with subsea well control systems

    SciTech Connect

    Coltharp, E.D.; Coffelt, D.E.

    1981-01-01

    Since 1969, Conoco Inc. has installed ten offshore wells and one land test of subsea completion systems. These wells consist of four single zone oil wells plus one water injection well with Thru Flowline (TFL) pumpdown capability and three single zone gas wells plus three dual zone gas wells utilizing the ''Plain Jane'' wellheads without TFL capability. The control systems for these wells have varied from an electro-hydraulic sequential system to a straight discrete hydraulic system. This paper deals with the design, installation, and operational problems encountered and the remedial procedures taken to solve the problems to date.

  10. 30 CFR 250.1620 - Well-completion and well-workover requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Well-completion and well-workover requirements... Well-completion and well-workover requirements. (a) Lessees shall conduct well-completion and well-workover operations in sulphur wells, bleedwells, and brine wells in accordance with §§ 250.1620...

  11. Desalination of brackish water from oil wells

    SciTech Connect

    Fenton, D.M.

    1991-12-31

    This patent describes an apparatus for producing non-brackish water from brackish water found in an inactivated oil well. It comprises at least one inactive oil well located on an offshore oil platform, the well having a perforated well casing at a level of a geological formation known to contain flowable brackish water; a desalination plant located on the offshore platform receiving flowable brackish water from the inactive oil well; and means to transport the non-brackish water produced by the desalination plant. This patent also describes a method of using an inactivated oil well. It comprises ceasing oil production in an inactive oil well having a well casing that penetrates a plurality of geological formations; recovering brackish water from the inactive oil well from a geological formation containing flowable brackish water; and desalinating the brackish water producing non-brackish water.

  12. Vapor port and groundwater sampling well

    DOEpatents

    Hubbell, Joel M.; Wylie, Allan H.

    1996-01-01

    A method and apparatus has been developed for combining groundwater monitoring wells with unsaturated-zone vapor sampling ports. The apparatus allows concurrent monitoring of both the unsaturated and the saturated zone from the same well at contaminated areas. The innovative well design allows for concurrent sampling of groundwater and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the vadose (unsaturated) zone from a single well, saving considerable time and money. The sample tubes are banded to the outer well casing during installation of the well casing.

  13. Vapor port and groundwater sampling well

    DOEpatents

    Hubbell, J.M.; Wylie, A.H.

    1996-01-09

    A method and apparatus have been developed for combining groundwater monitoring wells with unsaturated-zone vapor sampling ports. The apparatus allows concurrent monitoring of both the unsaturated and the saturated zone from the same well at contaminated areas. The innovative well design allows for concurrent sampling of groundwater and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the vadose (unsaturated) zone from a single well, saving considerable time and money. The sample tubes are banded to the outer well casing during installation of the well casing. 10 figs.

  14. On the True Indium Content of In-Filled Skutterudites.

    PubMed

    Visnow, Eduard; Heinrich, Christophe P; Schmitz, Andreas; de Boor, Johannes; Leidich, Patrick; Klobes, Benedikt; Hermann, Raphael P; Müller, Wolf Eckhard; Tremel, Wolfgang

    2015-08-17

    The incongruently melting single-filled skutterudite InxCo4Sb12 is known as a promising bulk thermoelectric material. However, the products of current bulk syntheses contain always impurities of InSb, Sb, CoSb, or CoSb2, which prevent an unbiased determination of its thermoelectric properties. We report a new two-step synthesis of high-purity InxCo4Sb12 with nominal compositions x = 0.12, 0.15, 0.18, and 0.20 that separates the kieftite (CoSb3) formation from the topotactic filler insertion. This approach allows conducting the reactions at lower temperatures with shorter reaction times and circumventing the formation of impurity phases. The synthesis can be extended to other filled skutterudites. High-density (>98%) pellets for thermoelectric characterization were prepared by current-assisted short-time sintering. Sample homogeneity was demonstrated by potential and Seebeck microprobe measurements of the complete pellet surfaces. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction showed a purity of 99.9% product with traces (≤0.1%) of InSb in samples of nominal composition In0.18Co4Sb12 and In0.20Co4Sb12. Rietveld refinements revealed a linear correlation between the true In occupancy and the lattice parameter a. This allows the determination of the true In filling in skutterudites and predicting the In content of unknown AxCo4Sb12. The high purity of InxCo4Sb12 allowed studying the transport properties without bias from side phases. A figure of merit close to unity at 420 °C was obtained for a sample of a true composition of In0.160(2)Co4Sb12 (nominal composition In0.18Co4Sb12). The lower degree of In filling has a dramatic effect on the thermoelectric properties as demonstrated by the sample of nominal composition In0.20Co4Sb12. The presence of InSb in amounts of ∼0.1 vol% led to a substantially lower degree of interstitial site filling of 0.144, and the figure of merit zT decreased by 18%, which demonstrates the significance of the true filler atom content in skutterudite materials. PMID:26213290

  15. Middle Pleistocene infill of Tibetan Plateau margin rivers, Zanskar, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munack, Henry; Blöthe, Jan; Korup, Oliver; Fülöp, Réka-Hajnalka; Codilean, Alexandru T.; Fink, David

    2015-04-01

    The Indus, one of Asia's premier rivers, drains the NW Himalaya and the Transhimalayan ranges that fringe the western Tibetan Plateau margin. There, upstream of the western Himalayan syntaxis, river valleys alternate between deeply incised bedrock gorges and broad alluviated reaches, while average denudation rates decrease by an order of magnitude towards the Tibetan Plateau margin to rates of ~10 mm ka-1. Vast fill terrace staircases, the highest of them located up to 400 m above current river level, and intercalated lake sediments indicate alternating phases of incision and aggradation within the region, underlining the high landform preservation potential in the rain shadow of the High Himalaya. However, despite a broad interest in a better understanding of mechanisms that modulate plateau erosion, age constraints on the generation of these impressive features are sparse, though indicate mainly Pleistocene formation ages. We present new age constraints from the More Plains section in the headwaters of the Zanskar River, a major tributary to the upper Indus. The vast sedimentary successions of the More Plains originally belonged to a former endorheic basin that has been tapped by the Zanskar River, today revealing exposures of >250 m of sedimentary fill that continues to smother a previously dissected alpine headwater landscape. We combine 10Be surface exposure dating and catchment-averaged denudation rates, morphometric analysis and field observation to constrain the late Quaternary history of this section. Analysis of a 10Be depth profile on top of the More Plains, together with the dating of nearby amalgamated surface samples, indicate a surface exposure of ~170 +/- 20 ka such that deposition of this valley fill ceased during a Middle Pleistocene cold stage (MIS 6). Using GIS-based algorithms we estimate that ~3.6 km3 was removed from this section by fluvial erosion, requiring a specific sediment yield of >130 t km-2 yr-1 averaged over the past 170 ka. This outweighs the 10Be-constrained flux of sediment from adjacent catchments by a factor of 2-4, suggesting that dissection of large Pleistocene valley fills may be a significant source of sediment in Transhimalayan rivers, potentially offsetting estimates of bedrock denudation in the region.

  16. The Hierarchical Structure of Well-Being

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher, Matthew W.; Lopez, Shane J.; Preacher, Kristopher J.

    2013-01-01

    Theories of hedonic, eudaimonic, and social well-being provide 3 extensively studied models for explaining flourishing mental health. Few studies have examined whether these models can be integrated into a comprehensive structure of well-being. The present study builds upon previous theoretical and empirical work to determine the complex relationships among these 3 models of well-being. Confirmatory factor analysis techniques were used to test a series of models in order to (a) confirm the proposed latent structures of hedonic, eudaimonic, and social well-being and (b) examine whether these models could be successfully integrated into a hierarchical structure of well-being. In 2 large samples, results supported the proposed latent structures of hedonic, eudaimonic, and social well-being and indicated that the various components of well-being could be represented most parsimoniously with 3 oblique second-order constructs of hedonic, eudaimonic, and social well-being. PMID:19558444

  17. 7 CFR 51.604 - Well developed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Consumer Standards for Celery Stalks Definitions § 51.604 Well developed. Well developed means that the outer branches are of good width in relation to the length of midribs and type of celery....

  18. 7 CFR 51.568 - Well developed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Standards for Celery Definitions § 51.568 Well developed. Well developed means that the branches are of good width and thickness in relation to the length of midribs and type of celery and that the heart...

  19. 7 CFR 51.568 - Well developed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Celery Definitions § 51.568 Well developed. Well... type of celery and that the heart branches are of reasonable number, length and stockiness....

  20. 7 CFR 51.604 - Well developed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Consumer Standards for Celery Stalks Definitions § 51.604 Well developed. Well developed means that the outer branches are of good width in relation to the length of midribs and type of celery....

  1. 7 CFR 51.568 - Well developed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Celery Definitions § 51.568 Well developed. Well... type of celery and that the heart branches are of reasonable number, length and stockiness....

  2. 7 CFR 51.604 - Well developed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Consumer Standards for Celery Stalks Definitions § 51.604 Well developed. Well developed means that the outer branches are of good width in relation to the length of midribs and type of celery....

  3. 7 CFR 51.568 - Well developed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Standards for Celery Definitions § 51.568 Well developed. Well developed means that the branches are of good width and thickness in relation to the length of midribs and type of celery and that the heart...

  4. 7 CFR 51.568 - Well developed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Standards for Celery Definitions § 51.568 Well developed. Well developed means that the branches are of good width and thickness in relation to the length of midribs and type of celery and that the heart...

  5. 7 CFR 51.2653 - Well formed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades for Sweet Cherries 1 Definitions § 51.2653 Well formed. Well formed means that the cherry has the normal shape characteristic of the variety, except...

  6. Well performance graph simplifies field calculations

    SciTech Connect

    De Ghetto, G.

    1987-05-01

    Graphic Methods are widely employed in order to understand overall well behavior using only surface parameters. The authors propose a new graphic method, used successfully by Agip for oil and gas wells in Italy, Libya, Nigeria and Tunisia. The well performance graph helps solve many production problems, including estimation of: inflow performance relationship; causes of rate decline throughout well life; and production rate and bottomhole flowing pressure for various pressures upstream of the surface choke, and vice-versa. This method differs from others by using flow behavior through the choke for both critical and subcritical conditions. Equations describing flow through the formation, string and surface choke are also used. Results are quite reliable when these theoretical equations are calibrated with field data, either from the well concerned or from nearby wells producing the same fluid. This article describes the technique as it applies to oil wells. The methodology for gas wells is similar.

  7. 7 CFR 51.1829 - Well colored.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Well colored. Well colored means that a good yellow or better ground color predominates over the green color on the entire fruit surface with no distinct green color present, and that some portion of...

  8. Eating Well As You Get Older

    MedlinePlus

    ... for people over age 50. Eating Well Promotes Energy Eating well helps keep up your energy level, too. By consuming enough calories -- a way to measure the energy you get from food --you give your body ...

  9. 7 CFR 51.1219 - Well formed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Peaches Definitions § 51.1219 Well formed. “Well formed” means that the shape of the peach may be slightly irregular but not to the extent that...

  10. 7 CFR 51.1219 - Well formed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Standards for Grades of Peaches Definitions § 51.1219 Well formed. “Well formed” means that the shape of the peach may be slightly irregular but not to the extent that its appearance is materially affected....

  11. 7 CFR 51.1219 - Well formed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Peaches Definitions § 51.1219 Well formed. “Well formed” means that the shape of the peach may be slightly irregular but not to the extent that...

  12. 7 CFR 51.3747 - Well formed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Honey Dew and Honey Ball Type Melons Definitions § 51.3747 Well formed. Well formed means that the melon has the normal shape characteristic of...

  13. 7 CFR 51.3747 - Well formed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Honey Dew and Honey Ball Type Melons Definitions § 51.3747 Well formed. Well formed means that the melon has the normal shape characteristic of...

  14. 7 CFR 51.1219 - Well formed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Standards for Grades of Peaches Definitions § 51.1219 Well formed. “Well formed” means that the shape of the peach may be slightly irregular but not to the extent that its appearance is materially affected....

  15. Pneumatic transfer of solids into wells

    SciTech Connect

    Sweatman, R. E.; Freeman, E. R.; Gottschling, J.; Simon, J.

    1985-04-23

    A method for pneumatically transferring particulate solid materials into an earth formation penetrated by a well bore is shown. A gas is flowed into the well bore to establish the desired injection rate and pressure. A particulate solid material is then added to the established gas flow passing into the well bore by flowing a gas containing an entrained particulate solid material into the established gas flow to thereby transfer the solid particulate material pneumatically into the well bore.

  16. Predicting collector well yields with MODFLOW.

    PubMed

    Kelson, Vic

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater flow models are commonly used to design new wells and wellfields. As the spatial scale of the problem is large and much local-scale detail is not needed, modelers often utilize two-dimensional (2D) or quasi three-dimensional models based on the Dupuit-Forchheimer assumption. Dupuit models offer a robust set of tools for simulating regional groundwater flow including interactions with surface waters, the potential for well interference, and varying aquifer properties and recharge rates. However, given an assumed operating water level or drawdown at a well screen, Dupuit models systematically overpredict well yields. For design purposes, this discrepancy is unacceptable, and a method for predicting accurate well yields is needed. While published methods exist for vertical wells, little guidance is available for predicting yields in horizontal screens or collector wells. In plan view, a horizontal screen has a linear geometry, and will likely extend over several neighboring cells that may not align with rows or columns in a numerical model. Furthermore, the model must account for the effects of converging three-dimensional (3D) flow to the well screens and hydraulic interference among the well screens; these all depend on the design of a specific well. This paper presents a new method for simulating the yield of angled or horizontal well screens in numerical groundwater flow models, specifically using the USGS code MODFLOW. The new method is compared to a detailed, 3D analytic element model of a collector well in a field of uniform flow. PMID:22339406

  17. STIMULATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR DEEP WELL COMPLETIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Stephen Wolhart

    2003-06-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring a Deep Trek Program targeted at improving the economics of drilling and completing deep gas wells. Under the DOE program, Pinnacle Technologies is conducting a project to evaluate the stimulation of deep wells. The objective of the project is to assess U.S. deep well drilling & stimulation activity, review rock mechanics & fracture growth in deep, high pressure/temperature wells and evaluate stimulation technology in several key deep plays. Phase 1 was recently completed and consisted of assessing deep gas well drilling activity (1995-2007) and an industry survey on deep gas well stimulation practices by region. Of the 29,000 oil, gas and dry holes drilled in 2002, about 300 were drilled in the deep well; 25% were dry, 50% were high temperature/high pressure completions and 25% were simply deep completions. South Texas has about 30% of these wells, Oklahoma 20%, Gulf of Mexico Shelf 15% and the Gulf Coast about 15%. The Rockies represent only 2% of deep drilling. Of the 60 operators who drill deep and HTHP wells, the top 20 drill almost 80% of the wells. Six operators drill half the U.S. deep wells. Deep drilling peaked at 425 wells in 1998 and fell to 250 in 1999. Drilling is expected to rise through 2004 after which drilling should cycle down as overall drilling declines.

  18. 7 CFR 51.1825 - Well formed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Well formed. 51.1825 Section 51.1825 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Florida Tangerines Definitions § 51.1825 Well formed. Well formed means that...

  19. 7 CFR 51.1825 - Well formed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Well formed. 51.1825 Section 51.1825 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Florida Tangerines Definitions § 51.1825 Well formed. Well formed means that...

  20. 7 CFR 51.1825 - Well formed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Well formed. 51.1825 Section 51.1825 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Florida Tangerines Definitions § 51.1825 Well formed. Well formed means that...

  1. Apprenticeship Training: Water Well Driller Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Advanced Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This is the course outline for apprenticeship requirements for a water well driller in Alberta. A graduate of Water Well Driller apprenticeship training is a journeyman who, through skill and knowledge, is capable of operating the machines used to produce bore holes. They will be able to complete a bore hole into a finished productive well,…

  2. Gratitude and Adolescent Athletes' Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Lung Hung; Kee, Ying Hwa

    2008-01-01

    Two cross-sectional studies were conducted to examine the relationships between gratitude and athletes' well-being. Study 1 examines the relationship between dispositional gratitude and well-being, while Study 2 investigates the relationship between sport-domain gratitude and well-being. In Study 1, 169 Taiwanese senior high school athletes (M =…

  3. Child Well-Being Index (CWI), 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foundation for Child Development, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Each year, the Foundation for Child Development and the Child and Youth Well-Being Index Project at Duke University issue a comprehensive measure of how children are faring in the United States. The Overall Composite Child Well-Being Index (CWI) is based on a composite of 28 "Key Indicators" of well-being that are grouped into seven…

  4. High temperature spectral gamma well logging

    SciTech Connect

    Normann, R.A.; Henfling, J.A.

    1997-01-01

    A high temperature spectral gamma tool has been designed and built for use in small-diameter geothermal exploration wells. Several engineering judgments are discussed regarding operating parameters, well model selection, and signal processing. An actual well log at elevated temperatures is given with spectral gamma reading showing repeatability.

  5. Wellness Model of Supervision: A Comparative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenz, A. Stephen; Sangganjanavanich, Varunee Faii; Balkin, Richard S.; Oliver, Marvarene; Smith, Robert L.

    2012-01-01

    This quasi-experimental study compared the effectiveness of the Wellness Model of Supervision (WELMS; Lenz & Smith, 2010) with alternative supervision models for developing wellness constructs, total personal wellness, and helping skills among counselors-in-training. Participants were 32 master's-level counseling students completing their…

  6. 7 CFR 51.3063 - Well trimmed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Well trimmed. 51.3063 Section 51.3063 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Florida Avocados Definitions § 51.3063 Well trimmed. Well trimmed means that the stem,...

  7. 7 CFR 51.569 - Well formed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Well formed. 51.569 Section 51.569 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Celery Definitions § 51.569 Well formed. Well formed means that the branches are...

  8. 7 CFR 51.1444 - Well dried.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Well dried. 51.1444 Section 51.1444 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Shelled Pecans Definitions § 51.1444 Well dried. Well dried means that the...

  9. 7 CFR 51.1409 - Well developed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Well developed. 51.1409 Section 51.1409 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Pecans in the Shell 1 Definitions § 51.1409 Well developed. Well developed...

  10. 7 CFR 51.488 - Well formed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Well formed. 51.488 Section 51.488 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Cantaloups 1 Definitions § 51.488 Well formed. Well formed means that the...

  11. 7 CFR 51.2961 - Well dried.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Well dried. 51.2961 Section 51.2961 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Walnuts in the Shell Definitions § 51.2961 Well dried. Well dried means that...

  12. 7 CFR 51.1999 - Well formed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Well formed. 51.1999 Section 51.1999 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Filberts in the Shell 1 Definitions § 51.1999 Well formed. Well formed means...

  13. 7 CFR 51.2086 - Well dried.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Well dried. 51.2086 Section 51.2086 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Almonds in the Shell Definitions § 51.2086 Well dried. Well dried means that...

  14. 7 CFR 51.1999 - Well formed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Well formed. 51.1999 Section 51.1999 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Filberts in the Shell 1 Definitions § 51.1999 Well formed. Well formed means...

  15. 7 CFR 51.2287 - Well dried.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Well dried. 51.2287 Section 51.2287 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Shelled English Walnuts (Juglans Regia) Definitions § 51.2287 Well dried. Well dried...

  16. 7 CFR 51.1157 - Well formed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Well formed. 51.1157 Section 51.1157 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Florida Oranges and Tangelos Definitions § 51.1157 Well formed. Well formed...

  17. 7 CFR 51.3060 - Well formed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Well formed. 51.3060 Section 51.3060 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Florida Avocados Definitions § 51.3060 Well formed. Well formed means that the avocado has...

  18. 7 CFR 51.3747 - Well formed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Well formed. 51.3747 Section 51.3747 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Honey Dew and Honey Ball Type Melons Definitions § 51.3747 Well formed. Well...

  19. 7 CFR 51.697 - Well formed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Well formed. 51.697 Section 51.697 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... § 51.697 Well formed. Well formed means that the fruit has the shape characteristic of the variety....

  20. 7 CFR 51.488 - Well formed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Well formed. 51.488 Section 51.488 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Cantaloups 1 Definitions § 51.488 Well formed. Well formed means that the...

  1. 7 CFR 51.3154 - Well formed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Well formed. 51.3154 Section 51.3154 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Nectarines Definitions § 51.3154 Well formed. “Well formed” means that the...

  2. 7 CFR 51.2119 - Well dried.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Well dried. 51.2119 Section 51.2119 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Shelled Almonds Definitions § 51.2119 Well dried. Well dried means that the...

  3. 7 CFR 51.2119 - Well dried.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Well dried. 51.2119 Section 51.2119 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Shelled Almonds Definitions § 51.2119 Well dried. Well dried means that the...

  4. 7 CFR 51.3063 - Well trimmed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Well trimmed. 51.3063 Section 51.3063 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Florida Avocados Definitions § 51.3063 Well trimmed. Well trimmed means that the stem,...

  5. 7 CFR 51.2086 - Well dried.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Well dried. 51.2086 Section 51.2086 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Almonds in the Shell Definitions § 51.2086 Well dried. Well dried means that...

  6. 7 CFR 51.1157 - Well formed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Well formed. 51.1157 Section 51.1157 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Florida Oranges and Tangelos Definitions § 51.1157 Well formed. Well formed...

  7. 7 CFR 51.2287 - Well dried.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Well dried. 51.2287 Section 51.2287 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Shelled English Walnuts (Juglans Regia) Definitions § 51.2287 Well dried. Well dried...

  8. 7 CFR 51.1556 - Well shaped.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Well shaped. 51.1556 Section 51.1556 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Potatoes 1 Definitions § 51.1556 Well shaped. Well shaped means that the potato...

  9. 7 CFR 51.635 - Well formed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Well formed. 51.635 Section 51.635 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing...) Definitions § 51.635 Well formed. Well formed means that the fruit has the shape characteristic of the variety....

  10. 7 CFR 51.3062 - Well colored.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Well colored. 51.3062 Section 51.3062 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Florida Avocados Definitions § 51.3062 Well colored. Well colored means that the avocado...

  11. 7 CFR 51.3154 - Well formed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Well formed. 51.3154 Section 51.3154 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Nectarines Definitions § 51.3154 Well formed. “Well formed” means that the...

  12. 7 CFR 51.1409 - Well developed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Well developed. 51.1409 Section 51.1409 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Pecans in the Shell 1 Definitions § 51.1409 Well developed. Well developed...

  13. 7 CFR 51.1219 - Well formed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Well formed. 51.1219 Section 51.1219 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Peaches Definitions § 51.1219 Well formed. “Well formed” means that the shape of...

  14. 7 CFR 51.1155 - Well colored.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Well colored. 51.1155 Section 51.1155 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Florida Oranges and Tangelos Definitions § 51.1155 Well colored. Well colored...

  15. 7 CFR 51.635 - Well formed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Well formed. 51.635 Section 51.635 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing...) Definitions § 51.635 Well formed. Well formed means that the fruit has the shape characteristic of the variety....

  16. 7 CFR 51.571 - Well trimmed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Well trimmed. 51.571 Section 51.571 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Celery Definitions § 51.571 Well trimmed. Well trimmed means that not more than 2...

  17. 7 CFR 51.607 - Well trimmed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Well trimmed. 51.607 Section 51.607 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Consumer Standards for Celery Stalks Definitions § 51.607 Well trimmed. Well trimmed means that the...

  18. 7 CFR 51.3062 - Well colored.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Well colored. 51.3062 Section 51.3062 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Florida Avocados Definitions § 51.3062 Well colored. Well colored means that the avocado...

  19. 7 CFR 51.766 - Well formed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Well formed. 51.766 Section 51.766 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Florida Grapefruit Definitions § 51.766 Well formed. Well formed means that...

  20. 7 CFR 51.3747 - Well formed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Well formed. 51.3747 Section 51.3747 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Honey Dew and Honey Ball Type Melons Definitions § 51.3747 Well formed. Well...

  1. 7 CFR 51.1533 - Well colored.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Well colored. 51.1533 Section 51.1533 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Fresh Plums and Prunes Definitions § 51.1533 Well colored. “Well colored,”...

  2. 7 CFR 51.2961 - Well dried.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Well dried. 51.2961 Section 51.2961 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Walnuts in the Shell Definitions § 51.2961 Well dried. Well dried means that...

  3. 7 CFR 51.1533 - Well colored.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Well colored. 51.1533 Section 51.1533 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Fresh Plums and Prunes Definitions § 51.1533 Well colored. “Well colored,”...

  4. 7 CFR 51.569 - Well formed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Well formed. 51.569 Section 51.569 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Celery Definitions § 51.569 Well formed. Well formed means that the branches are...

  5. 7 CFR 51.3060 - Well formed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Well formed. 51.3060 Section 51.3060 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Florida Avocados Definitions § 51.3060 Well formed. Well formed means that the avocado has...

  6. 7 CFR 51.1412 - Well cured.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Well cured. 51.1412 Section 51.1412 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Pecans in the Shell 1 Definitions § 51.1412 Well cured. Well cured means that...

  7. 7 CFR 51.697 - Well formed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Well formed. 51.697 Section 51.697 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... § 51.697 Well formed. Well formed means that the fruit has the shape characteristic of the variety....

  8. 7 CFR 51.1444 - Well dried.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Well dried. 51.1444 Section 51.1444 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Shelled Pecans Definitions § 51.1444 Well dried. Well dried means that the...

  9. 7 CFR 51.1412 - Well cured.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Well cured. 51.1412 Section 51.1412 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Pecans in the Shell 1 Definitions § 51.1412 Well cured. Well cured means that...

  10. 7 CFR 51.571 - Well trimmed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Well trimmed. 51.571 Section 51.571 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Celery Definitions § 51.571 Well trimmed. Well trimmed means that not more than 2...

  11. 7 CFR 51.1556 - Well shaped.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Well shaped. 51.1556 Section 51.1556 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Potatoes 1 Definitions § 51.1556 Well shaped. Well shaped means that the potato...

  12. 7 CFR 51.766 - Well formed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Well formed. 51.766 Section 51.766 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Florida Grapefruit Definitions § 51.766 Well formed. Well formed means that...

  13. 7 CFR 51.607 - Well trimmed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Well trimmed. 51.607 Section 51.607 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Consumer Standards for Celery Stalks Definitions § 51.607 Well trimmed. Well trimmed means that the...

  14. Measuring Well-Being and Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Acci, Luca

    2011-01-01

    Well-being is becoming a concept which is more and more involved in any world development consideration. A large amount of work is being carried out to study measurements of well-being, including a more holistic vision on the development and welfare of a country. This paper proposes an idea of well-being and progress being in equilibrium with each…

  15. Innovativeness and Subjective Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binder, Martin

    2013-01-01

    What are the effects of innovativeness on well-being? This paper argues that research on subjective well-being has progressed to a point where measures of subjective well-being (or: happiness) can usefully be employed to assess the welfare effects of innovative change. Based on a discussion of the prospects and pitfalls associated with subjective…

  16. Well integrity failure in the UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worrall, F.

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to consider the potential legacy of increased onshore, unconventional gas production by examining the integrity of decommissioned, onshore, oil and gas wells in the UK. In the absence of a history of unconventional hydrocarbon exploitation in the UK, conventional onshore sites were considered and an examination of pollution incidents records had suggested that only a small fraction of operational, onshore wells could show integrity failures. A consideration of groundwater and surface water quality monitoring could find no regional impact of historic or current conventional oil and gas exploitation in the UK. As a more direct measure of well legacy this study considered the fugitive emissions of methane from former oil and gas wells onshore in the UK as a measure of well integrity. The survey considered 102 decommissioned (abandoned) wells from 4 different basins that were between 8 and 78 years old; all but one of these wells would be considered as having been decommissioned properly, i.e. wells cut, sealed and buried by soil cover to the extent that the well sites were being used for agriculture. For each well site the soil gas methane was analysed multiple times and assessed relative to a nearby control site of similar land-use and soil type. The results showed that of the 102 wells surveyed, 30% had soil gas CH4 at the soil surface that was significantly greater than their respective control. Conversely, 39% of well sites had significant lower surface soil gas CH4 concentrations than their respective control. We interpret elevated soil gas CH4 concentrations to be the result of well integrity failure, but do not know the source of the gas nor the route to the surface. Where elevated CH4 was detected it appears to have occurred within a decade of the well being decommissioned. The flux of CH4 from wells was 364 ± 677 kg CO2eq/well/yr with a 27% chance that any well would be a net sink of CH4 independent of well age. This flux is low

  17. The superdeep well of the Kola Peninsula

    SciTech Connect

    Kozlovsky, Y.A.

    1986-01-01

    The structure of continental crusts is a subject of ever increasing importance in the geological sciences. Over 15 years ago, Soviet scientist began drilling a superdeep well on the Kola Peninsula near Murmansk. The well has reached a depth of 12 km and is thereby the deepest well in the world, yielding a vast amount of information on the structure of the continental crust. The geological, geophysical and technological data from the Kola well were initially published in a monographic account entitled ''Kol'skaja sverchglubokaja''. This English translation makes the results available to non-Soviet scientists as well.

  18. Geothermal well cost sensitivity analysis: current status

    SciTech Connect

    Carson, C.C.; Lin, Y.T.

    1980-01-01

    The geothermal well-cost model developed by Sandia National Laboratories is being used to analyze the sensitivity of well costs to improvements in geothermal drilling technology. Three interim results from this modeling effort are discussed. The sensitivity of well costs to bit parameters, rig parameters, and material costs; an analysis of the cost reduction potential of an advanced bit; and a consideration of breakeven costs for new cementing technology. All three results illustrate that the well-cost savings arising from any new technology will be highly site-dependent but that in specific wells the advances considered can result in significant cost reductions.

  19. UPRC completes first quad-lateral well

    SciTech Connect

    Califf, B. ); Kerr, D. )

    1993-09-01

    This paper describes the Union Pacific Resources Company's first large diameter quad-lateral well in the Austin Chalk of Texas. The Austin Chalk has at least two producing zones which are separated by either a shale zone or a volcanic ash zone. The UPRC well was designed to penetrate two horizontal drainage wells into each of these zones. This paper reviews the design, cost, and success of this project and the applicability of the technology to other horizontal drilling projects worldwide. The main thrust of the article was that multiple horizontal wells drilled from the same drill site reduces the cost for all wells to a level making horizontal drilling more attractive.

  20. ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES FOR STRIPPER GAS WELL ENHANCEMENT

    SciTech Connect

    C.M. Boyer II; N.R. Fairchild, Jr.

    2000-04-01

    As part of Task 1 in the Advanced Technologies for Stripper Gas Well Enhancement, Holditch-Reservoir Technologies has partnered with two Appalachian Basin producers, Great Lakes Energy (formerly Range Resources) and Belden & Blake Corporation, to develop methodologies for the identification and enhancement of stripper wells with economic upside potential. The industry partners have provided data for over 700 wells in northwest Pennsylvania. The Task 1 goals of this project are to develop and validate methodologies that can quickly and cost effectively identify wells with enhancement potential. We are currently working with the well data supplied by the industry partners to develop and validate these methodologies.

  1. Helicopter magnetic survey conducted to locate wells

    SciTech Connect

    Veloski, G.A.; Hammack, R.W.; Stamp, V.; Hall, R.; Colina, K.

    2008-07-01

    A helicopter magnetic survey was conducted in August 2007 over 15.6 sq mi at the Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3’s (NPR-3) Teapot Dome Field near Casper, Wyoming. The survey’s purpose was to accurately locate wells drilled there during more than 90 years of continuous oilfield operation. The survey was conducted at low altitude and with closely spaced flight lines to improve the detection of wells with weak magnetic response and to increase the resolution of closely spaced wells. The survey was in preparation for a planned CO2 flood for EOR, which requires a complete well inventory with accurate locations for all existing wells. The magnetic survey was intended to locate wells missing from the well database and to provide accurate locations for all wells. The ability of the helicopter magnetic survey to accurately locate wells was accomplished by comparing airborne well picks with well locations from an intense ground search of a small test area.

  2. Potential wells for classical acoustic waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shi; Lin, ShuYu; Mo, RunYang; Fu, ZhiQiang

    2014-01-01

    The acceleration theorem of Bloch waves is utilized to construct random potential wells for classical acoustic waves in systems composed of alternating `cavities' and `couplers'. One prominent advantage of this method is these `cavities' and `couplers' are all monolayer structures. It allows forming more compact classical potential wells, which leads to the miniaturization of acoustic devices. We systematically investigate properties of harmonic, tangent, hyperbolic function, and square classical potential wells in quasi-periodic superlattices. Results show these classical potential wells are analogues of quantum potential wells. Thus some technologies and concepts in quantum potential well fields may be generalized to classical acoustic wave fields. In addition, some abnormal cases regarding forming classical potential wells are also found.

  3. Uniform head in horizontal and vertical wells.

    PubMed

    Steward, David R; Jin, Wei

    2006-01-01

    The steady-state head within a fully penetrating well may be estimated by evaluating the Thiem equation at the radius of the well. A method is presented here to extend results from the Thiem equation to horizontal wells and to partially penetrating wells. The particular model used in this investigation is based upon the analytic element method; it accurately reproduces a boundary condition of uniform head along the cylindrical surface at the perforated face of the well. This model is exercised over a representative range of parameters including the well's length, radius, and pumping rate, and the aquifer's hydraulic conductivity and thickness. Results are presented in a set of figures and tables that compare the well's drawdown to the drawdown that would have been obtained using the Thiem solution with the same pumping rate and radius. A methodology is presented to estimate the head within a horizontal or partially penetrating well by adding a correction term to results that can be readily obtained from computer models of vertical fully penetrating wells. This approach may also be used to contrast the differences in head between horizontal and vertical wells of various lengths, radii, and placement elevations. PMID:16405471

  4. Groundwater monitoring well assessment final work plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    Jacobs Engineering Group Inc. (JEG) has been contracted by Environmental Management Operations (EMO) to develop and implement a Groundwater Monitoring Well Assessment Plan for Canal Creek in the Edgewood Area of Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG-EA). The task will be performed under the provisions of Master Agreement 071914-A-D7, Task Order 142133. The project consists of assessing the condition of existing groundwater monitoring wells in the Canal Creek Area prior to a groundwater sampling program. The following Work Plan describes the technical approach that will be used to conduct field work for the project. Integrity of some monitoring wells installed at APG-EA has come into question because of problems with well completions that were detected in wells at the O-field Study Area during a recent sampling event. Because of this, EPA and APG-DSHE officials have requested a well integrity assessment for a percentage of 168 monitoring wells installed at the Canal Creek Study Area(14 by USATHAMA, 152 by USGS). Results of the well assessment will be used to determine if these wells were completed in a fashion that minimizes the potential for either cross-contamination of aquifers or leakage of water from the surface into the well.

  5. Potential hydrologic characterization wells in Amargosa Valley

    SciTech Connect

    Lyles, B.; Mihevc, T.

    1994-09-01

    More than 500 domestic, agricultural, and monitoring wells were identified in the Amargosa Valley. From this list, 80 wells were identified as potential hydrologic characterization wells, in support of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Underground Test Area/Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study (UGTA/RIFS). Previous hydrogeologic studies have shown that groundwater flow in the basin is complex and that aquifers may have little lateral continuity. Wells located more than 10 km or so from the Nevada Test Site (NTS) boundary may yield data that are difficult to correlate to sources from the NTS. Also, monitoring well locations should be chosen within the guidelines of a hydrologic conceptual model and monitoring plan. Since these do not exist at this time, recompletion recommendations will be restricted to wells relatively close (approximately 20 km) to the NTS boundary. Recompletion recommendations were made for two abandoned agricultural irrigation wells near the town of Amargosa Valley (previously Lathrop Wells), for two abandoned wildcat oil wells about 10 km southwest of Amargosa Valley, and for Test Well 5 (TW-5), about 10 km east of Amargosa Valley.

  6. Recent advances in modeling of well hydraulics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Hund-Der; Chang, Ya-Chi

    2013-01-01

    Well hydraulics is a discipline to understand the process of flow to the well in an aquifer which is regarded as a source of groundwater. A variety of analytical and numerical models have been developed over the last few decades to provide a framework for understanding and quantifying the flow behavior in aquifer systems. In this review, we first briefly introduce the background of the theory of well hydraulics and the concepts, methodologies, and applications of analytical, semi-analytical, numerical and approximate methods in solving the well-hydraulic problems. We then address the subjects of current interests such as the incorporation of effects of finite well radius, wellbore storage, well partial penetration, and the presence of skin into various practical problems of groundwater flow. Furthermore, we also summarize recent developments of flow modeling such as the flow in aquifers with horizontal wells or collector wells, the capture zone delineation, and the non-Darcian flow in porous media and fractured formations. Finally, we present a comprehensive review on the numerical calculations for five well functions frequently appearing in well-hydraulic literature and suggest some topics in groundwater flow for future research.

  7. Connecticut observation wells; guidelines for network modification

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Melvin, R.L.

    1986-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey and Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection are developing a baseline observation well network to assess the present status of groundwater storage and relate it to long-term conditions and to describe and characterize natural changes in groundwater storage in relation to climatic variations, topography, and hydrogeologic setting. An evaluation of the present network of 31 observation wells indicates it is not representative of climatic areas or major hydrologic units in the State. Several wells provide equivalent information and six can be discontinued. Network modifications, including deletion of some existing wells and the addition of 50 to 60 new observation wells are needed to meet network objectives. Fourteen existing wells that have long-term records should be retained as a basis for historical comparisons. (USGS)

  8. Natural-convection promoter for geothermal wells

    SciTech Connect

    Allis, R.G.; James, R.

    1980-09-01

    Many geothermal wells stand with relatively cold water overlying hot water. If a pipe is inserted into such a well, natural convection will occur and hot water will flow to the top of the well. The convection-promoting pipe enables domestic wells which would normally require the use of a downhole pump or airlift (with attendant environmental problems of fluid disposal) to be satisfactorily operated with a downhole heat exchanger. In potentially powerful steam-water wells which are difficult to discharge, a pipe positioned beneath the water level should raise wellhead pressure to the point where spontaneous discharge is possible. In both cases, the permeability and temperature of the feed zones are the limiting factors for the heat output of the well.

  9. Productivity and injectivity of horizontal wells

    SciTech Connect

    Aziz, Khalid

    2000-03-06

    One of the key issues addressed was pressure drop in long horizontal wells and its influence on well performance. Very little information is available in the literature on flow in pipes with influx through pipe walls. Virtually all of this work has been in small diameter pipes and with single-phase flow. In order to address this problem new experimental data on flow in horizontal and near horizontal wells have been obtained. Experiments were conducted at an industrial facility on typical 6 1/8 ID, 100 feet long horizontal well model. The new data along with available information in the literature have been used to develop new correlations and mechanistic models. Thus it is now possible to predict, within reasonable accuracy, the effect of influx through the well on pressure drop in the well.

  10. Well purge and sample apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Schalla, Ronald; Smith, Ronald M.; Hall, Stephen H.; Smart, John E.; Gustafson, Gregg S.

    1995-01-01

    The present invention specifically permits purging and/or sampling of a well but only removing, at most, about 25% of the fluid volume compared to conventional methods and, at a minimum, removing none of the fluid volume from the well. The invention is an isolation assembly with a packer, pump and exhaust, that is inserted into the well. The isolation assembly is designed so that only a volume of fluid between the outside diameter of the isolation assembly and the inside diameter of the well over a fluid column height from the bottom of the well to the top of the active portion (lower annulus) is removed. The packer is positioned above the active portion thereby sealing the well and preventing any mixing or contamination of inlet fluid with fluid above the packer. Ports in the wall of the isolation assembly permit purging and sampling of the lower annulus along the height of the active portion.

  11. Well purge and sample apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Schalla, R.; Smith, R.M.; Hall, S.H.; Smart, J.E.; Gustafson, G.S.

    1995-10-24

    The present invention specifically permits purging and/or sampling of a well but only removing, at most, about 25% of the fluid volume compared to conventional methods and, at a minimum, removing none of the fluid volume from the well. The invention is an isolation assembly with a packer, pump and exhaust, that is inserted into the well. The isolation assembly is designed so that only a volume of fluid between the outside diameter of the isolation assembly and the inside diameter of the well over a fluid column height from the bottom of the well to the top of the active portion (lower annulus) is removed. The packer is positioned above the active portion thereby sealing the well and preventing any mixing or contamination of inlet fluid with fluid above the packer. Ports in the wall of the isolation assembly permit purging and sampling of the lower annulus along the height of the active portion. 8 figs.

  12. Stimulation Technologies for Deep Well Completions

    SciTech Connect

    2003-09-30

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring the Deep Trek Program targeted at improving the economics of drilling and completing deep gas wells. Under the DOE program, Pinnacle Technologies is conducting a study to evaluate the stimulation of deep wells. The objective of the project is to assess U.S. deep well drilling & stimulation activity, review rock mechanics & fracture growth in deep, high pressure/temperature wells and evaluate stimulation technology in several key deep plays. An assessment of historical deep gas well drilling activity and forecast of future trends was completed during the first six months of the project; this segment of the project was covered in Technical Project Report No. 1. The second progress report covers the next six months of the project during which efforts were primarily split between summarizing rock mechanics and fracture growth in deep reservoirs and contacting operators about case studies of deep gas well stimulation.

  13. Electrothermal micromixing in 96 well plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauffmann, Paul; Loire, Sophie; Mezic, Igor

    2011-11-01

    Diagnostic and pharmacology processes could be greatly accelerated by appropriate mixing. Here electrothermal flows are explored to provide mixing of conductive physiological solutions (=1.6 S/m) in a 96 well plate. Three interdigitated electrodes provide an electric field (< 15Vpp, 1MHz) beneath each well. Polarization and conduction phenomenon of the fluid in a well will be first modeled numerically and compared to an electrical circuit model. Due to high conductivity and permittivity of the fluid, the impedance of the array of filled wells collapse dramatically (96 wells: R = 1Ohm, C=250nF). The power supply challenges accordingly raised by arrays of electrothermal micromixers will be then analyzed. The efficiency of different methods of mixing in those wells will be also compared: the addition of low frequency signal leading to AC electro-osmotic perturbations, a blinking vortices method. The experimental results will be compared to simulations.

  14. ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES FOR STRIPPER GAS WELL ENHANCEMENT

    SciTech Connect

    C.M. Boyer II; N.R. Fairchild, Jr.; R.J. MacDonald P.G.

    2001-01-01

    As part of Task 1 in the Advanced Technologies for Stripper Gas Well Enhancement, Schlumberger--Holditch Reservoir Technologies (H-RT) has partnered with two Appalachian Basin producers, Great Lakes Energy (formerly Range Resources) and Belden and Blake Corporation, to develop methodologies for the identification and enhancement of stripper wells with economic upside potential. These industry partners have provided data for over 700 wells in northwestern Pennsylvania. Phase 1 goals of this project are to develop and validate methodologies that can quickly and cost-effectively identify wells with enhancement potential. We are currently in the final stages of developing and testing our new Access/Excel based software and processing this well data to generate a list of potential candidate wells that can be used in Phase 2 to validate these methodologies. Preparation of the Final Technical report has begun.

  15. ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES FOR STRIPPER GAS WELL ENHANCEMENT

    SciTech Connect

    C.M. Boyer II; N.R. Fairchild, Jr.; R.J. MacDonald P.G.

    2000-10-01

    As part of Task 1 in the Advanced Technologies for Stripper Gas Well Enhancement, Schlumberger--Holditch Reservoir Technologies (H-RT) has partnered with two Appalachian Basin producers, Great Lakes Energy (formerly Range Resources) and Belden and Blake Corporation, to develop methodologies for the identification and enhancement of stripper wells with economic upside potential. These industry partners have provided data for over 700 wells in northwestern Pennsylvania. Phase 1 goals of this project are to develop and validate methodologies that can quickly and cost-effectively identify wells with enhancement potential. We are currently in the final stages of developing and testing our new Access/Excel based software and processing this well data to generate a list of potential candidate wells that can be used in Phase 2 to validate these methodologies.

  16. ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES FOR STRIPPER GAS WELL ENHANCEMENT

    SciTech Connect

    C.M. Boyer II; N.,R. Fairchild, Jr.; R.J. MacDonald P.G.

    2000-10-01

    As part of Phase 1 in the Advanced Technologies for Stripper Gas Well Enhancement, Schlumberger--Holditch Reservoir Technologies (H-RT) has partnered with two Appalachian Basin producers, Great Lakes Energy (formerly Range Resources) and Belden & Blake Corporation, to develop methodologies for the identification and enhancement of stripper wells with economic upside potential. These industry partners have provided data for over 700 wells in northwestern Pennsylvania. Phase 1 goals of this project are to develop and validate methodologies that can quickly and cost-effectively identify wells with enhancement potential. We are currently processing the production and well data and developing our new Access/Excel based software that incorporates our identification methodologies. Upon completion we will generate a list of potential candidate wells that can be used in Phase 2 to validate these methodologies.

  17. ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES FOR STRIPPER GAS WELL ENHANCEMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Charles M. Boyer II; Ronald J. MacDonald

    2002-07-01

    As part of Task 1 in Advanced Technologies for Stripper Gas Well Enhancement, Schlumberger-Holditch Reservoir Technologies (H-RT) joined with two Appalachian Basin producers, Great Lakes Energy Partners, LLC, and Belden & Blake Corporation to develop methodologies for identification and enhancement of stripper wells with economic upside potential. These industry partners previously provided us with data for more than 700 wells in northwestern Pennsylvania. Phase 1 goals of this project are to develop and validate methodologies that can quickly and cost-effectively identify wells with enhancement potential. We have enhanced and streamlined our software, and we are using the final version of our new Microsoft{trademark} Access/Excel based software. We have processed all well information and identified potential candidate wells that can be used in Phase 2 to validate the new methodologies. In addition, the final technical report is almost finished and a draft version has been reviewed by DOE.

  18. Morphologic Evolution of a Well-Constrained, Complete Subaerial-Subaqueous Source to Sink System: Wabush Lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turmel, D.; Locat, J.; Parker, G.

    2013-12-01

    Since 1964, Iron Ore Company of Canada has deposited iron tailings resulting from mining operation into Wabush Lake. Multibeam bathymetric surveys were carried out between 1999 and 2011 as well as sampling surveys, seismic surveys, airborne Lidar survey and a photogrammetric survey. The objective of this study is to present the evolution throughout the years of this anthropic source-to-sink system, from the pipes to the bottom of the Lake. The information acquired throughout the years allows following the evolution of the Lake, which is subjected to accumulation of more than 10 x 106 m3 of sediments each year. Furthermore, in order to refine our understanding of the dynamic of this system, physical modeling was also done. Analysis of the subaerial and the subaqueous dataset allows evaluating the effect of disposal strategies on the delta topset and on tailings accumulation. Disposal strategies influence the evolution of the channels on the topset, thus influencing the accumulation of tailings throughout the Lake as well as the shoreline advancement rate. Subaqueous erosional channels are present in the Lake: they influence the depositional pattern of the tailings as well as their granulometric distribution. These erosional channels are created by the upstream migration of knickpoints. In some places, this migration can be described over multiple surveys. The formation of these knickpoints were studied throughout physical modeling and were found to be, most of the time, initiated when there is disequilibrium between the slope angle of the foreset and the equilibrium slope angle dictated by the turbidity current characteristics. This disequilibrium is typically caused by a change in the flow dynamics on the topset, i.e. the transition between sheet flow and channelized flow. Experimental results show that migration of the knickpoints is controlled by two factors: erosion by the turbidity current and a landsliding process in the knickpoint head scarp. Finally, the

  19. 25 CFR 227.23 - Wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Wells. 227.23 Section 227.23 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF CERTAIN LANDS IN WIND RIVER INDIAN RESERVATION, WYOMING, FOR OIL AND GAS MINING Operations § 227.23 Wells. The lessee shall agree (a) to drill and produce all wells necessary to...

  20. 25 CFR 213.32 - Wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Wells. 213.32 Section 213.32 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF RESTRICTED LANDS OF MEMBERS OF FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING Operations § 213.32 Wells. The lessee shall agree (a) to drill and produce all wells necessary to offset...

  1. Feasibility of EGS Well Control Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Norann, Randy A; Darlow, Richard

    2015-02-03

    This report covers the 8th major objective listed in Grant DE-FG36-08GO18185. This objective takes the information and experience gained from the development of 300°C well monitoring system and applies them to concepts envisioned for future geothermal well control systems supporting EGS power production. This report covers a large number of instrumentation and control system engineering issues for EGS wells while also providing a window into existing technology to address those issues.

  2. Process for removing carbonate from wells

    SciTech Connect

    Derowisch, R.W.

    1989-11-14

    This patent describes a method of removing carbonate deposited in a water supply well by inflowing groundwater. It comprises: treating a supply of water by means of a membrane system for desalinization which places the water in an aggressive state of chemical inequilibrium and ion imbalance having a keen affinity for carbonate; pumping a fluid comprising the treated supply of water, without restabilization, into the well to react with the deposited carbonate; and flushing the product of the reaction from the well.

  3. Arsenic management through well modification and simulation.

    PubMed

    Halford, Keith J; Stamos, Christina L; Nishikawa, Tracy; Martin, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Arsenic concentrations can be managed with a relatively simple strategy of grouting instead of completely destroying a selected interval of well. The strategy of selective grouting was investigated in Antelope Valley, California, where groundwater supplies most of the water demand. Naturally occurring arsenic typically exceeds concentrations of 10 microg/L in the water produced from these long-screened wells. The vertical distributions of arsenic concentrations in intervals of the aquifer contributing water to selected supply wells were characterized with depth-dependent water-quality sampling and flow logs. Arsenic primarily entered the lower half of the wells where lacustrine clay deposits and a deeper aquifer occurred. Five wells were modified by grouting from below the top of the lacustrine clay deposits to the bottom of the well, which reduced produced arsenic concentrations to less than 2 microg/L in four of the five wells. Long-term viability of well modification and reduction of specific capacity was assessed for well 4-54 with AnalyzeHOLE, which creates and uses axisymmetric, radial MODFLOW models. Two radial models were calibrated to observed borehole flows, drawdowns, and transmissivity by estimating hydraulic-conductivity values in the aquifer system and gravel packs of the original and modified wells. Lithology also constrained hydraulic-conductivity estimates as regularization observations. Well encrustations caused as much as 2 microg/L increase in simulated arsenic concentration by reducing the contribution of flow from the aquifer system above the lacustrine clay deposits. Simulated arsenic concentrations in the modified well remained less than 3 microg/L over a 20-year period. PMID:20113363

  4. Arsenic management through well modification and simulation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Halford, Keith J.; Stamos, Christina L.; Nishikawa, Tracy; Martin, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Arsenic concentrations can be managed with a relatively simple strategy of grouting instead of completely destroying a selected interval of well. The strategy of selective grouting was investigated in Antelope Valley, California, where groundwater supplies most of the water demand. Naturally occurring arsenic typically exceeds concentrations of 10 (mu or u)g/L in the water produced from these long-screened wells. The vertical distributions of arsenic concentrations in intervals of the aquifer contributing water to selected supply wells were characterized with depth-dependent water-quality sampling and flow logs. Arsenic primarily entered the lower half of the wells where lacustrine clay deposits and a deeper aquifer occurred. Five wells were modified by grouting from below the top of the lacustrine clay deposits to the bottom of the well, which reduced produced arsenic concentrations to less than 2 (mu or u)g/L in four of the five wells. Long-term viability of well modification and reduction of specific capacity was assessed for well 4-54 with AnalyzeHOLE, which creates and uses axisymmetric, radial MODFLOW models. Two radial models were calibrated to observed borehole flows, drawdowns, and transmissivity by estimating hydraulicconductivity values in the aquifer system and gravel packs of the original and modified wells. Lithology also constrained hydraulic-conductivity estimates as regularization observations. Well encrustations caused as much as 2 (mu or u)g/L increase in simulated arsenic concentration by reducing the contribution of flow from the aquifer system above the lacustrine clay deposits. Simulated arsenic concentrations in the modified well remained less than 3 (mu or u)g/L over a 20-year period.

  5. Geothermal wells: a forecast of drilling activity

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, G.L.; Mansure, A.J.; Miewald, J.N.

    1981-07-01

    Numbers and problems for geothermal wells expected to be drilled in the United States between 1981 and 2000 AD are forecasted. The 3800 wells forecasted for major electric power projects (totaling 6 GWe of capacity) are categorized by type (production, etc.), and by location (The Geysers, etc.). 6000 wells are forecasted for direct heat projects (totaling 0.02 Quads per year). Equations are developed for forecasting the number of wells, and data is presented. Drilling and completion problems in The Geysers, The Imperial Valley, Roosevelt Hot Springs, the Valles Caldera, northern Nevada, Klamath Falls, Reno, Alaska, and Pagosa Springs are discussed. Likely areas for near term direct heat projects are identified.

  6. Characterization Well R-22 Geochemistry Report

    SciTech Connect

    Patrick Longmire

    2002-09-01

    This report provides analytical results for groundwater collected during four characterization-sampling rounds conducted at well R-22 from March 2001 through March 2002. Characterization well R-22 was sampled from March 6 through 13, 2001; June 19 through 26, 2001; November 30 through December 10, 2001; and February 27 through March 7, 2002. The goal of the characterization efforts was to assess the hydrochemistry and to determine whether or not contaminants are present in the regional aquifer in the vicinity of the well. A geochemical evaluation of the analytical results for the well is also presented in this report.

  7. Stimulation Technologies for Deep Well Completions

    SciTech Connect

    Stephen Wolhart

    2005-06-30

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring the Deep Trek Program targeted at improving the economics of drilling and completing deep gas wells. Under the DOE program, Pinnacle Technologies conducted a study to evaluate the stimulation of deep wells. The objective of the project was to review U.S. deep well drilling and stimulation activity, review rock mechanics and fracture growth in deep, high-pressure/temperature wells and evaluate stimulation technology in several key deep plays. This report documents results from this project.

  8. Gas well deliquification. 2nd. ed.

    SciTech Connect

    James Lea; Henry Nickens; Mike Wells

    2008-03-15

    Chapter 1: Introduction; Chapter 2: Recognizing Symptoms of Liquid Loading in Gas Wells; Chapter 3: Critical Velocity; Chapter 4: Systems Nodal Analysis; Chapter 5: Sizing Tubing; Chapter 6: Compression; Chapter 7: Plunger Lift; Chapter 8: Use of Foam to Deliquefy Gas Wells; Chapter 9: Hydraulic Pumping; Chapter 10: Use of Beam Pumps to Deliquefy Gas Wells; Chapter 11: Gas Lift; Chapter 12: Electric Submersible Pumps; Chapter 13: Progressing Cavity Pumps; Chapter 14: Coal Bed Methane; Chapter 15: Production Automation. Chapter 14, by David Simpson, based in the San Juan Basin, addresses issues in coal bed methane, low pressure operations, gas compression, gas measurement, oil field construction, gas well deliquification and project management.

  9. Physician Wellness Across the Professional Spectrum.

    PubMed

    Blackwelder, Russell; Watson, Kristen Hood; Freedy, John R

    2016-06-01

    Physician wellness and burnout are areas of increasing exploration. Physicians are more likely than the general population to suffer the effects of burnout and neglect their own wellness; medicine and its training are deeply engrained with the care of others, often to the detriment of self. The effects vary based on the stage of career for medical trainees and physicians. However, strategies exist to screen for and help alleviate the negative effects of burnout and to improve wellness among physicians. This will continue to be an area warranting further exploration despite increasing awareness regarding the health and well-being of physicians. PMID:27262013

  10. Supporting Wellness in Adult Online Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Jacklyn J.; Porto, Stella C. S.

    2014-01-01

    Online education cannot continue to grow at the current pace while ignoring a crucial component of campus support, wellness for adult online learners. This paper brings awareness to the concept of wellness as an important student support service in adult online education. It includes a summarized review of relevant literature and identifies…

  11. Structural Validation of the Holistic Wellness Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Charlene; Applegate, E. Brooks; Yildiz, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    The Holistic Wellness Assessment (HWA) is a relatively new assessment instrument based on an emergent transdisciplinary model of wellness. This study validated the factor structure identified via exploratory factor analysis (EFA), assessed test-retest reliability, and investigated concurrent validity of the HWA in three separate samples. The…

  12. Kids Do Well If They Can

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Ross

    2008-01-01

    Viewing challenging behavior as the result of lagging skills (kids do well if they can) rather than as poor motivation (kids do well if they want to) has significant ramifications for how adults interact with kids with behavioral challenges and try to help them. A wide range of lagging skills can set the stage for challenging behavior. Challenging…

  13. CONNECTICUT GROUND WATER QUALITY CLASSIFICATIONS - WELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a 1:24,000-scale datalayer of Ground Water Quality Classifications for public supply wells in Connecticut. It is a polygon Shapefile that includes GAA areas for public water supply wells. Each polygon is assigned a GAA ground water quality class, which is stored in the d...

  14. LOCATION OF ABANDONED WELLS WITH GEOPHYSICAL METHODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abandoned wells are sometimes an important element in the contamination of fresh underground water supplies. If a well is not properly plugged and the casing is leaky, it may serve as a conduit for brines or other pollutants to reach a fresh water aquifer. This study was made to ...

  15. 25 CFR 227.23 - Wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... well spacing or production allotments authorized and approved under the applicable law or regulations... production of such wells to the number necessary, in his opinion, to insure reasonable diligence in the development and operation of the property, or may in lieu of such additional diligent drilling and...

  16. 25 CFR 227.23 - Wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... well spacing or production allotments authorized and approved under the applicable law or regulations... production of such wells to the number necessary, in his opinion, to insure reasonable diligence in the development and operation of the property, or may in lieu of such additional diligent drilling and...

  17. 25 CFR 213.32 - Wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., That the right to drill and produce such other wells shall be subject to any system of well spacing or production allotments authorized and approved under applicable law or regulations, approved by the Secretary... Interior may, within 10 days after due notice in writing, either require the drilling and production...

  18. 25 CFR 213.32 - Wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., That the right to drill and produce such other wells shall be subject to any system of well spacing or production allotments authorized and approved under applicable law or regulations, approved by the Secretary... Interior may, within 10 days after due notice in writing, either require the drilling and production...

  19. 25 CFR 227.23 - Wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... well spacing or production allotments authorized and approved under the applicable law or regulations... production of such wells to the number necessary, in his opinion, to insure reasonable diligence in the development and operation of the property, or may in lieu of such additional diligent drilling and...

  20. 25 CFR 213.32 - Wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., That the right to drill and produce such other wells shall be subject to any system of well spacing or production allotments authorized and approved under applicable law or regulations, approved by the Secretary... Interior may, within 10 days after due notice in writing, either require the drilling and production...

  1. 25 CFR 213.32 - Wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., That the right to drill and produce such other wells shall be subject to any system of well spacing or production allotments authorized and approved under applicable law or regulations, approved by the Secretary... Interior may, within 10 days after due notice in writing, either require the drilling and production...

  2. 25 CFR 227.23 - Wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... well spacing or production allotments authorized and approved under the applicable law or regulations... production of such wells to the number necessary, in his opinion, to insure reasonable diligence in the development and operation of the property, or may in lieu of such additional diligent drilling and...

  3. Oil recovery well paraffin elimination means

    SciTech Connect

    Marr, A.W.

    1982-03-16

    At least a portion of an oil-recovery well casing adjacent an oil-bearing earth formation is heated by the passing of an electrical current therethrough. The heated casing heats any oil entering therein. Paraffin found in the heated oil is thus maintained in a liquefied state thereby substantially reducing paraffin buildup in the oil-recovery well.

  4. Transparency and Oversight in Local Wellness Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chriqui, Jamie F.; Chaloupka, Frank J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Advocates have called for increased wellness policy transparency and oversight through the use of health advisory councils. This study examines (1) wellness policy transparency, (2) advisory council requirements, (3) factors associated with each, and (4) whether transparency or advisory council requirements are indicative of a stronger…

  5. Airlift recirculation well test results -- Southern sector

    SciTech Connect

    White, R.M.; Hiergesell, R.A.

    1997-08-01

    Chlorinated solvents used in the A and M-Areas at the Savannah River Site (SRS) from 1952--1982 have contaminated the groundwater under the site. A plume of groundwater contaminated with trichloroethylene (TCE) and perchloroethylene (PCE) in the Lost Lake aquifer is moving generally southward with the natural flow of groundwater. To comply with the requirements of the current SCDHEC Part B Permit, a series of wells is being installed to contain and treat the plume. Airlift Recirculation Wells (ARW) are a new and innovative technology with potential for more cost effective implementation than conventional pump and treat systems. Two Airlift Recirculation Wells have been installed and tested to quantify performance parameters needed to locate a line of these wells along the leading edge of the contaminant plume. The wells proved to be very sensitive to proper development, but after this requirement was met, performance was very good. The Zone of Capture has been estimated to be within a radius of 130--160 ft. around the wells. Thus a line of wells spaced at 250 ft. intervals could intercept the contaminant plume. At SSR-012, TCE was stripped from the groundwater at approximately 1.2 lb./day. The longer term effect of the recirculation wells upon the plume and the degree of recirculation within the aquifer itself will require additional data over a longer time period for an accurate review. Data collection is ongoing.

  6. Leveling Sweet Lake Geopressured Well Site

    SciTech Connect

    1984-07-01

    First Order leveling surveys to be conducted as part of an environmental monitoring program for geopressured test well. Conduct first order leveling to determine the elevation of the previously installed and leveled bench marks in the area of the Sweetlake geothermal well. All leveling surveys to conform to NGS standards and specifications.

  7. Sleep and Psychological Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, N. A.; Nelson, C. A.; Stevens, N.; Kitzman, Heather

    2007-01-01

    Although many studies have linked sleep problems with symptoms of psychopathology, fewer studies have examined the relationship between sleep and dimensions of psychological health as well as depression. To fill this gap, 502 community residents were surveyed about sleep habits, symptoms of anxiety and depression, as well as Ryff's six dimensions…

  8. Intergenerational Wellness Programming in Occupational Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearlman, Victoria; Wallingford, Minetta S.

    2003-01-01

    In an intergenerational service-learning project, occupational therapy interns provided wellness interventions for older adults residing in a community house. Occupational performance measures improved for six of eight clients. Students increased knowledge of wellness planning and programming. The program was consistent with the house's mission of…

  9. Hawaii's Adolescent Wellness Plan: Laulima in Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaii State Dept. of Health, Honolulu.

    Based on a need in Hawaii for a multilevel responsibility and commitment to ensure adolescent wellness, the Hawaii Adolescent Wellness Team developed a plan based on research and discussions with a variety of professionals and community leaders in health, education, and social service. This resource handbook is designed to assist communities in…

  10. Personal Well-Being in Urban China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smyth, Russell; Nielsen, Ingrid; Zhai, Qingguo

    2010-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a survey administering the personal well-being index (PWI) in six Chinese cities (N = 3,390) to ascertain the personal well-being of China's urban population. The specific aims of the study were: (a) ascertain whether Chinese urban residents are satisfied with their lives; (b) validate the PWI using an urban…

  11. Conceptualising well-being for autistic persons.

    PubMed

    Robeyns, Ingrid

    2016-06-01

    In the philosophy of well-being, there is hardly anything written on the lives of people with autism or on the question whether existing philosophical theories of well-being are suited for understanding how well the lives of autistic persons are going. This paper tries to make some progress towards filling this gap. I start by giving a concise account of autism, which highlights the huge heterogeneity among autistics. I discuss some basic features of autism, ask whether there are good reasons why we would need an account of well-being specifically for autistics and what philosophical well-being research could learn from being informed by autistic experiences and phenomenology. I then investigate to what extent the capability approach gives us a helpful theory of well-being for autistics, and what looking through an autism-lens can contribute to the further development of the capabilitarian well-being. In particular, I show that some capabilities that are crucially relevant for autistics are also relevant for the lives of non-autistic people. The final part of the paper looks at an important difficulty in using the capabilitarian account of well-being for autistics, namely: should the normative focus be on achievements (functionings) or real opportunities (capabilities)? PMID:27030478

  12. Holistic Flow Model of Spiritual Wellness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purdy, Melanie; Dupey, Peggy

    2005-01-01

    The Holistic Flow Model of Spiritual Wellness is a conceptualization of spiritual health and well-being that has implications for clinical practice and research. The model is unique in its placement of the spirit at the center of Life and in its fluid vision of the spirit. The authors present the model after a discussion of spirituality and the…

  13. Psychopolitical Literacy for Wellness and Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prilleltensky, Isaac; Fox, Dennis R.

    2007-01-01

    Wellness and justice have attracted recent attention in psychology. Both within our discipline and within society at large, more needs to be done to elucidate the link between the two while taking into account the role of power and context. We suggest that wellness is achieved by the balanced and synergistic satisfaction of personal, relational,…

  14. Health and Wellness: A Conceptual Differentiation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Jerrold S.

    1985-01-01

    Health consists of social, mental, emotional, spiritual, and physical components. Wellness is the integration of these components, and high-level wellness is the balance of these components. Iatrogenic health education disease results when health educators do not concern themselves with the whole person, and therefore, all components of health.…

  15. A well-developed cleanup technology

    SciTech Connect

    Schrauf, T.W.

    1996-05-01

    This article describes a new in-well aeration systems (density-driven convection-DDC) which remediates hydrocarbons in ground water and soil by injecting oxygen into well to promote natural aerobic activity. Topics include biodegradation process; in situ pump and treat method; advantages over conventional air sparging; how the DDC works.

  16. 7 CFR 51.1829 - Well colored.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Florida Tangerines Definitions § 51.1829 Well colored. Well colored means that a good yellow or better ground color predominates over the green color on the entire fruit surface with no distinct green color present, and that some portion of...

  17. A Collaborative University Model for Employee Wellness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Melondie R.; Kelly, Rebecca C.; Alexander, Chelley K.; Holmes, Lauren M.

    2011-01-01

    Universities are taking a more active approach in understanding and monitoring employees' modifiable health risk factors and chronic care conditions by developing strategies to encourage employees to start and sustain healthy behaviors. WellBama, the University of Alabama's signature health and wellness program, utilizes a collaborative model in…

  18. Work, Welfare, and Family Well-Being.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sing, Merrile; Hill, Heather; Mendenko, Linda

    As more families move from welfare to work, little is known about the implications of employment for family well-being. This survey and case study examined the effects of employment on the economic, social, and emotional well-being of parents, children, and families. Survey respondents received assistance through Iowa's Family Investment Program…

  19. Addendum: Parker Charter Essential School's Wellness Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horace, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Wellness is an integrated curriculum combining aspects of traditional health classes with physical education, games, fitness skills and other mind-body connection skills. The goals of Parker Charter Essential School's Wellness program developed by members of the Parker community are: (1) to develop and nurture resilience; (2) to foster and promote…

  20. Adaptive control system for gas producing wells

    SciTech Connect

    Fedor, Pashchenko; Sergey, Gulyaev; Alexander, Pashchenko

    2015-03-10

    Optimal adaptive automatic control system for gas producing wells cluster is proposed intended for solving the problem of stabilization of the output gas pressure in the cluster at conditions of changing gas flow rate and changing parameters of the wells themselves, providing the maximum high resource of hardware elements of automation.

  1. Geothermal Reservoir Well Stimulation Program: technology transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-05-01

    Each of the following types of well stimulation techniques are summarized and explained: hydraulic fracturing; thermal; mechanical, jetting, and drainhole drilling; explosive and implosive; and injection methods. Current stimulation techniques, stimulation techniques for geothermal wells, areas of needed investigation, and engineering calculations for various techniques. (MHR)

  2. Hospital Organization, Administration and Wellness Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, Jeanne Hmura

    1984-01-01

    Hospital organization, administration and planning, and implementation program procedures are reviewed in this article. Hospitals and medical centers are changing their strategies in the area of wellness programming since they offer the appropriate facilities for these programs. Various types of wellness programs currently being promoted are…

  3. ESSA's Well-Rounded Education. Special Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Scott D.; Workman, Emily

    2016-01-01

    As questions regarding the Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) flow in to Education Commission of the States, one frequent inquiry is about the concept of a "well-rounded education," referenced more than 20 times and included within the majority of Titles in the Act. State education leaders want to know what constitutes a well-rounded…

  4. 77 FR 25587 - Anchorage Regulations; Wells, ME

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-01

    ... Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public meeting. But, you may... in Wells Harbor, Wells, Maine through a published final rule (76 FR 76295). This action was necessary... Chart Division of the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) advised the...

  5. Gender, Marriage, and Psychosocial Well-Being.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Dorie Giles

    1988-01-01

    Used national survey data to examine gender differences in relationships of marital status and of marital quality to psychosocial well-being. Findings suggest that it is quality of marital interaction rather than marriage per se that is more important for individual well-being, and that effects of marital quality are stronger among women than…

  6. ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES FOR STRIPPER GAS WELL ENHANCEMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald J. MacDonald

    2005-04-27

    As part of Task 1 in Advanced Technologies for Stripper Gas Well Enhancement, Schlumberger Data & Consulting Services (DCS) joined with two Appalachian Basin producers, Great Lakes Energy Partners, LLC, and Belden & Blake Corporation to develop methodologies for identification and enhancement of stripper wells with economic upside potential. These industry partners previously provided us with data for more than 700 wells in northwestern Pennsylvania. Phase 1 goals of this project were to develop and validate methodologies that can quickly and cost-effectively identify underperforming wells with remediation potential. We enhanced and streamlined our software and are using it with Microsoft's{trademark} Access and Excel programs. During the last quarter of 2002, Great Lakes provided us with additional data for approximately 2,200 wells located in their Cooperstown field situated in northwestern Pennsylvania. We identified approximately 220 potential remediation candidates and Great Lakes personnel reviewed this list for viability and selected more than twenty five wells to be reworked. Approximately fifteen wells have been successfully reworked as of year-end 2004. This field provided a rigorous test of our software and analytical methods. We processed all the information provided to us including the Cooperstown data. Great Lakes also provided supplemental data listing the original operator of the wells.

  7. Well-Being Narratives and Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estola, Eila; Farquhar, Sandy; Puroila, Anna-Maija

    2014-01-01

    Whereas research on children's well-being in education has largely focused on adult perspectives rather than on children's understandings, recent scholarship argues for a stronger focus on children's experience and perceptions of their own well-being. Adopting a narrative approach, this article puts children's stories centre…

  8. Can Facebook use induce well-being?

    PubMed

    Liu, Chia-Yi; Yu, Chia-Ping

    2013-09-01

    Over the past few decades, the widespread phenomenon of Internet abuse has gained attention from the public, academia, and the media. In a departure from this negative viewpoint, however, researchers and educators have devoted considerable effort in attempting to understand the influence of online communication on people's psychological well-being. This study focuses specifically on Facebook, and proposes a research model to examine the relationships among Facebook use, online social support, general social support, and psychological well-being. Our results show that using Facebook helped college students to obtain online social support, and that online social support is an extension of general social support. However, although general social support contributes to well-being, online social support appears to have little direct effect on well-being. The relationship between online social support and well-being is mediated through the factor of general social support. PMID:24028138

  9. Multilateral well enhances gas storage deliverability

    SciTech Connect

    Rowan, M.C.; Whims, M.J.

    1995-12-25

    Multiple lateral drilling from an existing well bore can limit environmental exposure and overall drilling risk while optimizing gas storage field performance. In 1994, an existing high-angle directional well was reentered, and five nearly horizontal fingers were created. The Excelsior 6 gas storage field in Michigan comprises two Niagaran pinnacle reefs which are pressure connected through an interreef facies of low permeability. Each reef, known as the Excelsior 6 gas field (EX6) and the East Kalkaska 1 gas field (EK1), independently produced native gas through pressure-depletion drive. In 1980, seven wells, six of which are in the EX6 field and one in the EK1, were drilled to convert both fields to gas storage service. Two additional wells were added to the EK1 in 1990. The article describes the geology of the fields, well design, drilling program, and results.

  10. Geopressured-geothermal well activities in Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    John, C.J.

    1992-10-01

    Since September 1978, microseismic networks have operated continuously around US Department of Energy (DOE) geopressured-geothermal well sites to monitor any microearthquake activity in the well vicinity. Microseismic monitoring is necessary before flow testing at a well site to establish the level of local background seismicity. Once flow testing has begun, well development may affect ground elevations and/or may activate growth faults, which are characteristic of the coastal region of southern Louisiana and southeastern Texas where these geopressured-geothermal wells are located. The microseismic networks are designed to detest small-scale local earthquakes indicative of such fault activation. Even after flow testing has ceased, monitoring continues to assess any microearthquake activity delayed by the time dependence of stress migration within the earth. Current monitoring shows no microseismicity in the geopressured-geothermal prospect areas before, during, or after flow testing.

  11. Quantum beats in conductance oscillations in graphene-based asymmetric double velocity wells and electrostatic wells

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Lei; Li, Yu-Xian; Zhang, Ying-Tao; Liu, Jian-Jun

    2014-01-14

    The transport properties in graphene-based asymmetric double velocity well (Fermi velocity inside the well less than that outside the well) and electrostatic well structures are investigated using the transfer matrix method. The results show that quantum beats occur in the oscillations of the conductance for asymmetric double velocity wells. The beating effect can also be found in asymmetric double electrostatic wells, but only if the widths of the two wells are different. The beat frequency for the asymmetric double well is exactly equal to the frequency difference between the oscillation rates in two isolated single wells with the same structures as the individual wells in the double well structure. A qualitative interpretation is proposed based on the fact that the resonant levels depend upon the sizes of the quantum wells. The beating behavior can provide a new way to identify the symmetry of double well structures.

  12. Financial Well-being in Active Ageing.

    PubMed

    Rajola, Federico; Frigerio, Chiara; Parrichi, Monica

    2014-01-01

    In developed countries, economic and financial well-being is playing a crucial positive role in ageing and inclusion processes. Due to the complexity and pervasiveness of financial economy in the real life, more and more social as well as individual well-being are perceived as influenced by financial conditions. On the other hand, the demographic circumstances drive scholars as well as politicians to reflect on ageing dynamics. Bridging the two domains, the following research focuses on the role of the financial well-being as a mediating role of general well-being in elder people. The assumption is that elderly people have specific financial needs that sometimes are not covered by financial providers' offers. The motivation is mainly on the role of information asymmetries between elder consumers and financial institutions. On the dynamics of these asymmetries, the research will specifically investigate the role of financial literacy, as the ability of comprehension of elder people of their needs and of financial information. The applicative implication of this research work consists in finding the determinants of financial well-being for elders and the definition of their specific financial competencies, in order to 1) identify educational and regulatory guidelines for policy makers in charge of creating financial market transparency conditions, and to 2) support design of organizational mechanisms as well as financial product/services for this specific target of client. The following chapter presents preliminary explorative results of a survey delivered on 200 elder individuals (65-80 yrs.) leaving in Milan. Findings show that active elders consider the ability of managing personal wealth as one of the core determinant of well-being, although the economic and financial literacy is limited. Furthermore, the chapter proposes a research agenda for scholars interested in exploring the relationship between financial well-being and ageing. PMID:26630513

  13. Advanced Technologies For Stripper Gas Well Enhancement

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald J. MacDonald; Charles M. Boyer; Joseph H. Frantz Jr; Paul A. Zyglowicz

    2005-04-01

    Stripper gas and oil well operators frequently face a dilemma regarding maximizing production from low-productivity wells. With thousands of stripper wells in the United States covering extensive acreage, it is difficult to identify easily and efficiently marginal or underperforming wells. In addition, the magnitude of reviewing vast amounts of data places a strain on an operator's work force and financial resources. Schlumberger DCS, in cooperation with the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), has created software and developed in-house analysis methods to identify remediation potential in stripper wells relatively easily. This software is referred to as Stripper Well Analysis Remediation Methodology (SWARM). SWARM was beta-tested with data pertaining to two gas fields located in northwestern Pennsylvania and had notable results. Great Lakes Energy Partners, LLC (Great Lakes) and Belden & Blake Corporation (B&B) both operate wells in the first field studied. They provided data for 729 wells, and we estimated that 41 wells were candidates for remediation. However, for reasons unbeknownst to Schlumberger these wells were not budgeted for rework by the operators. The second field (Cooperstown) is located in Crawford, Venango, and Warren counties, Pa and has more than 2,200 wells operated by Great Lakes. This paper discusses in depth the successful results of a candidate recognition study of this area. We compared each well's historical production with that of its offsets and identified 339 underperformers before considering remediation costs, and 168 economically viable candidates based on restimulation costs of $50,000 per well. From this data, we prioritized a list based on the expected incremental recoverable gas and 10% discounted net present value (NPV). For this study, we calculated the incremental gas by subtracting the volumes forecasted after remediation from the production projected at its current

  14. Satellite technology applied at the well site

    SciTech Connect

    Linger, D.B.; Dill, P.H.

    1988-01-01

    The full potential of satellite technology is making itself known in the oil field. Well site data can be sent directly to the operator giving fast, cost-saving answers. Direct linkage from the field to the operator and to computing resources represents a radical change in existing methods of handling well site data. One system, developed by Schlumberger, employs satellite technology to handle well site log data. The service, called Lognet, uses a small transportable earth station at the well site to provide a high speed data and voice link from the well site, via satellite, to the operator, his partners, or to any of the well logging company's offices. The system can deliver both well log graphics and digital taped data to an appropriate receiving terminal, allowing up to 10 delivery points to receive the information simultaneously. Delivery to standard office or portable facsimile machines permits direct reception of logs at the office or any other location. This capability allows the operator and his partners to view the log information within 1 hour after logging and to discuss the log results. Voice communication also is possible with telephone calls being made both to and from the logging unit to any point in the public telephone network. These capabilities result in a more efficient use of staff, information, time, and ultimately, cost savings.

  15. Wellness Among Dental Students: An Institutional Study.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Peter L; Shaddox, Luciana M; Garvan, Cynthia W; Behar-Horenstein, Linda S

    2016-09-01

    The high prevalence of distress among health professionals during their education has fostered increased interest in the study of student well-being. The aim of this study was to assess the self-perceived wellness of dental students and determine the relationship between factors affecting wellness and demographic variables. An online questionnaire was distributed to 334 first-through fourth-year dental students at one U.S. dental school. The questionnaire consisted of modified versions of the Perceived Wellness Survey, Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Survey, and Mental Health Inventory and also collected demographic information. The response rate was 78% (N=261). More than 80% of the respondents reported that they were happy all, most, or a good bit of the time. These students exhibited a strong sense of self-worth, were positive about their friendships, and perceived they had good social support. Less than 20% of respondents did not view their physical health as excellent and identified a lack of self-perceived wellness. First-year and single students reported statistically less social support. Students who were parents perceived their wellness less favorably. Hispanic and Asian students were less happy regarding their mental health than white and African American students. These findings suggest that students, especially Hispanic and Asian students, may benefit from programs that promote student well-being. Academic programs that encourage students to work together and promote peer-to-peer involvement may be beneficial, especially for first-year and single students. PMID:27587579

  16. Well test analysis in fractured media

    SciTech Connect

    Karasaki, K.

    1987-04-01

    The behavior of fracture systems under well test conditions and methods for analyzing well test data from fractured media are investigated. Several analytical models are developed to be used for analyzing well test data from fractured media. Numerical tools that may be used to simulate fluid flow in fractured media are also presented. Three types of composite models for constant flux tests are investigated. These models are based on the assumption that a fracture system under well test conditions may be represented by two concentric regions, one representing a small number of fractures that dominates flow near the well, and the other representing average conditions farther away from the well. Type curves are presented that can be used to find the flow parameters of these two regions and the extent of the inner concentric region. Several slug test models with different geometric conditions that may be present in fractured media are also investigated. A finite element model that can simulate transient fluid flow in fracture networks is used to study the behavior of various two-dimensional fracture systems under well test conditions. A mesh generator that can be used to model mass and heat flow in a fractured-porous media is presented.

  17. ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES FOR STRIPPER GAS WELL ENHANCEMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald J. MacDonald

    2004-07-14

    As part of Task 1 in Advanced Technologies for Stripper Gas Well Enhancement, Schlumberger Data & Consulting Services (DCS) joined with two Appalachian Basin producers, Great Lakes Energy Partners, LLC, and Belden & Blake Corporation to develop methodologies for identification and enhancement of stripper wells with economic upside potential. These industry partners previously provided us with data for more than 700 wells in northwestern Pennsylvania. Phase 1 goals of this project are to develop and validate methodologies that can quickly and cost-effectively identify underperforming wells with remediation potential. We have enhanced and streamlined our software and are using it with the latest versions of Microsoft's{trademark} Access and Excel programs. During the last quarter of 2002, Great Lakes provided us with additional data for approximately 2,200 wells located in their Cooperstown field situated in northwestern Pennsylvania. We identified approximately 130 potential remediation candidates, and Great Lakes personnel are currently reviewing this list for viable remediation. Within the last few weeks, a list of five candidates have been chosen for refract, in addition to two alternate wells. This field has provided a rigorous test of our software and analytical methods. We have processed all the information provided to us including the Cooperstown data. Great Lakes also provided supplemental data listing the original operator of the wells. We have determined whether a statistically significant number of underperformers correlate to specific operators and/or their associated completion/stimulation methods. In addition, the DOE has reviewed a draft version of a final report.

  18. Nevada Test Site Groundwater Well Rehabilitation Plan

    SciTech Connect

    David B. Hudson

    2006-12-01

    This plan describes actions to improve the utility and credibility of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) interim groundwater monitoring program. The two principal actions are: (1) well maintenance/rehabilitation activities and (2) the deployment of dedicated low-cost and reliable jack-pumps for groundwater sampling from deep monitoring wells. The scope of this proposal is to perform these actions on some number of nine selected wells (Figure 1) to evaluate whether these actions are achievable, practical, cost effective, and result in improved groundwater data quality.

  19. Religion, health, and psychological well-being.

    PubMed

    Green, Morgan; Elliott, Marta

    2010-06-01

    This study compares the effects of religiosity on health and well-being, controlling for work and family. With 2006 GSS data, we assess the effects of religiosity on health and well-being, net of job satisfaction, marital happiness, and financial status. The results indicate that people who identify as religious tend to report better health and happiness, regardless of religious affiliation, religious activities, work and family, social support, or financial status. People with liberal religious beliefs tend to be healthier but less happy than people with fundamentalist beliefs. Future research should probe how religious identity and beliefs impact health and well-being. PMID:19283486

  20. Water control well treating solution and method

    SciTech Connect

    Boles, J. L.; Mancillas, G.

    1984-10-16

    A well treating solution is shown for changing the relative permeability of a formation being treated to water. The solution is made by mixing an amphoteric polymeric material, a mutual solvent and a surface active agent in a brine carrier liquid. The well treating solution is injected into the formation at pump rates below the fracture gradient of the formation. The well is briefly shut-in, after which production can be resumed. The treating solution and method taught lower the permeability of the producing formation to water without substantially affecting the formation's permeability to oil and gas.

  1. Long term effects of CO2 on 3-D pore structure and 3-D phase distribution in reservoir sandstones from the Green River well (Utah, USA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnhoorn, Auke; Kisoensingh, Shailesh

    2014-05-01

    Reservoir sandstones and cap rocks from the Green River area in Utah (USA) have been naturally exposed to CO2 fluids for hundreds of thousands of years, leading to compositional and microstructural alterations of the rocks. A 300m long section of this section of these Green river reservoir and cap rocks has been cored in 2012. Here, results of a high-resolution micro X-ray tomography study of a suite of samples from the well are reported detailing the 3D pore structure and phase distribution changes due to long term CO2 exposure. The reservoir sandstones from the Green River well (Utah) reveal the presence of various degrees of carbonate precipitation in the pores. Both reservoir sandstones (the shallower Entrada Formation and the deeper Navajo Formation) show variations in carbonate content and porosity structure. The Entrada sandstone exhibits widespread carbonate precipitation (up to 60% of infill of the original porosity), with the largest amount of carbonates at the boundary with the underlying Carmel cap rock. In an interval of a meter from the contact, carbonate precipitation decreases sharply till ~20%. The porosity is significantly reduced in the lowest 1 meter. The reduction in porosity lead to a reduction in pore connectivity and thereby permeability by the long-term CO2 exposure. On the other hand the Navajo sandstone shows predominantly only isolated spots of carbonate precipitation (up to 20% of the original porosity). Widespread carbonate precipitation is absent in the Navajo reservoir sandstone samples. Because carbonate precipitation is not present throughout, the large-scale permeability of the formation is likely not significantly affected by the CO2 exposure. The results show how the 3D distribution of the phases and the 3D shapes of the pores are affected by long term CO2 exposure and can be used as an example for potential changes to be expected in reservoir sandstones due to CO2 storage in future CO2 sequestration endeavours.

  2. Evaluation of historical dry well surveillance logs

    SciTech Connect

    Price, R.K.

    1996-09-09

    Several dry well surveillance logs from 1975 through 1995 for the SX Tank Farm have been examined to identify potential subsurface zones of radioactive contaminant migration. Several dynamic conditions of the gamma-ray emitting radioactive contaminant shave been identified.

  3. Subsea tree cap well choke system

    SciTech Connect

    Bednar, J.M.

    1991-04-30

    This patent describes an apparatus useful in subsea well completions requiring a subsea choke. It comprises: a wellhead connector; a tree flow passage; a tree annulus passage; a tree cap; a choke; and a production line.

  4. MARGINAL EXPENSE OIL WELL WIRELESS SURVEILLANCE MEOWS

    SciTech Connect

    Mason M. Medizade; John R. Ridgely; Donald G. Nelson

    2004-11-01

    A marginal expense oil well wireless surveillance system to monitor system performance and production from rod-pumped wells in real time from wells operated by Vaquero Energy in the Edison Field, Main Area of Kern County in California has been successfully designed and field tested. The surveillance system includes a proprietary flow sensor, a programmable transmitting unit, a base receiver and receiving antenna, and a base station computer equipped with software to interpret the data. First, the system design is presented. Second, field data obtained from three wells is shown. Results of the study show that an effective, cost competitive, real-time wireless surveillance system can be introduced to oil fields across the United States and the world.

  5. 7 CFR 51.1868 - Well developed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... shows normal growth. Tomatoes which are ridged and peaked at the stem end, contain dry tissue, and usually contain open spaces below the level of the stem scar, are not considered well developed....

  6. Sanitary locking lip split well seal

    SciTech Connect

    Jozwiak, T.H.; Hunley, E.C. Jr.

    1992-05-12

    This patent describes a well seal for cooperating with a casing of a wall. It comprises a first split plate; a second split plate having a size and shape to allow insertion within the well casing; a split packer, which is provided with at least one tapered through hole, positioned between first split plate, and second split plate, the split packer having a size and shape approximately the same as an inner dimension of the well casing to allow insertion therein, split packer having at least two sections with interlocking lips to provide an effective sanitary seal by providing a leakproof labyrinth path to avoid a straight-through leak path; and clamp means for compressing split packer between first split plate and second split plates to expand the split packer into sealing engagement with an inner wall of the well casing.

  7. Model for an Employee Wellness Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, Marybeth; And Others

    1981-01-01

    The evaluation of a health promotion program indicated that it had successfully used several approaches, including: psychophysical tests, individual health consultants, group programs, mass media, and wellness-oriented social activities. (CJ)

  8. Modelling flow to leachate wells in landfills

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Thani, A.A.; Beaven, R.P.; White, J.K

    2004-07-01

    Vertical wells are frequently used as a means of controlling leachate levels in landfills. They are often the only available dewatering option for both old landfills without any basal leachate collection layer and for newer sites where the installed drainage infrastructure has failed. When the well is pumped, a seepage face develops at the entry into the well so that the drawdown in the surrounding waste will not be as great as might be expected. The numerical groundwater flow model MODFLOW-SURFACT, which contains the functionality to model seepage surfaces, has been used to investigate the transient dewatering of a landfill. The study concludes that the position of the seepage face and information about the characteristics of the induced seepage flow field are important and should not be neglected when designing wells in landfills.

  9. Current Status of Geothermal Well Cement Development

    SciTech Connect

    Kukacka, L. E.

    1981-01-01

    The results of a study made in 1976 indicated that the cements used for well completion deteriorate in the geothermal environments and that the life expectancy of a well, and therefore the economics of geothermal processes, could be improved significantly if better materials were developed. On the basis of this assessment, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) helped the Department of Energy, Division of Geothermal Energy to organize a program to develop materials that meet the estimated design criteria for geothermal well cements. The BNL work involves research on polymer cements and full management of an integrated program involving contract research and industrial participation. The program consists of the following phases: (1) problem definition, (2) cement research and development, (3) property verification, (4) downhole testing, and (5) cementing of demonstration wells.

  10. 7 CFR 51.1868 - Well developed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... shows normal growth. Tomatoes which are ridged and peaked at the stem end, contain dry tissue, and usually contain open spaces below the level of the stem scar, are not considered well developed....

  11. 7 CFR 51.1868 - Well developed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... shows normal growth. Tomatoes which are ridged and peaked at the stem end, contain dry tissue, and usually contain open spaces below the level of the stem scar, are not considered well developed....

  12. Groundwater well with reactive filter pack

    DOEpatents

    Gilmore, T.J.; Holdren, G.R. Jr.; Kaplan, D.I.

    1998-09-08

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for the remediation of contaminated soil and ground water wherein a reactive pack material is added to the annular fill material utilized in standard well construction techniques. 3 figs.

  13. Groundwater well with reactive filter pack

    DOEpatents

    Gilmore, Tyler J.; Holdren, Jr., George R.; Kaplan, Daniel I.

    1998-01-01

    A method and apparatus for the remediation of contaminated soil and ground water wherein a reactive pack material is added to the annular fill material utilized in standard well construction techniques.

  14. Description of calls from private well owners to a national well water hotline, 2013.

    PubMed

    Ridpath, Alison; Taylor, Ethel; Greenstreet, Charlene; Martens, Margaret; Wicke, Heather; Martin, Colleen

    2016-02-15

    Water Systems Council (WSC) is a national, non-profit organization providing education and resources to private household well owners. Since 2003, WSC has provided wellcare®, a toll-free telephone hotline to answer questions from the public regarding well stewardship. In order to identify knowledge gaps regarding well stewardship among private well owners, we obtained data from WSC and reviewed calls made during 2013 to wellcare®. WSC records data from each wellcare® call-including caller information, primary reason for call, main use of well water, and if they were calling about a cistern, private well, shared well, or spring. We searched for calls with key words indicating specific contaminants of interest and reviewed primary reasons for calls. Calls classified as primarily testing-related were further categorized depending on whether the caller asked about how to test well water or how to interpret testing results. During 2013, wellcare® received 1100 calls from private well owners who were residents of 48 states. Among these calls, 87 (8%) mentioned radon, 83 (8%) coliforms, 51 (5%) chemicals related to fracking, 34 (3%) arsenic, and 32 (3%) nitrates key words. Only 38% of private well owners reported conducting any well maintenance activities, such as inspecting, cleaning, repairing the well, or testing well water, during the previous 12 months. The primary reason for calls were related to well water testing (n=403), general information relating to wells (n=249), contaminants (n=229), and well water treatment (n=97). Among calls related to testing, 319 had questions about how to test their well water, and 33 had questions about how to interpret testing results. Calls from private well owners to the wellcare® Hotline during 2013 identified key knowledge gaps regarding well stewardship; well owners are generally not testing or maintaining their wells, have questions about well water testing treatment, and concerns about well water contaminants. PMID

  15. Communication joint for use in a well

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, R.P.

    1986-11-18

    This patent describes a communication joint for use in a well, comprising: a solid body having an exterior surface adapted to form a slidable fluid seal with a wellhead member of the well such that the solid body may slide within the wellhead member while maintaining the seal therewith; the solid body including first and second conduits positioned in and extending axially within the solid body, each conduit having the capability of providing a fluid passageway independent of the other conduit.

  16. San Bernardino National Wildlife Refuge Well 10

    SciTech Connect

    Ensminger, J.T.; Easterly, C.E.; Ketelle, R.H.; Quarles, H.; Wade, M.C.

    1999-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), at the request of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, evaluated the water production capacity of an artesian well in the San Bernardino National Wildlife Refuge, Arizona. Water from the well initially flows into a pond containing three federally threatened or endangered fish species, and water from this pond feeds an adjacent pond/wetland containing an endangered plant species.

  17. PrimeEnergy/DOE/GRI slant well

    SciTech Connect

    Drimal, C.E.; Muncey, G.; Carden, R.

    1991-12-01

    This report presents final results of the Sterling Boggs 1240 slant well. Objectives of the project were (1) to test the potential for improved recovery efficiency in a fractured Devonian Shale reservoir from a directionally drilled well, (2) to perform detailed tests of reservoir properties and completion methods, and (3) to provide technology to industry which may ultimately improve the economics of drilling in the Devonian Shale and thereby stimulate development of its resources.

  18. High temperature well bore cement slurry

    SciTech Connect

    Nahm, J.J.W.; Vinegar, H.J.; Karanikas, J.M.; Wyant, R.E.

    1993-07-13

    A low density well bore cement slurry composition is described suitable for cementing well bores with high reservoir temperatures comprising: (a) a high alumina cement in an amount of about 40 pounds per barrel of slurry or greater: (b) graphite in an amount greater than about one quarter, by volume, of the solids in the cement slurry; and (c) and a carrier fluid comprising drilling mud.

  19. Using informatics to capture older adults’ wellness

    PubMed Central

    Demiris, George; Thompson, Hilaire J.; Reeder, Blaine; Wilamowska, Katarzyna; Zaslavsky, Oleg

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this paper is to demonstrate how informatics applications can support the assessment and visualization of older adults’ wellness. A theoretical framework is presented that informs the design of a technology enhanced screening platform for wellness. We highlight an ongoing pilot demonstration in an assisted living facility where a community room has been converted into a living laboratory for the use of diverse technologies (including a telehealth component to capture vital signs and customized questionnaires, a gait analysis component and cognitive assessment software) to assess the multiple aspects of wellness of older adults. Methods A demonstration project was introduced in an independent retirement community to validate our theoretical framework of informatics and wellness assessment for older adults. Subjects are being recruited to attend a community room and engage in the use of diverse technologies to assess cognitive performance, physiological and gait variables as well as psychometrics pertaining to social and spiritual components of wellness for a period of eight weeks. Data are integrated from various sources into one study database and different visualization approaches are pursued to efficiently display potential correlations between different parameters and capture overall trends of wellness. Results Preliminary findings indicate that older adults are willing to participate in technology-enhanced interventions and embrace different information technology applications given appropriate and customized training and hardware and software features that address potential functional limitations and inexperience with computers. Conclusion Informatics can advance health care for older adults and support a holistic assessment of older adults’ wellness. The described framework can support decision making, link formal and informal caregiving networks and identify early trends and patterns that if addressed could reduce adverse health events

  20. Waveguide switches using asymmetric coupled quantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritter, Kenneth J.; Horst, Scott C.

    1994-07-01

    This report contains the results of a three-year effort to investigate the use of Asymmetric Coupled Quantum Well in optical waveguide cross bar switches. The two types of devices investigated are the standard delta beta switch and the delta alpha switch. The delta alpha switch uses the imaginary part of the refractive index to modulate the intensity along different waveguide paths in the switch structure. Both types of switch were fabricated and tested. The delta beta switches produced are suitable as 1-input 2-output devices. The delta alpha switches were demonstrated as 2 by 2 cross bar switches with up to 40% throughput. To compensate for losses in the switches the use of amplifying elements was investigated. To provide gain at a longer wavelength than that of the excitons in the modulation waveguides, the quantum wells in the modulation waveguides were blue shifted using vacancy induced disordering (VID). The VID shifted quantum wells showed less Stark shift than the unshifted quantum wells. This effect is explained by the nearly parabolic shape of the disordered wells. Coupled quantum wells can be used to create a structure that will maintain a strongly Stark shifted spatially indirect transition even after VID. Modeling of the various waveguide structures used is also discussed.