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Sample records for 10-fold cross-validation procedure

  1. A K-fold Averaging Cross-validation Procedure

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Yoonsuh; Hu, Jianhua

    2015-01-01

    Cross-validation type of methods have been widely used to facilitate model estimation and variable selection. In this work, we suggest a new K-fold cross validation procedure to select a candidate ‘optimal’ model from each hold-out fold and average the K candidate ‘optimal’ models to obtain the ultimate model. Due to the averaging effect, the variance of the proposed estimates can be significantly reduced. This new procedure results in more stable and efficient parameter estimation than the classical K-fold cross validation procedure. In addition, we show the asymptotic equivalence between the proposed and classical cross validation procedures in the linear regression setting. We also demonstrate the broad applicability of the proposed procedure via two examples of parameter sparsity regularization and quantile smoothing splines modeling. We illustrate the promise of the proposed method through simulations and a real data example.

  2. Accuracy of Population Validity and Cross-Validity Estimation: An Empirical Comparison of Formula-Based, Traditional Empirical, and Equal Weights Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raju, Nambury S.; Bilgic, Reyhan; Edwards, Jack E.; Fleer, Paul F.

    1999-01-01

    Performed an empirical Monte Carlo study using predictor and criterion data from 84,808 U.S. Air Force enlistees. Compared formula-based, traditional empirical, and equal-weights procedures. Discusses issues for basic research on validation and cross-validation. (SLD)

  3. Cross-Validation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langmuir, Charles R.

    1954-01-01

    Cross-validation in relation to choosing the best tests and selecting the best items in tests is discussed. Cross-validation demonstrated whether a decision derived from one set of data is truly effective when this decision is applied to another independent, but relevant, sample of people. Cross-validation is particularly important after…

  4. Parallel processing of chemical information in a local area network--II. A parallel cross-validation procedure for artificial neural networks.

    PubMed

    Derks, E P; Beckers, M L; Melssen, W J; Buydens, L M

    1996-08-01

    This paper describes a parallel cross-validation (PCV) procedure, for testing the predictive ability of multi-layer feed-forward (MLF) neural networks models, trained by the generalized delta learning rule. The PCV program has been parallelized to operate in a local area computer network. Development and execution of the parallel application was aided by the HYDRA programming environment, which is extensively described in Part I of this paper. A brief theoretical introduction on MLF networks is given and the problems, associated with the validation of predictive abilities, will be discussed. Furthermore, this paper comprises a general outline of the PCV program. Finally, the parallel PCV application is used to validate the predictive ability of an MLF network modeling a chemical non-linear function approximation problem which is described extensively in the literature. PMID:8799999

  5. Cross-Validated Bagged Learning

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Maya L.; Molinaro, Annette M.; Sinisi, Sandra E.; van der Laan, Mark J.

    2007-01-01

    Many applications aim to learn a high dimensional parameter of a data generating distribution based on a sample of independent and identically distributed observations. For example, the goal might be to estimate the conditional mean of an outcome given a list of input variables. In this prediction context, bootstrap aggregating (bagging) has been introduced as a method to reduce the variance of a given estimator at little cost to bias. Bagging involves applying an estimator to multiple bootstrap samples, and averaging the result across bootstrap samples. In order to address the curse of dimensionality, a common practice has been to apply bagging to estimators which themselves use cross-validation, thereby using cross-validation within a bootstrap sample to select fine-tuning parameters trading off bias and variance of the bootstrap sample-specific candidate estimators. In this article we point out that in order to achieve the correct bias variance trade-off for the parameter of interest, one should apply the cross-validation selector externally to candidate bagged estimators indexed by these fine-tuning parameters. We use three simulations to compare the new cross-validated bagging method with bagging of cross-validated estimators and bagging of non-cross-validated estimators. PMID:19255599

  6. Cost-Benefit Considerations in Choosing among Cross-Validation Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Kevin R.

    There are two general methods of cross-validation: empirical estimation, and formula estimation. In choosing a specific cross-validation procedure, one should consider both costs (e.g., inefficient use of available data in estimating regression parameters) and benefits (e.g., accuracy in estimating population cross-validity). Empirical…

  7. Cross-Validation, Shrinkage, and Multiple Regression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hynes, Kevin

    One aspect of multiple regression--the shrinkage of the multiple correlation coefficient on cross-validation is reviewed. The paper consists of four sections. In section one, the distinction between a fixed and a random multiple regression model is made explicit. In section two, the cross-validation paradigm and an explanation for the occurrence…

  8. Double Cross-Validation in Multiple Regression: A Method of Estimating the Stability of Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowell, R. Kevin

    In multiple regression analysis, where resulting predictive equation effectiveness is subject to shrinkage, it is especially important to evaluate result replicability. Double cross-validation is an empirical method by which an estimate of invariance or stability can be obtained from research data. A procedure for double cross-validation is…

  9. FDDS: A Cross Validation Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawyer, Judy Parsons

    The Family Drawing Depression Scale (FDDS) was created by Wright and McIntyre to provide a clear and reliable scoring method for the Kinetic Family Drawing as a procedure for detecting depression. A study was conducted to confirm the value of the FDDS as a systematic tool for interpreting family drawings with populations of depressed individuals.…

  10. Methodology Review: Estimation of Population Validity and Cross-Validity, and the Use of Equal Weights in Prediction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raju, Nambury S.; Bilgic, Reyhan; Edwards, Jack E.; Fleer, Paul F.

    1997-01-01

    This review finds that formula-based procedures can be used in place of empirical validation for estimating population validity or in place of empirical cross-validation for estimating population cross-validity. Discusses conditions under which the equal weights procedure is a viable alternative. (SLD)

  11. Cross validation in LASSO and its acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obuchi, Tomoyuki; Kabashima, Yoshiyuki

    2016-05-01

    We investigate leave-one-out cross validation (CV) as a determinator of the weight of the penalty term in the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO). First, on the basis of the message passing algorithm and a perturbative discussion assuming that the number of observations is sufficiently large, we provide simple formulas for approximately assessing two types of CV errors, which enable us to significantly reduce the necessary cost of computation. These formulas also provide a simple connection of the CV errors to the residual sums of squares between the reconstructed and the given measurements. Second, on the basis of this finding, we analytically evaluate the CV errors when the design matrix is given as a simple random matrix in the large size limit by using the replica method. Finally, these results are compared with those of numerical simulations on finite-size systems and are confirmed to be correct. We also apply the simple formulas of the first type of CV error to an actual dataset of the supernovae.

  12. Formula Estimation of Cross-Validated Multiple Correlation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitt, Neal

    A review of cross-validation shrinkage formulas is presented which focuses on the theoretical and practical problems in the use of various formulas. Practical guidelines for use of both formulas and empirical cross-validation are provided. A comparison of results using these formulas in a range of situations is then presented. The result of these…

  13. A cross-validation package driving Netica with python

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fienen, Michael N.; Plant, Nathaniel G.

    2014-01-01

    Bayesian networks (BNs) are powerful tools for probabilistically simulating natural systems and emulating process models. Cross validation is a technique to avoid overfitting resulting from overly complex BNs. Overfitting reduces predictive skill. Cross-validation for BNs is known but rarely implemented due partly to a lack of software tools designed to work with available BN packages. CVNetica is open-source, written in Python, and extends the Netica software package to perform cross-validation and read, rebuild, and learn BNs from data. Insights gained from cross-validation and implications on prediction versus description are illustrated with: a data-driven oceanographic application; and a model-emulation application. These examples show that overfitting occurs when BNs become more complex than allowed by supporting data and overfitting incurs computational costs as well as causing a reduction in prediction skill. CVNetica evaluates overfitting using several complexity metrics (we used level of discretization) and its impact on performance metrics (we used skill).

  14. Comprehensive Assessment of Emotional Disturbance: A Cross-Validation Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Emily S.; Doyon, Katie E.; Saldana, Enrique; Allen, Megan Redding

    2007-01-01

    Assessing a student for emotional disturbance is a serious and complex task given the stigma of the label and the ambiguities of the federal definition. One way that school psychologists can be more confident in their assessment results is to cross validate data from different sources using the RIOT approach (Review, Interview, Observe, Test).…

  15. Attrition from an Adolescent Addiction Treatment Program: A Cross Validation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathisen, Kenneth S.; Meyers, Kathleen

    Treatment attrition is a major problem for programs treating adolescent substance abusers. To isolate and cross validate factors which are predictive of addiction treatment attrition among adolescent substance abusers, screening interview and diagnostic variables from 119 adolescent in-patients were submitted to a discriminant equation analysis.…

  16. The Cross Validation of the Attitudes toward Mainstreaming Scale (ATMS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berryman, Joan D.; Neal, W. R. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Reliability and factorial validity of the Attitudes Toward Mainstreaming Scale was supported in a cross-validation study with teachers. Three factors emerged: learning capability, general mainstreaming, and traditional limiting disabilities. Factor intercorrelations varied from .42 to .55; correlations between total scores and individual factors…

  17. Fit-for-purpose bioanalytical cross-validation for LC-MS/MS assays in clinical studies.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaohui; Ji, Qin C; Jemal, Mohammed; Gleason, Carol; Shen, Jim X; Stouffer, Bruce; Arnold, Mark E

    2013-01-01

    The paradigm shift of globalized research and conducting clinical studies at different geographic locations worldwide to access broader patient populations has resulted in increased need of correlating bioanalytical results generated in multiple laboratories, often across national borders. Cross-validations of bioanalytical methods are often implemented to assure the equivalency of the bioanalytical results is demonstrated. Regulatory agencies, such as the US FDA and European Medicines Agency, have included the requirement of cross-validations in their respective bioanalytical validation guidance and guidelines. While those documents provide high-level expectations, the detailed implementation is at the discretion of each individual organization. At Bristol-Myers Squibb, we practice a fit-for-purpose approach for conducting cross-validations for small-molecule bioanalytical methods using LC-MS/MS. A step-by-step proposal on the overall strategy, procedures and technical details for conducting a successful cross-validation is presented herein. A case study utilizing the proposed cross-validation approach to rule out method variability as the potential cause for high variance observed in PK studies is also presented. PMID:23256474

  18. Predicting IQ change from brain structure: A cross-validation study

    PubMed Central

    Price, C.J.; Ramsden, S.; Hope, T.M.H.; Friston, K.J.; Seghier, M.L.

    2013-01-01

    Procedures that can predict cognitive abilities from brain imaging data are potentially relevant to educational assessments and studies of functional anatomy in the developing brain. Our aim in this work was to quantify the degree to which IQ change in the teenage years could be predicted from structural brain changes. Two well-known k-fold cross-validation analyses were applied to data acquired from 33 healthy teenagers – each tested at Time 1 and Time 2 with a 3.5 year interval. One approach, a Leave-One-Out procedure, predicted IQ change for each subject on the basis of structural change in a brain region that was identified from all other subjects (i.e., independent data). This approach predicted 53% of verbal IQ change and 14% of performance IQ change. The other approach used half the sample, to identify regions for predicting IQ change in the other half (i.e., a Split half approach); however – unlike the Leave-One-Out procedure – regions identified using half the sample were not significant. We discuss how these out-of-sample estimates compare to in-sample estimates; and draw some recommendations for k-fold cross-validation procedures when dealing with small datasets that are typical in the neuroimaging literature. PMID:23567505

  19. Benchmarking protein classification algorithms via supervised cross-validation.

    PubMed

    Kertész-Farkas, Attila; Dhir, Somdutta; Sonego, Paolo; Pacurar, Mircea; Netoteia, Sergiu; Nijveen, Harm; Kuzniar, Arnold; Leunissen, Jack A M; Kocsor, András; Pongor, Sándor

    2008-04-24

    Development and testing of protein classification algorithms are hampered by the fact that the protein universe is characterized by groups vastly different in the number of members, in average protein size, similarity within group, etc. Datasets based on traditional cross-validation (k-fold, leave-one-out, etc.) may not give reliable estimates on how an algorithm will generalize to novel, distantly related subtypes of the known protein classes. Supervised cross-validation, i.e., selection of test and train sets according to the known subtypes within a database has been successfully used earlier in conjunction with the SCOP database. Our goal was to extend this principle to other databases and to design standardized benchmark datasets for protein classification. Hierarchical classification trees of protein categories provide a simple and general framework for designing supervised cross-validation strategies for protein classification. Benchmark datasets can be designed at various levels of the concept hierarchy using a simple graph-theoretic distance. A combination of supervised and random sampling was selected to construct reduced size model datasets, suitable for algorithm comparison. Over 3000 new classification tasks were added to our recently established protein classification benchmark collection that currently includes protein sequence (including protein domains and entire proteins), protein structure and reading frame DNA sequence data. We carried out an extensive evaluation based on various machine-learning algorithms such as nearest neighbor, support vector machines, artificial neural networks, random forests and logistic regression, used in conjunction with comparison algorithms, BLAST, Smith-Waterman, Needleman-Wunsch, as well as 3D comparison methods DALI and PRIDE. The resulting datasets provide lower, and in our opinion more realistic estimates of the classifier performance than do random cross-validation schemes. A combination of supervised and

  20. The Proximal Trajectory Algorithm in SVM Cross Validation.

    PubMed

    Astorino, Annabella; Fuduli, Antonio

    2016-05-01

    We propose a bilevel cross-validation scheme for support vector machine (SVM) model selection based on the construction of the entire regularization path. Since such path is a particular case of the more general proximal trajectory concept from nonsmooth optimization, we propose for its construction an algorithm based on solving a finite number of structured linear programs. Our methodology, differently from other approaches, works directly on the primal form of SVM. Numerical results are presented on binary data sets drawn from literature. PMID:27101080

  1. Free kick instead of cross-validation in maximum-likelihood refinement of macromolecular crystal structures

    SciTech Connect

    Pražnikar, Jure; Turk, Dušan

    2014-12-01

    The maximum-likelihood free-kick target, which calculates model error estimates from the work set and a randomly displaced model, proved superior in the accuracy and consistency of refinement of crystal structures compared with the maximum-likelihood cross-validation target, which calculates error estimates from the test set and the unperturbed model. The refinement of a molecular model is a computational procedure by which the atomic model is fitted to the diffraction data. The commonly used target in the refinement of macromolecular structures is the maximum-likelihood (ML) function, which relies on the assessment of model errors. The current ML functions rely on cross-validation. They utilize phase-error estimates that are calculated from a small fraction of diffraction data, called the test set, that are not used to fit the model. An approach has been developed that uses the work set to calculate the phase-error estimates in the ML refinement from simulating the model errors via the random displacement of atomic coordinates. It is called ML free-kick refinement as it uses the ML formulation of the target function and is based on the idea of freeing the model from the model bias imposed by the chemical energy restraints used in refinement. This approach for the calculation of error estimates is superior to the cross-validation approach: it reduces the phase error and increases the accuracy of molecular models, is more robust, provides clearer maps and may use a smaller portion of data for the test set for the calculation of R{sub free} or may leave it out completely.

  2. Cross-Validation of Aerobic Capacity Prediction Models in Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Burns, Ryan Donald; Hannon, James C; Brusseau, Timothy A; Eisenman, Patricia A; Saint-Maurice, Pedro F; Welk, Greg J; Mahar, Matthew T

    2015-08-01

    Cardiorespiratory endurance is a component of health-related fitness. FITNESSGRAM recommends the Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run (PACER) or One mile Run/Walk (1MRW) to assess cardiorespiratory endurance by estimating VO2 Peak. No research has cross-validated prediction models from both PACER and 1MRW, including the New PACER Model and PACER-Mile Equivalent (PACER-MEQ) using current standards. The purpose of this study was to cross-validate prediction models from PACER and 1MRW against measured VO2 Peak in adolescents. Cardiorespiratory endurance data were collected on 90 adolescents aged 13-16 years (Mean = 14.7 ± 1.3 years; 32 girls, 52 boys) who completed the PACER and 1MRW in addition to a laboratory maximal treadmill test to measure VO2 Peak. Multiple correlations among various models with measured VO2 Peak were considered moderately strong (R = .74-0.78), and prediction error (RMSE) ranged from 5.95 ml·kg⁻¹,min⁻¹ to 8.27 ml·kg⁻¹.min⁻¹. Criterion-referenced agreement into FITNESSGRAM's Healthy Fitness Zones was considered fair-to-good among models (Kappa = 0.31-0.62; Agreement = 75.5-89.9%; F = 0.08-0.65). In conclusion, prediction models demonstrated moderately strong linear relationships with measured VO2 Peak, fair prediction error, and fair-to-good criterion referenced agreement with measured VO2 Peak into FITNESSGRAM's Healthy Fitness Zones. PMID:26186536

  3. A cross-validation of two differing measures of hypnotic depth.

    PubMed

    Pekala, Ronald J; Maurer, Ronald L

    2013-01-01

    Several sets of regression analyses were completed, attempting to predict 2 measures of hypnotic depth: the self-reported hypnotic depth score and hypnoidal state score from variables of the Phenomenology of Consciousness Inventory: Hypnotic Assessment Procedure (PCI-HAP). When attempting to predict self-reported hypnotic depth, an R of .78 with Study 1 participants shrank to an r of .72 with Study 2 participants, suggesting mild shrinkage for this more attributional measure of hypnotic depth. Attempting to predict hypnoidal state (an estimate of trance) using the same procedure, yielded an R of .56, that upon cross-validation shrank to an r of .48. These and other results suggest that, although there is some variance in common, the self-reported hypnotic depth score appears to be tapping a different construct from the hypnoidal state score. PMID:23153387

  4. International cross-validation of a BOD5 surrogate.

    PubMed

    Muller, Mathieu; Bouguelia, Sihem; Goy, Romy-Alice; Yoris, Alison; Berlin, Jeanne; Meche, Perrine; Rocher, Vincent; Mertens, Sharon; Dudal, Yves

    2014-12-01

    BOD5 dates back to 1912 when the Royal Commission decided to use the mean residence time of water in the rivers of England, 5 days, as a standard to measure the biochemical oxygen demand. Initially designed to protect the quality of river waters from extensive sewage discharge, the use of BOD5 has been quickly extended to waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) to monitor their efficiency on a daily basis. The measurement has been automatized but remains a tedious, time- and resource-consuming analysis. We have cross-validated a surrogate BOD5 method on two sites in France and in the USA with a total of 109 samples. This method uses a fluorescent redox indicator on a 96-well microplate to measure microbial catabolic activity for a large number of samples simultaneously. Three statistical tests were used to compare surrogate and reference methods and showed robust equivalence. PMID:24946712

  5. Cross-validating factors associated with discharges against medical advice.

    PubMed

    Dalrymple, A J; Fata, M

    1993-05-01

    Between six percent and 35% of psychiatric patients discharge themselves from hospital against medical advice (AMA). The discharges may prevent patients from deriving the full benefit of hospitalization and may result in rapid rehospitalization. We examined sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of 195 irregular discharges from a 237 bed psychiatric hospital over a five year period and found that AMA discharges increased over the study period to a peak of 25% in 1986. There was a strong negative correlation between AMA discharge rates and the willingness of physicians to commit patients involuntarily. Multiple discriminant analysis revealed a set of nine variables that accurately classified 78% of cases into regular or irregular discharge categories. Further analysis revealed that there are two distinct subgroups of patients who discharge themselves AMA: those who repeatedly left the hospital AMA in a regular "revolving back door" pattern and those who left AMA only once. The repeat group exceeded the one-time group in terms of prior admissions, appearances before review boards, and percentage of Natives. The repeat group also spent twice as long in hospital, and 27% were readmitted within one-week of the index AMA discharge. Less than three percent of the one-time AMA group was readmitted within a week. These results were cross-validated on a new sample of irregular discharges and matched controls. PMID:8518982

  6. The Importance of Evaluating Whether Results Will Generalize: Application of Cross-Validation in Discriminant Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loftin, Lynn B.

    Cross-validation, an economical method for assessing whether sample results will generalize, is discussed in this paper. Cross-validation is an invariance technique that uses two subsets of the data sample to derive discriminant function coefficients. The two sets of coefficients are then used with each data subset to derive discriminant function…

  7. Cost-Benefit Considerations in Choosing among Cross-Validation Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Kevin R.

    1984-01-01

    Outlines costs and benefits associated with different cross-validation strategies; in particular the way in which the study design affects the cost and benefits of different types of cross-validation. Suggests that the choice between empirical estimation methods and formula estimates involves a trade-off between accuracy and simplicity. (JAC)

  8. Splenectomy Causes 10-Fold Increased Risk of Portal Venous System Thrombosis in Liver Cirrhosis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Xingshun; Han, Guohong; Ye, Chun; Zhang, Yongguo; Dai, Junna; Peng, Ying; Deng, Han; Li, Jing; Hou, Feifei; Ning, Zheng; Zhao, Jiancheng; Zhang, Xintong; Wang, Ran; Guo, Xiaozhong

    2016-01-01

    Background Portal venous system thrombosis (PVST) is a life-threatening complication of liver cirrhosis. We conducted a retrospective study to comprehensively analyze the prevalence and risk factors of PVST in liver cirrhosis. Material/Methods All cirrhotic patients without malignancy admitted between June 2012 and December 2013 were eligible if they underwent contrast-enhanced CT or MRI scans. Independent predictors of PVST in liver cirrhosis were calculated in multivariate analyses. Subgroup analyses were performed according to the severity of PVST (any PVST, main portal vein [MPV] thrombosis >50%, and clinically significant PVST) and splenectomy. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were reported. Results Overall, 113 cirrhotic patients were enrolled. The prevalence of PVST was 16.8% (19/113). Splenectomy (any PVST: OR=11.494, 95%CI=2.152–61.395; MPV thrombosis >50%: OR=29.987, 95%CI=3.247–276.949; clinically significant PVST: OR=40.415, 95%CI=3.895–419.295) and higher hemoglobin (any PVST: OR=0.974, 95%CI=0.953–0.996; MPV thrombosis >50%: OR=0.936, 95%CI=0.895–0.980; clinically significant PVST: OR=0.935, 95%CI=0.891–0.982) were the independent predictors of PVST. The prevalence of PVST was 13.3% (14/105) after excluding splenectomy. Higher hemoglobin was the only independent predictor of MPV thrombosis >50% (OR=0.952, 95%CI=0.909–0.997). No independent predictors of any PVST or clinically significant PVST were identified in multivariate analyses. Additionally, PVST patients who underwent splenectomy had a significantly higher proportion of clinically significant PVST but lower MELD score than those who did not undergo splenectomy. In all analyses, the in-hospital mortality was not significantly different between cirrhotic patient with and without PVST. Conclusions Splenectomy may increase by at least 10-fold the risk of PVST in liver cirrhosis independent of severity of liver dysfunction. PMID:27432511

  9. The Performance of Cross-Validation Indices Used to Select among Competing Covariance Structure Models under Multivariate Nonnormality Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whittaker, Tiffany A.; Stapleton, Laura M.

    2006-01-01

    Cudeck and Browne (1983) proposed using cross-validation as a model selection technique in structural equation modeling. The purpose of this study is to examine the performance of eight cross-validation indices under conditions not yet examined in the relevant literature, such as nonnormality and cross-validation design. The performance of each…

  10. Biased binomial assessment of cross-validated estimation of classification accuracies illustrated in diagnosis predictions

    PubMed Central

    Noirhomme, Quentin; Lesenfants, Damien; Gomez, Francisco; Soddu, Andrea; Schrouff, Jessica; Garraux, Gaëtan; Luxen, André; Phillips, Christophe; Laureys, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Multivariate classification is used in neuroimaging studies to infer brain activation or in medical applications to infer diagnosis. Their results are often assessed through either a binomial or a permutation test. Here, we simulated classification results of generated random data to assess the influence of the cross-validation scheme on the significance of results. Distributions built from classification of random data with cross-validation did not follow the binomial distribution. The binomial test is therefore not adapted. On the contrary, the permutation test was unaffected by the cross-validation scheme. The influence of the cross-validation was further illustrated on real-data from a brain–computer interface experiment in patients with disorders of consciousness and from an fMRI study on patients with Parkinson disease. Three out of 16 patients with disorders of consciousness had significant accuracy on binomial testing, but only one showed significant accuracy using permutation testing. In the fMRI experiment, the mental imagery of gait could discriminate significantly between idiopathic Parkinson's disease patients and healthy subjects according to the permutation test but not according to the binomial test. Hence, binomial testing could lead to biased estimation of significance and false positive or negative results. In our view, permutation testing is thus recommended for clinical application of classification with cross-validation. PMID:24936420

  11. Biased binomial assessment of cross-validated estimation of classification accuracies illustrated in diagnosis predictions.

    PubMed

    Noirhomme, Quentin; Lesenfants, Damien; Gomez, Francisco; Soddu, Andrea; Schrouff, Jessica; Garraux, Gaëtan; Luxen, André; Phillips, Christophe; Laureys, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Multivariate classification is used in neuroimaging studies to infer brain activation or in medical applications to infer diagnosis. Their results are often assessed through either a binomial or a permutation test. Here, we simulated classification results of generated random data to assess the influence of the cross-validation scheme on the significance of results. Distributions built from classification of random data with cross-validation did not follow the binomial distribution. The binomial test is therefore not adapted. On the contrary, the permutation test was unaffected by the cross-validation scheme. The influence of the cross-validation was further illustrated on real-data from a brain-computer interface experiment in patients with disorders of consciousness and from an fMRI study on patients with Parkinson disease. Three out of 16 patients with disorders of consciousness had significant accuracy on binomial testing, but only one showed significant accuracy using permutation testing. In the fMRI experiment, the mental imagery of gait could discriminate significantly between idiopathic Parkinson's disease patients and healthy subjects according to the permutation test but not according to the binomial test. Hence, binomial testing could lead to biased estimation of significance and false positive or negative results. In our view, permutation testing is thus recommended for clinical application of classification with cross-validation. PMID:24936420

  12. Evaluation and cross-validation of Environmental Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemaire, Joseph

    , preliminary analyses should be carried out under the control and authority of an established international professional Organization or Association, before any final political decision is made by ISO to select a specific Environmental Models, like for example IGRF and DGRF. Of course, Commissions responsible for checking the consistency of definitions, methods and algorithms for data processing might consider to delegate specific tasks (e.g. bench-marking the technical tools, the calibration procedures, the methods of data analysis, and the software algorithms employed in building the different types of models, as well as their usage) to private, intergovernmental or international organization/agencies (e.g.: NASA, ESA, AGU, EGU, COSPAR, . . . ); eventually, the latter should report conclusions to the Commissions members appointed by IAGA or any established authority like IUGG.

  13. Application of Discriminant Analysis and Cross-Validation on Proteomics Data.

    PubMed

    Kuligowski, Julia; Pérez-Guaita, David; Quintás, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    High-throughput proteomic experiments have raised the importance and complexity of bioinformatic analysis to extract useful information from raw data. Discriminant analysis is frequently used to identify differences among test groups of individuals or to describe combinations of discriminant variables. However, even in relatively large studies, the number of detected variables typically largely exceeds the number of samples and the classifiers should be thoroughly validated to assess their performance for new samples. Cross-validation is a widely approach when an external validation set is not available. In this chapter, different approaches for cross-validation are presented including relevant aspects that should be taken into account to avoid overly optimistic results and the assessment of the statistical significance of cross-validated figures of merit. PMID:26519177

  14. Cross-validation of component models: a critical look at current methods.

    PubMed

    Bro, R; Kjeldahl, K; Smilde, A K; Kiers, H A L

    2008-03-01

    In regression, cross-validation is an effective and popular approach that is used to decide, for example, the number of underlying features, and to estimate the average prediction error. The basic principle of cross-validation is to leave out part of the data, build a model, and then predict the left-out samples. While such an approach can also be envisioned for component models such as principal component analysis (PCA), most current implementations do not comply with the essential requirement that the predictions should be independent of the entity being predicted. Further, these methods have not been properly reviewed in the literature. In this paper, we review the most commonly used generic PCA cross-validation schemes and assess how well they work in various scenarios. PMID:18214448

  15. Cross-validation of a composite pain scale for preschool children within 24 hours of surgery.

    PubMed

    Suraseranivongse, S; Santawat, U; Kraiprasit, K; Petcharatana, S; Prakkamodom, S; Muntraporn, N

    2001-09-01

    This study was designed to cross-validate a composite measure of the pain scales CHEOPS (Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario Pain Scale), OPS (Objective Pain Scale, simplified for parent use by replacing blood pressure measurement with observation of body language or posture), TPPPS (Toddler Preschool Postoperative Pain Scale) and FLACC (Face, Legs, Activity, Cry, Consolability) in 167 Thai children aged 1-5.5 yr. The pain scales were translated and tested for content, construct and concurrent validity, including inter-rater and intra-rater reliabilities. Discriminative validity in immediate and persistent pain for the age groups < or =3 and >3 yr were also studied. The children's behaviour was videotaped before and after surgery, before analgesia had been given in the post-anaesthesia care unit (PACU), and on the ward. Four observers then rated pain behaviour from rearranged videotapes. The decision to treat pain was based on routine practice and was made by a researcher unaware of the rating procedure. All tools had acceptable content validity and excellent inter-rater and intra-rater reliabilities (intraclass correlation >0.9 and >0.8 respectively). Construct validity was determined by the ability to differentiate the group with no pain before surgery and a high pain level after surgery, before analgesia (P<0.001). The positive correlations among all scales in the PACU and on the ward (r=0.621-0.827, P<0.0001) supported concurrent validity. Use of the kappa statistic indicated that CHEOPS yielded the best agreement with the routine decision to treat pain. The younger and older age groups both yielded very good agreement in the PACU but only moderate agreement on the ward. On the basis of data from this study, we recommend CHEOPS as a valid, reliable and practical tool. PMID:11517123

  16. Airborne environmental endotoxin: a cross-validation of sampling and analysis techniques.

    PubMed Central

    Walters, M; Milton, D; Larsson, L; Ford, T

    1994-01-01

    A standard method for measurement of airborne environmental endotoxin was developed and field tested in a fiberglass insulation-manufacturing facility. This method involved sampling with a capillary-pore membrane filter, extraction in buffer using a sonication bath, and analysis by the kinetic-Limulus assay with resistant-parallel-line estimation (KLARE). Cross-validation of the extraction and assay method was performed by comparison with methanolysis of samples followed by 3-hydroxy fatty acid (3-OHFA) analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Direct methanolysis of filter samples and methanolysis of buffer extracts of the filters yielded similar 3-OHFA content (P = 0.72); the average difference was 2.1%. Analysis of buffer extracts for endotoxin content by the KLARE method and by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for 3-OHFA content produced similar results (P = 0.23); the average difference was 0.88%. The source of endotoxin was gram-negative bacteria growing in recycled washwater used to clean the insulation-manufacturing equipment. The endotoxin and bacteria become airborne during spray cleaning operations. The types of 3-OHFAs in bacteria cultured from the washwater, present in the washwater and in the air, were similar. Virtually all of the bacteria cultured from air and water were gram negative composed mostly of two species, Deleya aesta and Acinetobacter johnsonii. Airborne countable bacteria correlated well with endotoxin (r2 = 0.64). Replicate sampling showed that results with the standard sampling, extraction, and Limulus assay by the KLARE method were highly reproducible (95% confidence interval for endotoxin measurement +/- 0.28 log10). These results demonstrate the accuracy, precision, and sensitivity of the standard procedure proposed for airborne environmental endotoxin. PMID:8161191

  17. Standardization and cross validation of alloreactive IFNγ ELISPOT assays within the clinical trials in organ transplantation consortium.

    PubMed

    Ashoor, I; Najafian, N; Korin, Y; Reed, E F; Mohanakumar, T; Ikle, D; Heeger, P S; Lin, M

    2013-07-01

    Emerging evidence indicates memory donor-reactive T cells are detrimental to transplant outcome and that quantifying the frequency of IFNγ-producing, donor-reactive PBMCs by ELISPOT has potential utility as an immune monitoring tool. Nonetheless, differences in assay performance among laboratories limit the ability to compare results. In an effort to standardize assays, we prepared a panel of common cellular reagent standards, developed and cross validated a standard operating procedure (SOP) for alloreactive IFNγ ELISPOT assays in several research laboratories supported by the NIH-funded Clinical Trials in Organ Transplantation (CTOT) Consortium. We demonstrate that strict adherence to the SOP and centralized data analysis results in high reproducibility with a coefficient of variance (CV) of ≈ 30%. This standardization of IFNγ ELISPOT assay will facilitate interpretation of data from multicenter transplantation research studies and provide the foundation for developing clinical laboratory testing strategies to guide therapeutic decision-making in transplant patients. PMID:23710568

  18. Cross-Validation and Extension of the MMPI-A IMM Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zinn, Sandra; McCumber, Stacey; Dahlstrom, W. Grant

    1999-01-01

    Cross-validated the IMM scale of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-Adolescents (MMPI-A), a measure of ego level, with 151 college students. Means and standard deviations were obtained on IMM scale from the MMPI-A and another MMPI version for males and females. (SLD)

  19. Cross-Validation of the Quick Word Test as an Estimator of Adult Mental Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grotelueschen, Arden; McQuarrie, Duncan

    1970-01-01

    This report provides additional evidence that the Quick Word Test (Level 2, Form AM) is valid for estimating adult mental ability as defined by the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale. The validation sample is also described to facilitate use of the conversion table developed in the cross-validation analysis. (Author/LY)

  20. Cross-Validation of the Risk Matrix 2000 Sexual and Violent Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, Leam A.; Beech, Anthony; Browne, Kevin D.

    2006-01-01

    The predictive accuracy of the newly developed actuarial risk measures Risk Matrix 2000 Sexual/Violence (RMS, RMV) were cross validated and compared with two risk assessment measures (SVR-20 and Static-99) in a sample of sexual (n = 85) and nonsex violent (n = 46) offenders. The sexual offense reconviction rate for the sex offender group was 18%…

  1. Reliable Digit Span: A Systematic Review and Cross-Validation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroeder, Ryan W.; Twumasi-Ankrah, Philip; Baade, Lyle E.; Marshall, Paul S.

    2012-01-01

    Reliable Digit Span (RDS) is a heavily researched symptom validity test with a recent literature review yielding more than 20 studies ranging in dates from 1994 to 2011. Unfortunately, limitations within some of the research minimize clinical generalizability. This systematic review and cross-validation study was conducted to address these…

  2. Cross Validation and Discriminative Analysis Techniques in a College Student Attrition Application.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Alan D.

    1982-01-01

    Used a current attrition study to show the usefulness of discriminative analysis and a cross validation technique applied to student nonpersister questionnaire respondents and nonrespondents. Results of the techniques allowed delineation of several areas of sample under-representation and established the instability of the regression weights…

  3. Validity Evidence in Scale Development: The Application of Cross Validation and Classification-Sequencing Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acar, Tu¨lin

    2014-01-01

    In literature, it has been observed that many enhanced criteria are limited by factor analysis techniques. Besides examinations of statistical structure and/or psychological structure, such validity studies as cross validation and classification-sequencing studies should be performed frequently. The purpose of this study is to examine cross…

  4. Exact Analysis of Squared Cross-Validity Coefficient in Predictive Regression Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shieh, Gwowen

    2009-01-01

    In regression analysis, the notion of population validity is of theoretical interest for describing the usefulness of the underlying regression model, whereas the presumably more important concept of population cross-validity represents the predictive effectiveness for the regression equation in future research. It appears that the inference…

  5. Cross-validation and calibration of Jackson-Pollock equations with DXA: the TIGER study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Jackson-Pollock (J&P) body composition equations were developed primarily from data on white men and women using hydrostatically determined body density (BD) as the criterion measure. This study cross-validated the J&P equations with ethnically diverse subjects and percent fat (%fat) determined ...

  6. Cross-Validation of FITNESSGRAM® Health-Related Fitness Standards in Hungarian Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laurson, Kelly R.; Saint-Maurice, Pedro F.; Karsai, István; Csányi, Tamás

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to cross-validate FITNESSGRAM® aerobic and body composition standards in a representative sample of Hungarian youth. Method: A nationally representative sample (N = 405) of Hungarian adolescents from the Hungarian National Youth Fitness Study (ages 12-18.9 years) participated in an aerobic capacity assessment…

  7. Cross-Validation of easyCBM Reading Cut Scores in Oregon: 2009-2010. Technical Report #1108

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Bitnara Jasmine; Irvin, P. Shawn; Anderson, Daniel; Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald

    2011-01-01

    This technical report presents results from a cross-validation study designed to identify optimal cut scores when using easyCBM[R] reading tests in Oregon. The cross-validation study analyzes data from the 2009-2010 academic year for easyCBM[R] reading measures. A sample of approximately 2,000 students per grade, randomly split into two groups of…

  8. A cross-validation scheme for machine learning algorithms in shotgun proteomics

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Peptides are routinely identified from mass spectrometry-based proteomics experiments by matching observed spectra to peptides derived from protein databases. The error rates of these identifications can be estimated by target-decoy analysis, which involves matching spectra to shuffled or reversed peptides. Besides estimating error rates, decoy searches can be used by semi-supervised machine learning algorithms to increase the number of confidently identified peptides. As for all machine learning algorithms, however, the results must be validated to avoid issues such as overfitting or biased learning, which would produce unreliable peptide identifications. Here, we discuss how the target-decoy method is employed in machine learning for shotgun proteomics, focusing on how the results can be validated by cross-validation, a frequently used validation scheme in machine learning. We also use simulated data to demonstrate the proposed cross-validation scheme's ability to detect overfitting. PMID:23176259

  9. Cross-validation of interferometric synthetic aperture microscopy and optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Ralston, Tyler S; Adie, Steven G; Marks, Daniel L; Boppart, Stephen A; Carney, P Scott

    2010-05-15

    Computationally reconstructed interferometric synthetic aperture microscopy is coregistered with optical coherence tomography (OCT) focal plane data to provide quantitative cross validation with OCT. This is accomplished through a qualitative comparison of images and a quantitative analysis of the width of the point-spread function in simulation and experiment. The width of the ISAM point-spread function is seen to be independent of depth, in contrast to OCT. PMID:20479849

  10. A universal approximate cross-validation criterion for regular risk functions.

    PubMed

    Commenges, Daniel; Proust-Lima, Cécile; Samieri, Cécilia; Liquet, Benoit

    2015-05-01

    Selection of estimators is an essential task in modeling. A general framework is that the estimators of a distribution are obtained by minimizing a function (the estimating function) and assessed using another function (the assessment function). A classical case is that both functions estimate an information risk (specifically cross-entropy); this corresponds to using maximum likelihood estimators and assessing them by Akaike information criterion (AIC). In more general cases, the assessment risk can be estimated by leave-one-out cross-validation. Since leave-one-out cross-validation is computationally very demanding, we propose in this paper a universal approximate cross-validation criterion under regularity conditions (UACVR). This criterion can be adapted to different types of estimators, including penalized likelihood and maximum a posteriori estimators, and also to different assessment risk functions, including information risk functions and continuous rank probability score (CRPS). UACVR reduces to Takeuchi information criterion (TIC) when cross-entropy is the risk for both estimation and assessment. We provide the asymptotic distributions of UACVR and of a difference of UACVR values for two estimators. We validate UACVR using simulations and provide an illustration on real data both in the psychometric context where estimators of the distributions of ordered categorical data derived from threshold models and models based on continuous approximations are compared. PMID:25849800

  11. Novel method for quantifying radiation-induced single-strand-break yields in plasmid DNA highlights 10-fold discrepancy.

    PubMed

    Balagurumoorthy, Pichumani; Adelstein, S James; Kassis, Amin I

    2011-10-15

    The widely used agarose gel electrophoresis method for assessing radiation-induced single-strand-break (SSB) yield in plasmid DNA involves measurement of the fraction of relaxed-circular (C) form that migrates independently from the intact supercoiled (SC) form. We rationalized that this method may underestimate the SSB yield since the position of the relaxed-circular form is not altered when the number of SSB per DNA molecule is >1. To overcome this limitation, we have developed a novel method that directly probes and quantifies SSBs. Supercoiled (3)H-pUC19 plasmid samples were irradiated with γ-rays, alkali-denatured, dephosphorylated, and kinated with γ-[(32)P]ATP, and the DNA-incorporated (32)P activities were used to quantify the SSB yields per DNA molecule, employing a standard curve generated using DNA molecules containing a known number of SSBs. The same irradiated samples were analyzed by agarose gel and SSB yields were determined by conventional methods. Comparison of the data demonstrated that the mean SSB yield per plasmid DNA molecule of [21.2±0.59]×10(-2)Gy(-1) as measured by direct probing is ~10-fold higher than that obtained from conventional gel-based methods. These findings imply that the SSB yields inferred from agarose gels need reevaluation, especially when they were utilized in the determination of radiation risk. PMID:21741945

  12. Variational cross-validation of slow dynamical modes in molecular kinetics

    PubMed Central

    Pande, Vijay S.

    2015-01-01

    Markov state models are a widely used method for approximating the eigenspectrum of the molecular dynamics propagator, yielding insight into the long-timescale statistical kinetics and slow dynamical modes of biomolecular systems. However, the lack of a unified theoretical framework for choosing between alternative models has hampered progress, especially for non-experts applying these methods to novel biological systems. Here, we consider cross-validation with a new objective function for estimators of these slow dynamical modes, a generalized matrix Rayleigh quotient (GMRQ), which measures the ability of a rank-m projection operator to capture the slow subspace of the system. It is shown that a variational theorem bounds the GMRQ from above by the sum of the first m eigenvalues of the system’s propagator, but that this bound can be violated when the requisite matrix elements are estimated subject to statistical uncertainty. This overfitting can be detected and avoided through cross-validation. These result make it possible to construct Markov state models for protein dynamics in a way that appropriately captures the tradeoff between systematic and statistical errors. PMID:25833563

  13. Cross-validation analysis of bias models in Bayesian multi-model projections of climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huttunen, J. M. J.; Räisänen, J.; Nissinen, A.; Lipponen, A.; Kolehmainen, V.

    2016-05-01

    Climate change projections are commonly based on multi-model ensembles of climate simulations. In this paper we consider the choice of bias models in Bayesian multimodel predictions. Buser et al. (Clim Res 44(2-3):227-241, 2010a) introduced a hybrid bias model which combines commonly used constant bias and constant relation bias assumptions. The hybrid model includes a weighting parameter which balances these bias models. In this study, we use a cross-validation approach to study which bias model or bias parameter leads to, in a specific sense, optimal climate change projections. The analysis is carried out for summer and winter season means of 2 m-temperatures spatially averaged over the IPCC SREX regions, using 19 model runs from the CMIP5 data set. The cross-validation approach is applied to calculate optimal bias parameters (in the specific sense) for projecting the temperature change from the control period (1961-2005) to the scenario period (2046-2090). The results are compared to the results of the Buser et al. (Clim Res 44(2-3):227-241, 2010a) method which includes the bias parameter as one of the unknown parameters to be estimated from the data.

  14. The German Bight: Preparing for Sentinel-3 wit a Cross Validation of SAR and PLRM CryoSat-2 Altimeter Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fenoglio-Marc, L.; Buchhaupt, C.; Dinardo, S.; Scharroo, R.; Benveniste, J.; Becker, M.

    2015-12-01

    As preparatory work for Sentinel-3, we retrieve the three geophysical parameters: sea surface height (SSH), significant wave height (SWH) and wind speed at 10 meters height (U10) from CryoSat-2 data in our validation region in North Sea. The CryoSat-2 SAR echoes are processed with a coherent and an incoherent processing to generate SAR and PLRM data respectively. We derive precision and accuracy at 1 Hz in open ocean, at distances larger than 10 kilometres from the coast. A cross-validation of the SAR and PLRM altimeter data is performed to investigate the differences between the products. Look Up Tables (LUT) are applied in both schemes to correct for approximations applied in both retracking procedures. Additionally a numerical retracker is used in PLRM. The results are validated against in-situ and model data. The analysis is performed for a period of four years, from July 2010 to May 2014. The regional cross-validation analysis confirms the good consistency between PLRM and SAR data. Using LUT the agreement for the sea wave heights increases by 10%.

  15. Statistical analysis of GeneMark performance by cross-validation.

    PubMed

    Kleffe, J; Hermann, K; Borodovsky, M

    1996-03-01

    We have explored the performance of the GeneMark gene identification method using cross-validation over learning samples of E. coli DNA sequences. The computations gave more accurate estimations of the error rates in comparison with previous results when a sample of non-coding regions was derived from GenBank sequences with many true coding regions unannotated. The error rate components have been classified and delineated. It was shown that the method performs differently on class I, II and III genes. The most frequent errors come from misinterpreting the coding potential of the complementary sequence in the same frame. The effects of stop-codons present in alternative frames were also studied to understand better the main factors contributing to GeneMark performance. PMID:16749185

  16. Error criteria for cross validation in the context of chaotic time series prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Teck Por; Puthusserypady, Sadasivan

    2006-03-01

    The prediction of a chaotic time series over a long horizon is commonly done by iterating one-step-ahead prediction. Prediction can be implemented using machine learning methods, such as radial basis function networks. Typically, cross validation is used to select prediction models based on mean squared error. The bias-variance dilemma dictates that there is an inevitable tradeoff between bias and variance. However, invariants of chaotic systems are unchanged by linear transformations; thus, the bias component may be irrelevant to model selection in the context of chaotic time series prediction. Hence, the use of error variance for model selection, instead of mean squared error, is examined. Clipping is introduced, as a simple way to stabilize iterated predictions. It is shown that using the error variance for model selection, in combination with clipping, may result in better models.

  17. Multisample cross-validation of a model of childhood posttraumatic stress disorder symptomatology.

    PubMed

    Anthony, Jason L; Lonigan, Christopher J; Vernberg, Eric M; Greca, Annette M La; Silverman, Wendy K; Prinstein, Mitchell J

    2005-12-01

    This study is the latest advancement of our research aimed at best characterizing children's posttraumatic stress reactions. In a previous study, we compared existing nosologic and empirical models of PTSD dimensionality and determined the superior model was a hierarchical one with three symptom clusters (Intrusion/Active Avoidance, Numbing/Passive Avoidance, and Arousal; Anthony, Lonigan, & Hecht, 1999). In this study, we cross-validate this model in two populations. Participants were 396 fifth graders who were exposed to either Hurricane Andrew or Hurricane Hugo. Multisample confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated the model's factorial invariance across populations who experienced traumatic events that differed in severity. These results show the model's robustness to characterize children's posttraumatic stress reactions. Implications for diagnosis, classification criteria, and an empirically supported theory of PTSD are discussed. PMID:16382435

  18. Efficient generalized cross-validation with applications to parametric image restoration and resolution enhancement.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, N; Milanfar, P; Golub, G

    2001-01-01

    In many image restoration/resolution enhancement applications, the blurring process, i.e., point spread function (PSF) of the imaging system, is not known or is known only to within a set of parameters. We estimate these PSF parameters for this ill-posed class of inverse problem from raw data, along with the regularization parameters required to stabilize the solution, using the generalized cross-validation method (GCV). We propose efficient approximation techniques based on the Lanczos algorithm and Gauss quadrature theory, reducing the computational complexity of the GCV. Data-driven PSF and regularization parameter estimation experiments with synthetic and real image sequences are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of our method. PMID:18255545

  19. Testing alternative ground water models using cross-validation and other methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foglia, L.; Mehl, S.W.; Hill, M.C.; Perona, P.; Burlando, P.

    2007-01-01

    Many methods can be used to test alternative ground water models. Of concern in this work are methods able to (1) rank alternative models (also called model discrimination) and (2) identify observations important to parameter estimates and predictions (equivalent to the purpose served by some types of sensitivity analysis). Some of the measures investigated are computationally efficient; others are computationally demanding. The latter are generally needed to account for model nonlinearity. The efficient model discrimination methods investigated include the information criteria: the corrected Akaike information criterion, Bayesian information criterion, and generalized cross-validation. The efficient sensitivity analysis measures used are dimensionless scaled sensitivity (DSS), composite scaled sensitivity, and parameter correlation coefficient (PCC); the other statistics are DFBETAS, Cook's D, and observation-prediction statistic. Acronyms are explained in the introduction. Cross-validation (CV) is a computationally intensive nonlinear method that is used for both model discrimination and sensitivity analysis. The methods are tested using up to five alternative parsimoniously constructed models of the ground water system of the Maggia Valley in southern Switzerland. The alternative models differ in their representation of hydraulic conductivity. A new method for graphically representing CV and sensitivity analysis results for complex models is presented and used to evaluate the utility of the efficient statistics. The results indicate that for model selection, the information criteria produce similar results at much smaller computational cost than CV. For identifying important observations, the only obviously inferior linear measure is DSS; the poor performance was expected because DSS does not include the effects of parameter correlation and PCC reveals large parameter correlations. ?? 2007 National Ground Water Association.

  20. Evaluating Processes, Parameters and Observations Using Cross Validation and Computationally Frugal Sensitivity Analysis Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foglia, L.; Mehl, S.; Hill, M. C.

    2013-12-01

    Sensitivity analysis methods are used to identify measurements most likely to provide important information for model development and predictions and therefore identify critical processes. Methods range from computationally demanding Monte Carlo and cross-validation methods, to very computationally efficient linear methods. The methods are able to account for interrelations between parameters, but some argue that because linear methods neglect the effects of model nonlinearity, they are not worth considering when examining complex, nonlinear models of environmental systems. However, when faced with computationally demanding models needed to simulate, for example, climate change, the chance of obtaining fundamental insights (such as important and relationships between predictions and parameters) with few model runs is tempting. In the first part of this work, comparisons of local sensitivity analysis and cross-validation are conducted using a nonlinear groundwater model of the Maggia Valley, Southern Switzerland; sensitivity analysis are then applied to an integrated hydrological model of the same system where the impact of more processes and of using different sets of observations on the model results are considered; applicability to models of a variety of situations (climate, water quality, water management) is inferred. Results show that the frugal linear methods produced about 70% of the insight from about 2% of the model runs required by the computationally demanding methods. Regarding important observations, linear methods were not always able to distinguish between moderately and unimportant observations. However, they consistently identified the most important observations which are critical to characterize relationships between parameters and to assess the worth of potential new data collection efforts. Importance both to estimate parameters and predictions of interest was readily identified. The results suggest that it can be advantageous to consider local

  1. Credible Intervals for Precision and Recall Based on a K-Fold Cross-Validated Beta Distribution.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Li, Jihong

    2016-08-01

    In typical machine learning applications such as information retrieval, precision and recall are two commonly used measures for assessing an algorithm's performance. Symmetrical confidence intervals based on K-fold cross-validated t distributions are widely used for the inference of precision and recall measures. As we confirmed through simulated experiments, however, these confidence intervals often exhibit lower degrees of confidence, which may easily lead to liberal inference results. Thus, it is crucial to construct faithful confidence (credible) intervals for precision and recall with a high degree of confidence and a short interval length. In this study, we propose two posterior credible intervals for precision and recall based on K-fold cross-validated beta distributions. The first credible interval for precision (or recall) is constructed based on the beta posterior distribution inferred by all K data sets corresponding to K confusion matrices from a K-fold cross-validation. Second, considering that each data set corresponding to a confusion matrix from a K-fold cross-validation can be used to infer a beta posterior distribution of precision (or recall), the second proposed credible interval for precision (or recall) is constructed based on the average of K beta posterior distributions. Experimental results on simulated and real data sets demonstrate that the first credible interval proposed in this study almost always resulted in degrees of confidence greater than 95%. With an acceptable degree of confidence, both of our two proposed credible intervals have shorter interval lengths than those based on a corrected K-fold cross-validated t distribution. Meanwhile, the average ranks of these two credible intervals are superior to that of the confidence interval based on a K-fold cross-validated t distribution for the degree of confidence and are superior to that of the confidence interval based on a corrected K-fold cross-validated t distribution for the

  2. Inversion of velocity map ion images using iterative regularization and cross validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renth, F.; Riedel, J.; Temps, F.

    2006-03-01

    Two methods for improved inversion of velocity map images are presented. Both schemes use two-dimensional basis functions to perform the iteratively regularized inversion of the imaging equation in matrix form. The quality of the reconstructions is improved by taking into account the constraints that are derived from prior knowledge about the experimental data, such as non-negativity and noise statistics, using (i) the projected Landweber [Am. J. Math. 73, 615 (1951)] and (ii) the Richardson-Lucy [J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, 55 (1972); Astron. J. 79, 745 (1974)] algorithms. It is shown that the optimum iteration count, which plays the role of a regularization parameter, can be determined by partitioning the image into quarters or halves and a subsequent cross validation of the inversion results. The methods are tested with various synthetic velocity map images and with velocity map images of the H-atom fragments produced in the photodissociation of HBr at λ =243.1nm using a (2+1) resonantly enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) detection scheme. The versatility of the method, which is only determined by the choice of basis functions, is exploited to take into account the photoelectron recoil that leads to a splitting and broadening of the velocity distribution in the two product channels, and to successfully reconstruct the deconvolved velocity distribution. The methods can also be applied to the cases where higher order terms in the Legendre expansion of the angular distribution are present.

  3. Some psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the Modified Dental Anxiety Scale with cross validation

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Siyang; Freeman, Ruth; Lahti, Satu; Lloyd-Williams, Ffion; Humphris, Gerry

    2008-01-01

    Objective To assess the factorial structure and construct validity for the Chinese version of the Modified Dental Anxiety Scale (MDAS). Materials and methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in March 2006 from adults in the Beijing area. The questionnaire consisted of sections to assess for participants' demographic profile and dental attendance patterns, the Chinese MDAS and the anxiety items from the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). The analysis was conducted in two stages using confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling. Cross validation was tested with a North West of England comparison sample. Results 783 questionnaires were successfully completed from Beijing, 468 from England. The Chinese MDAS consisted of two factors: anticipatory dental anxiety (ADA) and treatment dental anxiety (TDA). Internal consistency coefficients (tau non-equivalent) were 0.74 and 0.86 respectively. Measurement properties were virtually identical for male and female respondents. Relationships of the Chinese MDAS with gender, age and dental attendance supported predictions. Significant structural parameters between the two sub-scales (negative affectivity and autonomic anxiety) of the HADS anxiety items and the two newly identified factors of the MDAS were confirmed and duplicated in the comparison sample. Conclusion The Chinese version of the MDAS has good psychometric properties and has the ability to assess, briefly, overall dental anxiety and two correlated but distinct aspects. PMID:18364045

  4. Approximate l-fold cross-validation with Least Squares SVM and Kernel Ridge Regression

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, Richard E; Zhang, Hao; Parker, Lynne Edwards; New, Joshua Ryan

    2013-01-01

    Kernel methods have difficulties scaling to large modern data sets. The scalability issues are based on computational and memory requirements for working with a large matrix. These requirements have been addressed over the years by using low-rank kernel approximations or by improving the solvers scalability. However, Least Squares Support VectorMachines (LS-SVM), a popular SVM variant, and Kernel Ridge Regression still have several scalability issues. In particular, the O(n^3) computational complexity for solving a single model, and the overall computational complexity associated with tuning hyperparameters are still major problems. We address these problems by introducing an O(n log n) approximate l-fold cross-validation method that uses a multi-level circulant matrix to approximate the kernel. In addition, we prove our algorithm s computational complexity and present empirical runtimes on data sets with approximately 1 million data points. We also validate our approximate method s effectiveness at selecting hyperparameters on real world and standard benchmark data sets. Lastly, we provide experimental results on using a multi-level circulant kernel approximation to solve LS-SVM problems with hyperparameters selected using our method.

  5. How Nonrecidivism Affects Predictive Accuracy: Evidence from a Cross-Validation of the Ontario Domestic Assault Risk Assessment (ODARA)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilton, N. Zoe; Harris, Grant T.

    2009-01-01

    Prediction effect sizes such as ROC area are important for demonstrating a risk assessment's generalizability and utility. How a study defines recidivism might affect predictive accuracy. Nonrecidivism is problematic when predicting specialized violence (e.g., domestic violence). The present study cross-validates the ability of the Ontario…

  6. A Cross-Validation of easyCBM[R] Mathematics Cut Scores in Oregon: 2009-2010. Technical Report #1104

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Daniel; Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald

    2011-01-01

    In this technical report, we document the results of a cross-validation study designed to identify optimal cut-scores for the use of the easyCBM[R] mathematics test in Oregon. A large sample, randomly split into two groups of roughly equal size, was used for this study. Students' performance classification on the Oregon state test was used as the…

  7. Cross-Validating Measures of Technology Integration: A First Step toward Examining Potential Relationships between Technology Integration and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, Robert; Knezek, Gerald; Christensen, Rhonda

    2007-01-01

    The use of proper measurements of diffusion of information technology as an innovation are essential to determining if progress is being made in state, regional, and national level programs. This project provides a national level cross validation study of several instruments commonly used to assess the effectiveness of technology integration in…

  8. A Cross-Validation of Paulson's Discriminant Function-Derived Scales for Identifying "At Risk" Child-Abusive Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beal, Don; And Others

    1984-01-01

    When the six scales were cross-validated on an independent sample from the population of child-abusing parents, significant shrinkage in the accuracy of prediction was found. The use of the special subscales for identifying "at risk" parents in prenatal clinics, pediatric clinics, and mental health centers as originally suggested by Paulson and…

  9. Estimating the Coefficient of Cross-validity in Multiple Regression: A Comparison of Analytical and Empirical Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kromrey, Jeffrey D.; Hines, Constance V.

    1996-01-01

    The accuracy of three analytical formulas for shrinkage estimation and four empirical techniques were investigated in a Monte Carlo study of the coefficient of cross-validity in multiple regression. Substantial statistical bias was evident for all techniques except the formula of M. W. Brown (1975) and multicross-validation. (SLD)

  10. Population Validity and Cross-Validity: Applications of Distribution Theory for Testing Hypotheses, Setting Confidence Intervals, and Determining Sample Size

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Algina, James; Keselman, H. J.

    2008-01-01

    Applications of distribution theory for the squared multiple correlation coefficient and the squared cross-validation coefficient are reviewed, and computer programs for these applications are made available. The applications include confidence intervals, hypothesis testing, and sample size selection. (Contains 2 tables.)

  11. The brief cognitive assessment tool (BCAT): cross-validation in a community dwelling older adult sample.

    PubMed

    MacDougall, Elizabeth E; Mansbach, William E; Clark, Kristen; Mace, Ryan A

    2014-08-13

    ABSTRACT Background: Cognitive impairment is underrecognized and misdiagnosed among community-dwelling older adults. At present, there is no consensus about which cognitive screening tool represents the "gold standard." However, one tool that shows promise is the Brief Cognitive Assessment Tool (BCAT), which was originally validated in an assisted living sample and contains a multi-level memory component (e.g. word lists and story recall items) and complex executive functions features (e.g. judgment, set-shifting, and problem-solving). Methods: The present study cross-validated the BCAT in a sample of 75 community-dwelling older adults. Participants completed a short battery of several individually administered cognitive tests, including the BCAT and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). Using a very conservative MoCA cut score of <26, the base rate of cognitive impairment in this sample was 35%. Results: Adequate internal consistency and strong evidence of construct validity were found. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was calculated from sensitivity and 1-specificity values for the classification of cognitively impaired versus cognitively unimpaired. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) for the BCAT was .90, p < 0.001, 95% CI [0.83, 0.97]. A BCAT cut-score of 45 (scores below 45 suggesting cognitive impairment) resulted in the best balance between sensitivity (0.81) and specificity (0.80). Conclusions: A BCAT cut-score can be used for identifying persons to be referred to appropriate healthcare professionals for more comprehensive cognitive assessment. In addition, guidelines are provided for clinicians to interpret separate BCAT memory and executive dysfunction component scores. PMID:25115580

  12. Quantification of rainfall prediction uncertainties using a cross-validation based technique. Methodology description and experimental validation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraga, Ignacio; Cea, Luis; Puertas, Jerónimo; Salsón, Santiago; Petazzi, Alberto

    2016-04-01

    In this paper we present a new methodology to compute rainfall fields including the quantification of predictions uncertainties using raingauge network data. The proposed methodology comprises two steps. Firstly, the ordinary krigging technique is used to determine the estimated rainfall depth in every point of the study area. Then multiple equi-probable errors fields, which comprise both interpolation and measuring uncertainties, are added to the krigged field resulting in multiple rainfall predictions. To compute these error fields first the standard deviation of the krigging estimation is determined following the cross-validation based procedure described in Delrieu et al. (2014). Then, the standard deviation field is sampled using non-conditioned Gaussian random fields. The proposed methodology was applied to study 7 rain events in a 60x60 km area of the west coast of Galicia, in the Northwest of Spain. Due to its location at the junction between tropical and polar regions, the study area suffers from frequent intense rainfalls characterized by a great variability in terms of both space and time. Rainfall data from the tipping bucket raingauge network operated by MeteoGalicia were used to estimate the rainfall fields using the proposed methodology. The obtained predictions were then validated using rainfall data from 3 additional rain gauges installed within the CAPRI project (Probabilistic flood prediction with high resolution hydrologic models from radar rainfall estimates, funded by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness. Reference CGL2013-46245-R.). Results show that both the mean hyetographs and the peak intensities are correctly predicted. The computed hyetographs present a good fit to the experimental data and most of the measured values fall within the 95% confidence intervals. Also, most of the experimental values outside the confidence bounds correspond to time periods of low rainfall depths, where the inaccuracy of the measuring devices

  13. Development and cross-validation of prediction equations for estimating resting energy expenditure in severely obese Caucasian children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lazzer, Stefano; Agosti, Fiorenza; De Col, Alessandra; Sartorio, Alessandro

    2006-11-01

    The objectives of the present study were to develop and cross-validate new equations for predicting resting energy expenditure (REE) in severely obese children and adolescents, and to determine the accuracy of new equations using the Bland-Altman method. The subjects of the study were 574 obese Caucasian children and adolescents (mean BMI z-score 3.3). REE was determined by indirect calorimetry and body composition by bioelectrical impedance analysis. Equations were derived by stepwise multiple regression analysis using a calibration cohort of 287 subjects and the equations were cross-validated in the remaining 287 subjects. Two new specific equations based on anthropometric parameters were generated as follows: (1) REE=(Sex x 892.68)-(Age x 115.93)+(Weight x 54.96)+(Stature x 1816.23)+1484.50 (R(2) 0.66; se 1028.97 kJ); (2) REE=(Sex x 909.12)-(Age x 107.48)+(fat-free mass x 68.39)+(fat mass x 55.19)+3631.23 (R(2) 0.66; se 1034.28 kJ). In the cross-validation group, mean predicted REE values were not significantly different from the mean measured REE for all children and adolescents, as well as for boys and for girls (difference <2 %) and the limits of agreement (+/-2 sd) were +2.06 and -1.77 MJ/d (NS). The new prediction equations allow an accurate estimation of REE in groups of severely obese children and adolescents. These equations might be useful for health care professionals and researchers when estimating REE in severely obese children and adolescents. PMID:17092390

  14. Bias of Exploratory and Cross-Validated DETECT Index under Unidimensionality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monahan, Patrick O.; Stump, Timothy E.; Finch, Holmes; Hambleton, Ronald K.

    2007-01-01

    DETECT is a nonparametric "full" dimensionality assessment procedure that clusters dichotomously scored items into dimensions and provides a DETECT index of magnitude of multidimensionality. Four factors (test length, sample size, item response theory [IRT] model, and DETECT index) were manipulated in a Monte Carlo study of bias, standard error,…

  15. Cross-validation of IFN-γ Elispot assay for measuring alloreactive memory/effector T cell responses in renal transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Bestard, O; Crespo, E; Stein, M; Lúcia, M; Roelen, D L; de Vaal, Y J; Hernandez-Fuentes, M P; Chatenoud, L; Wood, K J; Claas, F H; Cruzado, J M; Grinyó, J M; Volk, H D; Reinke, P

    2013-07-01

    Assessment of donor-specific alloreactive memory/effector T cell responses using an IFN-γ Elispot assay has been suggested to be a novel immune-monitoring tool for evaluating the cellular immune risk in renal transplantation. Here, we report the cross-validation data of the IFN-γ Elispot assay performed within different European laboratories taking part of the EU RISET consortium. For this purpose, development of a standard operating procedure (SOP), comparisons of lectures of IFN-γ plates assessing intra- and interlaboratory assay variability of allogeneic or peptide stimuli in both healthy and kidney transplant individuals have been the main objectives. We show that the use of a same SOP and count-settings of the Elispot bioreader allow low coefficient variation between laboratories. Frozen and shipped samples display slightly lower detectable IFN-γ frequencies than fresh samples. Importantly, a close correlation between different laboratories is obtained when measuring high frequencies of antigen-specific primed/memory T cell alloresponses. Interestingly, significant high donor-specific alloreactive T cell responses can be similarly detected among different laboratories in kidney transplant patients displaying histological patterns of acute T cell mediated rejection. In conclusion, assessment of circulating alloreactive memory/effector T cells using an INF-γ Elispot assay can be accurately achieved using the same SOP, Elispot bioreader and experienced technicians in kidney transplantation. PMID:23763435

  16. Cross-validation of the reduced form of the Food Craving Questionnaire-Trait using confirmatory factor analysis

    PubMed Central

    Iani, Luca; Barbaranelli, Claudio; Lombardo, Caterina

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The Food Craving Questionnaire-Trait (FCQ-T) is commonly used to assess habitual food cravings among individuals. Previous studies have shown that a brief version of this instrument (FCQ-T-r) has good reliability and validity. This article is the first to use Confirmatory factor analysis to examine the psychometric properties of the FCQ-T-r in a cross-validation study. Method: Habitual food cravings, as well as emotion regulation strategies, affective states, and disordered eating behaviors, were investigated in two independent samples of non-clinical adult volunteers (Sample 1: N = 368; Sample 2: N = 246). Confirmatory factor analyses were conducted to simultaneously test model fit statistics and dimensionality of the instrument. FCQ-T-r reliability was assessed by computing the composite reliability coefficient. Results: Analysis supported the unidimensional structure of the scale and fit indices were acceptable for both samples. The FCQ-T-r showed excellent reliability and moderate to high correlations with negative affect and disordered eating. Conclusion: Our results indicate that the FCQ-T-r scores can be reliably used to assess habitual cravings in an Italian non-clinical sample of adults. The robustness of these results is tested by a cross-validation of the model using two independent samples. Further research is required to expand on these findings, particularly in children and adolescents. PMID:25918510

  17. Cross-Validation of Magnetic Resonance Elastography and Ultrasound-Based Transient Elastography: A Preliminary Phantom Study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jun; Glaser, Kevin J; Miette, Véronique; Sandrin, Laurent; Ehman, Richard L

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To cross-validate two recent noninvasive elastographic techniques, Ultrasound-based Transient Elastography (UTE) and Magnetic Resonance Elastography (MRE). As potential alternatives to liver biopsy, UTE and MRE are undergoing clinical investigations for liver fibrosis diagnosis and liver disease management around the world. These two techniques use tissue stiffness as a marker for disease state and it is important to do a cross-validation study of both elastographic techniques to determine the consistency with which the two techniques can measure the mechanical properties of materials. Materials and Methods In this paper, 19 well-characterized phantoms with a range of stiffness values were measured by two clinical devices (a Fibroscan and a MRE system based respectively on the UTE and MRE techniques) successively with the operators double-blinded. Results Statistical analysis showed that the correlation coefficient was r2=0.93 between MRE and UTE, and there was no evidence of a systematic difference between them within the range of stiffnesses examined. Conclusion These two noninvasive methods, MRE and UTE, provide clinicians with important new options for improving patient care regarding liver diseases in terms of the diagnosis, prognosis, and monitoring of fibrosis progression, as well for evaluating the efficacy of treatment. PMID:19856447

  18. Cross-validation of a mass spectrometric-based method for the therapeutic drug monitoring of irinotecan: implementation of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry in pharmacokinetic measurements.

    PubMed

    Calandra, Eleonora; Posocco, Bianca; Crotti, Sara; Marangon, Elena; Giodini, Luciana; Nitti, Donato; Toffoli, Giuseppe; Traldi, Pietro; Agostini, Marco

    2016-07-01

    Irinotecan is a widely used antineoplastic drug, mostly employed for the treatment of colorectal cancer. This drug is a feasible candidate for therapeutic drug monitoring due to the presence of a wide inter-individual variability in the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters. In order to determine the drug concentration during the administration protocol, we developed a quantitative MALDI-MS method using CHCA as MALDI matrix. Here, we demonstrate that MALDI-TOF can be applied in a routine setting for therapeutic drug monitoring in humans offering quick and accurate results. To reach this aim, we cross validated, according to FDA and EMA guidelines, the MALDI-TOF method in comparison with a standard LC-MS/MS method, applying it for the quantification of 108 patients' plasma samples from a clinical trial. Standard curves for irinotecan were linear (R (2) ≥ 0.9842) over the concentration ranges between 300 and 10,000 ng/mL and showed good back-calculated accuracy and precision. Intra- and inter-day precision and accuracy, determined on three quality control levels were always <12.8 % and between 90.1 and 106.9 %, respectively. The cross-validation procedure showed a good reproducibility between the two methods, the percentage differences within 20 % in more than 70 % of the total amount of clinical samples analysed. PMID:27235158

  19. Apparent behaviour of charged and neutral materials with ellipsoidal fibre distributions and cross-validation of finite element implementations.

    PubMed

    Nagel, Thomas; Kelly, Daniel J

    2012-05-01

    Continuous fibre distribution models can be applied to a variety of biological tissues with both charged and neutral extracellular matrices. In particular, ellipsoidal models have been used to describe the complex material behaviour of tissues such as articular cartilage and their engineered tissue equivalents. The choice of material parameters is more difficult than in classical anisotropic models and the impact that changes to these parameters can have on the predictions of such models are poorly understood. The objective of this study is to demonstrate the apparent behaviour of this class of materials over a range of material parameters. We further introduce a scaling approach to overcome certain counter-intuitive aspects related to the choice of anisotropy parameters and outline the integration method used in our implementations. User material codes for the commercial FE software packages Abaqus and MSC Marc are provided for use by other investigators. Cross-validation of our code against similar implementations in FEBio is also presented. PMID:22498290

  20. An intercomparison of a large ensemble of statistical downscaling methods for Europe: Overall results from the VALUE perfect predictor cross-validation experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutiérrez, Jose Manuel; Maraun, Douglas; Widmann, Martin; Huth, Radan; Hertig, Elke; Benestad, Rasmus; Roessler, Ole; Wibig, Joanna; Wilcke, Renate; Kotlarski, Sven

    2016-04-01

    VALUE is an open European network to validate and compare downscaling methods for climate change research (http://www.value-cost.eu). A key deliverable of VALUE is the development of a systematic validation framework to enable the assessment and comparison of both dynamical and statistical downscaling methods. This framework is based on a user-focused validation tree, guiding the selection of relevant validation indices and performance measures for different aspects of the validation (marginal, temporal, spatial, multi-variable). Moreover, several experiments have been designed to isolate specific points in the downscaling procedure where problems may occur (assessment of intrinsic performance, effect of errors inherited from the global models, effect of non-stationarity, etc.). The list of downscaling experiments includes 1) cross-validation with perfect predictors, 2) GCM predictors -aligned with EURO-CORDEX experiment- and 3) pseudo reality predictors (see Maraun et al. 2015, Earth's Future, 3, doi:10.1002/2014EF000259, for more details). The results of these experiments are gathered, validated and publicly distributed through the VALUE validation portal, allowing for a comprehensive community-open downscaling intercomparison study. In this contribution we describe the overall results from Experiment 1), consisting of a European wide 5-fold cross-validation (with consecutive 6-year periods from 1979 to 2008) using predictors from ERA-Interim to downscale precipitation and temperatures (minimum and maximum) over a set of 86 ECA&D stations representative of the main geographical and climatic regions in Europe. As a result of the open call for contribution to this experiment (closed in Dec. 2015), over 40 methods representative of the main approaches (MOS and Perfect Prognosis, PP) and techniques (linear scaling, quantile mapping, analogs, weather typing, linear and generalized regression, weather generators, etc.) were submitted, including information both data

  1. Cross-Validation of the Recumbent Stepper Submaximal Exercise Test to Predict Peak Oxygen Uptake in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Herda, Ashley A.; Lentz, Angela A.; Mattlage, Anna E.; Sisante, Jason-Flor

    2014-01-01

    Background Submaximal exercise testing can have a greater application in clinical settings because peak exercise testing is generally not available. In previous work, a prediction equation was developed to estimate peak oxygen consumption (V̇o2) using a total body recumbent stepper (TBRS) and the Young Men's Christian Association (YMCA) protocol in adults who were healthy. Objective The purpose of the present study was to cross-validate the TBRS peak V̇o2 prediction equation in older adults. Design A cross-sectional study was conducted. Methods Thirty participants (22 female, 8 male; mean age=66.8 years, SD=5.52; mean weight=68.51 kg, SD=13.39) who previously completed a peak exercise test and met the inclusion criteria were invited to participate in the cross-validation study. Within 5 days of the peak V̇o2 test, participants completed the TBRS submaximal exercise test. The TBRS submaximal exercise test equation was used to estimate peak V̇o2. The variables in the equation included age, weight, sex, watts (at the end of the submaximal exercise test), and heart rate (at the end of the submaximal exercise test). Results A strong correlation was found between the predicted peak V̇o2 and the measured peak V̇o2. The difference between the values was 0.9 mL·kg−1·min−1, which was not statistically different. The standard error of the estimate was 4.2 mL·kg−1·min−1. Limitations The sample included individuals who volunteered to perform a peak exercise test, which may have biased the results toward those willing to exercise to fatigue. Conclusion The data suggest the TBRS submaximal exercise test and prediction equation can be used to predict peak V̇o2 in older adults. This finding is important for health care professionals wanting to provide information to their patients or clients regarding their fitness level. PMID:24435104

  2. Do different decision-analytic modeling approaches produce different results? A systematic review of cross-validation studies.

    PubMed

    Tsoi, Bernice; Goeree, Ron; Jegathisawaran, Jathishinie; Tarride, Jean-Eric; Blackhouse, Gord; O'Reilly, Daria

    2015-06-01

    When choosing a modeling approach for health economic evaluation, certain criteria are often considered (e.g., population resolution, interactivity, time advancement mechanism, resource constraints). However, whether these criteria and their associated modeling approach impacts results remain poorly understood. A systematic review was conducted to identify cross-validation studies (i.e., modeling a problem using different approaches with the same body of evidence) to offer insight on this topic. With respect to population resolution, reviewed studies suggested that both aggregate- and individual-level models will generate comparable results, although a practical trade-off exists between validity and feasibility. In terms of interactivity, infectious-disease models consistently showed that, depending on the assumptions regarding probability of disease exposure, dynamic and static models may produce dissimilar results with opposing policy recommendations. Empirical evidence on the remaining criteria is limited. Greater discussion will therefore be necessary to promote a deeper understanding of the benefits and limits to each modeling approach. PMID:25728942

  3. An Efficient Leave-One-Out Cross-Validation-Based Extreme Learning Machine (ELOO-ELM) With Minimal User Intervention.

    PubMed

    Shao, Zhifei; Er, Meng Joo; Wang, Ning

    2016-08-01

    It is well known that the architecture of the extreme learning machine (ELM) significantly affects its performance and how to determine a suitable set of hidden neurons is recognized as a key issue to some extent. The leave-one-out cross-validation (LOO-CV) is usually used to select a model with good generalization performance among potential candidates. The primary reason for using the LOO-CV is that it is unbiased and reliable as long as similar distribution exists in the training and testing data. However, the LOO-CV has rarely been implemented in practice because of its notorious slow execution speed. In this paper, an efficient LOO-CV formula and an efficient LOO-CV-based ELM (ELOO-ELM) algorithm are proposed. The proposed ELOO-ELM algorithm can achieve fast learning speed similar to the original ELM without compromising the reliability feature of the LOO-CV. Furthermore, minimal user intervention is required for the ELOO-ELM, thus it can be easily adopted by nonexperts and implemented in automation processes. Experimentation studies on benchmark datasets demonstrate that the proposed ELOO-ELM algorithm can achieve good generalization with limited user intervention while retaining the efficiency feature. PMID:26259254

  4. Applicability of Monte Carlo cross validation technique for model development and validation using generalised least squares regression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haddad, Khaled; Rahman, Ataur; A Zaman, Mohammad; Shrestha, Surendra

    2013-03-01

    SummaryIn regional hydrologic regression analysis, model selection and validation are regarded as important steps. Here, the model selection is usually based on some measurements of goodness-of-fit between the model prediction and observed data. In Regional Flood Frequency Analysis (RFFA), leave-one-out (LOO) validation or a fixed percentage leave out validation (e.g., 10%) is commonly adopted to assess the predictive ability of regression-based prediction equations. This paper develops a Monte Carlo Cross Validation (MCCV) technique (which has widely been adopted in Chemometrics and Econometrics) in RFFA using Generalised Least Squares Regression (GLSR) and compares it with the most commonly adopted LOO validation approach. The study uses simulated and regional flood data from the state of New South Wales in Australia. It is found that when developing hydrologic regression models, application of the MCCV is likely to result in a more parsimonious model than the LOO. It has also been found that the MCCV can provide a more realistic estimate of a model's predictive ability when compared with the LOO.

  5. Simulating California reservoir operation using the classification and regression-tree algorithm combined with a shuffled cross-validation scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Tiantian; Gao, Xiaogang; Sorooshian, Soroosh; Li, Xin

    2016-03-01

    The controlled outflows from a reservoir or dam are highly dependent on the decisions made by the reservoir operators, instead of a natural hydrological process. Difference exists between the natural upstream inflows to reservoirs and the controlled outflows from reservoirs that supply the downstream users. With the decision maker's awareness of changing climate, reservoir management requires adaptable means to incorporate more information into decision making, such as water delivery requirement, environmental constraints, dry/wet conditions, etc. In this paper, a robust reservoir outflow simulation model is presented, which incorporates one of the well-developed data-mining models (Classification and Regression Tree) to predict the complicated human-controlled reservoir outflows and extract the reservoir operation patterns. A shuffled cross-validation approach is further implemented to improve CART's predictive performance. An application study of nine major reservoirs in California is carried out. Results produced by the enhanced CART, original CART, and random forest are compared with observation. The statistical measurements show that the enhanced CART and random forest overperform the CART control run in general, and the enhanced CART algorithm gives a better predictive performance over random forest in simulating the peak flows. The results also show that the proposed model is able to consistently and reasonably predict the expert release decisions. Experiments indicate that the release operation in the Oroville Lake is significantly dominated by SWP allocation amount and reservoirs with low elevation are more sensitive to inflow amount than others.

  6. Cross-Validation of a Recently Published Equation Predicting Energy Expenditure to Run or Walk a Mile in Normal-Weight and Overweight Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Cody E.; Owens, Scott G.; Waddell, Dwight E.; Bass, Martha A.; Bentley, John P.; Loftin, Mark

    2014-01-01

    An equation published by Loftin, Waddell, Robinson, and Owens (2010) was cross-validated using ten normal-weight walkers, ten overweight walkers, and ten distance runners. Energy expenditure was measured at preferred walking (normal-weight walker and overweight walkers) or running pace (distance runners) for 5 min and corrected to a mile. Energy…

  7. A Cross-Validation of easyCBM Mathematics Cut Scores in Washington State: 2009-2010 Test. Technical Report #1105

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Daniel; Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald

    2011-01-01

    In this technical report, we document the results of a cross-validation study designed to identify optimal cut-scores for the use of the easyCBM[R] mathematics test in the state of Washington. A large sample, randomly split into two groups of roughly equal size, was used for this study. Students' performance classification on the Washington state…

  8. Cross-Validation of the Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scale-2 Youth Version: An Exploration of Strength-Based Latent Traits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furlong, Michael J.; Sharkey, Jill D.; Boman, Peter; Caldwell, Roslyn

    2007-01-01

    High-quality measurement is a necessary requirement to develop and evaluate the effectiveness of programs that use strength-based principles and strategies. Using independent cross-validation samples, we report two studies that explored the construct validity of the BERS-2 Youth Report, a popular measure designed to assess youth strengths, whose…

  9. Cross-validation of generalised body composition equations with diverse young men and women: the Training Intervention and Genetics of Exercise Response (TIGER) Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Generalised skinfold equations developed in the 1970s are commonly used to estimate laboratory-measured percentage fat (BF%). The equations were developed on predominately white individuals using Siri's two-component percentage fat equation (BF%-GEN). We cross-validated the Jackson-Pollock (JP) gene...

  10. A Test and Cross-Validation of the Revised Two-Factor Study Process Questionnaire Factor Structure among Western University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Immekus, Jason C.; Imbrie, P. K.

    2010-01-01

    The Revised Two-Factor Study Process Questionnaire (R-SPQ-2F) is a measure of university students' approach to learning. Original evaluation of the scale's psychometric properties was based on a sample of Hong Kong university students' scores. The purpose of this study was to test and cross-validate the R-SPQ-2F factor structure, based on separate…

  11. Latent Structure and Reliability Analysis of the Measure of Body Apperception: Cross-Validation for Head and Neck Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Jean-Pierre, Pascal; Fundakowski, Christopher; Perez, Enrique; Jean-Pierre, Shadae E.; Jean-Pierre, Ashley R.; Melillo, Angelica B.; Libby, Rachel; Sargi, Zoukaa

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Cancer and its treatments are associated with psychological distress that can negatively impact self-perception, psychosocial functioning, and quality of life. Patients with Head and neck cancers (HNC) are particularly susceptible to psychological distress. This study involved a cross-validation of the Measure of Body Apperception (MBA) for HNC patients. Methods One hundred twenty-two English-fluent HNC patients between 20 and 88 years of age completed the MBA on a Likert scale ranging from “1=Disagree” to “4=Agree”. We assessed the latent structure and internal consistency reliability of the MBA using Principal Components Analysis (PCA) and Cronbach's coefficient alpha (α), respectively. We determined convergent and divergent validities of the MBA using correlations with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), observer disfigurement rating, and patients’ clinical and demographic variables. Results The PCA revealed a coherent set of items that explained 38% of the variance. The Keiser-Meyer-Olkin measure of sampling adequacy was .73 and the Bartlett's Test of Sphericity was statistically significant (χ2 (28) = 253.64; p < .001), confirming the suitability of the data for dimension reduction analysis. The MBA had good internal consistency reliability (α = .77) and demonstrated adequate convergent and divergent validities based on statistically significant moderate correlations with the HADS (p < .01) and observer rating of disfigurement (p < .026), and non-statistically significant correlations with patients’ clinical and demographic variables: tumor location, age at diagnosis, and birth place (all ps > .05). Conclusions The MBA is a valid and reliable screening measure of body apperception for HNC patients. PMID:22886430

  12. Predicting Chinese Children and Youth's Energy Expenditure Using ActiGraph Accelerometers: A Calibration and Cross-Validation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Zheng; Chen, Peijie; Zhuang, Jie

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to develop and cross-validate an equation based on ActiGraph accelerometer GT3X output to predict children and youth's energy expenditure (EE) of physical activity (PA). Method: Participants were 367 Chinese children and youth (179 boys and 188 girls, aged 9 to 17 years old) who wore 1 ActiGraph GT3X…

  13. Development and cross-validation of prognostic models to assess the treatment effect of cisplatin/pemetrexed chemotherapy in lung adenocarcinoma patients.

    PubMed

    Mou, Wenjun; Liu, Zhaoqi; Luo, Yuan; Zou, Meng; Ren, Chao; Zhang, Chunyan; Wen, Xinyu; Wang, Yong; Tian, Yaping

    2014-09-01

    Better understanding of the treatment effect of cisplatin/pemetrexed chemotherapy on lung adenocarcinoma patients is needed to facilitate chemotherapy planning and patient care. In this retrospective study, we will develop prognostic models by the cross-validation method using clinical and serum factors to predict outcomes of cisplatin/pemetrexed chemotherapy in lung adenocarcinoma patients. Lung adenocarcinoma patients admitted between 2008 and 2013 were enrolled. 29 serum parameters of laboratory tests and 14 clinical factors were analyzed to develop the prognostic models. First, the stepwise selection and five-fold cross-validation were performed to identify candidate prognostic factors. Then a classification of all patients based on the number of metastatic sites resulted in four distinct subsets. In each subset, a prognostic model was fitted with the most accurate prognostic factors from the candidate prognostic factors. Categorical survival prediction was estimated using a log-rank test and visualized with Kaplan-Meier method. 227 lung adenocarcinoma patients were enrolled. Twenty candidate prognostic factors evaluated using the five-fold cross-validation method were total protein, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, creatine kinase, age, smoking index, neuron-specific enolase, bone metastasis, total triglyceride, albumin, gender, uric acid, CYFRA21-1, lymph node metastasis, liver metastasis, lactate dehydrogenase, CA153, peritoneal metastasis, CA125, and CA199. From these 20 candidate prognostic factors, the multivariate Cox proportional hazard model with the highest prognostic accuracy in each subset was identified by the stepwise forward selection method, which generated significant prognostic stratifications in Kaplan-Meier survival analyses (all log-rank p < 0.01). Generally, the prognostic models using five-fold cross-validation achieve a good prediction performance. The prognostic models can be administered safely to lung adenocarcinoma patients treated

  14. Anticipating Mathematics Performance: A Cross-Validation Comparison of AID3 and Regression. AIR 1988 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloom, Allan M.; And Others

    In response to the increasing importance of student performance in required classes, research was conducted to compare two prediction procedures, linear modeling using multiple regression and nonlinear modeling using AID3. Performance in the first college math course (College Mathematics, Calculus, or Business Calculus Matrices) was the dependent…

  15. Derivation and Cross-Validation of Cutoff Scores for Patients With Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders on WAIS-IV Digit Span-Based Performance Validity Measures.

    PubMed

    Glassmire, David M; Toofanian Ross, Parnian; Kinney, Dominique I; Nitch, Stephen R

    2016-06-01

    Two studies were conducted to identify and cross-validate cutoff scores on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition Digit Span-based embedded performance validity (PV) measures for individuals with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. In Study 1, normative scores were identified on Digit Span-embedded PV measures among a sample of patients (n = 84) with schizophrenia spectrum diagnoses who had no known incentive to perform poorly and who put forth valid effort on external PV tests. Previously identified cutoff scores resulted in unacceptable false positive rates and lower cutoff scores were adopted to maintain specificity levels ≥90%. In Study 2, the revised cutoff scores were cross-validated within a sample of schizophrenia spectrum patients (n = 96) committed as incompetent to stand trial. Performance on Digit Span PV measures was significantly related to Full Scale IQ in both studies, indicating the need to consider the intellectual functioning of examinees with psychotic spectrum disorders when interpreting scores on Digit Span PV measures. PMID:25997434

  16. Electrochemical Performance and Stability of the Cathode for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells. I. Cross Validation of Polarization Measurements by Impedance Spectroscopy and Current-Potential Sweep

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Xiao Dong; Pederson, Larry R.; Templeton, Jared W.; Stevenson, Jeffry W.

    2009-12-09

    The aim of this paper is to address three issues in solid oxide fuel cells: (1) cross-validation of the polarization of a single cell measured using both dc and ac approaches, (2) the precise determination of the total areal specific resistance (ASR), and (3) understanding cathode polarization with LSCF cathodes. The ASR of a solid oxide fuel cell is a dynamic property, meaning that it changes with current density. The ASR measured using ac impedance spectroscopy (low frequency interception with real Z´ axis of ac impedance spectrum) matches with that measured from a dc IV sweep (the tangent of dc i-V curve). Due to the dynamic nature of ASR, we found that an ac impedance spectrum measured under open circuit voltage or on a half cell may not represent cathode performance under real operating conditions, particularly at high current density. In this work, the electrode polarization was governed by the cathode activation polarization; the anode contribution was negligible.

  17. Robustness of two single-item self-esteem measures: cross-validation with a measure of stigma in a sample of psychiatric patients.

    PubMed

    Bagley, Christopher

    2005-08-01

    Robins' Single-item Self-esteem Inventory was compared with a single item from the Coopersmith Self-esteem. Although a new scoring format was used, there was good evidence of cross-validation in 83 current and former psychiatric patients who completed Harvey's adapted measure of stigma felt and experienced by users of mental health services. Scores on the two single-item self-esteem measures correlated .76 (p < .001), .76 and .71 with scores on the longer scales from which they were taken, and .58 and .53, respectively, with Harvey's adapted stigma scale. Complex and perhaps competing models may explain links between felt stigma and poorer self-esteem in users of mental health services. PMID:16350637

  18. SILAC-Pulse Proteolysis: A Mass Spectrometry-Based Method for Discovery and Cross-Validation in Proteome-Wide Studies of Ligand Binding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adhikari, Jagat; Fitzgerald, Michael C.

    2014-12-01

    Reported here is the use of stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) and pulse proteolysis (PP) for detection and quantitation of protein-ligand binding interactions on the proteomic scale. The incorporation of SILAC into PP enables the PP technique to be used for the unbiased detection and quantitation of protein-ligand binding interactions in complex biological mixtures (e.g., cell lysates) without the need for prefractionation. The SILAC-PP technique is demonstrated in two proof-of-principle experiments using proteins in a yeast cell lysate and two test ligands including a well-characterized drug, cyclosporine A (CsA), and a non-hydrolyzable adenosine triphosphate (ATP) analogue, adenylyl imidodiphosphate (AMP-PNP). The well-known tight-binding interaction between CsA and cyclophilin A was successfully detected and quantified in replicate analyses, and a total of 33 proteins from a yeast cell lysate were found to have AMP-PNP-induced stability changes. In control experiments, the method's false positive rate of protein target discovery was found to be in the range of 2.1% to 3.6%. SILAC-PP and the previously reported stability of protein from rates of oxidation (SPROX) technique both report on the same thermodynamic properties of proteins and protein-ligand complexes. However, they employ different probes and mass spectrometry-based readouts. This creates the opportunity to cross-validate SPROX results with SILAC-PP results, and vice-versa. As part of this work, the SILAC-PP results obtained here were cross-validated with previously reported SPROX results on the same model systems to help differentiate true positives from false positives in the two experiments.

  19. Remote sensing and GIS-based landslide hazard analysis and cross-validation using multivariate logistic regression model on three test areas in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, Biswajeet

    2010-05-01

    This paper presents the results of the cross-validation of a multivariate logistic regression model using remote sensing data and GIS for landslide hazard analysis on the Penang, Cameron, and Selangor areas in Malaysia. Landslide locations in the study areas were identified by interpreting aerial photographs and satellite images, supported by field surveys. SPOT 5 and Landsat TM satellite imagery were used to map landcover and vegetation index, respectively. Maps of topography, soil type, lineaments and land cover were constructed from the spatial datasets. Ten factors which influence landslide occurrence, i.e., slope, aspect, curvature, distance from drainage, lithology, distance from lineaments, soil type, landcover, rainfall precipitation, and normalized difference vegetation index (ndvi), were extracted from the spatial database and the logistic regression coefficient of each factor was computed. Then the landslide hazard was analysed using the multivariate logistic regression coefficients derived not only from the data for the respective area but also using the logistic regression coefficients calculated from each of the other two areas (nine hazard maps in all) as a cross-validation of the model. For verification of the model, the results of the analyses were then compared with the field-verified landslide locations. Among the three cases of the application of logistic regression coefficient in the same study area, the case of Selangor based on the Selangor logistic regression coefficients showed the highest accuracy (94%), where as Penang based on the Penang coefficients showed the lowest accuracy (86%). Similarly, among the six cases from the cross application of logistic regression coefficient in other two areas, the case of Selangor based on logistic coefficient of Cameron showed highest (90%) prediction accuracy where as the case of Penang based on the Selangor logistic regression coefficients showed the lowest accuracy (79%). Qualitatively, the cross

  20. Progressive Elaboration and Cross-Validation of a Latent Class Typology of Adolescent Alcohol Involvement in a National Sample

    PubMed Central

    Donovan, John E.; Chung, Tammy

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Most studies of adolescent drinking focus on single alcohol use behaviors (e.g., high-volume drinking, drunkenness) and ignore the patterning of adolescents’ involvement across multiple alcohol behaviors. The present latent class analyses (LCAs) examined a procedure for empirically determining multiple cut points on the alcohol use behaviors in order to establish a typology of adolescent alcohol involvement. Method: LCA was carried out on six alcohol use behavior indicators collected from 6,504 7th through 12th graders who participated in Wave I of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (AddHealth). To move beyond dichotomous indicators, a “progressive elaboration” strategy was used, starting with six dichotomous indicators and then evaluating a series of models testing additional cut points on the ordinal indicators at progressively higher points for one indicator at a time. Analyses were performed on one random half-sample, and confirmatory LCAs were performed on the second random half-sample and in the Wave II data. Results: The final model consisted of four latent classes (never or non–current drinkers, low-intake drinkers, non–problem drinkers, and problem drinkers). Confirmatory LCAs in the second random half-sample from Wave I and in Wave II support this four-class solution. The means on the four latent classes were also generally ordered on an array of measures reflecting psychosocial risk for problem behavior. Conclusions: These analyses suggest that there may be four different classes or types of alcohol involvement among adolescents, and, more importantly, they illustrate the utility of the progressive elaboration strategy for moving beyond dichotomous indicators in latent class models. PMID:25978828

  1. The Importance of Invariance Procedures as against Tests of Statistical Significance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fish, Larry

    A growing controversy surrounds the strict interpretation of statistical significance tests in social research. Statistical significance tests fail in particular to provide estimates for the stability of research results. Methods that do provide such estimates are known as invariance or cross-validation procedures. Invariance analysis is largely…

  2. Cross validation of gas chromatography-flame photometric detection and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry methods for measuring dialkylphosphate metabolites of organophosphate pesticides in human urine.

    PubMed

    Prapamontol, Tippawan; Sutan, Kunrunya; Laoyang, Sompong; Hongsibsong, Surat; Lee, Grace; Yano, Yukiko; Hunter, Ronald Elton; Ryan, P Barry; Barr, Dana Boyd; Panuwet, Parinya

    2014-01-01

    We report two analytical methods for the measurement of dialkylphosphate (DAP) metabolites of organophosphate pesticides in human urine. These methods were independently developed/modified and implemented in two separate laboratories and cross validated. The aim was to develop simple, cost effective, and reliable methods that could use available resources and sample matrices in Thailand and the United States. While several methods already exist, we found that direct application of these methods required modification of sample preparation and chromatographic conditions to render accurate, reliable data. The problems encountered with existing methods were attributable to urinary matrix interferences, and differences in the pH of urine samples and reagents used during the extraction and derivatization processes. Thus, we provide information on key parameters that require attention during method modification and execution that affect the ruggedness of the methods. The methods presented here employ gas chromatography (GC) coupled with either flame photometric detection (FPD) or electron impact ionization-mass spectrometry (EI-MS) with isotopic dilution quantification. The limits of detection were reported from 0.10ng/mL urine to 2.5ng/mL urine (for GC-FPD), while the limits of quantification were reported from 0.25ng/mL urine to 2.5ng/mL urine (for GC-MS), for all six common DAP metabolites (i.e., dimethylphosphate, dimethylthiophosphate, dimethyldithiophosphate, diethylphosphate, diethylthiophosphate, and diethyldithiophosphate). Each method showed a relative recovery range of 94-119% (for GC-FPD) and 92-103% (for GC-MS), and relative standard deviations (RSD) of less than 20%. Cross-validation was performed on the same set of urine samples (n=46) collected from pregnant women residing in the agricultural areas of northern Thailand. The results from split sample analysis from both laboratories agreed well for each metabolite, suggesting that each method can produce

  3. Improving the accuracy of NMR structures of RNA by means of conformational database potentials of mean force as assessed by complete dipolar coupling cross-validation.

    PubMed

    Clore, G Marius; Kuszewski, John

    2003-02-12

    The description of the nonbonded contact terms used in simulated annealing refinement can have a major impact on nucleic acid structures generated from NMR data. Using complete dipolar coupling cross-validation, we demonstrate that substantial improvements in coordinate accuracy of NMR structures of RNA can be obtained by making use of two conformational database potentials of mean force: a nucleic acid torsion angle database potential consisting of various multidimensional torsion angle correlations; and an RNA specific base-base positioning potential that provides a simple geometric, statistically based, description of sequential and nonsequential base-base interactions. The former is based on 416 nucleic acid crystal structures solved at a resolution of

  4. Sediment transport patterns in the San Francisco Bay Coastal System from cross-validation of bedform asymmetry and modeled residual flux

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnard, Patrick L.; Erikson, Li H.; Elias, Edwin P.L.; Dartnell, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The morphology of ~ 45,000 bedforms from 13 multibeam bathymetry surveys was used as a proxy for identifying net bedload sediment transport directions and pathways throughout the San Francisco Bay estuary and adjacent outer coast. The spatially-averaged shape asymmetry of the bedforms reveals distinct pathways of ebb and flood transport. Additionally, the region-wide, ebb-oriented asymmetry of 5% suggests net seaward-directed transport within the estuarine-coastal system, with significant seaward asymmetry at the mouth of San Francisco Bay (11%), through the northern reaches of the Bay (7-8%), and among the largest bedforms (21% for λ > 50 m). This general indication for the net transport of sand to the open coast strongly suggests that anthropogenic removal of sediment from the estuary, particularly along clearly defined seaward transport pathways, will limit the supply of sand to chronically eroding, open-coast beaches. The bedform asymmetry measurements significantly agree (up to ~ 76%) with modeled annual residual transport directions derived from a hydrodynamically-calibrated numerical model, and the orientation of adjacent, flow-sculpted seafloor features such as mega-flute structures, providing a comprehensive validation of the technique. The methods described in this paper to determine well-defined, cross-validated sediment transport pathways can be applied to estuarine-coastal systems globally where bedforms are present. The results can inform and improve regional sediment management practices to more efficiently utilize often limited sediment resources and mitigate current and future sediment supply-related impacts.

  5. Sediment transport patterns in the San Francisco Bay Coastal System from cross-validation of bedform asymmetry and modeled residual flux

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnard, Patrick L.; Erikson, Li H.; Elias, Edwin P.L.; Dartnell, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The morphology of ~ 45,000 bedforms from 13 multibeam bathymetry surveys was used as a proxy for identifying net bedload sediment transport directions and pathways throughout the San Francisco Bay estuary and adjacent outer coast. The spatially-averaged shape asymmetry of the bedforms reveals distinct pathways of ebb and flood transport. Additionally, the region-wide, ebb-oriented asymmetry of 5% suggests net seaward-directed transport within the estuarine-coastal system, with significant seaward asymmetry at the mouth of San Francisco Bay (11%), through the northern reaches of the Bay (7–8%), and among the largest bedforms (21% for λ > 50 m). This general indication for the net transport of sand to the open coast strongly suggests that anthropogenic removal of sediment from the estuary, particularly along clearly defined seaward transport pathways, will limit the supply of sand to chronically eroding, open-coast beaches. The bedform asymmetry measurements significantly agree (up to ~ 76%) with modeled annual residual transport directions derived from a hydrodynamically-calibrated numerical model, and the orientation of adjacent, flow-sculpted seafloor features such as mega-flute structures, providing a comprehensive validation of the technique. The methods described in this paper to determine well-defined, cross-validated sediment transport pathways can be applied to estuarine-coastal systems globally where bedforms are present. The results can inform and improve regional sediment management practices to more efficiently utilize often limited sediment resources and mitigate current and future sediment supply-related impacts.

  6. Methane cross-validation between three Fourier transform spectrometers: SCISAT ACE-FTS, GOSAT TANSO-FTS, and ground-based FTS measurements in the Canadian high Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holl, Gerrit; Walker, Kaley A.; Conway, Stephanie; Saitoh, Naoko; Boone, Chris D.; Strong, Kimberly; Drummond, James R.

    2016-05-01

    We present cross-validation of remote sensing measurements of methane profiles in the Canadian high Arctic. Accurate and precise measurements of methane are essential to understand quantitatively its role in the climate system and in global change. Here, we show a cross-validation between three data sets: two from spaceborne instruments and one from a ground-based instrument. All are Fourier transform spectrometers (FTSs). We consider the Canadian SCISAT Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE)-FTS, a solar occultation infrared spectrometer operating since 2004, and the thermal infrared band of the Japanese Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) Thermal And Near infrared Sensor for carbon Observation (TANSO)-FTS, a nadir/off-nadir scanning FTS instrument operating at solar and terrestrial infrared wavelengths, since 2009. The ground-based instrument is a Bruker 125HR Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer, measuring mid-infrared solar absorption spectra at the Polar Environment Atmospheric Research Laboratory (PEARL) Ridge Laboratory at Eureka, Nunavut (80° N, 86° W) since 2006. For each pair of instruments, measurements are collocated within 500 km and 24 h. An additional collocation criterion based on potential vorticity values was found not to significantly affect differences between measurements. Profiles are regridded to a common vertical grid for each comparison set. To account for differing vertical resolutions, ACE-FTS measurements are smoothed to the resolution of either PEARL-FTS or TANSO-FTS, and PEARL-FTS measurements are smoothed to the TANSO-FTS resolution. Differences for each pair are examined in terms of profile and partial columns. During the period considered, the number of collocations for each pair is large enough to obtain a good sample size (from several hundred to tens of thousands depending on pair and configuration). Considering full profiles, the degrees of freedom for signal (DOFS) are between 0.2 and 0.7 for TANSO-FTS and

  7. Methane cross-validation between three Fourier Transform Spectrometers: SCISAT ACE-FTS, GOSAT TANSO-FTS, and ground-based FTS measurements in the Canadian high Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holl, G.; Walker, K. A.; Conway, S.; Saitoh, N.; Boone, C. D.; Strong, K.; Drummond, J. R.

    2015-12-01

    We present cross-validation of remote sensing measurements of methane profiles in the Canadian high Arctic. Accurate and precise measurements of methane are essential to understand quantitatively its role in the climate system and in global change. Here, we show a cross-validation between three datasets: two from spaceborne instruments and one from a ground-based instrument. All are Fourier Transform Spectrometers (FTSs). We consider the Canadian SCISAT Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE)-FTS, a solar occultation infrared spectrometer operating since 2004, and the thermal infrared band of the Japanese Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) Thermal And Near infrared Sensor for carbon Observation (TANSO)-FTS, a nadir/off-nadir scanning FTS instrument operating at solar and terrestrial infrared wavelengths, since 2009. The ground-based instrument is a Bruker 125HR Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometer, measuring mid-infrared solar absorption spectra at the Polar Environment Atmospheric Research Laboratory (PEARL) Ridge Lab at Eureka, Nunavut (80° N, 86° W) since 2006. For each pair of instruments, measurements are collocated within 500 km and 24 h. An additional criterion based on potential vorticity values was found not to significantly affect differences between measurements. Profiles are regridded to a common vertical grid for each comparison set. To account for differing vertical resolutions, ACE-FTS measurements are smoothed to the resolution of either PEARL-FTS or TANSO-FTS, and PEARL-FTS measurements are smoothed to the TANSO-FTS resolution. Differences for each pair are examined in terms of profile and partial columns. During the period considered, the number of collocations for each pair is large enough to obtain a good sample size (from several hundred to tens of thousands depending on pair and configuration). Considering full profiles, the degrees of freedom for signal (DOFS) are between 0.2 and 0.7 for TANSO-FTS and between 1.5 and 3

  8. Determination of snow avalanche return periods using a tree-ring based reconstruction in the French Alps: cross validation with the predictions of a statistical-dynamical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schläppy, Romain; Eckert, Nicolas; Jomelli, Vincent; Grancher, Delphine; Brunstein, Daniel; Stoffel, Markus; Naaim, Mohamed

    2013-04-01

    rare events, i.e. to the tail of the local runout distance distribution. Furthermore, a good agreement exists with the statistical-numerical model's prediction, i.e. a 10-40 m difference for return periods ranging between 10 and 300 years, which is rather small with regards to the uncertainty levels to be considered in avalanche probabilistic modeling and dendrochronological reconstructions. It is important to note that such a cross validation on independent extreme predictions has never been undertaken before. It suggest that i) dendrochronological reconstruction can provide valuable information for anticipating future extreme avalanche events in the context of risk management, and, in turn, that ii) the statistical-numerical model, while properly calibrated, can be used with reasonable confidence to refine these predictions, with for instance evaluation of pressure and flow depth distributions at each position of the runout zone. A strong sensitivity to the determination of local avalanche and dendrological record frequencies is however highlighted, indicating that this step is an essential step for an accurate probabilistic characterization of large-extent events.

  9. Multiple dimensions of health locus of control in a representative population sample: ordinal factor analysis and cross-validation of an existing three and a new four factor model

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Based on the general approach of locus of control, health locus of control (HLOC) concerns control-beliefs due to illness, sickness and health. HLOC research results provide an improved understanding of health related behaviour and patients' compliance in medical care. HLOC research distinguishes between beliefs due to Internality, Externality powerful Others (POs) and Externality Chance. However, evidences for differentiating the POs dimension were found. Previous factor analyses used selected and predominantly clinical samples, while non-clinical studies are rare. The present study is the first analysis of the HLOC structure based on a large representative general population sample providing important information for non-clinical research and public health care. Methods The standardised German questionnaire which assesses HLOC was used in a representative adult general population sample for a region in Northern Germany (N = 4,075). Data analyses used ordinal factor analyses in LISREL and Mplus. Alternative theory-driven models with one to four latent variables were compared using confirmatory factor analysis. Fit indices, chi-square difference tests, residuals and factor loadings were considered for model comparison. Exploratory factor analysis was used for further model development. Results were cross-validated splitting the total sample randomly and using the cross-validation index. Results A model with four latent variables (Internality, Formal Help, Informal Help and Chance) best represented the HLOC construct (three-dimensional model: normed chi-square = 9.55; RMSEA = 0.066; CFI = 0.931; SRMR = 0.075; four-dimensional model: normed chi-square = 8.65; RMSEA = 0.062; CFI = 0.940; SRMR = 0.071; chi-square difference test: p < 0.001). After excluding one item, the superiority of the four- over the three-dimensional HLOC construct became very obvious (three-dimensional model: normed chi-square = 7.74; RMSEA = 0.059; CFI = 0.950; SRMR = 0.079; four

  10. Methane Cross-Validation Between Spaceborne Solar Occultation Observations from ACE-FTS, Spaceborne Nadir Sounding from Gosat, and Ground-Based Solar Absorption Measurements, at a High Arctic Site.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holl, G.; Walker, K. A.; Conway, S. A.; Saitoh, N.; Boone, C. D.; Strong, K.; Drummond, J. R.

    2014-12-01

    We present cross-validation of remote sensing observations of methane profiles in the Canadian High Arctic. Methane is the third most important greenhouse gas on Earth, and second only to carbon dioxide in its contribution to anthropogenic global warming. Accurate and precise observations of methane are essential to understand quantitatively its role in the climate system and in global change. The Arctic is a particular region of concern, as melting permafrost and disappearing sea ice might lead to accelerated release of methane into the atmosphere. Global observations require spaceborne instruments, in particular in the Arctic, where surface measurements are sparse and expensive to perform. Satellite-based remote sensing is an underconstrained problem, and specific validation under Arctic circumstances is required. Here, we show a cross-validation between two spaceborne instruments and ground-based measurements, all Fourier Transform Spectrometers (FTS). We consider the Canadian SCISAT ACE-FTS, a solar occultation spectrometer operating since 2004, and the Japanese GOSAT TANSO-FTS, a nadir-pointing FTS operating at solar and terrestrial infrared wavelengths, since 2009. The ground-based instrument is a Bruker Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometer, measuring mid-infrared solar absorption spectra at the Polar Environmental and Atmospheric Research Laboratory (PEARL) at Eureka, Nunavut (80°N, 86°W) since 2006. Measurements are collocated considering temporal, spatial, and geophysical criteria and regridded to a common vertical grid. We perform smoothing on the higher-resolution instrument results to account for different vertical resolutions. Then, profiles of differences for each pair of instruments are examined. Any bias between instruments, or any accuracy that is worse than expected, needs to be understood prior to using the data. The results of the study will serve as a guideline on how to use the vertically resolved methane products from ACE and

  11. Improved Cross Validation of a Static Ubiquitin Structure Derived from High Precision Residual Dipolar Couplings Measured in a Drug-Based Liquid Crystalline Phase

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The antibiotic squalamine forms a lyotropic liquid crystal at very low concentrations in water (0.3-3.5% w/v), which remains stable over a wide range of temperature (1-40 °C) and pH (4-8). Squalamine is positively charged, and comparison of the alignment of ubiquitin relative to 36 previously reported alignment conditions shows that it differs substantially from most of these, but is closest to liquid crystalline cetyl pyridinium bromide. High precision residual dipolar couplings (RDCs) measured for the backbone 1H-15N, 15N-13C′, 1Hα-13Cα, and 13C′-13Cα one-bond interactions in the squalamine medium fit well to the static structural model previously derived from NMR data. Inclusion into the structure refinement procedure of these RDCs, together with 1H-15N and 1Hα-13Cα RDCs newly measured in Pf1, results in improved agreement between alignment-induced changes in 13C′ chemical shift, 3JHNHα values, and 13Cα-13Cβ RDCs and corresponding values predicted by the structure, thereby validating the high quality of the single-conformer structural model. This result indicates that fitting of a single model to experimental data provides a better description of the average conformation than does averaging over previously reported NMR-derived ensemble representations. The latter can capture dynamic aspects of a protein, thus making the two representations valuable complements to one another. PMID:24568736

  12. Improved cross validation of a static ubiquitin structure derived from high precision residual dipolar couplings measured in a drug-based liquid crystalline phase.

    PubMed

    Maltsev, Alexander S; Grishaev, Alexander; Roche, Julien; Zasloff, Michael; Bax, Ad

    2014-03-12

    The antibiotic squalamine forms a lyotropic liquid crystal at very low concentrations in water (0.3-3.5% w/v), which remains stable over a wide range of temperature (1-40 °C) and pH (4-8). Squalamine is positively charged, and comparison of the alignment of ubiquitin relative to 36 previously reported alignment conditions shows that it differs substantially from most of these, but is closest to liquid crystalline cetyl pyridinium bromide. High precision residual dipolar couplings (RDCs) measured for the backbone (1)H-(15)N, (15)N-(13)C', (1)H(α)-(13)C(α), and (13)C'-(13)C(α) one-bond interactions in the squalamine medium fit well to the static structural model previously derived from NMR data. Inclusion into the structure refinement procedure of these RDCs, together with (1)H-(15)N and (1)H(α)-(13)C(α) RDCs newly measured in Pf1, results in improved agreement between alignment-induced changes in (13)C' chemical shift, (3)JHNHα values, and (13)C(α)-(13)C(β) RDCs and corresponding values predicted by the structure, thereby validating the high quality of the single-conformer structural model. This result indicates that fitting of a single model to experimental data provides a better description of the average conformation than does averaging over previously reported NMR-derived ensemble representations. The latter can capture dynamic aspects of a protein, thus making the two representations valuable complements to one another. PMID:24568736

  13. Cross-Validation of the Spanish HP-Version of the Jefferson Scale of Empathy Confirmed with Some Cross-Cultural Differences

    PubMed Central

    Alcorta-Garza, Adelina; San-Martín, Montserrat; Delgado-Bolton, Roberto; Soler-González, Jorge; Roig, Helena; Vivanco, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Context: Medical educators agree that empathy is essential for physicians' professionalism. The Health Professional Version of the Jefferson Scale of Empathy (JSE-HP) was developed in response to a need for a psychometrically sound instrument to measure empathy in the context of patient care. Although extensive support for its validity and reliability is available, the authors recognize the necessity to examine psychometrics of the JSE-HP in different socio-cultural contexts to assure the psychometric soundness of this instrument. The first aim of this study was to confirm its psychometric properties in the cross-cultural context of Spain and Latin American countries. The second aim was to measure the influence of social and cultural factors on the development of medical empathy in health practitioners. Methods: The original English version of the JSE-HP was translated into International Spanish using back-translation procedures. The Spanish version of the JSE-HP was administered to 896 physicians from Spain and 13 Latin American countries. Data were subjected to exploratory factor analysis using principal component analysis (PCA) with oblique rotation (promax) to allow for correlation among the resulting factors, followed by a second analysis, using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Two theoretical models, one based on the English JSE-HP and another on the first Spanish student version of the JSE (JSE-S), were tested. Demographic variables were compared using group comparisons. Results: A total of 715 (80%) surveys were returned fully completed. Cronbach's alpha coefficient of the JSE for the entire sample was 0.84. The psychometric properties of the Spanish JSE-HP matched those of the original English JSE-HP. However, the Spanish JSE-S model proved more appropriate than the original English model for the sample in this study. Group comparisons among physicians classified by gender, medical specialties, cultural and cross-cultural backgrounds yielded

  14. [Examination procedures].

    PubMed

    Vassault, A; Arnaud, J; Szymanovicz, A

    2010-12-01

    Examination procedures have to be written for each examination according to the standard requirements. Using CE marked devices, technical inserts can be used, but because of their lack of homogeneity, it could be easier to document their use as a standard procedure. Document control policy applies for those procedures, the content of which could be as provided in this document. Electronic manuals can be used as well. PMID:21613016

  15. Cross-validation and evaluation of the performance of methods for the elemental analysis of forensic glass by μ-XRF, ICP-MS, and LA-ICP-MS.

    PubMed

    Trejos, Tatiana; Koons, Robert; Becker, Stefan; Berman, Ted; Buscaglia, JoAnn; Duecking, Marc; Eckert-Lumsdon, Tiffany; Ernst, Troy; Hanlon, Christopher; Heydon, Alex; Mooney, Kim; Nelson, Randall; Olsson, Kristine; Palenik, Christopher; Pollock, Edward Chip; Rudell, David; Ryland, Scott; Tarifa, Anamary; Valadez, Melissa; Weis, Peter; Almirall, Jose

    2013-06-01

    Elemental analysis of glass was conducted by 16 forensic science laboratories, providing a direct comparison between three analytical methods [micro-x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (μ-XRF), solution analysis using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry]. Interlaboratory studies using glass standard reference materials and other glass samples were designed to (a) evaluate the analytical performance between different laboratories using the same method, (b) evaluate the analytical performance of the different methods, (c) evaluate the capabilities of the methods to correctly associate glass that originated from the same source and to correctly discriminate glass samples that do not share the same source, and (d) standardize the methods of analysis and interpretation of results. Reference materials NIST 612, NIST 1831, FGS 1, and FGS 2 were employed to cross-validate these sensitive techniques and to optimize and standardize the analytical protocols. The resulting figures of merit for the ICP-MS methods include repeatability better than 5% RSD, reproducibility between laboratories better than 10% RSD, bias better than 10%, and limits of detection between 0.03 and 9 μg g(-1) for the majority of the elements monitored. The figures of merit for the μ-XRF methods include repeatability better than 11% RSD, reproducibility between laboratories after normalization of the data better than 16% RSD, and limits of detection between 5.8 and 7,400 μg g(-1). The results from this study also compare the analytical performance of different forensic science laboratories conducting elemental analysis of glass evidence fragments using the three analytical methods. PMID:23673570

  16. Dental Procedures.

    PubMed

    Ramponi, Denise R

    2016-01-01

    Dental problems are a common complaint in emergency departments in the United States. There are a wide variety of dental issues addressed in emergency department visits such as dental caries, loose teeth, dental trauma, gingival infections, and dry socket syndrome. Review of the most common dental blocks and dental procedures will allow the practitioner the opportunity to make the patient more comfortable and reduce the amount of analgesia the patient will need upon discharge. Familiarity with the dental equipment, tooth, and mouth anatomy will help prepare the practitioner for to perform these dental procedures. PMID:27482994

  17. Revealing latent value of clinically acquired CTs of traumatic brain injury through multi-atlas segmentation in a retrospective study of 1,003 with external cross-validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plassard, Andrew J.; Kelly, Patrick D.; Asman, Andrew J.; Kang, Hakmook; Patel, Mayur B.; Landman, Bennett A.

    2015-03-01

    Medical imaging plays a key role in guiding treatment of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and for diagnosing intracranial hemorrhage; most commonly rapid computed tomography (CT) imaging is performed. Outcomes for patients with TBI are variable and difficult to predict upon hospital admission. Quantitative outcome scales (e.g., the Marshall classification) have been proposed to grade TBI severity on CT, but such measures have had relatively low value in staging patients by prognosis. Herein, we examine a cohort of 1,003 subjects admitted for TBI and imaged clinically to identify potential prognostic metrics using a "big data" paradigm. For all patients, a brain scan was segmented with multi-atlas labeling, and intensity/volume/texture features were computed in a localized manner. In a 10-fold crossvalidation approach, the explanatory value of the image-derived features is assessed for length of hospital stay (days), discharge disposition (five point scale from death to return home), and the Rancho Los Amigos functional outcome score (Rancho Score). Image-derived features increased the predictive R2 to 0.38 (from 0.18) for length of stay, to 0.51 (from 0.4) for discharge disposition, and to 0.31 (from 0.16) for Rancho Score (over models consisting only of non-imaging admission metrics, but including positive/negative radiological CT findings). This study demonstrates that high volume retrospective analysis of clinical imaging data can reveal imaging signatures with prognostic value. These targets are suited for follow-up validation and represent targets for future feature selection efforts. Moreover, the increase in prognostic value would improve staging for intervention assessment and provide more reliable guidance for patients.

  18. Procedural simulation.

    PubMed

    Patel, Aalpen A; Glaiberman, Craig; Gould, Derek A

    2007-06-01

    In the past few decades, medicine has started to look at the potential use of simulators in medical education. Procedural medicine lends itself well to the use of simulators. Efforts are under way to establish national agendas to change the way medical education is approached and thereby improve patient safety. Universities, credentialing organizations, and hospitals are investing large sums of money to build and use simulation centers for undergraduate and graduate medical education. PMID:17574195

  19. Procedural knowledge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Georgeff, Michael P.; Lansky, Amy L.

    1986-01-01

    Much of commonsense knowledge about the real world is in the form of procedures or sequences of actions for achieving particular goals. In this paper, a formalism is presented for representing such knowledge using the notion of process. A declarative semantics for the representation is given, which allows a user to state facts about the effects of doing things in the problem domain of interest. An operational semantics is also provided, which shows how this knowledge can be used to achieve particular goals or to form intentions regarding their achievement. Given both semantics, the formalism additionally serves as an executable specification language suitable for constructing complex systems. A system based on this formalism is described, and examples involving control of an autonomous robot and fault diagnosis for NASA's Space Shuttle are provided.

  20. Computerized procedures system

    DOEpatents

    Lipner, Melvin H.; Mundy, Roger A.; Franusich, Michael D.

    2010-10-12

    An online data driven computerized procedures system that guides an operator through a complex process facility's operating procedures. The system monitors plant data, processes the data and then, based upon this processing, presents the status of the current procedure step and/or substep to the operator. The system supports multiple users and a single procedure definition supports several interface formats that can be tailored to the individual user. Layered security controls access privileges and revisions are version controlled. The procedures run on a server that is platform independent of the user workstations that the server interfaces with and the user interface supports diverse procedural views.

  1. Public Sector Impasse Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vadakin, James C.

    The subject of collective bargaining negotiation impasse procedures in the public sector, which includes public school systems, is a broad one. In this speech, the author introduces the various procedures, explains how they are used, and lists their advantages and disadvantages. Procedures discussed are mediation, fact-finding, arbitration,…

  2. Crew procedures development techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arbet, J. D.; Benbow, R. L.; Hawk, M. L.; Mangiaracina, A. A.; Mcgavern, J. L.; Spangler, M. C.

    1975-01-01

    The study developed requirements, designed, developed, checked out and demonstrated the Procedures Generation Program (PGP). The PGP is a digital computer program which provides a computerized means of developing flight crew procedures based on crew action in the shuttle procedures simulator. In addition, it provides a real time display of procedures, difference procedures, performance data and performance evaluation data. Reconstruction of displays is possible post-run. Data may be copied, stored on magnetic tape and transferred to the document processor for editing and documentation distribution.

  3. A Procedure for Statistical Downscaling of Precipitation with an Objective Method for Predictor Selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najafi, M.; Moradkhani, H.; Wherry, S.

    2009-12-01

    Downscaling General Circulation Models’ (GCM) outputs to a finer grid cell size is an important step in climate change impact and adaptation studies in particular for hydrologic applications. Many investigations have been focused on presenting techniques to downscale GCM data utilizing statistical approaches. Nevertheless there is currently the need to present techniques on predictor selection and also to compare different downscaling models’ capabilities. Hence in this study an algorithm has been developed to select GCM predictors in a subseasonal to seasonal time scale. Independent component analysis was used to find the statistically independent signals of CGCM3 variables in the 4*7 grid cells covering the Willamette river basin in Oregon, USA. Using the multi-linear regression cross validation (MLR-CV) the GCM predictors were selected for each period. The selected predictors were then applied to train the ANFIS (Adaptive Network-based Fuzzy Inference System) and the SVM (Support Vector Machine) models, and their performances were assessed on the test data. To design more robust networks that are less dependent on training data set, the cross validation was performed. . Predictors with the best performance for each season in the test set (using both ANFIS and SVM models) were selected for that specific season. The comparison of ANFIS and SVM models using statistical measures showed that ANFIS presents better results suitable for climate impact studies. Also application of ICA allowed reducing the size of many dependent GCM variables in 28 grid cells considerably resulting in higher accuracy in downscaling and more effectiveness in the procedure.

  4. Backward Variable Elimination Canonical Correlation and Canonical Cross-Validation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eason, Sandra

    This paper suggests that multivariate analysis techniques are very important in educational research, and that one multivariate technique--canonical correlation analysis--may be particularly useful. The logic of canonical analysis is explained. It is suggested that a backward variable elimination strategy can make the method even more powerful, by…

  5. AnL1 smoothing spline algorithm with cross validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosworth, Ken W.; Lall, Upmanu

    1993-08-01

    We propose an algorithm for the computation ofL1 (LAD) smoothing splines in the spacesWM(D), with . We assume one is given data of the formyiD(f(ti) +ɛi, iD1,...,N with {itti}iD1N ⊂D, theɛi are errors withE(ɛi)D0, andf is assumed to be inWM. The LAD smoothing spline, for fixed smoothing parameterλ?;0, is defined as the solution,sλ, of the optimization problem (1/N)∑iD1N yi-g(ti +λJM(g), whereJM(g) is the seminorm consisting of the sum of the squaredL2 norms of theMth partial derivatives ofg. Such an LAD smoothing spline,sλ, would be expected to give robust smoothed estimates off in situations where theɛi are from a distribution with heavy tails. The solution to such a problem is a "thin plate spline" of known form. An algorithm for computingsλ is given which is based on considering a sequence of quadratic programming problems whose structure is guided by the optimality conditions for the above convex minimization problem, and which are solved readily, if a good initial point is available. The "data driven" selection of the smoothing parameter is achieved by minimizing aCV(λ) score of the form .The combined LAD-CV smoothing spline algorithm is a continuation scheme in λ↘0 taken on the above SQPs parametrized inλ, with the optimal smoothing parameter taken to be that value ofλ at which theCV(λ) score first begins to increase. The feasibility of constructing the LAD-CV smoothing spline is illustrated by an application to a problem in environment data interpretation.

  6. Cross-Validation of the Computerized Adaptive Screening Test (CAST).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pliske, Rebecca M.; And Others

    The Computerized Adaptive Screening Test (CAST) was developed to provide an estimate at recruiting stations of prospects' Armed Forces Qualification Test (AFQT) scores. The CAST was designed to replace the paper-and-pencil Enlistment Screening Test (EST). The initial validation study of CAST indicated that CAST predicts AFQT at least as accurately…

  7. Cross-Validation of the JSORRAT-II in Iowa.

    PubMed

    Ralston, Christopher A; Epperson, Douglas L; Edwards, Sarah R

    2016-09-01

    The predictive validity of the Juvenile Sexual Offense Recidivism Risk Assessment Tool-II (JSORRAT-II) was evaluated using an exhaustive sample of 11- to 17-year-old male juveniles who offended sexually (JSOs) between 2000 and 2006 in Iowa (n = 529). The validity of the tool in predicting juvenile sexual recidivism was significant (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve [AUC] = .70, 99% confidence interval [CI] = [.60, .81], d = 0.70). Non-significant predictive validity coefficients were observed for the prediction of non-sexual forms of recidivism. Additional analyses were undertaken to test hypotheses about the tool's performance with various subsamples. The age of the JSO at the time of the index sexual offense and time at risk outside secure facility placements interacted significantly with JSORRAT-II scores to predict juvenile sexual recidivism. The implications of these findings for practice and research on the validation of risk assessment tools are discussed. PMID:25179400

  8. [Cross validity of the UCLA Loneliness Scale factorization].

    PubMed

    Borges, Africa; Prieto, Pedro; Ricchetti, Giacinto; Hernández-Jorge, Carmen; Rodríguez-Naveiras, Elena

    2008-11-01

    Loneliness is an unpleasant experience that takes place when a person's network of social relationships is significantly deficient in quality and quantity, and it is associated with negative feelings. Loneliness is a fundamental construct that provides information about several psychological processes, especially in the clinical setting. It is well known that this construct is related to isolation and emotional loneliness. One of the most well-known psychometric instruments to measure loneliness is the revised UCLA Loneliness Scale, which has been factorized in several populations. A controversial issue related to the UCLA Loneliness Scale is its factor structure, because the test was first created based on a unidimensional structure; however, subsequent research has proved that its structure may be bipolar or even multidimensional. In the present work, the UCLA Loneliness Scale was completed by two populations: Spanish and Italian undergraduate university students. Results show a multifactorial structure in both samples. This research presents a theoretically and analytically coherent bifactorial structure. PMID:18940104

  9. Procedure improvement enterprises

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, P.L.

    1992-01-01

    At Allied-Signal's Kansas City Division (KCD), we recognize the importance of clear, concise and timely procedures for sharing information, promoting consistency and documenting the way we do business. For these reasons, the KCD has gathered a team of employees to analyze the process we currently use to publish procedures, identify the procedure needs of KCD employees, and design a system that meets or exceeds the requirements and expectations of DOE. The name of our group is the Procedure Improvement Enterprise Critical Process Team, or PIE CPT. The mission statement of Procedure Improvement Enterprise is to develop and implement within the Kansas City Division an effective nd flexible procedure system that will establish a model of excellence, will emphasize team work and open communication, and will ensure compliance with corporate/government requirements.

  10. Procedure improvement enterprises

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, P.L.

    1992-01-01

    At Allied-Signal`s Kansas City Division (KCD), we recognize the importance of clear, concise and timely procedures for sharing information, promoting consistency and documenting the way we do business. For these reasons, the KCD has gathered a team of employees to analyze the process we currently use to publish procedures, identify the procedure needs of KCD employees, and design a system that meets or exceeds the requirements and expectations of DOE. The name of our group is the Procedure Improvement Enterprise Critical Process Team, or PIE CPT. The mission statement of Procedure Improvement Enterprise is to develop and implement within the Kansas City Division an effective nd flexible procedure system that will establish a model of excellence, will emphasize team work and open communication, and will ensure compliance with corporate/government requirements.

  11. Pyroshock prediction procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piersol, Allan G.

    2002-05-01

    Given sufficient effort, pyroshock loads can be predicted by direct analytical procedures using Hydrocodes that analytically model the details of the pyrotechnic explosion and its interaction with adjacent structures, including nonlinear effects. However, it is more common to predict pyroshock environments using empirical procedures based upon extensive studies of past pyroshock data. Various empirical pyroshock prediction procedures are discussed, including those developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Lockheed-Martin, and Boeing.

  12. Candidate CDTI procedures study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ace, R. E.

    1981-01-01

    A concept with potential for increasing airspace capacity by involving the pilot in the separation control loop is discussed. Some candidate options are presented. Both enroute and terminal area procedures are considered and, in many cases, a technologically advanced Air Traffic Control structure is assumed. Minimum display characteristics recommended for each of the described procedures are presented. Recommended sequencing of the operational testing of each of the candidate procedures is presented.

  13. Science Safety Procedure Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Mervyn A.; Offet, Lorna

    This booklet outlines general safety procedures in the areas of: (1) student supervision; (2) storage safety regulations, including lists of incompatible chemicals, techniques of disposal and storage; (3) fire; and (4) first aid. Specific sections exist for elementary, junior high school, senior high school, in which special procedures are…

  14. Handbook of radiologic procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Hedgcock, M.

    1986-01-01

    This book is organized around radiologic procedures with each discussed from the points of view of: indications, contraindications, materials, method of procedures and complications. Covered in this book are: emergency radiology chest radiology, bone radiology, gastrointestinal radiology, GU radiology, pediatric radiology, computerized tomography, neuroradiology, visceral and peripheral angiography, cardiovascular radiology, nuclear medicine, lymphangiography, and mammography.

  15. Procedural Learning and Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicolson, R. I.; Fawcett, A. J.; Brookes, R. L.; Needle, J.

    2010-01-01

    Three major "neural systems", specialized for different types of information processing, are the sensory, declarative, and procedural systems. It has been proposed ("Trends Neurosci.",30(4), 135-141) that dyslexia may be attributable to impaired function in the procedural system together with intact declarative function. We provide a brief…

  16. Coombs' Type Response Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koehler, Roger A.

    This paper provides substantial evidence in favor of the continued use of conventional objective testing procedures in lieu of either the Coombs' cross-out technique or the Dressel and Schmid free-choice response procedure. From the studies presented in this paper, the tendency is for the cross-out and the free choice methods to yield a decrement…

  17. Enucleation Procedure Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Kevin; Poston, George

    This manual provides information on the enucleation procedure (removal of the eyes for organ banks). An introductory section focuses on the anatomy of the eye and defines each of the parts. Diagrams of the eye are provided. A list of enucleation materials follows. Other sections present outlines of (1) a sterile procedure; (2) preparation for eye…

  18. Basic Planning Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevada State Dept. of Education, Carson City.

    The procedure described herein entails the use of an educational planning consultant, statements of educational and service problems to be solved by proposed construction, a site plan, and architect selection. Also included in the outline of procedures is a tentative statement of specifications, tentative cost estimates and matrices for conducting…

  19. Policies and Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, William D.; McKenna, Bernard

    1997-01-01

    States that, although policies and procedure documents play an important role in developing and maintaining a consistent quality of interaction in organizations, research literature is weak in this area. Initiates further discussion by defining and describing policy/procedure documents. Identifies a third kind, work instructions. Uses a genre…

  20. Toddler test or procedure preparation

    MedlinePlus

    ... procedure; Test/procedure preparation - toddler; Preparing for a medical test or procedure - toddler ... A, Franz BE. Practical communication guide for paediatric procedures. Emerg ... PMID: 19588390 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19588390 .

  1. Minimally invasive procedures

    PubMed Central

    Baltayiannis, Nikolaos; Michail, Chandrinos; Lazaridis, George; Anagnostopoulos, Dimitrios; Baka, Sofia; Mpoukovinas, Ioannis; Karavasilis, Vasilis; Lampaki, Sofia; Papaiwannou, Antonis; Karavergou, Anastasia; Kioumis, Ioannis; Pitsiou, Georgia; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Tsakiridis, Kosmas; Rapti, Aggeliki; Trakada, Georgia; Zissimopoulos, Athanasios; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    Minimally invasive procedures, which include laparoscopic surgery, use state-of-the-art technology to reduce the damage to human tissue when performing surgery. Minimally invasive procedures require small “ports” from which the surgeon inserts thin tubes called trocars. Carbon dioxide gas may be used to inflate the area, creating a space between the internal organs and the skin. Then a miniature camera (usually a laparoscope or endoscope) is placed through one of the trocars so the surgical team can view the procedure as a magnified image on video monitors in the operating room. Specialized equipment is inserted through the trocars based on the type of surgery. There are some advanced minimally invasive surgical procedures that can be performed almost exclusively through a single point of entry—meaning only one small incision, like the “uniport” video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS). Not only do these procedures usually provide equivalent outcomes to traditional “open” surgery (which sometimes require a large incision), but minimally invasive procedures (using small incisions) may offer significant benefits as well: (I) faster recovery; (II) the patient remains for less days hospitalized; (III) less scarring and (IV) less pain. In our current mini review we will present the minimally invasive procedures for thoracic surgery. PMID:25861610

  2. Dynamic alarm response procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, J.; Gordon, P.; Fitch, K.

    2006-07-01

    The Dynamic Alarm Response Procedure (DARP) system provides a robust, Web-based alternative to existing hard-copy alarm response procedures. This paperless system improves performance by eliminating time wasted looking up paper procedures by number, looking up plant process values and equipment and component status at graphical display or panels, and maintenance of the procedures. Because it is a Web-based system, it is platform independent. DARP's can be served from any Web server that supports CGI scripting, such as Apache{sup R}, IIS{sup R}, TclHTTPD, and others. DARP pages can be viewed in any Web browser that supports Javascript and Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG), such as Netscape{sup R}, Microsoft Internet Explorer{sup R}, Mozilla Firefox{sup R}, Opera{sup R}, and others. (authors)

  3. Definition of "experimental procedures".

    PubMed

    2009-11-01

    This Practice Committee Opinion provides a revised definition of "experimental procedures." This version replaces the document "Definition of Experimental" that was published most recently in November 2008. PMID:19836733

  4. Common Interventional Radiology Procedures

    MedlinePlus

    ... of common interventional techniques is below. Common Interventional Radiology Procedures Angiography An X-ray exam of the ... into the vertebra. Copyright © 2016 Society of Interventional Radiology. All rights reserved. 3975 Fair Ridge Drive • Suite ...

  5. Cardiac ablation procedures

    MedlinePlus

    ... Accessory pathway, such as Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome Atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter Ventricular tachycardia ... consensus statement on catheter and surgical ablation of atrial fibrillation: ... for personnel, policy, procedures and follow-up. ...

  6. Costing imaging procedures.

    PubMed

    Bretland, P M

    1988-01-01

    The existing National Health Service financial system makes comprehensive costing of any service very difficult. A method of costing using modern commercial methods has been devised, classifying costs into variable, semi-variable and fixed and using the principle of overhead absorption for expenditure not readily allocated to individual procedures. It proved possible to establish a cost spectrum over the financial year 1984-85. The cheapest examinations were plain radiographs outside normal working hours, followed by plain radiographs, ultrasound, special procedures, fluoroscopy, nuclear medicine, angiography and angiographic interventional procedures in normal working hours. This differs from some published figures, particularly those in the Körner report. There was some overlap between fluoroscopic interventional and the cheaper nuclear medicine procedures, and between some of the more expensive nuclear medicine procedures and the cheaper angiographic ones. Only angiographic and the few more expensive nuclear medicine procedures exceed the cost of the inpatient day. The total cost of the imaging service to the district was about 4% of total hospital expenditure. It is shown that where more procedures are undertaken, the semi-variable and fixed (including capital) elements of the cost decrease (and vice versa) so that careful study is required to assess the value of proposed economies. The method is initially time-consuming and requires a computer system with 512 Kb of memory, but once the basic costing system is established in a department, detailed financial monitoring should become practicable. The necessity for a standard comprehensive costing procedure of this nature, based on sound cost accounting principles, appears inescapable, particularly in view of its potential application to management budgeting. PMID:3349241

  7. Prediction of Protein-Protein Interaction Sites with Machine-Learning-Based Data-Cleaning and Post-Filtering Procedures.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guang-Hui; Shen, Hong-Bin; Yu, Dong-Jun

    2016-04-01

    Accurately predicting protein-protein interaction sites (PPIs) is currently a hot topic because it has been demonstrated to be very useful for understanding disease mechanisms and designing drugs. Machine-learning-based computational approaches have been broadly utilized and demonstrated to be useful for PPI prediction. However, directly applying traditional machine learning algorithms, which often assume that samples in different classes are balanced, often leads to poor performance because of the severe class imbalance that exists in the PPI prediction problem. In this study, we propose a novel method for improving PPI prediction performance by relieving the severity of class imbalance using a data-cleaning procedure and reducing predicted false positives with a post-filtering procedure: First, a machine-learning-based data-cleaning procedure is applied to remove those marginal targets, which may potentially have a negative effect on training a model with a clear classification boundary, from the majority samples to relieve the severity of class imbalance in the original training dataset; then, a prediction model is trained on the cleaned dataset; finally, an effective post-filtering procedure is further used to reduce potential false positive predictions. Stringent cross-validation and independent validation tests on benchmark datasets demonstrated the efficacy of the proposed method, which exhibits highly competitive performance compared with existing state-of-the-art sequence-based PPIs predictors and should supplement existing PPI prediction methods. PMID:26563228

  8. Building a computer program to support children, parents, and distraction during healthcare procedures.

    PubMed

    Hanrahan, Kirsten; McCarthy, Ann Marie; Kleiber, Charmaine; Ataman, Kaan; Street, W Nick; Zimmerman, M Bridget; Ersig, Anne L

    2012-10-01

    This secondary data analysis used data mining methods to develop predictive models of child risk for distress during a healthcare procedure. Data used came from a study that predicted factors associated with children's responses to an intravenous catheter insertion while parents provided distraction coaching. From the 255 items used in the primary study, 44 predictive items were identified through automatic feature selection and used to build support vector machine regression models. Models were validated using multiple cross-validation tests and by comparing variables identified as explanatory in the traditional versus support vector machine regression. Rule-based approaches were applied to the model outputs to identify overall risk for distress. A decision tree was then applied to evidence-based instructions for tailoring distraction to characteristics and preferences of the parent and child. The resulting decision support computer application, titled Children, Parents and Distraction, is being used in research. Future use will support practitioners in deciding the level and type of distraction intervention needed by a child undergoing a healthcare procedure. PMID:22805121

  9. Advance crew procedures development techniques: Procedures generation program requirements document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arbet, J. D.; Benbow, R. L.; Hawk, M. L.

    1974-01-01

    The Procedures Generation Program (PGP) is described as an automated crew procedures generation and performance monitoring system. Computer software requirements to be implemented in PGP for the Advanced Crew Procedures Development Techniques are outlined.

  10. Mobile Energy Laboratory Procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, P.R.; Batishko, C.R.; Dittmer, A.L.; Hadley, D.L.; Stoops, J.L.

    1993-09-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has been tasked to plan and implement a framework for measuring and analyzing the efficiency of on-site energy conversion, distribution, and end-use application on federal facilities as part of its overall technical support to the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP). The Mobile Energy Laboratory (MEL) Procedures establish guidelines for specific activities performed by PNL staff. PNL provided sophisticated energy monitoring, auditing, and analysis equipment for on-site evaluation of energy use efficiency. Specially trained engineers and technicians were provided to conduct tests in a safe and efficient manner with the assistance of host facility staff and contractors. Reports were produced to describe test procedures, results, and suggested courses of action. These reports may be used to justify changes in operating procedures, maintenance efforts, system designs, or energy-using equipment. The MEL capabilities can subsequently be used to assess the results of energy conservation projects. These procedures recognize the need for centralized NM administration, test procedure development, operator training, and technical oversight. This need is evidenced by increasing requests fbr MEL use and the economies available by having trained, full-time MEL operators and near continuous MEL operation. DOE will assign new equipment and upgrade existing equipment as new capabilities are developed. The equipment and trained technicians will be made available to federal agencies that provide funding for the direct costs associated with MEL use.

  11. Procedural learning and dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Nicolson, R I; Fawcett, A J; Brookes, R L; Needle, J

    2010-08-01

    Three major 'neural systems', specialized for different types of information processing, are the sensory, declarative, and procedural systems. It has been proposed (Trends Neurosci., 30(4), 135-141) that dyslexia may be attributable to impaired function in the procedural system together with intact declarative function. We provide a brief overview of the increasing evidence relating to the hypothesis, noting that the framework involves two main claims: first that 'neural systems' provides a productive level of description avoiding the underspecificity of cognitive descriptions and the overspecificity of brain structural accounts; and second that a distinctive feature of procedural learning is its extended time course, covering from minutes to months. In this article, we focus on the second claim. Three studies-speeded single word reading, long-term response learning, and overnight skill consolidation-are reviewed which together provide clear evidence of difficulties in procedural learning for individuals with dyslexia, even when the tasks are outside the literacy domain. The educational implications of the results are then discussed, and in particular the potential difficulties that impaired overnight procedural consolidation would entail. It is proposed that response to intervention could be better predicted if diagnostic tests on the different forms of learning were first undertaken. PMID:20680991

  12. Environmental Test Screening Procedure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeidler, Janet

    2000-01-01

    This procedure describes the methods to be used for environmental stress screening (ESS) of the Lightning Mapper Sensor (LMS) lens assembly. Unless otherwise specified, the procedures shall be completed in the order listed, prior to performance of the Acceptance Test Procedure (ATP). The first unit, S/N 001, will be subjected to the Qualification Vibration Levels, while the remainder will be tested at the Operational Level. Prior to ESS, all units will undergo Pre-ESS Functional Testing that includes measuring the on-axis and plus or minus 0.95 full field Modulation Transfer Function and Back Focal Length. Next, all units will undergo ESS testing, and then Acceptance testing per PR 460.

  13. Reasoning about procedural knowledge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Georgeff, M. P.

    1985-01-01

    A crucial aspect of automated reasoning about space operations is that knowledge of the problem domain is often procedural in nature - that is, the knowledge is often in the form of sequences of actions or procedures for achieving given goals or reacting to certain situations. In this paper a system is described that explicitly represents and reasons about procedural knowledge. The knowledge representation used is sufficiently rich to describe the effects of arbitrary sequences of tests and actions, and the inference mechanism provides a means for directly using this knowledge to reach desired operational goals. Furthermore, the representation has a declarative semantics that provides for incremental changes to the system, rich explanatory capabilities, and verifiability. The approach also provides a mechanism for reasoning about the use of this knowledge, thus enabling the system to choose effectively between alternative courses of action.

  14. The separation procedure.

    PubMed

    Kiely, Edward M; Spitz, Lewis

    2015-10-01

    The various stages of the separation are carefully planned but despite this, variations which will change the schedule of the procedure may exist. In general the operation commences on the opposite side from the main procedure and then the twins are turned for the remainder of the operation. Each type of conjoined twin is different but basically thoracopagus involves the hearts, omphalopagus involves the liver and small intestine and ischiopagus involves the large intestine and genito-urinary system. Our results are presented together with interesting cases from which lessons have been learned. PMID:26382263

  15. Toddler test or procedure preparation

    MedlinePlus

    Preparing toddler for test/procedure; Test/procedure preparation - toddler; Preparing for a medical test or procedure - toddler ... Before the test, know that your child will probably cry. Even if you prepare, your child may feel some discomfort or ...

  16. Preschooler test or procedure preparation

    MedlinePlus

    Preparing preschoolers for test/procedure; Test/procedure preparation - preschooler ... Preparing children for medical tests can reduce their distress. It can also make them less likely to cry and resist the procedure. Research shows that ...

  17. Common Dermatologic Procedures.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shelley; Kampp, Jeremy

    2015-11-01

    Dermatologists perform a wide variety of procedures on a daily basis. The skin biopsy is a fundamental technique that can be performed by all physicians who manage cutaneous conditions. Specimens should always be sent for pathologic evaluation, regardless of whether the sampled lesion appears benign. Postoperative care and education are critical for minimizing complications. PMID:26476254

  18. Parliamentary Procedure Made Easy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayden, Ellen T.

    Based on the newly revised "Robert's Rules of Order," these self-contained learning activities will help students successfully and actively participate in school, social, civic, political, or professional organizations. There are 13 lessons. Topics studied include the what, why, and history of parliamentary procedure; characteristics of the ideal…

  19. Simulating Laboratory Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, J. E.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Describes the use of computer assisted instruction in a medical microbiology course. Presents examples of how computer assisted instruction can present case histories in which the laboratory procedures are simulated. Discusses an authoring system used to prepare computer simulations and provides one example of a case history dealing with fractured…

  20. Procedures of Mind.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolers, Paul A.; Roediger, Henry L.

    1984-01-01

    Presents a "procedural view" of the learning mind, arguing against previous theories citing physical properties as its basis. A more process-oriented view of information processing is offered, which describes "mind" in terms of skill in manipulating symbols, and the notion of skills is shown to provide a useful framework for accounting for…

  1. Numerical Boundary Condition Procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Topics include numerical procedures for treating inflow and outflow boundaries, steady and unsteady discontinuous surfaces, far field boundaries, and multiblock grids. In addition, the effects of numerical boundary approximations on stability, accuracy, and convergence rate of the numerical solution are discussed.

  2. Procedures and Policies Manual

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Jane M.

    2006-01-01

    This document was developed by the Middle Tennessee State University James E. Walker Library Collection Management Department to provide policies and procedural guidelines for the cataloging and processing of bibliographic materials. This document includes policies for cataloging monographs, serials, government documents, machine-readable data…

  3. PLATO Courseware Development Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahler, William A.; And Others

    This is an exploratory study of methods for the preparation of computer curriculum materials. It deals with courseware development procedures for the PLATO IV computer-based education system, and draws on interviews with over 100 persons engaged in courseware production. The report presents a five stage model of development: (1) planning, (2)…

  4. Office Procedures Curriculum Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Office of the State Superintendent of Public Instruction, Olympia. Div. of Vocational-Technical and Adult Education Services.

    This guideline is intended as a resource for instructors who are teaching an office procedures course. This course offers closure for all students completing a scope and sequence in the business education program--accounting, secretarial, office services, and related areas. The stated purpose of the course is to prepare a secondary learner for…

  5. Educational Accounting Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tidwell, Sam B.

    This chapter of "Principles of School Business Management" reviews the functions, procedures, and reports with which school business officials must be familiar in order to interpret and make decisions regarding the school district's financial position. Among the accounting functions discussed are financial management, internal auditing, annual…

  6. Visual Screening: A Procedure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Robert T.

    Vision is a complex process involving three phases: physical (acuity), physiological (integrative), and psychological (perceptual). Although these phases cannot be considered discrete, they provide the basis for the visual screening procedure used by the Reading Services of Colorado State University and described in this document. Ten tests are…

  7. Pediatric Procedural Pain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blount, Ronald L.; Piira, Tiina; Cohen, Lindsey L.; Cheng, Patricia S.

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews the various settings in which infants, children, and adolescents experience pain during acute medical procedures and issues related to referral of children to pain management teams. In addition, self-report, reports by others, physiological monitoring, and direct observation methods of assessment of pain and related constructs…

  8. Student Loan Collection Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of College and University Business Officers, Washington, DC.

    This manual on the collection of student loans is intended for the use of business officers and loan collection personnel of colleges and universities of all sizes. The introductory chapter is an overview of sound collection practices and procedures. It discusses the making of a loan, in-school servicing of the accounts, the exit interview, the…

  9. Grievance Procedure Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Gary J.

    This paper presents two actual problems involving grievance procedures. Both problems involve pending litigation and one of them involves pending arbitration. The first problem occurred in a wealthy Minnesota school district and involved a seniority list. Because of changes in the financial basis for supporting public schools, it became necessary…

  10. Special Education: Procedural Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dependents Schools (DOD), Washington, DC.

    The guide is intended to provide information to administrators and regional and local case study committees on special education procedures within Department of Defense Dependents Schools (DoDDS). The manual addresses a step-by step approach from referral to the implementation of individualized education programs (IEP). The following topics are…

  11. Inverse procedure for high-latitude ionospheric electrodynamics: Analysis of satellite-borne magnetometer data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuo, Tomoko; Knipp, Delores J.; Richmond, Arthur D.; Kilcommons, Liam; Anderson, Brian J.

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents an analysis of data from the magnetometers on board the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) F-15, F-16, F-17, and F-18 satellites and the Iridium satellite constellation, using an inverse procedure for high-latitude ionospheric electrodynamics, during the period of 29-30 May 2010. The Iridium magnetometer data are made available through the Active Magnetosphere and Planetary Electrodynamics Response Experiment (AMPERE) program. The method presented here is built upon the assimilative mapping of ionospheric electrodynamics procedure but with a more complete treatment of the prior model uncertainty to facilitate an optimal inference of complete polar maps of electrodynamic variables from irregularly distributed observational data. The procedure can provide an objective measure of uncertainty associated with the analysis. The cross-validation analysis, in which the DMSP data are used as independent validation data sets, suggests that the procedure yields the spatial prediction of DMSP perturbation magnetic fields from AMPERE data alone with a median discrepancy of 30-50 nT. Discrepancies larger than 100 nT are seen in about 20% of total samples, whose location and magnitude are generally consistent with the previously identified discrepancy between DMSP and AMPERE data sets. Resulting field-aligned current (FAC) patterns exhibit more distinct spatial patterns without spurious high-frequency oscillatory features in comparison to the FAC products provided by AMPERE. Maps of the toroidal magnetic potential and FAC estimated from both AMPERE and DMSP data under four distinctive interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) conditions during a magnetic cloud event demonstrate the IMF control of high-latitude electrodynamics and the opportunity for future scientific investigation.

  12. Procedural Quantum Programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ömer, Bernhard

    2002-09-01

    While classical computing science has developed a variety of methods and programming languages around the concept of the universal computer, the typical description of quantum algorithms still uses a purely mathematical, non-constructive formalism which makes no difference between a hydrogen atom and a quantum computer. This paper investigates, how the concept of procedural programming languages, the most widely used classical formalism for describing and implementing algorithms, can be adopted to the field of quantum computing, and how non-classical features like the reversibility of unitary transformations, the non-observability of quantum states or the lack of copy and erase operations can be reflected semantically. It introduces the key concepts of procedural quantum programming (hybrid target architecture, operator hierarchy, quantum data types, memory management, etc.) and presents the experimental language QCL, which implements these principles.

  13. Standards of neurosurgical procedures.

    PubMed

    Steiger, H J

    2001-01-01

    Written specifications with regard to procedures performed, equipment used, and training of the involved personnel are widely used in the industry and aviation to guarantee constant quality. Similar systems are progressively being introduced to medicine. We have made an effort to standardize surgical procedures by introducing step-by-step guidelines and checklists. The current experience shows that a system of written standards is applicable to neurosurgery and that the use of checklists contributes to the prevention of forgetting essential details. Written standards and checklists are also a useful training tool within a university hospital and facilitate communication of essentials to the residents. Comparison with aviation suggests that standardization leads to a remarkable but nonetheless limited reduction of adverse incidents. PMID:11840739

  14. Automatic beamline calibration procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Corbett, W.J.; Lee, M.J.; Zambre, Y.

    1992-03-01

    Recent experience with the SLC and SPEAR accelerators have led to a well-defined set of procedures for calibration of the beamline model using the orbit fitting program, RESOLVE. Difference orbit analysis is used to calibrate quadrupole strengths, BPM sensitivities, corrector strengths, focusing effects from insertion devices, and to determine the source of dispersion and coupling errors. Absolute orbit analysis is used to locate quadrupole misalignments, BPM offsets, or beam loss. For light source applications, the photon beam source coordinates can be found. The result is an accurate model of the accelerator which can be used for machine control. In this paper, automatable beamline calibration procedures are outlined and illustrated with recent examples. 5 refs.

  15. Hard tissue laser procedures.

    PubMed

    Gimbel, C B

    2000-10-01

    A more conservative, less invasive treatment of the carious lesion has intrigued researchers and clinicians for decades. With over 170 million restorations placed worldwide each year, many of which could be treated using a laser, there exists an increasing need for understanding hard tissue laser procedures. An historical review of past scientific and clinical hard research, biophysics, and histology are discussed. A complete review of present applications and procedures along with their capabilities and limitations will give the clinician a better understanding. Clinical case studies, along with guidelines for tooth preparation and hard tissue laser applications and technological advances for diagnosis and treatment will give the clinician a look into the future. PMID:11048281

  16. Practical procedures: oxygen therapy.

    PubMed

    Olive, Sandra

    Knowing when to start patients on oxygen therapy can save lives, but ongoing assessment and evaluation must be carried out to ensure the treatment is safe and effective. This article outlines when oxygen therapy should be used and the procedures to follow. It also describes the delivery methods applicable to different patient groups, along with the appropriate target saturation ranges, and details relevant nurse competencies. PMID:26901946

  17. Musculoskeletal Aspiration Procedures

    PubMed Central

    Hansford, Barry Glenn; Stacy, Gregory Scott

    2012-01-01

    With advances in imaging technology, there has been a significant increase in the number and range of interventional musculoskeletal image-guided procedures. One of the most commonly performed image-guided musculoskeletal interventions is the diagnostic and therapeutic percutaneous aspiration and drainage of multiple types of intra-articular, juxta-articular, and intramuscular pathologic fluid collections. These procedures may be performed under fluoroscopic, ultrasound, computed tomography, or even magnetic resonance guidance depending on the location to be accessed, type of pathology, patient characteristics, and operator preference. Musculoskeletal image-guided aspiration and drainage procedures are minimally invasive and generally very safe while offering valuable diagnostic information as well as therapeutic benefit. This article focuses on the appropriate indications, contraindications, and general technique for accessing the major joints via imaging guidance. For each joint, we discuss pertinent anatomy, appropriate imaging modalities, and preferred approaches to gaining intra-articular access. Additionally, the article discusses some of the more frequently encountered juxta-articular and intramuscular fluid collections that can be accessed and aspirated via percutaneous intervention, with mention of the importance of recognizing extremity sarcomas that can mimic these benign collections. PMID:24293800

  18. Pipe Cleaning Operating Procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, D.; Wu, J.; /Fermilab

    1991-01-24

    This cleaning procedure outlines the steps involved in cleaning the high purity argon lines associated with the DO calorimeters. The procedure is broken down into 7 cycles: system setup, initial flush, wash, first rinse, second rinse, final rinse and drying. The system setup involves preparing the pump cart, line to be cleaned, distilled water, and interconnecting hoses and fittings. The initial flush is an off-line flush of the pump cart and its plumbing in order to preclude contaminating the line. The wash cycle circulates the detergent solution (Micro) at 180 degrees Fahrenheit through the line to be cleaned. The first rinse is then intended to rid the line of the majority of detergent and only needs to run for 30 minutes and at ambient temperature. The second rinse (if necessary) should eliminate the remaining soap residue. The final rinse is then intended to be a check that there is no remaining soap or other foreign particles in the line, particularly metal 'chips.' The final rinse should be run at 180 degrees Fahrenheit for at least 90 minutes. The filters should be changed after each cycle, paying particular attention to the wash cycle and the final rinse cycle return filters. These filters, which should be bagged and labeled, prove that the pipeline is clean. Only distilled water should be used for all cycles, especially rinsing. The level in the tank need not be excessive, merely enough to cover the heater float switch. The final rinse, however, may require a full 50 gallons. Note that most of the details of the procedure are included in the initial flush description. This section should be referred to if problems arise in the wash or rinse cycles.

  19. Interventional radiology neck procedures.

    PubMed

    Zabala Landa, R M; Korta Gómez, I; Del Cura Rodríguez, J L

    2016-05-01

    Ultrasonography has become extremely useful in the evaluation of masses in the head and neck. It enables us to determine the anatomic location of the masses as well as the characteristics of the tissues that compose them, thus making it possible to orient the differential diagnosis toward inflammatory, neoplastic, congenital, traumatic, or vascular lesions, although it is necessary to use computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging to determine the complete extension of certain lesions. The growing range of interventional procedures, mostly guided by ultrasonography, now includes biopsies, drainages, infiltrations, sclerosing treatments, and tumor ablation. PMID:27138033

  20. Radiometric correction procedure study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colby, C.; Sands, R.; Murphrey, S.

    1978-01-01

    A comparison of MSS radiometric processing techniques identified as a preferred radiometric processing technique a procedure which equalizes the mean and standard deviation of detector-specific histograms of uncalibrated scene data. Evaluation of MSS calibration data demonstrated that the relationship between detector responses is essentially linear over the range of intensities typically observed in MSS data, and that the calibration wedge data possess a high degree of temporal stability. An analysis of the preferred radiometric processing technique showed that it could be incorporated into the MDP-MSS system without a major redesign of the system, and with minimal impact on system throughput.

  1. Clarification Procedure for Gels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barber, Patrick G.; Simpson, Norman R.

    1987-01-01

    Procedure developed to obtain transparent gels with consistencies suitable for crystal growth, by replacing sodium ions in silicate solution with potassium ions. Clarification process uses cation-exchange resin to replace sodium ions in stock solution with potassium ions, placed in 1M solution of soluble potassium salt. Slurry stirred for several hours to allow potassium ions to replace all other cations on resin. Supernatant solution decanted through filter, and beads rinsed with distilled water. Rinsing removes excess salt but leaves cation-exchange beads fully charged with potassium ions.

  2. Surface cleanliness measurement procedure

    DOEpatents

    Schroder, Mark Stewart; Woodmansee, Donald Ernest; Beadie, Douglas Frank

    2002-01-01

    A procedure and tools for quantifying surface cleanliness are described. Cleanliness of a target surface is quantified by wiping a prescribed area of the surface with a flexible, bright white cloth swatch, preferably mounted on a special tool. The cloth picks up a substantial amount of any particulate surface contamination. The amount of contamination is determined by measuring the reflectivity loss of the cloth before and after wiping on the contaminated system and comparing that loss to a previous calibration with similar contamination. In the alternative, a visual comparison of the contaminated cloth to a contamination key provides an indication of the surface cleanliness.

  3. Advanced crew procedures development techniques: Procedures and performance program description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arbet, J. D.; Mangiaracina, A. A.

    1975-01-01

    The Procedures and Performance Program (PPP) for operation in conjunction with the Shuttle Procedures Simulator (SPS) is described. The PPP user interface, the SPS/PPP interface, and the PPP applications software are discussed.

  4. Interventional spinal procedures.

    PubMed

    Andreula, Cosma; Muto, Mario; Leonardi, Marco

    2004-05-01

    The interventional procedures for disk herniation and protrusion by percutaneous techniques are decompressive such as chemodiscolysis with chimopapain, nucleo-discectomy introduced by Onik, LASER discectomy, and recently nucleoplasty, and decompressive and direct antinflammatory such as chemiodiscolysis with an Oxygen-ozone mixture. These techniques have minimized the invasive nature of surgery and avoid or decrease complications like infection linked to surgery. Reducing intervertebral disc size by mechanical aspiration of a part of the disc or partially dissolving the herniation by drying reduces the conic pressure on the torn annulus and creates the space necessary for retropulsion whenever the circular fibres of the annulus regain a minimum capacity to contain the disc under tension. The proposed suggestion in these techniques is that a small change in volume produces large change in pressure. The success rates reported in different studies vary from 65 to 80% of excellent or good results with chemonucleolysis and aspiration. Vertebroplasty (VP) is done by percutaneous injection of acrylic cement (polymethylmetacrylate-PMMA) into the vertebrae under fluoroscopic and/or CT control to achieve an antalgic effect and stabilize the vertebral body. VP has been used for vertebral collapses caused by osteoporosis, long-term steroid treatment, aggressive symptomatic angiomas and lytic metastasis. The reported figures in literature are 80-95% of pain relief, within 7 days after procedure, commonly on the same day. PMID:15081127

  5. Designing Flight Deck Procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degani, Asaf; Wiener, Earl

    2005-01-01

    Three reports address the design of flight-deck procedures and various aspects of human interaction with cockpit systems that have direct impact on flight safety. One report, On the Typography of Flight- Deck Documentation, discusses basic research about typography and the kind of information needed by designers of flight deck documentation. Flight crews reading poorly designed documentation may easily overlook a crucial item on the checklist. The report surveys and summarizes the available literature regarding the design and typographical aspects of printed material. It focuses on typographical factors such as proper typefaces, character height, use of lower- and upper-case characters, line length, and spacing. Graphical aspects such as layout, color coding, fonts, and character contrast are discussed; and several cockpit conditions such as lighting levels and glare are addressed, as well as usage factors such as angular alignment, paper quality, and colors. Most of the insights and recommendations discussed in this report are transferable to paperless cockpit systems of the future and computer-based procedure displays (e.g., "electronic flight bag") in aerospace systems and similar systems that are used in other industries such as medical, nuclear systems, maritime operations, and military systems.

  6. Surgical Procedures for Vestibular Dysfunction

    MedlinePlus

    ... Rated Nonprofit! Volunteer. Donate. Review. Surgical Procedures for Vestibular Dysfunction When is surgery necessary? When medical treatment ... organ (cochlea) is also sacrificed with this procedure. Vestibular nerve section A vestibular nerve section is a ...

  7. General procedure for gaging streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carter, R.W.; Davidian, Jacob

    1968-01-01

    This chapter briefly describes the objectives and procedures used in obtaining streamflow records. It is considered an introduction to other chapters on surface-water techniques which treat individual procedures in greater detail.

  8. Standards and procedures for INTERACT

    SciTech Connect

    Bonnet, J.M.

    1981-01-01

    There is presented a checklist of items that writers of execute procedures should consider when developing procedures for public use or exchange among INTERACT user sites. An example using the checklist is also given. 4 figures.

  9. MECHANIZATION OF CATALOGING PROCEDURES.

    PubMed

    KILGOUR, F G

    1965-04-01

    The Columbia-Harvard-Yale Medical Libraries Computerization Project has put into operation its mechanized procedure for the production of catalog cards. Cards produced are in final form ready to be filed into a card catalog. Catalogers prepare copy on a worksheet from which punched cards are punched. An IBM 1401 computer processes the decklets of punched cards on magnetic tape to produce the expanded decklets of punched cards needed to print the various packs of catalog cards required to go into different catalogs. Next, the computer punches the expanded decklets of cards to operate an 870 Document Writer, which types out the catalog cards in final form. Cost of cards ready to file is 12.5 cents per card. PMID:14271110

  10. Nursing Procedures. NAVMED P-5066.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Medicine and Surgery (Navy), Washington, DC.

    The revised manual of nursing procedures covers fundamental nursing care, admission and discharge of the patient, assisting with therapeutic measures, pre- and postoperative care, diagnostic tests and procedures, and isolation technique. Each of the over 300 topics includes the purpose, equipment, and procedure to be used and, where relevant, such…

  11. Policy and Procedures Manual. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi State Board for Community and Junior Colleges, Jackson.

    The Mississippi State Board for Community and Junior College Policy and Procedures Manual has been established by the State Board to govern its actions and activities and those of the staff. It describes polices and procedures regarding board operations, staff employment, staff workplace, employee performance/grievance procedure, staff positions,…

  12. Group Syntality and Parliamentary Procedure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winn, Larry James; Kell, Carl L.

    The group syntality concept of Raymond B. Cattell furnishes a useful framework for teaching parliamentary procedure. Although there are contrasts between the histories, subject matters, and perspectives of the areas of parliamentary procedure and group dynamics, teachers and students of parliamentary procedure might profitably draw from some of…

  13. Advanced crew procedures development techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arbet, J. D.; Benbow, R. L.; Mangiaracina, A. A.; Mcgavern, J. L.; Spangler, M. C.; Tatum, I. C.

    1975-01-01

    The development of an operational computer program, the Procedures and Performance Program (PPP), is reported which provides a procedures recording and crew/vehicle performance monitoring capability. The PPP provides real time CRT displays and postrun hardcopy of procedures, difference procedures, performance, performance evaluation, and training script/training status data. During post-run, the program is designed to support evaluation through the reconstruction of displays to any point in time. A permanent record of the simulation exercise can be obtained via hardcopy output of the display data, and via magnetic tape transfer to the Generalized Documentation Processor (GDP). Reference procedures data may be transferred from the GDP to the PPP.

  14. [Neural basis of procedural memory].

    PubMed

    Mochizuki-Kawai, Hiroko

    2008-07-01

    Procedural memory is acquired by trial and error. Our daily life is supported by a number of procedural memories such as those for riding bicycle, typing, reading words, etc. Procedural memory is divided into 3 types; motor, perceptual, and cognitive. Here, the author reviews the cognitive and neural basis of procedural memory according to these 3 types. It is reported that the basal ganglia or cerebellum dysfunction causes deficits in procedural memory. Compared with age-matched healthy participants, patients with Parkinson disease (PD), Huntington disease (HD) or spinocerebellar degeneration (SCD) show deterioration in improvements in motor-type procedural memory tasks. Previous neuroimaging studies have reported that motor-type procedural memory may be supported by multiple brain regions, including the frontal and parietal regions as well as the basal ganglia (cerebellum); this was found with a serial reaction time task (SRT task). Although 2 other types of procedural memory are also maintained by multiple brain regions, the related cerebral areas depend on the type of memory. For example, it was suggested that acquisition of the perceptual type of procedural memory (e.g., ability to read mirror images of words) might be maintained by the bilateral fusiform region, while the acquisition of cognitive procedural memory might be supported by the frontal, parietal, or cerebellar regions as well as the basal ganglia. In the future, we need to cleary understand the neural "network" related to the procedural memory. PMID:18646622

  15. NASA trend analysis procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This publication is primarily intended for use by NASA personnel engaged in managing or implementing trend analysis programs. 'Trend analysis' refers to the observation of current activity in the context of the past in order to infer the expected level of future activity. NASA trend analysis was divided into 5 categories: problem, performance, supportability, programmatic, and reliability. Problem trend analysis uncovers multiple occurrences of historical hardware or software problems or failures in order to focus future corrective action. Performance trend analysis observes changing levels of real-time or historical flight vehicle performance parameters such as temperatures, pressures, and flow rates as compared to specification or 'safe' limits. Supportability trend analysis assesses the adequacy of the spaceflight logistics system; example indicators are repair-turn-around time and parts stockage levels. Programmatic trend analysis uses quantitative indicators to evaluate the 'health' of NASA programs of all types. Finally, reliability trend analysis attempts to evaluate the growth of system reliability based on a decreasing rate of occurrence of hardware problems over time. Procedures for conducting all five types of trend analysis are provided in this publication, prepared through the joint efforts of the NASA Trend Analysis Working Group.

  16. Transgenesis procedures in Xenopus

    PubMed Central

    Chesneau, Albert; Sachs, Laurent M.; Chai, Norin; Chen, Yonglong; Pasquier, Louis Du; Loeber, Jana; Pollet, Nicolas; Reilly, Michael; Weeks, Daniel L.; Bronchain, Odile J.

    2010-01-01

    Stable integration of foreign DNA into the frog genome has been the purpose of several studies aimed at generating transgenic animals or producing mutations of endogenous genes. Inserting DNA into a host genome can be achieved in a number of ways. In Xenopus, different strategies have been developed which exhibit specific molecular and technical features. Although several of these technologies were also applied in various model organizms, the attributes of each method have rarely been experimentally compared. Investigators are thus confronted with a difficult choice to discriminate which method would be best suited for their applications. To gain better understanding, a transgenesis workshop was organized by the X-omics consortium. Three procedures were assessed side-by-side, and the results obtained are used to illustrate this review. In addition, a number of reagents and tools have been set up for the purpose of gene expression and functional gene analyses. This not only improves the status of Xenopus as a powerful model for developmental studies, but also renders it suitable for sophisticated genetic approaches. Twenty years after the first reported transgenic Xenopus, we review the state of the art of transgenic research, focusing on the new perspectives in performing genetic studies in this species. PMID:18699776

  17. The procedure safety system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obrien, Maureen E.

    1990-01-01

    Telerobotic operations, whether under autonomous or teleoperated control, require a much more sophisticated safety system than that needed for most industrial applications. Industrial robots generally perform very repetitive tasks in a controlled, static environment. The safety system in that case can be as simple as shutting down the robot if a human enters the work area, or even simply building a cage around the work space. Telerobotic operations, however, will take place in a dynamic, sometimes unpredictable environment, and will involve complicated and perhaps unrehearsed manipulations. This creates a much greater potential for damage to the robot or objects in its vicinity. The Procedural Safety System (PSS) collects data from external sensors and the robot, then processes it through an expert system shell to determine whether an unsafe condition or potential unsafe condition exists. Unsafe conditions could include exceeding velocity, acceleration, torque, or joint limits, imminent collision, exceeding temperature limits, and robot or sensor component failure. If a threat to safety exists, the operator is warned. If the threat is serious enough, the robot is halted. The PSS, therefore, uses expert system technology to enhance safety thus reducing operator work load, allowing him/her to focus on performing the task at hand without the distraction of worrying about violating safety criteria.

  18. Inflight IFR procedures simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, L. C. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    An inflight IFR procedures simulator for generating signals and commands to conventional instruments provided in an airplane is described. The simulator includes a signal synthesizer which generates predetermined simulated signals corresponding to signals normally received from remote sources upon being activated. A computer is connected to the signal synthesizer and causes the signal synthesizer to produce simulated signals responsive to programs fed into the computer. A switching network is connected to the signal synthesizer, the antenna of the aircraft, and navigational instruments and communication devices for selectively connecting instruments and devices to the synthesizer and disconnecting the antenna from the navigational instruments and communication device. Pressure transducers are connected to the altimeter and speed indicator for supplying electrical signals to the computer indicating the altitude and speed of the aircraft. A compass is connected for supply electrical signals for the computer indicating the heading of the airplane. The computer upon receiving signals from the pressure transducer and compass, computes the signals that are fed to the signal synthesizer which, in turn, generates simulated navigational signals.

  19. MUSE optical alignment procedure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurent, Florence; Renault, Edgard; Loupias, Magali; Kosmalski, Johan; Anwand, Heiko; Bacon, Roland; Boudon, Didier; Caillier, Patrick; Daguisé, Eric; Dubois, Jean-Pierre; Dupuy, Christophe; Kelz, Andreas; Lizon, Jean-Louis; Nicklas, Harald; Parès, Laurent; Remillieux, Alban; Seifert, Walter; Valentin, Hervé; Xu, Wenli

    2012-09-01

    MUSE (Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer) is a second generation VLT integral field spectrograph (1x1arcmin² Field of View) developed for the European Southern Observatory (ESO), operating in the visible wavelength range (0.465-0.93 μm). A consortium of seven institutes is currently assembling and testing MUSE in the Integration Hall of the Observatoire de Lyon for the Preliminary Acceptance in Europe, scheduled for 2013. MUSE is composed of several subsystems which are under the responsibility of each institute. The Fore Optics derotates and anamorphoses the image at the focal plane. A Splitting and Relay Optics feed the 24 identical Integral Field Units (IFU), that are mounted within a large monolithic instrument mechanical structure. Each IFU incorporates an image slicer, a fully refractive spectrograph with VPH-grating and a detector system connected to a global vacuum and cryogenic system. During 2011, all MUSE subsystems were integrated, aligned and tested independently in each institute. After validations, the systems were shipped to the P.I. institute at Lyon and were assembled in the Integration Hall This paper describes the end-to-end optical alignment procedure of the MUSE instrument. The design strategy, mixing an optical alignment by manufacturing (plug and play approach) and few adjustments on key components, is presented. We depict the alignment method for identifying the optical axis using several references located in pupil and image planes. All tools required to perform the global alignment between each subsystem are described. The success of this alignment approach is demonstrated by the good results for the MUSE image quality. MUSE commissioning at the VLT (Very Large Telescope) is planned for 2013.

  20. Documenting Laboratory Procedures with Video

    PubMed Central

    Wyttenbach, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    Demonstrating laboratory procedures in person during class time can be time-consuming. When procedures are done under a microscope, live demonstration is also impractical because of the limited number of students who can view the demonstration at once. Creating videos beforehand, which students can watch before class and review during lab sessions, solves both of these problems. This article suggests ways to make and distribute high quality video of microscopic procedures. PMID:26240520

  1. An evaluation of procedure 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, S. G.; Heydorn, R. P.; Misra, P. N.; Lee, W., Jr.; Smart, R. T. (Principal Investigator)

    1979-01-01

    LACIE Procedure 1 has undergone continuous testing and evaluation, starting with analytical and experimental studies even before it was implemented in ERIPS software and continuing to the present with performance evaluations using blind-site data. The strengths and weaknesses of the procedure are indicated and some areas for possible improvement are identified. Results from three of the experiments performed and an evaluation of LACIE Procedure 1 proportion estimates for some blind-site segments are discussed.

  2. Documenting Laboratory Procedures with Video.

    PubMed

    Wyttenbach, Robert A

    2015-01-01

    Demonstrating laboratory procedures in person during class time can be time-consuming. When procedures are done under a microscope, live demonstration is also impractical because of the limited number of students who can view the demonstration at once. Creating videos beforehand, which students can watch before class and review during lab sessions, solves both of these problems. This article suggests ways to make and distribute high quality video of microscopic procedures. PMID:26240520

  3. Electronic Procedures for Medical Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2015-01-01

    Electronic procedures are replacing text-based documents for recording the steps in performing medical operations aboard the International Space Station. S&K Aerospace, LLC, has developed a content-based electronic system-based on the Extensible Markup Language (XML) standard-that separates text from formatting standards and tags items contained in procedures so they can be recognized by other electronic systems. For example, to change a standard format, electronic procedures are changed in a single batch process, and the entire body of procedures will have the new format. Procedures can be quickly searched to determine which are affected by software and hardware changes. Similarly, procedures are easily shared with other electronic systems. The system also enables real-time data capture and automatic bookmarking of current procedure steps. In Phase II of the project, S&K Aerospace developed a Procedure Representation Language (PRL) and tools to support the creation and maintenance of electronic procedures for medical operations. The goal is to develop these tools in such a way that new advances can be inserted easily, leading to an eventual medical decision support system.

  4. Laboratory Procedures for Medical Assistants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Pauline

    The purpose of the manual is to provide the medical assisting student a text which presents the common laboratory procedures in use today in physician's offices. The procedures for performing a complete urinalysis are outlined, along with those for carrying out various hematological tests. Information is also presented to help the student learn to…

  5. A Procedure for Morphological Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapin, Paul G.; Norton, Lewis M.

    A procedure, designated "MORPH," has been developed for the automatic morphological analysis of complex English words. Each word is reduced to a stem in canonical or dictionary form, plus affixes, inflectional and derivational, represented as morphemes or as syntactic features of the stem. The procedure includes the task of analyzing as many…

  6. Accounting Procedures for Student Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

    This two-part handbook presents information on accounting procedures for student organizations, with a focus on the laws, policies, and procedures that affect student body organizations. Part 1 contains information about: (1) legal status of a school's student body organization; (2) principles governing student body finance; (3) administration of…

  7. EVALUATION OF OZONE CALIBRATION PROCEDURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    In October of 1976, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency announced that the calibration procedure then currently in use for reference methods for the measurement of ozone in the atmosphere -- the neutral buffered potassium iodide procedure -- had been found variable and in so...

  8. Characteristics of Multiple Comparison Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yusuf, Mian Muhammad; And Others

    Multiple comparison procedures (MCPs), in the context of analysis of variance, are becoming more popular than the overall F tests. An attempt is made to clarify confusion among the different MCPs by systematically comparing and contrasting the procedures in terms of their purposes, restrictions, robustness to assumptions, and other special…

  9. Developing Competency in Payroll Procedures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Allen L.

    1975-01-01

    The author describes a sequence of units that provides for competency in payroll procedures. The units could be the basis for a four to six week minicourse and are adaptable, so that the student, upon completion, will be able to apply his learning to any payroll procedures system. (Author/AJ)

  10. Ultrasound-Guided Hip Procedures.

    PubMed

    Payne, Jeffrey M

    2016-08-01

    This article describes the techniques for performing ultrasound-guided procedures in the hip region, including intra-articular hip injection, iliopsoas bursa injection, greater trochanter bursa injection, ischial bursa injection, and piriformis muscle injection. The common indications, pitfalls, accuracy, and efficacy of these procedures are also addressed. PMID:27468669

  11. Writer's Guide for technical procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    A primary objective throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) complex is that operations be conducted in a deliberate and controlled manner with emphasis upon recognition and maintenance of the facility-specific safety envelope. One critical element of maintaining the safety envelope is procedures. DOE is providing guidance through this and other writer's guides to assist procedure writers across the DOE complex in producing accurate, complete, and usable procedures that promote safe and efficient operations in keeping with such DOE Orders as 5480.19, Conduct of Operations for DOE Facilities'', 5480.5, Safety of Nuclear facilities'', and 5480.6, Safety of Department of Energy-Owned Nuclear Reactors''. This Writer's Guide addresses the content, format, and style of technical procedures (procedures that prescribe production, operation of equipment and facilities, and maintenance activities) and is intended to be applied in a manner appropriate to the individual facility, 15 refs.

  12. Prediction of 10-fold coordinated TiO2 and SiO2 structures at multimegabar pressures

    PubMed Central

    Lyle, Matthew J.; Pickard, Chris J.; Needs, Richard J.

    2015-01-01

    We predict by first-principles methods a phase transition in TiO2 at 6.5 Mbar from the Fe2P-type polymorph to a ten-coordinated structure with space group I4/mmm. This is the first report, to our knowledge, of the pressure-induced phase transition to the I4/mmm structure among all dioxide compounds. The I4/mmm structure was found to be up to 3.3% denser across all pressures investigated. Significant differences were found in the electronic properties of the two structures, and the metallization of TiO2 was calculated to occur concomitantly with the phase transition to I4/mmm. The implications of our findings were extended to SiO2, and an analogous Fe2P-type to I4/mmm transition was found to occur at 10 TPa. This is consistent with the lower-pressure phase transitions of TiO2, which are well-established models for the phase transitions in other AX2 compounds, including SiO2. As in TiO2, the transition to I4/mmm corresponds to the metallization of SiO2. This transformation is in the pressure range reached in the interiors of recently discovered extrasolar planets and calls for a reformulation of the equations of state used to model them. PMID:25991859

  13. Prediction of 10-fold coordinated TiO2 and SiO2 structures at multimegabar pressures.

    PubMed

    Lyle, Matthew J; Pickard, Chris J; Needs, Richard J

    2015-06-01

    We predict by first-principles methods a phase transition in TiO2 at 6.5 Mbar from the Fe2P-type polymorph to a ten-coordinated structure with space group I4/mmm. This is the first report, to our knowledge, of the pressure-induced phase transition to the I4/mmm structure among all dioxide compounds. The I4/mmm structure was found to be up to 3.3% denser across all pressures investigated. Significant differences were found in the electronic properties of the two structures, and the metallization of TiO2 was calculated to occur concomitantly with the phase transition to I4/mmm. The implications of our findings were extended to SiO2, and an analogous Fe2P-type to I4/mmm transition was found to occur at 10 TPa. This is consistent with the lower-pressure phase transitions of TiO2, which are well-established models for the phase transitions in other AX2 compounds, including SiO2. As in TiO2, the transition to I4/mmm corresponds to the metallization of SiO2. This transformation is in the pressure range reached in the interiors of recently discovered extrasolar planets and calls for a reformulation of the equations of state used to model them. PMID:25991859

  14. The H50Q mutation induces a 10-fold decrease in the solubility of α-synuclein.

    PubMed

    Porcari, Riccardo; Proukakis, Christos; Waudby, Christopher A; Bolognesi, Benedetta; Mangione, P Patrizia; Paton, Jack F S; Mullin, Stephen; Cabrita, Lisa D; Penco, Amanda; Relini, Annalisa; Verona, Guglielmo; Vendruscolo, Michele; Stoppini, Monica; Tartaglia, Gian Gaetano; Camilloni, Carlo; Christodoulou, John; Schapira, Anthony H V; Bellotti, Vittorio

    2015-01-23

    The conversion of α-synuclein from its intrinsically disordered monomeric state into the fibrillar cross-β aggregates characteristically present in Lewy bodies is largely unknown. The investigation of α-synuclein variants causative of familial forms of Parkinson disease can provide unique insights into the conditions that promote or inhibit aggregate formation. It has been shown recently that a newly identified pathogenic mutation of α-synuclein, H50Q, aggregates faster than the wild-type. We investigate here its aggregation propensity by using a sequence-based prediction algorithm, NMR chemical shift analysis of secondary structure populations in the monomeric state, and determination of thermodynamic stability of the fibrils. Our data show that the H50Q mutation induces only a small increment in polyproline II structure around the site of the mutation and a slight increase in the overall aggregation propensity. We also find, however, that the H50Q mutation strongly stabilizes α-synuclein fibrils by 5.0 ± 1.0 kJ mol(-1), thus increasing the supersaturation of monomeric α-synuclein within the cell, and strongly favors its aggregation process. We further show that wild-type α-synuclein can decelerate the aggregation kinetics of the H50Q variant in a dose-dependent manner when coaggregating with it. These last findings suggest that the precise balance of α-synuclein synthesized from the wild-type and mutant alleles may influence the natural history and heterogeneous clinical phenotype of Parkinson disease. PMID:25505181

  15. 13 Years of TOPEX/POSEIDON Precision Orbit Determination and the 10-fold Improvement in Expected Orbit Accuracy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemoine, F. G.; Zelensky, N. P.; Luthcke, S. B.; Rowlands, D. D.; Beckley, B. D.; Klosko, S. M.

    2006-01-01

    Launched in the summer of 1992, TOPEX/POSEIDON (T/P) was a joint mission between NASA and the Centre National d Etudes Spatiales (CNES), the French Space Agency, to make precise radar altimeter measurements of the ocean surface. After the remarkably successful 13-years of mapping the ocean surface T/P lost its ability to maneuver and was de-commissioned January 2006. T/P revolutionized the study of the Earth s oceans by vastly exceeding pre-launch estimates of surface height accuracy recoverable from radar altimeter measurements. The precision orbit lies at the heart of the altimeter measurement providing the reference frame from which the radar altimeter measurements are made. The expected quality of orbit knowledge had limited the measurement accuracy expectations of past altimeter missions, and still remains a major component in the error budget of all altimeter missions. This paper describes critical improvements made to the T/P orbit time series over the 13-years of precise orbit determination (POD) provided by the GSFC Space Geodesy Laboratory. The POD improvements from the pre-launch T/P expectation of radial orbit accuracy and Mission requirement of 13-cm to an expected accuracy of about 1.5-cm with today s latest orbits will be discussed. The latest orbits with 1.5 cm RMS radial accuracy represent a significant improvement to the 2.0-cm accuracy orbits currently available on the T/P Geophysical Data Record (GDR) altimeter product.

  16. Back to basics: procedural sedation.

    PubMed

    Spruce, Lisa

    2015-03-01

    Patients undergoing surgery frequently receive procedural sedation from RNs in the perioperative setting. With appropriate training, perioperative RNs can administer procedural sedation safely and effectively, helping to eliminate the pain and anxiety often experienced by patients. Facility sedation protocols should provide guidance on training requirements, the RN's role, the credentialing process, the medications the RN may use, and when anesthesia personnel should be consulted. Creating these protocols is guided by state scope of practice laws, Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services Interpretive Guidelines, and accreditation requirements. Training, physician guidance, and appropriate protocols give the necessary support for perioperative nurses to provide safe and effective procedural sedation. PMID:25707727

  17. Practical pearls for oral procedures.

    PubMed

    Davari, Parastoo; Fazel, Nasim

    2016-01-01

    We provide an overview of clinically relevant principles of oral surgical procedures required in the workup and management of oral mucosal diseases. An understanding of the fundamental concepts of how to perform safely and effectively minor oral procedures is important to the practicing dermatologist and can minimize the need for patient referrals. This chapter reviews the principles of minor oral procedures, including incisional, excisional, and punch biopsies, as well as minor salivary gland excision. Pre- and postoperative patient care is also discussed. PMID:27343958

  18. Urinary incontinence - vaginal sling procedures

    MedlinePlus

    ... types of surgeries that help control stress urinary incontinence . This is urine leakage that happens when you ... sling procedures are done to treat stress urinary incontinence. Before discussing surgery, your doctor will have you ...

  19. Loop Electrosurgical Excision Procedure (LEEP)

    MedlinePlus

    ... that acts like a scalpel (surgical knife). An electric current is passed through the loop, which cuts away ... A procedure in which an instrument works with electric current to destroy tissue. Local Anesthesia: The use of ...

  20. Surface Environmental Surveillance Procedures Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Hanf, RW; Dirkes, RL

    1990-02-01

    This manual establishes the procedures for the collection of environmental samples and the performance of radiation surveys and other field measurements. Responsibilities are defined for those personnel directly involved in the collection of samples and the performance of field measurements.

  1. Bronchoplastic procedures for lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Naruke, T; Yoneyama, T; Ogata, T; Suemasu, K

    1977-06-01

    Twenty patients with lung cancer have undergone bronchoplastic procedures September, 1965, to June, 1976 in our hospital. Bronchoplastic procedures are considered to be indicated for early cases of hilar lung cancer rather than for somewhat advanced cases. Endoscopic examination and roentgenograms of the bronchial arteries are needed to delineate resectional lines of bronchus, the former for deciding the mucosal extent and the latter the intrabronchial extent of the tumor. The bronchoplastic procedures we adopted were free from the risks and dangers generally accompanying the operation, and there were no postoperative deaths. For the prevention of postoperative complications, careful attention to suture technique is needed, and postoperative bronchoscopic suction of intrabronchial secretions is absolutely necessary. These procedures assure good quality of life postoperatively and improvement in the survival rate by preserving pulmonary function, enhancing curability, and increasing the operative indications. These advantages warrant high evaluation of the operation. PMID:870767

  2. Quarantine document system indexing procedure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The Quarantine Document System (QDS) is described including the indexing procedures and thesaurus of indexing terms. The QDS consists of these functional elements: acquisition, cataloging, indexing, storage, and retrieval. A complete listing of the collection, and the thesaurus are included.

  3. Urinary incontinence - vaginal sling procedures

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007376.htm Urinary incontinence - vaginal sling procedures To use the sharing features ... are types of surgeries that help control stress urinary incontinence . This is urine leakage that happens when you ...

  4. REMEDIAL ACTION COSTING PROCEDURES MANUAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The manual provides specific procedures for the cost estimating and economic analysis steps required for preparing engineering cost estimates for selecting remedial action alternatives in response to the requirements of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and ...

  5. Adolescent test or procedure preparation

    MedlinePlus

    ... someone else) during the procedure Playing hand-held video games Using guided imagery Trying other distractions, such as ... effects the test may cause. Older adolescents may benefit from videos that show adolescents of the same ...

  6. Adolescent test or procedure preparation

    MedlinePlus

    ... else) during the procedure Playing hand-held video games Using guided imagery Trying other distractions, such as ... Alexander M. Managing patient stress in pediatric radiology. Radiol Technol . ... . Bray L, Callery P, Kirk S. A qualitative study ...

  7. Preschooler test or procedure preparation

    MedlinePlus

    ... procedure or other situation to ensure your child's safety. Restraints may be used to keep your child safe when staff temporarily have to leave the room during x-ray and nuclear studies. They may also be used when a ...

  8. Establishment of new asylum procedures.

    PubMed

    1988-01-01

    As of May 1988, the Austrian Government instituted new accelerated asylum procedures which enable applicants to know within a short time whether they are granted refugee status. Those who are not granted such status are refused further government assistance and asked to leave the country. This change in procedures was undertaken in part because of the increased number of applicants resulting from the abolishment of the visa requirement for citizens of Hungary and Poland travelling to Austria. PMID:12289355

  9. Collected radiochemical and geochemical procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Kleinberg, J

    1990-05-01

    This revision of LA-1721, 4th Ed., Collected Radiochemical Procedures, reflects the activities of two groups in the Isotope and Nuclear Chemistry Division of the Los Alamos National Laboratory: INC-11, Nuclear and radiochemistry; and INC-7, Isotope Geochemistry. The procedures fall into five categories: I. Separation of Radionuclides from Uranium, Fission-Product Solutions, and Nuclear Debris; II. Separation of Products from Irradiated Targets; III. Preparation of Samples for Mass Spectrometric Analysis; IV. Dissolution Procedures; and V. Geochemical Procedures. With one exception, the first category of procedures is ordered by the positions of the elements in the Periodic Table, with separate parts on the Representative Elements (the A groups); the d-Transition Elements (the B groups and the Transition Triads); and the Lanthanides (Rare Earths) and Actinides (the 4f- and 5f-Transition Elements). The members of Group IIIB-- scandium, yttrium, and lanthanum--are included with the lanthanides, elements they resemble closely in chemistry and with which they occur in nature. The procedures dealing with the isolation of products from irradiated targets are arranged by target element.

  10. Reporting Child Language Sampling Procedures

    PubMed Central

    Finestack, Lizbeth H.; Payesteh, Bita; Disher, Jill Rentmeester; Julien, Hannah M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Despite the long history of language sampling use in the study of child language development and disorders, there are no set guidelines specifying the reporting of language sampling procedures. The authors propose reporting standards for use by investigators who employ language samples in their research. Method The authors conducted a literature search of child-focused studies published in journals of the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association between January 2000 and December 2011 that included language sampling procedures to help characterize child participants or to derive measures to serve as dependent variables. Following this search, they reviewed each study and documented the language sampling procedures reported. Results The authors’ synthesis revealed that approximately 25% of all child-focused studies use language samples to help characterize participants and/or derive dependent variables. They found remarkable inconsistencies in the reporting of language sampling procedures. Conclusion To maximize the conclusions drawn from research using language samples, the authors strongly encourage investigators of child language to consistently report language sampling procedures using the proposed reporting checklist. PMID:25399013

  11. 7 CFR 47.20 - Documentary procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Documentary procedure. 47.20 Section 47.20 Agriculture... Documentary procedure. (a) In general. The documentary procedure described in this section shall, whenever it... oral hearing procedure hereinbefore provided. Under the documentary procedure, the pleadings of...

  12. 7 CFR 47.20 - Documentary procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Documentary procedure. 47.20 Section 47.20 Agriculture... Documentary procedure. (a) In general. The documentary procedure described in this section shall, whenever it... oral hearing procedure hereinbefore provided. Under the documentary procedure, the pleadings of...

  13. 40 CFR 1033.315 - Test procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Test procedures. 1033.315 Section 1033... Programs § 1033.315 Test procedures. (a) Test procedures. Use the test procedures described in subpart F of this part, except as specified in this section. (1) You may ask to use other test procedures. We...

  14. 7 CFR 47.20 - Documentary procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Documentary procedure. 47.20 Section 47.20 Agriculture... Documentary procedure. (a) In general. The documentary procedure described in this section shall, whenever it... oral hearing procedure hereinbefore provided. Under the documentary procedure, the pleadings of...

  15. 7 CFR 47.20 - Documentary procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Documentary procedure. 47.20 Section 47.20 Agriculture... Documentary procedure. (a) In general. The documentary procedure described in this section shall, whenever it... oral hearing procedure hereinbefore provided. Under the documentary procedure, the pleadings of...

  16. 7 CFR 47.20 - Documentary procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Documentary procedure. 47.20 Section 47.20 Agriculture... Documentary procedure. (a) In general. The documentary procedure described in this section shall, whenever it... oral hearing procedure hereinbefore provided. Under the documentary procedure, the pleadings of...

  17. 40 CFR 1033.315 - Test procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Test procedures. 1033.315 Section 1033... Programs § 1033.315 Test procedures. (a) Test procedures. Use the test procedures described in subpart F of this part, except as specified in this section. (1) You may ask to use other test procedures. We...

  18. 40 CFR 1033.315 - Test procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Test procedures. 1033.315 Section 1033... Programs § 1033.315 Test procedures. (a) Test procedures. Use the test procedures described in subpart F of this part, except as specified in this section. (1) You may ask to use other test procedures. We...

  19. 34 CFR 303.170 - Procedural safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... process procedures in 34 CFR 300.506 through 300.512; or (2) The procedures that the State has developed... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true Procedural safeguards. 303.170 Section 303.170 Education... Procedural safeguards. Each application must include procedural safeguards that— (a) Are consistent...

  20. 34 CFR 303.170 - Procedural safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...— (1) The due process procedures in 34 CFR 300.506 through 300.512; or (2) The procedures that the... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Procedural safeguards. 303.170 Section 303.170... Requirements § 303.170 Procedural safeguards. Each application must include procedural safeguards that— (a)...

  1. MITG test procedure and results

    SciTech Connect

    Eck, M.B.; Mukunda, M.

    1983-01-01

    Elements and modules for Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator have been performance tested since the inception of the RTG program. These test articles seldom resembled flight hardware and often lacked adequate diagnostic instrumentation. Because of this, performance problems were not identified in the early stage of program development. The lack of test data in an unexpected area often hampered the development of a problem solution. A procedure for conducting the MITG Test was developed in an effort to obtain data in a systematic, unambiguous manner. This procedure required the development of extensive data acquisition software and test automation. The development of a facility to implement the test procedure, the facility hardware and software requirements, and the results of the MITG testing are the subject of this paper.

  2. Fluorometric procedures for dye tracing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, James F.; Cobb, Ernest D.; Kilpatrick, F.A.

    1986-01-01

    This manual describes the current fluorometric procedures used by the U.S. Geological Survey in dye tracer studies such as time of travel, dispersion, reaeration, and dilution-type discharge measurements. The advantages of dye tracing are (1) low detection and measurement limits and (2) simplicity and accuracy in measuring dye tracer concentrations using fluorometric techniques. The manual contains necessary background information about fluorescence, dyes, and fluorometers and a description of fluorometric operation and calibration procedures as a guide for laboratory and field use. The background information should be useful to anyone wishing to experiment with dyes, fluorometer components, or procedures different from those described. In addition, a brief section on aerial photography is included because of its possible use to supplement ground-level fluorometry.

  3. Fluorometric procedures for dye tracing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, James E., Jr.; Cobb, E.D.; Kilpatrick, F.A.

    1984-01-01

    This manual describes the current fluorometric procedures used by the U.S. Geological Survey in dye tracer studies such as time of travel, dispersion, reaeration, and dilution-type discharge measurements. The outstanding characteristics of dye tracing are: (1) the low detection and measurement limits, and (2) the simplicity and accuracy of measuring dye tracer concentrations using fluorometric techniques. The manual contains necessary background information about fluorescence, dyes, and fluorometers and a description of fluorometric operation and calibration procedures as a general guide for laboratory and field use. The background information should be useful to anyone wishing to experiment with dyes, fluorometer components, or procedures different from those described. In addition, a brief section is included on aerial photography because of its possible use to supplement ground-level fluorometry. (USGS)

  4. Fluorometric procedures for dye tracing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, James F.

    1968-01-01

    This manual describes the current fluorometric procedures used by the U.S. Geological Survey in dye tracer studies such as time of travel, dispersion, reaeration, and dilution-type discharge measurements. The advantages of dye tracing are (1) low detection and measurement limits and (2) simplicity and accuracy in measuring dye tracer concentrations using fluorometric techniques. The manual contains necessary background information about fluorescence, dyes, and fluorometers and a description of fluorometric operation and calibration procedures as a guide for laboratory and field use. The background information should be useful to anyone wishing to experiment with dyes, fluorometer components, or procedures different from those described. In addition, a brief section on aerial photography is included because of its possible use to supplement ground-level fluorometry.

  5. Authentication Procedures - The Procedures and Integration Working Group

    SciTech Connect

    Kouzes, Richard T.; Bratcher, Leigh; Gosnell, Tom; Langner, Diana; MacArthur, D.; Mihalczo, John T.; Pura, Carolyn; Riedy, Alex; Rexroth, Paul; Scott, Mary; Springarn, Jay

    2001-05-31

    Authentication is how we establish trust in monitoring systems and measurements to verify compliance with, for example, the storage of nuclear weapons material. Authentication helps assure the monitoring party that accurate and reliable information is provided by any measurement system and that any irregularities are detected. The U.S. is developing its point of view on the procedures for authentication of monitoring systems now planned or contemplated for arms reduction and control applications. The authentication of a system utilizes a set of approaches, including: functional testing using trusted calibration sources, evaluation of documentation, evaluation of software, evaluation of hardware, random selection of hardware and software, tamper-indicating devices, and operational procedures. Authentication of measurement systems should occur throughout their lifecycles, starting with the elements of design, and moving to off-site authentication, on-siste authentication, and continuing with authentication following repair. The most important of these is the initial design of systems. Hardware and software design criteria and procurement decisions can make future authentication relatively straightforward or conversely very difficult. Facility decisions can likewise ease the procedures for authentication since reliable and effective monitoring systems and tampering indicating devices can help provide the assurance needed in the integrity of such items as measurement systems, spare equipment, and reference sources. This paper will summarize the results of the U.S. Authentication Task Force discussion on the role of procedures in authentication.

  6. Tsallis’ entropy maximization procedure revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez, S.; Nicolás, F.; Pennini, F.; Plastino, A.

    2000-11-01

    The proper way of averaging is an important question with regards to Tsallis’ Thermostatistics. Three different procedures have been thus far employed in the pertinent literature. The third one, i.e., the Tsallis-Mendes-Plastino (TMP) (Physica A 261 (1998) 534) normalization procedure, exhibits clear advantages with respect to earlier ones. In this work, we advance a distinct (from the TMP-one) way of handling the Lagrange multipliers involved in the extremization process that leads to Tsallis’ statistical operator. It is seen that the new approach considerably simplifies the pertinent analysis without losing the beautiful properties of the Tsallis-Mendes-Plastino formalism.

  7. [Procedures for establishing professional liability].

    PubMed

    Budić, Nikolina

    2008-01-01

    All the greater exposure to the procedures for determining liability for the conduct of medical activity points to the need that members of the Croatian Medical Chamber know the basis for establishing liability. Therefore, it is necessary to expose the reasons why the doctors are professionals and what kind of responsibility can be determined, in which procedures it is implemented, and what are the types of possible sanctions. Croatian Medical Chamber has a special role is, as it at the same time protects the rights and represents the interests of doctors, and enforces disciplinary proceedings. PMID:19146187

  8. 1995 Procedure for nominating Fellows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    In 1994, there was a new procedure for nominating members of AGU for Fellowship for 1995. The new procedure was intended to increase the number of nominees. It required an initial nomination consisting only of a one-page letter and one-page cv. The Sections could make their selections prior to developing complete nomination packages for those candidates to be forwarded to the Union Committee. The timing of the process was changed so that Section committees would have more time to develop complete packages prior to forwarding their recommendations to the Union Committee.

  9. Landsat classification accuracy assessment procedures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mead, R. R.; Szajgin, John

    1982-01-01

    A working conference was held in Sioux Falls, South Dakota, 12-14 November, 1980 dealing with Landsat classification Accuracy Assessment Procedures. Thirteen formal presentations were made on three general topics: (1) sampling procedures, (2) statistical analysis techniques, and (3) examples of projects which included accuracy assessment and the associated costs, logistical problems, and value of the accuracy data to the remote sensing specialist and the resource manager. Nearly twenty conference attendees participated in two discussion sessions addressing various issues associated with accuracy assessment. This paper presents an account of the accomplishments of the conference.

  10. 48 CFR 45.202 - Evaluation procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... offeror's property management plans, methods, practices, or procedures for accounting for property are... MANAGEMENT GOVERNMENT PROPERTY Solicitation and Evaluation Procedures 45.202 Evaluation procedures. (a) The contracting officer shall consider any potentially unfair competitive advantage that may result from...

  11. Budgetary Control Procedures for Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Ray M.

    Budgetary control procedures for not-for-profit institutions are presented in this compilation of budgetary materials and ideas gathered at the Program for Institutional Administrators at the University of Notre Dame. Budgetary reporting and control are suggested as the most effective tools for coordinating and controlling the acquisition and use…

  12. Procedures for Handling Aerometric Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akland, Gerald G.; Nehls, Gerald J.

    1973-01-01

    Applying to air quality data, procedures are presented for site characterization, method identification, data validation, and data summarization that are being established by the Environmental Protection Agency for the National Aerometric Data Bank. Topics review screening criteria, atypical results (data outliers), data accuracy and precision,…

  13. Concepts & Procedures. [SITE 2002 Section].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarner, Ronald, Ed.; Mullick, Rosemary J., Ed.; Bauder, Deborah Y., Ed.

    This document contains the following full and short papers on concepts and procedures from the SITE (Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education) 2002 conference: "Exploring Minds Network" (Marino C. Alvarez and others); "Learning Communities: A Kaleidoscope of Ecological Designs" (Alain Breuleux and others); "PDA's and Research: A…

  14. Software Verification and Validation Procedure

    SciTech Connect

    Olund, Thomas S.

    2008-09-15

    This Software Verification and Validation procedure provides the action steps for the Tank Waste Information Network System (TWINS) testing process. The primary objective of the testing process is to provide assurance that the software functions as intended, and meets the requirements specified by the client. Verification and validation establish the primary basis for TWINS software product acceptance.

  15. Arkansas' Office Procedures Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clayton, Dean

    This curriculum guide provides teachers of office procedures classes with unit lesson plans and information about resource materials that can be examined, selected, and integrated into the instructional program. Contents are mainly established for the following two types of secondary-level programs: cooperative office education and intensive…

  16. Illustration of a Learning Procedure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borghouts-van Erp, J. W. M.

    The paper describes evolution of an approach to teaching mathematically disabled and slow learning students through a Piagetian framework. It is explained that a step-by-step procedure is used to internalize material actions into mental actions via perception and verbalization. Formulae are introduced early, and emphasis is placed on promoting…

  17. Rules of Procedure for Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Education Association, Washington, DC. Commission on Professional Rights and Responsibilities.

    Among the functions of the Commission on Professional Rights and Responsibilities of the NEA is the investigation of cases of alleged unethical conduct by members of the teaching profession. The rules of procedure for investigations presented in this document are intended to assure all parties in a conflict of their individual rights of procedural…

  18. Motivational Procedures in School Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klausmeier, Herbert J.

    Two concerns in education are student lack of motivation for achieving subject-matter knowledge and skills, and a high incidence of both disruptive and withdrawal behavior. The state of the art with respect to the motivational procedures teachers employ with students is in question. This paper attempts to answer by dealing with these related…

  19. The transfer of analytical procedures.

    PubMed

    Ermer, J; Limberger, M; Lis, K; Wätzig, H

    2013-11-01

    Analytical method transfers are certainly among the most discussed topics in the GMP regulated sector. However, they are surprisingly little regulated in detail. General information is provided by USP, WHO, and ISPE in particular. Most recently, the EU emphasized the importance of analytical transfer by including it in their draft of the revised GMP Guideline. In this article, an overview and comparison of these guidelines is provided. The key to success for method transfers is the excellent communication between sending and receiving unit. In order to facilitate this communication, procedures, flow charts and checklists for responsibilities, success factors, transfer categories, the transfer plan and report, strategies in case of failed transfers, tables with acceptance limits are provided here, together with a comprehensive glossary. Potential pitfalls are described such that they can be avoided. In order to assure an efficient and sustainable transfer of analytical procedures, a practically relevant and scientifically sound evaluation with corresponding acceptance criteria is crucial. Various strategies and statistical tools such as significance tests, absolute acceptance criteria, and equivalence tests are thoroughly descibed and compared in detail giving examples. Significance tests should be avoided. The success criterion is not statistical significance, but rather analytical relevance. Depending on a risk assessment of the analytical procedure in question, statistical equivalence tests are recommended, because they include both, a practically relevant acceptance limit and a direct control of the statistical risks. However, for lower risk procedures, a simple comparison of the transfer performance parameters to absolute limits is also regarded as sufficient. PMID:23978903

  20. Dynamic Assessment Procedure: A Validation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bednar, Maryanne R.; Kletzien, Sharon B.

    A preliminary study investigated the value of the Dynamic Assessment Procedure (DAP) for understanding reading behaviors of at-risk high-school-age students. The study also sought to determine teacher interest in and ability to use the DAP information to develop instructional plans. Subjects, 19 students with reading difficulties enrolled in 1…

  1. Environmental Impact Assessment: A Procedure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stover, Lloyd V.

    Prepared by a firm of consulting engineers, this booklet outlines the procedural "whys and hows" of assessing environmental impact, particularly for the construction industry. Section I explores the need for environmental assessment and evaluation to determine environmental impact. It utilizes a review of the National Environmental Policy Act and…

  2. Handbook on: Rights, Responsibilities, Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Dept. of Rehabilitation Services, Springfield.

    This handbook presents policies and procedures that affect three schools operated by the Illinois Department of Rehabilitation Services to serve students with disabilities: the Illinois Center for Rehabilitation and Education-Roosevelt, Illinois School for the Deaf, and the Illinois School for the Visually Impaired. The handbook includes…

  3. Network-Based Management Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckner, Allen L.

    Network-based management procedures serve as valuable aids in organizational management, achievement of objectives, problem solving, and decisionmaking. Network techniques especially applicable to educational management systems are the program evaluation and review technique (PERT) and the critical path method (CPM). Other network charting…

  4. Discourse Analysis Procedures: Reliability Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hux, Karen; And Others

    1997-01-01

    A study evaluated and compared four methods of assessing reliability on one discourse analysis procedure--a modified version of Damico's Clinical Discourse Analysis. The methods were Pearson product-moment correlations; interobserver agreement; Cohen's kappa; and generalizability coefficients. The strengths and weaknesses of the methods are…

  5. Current procedural terminology; a primer.

    PubMed

    Hirsch, Joshua A; Leslie-Mazwi, Thabele M; Nicola, Gregory N; Barr, Robert M; Bello, Jacqueline A; Donovan, William D; Tu, Raymond; Alson, Mark D; Manchikanti, Laxmaiah

    2015-04-01

    In 1966, The American Medical Association (AMA) working with multiple major medical specialty societies developed an iterative coding system for describing medical procedures and services using uniform language, the Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) system. The current code set, CPT IV, forms the basis of reporting most of the services performed by healthcare providers, physicians and non-physicians as well as facilities allowing effective, reliable communication among physician and other providers, third parties and patients. This coding system and its maintenance has evolved significantly since its inception, and now goes well beyond its readily perceived role in reimbursement. Additional roles include administrative management, tracking new and investigational procedures, and evolving aspects of 'pay for performance'. The system also allows for local, regional and national utilization comparisons for medical education and research. Neurointerventional specialists use CPT category I codes regularly--for example, 36,215 for first-order cerebrovascular angiography, 36,216 for second-order vessels, and 37,184 for acute stroke treatment by mechanical means. Additionally, physicians add relevant modifiers to the CPT codes, such as '-26' to indicate 'professional charge only,' or '-59' to indicate a distinct procedural service performed on the same day. PMID:24589819

  6. Program Planning Procedures Wall Chart.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Right to Read Unit.

    These ten program planning procedure wall charts include: "Right to Read Center Data," for identifying school, grade, enrollment by grade, size of community, ethnic balance, percentage on aid for Dependent Children, and transiency rate; "Needs Assessment Summary," for information on student performance, reading program, teacher performance,…

  7. Grievance Procedures. SPEC Kit 23.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Research Libraries, Washington, DC. Office of Management Studies.

    This collection of grievance procedures from member libraries of the Association of Research Libraries (ARL) contains: (1) documents on committee approaches to grievances from University of British Columbia, Center for Research Libraries, University of Connecticut, Harvard University, Michigan State University, and University of Nebraska; (2)…

  8. Teaching Assistant Policies and Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin Univ., Madison.

    Policies and procedures covering graduate teaching assistants (TAs) at the University of Wisconsin-Madison are presented. A TA's duties may include classroom teaching under the direction of a faculty member, assisting in teaching classes, discussion groups, problem-solving sessions or laboratories, assisting in planning courses and developing…

  9. Concepts & Procedures. [SITE 2001 Section].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauder, Deborah Y., Ed.; Mullick, Rosemary, Ed.; Sarner, Ronald, Ed.

    This document contains the following papers on concepts and procedures from the SITE (Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education) 2001 conference: "Using School District Standards To Develop Thematic Lessons for Electronic Portfolios" (Cindy L. Anderson and others); "Using Adobe Acrobat for Electronic Portfolio Development" (Helen C.…

  10. Reference Policies and Procedures Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George Mason Univ., Fairfax, VA.

    This guide to services of the reference department of Fenwick Library, George Mason University, is intended for use by staff in the department, as well as the general public. Areas covered include (1) reference desk services to users; (2) reference desk support procedures; (3) off desk services; (4) collection development, including staff…

  11. 21 CFR 1270.31 - Written procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... procedures prepared and followed for all significant steps in the infectious disease testing process under... procedures prepared, validated, and followed for prevention of infectious disease contamination or...

  12. 21 CFR 1270.31 - Written procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... procedures prepared and followed for all significant steps in the infectious disease testing process under... procedures prepared, validated, and followed for prevention of infectious disease contamination or...

  13. Estimation of uncertainties in geological 3D raster layer models as integral part of modelling procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maljers, Denise; den Dulk, Maryke; ten Veen, Johan; Hummelman, Jan; Gunnink, Jan; van Gessel, Serge

    2016-04-01

    applied for DGM Deep proves to be an effective way to (graphically) represent the reliability of the DGM Deep model, although the relative contribution of the various error sources needs further attention. For the DGM Shallow model a cross-validation procedure in a moving window environment has been used to calculate mean deviations and standard errors on a sub-regional scale. Subsequently, these cross validation standard errors have been rescaled to account for local data configuration and clustering. This resulted in standard deviations expressing both regional and local uncertainties. Both workflows are state-of-the-art, form an integral part of the geological modelling and result in reproducible uncertainty values. They can be considered a good starting point for incorporating other errors that contribute to uncertainties of geological 3D raster layer models. For example, the mis-positioning of data used or the error underlying mis-ties at well locations. An additional, perhaps more easy-to-read, parameter that can be calculated to visualize these uncertainties would be the information entropy, as proposed by Wellmann & Regenauer-Lieb (2012). Where a value of 0 means there is no uncertainty, and a value of 1 means there is a high uncertainty. At the moment depth uncertainty information is disseminated through our webportals (www.dinoloket.nl and www.nlog.nl) in an on-line map viewer and as downloadable GIS products.

  14. 76 FR 56969 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-15

    ... Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a regulatory evaluation... Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures; Miscellaneous Amendments AGENCY: Federal Aviation... Instrument Approach Procedures (SIAPs) and associated Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

  15. 76 FR 40600 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-11

    ... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26,1979); and (3)does not warrant preparation of a... Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures; Miscellaneous Amendments AGENCY: Federal Aviation... Instrument Approach Procedures (SIAPs) and associated Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

  16. 75 FR 12977 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-18

    ... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a... Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures; Miscellaneous Amendments AGENCY: Federal Aviation... Instrument Approach Procedures (SIAPs) and associated Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

  17. 75 FR 9095 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-01

    ... Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3)does not warrant preparation of a... Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures; Miscellaneous Amendments AGENCY: Federal Aviation... Instrument Approach Procedures (SIAPs) and associated Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

  18. 76 FR 1354 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-10

    ... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26,1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a... Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures; Miscellaneous Amendments AGENCY: Federal Aviation... Instrument Approach Procedures (SIAPs) and associated Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

  19. 76 FR 25232 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-04

    ... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26,1979) ; and (3)does not warrant preparation of a... Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures; Miscellaneous Amendments AGENCY: Federal Aviation... Instrument Approach Procedures (SIAPs) and associated Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

  20. 76 FR 8291 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-14

    ... Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26,1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a regulatory evaluation... Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures; Miscellaneous Amendments AGENCY: Federal Aviation... Instrument Approach Procedures (SIAPs) and associated Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

  1. Structured programming: Principles, notation, procedure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    JOST

    1978-01-01

    Structured programs are best represented using a notation which gives a clear representation of the block encapsulation. In this report, a set of symbols which can be used until binding directives are republished is suggested. Structured programming also allows a new method of procedure for design and testing. Programs can be designed top down, that is, they can start at the highest program plane and can penetrate to the lowest plane by step-wise refinements. The testing methodology also is adapted to this procedure. First, the highest program plane is tested, and the programs which are not yet finished in the next lower plane are represented by so-called dummies. They are gradually replaced by the real programs.

  2. Streptococcal meningitis following myelogram procedures.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Jennifer; Jensen, Bette; Arduino, Matthew; Bergeron, Toni; Fox, Teresa; Gum, Greg; Pischke, Vera; Potts, David; Townes, John; Srinivasan, Arjun

    2007-05-01

    In September of 2004, we investigated 7 cases of post-myelography meningitis. Streptococcal species were recovered from blood or cerebrospinal fluid in all cases. Our findings suggest that droplet transmission of the oral flora of the clinician performing the procedure was the most likely source of these infections. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends the use of face masks by those performing myelograms. PMID:17464927

  3. Cytoreductive Surgery and Peritonectomy Procedures.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Sanket S; Bhatt, Aditi; Glehen, Olivier

    2016-06-01

    Cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) has become widely accepted as an effective method of treating peritoneal metastases (PM) from various cancers. CRS performed with the goal of removing all the macroscopic disease and comprises of peritonectomy procedures and visceral resections. CRS is a technically challenging surgery that requires a considerable amount of skill and appropriate patient selection. This article is a review of the techniques and current recommendations for performing CRS. PMID:27065704

  4. Feline onychectomy and elective procedures.

    PubMed

    Young, William Phillip

    2002-05-01

    The development of the carbon dioxide (CO2) surgical laser has given veterinarians a new perspective in the field of surgery. Recently developed techniques and improvisations of established procedures have opened the field of surgery to infinite applications never before dreamed of as little as 10 years ago. Today's CO2 surgical laser is an adaptable, indispensable tool for the everyday veterinary practitioner. Its use is becoming a common occurrence in offices of veterinarians around the world. PMID:12064043

  5. Cost analysis for procedure comparisons.

    PubMed

    Trowers, E A; Batra, S C; Buessler, J; Anderson, L K

    1995-01-01

    Using the methodology of activity-based costing as a conceptual framework, the authors present the potential cost reduction of a new office routine and a medical procedure. The costs of a new instrument for colorectal cancer screening and a new surveying and follow-up of at-risk patients show that time and relevant costs in the G.I Clinic and G.I Endoscopy Lab were significantly reduced. PMID:10153384

  6. Surface Environmental Surveillance Procedures Manual

    SciTech Connect

    RW Hanf; TM Poston

    2000-09-20

    Environmental surveillance data are used in assessing the impact of current and past site operations on human health and the environment, demonstrating compliance with applicable local, state, and federal environmental regulations, and verifying the adequacy of containment and effluent controls. SESP sampling schedules are reviewed, revised, and published each calendar year in the Hanford Site Environmental Surveillance Master Sampling Schedule. Environmental samples are collected by SESP staff in accordance with the approved sample collection procedures documented in this manual.

  7. 48 CFR 2813.7002 - Procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Contract Types SIMPLIFIED ACQUISITION PROCEDURES Certified Invoice Procedure 2813.7002 Procedure. (a) Purchases utilizing the certified invoice procedure shall be effected only in accordance with FAR part 13...; (3) Appropriate invoices can be obtained from the supplier; and, (4) The items to be purchased...

  8. 47 CFR 1.1121 - Billing procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Billing procedures. 1.1121 Section 1.1121 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Schedule of Statutory Charges and Procedures for Payment § 1.1121 Billing procedures. (a) The fees required for the...

  9. 16 CFR 1.2 - Procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Procedure. 1.2 Section 1.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE GENERAL PROCEDURES Industry Guidance Advisory Opinions § 1.2 Procedure. (a) Application. The request for advice...

  10. 40 CFR 92.506 - Test procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Test procedures. 92.506 Section 92.506... and Audit Programs § 92.506 Test procedures. (a)(1) For locomotives and locomotive engines subject to the provisions of this subpart, the prescribed test procedures are those procedures described...

  11. 10 CFR 766.105 - Payment procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Payment procedures. 766.105 Section 766.105 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY URANIUM ENRICHMENT DECONTAMINATION AND DECOMMISSIONING FUND; PROCEDURES FOR SPECIAL ASSESSMENT OF DOMESTIC UTILITIES Procedures for Special Assessment § 766.105 Payment procedures. DOE...

  12. 10 CFR 766.105 - Payment procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Payment procedures. 766.105 Section 766.105 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY URANIUM ENRICHMENT DECONTAMINATION AND DECOMMISSIONING FUND; PROCEDURES FOR SPECIAL ASSESSMENT OF DOMESTIC UTILITIES Procedures for Special Assessment § 766.105 Payment procedures. DOE...

  13. 10 CFR 766.105 - Payment procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Payment procedures. 766.105 Section 766.105 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY URANIUM ENRICHMENT DECONTAMINATION AND DECOMMISSIONING FUND; PROCEDURES FOR SPECIAL ASSESSMENT OF DOMESTIC UTILITIES Procedures for Special Assessment § 766.105 Payment procedures. DOE...

  14. 10 CFR 766.105 - Payment procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Payment procedures. 766.105 Section 766.105 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY URANIUM ENRICHMENT DECONTAMINATION AND DECOMMISSIONING FUND; PROCEDURES FOR SPECIAL ASSESSMENT OF DOMESTIC UTILITIES Procedures for Special Assessment § 766.105 Payment procedures. DOE...

  15. 10 CFR 766.105 - Payment procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Payment procedures. 766.105 Section 766.105 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY URANIUM ENRICHMENT DECONTAMINATION AND DECOMMISSIONING FUND; PROCEDURES FOR SPECIAL ASSESSMENT OF DOMESTIC UTILITIES Procedures for Special Assessment § 766.105 Payment procedures. DOE...

  16. 49 CFR 193.2903 - Security procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Security procedures. 193.2903 Section 193.2903...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Security § 193.2903 Security procedures. Each operator shall prepare and follow one or more manuals of written procedures to provide security for each LNG plant. The procedures...

  17. 12 CFR 303.42 - Filing procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Filing procedures. 303.42 Section 303.42 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION PROCEDURE AND RULES OF PRACTICE FILING PROCEDURES Establishment and Relocation of Domestic Branches and Offices § 303.42 Filing procedures. (a) General. An applicant shall submit an application to...

  18. 19 CFR 351.221 - Review procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Review procedures. 351.221 Section 351.221 Customs... Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Procedures § 351.221 Review procedures. (a) Introduction. The procedures for reviews are similar to those followed in investigations. This section details the...

  19. 22 CFR 226.44 - Procurement procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Procurement procedures. 226.44 Section 226.44...-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-award Requirements Procurement Standards § 226.44 Procurement procedures. (a) All recipients shall establish written procurement procedures. These procedures shall provide, at...

  20. 31 CFR 510.801 - Procedures

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Procedures 510.801 Section 510.801 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NORTH KOREA SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Procedures § 510.801 Procedures For license application procedures...

  1. 44 CFR 78.14 - Alternative procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Alternative procedures. 78.14... ASSISTANCE § 78.14 Alternative procedures. For the purposes of this part, alternative procedures are... alternative procedures are available in the following circumstances. Native American tribes or...

  2. 44 CFR 78.14 - Alternative procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Alternative procedures. 78.14... ASSISTANCE § 78.14 Alternative procedures. For the purposes of this part, alternative procedures are... alternative procedures are available in the following circumstances. Native American tribes or...

  3. 44 CFR 78.14 - Alternative procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Alternative procedures. 78.14... ASSISTANCE § 78.14 Alternative procedures. For the purposes of this part, alternative procedures are... alternative procedures are available in the following circumstances. Native American tribes or...

  4. 16 CFR 1.20 - Alternative procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Alternative procedures. 1.20 Section 1.20 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE GENERAL PROCEDURES Rules and Rulemaking Under Section 18(a)(1)(B) of the FTC Act § 1.20 Alternative procedures....

  5. 16 CFR 1.20 - Alternative procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Alternative procedures. 1.20 Section 1.20 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE GENERAL PROCEDURES Rules and Rulemaking Under Section 18(a)(1)(B) of the FTC Act § 1.20 Alternative procedures....

  6. 16 CFR 1.20 - Alternative procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Alternative procedures. 1.20 Section 1.20 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE GENERAL PROCEDURES Rules and Rulemaking Under Section 18(a)(1)(B) of the FTC Act § 1.20 Alternative procedures....

  7. 16 CFR 1.20 - Alternative procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Alternative procedures. 1.20 Section 1.20 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE GENERAL PROCEDURES Rules and Rulemaking Under Section 18(a)(1)(B) of the FTC Act § 1.20 Alternative procedures....

  8. 44 CFR 78.14 - Alternative procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alternative procedures. 78.14... ASSISTANCE § 78.14 Alternative procedures. For the purposes of this part, alternative procedures are... alternative procedures are available in the following circumstances. Native American tribes or...

  9. 16 CFR 1.20 - Alternative procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Alternative procedures. 1.20 Section 1.20 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE GENERAL PROCEDURES Rules and Rulemaking Under Section 18(a)(1)(B) of the FTC Act § 1.20 Alternative procedures....

  10. 44 CFR 78.14 - Alternative procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Alternative procedures. 78.14... ASSISTANCE § 78.14 Alternative procedures. For the purposes of this part, alternative procedures are... alternative procedures are available in the following circumstances. Native American tribes or...

  11. 49 CFR 601.47 - Review Procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Review Procedures. 601.47 Section 601.47 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ORGANIZATION, FUNCTIONS, AND PROCEDURES Emergency Procedures for Public Transportation Systems § 601.47 Review Procedures....

  12. 40 CFR 154.34 - Expedited procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Expedited procedures. 154.34 Section 154.34 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS SPECIAL REVIEW PROCEDURES Procedures § 154.34 Expedited procedures. (a) The Agency may elect to issue...

  13. 10 CFR 820.63 - Procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Procedures. 820.63 Section 820.63 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROCEDURAL RULES FOR DOE NUCLEAR ACTIVITIES Exemption Relief § 820.63 Procedures. The Secretarial Officer shall utilize any procedures deemed necessary and appropriate to comply with his...

  14. 10 CFR 820.63 - Procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Procedures. 820.63 Section 820.63 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROCEDURAL RULES FOR DOE NUCLEAR ACTIVITIES Exemption Relief § 820.63 Procedures. The Secretarial Officer shall utilize any procedures deemed necessary and appropriate to comply with his...

  15. 10 CFR 820.63 - Procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Procedures. 820.63 Section 820.63 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROCEDURAL RULES FOR DOE NUCLEAR ACTIVITIES Exemption Relief § 820.63 Procedures. The Secretarial Officer shall utilize any procedures deemed necessary and appropriate to comply with his...

  16. 10 CFR 820.63 - Procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Procedures. 820.63 Section 820.63 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROCEDURAL RULES FOR DOE NUCLEAR ACTIVITIES Exemption Relief § 820.63 Procedures. The Secretarial Officer shall utilize any procedures deemed necessary and appropriate to comply with his...

  17. 42 CFR 488.110 - Procedural guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Procedural guidelines. 488.110 Section 488.110 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION SURVEY, CERTIFICATION, AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES SURVEY FORMS AND PROCEDURES § 488.110 Procedural guidelines....

  18. 5 CFR 1201.73 - Discovery procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Discovery procedures. 1201.73 Section... AND PROCEDURES Procedures for Appellate Cases Discovery § 1201.73 Discovery procedures. (a) Initiating discovery. A party seeking discovery must start the process by serving a request for discovery on...

  19. 47 CFR 2.1041 - Measurement procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Measurement procedure. 2.1041 Section 2.1041... RULES AND REGULATIONS Equipment Authorization Procedures Certification § 2.1041 Measurement procedure. For equipment operating under parts 15 and 18, the measurement procedures are specified in the...

  20. 47 CFR 2.1041 - Measurement procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Measurement procedure. 2.1041 Section 2.1041... RULES AND REGULATIONS Equipment Authorization Procedures Certification § 2.1041 Measurement procedure. For equipment operating under parts 15 and 18, the measurement procedures are specified in the...

  1. 47 CFR 2.1041 - Measurement procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Measurement procedure. 2.1041 Section 2.1041... RULES AND REGULATIONS Equipment Authorization Procedures Certification § 2.1041 Measurement procedure. For equipment operating under parts 15 and 18, the measurement procedures are specified in the...

  2. 47 CFR 2.1041 - Measurement procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Measurement procedure. 2.1041 Section 2.1041... RULES AND REGULATIONS Equipment Authorization Procedures Certification § 2.1041 Measurement procedure. For equipment operating under parts 15 and 18, the measurement procedures are specified in the...

  3. 47 CFR 2.1041 - Measurement procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Measurement procedure. 2.1041 Section 2.1041... RULES AND REGULATIONS Equipment Authorization Procedures Certification § 2.1041 Measurement procedure. For equipment operating under parts 15 and 18, the measurement procedures are specified in the...

  4. 12 CFR 303.161 - Filing procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Filing procedures. 303.161 Section 303.161 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION PROCEDURE AND RULES OF PRACTICE FILING PROCEDURES Mutual-To-Stock Conversions § 303.161 Filing procedures. (a) Prior notice required. In addition to complying with the substantive requirements in...

  5. 12 CFR 303.121 - Filing procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Filing procedures. 303.121 Section 303.121 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION PROCEDURE AND RULES OF PRACTICE FILING PROCEDURES Activities of Insured State Banks § 303.121 Filing procedures. (a) Where to file. A notice...

  6. 49 CFR 193.2903 - Security procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Security procedures. 193.2903 Section 193.2903...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Security § 193.2903 Security procedures. Each operator shall prepare and follow one or more manuals of written procedures to provide security for each LNG plant. The procedures...

  7. 49 CFR 193.2903 - Security procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Security procedures. 193.2903 Section 193.2903...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Security § 193.2903 Security procedures. Each operator shall prepare and follow one or more manuals of written procedures to provide security for each LNG plant. The procedures...

  8. 10 CFR 431.154 - Test procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Test procedures. 431.154 Section 431.154 Energy DEPARTMENT... EQUIPMENT Commercial Clothers Washers Test Procedures § 431.154 Test procedures. The test procedures for residential clothes washers in Appendix J1 to subpart B of part 430 of this title shall be used to...

  9. 40 CFR 89.508 - Test procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Test procedures. 89.508 Section 89.508... Test procedures. (a)(1) For nonroad engines subject to the provisions of this subpart, the prescribed test procedures are the nonroad engine 8-mode test procedure as described in subpart E of this...

  10. 16 CFR 1.2 - Procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Procedure. 1.2 Section 1.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE GENERAL PROCEDURES Industry Guidance Advisory Opinions § 1.2 Procedure. (a) Application. The request for advice...

  11. 45 CFR 605.61 - Procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Procedures. 605.61 Section 605.61 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Procedures § 605.61 Procedures. The procedural...

  12. 45 CFR 605.61 - Procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Procedures. 605.61 Section 605.61 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Procedures § 605.61 Procedures. The procedural...

  13. 45 CFR 605.61 - Procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Procedures. 605.61 Section 605.61 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Procedures § 605.61 Procedures. The procedural...

  14. 28 CFR 40.8 - Emergency procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Emergency procedure. 40.8 Section 40.8... for Inmate Grievance Procedures § 40.8 Emergency procedure. The grievance procedure shall contain special provision for responding to grievances of an emergency nature. Emergency grievances shall...

  15. 28 CFR 40.8 - Emergency procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emergency procedure. 40.8 Section 40.8... for Inmate Grievance Procedures § 40.8 Emergency procedure. The grievance procedure shall contain special provision for responding to grievances of an emergency nature. Emergency grievances shall...

  16. Procedural Messages in Small Group Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putnam, Linda L.

    Three studies were conducted to ascertain the relationship between predisposition for group work climate and the types of procedural messages that group members employ. In the studies, expectations about group work procedures fell into two categories: high procedural order (HPO) and low procedural order (LPO). Each category consisted of four…

  17. 21 CFR 1271.180 - Procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Procedures. 1271.180 Section 1271.180 Food and... CELLULAR AND TISSUE-BASED PRODUCTS Current Good Tissue Practice § 1271.180 Procedures. (a) General. You... and approve these procedures. (c) Availability. These procedures must be readily available to...

  18. 9 CFR 318.311 - Recall procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Recall procedure. 318.311 Section 318... Products § 318.311 Recall procedure. Establishments shall prepare and maintain a current procedure for the recall of all canned product covered by this subpart. Upon request, the recall procedure shall be...

  19. 9 CFR 318.311 - Recall procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Recall procedure. 318.311 Section 318... Products § 318.311 Recall procedure. Establishments shall prepare and maintain a current procedure for the recall of all canned product covered by this subpart. Upon request, the recall procedure shall be...

  20. 9 CFR 318.311 - Recall procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Recall procedure. 318.311 Section 318... Products § 318.311 Recall procedure. Establishments shall prepare and maintain a current procedure for the recall of all canned product covered by this subpart. Upon request, the recall procedure shall be...

  1. 9 CFR 318.311 - Recall procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Recall procedure. 318.311 Section 318... Products § 318.311 Recall procedure. Establishments shall prepare and maintain a current procedure for the recall of all canned product covered by this subpart. Upon request, the recall procedure shall be...

  2. 9 CFR 318.311 - Recall procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Recall procedure. 318.311 Section 318... Products § 318.311 Recall procedure. Establishments shall prepare and maintain a current procedure for the recall of all canned product covered by this subpart. Upon request, the recall procedure shall be...

  3. 16 CFR 1.2 - Procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Procedure. 1.2 Section 1.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE GENERAL PROCEDURES Industry Guidance Advisory Opinions § 1.2 Procedure. (a) Application. The request for advice...

  4. 16 CFR 1.2 - Procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Procedure. 1.2 Section 1.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE GENERAL PROCEDURES Industry Guidance Advisory Opinions § 1.2 Procedure. (a) Application. The request for advice...

  5. 16 CFR 1.2 - Procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Procedure. 1.2 Section 1.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE GENERAL PROCEDURES Industry Guidance Advisory Opinions § 1.2 Procedure. (a) Application. The request for advice...

  6. 20 CFR 702.394 - Appeals; procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Appeals; procedure. 702.394 Section 702.394 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR LONGSHOREMEN'S AND HARBOR WORKERS' COMPENSATION ACT AND RELATED STATUTES ADMINISTRATION AND PROCEDURE Adjudication Procedures Appeals § 702.394 Appeals; procedure....

  7. Isolated Chylopericardium after Intrapericardial Procedures

    PubMed Central

    Kan, Chung-Dann; Wang, Jieh-Neng; Wu, Jing-Ming; Yang, Yu-Jen

    2007-01-01

    Chylopericardium after an intrapericardial procedure is rare, and satisfactory explanations of its possible causes are lacking. Herein, we present 4 cases of chylopericardium that developed after intrapericardial surgery, and we review the literature. Our literature review revealed 29 cases of chylopericardium that complicated intrapericardial operations, to which we added our 4 cases for analysis. The 33 surgical procedures involved repair for congenital heart disease (n=21), valve surgery (n=5), coronary artery bypass grafting (n=6), and other (n=1). Causes were verified in 7 patients: small lymphatic injury in 3 and high venous pressure or venous thrombosis in 4. Of the 26 patients with chylopericardium of unknown origin, 15 had congenital heart disease. Ten of these 15 had chromosomal abnormalities, especially trisomy 21 (Down syndrome); these patients typically had increased lymphatic permeability, which raised the likelihood of chylopericardium. Five revascularizations for coronary artery disease required harvesting of the left internal thoracic artery for reconstruction, incurring a risk of damage to the drainage site of the right efferent lymphatic trunk. In addition, all 26 patients with chylopericardium of unknown origin underwent dissection of the ascending aorta and the main pulmonary artery, near the right efferent lymphatic trunk. Inadvertent injury to the trunk during the dissection would have increased the risk of chylopericardium. Accordingly, even though the overall incidence of chylopericardium during intrapericardial procedures is low, we recommend a meticulous dissection of the ascending aorta from the main pulmonary artery. PMID:17420799

  8. Compound estimation procedures in reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, Ron

    1990-01-01

    At NASA, components and subsystems of components in the Space Shuttle and Space Station generally go through a number of redesign stages. While data on failures for various design stages are sometimes available, the classical procedures for evaluating reliability only utilize the failure data on the present design stage of the component or subsystem. Often, few or no failures have been recorded on the present design stage. Previously, Bayesian estimators for the reliability of a single component, conditioned on the failure data for the present design, were developed. These new estimators permit NASA to evaluate the reliability, even when few or no failures have been recorded. Point estimates for the latter evaluation were not possible with the classical procedures. Since different design stages of a component (or subsystem) generally have a good deal in common, the development of new statistical procedures for evaluating the reliability, which consider the entire failure record for all design stages, has great intuitive appeal. A typical subsystem consists of a number of different components and each component has evolved through a number of redesign stages. The present investigations considered compound estimation procedures and related models. Such models permit the statistical consideration of all design stages of each component and thus incorporate all the available failure data to obtain estimates for the reliability of the present version of the component (or subsystem). A number of models were considered to estimate the reliability of a component conditioned on its total failure history from two design stages. It was determined that reliability estimators for the present design stage, conditioned on the complete failure history for two design stages have lower risk than the corresponding estimators conditioned only on the most recent design failure data. Several models were explored and preliminary models involving bivariate Poisson distribution and the

  9. National Ignition Facility (NIF) operations procedures plan

    SciTech Connect

    Mantrom, D.

    1998-05-06

    The purpose of this Operations Procedures Plan is to establish a standard procedure which outlines how NIF Operations procedures will be developed (i.e , written, edited, reviewed, approved, published, revised) and accessed by the NIF Operations staff who must use procedures in order to accomplish their tasks. In addition, this Plan is designed to provide a guide to the NIF Project staff to assist them in planning and writing procedures. Also, resource and scheduling information is provided.

  10. Third-order RKR procedure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pardo, A.; Camacho, J. J.; Poyato, J. M. L.; Fernandez-Alonso, J. I.

    1986-03-01

    Potential energy curves for the X 1Σ +state of 6LiH, 7LiH and 6LiD, 7LiD molecules have been calculated by the third-order RKR inversion procedure by including the Kaise correction. The results are in agreement with previously obtained curves by other authors using differents methods. As a check, the exact vibrational eigenfunctions, appropriate to these potentials, are obtained by direct numerical solutions of the radical Schrödinger equation.

  11. Interventional procedures for facial pain.

    PubMed

    Vorenkamp, Kevin E

    2013-01-01

    Interventional pain procedures are critical in the diagnosis and management of a variety of facial pain conditions. Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is the most frequent diagnosis for facial pain, with a reported prevalence 10 times greater than persistent idiopathic facial pain (PIFP). Although pharmacological treatments and psychological interventions benefit many patients with these diagnoses, the pain remains disabling for a significant portion of others. Percutaneous interventions targeting the gasserian ganglion and its branches have proven effective in the management of TN, while there is also supportive evidence for treating the sphenopalatine ganglion in PIFP. PMID:23250793

  12. Ultrasound-Guided Elbow Procedures.

    PubMed

    Sussman, Walter I; Williams, Christopher J; Mautner, Ken

    2016-08-01

    High-resolution ultrasonography can help clinicians visualize key anatomic structures of the elbow and guide periarticular and intra-articular injections. Historically, most procedures done around the elbow have been done using landmark guidance, and few studies have reported the accuracy of ultrasonography-guided injections in the elbow region. This article reviews common musculoskeletal disorders about the elbow that can be evaluated with ultrasonography, reviews the literature on ultrasonography-guided injections of the elbow region, and describes the senior author's preferred approach for the most commonly performed elbow region injections. PMID:27468667

  13. A direct element resequencing procedure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akin, J. E.; Fulford, R. E.

    1978-01-01

    Element by element frontal solution algorithms are utilized in many of the existing finite element codes. The overall computational efficiency of this type of procedure is directly related to the element data input sequence. Thus, it is important to have a pre-processor which will resequence these data so as to reduce the element wavefronts to be encountered in the solution algorithm. A direct element resequencing algorithm is detailed for reducing element wavefronts. It also generates computational by products that can be utilized in pre-front calculations and in various post-processors. Sample problems are presented and compared with other algorithms.

  14. Procedures for precap visual inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Screening procedures for the final precap visual inspection of microcircuits used in electronic system components are described as an aid in training personnel unfamiliar with microcircuits. Processing techniques used in industry for the manufacture of monolithic and hybrid components are presented and imperfections that may be encountered during this inspection are discussed. Problem areas such as scratches, voids, adhesions, and wire bonding are illustrated by photomicrographs. This guide can serve as an effective tool in training personnel to perform precap visual inspections efficiently and reliably.

  15. Hemispherectomy Procedure in Proteus Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gunawan, PrastiyaIndra; Lusiana, Lusiana; Saharso, Darto

    2016-01-01

    Objective Proteus syndrome is a rare overgrowth disorder including bone, soft tissue, and skin. Central nervous system manifestations were reported in about 40% of the patients including hemimegalencephaly and the resultant hemicranial hyperplasia, convulsions and mental deficiency. We report a 1-month-old male baby referred to Pediatric Neurology Clinic Soetomo Hospital, Surabaya, Indonesia in 2014 presented recurrent seizures since birth with asymmetric dysmorphic face with the right side larger than the left, subcutaneous mass and linear nevi. Craniocervical MRI revealed hemimegalencephaly right cerebral hemisphere. Triple antiepileptic drugs were already given as well as the ketogenic diet, but the seizures persisted. The seizure then was resolved after hemispherectomy procedure. PMID:27375761

  16. ICan: An Optimized Ion-Current-Based Quantification Procedure with Enhanced Quantitative Accuracy and Sensitivity in Biomarker Discovery

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The rapidly expanding availability of high-resolution mass spectrometry has substantially enhanced the ion-current-based relative quantification techniques. Despite the increasing interest in ion-current-based methods, quantitative sensitivity, accuracy, and false discovery rate remain the major concerns; consequently, comprehensive evaluation and development in these regards are urgently needed. Here we describe an integrated, new procedure for data normalization and protein ratio estimation, termed ICan, for improved ion-current-based analysis of data generated by high-resolution mass spectrometry (MS). ICan achieved significantly better accuracy and precision, and lower false-positive rate for discovering altered proteins, over current popular pipelines. A spiked-in experiment was used to evaluate the performance of ICan to detect small changes. In this study E. coli extracts were spiked with moderate-abundance proteins from human plasma (MAP, enriched by IgY14-SuperMix procedure) at two different levels to set a small change of 1.5-fold. Forty-five (92%, with an average ratio of 1.71 ± 0.13) of 49 identified MAP protein (i.e., the true positives) and none of the reference proteins (1.0-fold) were determined as significantly altered proteins, with cutoff thresholds of ≥1.3-fold change and p ≤ 0.05. This is the first study to evaluate and prove competitive performance of the ion-current-based approach for assigning significance to proteins with small changes. By comparison, other methods showed remarkably inferior performance. ICan can be broadly applicable to reliable and sensitive proteomic survey of multiple biological samples with the use of high-resolution MS. Moreover, many key features evaluated and optimized here such as normalization, protein ratio determination, and statistical analyses are also valuable for data analysis by isotope-labeling methods. PMID:25285707

  17. Procedures for computing site seismicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferritto, John

    1994-02-01

    This report was prepared as part of the Navy's Seismic Hazard Mitigation Program. The Navy has numerous bases located in seismically active regions throughout the world. Safe effective design of waterfront structures requires determining expected earthquake ground motion. The Navy's problem is further complicated by the presence of soft saturated marginal soils that can significantly amplify the levels of seismic shaking as evidenced in the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake. The Naval Facilities Engineering Command's seismic design manual, NAVFAC P355.l, requires a probabilistic assessment of ground motion for design of essential structures. This report presents the basis for the Navy's Seismic Hazard Analysis procedure that was developed and is intended to be used with the Seismic Hazard Analysis computer program and user's manual. This report also presents data on geology and seismology to establish the background for the seismic hazard model developed. The procedure uses the historical epicenter data base and available geologic data, together with source models, recurrence models, and attenuation relationships to compute the probability distribution of site acceleration and an appropriate spectra. This report discusses the developed stochastic model for seismic hazard evaluation and the associated research.

  18. Ice anaesthesia in procedural dermatology.

    PubMed

    Dixit, Shreya; Lowe, Patricia; Fischer, Gayle; Lim, Adrian

    2013-11-01

    This article presents findings from a survey of Australian dermatologists who were questioned about their preferred pain control methods when carrying out injectable procedures. We also present, what is to the best of our knowledge, the first proof-of-concept experiment exploring the relationship between ice-to-skin contact time and skin surface temperature, using both ice wrapped in latex and ice wrapped in aluminium foil. Of 79 dermatologists 32 responded to the survey (41% response rate): 31 (97%) injected botulinum toxin type A (BTA) for dynamic lines, 26 (81%) injected BTA for hyperhidrosis, and 24 (75%) injected skin fillers. Ice anaesthesia was the most common method of pain control (75%) followed by use of topical anaesthesia (50%) such as EMLA, compound agents and lignocaine 4%. Ice wrapped in latex or latex-like material was the most common ice packaging used by those surveyed and the median ice-to-skin contact time was 10 s. The ice experiment results indicated that ice wrapped with aluminium foil was equivalent to ice wrapped in latex for short contact times (< 20 s), but more effective at reducing skin temperature with longer contact times (> 20 s). These findings will be of relevance to cosmetic and paediatric dermatologists or any area of procedural medicine where effective non-injectable pain control is required. PMID:23617804

  19. Design procedures for compressor blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starken, H.

    1983-01-01

    The conventional methods for the design of the blades in the case of axial turbomachines are considered, taking into account difficulties concerning the determination of optimal blade profiles. These difficulties have been partly overcome as a consequence of the introduction of new numerical methods during the last few years. It is pointed out that, in the case of the subsonic range, a new procedure is now available for the determination of the form of blade profile on the basis of a given velocity distribution on the profile surface. The search for a profile form with favorable characteristics is consequently transformed into a search for a favorable velocity or pressure distribution on the blade. The distribution of velocities depends to a large degree on the characteristics of the profile boundary layers. The considered concept is not new. However, its practical implementation has only recently become possible. The employment of the new design procedure is illustrated with the aid of an example involving a concrete design problem.

  20. Taguchi optimisation of ELISA procedures.

    PubMed

    Jeney, C; Dobay, O; Lengyel, A; Adám, E; Nász, I

    1999-03-01

    We propose a new method in the field of ELISA optimization using an experimental design called the Taguchi method. This can be used to compare the net effects of different conditions which can be both qualitative and quantitative in nature. The method reduces the effects of the interactions of the optimized variables making it possible to access the optimum conditions even in cases where there are large interactions between the variables of the assay. Furthermore, the proposed special assignment of factors makes it possible to calculate the biochemical parameters of the ELISA procedure carried out under optimum conditions. Thus, the calibration curve, the sensitivity of the optimum assay, the intra-assay and inter-assay variability can be estimated. The method is fast, accessing the results in one step, compared to the traditional, time-consuming 'one-step-at-a-time' method. We exemplify the procedure with a method to optimize the detection of ScFv (single chain fragment of variable) phages by ELISA. All the necessary calculations can be carried out by a spreadsheet program without any special statistical knowledge. PMID:10089092

  1. 77 FR 18679 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-28

    ... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a... Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures; Miscellaneous Amendments AGENCY: Federal Aviation... Standard Instrument Approach Procedures (SIAPs) and associated Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle...

  2. 78 FR 70494 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-26

    ... ``significant rule '' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26,1979); and (3) does... Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures; Miscellaneous Amendments AGENCY: Federal Aviation... Standard Instrument Approach Procedures (SIAPs) and associated Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle...

  3. 76 FR 30534 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-26

    ... Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26,1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a regulatory evaluation... Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures; Miscellaneous Amendments AGENCY: Federal Aviation... Instrument Approach Procedures ] (SIAPs) and associated Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure...

  4. 78 FR 40383 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-05

    ... ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26,1979); and (3) does... Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures; Miscellaneous Amendments AGENCY: Federal Aviation... Standard Instrument Approach Procedures (SIAPs) and associated Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle...

  5. 76 FR 16686 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-25

    ... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a... Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures; Miscellaneous Amendments AGENCY: Federal Aviation... Standard Instrument Approach Procedures (SIAPs) and associated Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle...

  6. 77 FR 59738 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-01

    ... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a... Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures; Miscellaneous Amendments AGENCY: Federal Aviation... Standard Instrument Approach Procedures (SIAPs) and associated Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle...

  7. 78 FR 5254 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-25

    ... ``significant rule '' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26,1979); and (3) does... Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures; Miscellaneous Amendments AGENCY: Federal Aviation... Standard Instrument Approach Procedures (SIAPs) and associated Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle...

  8. 40 CFR 96.308 - Appeal procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Ozone Season Trading Program General Provisions § 96.308 Appeal procedures. The appeal procedures for decisions of the Administrator under the CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program are set forth in part 78...

  9. 40 CFR 96.308 - Appeal procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Ozone Season Trading Program General Provisions § 96.308 Appeal procedures. The appeal procedures for decisions of the Administrator under the CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program are set forth in part 78...

  10. 40 CFR 96.308 - Appeal procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Ozone Season Trading Program General Provisions § 96.308 Appeal procedures. The appeal procedures for decisions of the Administrator under the CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program are set forth in part 78...

  11. 40 CFR 96.308 - Appeal procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Ozone Season Trading Program General Provisions § 96.308 Appeal procedures. The appeal procedures for decisions of the Administrator under the CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program are set forth in part 78...

  12. 40 CFR 96.308 - Appeal procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Ozone Season Trading Program General Provisions § 96.308 Appeal procedures. The appeal procedures for decisions of the Administrator under the CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program are set forth in part 78...

  13. 40 CFR 1060.505 - Other procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... equivalent to allowed procedures or are more accurate or more precise than allowed procedures. See 40 CFR... CONTROL OF EVAPORATIVE EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD AND STATIONARY EQUIPMENT Test...

  14. 40 CFR 1060.505 - Other procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... equivalent to allowed procedures or are more accurate or more precise than allowed procedures. See 40 CFR... CONTROL OF EVAPORATIVE EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD AND STATIONARY EQUIPMENT Test...

  15. 40 CFR 1060.505 - Other procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... equivalent to allowed procedures or are more accurate or more precise than allowed procedures. See 40 CFR... CONTROL OF EVAPORATIVE EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD AND STATIONARY EQUIPMENT Test...

  16. 40 CFR 140.5 - Analytical procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) MARINE SANITATION DEVICE STANDARD § 140.5 Analytical procedures. In determining the composition and quality of effluent discharge from marine sanitation devices, the procedures contained in 40 CFR part...

  17. 12 CFR 303.221 - Filing procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... PROCEDURES Section 19 of the FDI Act (Consent to Service of Persons Convicted of Certain Criminal Offenses) § 303.221 Filing procedures. (a) Where to file. An application under section 19 of the FDI Act shall...

  18. 12 CFR 303.221 - Filing procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... PROCEDURES Section 19 of the FDI Act (Consent to Service of Persons Convicted of Certain Criminal Offenses) § 303.221 Filing procedures. (a) Where to file. An application under section 19 of the FDI Act shall...

  19. 12 CFR 303.221 - Filing procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... PROCEDURES Section 19 of the FDI Act (Consent to Service of Persons Convicted of Certain Criminal Offenses) § 303.221 Filing procedures. (a) Where to file. An application under section 19 of the FDI Act shall...

  20. 12 CFR 303.221 - Filing procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... PROCEDURES Section 19 of the FDI Act (Consent to Service of Persons Convicted of Certain Criminal Offenses) § 303.221 Filing procedures. (a) Where to file. An application under section 19 of the FDI Act shall...

  1. 12 CFR 303.221 - Filing procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... PROCEDURES Section 19 of the FDI Act (Consent to Service of Persons Convicted of Certain Criminal Offenses) § 303.221 Filing procedures. (a) Where to file. An application under section 19 of the FDI Act shall...

  2. Sandia Satellite Program summary of operational procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-08-01

    Operational procedures for the Space Systems Department and Space Sensors Department are described. Departmental policies and procedures from design of systems for space applications through qualification for spaceflight are summarized. 1 fig.

  3. Procedures For Microbial-Ecology Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huff, Timothy L.

    1993-01-01

    Microbial Ecology Laboratory Procedures Manual provides concise and well-defined instructions on routine technical procedures to be followed in microbiological laboratory to ensure safety, analytical control, and validity of results.

  4. 45 CFR 77.6 - Emergency procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... LETTER OF CREDIT ADMINISTRATION § 77.6 Emergency procedures. (a) Should the Department determine that it... its letter of credit without taking remedial action prior to the procedures specified in § 77.5,...

  5. 49 CFR 244.17 - Procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... with the procedures enumerated at 49 CFR 209.11. ... TRANSPORTATION REGULATIONS ON SAFETY INTEGRATION PLANS GOVERNING RAILROAD CONSOLIDATIONS, MERGERS, AND ACQUISITIONS OF CONTROL Safety Integration Plans § 244.17 Procedures. (a) Each applicant shall file...

  6. 49 CFR 244.17 - Procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... with the procedures enumerated at 49 CFR 209.11. ... TRANSPORTATION REGULATIONS ON SAFETY INTEGRATION PLANS GOVERNING RAILROAD CONSOLIDATIONS, MERGERS, AND ACQUISITIONS OF CONTROL Safety Integration Plans § 244.17 Procedures. (a) Each applicant shall file...

  7. 49 CFR 244.17 - Procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... with the procedures enumerated at 49 CFR 209.11. ... TRANSPORTATION REGULATIONS ON SAFETY INTEGRATION PLANS GOVERNING RAILROAD CONSOLIDATIONS, MERGERS, AND ACQUISITIONS OF CONTROL Safety Integration Plans § 244.17 Procedures. (a) Each applicant shall file...

  8. 49 CFR 244.17 - Procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... with the procedures enumerated at 49 CFR 209.11. ... TRANSPORTATION REGULATIONS ON SAFETY INTEGRATION PLANS GOVERNING RAILROAD CONSOLIDATIONS, MERGERS, AND ACQUISITIONS OF CONTROL Safety Integration Plans § 244.17 Procedures. (a) Each applicant shall file...

  9. PERFORMANCE AUDIT PROCEDURES FOR OPACITY MONITORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The manual contains monitor-specific performance audit procedures and data forms for use in conducting audits of installed opacity continuous emission monitoring systems (CEMS). General auditing procedures and acceptance limits for various audit criteria are discussed. Practical ...

  10. 15 CFR 971.1001 - Assessment procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR COMMERCIAL RECOVERY PERMITS Enforcement § 971.1001 Assessment procedure. Subpart B of 15 CFR part 904 governs the procedures for assessing a civil penalty...

  11. 15 CFR 971.1001 - Assessment procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR COMMERCIAL RECOVERY PERMITS Enforcement § 971.1001 Assessment procedure. Subpart B of 15 CFR part 904 governs the procedures for assessing a civil penalty...

  12. 15 CFR 971.1001 - Assessment procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR COMMERCIAL RECOVERY PERMITS Enforcement § 971.1001 Assessment procedure. Subpart B of 15 CFR part 904 governs the procedures for assessing a civil penalty...

  13. 23 CFR 630.803 - Procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... PROCEDURES Bridges on Federal Dams § 630.803 Procedures. A State's application to qualify a project under... part of the agency constructing the dam to provide such bridge or approach roads to satisfy a...

  14. 15 CFR 971.1001 - Assessment procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR COMMERCIAL RECOVERY PERMITS Enforcement § 971.1001 Assessment procedure. Subpart B of 15 CFR part 904 governs the procedures for assessing a civil penalty...

  15. School age test or procedure preparation

    MedlinePlus

    ... your child understands, and use real terms. Avoid abstract terms. Make sure your child understands the exact ... be able to identify concerns through your child's art. DURING THE PROCEDURE If the procedure is performed ...

  16. 15 CFR 971.1001 - Assessment procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR COMMERCIAL RECOVERY PERMITS Enforcement § 971.1001 Assessment procedure. Subpart B of 15 CFR part 904 governs the procedures for assessing a civil penalty...

  17. Surgical procedures for voice restoration

    PubMed Central

    Nawka, Tadeus; Hosemann, Werner

    2005-01-01

    Surgical procedures for voice restoration serve to improve oral communication by better vocal function. They comprise of phonomicrosurgery, with direct and indirect access to the larynx; laryngoplasty; laryngeal injections; and surgical laryngeal reinnervation. The basis for modern surgical techniques for voice disorders is the knowledge about the ultrastructure of the vocal folds and the increasing experience of surgeons in voice surgery, while facing high social and professional demands on the voice. Vocal activity limitation and participation restriction has become more important in the artistic and social areas. A number of surgical methods that have been developed worldwide for this reason, are presented in this article. Functional oriented surgery has to meet high standards. The diagnostics of vocal function has to be multi-dimensional in order to determine the indication and the appropriate surgical intervention. PMID:22073062

  18. Pattern recognition systems and procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, G. D.; Serreyn, D. V.

    1972-01-01

    The objectives of the pattern recognition tasks are to develop (1) a man-machine interactive data processing system; and (2) procedures to determine effective features as a function of time for crops and soils. The signal analysis and dissemination equipment, SADE, is being developed as a man-machine interactive data processing system. SADE will provide imagery and multi-channel analog tape inputs for digitation and a color display of the data. SADE is an essential tool to aid in the investigation to determine useful features as a function of time for crops and soils. Four related studies are: (1) reliability of the multivariate Gaussian assumption; (2) usefulness of transforming features with regard to the classifier probability of error; (3) advantage of selecting quantizer parameters to minimize the classifier probability of error; and (4) advantage of using contextual data. The study of transformation of variables (features), especially those experimental studies which can be completed with the SADE system, will be done.

  19. On terms and procedures: Fluency

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Kent R.; Layng, T. V. Joe

    1996-01-01

    Fluency is a metaphor for flowing, effortless, well-practiced, and accurate performance. Current practice in fluency building involves increasing the frequency of free-operant performances. Free-operant performance is defined as continuous responding in the presence of discriminative stimuli that are either varied or not varied from response to response. Free-operant performance is also distinguished from discrete-trial performance. Frequency-building procedures are also described, including defining the learning channel and stimulus control topography of a component performance (called a pinpoint), selecting an appropriate timing period, and displaying stimuli so that no performance ceilings occur. During frequency building, frequencies of pinpoints are continuously charted on standard celeration charts. Frequencies are increased to empirically derived performance standards, or aims, that predict retention, endurance, stability, application, and adduction of performance. Frequency is also described as a dimension of performance, not simply its measurement. Frequency building is described as possibly facilitating contingency adduction. PMID:22478264

  20. Modified Youngswick procedure for hallux limitus.

    PubMed

    Radovic, Philip; Yadav-Shah, Ekta; Choe, Ki

    2007-01-01

    Multiple surgical procedures have been described for the correction of hallux limitus deformity. We describe a new modification of the Youngswick procedure for the surgical treatment of hallux limitus. Other procedures for hallux limitus correction are also discussed. This modified Youngswick procedure will provide a new approach to treating hallux limitus secondary to metatarsus primus elevatus when shortening of the first metatarsal is not indicated. PMID:17901350

  1. Advances in Procedural Techniques - Antegrade

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, William; Spratt, James C.

    2014-01-01

    There have been many technological advances in antegrade CTO PCI, but perhaps most importantly has been the evolution of the “hybrid’ approach where ideally there exists a seamless interplay of antegrade wiring, antegrade dissection re-entry and retrograde approaches as dictated by procedural factors. Antegrade wire escalation with intimal tracking remains the preferred initial strategy in short CTOs without proximal cap ambiguity. More complex CTOs, however, usually require either a retrograde or an antegrade dissection re-entry approach, or both. Antegrade dissection re-entry is well suited to long occlusions where there is a healthy distal vessel and limited “interventional” collaterals. Early use of a dissection re-entry strategy will increase success rates, reduce complications, and minimise radiation exposure, contrast use as well as procedural times. Antegrade dissection can be achieved with a knuckle wire technique or the CrossBoss catheter whilst re-entry will be achieved in the most reproducible and reliable fashion by the Stingray balloon/wire. It should be avoided where there is potential for loss of large side branches. It remains to be seen whether use of newer dissection re-entry strategies will be associated with lower restenosis rates compared with the more uncontrolled subintimal tracking strategies such as STAR and whether stent insertion in the subintimal space is associated with higher rates of late stent malapposition and stent thrombosis. It is to be hoped that the algorithms, which have been developed to guide CTO operators, allow for a better transfer of knowledge and skills to increase uptake and acceptance of CTO PCI as a whole. PMID:24694104

  2. 12 CFR 797.7 - Procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Procedures. 797.7 Section 797.7 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING THE OPERATIONS OF THE NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURES FOR DEBT COLLECTION Administrative Offset § 797.7 Procedures. Prior...

  3. 12 CFR 797.7 - Procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Procedures. 797.7 Section 797.7 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING THE OPERATIONS OF THE NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURES FOR DEBT COLLECTION Administrative Offset § 797.7 Procedures. Prior...

  4. 12 CFR 797.7 - Procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Procedures. 797.7 Section 797.7 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING THE OPERATIONS OF THE NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURES FOR DEBT COLLECTION Administrative Offset § 797.7 Procedures. Prior...

  5. 12 CFR 797.7 - Procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Procedures. 797.7 Section 797.7 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING THE OPERATIONS OF THE NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURES FOR DEBT COLLECTION Administrative Offset § 797.7 Procedures. Prior...

  6. 12 CFR 797.7 - Procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Procedures. 797.7 Section 797.7 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING THE OPERATIONS OF THE NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURES FOR DEBT COLLECTION Administrative Offset § 797.7 Procedures. Prior...

  7. 20 CFR 801.302 - Procedural rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Procedural rules. 801.302 Section 801.302... Action by the Board § 801.302 Procedural rules. Procedural rules for performance by the Board of its... amendments to the rules as may be necessary from time to time, shall be promulgated by the Deputy...

  8. 46 CFR 272.14 - Survey procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Survey procedures. 272.14 Section 272.14 Shipping... OPERATORS REQUIREMENTS AND PROCEDURES FOR CONDUCTING CONDITION SURVEYS AND ADMINISTERING MAINTENANCE AND... Survey procedures. (a) Prior to survey. Unless otherwise directed by MARAD, the Operator of a...

  9. 46 CFR 272.14 - Survey procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Survey procedures. 272.14 Section 272.14 Shipping... OPERATORS REQUIREMENTS AND PROCEDURES FOR CONDUCTING CONDITION SURVEYS AND ADMINISTERING MAINTENANCE AND... Survey procedures. (a) Prior to survey. Unless otherwise directed by MARAD, the Operator of a...

  10. 46 CFR 272.14 - Survey procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Survey procedures. 272.14 Section 272.14 Shipping... OPERATORS REQUIREMENTS AND PROCEDURES FOR CONDUCTING CONDITION SURVEYS AND ADMINISTERING MAINTENANCE AND... Survey procedures. (a) Prior to survey. Unless otherwise directed by MARAD, the Operator of a...

  11. 46 CFR 272.14 - Survey procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Survey procedures. 272.14 Section 272.14 Shipping... OPERATORS REQUIREMENTS AND PROCEDURES FOR CONDUCTING CONDITION SURVEYS AND ADMINISTERING MAINTENANCE AND... Survey procedures. (a) Prior to survey. Unless otherwise directed by MARAD, the Operator of a...

  12. 18 CFR 401.84 - Hearing procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ADMINISTRATIVE MANUAL RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Administrative and Other Hearings § 401.84 Hearing procedure. (a) Participation in the hearing. In any hearing, the person requesting the hearing shall be... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hearing procedure....

  13. 22 CFR 33.8 - Claim procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Claim procedures. 33.8 Section 33.8 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CLAIMS AND STOLEN PROPERTY FISHERMEN'S PROTECTIVE ACT GUARANTY FUND PROCEDURES UNDER SECTION 7 § 33.8 Claim procedures. (a) Where and when to apply. Claims must be submitted to the Office Director, Office of...

  14. 22 CFR 33.8 - Claim procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Claim procedures. 33.8 Section 33.8 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CLAIMS AND STOLEN PROPERTY FISHERMEN'S PROTECTIVE ACT GUARANTY FUND PROCEDURES UNDER SECTION 7 § 33.8 Claim procedures. (a) Where and when to apply. Claims must be submitted to the Office Director, Office of...

  15. 45 CFR 96.66 - Hearing procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hearing procedure. 96.66 Section 96.66 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION BLOCK GRANTS Hearing Procedure § 96.66 Hearing procedure. (a) A hearing is public, except when the Secretary or the presiding officer determines that all or part of a hearing...

  16. 10 CFR 218.31 - Incorporated procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Incorporated procedures. 218.31 Section 218.31 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL STANDBY MANDATORY INTERNATIONAL OIL ALLOCATION Procedures § 218.31 Incorporated procedures. The following subparts of part 205 of this chapter are, as appropriate, hereby made applicable...

  17. 38 CFR 17.133 - Procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Procedures. 17.133 Section 17.133 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Reconsideration of Denied Claims § 17.133 Procedures. (a) Scope. This section sets forth reconsideration procedures regarding claims for benefits administered...

  18. 36 CFR 908.32 - Review procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Review procedures. 908.32... DEVELOPMENT AREA Review Procedure § 908.32 Review procedures. (a) Upon receipt of a request for review, the... applicable regulations; (2) Information submitted by the applicant including the request for review and...

  19. 36 CFR 908.32 - Review procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Review procedures. 908.32... DEVELOPMENT AREA Review Procedure § 908.32 Review procedures. (a) Upon receipt of a request for review, the... applicable regulations; (2) Information submitted by the applicant including the request for review and...

  20. 14 CFR 1274.505 - Procurement procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Procurement procedures. 1274.505 Section 1274.505 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS WITH COMMERCIAL FIRMS Procurement Standards § 1274.505 Procurement procedures. (a) All recipients shall establish written procurement procedures....

  1. 45 CFR 96.66 - Hearing procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hearing procedure. 96.66 Section 96.66 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION BLOCK GRANTS Hearing Procedure § 96.66 Hearing procedure. (a) A hearing is public, except when the Secretary or the presiding officer determines that all or part of a hearing...

  2. 40 CFR 1515.1 - FOIA procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false FOIA procedures. 1515.1 Section 1515.1... § 1515.1 FOIA procedures. The Freedom of Information Act (5 U.S.C. 552), as amended, commonly known as FOIA, is a Federal law that creates a procedure for any person to request documents and other...

  3. 40 CFR 1515.1 - FOIA procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false FOIA procedures. 1515.1 Section 1515.1... § 1515.1 FOIA procedures. The Freedom of Information Act (5 U.S.C. 552), as amended, commonly known as FOIA, is a Federal law that creates a procedure for any person to request documents and other...

  4. 40 CFR 1515.1 - FOIA procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false FOIA procedures. 1515.1 Section 1515.1... § 1515.1 FOIA procedures. The Freedom of Information Act (5 U.S.C. 552), as amended, commonly known as FOIA, is a Federal law that creates a procedure for any person to request documents and other...

  5. 40 CFR 1515.1 - FOIA procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false FOIA procedures. 1515.1 Section 1515.1... § 1515.1 FOIA procedures. The Freedom of Information Act (5 U.S.C. 552), as amended, commonly known as FOIA, is a Federal law that creates a procedure for any person to request documents and other...

  6. 46 CFR 148.5 - Alternative procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Alternative procedures. 148.5 Section 148.5 Shipping... MATERIALS THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING General § 148.5 Alternative procedures. (a) The Commandant (CG-ENG-5) may authorize the use of an alternative procedure, including exemptions to the IMSBC...

  7. 29 CFR 102.93 - Alternative procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alternative procedure. 102.93 Section 102.93 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS BOARD RULES AND REGULATIONS, SERIES 8 Procedure To Hear and Determine Disputes Under Section 10(k) of the Act § 102.93 Alternative procedure. If,...

  8. 29 CFR 102.93 - Alternative procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alternative procedure. 102.93 Section 102.93 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS BOARD RULES AND REGULATIONS, SERIES 8 Procedure To Hear and Determine Disputes Under Section 10(k) of the Act § 102.93 Alternative procedure. If,...

  9. 46 CFR 148.5 - Alternative procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Alternative procedures. 148.5 Section 148.5 Shipping... MATERIALS THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING General § 148.5 Alternative procedures. (a) The Commandant (CG-5223) may authorize the use of an alternative procedure, including exemptions to the IMSBC...

  10. 21 CFR 640.120 - Alternative procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Alternative procedures. 640.120 Section 640.120...) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Alternative Procedures § 640.120 Alternative procedures. (a) The Director, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, may approve...

  11. 21 CFR 640.120 - Alternative procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Alternative procedures. 640.120 Section 640.120...) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Alternative Procedures § 640.120 Alternative procedures. (a) The Director, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, may approve...

  12. 21 CFR 640.120 - Alternative procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Alternative procedures. 640.120 Section 640.120...) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Alternative Procedures § 640.120 Alternative procedures. (a) The Director, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, may approve...

  13. 46 CFR 148.5 - Alternative procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Alternative procedures. 148.5 Section 148.5 Shipping... MATERIALS THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING General § 148.5 Alternative procedures. (a) The Commandant (CG-ENG-5) may authorize the use of an alternative procedure, including exemptions to the IMSBC...

  14. 29 CFR 102.93 - Alternative procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alternative procedure. 102.93 Section 102.93 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS BOARD RULES AND REGULATIONS, SERIES 8 Procedure To Hear and Determine Disputes Under Section 10(k) of the Act § 102.93 Alternative procedure. If,...

  15. 21 CFR 640.120 - Alternative procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Alternative procedures. 640.120 Section 640.120...) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Alternative Procedures § 640.120 Alternative procedures. (a) The Director, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, may approve...

  16. 46 CFR 148.5 - Alternative procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Alternative procedures. 148.5 Section 148.5 Shipping... MATERIALS THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING General § 148.5 Alternative procedures. (a) The Commandant (CG-ENG-5) may authorize the use of an alternative procedure, including exemptions to the IMSBC...

  17. 21 CFR 640.120 - Alternative procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alternative procedures. 640.120 Section 640.120...) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Alternative Procedures § 640.120 Alternative procedures. (a) The Director, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, may approve...

  18. 49 CFR 601.47 - Review Procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Review Procedures. 601.47 Section 601.47 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ORGANIZATION, FUNCTIONS, AND PROCEDURES Emergency Procedures for...

  19. 49 CFR 601.47 - Review Procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Review Procedures. 601.47 Section 601.47 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ORGANIZATION, FUNCTIONS, AND PROCEDURES Emergency Procedures for...

  20. 49 CFR 601.47 - Review Procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Review Procedures. 601.47 Section 601.47 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ORGANIZATION, FUNCTIONS, AND PROCEDURES Emergency Procedures for...

  1. 49 CFR 601.47 - Review Procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Review Procedures. 601.47 Section 601.47 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ORGANIZATION, FUNCTIONS, AND PROCEDURES Emergency Procedures for...

  2. 28 CFR 902.5 - Hearing procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hearing procedures. 902.5 Section 902.5 Judicial Administration NATIONAL CRIME PREVENTION AND PRIVACY COMPACT COUNCIL DISPUTE ADJUDICATION PROCEDURES § 902.5 Hearing procedures. (a) The hearing shall be open to the public pursuant to Article VI...

  3. 40 CFR 53.43 - Test procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Test procedures. 53.43 Section 53.43... PM 10 § 53.43 Test procedures. (a) Sampling effectiveness—(1) Technical definition. The ratio...) Test procedure. (i) Establish a wind speed specified in table D-2 and measure the wind speed...

  4. 40 CFR 53.43 - Test procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Test procedures. 53.43 Section 53.43... PM 10 § 53.43 Test procedures. (a) Sampling effectiveness—(1) Technical definition. The ratio...) Test procedure. (i) Establish a wind speed specified in table D-2 and measure the wind speed...

  5. 29 CFR 102.93 - Alternative procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alternative procedure. 102.93 Section 102.93 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS BOARD RULES AND REGULATIONS, SERIES 8 Procedure To Hear and Determine Disputes Under Section 10(k) of the Act § 102.93 Alternative procedure. If,...

  6. 29 CFR 102.93 - Alternative procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alternative procedure. 102.93 Section 102.93 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS BOARD RULES AND REGULATIONS, SERIES 8 Procedure To Hear and Determine Disputes Under Section 10(k) of the Act § 102.93 Alternative procedure. If,...

  7. 28 CFR 902.5 - Hearing procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hearing procedures. 902.5 Section 902.5 Judicial Administration NATIONAL CRIME PREVENTION AND PRIVACY COMPACT COUNCIL DISPUTE ADJUDICATION PROCEDURES § 902.5 Hearing procedures. (a) The hearing shall be open to the public pursuant to Article VI...

  8. 28 CFR 902.5 - Hearing procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hearing procedures. 902.5 Section 902.5 Judicial Administration NATIONAL CRIME PREVENTION AND PRIVACY COMPACT COUNCIL DISPUTE ADJUDICATION PROCEDURES § 902.5 Hearing procedures. (a) The hearing shall be open to the public pursuant to Article VI...

  9. 28 CFR 902.5 - Hearing procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hearing procedures. 902.5 Section 902.5 Judicial Administration NATIONAL CRIME PREVENTION AND PRIVACY COMPACT COUNCIL DISPUTE ADJUDICATION PROCEDURES § 902.5 Hearing procedures. (a) The hearing shall be open to the public pursuant to Article VI...

  10. 28 CFR 902.5 - Hearing procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hearing procedures. 902.5 Section 902.5 Judicial Administration NATIONAL CRIME PREVENTION AND PRIVACY COMPACT COUNCIL DISPUTE ADJUDICATION PROCEDURES § 902.5 Hearing procedures. (a) The hearing shall be open to the public pursuant to Article VI...

  11. 39 CFR 776.9 - Review procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Review procedures. 776.9 Section 776.9 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATIONS FLOODPLAIN AND WETLAND PROCEDURES Wetlands Protection § 776.9 Review procedures. (a) Early public notice. If a facility action at the contending...

  12. 39 CFR 776.9 - Review procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Review procedures. 776.9 Section 776.9 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATIONS FLOODPLAIN AND WETLAND PROCEDURES Wetlands Protection § 776.9 Review procedures. (a) Early public notice. If a facility action at the contending...

  13. 39 CFR 776.9 - Review procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Review procedures. 776.9 Section 776.9 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATIONS FLOODPLAIN AND WETLAND PROCEDURES Wetlands Protection § 776.9 Review procedures. (a) Early public notice. If a facility action at the contending...

  14. 39 CFR 776.9 - Review procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Review procedures. 776.9 Section 776.9 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATIONS FLOODPLAIN AND WETLAND PROCEDURES Wetlands Protection § 776.9 Review procedures. (a) Early public notice. If a facility action at the contending...

  15. 39 CFR 776.9 - Review procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Review procedures. 776.9 Section 776.9 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATIONS FLOODPLAIN AND WETLAND PROCEDURES Wetlands Protection § 776.9 Review procedures. (a) Early public notice. If a facility action at the contending...

  16. 49 CFR 1180.4 - Procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) (acquisition of temporary trackage rights), in addition to the notice, the railroad must file a caption summary... TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE RAILROAD ACQUISITION, CONTROL, MERGER, CONSOLIDATION PROJECT, TRACKAGE RIGHTS, AND LEASE PROCEDURES General Acquisition Procedures § 1180.4 Procedures. (a) General. (1) The...

  17. 39 CFR 954.16 - Procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Procedure. 954.16 Section 954.16 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE IN PROCEEDINGS RELATIVE TO THE DENIAL, SUSPENSION, OR REVOCATION OF PERIODICALS MAIL PRIVILEGES § 954.16 Procedure. (a) Evidence. The general...

  18. Medical Service Clinical Laboratory Procedures--Bacteriology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of the Army, Washington, DC.

    This manual presents laboratory procedures for the differentiation and identification of disease agents from clinical materials. Included are procedures for the collection of specimens, preparation of culture media, pure culture methods, cultivation of the microorganisms in natural and simulated natural environments, and procedures in…

  19. 18 CFR 401.23 - Procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Procedure. 401.23 Section 401.23 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION ADMINISTRATIVE MANUAL RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Water Resources Program § 401.23 Procedure. Each project...

  20. 18 CFR 401.23 - Procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Procedure. 401.23 Section 401.23 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION ADMINISTRATIVE MANUAL RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Water Resources Program § 401.23 Procedure. Each project...

  1. 18 CFR 401.23 - Procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Procedure. 401.23 Section 401.23 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION ADMINISTRATIVE MANUAL RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Water Resources Program § 401.23 Procedure. Each project...

  2. 10 CFR 205.373 - Application procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Application procedures. 205.373 Section 205.373 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES AND SANCTIONS Electric Power System Permits and Reports; Applications; Administrative Procedures and Sanctions Emergency Interconnection of Electric Facilities and the Transfer of Electricity...

  3. WSSDA's Guide to Parliamentary Procedures. Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randolph, Mary

    2004-01-01

    This guide to parliamentary procedures is presented by the Washington State School Directors' Association (WSSDA) for use by local school boards within the State of Washington. Parliamentary law and parliamentary procedure is the key to order and to provide justice and fairness to all. Through both formal and informal parliamentary procedures,…

  4. 40 CFR 1060.505 - Other procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... equivalent to allowed procedures or are more accurate or more precise than allowed procedures. See 40 CFR... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Other procedures. 1060.505 Section 1060.505 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION...

  5. 28 CFR 42.530 - Procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 Procedures § 42.530 Procedures. (a) The procedural provisions applicable to title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (28 CFR 42.106-42.110) apply to this... where the language of the statute or HEW's interagency guidelines (43 FR 2132, January 13,...

  6. 28 CFR 42.530 - Procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 Procedures § 42.530 Procedures. (a) The procedural provisions applicable to title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (28 CFR 42.106-42.110) apply to this... where the language of the statute or HEW's interagency guidelines (43 FR 2132, January 13,...

  7. 46 CFR 154.665 - Welding procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Welding procedures. 154.665 Section 154.665 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS... Construction § 154.665 Welding procedures. Welding procedure tests for cargo tanks for a design...

  8. 49 CFR 195.214 - Welding procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Welding procedures. 195.214 Section 195.214... PIPELINE Construction § 195.214 Welding procedures. (a) Welding must be performed by a qualified welder in accordance with welding procedures qualified under Section 5 of API 1104 or Section IX of the ASME Boiler...

  9. 49 CFR 195.214 - Welding procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Welding procedures. 195.214 Section 195.214... PIPELINE Construction § 195.214 Welding procedures. (a) Welding must be performed by a qualified welder in accordance with welding procedures qualified under Section 5 of API 1104 or Section IX of the ASME Boiler...

  10. 49 CFR 195.214 - Welding procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Welding procedures. 195.214 Section 195.214... PIPELINE Construction § 195.214 Welding procedures. (a) Welding must be performed by a qualified welder in accordance with welding procedures qualified under Section 5 of API 1104 or Section IX of the ASME Boiler...

  11. 46 CFR 154.665 - Welding procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Welding procedures. 154.665 Section 154.665 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS... Construction § 154.665 Welding procedures. Welding procedure tests for cargo tanks for a design...

  12. 46 CFR 154.665 - Welding procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Welding procedures. 154.665 Section 154.665 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS... Construction § 154.665 Welding procedures. Welding procedure tests for cargo tanks for a design...

  13. 49 CFR 195.214 - Welding procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Welding procedures. 195.214 Section 195.214... PIPELINE Construction § 195.214 Welding procedures. (a) Welding must be performed by a qualified welder in accordance with welding procedures qualified under Section 5 of API 1104 or Section IX of the ASME Boiler...

  14. 46 CFR 154.665 - Welding procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Welding procedures. 154.665 Section 154.665 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS... Construction § 154.665 Welding procedures. Welding procedure tests for cargo tanks for a design...

  15. 46 CFR 154.665 - Welding procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Welding procedures. 154.665 Section 154.665 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS... Construction § 154.665 Welding procedures. Welding procedure tests for cargo tanks for a design...

  16. 8 CFR 1101.4 - Registration procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... officer under § 1101.3 is described in § 264.2 of 8 CFR chapter 1. (Secs. 101(a)(20), 103, 262, 264 of the... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Registration procedure. 1101.4 Section 1101... REGULATIONS PRESUMPTION OF LAWFUL ADMISSION § 1101.4 Registration procedure. The procedure for an...

  17. 8 CFR 101.4 - Registration procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Registration procedure. 101.4 Section 101.4 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS PRESUMPTION OF LAWFUL ADMISSION § 101.4 Registration procedure. The procedure for an application for creation of a record...

  18. 8 CFR 101.4 - Registration procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Registration procedure. 101.4 Section 101.4 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS PRESUMPTION OF LAWFUL ADMISSION § 101.4 Registration procedure. The procedure for an application for creation of a record...

  19. Cloze Procedure and the Teaching of Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rye, James

    By examining the full range of uses of the cloze procedure, this book intends to help teachers use the procedure to better understand the reading behavior of their students and to assist their students in making reading progress. Chapter 1 defines the cloze procedure and discusses the similarities and differences in reading processes when using…

  20. 40 CFR 90.707 - Test procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Test procedures. 90.707 Section 90.707... Program § 90.707 Test procedures. (a)(1) For small SI engines subject to the provisions of this subpart, the prescribed test procedures are specified in subpart E of this part. (2) The Administrator may,...

  1. 40 CFR 90.707 - Test procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test procedures. 90.707 Section 90.707... Program § 90.707 Test procedures. (a)(1) For small SI engines subject to the provisions of this subpart, the prescribed test procedures are specified in subpart E of this part. (2) The Administrator may,...

  2. 32 CFR 57.6 - Procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... INTERVENTION AND SPECIAL EDUCATION SERVICES TO ELIGIBLE DOD DEPENDENTS § 57.6 Procedures. (a) The procedures..., ages 3 through 21 years, inclusive, on IEPs are prescribed in appendix B of this part. (c) The..., inclusive, are prescribed in appendix C of this part (d) Procedural safeguards and parent and student...

  3. 50 CFR 12.51 - Return procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Return procedure. 12.51 Section 12.51 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TAKING... SEIZURE AND FORFEITURE PROCEDURES Return of Property § 12.51 Return procedure. If, at the conclusion...

  4. 23 CFR 630.803 - Procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Procedures. 630.803 Section 630.803 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS PRECONSTRUCTION PROCEDURES Bridges on Federal Dams § 630.803 Procedures. A State's application to qualify a project...

  5. 23 CFR 668.213 - Application procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Application procedures. 668.213 Section 668.213 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS EMERGENCY RELIEF PROGRAM Procedures for Federal Agencies for Federal Roads § 668.213 Application procedures....

  6. 23 CFR 668.213 - Application procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Application procedures. 668.213 Section 668.213 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS EMERGENCY RELIEF PROGRAM Procedures for Federal Agencies for Federal Roads § 668.213 Application procedures....

  7. 23 CFR 668.213 - Application procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Application procedures. 668.213 Section 668.213 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS EMERGENCY RELIEF PROGRAM Procedures for Federal Agencies for Federal Roads § 668.213 Application procedures....

  8. 23 CFR 630.803 - Procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Procedures. 630.803 Section 630.803 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS PRECONSTRUCTION PROCEDURES Bridges on Federal Dams § 630.803 Procedures. A State's application to qualify a project...

  9. 23 CFR 668.213 - Application procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Application procedures. 668.213 Section 668.213 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS EMERGENCY RELIEF PROGRAM Procedures for Federal Agencies for Federal Roads § 668.213 Application procedures....

  10. 23 CFR 668.213 - Application procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Application procedures. 668.213 Section 668.213 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS EMERGENCY RELIEF PROGRAM Procedures for Federal Agencies for Federal Roads § 668.213 Application procedures....

  11. 23 CFR 630.803 - Procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Procedures. 630.803 Section 630.803 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS PRECONSTRUCTION PROCEDURES Bridges on Federal Dams § 630.803 Procedures. A State's application to qualify a project...

  12. 23 CFR 630.803 - Procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Procedures. 630.803 Section 630.803 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS PRECONSTRUCTION PROCEDURES Bridges on Federal Dams § 630.803 Procedures. A State's application to qualify a project...

  13. 47 CFR 2.947 - Measurement procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Measurement procedure. 2.947 Section 2.947... Authorization § 2.947 Measurement procedure. (a) The Commission will accept data which have been measured in accordance with the following standards or measurement procedures: (1) Those set forth in bulletins...

  14. 47 CFR 15.523 - Measurement procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Measurement procedures. 15.523 Section 15.523 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES Ultra-Wideband Operation § 15.523 Measurement procedures. Measurements shall be made in accordance with the procedures specified...

  15. 47 CFR 15.313 - Measurement procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Measurement procedures. 15.313 Section 15.313... Communications Service Devices § 15.313 Measurement procedures. Measurements must be made in accordance with... measurement procedure must be in accordance with good engineering practice....

  16. 47 CFR 2.947 - Measurement procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Measurement procedure. 2.947 Section 2.947... Authorization § 2.947 Measurement procedure. (a) The Commission will accept data which have been measured in accordance with the following standards or measurement procedures: (1) Those set forth in bulletins...

  17. 47 CFR 15.523 - Measurement procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Measurement procedures. 15.523 Section 15.523 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES Ultra-Wideband Operation § 15.523 Measurement procedures. Measurements shall be made in accordance with the procedures specified...

  18. 47 CFR 15.313 - Measurement procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Measurement procedures. 15.313 Section 15.313... Communications Service Devices § 15.313 Measurement procedures. Measurements must be made in accordance with... measurement procedure must be in accordance with good engineering practice....

  19. 47 CFR 15.313 - Measurement procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Measurement procedures. 15.313 Section 15.313... Communications Service Devices § 15.313 Measurement procedures. Measurements must be made in accordance with... measurement procedure must be in accordance with good engineering practice....

  20. 47 CFR 15.313 - Measurement procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Measurement procedures. 15.313 Section 15.313... Communications Service Devices § 15.313 Measurement procedures. Measurements must be made in accordance with... measurement procedure must be in accordance with good engineering practice....