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Sample records for 10-fold higher potency

  1. Sahara honey shows higher potency against Pseudomonas aeruginosa compared to north Algerian types of honey.

    PubMed

    Boukraa, Laid; Niar, Abdellatif

    2007-12-01

    Six varieties of honey from different regions in Algeria were used to determine their potency against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Four varieties originated from northern Algeria, and two from the Sahara. Three types of media were used. On nutrient agar the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the four northern varieties ranged between 30% (vol/vol) and 31% (vol/vol), while the MIC of the Sahara varieties was 11% (vol/vol) and 14% (vol/vol). On King A agar the MIC of the four northern varieties ranged from 25% (vol/vol) to 31% (vol/vol), whereas the MIC of the two varieties of Sahara honey was 12% (vol/vol) and 15% (vol/vol). On nutrient broth the MIC of the northern varieties ranged from 10% (vol/vol) to 21% (vol/vol), whereas the MIC of the two varieties of Sahara honey was 9% (vol/vol). The botanic flora of Sahara is known in Algeria for its medicinal uses, and thus the higher potency of the Sahara honey is most probably due to antibacterial substances in its plant derivates. These findings suggest that Sahara honey could be used for managing wounds and burns, which are mostly infected by P. aeruginosa.

  2. Splenectomy Causes 10-Fold Increased Risk of Portal Venous System Thrombosis in Liver Cirrhosis Patients.

    PubMed

    Qi, Xingshun; Han, Guohong; Ye, Chun; Zhang, Yongguo; Dai, Junna; Peng, Ying; Deng, Han; Li, Jing; Hou, Feifei; Ning, Zheng; Zhao, Jiancheng; Zhang, Xintong; Wang, Ran; Guo, Xiaozhong

    2016-07-19

    BACKGROUND Portal venous system thrombosis (PVST) is a life-threatening complication of liver cirrhosis. We conducted a retrospective study to comprehensively analyze the prevalence and risk factors of PVST in liver cirrhosis. MATERIAL AND METHODS All cirrhotic patients without malignancy admitted between June 2012 and December 2013 were eligible if they underwent contrast-enhanced CT or MRI scans. Independent predictors of PVST in liver cirrhosis were calculated in multivariate analyses. Subgroup analyses were performed according to the severity of PVST (any PVST, main portal vein [MPV] thrombosis >50%, and clinically significant PVST) and splenectomy. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were reported. RESULTS Overall, 113 cirrhotic patients were enrolled. The prevalence of PVST was 16.8% (19/113). Splenectomy (any PVST: OR=11.494, 95%CI=2.152-61.395; MPV thrombosis >50%: OR=29.987, 95%CI=3.247-276.949; clinically significant PVST: OR=40.415, 95%CI=3.895-419.295) and higher hemoglobin (any PVST: OR=0.974, 95%CI=0.953-0.996; MPV thrombosis >50%: OR=0.936, 95%CI=0.895-0.980; clinically significant PVST: OR=0.935, 95%CI=0.891-0.982) were the independent predictors of PVST. The prevalence of PVST was 13.3% (14/105) after excluding splenectomy. Higher hemoglobin was the only independent predictor of MPV thrombosis >50% (OR=0.952, 95%CI=0.909-0.997). No independent predictors of any PVST or clinically significant PVST were identified in multivariate analyses. Additionally, PVST patients who underwent splenectomy had a significantly higher proportion of clinically significant PVST but lower MELD score than those who did not undergo splenectomy. In all analyses, the in-hospital mortality was not significantly different between cirrhotic patient with and without PVST. CONCLUSIONS Splenectomy may increase by at least 10-fold the risk of PVST in liver cirrhosis independent of severity of liver dysfunction.

  3. Opioid analgesics: does potency matter?

    PubMed

    Passik, Steven D; Webster, Lynn

    2014-01-01

    Prescription opioid analgesics with a wide range of potencies are currently used for the treatment of chronic pain. Yet understanding the clinical relevance and therapeutic consequences of opioid potency remains ill defined. Both patients and clinicians alike have misperceptions about opioid potency, expecting that less-potent opioids will be less effective or fearing that more-potent opioids are more dangerous or more likely to be abused. In this review, common myths about the potency of opioid analgesics will be discussed. Clinicians should understand that pharmacologic potency per se does not necessarily imply more effective analgesia or higher abuse liability. Published dose conversion tables may not accurately calculate the dose for effective and safe rotation from one opioid to another in patients receiving long-term opioid therapy because they are based on limited data that may not apply to chronic pain. Differences in pharmacologic potency are largely accounted for by the actual doses prescribed, according to individualized patient need. Factors for achieving effective analgesia and reducing the risks involved with opioid use include careful medication selection based on patient characteristics, appropriate dosing titration and opioid rotation practices, knowledge of product formulation characteristics (eg, extended release, immediate release, and tamper-resistant features), and an awareness of differences in opioid pharmacokinetics and metabolism. Clinicians should remain vigilant in monitoring patients on any opioid medication, regardless of classification along the opioid potency continuum.

  4. Potencies of oral contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Chihal, H J; Peppler, R D; Dickey, R P

    1978-02-01

    This letter is a response to the discussion by Edgren and Sturtevant (125:1029, 1976) on potencies of oral contraceptives (OCs). It is agreed that the results of studies in animal models on OC potencies may not necessarily reflect true potencies in human subjects, however, these animal models do allow the evaluation of the biological effects and interactions of the components of OCs. Data obtained in animal studies are acknowledged to be valuable aids in the study of human diseases. Likewise, mouse uterine response to contraceptive steroids is 1 criterion to be used in evaluating steroid potency. As previously reported, the importance of the mouse uterine response is that the contribution of the progestin component to the total estrogenic potency of the OC is demonstrated.

  5. Potencies of oral contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Edgren, R A; Sturtevant, F M

    1976-08-15

    Oral contraceptives are combinations of estrogens and progestogens or, in the case of the mini-pills, progestogens alone. With specific test procedures in laboratory animals or human subjects, it is possible to assign potency evaluations to the components relative to the progestational, estrogenic, or antiestrogenic activities of the progestogen or to the estrogenic potencies of the estrogenic component. It might even be possible to quantify the synergistic effects of the estrogen on the progestational agent. Unfortunately, however, it is impossible now to amalgamate such assay results into single estimates of the potencies of the combinations (either the combination products per se or the combination tablets of sequential products). For example, an over-all estrogenic potency of a combination preparation would involve the integration of contributions form the estrogen itself plus the estrogenic products of metabolism of the progestogen minus the antagonistic effect of the progestational agent, if any. These factors cannot now be quantified independently, much less merged into a single figure of clinical significance. Further, even if it were possible to produce such an estimate, it is unlikely that the evaluation would be meaningful in relation to any putative side effect or adverse reaction, i.e., the alleged thrombogenic effects of oral contraceptives cannot currently be related directly to any measure of potency that will allow prediction of these clinical conditions from laboratory models. Any evaluation of the potential of a given contraceptive to produce a specific side effect will depend upon data generated with specific regard to that adverse reaction and the individual product in question.

  6. Singly modified amikacin and tobramycin derivatives show increased rRNA A-site binding and higher potency against resistant bacteria.

    PubMed

    Fair, Richard J; McCoy, Lisa S; Hensler, Mary E; Aguilar, Bernice; Nizet, Victor; Tor, Yitzhak

    2014-09-01

    Semisynthetic derivatives of the clinically useful aminoglycosides tobramycin and amikacin were prepared by selectively modifying their 6'' positions with a variety of hydrogen bond donors and acceptors. Their binding to the rRNA A-site was probed using an in vitro FRET-based assay, and their antibacterial activities against several resistant strains (e.g., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumonia, MRSA) were quantified by determining minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs). The most potent derivatives were evaluated for their eukaryotic cytotoxicity. Most analogues displayed higher affinity for the bacterial A-site than the parent compounds. Although most tobramycin analogues exhibited no improvement in antibacterial activity, several amikacin analogues showed potent and broad-spectrum antibacterial activity against resistant bacteria. Derivatives tested for eukaryotic cytotoxicity exhibited minimal toxicity, similar to the parent compounds.

  7. Transrepression and transactivation potencies of inhaled glucocorticoids.

    PubMed

    Dirks, N L; Li, S; Huth, B; Hochhaus, G; Yates, C R; Meibohm, B

    2008-12-01

    The anti-inflammatory activity of inhaled glucocorticoids is primarily mediated through transrepression of pro-inflammatory transcription factors such as AP-1 and NF-kappaB, while systemic side effects are largely attributed to transactivation via glucocorticoid response elements (GRE) in the promoter region of responsive genes. The objective of this study is to investigate whether inhaled corticosteroids exhibit differences in their transactivation and transrepression potencies. A549 human alveolar epithelial type II like cells, stably transfected with a reporter plasmid containing an AP-1, NF-kappaB or GRE induced secreted alkaline phosphatase reporter gene (SEAP), were exposed to a panel of concentrations of the six inhaled and three systemic glucocorticoids. Glucocorticoid-induced changes in SEAP expression were quantified by chemiluminescence. For eight glucocorticoids (budesonide, desisobutyryl-cicle-sonide, dexamethasone, flunisolide, fluocortolone, fluticasone propionate, mometasone furoate, prednisolone) the EC50 for NF-kappaB mediated transrepression was significantly larger than that for both transactivation and transrepression via AP-1. For the remaining glucocorticoid (triamcinolone acetonide), it was greater than that for transactivation. It is concluded that, within the studied cell system, inhaled corticosteroids did not exhibit preferential transrepression, but had higher potencies for transactivation than for transrepression via NF-kappaB and had differential potencies for the two transrepression pathways.

  8. Inhaled corticosteroids: potency, dose equivalence and therapeutic index

    PubMed Central

    Daley-Yates, Peter T

    2015-01-01

    Glucocorticosteroids are a group of structurally related molecules that includes natural hormones and synthetic drugs with a wide range of anti-inflammatory potencies. For synthetic corticosteroid analogues it is commonly assumed that the therapeutic index cannot be improved by increasing their glucocorticoid receptor binding affinity. The validity of this assumption, particularly for inhaled corticosteroids, has not been fully explored. Inhaled corticosteroids exert their anti-inflammatory activity locally in the airways, and hence this can be dissociated from their potential to cause systemic adverse effects. The molecular structural features that increase glucocorticoid receptor binding affinity and selectivity drive topical anti-inflammatory activity. However, in addition, these structural modifications also result in physicochemical and pharmacokinetic changes that can enhance targeting to the airways and reduce systemic exposure. As a consequence, potency and therapeutic index can be correlated. However, this consideration is not reflected in asthma treatment guidelines that classify inhaled corticosteroid formulations as low-, mid- and high dose, and imbed a simple dose equivalence approach where potency is not considered to affect the therapeutic index. This article describes the relationship between potency and therapeutic index, and concludes that higher potency can potentially improve the therapeutic index. Therefore, both efficacy and safety should be considered when classifying inhaled corticosteroid regimens in terms of dose equivalence. The historical approach to dose equivalence in asthma treatment guidelines is not appropriate for the wider range of molecules, potencies and device/formulations now available. A more robust method is needed that incorporates pharmacological principles. PMID:25808113

  9. The Effects of Medical Marijuana Laws on Potency

    PubMed Central

    Pacula, Rosalie Liccardo; Heaton, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Background Marijuana potency has risen dramatically over the past two decades. In the United States, it is unclear whether state medical marijuana policies have contributed to this increase. Methods Employing a differences-in-differences model within a mediation framework, we analyzed data on n = 39,157 marijuana samples seized by law enforcement in 51 U.S. jurisdictions between 1990-2010, producing estimates of the direct and indirect effects of state medical marijuana laws on potency, as measured by Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol content. Results We found evidence that potency increased by a half percentage point on average after legalization of medical marijuana, although this result was not significant. When we examined specific medical marijuana supply provisions, results suggest that legal allowances for retail dispensaries had the strongest influence, significantly increasing potency by about one percentage point on average. Our mediation analyses examining the mechanisms through which medical marijuana laws influence potency found no evidence of direct regulatory impact. Rather, the results suggest that the impact of these laws occurs predominantly through a compositional shift in the share of the market captured by high-potency sinsemilla. Conclusion Our findings have important implications for policymakers and those in the scientific community trying to understand the extent to which greater availability of higher potency marijuana increases the risk of negative public health outcomes, such as drugged driving and drug-induced psychoses. Future work should reconsider the impact of medical marijuana laws on health outcomes in light of dramatic and ongoing shifts in both marijuana potency and the medical marijuana policy environment. PMID:24502887

  10. 8x8 and 10x10 Hyperspace Representations of SU(3) and 10-fold Point-Symmetry Group of Quasicrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Animalu, Alexander

    2012-02-01

    In order to further elucidate the unexpected 10-fold point-symmetry group structure of quasi-crystals for which the 2011 Nobel Prize in chemistry was awarded to Daniel Shechtman, we explore a correspondence principle between the number of (projective) geometric elements (points[vertices] + lines[edges] + planes[faces]) of primitive cells of periodic or quasi-periodic arrangement of hard or deformable spheres in 3-dimensional space of crystallography and elements of quantum field theory of particle physics [points ( particles, lines ( particles, planes ( currents] and hence construct 8x8 =64 = 28+36 = 26 + 38, and 10x10 =100= 64 + 36 = 74 + 26 hyperspace representations of the SU(3) symmetry of elementary particle physics and quasicrystals of condensed matter (solid state) physics respectively, As a result, we predict the Cabibbo-like angles in leptonic decay of hadrons in elementary-particle physics and the observed 10-fold symmetric diffraction pattern of quasi-crystals.

  11. Energetics of mutation-induced changes in potency of lersivirine against HIV-1 reverse transcriptase.

    PubMed

    Kar, Parimal; Knecht, Volker

    2012-06-07

    Nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) are key components of highly active antiretroviral therapy for the treatment of HIV-1. A common problem with the first generation NNRTIs is the emergence of mutations in the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT), in particular, K103N and Y181C, which lead to resistance to the entire class of inhibitor. Here we have evaluated the relative affinity of the newly designed NNRTI lersivirine (LRV) against drug-resistant mutations in HIV-1 RT using the molecular mechanics generalized Born surface area (MM-GBSA) method. Eight single and one double mutant variants of RT are considered. Our results are in good agreement with experimental results and yield insights into the mechanisms underlying mutation-induced changes in the potency of LRV against RT. The strongest (54-fold) increase in the dissociation constant is found for the mutant F227C, originating from reduced electrostatic and van der Waals interactions between LRV and RT as well as a higher energetic penalty from the desolvation of polar groups. For the mutants K103N and Y181C only a moderate (2-fold) increase in the dissociation constant is found, due to a balance of opposite changes in the polar solvation as well as the electrostatic and van der Waals interactions between LRV and RT. The dissociation constant is decreased for the Y188C and G190A (2-fold), the M184V (5-fold), and the Y188C/Y188C mutant (10-fold), due to stronger electrostatic interactions between LRV and RT. Our results thus suggest that LRV is a highly potent and selective NNRTI, with excellent efficacy against NNRTI-resistant viruses, which is in agreement with experimental observations.

  12. The Repetitive Oligopeptide Sequences Modulate Cytopathic Potency but Are Not Crucial for Cellular Uptake of Clostridium difficile Toxin A

    PubMed Central

    Olling, Alexandra; Goy, Sebastian; Hoffmann, Florian; Tatge, Helma; Just, Ingo; Gerhard, Ralf

    2011-01-01

    The pathogenicity of Clostridium difficile is primarily linked to secretion of the intracellular acting toxins A (TcdA) and B (TcdB) which monoglucosylate and thereby inactivate Rho GTPases of host cells. Although the molecular mode of action of TcdA and TcdB is well understood, far less is known about toxin binding and uptake. It is acknowledged that the C-terminally combined repetitive oligopeptides (CROPs) of the toxins function as receptor binding domain. The current study evaluates the role of the CROP domain with respect to functionality of TcdA and TcdB. Therefore, we generated truncated TcdA devoid of the CROPs (TcdA1–1874) and found that this mutant was still cytopathic. However, TcdA1–1874 possesses about 5 to 10-fold less potency towards 3T3 and HT29 cells compared to the full length toxin. Interestingly, CHO-C6 cells even showed almost identical susceptibility towards truncated and full length TcdA concerning Rac1 glucosylation or cell rounding, respectively. FACS and Western blot analyses elucidated these differences and revealed a correlation between CROP-binding to the cell surface and toxin potency. These findings refute the accepted opinion of solely CROP- mediated toxin internalization. Competition experiments demonstrated that presence neither of TcdA CROPs nor of full length TcdA reduced binding of truncated TcdA1–1874 to HT29 cells. We assume that toxin uptake might additionally occur through alternative receptor structures and/or other associated endocytotic pathways. The second assumption was substantiated by TER measurements showing that basolaterally applied TcdA1–1874 exhibits considerably higher cytotoxic potency than apically applied mutant or even full length TcdA, the latter being almost independent of the side of application. Thus, different routes for cellular uptake might enable the toxins to enter a broader repertoire of cell types leading to the observed multifarious pathogenesis of C. difficile. PMID:21445253

  13. Quantitative structure - mesothelioma potency model ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Cancer potencies of mineral and synthetic elongated particle (EP) mixtures, including asbestos fibers, are influenced by changes in fiber dose composition, bioavailability, and biodurability in combination with relevant cytotoxic dose-response relationships. A unique and comprehensive rat intra-pleural (IP) dose characterization data set with a wide variety of EP size, shape, crystallographic, chemical, and bio-durability properties facilitated extensive statistical analyses of 50 rat IP exposure test results for evaluation of alternative dose pleural mesothelioma response models. Utilizing logistic regression, maximum likelihood evaluations of thousands of alternative dose metrics based on hundreds of individual EP dimensional variations within each test sample, four major findings emerged: (1) data for simulations of short-term EP dose changes in vivo (mild acid leaching) provide superior predictions of tumor incidence compared to non-acid leached data; (2) sum of the EP surface areas (ÓSA) from these mildly acid-leached samples provides the optimum holistic dose response model; (3) progressive removal of dose associated with very short and/or thin EPs significantly degrades resultant ÓEP or ÓSA dose-based predictive model fits, as judged by Akaike’s Information Criterion (AIC); and (4) alternative, biologically plausible model adjustments provide evidence for reduced potency of EPs with length/width (aspect) ratios 80 µm. Regar

  14. A Review of OIE Country Status Recovery Using Vaccinate-to-Live Versus Vaccinate-to-Die Foot-and-Mouth Disease Response Policies I: Benefits of Higher Potency Vaccines and Associated NSP DIVA Test Systems in Post-Outbreak Surveillance.

    PubMed

    Barnett, P V; Geale, D W; Clarke, G; Davis, J; Kasari, T R

    2015-08-01

    To rapidly return to trade, countries with OIE status, FMD-free country where vaccination is not practised, have destroyed emergency vaccinated animals, raising ethical concerns with respect to social values, the environment, animal welfare and global food security. This two-part review explores whether science could support eligibility to return to previous OIE status in 3 months irrespective of vaccinate-to-live or vaccinate-to-die policies. Here, we examine the benefits of higher potency (≥ 6 PD50 ), high-purity vaccines formulated from antigen banks for emergency use, their efficacy and performance in differentiating infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA) assays for post-outbreak surveillance. From an intensive programme of research, we conclude that high-quality, higher potency vaccines are proven to reduce FMD virus (FMDV) subclinical circulation and the risk of carriers. Broader coverage than predicted by serology suggests the potential to hold a few 'key' vaccine strains improving logistics and reducing the financial burden of antigen banks. The OIE should adopt formal definitions for emergency vaccination and emergency vaccines. In terms of supportive tools, we consider that the lack of OIE recognition of DIVA tests other than those of PANAFTOSA in cattle is a shortcoming. There is need for research on maternal antibody interference with DIVA tests and on the use of such tests to establish whether greater purification of vaccines improves performance. We consider that alignment of waiting periods for vaccinate-to-live and vaccinate-to-die in OIE Code Article 8.5.9 1 b. and c. is feasible until an acceptable level of statistical certainty for surveillance or target probability of freedom is established to substantiate the absence of FMDV infection or circulation. It is surveillance intensity rather than waiting periods that establishes the risk of residual FMDV. EU Directive 2003/85/EC implicitly recognizes this, permitting derogation of the OIE waiting

  15. 21 CFR 660.4 - Potency test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potency test. 660.4 Section 660.4 Food and Drugs... STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Antibody to Hepatitis B Surface Antigen § 660.4 Potency test. To be satisfactory for release, each filling of Antibody to Hepatitis B Surface...

  16. 21 CFR 660.43 - Potency test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potency test. 660.43 Section 660.43 Food and Drugs... STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Hepatitis B Surface Antigen § 660.43 Potency test... antibody in the appropriate sera of the reference panel by all test methods recommended by the...

  17. Dental pulp-derived stromal cells exhibit a higher osteogenic potency than bone marrow-derived stromal cells in vitro and in a porcine critical-size bone defect model

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Jonas; Tvedesøe, Claus; Rölfing, Jan Hendrik Duedal; Foldager, Casper Bindzus; Lysdahl, Helle; Kraft, David Christian Evar; Chen, Muwan; Baas, Jorgen; Le, Dang Quang Svend; Bünger, Cody Eric

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (BMSCs) was compared with that of dental pulp-derived stromal cells (DPSCs) in vitro and in a pig calvaria critical-size bone defect model. Methods: BMSCs and DPSCs were extracted from the tibia bone marrow and the molar teeth of each pig, respectively. BMSCs and DPSCs were cultured in monolayer and on a three-dimensional (3D) polycaprolactone (PCL) – hyaluronic acid – tricalcium phosphate (HT-PCL) scaffold. Population doubling (PD), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and calcium deposition were measured in monolayer. In the 3D culture ALP activity, DNA content, and calcium deposition were evaluated. Six non-penetrating critical-size defects were made in each calvarium of 14 pigs. Three paired sub-studies were conducted: (1) empty defects vs. HT-PCL scaffolds; (2) PCL scaffolds vs. HT-PCL scaffolds; and (3) autologous BMSCs on HT-PCL scaffolds vs. autologous DPSCs on HT-PCL scaffolds. The observation time was five weeks. Bone volume fractions (BV/TV) were assessed with micro-computed tomography (μCT) and histomorphometry. Results and discussion: The results from the in vitro study revealed a higher ALP activity and calcium deposition of the DPSC cultures compared with BMSC cultures. Significantly more bone was present in the HT-PCL group than in both the pure PCL scaffold group and the empty defect group in vivo. DPSCs generated more bone than BMSCs when seeded on HT-PCL. In conclusion, DPSCs exhibited a higher osteogenic potential compared with BMSCs both in vitro and in vivo, making it a potential cell source for future bone tissue engineering. PMID:27163105

  18. Increasing the potency of neutralizing single-domain antibodies by functionalization with a CD11b/CD18 binding domain

    PubMed Central

    Rossotti, Martin A; González-Techera, Andrés; Guarnaschelli, Julio; Yim, Lucia; Camacho, Ximena; Fernández, Marcelo; Cabral, Pablo; Leizagoyen, Carmen; Chabalgoity, José A; González-Sapienza, Gualberto

    2015-01-01

    Recombinant single domain antibodies (nanobodies) constitute an attractive alternative for the production of neutralizing therapeutic agents. Their small size warrants rapid bioavailability and fast penetration to sites of toxin uptake, but also rapid renal clearance, which negatively affects their performance. In this work, we present a new strategy to drastically improve the neutralizing potency of single domain antibodies based on their fusion to a second nanobody specific for the complement receptor CD11b/CD18 (Mac-1). These bispecific antibodies retain a small size (˜30 kDa), but acquire effector functions that promote the elimination of the toxin-immunocomplexes. The principle was demonstrated in a mouse model of lethal toxicity with tetanus toxin. Three anti-tetanus toxin nanobodies were selected and characterized in terms of overlapping epitopes and inhibition of toxin binding to neuron gangliosides. Bispecific constructs of the most promising monodomain antibodies were built using anti Mac-1, CD45 and MHC II nanobodies. When co-administered with the toxin, all bispecific antibodies showed higher toxin-neutralizing capacity than the monomeric ones, but only their fusion to the anti-endocytic receptor Mac-1 nanobody allowed the mice to survive a 10-fold lethal dose. In a model of delayed neutralization of the toxin, the anti- Mac-1 bispecific antibodies outperformed a sheep anti-toxin polyclonal IgG that had shown similar neutralization potency in the co-administration experiments. This strategy should have widespread application in the development of nanobody-based neutralizing therapeutics, which can be produced economically and more safely than conventional antisera. PMID:26192995

  19. High-potency cannabis and the risk of psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Di Forti, Marta; Morgan, Craig; Dazzan, Paola; Pariante, Carmine; Mondelli, Valeria; Marques, Tiago Reis; Handley, Rowena; Luzi, Sonija; Russo, Manuela; Paparelli, Alessandra; Butt, Alexander; Stilo, Simona A.; Wiffen, Ben; Powell, John; Murray, Robin M.

    2009-01-01

    Background People who use cannabis have an increased risk of psychosis, an effect attributed to the active ingredient Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC). There has recently been concern over an increase in the concentration of Δ9-THC in the cannabis available in many countries. Aims To investigate whether people with a first episode of psychosis were particularly likely to use high-potency cannabis. Method We collected information on cannabis use from 280 cases presenting with a first episode of psychosis to the South London & Maudsley National Health Service (NHS) Foundation Trust, and from 174 healthy controls recruited from the local population. Results There was no significant difference between cases and controls in whether they had ever taken cannabis, or age at first use. However, those in the cases group were more likely to be current daily users (OR = 6.4) and to have smoked cannabis for more than 5 years (OR = 2.1). Among those who used cannabis, 78% of the cases group used high-potency cannabis (sinsemilla, ‘skunk’) compared with 37% of the control group (OR 6.8). Conclusions The finding that people with a first episode of psychosis had smoked higher-potency cannabis, for longer and with greater frequency, than a healthy control group is consistent with the hypothesis that Δ9-THC is the active ingredient increasing risk of psychosis. This has important public health implications, given the increased availability and use of high-potency cannabis. PMID:19949195

  20. Boosting oncolytic adenovirus potency with magnetic nanoparticles and magnetic force.

    PubMed

    Tresilwised, Nittaya; Pithayanukul, Pimolpan; Mykhaylyk, Olga; Holm, Per Sonne; Holzmüller, Regina; Anton, Martina; Thalhammer, Stefan; Adigüzel, Denis; Döblinger, Markus; Plank, Christian

    2010-08-02

    Oncolytic adenoviruses rank among the most promising innovative agents in cancer therapy. We examined the potential of boosting the efficacy of the oncolytic adenovirus dl520 by associating it with magnetic nanoparticles and magnetic-field-guided infection in multidrug-resistant (MDR) cancer cells in vitro and upon intratumoral injection in vivo. The virus was complexed by self-assembly with core-shell nanoparticles having a magnetite core of about 10 nm and stabilized by a shell containing 68 mass % lithium 3-[2-(perfluoroalkyl)ethylthio]propionate) and 32 mass % 25 kDa branched polyethylenimine. Optimized virus binding, sufficiently stable in 50% fetal calf serum, was found at nanoparticle-to-virus ratios of 5 fg of Fe per physical virus particle (VP) and above. As estimated from magnetophoretic mobility measurements, 3,600 to 4,500 magnetite nanocrystallites were associated per virus particle. Ultrastructural analysis by electron and atomic force microscopy showed structurally intact viruses surrounded by magnetic particles that occasionally bridged several virus particles. Viral uptake into cells at a given virus dose was enhanced 10-fold compared to nonmagnetic virus when infections were carried out under the influence of a magnetic field. Increased virus internalization resulted in a 10-fold enhancement of the oncolytic potency in terms of the dose required for killing 50% of the target cells (IC(50) value) and an enhancement of 4 orders of magnitude in virus progeny formation at equal input virus doses compared to nonmagnetic viruses. Furthermore, the full oncolytic effect developed within two days postinfection compared with six days in a nonmagnetic virus as a reference. Plotting target cell viability versus internalized virus particles for magnetic and nonmagnetic virus showed that the inherent oncolytic productivity of the virus remained unchanged upon association with magnetic nanoparticles. Hence, we conclude that the mechanism of boosting the

  1. Low doses of high-potency antithymocyte globulin (ATG) in severe aplastic anemia: experience with the Mexican ATG.

    PubMed

    Delgado-Lamas, J L; López-Karpovitch, X; Marín-López, A; Romero-García, F; Ruiz-Argüelles, G J; Ruiz-Gonzalez, D S; Taboada, C; Vázquez-Villegas, V; Elena Zarzosa, M

    1989-01-01

    Twenty patients with severe aplastic anemia (SAA) were treated with low doses (1-5 mg/kg/day) of a high-potency antithymocyte globulin (ATG) produced in Mexico, shown to have at least a 10-fold potency as compared with other globulins of commercial sources. Patients received ATG within a 10-day period, every other day (5 doses) at a dose of 1 mg/kg/day (4 courses), 2 mg/kg/day (12 courses) or 5 mg/kg/day (8 courses). Four patients received 2 consecutive courses of different doses of ATG. A response rate of 42% was recorded in the group, assessed by means of increases in reticulocytes, granulocytes or platelets. One patient showed a complete remission. The 570-day survival of the group was 51%. It is concluded that the domestically produced ATG is useful in the treatment of some patients with SAA in Mexico.

  2. Estrogen potency of oral contraceptive pills.

    PubMed

    Chihal, H J; Peppler, R D; Dickey, R P

    1975-01-01

    The estrogen potencies of 9 oral contraceptive pills, Enovid-E, Enovid-5, Ovulen, Demulen, Norinyl+80, Norinyl+50, Ovral, Norlestrin 1 mg. and Norlestrin 2.5 mg., were determined by bioassay. Relative estrogen potency was determined by analysis of variance. Enovid-5, the most estrogenic compound, had a potency of 4.88 compared to ethinyl estradiol, 50 mcg. equal 1.00; Ovral, the least estrogenic compound, had a potency of 0.81, a sixfold difference. Estrogen potencies at a fractional dose of 0.00155 correlate with reports of the incidence of minor side effects and thromboembolic disease. The effect of progestins on estrogen potency was purely additive (norgestrel and norethynodrel), purely antagonistic, or additive at low concentrations and antagonistic at high concentrations (norethindrone, norethindrone acetate, and ethynodiol diacetate). These results suggest that pills with a greater margin of safety might be developed by utilizing greater ratios of progestin to estrogen. In addition, differences in relative estrogen potency of oral contraceptive pills may be used as a basis for better clinical selection.

  3. Structural Modification of the Designer Stimulant α-Pyrrolidinovalerophenone (α-PVP) Influences Potency at Dopamine Transporters.

    PubMed

    Kolanos, R; Sakloth, F; Jain, A D; Partilla, J S; Baumann, M H; Glennon, R A

    2015-10-21

    α-Pyrrolidinovalerophenone (α-PVP, 7) is an illegal synthetic stimulant that is being sold on the clandestine market as "flakka" and "gravel". The potent pharmacological effects of α-PVP are presumably mediated by inhibition of dopamine uptake at the dopamine transporter (DAT). However, little is known about how structural modification of α-PVP influences activity at DAT. Eleven analogs of α-PVP were synthesized and examined for their ability to inhibit uptake of [(3)H]dopamine and [(3)H]serotonin in rat brain synaptosomes. None of the analogs significantly inhibited [(3)H]serotonin uptake when tested at 10 μM at the serotonin transporter (SERT). All of the analogs behaved as DAT reuptake inhibitors, but potencies varied over a >1500-fold range. Potency was primarily associated with the nature of the α-substituent, with the more bulky substituents imparting the highest potency. Expansion of the pyrrolidine ring to a piperidine reduced potency up to 10-fold, whereas conformational constraint in the form of an aminotetralone resulted in the least potent compound. Our study provides the first systematic and comparative structure-activity investigation on the ability of α-PVP analogs to act as inhibitors of DAT.

  4. Epoxy resin monomers with reduced skin sensitizing potency.

    PubMed

    O'Boyle, Niamh M; Niklasson, Ida B; Tehrani-Bagha, Ali R; Delaine, Tamara; Holmberg, Krister; Luthman, Kristina; Karlberg, Ann-Therese

    2014-06-16

    Epoxy resin monomers (ERMs), especially diglycidyl ethers of bisphenol A and F (DGEBA and DGEBF), are extensively used as building blocks for thermosetting polymers. However, they are known to commonly cause skin allergy. This research describes a number of alternative ERMs, designed with the aim of reducing the skin sensitizing potency while maintaining the ability to form thermosetting polymers. The compounds were designed, synthesized, and assessed for sensitizing potency using the in vivo murine local lymph node assay (LLNA). All six epoxy resin monomers had decreased sensitizing potencies compared to those of DGEBA and DGEBF. With respect to the LLNA EC3 value, the best of the alternative monomers had a value approximately 2.5 times higher than those of DGEBA and DGEBF. The diepoxides were reacted with triethylenetetramine, and the polymers formed were tested for technical applicability using thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. Four out of the six alternative ERMs gave polymers with a thermal stability comparable to that obtained with DGEBA and DGEBF. The use of improved epoxy resin monomers with less skin sensitizing effects is a direct way to tackle the problem of contact allergy to epoxy resin systems, particularly in occupational settings, resulting in a reduction in the incidence of allergic contact dermatitis.

  5. 21 CFR 640.104 - Potency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Immune Globulin (Human) § 640.104 Potency. (a) Antibody levels and tests. Each lot of final product shall contain at least the minimum levels of antibodies for... stored at a temperature above 5 °C the antibody level tests shall be performed after such storage with...

  6. 21 CFR 640.104 - Potency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Immune Globulin (Human) § 640.104 Potency. (a) Antibody levels and tests. Each lot of final product shall contain at least the minimum levels of antibodies for... stored at a temperature above 5 °C the antibody level tests shall be performed after such storage with...

  7. 21 CFR 640.104 - Potency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Immune Globulin (Human) § 640.104 Potency. (a) Antibody levels and tests. Each lot of final product shall contain at least the minimum levels of antibodies for... stored at a temperature above 5 °C the antibody level tests shall be performed after such storage with...

  8. RELATIVE POTENCIES OF MINERAL AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents a summary of the present need for the NHEERL data set, how the data are being recovered and entered into spreadsheets for analysis and modeling, and the potential for improved risk models that include consideration of differences in relative potencies based on...

  9. 21 CFR 660.43 - Potency test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Hepatitis B Surface Antigen § 660.43 Potency test. To be satisfactory for release, each filling of Hepatitis B Surface Antigen shall be tested against the Reference Hepatitis B Antiserum Panel and shall be sufficiently potent to be able to detect...

  10. 21 CFR 660.43 - Potency test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Hepatitis B Surface Antigen § 660.43 Potency test. To be satisfactory for release, each filling of Hepatitis B Surface Antigen shall be tested against the Reference Hepatitis B Antiserum Panel and shall be sufficiently potent to be able to detect...

  11. 21 CFR 660.43 - Potency test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Hepatitis B Surface Antigen § 660.43 Potency test. To be satisfactory for release, each filling of Hepatitis B Surface Antigen shall be tested against the Reference Hepatitis B Antiserum Panel and shall be sufficiently potent to be able to detect...

  12. 21 CFR 660.4 - Potency test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Antibody to Hepatitis B Surface Antigen § 660.4 Potency test. To be satisfactory for release, each filling of Antibody to Hepatitis B Surface Antigen shall be tested against the Reference Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Panel and shall be sufficiently...

  13. 21 CFR 660.4 - Potency test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Antibody to Hepatitis B Surface Antigen § 660.4 Potency test. To be satisfactory for release, each filling of Antibody to Hepatitis B Surface Antigen shall be tested against the Reference Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Panel and shall be sufficiently...

  14. 21 CFR 660.4 - Potency test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Antibody to Hepatitis B Surface Antigen § 660.4 Potency test. To be satisfactory for release, each filling of Antibody to Hepatitis B Surface Antigen shall be tested against the Reference Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Panel and shall be sufficiently...

  15. 21 CFR 660.43 - Potency test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Hepatitis B Surface Antigen § 660.43 Potency test. To be satisfactory for release, each filling of Hepatitis B Surface Antigen shall be tested against the Reference Hepatitis B Antiserum Panel and shall be sufficiently potent to be able to detect...

  16. 21 CFR 660.4 - Potency test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Antibody to Hepatitis B Surface Antigen § 660.4 Potency test. To be satisfactory for release, each filling of Antibody to Hepatitis B Surface Antigen shall be tested against the Reference Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Panel and shall be sufficiently...

  17. Potency tests of diphtheria, tetanus and combined vaccines. Suggestion for a simplified potency assay.

    PubMed

    Aggerbeck, H; Heron, I

    1996-01-01

    Two diphtheria-tetanus vaccines (DT), adsorbed to either aluminium hydroxide or calcium phosphate but identical with respect to toxoid origin and amounts, were compared in full potency assays in mice according to the European Pharmacopoeia (EP) and in a reduced potency assay in guinea-pigs using a double dose immunization schedule. The efficacy of the vaccines was compared in a clinical trial with revaccination of 313 military recruits. The reduced potency assay gave a better reflection of the efficacy of the two vaccines in humans than the required assays of the EP. For release of combined, final vaccine formulations the reduced potency assay suggested will reduce the number of animals in quality control.

  18. 21 CFR 640.56 - Quality control test for potency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Quality control test for potency. 640.56 Section...) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Cryoprecipitate § 640.56 Quality control test for potency. (a) Quality control tests for potency of antihemophilic factor shall be...

  19. 21 CFR 640.56 - Quality control test for potency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Quality control test for potency. 640.56 Section...) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Cryoprecipitate § 640.56 Quality control test for potency. (a) Quality control tests for potency of antihemophilic factor shall be...

  20. 21 CFR 640.56 - Quality control test for potency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Quality control test for potency. 640.56 Section...) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Cryoprecipitate § 640.56 Quality control test for potency. (a) Quality control tests for potency of antihemophilic factor shall be...

  1. 21 CFR 640.56 - Quality control test for potency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Quality control test for potency. 640.56 Section...) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Cryoprecipitate § 640.56 Quality control test for potency. (a) Quality control tests for potency of antihemophilic factor shall be...

  2. 21 CFR 640.56 - Quality control test for potency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Quality control test for potency. 640.56 Section...) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Cryoprecipitate § 640.56 Quality control test for potency. (a) Quality control tests for potency of antihemophilic factor shall be...

  3. Summary of carcinogenic potency and positivity for 492 rodent carcinogens in the carcinogenic potency database.

    PubMed Central

    Gold, L S; Slone, T H; Bernstein, L

    1989-01-01

    A tabulation of carcinogenic potency (TD50) by species for 492 chemicals that induce tumors in rats or mice is presented. With the use of the Carcinogenic Potency Database, experimental results are summarized by indicating in which sex-species groups the chemical was tested and the respective evaluations of carcinogenicity. A comparison of three summary measures of TD50 for chemicals with more than one positive experiment per species shows that the most potent TD50 value is similar to measures that average values or functions of values. This tabulation can be used to investigate associations between rodent potency and other factors such as mutagenicity, teratogenicity, chemical structure, and human exposure. PMID:2707207

  4. Potency of Animal Models in KANSEI Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozaki, Shigeru; Hisano, Setsuji; Iwamoto, Yoshiki

    Various species of animals have been used as animal models for neuroscience and provided critical information about the brain functions. Although it seems difficult to elucidate a highly advanced function of the human brain, animal models have potency to clarify the fundamental mechanisms of emotion, decision-making and social behavior. In this review, we will pick up common animal models and point to both the merits and demerits caused by the characteristics. We will also mention that wide-ranging approaches from animal models are advantageous to understand KANSEI as well as mind in humans.

  5. A new lymphocyte proliferation assay for potency determination of bovine tuberculin PPDs.

    PubMed

    Spohr, Christina; Kaufmann, Eva; Battenfeld, Sibylle; Duchow, Karin; Cussler, Klaus; Balks, Elisabeth; Bastian, Max

    2015-01-01

    The tuberculin skin test is the method of choice for tuberculosis surveillance in livestock ruminants. The exact definition of the biological activity of bovine tuberculin purified protein derivatives (bovine tuberculin PPDs) is essential for the reliability of a test system. PPDs consist of heterogeneous mixtures of mycobacterial antigens, making it difficult to determine their potency in vitro. The commonly used batch potency test is therefore based on the evaluation of skin reactions in mycobacteria-sensitized guinea pigs. Aim of the present study was to test an alternative in vitro method that reliably quantifies tuberculin PPD potency. This novel approach may prevent animal distress in the future. To this end a flow cytometry-based lymphocyte proliferation assay using peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from sensitized guinea pigs was established. Potency estimates for individual PPD preparations were calculated in comparison to an international standard. The comparison with results obtained from the guinea pig skin test revealed that the lymphocyte proliferation assay is more precise but results in systematically higher potency estimates. However, with a manufacturer specific correction factor a correlation of over 85% was achieved, highlighting the potential of this in vitro method to replace the current guinea pig skin test.

  6. Prazosin has low potency at α1A-adrenoceptors and high potency at α1D -adrenoceptors in rat vas deferens.

    PubMed

    Docherty, J R

    2013-10-01

    (1) We have investigated α1 -adrenoceptor subtypes mediating contractions to noradrenaline in epididymal portions of rat vas deferens. (2) Contractions to noradrenaline were investigated in the absence or presence of the noradrenaline transporter blocker cocaine. (3) In the absence of cocaine, contractions to noradrenaline were potently antagonized by RS100329, but not by BMY7378, and so are mediated mainly by α1A -adrenoceptors. (4) In the presence of cocaine, noradrenaline potency was increased, particularly in terms of low concentrations and phasic contractions. Contractions to low concentrations of noradrenaline in the presence of cocaine were resistant to RS100329 but potently antagonized by BMY7378, demonstrating that α1D-adrenoceptors are additionally involved in contractions amplified by cocaine. (5) In the absence of cocaine, prazosin exhibited relatively low potency as an antagonist against the α1A-adrenoceptor-mediated component to the response. In the presence of cocaine, prazosin exhibited higher potency against the α1D-adrenoceptor-mediated component. (6) In conclusion, prazosin has previously unreported selectivity for α1D-over α1A -adrenoceptors in functional studies of rat vas deferens. Contractions of rat vas deferens are mediated by α1A-and α1D -adrenoceptors. The range of prazosin potencies and of receptor subtypes previously reported in rat vas deferens may be explained by the presence of these two subtypes.

  7. Biosorption potency of Aspergillus niger for removal of chromium (VI).

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Shaili; Thakur, Indu Shekhar

    2006-09-01

    Aspergillus niger isolated from soil and effluent of leather tanning mills had higher activity to remove chromium. The potency of Aspergillus niger was evaluated in shake flask culture by absorption of chromium at pH 6 and temperature 30 degrees C. The results of the study indicated removal of more than 75% chromium by Aspergillus niger determined by diphenylcarbazide colorimetric assay and atomic absorption spectrophotometry after 7 days. Study of microbial Cr(VI) reduction and identification of reduction intermediates has been hindered by the lack of analytical techniques that can identify the oxidation state with subcellular spatial resolution. Therefore, removal of chromium was further substantiated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), which indicated an accumulation of chromium in the fungal mycelium.

  8. 2beta-Substituted analogues of 4'-iodococaine: synthesis and dopamine transporter binding potencies.

    PubMed

    Avor, K S; Singh, S; Seale, T W; Pouw, B; Basmadjian, G P

    1998-06-18

    A series of 2beta-substituted analogues of 4'-iodococaine (3) was synthesized and evaluated in an in vitro dopamine transporter (DAT) binding assay. Selective hydrolysis at the 2beta-position of 3 gave the carboxylic acid 15 that served as the intermediate for the synthesis of compounds 4, 5, and 6-11. The 2beta-alkyl derivatives were obtained from ecgonine methyl ester (17) through a series of reactions leading to the aldehyde 20. Wittig reaction of 20 with methyltriphenylphosphorane followed by hydrogenation and benzoylation gave the products 12 and 13. The binding affinity of 4'-iodococaine (3) was 10-fold less than that of cocaine. The hydroxymethane, acetate, amide, benzyl ester, oxidazole, and ethane derivatives of 3 exhibited decreased binding while the vinyl, phenyl, and ethyl esters showed a moderate increase in binding affinity. Only the isopropyl derivative 8 exhibited a 2-fold increase in binding affinity compared with 4'-iodococaine (3). Hydroxylation of 8 at the 2'-position gave 14 which enhanced not only the binding potency at the DAT by another 2-fold but also the selectivity at the DAT over the norepinephrine and serotonin transporters. Compound 14 failed to stimulate locomotor activity in C57BL/6J mice over a wide dose range and blocked cocaine-induced locomotor stimulant action.

  9. Potency control of modified live viral vaccines for veterinary use.

    PubMed

    Terpstra, C; Kroese, A H

    1996-01-01

    This paper reviews various aspects of efficacy, and methods for assaying the potency of modified live viral vaccines. The pros and cons of parametric versus non-parametric methods for analysis of potency assays are discussed and critical levels of protection, as determined by the target(s) of vaccination, are exemplified. Recommendations are presented for designing potency assays on master virus seeds and vaccine batches.

  10. Potency control of modified live viral vaccines for veterinary use.

    PubMed

    Terpstra, C; Kroese, A H

    1996-04-01

    This paper reviews various aspects of efficacy, and methods for assaying the potency of modified live viral vaccines. The pros and cons of parametric versus non-parametric methods for analysis of potency assays are discussed and critical levels of protection, as determined by the target(s) of vaccination, are exemplified. Recommendations are presented for designing potency assays on master virus seeds and vaccine batches.

  11. Mechanism of a decrease in potency for the recombinant influenza A virus hemagglutinin H3 antigen during storage.

    PubMed

    Hickey, John M; Holtz, Kathleen M; Manikwar, Prakash; Joshi, Sangeeta B; McPherson, Clifton E; Buckland, Barry; Srivastava, Indresh K; Middaugh, C Russell; Volkin, David B

    2014-03-01

    The recombinant hemagglutinin (rHA)-based influenza vaccine Flublok® has recently been approved in the United States as an alternative to the traditional egg-derived flu vaccines. Flublok is a purified vaccine with a hemagglutinin content that is threefold higher than standard inactivated influenza vaccines. When rHA derived from an H3N2 influenza virus was expressed, purified, and stored for 1 month, a rapid loss of in vitro potency (∼50%) was observed as measured by the single radial immunodiffusion (SRID) assay. A comprehensive characterization of the rHA protein antigen was pursued to identify the potential causes and mechanisms of this potency loss. In addition, the biophysical and chemical stability of the rHA in different formulations and storage conditions was evaluated over time. Results demonstrate that the potency loss over time did not correlate with trends in changes to the higher order structure or hydrodynamic size of the rHA. The most likely mechanism for the early loss of potency was disulfide-mediated cross-linking of rHA, as the formation of non-native disulfide-linked multimers over time correlated well with the observed potency loss. Furthermore, a loss of free thiol content, particularly in specific cysteine residues in the antigen's C-terminus, was correlated with potency loss measured by SRID.

  12. Dose-response curve slope helps predict therapeutic potency and breadth of HIV broadly neutralizing antibodies.

    PubMed

    Webb, Nicholas E; Montefiori, David C; Lee, Benhur

    2015-09-29

    A new generation of HIV broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) with remarkable potency, breadth and epitope diversity has rejuvenated interest in immunotherapeutic strategies. Potencies defined by in vitro IC50 and IC80 values (50 and 80% inhibitory concentrations) figure prominently into the selection of clinical candidates; however, much higher therapeutic levels will be required to reduce multiple logs of virus and impede escape. Here we predict bnAb potency at therapeutic levels by analysing dose-response curve slopes, and show that slope is independent of IC50/IC80 and specifically relates to bnAb epitope class. With few exceptions, CD4-binding site and V3-glycan bnAbs exhibit slopes >1, indicative of higher expected therapeutic effectiveness, whereas V2-glycan, gp41 membrane-proximal external region (MPER) and gp120-gp41 bnAbs exhibit less favourable slopes <1. Our results indicate that slope is one major predictor of both potency and breadth for bnAbs at clinically relevant concentrations, and may better coordinate the relationship between bnAb epitope structure and therapeutic expectations.

  13. What determines skin sensitization potency: Myths, maybes ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    It is widely considered to be a self-evident truth that substances must have a molecular weight (MW) less than 500 to effectively penetrate through the skin in order to induce sensitisation. However, Roberts et al. 2010, evaluated a data set of 699 substances taken from the TIMES-SS expert system and identified that of the 13 substances with a MW above 500, 5 were reported as skin sensitisers. This provided good evidence to refute such a MW threshold. The present study set about compiling a larger and more diverse set of substances such as those evaluated for their skin sensitisation potential under the EU REACH regulation. A dataset of 2575 substances that had been tested for skin sensitisation, using guinea pigs and/or mice was collected. The dataset contained 197 substances with a MW>500: 33 of these were categorised as skin sensitisers. Each of the 33 substances were then evaluated in turn – metal containing complexes, reaction products and mixtures were excluded from further consideration. The final set of 14 sensitisers with a MW>500 were considered on the basis of their reaction chemistry to propose likely mechanistic explanations for their sensitisation behaviour. Penetration ability is correlated with MW (and LogKow): if the MW threshold is shown to be inapplicable for skin sensitisation potency, in turn it also indicates that penetration is not a relevant parameter for skin sensitisation. Exercise to search and extract REACH data for the skin se

  14. Potency matters: thresholds govern endocrine activity.

    PubMed

    Borgert, Christopher J; Baker, Stephen P; Matthews, John C

    2013-10-01

    Whether thresholds exist for endocrine active substances and for endocrine disrupting effects of exogenous chemicals has been posed as a question for regulatory policy by the European Union. This question arises from a concern that the endocrine system is too complex to allow estimations of safe levels of exposure to any chemical with potential endocrine activity, and a belief that any such chemical can augment, retard, or disrupt the normal background activity of endogenous hormones. However, vital signaling functions of the endocrine system require it to continuously discriminate the biological information conveyed by potent endogenous hormones from a more concentrated background of structurally similar, endogenous molecules with low hormonal potential. This obligatory ability to discriminate important hormonal signals from background noise can be used to define thresholds for induction of hormonal effects, without which normal physiological functions would be impossible. From such thresholds, safe levels of exposure can be estimated. This brief review highlights how the fundamental principles governing hormonal effects - affinity, efficacy, potency, and mass action - dictate the existence of thresholds and why these principles also define the potential that exogenous chemicals might have to interfere with normal endocrine functioning.

  15. Prion potency in stem cells biology.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Marilene H; Santos, Tiago G

    2012-01-01

    Prion protein (PrP) can be considered a pivotal molecule because it interacts with several partners to perform a diverse range of critical biological functions that might differ in embryonic and adult cells. In recent years, there have been major advances in elucidating the putative role of PrP in the basic biology of stem cells in many different systems. Here, we review the evidence indicating that PrP is a key molecule involved in driving different aspects of the potency of embryonic and tissue-specific stem cells in self-perpetuation and differentiation in many cell types. It has been shown that PrP is involved in stem cell self-renewal, controlling pluripotency gene expression, proliferation, and neural and cardiomyocyte differentiation. PrP also has essential roles in distinct processes that regulate tissue-specific stem cell biology in nervous and hematopoietic systems and during muscle regeneration. Results from our own investigations have shown that PrP is able to modulate self-renewal and proliferation in neural stem cells, processes that are enhanced by PrP interactions with stress inducible protein 1 (STI1). Thus, the available data reveal the influence of PrP in acting upon the maintenance of pluripotent status or the differentiation of stem cells from the early embryogenesis through adulthood.

  16. Carboxylation of cytosine (5caC) in the CG dinucleotide in the E-box motif (CGCAG|GTG) increases binding of the Tcf3|Ascl1 helix-loop-helix heterodimer 10-fold.

    PubMed

    Golla, Jaya Prakash; Zhao, Jianfei; Mann, Ishminder K; Sayeed, Syed K; Mandal, Ajeet; Rose, Robert B; Vinson, Charles

    2014-06-27

    Three oxidative products of 5-methylcytosine (5mC) occur in mammalian genomes. We evaluated if these cytosine modifications in a CG dinucleotide altered DNA binding of four B-HLH homodimers and three heterodimers to the E-Box motif CGCAG|GTG. We examined 25 DNA probes containing all combinations of cytosine in a CG dinucleotide and none changed binding except for carboxylation of cytosine (5caC) in the strand CGCAG|GTG. 5caC enhanced binding of all examined B-HLH homodimers and heterodimers, particularly the Tcf3|Ascl1 heterodimer which increased binding ~10-fold. These results highlight a potential function of the oxidative products of 5mC, changing the DNA binding of sequence-specific transcription factors.

  17. Detection of estrogenic potency in wastewater and surface water with three in vitro bioassays.

    PubMed

    Murk, Albertinka J; Legler, Juliette; van Lipzig, Marola M H; Meerman, John H N; Belfroid, Angelique C; Spenkelink, Albertus; van der Burg, Bart; Rijs, Gerard B J; Vethaak, Dick

    2002-01-01

    A study was performed to optimize sample preparation and application of three in vitro assays for measuring estrogenic potency in environmental extracts. The three assays applied were an estrogen receptor (ER)-binding assay and two reporter gene effect assays: a yeast estrogen screen (YES) and the ER-mediated chemically activated luciferase gene expression (ER-CALUX) assay. All assays were able to detect estrogenicity, but the amounts of material needed for the assays differed greatly between the three assays (ER-binding assay > YES > ER-CALUX). In addition, in the ER-binding assay, both agonists and antagonists give an estrogenic response, resulting in higher estradiol equivalency (EEQ) levels than both the ER-CALUX and the YES assay for the same samples. The EEQs found in wastewater treatment plants (WTPs) with the ER-CALUX assay were in the range of 4 to 440 and 0.11 to 59 pmol/L for influent and effluent, respectively. Water extracts from four large rivers had levels ranging from 0.25 to 1.72 pmol/L. Extracts from suspended matter and sludge contained estrogenic potency of 0.26 to 2.49 and 1.6 to 41 pmol EEQ/g dry weight, respectively. In WTPs, the average reduction of estrogenic potency in effluent compared to influent was 90 to 95% in municipal WTPs and about 50% in industrial WTPs. In influent, 30% of the ER-CALUX activity could not be explained by the calculated potencies based on chemical analysis of a number of known (xeno)estrogens; in effluent the unexplained fraction was 80%. These first results of analyzing estrogenic potency in WTP water and surface water in The Netherlands indicate that further studies are warranted to investigate the actual risks for aquatic systems.

  18. Correlation between carcinogenic potency of chemicals in animals and humans

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, B.C.; Crump, K.S.; Shipp, A.M.

    1988-12-01

    Twenty-three chemicals were selected for comparison of the carcinogenic potencies estimated from epidemiological data to those estimated from animal carcinogenesis bioassays. The chemicals were all those for which reasonably strong evidence of carcinogenicity could be found in humans or animals and for which suitable data could be obtained for quantifying carcinogenic potencies in both humans and animals. Many alternative methods of analyzing the bioassay data were investigated. Almost all of the methods yielded potency estimates that were highly correlated with potencies estimated from epidemiological data; correlations were highly statistically significant (p < 0.001), with the corresponding correlation coefficients ranging as high as 0.9. These findings provide support for the general use of animal data to evaluate carcinogenic potential in humans and also for the use of animal data to quantify human risk.

  19. Gilvocarcin V, a Photodynamic DNA Damaging Agent Of Unusual Potency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elespuru, Rosalie K.; Look, Sally A.

    1988-02-01

    Gilvocarcin V (GV) is a planar, aromatic DNA-intercalating C-glycoside isolated as a natural product antibiotic. In the presence of UVA or visible radiation, it becomes a DNA damaging agent at low doses in both bacterial and mammalian cells. In mice treated without regard to light exposure, GV exhibited antitumor activity at high doses, with little accompanying toxicity. Wavelength-dependence studies showed that lambda prophage induction profiles were similar to (part of) the absorption spectrum of GV, with a peak near 400 nm. However, significant induction at a higher wavelength (546 nm), was observed at relatively high (e.g. 1 μg/m1) concentrations of GV. The DNA damaging activity of GV was dependent on both the concentration of antibiotic and the fluence of radiation in a reciprocal manner. Mutagenesis and DNA binding experiments suggest a preference for interaction with AT-rich regions of DNA, but multiple modes of interaction seem likely. The presence of different C-glycosides on the gilvocarcin V chromophore may alter the pharmacological properties of the molecule, but photoactivation appears to be independent of these groups. The therapeutic possibilities of gilvocarcins remain largely unexplored; the demonstrated potency of these compounds when activated, the reciprocity effect, possibility of structural variation, and apparent lack of toxicity in mammalian systems are properties which could be exploited in therapeutic development.

  20. Estrogenic and esterase-inhibiting potency in rainwater in relation to pesticide concentrations, sampling season and location.

    PubMed

    Hamers, Timo; van den Brink, Paul J; Mos, Lizzy; van der Linden, Sander C; Legler, Juliette; Koeman, Jan H; Murk, Albertinka J

    2003-01-01

    In a year-round monitoring program (1998), pesticide composition and toxic potency of the mix of pollutants present in rainwater were measured. The goal of the study was to relate atmospheric deposition of toxic potency and pesticide composition to each other and to sampling period and local agricultural activity. Rainwater was collected in 26 consecutive periods of 14 days in a background location (BACK) and in two locations representative for different agricultural practices, i.e. intensive greenhouse horticulture (HORT) and flower bulb culture (BULB). Samples were chemically analyzed for carbamate (CARB), organophosphate (OP) and organochlorine (OC) pesticides and metabolites. Esterase inhibiting potency of rainwater extracts was measured in a specially developed bio-assay with honeybee esterases and was expressed as an equivalent concentration of the model inhibitor dichlorvos. Estrogenic potency of the extracts was measured in the ER-CALUX reporter gene assay and was expressed as an equivalent concentration of estradiol. Multivariate principal component analysis (PCA) techniques proved to be valuable tools to analyze the numerous pesticide concentrations in relation to toxic potency, sampling location, and sampling season. Pesticide composition in rainwater depended much more on sampling season than on sampling location, but differences between and were mainly attributed to local differences in agricultural practice. On average, the esterase inhibiting potency exceeded the maximum permissible concentration set for dichlorvos in The Netherlands, and was significantly higher in than in and . Esterase inhibition correlated significantly with OP and CARB concentrations, as expected given the working mechanism of these insecticides. The estrogenic potency incidentally exceeded NOEC levels reported for aquatic organisms and was highest in . Although estrogenic potency of rainwater correlated with OC concentrations, the ER-CALUX responses could not be attributed to

  1. Modulation of Glucagon-like Peptide-1 (GLP-1) Potency by Endocannabinoid-like Lipids Represents a Novel Mode of Regulating GLP-1 Receptor Signaling.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yu-Hong; Ho, Mei-Shang; Huang, Wei-Ting; Chou, Ying-Ting; King, Klim

    2015-06-05

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogs are approved for treatment of type 2 diabetes and are in clinical trials for disorders including neurodegenerative diseases. GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) is expressed in many peripheral and neuronal tissues and is activated by circulating GLP-1. Other than food intake, little is known about factors regulating GLP-1 secretion. Given a normally basal circulating level of GLP-1, knowledge of mechanisms regulating GLP-1R signaling, which has diverse functions in extrapancreatic tissues, remains elusive. In this study, we found that the potency of GLP-1, not exendin 4, is specifically enhanced by the endocannabinoid-like lipids oleoylethanolamide (OEA) and 2-oleoylglycerol but not by stearoylethanolamide (SEA) or palmitoylethanolamide. 9.2 μM OEA enhances the potency of GLP-1 in stimulating cAMP production by 10-fold but does not affect its receptor binding affinity. OEA and 2-oleoylglycerol, but not SEA, bind to GLP-1 in a dose-dependent and saturable manner. OEA but not SEA promoted GLP-1(7-36) amide to trypsin inactivation in a dose-dependent and saturable manner. Susceptibility of GLP-1(7-36) amide to trypsin inactivation is increased 40-fold upon binding to OEA but not to SEA. Our findings indicate that OEA binds to GLP-1(7-36) amide and enhances the potency that may result from a conformational change of the peptide. In conclusion, modulating potency of GLP-1 by physiologically regulated endocannabinoid-like lipids allows GLP-1R signaling to be regulated spatiotemporally at a constant basal GLP-1 level.

  2. Risk assessment of oncogenic potency of pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables.

    PubMed

    Keikotlhaile, B M; Spanoghe, P; Steurbaut, W

    2011-01-01

    Pesticides are used in agriculture to improve food security by assuring good harvest, however, they can have harmful effects in human beings and animals. One of the harmful effects of pesticides is their carcinogenicity. Exposure to oncogenic compounds may result in cancer to the exposed animal or person. In this paper, exposure assessment of oncogenic potency of pesticides was performed from raw and processed fruits and vegetables. The oncogenic risk was calculated by multiplying the estimated daily intake (EDI) of the pesticide residue with the oncogenic potency factor (Q*) of the concerned pesticide. The total potential oncogenic risk was calculated to be 2.76 x 10(-3) before processing and 8.97 x 10(-4) after processing. The risk was higher than the EPA acceptable limit of 1 x10(-6). Despite the calculated levels exceeding the EPA acceptable limit, food processing activities reduced the dietary oncogenic risk to an average 33.8%.

  3. Breaking the Meyer-Overton rule: predicted effects of varying stiffness and interfacial activity on the intrinsic potency of anesthetics.

    PubMed Central

    Cantor, R S

    2001-01-01

    Exceptions to the Meyer-Overton rule are commonly cited as evidence against indirect, membrane-mediated mechanisms of general anesthesia. However, another interpretation is possible within the context of an indirect mechanism in which solubilization of an anesthetic in the membrane causes a redistribution of lateral pressures in the membrane, which in turn shifts the conformational equilibrium of membrane proteins such as ligand-gated ion channels. It is suggested that compounds of different stiffness and interfacial activity have different intrinsic potencies, i.e., they cause widely different redistributions of the pressure profile (and thus different effects on protein conformational equilibria) per unit concentration of the compound in the membrane. Calculations incorporating the greater stiffness of perfluoromethylenic chains and the large interfacial attraction of hydroxyl groups predict the higher intrinsic potency of short alkanols than alkanes, the cutoffs in potency of alkanes and alkanols and the much shorter cutoffs for their perfluorinated analogues. Both effects, increased stiffness and interfacial activity, are present in unsaturated hydrocarbon solutes, and the intrinsic potencies are predicted to depend on the magnitude of both effects and on the number and locations of multiple bonds within the molecule. Most importantly, the intrinsic potencies of polymeric alkanols with regularly spaced hydroxyl groups are predicted to rise with increasing chain length, without cutoff; such molecules should serve to distinguish unambiguously between indirect mechanisms and direct binding mechanisms of anesthesia. PMID:11325730

  4. New Member of the V1V2-Directed CAP256-VRC26 Lineage That Shows Increased Breadth and Exceptional Potency

    PubMed Central

    Doria-Rose, Nicole A.; Bhiman, Jinal N.; Roark, Ryan S.; Schramm, Chaim A.; Gorman, Jason; Chuang, Gwo-Yu; Pancera, Marie; Cale, Evan M.; Ernandes, Michael J.; Louder, Mark K.; Asokan, Mangaiarkarasi; Bailer, Robert T.; Druz, Aliaksandr; Fraschilla, Isabella R.; Garrett, Nigel J.; Jarosinski, Marissa; Lynch, Rebecca M.; McKee, Krisha; O'Dell, Sijy; Pegu, Amarendra; Schmidt, Stephen D.; Staupe, Ryan P.; Sutton, Matthew S.; Wang, Keyun; Wibmer, Constantinos Kurt; Haynes, Barton F.; Abdool-Karim, Salim; Shapiro, Lawrence; Kwong, Peter D.; Moore, Penny L.; Morris, Lynn

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The epitopes defined by HIV-1 broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) are valuable templates for vaccine design, and studies of the immunological development of these antibodies are providing insights for vaccination strategies. In addition, the most potent and broadly reactive of these bNAbs have potential for clinical use. We previously described a family of 12 V1V2-directed neutralizing antibodies, CAP256-VRC26, isolated from an HIV-1 clade C-infected donor at years 1, 2, and 4 of infection (N. A. Doria-Rose et al., Nature 509:55–62, 2014, http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature13036). Here, we report on the isolation and characterization of new members of the family mostly obtained at time points of peak serum neutralization breadth and potency. Thirteen antibodies were isolated from B cell culture, and eight were isolated using trimeric envelope probes for differential single B cell sorting. One of the new antibodies displayed a 10-fold greater neutralization potency than previously published lineage members. This antibody, CAP256-VRC26.25, neutralized 57% of diverse clade viral isolates and 70% of clade C isolates with remarkable potency. Among the viruses neutralized, the median 50% inhibitory concentration was 0.001 μg/ml. All 33 lineage members targeted a quaternary epitope focused on V2. While all known bNAbs targeting the V1V2 region interact with the N160 glycan, the CAP256-VRC26 antibodies showed an inverse correlation of neutralization potency with dependence on this glycan. Overall, our results highlight the ongoing evolution within a single antibody lineage and describe more potent and broadly neutralizing members with potential clinical utility, particularly in areas where clade C is prevalent. IMPORTANCE Studies of HIV-1 broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) provide valuable information for vaccine design, and the most potent and broadly reactive of these bNAbs have potential for clinical use. We previously described a family of V1V2

  5. Potency Determination of Antidandruff Shampoos in Nystatin International Unit Equivalents

    PubMed Central

    Anusha Hewage, D. B. G.; Pathirana, W.; Pinnawela, Amara

    2008-01-01

    A convenient standard microbiological potency determination test for the antidandruff shampoos was developed by adopting the pharmacopoeial microbiological assay procedure of the drug nystatin. A standard curve was drawn consisting of the inhibition zone diameters vs. logarithm of nystatin concentrations in international units using the fungus Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeast) strain National Collection of Type Culture (NCTC) 1071606 as the test organism. From the standard curve the yeast inhibitory potencies of the shampoos in nystatin international unit equivalents were determined from the respective inhibition zones of the test samples of the shampoos. Under test conditions four shampoo samples showed remarkable fungal inhibitory potencies of 10227, 10731, 12396 and 18211 nystatin international unit equivalents/ml while two shampoo samples had extremely feeble inhibitory potencies 4.07 and 4.37 nystatin international unit equivalents/ml although the latter two products claimed antifungal activity. The potency determination method could be applied to any antidandruff shampoo with any one or a combination of active ingredients. PMID:21394271

  6. Factors Affecting the Inclusion Potency for Acicular Ferrite Nucleation in High-Strength Steel Welds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Yongjoon; Jeong, Seonghoon; Kang, Joo-Hee; Lee, Changhee

    2016-06-01

    Factors affecting the inclusion potency for acicular ferrite nucleation in high-strength weld metals were investigated and the contribution of each factor was qualitatively evaluated. Two kinds of weld metals with different hardenabilities were prepared, in both, MnTi2O4-rich spinel formed as the predominant inclusion phase. To evaluate the factors determining the inclusion potency, the inclusion characteristics of size, phase distribution in the multiphase inclusion, orientation relationship with ferrite, and Mn distribution near the inclusion were analyzed. Three factors affecting the ferrite nucleation potency of inclusions were evaluated: the Baker-Nutting (B-N) orientation relationship between ferrite and the inclusion; the formation of an Mn-depleted zone (MDZ) near the inclusion; and the strain energy around the inclusion. Among these, the first two factors were found to be the most important. In addition, it was concluded that the increased chemical driving force brought about by the formation of an MDZ contributed more to the formation of acicular ferrite in higher-strength weld metals, because the B-N orientation relationship between ferrite and the inclusion was less likely to form as the transformation temperature decreased.

  7. Introduction of Mismatches in a Random shRNA-Encoding Library Improves Potency for Phenotypic Selection

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yongping; Speier, Jacqueline S.; Engram-Pearl, Jessica; Wilson, Robert B.

    2014-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a mechanism for interfering with gene expression through the action of small, non-coding RNAs. We previously constructed a short-hairpin-loop RNA (shRNA) encoding library that is random at the nucleotide level [1]. In this library, the stems of the hairpin are completely complementary. To improve the potency of initial hits, and therefore signal-to-noise ratios in library screening, as well as to simplify hit-sequence retrieval by PCR, we constructed a second-generation library in which we introduced random mismatches between the two halves of the stem of each hairpin, on a random template background. In a screen for shRNAs that protect an interleukin-3 (IL3) dependent cell line from IL3 withdrawal, our second-generation library yielded hit sequences with significantly higher potencies than those from the first-generation library in the same screen. Our method of random mutagenesis was effective for a random template and is likely suitable, therefore, for any DNA template of interest. The improved potency of our second-generation library expands the range of possible unbiased screens for small-RNA therapeutics and biologic tools. PMID:24498319

  8. Phytoestrogens and sterols in waters with cyanobacterial blooms - Analytical methods and estrogenic potencies.

    PubMed

    Procházková, Tereza; Sychrová, Eliška; Javůrková, Barbora; Večerková, Jaroslava; Kohoutek, Jiří; Lepšová-Skácelová, Olga; Bláha, Luděk; Hilscherová, Klára

    2017-03-01

    Compounds with estrogenic potencies and their adverse effects in surface waters have received much attention. Both anthropogenic and natural compounds contribute to overall estrogenic activity in freshwaters. Recently, estrogenic potencies were also found to be associated with cyanobacteria and their blooms in surface waters. The present study developed and compared the solid phase extraction and LC-MS/MS analytical approaches for determination of phytoestrogens (8 flavonoids - biochanin A, coumestrol, daidzein, equol, formononetin, genistein, naringenin, apigenin - and 5 sterols - ergosterol, β-sitosterol, stigmasterol, campesterol, brassicasterol) and cholesterol in water. The method was used for analyses of samples collected in stagnant water bodies dominated by different cyanobacterial species. Concentrations of individual flavonoids ranged from below the limit of detection to 3.58 ng/L. Sterols were present in higher amounts up to 2.25 μg/L. Biological potencies of these phytoestrogens in vitro were characterized using the hERα-HeLa-9903 cell line. The relative estrogenic potencies (compared to model estrogen - 17β-estradiol) of flavonoids ranged from 2.25E-05 to 1.26E-03 with coumestrol being the most potent. None of the sterols elicited estrogenic response in the used bioassay. Estrogenic activity was detected in collected field water samples (maximum effect corresponding to 2.07 ng/L of 17β-estradiol equivalents, transcriptional assay). At maximum phytoestrogens accounted for only 1.56 pg/L of 17β-estradiol equivalents, contributing maximally 8.5% of the total estrogenicity of the water samples. Other compounds therefore, most likely of anthropogenic origin such as steroid estrogens, are probably the major drivers of total estrogenic effects in these surface waters.

  9. Monitoring blend potency in a tablet press feed frame using near infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Ward, Howard W; Blackwood, Daniel O; Polizzi, Mark; Clarke, Hugh

    2013-06-01

    A near-infrared (NIR) probe was installed into the feed frame of a rotary tablet press to monitor API concentration as a function of time. A series of step change experimental trials were completed, where a placebo blend was initially charged into the feed frame, and an active blend was layered above. The compression process was initiated, and process parameters, such as mass throughput rate, and feed frame paddle wheel speed were systematically varied. For the range of mass throughput rates studied, excellent correlations were shown between the NIR signal and weight corrected tablet potency from stratified tablet samples. A similar correlation was demonstrated for higher feed frame paddle wheel speeds. However, for lower feed frame paddle wheel speeds, a bias was observed between weight corrected tablet potency and the NIR signal. This finding suggests that compression process parameters, such as paddle wheel rotational speed and NIR probe location, must be optimized for different tablet press geometries to ensure that the NIR process signal can be related to tablet potency. This emerging application of Process Analytical Technology (PAT) may be used to identify powder segregation events during discharge of powder from an intermediate bulk container (IBC) or as a development tool to further understand powder mixing dynamics occurring within the feed frame. This may also be used as a diagnostic tool for fault detection during tablet compression. Finally, this PAT application may also be integrated with the tablet press control system as a gating or reject device for sub or super-potent tablets or enable Real-Time-Release testing (RTRt) through the continuous monitoring of the potency and homogeneity of powder circulating within the feed frame.

  10. Both Lymantria dispar Nucleopolyhedrovirus Enhancin Genes Contribute to Viral Potency

    PubMed Central

    Popham, Holly J. R.; Bischoff, David S.; Slavicek, James M.

    2001-01-01

    Enhancins are a group of proteins first identified in granuloviruses (GV) that have the ability to enhance nuclear polyhedrosis virus potency. We had previously identified an enhancin gene (E1) in the Lymantria dispar multinucleocapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (LdMNPV) (D. S. Bischoff and J. M. Slavicek, J. Virol. 71:8133–8140, 1997). Inactivation of the E1 gene product within the viral genome lowered viral potency by an average of 2.9-fold. A second enhancin gene (E2) was identified when the entire genome of LdMNPV was sequenced (Kuzio et al., Virology 253:17–34, 1999). The E2 protein exhibits approximately 30% amino acid identity to the LdMNPV E1 protein as well as the enhancins from Trichoplusia ni GV, Pseudaletia unipuncta GV, Helicoverpa armigera GV, and Xestia c-nigrum GV. Northern analysis of viral RNA indicated that the E2 gene transcripts are expressed at late times postinfection from a consensus baculovirus late promoter. The effect of the enhancin proteins on viral potency was investigated through bioassay using two recombinant viruses, one with a deletion in the E2 gene (E2del) and a second with deletion mutations in both enhancin genes (E1delE2del). The enhancin gene viral constructs were verified by Southern analysis and shown not to produce enhancin gene transcripts by Northern analysis. The E2del virus exhibited an average decrease in viral potency of 1.8-fold compared to wild-type virus. In the same bioassays, the recombinant virus E1cat, which does not produce an E1 gene transcript, exhibited an average decrease in viral potency of 2.3-fold compared to control virus. The E1delE2del virus exhibited an average decrease in viral potency of 12-fold compared to wild-type virus. Collectively, these results suggest that both LdMNPV enhancin genes contribute to viral potency, that each enhancin protein can partially compensate for the lack of the other protein, and that both enhancin genes are necessary for wild-type viral potency. PMID:11507209

  11. Carcinogenic potency of alkylating agents in rodents and humans.

    PubMed

    Dedrick, R L; Morrison, P F

    1992-05-01

    Alkylating agents are known to produce second tumors in cancer patients treated for their primary cancer. Since therapeutic doses are high and the pharmacokinetics of the drugs are thoroughly studied, these agents provide a unique opportunity to compare intrinsic carcinogenic potency between experimental animals and humans. We have examined the carcinogenicity of melphalan, chlorambucil, and cyclophosphamide in causing leukemia in patients treated for cancer or polycythemia vera and lymphosarcoma in rats and mice. A good correlation among species is observed when the carcinogenic potency is based on the total lifetime exposure to active species derived from these drugs.

  12. Synthesis, chemical reactivity as Michael acceptors, and biological potency of monocyclic cyanoenones, novel and highly potent anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective agents.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Suqing; Santosh Laxmi, Y R; David, Emilie; Dinkova-Kostova, Albena T; Shiavoni, Katherine H; Ren, Yanqing; Zheng, Ying; Trevino, Isaac; Bumeister, Ronald; Ojima, Iwao; Wigley, W Christian; Bliska, James B; Mierke, Dale F; Honda, Tadashi

    2012-05-24

    Novel monocyclic cyanoenones examined to date display unique features regarding chemical reactivity as Michael acceptors and biological potency. Remarkably, in some biological assays, the simple structure is more potent than pentacyclic triterpenoids (e.g., CDDO and bardoxolone methyl) and tricycles (e.g., TBE-31). Among monocyclic cyanoenones, 1 is a highly reactive Michael acceptor with thiol nucleophiles. Furthermore, an important feature of 1 is that its Michael addition is reversible. For the inhibition of NO production, 1 shows the highest potency. Notably, its potency is about three times higher than CDDO, whose methyl ester (bardoxolone methyl) is presently in phase III clinical trials. For the induction of NQO1, 1 also demonstrated the highest potency. These results suggest that the reactivity of these Michael acceptors is closely related to their biological potency. Interestingly, in LPS-stimulated macrophages, 1 causes apoptosis and inhibits secretion of TNF-α and IL-1β with potencies that are higher than those of bardoxolone methyl and TBE-31.

  13. Mutagenic Potency of Food-Derived Heterocyclic Amines

    SciTech Connect

    Felton, J S; Knize, M G; Wu, R W; Colvin, M E; Hatch, F T; Malfatti, M A

    2006-10-26

    The understanding of mutagenic potency has been primarily approached using ''quantitative structure activity relationships'' (QSAR). Often this method allows the prediction of mutagenic potency of the compound based on its structure. But it does not give the underlying reason why the mutagenic activities differ. We have taken a set of heterocyclic amine structures and used molecular dynamic calculations to dock these molecules into the active site of a computational model of the cytochrome P-450 1A1 enzyme. The calculated binding strength using Boltzman distribution constants was then compared to the QSAR value (HF/6-31G* optimized structures) and the Ames/Salmonella mutagenic potency. Further understanding will only come from knowing the complete set of mutagenic determinants. These include the nitrenium ion half-life, DNA adduct half-life, efficiency of repair of the adduct, and ultimately fixation of the mutation through cellular processes. For two isomers, PhIP and 3-Me-PhIP, we showed that for the 100-fold difference in the mutagenic potency a 5-fold difference can be accounted for by differences in the P450 oxidation. The other factor of 20 is not clearly understood but is downstream from the oxidation step. The application of QSAR (chemical characteristics) to biological principles related to mutagenesis is explored in this report.

  14. 9 CFR 113.9 - New potency test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false New potency test. 113.9 Section 113.9 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Applicability §...

  15. 9 CFR 113.9 - New potency test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false New potency test. 113.9 Section 113.9 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Applicability §...

  16. 21 CFR 660.25 - Potency tests without reference preparations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... manufacturer's package insert using red blood cells showing heterozygous or diminished expression of the... SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Blood Grouping Reagent § 660.25 Potency tests without reference preparations. Products for which Reference...

  17. High Potency and Other Alcoholic Beverage Consumption among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jobli, Edessa C.; Dore, Heather S.; Werch, Chudley E.; Moore, Michele J.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence of high potency (liquor, malt liquor, fortified wine) and other alcoholic beverage consumption (beer, wine/wine coolers) among adolescents, the impact of gender and ethnicity, and the risk and protective factors that predicted consumption. A confidential survey revealed that, among eighth grade students,…

  18. 9 CFR 113.9 - New potency test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false New potency test. 113.9 Section 113.9 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Applicability §...

  19. Concepts of Potency and Resistance in Causal Prediction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zelazo, Philip David; Shultz, Thomas R.

    1989-01-01

    Used physical systems with effects of continuous magnitude to examine development of causal prediction in 30 children of 5 and 9 years and adults. There were clear age differences in the ability to integrate information about potency and resistance into sophisticated causal predictions of the magnitude of an effect. (RJC)

  20. 9 CFR 113.9 - New potency test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false New potency test. 113.9 Section 113.9 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Applicability §...

  1. 21 CFR 660.25 - Potency tests without reference preparations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... manufacturer's package insert using red blood cells showing heterozygous or diminished expression of the... SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Blood Grouping Reagent § 660.25 Potency tests without reference preparations. Products for which Reference...

  2. 21 CFR 660.25 - Potency tests without reference preparations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... manufacturer's package insert using red blood cells showing heterozygous or diminished expression of the... SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Blood Grouping Reagent § 660.25 Potency tests without reference preparations. Products for which Reference...

  3. 21 CFR 660.25 - Potency tests without reference preparations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... manufacturer's package insert using red blood cells showing heterozygous or diminished expression of the... SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Blood Grouping Reagent § 660.25 Potency tests without reference preparations. Products for which Reference...

  4. Ileocolic neobladder post-cystectomy: continence and potency.

    PubMed

    Marshall, F F; Mostwin, J L; Radebaugh, L C; Walsh, P C; Brendler, C B

    1991-03-01

    Incontinence and impotence are 2 of the primary complications associated with total bladder reconstruction after cystectomy for carcinoma. These and other features are addressed in 25 patients who underwent total neobladder reconstruction following cystectomy for transitional cell carcinoma. Of these patients 20 had a urethral anastomosis. No patient had to wear a pad or device. Enuresis was rare. When the radical cystoprostatectomy population was contrasted with a radical prostatectomy patient population, continence was achieved more rapidly in the neobladder group. Potency was maintained in 15 of 21 (71%) evaluable patients. This ileocolic neobladder produces a large volume and low pressure, and provides excellent day and night continence. With preservation of the neurovascular bundle potency can be maintained in the majority of patients.

  5. Can biochemistry drive drug discovery beyond simple potency measurements?

    PubMed

    Chène, Patrick

    2012-04-01

    Among the fields of expertise required to develop drugs successfully, biochemistry holds a key position in drug discovery at the interface between chemistry, structural biology and cell biology. However, taking the example of protein kinases, it appears that biochemical assays are mostly used in the pharmaceutical industry to measure compound potency and/or selectivity. This limited use of biochemistry is surprising, given that detailed biochemical analyses are commonly used in academia to unravel molecular recognition processes. In this article, I show that biochemistry can provide invaluable information on the dynamics and energetics of compound-target interactions that cannot be obtained on the basis of potency measurements and structural data. Therefore, an extensive use of biochemistry in drug discovery could facilitate the identification and/or development of new drugs.

  6. Incorporating potency into EU classification for carcinogenicity and reproductive toxicity.

    PubMed

    Hennes, C; Batke, M; Bomann, W; Duhayon, S; Kosemund, K; Politano, V; Stinchcombe, S; Doe, J

    2014-11-01

    Although risk assessment, assessing the potential harm of each particular exposure of a substance, is desirable, it is not feasible in many situations. Risk assessment uses a process of hazard identification, hazard characterisation, and exposure assessment as its components. In the absence of risk assessment, the purpose of classification is to give broad guidance (through the label) on the suitability of a chemical in a range of use situations. Hazard classification in the EU is a process involving identification of the hazards of a substance, followed by comparison of those hazards (including degree of hazard) with defined criteria. Classification should therefore give guidance on degree of hazard as well as hazard identification. Potency is the most important indicator of degree of hazard and should therefore be included in classification. This is done for acute lethality and general toxicity by classifying on dose required to cause the effect. The classification in the EU for carcinogenicity and reproductive toxicity does not discriminate across the wide range of potencies seen (6 orders of magnitude) for carcinogenicity and for developmental toxicity and fertility. Therefore potency should be included in the classification process. The methodology in the EU guidelines for classification for deriving specific concentration limits is a rigorous process for assigning substances which cause tumours or developmental toxicity and infertility in experimental animals to high, medium or low degree of hazard categories by incorporating potency. Methods are suggested on how the degree of hazard so derived could be used in the EU classification process to improve hazard communication and in downstream risk management.

  7. Rapid infrared determination of the potency of chlorinated bactericides.

    PubMed

    Spagnolo, F; Cestaro, J P

    1971-06-01

    A rapid infrared reflectance method for evaluating the germicidal potency of synthetic materials containing various amounts of two chlorinated bactericides was developed. The dimeric product 2,2'-methylenebis (4,6-dichlorophenol) exhibited a characteristic C=C skeletal inplane stretching infrared absorption band at 1,640 cm(-1). The monomeric 2,4-dichlorophenol precursor showed a characteristic absorption band at 1,579 cm(-1). These characteristic infrared absorptions may be used for analysis of the potency of the manufactured chlorinated bactericide. For a series of samples known to vary in dimer content, the micrograms per milliliter required for a 100% bacterial kill is first determined by a standard American Petroleum Institute method. Then the area ratio of the infrared absorption bands characteristic of the chlorinated bactericides is measured for each sample and plotted versus the microgram per milliliter required for 100% bacterial kill. The potency of subsequent samples is simply and rapidly determined by measuring this ratio from the infrared absorption curve and calculating micrograms per milliliter required for 100% kill from the calibration curve. Analysis time is approximately 1 hr compared to biocidal tests in current use requiring approximately a 1-month incubation period.

  8. Characterization of mesenchymal stromal cells: potency assay development.

    PubMed

    Hematti, Peiman

    2016-04-01

    Based on their many different mechanisms of action, presumed immune-privileged status, and relative ease of production, mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are under intensive clinical investigation for treating a wide range of degenerative, inflammatory, and immunologic disorders. Identification of relevant and robust potency assays is not only a regulatory requirement, but it is also the basis for producing and delivering a product that is consistent, safe, and ultimately an effective therapy. Although development of an appropriate potency assay is one of the most challenging issues in cell-based therapies, it is of paramount importance in the process of developing and testing cellular products. Regardless of the many different tissue sources and methods used in culture expansion of MSCs, they possess many of the same morphologic, cell surface markers, and differentiation characteristics. However, MSC products with similar phenotypic characteristics could still have major differences in their biologic and functional attributes. Understanding the different mechanisms of action and establishment of relevant potency assays is of pivotal importance in allowing investigators and regulatory agencies to compare MSCs used in different clinical trials.

  9. Ca(2+)-loading modulates potencies of cyclosporin A, Mg2+ and ADP to recouple permeabilized rat liver mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Andreyev AYu; Mikhaylova, L M; Starkov, A A; Kushnareva YuE

    1994-09-01

    We studied the relative potencies of cyclosporin A and endogenous effectors (Mg2+ and ADP) to recouple rat liver mitochondria permeabilized by different Ca(2+)-loading in a P(i)-containing medium. Recoupling efficiency of cyclosporin A dramatically decreased at high Ca(2+)-loading (approx. 100 nM of Ca2+/mg protein and more). Mitochondria permeabilized by high Ca2+ were recoupled with approximately equal efficiency by higher cyclosporin A concentrations or by adding 1-5 mM Mg2+ together with low concentrations of cyclosporin A while potentiating effect of ADP on the cyclosporin A recoupling potency was insignificant. Mg2+ ions at concentrations of 3 mM and higher also prevented the carboxyatractylate-induced reversion of cyclosporin A recoupling effect. The data point to competitive relationships between cyclosporin A and/or Mg2+ ions and Ca2+ ions for the site(s) regulating permeability state of the pore.

  10. Essential Oil from Berries of Lebanese Juniperus excelsa M. Bieb Displays Similar Antibacterial Activity to Chlorhexidine but Higher Cytocompatibility with Human Oral Primary Cells.

    PubMed

    Azzimonti, Barbara; Cochis, Andrea; Beyrouthy, Marc El; Iriti, Marcello; Uberti, Francesca; Sorrentino, Rita; Landini, Manuela Miriam; Rimondini, Lia; Varoni, Elena Maria

    2015-05-21

    Chlorhexidine (CHX), one of the most effective drugs administered for periodontal treatment, presents collateral effects including toxicity when used for prolonged periods; here, we have evaluated the bactericidal potency and the cytocompatibility of Juniperus excelsa M. Bieb essential oil (EO) in comparison with 0.05% CHX. The EO was extracted from berries by hydrodistillation and components identified by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Bacterial inhibition halo analysis, quantitative cell viability 2,3-bis(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulphophenyl)-5-[(phenyl amino) carbonyl]-2H-tetrazolium hydroxide assay (XTT), and colony forming unit (CFU) count were evaluated against the two biofilm formers Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and Streptococcus mutans. Finally, cytocompatibility was assessed with human primary gingival fibroblasts (HGF) and mucosal keratinocytes (HK). The resulting EO was mainly composed of monoterpene hydrocarbons and oxygenated monoterpenes. An inhibition halo test demonstrated that both bacteria were sensitive to the EO; XTT analysis and CFU counts confirmed that 10-fold-diluted EO determined a statistically significant (p < 0.05) reduction in bacteria count and viability towards both biofilm and planktonic forms in a comparable manner to those obtained with CHX. Moreover, EO displayed higher cytocompatibility than CHX (p < 0.05). In conclusion, EO exhibited bactericidal activity similar to CHX, but a superior cytocompatibility, making it a promising antiseptic alternative to CHX.

  11. Enhanced potency of a fucose-free monoclonal antibody being developed as an Ebola virus immunoprotectant

    PubMed Central

    Zeitlin, Larry; Pettitt, James; Scully, Corinne; Bohorova, Natasha; Kim, Do; Pauly, Michael; Hiatt, Andrew; Ngo, Long; Steinkellner, Herta; Whaley, Kevin J.; Olinger, Gene G.

    2011-01-01

    No countermeasures currently exist for the prevention or treatment of the severe sequelae of Filovirus (such as Ebola virus; EBOV) infection. To overcome this limitation in our biodefense preparedness, we have designed monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) which could be used in humans as immunoprotectants for EBOV, starting with a murine mAb (13F6) that recognizes the heavily glycosylated mucin-like domain of the virion-attached glycoprotein (GP). Point mutations were introduced into the variable region of the murine mAb to remove predicted human T-cell epitopes, and the variable regions joined to human constant regions to generate a mAb (h-13F6) appropriate for development for human use. We have evaluated the efficacy of three variants of h-13F6 carrying different glycosylation patterns in a lethal mouse EBOV challenge model. The pattern of glycosylation of the various mAbs was found to correlate to level of protection, with aglycosylated h-13F6 providing the least potent efficacy (ED50 = 33 μg). A version with typical heterogenous mammalian glycoforms (ED50 = 11 μg) had similar potency to the original murine mAb. However, h-13F6 carrying complex N-glycosylation lacking core fucose exhibited superior potency (ED50 = 3 μg). Binding studies using Fcγ receptors revealed enhanced binding of nonfucosylated h-13F6 to mouse and human FcγRIII. Together the results indicate the presence of Fc N-glycans enhances the protective efficacy of h-13F6, and that mAbs manufactured with uniform glycosylation and a higher potency glycoform offer promise as biodefense therapeutics. PMID:22143789

  12. The intravenous to oral relative milligram potency ratio of morphine during chronic dosing in cancer pain.

    PubMed

    Lasheen, Wael; Walsh, Declan; Mahmoud, Fade; Sarhill, Nabeel; Rivera, Nilo; Davis, Mellar; Lagman, Ruth; Legrand, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Morphine (M) is the opioid analgesic of choice for severe cancer pain. The IV to PO M equipotent switch ratio (CR) is controversial. We designed this prospective observational cohort to confirm the efficacy and safety of M IV to PO CR of 1:3. Consecutive cancer patients admitted to an inpatient palliative medicine unit were screened for inclusion. Pain was managed by palliative medicine specialists. They were blinded to the patient data collected, and the calculated CR. The switch was considered successful if the following criteria were met: (1) Pain adequately controlled: pain rated as none or mild (2) Number of RD less than 4 (for non incident pain) per 24 hours (3) No limiting side effects. We used Day 3 ATC M dose for CR calculations. The major outcome measures were the IV : PO CR ratio, morphine doses (mg/day), pain severity, number of PRN doses, and day 1 and day 3side effects. Descriptive statistics were used to report mean, median, standard deviation and range of different variables. Two hundred and fifty six consecutive admissions were screened, and 106 were eligible for the study. Sixty two underwent a successful M route switch and were included in this analysis. A ratio of 1:3 was safely implemented over a wide M dose range. About 80% were successfully switched with a calculated CR of 1:3. 20% required an oral M dose adjustment after route switch either to better pain control or reduce side effects with a resultant higher (e.g. 1:4) or lower (e.g. 1:2) calculated potency ratios respectively. A potency ratio of 1:3 was safe as evaluated by common M side-effects, the dose also easy to calculate. The 1: 3 M IV to PO relative milligram potency ratio appears correct and practical for most patients over a wide M dose range.

  13. Enhanced potency of a fucose-free monoclonal antibody being developed as an Ebola virus immunoprotectant.

    PubMed

    Zeitlin, Larry; Pettitt, James; Scully, Corinne; Bohorova, Natasha; Kim, Do; Pauly, Michael; Hiatt, Andrew; Ngo, Long; Steinkellner, Herta; Whaley, Kevin J; Olinger, Gene G

    2011-12-20

    No countermeasures currently exist for the prevention or treatment of the severe sequelae of Filovirus (such as Ebola virus; EBOV) infection. To overcome this limitation in our biodefense preparedness, we have designed monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) which could be used in humans as immunoprotectants for EBOV, starting with a murine mAb (13F6) that recognizes the heavily glycosylated mucin-like domain of the virion-attached glycoprotein (GP). Point mutations were introduced into the variable region of the murine mAb to remove predicted human T-cell epitopes, and the variable regions joined to human constant regions to generate a mAb (h-13F6) appropriate for development for human use. We have evaluated the efficacy of three variants of h-13F6 carrying different glycosylation patterns in a lethal mouse EBOV challenge model. The pattern of glycosylation of the various mAbs was found to correlate to level of protection, with aglycosylated h-13F6 providing the least potent efficacy (ED(50) = 33 μg). A version with typical heterogenous mammalian glycoforms (ED(50) = 11 μg) had similar potency to the original murine mAb. However, h-13F6 carrying complex N-glycosylation lacking core fucose exhibited superior potency (ED(50) = 3 μg). Binding studies using Fcγ receptors revealed enhanced binding of nonfucosylated h-13F6 to mouse and human FcγRIII. Together the results indicate the presence of Fc N-glycans enhances the protective efficacy of h-13F6, and that mAbs manufactured with uniform glycosylation and a higher potency glycoform offer promise as biodefense therapeutics.

  14. International collaborative studies on potency assays of diphtheria and tetanus toxoids.

    PubMed

    Van Ramshorst, J D; Sundaresan, T K; Outschoorn, A S

    1972-01-01

    Collaborative studies showed that relative potency assays for a particular type of diphtheria toxoid (adsorbed) and for tetanus toxoid (plain and adsorbed) gave very similar results, whether the assays were carried out by toxin challenge or by antitoxin titration after immunization of experimental animals with graded doses of toxoid. The same numerical results were obtained with a scoring system as with a system based on survivals only. Although skin tests were used on a very limited scale in these studies, it seems likely that they could replace lethal tests for the diphtheria challenge assays.For both tetanus and diphtheria, the adsorbed toxoid gave a higher relative potency when combined with other antigens than as a single toxoid. Both mice and guinea-pigs were used for the lethal challenge test of adsorbed tetanus toxoid. For the single tetanus toxoid the results were the same, but for the combined toxoid (DPT vaccine) the mouse assay results were about twice those of guinea-pig assays.

  15. BI 1002494, a Novel Potent and Selective Oral Spleen Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor, Displays Differential Potency in Human Basophils and B Cells.

    PubMed

    Lamb, David J; Wollin, Stefan Lutz; Schnapp, Andreas; Bischoff, Daniel; Erb, Klaus J; Bouyssou, Thierry; Guilliard, Bernd; Strasser, Christine; Wex, Eva; Blum, Sylvia; Thaler, Eva; Nickel, Helga; Radmacher, Oliver; Haas, Hannah; Swantek, Jennifer L; Souza, Don; Canfield, Melissa; White, Della; Panzenbeck, Mark; Kashem, Mohammed A; Sanville-Ross, Mary; Kono, Takeshi; Sewald, Katherina; Braun, Armin; Obernolte, Helena; Danov, Olga; Schaenzle, Gerhard; Rast, Georg; Maier, Gerd-Michael; Hoffmann, Matthias

    2016-06-01

    BI 1002494 [(R)-4-{(R)-1-[7-(3,4,5-trimethoxy-phenyl)-[1,6]napthyridin-5-yloxy]-ethyl}pyrrolidin-2-one] is a novel, potent, and selective spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK) inhibitor with sustained plasma exposure after oral administration in rats, which qualifies this molecule as a good in vitro and in vivo tool compound. BI 1002494 exhibits higher potency in inhibiting high-affinity IgE receptor-mediated mast cell and basophil degranulation (IC50 = 115 nM) compared with B-cell receptor-mediated activation of B cells (IC50 = 810 nM). This may be explained by lower kinase potency when the physiologic ligand B-cell linker was used, suggesting that SYK inhibitors may exhibit differential potency depending on the cell type and the respective signal transduction ligand. A 3-fold decrease in potency was observed in rat basophils (IC50 = 323 nM) compared with human basophils, but a similar species potency shift was not observed in B cells. The lower potency in rat basophils was confirmed in both ex vivo inhibition of bronchoconstriction in precision-cut rat lung slices and in reversal of anaphylaxis-driven airway resistance in rats. The different cellular potencies translated into different in vivo efficacy; full efficacy in a rat ovalbumin model (that contains an element of mast cell dependence) was achieved with a trough plasma concentration of 340 nM, whereas full efficacy in a rat collagen-induced arthritis model (that contains an element of B-cell dependence) was achieved with a trough plasma concentration of 1400 nM. Taken together, these data provide a platform from which different estimates of human efficacious exposures can be made according to the relevant cell type for the indication intended to be treated.

  16. Establishing Criteria for Human Mesenchymal Stem Cell Potency

    PubMed Central

    Samsonraj, Rebekah M.; Rai, Bina; Sathiyanathan, Padmapriya; Puan, Kia Joo; Rötzschke, Olaf; Hui, James H.; Raghunath, Michael; Stanton, Lawrence W.; Nurcombe, Victor

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This study sought to identify critical determinants of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) potency using in vitro and in vivo attributes of cells isolated from the bone marrow of age‐ and sex‐matched donors. Adherence to plastic was not indicative of potency, yet capacity for long‐term expansion in vitro varied considerably between donors, allowing the grouping of MSCs from the donors into either those with high‐growth capacity or low‐growth capacity. Using this grouping strategy, high‐growth capacity MSCs were smaller in size, had greater colony‐forming efficiency, and had longer telomeres. Cell‐surface biomarker analysis revealed that the International Society for Cellular Therapy (ISCT) criteria did not distinguish between high‐growth capacity and low‐growth capacity MSCs, whereas STRO‐1 and platelet‐derived growth factor receptor alpha were preferentially expressed on high‐growth capacity MSCs. These cells also had the highest mean expression of the mRNA transcripts TWIST‐1 and DERMO‐1. Irrespective of these differences, both groups of donor MSCs produced similar levels of key growth factors and cytokines involved in tissue regeneration and were capable of multilineage differentiation. However, high‐growth capacity MSCs produced approximately double the volume of mineralized tissue compared to low‐growth capacity MSCs when assessed for ectopic bone‐forming ability. The additional phenotypic criteria presented in this study when combined with the existing ISCT minimum criteria and working proposal will permit an improved assessment of MSC potency and provide a basis for establishing the quality of MSCs prior to their therapeutic application. Stem Cells 2015;33:1878–1891 PMID:25752682

  17. Structure-Potency Relationships for Epoxides in Allergic Contact Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Roberts, David W; Aptula, Aynur; Api, Anne Marie

    2017-02-20

    Epoxides are known or proposed to be involved in skin sensitization in various ways. Some are encountered directly, and others have been shown to be formed abiotically and metabolically from various unsaturated chemicals. They can react as SN2 electrophiles. To date no quantitative mechanistic models (QMMs) are known for skin sensitization potency of this subcategory of SN2 electrophiles. Here we have considered the reaction mechanistic chemistry of epoxides and combined published experimental kinetic data (rate constants k for reaction with a cysteine-based peptide) together with calculated hydrophobicity data (logP) to derive a QMM correlating potency in the local lymph node assay (LLNA), expressed as EC3, with a relative alkylation index (RAI, calculated as logk + 0.4 logP). The QMM equation, pEC3 = 2.42(±0.26) RAI + 4.04 (±0.25), n = 9, R(2) = 0.928, R(2)(adj) = 0.917, F = 90, s = 0.18, fits the data well, with one positive outlier. The outlier can be rationalized by its exhibiting an alert for oxidation of an amine moiety to give, in this case, the highly reactive glycidaldehyde. The epoxide QMM predicts the potency of a nonepoxide SN2 electrophile (predicted EC3, 0.48%; observed EC3, 0.5%), which suggests that it could form the basis for a more general H-polar SN2 QMM that could be a valuable tool in skin sensitization risk assessment for this quite extensive and structurally diverse reaction mechanistic domain.

  18. Cannabis-induced psychosis associated with high potency "wax dabs".

    PubMed

    Pierre, Joseph M; Gandal, Michael; Son, Maya

    2016-04-01

    With mounting evidence that the risk of cannabis-induced psychosis may be related to both dose and potency of tetrahydrocannbinol (THC), increasing reports of psychosis associated with cannabinoids containing greater amounts of THC are anticipated. We report two cases of emergent psychosis after using a concentrated THC extract known as cannabis "wax," "oil," or "dabs" raising serious concerns about its psychotic liability. Although "dabbing" with cannabis wax is becoming increasingly popular in the US for both recreational and "medicinal" intentions, our cases raise serious concerns about its psychotic liability and highlight the importance of understanding this risk by physicians recommending cannabinoids for purported medicinal purposes.

  19. Elemental composition and radical formation potency of PM10 at an urban background station in Germany in relation to origin of air masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellack, Bryan; Quass, Ulrich; Beuck, Henning; Wick, Gabriele; Kuttler, Wilhelm; Schins, Roel P. F.; Kuhlbusch, Thomas A. J.

    2015-03-01

    At an urban background station in Mülheim-Styrum, North Rhine Westphalia, Germany, a set of 75 PM10 samples was collected over a one year period, followed by analyses for mass, chemical composition and hydroxyl radical (OHrad) formation potency. Additionally, the origin of air masses for the sampling days was calculated by 48-h backward trajectories, subdivided into the four cardinal sectors. Significant lower PM10 mass concentrations were observed for summertime air masses from the west compared to the other seasons and cardinal sectors. For the OHrad formation potency higher values were detected if air masses originate from east and south, thus predominantly being of continental origin. From the elevated OHrad formation potencies in fall and winter a seasonal trend with low potencies in summers is assumed. Furthermore, source apportionment was performed by a positive matrix factor analysis, separating seven plausible factors which could be attributed to mineral dust, secondary nitrate, industry, non-exhaust traffic, fossil fuel combustion, marine aerosol and secondary aerosol factors. The intrinsic OHrad formation potency was found to be associated mainly with the fossil fuel combustion factor (45%) and industry factor (22%).

  20. Antibody engineering for increased potency, breadth and half-life

    PubMed Central

    Sievers, Stuart A.; Scharf, Louise; West, Anthony P.; Bjorkman, Pamela J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review This review highlights recent developments in HIV-1 antibody engineering and discusses the effects of increased polyreactivity on serum half-lives of engineered antibodies. Recent findings Recent studies have uncovered a wealth of information about the relationship between the sequences and efficacies of anti-HIV-1 antibodies through a combination of bioinformatics, structural characterization and in vivo studies. This knowledge has stimulated efforts to enhance antibody breadth and potency for therapeutic use. Although some engineered antibodies have shown increased polyreactivity and short half-lives, promising efforts are circumventing these problems. Summary Antibodies are desirable as therapeutics due to their ability to recognize targets with both specificity and high affinity. Furthermore, the ability of antibodies to stimulate Fc-mediated effector functions can increase their utility. Thus, mAbs have become central to strategies for the treatment of various diseases. Using both targeted and library-based approaches, antibodies can be engineered to improve their therapeutic properties. This article will discuss recent antibody engineering efforts to improve the breadth and potency of anti-HIV-1 antibodies. The polyreactivity of engineered HIV-1 bNAbs and the effect on serum half-life will be explored along with strategies to overcome problems introduced by engineering antibodies. Finally, advances in creating bispecific anti-HIV-1 reagents are discussed. PMID:25760931

  1. Conformationally selective biophysical assay for influenza vaccine potency determination.

    PubMed

    Wen, Yingxia; Han, Liqun; Palladino, Giuseppe; Ferrari, Annette; Xie, Yuhong; Carfi, Andrea; Dormitzer, Philip R; Settembre, Ethan C

    2015-10-05

    Influenza vaccines are the primary intervention for reducing the substantial health burden from pandemic and seasonal influenza. Hemagglutinin (HA) is the most important influenza vaccine antigen. Subunit and split influenza vaccines are formulated, released for clinical use, and tested for stability based on an in vitro potency assay, single-radial immunodiffusion (SRID), which selectively detects HA that is immunologically active (capable of eliciting neutralizing or hemagglutination inhibiting antibodies in an immunized subject). The time consuming generation of strain-specific sheep antisera and calibrated antigen standards for SRID can delay vaccine release. The limitation in generating SRID reagents was evident during the early days of the 2009 pandemic, prompting efforts to develop more practical, alternative, quantitative assays for immunologically active HA. Here we demonstrate that, under native conditions, trypsin selectively digests HA produced from egg or mammalian cell in monovalent vaccines that is altered by stress conditions such as reduced pH, elevated temperature, or deamidation, leaving native, pre-fusion HA, intact. Subsequent reverse-phase high pressure liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) can separate trypsin-resistant HA from the digested HA. Integration of the resulting RP-HPLC peak yields HA quantities that match well the values obtained by SRID. Therefore, trypsin digestion, to pre-select immunologically active HA, followed by quantification by RP-HPLC is a promising alternative in vitro potency assay for influenza vaccines.

  2. Evaluation of tumour promoting potency of fish borne toxaphene residues, as compared to technical toxaphene and UV-irradiated toxaphene.

    PubMed

    Besselink, H; Nixon, E; McHugh, B; Rimkus, G; Klungsøyr, J; Leonards, P; De Boer, J; Brouwer, A

    2008-08-01

    In this study the potential impact of food chain-based biotransformation and physico-chemical weathering of toxaphene on its tumour promoting potential was investigated in vitro and in vivo. Human exposure to toxaphene is mainly through consumption of contaminated fish, therefore fish-borne residues of toxaphene (cod liver extract, CLE) were prepared by exposing cod to technical toxaphene (TT) for 63 days. UV-irradiated toxaphene (uvT) was included to represent a physico-chemical weathered toxaphene mixture. In vitro, TT, uvT and CLE all showed a dose- and time-dependent inhibition of gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) with a relative potency of CLE>TT=uvT. Tumour promoting potency was further studied in vivo in a medium term two-stage initiation/promotion bioassay in female Sprague-Dawley rats, using an increase in altered hepatic foci positive for glutathione-S-transferase-P (AHF-GST-P) as read out. No increase in AHF-GST-P occurred following exposure to either TT, uvT, or CLE, except for the positive control group (2,3,7,8-TCDD). Based on this study the no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) for tumour promoting potency is at least 12.5mg/kg/week, or higher for CLE. Considering current human exposure levels in Europe it is doubtful that consumption of fish at current levels of toxaphene contamination give rise to human health risk.

  3. Comparative study on anesthetic potency of dental local anesthetics assessed by the jaw-opening reflex in rabbits.

    PubMed Central

    Miyoshi, T.; Aida, H.; Kaneko, Y.

    2000-01-01

    The potency of 4 local anesthetics to dental pulp was compared. Drugs were 4% articaine with 12 microgram/mL epinephrine (A12), 4% articaine with 6 microgram/mL epinephrine (A6), 2% lidocaine with 12.5 microgram/mL epinephrine (L), and 3% propitocaine with 0.03 IU/mL felypressin (P). Local anesthetics were injected into the dental root of the mandibular incisor. Electromyogram (EMG) of the digastric muscle was measured during the jaw-opening reflex induced by electrical stimulation. The disappearance of the EMG wave was judged as positive evidence of anesthesia. The determination of ED50 of the anesthetic was made by probit analysis. The ED50 of the A12 was minimal in all the tested anesthetics throughout the entire course. The potency in the A6 was 2.8 times that of the L. The potency of the A12 at the 15-minute measurement was 3.8 times that of the A6. The ED50 of the P was higher compared with those of the other 3 groups. It was concluded that articaine showed quicker onset than lidocaine and propitocaine and that there was a need to increase the dosage to attain a quick onset or to extend the duration. PMID:11881694

  4. Relative potencies and combination effects of steroidal estrogens in fish.

    PubMed

    Thorpe, Karen L; Cummings, Rob I; Hutchinson, Thomas H; Scholze, Martin; Brighty, Geoff; Sumpter, John P; Tyler, Charles R

    2003-03-15

    The natural steroids estradiol-17beta (E2) and estrone (E1) and the synthetic steroid ethynylestradiol-17alpha (EE2) have frequently been measured in waters receiving domestic effluents. All of these steroids bind to the estrogen receptor(s) and have been shown to elicit a range of estrogenic responses in fish at environmentally relevant concentrations. At present, however, no relative potency estimates have been derived for either the individual steroidal estrogens or their mixtures in vivo. In this study the estrogenic activity of E2, E1, and EE2, and the combination effects of a mixture of E2 and EE2 (equi-potent fixed-ratio mixture), were assessed using vitellogenin induction in a 14-day in vivo juvenile rainbow trout screening assay. Median effective concentrations, relative to E2, for induction of vitellogenin were determined from the concentration-response curves and the relative estrogenic potencies of each of the test chemicals calculated. Median effective concentrations were between 19 and 26 ng L(-1) for E2, 60 ng L(-1) for E1, and between 0.95 and 1.8 ng L(-1) for EE2, implying that EE2 was approximately 11 to 27 times more potent than E2, while E2 was 2.3 to 3.2 times more potent than E1. The median effective concentration, relative to E2, for the binary mixture of E2 and EE2 was 15 ng L(-1) (comprising 14.4 ng L(-1) E2 and 0.6 ng L(-1) EE2). Using the model of concentration addition it was shown that this activity of the binary mixture could be predicted from the activity of the individual chemicals. The ability of each individual steroid to contribute to the overall effect of a mixture, even at individual no-effect concentrations, combined with the high estrogenic potency of the steroids, particularly the synthetic steroid EE2, emphasizes the need to consider the total estrogenic load of these chemicals in our waterways.

  5. Interferon-α Subtypes in an Ex Vivo Model of Acute HIV-1 Infection: Expression, Potency and Effector Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Harper, Michael S.; Guo, Kejun; Gibbert, Kathrin; Lee, Eric J.; Dillon, Stephanie M.; Barrett, Bradley S.; McCarter, Martin D.; Hasenkrug, Kim J.; Dittmer, Ulf; Wilson, Cara C.; Santiago, Mario L.

    2015-01-01

    HIV-1 is transmitted primarily across mucosal surfaces and rapidly spreads within the intestinal mucosa during acute infection. The type I interferons (IFNs) likely serve as a first line of defense, but the relative expression and antiviral properties of the 12 IFNα subtypes against HIV-1 infection of mucosal tissues remain unknown. Here, we evaluated the expression of all IFNα subtypes in HIV-1-exposed plasmacytoid dendritic cells by next-generation sequencing. We then determined the relative antiviral potency of each IFNα subtype ex vivo using the human intestinal Lamina Propria Aggregate Culture model. IFNα subtype transcripts from the centromeric half of the IFNA gene complex were highly expressed in pDCs following HIV-1 exposure. There was an inverse relationship between IFNA subtype expression and potency. IFNα8, IFNα6 and IFNα14 were the most potent in restricting HIV-1 infection. IFNα2, the clinically-approved subtype, and IFNα1 were both highly expressed but exhibited relatively weak antiviral activity. The relative potencies correlated with binding affinity to the type I IFN receptor and the induction levels of HIV-1 restriction factors Mx2 and Tetherin/BST-2 but not APOBEC3G, F and D. However, despite the lack of APOBEC3 transcriptional induction, the higher relative potency of IFNα8 and IFNα14 correlated with stronger inhibition of virion infectivity, which is linked to deaminase-independent APOBEC3 restriction activity. By contrast, both potent (IFNα8) and weak (IFNα1) subtypes significantly induced HIV-1 GG-to-AG hypermutation. The results unravel non-redundant functions of the IFNα subtypes against HIV-1 infection, with strong implications for HIV-1 mucosal immunity, viral evolution and IFNα-based functional cure strategies. PMID:26529416

  6. Enantiomers of a nonylphenol isomer: absolute configurations and estrogenic potencies.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haifeng; Oppel, Iris M; Spiteller, Michael; Guenther, Klaus; Boehmler, Gabriele; Zuehlke, Sebastian

    2009-02-01

    Enantiomers of 4-(1,1,2-trimethylhexyl)phenol, a chiral isomer of the endocrine disrupting chemical nonylphenol, have been resolved and isolated by preparative chiral HPLC. The absolute configurations of the enantiomers were then determined by an X-ray crystallographic study of the (-)-camphanoyl derivative of the first eluted enantiomer NP(35)E1. The first enantiomer (NP(35)E1) and the second enantiomer (NP(35)E2) eluted were found to have the S and R absolute configurations, respectively. The estrogenic potencies of the S and R enantiomers were tested by the E-screen assay. A slight difference was observed in the relative proliferative effect between the S enantiomer and R enantiomer in the E-screen assay.

  7. Relative analgesic potencies of morphine and hydromorphone in postoperative pain.

    PubMed

    Mahler, D L; Forrest, W H

    1975-05-01

    Because of discrepancies in the estimates of the relative analgesic potencies of hydromorphone and morphine, the drugs were compared in two four-point, double-blind bioassays. In the first study, hydromorphone, 1 and 2 mg, was compared with morphine, 5 and 10 mg, in 31 postoperative patients; in the second, hydromorphone, 0.5 and 1 mg, was compared with morphine, 5 and 10 mg, in 112 postoperative patients. Subjective responses to nurse-observer questions were used to quantitate analgesia for postoperative pain. Hydromorphone is more potent than commonly believed: approximately 0.9 to 1.2 mg is equianalgesic with 10 mg of morphine, with a similar incidence of side effects.

  8. Extracellular Ionic Locks Determine Variation in Constitutive Activity and Ligand Potency between Species Orthologs of the Free Fatty Acid Receptors FFA2 and FFA3*

    PubMed Central

    Hudson, Brian D.; Tikhonova, Irina G.; Pandey, Sunil K.; Ulven, Trond; Milligan, Graeme

    2012-01-01

    Free fatty acid receptors 2 and 3 (FFA2 and FFA3) are G protein-coupled receptors for short chain free fatty acids (SCFAs). They respond to the same set of endogenous ligands but with distinct rank-order of potency such that acetate (C2) has been described as FFA2-selective, whereas propionate (C3) is non-selective. Although C2 was confirmed to be selective for human FFA2 over FFA3, this ligand was not selective between the mouse orthologs. Moreover, although C3 was indeed not selective between the human orthologs, it displayed clear selectivity for mouse FFA3 over mouse FFA2. This altered selectivity to C2 and C3 resulted from broad differences in SCFAs potency at the mouse orthologs. In studies to define the molecular basis for these observations, marked variation in ligand-independent constitutive activity was identified using a [35S]GTPγS assay. The orthologs with higher potency for the SCFAs, human FFA2 and mouse FFA3, displayed high constitutive activity in this assay, whereas the orthologs with lower potency for the agonist ligands, mouse FFA2 and human FFA3, did not. Sequence alignments of the second extracellular loop identified single negatively charged residues in FFA2 and FFA3 not conserved between species and predicted to form ionic lock interactions with arginine residues within the FFA2 or FFA3 agonist binding pocket to regulate constitutive activity and SCFA potency. Reciprocal mutation of these residues between species orthologs resulted in the induction (or repression) of constitutive activity and in most cases also yielded corresponding changes in SCFA potency. PMID:23066016

  9. Sexual Function and the Use of Medical Devices or Drugs to Optimize Potency After Prostate Brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Whaley, J. Taylor; Levy, Lawrence B.; Swanson, David A.; Pugh, Thomas J.; Kudchadker, Rajat J.; Bruno, Teresa L.; Frank, Steven J.

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: Prospective evaluation of sexual outcomes after prostate brachytherapy with iodine-125 seeds as monotherapy at a tertiary cancer care center. Methods and Materials: Subjects were 129 men with prostate cancer with I-125 seed implants (prescribed dose, 145 Gy) without supplemental hormonal or external beam radiation therapy. Sexual function, potency, and bother were prospectively assessed at baseline and at 1, 4, 8, and 12 months using validated quality-of-life self-assessment surveys. Postimplant dosimetry values, including dose to 10% of the penile bulb (D10), D20, D33, D50, D75, D90, and penile volume receiving 100% of the prescribed dose (V100) were calculated. Results: At baseline, 56% of patients recorded having optimal erections; at 1 year, 62% of patients with baseline erectile function maintained optimal potency, 58% of whom with medically prescribed sexual aids or drugs. Variables associated with pretreatment-to-posttreatment decline in potency were time after implant (p = 0.04) and age (p = 0.01). Decline in urinary function may have been related to decline in potency. At 1 year, 69% of potent patients younger than 70 years maintained optimal potency, whereas 31% of patients older than 70 maintained optimal potency (p = 0.02). Diabetes was related to a decline in potency (p = 0.05), but neither smoking nor hypertension were. For patients with optimal potency at baseline, mean sexual bother scores had declined significantly at 1 year (p < 0.01). Sexual potency, sexual function, and sexual bother scores failed to correlate with any dosimetric variable tested. Conclusions: Erections firm enough for intercourse can be achieved at 1 year after treatment, but most men will require medical aids to optimize potency. Although younger men were better able to maintain erections firm enough for intercourse than older men, there was no correlation between potency, sexual function, or sexual bother and penile bulb dosimetry.

  10. Effects of Pomegranate Seed Oil on the Fertilization Potency of Rat’s Sperm

    PubMed Central

    Nikseresht, Mohsen; Fallahzadeh, Ali Reza; Toori, Mehdi Akbartabar

    2015-01-01

    Background Pomegranate has been taken great scientific attention in recent years due to its health benefits. Pomegranate seed oil is a rich source of 9-cis, and 11-trans conjugate linolenic acid. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary pomegranate seed oil on the fertilization potency of rat’s sperm. Materials and Methods Twenty-four male Wistar rats were divided into four groups. The first group, which served as the control group, received 1 mL of corn oil for seven weeks. Groups II, III, IV served as the experimental groups received 200, 500 and 1000 mg/kg of pomegranate seed oil, for the same period of time respectively. After seven weeks, all of the rats were sacrificed, and their epididymis sperm was collected and added to IVF medium (T6) containing metaphase II oocytes. Almost 21 oocytes had been removed from every female rat oviduct. In this medium, oocyte fertilization, cleavage rates, and embryo development into blastocysts, were evaluated by inverted microscopy. Results Levels of LD50 in the oral route in male rats were more than 5000 mg/kg body weight. Our data showed that the rates of fertilization, cleavage and embryo development into blastocysts were higher in the groups that had received 500 and 1000 mg/kg body weight of pomegranate seed oil. Conclusion This study demonstrated that pomegranate seed oil had a positive effect on the fertilization potency of male rats. These beneficial effects may be useful in assisted reproductive technology. PMID:26816914

  11. Comparison of the disposition of diethylstilbestrol and estradiol in the fetal rat. Correlation with teratogenic potency.

    PubMed

    Henry, E C; Miller, R K

    1986-06-15

    The dispositions of radiolabeled diethylstilbestrol (DES) and estradiol (E2) in the fetal rat were compared to determine whether kinetic differences accounted for their differences in teratogenic potency. 14C (from DES) was concentrated in fetal tissues relative to plasma, whereas 3H (from E2) was largely retained protein-bound in fetal plasma. Both compounds were rapidly metabolized in the fetus (and mother) to less or non-estrogenic products. Fetal levels of E2 declined faster than those of DES (E1 was the primary circulating estrogen within 1-3 hr of E2 injection) so that exposure to unchanged DES was of longer duration than to E2. The unchanged compounds were retained longer and at higher concentrations in the target genital tissue compared to other tissues. Although these differences were consistent with the potencies, the concentration of the unchanged estrogen in fetal genital tract was lower after a teratogenic dose of DES than after a threshold teratogenic dose of E2. However, the 3H in fetal plasma and genital tract cytosol at 1 hr after injection of [3H]E2 at 2 ng or 10 micrograms/fetus was found to be highly protein-bound. DES competed poorly for these binding sites. It is suggested that the concentration of E2 which is "free" in the cell (as DES is), rather than the total content, correlates with its teratogenicity. Thus, in the rat, rapid metabolism and extensive protein-binding, both extra- and intracellularly, reduce the teratogenicity of the natural estrogen compared to the synthetic estrogen.

  12. Ultra-low-dose naltrexone reduces the rewarding potency of oxycodone and relapse vulnerability in rats.

    PubMed

    Leri, Francesco; Burns, Lindsay H

    2005-10-01

    Ultra-low-dose opioid antagonists have been shown to enhance opioid analgesia and alleviate opioid tolerance and dependence. Our present studies in male Sprague-Dawley rats assessed the abuse potential of oxycodone+ultra-low-dose naltrexone (NTX) versus oxycodone alone. The lowest NTX dose (1 pg/kg/infusion), but not slightly higher doses (10 and 100 pg/kg/infusion), enhanced oxycodone (0.1 mg/kg/infusion) intravenous self-administration, suggesting a reduced rewarding potency per infusion. During tests of reinstatement performed in extinction conditions, co-self-administration of any of these three NTX doses significantly reduced drug-seeking precipitated by priming injections of oxycodone (0.25 mg/kg, s.c.), a drug-conditioned cue, or foot-shock stress. During self-administration on a progressive-ratio schedule, animals self-administering oxycodone (0.1 mg/kg/infusion)+NTX (1 pg/kg/infusion) reached a "break-point" sooner and showed a trend toward less responding compared to rats self-administering oxycodone alone (0.1 mg/kg/infusion). In the final experiment, the addition of ultra-low-dose NTX (10 pg/kg, s.c.) enhanced the acute stimulatory effect of oxycodone (1 mg/kg, s.c.), as well as locomotor sensitization produced by repeated oxycodone administration (7 x 1 mg/kg, s.c.). In summary, this work shows that ultra-low-dose NTX co-treatment augments the locomotor effects of oxycodone as it enhances opioid analgesia, but reduces oxycodone's rewarding potency and subsequent vulnerability to relapse.

  13. Development of a STAT5 phosphorylation assay as a rapid bioassay to assess interleukin-7 potency.

    PubMed

    Zumpe, C; Engel, K; Wiedemann, N; Metzger, A U; Pischetsrieder, M; Bachmann, C L

    2011-10-01

    Interleukin (IL)-7 is a cytokine inducing the Janus Kinase (JAK)/Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription (STAT) pathway. As a consequence of IL-7 activating this pathway, STAT5 is phosphorylated. In pharmaceutical quality control, the potency of biopharmaceuticals is commonly assessed by proliferation assays. This is also possible for IL-7 conjugates. However, the disadvantage of these classical "endpoint-assays" is that they require very long incubation times, up to several days, since they measure the downstream events of a cellular response. As an alternative to this, we developed a rapid intracellular phosphorylation assay, measuring IL-7 induced STAT5 phosphorylation in Kit 225 cells. The Kit 225 human T cell line expresses the IL-7 receptor and is responsive to IL-7, therefore making it a good candidate cell line for assay development. Like the Kinase receptor activation (KIRA) assay, developed by Sadick et al. [1], the STAT5 phosphorylation assay was performed using two separate microtiter plates: the first one for cell stimulation and lysis, the second one for enzyme-linked immuno sorbent assay (ELISA). The assay showed a high accuracy and precision with a mean recovery of 102% and a mean coefficient of variation of 9%. In comparison to the classical proliferation assay, the phosphorylation assay is much faster. Thus, the assay procedure time can at least be reduced from six to three days by using STAT5 phosphorylation instead of proliferation as an endpoint due to the shorter incubation time with IL-7. Moreover, the phosphorylation assay shows a wider dynamic range and higher signal to noise ratios and is thus more robust than the proliferation assay.mAs a consequence, this assay could serve as reliable, accurate, precise and fast alternative to the classical proliferation assay for IL-7. This study also serves as an example for the typical steps during development and qualification / validation of a potency assay for quality control testing.

  14. A Two-Step Strategy to Enhance Activity of Low Potency Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Krishnaji, Subrahmanian Tarakkad; Krishnamurthy, Vijay M.; Lin, Wei-En; Fortin, Jean-Philippe; Kumar, Krishna; Kopin, Alan S.

    2014-01-01

    Novel strategies are needed to expedite the generation and optimization of peptide probes targeting G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). We have previously shown that membrane tethered ligands (MTLs), recombinant proteins comprised of a membrane anchor, an extracellular linker, and a peptide ligand can be used to identify targeted receptor modulators. Although MTLs provide a useful tool to identify and/or modify functionally active peptides, a major limitation of this strategy is the reliance on recombinant protein expression. We now report the generation and pharmacological characterization of prototype peptide-linker-lipid conjugates, synthetic membrane anchored ligands (SMALs), which are designed as mimics of corresponding MTLs. In this study, we systematically compare the activity of selected peptides as MTLs versus SMALs. As prototypes, we focused on the precursor proteins of mature Substance P (SubP) and Cholecystokinin 4 (CCK4), specifically non-amidated SubP (SubP-COOH) and glycine extended CCK4 (CCK4-Gly-COOH). As low affinity soluble peptides these ligands each presented a challenging test case for assessment of MTL/SMAL technology. For each ligand, MTLs and corresponding SMALs showed agonist activity and comparable subtype selectivity. In addition, our results illustrate that membrane anchoring increases ligand potency. Furthermore, both MTL and SMAL induced signaling can be blocked by specific non-peptide antagonists suggesting that the anchored constructs may be orthosteric agonists. In conclusion, MTLs offer a streamlined approach for identifying low activity peptides which can be readily converted to higher potency SMALs. The ability to recapitulate MTL activity with SMALs extends the utility of anchored peptides as probes of GPCR function. PMID:25391026

  15. 76 FR 9028 - Guidance for Industry: Potency Tests for Cellular and Gene Therapy Products; Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-16

    ... Industry: Potency Tests for Cellular and Gene Therapy Products'' dated January 2011. The guidance document provides manufacturers of cellular and gene therapy (CGT) products with recommendations for developing... document entitled ``Guidance for Industry: Potency Tests for Cellular and Gene Therapy Products''...

  16. 75 FR 8937 - Development of a Relative Potency Factor (RPF) Approach for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-26

    ... AGENCY Development of a Relative Potency Factor (RPF) Approach for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH...) Approach for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) Mixtures'' (EPA/635/R-08/012A). The draft document was... of a Relative Potency Factor (RPF) Approach for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) Mixtures''...

  17. Relating skin sensitizing potency to chemical reactivity: reactive Michael acceptors inhibit NF-κB signaling and are less sensitizing than S(N)Ar- and S(N)2- reactive chemicals.

    PubMed

    Natsch, Andreas; Haupt, Tina; Laue, Heike

    2011-11-21

    The skin sensitization potency of chemicals is partly related to their reactivity to proteins. This can be quantified as the rate constant of the reaction with a model peptide, and a kinetic profiling approach to determine rate constants was previously proposed. A linear relationship between the skin sensitization potency in the local lymph node assay (LLNA) and the rate constant for Michael acceptors was reported, characterized by a relatively flat regression line. Thus, a 10-fold increase of reactivity correlates to an increase of the sensitization potential of only 1.7-fold. Here, we first validate this model by repeating previous data and testing additional Michael acceptors and prove that the model is both reproducible and robust to the addition of new data. Chemicals of different mechanistic applicability domains, namely, S(N)Ar- and S(N)2-reactive sensitizers, were then tested with the same kinetic profiling approach. A linear relationship between sensitization potency in the LLNA and rate constants was also found, yet with a much steeper slope, i.e., for S(N)Ar- and S(N)2-reactive sensitizers, increasing reactivity correlates to a much stronger increase in sensitization potency. On the basis of the well-known inhibitory activity of some Michael acceptors on IKK kinase, it was hypothesized that the difference in the slopes is due to the specific anti-inflammatory potential of Michael acceptor chemicals. Therefore, all chemicals were tested for anti-inflammatory activity in a reporter gene assay for the inhibition of NF-κB activation. Increasingly reactive Michael acceptors have increasing anti-inflammatory potential in this assay, whereas no such biological activity was detected for the S(N)Ar and S(N)2 reactive sensitizers. Thus, the increasing reactivity of Michael acceptors confers both anti-inflammatory and skin sensitizing/pro-inflammatory potential, which may partially neutralize each other. This may be the reason for the relatively weak relationship

  18. Structure and Relative Potency of Several Karlotoxins from Karlodinium veneficum

    PubMed Central

    Van Wagoner, Ryan M.; Deeds, Jonathan R.; Tatters, Avery O.; Place, Allen R.; Tomas, Carmelo R.; Wright, Jeffrey L. C.

    2010-01-01

    The karlotoxins are a family of amphidinol-like compounds that play roles in avoiding predation and in prey capture for the toxic dinoflagellate Karlodinium veneficum. The first member of the toxin group to be reported was KmTx 1 (1), and here we report an additional five new members of this family (3–7) from the same strain. Of these additional compounds, KmTx 3 (3) differs from KmTx 1 (1) in having one less methylene group in the saturated portion of its lipophilic arm. In addition, 64-E-chloro-KmTx 3 (4) and 10-O-sulfo-KmTx 3 (5) were identified. Likewise, 65-E-chloro-KmTx 1 (6) and 10-O-sulfo-KmTx 1 (7) were also isolated. Comparison of the hemolytic activities of the newly isolated compounds to that of KmTx 1 shows that potency correlates positively with the length of the lipophilic arm and is disrupted by sulfonation of the polyol arm. PMID:20795740

  19. Potency of Fish Collagen as a Scaffold for Regenerative Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Kohei; Yanagiguchi, Kajiro

    2014-01-01

    Cells, growth factors, and scaffold are the crucial factors for tissue engineering. Recently, scaffolds consisting of natural polymers, such as collagen and gelatin, bioabsorbable synthetic polymers, such as polylactic acid and polyglycolic acid, and inorganic materials, such as hydroxyapatite, as well as composite materials have been rapidly developed. In particular, collagen is the most promising material for tissue engineering due to its biocompatibility and biodegradability. Collagen contains specific cell adhesion domains, including the arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) motif. After the integrin receptor on the cell surface binds to the RGD motif on the collagen molecule, cell adhesion is actively induced. This interaction contributes to the promotion of cell growth and differentiation and the regulation of various cell functions. However, it is difficult to use a pure collagen scaffold as a tissue engineering material due to its low mechanical strength. In order to make up for this disadvantage, collagen scaffolds are often modified using a cross-linker, such as gamma irradiation and carbodiimide. Taking into account the possibility of zoonosis, a variety of recent reports have been documented using fish collagen scaffolds. We herein review the potency of fish collagen scaffolds as well as associated problems to be addressed for use in regenerative medicine. PMID:24982861

  20. Radioiodination of chicken luteinizing hormone without affecting receptor binding potency

    SciTech Connect

    Kikuchi, M.; Ishii, S. )

    1989-12-01

    By improving the currently used lactoperoxidase method, we were able to obtain radioiodinated chicken luteinizing hormone (LH) that shows high specific binding and low nonspecific binding to a crude plasma membrane fraction of testicular cells of the domestic fowl and the Japanese quail, and to the ovarian granulosa cells of the Japanese quail. The change we made from the original method consisted of (1) using chicken LH for radioiodination that was not only highly purified but also retained a high receptor binding potency; (2) controlling the level of incorporation of radioiodine into chicken LH molecules by employing a short reaction time and low temperature; and (3) fractionating radioiodinated chicken LH further by gel filtration using high-performance liquid chromatography. Specific radioactivity of the final {sup 125}I-labeled chicken LH preparation was 14 microCi/micrograms. When specific binding was 12-16%, nonspecific binding was as low as 2-4% in the gonadal receptors. {sup 125}I-Labeled chicken LH was displaced by chicken LH and ovine LH but not by chicken follicle-stimulating hormone. The equilibrium association constant of quail testicular receptor was 3.6 x 10(9) M-1. We concluded that chicken LH radioiodinated by the present method is useful for studies of avian LH receptors.

  1. A new ELISA for determination of potency in snake antivenoms.

    PubMed

    Rial, A; Morais, V; Rossi, S; Massaldi, H

    2006-09-15

    A competitive ELISA for potency determination of bothropic equine antivenom was developed and compared to the conventional in vivo ED(50) assay, with the aim of partially substituting the in vivo assay in the monitoring of antivenom immunoglobulin levels. On this purpose, blood samples were taken at different times during and after the immunization protocol of the lot of horses used for production of snake antivenom at the Instituto de Higiene, Uruguay. Both the competitive ELISA and the ED(50) assay were performed on those samples. In addition, a group of five commercial pepsin-digested antivenoms were tested by both methods. A significant (P<0.001) correlation (Pearson's r=0.957) was found between the ELISA titres and the corresponding ED(50) values, indicating that the in vitro test can estimate the neutralizing antibody capacity of the sera as well as the in vivo assay. By means of this new ELISA, it was found that the immunized animals maintained good venom antibody titres, in the order of 20-50% of the maximum achieved, even 10 month after the end of the immunization schedule. The main advantage of our ELISA design is its ability to correctly estimate the neutralization capacity of crude hyperimmune plasma and antivenom sera independently of their antibody composition in terms of whole IgG or F(ab')(2) fragment.

  2. Effects of simultaneous immunization of Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine and diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis vaccine on anti-tetanus potencies in mice, guinea pigs, and rats.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Tadashi; Iwaki, Masaaki; Komiya, Takako; Shibayama, Keigo; Takahashi, Motohide; Nakashima, Hideki

    2013-01-01

    Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine conjugated with tetanus toxoid (HibT) was licensed for use in childhood immunization in Japan in 2007. As adsorbed diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (DTaP) combined with HibT vaccine has not been introduced in Japan, DTaP and HibT vaccines are injected at separate sites with a similar immunization schedule. There are various interfering or stimulatory effects between components of combined vaccines contained in DTaP and HibT vaccines. In this study, we investigated the effect of HibT containing combination vaccines on anti-tetanus potencies by using animal models (mouse, guinea pig, and rat). HibT vaccine and HibT components of imported DTaP-HibT vaccine alone showed comparable or higher anti-tetanus potency than DTaP vaccine and DTaP-containing components of combination vaccines. Mixing these components before injection resulted in potencies greater than the sum of individual potencies. Injecting individual components at separate sites in animals resulted in potency roughly equivalent to the sum of the individual potencies. These results provide useful information regarding the use of HibT-containing multivalent vaccines in childhood immunization.

  3. Potency testing for the experimental Na-GST-1 hookworm vaccine.

    PubMed

    Jariwala, Amar R; Oliveira, Luciana M; Diemert, David J; Keegan, Brian; Plieskatt, Jordan L; Periago, Maria V; Bottazzi, Maria E; Hotez, Peter J; Bethony, Jeffrey M

    2010-10-01

    Over the next decade, a new generation of vaccines will target the neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). The goal of most NTD vaccines will be to reduce the morbidity and decrease the chronic debilitating nature of these often-forgotten infections – outcomes that are hard to measure in the traditional potency testing paradigm. The absence of measurable correlates of protection, a lack of permissive animal models for lethal infection, and a lack of clinical indications that do not include the induction of sterilizing immunity required us to reconsider the traditional bioassay methods for determining vaccine potency. Owing to these limitations, potency assay design for NTD vaccines will increasingly rely on a paradigm where potency testing is one among many tools to ensure that a manufacturing process yields a product of consistent quality. Herein, we discuss the evolution of our thinking regarding the design of a potency assay along these newly defined lines and its application to the release of the experimental Necator americanus-glutathione-S- transferase-1 (Na-GST-1) vaccine to prevent human hookworm infection. We discuss the necessary steps to accomplish the design and implementation of such a new potency assay as a resource for the burgeoning NTD vaccine community. Our experience is that much of the existing information is proprietary and needs to be pulled together in a single source to aid in our overall understanding of potency testing.

  4. Comparative neurotransmitter reuptake and anticholinergic potencies of the 8-hydroxy metabolites of clomipramine.

    PubMed

    Núñez, R; Perel, J M

    1995-01-01

    We hypothesize that 8-hydroxy-clomipramine (8-OH-CMI), the major hydroxy metabolite of clomipramine (CMI), may have antidepressant properties with less anticholinergic potency than CMI. We compared the potencies of 8-OH-CMI and CMI for inhibition of serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake and the potencies of these compounds for blockade of muscarinic receptors. We also compared the antimuscarinic potencies of desmethylclomipramine (DCMI) and 8-hydroxy-desmethylclomipramine (8-OH-DCMI). We found that 8-OH-CMI inhibits the uptake of serotonin and norepinephrine to the same extent as CMI and that 8-OH-CMI has far less antimuscarinic potency than CMI. We also found that 8-OH-DCMI has about one-tenth the antimuscarinic potency of DCMI. Since the therapeutic efficacy of CMI may be related to its effect on the reuptake of neurotransmitters, and since the extent of clinical anticholinergic effects of tricyclic antidepressants has been shown to be related to their in vitro antimuscarinic potencies, these results raise the possibility that 8-OH-CMI may be an analogue of CMI with fewer anticholinergic side effects than the parent compound.

  5. Osteogenic potency of nacre on human mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Green, David W; Kwon, Hyuk-Jae; Jung, Han-Sung

    2015-03-01

    Nacre seashell is a natural osteoinductive biomaterial with strong effects on osteoprogenitors, osteoblasts, and osteoclasts during bone tissue formation and morphogenesis. Although nacre has shown, in one study, to induce bridging of new bone across large non-union bone defects in 8 individual human patients, there have been no succeeding human surgical studies to confirm this outstanding potency. But the molecular mechanisms associated with nacre osteoinduction and the influence on bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSC's), skeletal stem cells or bone marrow stromal cells remain elusive. In this study we highlight the phenotypic and biochemical effects of Pinctada maxima nacre chips and the global nacre soluble protein matrix (SPM) on primary human bone marrow-derived stromal cells (hBMSCs) in vitro. In static co-culture with nacre chips, the hBMSCs secreted Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) at levels that exceeded bone morphogenetic protein (rhBMP-2) treatment. Concentrated preparation of SPM applied to Stro-1 selected hBMSC's led to rapid ALP secretions, at concentrations exceeding the untreated controls even in osteogenic conditions. Within 21 days the same population of Stro-1 selected hBMSCs proliferated and secreted collagens I-IV, indicating the premature onset of an osteoblast phenotype. The same SPM was found to promote unselected hBMSC differentiation with osteocalcin detected at 7 days, and proliferation increased at 7 days in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, nacre particles and nacre SPM induced the early stages of human bone cell differentiation, indicating that they may be promising soluble factors with osteoinductive capacity in primary human bone cell progenitors such as, hBMSC's.

  6. Antimicrobial potency and selectivity of simplified symmetric-end peptides.

    PubMed

    Dong, Na; Zhu, Xin; Chou, Shuli; Shan, Anshan; Li, Weizhong; Jiang, Junguang

    2014-09-01

    Because antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are potentially useful for the treatment of multidrug-resistant infections, more attention is being paid to the structural modification and structure-function relationship of both naturally occurring and synthetic AMPs. Previous studies indicated that Protegrin-1 (PG-1), isolated from porcine leukocytes, exhibited considerable antimicrobial activity and cytotoxicity. The β-turn of PG-1 floated on the surface of bacterial membrane, while its β-strand inserted into the bacterial membrane and formed pores that were dedicated to producing cytotoxicity. For reducing cytotoxicity and improving cells selectivity, we designed a series of simplified symmetric-end peptides by combining the β-turn of PG-1 with simple amino acid repeat sequences. The sequence of designed symmetric-end peptides is (XR)nH(RX)n, (n = 1,2; X represents I, F, W and P; H represents CRRRFC). The symmetric-end peptides displayed antimicrobial activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. In particular, (XR)2H(RX)2 (X here is I, F and W) showed greater antimicrobial potency than PG-1. Hemolysis activity and cytotoxicity, detected by using human red blood cells (RBCs) and human embryonic lung fibroblasts MRC-5 cells, were observably lower than the native peptide PG-1. (IR)2H(RI)2 (IR2), folded into β-sheet structures, displayed the highest therapeutic index, suggesting its great cell selectivity. The fluorescence spectroscopy, flow cytometry, and electron microscopy observation indicated that IR2 exhibited great membrane penetration potential by inducing membrane blebbing, disruption and lysis. Collectively, generating symmetric-end β-sheet peptides is a promising strategy for designing effective AMPs with great antimicrobial activities and cell selectivity.

  7. Development of a flow cytometric bead immunoassay and its assessment as a possible aid to potency evaluation of enterotoxaemia vaccines.

    PubMed

    Buys, Angela; Macdonald, Raynard; Crafford, Jannie; Theron, Jacques

    2014-03-10

    Enterotoxaemia, an economically important disease of sheep, goats and calves, is caused by systemic effects of the epsilon toxin produced by the anaerobic bacterium Clostridium perfringens type D. The only practical means of controlling the occurrence of enterotoxaemia is to immunise animals by vaccination. The vaccine is prepared by deriving a toxoid from the bacterial culture filtrate and the potency of the vaccine is tested with the in vivo mouse neutralisation test (MNT). Due to ethical, economic and technical reasons, alternative in vitro assays are needed. In this study an indirect cytometric bead immunoassay (I-CBA) was developed for use in vaccine potency testing and the results were compared with those obtained using an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (I-ELISA) and the MNT. Sera were collected from guinea pigs immunised with three different production batches of enterotoxaemia vaccine and the levels of anti-epsilon toxin antibodies were determined. Although the intra- and inter-assay variability was satisfactory, epsilon antitoxin levels determined by both the I-ELISA and indirect cytometric bead immunoassay (I-CBA) tests were higher than those of the MNT assay. In contrast to the MNT, all of the serum samples were identified as having antitoxin levels above the required minimum (not less than 5 U/mL). These results indicate that the respective in vitro tests in their current formats are not yet suitable alternatives to the in vivo MNT. The growing demand for a more humane, cost-effective and efficient method for testing the potency of enterotoxaemia vaccines, however, provides a strong impetus for further optimisation and standardisation of the I-CBA assay but further analytical research is required.

  8. Potency of Massoia Bark in Combating Immunosuppressed-related Infection

    PubMed Central

    Hertiani, Triana; Pratiwi, Sylvia Utami Tunjung; Yuswanto, Agustinus; Permanasari, Prisci

    2016-01-01

    Background: As part of our search for new potential natural resources to eradicate infection, we have revealed the prominent potency of massoia bark (Massoia aromatica Becc, Lauraceae) in combating immunosuppressed-related infection. Materials and Methods: The extract was prepared by macerating the pulverized dried bark in ethanol 95%, followed by solvent evaporation. The oil was extracted from the dried bark by steam-hydrodistillation of which preparative thin-layer chromatography was performed on the oil to isolate the active constituent, C-10 massoia lactone (ML). Anti-biofilm assay against Candida albicans was conducted on polystyrene 96 wells microtiter plates, followed by a confocal laser scanning microscope observation to get three-dimensional profiles of the affected biofilms. Effects on the hyphae development inoculated on RPMI-1640 agar plates were observed for 7 days. Influences of samples on mice macrophage phagocytosis were examined by an in vitro technique. Samples concentration tested were in the range of 2.0–0.0625 mg/mL and done in triplicate. Results: Massoia bark extracts (oil and solid phase) and ML exhibited promising activities as anti-biofilm against C. albicans at IC50 0.074% v/v, 271 μg/mL and 0.026 μg/mL, respectively. The ML did not inhibit the hyphae development at the concentration tested; however, the extracts showed inhibition at 62.5 μg/mL. Macrophage phagocytosis stimulation was correlated to the ML content. Conclusion: Massoia bark is potential to be developed as anti-infective in immunosuppressed condition of which the C10 ML (C10H16O2) plays a major role in exerting activity. SUMMARY Massoia bark extracts (oily and solid phase) and C-10 Massoia lactone exhibited promising activities as antibiofilm against Candida albicans at IC50 are 0.074 %v/v, 271 μg/mL and 0.026 μg/mL respectively. The major constituent, C-10 Massoia lactone (C10H16O2) plays major role in exerting anticandida activity and potentially acts as an

  9. Quantitative structure - mesothelioma Potency Model Optimization for Complex Mixtures of Elongated Particles in Rat Pleura

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cancer potencies of mineral and synthetic elongated particle (EP) mixtures, including fibers from asbestos, are influenced by changes in fiber dose composition, bioavailability and biodurability in combination with relevant cytotoxic dose-response relationships. A unique and com...

  10. Comptational comparison of asbestos fibers: Dosimetry model simulations to characterize variabilty and potency (Presentation poster)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Inhaled asbestos fibers result in respiratory diseases such as asbestosis, lung cancer and mesothelioma, but different asbestos fibers exhibit different potency. We applied a recently developed dosimetry model (Asgharian et al., Poster # 104) that describes th...

  11. THE VALENCE AND METHYLATION STATE OF ARSENIC DETERMINES ITS POTENCY IN INTERACTION WITH THE MITOTIC APPARATUS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have previously shown that the cytotoxic and genotoxic potency of arsenicals is dependent upon their valence and methylation state. Trivalent methylated arsenicals are much more potent DNA damaging agents than are their inorganic and pentavalent counterparts. Furthermore, thei...

  12. Assessment of the skin sensitising potency of the lower alkyl methacrylate esters.

    PubMed

    Kimber, Ian; Pemberton, Mark A

    2014-10-01

    There is continued interest in, and imperatives for, the classification of contact allergens according to their relative skin sensitising potency. However, achieving that end can prove problematic, not least when there is an apparent lack of concordance between experimental assessments of potency and the prevalence allergic contact dermatitis as judged by clinical experience. For the purpose of exploring this issue, and illustrating the important considerations that are required to reach sound judgements about potency categorisation, the lower alkyl methacrylate esters (LAM) have been employed here as a case study. Although the sensitising potential of methyl methacrylate (MMA) has been reviewed previously, there is available new information that is relevant for assessment of skin sensitising potency. Moreover, for the purposes of this article, analyses have been extended to include also other LAM for which relevant data are available: ethyl methacrylate (EMA), n-butyl methacrylate (nBMA), isobutyl methacrylate (iBMA), and 2-ethylhexyl methacrylate (EHMA). In addressing the skin sensitising activity of these chemicals and in drawing conclusions regarding relative potency, a number of sources of information has been considered, including estimates of potency derived from local lymph node assay (LLNA) data, the results of guinea pig assays, and data derived from in silico methods and from recently developed in vitro approaches. Moreover, clinical experience of skin sensitisation of humans by LAM has also been evaluated. The conclusion drawn is that MMA and other LAM are contact allergens, but that none of these chemicals has any more than weak skin sensitising potency. We have also explored here the possible bases for this modest sensitising activity. Finally, the nature of exposure to LAM has been reviewed briefly and on the basis of that information, together with an understanding of skin sensitising potency, a risk assessment has been prepared.

  13. A compilation of ab-initio calculations of embrittling potencies in binary metallic alloys

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Michael A.; Schuh, Christopher A.

    2015-01-01

    Segregation-induced changes in interfacial cohesion often control the mechanical properties of metals. The change in the work of separation of an interface upon segregation of a solute to the interface, termed the embrittling potency, is an atomic-level quantity used to predict and understand embrittlement phenomena. We present a compilation of calculations of embrittling potencies, along with references for these calculations. A discussion of this data is made in a separate article (Gibson and Schuh, 2016 [1]). PMID:26858979

  14. Relative potency of PCB126 to TCDD for sublethal embryotoxicity in the mummichog (Fundulus heteroclitus).

    PubMed

    Rigaud, Cyril; Couillard, Catherine M; Pellerin, Jocelyne; Légaré, Benoît; Gonzalez, Patrice; Hodson, Peter V

    2013-03-15

    The relative potency (ReP) of 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB126) to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) for sublethal responses was assessed in Fundulus heteroclitus embryos. Eggs were treated with intravitelline injections of graded sublethal doses of PCB126 (312-5000 pg g(-1) wet weight, ww) or TCDD (5-1280 pg g(-1) ww). At 16 days post-fertilization (DPF), craniofacial deformities were observed in larvae hatched from eggs treated with the two highest doses of PCB126 (2500-5000 pg g(-1) ww). Both compounds caused a dose-responsive reduction of larval growth and prey capture ability (at ≥1250 pg g(-1) ww), and induction of ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity (at ≥80 pg g(-1) ww). The dose-response relationships for EROD activity for PCB126 and TCDD had similar slopes and the ReP of PCB126 to TCDD for EROD activity was estimated at 0.71. This is 140-fold higher than the World Health Organization (WHO) TCDD equivalency factor (TEF) of PCB126 for fish (0.005), which is based on rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) embryolethality data. The slope of the dose-response relationship for prey capture ability for PCB126 was steeper than for TCDD, suggesting different mechanisms of action. Expression levels of several genes were also studied by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) following exposure to single doses of TCDD or PCB126 (1280 and 1250 pg g(-1) ww, respectively) causing similar EROD induction. A different pattern of responses was observed between PCB126 and TCDD: PCB126 appeared to induce antioxidant responses by inducing sod2 expression, while TCDD did not. These results suggest that relative potencies are species-specific and that the current ReP for PCB126 underestimates its toxicity for some fish species. It is recommended to develop species-specific RePs for a variety of sublethal endpoints and at environmentally relevant doses.

  15. The octave potencies convention: a mathematical model of dilution and succussion.

    PubMed

    Anick, David J

    2007-07-01

    Several hypothesized explanations for homeopathy posit that remedies contain a concentration of discrete information-carrying units, such as water clusters, nano-bubbles, or silicates. For any such explanation to be sustainable, dilution must reduce and succussion must restore the concentration of these units. Succussion can be modeled by a logistic equation, which leads to mathematical relationships involving the maximum concentration, the average growth of information-carrying units rate per succussion stroke, the number of succussion strokes, and the dilution factor (x, c, or LM). When multiple species of information-carrying units are present, the fastest-growing species will eventually come to dominate, as the potency is increased. An analogy is explored between iterated cycles dilution and succussion, in making homeopathic remedies, and iterated cycles of reseeding and growth, in bacterial cultures. Drawing on this analogy, the active ingredients in low and medium potency remedies may be present at early dilutions but only gradually come to 'dominate', while high potencies may develop from the occurrence of low-probability but faster-growing 'mutations.' Conclusions from this model include: 'x' and 'c' potencies are best compared by the amount of dilution, not the amount of succussion; the minimum number of succussion strokes needed per cycle is proportional to the logarithm of the dilution factor; and a plausible interpretation of why potencies at approximately regular ratios are traditionally used (the octave potencies convention).

  16. Parameterizing dose-response models to estimate relative potency functions directly.

    PubMed

    Dinse, Gregg E; Umbach, David M

    2012-10-01

    Many comparative analyses of toxicity assume that the potency of a test chemical relative to a reference chemical is constant, but employing such a restrictive assumption uncritically may generate misleading conclusions. Recent efforts to characterize non-constant relative potency rely on relative potency functions and estimate them secondarily after fitting dose-response models for the test and reference chemicals. We study an alternative approach of specifying a relative potency model a priori and estimating it directly using the dose-response data from both chemicals. We consider a power function in dose as a relative potency model and find that it keeps the two chemicals' dose-response functions within the same family of models for families typically used in toxicology. When differences in the response limits for the test and reference chemicals are attributable to the chemicals themselves, the older two-stage approach is the more convenient. When differences in response limits are attributable to other features of the experimental protocol or when response limits do not differ, the direct approach is straightforward to apply with nonlinear regression methods and simplifies calculation of simultaneous confidence bands. We illustrate the proposed approach using Hill models with dose-response data from U.S. National Toxicology Program bioassays. Though not universally applicable, this method of estimating relative potency functions directly can be profitably applied to a broad family of dose-response models commonly used in toxicology.

  17. 7alpha-methyl-19-nortestosterone, a synthetic androgen with high potency: structure-activity comparisons with other androgens.

    PubMed

    Kumar, N; Crozat, A; Li, F; Catterall, J F; Bardin, C W; Sundaram, K

    1999-12-31

    CNNT. There was a good correlation between bioactivity and binding affinity to AR for the 7alpha-substituted androgens compared to T. In contrast, relative to their binding affinity to AR, the androgenic potency of DHT and 19-NT was lower compared to T. The reason for the lower in vivo androgenic activity of 19-NT is attributable to its enzymatic conversion to 5alpha-reduced-19-NT in the prostate. In the case of DHT, the lower bioactivity could be attributed to its faster metabolic clearance rate relative to T. The correlation was further investigated in vitro by co-transfection of rat ARcDNA expression plasmid and a reporter plasmid encoding the chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) gene driven by an androgen inducible promoter into CV-1 cells. All the androgens led to a dose-dependent increase in the CAT activity. MENT was found to be the most potent followed by DHT, 19-NT, T, and CNNT. The specificity of the androgenic response was confirmed by its inhibition with hydroxyflutamide, an antiandrogen. Thus, there was a good correlation between binding affinity and in vitro bioactivity in the transient transfection assay for the androgens. This suggests that the in vivo bioactivity of androgens could be influenced not only by binding affinity to receptors but also by factors such as absorption, binding to serum proteins and metabolism. However, the high potency of MENT is primarily related to its higher affinity to AR.

  18. Implications of binding mode and active site flexibility for inhibitor potency against the salicylate synthase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Chi, Gamma; Manos-Turvey, Alexandra; O'Connor, Patrick D; Johnston, Jodie M; Evans, Genevieve L; Baker, Edward N; Payne, Richard J; Lott, J Shaun; Bulloch, Esther M M

    2012-06-19

    MbtI is the salicylate synthase that catalyzes the first committed step in the synthesis of the iron chelating compound mycobactin in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. We previously developed a series of aromatic inhibitors against MbtI based on the reaction intermediate for this enzyme, isochorismate. The most potent of these inhibitors had hydrophobic substituents, ranging in size from a methyl to a phenyl group, appended to the terminal alkene of the enolpyruvyl group. These compounds exhibited low micromolar inhibition constants against MbtI and were at least an order of magnitude more potent than the parental compound for the series, which carries a native enolpyruvyl group. In this study, we sought to understand how the substituted enolpyruvyl group confers greater potency, by determining cocrystal structures of MbtI with six inhibitors from the series. A switch in binding mode at the MbtI active site is observed for inhibitors carrying a substituted enolpyruvyl group, relative to the parental compound. Computational studies suggest that the change in binding mode, and higher potency, is due to the effect of the substituents on the conformational landscape of the core inhibitor structure. The crystal structures and fluorescence-based thermal shift assays indicate that substituents larger than a methyl group are accommodated in the MbtI active site through significant but localized flexibility in the peptide backbone. These findings have implications for the design of improved inhibitors of MbtI, as well as other chorismate-utilizing enzymes from this family.

  19. Genetic differences in osteogenic differentiation potency in the thoracic ossification of the ligamentum flavum under cyclic mechanical stress

    PubMed Central

    Ning, Shanglong; Chen, Zhongqiang; Fan, Dongwei; Sun, Chuiguo; Zhang, Chi; Zeng, Yan; Li, Weishi; Hou, Xiaofei; Qu, Xiaochen; Ma, Yunlong; Yu, Huilei

    2017-01-01

    Mechanical stress and genetic factors play important roles in the occurrence of thoracic ossification of ligament flavum (TOLF), which can occur at one, two, or multiple levels of the spine. It is unclear whether single- and multiple-level TOLF differ in terms of osteogenic differentiation potency and osteogenesis-related gene expression under cyclic mechanical stress. This was addressed in the present study using patients with non-TOLF and single- and multiple-level TOLF (n=8 per group). Primary ligament cells were cultured and osteogenesis was induced by application of cyclic mechanical stress. Osteogenic differentiation was assessed by evaluating alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and the mRNA and protein expression of osteogenesis-related genes, including ALP, bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2), Runt-related transcription factor-2 (Runx-2), osterix, osteopontin (OPN) and osteocalcin. The application of cyclic mechanical stress resulted in higher ALP activity in the multiple-level than in the single-level TOLF group, whereas no changes were observed in the non-TOLF group. The ALP, BMP2, OPN and osterix mRNA levels were higher in the multiple-level as compared to the single-level TOLF group, and the levels of all osteogenesis-related genes, apart from Runx2, were higher in the multiple-level as compared to the non-TOLF group. The osterix and ALP protein levels were higher in the multiple-level TOLF group than in the other 2 groups, and were increased with the longer duration of stress. These results highlight the differences in osteogenic differentiation potency between single- and multiple-level TOLF that may be related to the different pathogenesis and genetic background. PMID:28004120

  20. Development of quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models to predict the carcinogenic potency of chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Venkatapathy, Raghuraman Wang Chingyi; Bruce, Robert Mark; Moudgal, Chandrika

    2009-01-15

    Determining the carcinogenicity and carcinogenic potency of new chemicals is both a labor-intensive and time-consuming process. In order to expedite the screening process, there is a need to identify alternative toxicity measures that may be used as surrogates for carcinogenic potency. Alternative toxicity measures for carcinogenic potency currently being used in the literature include lethal dose (dose that kills 50% of a study population [LD{sub 50}]), lowest-observed-adverse-effect-level (LOAEL) and maximum tolerated dose (MTD). The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation between tumor dose (TD{sub 50}) and three alternative toxicity measures as an estimator of carcinogenic potency. A second aim of this study was to develop a Classification and Regression Tree (CART) between TD{sub 50} and estimated/experimental predictor variables to predict the carcinogenic potency of new chemicals. Rat TD{sub 50}s of 590 structurally diverse chemicals were obtained from the Cancer Potency Database, and the three alternative toxicity measures considered in this study were estimated using TOPKAT, a toxicity estimation software. Though poor correlations were obtained between carcinogenic potency and the three alternative toxicity (both experimental and TOPKAT) measures for the CPDB chemicals, a CART developed using experimental data with no missing values as predictor variables provided reasonable estimates of TD{sub 50} for nine chemicals that were part of an external validation set. However, if experimental values for the three alternative measures, mutagenicity and logP are not available in the literature, then either the CART developed using missing experimental values or estimated values may be used for making a prediction.

  1. Incipient cytotoxicity: A time-independent measure of cytotoxic potency in vitro.

    PubMed

    Gülden, Michael; Kähler, Daria; Seibert, Hasso

    2015-09-01

    Time is an important determinant of toxicity but largely ignored in in vitro toxicity assays where exposure times chosen are rather arbitrary. To investigate the impact of time on the cytotoxic potency of chemicals in vitro, the concentration dependent cytotoxic action of selected chemicals (surfactants, metals, oxidative stressors, a mitochondrial poison) was determined after various exposure times (1-72 h) in cultures of Balb/c 3T3 cells. Time affected the cytotoxic potency as well as the cytotoxic efficacy. The median cytotoxic concentrations, EC50, decreased and in most cases approached an "incipient" value, EC50,∞, within 72 h. Cytotoxicity due to mitochondrial insult occurred after a threshold time which was dependent on the medium glucose concentration. Within the chemicals studied the extent of potency change with time ranged from 3- to >1000-fold and the "time to incipient cytotoxicity", tic, from 4 to >72 h. Hence, also the relative cytotoxic potencies depend on exposure time. Ignoring this may lead to severe bias in toxicological hazard and risk assessment. Therefore it is recommended to determine the incipient cytotoxic potency of chemical compounds, represented by, e.g., the incipient median effect (EC50,∞), no effect (NEC∞) or lowest effect concentrations (LEC∞) instead of measures obtained after arbitrary exposure times. If this is not possible, the 72 h-potency measurements appear to be useful surrogates. These time-independent incipient potency values can be reasonably compared between substances, endpoints, cells and biological test systems and may serve to define points of departure for quantitative in vitro-in vivo extrapolations.

  2. A comparison of the potency of newly developed oximes (K074, K075) and currently available oximes (obidoxime, trimedoxime, HI-6) to counteract acute toxic effects of tabun and cyclosarin in mice.

    PubMed

    Kassa, Jirí; Humlicek, Vojtech

    2008-01-01

    The potency of newly developed oximes (K074, K075) and commonly used oximes (obidoxime, trimedoxime, and HI-6) to counteract tabun or cyclosarin-induced acute toxic effects was studied in mice. The therapeutic efficacy of trimedoxime and both newly developed oximes (K074, K075) was significantly higher than the potency of obidoxime and the oxime HI-6 in the case of acute tabun poisonings. On the other hand, the oxime HI-6 was significantly more efficacious than other studied oximes when mice were intoxicated with cyclosarin. The findings support the hypothesis that the therapeutic efficacy of oximes depends on the type of nerve agent. Due to their therapeutic efficacy, both newly developed K oximes can be considered to be promising oximes for the antidotal treatment of acute tabun poisonings, while the oxime HI-6 is still the most promising oxime for the treatment of acute cyclosarin poisonings due to its high potency to counteract cyclosarin-induced acute toxic effects.

  3. Modulating the potency of an activator in a yeast in vitro transcription system.

    PubMed Central

    Ohashi, Y; Brickman, J M; Furman, E; Middleton, B; Carey, M

    1994-01-01

    The intrinsic stimulatory potential or potency of a eukaryotic gene activator is controlled by the interaction between the activation domain and the transcriptional machinery. To further understand this interaction, we undertook a biochemical study to identify parameters that could be used to modulate activator potency. We considered how varying the number of activation domains, their flexibility, and the number of promoter sites affects potency in a yeast nuclear extract. The effects of GAL4 derivatives bearing either one, two, or four herpes simplex virus VP16 activation domains (amino acids 413 to 454) were measured on DNA templates containing one or two GAL4 sites in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae nuclear extract. We found that multimerized VP16 activation domains acted synergistically to increase the potency of the activators. The spacing between the activation domains was critical, such that the increased flexibility imparted by a protein linker contributed to increased activator potency. With highly potent activators, the levels of transcription stimulated on a single site were saturating, whereas the stimulatory effect of weaker activators increased with the number of sites. We discuss how these biochemical studies relate to the mechanism of gene activation and synergy in a yeast in vitro system. Images PMID:8139572

  4. Development of an Innovative in Vitro Potency Assay for Anti-Botulinum Antitoxins

    PubMed Central

    Rosen, Osnat; Ozeri, Eyal; Barnea, Ada; David, Alon Ben; Zichel, Ran

    2016-01-01

    Botulinum neurotoxins are bacterial proteins that cause botulism, a life-threatening disease. Therapy relies mostly on post-intoxication antibody treatment. The only accepted method to measure the potency of, and to approve, antitoxin preparations is the mouse lethality neutralization bioassay. However, this assay is time-consuming, labor-intensive, costly, and raises ethical issues related to the large numbers of laboratory animals needed. Until now, all efforts to develop an alternative in vitro assay have not provided a valid replacement to the mouse potency assay. In the present study, we report the development of an innovative in vitro assay for determining botulinum antitoxin potency, using botulinum type B as a model. The concept of the assay is to mimic two fundamental steps in botulinum intoxication: receptor binding and catalytic activity. By simulating these steps in vitro we were able to accurately determine the potency of antitoxin preparations. The reproducibility of the assay was high with a CV < 13%. Most importantly, the antitoxin potency measured by the in vitro assay highly correlated with that measured by the standard in vivo mouse assay (r = 0.9842, p < 0.0001). Thus, this new in vitro assay has the potential to be considered, after validation, as a replacement to the mouse assay for quantitating neutralizing antibody concentrations in pharmaceutical botulinum antitoxin preparations. Future adoption of this in vitro assay would minimize the use of laboratory animals, speed up the time, and reduce the cost of botulinum antitoxin approval. PMID:27669303

  5. Potency fingerprint of herbal products Danshen injection for their quality evaluation.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yan-Xu; Yan, Dong-Mei; Chen, Lin-Lin; Ding, Xiao-Ping; Qi, Jin; Kang, Li-Yuan; Zhang, Bo-Li; Yu, Bo-Yang

    2009-06-01

    The fingerprint technique has been studied frequently as a useful strategy for quality of traditional Chinese medicine. A novel potency fingerprint that can quantitatively analyze the antioxidant activity of individual constituent and provide the total antioxidant activities of the samples has been developed by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with ultraviolet and pyrogallol-luminol chemiluminescence detection (HPLC-diode array detection (DAD)-PLD). Hierarchical clustering analysis has been used as a powerful pattern recognition tool to identify and classify Danshen injection from different factories. In addition, the combination use of the chromatographic fingerprint and potency fingerprint with principal component analysis was applied to quality control of Danshen injection. The results demonstrated that the proposed potency fingerprint was a useful means to control the quality and to clarify the possible mechanism of action of herbal products.

  6. Incorporation of metabolically stable ketones into a small molecule probe to increase potency and water solubility.

    PubMed

    Larraufie, Marie-Helene; Yang, Wan Seok; Jiang, Elise; Thomas, Ajit G; Slusher, Barbara S; Stockwell, Brent R

    2015-11-01

    Introducing a reactive carbonyl to a scaffold that does not otherwise have an electrophilic functionality to create a reversible covalent inhibitor is a potentially useful strategy for enhancing compound potency. However, aldehydes are metabolically unstable, which precludes the use of this strategy for compounds to be tested in animal models or in human clinical studies. To overcome this limitation, we designed ketone-based functionalities capable of forming reversible covalent adducts, while displaying high metabolic stability, and imparting improved water solubility to their pendant scaffold. We tested this strategy on the ferroptosis inducer and experimental therapeutic erastin, and observed substantial increases in compound potency. In particular, a new carbonyl erastin analog, termed IKE, displayed improved potency, solubility and metabolic stability, thus representing an ideal candidate for future in vivo cancer therapeutic applications.

  7. The potency of cannabis in New Zealand from 1976 to 1996.

    PubMed

    Poulsen, H A; Sutherland, G J

    2000-01-01

    The potency of cannabis plant and cannabis products seized in New Zealand over the period of 20 years is studied. The earlier part of the study includes mainly imported cannabis oil and cannabis resin, and both imported and locally grown cannabis plant, that was seized by the police. The later part of the study includes little imported material. Cannabis plant is now locally grown, cannabis oil is locally manufactured and imported cannabis resin is rarely seized. The average potency of the cannabis plant available to the user has not increased over the 20 years period. Cannabis leaf contains on average 1% THC and the female flowering heads on average 3.5% THC. The average potency of cannabis oil has dropped from its peak at 34% THC in 1985 to 13% THC in 1995.

  8. Extracellular Ca(2+)-dependent enhancement of cytocidal potency of zoledronic acid in human oral cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Sayaka; Arai, Naoya; Tomihara, Kei; Takashina, Michinori; Hattori, Yuichi; Noguchi, Makoto

    2015-08-15

    Direct antitumor effects of bisphosphonates (BPs) have been demonstrated in various cancer cells in vitro. However, the effective concentrations of BPs are typically much higher than their clinically relevant concentrations. Oral cancers frequently invade jawbone and may lead to the release of Ca(2+) in primary lesions. We investigated the effects of the combined application of zoledronic acid (ZA) and Ca(2+) on proliferation and apoptosis of oral cancer cells. Human oral cancer cells, breast cancer cells, and colon cancer cells were treated with ZA at a wide range of concentrations in different Ca(2+) concentration environments. Under a standard Ca(2+) concentration (0.6mM), micromolar concentrations of ZA were required to inhibit oral cancer cell proliferation. Increasing extracellular Ca(2+) concentrations greatly enhanced the potency of the ZA cytocidal effect. The ability of Ca(2+) to enhance the cytocidal effects of ZA was negated by the Ca(2+)-selective chelator EGTA. In contrast, the cytocidal effect of ZA was less pronounced in breast and colon cancer cells regardless of whether extracellular Ca(2+) was elevated. In oral cancer cells incubated with 1.6mM Ca(2+), ZA up-regulated mitochondrial Bax expression and increased mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake. This was associated with decreased mitochondrial membrane potential and increased release of cytochrome c. We suggest that ZA can specifically produce potent cytocidal activity in oral cancer cells in an extracellular Ca(2+)-dependent manner, implying that BPs may be useful for treatment of oral squamous cell carcinoma with jawbone invasion leading to the hypercalcemic state.

  9. Development and validation of a rapid, aldehyde dehydrogenase bright–based cord blood potency assay

    PubMed Central

    Noldner, Pamela; Troy, Jesse D.; Cheatham, Lynn; Parrish, Amanda; Page, Kristin; Gentry, Tracy; Balber, Andrew E.; Kurtzberg, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    Banked, unrelated umbilical cord blood provides access to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for patients lacking matched bone marrow donors, yet 10% to 15% of patients experience graft failure or delayed engraftment. This may be due, at least in part, to inadequate potency of the selected cord blood unit (CBU). CBU potency is typically assessed before cryopreservation, neglecting changes in potency occurring during freezing and thawing. Colony-forming units (CFUs) have been previously shown to predict CBU potency, defined as the ability to engraft in patients by day 42 posttransplant. However, the CFU assay is difficult to standardize and requires 2 weeks to perform. Consequently, we developed a rapid multiparameter flow cytometric CBU potency assay that enumerates cells expressing high levels of the enzyme aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH bright [ALDHbr]), along with viable CD45+ or CD34+ cell content. These measurements are made on a segment that was attached to a cryopreserved CBU. We validated the assay with prespecified criteria testing accuracy, specificity, repeatability, intermediate precision, and linearity. We then prospectively examined the correlations among ALDHbr, CD34+, and CFU content of 3908 segments over a 5-year period. ALDHbr (r = 0.78; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.76-0.79), but not CD34+ (r = 0.25; 95% CI, 0.22-0.28), was strongly correlated with CFU content as well as ALDHbr content of the CBU. These results suggest that the ALDHbr segment assay (based on unit characteristics measured before release) is a reliable assessment of potency that allows rapid selection and release of CBUs from the cord blood bank to the transplant center for transplantation. PMID:26968535

  10. Estrogenic potencies of resorcylic acid lactones and 17 beta-estradiol in female rats.

    PubMed

    Everett, D J; Perry, C J; Scott, K A; Martin, B W; Terry, M K

    1987-01-01

    Uterotrophic response in sexually immature female rats has been used to rank the relative estrogenic potencies of six resorcylic acid lactones (RALs) and to compare their activities with that of 17 beta-estradiol. On oral administration, the estrogenic potency relative to 17 beta-estradiol is as follows: 7 alpha-zearalenol, 10 times less; zeranol, 150 times less; taleranol, 350 times less; zearalanone, 400 times less; zearalenone, 650 times less; 7 beta-zearalenol, 3500 times less. On subcutaneous administration, zeranol is 500 times less estrogenic than 17 beta-estradiol.

  11. Evaluation of the potency activity of aphrodisiac in Eurycoma longifolia Jack.

    PubMed

    Ang, H H; Ikeda, S; Gan, E K

    2001-08-01

    The butanol, methanol, water and chloroform extracts of the roots of Eurycoma longifolia Jack were studied using various tests of potency of treated male rats. The results showed that E. longifolia produced a dose-dependent, recurrent and significant increase in the episodes of penile reflexes as evidenced by increases in quick flips, long flips and erections of the treated male rats during the 30 min observation period. These results provide further evidence that E. longifolia increases the aphrodisiac potency activity in treated animals.

  12. Rationale for further medical and health research on high-potency sweeteners.

    PubMed

    Schiffman, Susan S

    2012-10-01

    High-potency or artificial sweeteners have historically been considered inert compounds without physiological consequences other than taste sensations. However, recent data suggest that some of these sweeteners have biological effects that may impact human health. Furthermore, there are significant gaps in our current knowledge of the pharmacokinetics of these sweeteners, their potential for "sweetener-drug interactions" and their impact on appetite and body weight regulation. Nine research needs are described that address some of the major unknown issues associated with ingestion of high-potency sweeteners.

  13. The spermicidal potency of Coca-Cola and Pepsi-Cola.

    PubMed

    Hong, C Y; Shieh, C C; Wu, P; Chiang, B N

    1987-09-01

    The inhibitory effect of Old Coke, caffeine-free New Coke, New Coke, Diet Coke and Pepsi-Cola on human sperm motility was studied with a trans-membrane migration method. None of them could decrease sperm motility to less than 70% of control within one hour. A previous study which claimed a marked variation of spermicidal potencies among different formulations of Coca-Cola could not be confirmed. Even if cola has a spermicidal effect, its potency is relatively weak as compared with other well-known spermicidal agents.

  14. Rationale for Further Medical and Health Research on High-Potency Sweeteners

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    High-potency or artificial sweeteners have historically been considered inert compounds without physiological consequences other than taste sensations. However, recent data suggest that some of these sweeteners have biological effects that may impact human health. Furthermore, there are significant gaps in our current knowledge of the pharmacokinetics of these sweeteners, their potential for “sweetener–drug interactions” and their impact on appetite and body weight regulation. Nine research needs are described that address some of the major unknown issues associated with ingestion of high-potency sweeteners. PMID:22539626

  15. Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrickson, Robert M.; Gregory, Dennis E.

    Decisions made by federal and state courts during 1983 concerning higher education are reported in this chapter. Issues of employment and the treatment of students underlay the bulk of the litigation. Specific topics addressed in these and other cases included federal authority to enforce regulations against age discrimination and to revoke an…

  16. Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrickson, Robert M.

    Litigation in 1987 was very brisk with an increase in the number of higher education cases reviewed. Cases discussed in this chapter are organized under four major topics: (1) intergovernmental relations; (2) employees, involving discrimination claims, tenured and nontenured faculty, collective bargaining and denial of employee benefits; (3)…

  17. Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrickson, Robert M.; Finnegan, Dorothy E.

    The higher education case law in 1988 is extensive. Cases discussed in this chapter are organized under five major topics: (1) intergovernmental relations; (2) employees, involving discrimination claims, tenured and nontenured faculty, collective bargaining, and denial of employee benefits; (3) students, involving admissions, financial aid, First…

  18. Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knowles, Laurence W.; Wedlock, Eldon D., Jr.

    Courts have been consistently reluctant to interfere with governing boards' powers to control the administration of institutions of higher education. This deference seems to be based on the belief that board expertise makes it significantly more qualified than are the courts to make the necessary administrative decisions. Uncritical deference by…

  19. Creating an Artificial Tail Anchor as a Novel Strategy To Enhance the Potency of Peptide-Based HIV Fusion Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Su, Shan; Zhu, Yun; Ye, Sheng; Qi, Qianqian; Xia, Shuai; Ma, Zhenxuan; Yu, Fei; Wang, Qian; Zhang, Rongguang; Jiang, Shibo; Lu, Lu

    2017-01-01

    20 (enfuvirtide) and other peptides derived from the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) gp41 C-terminal heptad repeat (CHR) region inhibit HIV fusion by binding to the hydrophobic grooves on the N-terminal heptad repeat (NHR) trimer and blocking six-helix-bundle (6-HB) formation. Several strategies focusing on the binding grooves of the NHR trimer have been adopted to increase the antiviral activity of the CHR peptides. Here, we developed a novel and simple strategy to greatly enhance the potency of the existing peptide-based HIV fusion inhibitors. First, we identified a shallow pocket adjacent to the groove in the N-terminal region of NHR trimer as a new drug target, and then we designed several short artificial peptides to fit this target. After the addition of IDL (Ile-Asp-Leu) to the C terminus of CHR peptide WQ or MT-WQ, the conjugated peptides, WQ-IDL and MT-WQ-IDL, showed much more potent activities than WQ and T20, respectively, in inhibiting HIV-1 IIIB infection. WQ-IDL and MT-WQ-IDL were also more effective than WQ in blocking HIV-1 Env-mediated membrane fusion and had higher levels of binding affinity with NHR peptide N46. We solved the crystal structure of the 6-HB formed by MT-WQ-IDL and N46 and found that, besides the N-terminal MT hook tail, the IDL tail anchor of MT-WQ-IDL also binds with the shallow hydrophobic pocket outside the groove of the NHR trimer, resulting in enhanced inhibition of HIV-1 fusion with the target cell. It is expected that this novel approach can be widely used to improve the potency of peptidic fusion inhibitors against other enveloped viruses with class I fusion proteins.

  20. Variation in the inhibitory potency of terbinafine among genetic variants of CYP2D6.

    PubMed

    Akiyoshi, Takeshi; Ishiuchi, Miho; Imaoka, Ayuko; Ohtani, Hisakazu

    2015-08-01

    Cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) is a highly polymorphic enzyme that is involved in the metabolism of many drugs. Terbinafine (TER) is a CYP2D6 inhibitor and causes persistent drug interactions in the clinical setting; however, its inhibitory mechanism and the differences in its inhibitory potency among genetic variants of CYP2D6 remain to be investigated. This study aimed to investigate the inhibitory mechanism of TER and the differences in its inhibitory potency among three CYP2D6 variants, CYP2D6.1, CYP2D6.2, and CYP2D6.10. In a competitive inhibition study, the metabolic activity of the CYP2D6 was assessed based on their demethylation of dextromethorphan in the presence or absence of TER, and the time-dependency of the inhibitory effects were examined by preincubating the enzymes with TER. TER had weaker inhibitory effects on CYP2D6.2 and CYP2D6.10 than on CYP2D6.1; i.e., TER exhibited Ki values (the concentration of inhibitor that results in half-maximal inhibition) of 0.0525, 0.355, and 1.85 μM for CYP2D6.1, CYP2D6.2, and CYP2D6.10, respectively. The inhibitory effects of TER were not time-dependent. Since TER's Ki value for CYP2D6.10 was 35.2-fold higher than its Ki value for CYP2D6.1, the CYP2D6 genotype of subjects should be taken into account when estimating the severity of drug interactions involving TER.

  1. A carcinogenic potency database of the standardized results of animal bioassays

    PubMed Central

    Gold, Lois Swirsky; Sawyer, Charles B.; Magaw, Renae; Backman, Georganne M.; De Veciana, Margarita; Levinson, Robert; Hooper, N. Kim; Havender, William R.; Bernstein, Leslie; Peto, Richard; Pike, Malcolm C.; Ames, Bruce N.

    1984-01-01

    The preceding paper described our numerical index of carcinogenic potency, the TD50 and the statistical procedures adopted for estimating it from experimental data. This paper presents the Carcinogenic Potency Database, which includes results of about 3000 long-term, chronic experiments of 770 test compounds. Part II is a discussion of the sources of our data, the rationale for the inclusion of particular experiments and particular target sites, and the conventions adopted in summarizing the literature. Part III is a guide to the plot of results presented in Part IV. A number of appendices are provided to facilitate use of the database. The plot includes information about chronic cancer tests in mammals, such as dose and other aspects of experimental protocol, histopathology and tumor incidence, TD50 and its statistical significance, dose response, author's opinion and literature reference. The plot readily permits comparisons of carcinogenic potency and many other aspects of cancer tests; it also provides quantitative information about negative tests. The range of carcinogenic potency is over 10 million-fold. PMID:6525996

  2. Social Capital, Team Efficacy and Team Potency: The Mediating Role of Team Learning Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Emmerik, Hetty; Jawahar, I. M.; Schreurs, Bert; de Cuyper, Nele

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Drawing on social capital theory and self-identification theory, this study aims to examine the associations of two indicators of social capital, personal networks and deep-level similarity, with team capability measures of team efficacy and team potency. The central focus of the study is to be the hypothesized mediating role of team…

  3. Opportunities and strategies to further reduce animal use for Leptospira vaccine potency testing.

    PubMed

    Walker, A; Srinivas, G B

    2013-09-01

    Hamsters are routinely infected with virulent Leptospira for two purposes in the regulation of biologics: the performance of Codified potency tests and maintenance of challenge culture for the Codified potency tests. Options for reducing animal use in these processes were explored in a plenary lecture at the "International Workshop on Alternative Methods for Leptospira Vaccine Potency Testing: State of the Science and the Way Forward" held at the Center for Veterinary Biologics in September 2012. The use of validated in vitro potency assays such as those developed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture for Leptospira (L.) canicola, Leptospira grippotyphosa, Leptospira pomona, and Leptospira icterohaemorrhagiae rather than the Codified hamster vaccination-challenge assay was encouraged. Alternatives such as reduced animal numbers in the hamster vaccination-challenge testing were considered for problematic situations. Specifically, the merits of sharing challenge controls, reducing group sizes, and eliminating animals for concurrent challenge dose titration were assessed. Options for maintaining virulent, stable cultures without serial passage through hamsters or with decreased hamster use were also discussed. The maintenance of virulent Leptospira without the use of live animals is especially difficult since a reliable means to maintain virulence after multiple in vitro passages has not yet been identified.

  4. A CONCEPTUAL MODEL FOR EVALUATING RELATIVE POTENCY DATA FOR USE IN ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    For chemicals with a common mechanism of toxicity, relative potency factors (RPFs) allow dose and exposure measures to be normalized to an equivalent toxicity amount of a model chemical... In ecological risk assessments the large number of possible target species, variety of expo...

  5. Comparative Elongated Mineral Particle Toxicology & Erionite’s Apparent  High Potency for Inducing Mesothelioma

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent NHEERL research under EPA's Libby Action Plan has determined that elongated particle relative potency for rat pleural mesothelioma is best predicted on the basis of total external surface area (TSA) of slightly acid leached test samples which simulate particle bio-durabili...

  6. Development of Leptospira in vitro potency assays: EU/industry experience and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Klaasen, H L B M; van der Veen, M; Molkenboer, M J C H; Bruderer, U

    2013-09-01

    Nobivac® Lepto (MSD Animal Health) is a non-adjuvanted canine leptospirosis vaccine containing inactivated whole cells of Leptospira interrogans serogroup Canicola serovar Portlandvere and L. interrogans serogroup Icterohaemorrhagiae serovar Copenhageni. The current standard in vivo potency test is a hamster challenge test associated with major drawbacks such as animal suffering and poor reproducibility. Here, the quantification of antigenic mass by ELISA as a new in vitro potency test is described, supporting the 3Rs concept (replacement, reduction, and refinement of animal tests) and in accordance with European Pharmacopoeia Monograph 0447 (Canine Leptospirosis Vaccine [Inactivated]). The two corresponding sandwich ELISAs are based on monoclonal antibodies specific for immunodominant leptospiral lipopolysaccharide epitopes. Protection in passive immunization experiments demonstrate that these monoclonal antibodies recognize key protective antigens in currently licensed human and veterinary whole cell Leptospira vaccines. The high precision and robustness renders the two ELISAs much more reliable correlates of potency in dogs than the hamster potency test. The recent approval of these assays for a new canine leptospirosis vaccine is an important contribution to the 3Rs in quality control testing of Leptospira vaccines.

  7. Discovery of oxazole-based PDE4 inhibitors with picomolar potency.

    PubMed

    Kuang, Rongze; Shue, Ho-Jane; Xiao, Li; Blythin, David J; Shih, Neng-Yang; Chen, Xiao; Gu, Danlin; Schwerdt, John; Lin, Ling; Ting, Pauline C; Cao, Jianhua; Aslanian, Robert; Piwinski, John J; Prelusky, Daniel; Wu, Ping; Zhang, Ji; Zhang, Xiang; Celly, Chander S; Billah, Motasim; Wang, Peng

    2012-04-01

    Optimization of oxazole-based PDE4 inhibitors has led to the discovery of a series of quinolyl oxazoles, with 4-benzylcarboxamide and 5-α-aminoethyl groups which exhibit picomolar potency against PDE4. Selectivity profiles and in vivo biological activity are also reported.

  8. Critical elements in the development of cell therapy potency assays for ischemic conditions.

    PubMed

    Porat, Yael; Abraham, Eytan; Karnieli, Ohad; Nahum, Sagi; Woda, Juliana; Zylberberg, Claudia

    2015-07-01

    A successful potency assay for a cell therapy product (CTP) used in the treatment of ischemic conditions should quantitatively measure relevant biological properties that predict therapeutic activity. This is especially challenging because of numerous degrees of complexity stemming from factors that include a multifactorial complex mechanism of action, cell source, inherent cell characteristics, culture method, administration mode and the in vivo conditions to which the cells are exposed. The expected biological function of a CTP encompasses complex interactions that range from a biochemical, metabolic or immunological activity to structural replacement of damaged tissue or organ. Therefore, the requirements for full characterization of the active substance with respect to biological function could be taxing. Moreover, the specific mechanism of action is often difficult to pinpoint to a specific molecular entity; rather, it is more dependent on the functionality of the cellular components acting in a in a multifactorial fashion. In the case of ischemic conditions, the cell therapy mechanism of action can vary from angiogenesis, vasculogenesis and arteriogenesis that may activate different pathways and clinical outcomes. The CTP cellular attributes with relation to the suggested mechanism of action can be used for the development of quantitative and reproducible analytical potency assays. CTPs selected and released on the basis of such potency assays should have the highest probability of providing meaningful clinical benefit for patients. This White Paper will discuss and give examples for key elements in the development of a potency assay for treatment of ischemic disorders treated by the use of CTPs.

  9. Relative potency of culture supernatants of Xenorhabdus and Photorhabdus spp. on growth of some fungal phytopathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We evaluated the potency of 10% v/v cell-free culture supernatants of cultures of the bacteria X. bovienii, X. nematophila, X. cabanillasii, X. szentirmaii, P. temperata, P. luminescens (VS) and P. luminescens (K22) against Fusicladium carpophilum (peach scab), Fusicladium effusum (pecan scab), Moni...

  10. The influence of donor characteristics and preparation methods on the potency of human cryoprecipitate.

    PubMed

    Burka, E R; Puffer, T; Martinez, J

    1975-01-01

    An investigation of the influence of donor characteristics and preparative procedural variation on the potency of human cryoprecipitate was carried out on 30 whole blood and 139 plasmapheresis donors. Recovery of plasma Factor VIII in cryoprecipitate ranged from 11.2 to 89.4 per cent (average, 38 +/- 18%). The Factor VIII content of bags of cryoprecipitate ranged from 29 to 379 units (average, 111 +/- 77 units). No difference existed between whole blood donors and regular plasmapheresis donors. The only donor characteristic which was related to the potency of cryoprecipitate was the plasma concentration of Factor VIII which varied as much as sixfold on repeated visits of the same donor. The findings indicate that, within the limitations imposed by the regulations of the American Association of Blood Banks and the practicalities of an ordinary blood bank workload, no donor characteristic or variation in preparative procedures was of predictive value in obtaining cryoprecipitate of high potency. The potency of cryoprecipitate from individual donors appears to be related to factors inherent in the donor plasma itself.

  11. Use of pulsed ultraviolet light to reduce the allergenic potency of soybean extracts.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pulsed ultraviolet light (PUV), a non-thermal food processing technology, is reported to be able to inactivate enzymes and reduce allergen levels from peanut extracts. The objective of this study was to determine if PUV would reduce the allergen levels and allergenic potency of soy extracts. Soy ext...

  12. Development of Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (QSAR) Models to Predict the Carcinogenic Potency of Chemicals

    EPA Science Inventory

    Determining the carcinogenicity and carcinogenic potency of new chemicals is both a labor-intensive and time-consuming process. In order to expedite the screening process, there is a need to either: (1) identify alternative toxicity measures (shorter duration) that may be used as...

  13. Second generation of hydroxyethylamine BACE-1 inhibitors: optimizing potency and oral bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Charrier, Nicolas; Clarke, Brian; Cutler, Leanne; Demont, Emmanuel; Dingwall, Colin; Dunsdon, Rachel; East, Philip; Hawkins, Julie; Howes, Colin; Hussain, Ishrut; Jeffrey, Phil; Maile, Graham; Matico, Rosalie; Mosley, Julie; Naylor, Alan; O'Brien, Alistair; Redshaw, Sally; Rowland, Paul; Soleil, Virginie; Smith, Kathrine J; Sweitzer, Sharon; Theobald, Pam; Vesey, David; Walter, Daryl S; Wayne, Gareth

    2008-06-12

    BACE-1 inhibition has the potential to provide a disease-modifying therapy for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Optimization of a first generation of BACE-1 inhibitors led to the discovery of novel hydroxyethylamines (HEAs) bearing a tricyclic nonprime side. These derivatives have nanomolar cell potency and are orally bioavailable.

  14. RELTIVE POTENCIES OF SELECTED DIHALOACETATES AND THEIR MAJOR METABOLITES IN RODENT WHOLE EMBRYO CULTURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Relative potencies of selected dihaloacetic acids and their major metabolites in rodent whole embryo culture.

    S. Hunter, M. Blanton, E. Rogers
    RTD, NHEERL, ORD, US EPA, RTP, NC, 27711

    Haloacetic acids (HAA) are produced by disinfection and present in tap water. S...

  15. In vivo potency of different ligands on voltage-gated sodium channels.

    PubMed

    Safrany-Fark, Arpad; Petrovszki, Zita; Kekesi, Gabriella; Liszli, Peter; Benedek, Gyorgy; Keresztes, Csilla; Horvath, Gyongyi

    2015-09-05

    The Ranvier nodes of thick myelinated nerve fibers contain almost exclusively voltage-gated sodium channels (Navs), while the unmyelinated fibers have several receptors (e.g., cannabinoid, transient receptor potential vanilloid receptor 1), too. Therefore, a nerve which contains only motor fibers can be an appropriate in vivo model for selective influence of Navs. The goals were to evaluate the potency of local anesthetic drugs on such a nerve in vivo; furthermore, to investigate the effects of ligands with different structures (arachidonic acid, anandamide, capsaicin and nisoxetine) that were proved to inhibit Navs in vitro with antinociceptive properties. The marginal mandibular branch of the facial nerve was explored in anesthetized Wistar rats; after its stimulation, the electrical activity of the vibrissae muscles was registered following the perineural injection of different drugs. Lidocaine, bupivacaine and ropivacaine evoked dose-dependent decrease in electromyographic activity, i.e., lidocaine had lower potency than bupivacaine or ropivacaine. QX-314 did not cause any effect by itself, but its co-application with lidocaine produced a prolonged inhibition. Nisoxetine had a very low potency. While anandamide and capsaicin in high doses caused about 50% decrease in the amplitude of action potential, arachidonic acid did not influence the responses. We proved that the classical local anesthetics have high potency on motor nerves, suggesting that this method might be a reliable model for selective targeting of Navs in vivo circumstances. It is proposed that the effects of these endogenous lipids and capsaicin on sensory fibers are not primarily mediated by Navs.

  16. Emission of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their carcinogenic potencies from cooking sources to the urban atmosphere.

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chun-The; Lin, Yuan-Chung; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Tsai, Perng-Jy

    2003-01-01

    sources (13,500 kg/year), the emission rates of total B[a]Peq for cooking sources were much higher than those for traffic sources (61.4 kg/year). The above results clearly indicate that although cooking sources are less important than traffic sources in contributing to total PAH emissions, PAH emissions from cooking sources might cause much more serious problems than traffic sources, from the perspective of carcinogenic potency. PMID:12676603

  17. Small difference in carcinogenic potency between GBP nanomaterials and GBP micromaterials.

    PubMed

    Gebel, Thomas

    2012-07-01

    Materials that can be described as respirable granular biodurable particles without known significant specific toxicity (GBP) show a common mode of toxicological action that is characterized by inflammation and carcinogenicity in chronic inhalation studies in the rat. This study was carried out to compare the carcinogenic potency of GBP nanomaterials (primary particle diameter 1-100 nm) to GBP micromaterials (primary particle diameter >100 nm) in a pooled approach. For this purpose, the positive GBP rat inhalation carcinogenicity studies have been evaluated. Inhalation studies on diesel engine emissions have also been included due to the fact that the mode of carcinogenic action is assumed to be the same. As it is currently not clear which dose metrics may best explain carcinogenic potency, different metrics have been considered. Cumulative exposure concentrations related to mass, surface area, and primary particle volume have been included as well as cumulative lung burden metrics related to mass, surface area, and primary particle volume. In total, 36 comparisons have been conducted. Including all dose metrics, GBP nanomaterials were 1.33- to 1.69-fold (mean values) and 1.88- to 3.54-fold (median values) more potent with respect to carcinogenicity than GBP micromaterials, respectively. Nine of these 36 comparisons showed statistical significance (p < 0.05, U test), all of which related to dose metrics based on particle mass. The maximum comparative potency factor obtained for one of these 9 dose metric comparisons based on particle mass was 4.71. The studies with diesel engine emissions did not have a major impact on the potency comparison. The average duration of the carcinogenicity studies with GBP nanomaterials was 4 months longer (median values 30 vs. 26 months) than the studies with GBP micromaterials, respectively. Tumor rates increase with age and lung tumors in the rat induced by GBP materials are known to appear late, that is, mainly after study

  18. Estrogenic potencies of several environmental pollutants, as determined by vitellogenin induction in a carp hepatocyte assay.

    PubMed

    Smeets, J M; van Holsteijn, I; Giesy, J P; Seinen, W; van den Berg, M

    1999-08-01

    Estrogenic potencies of several xenoestrogens were determined in vitro, using cultured hepatocytes from a genetically uniform male carp strain (Cyprinus carpio). Estrogenicity was measured as induction of the yolk protein precursor vitellogenin (Vtg), and compared to Vtg induction by 17beta-estradiol (E2). The order of estrogenic potency was: methoxychlor (MXCL) > o,p-DDT > chlordecone approximately/= bisphenol-A approximately/= 4-t-pentylphenol. Estrogenic potencies of these compounds varied from 1 x 10(-3) to 1 x 10(-4) relative to E2. The synthetic estrogen DES had a relative estrogenic potency of 0.5, whereas dieldrin, beta-endosulfan, o,p-DDE, and toxaphene (technical mixture) did not induce vitellogenesis at concentrations up to 100 microM. Experiments in which cells were simultaneously exposed to E2 and these xenoestrogens showed that the Vtg-inducing activities of E2 and 4-t-pentylphenol or bisphenol-A were (partially) additive, whereas E2 antagonized the estrogenic effects of MXCL and o,p-DDT. The effect of cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A)-induction on the estrogenicity of MXCL was studied by co-exposing cells to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). TCDD (10 pM) caused a greater than 50-fold induction of CYP1A, measured as ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity, but Vtg induction by MXCL was not significantly affected. This indicates that CYP1A is not involved in the bioactivation of MXCL to more potent estrogenic metabolites in carp. The CARP-HEP (hepatocyte) assay can detect xenoestrogens with a potency > or = 2 x 10(-5) relative to E2. It allows simultaneous testing of more than 10 compounds for both estrogenic and antiestrogenic effects, which makes it a promising tool for the screening of suspected xenoestrogens.

  19. Differential Influence of Dopamine Transport Rate on the Potencies of Cocaine, Amphetamine, and Methylphenidate

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Dopamine transporter (DAT) levels vary across brain regions and individuals, and are altered by drug history and disease states; however, the impact of altered DAT expression on psychostimulant effects in brain has not been systematically explored. Using fast scan cyclic voltammetry, we measured the effects of elevated DAT levels on presynaptic dopamine parameters as well as the uptake inhibition potency of the blockers cocaine and methylphenidate (MPH) and the releaser amphetamine (AMPH) in the nucleus accumbens core. Here we found that increases in DAT levels, resulting from either genetic overexpression or MPH self-administration, caused markedly increased maximal rates of uptake (Vmax) that were positively correlated with the uptake inhibition potency of AMPH and MPH, but not cocaine. AMPH and MPH were particularly sensitive to DAT changes, with a 100% increase in Vmax resulting in a 200% increase in potency. The relationship between Vmax and MPH potency was the same as that for AMPH, but was different from that for cocaine, indicating that MPH more closely resembles a releaser with regard to uptake inhibition. Conversely, the effects of MPH on stimulated dopamine release were similar to those of cocaine, with inverted U-shaped increases in release over a concentration–response curve. This was strikingly different from the release profile of AMPH, which showed only reductions at high concentrations, indicating that MPH is not a pure releaser. These data indicate that although MPH is a DAT blocker, its uptake-inhibitory actions are affected by DAT changes in a similar manner to releasers. Together, these data show that fluctuations in DAT levels alter the potency of releasers and MPH but not blockers and suggest an integral role of the DAT in the addictive potential of AMPH and related compounds. PMID:25474655

  20. Multiplex Assay for Protein Profiling and Potency Measurement of German Cockroach Allergen Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Khurana, Taruna; Dobrovolskaia, Ekaterina; Shartouny, Jessica R.; Slater, Jay E.

    2015-01-01

    Background German cockroach (GCr) allergens induce IgE responses and may cause asthma. Commercial GCr allergen extracts are variable and existing assays may not be appropriate for determining extract composition and potency. Objective Our aim was to develop a multiplex antibody/bead-based assay for assessment of GCr allergen extracts. Methods Single chain fragment variable (scFv) antibodies against GCr were obtained by screening libraries derived from naïve human lymphocytes and hyperimmunized chicken splenocytes and bone marrow. Selected clones were sequenced and characterized by immunoblotting. Eighteen scFv antibodies (17 chicken, 1 human) coupled to polystyrene beads were used in this suspension assay; binding of targeted GCr allergens to antibody-coated beads was detected using rabbit antisera against GCr, and against specific allergens rBla g 1, rBla g 2, and rBla g 4. The assay was tested for specificity, accuracy, and precision. Extracts were also compared by IgE competition ELISA. Results Chicken scFv’s generated eight different binding patterns to GCr proteins from 14 to 150 kDa molecular weight. Human scFv’s recognized a 100 kDa GCr protein. The multiplex assay was found to be specific and reproducible with intra-assay coefficient of variation (CV) of 2.64% and inter-assay CV of 10.0%. Overall potencies of various GCr extracts were calculated using mean logEC50s for eight selected scFvs. Overall potency measures were also analyzed by assessing the contributions to potency of each target. Conclusions An scFv antibody-based multiplex assay has been developed capable of simultaneously measuring different proteins in a complex mixture, and to determine the potencies and compositions of allergen extracts. PMID:26444288

  1. Covalent EGFR inhibitor analysis reveals importance of reversible interactions to potency and mechanisms of drug resistance.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Phillip A; Kuzmic, Petr; Solowiej, James; Bergqvist, Simon; Bolanos, Ben; Almaden, Chau; Nagata, Asako; Ryan, Kevin; Feng, Junli; Dalvie, Deepak; Kath, John C; Xu, Meirong; Wani, Revati; Murray, Brion William

    2014-01-07

    Covalent inhibition is a reemerging paradigm in kinase drug design, but the roles of inhibitor binding affinity and chemical reactivity in overall potency are not well-understood. To characterize the underlying molecular processes at a microscopic level and determine the appropriate kinetic constants, specialized experimental design and advanced numerical integration of differential equations are developed. Previously uncharacterized investigational covalent drugs reported here are shown to be extremely effective epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors (kinact/Ki in the range 10(5)-10(7) M(-1)s(-1)), despite their low specific reactivity (kinact ≤ 2.1 × 10(-3) s(-1)), which is compensated for by high binding affinities (Ki < 1 nM). For inhibitors relying on reactivity to achieve potency, noncovalent enzyme-inhibitor complex partitioning between inhibitor dissociation and bond formation is central. Interestingly, reversible binding affinity of EGFR covalent inhibitors is highly correlated with antitumor cell potency. Furthermore, cellular potency for a subset of covalent inhibitors can be accounted for solely through reversible interactions. One reversible interaction is between EGFR-Cys797 nucleophile and the inhibitor's reactive group, which may also contribute to drug resistance. Because covalent inhibitors target a cysteine residue, the effects of its oxidation on enzyme catalysis and inhibitor pharmacology are characterized. Oxidation of the EGFR cysteine nucleophile does not alter catalysis but has widely varied effects on inhibitor potency depending on the EGFR context (e.g., oncogenic mutations), type of oxidation (sulfinylation or glutathiolation), and inhibitor architecture. These methods, parameters, and insights provide a rational framework for assessing and designing effective covalent inhibitors.

  2. Skin sensitizers differentially regulate signaling pathways in MUTZ-3 cells in relation to their individual potency

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Due to the recent European legislations posing a ban of animal tests for safety assessment within the cosmetic industry, development of in vitro alternatives for assessment of skin sensitization is highly prioritized. To date, proposed in vitro assays are mainly based on single biomarkers, which so far have not been able to classify and stratify chemicals into subgroups, related to risk or potency. Methods Recently, we presented the Genomic Allergen Rapid Detection (GARD) assay for assessment of chemical sensitizers. In this paper, we show how the genome wide readout of GARD can be expanded and used to identify differentially regulated pathways relating to individual chemical sensitizers. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms of action of a range of skin sensitizers through pathway identification, pathway classification and transcription factor analysis and related this to the reactive mechanisms and potency of the sensitizing agents. Results By transcriptional profiling of chemically stimulated MUTZ-3 cells, 33 canonical pathways intimately involved in sensitization to chemical substances were identified. The results showed that metabolic processes, cell cycling and oxidative stress responses are the key events activated during skin sensitization, and that these functions are engaged differently depending on the reactivity mechanisms of the sensitizing agent. Furthermore, the results indicate that the chemical reactivity groups seem to gradually engage more pathways and more molecules in each pathway with increasing sensitizing potency of the chemical used for stimulation. Also, a switch in gene regulation from up to down regulation, with increasing potency, was seen both in genes involved in metabolic functions and cell cycling. These observed pathway patterns were clearly reflected in the regulatory elements identified to drive these processes, where 33 regulatory elements have been proposed for further analysis. Conclusions This study

  3. A QSAR for the Mutagenic Potencies of Twelve 2-Amino-trimethylimidazopyridine Isomers: Structural, Quantum Chemical,and Hydropathic Factors

    SciTech Connect

    Knize, M G; Hatch, F T; Tanga, M J; Lau, E V; Colvin, M E

    2005-04-23

    An isomeric series of heterocyclic amines related to one found in heated muscle meats was investigated for properties that predict their measured mutagenic potency. Eleven of the 12 possible 2-amino-trimethylimidazopyridine (TMIP) isomers were tested for mutagenic potency in the Ames/Salmonella test with bacterial strain TA98, and resulted in a 600-fold range in potency. Structural, quantum chemical and hydropathic data were calculated on the parent molecules and the corresponding nitrenium ions of all of the tested isomers to establish models for predicting the potency of the unknown isomer. The regression model accounting for the largest fraction of the total variance in mutagenic potency contains four predictor variables: dipole moment, a measure of the gap between amine LUMO and HOMO energies, percent hydrophilic surface, and energy of amine LUMO. The most important determinants of high mutagenic potency in these amines are: (1) a small dipole moment, (2) the combination of b-face ring fusion and N3-methyl group, and (3) a lower calculated energy of the {pi} electron system. Based on predicted potency from the average of five models, the isomer not yet synthesized and tested is expected to have a mutagenic potency of 0.84 revertants/{micro}g in test strain TA98.

  4. Determination of relative potencies for chemical inhibition of spontaneous neuronal activity using a four amplifier MEA system.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Potency determination is important to identify the most promising drug candidates as well as identification of and ranking of compound toxicity. In our laboratory, we have utilized MEA recording techniques to determine the relative potency of 11 insecticidal compounds and rank th...

  5. RELATIVE POTENCY OF FUNGAL EXTRACTS IN INDUCING ALLERGIC ASTHMA-LIKE RESPONSES IN BALB/C MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Indoor mold has been associated with the development of allergic asthma. However, relative potency of molds in the induction of allergic asthma is not clear. In this study, we tested the relative potency of fungal extracts (Metarizium anisophilae [MACA], Stachybotrys ...

  6. Potency of carbapenems for the prevention of carbapenem-resistant mutants of Pseudomonas aeruginosa: the high potency of a new carbapenem doripenem.

    PubMed

    Sakyo, Shihomi; Tomita, Haruyoshi; Tanimoto, Koichi; Fujimoto, Shuhei; Ike, Yasuyoshi

    2006-04-01

    The potencies of the carbapenems; doripenem (DRPM), meropenem (MEPM) and imipenem (IPM) in preventing the emergence of carbapenem-resistant mutants were examined in Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains. The carbapenems predominantly selected carbapenem-resistant mutants or carbapenem mutants with reduced susceptibilities that were specifically resistant to carbapenems and had arisen as a result of the reduced level of expression of the outer membrane protein with a molecular weight of about 48,000 (OprD). The potency of carbapenems in preventing the growth of the mutants differed for DRPM, MEPM and IPM. The isolation frequency of the mutant was examined on agar plates containing each of the carbapenems at a concentration of 1/2 or 1/4 MIC of each carbapenem for that mutant. Mutants were not selected on agar containing DRPM at a frequency of greater than 10(-9) per cell per generation, whereas mutants of each strain were selected on agar containing MEPM or IPM at frequencies of 10(-7) to 10(-9) per cell per generation. The drug concentrations and the drug concentration range for the selective increase of carbapenem resistant mutants in the broth culture containing each carbapenem differed for each carbapenem. DRPM exhibited both the lowest drug concentration and the narrowest range of drug concentration for selection of the carbapenem-resistant mutants. The results shown in this report indicated that DRPM exhibited the greatest ability to prevent the emergence of the mutant.

  7. Anti-cancer potency of tasquinimod is enhanced via albumin-binding facilitating increased uptake in the tumor microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Isaacs, John T.; Dalrymple, Susan L.; Rosen, D. Marc; Hammers, Hans; Olsson, Anders; Leanderson, Tomas

    2014-01-01

    Tasquinimod, an orally active quinoline-3-carboxamide, binds with high affinity to HDAC4 and S100A9 in cancer and infiltrating host cells within compromised tumor microenvironment inhibiting adaptive survival pathways needed for an angiogenic response. Clinical trials document that as low as 0.5-1mg tasquinimod/day is therapeutic against castrate resistant metastatic prostate cancer. Tasquinimod is metabolized via cytochrome P4503A4, but ketoconazole at a dose which completely inhibits CYP3A metabolism does not affect tasquinimod's ability to inhibit endothelial “sprouting” in vitro or anti-cancer efficacy against human prostate cancer xenografts in vivo. Tasquinimod's potency is facilitated by its reversible binding (Kd < 35 μM) to the IIA subdomain of albumin (Sudlow's site I). As blood vessels within the compromised cancer microenvironment are characterized by a higher degree of leakiness than those in normal tissues, this results in an enhanced uptake of tasquinimod bound to albumin in cancer tissue via a tumor specific process known as the “enhanced permeability and retention” (i.e., EPR) effect. Thus, despite plasma levels of < 1 μM, the EPR effect results in intracellular drug concentrations of 2-3 μM, levels several-fold higher than needed for inhibition of endothelial sprouting (IC50 ~ 0.5 μM) or for inhibition of HDAC4 and S100A9 mediated tumor growth. PMID:25193858

  8. Hydrophobic substituents increase the potency of salacinol, a potent α-glucosidase inhibitor from Ayurvedic traditional medicine 'Salacia'.

    PubMed

    Tanabe, Genzoh; Xie, Weijia; Balakishan, Gorre; Amer, Mumen F A; Tsutsui, Nozomi; Takemura, Haruka; Nakamura, Shinya; Akaki, Junji; Ninomiya, Kiyofumi; Morikawa, Toshio; Nakanishi, Isao; Muraoka, Osamu

    2016-08-15

    Using an in silico method, seven analogs bearing hydrophobic substituents (8a: Me, 8b: Et, 8c: n-Pent, 8d: n-Hept, 8e: n-Tridec, 8f: isoBu and 8g: neoPent) at the 3'-O-position in salacinol (1), a highly potent natural α-glucosidase inhibitor from Ayurvedic traditional medicine 'Salacia', were designed and synthesized. In order to verify the computational SAR assessments, their α-glucosidase inhibitory activities were evaluated in vitro. All analogs (8a-8g) exhibited an equal or considerably higher level of inhibitory activity against rat small intestinal α-glucosidases compared with the original sulfonate (1), and were as potent as or higher in potency than the clinically used anti-diabetics, voglibose, acarbose or miglitol. Their activities against human maltase exhibited good relationships to the results obtained with enzymes of rat origin. Among the designed compounds, the one with a 3'-O-neopentyl moiety (8g) was most potent, with an approximately ten fold increase in activity against human maltase compared to 1.

  9. Estimating Potency in High-Throughput Screening Experiments by Maximizing the Rate of Change in Weighted Shannon Entropy.

    PubMed

    Shockley, Keith R

    2016-06-15

    High-throughput in vitro screening experiments can be used to generate concentration-response data for large chemical libraries. It is often desirable to estimate the concentration needed to achieve a particular effect, or potency, for each chemical tested in an assay. Potency estimates can be used to directly compare chemical profiles and prioritize compounds for confirmation studies, or employed as input data for prediction modeling and association mapping. The concentration for half-maximal activity derived from the Hill equation model (i.e., AC50) is the most common potency measure applied in pharmacological research and toxicity testing. However, the AC50 parameter is subject to large uncertainty for many concentration-response relationships. In this study we introduce a new measure of potency based on a weighted Shannon entropy measure termed the weighted entropy score (WES). Our potency estimator (Point of Departure, PODWES) is defined as the concentration producing the maximum rate of change in weighted entropy along a concentration-response profile. This approach provides a new tool for potency estimation that does not depend on the assumption of monotonicity or any other pre-specified concentration-response relationship. PODWES estimates potency with greater precision and less bias compared to the conventional AC50 assessed across a range of simulated conditions.

  10. Potency trends of Δ9-THC and other cannabinoids in confiscated cannabis preparations from 1993 to 2008.

    PubMed

    Mehmedic, Zlatko; Chandra, Suman; Slade, Desmond; Denham, Heather; Foster, Susan; Patel, Amit S; Ross, Samir A; Khan, Ikhlas A; ElSohly, Mahmoud A

    2010-09-01

    The University of Mississippi has a contract with the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) to carry out a variety of research activities dealing with cannabis, including the Potency Monitoring (PM) program, which provides analytical potency data on cannabis preparations confiscated in the United States. This report provides data on 46,211 samples seized and analyzed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID) during 1993-2008. The data showed an upward trend in the mean Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9)-THC) content of all confiscated cannabis preparations, which increased from 3.4% in 1993 to 8.8% in 2008. Hashish potencies did not increase consistently during this period; however, the mean yearly potency varied from 2.5-9.2% (1993-2003) to 12.0-29.3% (2004-2008). Hash oil potencies also varied considerably during this period (16.8 ± 16.3%). The increase in cannabis preparation potency is mainly due to the increase in the potency of nondomestic versus domestic samples.

  11. Estimating Potency in High-Throughput Screening Experiments by Maximizing the Rate of Change in Weighted Shannon Entropy

    PubMed Central

    Shockley, Keith R.

    2016-01-01

    High-throughput in vitro screening experiments can be used to generate concentration-response data for large chemical libraries. It is often desirable to estimate the concentration needed to achieve a particular effect, or potency, for each chemical tested in an assay. Potency estimates can be used to directly compare chemical profiles and prioritize compounds for confirmation studies, or employed as input data for prediction modeling and association mapping. The concentration for half-maximal activity derived from the Hill equation model (i.e., AC50) is the most common potency measure applied in pharmacological research and toxicity testing. However, the AC50 parameter is subject to large uncertainty for many concentration-response relationships. In this study we introduce a new measure of potency based on a weighted Shannon entropy measure termed the weighted entropy score (WES). Our potency estimator (Point of Departure, PODWES) is defined as the concentration producing the maximum rate of change in weighted entropy along a concentration-response profile. This approach provides a new tool for potency estimation that does not depend on the assumption of monotonicity or any other pre-specified concentration-response relationship. PODWES estimates potency with greater precision and less bias compared to the conventional AC50 assessed across a range of simulated conditions. PMID:27302286

  12. Describing the Stem Cell Potency: The Various Methods of Functional Assessment and In silico Diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Vimal K.; Saini, Abhishek; Kalsan, Manisha; Kumar, Neeraj; Chandra, Ramesh

    2016-01-01

    Stem cells are defined by their capabilities to self-renew and give rise to various types of differentiated cells depending on their potency. They are classified as pluripotent, multipotent, and unipotent as demonstrated through their potential to generate the variety of cell lineages. While pluripotent stem cells may give rise to all types of cells in an organism, Multipotent and Unipotent stem cells remain restricted to the particular tissue or lineages. The potency of these stem cells can be defined by using a number of functional assays along with the evaluation of various molecular markers. These molecular markers include diagnosis of transcriptional, epigenetic, and metabolic states of stem cells. Many reports are defining the particular set of different functional assays, and molecular marker used to demonstrate the developmental states and functional capacities of stem cells. The careful evaluation of all these methods could help in generating standard identifying procedures/markers for them. PMID:27921030

  13. Potency of carcinogens derived from covalent DNA binding and stimulation of DNA synthesis in rat liver

    SciTech Connect

    Lutz, W.K.; Buesser, M.T.; Sagelsdorff, P.

    1984-01-01

    In order to investigate the role of the stimulation of cell division for the initiation (and possibly promotion) of liver tumors by chemical carcinogens, the incorporation of radiolabelled thymidine into liver DNA was determined in male rats. Single doses of various levels of aflatoxin B1, benzidine and carbon tetrachloride (all known to be genotoxic via DNA binding) did not affect cell division, whereas several hepatocarcinogens known not to bind to DNA (alpha-HCH, clofibrate, and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin) gave rise to a dose-dependent stimulation of liver DNA synthesis within 24 h. An equation combining the influences of mitotic stimulation, expressed as dose required to double the control level of DNA synthesis, and DNA binding potency, expressed as the Covalent Binding Index, correlated well with the carcinogenic potency for both classes of hepatocarcinogens.

  14. The Potency of Hyaluronan of Different Molecular Weights in the Stimulation of Blood Phagocytes

    PubMed Central

    Safrankova, Barbora; Gajdova, Silvie; Kubala, Lukas

    2010-01-01

    The regulatory functions of glycosaminoglycan hyaluronan (HA) are suggested to be dependent on its molecular weight (MW). Proinflammatory and stimulatory effects are proposed mainly for the low MW HA. However, the complex response of blood phagocytes to HA of different MW is unclear. Herein, the effects of highly purified HA of precisely defined MW (52, 250, and 970 kDa) on human blood phagocytes were tested. All MW HA activated blood phagocytes, including the spontaneous production of ROS, degranulation, and the production of tumor necrosis factor alpha, with low MW HA 52 kDa having the highest potency and high MW HA 970 kDa having the lowest potency. Interestingly, HA inhibited ROS production stimulated by opsonized zymosan particles and, in contrast, potentiated starch-activated ROS production, mostly independent of MW. Data showed a significant effect of HA of different MW on blood phagocytes, including high MW HA. PMID:21403830

  15. Discovery of tankyrase inhibiting flavones with increased potency and isoenzyme selectivity.

    PubMed

    Narwal, Mohit; Koivunen, Jarkko; Haikarainen, Teemu; Obaji, Ezeogo; Legala, Ongey E; Venkannagari, Harikanth; Joensuu, Päivi; Pihlajaniemi, Taina; Lehtiö, Lari

    2013-10-24

    Tankyrases are ADP-ribosyltransferases that play key roles in various cellular pathways, including the regulation of cell proliferation, and thus, they are promising drug targets for the treatment of cancer. Flavones have been shown to inhibit tankyrases and we report here the discovery of more potent and selective flavone derivatives. Commercially available flavones with single substitutions were used for structure-activity relationship studies, and cocrystal structures of the 18 hit compounds were analyzed to explain their potency and selectivity. The most potent inhibitors were also tested in a cell-based assay, which demonstrated that they effectively antagonize Wnt signaling. To assess selectivity, they were further tested against a panel of homologous human ADP-ribosyltransferases. The most effective compound, 22 (MN-64), showed 6 nM potency against tankyrase 1, isoenzyme selectivity, and Wnt signaling inhibition. This work forms a basis for rational development of flavones as tankyrase inhibitors and guides the development of other structurally related inhibitors.

  16. Comparison of the estrogenic potencies of standardized soy extracts by immature rat uterotrophic bioassay.

    PubMed

    de Lima Toccafondo Vieira, Manuela; Duarte, Rodrigo Ferreira; Campos, Ligia Maria Moreira; Nunan, Elzíria de Aguiar

    2008-01-01

    Soy phytoestrogens, isoflavones, are a primary class of plant-based estrogen alternatives being sold over the counter nowadays. Genistein, daidzein and glycitein are the major isoflavones found in soybeans, as aglycones and glycosides. Each isoflavone shows distinctive estrogenic activity and pharmacokinetics. Soy dry extracts, employed as pharmaceutical raw material for manufacturing isoflavone supplements, are standardized to contain 40% of total isoflavones, but the amount of each isoflavone is highly diverse. The influence of these compositional differences on the estrogenic potency of soy extracts was evaluated by uterotrophic bioassay. Five commercial samples of standardized soy dry extract, homogeneously suspended in arachis oil, were administered per os in serial doses (125-4150 mg/kg bw/day) to immature female rats for 3 days. Soy extract samples with considerable diversity in isoflavone composition revealed different estrogenic potencies. Our results indicate a need of standardization of the individual isoflavone content in soy extracts.

  17. Relationship between potency and boiling point of general anesthetics: a thermodynamic consideration.

    PubMed

    Dastmalchi, S; Barzegar-Jalali, M

    2000-07-20

    The most important group of nonspecific drugs is that of the general anesthetics. These nonspecific compounds vary greatly in structure, from noble gases such as Ar or Xe to complex steroids. Since the development of clinical anesthesia over a century ago, there has been a vast amount of research and speculation concerning the mechanism of action of general anesthetics. Despite these efforts, the exact mechanism remains unknown. Many theories of narcosis do not explain how unconsciousness is produced at a molecular level, but instead relate some physicochemical property of anesthetic agents to their anesthetic potencies. In this paper, we address some of those physicochemical properties, with more emphasis on correlating the anesthetic potency of volatile anesthetics to their boiling points based on thermodynamic principles.

  18. A Pentacyclic Aurora Kinase Inhibitor (AKI-001) With High in Vivo Potency And Oral Bioavailability

    SciTech Connect

    Rawson, T.E.; Ruth, M.; Blackwood, E.; Burdick, D.; Corson, L.; Dotson, J.; Drummond, J.; Fields, C.; Georges, G.J.; Goller, B.; Halladay, J.; Hunsaker, T.; Kleinheinz, T.; Krell, H.-W.; Li, J.; Liang, J.; Limberg, A.; McNutt, A.; Moffat, J.; Phillips, G.; Ran, Y.

    2009-05-21

    Aurora kinase inhibitors have attracted a great deal of interest as a new class of antimitotic agents. We report a novel class of Aurora inhibitors based on a pentacyclic scaffold. A prototype pentacyclic inhibitor 32 (AKI-001) derived from two early lead structures improves upon the best properties of each parent and compares favorably to a previously reported Aurora inhibitor, 39 (VX-680). The inhibitor exhibits low nanomolar potency against both Aurora A and Aurora B enzymes, excellent cellular potency (IC{sub 50} < 100 nM), and good oral bioavailability. Phenotypic cellular assays show that both Aurora A and Aurora B are inhibited at inhibitor concentrations sufficient to block proliferation. Importantly, the cellular activity translates to potent inhibition of tumor growth in vivo. An oral dose of 5 mg/kg QD is well tolerated and results in near stasis (92% TGI) in an HCT116 mouse xenograft model.

  19. Evaluation of monoquaternary pyridinium oximes potency to reactivate tabun-inhibited human acetylcholinesterase.

    PubMed

    Odzak, Renata; Calić, Maja; Hrenar, Tomica; Primozic, Ines; Kovarik, Zrinka

    2007-04-20

    Monoquaternary N-benzyl-4-hydroxyiminomethylpyridinium bromide (Py-4-H) and its analogous with diverse substituents introduced into the phenyl ring (Py-4-CH(3), Py-4-Br, Py-4-Cl and Py-4-NO(2)) were synthesized in order to examine their potency as reactivators of tabun-inhibited human erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase (AChE; EC 3.1.1.7). Within 24h, the reactivation of tabun-inhibited AChE reached 80% with Py-4-CH(3), Py-4-Br and Py-4-Cl, 40% with Py-4-NO(2), and 30% with Py-4-H. The overall reactivation rate constants were up to 5.0min(-1)M(-1). All oximes inhibited human AChE reversibly, and the inhibition potency increased in the following order Py-4-Brpotency. The orientations of all studied oximes in the active site of human AChE have been proposed by flexible ligand docking with AutoDock 3.0. Analyses of the obtained complexes revealed the presence of numerous hydrogen bonds and close contacts between the oximes and the residues in the active site. Final docked energies predicted correctly the relative order of the inhibition potency of compounds (except in the case of Py-4-CH(3)) as well as the most probable orientation of the best reactivator, Py-4-Br, which can result in an attack on the phosphorus atom of the tabun-phosphorylated human AChE.

  20. Replacement, reduction and refinement alternatives to animal use in vaccine potency measurement.

    PubMed

    Hendriksen, Coenraad F M

    2009-03-01

    Models to measure potency in vaccine research and development and preclinical testing are frequently based on an immunization-challenge procedure in laboratory animals. These models have proven to be very instrumental in scientifically underpinning the correlation of protection of selected vaccine antigens and their efficacy. In vivo models in vaccine research and development are, for the time being, irreplaceable, although significant progress has been made in using in vitro prescreening tests to evaluate particular immunological parameters. For a long time, in vivo potency tests have been similarly relevant for routine vaccine lot-release testing. The design of a potency test, defined in most pharmacopeias, relied on a direct or indirect-challenge procedure in laboratory animals. For various reasons, there now is an increased interest in the development of alternatives to the current in vivo potency tests. Animal models have their limitations, with respect to their relevance, reliability, costs and moral acceptability. All alternative approaches have in common that they ultimately result in a refinement, reduction or replacement in the use of animals. The new models range from modifications of the existing in vivo test procedure (e.g., use of humane end points or serology instead of challenge) to in vitro antigen-quantification tests. A new paradigm in quality control of vaccines is the consistency approach. This approach is state-of-the-art in quality control of the new-generation vaccines and it is now finding its way into the quality control of traditional vaccines. The consistency approach implies the use of a set of parameters to constitute a product profile, which is monitored throughout production, and which guarantees that each lot released is similar to a manufacturer-specific vaccine of proven clinical efficacy and safety. Consistency relies heavily on the implementation of quality systems, such as good manufacturing practice and quality assurance, and

  1. Inhibitory potency of 4-carbon alkanes and alkenes toward CYP2E1 activity.

    PubMed

    Hartman, Jessica H; Miller, Grover P; Boysen, Gunnar

    2014-04-06

    CYP2E1 has been implicated in the bioactivation of many small molecules into reactive metabolites which form adducts with proteins and DNA, and thus a better understanding of the molecular determinants of its selectivity are critical for accurate toxicological predictions. In this study, we determined the potency of inhibition of human CYP2E1 for various 4-carbon alkanes, alkenes and alcohols. In addition, known CYP2E1 substrates and inhibitors including 4-methylpyrazole, aniline, and dimethylnitrosamine were included to determine their relative potencies. Of the 1,3-butadiene-derived metabolites studied, 3,4-epoxy-1-butene was the strongest inhibitor with an IC50 of 110 μM compared to 1700 μM and 6600 μM for 1,2-butenediol and 1,2:3,4-diepoxybutane, respectively. Compared to known inhibitors, inhibitory potency of 3,4-epoxy-1-butene is between 4-methylpyrazole (IC50 = 1.8 μM) and dimethylnitrosamine (IC50 = 230 μM). All three butadiene metabolites inhibit CYP2E1 activity through a simple competitive mechanism. Among the 4-carbon compounds studied, the presence and location of polar groups seems to influence inhibitory potency. To further examine this notion, the investigation was extended to include structurally and chemically similar analogues, including propylene oxide and various butane alcohols. Those results demonstrated preferential recognition of CYP2E1 toward the type and location of polar and hydrophobic structural elements. Taken together, CYP2E1 metabolism may be modified in vivo by exposure to 4-carbon compounds, such as drugs, and nutritional constituents, a finding that highlights the complexity of exposure to mixtures.

  2. N-Aryl-oxazolidin-2-imine Muscle Selective Androgen Receptor Modulators Enhance Potency through Pharmacophore Reorientation

    SciTech Connect

    Nirschl, Alexandra A.; Zou, Yan; Krystek, Jr., Stanley R.; Sutton, James C.; Simpkins, Ligaya M.; Lupisella, John A.; Kuhns, Joyce E.; Seethala, Ramakrishna; Golla, Rajasree; Sleph, Paul G.; Beehler, Blake C.; Grover, Gary J.; Egan, Donald; Fura, Aberra; Vyas, Viral P.; Li, Yi-Xin; Sack, John S.; Kish, Kevin F.; An, Yongmi; Bryson, James A.; Gougoutas, Jack Z.; DiMarco, John; Zahler, Robert; Ostrowski, Jacek; Hamann, Lawrence G.

    2010-11-09

    A novel selective androgen receptor modulator (SARM) scaffold was discovered as a byproduct obtained during synthesis of our earlier series of imidazolidin-2-ones. The resulting oxazolidin-2-imines are among the most potent SARMs known, with many analogues exhibiting sub-nM in vitro potency in binding and functional assays. Despite the potential for hydrolytic instability at gut pH, compounds of the present class showed good oral bioavailability and were highly active in a standard rodent pharmacological model.

  3. The potency of fluvoxamine to reduce ethanol self-administration decreases with concurrent availability of food.

    PubMed

    Ginsburg, Brett C; Pinkston, Jonathan W; Lamb, Richard J

    2012-04-01

    The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluvoxamine reduces responding for ethanol at lower doses than responding for food when each is available in separate components or separate groups of rats. However, when both are available concurrently and deliveries earned per session are equal, this apparent selectivity inverts and food-maintained behavior is more sensitive than ethanol-maintained behavior to rate-decreasing effects of fluvoxamine. Here, we investigated further the impact that concurrent access to both food and ethanol has on the potency of fluvoxamine. Fluvoxamine (5.6-17.8 mg/kg) potency was assessed under conditions in which food and ethanol were available concurrently and response rates were equal [average variable intervals (VIs) 405 and 14 s for food and ethanol, respectively], as well as when density of food delivery was increased (average VI 60 s for food and VI 14 s for ethanol). The potency of fluvoxamine was also determined when only ethanol was available (food extinction and average VI 14 s for ethanol) and under multiple VIs (VI 30 s for food and ethanol) wherein either food or ethanol was the only programmed reinforcement available during each component. Fluvoxamine was less potent at decreasing ethanol self-administration when food was available concurrently {ED50 [95% confidence limit (CL): 8.2 (6.5-10.3) and 10.7 (7.9-14.4)]} versus when ethanol was available in isolation [ED50: 4.0 (2.7-5.9) and 5.1 (4.3-6.0)]. Effects on food were similar under each condition in which food was available. The results demonstrate that the potency of fluvoxamine in reducing ethanol-maintained behavior depends on whether ethanol is available in isolation or in the context of concurrently scheduled food reinforcement.

  4. Single-radial-immunodiffusion as an in vitro potency assay for human inactivated viral vaccines.

    PubMed

    Williams, M S

    1993-11-01

    Single-radial-immunodiffusion (SRID) assays have been used to determine the potency of all human inactivated influenza virus vaccines licensed by the Food and Drug Administration for use in the United States since 1978. SRID replaced less reliable tests which were based on the aggregation of erythrocytes by the hemagglutinins of influenza viruses. Similar SRID assays have been used experimentally to determine the potency of inactivated polio and rabies vaccines. In each case, the assays are based on the diffusion of viral antigen into an agarose gel containing specific antibodies to the antigen being measured. For influenza and rabies, disruption of the virions with a detergent is necessary to permit the diffusion of the appropriate antigens, where as with polio, intact virions are allowed to diffuse. The interaction between antigen and antibody produces a zone of precipitation whose size is directly proportional to the amount of antigen applied. A potency value for unknowns is obtained by comparing the sizes of zones produced by unknown preparations to the sizes of zones obtained with a calibrated reference of known antigen content. Once the specific reference antigens and antibodies are prepared and the test standardized, it is a remarkably simple technique which unlike agglutination assays is very reproducible, relatively unaffected by minor variations in test conditions and is far less time consuming and cumbersome than in vivo assays for potency such as those done by inoculating mice or monkeys. More importantly, clinical studies demonstrate that standardization of influenza vaccines by SRID provides a better correlate of human immunogenicity than previous methods.

  5. Mechanism of multivalent nanoparticle encounter with HIV-1 for potency enhancement of peptide triazole virus inactivation.

    PubMed

    Rosemary Bastian, Arangassery; Nangarlia, Aakansha; Bailey, Lauren D; Holmes, Andrew; Kalyana Sundaram, R Venkat; Ang, Charles; Moreira, Diogo R M; Freedman, Kevin; Duffy, Caitlin; Contarino, Mark; Abrams, Cameron; Root, Michael; Chaiken, Irwin

    2015-01-02

    Entry of HIV-1 into host cells remains a compelling yet elusive target for developing agents to prevent infection. A peptide triazole (PT) class of entry inhibitor has previously been shown to bind to HIV-1 gp120, suppress interactions of the Env protein at host cell receptor binding sites, inhibit cell infection, and cause envelope spike protein breakdown, including gp120 shedding and, for some variants, virus membrane lysis. We found that gold nanoparticle-conjugated forms of peptide triazoles (AuNP-PT) exhibit substantially more potent antiviral effects against HIV-1 than corresponding peptide triazoles alone. Here, we sought to reveal the mechanism of potency enhancement underlying nanoparticle conjugate function. We found that altering the physical properties of the nanoparticle conjugate, by increasing the AuNP diameter and/or the density of PT conjugated on the AuNP surface, enhanced potency of infection inhibition to impressive picomolar levels. Further, compared with unconjugated PT, AuNP-PT was less susceptible to reduction of antiviral potency when the density of PT-competent Env spikes on the virus was reduced by incorporating a peptide-resistant mutant gp120. We conclude that potency enhancement of virolytic activity and corresponding irreversible HIV-1 inactivation of PTs upon AuNP conjugation derives from multivalent contact between the nanoconjugates and metastable Env spikes on the HIV-1 virus. The findings reveal that multispike engagement can exploit the metastability built into virus the envelope to irreversibly inactivate HIV-1 and provide a conceptual platform to design nanoparticle-based antiviral agents for HIV-1 specifically and putatively for metastable enveloped viruses generally.

  6. N-haloacetylimino neonicotinoids: potency and molecular recognition at the insect nicotinic receptor.

    PubMed

    Tomizawa, Motohiro; Durkin, Kathleen A; Ohno, Ikuya; Nagura, Kyoko; Manabe, Mio; Kumazawa, Satoru; Kagabu, Shinzo

    2011-06-15

    This structure-activity relationship study for neonicotinoids with an N-haloacetylimino pharmacophore identifies several candidate compounds showing outstanding insecticidal potency and consequently leads to establishing their molecular recognition at an insect nicotinic receptor structural model, wherein the neonicotinoid halogen atoms (fluorine, chlorine, bromine, and iodine) variously interact with the receptor loops C-D interfacial niche via H-bonding and/or hydrophobic interactions.

  7. BACE-1 inhibitors part 3: identification of hydroxy ethylamines (HEAs) with nanomolar potency in cells.

    PubMed

    Beswick, Paul; Charrier, Nicolas; Clarke, Brian; Demont, Emmanuel; Dingwall, Colin; Dunsdon, Rachel; Faller, Andrew; Gleave, Robert; Hawkins, Julie; Hussain, Ishrut; Johnson, Christopher N; MacPherson, David; Maile, Graham; Matico, Rosalie; Milner, Peter; Mosley, Julie; Naylor, Alan; O'Brien, Alistair; Redshaw, Sally; Riddell, David; Rowland, Paul; Skidmore, John; Soleil, Virginie; Smith, Kathrine J; Stanway, Steven; Stemp, Geoffrey; Stuart, Alistair; Sweitzer, Sharon; Theobald, Pam; Vesey, David; Walter, Daryl S; Ward, John; Wayne, Gareth

    2008-02-01

    This article is focusing on further optimization of previously described hydroxy ethylamine (HEA) BACE-1 inhibitors obtained from a focused library with the support of X-ray crystallography. Optimization of the non-prime side of our inhibitors and introduction of a 6-membered sultam substituent binding to Asn-294 as well as a fluorine in the C-2 position led to derivatives with nanomolar potency in cell-based assays.

  8. Simultaneous determination of purity and potency of the components of gentamycin using high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Yang, Li-Hong; Chang, Yan; Yao, Shang-Chen; Hu, Chang-Qin

    2012-12-01

    The quality of some earlier developed antibiotics is usually ensured by the combination of HPLC purity and microbiological potency measurement in the pharmacopoeias of various countries because the relationship between their purity and potency is not clearly quantified. Due to potency is assessed using certain units of measurement, it can not be directly traced to the international system of units (SI unit). This has become a hotspot in the study of the quantitative relationship between purity and potency of antibiotics. It would be quite an achievement to simultaneously determine both purity and potency using HPLC methods during quality control. This study evaluated a multicomponent antibiotic product, gentamycin, as a test sample. First, pure samples of the C components of gentamycin: C1a, C2, C2a and C1 were prepared, separately. Second, quantitative relationship (theoretical potency) between the purity and potency of each C component of gentamycin were determined using 1H NMR, HPLC-ELSD and microbiological assay method. One milligram of gentamycin C1a, C2, C2a and C1 was equal to 1 286.98, 1 095.74, 1 079.52 and 739.61 gentamycin units, respectively. Finally, a method for the determination of gentamycin potency was established based on the proportion and content of C components of gentamycin. The unification of purity and potency for gentamycin was achieved using only HPLC-ELSD. It is also demonstrated that C components of gentamycin and micronomicin produce the same responses under ELSD, which means that it is not necessary to prepare separate reference standards for each C component of gentamycin and that quantitative testing can be performed accurately using only one micronomicin reference standard. This study simplified the previous method for the determination of the content of C components of gentamycin using HPLC-ELSD. The developed method is suitable for regular use as a part of quality control and can simplify the rigmarole quality control procedures

  9. Traditional marijuana, high‐potency cannabis and synthetic cannabinoids: increasing risk for psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Robin M.; Quigley, Harriet; Quattrone, Diego; Englund, Amir; Di Forti, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence demonstrates that cannabis use is associated with an increased risk of psychotic outcomes, and confirms a dose‐response relationship between the level of use and the risk of later psychosis. High‐potency cannabis and synthetic cannabinoids carry the greatest risk. Experimental administration of tetrahydrocannabinol, the active ingredient of cannabis, induces transient psychosis in normal subjects, but this effect can be ameliorated by co‐administration of cannabidiol. This latter is a constituent of traditional hashish, but is largely absent from modern high‐potency forms of cannabis. Argument continues over the extent to which genetic predisposition is correlated to, or interacts with, cannabis use, and what proportion of psychosis could be prevented by minimizing heavy use. As yet, there is not convincing evidence that cannabis use increases risk of other psychiatric disorders, but there are no such doubts concerning its detrimental effect on cognitive function. All of the negative aspects are magnified if use starts in early adolescence. Irrespective of whether use of cannabis is decriminalized or legalized, the evidence that it is a component cause of psychosis is now sufficient for public health messages outlining the risk, especially of regular use of high‐potency cannabis and synthetic cannabinoids. PMID:27717258

  10. Dioxin-like toxic potency in Forster's tern eggs from Green Bay, Lake Michigan, North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tillitt, D. E.; Kubiak, T.J.; Ankley, G.T.; Giesy, J.P.

    1993-01-01

    The endangered Forster's tern (Sternaforsteri) population on Green Bay, Wisconsin has exhibited symptoms of embryotoxicity, congenital deformities, and poor hatching success. The putative causal agents are planar halogenated hydrocarbons (PHH). The objectives of this study were: 1) to evaluate the toxic potency of PHHs in extracts of Forster's tern eggs taken from Green Bay, Lake Michigan and a reference site, Lake Poygan, WI; and 2) to compare the toxic potencies of the egg extracts with the reproductive data available from the same water bird colonies. The relative toxic potency of the egg extracts was assessed with the H4IIE bioassay system to obtain 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TCDD-EQ). The average concentrations of TCDD-EQ in Forster's tern eggs were 214.5 pg/g and 23.4 pg/g from Green Bay and Lake Poygan, respectively. The bioassay results presented here concur with the biological effects and chemical analyses information from other studies on the same Forster's tern colonies.

  11. Reduction of animal suffering in rabies vaccine potency testing by introduction of humane endpoints.

    PubMed

    Takayama-Ito, Mutsuyo; Lim, Chang-Kweng; Nakamichi, Kazuo; Kakiuchi, Satsuki; Horiya, Madoka; Posadas-Herrera, Guillermo; Kurane, Ichiro; Saijo, Masayuki

    2017-03-01

    Potency controls of inactivated rabies vaccines for human use are confirmed by the National Institutes of Health challenge test in which lethal infection with severe neurological symptoms should be observed in approximately half of the mice inoculated with the rabies virus. Weight loss, decreased body temperature, and the presence of rabies-associated neurological signs have been proposed as humane endpoints. The potential for reduction of animal suffering by introducing humane endpoints in the potency test for inactivated rabies vaccine for human use was investigated. The clinical signs were scored and body weight was monitored. The average times to death following inoculation were 10.49 and 10.99 days post-inoculation (dpi) by the potency and challenge control tests, respectively, whereas the average times to showing Score-2 signs (paralysis, trembling, and coma) were 6.26 and 6.55 dpi, respectively. Body weight loss of more than 15% appeared at 5.82 and 6.42 dpi. The data provided here support the introduction of obvious neuronal signs combined with a body weight loss of ≥15% as a humane endpoint to reduce the time of animal suffering by approximately 4 days.

  12. Potency values from the local lymph node assay: application to classification, labelling and risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Loveless, S E; Api, A-M; Crevel, R W R; Debruyne, E; Gamer, A; Jowsey, I R; Kern, P; Kimber, I; Lea, L; Lloyd, P; Mehmood, Z; Steiling, W; Veenstra, G; Woolhiser, M; Hennes, C

    2010-02-01

    Hundreds of chemicals are contact allergens but there remains a need to identify and characterise accurately skin sensitising hazards. The purpose of this review was fourfold. First, when using the local lymph node assay (LLNA), consider whether an exposure concentration (EC3 value) lower than 100% can be defined and used as a threshold criterion for classification and labelling. Second, is there any reason to revise the recommendation of a previous ECETOC Task Force regarding specific EC3 values used for sub-categorisation of substances based upon potency? Third, what recommendations can be made regarding classification and labelling of preparations under GHS? Finally, consider how to integrate LLNA data into risk assessment and provide a rationale for using concentration responses and corresponding no-effect concentrations. Although skin sensitising chemicals having high EC3 values may represent only relatively low risks to humans, it is not possible currently to define an EC3 value below 100% that would serve as an appropriate threshold for classification and labelling. The conclusion drawn from reviewing the use of distinct categories for characterising contact allergens was that the most appropriate, science-based classification of contact allergens according to potency is one in which four sub-categories are identified: 'extreme', 'strong', 'moderate' and 'weak'. Since draining lymph node cell proliferation is related causally and quantitatively to potency, LLNA EC3 values are recommended for determination of a no expected sensitisation induction level that represents the first step in quantitative risk assessment.

  13. A common genetic influence on human intensity ratings of sugars and high-potency sweeteners.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Liang-Dar; Zhu, Gu; Breslin, Paul A S; Reed, Danielle R; Martin, Nicholas G; Wright, Margaret J

    2015-08-01

    The perception of sweetness varies among individuals but the sources of this variation are not fully understood. Here, in a sample of 1,901 adolescent and young adults (53.8% female; 243 MZ and 452 DZ twin pairs, 511 unpaired individuals; mean age 16.2±2.8, range 12–26 years), we studied the variation in the perception of sweetness intensity of two monosaccharides and two high-potency sweeteners: glucose, fructose, neohesperidine dihydrochalcone (NHDC), and aspartame. Perceived intensity for all sweeteners decreased with age (2–5% per year) and increased with the history of otitis media (6–9%). Males rated aspartame slightly stronger than females (7%). We found similar heritabilities for sugars (glucose: h2=0.31, fructose: h2=0.34) and high-potency sweeteners (NHDC: h2=0.31, aspartame: h2=0.30); all were in the modest range. Multivariate modeling showed that a common genetic factor accounted for >75% of the genetic variance in the four sweeteners, suggesting that individual differences in perceived sweet intensity, which are partly due to genetic factors, may be attributed to a single set of genes. This study provided evidence of the shared genetic pathways between the perception of sugars and high-potency sweeteners.

  14. Quantification of Basal and Stimulated ROS Levels as Predictors of Islet Potency and Function

    PubMed Central

    Armann, B.; Hanson, M. S.; Hatch, E.; Steffen, A.; Fernandez, L. A.

    2009-01-01

    We have developed a luminol-based assay using intact islets, which allows for quantification of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In addition, an index capable of characterizing metabolic and mitochondrial integrity prior to transplantation was created based on the capacity of islets to respond to high glucose and rotenone (mitochondrial respiratory chain complex I inhibitor) by production of ROS. To validate this assay, lipid peroxidation and antioxidative defense capacity were evaluated by detection of malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and glutathione peroxidase activity (GPx), respectively. Also, flow cytometric analyses of ROS (dihydroethidine), apoptosis (Annexin V, active caspases), necrosis (Topro3), and mitochondrial membrane potential (JC-1) were done in parallel to correlate with changes in luminol-measured ROS. ATP/ADP ratios were quantified by HPLC and the predictive value of ROS measurement on islet functional potency was correlated with capacity to reverse diabetes in a streptozotocin-induced diabetic NOD.scid mouse model as well as in human transplant recipients. Our data demonstrate that levels of ROS in islets correlate with the percentage of apoptotic cells and their functional potency in vivo. The ROS indices following glucose and rotenone exposure are indicative of metabolic potency and mitochondrial integrity and can be used as surrogate markers to evaluate the quality of islets prior to transplantation. PMID:17227556

  15. Bayesian approach to estimating reproductive inhibition potency in aquatic toxicity testing.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Bailer, A John; Oris, James T

    2012-04-01

    Effectively and accurately assessing the toxicity of chemicals and their impact on the environment continues to be an important concern in ecotoxicology. Single experiments conducted by a particular laboratory commonly serve as the basis of toxicity risk assessment. These laboratories often have a long history of conducting experiments using particular protocols. In the present study, a Bayesian analysis for estimating potency based on a single experiment was formulated, which then served as the basis for incorporating the experimental information from historical controls. A Bayesian hierarchical model was developed to estimate the relative inhibition concentrations (RIp) of a toxicant and flexible ways of using historical control information were suggested. The methods were illustrated using a data set produced by the test for reproduction in Ceriodaphnia dubia in which the number of young produced over three broods was recorded. In addition, simulation studies were included to compare the Bayesian methods with previously proposed estimators of potency. The Bayesian methods gave more precise RIp estimates with smaller variation and nominal coverage probability offsetting a small negative bias in the point estimate. Incorporating historical control information in the Bayesian hierarchical model effectively uses the useful information from past similar experiments when estimating the RIp, and results in potency estimates that are more precise compared to frequentist methods.

  16. Traditional marijuana, high-potency cannabis and synthetic cannabinoids: increasing risk for psychosis.

    PubMed

    Murray, Robin M; Quigley, Harriet; Quattrone, Diego; Englund, Amir; Di Forti, Marta

    2016-10-01

    Epidemiological evidence demonstrates that cannabis use is associated with an increased risk of psychotic outcomes, and confirms a dose-response relationship between the level of use and the risk of later psychosis. High-potency cannabis and synthetic cannabinoids carry the greatest risk. Experimental administration of tetrahydrocannabinol, the active ingredient of cannabis, induces transient psychosis in normal subjects, but this effect can be ameliorated by co-administration of cannabidiol. This latter is a constituent of traditional hashish, but is largely absent from modern high-potency forms of cannabis. Argument continues over the extent to which genetic predisposition is correlated to, or interacts with, cannabis use, and what proportion of psychosis could be prevented by minimizing heavy use. As yet, there is not convincing evidence that cannabis use increases risk of other psychiatric disorders, but there are no such doubts concerning its detrimental effect on cognitive function. All of the negative aspects are magnified if use starts in early adolescence. Irrespective of whether use of cannabis is decriminalized or legalized, the evidence that it is a component cause of psychosis is now sufficient for public health messages outlining the risk, especially of regular use of high-potency cannabis and synthetic cannabinoids.

  17. Potency trends of delta9-THC and other cannabinoids in confiscated marijuana from 1980-1997.

    PubMed

    ElSohly, M A; Ross, S A; Mehmedic, Z; Arafat, R; Yi, B; Banahan, B F

    2000-01-01

    The analysis of 35,312 cannabis preparations confiscated in the USA over a period of 18 years for delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta9-THC) and other major cannabinoids is reported. Samples were identified as cannabis, hashish, or hash oil. Cannabis samples were further subdivided into marijuana (loose material, kilobricks and buds), sinsemilla, Thai sticks and ditchweed. The data showed that more than 82% of all confiscated samples were in the marijuana category for every year except 1980 (61%) and 1981 (75%). The potency (concentration of delta9-THC) of marijuana samples rose from less than 1.5% in 1980 to approximately 3.3% in 1983 and 1984, then fluctuated around 3% till 1992. Since 1992, the potency of confiscated marijuana samples has continuously risen, going from 3.1% in 1992 to 4.2% in 1997. The average concentration of delta9-THC in all cannabis samples showed a gradual rise from 3% in 1991 to 4.47% in 1997. Hashish and hash oil, on the other hand, showed no specific potency trends. Other major cannabinoids [cannabidiol (CBD), cannabinol (CBN), and cannabichromene (CBC)] showed no significant change in their concentration over the years.

  18. In silico approaches to predicting cancer potency for risk assessment of genotoxic impurities in drug substances.

    PubMed

    Bercu, Joel P; Morton, Stuart M; Deahl, J Thom; Gombar, Vijay K; Callis, Courtney M; van Lier, Robert B L

    2010-01-01

    The current risk assessment approach for addressing the safety of very small concentrations of genotoxic impurities (GTIs) in drug substances is the threshold of toxicological concern (TTC). The TTC is based on several conservative assumptions because of the uncertainty associated with deriving an excess cancer risk when no carcinogenicity data are available for the impurity. It is a default approach derived from a distribution of carcinogens and does not take into account the properties of a specific chemical. The purpose of the study was to use in silico tools to predict the cancer potency (TD(50)) of a compound based on its structure. Structure activity relationship (SAR) models (classification/regression) were developed from the carcinogenicity potency database using MultiCASE and VISDOM. The MultiCASE classification models allowed the prediction of carcinogenic potency class, while the VISDOM regression models predicted a numerical TD(50). A step-wise approach is proposed to calculate predicted numerical TD(50) values for compounds categorized as not potent. This approach for non-potent compounds can be used to establish safe levels greater than the TTC for GTIs in a drug substance.

  19. A study of cannabis potency in France over a 25 years period (1992-2016).

    PubMed

    Dujourdy, Laurence; Besacier, Fabrice

    2017-03-01

    Cannabis contains a unique class of compounds known as the cannabinoids. Pharmacologically, the principal psychoactive constituent is Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). The amount of THC in conjunction with selected additional cannabinoid compounds (cannabidiol/CBD, cannabinol/CBN), determines the strength or potency of the cannabis product. Recently, reports have speculated over the change in the quality of cannabis products, from nearly a decade, specifically concerning the increase in cannabinoid content. This article exploits the analytical data of cannabis samples analyzed in the five French forensic police laboratories over 25 years. The increase potency of both herbal and resin cannabis in France is proved through the monitoring of THC content. For cannabis resin, it has slowly risen from 1992 to 2009, before a considerable increase in the last four years (mean THC content in mid-2016 is 23% compared to 10% in 2009). For herbal cannabis, it has known three main stages of growth (mean THC content is 13% in 2015 and mid-2016 compared to 7% in 2009 and 2% in 1995). The calculation of THC/CBD ratios in both herbal and resin samples confirms the recent change in chemotypes in favor of high potency categories. Finally, the CBN/THC ratios in marijuana samples were measured in order to evaluate the freshness of French seized hemp.

  20. Comparative reactivity of human IgE to cynomolgus monkey and human effector cells and effects on IgE effector cell potency

    PubMed Central

    Saul, Louise; Saul, Louise; Josephs, Debra H; Josephs, Debra H; Cutler, Keith; Cutler, Keith; Bradwell, Andrew; Bradwell, Andrew; Karagiannis, Panagiotis; Karagiannis, Panagiotis; Selkirk, Chris; Selkirk, Chris; Gould, Hannah J; Gould, Hannah J; Jones, Paul; Jones, Paul; Spicer, James F; Spicer, James F; Karagiannis, Sophia N; Karagiannis, Sophia N

    2014-01-01

    Background: Due to genetic similarities with humans, primates of the macaque genus such as the cynomolgus monkey are often chosen as models for toxicology studies of antibody therapies. IgE therapeutics in development depend upon engagement with the FcεRI and FcεRII receptors on immune effector cells for their function. Only limited knowledge of the primate IgE immune system is available to inform the choice of models for mechanistic and safety evaluations.   Methods: The recognition of human IgE by peripheral blood lymphocytes from cynomolgus monkey and man was compared. We used effector cells from each species in ex vivo affinity, dose-response, antibody-receptor dissociation and potency assays. Results: We report cross-reactivity of human IgE Fc with cynomolgus monkey cells, and comparable binding kinetics to peripheral blood lymphocytes from both species. In competition and dissociation assays, however, human IgE dissociated faster from cynomolgus monkey compared with human effector cells. Differences in association and dissociation kinetics were reflected in effector cell potency assays of IgE-mediated target cell killing, with higher concentrations of human IgE needed to elicit effector response in the cynomolgus monkey system. Additionally, human IgE binding on immune effector cells yielded significantly different cytokine release profiles in each species. Conclusion: These data suggest that human IgE binds with different characteristics to human and cynomolgus monkey IgE effector cells. This is likely to affect the potency of IgE effector functions in these two species, and so has relevance for the selection of biologically-relevant model systems when designing pre-clinical toxicology and functional studies. PMID:24492303

  1. Study on Toxicity Reduction and Potency Induction in Whole-cell Pertussis Vaccine by Developing a New Optimal Inactivation Condition Processed on Bordetella pertussis

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadpour Dounighi, Naser; Razzaghi-Abyane, Mehdi; Nofeli, Mojtaba; Zolfagharian, Hossein; Shahcheraghi, Fereshteh

    2016-01-01

    Background Whooping cough is caused by Bordetella pertussis, and it remains a public health concern. Whole-cell pertussis vaccines have been commonly employed for expanded immunization. There is no doubt of the efficacy of whole cell pertussis vaccine, but it is necessary to improve the vaccine to decrease its toxicity. Objectives In this study, an inactivation process of dealing with pertussis bacteria is optimized in order to decrease the bacteria content in human doses of vaccines and reduce the vaccine’s toxicity. Materials and Methods The bacterial suspensions of pertussis strains 509 and 134 were divided into 21 sample parts from F1 to F21 and inactivated under different conditions. The inactivated suspensions of both strains were tested for opacity, non-viability, agglutination, purity, and sterility; the same formulation samples that passed quality tests were then pooled together. The pool of inactivated suspensions were analyzed for sterility, agglutination, opacity, specific toxicity, and potency. Results The harvest of both bacterial strains showed purity. The opacity of various samples were lost under different treatment conditions by heat from 8% to 12%, formaldehyde 6% to 8%, glutaraldehyde 6% to 8%, and thimerosal 5% to 8%. Tests on suspensions after inactivation and on pooled suspensions showed inactivation conditions not degraded agglutinins of both strains. The samples of F2, F4, F8, F12, F15, and F17 passed the toxicity test. The potency (ED50) of these samples showed following order F17 > F12 > F8 > F15, F4 > F2, and F17 revealed higher potency compared to other formulations. Conclusions It can be concluded that F17 showed desirable outcomes in the toxicity test and good immunogenicity with a low bacterial number content. Consequently, lower adverse effects and good immunogenicity are foreseeable for vaccine preparation with this method. PMID:27679704

  2. Quantitative structure - mesothelioma potency model optimization for complex mixtures of elongated particles in rat pleura: A retrospective study

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cancer potencies of mineral and synthetic elongated particle (EP) mixtures, including asbestos fibers, are influenced by changes in fiber dose composition, bioavailability, and biodurability in combination with relevant cytotoxic dose-response relationships. A unique and compreh...

  3. Antecedents of team potency and team effectiveness: an examination of goal and process clarity and servant leadership.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jia; Liden, Robert C

    2011-07-01

    Integrating theories of self-regulation with team and leadership literatures, this study investigated goal and process clarity and servant leadership as 3 antecedents of team potency and subsequent team effectiveness, operationalized as team performance and organizational citizenship behavior. Our sample of 304 employees represented 71 teams in 5 banks. Results showed that team-level goal and process clarity as well as team servant leadership served as 3 antecedents of team potency and subsequent team performance and team organizational citizenship behavior. Furthermore, we found that servant leadership moderated the relationships between both goal and process clarity and team potency, such that the positive relationships between both goal and process clarity and team potency were stronger in the presence of servant leadership.

  4. Expansion of the in vitro assay for Leptospira potency testing to other serovars: case study with Leptospira Hardjo.

    PubMed

    Alt, David P; Wilson-Welder, Jennifer

    2013-09-01

    Evaluation of leptospiral vaccines for potency against Leptospira interrogans serovars Pomona, Icterohaemorrhagiae, Canicola, and Grippotyphosa is accomplished using the hamster potency test method described in 9 CFR 113.101-104. Applicability of this method to evaluation of bacterins developed for immunization against infection with L. interrogans serovar Hardjo or Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo is complicated by several issues. Information from research on target host animal efficacy studies and evaluation of the immune response elicited using effective whole-cell bacterin formulations have revealed problems in relating these studies to either hamster-based or other potency testing methods. Future work on serovar Hardjo vaccines employing recombinant proteins will require preliminary testing methods in models other than the host animal. These models may also prove applicable to evaluation of potency for protein-based vaccines. Both an acute lethal infection model and a chronic infection model have been developed using two different strains of serovar Hardjo and will be described.

  5. Development of a FACS-based assay for evaluating antiviral potency of compound in dengue infected peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yilong; Chen, Yen-Liang; Herve, Maxime; Gu, Feng; Shi, Pei-Yong; Blasco, Francesca

    2014-02-01

    Dengue fever is the most important arthropod-transmitted viral disease affecting humans. It is a blood-borne disease characterized by persistent fever and joint pain. In the blood, primary peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), in particular monocytes, are the main target of the dengue virus (DENV). These cells are poorly permissive for in vitro dengue virus infection and their infectivity varies from donor to donor. To overcome this barrier, an anti-dengue antibody was used to improve the infectivity of DENV-2 clinical isolates to PBMCs, the monocytic leukemia cell line, THP-1 and the granulocyte cell line, KU812. A higher throughput 96-well-format assay based on a fluorescent-activated cell sorter could potentially be developed to evaluate the antiviral potency of compounds in DENV-infected PBMCs in vitro. The results correlate well with data obtained by a standard plaque assay. Altogether, an assay has been developed that enables evaluation of the antiviral activity of test compounds in a physiologically-relevant cell system (PBMCs). These screening processes are urgently needed for dengue drug discovery.

  6. Screening for Endophytic Fungi from Turmeric Plant (Curcuma longa L.) of Sukabumi and Cibinong with Potency as Antioxidant Compounds Producer.

    PubMed

    Bustanussalam; Rachman, Fauzy; Septiana, Eris; Lekatompessy, Sylvia J R; Widowati, Tiwit; Sukiman, Harmastini I; Simanjuntak, Partomuan

    2015-01-01

    Potency of medicinal plant is related to microorganisms lived in the plant tissue. Those microorganisms are known as endophytic microbes that live and form colonies in the plant tissue without harming its host. Each plant may contains several endophytic microbes that produce biological compounds or secondary metabolites due to co-evolution or genetic transfer from the host plant to endophytic microbes. Endophytic fungi research done for turmeric plant (Curcuma longa L.) gave 44 isolated fungi as results. Those 44 fungi isolated were fermented in Potato Dextrose Broth (PDB) media, filtered, extracted with ethylacetate and then were analyzed by Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) method and tested for their antioxidant activity by radical scavenging method. The antioxidant activity of the ethylacetate filtrate extracts either from Sukabumi or Cibinong were higher than the biomass extracts. There were 6 fungi that showed antioxidant activities over 65%, i.e., with code name K.Cl.Sb.R9 (93.58%), K.Cl.Sb.A11 (81.49%), KCl.Sb.B1 (78.81%), KCl.Sb.R11 (71.67%) and K.Cl.Sb.A12 (67.76%) from Sukabumi and K.Cl.Cb.U1 (69.27%) from Cibinong. These results showed that bioproduction by endophytic microbes can gave potential antioxidant compounds.

  7. Conjugation of Palmitic Acid Improves Potency and Longevity of siRNA Delivered via Endosomolytic Polymer Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Sarett, Samantha M.; Kilchrist, Kameron V.; Miteva, Martina; Duvall, Craig L.

    2015-01-01

    Clinical translation of siRNA therapeutics has been limited by the inability to effectively overcome the rigorous delivery barriers associated with intracellular-acting biologics. Here, in order to address both potency and longevity of siRNA gene silencing, pH-responsive micellar nanoparticle (NP) carriers loaded with siRNA conjugated to palmitic acid (siRNA-PA) were investigated as a combined approach to improve siRNA endosomal escape and stability. Conjugation to hydrophobic PA improved NP loading efficiency relative to unmodified siRNA, enabling complete packaging of siRNA-PA at a lower polymer:siRNA ratio. PA conjugation also increased intracellular uptake of the nucleic acid cargo by 35-fold and produced a 3.1-fold increase in intracellular half-life. The higher uptake and improved retention of siRNA-PA NPs correlated to a 2- and 11-fold decrease in gene silencing IC50 in comparison to siRNA NPs in fibroblasts and mesenchymal stem cells, respectively, for both the model gene luciferase and the therapeutically relevant gene PHD2. PA conjugation also significantly increased longevity of silencing activity following a single treatment, as observed in fibroblasts. Thus, conjugation of PA to siRNA paired with endosomolytic NPs is a promising approach to enhance the functional efficacy of siRNA in tissue regenerative and other applications. PMID:25641816

  8. Simultaneous Dual Selective Targeted Delivery of Two Covalent Gemcitabine Immunochemotherapeutics and Complementary Anti-Neoplastic Potency of [Se]-Methylselenocysteine

    PubMed Central

    Coyne, C. P.; Jones, Toni; Bear, Ryan

    2015-01-01

    -(C4-amide)-[anti-EGFR] with gemcitabine-(C4-amide)-[anti-HER2/neu] all had anti-neoplastic cytotoxic potency against mammary adenocarcinoma. Gemcitabine-(C4-amide)-[anti-EGFR] and gemcitabine-(C4-amide)-[anti-HER2/neu] produced progressive increases in anti-neoplastic cytotoxicity that were greatest between gemcitabine-equivalent concentrations of 10−9 M and 10−6 M. Dual simultaneous combinations of gemcitabine-(C4-amide)-[anti-EGFR] with gemcitabine-(C4-amide)-[anti-HER2/neu] produced levels of anti-neoplastic cytotoxicity intermediate between each of the individual covalent gemcitabine immunochemotherapeutics. Total anti-neoplastic cytotoxicity of the dual simultaneous combination of gemcitabine-(C4-amide)-[anti-EGFR] and gemcitabine-(C4-amide)-[anti-HER2/neu] against chemotherapeutic-resistant mammary adenocarcinoma (SKBr-3) was substantially higher when formulated with [Se]-methylsele-nocysteine. PMID:25821636

  9. Biosorption of Congo Red from aqueous solution by Bacillus weihenstephanensis RI12; effect of SPB1 biosurfactant addition on biodecolorization potency.

    PubMed

    Mnif, Inès; Fendri, Raouia; Ghribi, Dhouha

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus weihenstephanensis RI12, isolated from hydrocarbon contaminated soil, was assessed for Congo Red bio-treatment potency. Results suggested the potential of this bacterium for use in effective treatment of Congo Red contaminated wastewaters under shaking conditions at acidic and neutral pH value. The strain could tolerate higher doses of dyes as it could decolorize up to 1,000 mg/l of Congo Red. When used as microbial surfactant to enhance Congo Red biodecolorization, Bacillus subtilis SPB1-derived lipopeptide accelerated the decolorization rate and maximized the decolorization efficiency at an optimal concentration of biosurfactant of about 0.075%. Studies ensured that Congo Red removal by this strain could be due to an adsorption phenomena. Germination potencies of tomato seeds using the treated dyes under different conditions showed the efficient biotreatment of the azo dye Congo Red especially with the addition of SPB1 biosurfactant. To conclude, the addition of SPB1 bioemulsifier reduced energy costs by reducing the effective decolorization period; the biosurfactant stimulated bacterial decolorization method may provide a highly efficient, inexpensive and time-saving procedure in the treatment of textile effluents.

  10. Potency and characterization of estrogen-receptor agonists in United Kingdom estuarine sediments.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Kevin V; Balaam, Jan; Hurst, Mark; Nedyalkova, Zoya; Mekenyan, Ovanes

    2004-02-01

    The activity of estrogen-receptor (ER) agonists in sediments collected from the United Kingdom (UK) estuaries was assessed using the in vitro recombinant yeast estrogen screen (YES assay). The YES assay was successfully used to determine the in vitro ER agonist potency of pore waters and solvent extracts of sediments collected from UK estuaries. Estrogen-receptor agonists were detected in 66% of the pore water samples and in 91% of the sediment solvent extracts tested. The pore waters tested had ER agonist potencies from less than 2 to 68 ng 17beta-estradiol (E2) L(-1), whereas sediment extracts had potencies from less than 0.2 to 13 microg E2 kg(-1). A toxicity identification evaluation approach using bioassay-directed fractionation was used in an attempt to identify the ER agonists in extracts of sediments collected from the Tyne and Tees estuaries (UK). Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to provide lists of compounds in the fractions obtained that were evaluated for known ER agonist activity using published data and an ER quantitative structure-activity relationship model. Toxicity identification evaluation characterization failed to identify any ER agonists in pore water extracts; however, three compounds in sediment solvent extracts were identified as ER agonists. Nonylphenol, cinnarizine, and cholesta-4,6-dien-3-one were identified in the sample collected from the Tyne estuary. Important ER agonist substances that contaminate marine sediments remain unidentified. The present study as well as previous work on effluents point toward the involvement of natural products in the estrogenic burdens of marine sediments. Further work is required to establish the relative contribution of natural products and anthropogenic chemicals to current environmental impacts in the context of the Oslo and Paris Commission strategy to eliminate hazardous substances by 2020.

  11. Identification of mouse cathepsin K structural elements that regulate the potency of odanacatib.

    PubMed

    Law, Simon; Andrault, Pierre-Marie; Aguda, Adeleke H; Nguyen, Nham T; Kruglyak, Natasha; Brayer, Gary D; Brömme, Dieter

    2017-02-20

    Cathepsin K (CatK) is the predominant mammalian bone-degrading protease and thus an ideal target for antiosteoporotic drug development. Rodent models of osteoporosis are preferred due to their close reflection of the human disease and their ease of handling, genetic manipulation and economic affordability. However, large differences in the potency of CatK inhibitors for the mouse/rat vs. the human protease orthologs have made it impossible to use rodent models. This is even more of a problem considering that the most advanced CatK inhibitors, including odanacatib (ODN) and balicatib, failed in human clinical trials due to side effects and rodent models are not available to investigate the mechanism of these failures. Here, we elucidated the structural elements of the potency differences between mouse and human CatK (hCatK) using ODN. We determined and compared the structures of inhibitor-free mouse CatK (mCatK), hCatK and ODN bound to hCatK. Two structural differences were identified and investigated by mutational analysis. Humanizing subsite 2 in mCatK led to a 5-fold improvement of ODN binding, whereas the replacement of Tyr61 in mCatK with Asp resulted in an hCatK with comparable ODN potency. Combining both sites further improved the inhibition of the mCatK variant. Similar results were obtained for balicatib. These findings will allow the generation of transgenic CatK mice that will facilitate the evaluation of CatK inhibitor adverse effects and to explore routes to avoid them.

  12. Bayesian integrated testing strategy to assess skin sensitization potency: from theory to practice.

    PubMed

    Jaworska, Joanna; Dancik, Yuri; Kern, Petra; Gerberick, Frank; Natsch, Andreas

    2013-11-01

    Frameworks to predict in vivo effects by integration of in vitro, in silico and in chemico information using mechanistic insight are needed to meet the challenges of 21(st) century toxicology. Expert-based approaches that qualitatively integrate multifaceted data are practiced under the term 'weight of evidence', whereas quantitative approaches remain rare. To address this gap we previously developed a methodology to design an Integrated Testing Strategy (ITS) in the form of a Bayesian Network (BN). This study follows up on our proof of concept work and presents an updated ITS to assess skin sensitization potency expressed as local lymph node assay (LLNA) potency classes. Modifications to the ITS structure were introduced to include better mechanistic information. The parameters of the updated ITS were calculated from an extended data set of 124 chemicals. A detailed validation analysis and a case study were carried out to demonstrate the utility of the ITS for practical application. The improved BN ITS predicted correctly 95% and 86% of chemicals in a test set (n = 21) for hazard and LLNA potency classes, respectively. The practical value of using the BN ITS is far more than a prediction framework when all data are available. The BN ITS can develop a hypothesis using subsets of data as small as one data point and can be queried on the value of adding additional tests before testing is commenced. The ITS represents key steps of the skin sensitization process and a mechanistically interpretable testing strategy can be developed. These features are illustrated in the manuscript via practical examples.

  13. Gestodene: a review of its pharmacology, potency and tolerability in combined contraceptive preparations.

    PubMed

    Stanczyk, Frank Z; Archer, David F

    2014-04-01

    Combined progestin-estrogen pills are an established and reliable contraceptive option used by women worldwide. Combined oral contraceptives (COCs) containing the progestins--gestodene, desogestrel or norgestimate--were developed to minimize androgenic side effects and are considered an effective, well-tolerated contraceptive option. Gestodene achieves contraceptive efficacy with the lowest dose of any progestin in a COC, and has an established and favorable short- and long-term tolerability profile. In this review we present an overview of the pharmacology, potency and tolerability of gestodene.

  14. Standard Preparations, Limits of Potency, and Dating Period Limitations for Biological Products. Direct final rule.

    PubMed

    2016-05-04

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or Agency or we) is amending the general biological products standards relating to dating periods and also removing certain standards relating to standard preparations and limits of potency. FDA is taking this action to update outdated requirements, and accommodate new and evolving technology and testing capabilities, without diminishing public health protections. This action is part of FDA's retrospective review of its regulations in response to an Executive order. FDA is issuing these amendments directly as a final rule because the Agency believes they are noncontroversial and FDA anticipates no significant adverse comments.

  15. Comparative study of analgesic potency of ACTH4-10 fragment and its analog semax.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, D M; Levitskaya, N G; Andreeva, L A; Kamenskii, A A; Myasoedov, N F

    2007-01-01

    The effects of ACTH4-10 fragment and its analog semax on nociception were examined on various animal models. ACTH4-10 in a dose of 0.5 mg/kg decreased nociception in rats during hindpaw compression test and in mice subjected to acetic acid writhing test. Lower doses of ACTH4-10 produced no analgesic effect. Semax (0.015-0.500 mg/kg) decreased pain sensitivity in all experimental models. Hence, the substitution of three C-terminal amino acid residues in ACTH4-10 for Pro-Gly-Pro sequence augmented the analgesic potency of the peptide after its peripheral injection.

  16. An epidermal equivalent assay for identification and ranking potency of contact sensitizers

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbs, Susan; Corsini, Emanuela; Spiekstra, Sander W.; Galbiati, Valentina; Fuchs, Horst W.; DeGeorge, George; Troese, Matthew; Hayden, Patrick; Deng, Wei; Roggen, Erwin

    2013-10-15

    The purpose of this study was to explore the possibility of combining the epidermal equivalent (EE) potency assay with the assay which assesses release of interleukin-18 (IL-18) to provide a single test for identification and classification of skin sensitizing chemicals, including chemicals of low water solubility or stability. A protocol was developed using different 3D-epidermal models including in house VUMC model, epiCS® (previously EST1000™), MatTek EpiDerm™ and SkinEthic™ RHE and also the impact of different vehicles (acetone:olive oil 4:1, 1% DMSO, ethanol, water) was investigated. Following topical exposure for 24 h to 17 contact allergens and 13 non-sensitizers a robust increase in IL-18 release was observed only after exposure to contact allergens. A putative prediction model is proposed from data obtained from two laboratories yielding 95% accuracy. Correlating the in vitro EE sensitizer potency data, which assesses the chemical concentration which results in 50% cytotoxicity (EE-EC{sub 50}) with human and animal data showed a superior correlation with human DSA{sub 05} (μg/cm{sup 2}) data (Spearman r = 0.8500; P value (two-tailed) = 0.0061) compared to LLNA data (Spearman r = 0.5968; P value (two-tailed) = 0.0542). DSA{sub 05} = induction dose per skin area that produces a positive response in 5% of the tested population Also a good correlation was observed for release of IL-18 (SI-2) into culture supernatants with human DSA{sub 05} data (Spearman r = 0.8333; P value (two-tailed) = 0.0154). This easily transferable human in vitro assay appears to be very promising, but additional testing of a larger chemical set with the different EE models is required to fully evaluate the utility of this assay and to establish a definitive prediction model. - Highlights: • A potential epidermal equivalent assay to label and classify sensitizers • Il-18 release distinguishes sensitizers from non sensitizers • IL-18 release can rank sensitizer potency

  17. Statin therapy in patients with acute coronary syndrome: low-density lipoprotein cholesterol goal attainment and effect of statin potency

    PubMed Central

    Chinwong, Dujrudee; Patumanond, Jayanton; Chinwong, Surarong; Siriwattana, Khanchai; Gunaparn, Siriluck; Hall, John Joseph; Phrommintikul, Arintaya

    2015-01-01

    Background Elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is associated with an increased risk of coronary artery disease. Current guidelines recommend an LDL-C target of <70 mg/dL (<1.8 mmol/L) for acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients, and the first-line treatment to lower lipids is statin therapy. Despite current guidelines and the efficacious lipid-lowering agents available, about half of patients at very high risk, including ACS patients, fail to achieve their LDL-C goal. This study assessed LDL-C goal attainment according to use of high and low potency statins in routine practice in Thailand. Methods A retrospective cohort study was performed by retrieving data from medical records and the electronic hospital database for a tertiary care hospital in Thailand between 2009 and 2011. Included were ACS patients treated with statins at baseline and with follow-up of LDL-C levels. Patients were divided into high or low potency statin users, and the proportion reaching the LDL-C goal of <70 mg/dL was determined. A Cox proportional hazard model was applied to determine the relationship between statin potency and LDL-C goal attainment. Propensity score adjustment was used to control for confounding by indication. Results Of 396 ACS patients (60% males, mean age 64.3±11.6 years), 229 (58%) were treated with high potency statins and 167 (42%) with low potency statins. A quarter reached their target LDL-C goal (25% for patients on high potency statins and 23% on low potency statins). High potency statins were not associated with increased LDL-C goal attainment (adjusted hazards ratio 1.22, 95% confidence interval 0.79–1.88; P=0.363). Conclusion There was no significant effect of high potency statins on LDL-C goal attainment. Moreover, this study showed low LDL-C goal attainment for patients on either low or high potency statins. The reasons for the low LDL-C goal attainment rate warrants further investigation. PMID:25670902

  18. MrgX2 is a high potency cortistatin receptor expressed in dorsal root ganglion.

    PubMed

    Robas, Nicola; Mead, Emma; Fidock, Mark

    2003-11-07

    MrgX2 is a recently identified orphan G-protein-coupled receptor whose ligand and physiological function were unknown. Here we describe cortistatin, a neuropeptide for which no specific receptor has been identified previously, as a high potency ligand at MrgX2. Cortistatin has several biological functions including roles in sleep regulation, locomotor activity, and cortical function. Using a "reverse pharmacology" approach, we have identified a number of additional cyclic peptide agonists for MrgX2, determined their rank order of potency, and demonstrated that this receptor has a pharmacological profile distinct from the other characterized members of the Mrg (Mas-related genes) family. In MrgX2-expressing cells, cortistatin-stimulated increases in intracellular Ca2+ but had no effect on basal or forskolin-stimulated cAMP levels, suggesting that this receptor is Gq-coupled. Immunohistochemical and quantitative PCR studies show MrgX2 to have a limited expression profile, both peripheral and within the central nervous system, with highest levels in dorsal root ganglion.

  19. Metrics other than potency reveal systematic variation in responses to cancer drugs

    PubMed Central

    Fallahi-Sichani, Mohammad; Honarnejad, Saman; Heiser, Laura M.; Gray, Joe W.; Sorger, Peter K.

    2014-01-01

    Large-scale analysis of cellular response to anti-cancer drugs typically focuses on variation in potency (IC50) assuming that it is the most important difference between effective/ineffective drugs or sensitive/resistant cells. We took a multi-parametric approach involving analysis of the slope of the dose-response curve (HS), the area under the curve (AUC) and the maximum effect (Emax). We found that some of these parameters vary systematically with cell line and others with drug class. For cell-cycle inhibitors, Emax often but not always correlated with cell proliferation rate. For drugs targeting the Akt/PI3K/mTOR pathway dose-response curves were unusually shallow. Classical pharmacology has no ready explanation for this phenomenon but single-cell analysis showed that it correlated with significant and heritable cell-to-cell variability in the extent of target inhibition. We conclude that parameters other than potency should be considered in the comparative analysis of drug response, particularly at clinically relevant concentrations near and above IC50. PMID:24013279

  20. Potency against enterotoxemia of a recombinant Clostridium perfringens type D epsilon toxoid in ruminants.

    PubMed

    Lobato, Francisco C F; Lima, Catarina G R D; Assis, Ronnie A; Pires, Prhiscylla S; Silva, Rodrigo O S; Salvarani, Felipe M; Carmo, Anderson O; Contigli, Christiane; Kalapothakis, Evanguedes

    2010-08-31

    Enterotoxemia, a disease that affects domestic ruminants, is caused mainly by the epsilon toxin from Clostridium perfringens type D. Its eradication is virtually impossible, control and prophylaxis are based on systematic vaccination of herds with epsilon toxoids that are efficient in inducing protective antibody production. The use of recombinant toxins is one of the most promising of these strategies. This work evaluates the potency of a Cl. perfringens type D epsilon toxoid expressed by Escherichia coli administered to goats, sheep, and cattle. The etx gene was cloned into the pET-11a plasmid of E. coli strain BL21 to produce the recombinant toxin. Rabbits (n=8), goats, sheep, and cattle (n=5 for each species) were immunized with 0.2mg of the insoluble recombinant protein fraction to evaluate vaccine potency of the epsilon toxoid studied. Antibody titers were 40, 14.3, 26, and 13.1 IU/mL in the rabbit, goat, sheep, and cattle serum pools, respectively. The epsilon toxoid produced and tested in this work is adequate for immunization of ruminants against enterotoxemia.

  1. Balancing potency, metabolic stability and permeability in pyrrolopyrimidine-based EGFR inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Han, Jin; Henriksen, Silje; Nørsett, Kristin G; Sundby, Eirik; Hoff, Bård Helge

    2016-11-29

    The present study describes our continuous effort to develop epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors based on the 6-aryl-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-amine scaffold. The activity-ADME space has been evaluated by synthesizing 43 new structures, including four variations of the 4-amino group and 34 different substitution patterns in the 6-aryl moiety. Most of the new pyrrolopyrimidines were highly active, with twelve analogues possessing lower IC50 values than the commercial drug Erlotinib in enzymatic assays. Ten EGFR inhibitors were also profiled in cell studies using the Ba/F3-EGFR(L858R) reporter cells, and all revealed nanomolar activity. However, some of the privileged structures in terms of potency had ADME short-comings: compounds containing amides, sulfonamides, amine and hydroxymethyl substituents in the 6-aryl group had low permeability and high efflux, derivatives having (R)-3-amino-3-phenylpropan-1-ol at C-4 induced hERG inhibition properties, and metabolic lability was seen for compounds having (S)-2-methoxy-1-phenylethan-1-amine at C-4. Based on a trade-off between enzymatic activity, cellular potency and ADME properties, (S)-2-phenyl-2-((6-phenyl-7H-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-yl)amino)ethan-1-ol appeared as the most promising drug candidate. Cellular studies indicate this compound to have therapeutic use in EGFR driven diseases.

  2. In vitro vaccine potency testing: a proposal for reducing animal use for requalification testing.

    PubMed

    Brown, K; Stokes, W

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a program under which the use of animals for requalification of in vitro potency tests could be eliminated. Standard References (USDA/CVB nomenclature) would be developed, characterized, stored and monitored by selected reference laboratories worldwide. These laboratories would employ scientists skilled in protein and glycoprotein chemistry and equipped with state-of-the-art instruments for required analyses. After Standard References are established, the reference laboratories would provide them to the animal health industry as "gold standards". Companies would then establish and validate a correlation between the Standard Reference and the company Master Reference (USDA/CVB nomenclature) using an internal in vitro assay. After this correlation is established, the company could use the Standard References for qualifying, monitoring and requalifying company Master References without the use of animals. Such a program would eliminate the need for animals for requalification of Master References and the need for each company to develop and validate a battery of Master Reference Monitoring assays. It would also provide advantages in terms of reduced costs and reduced time for requalification testing. As such it would provide a strong incentive for companies to develop and use in vitro assays for potency testing.

  3. Bridging the Gap Between Validation and Implementation of Non-Animal Veterinary Vaccine Potency Testing Methods.

    PubMed

    Dozier, Samantha; Brown, Jeffrey; Currie, Alistair

    2011-11-29

    In recent years, technologically advanced high-throughput techniques have been developed that replace, reduce or refine animal use in vaccine quality control tests. Following validation, these tests are slowly being accepted for use by international regulatory authorities. Because regulatory acceptance itself has not guaranteed that approved humane methods are adopted by manufacturers, various organizations have sought to foster the preferential use of validated non-animal methods by interfacing with industry and regulatory authorities. After noticing this gap between regulation and uptake by industry, we began developing a paradigm that seeks to narrow the gap and quicken implementation of new replacement, refinement or reduction guidance. A systematic analysis of our experience in promoting the transparent implementation of validated non-animal vaccine potency assays has led to the refinement of our paradigmatic process, presented here, by which interested parties can assess the local regulatory acceptance of methods that reduce animal use and integrate them into quality control testing protocols, or ensure the elimination of peripheral barriers to their use, particularly for potency and other tests carried out on production batches.

  4. Titer on Chip: New Analytical Tool for Influenza Vaccine Potency Determination

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Erin; Srivastava, Indresh; Cox, Manon M. J.; Rowlen, Kathy L.

    2014-01-01

    Titer on Chip (Flu-ToC) is a new technique for quantification of influenza hemagglutinin (HA) concentration. In order to evaluate the potential of this new technique, a comparison of Flu-ToC to more conventional methods was conducted using recombinant HA produced in a baculovirus expression system as a test case. Samples from current vaccine strains were collected from four different steps in the manufacturing process. A total of 19 samples were analysed by Flu-ToC (blinded), single radial immunodiffusion (SRID), an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and the purity adjusted bicinchoninic acid assay (paBCA). The results indicated reasonable linear correlation between Flu-ToC and SRID, ELISA, and paBCA, with regression slopes of log-log plots being 0.91, 1.03, and 0.91, respectively. The average ratio for HA content measured by Flu-ToC relative to SRID, ELISA, and paBCA was 83%, 147%, and 81%, respectively; indicating nearly equivalent potency determination for Flu-ToC relative to SRID and paBCA. These results, combined with demonstrated multiplexed analysis of all components within a quadrivalent formulation and robust response to HA strains over a wide time period, support the conclusion that Flu-ToC can be used as a reliable and time-saving alternative potency assay for influenza vaccines. PMID:25330238

  5. Standardization and validation of Vero cell assay for potency estimation of diphtheria antitoxin serum.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sunil; Kanwar, Sarika; Bansal, Vivek; Sehgal, Rakesh

    2009-10-01

    Diphtheria toxin has the capacity to block protein synthesis in cultured mammalian cells, and thus causing cell death. This capacity of diphtheria toxin was utilized for in-vitro neutralization test to determine antibody titer, using Vero cells, which have been found to be susceptible to diphtheria toxin. In the present study, a Vero cell assay was standardized and validated for potency estimation of diphtheria antitoxin serum (DATS). The results obtained by Vero cell assay were compared with in-vivo biological assay. High degree of correlation (+0.98) was found between in-vivo biological assay and in-vitro Vero cell assay. The assay has also been found to be effective in determining the rising antibody titer in the equines inducted in DATS production. The present study indicated that although biological assays hold the key for final potency estimations till date but in the future scenario in-vitro Vero cell assay may be a good alternative to in-vivo biological assay.

  6. Potency of inhibition of human DNA topoisomerase I by flavones assessed through physicochemical parameters.

    PubMed

    Bensasson, René V; Zoete, Vincent; Jossang, Akino; Bodo, Bernard; Arimondo, Paola B; Land, Edward J

    2011-10-01

    DNA topoisomerases, enzymes involved in DNA replication and transcription, are known as targets for anticancer drugs. Among the various types of topoisomerase inhibitors, flavones (F) have been identified as promising compounds. In this study, it is shown that the potency of flavones acting as topoisomerase I inhibitors can be ranked according to their redox properties and their 3D structure. Linear correlations were observed between the topoisomerase I inhibition activity exerted by five flavones (chrysin, apigenin, kaempferol, fisetin, quercetin) and experimental and theoretical redox parameters of F. Moreover, theoretical calculations of the dihedral angle O(1)-2-1'-2' in the flavone molecules indicate the importance of their structural and steric features in their potency as topoisomerase I inhibitors. It is suggested that the flavones might interact with the DNA-topoisomerase I complex after their oxidation into quinones via autoxidation, enzymatic oxidation, or reactions with reactive oxygen species. Our investigation opens a new strategy quantitatively based on redox and 3D structural parameters in the search for the most active flavones as anticancer drug candidates inhibiting topoisomerase I.

  7. Defining Developmental Potency and Cell Lineage Trajectories by Expression Profiling of Differentiating Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Aiba, Kazuhiro; Nedorezov, Timur; Piao, Yulan; Nishiyama, Akira; Matoba, Ryo; Sharova, Lioudmila V.; Sharov, Alexei A.; Yamanaka, Shinya; Niwa, Hitoshi; Ko, Minoru S. H.

    2009-01-01

    Biologists rely on morphology, function and specific markers to define the differentiation status of cells. Transcript profiling has expanded the repertoire of these markers by providing the snapshot of cellular status that reflects the activity of all genes. However, such data have been used only to assess relative similarities and differences of these cells. Here we show that principal component analysis of global gene expression profiles map cells in multidimensional transcript profile space and the positions of differentiating cells progress in a stepwise manner along trajectories starting from undifferentiated embryonic stem (ES) cells located in the apex. We present three ‘cell lineage trajectories’, which represent the differentiation of ES cells into the first three lineages in mammalian development: primitive endoderm, trophoblast and primitive ectoderm/neural ectoderm. The positions of the cells along these trajectories seem to reflect the developmental potency of cells and can be used as a scale for the potential of cells. Indeed, we show that embryonic germ cells and induced pluripotent cells are mapped near the origin of the trajectories, whereas mouse embryo fibroblast and fibroblast cell lines are mapped near the far end of the trajectories. We suggest that this method can be used as the non-operational semi-quantitative definition of cell differentiation status and developmental potency. Furthermore, the global expression profiles of cell lineages provide a framework for the future study of in vitro and in vivo cell differentiation. PMID:19112179

  8. G-protein based ELISA as a potency test for rabies vaccines.

    PubMed

    Chabaud-Riou, Martine; Moreno, Nadège; Guinchard, Fabien; Nicolai, Marie Claire; Niogret-Siohan, Elisabeth; Sève, Nicolas; Manin, Catherine; Guinet-Morlot, Françoise; Riou, Patrice

    2017-03-01

    The NIH test is currently used to assess the potency of rabies vaccine, a key criterion for vaccine release. This test is based on mice immunization followed by intracerebral viral challenge. As part of global efforts to reduce animal experimentation and in the framework of the development of Sanofi Pasteur next generation, highly-purified vaccine, produced without any material of human or animal origin, we developed an ELISA as an alternative to the NIH test. This ELISA is based on monoclonal antibodies recognizing specifically the native form of the viral G-protein, the major antigen that induces neutralizing antibody response to rabies virus. We show here that our ELISA is able to distinguish between potent and different types of sub-potent vaccine lots. Satisfactory agreement was observed between the ELISA and the NIH test in the determination of the vaccine titer and their capacity to discern conform from non-conform batches. Our ELISA meets the criteria for a stability-indicating assay and has been successfully used to develop the new generation of rabies vaccine candidates. After an EPAA international pre-collaborative study, this ELISA was selected as the assay of choice for the EDQM collaborative study aimed at replacing the rabies vaccine NIH in vivo potency test.

  9. A DNA/HDAC dual-targeting drug CY190602 with significantly enhanced anticancer potency

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chuan; Ding, Hongyu; Li, Xiaoxi; Pallasch, Christian P; Hong, Liya; Guo, Dianwu; Chen, Yi; Wang, Difei; Wang, Wei; Wang, Yajie; Hemann, Michael T; Jiang, Hai

    2015-01-01

    Genotoxic drugs constitute a major treatment modality for human cancers; however, cancer cells' intrinsic DNA repair capability often increases the threshold of lethality and renders these drugs ineffective. The emerging roles of HDACs in DNA repair provide new opportunities for improving traditional genotoxic drugs. Here, we report the development and characterization of CY190602, a novel bendamustine-derived drug with significantly enhanced anticancer potency. We show that CY190602's enhanced potency can be attributed to its newly gained ability to inhibit HDACs. Using this novel DNA/HDAC dual-targeting drug as a tool, we further explored HDAC's role in DNA repair. We found that HDAC activities are essential for the expression of several genes involved in DNA synthesis and repair, including TYMS, Tip60, CBP, EP300, and MSL1. Importantly, CY190602, the first-in-class example of such DNA/HDAC dual-targeting drugs, exhibited significantly enhanced anticancer activity in vitro and in vivo. These findings provide rationales for incorporating HDAC inhibitory moieties into genotoxic drugs, so as to overcome the repair capacity of cancer cells. Systematic development of similar DNA/HDAC dual-targeting drugs may represent a novel opportunity for improving cancer therapy. PMID:25759362

  10. Biological standards for potency assignment to fibrinolytic agents used in thrombolytic therapy.

    PubMed

    Thelwell, Craig

    2014-03-01

    Thrombolytic drugs are used for the treatment of thrombotic disorders such as acute myocardial infarction, acute ischemic stroke, and pulmonary embolism. Biological standards are used for potency assignment to the range of fibrinolytic proteins used in thrombolytic therapy. The World Health Organization (WHO) International Standards are primary reference materials, calibrated in arbitrary units (international unit), assigned by collaborative study using the range of assay methods available at the time. Provided the standard and test material are equivalent, adhering to the principle of measuring like versus like, the exact nature of the assay method is unimportant. This approach has been applied successfully for several decades since the advent of fibrinolytic treatment, ensuring consistency for potency labeling and the correct dosing of patients. The emergence of generic biosimilar products and new recombinant variants poses a challenge to this system, where functional differences impact on the relative biological activity in different assay systems. A more demanding system of standardization may therefore be required on the basis of international reference materials with associated reference methods. WHO recognizes this, and where possible and practical is seeking to incorporate concepts of traceability, uncertainty, and commutability to International Standards. However, some caution is needed because limitations on the characterization of many complex biologicals remain real, and a flexible approach is required on the basis of real-world needs.

  11. Observations of the effect of atmospheric processes on the genotoxic potency of airborne particulate matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feilberg, Anders; Nielsen, Torben; Binderup, Mona-Lise; Skov, Henrik; Poulsen, Morten W. B.

    In this study, the relationship between genotoxic potency and the occurrence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), including benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), and nitro-PAH in urban and semi-rural air masses has been investigated. The Salmonella/microsome assay has been used as a measure of genotoxic potency. We find that the ratios of BaP/mutagenicity and PAH/mutagenicity are highly variable. The processes responsible for the variation are formation and degradation of mutagens and transport of polluted air masses from heavily industrialized regions. Air masses from Central Europe are shown to be highly enriched in mutagens as well as in PAH and nitro-PAH. However, the mutagenic activity is much more elevated than the PAH levels when these air masses are mixed with local urban air. Part of the variation in the PAH/mutagenicity ratio can be explained by photochemical transformation. Since BaP has been used in the past as an indicator of the carcinogenic risk of airborne particles, it is suggested that the cancer risk of air pollution has to be re-evaluated.

  12. A DNA/HDAC dual-targeting drug CY190602 with significantly enhanced anticancer potency.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chuan; Ding, Hongyu; Li, Xiaoxi; Pallasch, Christian P; Hong, Liya; Guo, Dianwu; Chen, Yi; Wang, Difei; Wang, Wei; Wang, Yajie; Hemann, Michael T; Jiang, Hai

    2015-03-09

    Genotoxic drugs constitute a major treatment modality for human cancers; however, cancer cells' intrinsic DNA repair capability often increases the threshold of lethality and renders these drugs ineffective. The emerging roles of HDACs in DNA repair provide new opportunities for improving traditional genotoxic drugs. Here, we report the development and characterization of CY190602, a novel bendamustine-derived drug with significantly enhanced anticancer potency. We show that CY190602's enhanced potency can be attributed to its newly gained ability to inhibit HDACs. Using this novel DNA/HDAC dual-targeting drug as a tool, we further explored HDAC's role in DNA repair. We found that HDAC activities are essential for the expression of several genes involved in DNA synthesis and repair, including TYMS, Tip60, CBP, EP300, and MSL1. Importantly, CY190602, the first-in-class example of such DNA/HDAC dual-targeting drugs, exhibited significantly enhanced anticancer activity in vitro and in vivo. These findings provide rationales for incorporating HDAC inhibitory moieties into genotoxic drugs, so as to overcome the repair capacity of cancer cells. Systematic development of similar DNA/HDAC dual-targeting drugs may represent a novel opportunity for improving cancer therapy.

  13. A Flow Cytometric Clonogenic Assay Reveals the Single-Cell Potency of Doxorubicin.

    PubMed

    Maass, Katie F; Kulkarni, Chethana; Quadir, Mohiuddin A; Hammond, Paula T; Betts, Alison M; Wittrup, Karl Dane

    2015-12-01

    Standard cell proliferation assays use bulk media drug concentration to ascertain the potency of chemotherapeutic drugs; however, the relevant quantity is clearly the amount of drug actually taken up by the cell. To address this discrepancy, we have developed a flow cytometric clonogenic assay to correlate the amount of drug in a single cell with the cell's ability to proliferate using a cell tracing dye and doxorubicin, a naturally fluorescent chemotherapeutic drug. By varying doxorubicin concentration in the media, length of treatment time, and treatment with verapamil, an efflux pump inhibitor, we introduced 10(5) -10(10) doxorubicin molecules per cell; then used a dye-dilution assay to simultaneously assess the number of cell divisions. We find that a cell's ability to proliferate is a surprisingly conserved function of the number of intracellular doxorubicin molecules, resulting in single-cell IC50 values of 4-12 million intracellular doxorubicin molecules. The developed assay is a straightforward method for understanding a drug's single-cell potency and can be used for any fluorescent or fluorescently labeled drug, including nanoparticles or antibody-drug conjugates.

  14. Relative potency as a means of evaluating ELF (Extremely Low Frequency) health risks

    SciTech Connect

    Easterly, C.E.; Glass, L.R.

    1990-09-01

    In the 1970's, a variety of developments took place to heightened public and scientific interest in electromagnetic fields. During this time, biological studies of nonionizing electromagnetic fields were taking place, but no clear evidence of risks to public health was identified. Then came the surprising epidemiological finding suggesting that 60 Hz magnetic fields may be related to some childhood leukemias. Our particular interest at ORNL was how to interpret the available data with respect to human exposures to the nearly ubiquitous fields. A review of the available data showed that consistent biological effects were difficult to identify. Classical toxicological tests used in chemical risk assessment had not been performed with Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) fields but rather a wide range of mechanistic studies had been pursued. To evaluate the level of anticipated hazard or risk there was neither a mechanistic understanding nor a consistent phenomenological outcome. A risk evaluation normally requires one or the other of these two types of information. Two quite different approaches were pursued: meta-analysis and relative potency. The first of these is a method to combine data from similar experiments to enhance the relative statistical power of a collection of small sample size studies, and will not be discussed further. The second, relative potency, will be the focus of this paper. 20 refs., 2 figs.

  15. Potential for Improving Potency and Specificity of Reovirus Oncolysis with Next-Generation Reovirus Variants

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed, Adil; Johnston, Randal N.; Shmulevitz, Maya

    2015-01-01

    Viruses that specifically replicate in tumor over normal cells offer promising cancer therapies. Oncolytic viruses (OV) not only kill the tumor cells directly; they also promote anti-tumor immunotherapeutic responses. Other major advantages of OVs are that they dose-escalate in tumors and can be genetically engineered to enhance potency and specificity. Unmodified wild type reovirus is a propitious OV currently in phase I–III clinical trials. This review summarizes modifications to reovirus that may improve potency and/or specificity during oncolysis. Classical genetics approaches have revealed reovirus variants with improved adaptation towards tumors or with enhanced ability to establish specific steps of virus replication and cell killing among transformed cells. The recent emergence of a reverse genetics system for reovirus has provided novel strategies to fine-tune reovirus proteins or introduce exogenous genes that could promote oncolytic activity. Over the next decade, these findings are likely to generate better-optimized second-generation reovirus vectors and improve the efficacy of oncolytic reotherapy. PMID:26633466

  16. European regulatory framework and practices for veterinary Leptospira vaccine potency testing.

    PubMed

    Bruckner, Lukas

    2013-09-01

    In Europe, the legal basis for requirements for medicinal products is described in the European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.) In the European Union, the Ph. Eur. is supplemented by several guidelines issued by the European Medicines Agency. Immunological veterinary products must comply with the Ph. Eur. monograph on veterinary vaccines and the accompanying texts, as well as specific monographs. The Ph. Eur. includes monographs on canine leptospirosis and bovine leptospirosis vaccines (inactivated). Both monographs require that an immunogenicity test be performed once in the target species during the life of a vaccine. The hamster challenge test is applied for batch potency testing of canine vaccines. Alternatively, serological tests or suitable validated in vitro tests to determine the content of one or more antigenic components indicative of protection may be performed. Vaccines for use in cattle are tested in a serological test in guinea pigs. The acceptance criteria in alternative tests are set with reference to a batch of vaccine that has given satisfactory results in the immunogenicity test. At a January 2012 European workshop, the suitability of the hamster potency test was questioned and unanimous agreement was reached that moving toward complete in vitro testing is possible and should be promoted.

  17. Anti-hepatitis C virus potency of a new autophagy inhibitor using human liver slices model

    PubMed Central

    Lagaye, Sylvie; Brun, Sonia; Gaston, Jesintha; Shen, Hong; Stranska, Ruzena; Camus, Claire; Dubray, Clarisse; Rousseau, Géraldine; Massault, Pierre-Philippe; Courcambeck, Jerôme; Bassisi, Firas; Halfon, Philippe; Pol, Stanislas

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the antiviral potency of a new anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) antiviral agent targeting the cellular autophagy machinery. METHODS: Non-infected liver slices, obtained from human liver resection and cut in 350 μm-thick slices (2.7 × 106 cells per slice) were infected with cell culture-grown HCV Con1b/C3 supernatant (multiplicity of infection = 0.1) cultivated for up to ten days. HCV infected slices were treated at day 4 post-infection with GNS-396 for 6 d at different concentrations. HCV replication was evaluated by strand-specific real-time quantitative reverse transcription - polymerase chain reaction. The infectivity titers of supernatants were evaluated by foci formation upon inoculation into naive Huh-7.5.1 cells. The cytotoxic effect of the drugs was evaluated by lactate dehydrogenase leakage assays. RESULTS: The antiviral efficacy of a new antiviral drug, GNS-396, an autophagy inhibitor, on HCV infection of adult human liver slices was evidenced in a dose-dependent manner. At day 6 post-treatment, GNS-396 EC50 was 158 nmol/L without cytotoxic effect (compared to hydroxychloroquine EC50 = 1.17 μmol/L). CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrated that our ex vivo model is efficient for evaluation the potency of autophagy inhibitors, in particular a new quinoline derivative GNS-396 as antiviral could inhibit HCV infection in a dose-dependent manner without cytotoxic effect. PMID:27478540

  18. Indazole- and indole-5-carboxamides: selective and reversible monoamine oxidase B inhibitors with subnanomolar potency.

    PubMed

    Tzvetkov, Nikolay T; Hinz, Sonja; Küppers, Petra; Gastreich, Marcus; Müller, Christa E

    2014-08-14

    Indazole- and indole-carboxamides were discovered as highly potent, selective, competitive, and reversible inhibitors of monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B). The compounds are easily accessible by standard synthetic procedures with high overall yields. The most potent derivatives were N-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1-methyl-1H-indazole-5-carboxamide (38a, PSB-1491, IC50 human MAO-B 0.386 nM, >25000-fold selective versus MAO-A) and N-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1H-indole-5-carboxamide (53, PSB-1410, IC50 human MAO-B 0.227 nM, >5700-fold selective versus MAO-A). Replacement of the carboxamide linker with a methanimine spacer leading to (E)-N-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1-(1H-indazol-5-yl)methanimine (58) represents a further novel class of highly potent and selective MAO-B inhibitors (IC50 human MAO-B 0.612 nM, >16000-fold selective versus MAO-A). In N-(3,4-difluorophenyl-1H-indazole-5-carboxamide (30, PSB-1434, IC50 human MAO-B 1.59 nM, selectivity versus MAO-A>6000-fold), high potency and selectivity are optimally combined with superior physicochemical properties. Computational docking studies provided insights into the inhibitors' interaction with the enzyme binding site and a rationale for their high potency despite their small molecular size.

  19. Pleural carcinogenic potency of mineral fibers (asbestos, attapulgite) and their cytotoxicity on cultured cells.

    PubMed

    Jaurand, M C; Fleury, J; Monchaux, G; Nebut, M; Bignon, J

    1987-10-01

    The carcinogenicity of several samples of mineral fibers was tested following injection of 20 mg in the pleural cavity of noninbred Sprague-Dawley rats. Three samples of chrysotile asbestos (mean length: 3.2, 2.1, and 1.2 micron) induced mesotheliomas at a rate of 48, 52, and 19%, respectively. The first sample was acid leached prior to intrapleural injection; in that group, the percentage of mesotheliomas was reduced to 25%. Treatment with amosite and crocidolite resulted in the occurrence of 57 and 56% of mesotheliomas. Acid-treatment of amphiboles did not significantly modify the percentage of mesotheliomas. When the Stanton's fiber dimensions were taken into consideration to correlate with mesothelioma incidence, the observed number of mesotheliomas in the chrysotile-treated animals was much lower than that expected, suggesting that other fiber parameters (chemistry, physicochemistry) play a role in the carcinogenicity. Attapulgite fibers (mean length: 0.77 micron) did not induce tumor, and the mean survival time was of the same order as that observed in the control groups. The injection of quartz resulted in no mesothelioma but did result in 6 malignant histiocytic lymphomas (17%) and 2 malignant schwannomas (6%). In vitro experiments did not show strong correlation between cytotoxicity and the carcinogenic potency of these minerals, but the qualitative cellular responses might give some indications on the fiber's potency. In addition, the in vitro effects of the fibers seem to be modulated by their size.

  20. Chemical substances and contact allergy--244 substances ranked according to allergenic potency.

    PubMed

    Schlede, E; Aberer, W; Fuchs, T; Gerner, I; Lessmann, H; Maurer, T; Rossbacher, R; Stropp, G; Wagner, E; Kayser, D

    2003-12-01

    From 1985 to 2001 a group consisting of thirty experts including dermatologists from universities, representatives from the chemical industry and from regulatory authorities elaborated and consequently decided on the potency ranking of chemicals with contact allergenic properties. These chemicals were defined either as synthetic chemicals or as chemicals identified as ingredients in natural products. On 244 substances clinical and experimental data on humans and results of animal tests as documented in the scientific literature were carefully collected and evaluated. This careful evaluation and assessment of these chemicals clearly demonstrate that ranking of substances according to their allergenic potency is possible and justified. It was decided to rank the most potent contact allergens in Category A of substances having significant allergenic properties. Substances with a solid-based indication of a contact allergenic potential and substances with the capacity of cross-reactions were listed in Category B and substances with insignificant or questionable allergenic effects were listed in Category C. An assessment of these compiled data is published here. Three Appendices give a comprehensive overview of the 98 substances listed in Category A, the 77 substances listed in Category B and the 69 substances listed in Category C.

  1. A Simple Method for Labeling Human Embryonic Stem Cells Destined to Lose Undifferentiated Potency

    PubMed Central

    Kumagai, Ayako; Suga, Mika; Yanagihara, Kana; Itoh, Yumi; Furue, Miho K.

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation is a major source of cellular ATP. Its usage as an energy source varies, not only according to the extracellular environment, but also during development and differentiation, as indicated by the reported changes in the flux ratio of glycolysis to oxidative phosphorylation during embryonic stem (ES) cell differentiation. The fluorescent probe JC-1 allows visualization of changes in the mitochondrial membrane potential produced by oxidative phosphorylation. Strong JC-1 signals were localized in the differentiated cells located at the edge of H9 ES colonies that expressed vimentin, an early differentiation maker. The JC-1 signals were further intensified when individual adjacent colonies were in contact with each other. Time-lapse analyses revealed that JC-1-labeled H9 cells under an overconfluent condition were highly differentiated after subculture, suggesting that monitoring oxidative phosphorylation in live cells might facilitate the prediction of induced pluripotent stem cells, as well as ES cells, that are destined to lose their undifferentiated potency. Significance Skillful cell manipulation is a major factor in both maintaining and disrupting the undifferentiation potency of human embryonic stem (hES) cells. Staining with JC-1, a mitochondrial membrane potential probe, is a simple monitoring method that can be used to predict embryonic stem cell quality under live conditions, which might help ensure the future use of hES and human induced pluripotent stem cells after subculture. PMID:26819254

  2. Sulphur treatment alters the therapeutic potency of alliin obtained from garlic leaf extract.

    PubMed

    Nasim, S A; Dhir, B; Samar, F; Rashmi, K; Mahmooduzzafa; Mujib, A

    2009-04-01

    The therapeutic potency of garlic leaf extract obtained from normal and sulphur treated plants was compared. Alliin, the active compound of garlic leaf extract showed 32% increase in yield under sulphur treated conditions. Alliin obtained from leaf extract of plants brought a significant reduction in serum glucose, triglycerides, total lipids, total cholesterol, LDL- and VLDL-cholesterol levels than glibenclamide in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Alliin from sulphur treated plants was more effective in comparison to that obtained from plants raised in normal conditions. Serum glucose levels showed significant reduction of 50% in rats administered with leaf extract from sulphur treated plants in comparison to 37% noted in rats administered with leaf extract from normal plants. No alteration in HDL-cholesterol was noted. Similarly, alliin obtained from leaf extract of plants lowered the serum enzyme (ALP, AST and ALT) levels towards normal than glibenclamide. The reduction in serum enzyme levels was significant in rats administered with leaf extract of plants raised under sulphur treated conditions in comparison to that raised under normal conditions. The present findings suggest that leaf extract from sulphur treated garlic possess more antidiabetic potential and hence show more therapeutic potency in comparison to extract obtained from normal plants.

  3. Charge optimization increases the potency and selectivity of a chorismate mutase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Ajay; Hilvert, Donald

    2003-05-14

    The highest affinity inhibitor for chorismate mutases, a conformationally constrained oxabicyclic dicarboxylate transition state analogue, was modified as suggested by computational charge optimization methods. As predicted, replacement of the C10 carboxylate in this molecule with a nitro group yields an even more potent inhibitor of a chorismate mutase from Bacillus subtilis (BsCM), but the magnitude of the improvement (roughly 3-fold, corresponding to a DeltaDeltaG of -0.7 kcal/mol) is substantially lower than the gain of 2-3 kcal/mol binding free energy anticipated for the reduced desolvation penalty upon binding. Experiments with a truncated version of the enzyme show that the flexible C terminus, which was only partially resolved in the crystal structure and hence omitted from the calculations, provides favorable interactions with the C10 group that partially compensate for its desolvation. Although truncation diminishes the affinity of the enzyme for both inhibitors, the nitro derivative binds 1.7 kcal/mol more tightly than the dicarboxylate, in reasonable agreement with the calculations. Significantly, substitution of the C10 carboxylate with a nitro group also enhances the selectivity of inhibition of BsCM relative to a chorismate mutase from Escherichia coli (EcCM), which has a completely different fold and binding pocket, by 10-fold. These results experimentally verify the utility of charge optimization methods for improving interactions between proteins and low-molecular weight ligands.

  4. The development of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for measuring the potency of vaccines containing Clostridium chauvoei antigens.

    PubMed

    Crichton, R; Solomon, J; Barton, A M

    1990-01-01

    Current standards (British Pharmacopeia (Veterinary) 1985) for vaccines containing Clostridium chauvoei require a potency test based on a challenge assay in guinea-pigs. Animal welfare and cost considerations favour the development of alternatives. Most veterinary clostridial vaccines are multi component, requiring assays in rabbits to test the potency of components other than C. chauvoei. We describe the application of an ELISA to measure the response to C. chauvoei vaccines in rabbits. The antigen is a sonicated extract of C. chauvoei strain CH4, intended to include a mixture of cellular and soluble antigens. The rabbit response to more than 70 vaccines containing C. chauvoei has been assessed against a reference serum which has been assigned an arbitrary potency of 100 units ml-1. The antibody titres of rabbit sera have been compared with the results of guinea-pig challenge potency tests on the same vaccines. The pass level in the guinea-pig potency test is equivalent to a rabbit ELISA titre of 50 units ml-1.

  5. Effects of desipramine on prazosin potency at α1A- and α1D-adrenoceptors in rat vas deferens: implications for the α1L-adrenoceptor subclassification.

    PubMed

    Docherty, J R

    2014-12-05

    This study investigates the interaction between cocaine, desipramine and prazosin at α1-adrenoceptor subtypes mediating contractions to noradrenaline in epididymal portions of rat vas deferens. Noradrenaline potency was not significantly affected by desipramine (0.1-1.0 μM) and reduced by desipramine (10 μM), but was increased by the presence of cocaine (3.0-30 μM), particularly in terms of phasic contractions to low concentrations of noradrenaline. In vehicle experiments, prazosin exhibited relatively low potency as an antagonist against the predominantly α1A-adrenoceptor mediated response (pKB 8.50). In the presence of cocaine, prazosin exhibited higher potency against the revealed α1D-adrenoceptor mediated component (e.g. pKB 9.12). In the presence of desipramine, the potency of prazosin was either unchanged or indeed decreased. Cocaine (0.3-30 μM) significantly increased the single pulse nerve-stimulation-evoked contraction, with a maximum increase to 156±12% of control (n=9). In contrast, desipramine in low concentrations (0.1-0.3 μM) produced a small but significant increase to 126.6±5.5% (n=11), but higher concentrations failed to increase the response. In conclusion, desipramine fails to produce sufficient noradrenaline transporter block in low concentrations (0.1 μM) and produces α1-adrenoceptor antagonism in slightly higher concentrations (0.3-1 μM), and so is unsuitable for use in α1-adrenoceptor subclassification studies. Contractions of rat vas deferens are mediated by α1A- and α1D-adrenoceptors, and prazosin has selectivity for α1D- over α1A-adrenoceptors. The α1L-adrenoceptor previously identified in rat vas deferens is the native α1A-adrenoceptor. The range of prazosin potencies and receptor subtypes previously reported in rat vas deferens may be explained by the choice of cocaine or desipramine as noradrenaline transporter blocker.

  6. Comparative study of the binding characteristics to and inhibitory potencies towards PARP and in vivo antidiabetogenic potencies of taurine, 3-aminobenzamide and nicotinamide

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Poly(ADP-ribose) is a NAD+-requiring, DNA-repairing, enzyme playing a central role in pancreatic β-cell death and in the development of endothelial dysfunction in humans and experimental animals. PARP activation is also relevant to the development of complications of diabetes. Hence, agents capable of inhibiting PARP may be useful in preventing the development of diabetes and in slowing down complications of diabetes. Methods PARP inhibition was assessed with a colorimetric assay kit. Molecular docking studies on the active site of PARP were conducted using the crystalline structure of the enzyme available as Protein Data Bank Identification No. 1UK1. Type 2 diabetes was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats with streptozotocin (STZ, 60 mg/kg, i.p.). The test compounds (3-aminobenzamide = 3-AB, nicotinamide = NIC, taurine = TAU) were given by the i.p. route 45 min before STZ at 2.4 mM/kg (all three compounds) or 1.2 and 3.6 mM/kg (only NIC and TAU). Blood samples were collected at 24 hr after STZ and processed for their plasma. The plasma samples were used to measure glucose, insulin, cholesterol, triglycerides, malondialdehyde, nitric oxide, and glutathione levels using reported methods. Results 3-AB, NIC and TAU were able to inhibit PARP, with the inhibitory potency order being 3-AB>NIC>>TAU. Molecular docking studies at the active site of PARP showed 3-AB and NIC to interact with the binding site for the nicotinamide moiety of NAD+ and TAU to interact with the binding site for the adenine moiety of NAD+. While STZ-induced diabetes elevated all the experimental parameters examined and lowered the insulin output, a pretreatment with 3-AB, NIC or TAU reversed these trends to a significant extent. At a dose of 2.4 mm/kg, the protective effect decreased in the approximate order 3-AB>NIC≥TAU. The attenuating actions of both NIC and TAU were dose-related except for the plasma lipids since NIC was without a significant effect at all doses tested. Conclusions

  7. Potentially mutagenic impurities: analysis of structural classes and carcinogenic potencies of chemical intermediates in pharmaceutical syntheses supports alternative methods to the default TTC for calculating safe levels of impurities.

    PubMed

    Galloway, Sheila M; Vijayaraj Reddy, M; McGettigan, Katherine; Gealy, Robert; Bercu, Joel

    2013-08-01

    Potentially mutagenic impurities in new pharmaceuticals are controlled to levels with negligible risk, the TTC (threshold of toxicological concern, 1.5 μg/day for a lifetime). The TTC was based on the more potent rodent carcinogens, excluding the highly potent "cohort of concern" (COC; for mutagenic carcinogens these are N-nitroso, Aflatoxin-like, and azoxy structures). We compared molecules with DEREK "structural alerts" for mutagenicity used in drug syntheses with the mutagenic carcinogens in the Gold Carcinogenicity Potency Database. Data from 108 diverse synthetic routes from 13 companies confirm that many "alerting" or mutagenic chemicals are in structural classes with lower carcinogenic potency than those used to derive the TTC. Acceptable daily intakes can be established that are higher than the default TTC for many structural classes (e.g., mono-functional alkyl halides and certain aromatic amines). Examples of ADIs for lifetime and shorter-term exposure are given for chemicals of various potencies. The percentage of chemicals with DEREK alerts that proved mutagenic in the Ames test ranged from 36% to 83%, depending on structural class, demonstrating that such SAR analysis to "flag" potential mutagens is conservative. We also note that aromatic azoxy compounds need not be classed as COC, which was based on alkyl azoxy chemicals.

  8. Effects of alcohols on murine preimplantation development: relationship to relative membrane disordering potency.

    PubMed

    Kowalczyk, C L; Stachecki, J J; Schultz, J F; Leach, R E; Armant, D R

    1996-05-01

    During in vitro culture of murine preimplantation embryos, we have observed that exposure to 0.1% ethanol induces an immediate increase in intracellular calcium levels and subsequently accelerates embryogenesis. If the observed effects of ethanol on developing embryos is mediated by its membrane disordering potency, we hypothesized that the relative membrane disordering potencies of related alcohols would correspondingly effect embryonic intracellular calcium levels and developmental rates. Two-cell embryos were exposed to 0.1% ethanol or 0.05 to 1.0% (w/v) n-butanol, n-propanol, isopropanol, 1,2-propanediol, glycerol, or methanol for 24 hr at 37 degrees C, and development to the blastocyst stage was monitored after 5 days. n-Butanol, n-propanol, isopropanol, and methanol treatment caused a dose-dependent inhibition (p < 0.01) of development to the blastocyst stage, whereas 1,2-propanediol or glycerol neither accelerated nor inhibited development. In a second experiment, 8-cell morulae were treated with 1,2-propanediol or glycerol, and cavitation rates were examined. There was no significant difference from control embryos in the onset of cavitation or the blastocoel expansion rate of 1,2-propanediol- or glycerol-exposed embryos, whereas exposure to 0.1% ethanol accelerate cavitation (p > 0.05). In a third experiment, morulae were exposed to 0.1% or 1.0% of each alcohol and were monitored for changes in intracellular calcium levels using the fluorescent indicator, fluo-3-acetoxymethyl ester. There was an immediate increase in intracellular calcium levels when morulae were treated with 1.0% ethanol or n-butanol, but only ethanol induced an increase (p < 0.05) in the level of intracellular calcium at 0.1%. These data suggest that ethanol is unique in its ability to accelerate embryogenesis and that the membrane disordering potency of ethanol does not directly underlie its effects on intracellular calcium release and the acceleration of preimplantation development.

  9. The comparative biologic and toxic potencies of polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated biphenyls.

    PubMed

    Andres, J; Lambert, I; Robertson, L; Bandiera, S; Sawyer, T; Lovering, S; Safe, S

    1983-09-15

    Aroclor 1254 and fireMaster BP-6, two commercial polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and polybrominated biphenyl (PBB) preparations, exhibit comparable biologic and toxic effects. In the present study the commercial PBB was more active than Aroclor 1254 in causing thymic atrophy in male Wistar rats. However, a direct comparison of the relative effects of bromine vs chlorine substituents is not possible with the commercial PBB and PCB mixtures due to their complex congeneric composition. This study reports the synthesis and biologic and toxic effects of a series of laterally substituted 3,3',4,4'-tetrahalobiphenyls which contain the following variable molecular Cl/Br ratios; Br4, Br3Cl, Br2Cl2 (two isomers), BrCl3, and Cl4. 3,3',4,4'-Tetrabromobiphenyl and 3,4,4'-tribromo-3'-chlorobiphenyl (150 mumol/kg)-pretreated animals significantly inhibited the growth rate of and caused thymic atrophy in immature male Wistar rats whereas those isostereomers with reduced Br (and increased Cl) content were either less active or inactive. Pretreatment of male Wistar rats with 10 mumol/kg of the 3,3',4,4'-tetrahalobiphenyls and determination of their effects as inducers of the hepatic microsomal drug-metabolizing enzymes also illustrated the effects of the relative Cl/Br ratios on induction potencies. Both 3,3',4,4'-tetrabromo- and 3,4,4'-tribromo-3'-chlorobiphenyl maximally induced the cytochrome P-448-dependent monooxygenases, benzo[a]pyrene and 4-chlorobiphenyl hydroxylase; the order of potency of the other isostereomers was 4,4'-dibromo-3,3'-dichloro- congruent to 3,4-dibromo-3',4'-dichlorobiphenyl greater than 4-bromo-3,3',4'-trichloro- greater than 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl. With few exceptions this order of potency was observed for the induction of benzo[a]pyrene hydroxylase and ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase in rat hepatoma cells in culture and for their relative binding affinities to the rat cytosolic receptor protein. The data clearly demonstrate that the biologic

  10. Sources of variation in the mutagenic potency of complex chemical mixtures based on the salmonella/microsome assay

    SciTech Connect

    Krewski, D.; Leroux, B.G.; Creason, J.; Claxton, L.

    1992-01-01

    Twenty laboratories worldwide participated in a collaborative trial sponsored by the International Program on Chemical Safety on the mutagenicity of complex mixtures as expressed in the Salmonella/microsome assay. The U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology provided homogeneous reference samples of urban air and diesel particles and a coal tar solution to each participating laboratory, along with samples of benzo(a)pyrene and 1-nitropyrene which served as positive controls. Mutagenic potency was characterized by the slope of the initial linear component of the dose response curve. Analysis of variance revealed significant interlaboratory variation in mutagenic potency, which accounted for 57-96% of the total variance on a logarithmic scale, depending on the sample, strain and activation conditions. No significant differences were noted in the average potency reported for air and diesel particles between laboratories using soxhlet extracts and those using sonication, although there was larger interlaboratory variation for the soxhlet method.

  11. Intermediate affinity and potency of clozapine and low affinity of other neuroleptics and of antidepressants at H3 receptors.

    PubMed

    Kathmann, M; Schlicker, E; Göthert, M

    1994-12-01

    It was the aim of the present study to determine the affinities of four neuroleptics and five antidepressants for histamine H3 receptors. In rat brain cortex membranes, the specifically bound [3H]-N alpha-methylhistamine was monophasically displaced by clozapine (pKi 6.15). The other drugs did not completely displace the radioligand even at 100 microM; the pKi values were: haloperidol (4.91); sulpiride (4.73); amitriptyline (4.56); desipramine (4.15); levomepromazine (4.14); fluovoxamine (4.13); maprotiline (4.09); moclobemide (< 4.0). The effect of clozapine was further examined in a functional H3 receptor model, i.e., in superfused mouse brain cortex slices preincubated with [3H]-noradrenaline. The electrically evoked tritium overflow was not affected by clozapine 0.5-32 microM. However, clozapine shifted the concentration-response curve of histamine for its inhibitory effect on the evoked overflow to the right, but did not affect the maximum effect of histamine. The Schild plot yielded a pA2 value of 6.33. In conclusion, clozapine shows an intermediate affinity and potency (as a competitive antagonist) at H3 receptors. The Ki value of clozapine at H3 receptors resembles its Ki value at D2 receptors (the target of the classical neuroleptics), but is higher than its Ki values at D4, 5-HT2 or muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, which according to current hypotheses, might be involved in the atypical profile of clozapine.

  12. Comparative potency approach based on H2AX assay for estimating the genotoxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Audebert, M.; Zeman, F.; Beaudoin, R.; Péry, A.; Cravedi, J.-P.

    2012-04-01

    Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) constitute a family of over one hundred compounds and can generally be found in complex mixtures. PAHs metabolites cause DNA damage which can lead to the development of carcinogenesis. Toxicity assessment of PAH complex mixtures is currently expressed in terms of toxic equivalents, based on Toxicity Equivalent Factors (TEFs). However, the definition of new TEFs for a large number of PAH could overcome some limitations of the current method and improve cancer risk assessment. The current investigation aimed at deriving the relative potency factors of PAHs, based on their genotoxic effect measured in vitro and analyzed with mathematical models. For this purpose, we used a new genotoxic assay (γH2AX) with two human cell lines (HepG2 and LS-174T) to analyze the genotoxic properties of 13 selected PAHs at low doses after 24 h treatment. The dose–response for genotoxic effects was modeled with a Hill model; equivalency between PAHs at low dose was assessed by applying constraints to the model parameters. In the two cell lines tested, we observed a clear dose–response for genotoxic effects for 11 tested compounds. LS-174T was on average ten times more sensitive than HepG2 towards PAHs regarding genotoxicity. We developed new TEFs, which we named Genotoxic Equivalent Factor (GEF). Calculated GEF for the tested PAHs were generally higher than the TEF usually used. Our study proposed a new in vitro based method for the establishment of relevant TEFs for PAHs to improve cancer risk assessment. -- Highlights: ► Examination of the genotoxic properties of 13 PAHs on two human cell lines. ► Modelization with a Hill model of the genotoxic dose–response. ► First investigation of the genotoxicity of benzo[c]fluorene on human cell lines. ► Establishment of relevant TEFs for PAHs to improve cancer risk assessment.

  13. Relative potencies of individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to induce dioxinlike and estrogenic responses in three cell lines.

    PubMed

    Villeneuve, D L; Khim, J S; Kannan, K; Giesy, J P

    2002-01-01

    The dioxinlike and estrogenic relative potencies (REPs) of 16 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), seven methylated PAHs, and two hydroxylated PAHs were examined using three in vitro cell bioassays. An in vitro ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase assay with PLHC-1 fish hepatoma cells and in vitro luciferase assay with H4IIE-luc recombinant rat hepatoma cells were used to evaluate dioxinlike potency. An in vitro luciferase assay with MVLN, recombinant human breast carcinoma cells, was used to evaluate estrogenic potency. Seven of the 16 priority PAHs tested induced significant dioxinlike responses. Excluding outliers with large ranges of uncertainty, the dioxinlike REPs for the PAHs ranged from 10(-6) to 10(-3). This is similar to the REPs reported for other xenobiotics of concern including polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) and some polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). In general, REP estimates generated in this study were similar to those reported previously. However, a comparison of the estimates of total 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents derived using assay-specific REPs with REPs reported in other studies indicated that the use of nonspecific REPs could lead to significant error in mass-balance (potency-balance) analyses. A 10-h acid treatment completely destroyed the dioxinlike activity of a PAH mixture. Among the compounds tested, only benzo[a]anthracene and dibenz[a,h]anthracene induced significant responses in the MVLN bioassay. Relative estrogenic potencies were estimated to be approximately 10(-7). Overall, this research contributes to the growing consensus regarding the dioxinlike potency of priority PAHs and PAH derivatives and provides some additional evidence about potentially estrogenic PAHs.

  14. Comparison of in vivo genotoxic and carcinogenic potency to augment mode of action analysis: Case study with hexavalent chromium.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Chad M; Bichteler, Anne; Rager, Julia E; Suh, Mina; Proctor, Deborah M; Haws, Laurie C; Harris, Mark A

    2016-04-01

    Recent analyses-highlighted by the International Workshops on Genotoxicity Testing Working Group on Quantitative Approaches to Genetic Toxicology Risk Assessment-have identified a correlation between (log) estimates of a carcinogen's in vivo genotoxic potency and in vivo carcinogenic potency in typical laboratory animal models, even when the underlying data have not been matched for tissue, species, or strain. Such a correlation could have important implications for risk assessment, including informing the mode of action (MOA) of specific carcinogens. When in vivo genotoxic potency is weak relative to carcinogenic potency, MOAs other than genotoxicity (e.g., endocrine disruption or regenerative hyperplasia) may be operational. Herein, we review recent in vivo genotoxicity and carcinogenicity data for hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)), following oral ingestion, in relevant tissues and species in the context of the aforementioned correlation. Potency estimates were generated using benchmark doses, or no-observable-adverse-effect-levels when data were not amenable to dose-response modeling. While the ratio between log values for carcinogenic and genotoxic potency was ≥1 for many compounds, the ratios for several Cr(VI) datasets (including in target tissue) were less than unity. In fact, the ratios for Cr(VI) clustered closely with ratios for chloroform and diethanolamine, two chemicals posited to have non-genotoxic MOAs. These findings suggest that genotoxicity may not play a major role in the cancers observed in rodents following exposure to high concentrations of Cr(VI) in drinking water-a finding consistent with recent MOA and adverse outcome pathway (AOP) analyses concerning Cr(VI). This semi-quantitative analysis, therefore, may be useful to augment traditional MOA and AOP analyses. More case examples will be needed to further explore the general applicability and validity of this approach for human health risk assessment.

  15. Determination of inhibitory potency of argatroban toward thrombin by electrophoretically mediated microanalysis.

    PubMed

    Pochet, Lionel; Servais, Anne-Catherine; Farcas, Elena; Bettonville, Virginie; Bouckaert, Charlotte; Fillet, Marianne

    2013-11-15

    Developing an EMMA method for enzymatic assay remains a challenge, particularly using UV detection. Indeed, it is necessary to optimize the separation conditions while allowing the enzymatic reaction to occur within the capillary respecting kinetic constraints and achieving enough sensitivity. In this work, such EMMA methodology was set up to evaluate the inhibitory potency of drugs toward thrombin, a serine protease implicated in the coagulation cascade. To achieve our goal, the separation buffer, the injection sequence, the internal standard and the chromogenic substrate were investigated. The newly developed system was then assessed determining the kinetic Km constant for the selected substrate and compared with the results obtained with a continuous spectrophotometer cell assay. Secondly, the Ki inhibitory constant of the thrombin inhibitor argatroban was determined and found in agreement with the published value.

  16. Thioamide Hydroxypyrothiones Supersede Amide Hydroxypyrothiones in Potency Against Anthrax Lethal Factor

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Arpita; de Oliveira, César Augusto F.; Cheng, Yuhui; Jacobsen, Jennifer A.; McCammon, J. Andrew; Cohen, Seth M.

    2009-01-01

    Anthrax lethal factor (LF) is a critical virulence factor in the pathogenesis of anthrax. A structure-activity relationship (SAR) of potential lethal factor inhibitors (LFi) is presented in which the zinc-binding group (ZBG), linker, and backbone moieties for a series of hydroxypyrone-based compounds were systematically varied. It was found that hydroxypyrothione ZBGs generate more potent inhibitors than hydroxypyrone ZBGs. Furthermore, coupling the hydroxypyrothione to a backbone group via a thioamide bond improves potency when compared to an amide linker. QM/MM studies show that the thioamide bond in these inhibitors allows for the formation of two additional hydrogen bonds with the protein active site. In both types of hydroxypyrothione compounds, ligand efficiencies of 0.29-0.54 kcal mol-1 per heavy atom were achieved. The results highlight the need for a better understanding to optimize the interplay between the ZBG, linker, and backbone to get improved LFi. PMID:19170530

  17. Novel Benzimidazole Inhibitors of Botulinum Neurotoxin/A Display Enzyme and Cell-Based Potency

    PubMed Central

    Cardinale, Steven C.; Butler, Michelle M.; Ruthel, Gordon; Nuss, Jonathan E.; Wanner, Laura M.; Li, Bing; Pai, Ramdas; Peet, Norton P.; Bavari, Sina; Bowlin, Terry L.

    2011-01-01

    Botulinum Neurotoxins (BoNTs) are used therapeutically and in cosmetics, providing potential for bioterrorist activity, thus driving the search for small-molecule BoNT inhibitors. This report describes a 70,000-compound screen for inhibition of BoNT/A using a FRET assay to detect proteolysis of a peptide substrate. Hits were confirmed, followed by evaluation to determine compound specificity. Inhibitors fell into three main chemical classes, and on the basis of potency and specificity of inhibition, the activities of two chemotypes were examined further. Compounds exhibited specificity for BoNT/A LC inhibition with respect to other metalloproteases and displayed activity in a neuronal assay for botulinum intoxication. PMID:23205055

  18. Novel natural-product-like caged xanthones with improved druglike properties and in vivo antitumor potency.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yue; Hu, Mingyang; Yang, Li; Li, Xiang; Bian, Jinlei; Jiang, Fen; Sun, Haopeng; You, Qidong; Zhang, Xiaojin

    2015-06-15

    DDO-6101, a natural-product-like caged xanthone discovered previously in our laboratory based on the pharmacophoric scaffold of Garcinia natural product gambogic acid (GA), shows potent cytotoxicity in vitro but poor efficacy in vivo due to its poor druglike properties. In order to improve the druglike properties and in vivo cytotoxic potency, a novel series of 19 prenyl group-modified derivatives of DDO-6101 was synthesized and evaluated for their in vitro antitumor activity and druglike properties. The SAR and SPR information of these compounds was also obtained. In the light of the in vitro antitumor activity and druglike properties such as aqueous solubility and permeability, compound 6f (named as DDO-6306) was advanced into in vivo efficacy experiment. The results showed that DDO-6306 is more potent than DDO-6101 in vivo and is a promising antitumor candidate for further evaluation.

  19. Potency of a thermostabilised chimpanzee adenovirus Rift Valley Fever vaccine in cattle.

    PubMed

    Dulal, Pawan; Wright, Daniel; Ashfield, Rebecca; Hill, Adrian V S; Charleston, Bryan; Warimwe, George M

    2016-04-29

    Development of safe and efficacious vaccines whose potency is unaffected by long-term storage at ambient temperature would obviate major vaccine deployment hurdles and limit wastage associated with breaks in the vaccine cold chain. Here, we evaluated the immunogenicity of a novel chimpanzee adenovirus vectored Rift Valley Fever vaccine (ChAdOx1-GnGc) in cattle, following its thermostabilisation by slow desiccation on glass fiber membranes in the non-reducing sugars trehalose and sucrose. Thermostabilised ChAdOx1-GnGc vaccine stored for 6 months at 25, 37 or 45 ° C elicited comparable Rift Valley Fever virus neutralising antibody titres to those elicited by the 'cold chain' vaccine (stored at -80 ° C throughout) at the same dose, and these were within the range associated with protection against Rift Valley Fever in cattle. The results support the use of sugar-membrane thermostabilised vaccines in target livestock species.

  20. Estimation of Maximum Recommended Therapeutic Dose Using Predicted Promiscuity and Potency

    PubMed Central

    Liu, T; Oprea, T; Ursu, O; Hasselgren, C

    2016-01-01

    We report a simple model that predicts the maximum recommended therapeutic dose (MRTD) of small molecule drugs based on an assessment of likely protein–drug interactions. Previously, we reported methods for computational estimation of drug promiscuity and potency. We used these concepts to build a linear model derived from 238 small molecular drugs to predict MRTD. We applied this model successfully to predict MRTDs for 16 nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and 14 antiretroviral drugs. Of note, based on the estimated promiscuity of low‐dose drugs (and active chemicals), we identified 83 proteins as “high‐risk off‐targets” (HROTs) that are often associated with low doses; the evaluation of interactions with HROTs may be useful during early phases of drug discovery. Our model helps explain the MRTD for drugs with severe adverse reactions caused by interactions with HROTs. PMID:27736015

  1. Relative potency of prorenoate potassium and spironolactone in attenuating diuretic induced hypokalaemia.

    PubMed Central

    McInnes, G T; Harrison, I R; Shelton, J R; Perkins, R M; Clarke, J M

    1984-01-01

    The plasma potassium responses to the aldosterone antagonists prorenoate K (10 mg/day and 40 mg/day) and spironolactone (25 mg/day and 100 mg/day) were compared following treatment for 11 days in combination with the diuretic metolazone (2.5 mg/day) in a double-blind crossover study in twelve healthy men. The best estimate of the potency of prorenoate K relative to spironolactone in attenuating metolazone induced hypokalaemia was 5.6 with 95% confidence limits 2.4-35.2. The method employed allowed a statistically valid quantitative comparison of the potassium sparing properties of the mineralocorticoid antagonists after repeated doses and may be useful in the preclinical evaluation of these drugs. PMID:6487456

  2. The stability and potency of vaccines prepared from inactivated foot-and-mouth disease virus concentrates.

    PubMed

    Doel, T R; David, D J

    1984-07-01

    The stability of 146S particles in concentrates of foot-and-mouth disease virus stored at 4 degrees C was similar to that of 146S particles in a conventional virus preparation. Proteolytic degradation of VPl was not observed in the stored conventional virus preparation or inhibitor-supplemented concentrate but was observed in a supplement-free concentrate. The potencies of vaccines made from the conventional and concentrated preparations and stored in parallel at 4 degrees C appeared to decrease after 16 weeks. The vaccines made from the supplement-free concentrate and the Trasylol supplemented concentrate appeared to be at least as potent as the conventional vaccine and were clearly superior to vaccine made from ox serum supplemented concentrate.

  3. Inositol 1,3,4,6-tetrakisphosphate mobilizes calcium in Xenopus oocytes with high potency.

    PubMed Central

    Ivorra, I; Gigg, R; Irvine, R F; Parker, I

    1991-01-01

    Injection of Ins(1,3,4,6)P4 into Xenopus oocytes evoked Ca2(+)-dependent membrane currents with a potency 5-10 times less than Ins(1,4,5)P3, whereas Ins(1,3,4)P3 and Ins(1,3,4,5,6)P5 were almost ineffective. Responses to Ins(1,3,4,6)P4 arose through liberation of intracellular Ca2+ and through entry of extracellular Ca2+. These results, together with the observation that Ins(1,3,4,6)P4 facilitated responses to Ins(1,4,5)P3, suggests that both of these compounds may act on the same intracellular receptors. PMID:1991032

  4. Methylphenidate amplifies the potency and reinforcing effects of amphetamines by increasing dopamine transporter expression.

    PubMed

    Calipari, Erin S; Ferris, Mark J; Salahpour, Ali; Caron, Marc G; Jones, Sara R

    2013-01-01

    Methylphenidate (MPH) is commonly diverted for recreational use, but the neurobiological consequences of exposure to MPH at high, abused doses are not well defined. Here we show that MPH self-administration in rats increases dopamine transporter (DAT) levels and enhances the potency of MPH and amphetamine on dopamine responses and drug-seeking behaviours, without altering cocaine effects. Genetic overexpression of the DAT in mice mimics these effects, confirming that MPH self-administration-induced increases in DAT levels are sufficient to induce the changes. Further, this work outlines a basic mechanism by which increases in DAT levels, regardless of how they occur, are capable of increasing the rewarding and reinforcing effects of select psychostimulant drugs, and suggests that individuals with elevated DAT levels, such as ADHD sufferers, may be more susceptible to the addictive effects of amphetamine-like drugs.

  5. Evaluation of models for predicting the phototoxicity potency of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, R.J.; Ankley, G.T.; Sheedy, B.R.; Kosian, P.A.; Mattson, V.R.; Cox, J.S.; Defoe, D.L.

    1995-12-31

    The acute phototoxicities of selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to the oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus were investigated in order to evaluate a predictive structure/activity relationship (SAR) for the phototoxic potential of PAHs and to determine the relationship of phototoxicity to PAH accumulation, light intensity, and exposure duration. Test organisms were exposed to multiple concentrations of anthracene, pyrene, fluorene, and fluoranthene in water for 96 h and then to various intensities of ultraviolet light for 96 h in clean water. In agreement with the SAR model, fluorene was not phototoxic while pyrene, fluoranthene, and anthracene were. Based upon measured accumulations of PAHs, anthracene and pyrene had similar potencies, and both were 3--4 fold more toxic than fluoranthene. Time-to-death was found to adhere well to a model based on damage accumulating as a function of the product of chemical accumulation and light intensity. Additivity of PAH phototoxicity was evaluated in exposures using mixtures of these chemicals.

  6. Potency testing of veterinary rabies vaccines: replacement of challenge by in vitro testing: considerations for development of alternative assays.

    PubMed

    Lewis, C E; Fry, A M; Hermann, J R; Siev, D; Dusek, D M; Gatewood, D M

    2012-01-01

    Vaccination of domestic animals against rabies creates a critical barrier between wildlife reservoirs and the human population. Ensuring these vaccines are potent and effective is paramount in preventing human exposure to this deadly and costly disease. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) test is, at present, the most widely used and internationally recommended potency assay for batch testing inactivated rabies vaccines. This test has numerous inherent limitations and disadvantages, including a lack of precision. The NIH test requires a large number of animals and involves unrelieved pain and suffering. A relevant in vitro assay should provide a more accurate, reproducible, rapid, safe, and humane rabies vaccine potency test.

  7. Bridging the Gap Between Validation and Implementation of Non-Animal Veterinary Vaccine Potency Testing Methods

    PubMed Central

    Dozier, Samantha; Brown, Jeffrey; Currie, Alistair

    2011-01-01

    Simple Summary Many vaccines are tested for quality in experiments that require the use of large numbers of animals in procedures that often cause significant pain and distress. Newer technologies have fostered the development of vaccine quality control tests that reduce or eliminate the use of animals, but the availability of these newer methods has not guaranteed their acceptance by regulators or use by manufacturers. We discuss a strategic approach that has been used to assess and ultimately increase the use of non-animal vaccine quality tests in the U.S. and U.K. Abstract In recent years, technologically advanced high-throughput techniques have been developed that replace, reduce or refine animal use in vaccine quality control tests. Following validation, these tests are slowly being accepted for use by international regulatory authorities. Because regulatory acceptance itself has not guaranteed that approved humane methods are adopted by manufacturers, various organizations have sought to foster the preferential use of validated non-animal methods by interfacing with industry and regulatory authorities. After noticing this gap between regulation and uptake by industry, we began developing a paradigm that seeks to narrow the gap and quicken implementation of new replacement, refinement or reduction guidance. A systematic analysis of our experience in promoting the transparent implementation of validated non-animal vaccine potency assays has led to the refinement of our paradigmatic process, presented here, by which interested parties can assess the local regulatory acceptance of methods that reduce animal use and integrate them into quality control testing protocols, or ensure the elimination of peripheral barriers to their use, particularly for potency and other tests carried out on production batches. PMID:26486625

  8. New analogs of the CART peptide with anorexigenic potency: the importance of individual disulfide bridges.

    PubMed

    Blechová, Miroslava; Nagelová, Veronika; Záková, Lenka; Demianová, Zuzana; Zelezná, Blanka; Maletínská, Lenka

    2013-01-01

    The CART (cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript) peptide is an anorexigenic neuropeptide that acts in the hypothalamus. The receptor and the mechanism of action of this peptide are still unknown. In our previous study, we showed that the CART peptide binds specifically to PC12 rat pheochromocytoma cells in both the native and differentiated into neuronal phenotype. Two biologically active forms, CART(55-102) and CART(61-102), with equal biological activity, contain three disulfide bridges. To clarify the importance of each of these disulfide bridges in maintaining the biological activity of CART(61-102), an Ala scan at particular S-S bridges forming cysteines was performed, and analogs with only one or two disulfide bridges were synthesized. In this study, a stabilized CART(61-102) analog with norleucine instead of methionine at position 67 was also prepared and was found to bind to PC12 cells with an anorexigenic potency similar to that of CART(61-102). The binding study revealed that out of all analogs tested, [Ala(68,86)]CART(61-102), which contains two disulfide bridges (positions 74-94 and 88-101), preserved a high affinity to both native PC12 cells and those that had been differentiated into neurons. In food intake and behavioral tests with mice after intracerebroventricular administration, this analog showed strong and long-lasting anorexigenic potency. Therefore, the disulfide bridge between cysteines 68 and 86 in CART(61-102) can be omitted without a loss of biological activity, but the preservation of two other disulfide bridges and the full-length peptide are essential for biological activity.

  9. Social Isolation Rearing Increases Dopamine Uptake and Psychostimulant Potency in the Striatum

    PubMed Central

    Yorgason, Jordan T.; Calipari, Erin S.; Ferris, Mark J.; Karkhanis, Annushree N.; Fordahl, Steven C.; Weiner, Jeffrey L.; Jones, Sara R.

    2015-01-01

    Social isolation rearing (SI) is a model of early life stress that results in neurobiological alterations leading to increased anxiety-like behaviors. These animals also exhibit an increased propensity to administer psychostimulants, such as cocaine; however, the mechanisms governing this increased addiction vulnerability remains to be elucidated. Long-term stressors have been shown to produce important alterations in nucleus accumbens core (NAc) function. The NAc regulates motivated and goal-directed behaviors, and individual differences in NAc function have been shown to be predictive of addiction vulnerability. Rats were reared in group (GH; 4/cage) or SI (1/cage) conditions from weaning (PD 28) into early adulthood (PD 77) and dopamine release was assessed using voltammetry in brain slices containing the NAc and dorsomedial striatum. SI rats exhibited enhanced dopamine release and uptake in both regions compared to GH rats. In regard to psychostimulant effects directly at the dopamine transporter (DAT), methylphenidate and amphetamine, but not cocaine, inhibited uptake more in SI than GH rats. The increased potencies were positively correlated with uptake rates, suggesting that increased potencies of amphetamine-like compounds are due to changes in DAT function. Cocaine’s effects on uptake were similar between rearing conditions, however, cocaine enhanced evoked dopamine release greater in SI than GH rats, suggesting that the enhanced cocaine reinforcement in SI animals involves a DAT independent mechanism. Together, the results provide the first evidence that greater psychostimulant effects in SI compared to GH rats are due to effects on dopamine terminals related to uptake dependent and independent mechanisms. PMID:26525189

  10. Social isolation rearing increases dopamine uptake and psychostimulant potency in the striatum.

    PubMed

    Yorgason, Jordan T; Calipari, Erin S; Ferris, Mark J; Karkhanis, Anushree N; Fordahl, Steven C; Weiner, Jeffrey L; Jones, Sara R

    2016-02-01

    Social isolation rearing (SI) is a model of early life stress that results in neurobiological alterations leading to increased anxiety-like behaviors. These animals also exhibit an increased propensity to administer psychostimulants, such as cocaine; however, the mechanisms governing this increased addiction vulnerability remain to be elucidated. Long-term stressors have been shown to produce important alterations in nucleus accumbens core (NAc) function. The NAc regulates motivated and goal-directed behaviors, and individual differences in NAc function have been shown to be predictive of addiction vulnerability. Rats were reared in group (GH; 4/cage) or SI (1/cage) conditions from weaning (PD 28) into early adulthood (PD 77) and dopamine release was assessed using voltammetry in brain slices containing the NAc and dorsomedial striatum. SI rats exhibited enhanced dopamine release and uptake in both regions compared to GH rats. In regard to psychostimulant effects directly at the dopamine transporter (DAT), methylphenidate and amphetamine, but not cocaine, inhibited uptake more in SI than GH rats. The increased potencies were positively correlated with uptake rates, suggesting that increased potencies of amphetamine-like compounds are due to changes in DAT function. Cocaine's effects on uptake were similar between rearing conditions, however, cocaine enhanced evoked dopamine release greater in SI than GH rats, suggesting that the enhanced cocaine reinforcement in SI animals involves a DAT independent mechanism. Together, the results provide the first evidence that greater psychostimulant effects in SI compared to GH rats are due to effects on dopamine terminals related to uptake dependent and independent mechanisms.

  11. Analysis of Cannabis Seizures in NSW, Australia: Cannabis Potency and Cannabinoid Profile

    PubMed Central

    Li, Kong M.; Arnold, Jonathon C.; McGregor, Iain S.

    2013-01-01

    Recent analysis of the cannabinoid content of cannabis plants suggests a shift towards use of high potency plant material with high levels of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and low levels of other phytocannabinoids, particularly cannabidiol (CBD). Use of this type of cannabis is thought by some to predispose to greater adverse outcomes on mental health and fewer therapeutic benefits. Australia has one of the highest per capita rates of cannabis use in the world yet there has been no previous systematic analysis of the cannabis being used. In the present study we examined the cannabinoid content of 206 cannabis samples that had been confiscated by police from recreational users holding 15 g of cannabis or less, under the New South Wales “Cannabis Cautioning” scheme. A further 26 “Known Provenance” samples were analysed that had been seized by police from larger indoor or outdoor cultivation sites rather than from street level users. An HPLC method was used to determine the content of 9 cannabinoids: THC, CBD, cannabigerol (CBG), and their plant-based carboxylic acid precursors THC-A, CBD-A and CBG-A, as well as cannabichromene (CBC), cannabinol (CBN) and tetrahydrocannabivarin (THC-V). The “Cannabis Cautioning” samples showed high mean THC content (THC+THC-A = 14.88%) and low mean CBD content (CBD+CBD-A = 0.14%). A modest level of CBG was detected (CBG+CBG-A = 1.18%) and very low levels of CBC, CBN and THC-V (<0.1%). “Known Provenance” samples showed no significant differences in THC content between those seized from indoor versus outdoor cultivation sites. The present analysis echoes trends reported in other countries towards the use of high potency cannabis with very low CBD content. The implications for public health outcomes and harm reduction strategies are discussed. PMID:23894589

  12. Enhancing potency of siRNA targeting fusion genes by optimization outside of target sequence

    PubMed Central

    Gavrilov, Kseniya; Seo, Young-Eun; Tietjen, Gregory T.; Cui, Jiajia; Cheng, Christopher J.; Saltzman, W. Mark

    2015-01-01

    Canonical siRNA design algorithms have become remarkably effective at predicting favorable binding regions within a target mRNA, but in some cases (e.g., a fusion junction site) region choice is restricted. In these instances, alternative approaches are necessary to obtain a highly potent silencing molecule. Here we focus on strategies for rational optimization of two siRNAs that target the junction sites of fusion oncogenes BCR-ABL and TMPRSS2-ERG. We demonstrate that modifying the termini of these siRNAs with a terminal G-U wobble pair or a carefully selected pair of terminal asymmetry-enhancing mismatches can result in an increase in potency at low doses. Importantly, we observed that improvements in silencing at the mRNA level do not necessarily translate to reductions in protein level and/or cell death. Decline in protein level is also heavily influenced by targeted protein half-life, and delivery vehicle toxicity can confound measures of cell death due to silencing. Therefore, for BCR-ABL, which has a long protein half-life that is difficult to overcome using siRNA, we also developed a nontoxic transfection vector: poly(lactic-coglycolic acid) nanoparticles that release siRNA over many days. We show that this system can achieve effective killing of leukemic cells. These findings provide insights into the implications of siRNA sequence for potency and suggest strategies for the design of more effective therapeutic siRNA molecules. Furthermore, this work points to the importance of integrating studies of siRNA design and delivery, while heeding and addressing potential limitations such as restricted targetable mRNA regions, long protein half-lives, and nonspecific toxicities. PMID:26627251

  13. (/sup 125/I)diiodoinsulins. Binding affinities, biologic potencies, and properties of their decay products

    SciTech Connect

    Perez Maceda, B.; Linde, S.; Sonne, O.; Gliemann, J.

    1982-07-01

    Insulin was iodinated with 0.3-0.4 mol /sup 125/I/mol insulin using the lactoperoxidase method. About one-third of the radioactivity incorporated into insulin was in diiodoinsulins and about 40% of these molecules contained diiodotyrosine in residue 14 of the A chain. Most of the remaining molecules contained one A14-monoiodotyrosine and one monoiodotyrosine in either position A19, B16, or B26. The binding affinity and biologic potency of this heterogeneous diiodoinsulin preparation was not significantly different from that of A14-(/sup 125/I)monoiodoinsulin in rat adipocytes, whereas it was slightly reduced in hepatocytes and IM-9 lymphocytes. From the iodine distribution and previous data on the binding affinity of each of the four monoiodoinsulin isomers it was calculated that A14-diiodotyrosine-insulin possesses full binding affinity and biologic potency in adipocytes. Diiodoinsulins isolated from another iodoinsulin preparation (iodate method) contained 58% A19-diiodotyrosine-insulin, and most remaining molecules contained one A19-monoiodotyrosine. The binding affinity of this mixed diiodoinsulin preparation was approximately one-fourth of that of A14-monoiodoinsulin in adipocytes, IM-9 lymphocytes, and hepatocytes. It was calculated that A19-diiodotyrosine-insulin is nearly devoid of binding affinity. The diiodoinsulins (lactoperoxidase method) decayed to iodide (probably from diiodotyrosine-insulin) or to polymers with little specific but a markedly increased nonspecific binding. In addition, the polymers had a marked tendency to adsorb to cellulose acetate filters. Conclusions: 1. The binding affinities of diiodoinsulins range from very low values to values at least as high as that of insulin depending on the positions of the iodine moieties. 2. The relative binding affinities vary among tissues. 3. Polymeric decay products give high nonspecific binding.

  14. Analysis of cannabis seizures in NSW, Australia: cannabis potency and cannabinoid profile.

    PubMed

    Swift, Wendy; Wong, Alex; Li, Kong M; Arnold, Jonathon C; McGregor, Iain S

    2013-01-01

    Recent analysis of the cannabinoid content of cannabis plants suggests a shift towards use of high potency plant material with high levels of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and low levels of other phytocannabinoids, particularly cannabidiol (CBD). Use of this type of cannabis is thought by some to predispose to greater adverse outcomes on mental health and fewer therapeutic benefits. Australia has one of the highest per capita rates of cannabis use in the world yet there has been no previous systematic analysis of the cannabis being used. In the present study we examined the cannabinoid content of 206 cannabis samples that had been confiscated by police from recreational users holding 15 g of cannabis or less, under the New South Wales "Cannabis Cautioning" scheme. A further 26 "Known Provenance" samples were analysed that had been seized by police from larger indoor or outdoor cultivation sites rather than from street level users. An HPLC method was used to determine the content of 9 cannabinoids: THC, CBD, cannabigerol (CBG), and their plant-based carboxylic acid precursors THC-A, CBD-A and CBG-A, as well as cannabichromene (CBC), cannabinol (CBN) and tetrahydrocannabivarin (THC-V). The "Cannabis Cautioning" samples showed high mean THC content (THC+THC-A = 14.88%) and low mean CBD content (CBD+CBD-A = 0.14%). A modest level of CBG was detected (CBG+CBG-A = 1.18%) and very low levels of CBC, CBN and THC-V (<0.1%). "Known Provenance" samples showed no significant differences in THC content between those seized from indoor versus outdoor cultivation sites. The present analysis echoes trends reported in other countries towards the use of high potency cannabis with very low CBD content. The implications for public health outcomes and harm reduction strategies are discussed.

  15. Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic predictors of clinical potency for hepatitis C virus nonnucleoside polymerase and protease inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Micaela B; Morcos, Peter N; Le Pogam, Sophie; Ou, Ying; Frank, Karl; Lave, Thierry; Smith, Patrick

    2012-06-01

    This analysis was conducted to determine whether the hepatitis C virus (HCV) viral kinetics (VK) model can predict viral load (VL) decreases for nonnucleoside polymerase inhibitors (NNPolIs) and protease inhibitors (PIs) after 3-day monotherapy studies of patients infected with genotype 1 chronic HCV. This analysis includes data for 8 NNPolIs and 14 PIs, including VL decreases from 3-day monotherapy, total plasma trough concentrations on day 3 (C(min)), replicon data (50% effective concentration [EC(50)] and protein-shifted EC(50) [EC(50,PS)]), and for PIs, liver-to-plasma ratios (LPRs) measured in vivo in preclinical species. VK model simulations suggested that achieving additional log(10) VL decreases greater than one required 10-fold increases in the C(min). NNPolI and PI data further supported this result. The VK model was successfully used to predict VL decreases in 3-day monotherapy for NNPolIs based on the EC(50,PS) and the day 3 C(min). For PIs, however, predicting VL decreases using the same model and the EC(50,PS) and day 3 C(min) was not successful; a model including LPR values and the EC(50) instead of the EC(50,PS) provided a better prediction of VL decrease. These results are useful for designing phase 1 monotherapy studies for NNPolIs and PIs by clarifying factors driving VL decreases, such as the day 3 C(min) and the EC(50,PS) for NNPolIs or the EC(50) and LPR for PIs. This work provides a framework for understanding the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic relationship for other HCV drug classes. The availability of mechanistic data on processes driving the target concentration, such as liver uptake transporters, should help to improve the predictive power of the approach.

  16. Cross-species comparison of relative potencies and relative sensitivities of fishes to dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and polychlorinated biphenyls in vitro.

    PubMed

    Eisner, Bryanna K; Doering, Jon A; Beitel, Shawn C; Wiseman, Steve; Raine, Jason C; Hecker, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Dioxin-like compounds of varying toxicities are found in complex mixtures. The toxic equivalency factor (TEF) approach was developed based on the potency of a dioxin-like compound relative to the potency of 2,3,7,8-tetrachloro-dibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) to streamline risk assessment. One limitation of the TEF approach is uncertainty regarding differences in the relative potency of dioxin-like compounds among different species. Relative potencies among fishes are limited, relative to relative potencies among birds and mammals, and TEFs for fishes are based entirely on the model species, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). An in vitro liver explant assay was used to characterize species-specific responses with regard to up-regulation of CYP1A transcript after exposure to 6 dioxin-like compounds in rainbow trout, white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus), lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens), and northern pike (Esox lucius). Differences in sensitivities were observed among species after exposure to dioxin-like compounds. The relative potencies developed from liver explants of rainbow trout were comparable to relative potencies developed from embryo toxicity assays. Differences in relative potencies between species with the least and greatest relative potencies were up to 40-fold. To compare relative potencies among species, concentrations of dioxin-like compounds in fish eggs in the Fraser River and in Lake Ontario were used to calculate toxic equivalency quotients (TEQs) determined from TEFs or TCDD equivalents determined from relative potencies. The TEQs underestimated TCDD equivalents for white sturgeon, lake sturgeon, and northern pike, indicating uncertainty in application of TEFs to diverse fishes.

  17. A novel variable antibody fragment dimerized by leucine zippers with enhanced neutralizing potency against rabies virus G protein compared to its corresponding single-chain variable antibody fragment.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhuang; Cheng, Yue; Xi, Hualong; Gu, Tiejun; Yuan, Ruosen; Chen, Xiaoxu; Jiang, Chunlai; Kong, Wei; Wu, Yongge

    2015-12-01

    Fatal rabies can be prevented effectively by post-exposure prophylactic (PEP) with rabies immunoglobulin (RIG). Single-chain variable fragments (scFv), which are composed of a variable heavy chain (VH) and a variable light chain (VL) connected by a peptide linker, can potentially be used to replace RIG. However, in our previous study, a scFv (scFV57S) specific for the rabies virus (RV) G protein showed a lower neutralizing potency than that of its parent IgG due to lower stability and altered peptide assembly pattern. In monoclonal antibodies, the VH and VL interact non-covalently, while in scFvs the VH is connected covalently with the VL by the artificial linker. In this study, we constructed and expressed two peptides 57VL-JUN-HIS and 57VH-FOS-HA in Escherichia coli. The well-known Fos and Jun leucine zippers were utilized to dimerize VH and VL similarly to the IgG counterpart. The two peptides assembled to form zipFv57S in vitro. Due to the greater similarity in structure with IgG, the zipFv57S protein showed a higher binding ability and affinity resulting in notable improvement of in vitro neutralizing activity over its corresponding scFv. The zipFv57S protein was also found to be more stable and showed similar protective rate as RIG in mice challenged with a lethal dose of RV. Our results not only indicated zipFv57S as an ideal alternative for RIG in PEP but also offered a novel and efficient hetero-dimerization pattern of VH and VL leading to enhanced neutralizing potency.

  18. Hepatitis C virus NS3-4A serine protease inhibitors: SAR of P'2 moiety with improved potency.

    PubMed

    Arasappan, A; Njoroge, F G; Chan, T-Y; Bennett, F; Bogen, S L; Chen, K; Gu, H; Hong, L; Jao, E; Liu, Y-T; Lovey, R G; Parekh, T; Pike, R E; Pinto, P; Santhanam, B; Venkatraman, S; Vaccaro, H; Wang, H; Yang, X; Zhu, Z; Mckittrick, B; Saksena, A K; Girijavallabhan, V; Pichardo, J; Butkiewicz, N; Ingram, R; Malcolm, B; Prongay, A; Yao, N; Marten, B; Madison, V; Kemp, S; Levy, O; Lim-Wilby, M; Tamura, S; Ganguly, A K

    2005-10-01

    We have discovered that introduction of appropriate amino acid derivatives at P'2 position improved the binding potency of P3-capped alpha-ketoamide inhibitors of HCV NS3 serine protease. X-ray crystal structure of one of the inhibitors (43) bound to the protease revealed the importance of the P'2 moiety.

  19. Stilbazulenyl nitrone (STAZN): a nitronyl-substituted hydrocarbon with the potency of classical phenolic chain-breaking antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Becker, David A; Ley, James J; Echegoyen, Luis; Alvarado, Robert

    2002-05-01

    Stilbazulenyl nitrone (STAZN), 8, a nitronyl-substituted hydrocarbon, is a novel second-generation azulenyl nitrone with significantly enhanced potency as a chain-breaking antioxidant vs conventional alpha-phenyl nitrones previously investigated as antioxidant therapeutics. A convenient (1)H NMR-based assay for assessing the potency of chain-breaking antioxidants has shown that STAZN is ca. 300 times more potent in inhibiting the free radical-mediated aerobic peroxidation of cumene than is PBN and the experimental stroke drug NXY-059. Such levels of antioxidant efficacy are unprecedented among archetypal alpha-phenyl nitrone spin traps. Furthermore, STAZN outperforms such classical phenolic antioxidants as BHT and probucol and rivals the antioxidant potency of Vitamin E in a polar medium comprised of 80% cumene and 20% methanol. The Volodarskii electron-transfer mechanism involving the intermediacy of the STAZN radical cation has been implicated in attempts to ascertain the basis for the increased potency of STAZN over the three alpha-phenyl nitrones PBN, S-PBN, and NXY-059.

  20. CYTOTOXICITY AND CELL SIGNALING IN MH-S CELLS: RELATIVE POTENCY OF DIESEL AND COAL COMBUSTION PARTICLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cytotoxicity and Cell Signaling in MH-S Cells: Relative Potency of Diesel and Coal Combustion Particles P. Singh1, Y. Kostetski2, M. Daniels1, T. Stevens3 and MI Gilmour 1USEPA, RTP, NC, 2National University of Singapore, Singapore, 3University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC<...

  1. Collaborative studies on the development of national reference standards for potency determination of H7N9 influenza vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Li, Changgui; Xu, Kangwei; Hashem, Anwar; Shao, Ming; Liu, Shuzhen; Zou, Yong; Gao, Qiang; Zhang, Yongchao; Yuan, Liyong; Xu, Miao; Li, Xuguang; Wang, Junzhi

    2015-01-01

    The outbreak of human infections of a novel avian influenza virus A (H7N9) prompted the development of the vaccines against this virus. Like all types of influenza vaccines, H7N9 vaccine must be tested for its potency prior to being used in humans. However, the unavailability of international reference reagents for the potency determination of H7N9 vaccines substantially hinders the progress in vaccine development. To facilitate clinical development, we enlisted 5 participants in a collaborative study to develop critical reagents used in Single Radial Immunodiffusion (SRID), the currently acceptable assay for potency determination of influenza vaccine. Specifically, the hemagglutinin (HA) content of one vaccine bulk for influenza A (H7N9), herein designated as Primary Liquid Standard (PLS), was determined by SDS-PAGE. In addition, the freeze-dried antigen references derived from PLS were prepared to enhance the stability for long term storage. The final HA content of lyophilized antigen references were calibrated against PLS by SRID assay in a collaborative study. Importantly, application of these national reference standards to potency analyses greatly facilitated the development of H7N9 vaccines in China. PMID:25970793

  2. Expansion of the in vitro assay for Leptospira potency testing to other Serovars: Case study with Leptospira hardjo

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Code for Federal Regulations (9 CFR 113:101-104) specifies how vaccine potency is evaluated in a hamster model for evaluation of leptospiral vaccines against pomona, icterohaemorrhagiae, canicola, and grippotyphosa serotypes of Leptospira interrogans. There are several issues which complicate th...

  3. RELATIVE POTENCY OF MOLD AND HOUSE DUST MITE EXTRACTS IN INDUCING ALLERGIC RESPONSES IN BALB/C MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rationale: Mold has been associated with the exacerbation of allergic asthma. However, its role in induction of allergic asthma is not clear. Using a previously developed mouse model for allergic asthma, we compared potencies of two fungal extracts (Metarhizium anisop...

  4. Avian influenza in ovo vaccination with replication defective recombinant adenovirus in chickens: Vaccine potency, antibody persistence, and maternal antibody transfer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Protective immunity against avian influenza (AI) can be elicited in chickens in a single-dose regimen by in ovo vaccination with a replication-competent adenovirus (RCA)-free human adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad)-vector encoding the AI virus (AIV) hemagglutinin (HA). We evaluated vaccine potency, antibo...

  5. THE INFLUENCE OF SERUM BINDING PROTEINS AND CLEARANCE ON THE COMPARATIVE RECEPTOR BINDING POTENCY OF ENDOCRINE ACTIVE COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    THE INFLUENCE OF SERUM BINDING PROTEINS AND CLEARANCE ON THE COMPARATIVE RECEPTOR BINDING POTENCY OF ENDOCRINE ACTIVE COMPOUNDS. JG Teeguarden1 and HA Barton2. 1ENVIRON International, Ruston LA; 2US EPA, ORD, NHEERL, ETD, Pharmacokinetics Branch, RTP, NC.

    One measure of th...

  6. Collaborative studies on the development of national reference standards for potency determination of H7N9 influenza vaccine.

    PubMed

    Li, Changgui; Xu, Kangwei; Hashem, Anwar; Shao, Ming; Liu, Shuzhen; Zou, Yong; Gao, Qiang; Zhang, Yongchao; Yuan, Liyong; Xu, Miao; Li, Xuguang; Wang, Junzhi

    2015-01-01

    The outbreak of human infections of a novel avian influenza virus A (H7N9) prompted the development of the vaccines against this virus. Like all types of influenza vaccines, H7N9 vaccine must be tested for its potency prior to being used in humans. However, the unavailability of international reference reagents for the potency determination of H7N9 vaccines substantially hinders the progress in vaccine development. To facilitate clinical development, we enlisted 5 participants in a collaborative study to develop critical reagents used in Single Radial Immunodiffusion (SRID), the currently acceptable assay for potency determination of influenza vaccine. Specifically, the hemagglutinin (HA) content of one vaccine bulk for influenza A (H7N9), herein designated as Primary Liquid Standard (PLS), was determined by SDS-PAGE. In addition, the freeze-dried antigen references derived from PLS were prepared to enhance the stability for long term storage. The final HA content of lyophilized antigen references were calibrated against PLS by SRID assay in a collaborative study. Importantly, application of these national reference standards to potency analyses greatly facilitated the development of H7N9 vaccines in China.

  7. Interaction Potency of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes with DNAs: A Novel Assay for Assessment of Hazard Risk

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Chunhe; Carlisi, Cristina; Li, Yuning; Chen, Da; Ding, Jianfu; Feng, Yong-Lai

    2016-01-01

    Increasing use of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) necessitates a novel method for hazard risk assessment. In this work, we investigated the interaction of several types of commercial SWCNTs with single-stranded (ss) and double-stranded (ds) DNA oligonucleotides (20-mer and 20 bp). Based on the results achieved, we proposed a novel assay that employed the DNA interaction potency to assess the hazard risk of SWCNTs. It was found that SWCNTs in different sizes or different batches of the same product number of SWCNTs showed dramatically different potency of interaction with DNAs. In addition, the same SWCNTs also exerted strikingly different interaction potency with ss- versus ds- DNAs. The interaction rates of SWCNTs with DNAs were investigated, which could be utilized as the indicator of potential hazard for acute exposure. Compared to solid SWCNTs, the SWCNTs dispersed in liquid medium (2% sodium cholate solution) exhibited dramatically different interaction potency with DNAs. This indicates that the exposure medium may greatly influence the subsequent toxicity and hazard risk produced by SWCNTs. Based on the findings of dose-dependences and time-dependences from the interactions between SWCNTs and DNAs, a new chemistry based assay for hazard risk assessment of nanomaterials including SWCNTs has been presented. PMID:27936089

  8. Principles for identification of High Potency Category Chemicals for which the Dermal Sensitisation Threshold (DST) approach should not be applied.

    PubMed

    Roberts, David W; Api, Anne Marie; Safford, Robert J; Lalko, Jon F

    2015-08-01

    An essential step in ensuring the toxicological safety of chemicals used in consumer products is the evaluation of their skin sensitising potential. The sensitising potency, coupled with information on exposure levels, can be used in a Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA) to determine an acceptable level of a given chemical in a given product. Where consumer skin exposure is low, a risk assessment can be conducted using the Dermal Sensitisation Threshold (DST) approach, avoiding the need to determine potency experimentally. Since skin sensitisation involves chemical reaction with skin proteins, the first step in the DST approach is to assess, on the basis of the chemical structure, whether the chemical is expected to be reactive or not. Our accompanying publication describes the probabilistic derivation of a DST of 64 μg/cm(2) for chemicals assessed as reactive. This would protect against 95% of chemicals assessed as reactive, but the remaining 5% would include chemicals with very high potency. Here we discuss the chemical properties and structural features of high potency sensitisers, and derive an approach whereby they can be identified and consequently excluded from application of the DST.

  9. The potency of plant extracts as antimicrobials for the skin or hide preservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suparno, Ono; Afifah, Amalia; Panandita, Tania; Marimin, Purnawati, Rini

    2017-03-01

    and antimicrobial potency compared to the extracts of moringa, cucumber tree starfruit, and cherry leaves. Therefore, the ethanol extract of white leadtree leaf had a potency as a preservative of animal skin or hide and might be able to substitute the biocides used in the skin or hide preservation.

  10. Alternative splicing in nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits from Locusta migratoria and its influence on acetylcholine potencies.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yixi; Liu, Yang; Bao, Haibo; Sun, Huahua; Liu, Zewen

    2017-01-18

    Due to the great abundance within insect central nervous system (CNS), nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) play key roles in insect CNS, which makes it to be the targets of several classes of insecticides, such as neonicotinoids. Insect nAChRs are pentameric complexes consisting of five subunits, and a dozen subunits in one insect species can theoretically comprise diverse nAChRs. The alternative splicing in insect nAChR subunits may increase the diversity of insect nAChRs. In the oriental migratory locust (Locusta migratoria manilensis Meyen), a model insect species with agricultural importance, the alternative splicing was found in six α subunits among nine α and two β subunits, such as missing conserved residues in Loop D from Locα1, Locα6 and Locα9, a 34-residue insertion in Locα8 cytoplasmic loop, and truncated transcripts for Locα4, Locα7 and Locα9. Hybrid nAChRs were successfully constructed in Xenopus oocytes through co-expression with rat β2 and one α subunit from L. migratoria, which included Locα1, Locα2, Locα3, Locα4, Locα5, Locα8 and Locα9. Influences of alternative splicing in Locα1, Locα8 and Locα9 on acetylcholine potency were tested on hybrid nAChRs. The alternative splicing in Locα1 and Locα9 could increase acetylcholine sensitivities on recombinant receptors, while the splicing in Locα8 showed significant influences on the current amplitudes of oocytes. The results revealed that the alternative splicing at or close to the ligand-binding sites, as well as at cytoplasmic regions away from the ligand-binding sites, in insect nAChR subunits would change the agonist potencies on the receptors, which consequently increased nAChR diversity in functional and pharmacological properties.

  11. Measuring the potency labelling of onabotulinumtoxinA (Botox(®)) and incobotulinumtoxinA (Xeomin (®)) in an LD50 assay.

    PubMed

    Dressler, Dirk; Mander, Gerd; Fink, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    The biological potency of botulinum toxin (BT) drugs is determined by a standardised LD50 assay. However, the potency labelling varies vary amongst different BT drugs. One reason for this may be differences in the LD50 assays applied. When five unexpired batches of onabotulinumtoxinA (Botox(®)) and incobotulinumtoxinA (Xeomin(®)) are compared in the Xeomin(®) batch release assay, the potency variability of both BT drugs fell within the range allowed by the European Pharmacopoiea. Statistical analyses failed to detect differences in the potency labelling of both products. Although the existence of a conversion ratio has been questioned recently, our experimental data are in line with previous clinical experience showing that Botox(®) and Xeomin(®) can be compared using a 1:1 conversion ratio. Identical potency labelling allows easy exchange of both BT drugs in a therapeutic setting, and direct comparison of efficacy, adverse effects and costs.

  12. Potency of irritation by benzylidenemalononitriles in humans correlates with TRPA1 ion channel activation

    PubMed Central

    Lindsay, Christopher D.; Green, Christopher; Bird, Mike; Jones, James T. A.; Riches, James R.; McKee, Katherine K.; Sandford, Mark S.; Wakefield, Debra A.; Timperley, Christopher M.

    2015-01-01

    We show that the physiological activity of solid aerosolized benzylidenemalononitriles (BMNs) including ‘tear gas’ (CS) in historic human volunteer trials correlates with activation of the human transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 ion channel (hTRPA1). This suggests that the irritation caused by the most potent of these compounds results from activation of this channel. We prepared 50 BMNs and measured their hTRPA1 agonist potencies. A mechanism of action consistent with their physiological activity, involving their dissolution in water on contaminated body surfaces, cell membrane penetration and reversible thiolation by a cysteine residue of hTRPA1, supported by data from nuclear magnetic resonance experiments with a model thiol, explains the structure–activity relationships. The correlation provides evidence that hTRPA1 is a receptor for irritants on nociceptive neurons involved in pain perception; thus, its activation in the eye, nose, mouth and skin would explain the symptoms of lachrymation, sneezing, coughing and stinging, respectively. The structure–activity results and the use of the BMNs as pharmacological tools in future by other researchers may contribute to a better understanding of the TRPA1 channel in humans (and other animals) and help facilitate the discovery of treatments for human diseases involving this receptor. PMID:26064575

  13. Potency of a thermostabilised chimpanzee adenovirus Rift Valley Fever vaccine in cattle

    PubMed Central

    Dulal, Pawan; Wright, Daniel; Ashfield, Rebecca; Hill, Adrian V.S.; Charleston, Bryan; Warimwe, George M.

    2016-01-01

    Development of safe and efficacious vaccines whose potency is unaffected by long-term storage at ambient temperature would obviate major vaccine deployment hurdles and limit wastage associated with breaks in the vaccine cold chain. Here, we evaluated the immunogenicity of a novel chimpanzee adenovirus vectored Rift Valley Fever vaccine (ChAdOx1-GnGc) in cattle, following its thermostabilisation by slow desiccation on glass fiber membranes in the non-reducing sugars trehalose and sucrose. Thermostabilised ChAdOx1-GnGc vaccine stored for 6 months at 25, 37 or 45 °C elicited comparable Rift Valley Fever virus neutralising antibody titres to those elicited by the ‘cold chain’ vaccine (stored at −80 °C throughout) at the same dose, and these were within the range associated with protection against Rift Valley Fever in cattle. The results support the use of sugar-membrane thermostabilised vaccines in target livestock species. PMID:27020712

  14. Major Membrane Protein TDE2508 Regulates Adhesive Potency in Treponema denticola

    PubMed Central

    Abiko, Yuki; Nagano, Keiji; Yoshida, Yasuo; Yoshimura, Fuminobu

    2014-01-01

    The cultivation and genetic manipulation of Treponema denticola, a Gram-negative oral spirochaeta associated with periodontal diseases, is still challenging. In this study, we formulated a simple medium based on a commercially available one, and established a transformation method with high efficiency. We then analyzed proteins in a membrane fraction in T. denticola and identified 16 major membrane-associated proteins, and characterized one of them, TDE2508, whose biological function was not yet known. Although this protein, which exhibited a complex conformation, was presumably localized in the outer membrane, we did not find conclusive evidence that it was exposed on the cell surface. Intriguingly, a TDE2508-deficient mutant exhibited significantly increased biofilm formation and adherent activity on human gingival epithelial cells. However, the protein deficiency did not alter autoaggregation, coaggregation with Porphyromonas gingivalis, hemagglutination, cell surface hydrophobicity, motility, or expression of Msp which was reported to be an adherent molecule in this bacteria. In conclusion, the major membrane protein TDE2508 regulates biofilm formation and the adhesive potency of T. denticola, although the underlying mechanism remains unclear. PMID:24586498

  15. Blocking Hedgehog release from pancreatic cancer cells increases paracrine signaling potency.

    PubMed

    Damhofer, Helene; Veenstra, Veronique L; Tol, Johanna A M G; van Laarhoven, Hanneke W M; Medema, Jan Paul; Bijlsma, Maarten F

    2015-01-01

    Members of the Hedgehog (Hh) family of morphogens play crucial roles in development but are also involved in the progression of certain types of cancer. Despite being synthesized as hydrophobic dually lipid-modified molecules, and thus being strongly membrane-associated, Hh ligands are able to spread through tissues and act on target cells several cell diameters away. Various mechanisms that mediate Hh release have been discussed in recent years; however, little is known about dispersion of this ligand from cancer cells. Using co-culture models in conjunction with a newly developed reporter system, we were able to show that different members of the ADAM family of metalloproteinases strongly contribute to the release of endogenous bioactive Hh from pancreatic cancer cells, but that this solubilization decreases the potency of cancer cells to signal to adjacent stromal cells in direct co-culture models. These findings imply that under certain conditions, cancer-cell-tethered Hh molecules are the more potent signaling activators and that retaining Hh on the surface of cancer cells can unexpectedly increase the effective signaling range of this ligand, depending on tissue context.

  16. The impact of gallium content on degradation, bioactivity, and antibacterial potency of zinc borate bioactive glass.

    PubMed

    Rahimnejad Yazdi, Alireza; Torkan, Lawrence; Stone, Wendy; Towler, Mark R

    2017-02-02

    Zinc borate glasses with increasing gallium content (0, 2.5, 5, 10, and 15 Wt % Ga) were synthesized and their degradation, bioactivity in simulated body fluid (SBF), and antibacterial properties were investigated. ICP measurements showed that increased gallium content in the glass resulted in increased gallium ion release and decreased release of other ions. Degradability declined with the addition of gallium, indicating the formation of more symmetric BO3 units with three bridging oxygens and asymmetric BO3 units with two bridging oxygens in the glass network as the gallium content in the series increased. The formation of amorphous CaP on the glass surface after 24 h of incubation in SBF was confirmed by SEM, XRD, and FTIR analyses. Finally, antibacterial evaluation of the glasses using the agar disc-diffusion method demonstrated that the addition of gallium increased the antibacterial potency of the glasses against P. aeruginosa (Gram-negative) while decreasing it against S. epidermidis (Gram-positive); considering the ion release trends, this indicates that the gallium ion is responsible for the glasses' antibacterial behavior against P. aeruginosa while the zinc ion controls the antibacterial activity against S. epidermidis. The statistical significance of the observed trends in the measurements were confirmed by applying the Kruskal-Wallis H Test. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2017.

  17. Increasing the potency of an alhydrogel-formulated anthrax vaccine by minimizing antigen-adjuvant interactions.

    PubMed

    Watkinson, Allan; Soliakov, Andrei; Ganesan, Ashok; Hirst, Karie; Lebutt, Chris; Fleetwood, Kelly; Fusco, Peter C; Fuerst, Thomas R; Lakey, Jeremy H

    2013-11-01

    Aluminum salts are the most widely used vaccine adjuvants, and phosphate is known to modulate antigen-adjuvant interactions. Here we report an unexpected role for phosphate buffer in an anthrax vaccine (SparVax) containing recombinant protective antigen (rPA) and aluminum oxyhydroxide (AlOH) adjuvant (Alhydrogel). Phosphate ions bind to AlOH to produce an aluminum phosphate surface with a reduced rPA adsorption coefficient and binding capacity. However, these effects continued to increase as the free phosphate concentration increased, and the binding of rPA changed from endothermic to exothermic. Crucially, phosphate restored the thermostability of bound rPA so that it resembled the soluble form, even though it remained tightly bound to the surface. Batches of vaccine with either 0.25 mM (subsaturated) or 4 mM (saturated) phosphate were tested in a disease model at batch release, which showed that the latter was significantly more potent. Both formulations retained their potency for 3 years. The strongest aluminum adjuvant effects are thus likely to be via weakly attached or easily released native-state antigen proteins.

  18. Evaluation of a digital dispenser for direct curve dilutions in a vaccine potency assay.

    PubMed

    Roselle, Christopher; Whitehouse, Dana; Follmer, Thy; Ansbro, Fran; Bouaraphan, Silikhone; Guan, Liming; Wang, Sha-Ke; Shank-Retzlaff, Mary; Verch, Thorsten

    2017-03-01

    Dilutions are a common source of analytical error, both in terms of accuracy and precision, and a common source of analyst mistakes. When serial dilutions are used, errors compound, even when employing laboratory automation. Direct point dilutions instead of serial dilutions can reduce error but is often impractical as they require either large diluent volumes or very small sample volumes when performed with traditional liquid handling equipment. We evaluated preparation of dilution curves using a picoliter digital dispenser, the HP, Inc. / TECAN D300 which is capable of accurately delivering picoliter volumes directly into sample wells filled with assay diluent. Dilution linearity and variability of the direct dilutions were similar to or less than those generated with a traditional liquid handler as measured using a fluorophore assay and an ELISA used to measure vaccine potency. Minimum concentrations for detergent in the dispensed sample were identified but no correlation with detergent characteristics was observed. The tolerance to protein in the sample was evaluated as well with up to 5% BSA having no impact on dispense linearity and precision. We found the digital dispenser to reduce automation complexity while maintaining or improving assay performance in addition to facilitating complex plate lay-outs.

  19. Automated Acoustic Dispensing for the Serial Dilution of Peptide Agonists in Potency Determination Assays.

    PubMed

    Naylor, Jacqueline; Rossi, Alessandra; Brankin, Christopher; Hornigold, David C

    2016-11-10

    As with small molecule drug discovery, screening for peptide agonists requires the serial dilution of peptides to produce concentration-response curves. Screening peptides affords an additional layer of complexity as conventional tip-based sample handling methods expose peptides to a large surface area of plasticware, providing an increased opportunity for peptide loss via adsorption. Preventing excessive exposure to plasticware reduces peptide loss via adherence to plastics and thus minimizes inaccuracies in potency prediction, and we have previously described the benefits of non-contact acoustic dispensing for in vitro high-throughput screening of peptide agonists(1). Here we discuss a fully integrated automation solution for non-contact acoustic preparation of peptide serial dilutions in microtiter plates utilizing the example of screening for peptide agonists at the mouse glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R). Our methods allow for high-throughput cell-based assays to screen for agonists and are easily scalable to support increased sample throughput, or to allow for increased numbers of assay plate copies (e.g., for a panel of more target cell lines).

  20. Changes in acaricidal potency by introducing functional radicals and an acaricidal constituent isolated from Schizonepeta tenuifolia.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ji-Yeon; Lee, Hoi-Seon

    2013-11-27

    The acaricidal potential of an active constituent isolated from Schizonepeta tenuifolia oil and its structurally related derivatives was evaluated using filter paper and impregnated cotton fabric disk bioassays against house dust and stored food mites. The acaricidal constituent of S. tenuifolia oil was isolated by chromatographic techniques and identified as 2-isopropyl-5-methylcyclohexanone by GC-MS, (1)H-, and (13)C NMR spectra. 2-Isopropyl-5-methylcyclohexanone was a potent acaricide against house dust and stored food mites, based on the LD50 values from the filter paper and impregnated cotton fabric disk bioassays, followed by 4-isopropylcyclohexanone, 2-isopropylidene-5-methylcyclohexanone, 2-methylcyclohexanone, 3-methylcyclohexanone, 4-methylcyclohexanone, and benzyl benzoate. Furthermore, 4-isopropylcyclohexanone and 2-isopropyl-5-methylcyclohexanone, which were introduced on the isopropyl (C3H7) functional radical of the cyclohexanone skeleton, had the highest acaricidal potency. These results indicate that S. tenuifolia oil and 2-isopropyl-5-methylcyclohexanone structural analogues could be effective natural acaricides for managing house dust and stored food mites.

  1. A Web Server and Mobile App for Computing Hemolytic Potency of Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhary, Kumardeep; Kumar, Ritesh; Singh, Sandeep; Tuknait, Abhishek; Gautam, Ankur; Mathur, Deepika; Anand, Priya; Varshney, Grish C.; Raghava, Gajendra P. S.

    2016-01-01

    Numerous therapeutic peptides do not enter the clinical trials just because of their high hemolytic activity. Recently, we developed a database, Hemolytik, for maintaining experimentally validated hemolytic and non-hemolytic peptides. The present study describes a web server and mobile app developed for predicting, and screening of peptides having hemolytic potency. Firstly, we generated a dataset HemoPI-1 that contains 552 hemolytic peptides extracted from Hemolytik database and 552 random non-hemolytic peptides (from Swiss-Prot). The sequence analysis of these peptides revealed that certain residues (e.g., L, K, F, W) and motifs (e.g., “FKK”, “LKL”, “KKLL”, “KWK”, “VLK”, “CYCR”, “CRR”, “RFC”, “RRR”, “LKKL”) are more abundant in hemolytic peptides. Therefore, we developed models for discriminating hemolytic and non-hemolytic peptides using various machine learning techniques and achieved more than 95% accuracy. We also developed models for discriminating peptides having high and low hemolytic potential on different datasets called HemoPI-2 and HemoPI-3. In order to serve the scientific community, we developed a web server, mobile app and JAVA-based standalone software (http://crdd.osdd.net/raghava/hemopi/). PMID:26953092

  2. Proposal for a risk assessment methodology for skin sensitization based on sensitization potency data.

    PubMed

    Griem, Peter; Goebel, Carsten; Scheffler, Heike

    2003-12-01

    In this paper, we propose a quantitative risk assessment methodology for skin sensitization aiming at the derivation of 'safe' exposure levels for sensitizing chemicals, used e.g., as ingredients in consumer products. Given the limited number of sensitizers tested in human sensitization tests, such as the human repeat-insult patch test (HRIPT) or the human maximization test (HMT), we used EC3 values from the local lymph node assay (LLNA) in mice because they provide the best quantitative measure of the skin sensitizing potency of a chemical. A comparison of LLNA EC3 values with HRIPT and HMT LOEL, and NOEL values was carried out and revealed that the EC3, expressed as area dose, can be used as a surrogate value for the human NOEL in risk assessment. The uncertainty/extrapolation factor approach was used to derive (a) an 'acceptable non-sensitizing area dose' (ANSAD) to protect non-allergic individuals against skin sensitization and (b) an 'acceptable non-eliciting area dose' (ANEAD) to protect allergic individuals against elicitation of allergic contact dermatitis. For ANSAD derivation, interspecies, intraspecies and time extrapolation factors are applied to the LLNA EC3. For ANEAD derivation, additional application of a variable sensitization-elicitation extrapolation factor is proposed. Values for extrapolation factors are derived and discussed, the proposed methodology is applied to the sensitizers methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone, cinnamic aldehyde and nickel and results are compared to published risk assessments.

  3. Differential in radiosensitizing potency of enantiomers of the fatty acid synthase inhibitor C75.

    PubMed

    Rae, Colin; Babich, John W; Mairs, Robert J

    2017-01-01

    The elevated activity of fatty acid synthase has been reported in a number of cancer types. Inhibition of this enzyme has been demonstrated to induce cancer cell death and reduce tumor growth. In addition, the fatty acid synthase inhibitor drug C75 has been reported to synergistically enhance the cancer-killing ability of ionizing radiation. However, clinical use of C75 has been limited due to its producing weight loss, believed to be caused by alterations in the activity of carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1. C75 is administered in the form of a racemic mixture of (-) and (+) enantiomers that may differ in their regulation of fatty acid synthase and carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1. Therefore, we assessed the relative cancer-killing potency of different enantiomeric forms of C75 in prostate cancer cells. These results suggest that (-)-C75 is the more cytotoxic enantiomer and has greater radiosensitizing capacity than (+)-C75. These observations will stimulate the development of fatty acid synthase inhibitors that are selective for cancer cells and enhance the tumor-killing activity of ionizing radiation, while minimizing weight loss in cancer patients.

  4. Tetraploid Embryonic Stem Cells Maintain Pluripotency and Differentiation Potency into Three Germ Layers.

    PubMed

    Imai, Hiroyuki; Kano, Kiyoshi; Fujii, Wataru; Takasawa, Ken; Wakitani, Shoichi; Hiyama, Masato; Nishino, Koichiro; Kusakabe, Ken Takeshi; Kiso, Yasuo

    2015-01-01

    Polyploid amphibians and fishes occur naturally in nature, while polyploid mammals do not. For example, tetraploid mouse embryos normally develop into blastocysts, but exhibit abnormalities and die soon after implantation. Thus, polyploidization is thought to be harmful during early mammalian development. However, the mechanisms through which polyploidization disrupts development are still poorly understood. In this study, we aimed to elucidate how genome duplication affects early mammalian development. To this end, we established tetraploid embryonic stem cells (TESCs) produced from the inner cell masses of tetraploid blastocysts using electrofusion of two-cell embryos in mice and studied the developmental potential of TESCs. We demonstrated that TESCs possessed essential pluripotency and differentiation potency to form teratomas, which differentiated into the three germ layers, including diploid embryonic stem cells. TESCs also contributed to the inner cell masses in aggregated chimeric blastocysts, despite the observation that tetraploid embryos fail in normal development soon after implantation in mice. In TESCs, stability after several passages, colony morphology, and alkaline phosphatase activity were similar to those of diploid ESCs. TESCs also exhibited sufficient expression and localization of pluripotent markers and retained the normal epigenetic status of relevant reprogramming factors. TESCs proliferated at a slower rate than ESCs, indicating that the difference in genomic dosage was responsible for the different growth rates. Thus, our findings suggested that mouse ESCs maintained intrinsic pluripotency and differentiation potential despite tetraploidization, providing insights into our understanding of developmental elimination in polyploid mammals.

  5. Review of the spectrum and potency of orally administered cephalosporins and amoxicillin/clavulanate.

    PubMed

    Sader, Helio S; Jacobs, Michael R; Fritsche, Thomas R

    2007-03-01

    The antimicrobial spectrum and in vitro potency of the most frequently prescribed orally administered cephalosporins (cefaclor, cefdinir, cefpodoxime, cefprozil, cefuroxime axetil, cephalexin) and amoxicillin/clavulanate are reviewed. These beta-lactam agents have been widely used in the outpatient arena for the treatment of community-acquired respiratory tract and other mild-to-moderate infections. The data presented here were obtained from critical review articles on each of these compounds. Cephalexin and cefaclor were among the least potent and had the narrowest antimicrobial spectrums against the pathogens evaluated. In contrast, cefdinir, cefpodoxime, cefprozil, and cefuroxime were highly active against penicillin-susceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae and retained some activity against penicillin-intermediate strains, whereas amoxicillin/clavulanate was the most active against S. pneumoniae, including most penicillin nonsusceptible strains. Amoxicillin/clavulanate and cefdinir were the most potent compounds against methicillin (oxacillin)-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus, whereas cefpodoxime was the most potent compound against Haemophilus influenzae. Amoxicillin/clavulanate, cefdinir, and cefpodoxime were also active against Moraxella catarrhalis, including beta-lactamase-producing strains. In summary, orally administered "3rd-generation" or extended spectrum cephalosporins exhibited more balanced spectrums of activity against the principal bacterial pathogens responsible for outpatient respiratory tract and other infections when compared with other widely used oral cephalosporins of earlier generations or amoxicillin alone.

  6. Structure-Based Design of Human TLR8-Specific Agonists with Augmented Potency and Adjuvanticity

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Human Toll-like receptor 8 (hTLR8) is expressed in myeloid dendritic cells, monocytes, and monocyte-derived dendritic cells. Engagement by TLR8 agonists evokes a distinct cytokine profile which favors the development of type 1 helper T cells. Crystal structures of the ectodomain of hTLR8 cocrystallized with two regioisomers of a dual TLR7/8-agonistic N1-substituted imidazoquinolines showed subtle differences in their interactions in the binding site of hTLR8. We hypothesized that the potency of a previously reported best-in-class pure TLR8 agonist, 3-pentylquinoline-2-amine, could be further enhanced by “designing in” functional groups that would mimic key intermolecular interactions that we had observed in the crystal structures. We performed a focused exploration of decorating the quinoline core with alkylamino groups at all possible positions. These studies have led to the identification of a novel TLR8 agonist that was ∼20-fold more potent than the parent compound and displays prominent adjuvantic activity in a rabbit model of immunization. PMID:26351878

  7. Antigen expression determines adenoviral vaccine potency independent of IFN and STING signaling

    PubMed Central

    Quinn, Kylie M.; Zak, Daniel E.; Costa, Andreia; Yamamoto, Ayako; Kastenmuller, Kathrin; Hill, Brenna J.; Lynn, Geoffrey M.; Darrah, Patricia A.; Lindsay, Ross W.B.; Wang, Lingshu; Cheng, Cheng; Nicosia, Alfredo; Folgori, Antonella; Colloca, Stefano; Cortese, Riccardo; Gostick, Emma; Price, David A.; Gall, Jason G.D.; Roederer, Mario; Aderem, Alan; Seder, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    Recombinant adenoviral vectors (rAds) are lead vaccine candidates for protection against a variety of pathogens, including Ebola, HIV, tuberculosis, and malaria, due to their ability to potently induce T cell immunity in humans. However, the ability to induce protective cellular immunity varies among rAds. Here, we assessed the mechanisms that control the potency of CD8 T cell responses in murine models following vaccination with human-, chimpanzee-, and simian-derived rAds encoding SIV-Gag antigen (Ag). After rAd vaccination, we quantified Ag expression and performed expression profiling of innate immune response genes in the draining lymph node. Human-derived rAd5 and chimpanzee-derived chAd3 were the most potent rAds and induced high and persistent Ag expression with low innate gene activation, while less potent rAds induced less Ag expression and robustly induced innate immunity genes that were primarily associated with IFN signaling. Abrogation of type I IFN or stimulator of IFN genes (STING) signaling increased Ag expression and accelerated CD8 T cell response kinetics but did not alter memory responses or protection. These findings reveal that the magnitude of rAd-induced memory CD8 T cell immune responses correlates with Ag expression but is independent of IFN and STING and provide criteria for optimizing protective CD8 T cell immunity with rAd vaccines. PMID:25642773

  8. Use of probabilistic expert judgment in uncertainty analysis of carcinogenic potency.

    PubMed

    Evans, J S; Gray, G M; Sielken, R L; Smith, A E; Valdez-Flores, C; Graham, J D

    1994-08-01

    A new approach to characterizing the state of knowledge about carcinogenic potency is described. In this approach, the carcinogenic risk posed by a specific dose is characterized by a probability distribution, indicating the relative likelihood of different risk estimates. The approach utilizes expert judgment and a probability tree and is illustrated in a case study of chloroform exposure. Experts in cancer biology/toxicology, pharmacokinetics, and dose-response modeling were identified by a panel of science-policy specialists. In a workshop, experts reviewed the chloroform data, received training in probability elicitation, and constructed a consensual probability tree based on biological theories of cancer causation. Distributions of carcinogenic risk were developed based on the probability tree, chloroform data, judgmental probabilities provided by the experts, and classical statistical techniques. Risk distributions varied considerably between experts, with some predicting essentially no risk from 100 ppb chloroform in drinking water while other have at least some probability on risks generally considered of regulatory significance. Estimated human risk was much lower when extrapolating from liver tumors in animals than from kidney tumors. Issues of scientific disagreement leading to different risk distributions between experts are discussed. The resulting risk distributions are compared to standard EPA risk calculations for the same exposure scenario as well as to the expert judgement of epidemiologists about cancer risks of chlorinated drinking water. Issues in combining expert judgments are discussed, and several alternative methods are presented. Strengths and weaknesses of the distributional approach are discussed.

  9. Development of a sweetness sensor for aspartame, a positively charged high-potency sweetener.

    PubMed

    Yasuura, Masato; Tahara, Yusuke; Ikezaki, Hidekazu; Toko, Kiyoshi

    2014-04-23

    Taste evaluation technology has been developed by several methods, such as sensory tests, electronic tongues and a taste sensor based on lipid/polymer membranes. In particular, the taste sensor can individually quantify five basic tastes without multivariate analysis. However, it has proven difficult to develop a sweetness sensor, because sweeteners are classified into three types according to the electric charges in an aqueous solution; that is, no charge, negative charge and positive charge. Using membrane potential measurements, the taste-sensing system needs three types of sensor membrane for each electric charge type of sweetener. Since the commercially available sweetness sensor was only intended for uncharged sweeteners, a sweetness sensor for positively charged high-potency sweeteners such as aspartame was developed in this study. Using a lipid and plasticizers, we fabricated various lipid/polymer membranes for the sweetness sensor to identify the suitable components of the sensor membranes. As a result, one of the developed sensors showed responses of more than 20 mV to 10 mM aspartame and less than 5 mV to any other taste. The responses of the sensor depended on the concentration of aspartame. These results suggested that the developed sweetness sensor had high sensitivity to and high selectivity for aspartame.

  10. A Web Server and Mobile App for Computing Hemolytic Potency of Peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudhary, Kumardeep; Kumar, Ritesh; Singh, Sandeep; Tuknait, Abhishek; Gautam, Ankur; Mathur, Deepika; Anand, Priya; Varshney, Grish C.; Raghava, Gajendra P. S.

    2016-03-01

    Numerous therapeutic peptides do not enter the clinical trials just because of their high hemolytic activity. Recently, we developed a database, Hemolytik, for maintaining experimentally validated hemolytic and non-hemolytic peptides. The present study describes a web server and mobile app developed for predicting, and screening of peptides having hemolytic potency. Firstly, we generated a dataset HemoPI-1 that contains 552 hemolytic peptides extracted from Hemolytik database and 552 random non-hemolytic peptides (from Swiss-Prot). The sequence analysis of these peptides revealed that certain residues (e.g., L, K, F, W) and motifs (e.g., “FKK”, “LKL”, “KKLL”, “KWK”, “VLK”, “CYCR”, “CRR”, “RFC”, “RRR”, “LKKL”) are more abundant in hemolytic peptides. Therefore, we developed models for discriminating hemolytic and non-hemolytic peptides using various machine learning techniques and achieved more than 95% accuracy. We also developed models for discriminating peptides having high and low hemolytic potential on different datasets called HemoPI-2 and HemoPI-3. In order to serve the scientific community, we developed a web server, mobile app and JAVA-based standalone software (http://crdd.osdd.net/raghava/hemopi/).

  11. Reducing animal experimentation in foot-and-mouth disease vaccine potency tests.

    PubMed

    Reeve, Richard; Cox, Sarah; Smitsaart, Eliana; Beascoechea, Claudia Perez; Haas, Bernd; Maradei, Eduardo; Haydon, Daniel T; Barnett, Paul

    2011-07-26

    The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Terrestrial Manual and the European Pharmacopoeia (EP) still prescribe live challenge experiments for foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) immunogenicity and vaccine potency tests. However, the EP allows for other validated tests for the latter, and specifically in vitro tests if a "satisfactory pass level" has been determined; serological replacements are also currently in use in South America. Much research has therefore focused on validating both ex vivo and in vitro tests to replace live challenge. However, insufficient attention has been given to the sensitivity and specificity of the "gold standard"in vivo test being replaced, despite this information being critical to determining what should be required of its replacement. This paper aims to redress this imbalance by examining the current live challenge tests and their associated statistics and determining the confidence that we can have in them, thereby setting a standard for candidate replacements. It determines that the statistics associated with the current EP PD(50) test are inappropriate given our domain knowledge, but that the OIE test statistics are satisfactory. However, it has also identified a new set of live animal challenge test regimes that provide similar sensitivity and specificity to all of the currently used OIE tests using fewer animals (16 including controls), and can also provide further savings in live animal experiments in exchange for small reductions in sensitivity and specificity.

  12. Methyl Substitution of a Rexinoid Agonist Improves Potency and Reveals Site of Lipid Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    (2E,4E,6Z,8E)-8-(3′,4′-Dihydro-1′(2′H)-naphthalen-1′-ylidene)-3,7-dimethyl-2,4,6-octatrienoic acid, 9cUAB30, is a selective rexinoid that displays substantial chemopreventive capacity with little toxicity. 4-Methyl-UAB30, an analogue of 9cUAB30, is a potent RXR agonist but caused increased lipid biosynthesis unlike 9cUAB30. To evaluate how methyl substitution influenced potency and lipid biosynthesis, we synthesized four 9cUAB30 homologues with methyl substitutions at the 5-, 6-, 7-, or 8-position of the tetralone ring. The syntheses and biological evaluations of these new analogues are reported here along with the X-ray crystal structures of each homologue bound to the ligand binding domain of hRXRα. We demonstrate that each homologue of 9cUAB30 is a more potent agonist, but only the 7-methyl-9cUAB30 caused severe hyperlipidemia in rats. On the basis of the X-ray crystal structures of these new rexinoids and bexarotene (Targretin) bound to hRXRα-LBD, we reveal that each rexinoid, which induced hyperlipidemia, had methyl groups that interacted with helix 7 residues of the LBD. PMID:24801499

  13. In Vivo Analysis of the Potency of Silicone Oil Microdroplets as Immunological Adjuvants in Protein Formulations

    PubMed Central

    Chisholm, Carly Fleagle; Nguyen, Bao Han; Soucie, Kaitlin R.; Torres, Raul M.; Carpenter, John F.; Randolph, Theodore W.

    2015-01-01

    Subvisible particles in a therapeutic protein product may act as adjuvants to promote unwanted immune responses against the protein. Silicone oil is used as a lubricant in prefilled syringes, and microdroplets of silicone oil are often detected in protein formulations expelled from prefilled syringes. In order to test the adjuvant potency of silicone oil microdroplets, antibody responses in mice to subcutaneous injections of formulations of ovalbumin (OVA) that contained silicone oil microdroplets were measured. These responses were compared against responses to oil-free OVA formulations and to OVA formulations that contained microparticulate aluminum hydroxide (“alum”), the common vaccine adjuvant. When administered with high concentrations of silicone oil microdroplets, OVA formulations elicited strong anti-OVA IgG1 and IgG2a antibody responses. These responses were equivalent to those observed when alum microparticles were added to OVA formulations, suggesting that silicone oil can act as a potent adjuvant. However, when OVA formulations were prepared with lower levels of silicone oil that had been obtained directly from commercial siliconized syringes, the anti-OVA antibody response was not enhanced significantly compared to responses against OVA alone. PMID:26190624

  14. A Web Server and Mobile App for Computing Hemolytic Potency of Peptides.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Kumardeep; Kumar, Ritesh; Singh, Sandeep; Tuknait, Abhishek; Gautam, Ankur; Mathur, Deepika; Anand, Priya; Varshney, Grish C; Raghava, Gajendra P S

    2016-03-08

    Numerous therapeutic peptides do not enter the clinical trials just because of their high hemolytic activity. Recently, we developed a database, Hemolytik, for maintaining experimentally validated hemolytic and non-hemolytic peptides. The present study describes a web server and mobile app developed for predicting, and screening of peptides having hemolytic potency. Firstly, we generated a dataset HemoPI-1 that contains 552 hemolytic peptides extracted from Hemolytik database and 552 random non-hemolytic peptides (from Swiss-Prot). The sequence analysis of these peptides revealed that certain residues (e.g., L, K, F, W) and motifs (e.g., "FKK", "LKL", "KKLL", "KWK", "VLK", "CYCR", "CRR", "RFC", "RRR", "LKKL") are more abundant in hemolytic peptides. Therefore, we developed models for discriminating hemolytic and non-hemolytic peptides using various machine learning techniques and achieved more than 95% accuracy. We also developed models for discriminating peptides having high and low hemolytic potential on different datasets called HemoPI-2 and HemoPI-3. In order to serve the scientific community, we developed a web server, mobile app and JAVA-based standalone software (http://crdd.osdd.net/raghava/hemopi/).

  15. Review of the use of high potencies in basic research on homeopathy.

    PubMed

    Clausen, Jürgen; van Wijk, Roeland; Albrecht, Henning

    2011-10-01

    The HomBRex database includes details of about 1500 basic research experiments in homeopathy. A general overview on the experiments listed in the HomBRex database is presented, focusing on high dilutions and the different settings in which those were used. Though often criticised, many experiments with remedies diluted beyond Avogadro's number demonstrate specific effects. A total of 830 experiments employing high potencies was found; in 745 experiments of these (90%), at least one positive result was reported. Animals represent the most often used model system (n=371), followed by plants (n=201), human material (n=92), bacteria and viruses (n=37) and fungi (n=32). Arsenicum album (Ars.) is the substance most often applied (n=101), followed by Sulphur (Sulph.) and Thuja (Thuj.) (n=65 and 48, respectively). Proving, prophylactic and therapeutic study designs have all been used and appear appropriate for homeopathy basic research using high dilutions. The basic research data set to support specific effects unique to high dilutions and opposite to those observed with low dilutions is, to date, insufficient.

  16. Influence of different free radicals on scavenging potency of gallic acid.

    PubMed

    Đorović, Jelena; Marković, Jasmina M Dimitrić; Stepanić, Višnja; Begović, Nebojša; Amić, Dragan; Marković, Zoran

    2014-07-01

    The M05-2X/6-311++G(d,p) and B3LYP-D2/6-311++G(d,p) models are used to evaluate scavenging potency of gallic acid. The hydrogen atom transfer (HAT), sequential proton loss electron transfer (SPLET), and single electron transfer followed by proton transfer (SET-PT) mechanisms of gallic acid with some radicals ((•)OO(-), (•)OH, and CH3OO(•)) were investigated using the corresponding thermodynamic quantities: bond dissociation enthalpy (BDE), ionization potential (IP), and proton affinity (PA). Namely, the ΔHBDE, ΔHIP, and ΔHPA values of the corresponding reactions in some solvents (water, DMSO, pentylethanoate, and benzene) are investigated using an implicit solvation model (SMD). An approach based on the reactions enthalpies related to the examined mechanisms is applied. This approach shows that a thermodynamically favored mechanism depends on the polarity of reaction media and properties of free radical reactive species. The most acidic 4-OH group of gallic acid is the active site for radical inactivation. The results of this investigation indicate that the SPLET mechanism can be a favored reaction pathway for all three radicals in all solvents, except for (•)OH in the aqueous solution. In water, gallic acid can inactivate (•)OH by the HAT mechanism.

  17. CNTF variants with increased biological potency and receptor selectivity define a functional site of receptor interaction.

    PubMed Central

    Saggio, I; Gloaguen, I; Poiana, G; Laufer, R

    1995-01-01

    Human CNTF is a neurocytokine that elicits potent neurotrophic effects by activating a receptor complex composed of the ligand-specific alpha-receptor subunit (CNTFR alpha) and two signal transducing proteins, which together constitute a receptor for leukemia inhibitory factor (LIFR). At high concentrations, CNTF can also activate the LIFR and possibly other cross-reactive cytokine receptors in the absence of CNTFR alpha. To gain a better understanding of its structure-function relationships and to develop analogs with increased receptor specificity, the cytokine was submitted to affinity maturation using phage display technology. Variants with greatly increased CNTFR alpha affinity were selected from a phage-displayed library of CNTF variants carrying random amino acid substitutions in the putative D helix. Selected variants contained substitutions of the wild-type Gln167 residue, either alone or in combination with neighboring mutations. These results provide evidence for an important functional role of the mutagenized region in CNTFR alpha binding. Affinity enhancing mutations conferred to CNTF increased potency to trigger biological effects mediated by CNTFR alpha and enhanced neurotrophic activity on chicken ciliary neurons. In contrast, the same mutations did not potentiate the CNTFR alpha-independent receptor actions of CNTF. These CNTF analogs thus represent receptor-specific superagonists, which should help to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the pleiotropic actions of the neurocytokine. PMID:7621819

  18. The human skin/chick chorioallantoic membrane model accurately predicts the potency of cosmetic allergens.

    PubMed

    Slodownik, Dan; Grinberg, Igor; Spira, Ram M; Skornik, Yehuda; Goldstein, Ronald S

    2009-04-01

    The current standard method for predicting contact allergenicity is the murine local lymph node assay (LLNA). Public objection to the use of animals in testing of cosmetics makes the development of a system that does not use sentient animals highly desirable. The chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of the chick egg has been extensively used for the growth of normal and transformed mammalian tissues. The CAM is not innervated, and embryos are sacrificed before the development of pain perception. The aim of this study was to determine whether the sensitization phase of contact dermatitis to known cosmetic allergens can be quantified using CAM-engrafted human skin and how these results compare with published EC3 data obtained with the LLNA. We studied six common molecules used in allergen testing and quantified migration of epidermal Langerhans cells (LC) as a measure of their allergic potency. All agents with known allergic potential induced statistically significant migration of LC. The data obtained correlated well with published data for these allergens generated using the LLNA test. The human-skin CAM model therefore has great potential as an inexpensive, non-radioactive, in vivo alternative to the LLNA, which does not require the use of sentient animals. In addition, this system has the advantage of testing the allergic response of human, rather than animal skin.

  19. Antiparkinson therapeutic potencies correlate with their affinities at dopamine D2(High) receptors.

    PubMed

    Seeman, Philip

    2007-12-01

    To determine whether antiparkinson dopamine agonists preferentially act on the high-affinity or the low-affinity states of dopamine D1 and D2 receptors, the agonist potencies were obtained by competition against [(3)H]SCH23390 for D1(High) and D1(Low), and against [(3)H]domperidone for D2(High) and D2(Low). N-propylnorapomorphine and cabergoline were the most potent at D2(High), with dissociation constants of 0.18 and 0.36 nM, respectively. Other agonists had D2(High)K(i) values of 0.52 nM for quinagolide, 0.6 nM for (+)PHNO, 0.9 for bromocriptine, 1.8 nM for apomorphine, 2.4 nM for pergolide, 3 nM for quinpirole, and 6.2 nM for lergotrile. There was a clear correlation between the K(i) values at D2(High) and their therapeutic concentrations in the plasma water, as derived from the known concentrations after correction for the fraction bound to the human plasma proteins. The data suggest that D2(High) is the primary and common target for the antiparkinson action of dopamine agonists. Bromocriptine, cabergoline, lergotrile, pergolide, and pramipexole had no affinity for D1(High), consistent with the clinical observations that the D2-selective bromocriptine and pramipexole elicit low levels of dyskinesia.

  20. Low-Pressure Gas Effects on the Potency of an Electron Beam Against Ceramic Cloth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nunes, A. C., Jr.; Russell, C. K.; Zimmerman, F. R.; Fragomeni, J. M.

    1999-01-01

    An 8-kv electron beam with a current in the neighborhood of 100 mA from the Ukrainian space welding "Universal Hand Tool" (UHT) burned holes in Nextel AF-62 ceramic cloth designed to withstand temperatures up to 1,427 C. The burnthrough time was on the order of 8 scc at standoff distances between UHT and cloth ranging from 6-24 in. At both closer (2 in.) and farther (48 in.) standoff distances the potency of the beam against the cloth declined and the burnthrough time went up significantly. Prior to the test it had been expected that the beam would lay down a static charge on the cloth and be deflected without damaging the cloth. The burnthrough is thought to be an effect of partial transmission of beam power by a stream of positive ions generated by the high-voltage electron beam from contaminant gas in the "vacuum" chamber. A rough quantitative theoretical computation appears to substantiate this possibility.

  1. Analysis of earthquake body wave spectra for potency and magnitude values: implications for magnitude scaling relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, Zachary E.; Ben-Zion, Yehuda; White, Malcolm C.; Vernon, Frank L.

    2016-11-01

    We develop a simple methodology for reliable automated estimation of the low-frequency asymptote in seismic body wave spectra of small to moderate local earthquakes. The procedure corrects individual P- and S-wave spectra for propagation and site effects and estimates the seismic potency from a stacked spectrum. The method is applied to >11 000 earthquakes with local magnitudes 0 < ML < 4 that occurred in the Southern California plate-boundary region around the San Jacinto fault zone during 2013. Moment magnitude Mw values, derived from the spectra and the scaling relation of Hanks & Kanamori, follow a Gutenberg-Richter distribution with a larger b-value (1.22) from that associated with the ML values (0.93) for the same earthquakes. The completeness magnitude for the Mw values is 1.6 while for ML it is 1.0. The quantity (Mw - ML) linearly increases in the analysed magnitude range as ML decreases. An average earthquake with ML = 0 in the study area has an Mw of about 0.9. The developed methodology and results have important implications for earthquake source studies and statistical seismology.

  2. Low-dose oral contraceptives: progestin potency, androgenicity, and atherogenic potential.

    PubMed

    Ellis, J

    1986-01-01

    The effects of oral contraceptives and estrogen replacement drugs on blood lipids that affect cardiovascular disease (atherogenic effects) are reviewed by comparing their androgenicity and progestin potency. Although early oral contraceptives with high doses of estrogen were indicted for increasing risk of thromboembolic disorders and heart attacks, today's pills low in estrogen still bear the same risk for cardiovascular events. A brief explanation of the lipoproteins is presented, emphasizing the importance of High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) in protecting against heart disease and stroke. Menstruating women have naturally high HDL. The estrogen in oral contraceptives and postmenopausal estrogen replacements increases HDL as much as 30%, while decreasing LDL, the component carrying most of the cholesterol. It seems that the progestin in oral contraceptives will lower HDL, and studies show that this action is related to androgenicity and dose of the progestin. Progestins such as levonorgestrel and norgestrel are more androgenic, while norethynodrel, ethynodiol diacetate and norethindrone are less so. When used in combination with estrogens, progestins are less androgenic, but when used alone, the androgenic and atherogenic effects dominate. The lower the estrogen dose in the combination, say around 20-35 mcg ethinyl estradiol, the more atherogenic the progestin. These actions are confirmed theoretically by measurements of sex hormone binding globulin, a blood protein that reflects estrogen activity, as well as by epidemiologic studies in Sweden and Great Britain, where rates of heart attack and stroke in pill users remain as high as they were when pills contained high doses of estrogen.

  3. Free radical scavenging potency of quercetin catecholic colonic metabolites: Thermodynamics of 2H(+)/2e(-) processes.

    PubMed

    Amić, Ana; Lučić, Bono; Stepanić, Višnja; Marković, Zoran; Marković, Svetlana; Dimitrić Marković, Jasmina M; Amić, Dragan

    2017-03-01

    Reaction energetics of the double (2H(+)/2e(-)), i.e., the first 1H(+)/1e(-) (catechol→ phenoxyl radical) and the second 1H(+)/1e(-) (phenoxyl radical→ quinone) free radical scavenging mechanisms of quercetin and its six colonic catecholic metabolites (caffeic acid, hydrocaffeic acid, homoprotocatechuic acid, protocatechuic acid, 4-methylcatechol, and catechol) were computationally studied using density functional theory, with the aim to estimate the antiradical potency of these molecules. We found that second hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) and second sequential proton loss electron transfer (SPLET) mechanisms are less energy demanding than the first ones indicating 2H(+)/2e(-) processes as inherent to catechol moiety. The Gibbs free energy change for reactions of inactivation of selected free radicals indicate that catecholic colonic metabolites constitute an efficient group of more potent scavengers than quercetin itself, able to deactivate various free radicals, under different biological conditions. They could be responsible for the health benefits associated with regular intake of flavonoid-rich diet.

  4. Evaluation and comparison of the antioxidative potency of various carbohydrates using different methods.

    PubMed

    Ajisaka, Katsumi; Agawa, Sayuri; Nagumo, Satomi; Kurato, Keisuke; Yokoyama, Tatsuya; Arai, Kumiko; Miyazaki, Tatsuo

    2009-04-22

    A detailed analysis of the antioxidative activity of 12 carbohydrates including chondroitin sulfate, fucoidan, agaro-oligosaccharide, 2-deoxy-scyllo-inosose (DOI), Galbeta1-4DOI, D-glucuronic acid, chitobiose, D-mannosamine, D-galactosamine, D-glucosamine, heparin, and colominic acid was performed using four established methods: 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity assay, and the deoxyribose method. Ascorbic acid and/or catechin were used as positive standards. In the DPPH radical scavenging activity measurements, fucoidan, DOI, and Galbeta1-4DOI showed remarkable levels of activity, although at lower levels than ascorbic acid. The SOD assay revealed that DOI, Galbeta1-4DOI, and agaro-oligosaccharide had high antioxidant activity, with DOI and Galbeta1-4DOI notably showing almost half of the antioxidative potency of ascorbic acid. Using the deoxyribose method, chitobiose and heparin showed the highest hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, followed by chondroitin sulfate, colominic acid, Galbeta1-4DOI, and d-glucosamine. Given that 11 of the carbohydrates analyzed share a common structure, agaro-oligosaccharide being the exception, we propose from our current results that at least one amino, carboxyl, carbonyl, or sulfonyl group is required, but is not in itself sufficient, for carbohydrates to function as antioxidants.

  5. First systematic evaluation of the potency of Cannabis sativa plants grown in Albania.

    PubMed

    Bruci, Zana; Papoutsis, Ioannis; Athanaselis, Sotirios; Nikolaou, Panagiota; Pazari, Ermira; Spiliopoulou, Chara; Vyshka, Gentian

    2012-10-10

    Cannabis products (marijuana, hashish, cannabis oil) are the most frequently abused illegal substances worldwide. Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the main psychoactive component of Cannabis sativa plant, whereas cannabidiol (CBD) and cannabinol (CBN) are other major but no psychoactive constituents. Many studies have already been carried out on these compounds and chemical research was encouraged due to the legal implications concerning the misuse of marijuana. The aim of this study was to determine THC, CBD and CBN in a significant number of cannabis samples of Albanian origin, where cannabis is the most frequently used drug of abuse, in order to evaluate and classify them according to their cannabinoid composition. A GC-MS method was used, in order to assay cannabinoid content of hemp samples harvested at different maturation degree levels during the summer months and grown in different areas of Albania. This method can also be used for the determination of plant phenotype, the evaluation of psychoactive potency and the control of material quality. The highest cannabinoid concentrations were found in the flowers of cannabis. The THC concentrations in different locations of Albania ranged from 1.07 to 12.13%. The influence of environmental conditions on cannabinoid content is discussed. The cannabinoid content of cannabis plants were used for their profiling, and it was used for their classification, according to their geographical origin. The determined concentrations justify the fact that Albania is an area where cannabis is extensively cultivated for illegal purposes.

  6. Composition and Potency Characterization of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Purified Protein Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Capsel, Randal T.; Thoen, Charles O.; Reinhardt, Timothy A.; Lippolis, John D.; Olsen, Renee; Stabel, Judith R.; Bannantine, John P.

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) purified protein derivatives (PPDs) are immunologic reagents prepared from cultured filtrates of the type strain. Traditional production consists of floating culture incubation at 37°C, organism inactivation by autoclaving, coarse filtration, and protein precipitation. Three traditional production PPDs were used in this study including lot 9801, which served as a reference and has been used in the field for decades. Alternative production PPDs (0902A and 0902B), in which the autoclaving step was removed, were also analyzed in this study. SDS-PAGE analysis revealed protein smearing in traditional PPDs, but distinct bands were observed in the alternative PPD preparations. Antibody bound distinct protein bands in the alternative PPDs by immunoblot analysis, whereas an immunoreactive smear was observed with the traditional PPDs. Mass spectrometry identified 194 proteins among three PPD lots representing the two different production methods, ten of which were present in all PPDs examined. Selected proteins identified by mass spectrometry were recombinantly expressed and purified from E. coli and evaluated by the guinea pig potency test. Seven recombinant proteins showed greater erythema as compared to the reference PPD lot 9801 in paired guinea pigs and were able to stimulate interferon-gamma production in blood from Johne’s positive animals. These results suggest that autoclaving culture suspensions is not a necessary step in PPD production and specific proteins could supplant the PPD antigen for intradermal skin testing procedures and for use as in-vitro assay reagents. PMID:27136199

  7. Differential in radiosensitizing potency of enantiomers of the fatty acid synthase inhibitor C75

    PubMed Central

    Babich, John W.; Mairs, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The elevated activity of fatty acid synthase has been reported in a number of cancer types. Inhibition of this enzyme has been demonstrated to induce cancer cell death and reduce tumor growth. In addition, the fatty acid synthase inhibitor drug C75 has been reported to synergistically enhance the cancer‐killing ability of ionizing radiation. However, clinical use of C75 has been limited due to its producing weight loss, believed to be caused by alterations in the activity of carnitine palmitoyltransferase‐1. C75 is administered in the form of a racemic mixture of (−) and (+) enantiomers that may differ in their regulation of fatty acid synthase and carnitine palmitoyltransferase‐1. Therefore, we assessed the relative cancer‐killing potency of different enantiomeric forms of C75 in prostate cancer cells. These results suggest that (−)‐C75 is the more cytotoxic enantiomer and has greater radiosensitizing capacity than (+)‐C75. These observations will stimulate the development of fatty acid synthase inhibitors that are selective for cancer cells and enhance the tumor‐killing activity of ionizing radiation, while minimizing weight loss in cancer patients. PMID:27901292

  8. Mutagenesis of aspartic acid-116 enhances the ribonucleolytic activity and angiogenic potency of angiogenin.

    PubMed Central

    Harper, J W; Vallee, B L

    1988-01-01

    Site-specific mutagenesis of the blood vessel-inducing protein angiogenin has been used to further explore both its homology to pancreatic ribonuclease and the functional roles of particular residues. Replacement of Asp-116 in angiogenin by either asparagine (D116N), alanine (D116A), or histidine (D116H) markedly enhances both its ribonucleolytic activity and angiogenic potency. Activity toward tRNA is 8-, 15-, and 18-fold greater than native angiogenin for D116N-, D116A-, and D116H-angiogenin, respectively. The enzymatic specificity of angiogenin, however, has been maintained. Thus, cleavage of 18S and 28S rRNA by the most active His-116 mutant yields the same pattern of polynucleotide products as from angiogenin, whereas there are only minor alterations in activity with cytidylyl(3',5')adenosine and uridylyl(3',5')-adenosine. Extensive biological assays on the chicken embryo chorioallantoic membrane demonstrate that D116H-angiogenin is one to two orders of magnitude more potent in inducing neovascularization than native angiogenin, which correlates well with enhanced enzymatic action. These results support the proposition that the enzymatic and angiogenic activities on angiogenin are interrelated. PMID:2459697

  9. Differentiation-stimulating potency of differentiated HL60 cells after drug treatment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Cong; Zhang, Qun; Gou, Bao-Di; Zhang, Tian-Lan; Wang, Kui

    2014-06-01

    Differentiation therapy in the treatment of leukemia is often hampered by limitations on using certain pharmaceutical regents or on the required doses due to various reasons, such as drug-resistance and retinoic acid syndrome. To circumvent these problems, a strategy might be developed on the basis of the ability of drug-differentiated cells to stimulate differentiation in leukemia cells. Using the promyelocytic leukemia cell line HL60 as a cell model, we assessed the differentiation-stimulating potency of differentiated granulocytes and monocytes/macrophages after treatments with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), respectively. ATRA- and TPA-differentiated cells were able to stimulate differentiation in fresh HL60 cells, accompanied by inhibition on cell growth to various extents. The differentiated cells of the second generation, especially those originated from TPA treatment, were as potent as the drugs themselves in stimulating differentiation in fresh HL60 cells. On the basis of "differentiation induced by differentiated cells", we explored the feasibility of ex vivo therapy.

  10. Mixtures of Complete and pif1- and pif2-Deficient Genotypes Are Required for Increased Potency of an Insect Nucleopolyhedrovirus▿

    PubMed Central

    Clavijo, Gabriel; Williams, Trevor; Simón, Oihane; Muñoz, Delia; Cerutti, Martine; López-Ferber, Miguel; Caballero, Primitivo

    2009-01-01

    The insecticidal potency of a nucleopolyhedrovirus population (SfNIC) that infects Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera) is greater than the potency of any of the component genotypes alone. Occlusion bodies (OBs) produced in mixed infections comprising the complete genotype and a deletion genotype are as pathogenic as the natural population of genotypes from the field. To test whether this increased potency was due to the deletion or to some other characteristic of the deletion variant genome, we used the SfNIC-B genome to construct a recombinant virus (SfNIC-BΔ16K) with the same 16.4-kb deletion as that observed in SfNIC-C and another recombinant (SfNIC-BΔpifs) with a deletion encompassing two adjacent genes (pif1 and pif2) that are essential for transmission per os. Mixtures comprising SfNIC-B and SfNIC-BΔ16K in OB ratios that varied between 10:90 and 90:10 were injected into insects, and the progeny OBs were fed to larvae in an insecticidal potency assay. A densitometric analysis of PCR products indicated that SfNIC-B was generally more abundant than expected in mixtures based on the proportions of OBs used to produce the inocula. Mixtures derived from OB ratios of 10, 25, or 50% of SfNIC-BΔ16K and the corresponding SfNIC-B proportions showed a significant increase in potency compared to SfNIC-B alone. The results of potency assays with mixtures comprising various proportions of SfNIC-B plus SfNIC-BΔpifs were almost identical to the results observed with SfNIC-BΔ16K, indicating that deletion of the pif gene region was responsible for the increased potency observed in mixtures of SfNIC-B and each deletion recombinant virus. Subsequently, mixtures produced from OB ratios involving 10 or 90% of SfNIC-BΔ16K with the corresponding proportions of SfNIC-B were subjected to four rounds of per os transmission in larvae. The composition of each experimental mixture rapidly converged to a common equilibrium with a genotypic composition of ∼85% SfNIC-B plus ∼15% Sf

  11. Effect of structure on potency and selectivity in 2,6-disubstituted 4-(2-arylethenyl)phenol lipoxygenase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Lazer, E S; Wong, H C; Wegner, C D; Graham, A G; Farina, P R

    1990-07-01

    A series of 2,6-disubstituted 4-(2-arylethenyl)phenols with potent human neutrophil 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) inhibiting activity (IC50S in the 10(-7) M range) and weaker human platelet cyclooxygenase (CO) inhibiting activity (IC50S in the 10(-6) M range) is described. This series evolved from the chemical modification of an antiinflammatory dual CO/5-LO inhibitor, 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-[2-(3-pyridyl)ethenyl]phenol (BI-L-93 BS). The potency and selectivity for 5-LO inhibition is greatly influenced by the nature of the substituents in the 2- and 6-positions. Other structure-activity relationships that determine relative 5-LO and CO potency are discussed. In vivo activity against antigen-induced leukotriene-mediated bronchoconstriction and cell influx in guinea pigs is presented. Representatives of the series are active when administered at 30 mg/kg ip.

  12. Structural insights into monoamine oxidase inhibitory potency and selectivity of 7-substituted coumarins from ligand- and target-based approaches.

    PubMed

    Catto, Marco; Nicolotti, Orazio; Leonetti, Francesco; Carotti, Andrea; Favia, Angelo Danilo; Soto-Otero, Ramón; Méndez-Alvarez, Estefanía; Carotti, Angelo

    2006-08-10

    A new series of 3-, 4-, 7-polysubstituted coumarins have been designed and evaluated for their monoamine oxidase A and monoamine oxidase B (MAO-A and MAO-B) inhibitory potency. Substituents at position 7 consisted of a bridge of different physicochemical nature linking a phenyl ring to the coumarin scaffold. Structure-affinity and structure-selectivity relationships, derived through CoMFA-GOLPE and docking studies, revealed the key physicochemical interactions responsible for the observed MAO-B and MAO-A inhibitory potency and suggested the main structural determinants for high selectivity toward one of the two enzymatic isoforms. The predictive power of our models was proved with the design of a new inhibitor demonstrating an outstanding MAO-B affinity (pIC50 = 8.29) and the highest MAO-B selectivity (DeltapIC50 = 3.39) within the entire series of ligands examined herein.

  13. Collaborative study for the validation of serological methods for potency testing of diphtheria toxoid vaccines-part 1.

    PubMed

    Winsnes, R; Sesardic, D; Daas, A; Behr-Gross, M-E

    2004-01-01

    A collaborative study on the evaluation of an alternative functional assay, the Vero cell method, to the Ph. Eur. in vivo challenge procedures for potency determination of diphtheria toxoid in 6 different combined vaccines was initiated in January 2001. The study was an extension of a previous study for the validation of serological methods for potency testing of tetanus toxoid vaccines for human use. To allow interim evaluation of test results and to monitor study progress, the project was divided into three consecutive phases. The results of Phase I and II studies are presented in this report. Pre-validation (Phase I) study, performed in two laboratories, indicated that comparable diphtheria potency estimates were obtained in the Ph. Eur. direct intradermal challenge assay in guinea pigs, in Vero cell assay and in indirect ELISA for five vaccines of different potencies (range of estimates: ca. 20-200 IU/ml). The correlation coefficients between the challenge assay and the Vero cell assay corresponded to those between the challenge assay and ELISA, confirming that the antibodies play an important role in protection and that predominantly protective/neutralising antibodies are present in guinea pigs, at the time point investigated. It was observed, for Vero cell assays, that about 16-35 (9-28 in Phase II study) fold lower titre of individual serum samples were obtained when using equine, rather than guinea pig reference serum. The study also provided preliminary information that sera from the same guinea pigs may be used for potency determination of both diphtheria and tetanus toxoid components of vaccines. In Phase II, another five laboratories analysed a subset of the vaccines included in Phase I study plus an additional vaccine. Four laboratories performed the lethal challenge assay and one laboratory carried out the intradermal challenge assay. All laboratories also performed the Vero cell assay and both ELISA for diphtheria antitoxin and ELISA for tetanus

  14. CNS depressants accelerate the dissociation of /sup 35/S-TBPS binding and GABA enhances their displacing potencies

    SciTech Connect

    Maksay, G.; Ticku, M.K.

    1988-01-01

    The specific binding of /sup 35/S-t-butylbicyclophosphorothionate (TBPS) was studied in synaptosomal membranes of rat cerebral cortex. The displacing potencies of eleven CNS depressants and three convulsants were determined in the presence of 1 /sup +/M GABA and 10 nM R 5135. GABA enhanced the displacing potencies of depressants of most diverse chemical structures: diaryltriazine (LY 81067), pyrazolopyridine (etazolate), cinnamide, glutarimide, 2,3-benzodiazepine (tofizopam) and alcohol derivatives, barbiturates, (+)etomidate, methaqualone and meprobamate. In contrast, the IC/sub 50/ values of convulsants (picrotoxinin, pentetrazol and the barbiturate enantiomer S(+)MPPB) were not significantly affected. The depressants accelerated either basal or GABA-augmented dissociation of /sup 35/-TBPS mainly by increasing the contribution of its rapid first phase.

  15. Assessing the potency of oral polio vaccine kept outside of the cold chain during a national immunization campaign in Chad.

    PubMed

    Zipursky, Simona; Boualam, Liliane; Cheikh, Dah Ould; Fournier-Caruana, Jacqueline; Hamid, Djabar; Janssen, Mathias; Kartoglu, Umit; Waeterloos, Genevieve; Ronveaux, Olivier

    2011-08-05

    This study is the first systematic documentation of the potency of monovalent oral polio vaccine type 3 (mOPV3) kept at ambient temperatures during a polio immunization campaign in Chad. During the study test vials were exposed to temperatures of up to 47.1 °C, and kept outside of the 2-8 °C range for a maximum of 86.9 hours. Post-campaign laboratory testing confirmed that the test vials were still potent, and in conformity with the defined release specifications. Further, the Vaccine Vial Monitors performed as expected, giving an early warning indication of when cumulative exposure to heat reached levels that may have negatively affected the vaccine's potency. This study provides proof-of-concept evidence that certain types of OPV remain potent and thus can be kept, for limited periods of time, as well as administered at ambient temperatures.

  16. Product-specific validation of a serological potency test for release of Leptospira vaccines in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Stirling, Catrina; Novokova, Viera

    2013-09-01

    Historically in the European Union, all Leptospira vaccines were released using the European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.) hamster potency assay. Recently, there has been a shift toward alternatives that offer either refinement of testing or replacement of animals for product release. This is being driven by animal welfare concerns but also by a drive to have more consistent, cheaper, and faster batch release tests. This publication discusses one such example of a multicomponent canine vaccine that includes three Leptospira serovars and has recently been registered in the European Union. The potency release test is a refinement because it uses rabbit serology rather than hamster challenge. This publication covers the principles of the test method, challenges faced during its development and registration, and discussion about benefits and limitations of this method. It concludes with a view of how the use of serology testing could fit into an overall strategy to move to fully in vitro testing by adopting a consistency approach.

  17. Two routes to actorhood: lexicalized potency to act and identification of the actor role.

    PubMed

    Frenzel, Sabine; Schlesewsky, Matthias; Bornkessel-Schlesewsky, Ina

    2015-01-01

    The inference of causality is a crucial cognitive ability and language processing is no exception: recent research suggests that, across different languages, the human language comprehension system attempts to identify the primary causer of the state of affairs described (the "actor") quickly and unambiguously (Bornkessel-Schlesewsky and Schlesewsky, 2009). This identification can take place verb-independently based on certain prominence cues (e.g., case, word order, animacy). Here, we present two experiments demonstrating that actor potential is also encoded at the level of individual nouns (a king is a better actor than a beggar). Experiment 1 collected ratings for 180 German nouns on 12 scales defined by adjective oppositions and deemed relevant for actorhood potential. By means of structural equation modeling, an actor potential (ACT) value was calculated for each noun. Experiment 2, an event-related potential study, embedded nouns from Experiment 1 in verb-final sentences, in which they were either actors or non-actors. N400 amplitude increased with decreasing ACT values and this modulation was larger for highly frequent nouns and for actor versus non-actor nouns. We argue that potency to act is lexically encoded for individual nouns and, since it modulates the N400 even for non-actor participants, it should be viewed as a property that modulates ease of lexical access (akin, for example, to lexical frequency). We conclude that two separate dimensions of actorhood computation are crucial to language comprehension: an experience-based, lexically encoded (bottom-up) representation of actorhood potential, and a prominence-based, computational mechanism for calculating goodness-of-fit to the actor role in a particular (top-down) sentence context.

  18. Effects of Formulation on Microbicide Potency and Mitigation of the Development of Bacterial Insusceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Cowley, Nicola L.; Forbes, Sarah; Amézquita, Alejandro; McClure, Peter; Humphreys, Gavin J.

    2015-01-01

    Risk assessments of the potential for microbicides to select for reduced bacterial susceptibility have been based largely on data generated through the exposure of bacteria to microbicides in aqueous solution. Since microbicides are normally formulated with multiple excipients, we have investigated the effect of formulation on antimicrobial activity and the induction of bacterial insusceptibility. We tested 8 species of bacteria (7 genera) before and after repeated exposure (14 passages), using a previously validated gradient plating system, for their susceptibilities to the microbicides benzalkonium chloride, benzisothiozolinone, chlorhexidine, didecyldimethyl ammonium chloride, DMDM-hydantoin, polyhexamethylene biguanide, thymol, and triclosan in aqueous solution (nonformulated) and in formulation with excipients often deployed in consumer products. Susceptibilities were also assessed following an additional 14 passages without microbicide to determine the stability of any susceptibility changes. MICs and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC) were on average 11-fold lower for formulated microbicides than for nonformulated microbicides. After exposure to the antimicrobial compounds, of 72 combinations of microbicide and bacterium there were 19 ≥4-fold (mean, 8-fold) increases in MIC for nonformulated and 8 ≥4-fold (mean, 2-fold) increases in MIC for formulated microbicides. Furthermore, there were 20 ≥4-fold increases in MBC (mean, 8-fold) for nonformulated and 10 ≥4-fold (mean, 2-fold) increases in MBC for formulated microbicides. Susceptibility decreases fully or partially reverted back to preexposure values for 49% of MICs and 72% of MBCs after further passage. In summary, formulated microbicides exhibited greater antibacterial potency than unformulated actives and susceptibility decreases after repeated exposure were lower in frequency and extent. PMID:26253662

  19. Human 15-LOX-1 active site mutations alter inhibitor binding and decrease potency.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Michelle; van Hoorebeke, Christopher; Horn, Thomas; Deschamps, Joshua; Freedman, J Cody; Kalyanaraman, Chakrapani; Jacobson, Matthew P; Holman, Theodore

    2016-11-01

    Human 15-lipoxygenase-1 (h15-LOX-1 or h12/15-LOX) reacts with polyunsaturated fatty acids and produces bioactive lipid derivatives that are implicated in many important human diseases. One such disease is stroke, which is the fifth leading cause of death and the first leading cause of disability in America. The discovery of h15-LOX-1 inhibitors could potentially lead to novel therapeutics in the treatment of stroke, however, little is known about the inhibitor/active site interaction. This study utilizes site-directed mutagenesis, guided in part by molecular modeling, to gain a better structural understanding of inhibitor interactions within the active site. We have generated eight mutants (R402L, R404L, F414I, F414W, E356Q, Q547L, L407A, I417A) of h15-LOX-1 to determine whether these active site residues interact with two h15-LOX-1 inhibitors, ML351 and an ML094 derivative, compound 18. IC50 values and steady-state inhibition kinetics were determined for the eight mutants, with four of the mutants affecting inhibitor potency relative to wild type h15-LOX-1 (F414I, F414W, E356Q and L407A). The data indicate that ML351 and compound 18, bind in a similar manner in the active site to an aromatic pocket close to F414 but have subtle differences in their specific binding modes. This information establishes the binding mode for ML094 and ML351 and will be leveraged to develop next-generation inhibitors.

  20. Dual allosteric modulation of opioid antinociceptive potency by α2A-adrenoceptors.

    PubMed

    Chabot-Doré, Anne-Julie; Millecamps, Magali; Naso, Lina; Devost, Dominic; Trieu, Phan; Piltonen, Marjo; Diatchenko, Luda; Fairbanks, Carolyn A; Wilcox, George L; Hébert, Terence E; Stone, Laura S

    2015-12-01

    Opioid and α2-adrenoceptor (AR) agonists are analgesic when administered in the spinal cord and show a clinically beneficial synergistic interaction when co-administered. However, α2-AR antagonists can also inhibit opioid antinociception, suggesting a complex interaction between the two systems. The α2A-AR subtype is necessary for spinal adrenergic analgesia and synergy with opioids for most agonist combinations. Therefore, we investigated whether spinal opioid antinociception and opioid-adrenergic synergy were under allosteric control of the α2A-AR. Drugs were administered intrathecally in wild type (WT) and α2A-knock-out (KO) mice and antinociception was measured using the hot water tail immersion or substance P behavioral assays. The α2A-AR agonist clonidine was less effective in α2A-KO mice in both assays. The absence of the α2A-AR resulted in 10-70-fold increases in the antinociceptive potency of the opioid agonists morphine and DeltII. In contrast, neither morphine nor DeltII synergized with clonidine in α2A-KO mice, indicating that the α2AAR has both positive and negative modulatory effects on opioid antinociception. Depletion of descending adrenergic terminals with 6-OHDA resulted in a significant decrease in morphine efficacy in WT but not in α2A-KO mice, suggesting that endogenous norepinephrine acts through the α2A-AR to facilitate morphine antinociception. Based on these findings, we propose a model whereby ligand-occupied versus ligand-free α2A-AR produce distinct patterns of modulation of opioid receptor activation. In this model, agonist-occupied α2A-ARs potentiate opioid analgesia, while non-occupied α2A-ARs inhibit opioid analgesia. Exploiting such interactions between the two receptors could lead to the development of better pharmacological treatments for pain management.

  1. Dual allosteric modulation of opioid antinociceptive potency by a2A-adrenoceptors

    PubMed Central

    Chabot-Doré, Anne-Julie; Millecamps, Magali; Naso, Lina; Devost, Dominic; Trieu, Phan; Piltonen, Marjo; Diatchenko, Luda; Fairbanks, Carolyn A.; Wilcox, George L.; Hébert, Terence E.; Stone, Laura S.

    2015-01-01

    Opioid and α2-adrenoceptor (AR) agonists are analgesic when administered in the spinal cord and show a clinically beneficial synergistic interaction when co-administered. However, α2-AR antagonists can also inhibit opioid antinociception, suggesting a complex interaction between the two systems. The α2A-AR subtype is necessary for spinal adrenergic analgesia and synergy with opioids for most agonist combinations. Therefore, we investigated whether spinal opioid antinociception and opioid-adrenergic synergy were under allosteric control of the α2A-AR. Drugs were administered intrathecally in wild type (WT) and α2A-knock-out (KO) mice and antinociception was measured using hot water tail immersion or substance P behavioral assays. The α2A-AR agonist clonidine was less effective in α2A-KO mice in both assays. The absence of the α2A-AR resulted in 10–70-fold increases in the antinociceptive potency of the opioid agonists morphine and DeltII. In contrast, neither morphine nor DeltII synergized with clonidine in α2AKO mice, indicating that the α2AAR has both positive and negative modulatory effects on opioid antinociception. Depletion of descending adrenergic terminals with 6-OHDA resulted in a significant decrease in morphine efficacy in WT but not in α2A-KO mice, suggesting that endogenous norepinephrine acts through the α2A-AR to facilitate morphine antinociception. Based on these findings, we propose a model whereby ligand-occupied versus ligand-free α2A-AR produce distinct patterns of modulation of opioid receptor activation. In this model, agonist-occupied α2A-ARs potentiate opioid analgesia, while non-occupied α2A-ARs inhibit opioid analgesia. Exploiting such interactions between the two receptors could lead to the development of better pharmacological treatments for pain management. PMID:26254859

  2. Simple and Rapid Method To Determine Antimycobacterial Potency of Compounds by Using Autoluminescent Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Sreevalli; Gelman, Ekaterina; Narayan, Chandan; Bhattacharjee, Deepa; Achar, Vijayashree; Humnabadkar, Vaishali; Balasubramanian, V.; Ramachandran, Vasanthi

    2014-01-01

    A major obstacle in the process of discovery of drugs against Mycobacterium tuberculosis is its extremely slow growth rate and long generation time (∼20 to 24 h). Consequently, determination of MICs and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) of potential drug candidates using current methods requires 7 days (resazurin-based MIC assay [REMA]) and 1 month (CFU enumeration), respectively. We employed a synthetic luciferase operon optimized for expression in high-GC-content bacteria and adapted it for use in mycobacteria. Using luminescence-based readouts, we were able to determine the MICs and bactericidal activities of approved tuberculosis (TB) drugs, which correlated well with currently used methods. Although luminescence-based readouts have been used previously to determine the MICs and bactericidal activities of approved TB drugs, in this study we adapted this assay to carry out a pilot screen using a library of 1,114 compounds belonging to diverse chemical scaffolds. We found that MICs derived from a 3-day luminescence assay matched well with REMA-based MIC values. To determine the bactericidal potencies of compounds, a 1:10 dilution of the cultures from the MIC plate was carried out on day 7, and the bactericidal concentrations determined based on time to positivity in 2 weeks were found to be comparable with MBC values determined by the conventional CFU approach. Thus, the luminescent mycobacterium-based approach not only is very simple and inexpensive but also allowed us to generate the information in half the time required by conventional methods. PMID:25049243

  3. Stem cells expanded from the human embryonic hindbrain stably retain regional specification and high neurogenic potency.

    PubMed

    Tailor, Jignesh; Kittappa, Raja; Leto, Ketty; Gates, Monte; Borel, Melodie; Paulsen, Ole; Spitzer, Sonia; Karadottir, Ragnhildur Thora; Rossi, Ferdinando; Falk, Anna; Smith, Austin

    2013-07-24

    Stem cell lines that faithfully maintain the regional identity and developmental potency of progenitors in the human brain would create new opportunities in developmental neurobiology and provide a resource for generating specialized human neurons. However, to date, neural progenitor cultures derived from the human brain have either been short-lived or exhibit restricted, predominantly glial, differentiation capacity. Pluripotent stem cells are an alternative source, but to ascertain definitively the identity and fidelity of cell types generated solely in vitro is problematic. Here, we show that hindbrain neuroepithelial stem (hbNES) cells can be derived and massively expanded from early human embryos (week 5-7, Carnegie stage 15-17). These cell lines are propagated in adherent culture in the presence of EGF and FGF2 and retain progenitor characteristics, including SOX1 expression, formation of rosette-like structures, and high neurogenic capacity. They generate GABAergic, glutamatergic and, at lower frequency, serotonergic neurons. Importantly, hbNES cells stably maintain hindbrain specification and generate upper rhombic lip derivatives on exposure to bone morphogenetic protein (BMP). When grafted into neonatal rat brain, they show potential for integration into cerebellar development and produce cerebellar granule-like cells, albeit at low frequency. hbNES cells offer a new system to study human cerebellar specification and development and to model diseases of the hindbrain. They also provide a benchmark for the production of similar long-term neuroepithelial-like stem cells (lt-NES) from pluripotent cell lines. To our knowledge, hbNES cells are the first demonstration of highly expandable neuroepithelial stem cells derived from the human embryo without genetic immortalization.

  4. Two routes to actorhood: lexicalized potency to act and identification of the actor role

    PubMed Central

    Frenzel, Sabine; Schlesewsky, Matthias; Bornkessel-Schlesewsky, Ina

    2015-01-01

    The inference of causality is a crucial cognitive ability and language processing is no exception: recent research suggests that, across different languages, the human language comprehension system attempts to identify the primary causer of the state of affairs described (the “actor”) quickly and unambiguously (Bornkessel-Schlesewsky and Schlesewsky, 2009). This identification can take place verb-independently based on certain prominence cues (e.g., case, word order, animacy). Here, we present two experiments demonstrating that actor potential is also encoded at the level of individual nouns (a king is a better actor than a beggar). Experiment 1 collected ratings for 180 German nouns on 12 scales defined by adjective oppositions and deemed relevant for actorhood potential. By means of structural equation modeling, an actor potential (ACT) value was calculated for each noun. Experiment 2, an event-related potential study, embedded nouns from Experiment 1 in verb-final sentences, in which they were either actors or non-actors. N400 amplitude increased with decreasing ACT values and this modulation was larger for highly frequent nouns and for actor versus non-actor nouns. We argue that potency to act is lexically encoded for individual nouns and, since it modulates the N400 even for non-actor participants, it should be viewed as a property that modulates ease of lexical access (akin, for example, to lexical frequency). We conclude that two separate dimensions of actorhood computation are crucial to language comprehension: an experience-based, lexically encoded (bottom–up) representation of actorhood potential, and a prominence-based, computational mechanism for calculating goodness-of-fit to the actor role in a particular (top–down) sentence context. PMID:25688217

  5. Analysis of the potency of various low molecular weight chemical chaperones to prevent protein aggregation.

    PubMed

    Upagupta, Chandak; Carlisle, Rachel E; Dickhout, Jeffrey G

    2017-04-22

    Newly translated proteins must undergo proper folding to ensure their function. To enter a low energy state, misfolded proteins form aggregates, which are associated with many degenerative diseases, such as Huntington's disease and chronic kidney disease (CKD). Recent studies have shown the use of low molecular weight chemical chaperones to be an effective method of reducing protein aggregation in various cell types. This study demonstrates a novel non-biased assay to assess the molecular efficacy of these compounds at preventing protein misfolding and/or aggregation. This assay utilizes a thioflavin T fluorescent stain to provide a qualitative and quantitative measure of protein misfolding within cells. The functionality of this method was first assessed in renal proximal tubule epithelial cells treated with various endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress inducers. Once established in the renal model system, we analyzed the ability of some known chemical chaperones to reduce ER stress. A total of five different compounds were selected: 4-phenylbutyrate (4-PBA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), tauroursodeoxycholic acid, trehalose, and glycerol. The dose-dependent effects of these compounds at reducing thapsigargin-induced ER stress was then analyzed, and used to determine their EC50 values. Of the chaperones, 4-PBA and DHA provided the greatest reduction of ER stress and did so at relatively low concentrations. Upon analyzing the efficiency of these compounds and their corresponding structures, it was determined that chaperones with a localized hydrophilic, polar end followed by a long hydrophobic chain, such as 4-PBA and DHA, were most effective at reducing ER stress. This study provides some insight into the use of low molecular weight chemical chaperones and may serve as the first step towards developing new chaperones of greater potency thereby providing potential treatments for diseases caused by protein aggregation.

  6. Universal Survival Curve and Single Fraction Equivalent Dose: Useful Tools in Understanding Potency of Ablative Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Clint; Papiez, Lech; Zhang Shichuan; Story, Michael; Timmerman, Robert D.

    2008-03-01

    Purpose: Overprediction of the potency and toxicity of high-dose ablative radiotherapy such as stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) by the linear quadratic (LQ) model led to many clinicians' hesitating to adopt this efficacious and well-tolerated therapeutic option. The aim of this study was to offer an alternative method of analyzing the effect of SBRT by constructing a universal survival curve (USC) that provides superior approximation of the experimentally measured survival curves in the ablative, high-dose range without losing the strengths of the LQ model around the shoulder. Methods and Materials: The USC was constructed by hybridizing two classic radiobiologic models: the LQ model and the multitarget model. We have assumed that the LQ model gives a good description for conventionally fractionated radiotherapy (CFRT) for the dose to the shoulder. For ablative doses beyond the shoulder, the survival curve is better described as a straight line as predicted by the multitarget model. The USC smoothly interpolates from a parabola predicted by the LQ model to the terminal asymptote of the multitarget model in the high-dose region. From the USC, we derived two equivalence functions, the biologically effective dose and the single fraction equivalent dose for both CFRT and SBRT. Results: The validity of the USC was tested by using previously published parameters of the LQ and multitarget models for non-small-cell lung cancer cell lines. A comparison of the goodness-of-fit of the LQ and USC models was made to a high-dose survival curve of the H460 non-small-cell lung cancer cell line. Conclusion: The USC can be used to compare the dose fractionation schemes of both CFRT and SBRT. The USC provides an empirically and a clinically well-justified rationale for SBRT while preserving the strengths of the LQ model for CFRT.

  7. Quantitative structure-mesothelioma potency model optimization for complex mixtures of elongated particles in rat pleura: A retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Cook, Philip M; Swintek, Joseph; Dawson, Timothy D; Chapman, David; Etterson, Mathew A; Hoff, Dale

    2016-01-01

    Cancer potencies of mineral and synthetic elongated particle mixtures, including asbestos fibers, are influenced by changes in fiber dose composition, bioavailability, and biodurability in combination with relevant cytotoxic dose-response relationships. An extensive rat intrapleural dose characterization data set with a wide variety of elongated particles physicochemical properties facilitated statistical analyses of pleural mesothelioma response data combined from several studies for evaluation of alternative dose-response models. Utilizing logistic regression of individual elongated particle dimensional variations within each test sample, four major findings emerged: (1) Mild acid leaching provides superior prediction of tumor incidence compared to samples that were not leached; (2) sum of the elongated particle surface areas from mildly acid-leached samples provides the optimum holistic dose-response model; (3) progressive removal of dose associated with very short and/or thin elongated particles significantly degrades the resultant particle count and surface area dose-based predictive model fits; and (4) alternative biologically plausible model adjustments provide evidence for reduced potency of elongated particles with aspect ratios less than 8 and lengths greater than 80 µm. Regardless of these adjustments, the optimum predictive models strongly incorporate potency attributable to abundant short elongated particles in proportion to their surface area. Transmission electron microscopy analyses of low-temperature-ashed pleural membrane and lung tissues 5.5 mo post intrapleural exposures do not support hypotheses that short elongated particles that reach the pleural space are rapidly eliminated. Low-aspect-ratio elongated particles were still abundant in pleural membrane tissues but may have reduced potencies due to aggregation tendencies and therefore lower potential for intracellular presence.

  8. EFFICACY AND POTENCY OF CLASS I ANTIARRHYTHMIC DRUGS FOR SUPPRESSION OF Ca2+ WAVES IN PERMEABILIZED MYOCYTES LACKING CALSEQUESTRIN

    PubMed Central

    Galimberti, Eleonora Savio; Knollmann, Bjorn C.

    2011-01-01

    Background Ca2+ waves can trigger ventricular arrhythmias such as catecholaminergic-polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT). Drugs that prevent Ca2+ waves may have antiarrhythmic properties. Here, we use permeabilized ventricular myocytes from a CPVT mouse model lacking calsequestrin (casq2) to screen all clinically available class I antiarrhythmic drugs and selected other antiarrhythmic agents for activity against Ca2+ waves. Methods and Results Casq2−/− myocytes were imaged in line-scan mode and the following Ca2+ wave parameters analyzed: wave incidence, amplitude, frequency, and propagation speed. IC50 (potency) and maximum inhibition (efficacy) were calculated for each drug. Drugs fell into 3 distinct categories. Category 1 drugs (flecainide, R-propafenone) suppressed wave parameters with the highest potency (IC50 < 10 μM) and efficacy (> 50% maximum wave inhibition). Category 2 drugs (encainide, quinidine, lidocaine, verapamil) had intermediate potency (IC50 20 μ 40 μM) and efficacy (20% - 40% maximum wave inhibition). Category 3 drugs (procainamide, disopyramide, mexilitine, cibenzoline, ranolazine) had no significant effects on Ca2+ waves at the highest concentration tested (100 μM). Propafenone was stereoselective, with R-propafenone suppressing waves more potently than S-propafenone (IC50: R-propafenone 2±0.2 μM vs. S-propafenone 54±18 μM). Both flecainide and R-propafenone decreased Ca2+ spark mass and converted propagated Ca2+ waves into non-propagated wavelets and frequent sparks, suggesting that reduction in spark mass, not spark frequency, was responsible for wave suppression. Conclusions Among all class I antiarrhythmic drugs, flecainide and R-propafenone inhibit Ca2+ waves with the highest potency and efficacy. Permeabilized casq2−/− myocytes are a simple in-vitro assay for finding drugs with activity against Ca2+ waves. PMID:21798265

  9. Clonal analysis of the proliferation potential of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells as a function of potency.

    PubMed

    Russell, Katie C; Lacey, Michelle R; Gilliam, Jennifer K; Tucker, H Alan; Phinney, Donald G; O'Connor, Kim C

    2011-11-01

    Human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from bone marrow are a heterogeneous ensemble of progenitors and lineage-committed cells, with a broad range of regenerative properties. Ex vivo expansion to produce sufficient quantities of MSCs is essential for most therapeutic applications. The present study resolves the relationship between proliferation potential of MSCs and their potency. Clonal analysis generated single-cell derived colonies of MSCs that were classified according to their trilineage potential to exhibit adipo- (A), chondro- (C), and osteogenesis (O) as a measure of potency. Multipotent OAC clones were highly proliferative with colony-forming efficiencies that ranged from 35% to 90%; whereas, O clones formed colonies with an efficiency of 5% or less (P < 0.01). Similar trends were evident during ex vivo expansion: for example, the median specific growth rate was 0.8  day(-1) (20 h doubling time) for cultures inoculated with OAC clones and was 5-fold less for inocula of O clones (P < 0.01). OA and OC clones had similar proliferation potentials. More than 75% of cells in subconfluent cultures inoculated with O clones stained positive for senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity vs. less than 10% for OAC clones (P < 0.001). Apoptotic cells were in the minority for all potency groups. Preliminary data generated during clonal analysis suggest that osteogenic potential of MSCs to produce mineralized matrix is a function of potency, as well. These results are discussed in the context of the preparation of efficacious MSC therapies by ex vivo expansion.

  10. Relative potencies of the four stereoisomers of isomalathion for inhibition of hen brain acetylcholinesterase and neurotoxic esterase in vitro.

    PubMed

    Jianmongkol, S; Berkman, C E; Thompson, C M; Richardson, R J

    1996-08-01

    The cholinergic toxicity of malathion is exacerbated by its isomerization product, isomalathion, which inhibits detoxifying carboxylesterases as well as target acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Previous work has shown that the four stereoisomers of isomalathion, (1R, 3R), (1R, 3S), (1S, 3R), and (1S, 3S), differ in their inhibitory potencies against either rat brain or electric eel AChE. The present study examined the relative inhibitory potencies of these stereoisomers and the totally racemic mixture (1RS, 3RS) against hen brain AChE and neurotoxic esterase (NTE) to provide new data on stereoselective inhibition of neurotoxicologically significant esterases and to assess the potential of these compounds to cause organophosphorus (OP) compound-induced delayed neurotoxicity (OPIDN). The order of potencies against hen brain AChE was (1R, 3R) > (1R, 3S) > (1RS, 3RS) > (1S, 3R) > (1S, 3S), with a 15-fold difference between the strongest (ki = 388 mM-1 min-1; 20 min I50 = 89.3 nM) and weakest (ki = 25.6 mM-1 min-1; 20 min I50 = 1354 nM) inhibitors. Both asymmetric centers contributed substantially and interdependently to inhibitory potency, but the effect of changing the configuration at phosphorus alone was greater than changing the configuration at carbon alone. None of the isomalathions was an effective inhibitor of hen brain NTE (extrapolated 20 min I50 values were 1.2 to 29 mM), yielding NTE/ AChE I50 ratios (neuropathy target ratios, NTRs) of 1.5 x 10(3) to 1.5 x 10(5). NTRs of this magnitude indicate that none of the isomalathions should initiate OPIDN, even after doses greatly exceeding the LD50. Therefore, reports of OPIDN or other neuropathic sequelae associated with malathion exposures in humans cannot be explained on the basis of NTE inhibition by contaminating isomalathions.

  11. 'In-Format' screening of a novel bispecific antibody format reveals significant potency improvements relative to unformatted molecules.

    PubMed

    Scott, Martin J; Lee, Jennifer A; Wake, Matthew S; Batt, Kelly V; Wattam, Trevor A; Hiles, Ian D; Batuwangala, Thil D; Ashman, Claire I; Steward, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Bispecific antibodies (BsAbs) are emerging as an important class of biopharmaceutical. The majority of BsAbs are created from conventional antibodies or fragments engineered into more complex configurations. A recurring challenge in their development, however, is the identification of components that are optimised for inclusion in the final format in order to deliver both efficacy and robust biophysical properties. Using a modular BsAb format, the mAb-dAb, we assessed whether an 'in-format' screening approach, designed to select format-compatible domain antibodies, could expedite lead discovery. Human nerve growth factor (NGF) was selected as an antigen to validate the approach; domain antibody (dAb) libraries were screened, panels of binders identified, and binding affinities and potencies compared for selected dAbs and corresponding mAb-dAbs. A number of dAbs that exhibited high potency (IC50) when assessed in-format were identified. In contrast, the corresponding dAb monomers had ∼1000-fold lower potency than the formatted dAbs; such dAb monomers would therefore have been omitted from further characterization. Subsequent stoichiometric analyses of mAb-dAbs bound to NGF, or an additional target antigen (vascular endothelial growth factor), suggested different target binding modes; this indicates that the observed potency improvements cannot be attributed simply to an avidity effect offered by the mAb-dAb format. We conclude that, for certain antigens, screening naïve selection outputs directly in-format enables the identification of a subset of format-compatible dAbs, and that this offers substantial benefits in terms of molecular properties and development time.

  12. Bayesian integrated testing strategy (ITS) for skin sensitization potency assessment: a decision support system for quantitative weight of evidence and adaptive testing strategy.

    PubMed

    Jaworska, Joanna S; Natsch, Andreas; Ryan, Cindy; Strickland, Judy; Ashikaga, Takao; Miyazawa, Masaaki

    2015-12-01

    The presented Bayesian network Integrated Testing Strategy (ITS-3) for skin sensitization potency assessment is a decision support system for a risk assessor that provides quantitative weight of evidence, leading to a mechanistically interpretable potency hypothesis, and formulates adaptive testing strategy for a chemical. The system was constructed with an aim to improve precision and accuracy for predicting LLNA potency beyond ITS-2 (Jaworska et al., J Appl Toxicol 33(11):1353-1364, 2013) by improving representation of chemistry and biology. Among novel elements are corrections for bioavailability both in vivo and in vitro as well as consideration of the individual assays' applicability domains in the prediction process. In ITS-3 structure, three validated alternative assays, DPRA, KeratinoSens and h-CLAT, represent first three key events of the adverse outcome pathway for skin sensitization. The skin sensitization potency prediction is provided as a probability distribution over four potency classes. The probability distribution is converted to Bayes factors to: 1) remove prediction bias introduced by the training set potency distribution and 2) express uncertainty in a quantitative manner, allowing transparent and consistent criteria to accept a prediction. The novel ITS-3 database includes 207 chemicals with a full set of in vivo and in vitro data. The accuracy for predicting LLNA outcomes on the external test set (n = 60) was as follows: hazard (two classes)-100 %, GHS potency classification (three classes)-96 %, potency (four classes)-89 %. This work demonstrates that skin sensitization potency prediction based on data from three key events, and often less, is possible, reliable over broad chemical classes and ready for practical applications.

  13. Developing tools for risk assessment in protected species: relative potencies inferred from competitive binding of halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons to aryl hydrocarbon receptors from beluga (Delphinapterus leucas) and mouse

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Brenda A.; Reddy, Christopher M.; Nelson, Robert K.; Hahn, Mark E.

    2011-01-01

    Persistent organic pollutants such as halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (HAHs) biomagnify in food webs and accumulate to high concentrations in top predators like odontocete cetaceans (toothed whales). The most toxic HAHs are the 2,3,7,8-substituted halogenated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans, and non-ortho-substituted polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), which exert their effects via the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR). Understanding the impact of HAHs in wildlife is limited by the lack of taxon-specific information about the relative potencies of toxicologically important congeners. To assess whether Toxic Equivalency Factors (TEFs) determined in rodents are predictive of HAH relative potencies in a cetacean, we used beluga and mouse AHRs expressed in vitro from cloned cDNAs to measure the relative AHR-binding affinities of ten HAHs from five different structural classes. The rank order of mean IC50s for competitive binding to beluga AHR was: TCDDhigher affinity than the mouse AHR for most of the HAHs tested, consistent with the ~2-fold higher [3H]TCDD-binding affinity determined previously. These results are consistent with the World Health Organization mammalian TEFs for non- and mono-ortho PCB congeners. The comparatively high HAH binding affinities of the beluga AHR relative to those of an AHR from a dioxin-responsive mouse suggests that beluga, and perhaps cetaceans in general, may be particularly sensitive to the toxic effects of AHR agonists. Further study is warranted in order to more fully address this important question affecting protected and endangered species. PMID:20728228

  14. Developing tools for risk assessment in protected species: Relative potencies inferred from competitive binding of halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons to aryl hydrocarbon receptors from beluga (Delphinapterus leucas) and mouse.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Brenda A; Reddy, Christopher M; Nelson, Robert K; Hahn, Mark E

    2010-11-01

    Persistent organic pollutants such as halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (HAHs) biomagnify in food webs and accumulate to high concentrations in top predators like odontocete cetaceans (toothed whales). The most toxic HAHs are the 2,3,7,8-substituted halogenated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans, and non-ortho-substituted polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), which exert their effects via the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR). Understanding the impact of HAHs in wildlife is limited by the lack of taxon-specific information about the relative potencies of toxicologically important congeners. To assess whether Toxic Equivalency Factors (TEFs) determined in rodents are predictive of HAH relative potencies in a cetacean, we used beluga and mouse AHRs expressed in vitro from cloned cDNAs to measure the relative AHR-binding affinities of ten HAHs from five different structural classes. The rank order of mean IC(50)s for competitive binding to beluga AHR was: TCDDhigher affinity than the mouse AHR for most of the HAHs tested, consistent with the ∼2-fold higher [(3)H]TCDD binding affinity determined previously. These results are consistent with the World Health Organization mammalian TEFs for non- and mono-ortho PCB congeners. The comparatively high HAH binding affinities of the beluga AHR relative to those of an AHR from a dioxin-responsive mouse suggests that beluga, and perhaps cetaceans in general, may be particularly sensitive to the toxic effects of AHR agonists. Further study is warranted in order to more fully address this important question affecting protected and endangered species.

  15. Inhibitory effects of herbal extracts on breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) and structure-inhibitory potency relationship of isoflavonoids.

    PubMed

    Tamaki, Hirofumi; Satoh, Hiroki; Hori, Satoko; Ohtani, Hisakazu; Sawada, Yasufumi

    2010-01-01

    The inhibition of intestinal breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), which restricts the absorption of xenobiotics, may increase the systemic availability of its substrates. The aim of this study was to evaluate the inhibitory effects of herbal extracts and their constituents on BCRP-mediated transport. The inhibitory effects of 9 herbal extracts and 23 isoflavonoids, including soybean-derived isoflavones, on BCRP-mediated methotrexate (MTX) transport were evaluated using BCRP-expressing membrane vesicles. The structure-inhibitory potency relationship was investigated by multiple factor analysis. Extracts of soybean, Gymnema sylvestre, black cohosh and passion flower and rutin strongly inhibited BCRP-mediated transport of MTX at 1 mg/ml, while inhibition by chlorella, milk thistle and Siberian ginseng extracts was weak. Among the 23 isoflavonoids examined, all of which inhibited BCRP-mediated transport, coumestrol showed the most potent inhibition (IC(50)=63 nM). The inhibitory potencies of 6 isoflavonoid glucosides were 10- to 100-fold lower than those of the corresponding aglycones. The addition of a 5-hydroxyl or 6-methoxyl moiety tended to potentiate the inhibition. The inhibitory potency of daidzein was decreased 100-fold by 7-glucuronidation, but was virtually unaffected by 4'-sulfation. Thus, some herbal and dietary supplements and isoflavonoids may increase the systemic availability of BCRP substrates when concomitantly given orally.

  16. Systematic Artifacts in Support Vector Regression-Based Compound Potency Prediction Revealed by Statistical and Activity Landscape Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Balfer, Jenny; Bajorath, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    Support vector machines are a popular machine learning method for many classification tasks in biology and chemistry. In addition, the support vector regression (SVR) variant is widely used for numerical property predictions. In chemoinformatics and pharmaceutical research, SVR has become the probably most popular approach for modeling of non-linear structure-activity relationships (SARs) and predicting compound potency values. Herein, we have systematically generated and analyzed SVR prediction models for a variety of compound data sets with different SAR characteristics. Although these SVR models were accurate on the basis of global prediction statistics and not prone to overfitting, they were found to consistently mispredict highly potent compounds. Hence, in regions of local SAR discontinuity, SVR prediction models displayed clear limitations. Compared to observed activity landscapes of compound data sets, landscapes generated on the basis of SVR potency predictions were partly flattened and activity cliff information was lost. Taken together, these findings have implications for practical SVR applications. In particular, prospective SVR-based potency predictions should be considered with caution because artificially low predictions are very likely for highly potent candidate compounds, the most important prediction targets. PMID:25742011

  17. Validation and application of a rapid in vitro assay for assessing the estrogenic potency of halogenated phenolic chemicals.

    PubMed

    Körner, W; Hanf, V; Schuller, W; Bartsch, H; Zwirner, M; Hagenmaier, H

    1998-01-01

    The E-Screen assay serves as an in vitro tool for the detection of estrogenic activity of chemicals and extracts of environmental samples. Based on the induction of proliferation in human estrogen receptor-positive MCF-7 breast cancer cells we could substantially simplify the assay. As one important step of validation we applied the modified assay for testing nine known xenoestrogens. We could confirm the results of other groups assuring the reproducibility of the E-Screen assay. The results provide evidence that the E-Screen assay is suitable for determination of estradiol equivalency factors (EEFs) for environmental estrogens to rank their estrogenic potency relative to the natural estrogen 17 beta-estradiol. Further, we used the optimized proliferation test to screen nine halogenated phenolic compounds for their possible estrogenic potency. Three widely applied chemicals expressed a weak receptor-mediated estrogenic activity: the flame retardant Tetrabromo-Bisphenol-A, the disinfectant 4-chloro-3-methylphenol, and the herbicide educt 4-chloro-2-methylphenol. Their estrogenic potencies were five to six orders of magnitude lower than that of 17 beta-estradiol.

  18. A low-density DNA microchip for the detection of (anti-)estrogenic compounds and their relative potencies.

    PubMed

    Wang, Si; Rijk, Jeroen C W; Pen, Marieke J; Aarts, Jac M M J G; Peijnenburg, Ad A C M; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M; Bovee, Toine F H

    2013-04-01

    In the current study, a set of 12 reference compounds was tested in a low-density DNA microchip that contains probes for 11 different estrogen-responsive marker genes. Our results show that the seven most informative marker genes on the chip resulted in fingerprints that correctly predicted the (anti-)estrogenic activity of the model compounds except that of the negative control testosterone. Two marker genes, myeloid leukemia factor-1 interacting protein and ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2C, were even capable of correctly predicting the estrogenic potency of all five estrogen receptor (ER) agonists tested and correlated well with the potencies as determined in the MCF-7/BOS proliferation assay and the in vivo uterotrophic assay. In addition, it was demonstrated that the estrogenic responses of testosterone, both in the array tube assay and in the proliferation assay, were partially due to the conversion of testosterone into 17β-estradiol by aromatase but also due to formation of other estrogenic metabolites, the presence and estrogenic potency of which were confirmed by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis and a yeast-based reporter gene assay, respectively. It is concluded that low-density DNA microchip-based fingerprinting in MCF-7/BOS cells for estrogenicity marker genes provides a faster in vitro alternative to the current MCF-7/BOS cell proliferation assay (E-screen).

  19. Antimicrobial Peptide Potency is Facilitated by Greater Conformational Flexibility when Binding to Gram-negative Bacterial Inner Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Amos, Sarah-Beth T. A.; Vermeer, Louic S.; Ferguson, Philip M.; Kozlowska, Justyna; Davy, Matthew; Bui, Tam T.; Drake, Alex F.; Lorenz, Christian D.; Mason, A. James

    2016-01-01

    The interaction of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) with the inner membrane of Gram-negative bacteria is a key determinant of their abilities to exert diverse bactericidal effects. Here we present a molecular level understanding of the initial target membrane interaction for two cationic α-helical AMPs that share structural similarities but have a ten-fold difference in antibacterial potency towards Gram-negative bacteria. The binding and insertion from solution of pleurocidin or magainin 2 to membranes representing the inner membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, comprising a mixture of 128 anionic and 384 zwitterionic lipids, is monitored over 100 ns in all atom molecular dynamics simulations. The effects of the membrane interaction on both the peptide and lipid constituents are considered and compared with new and published experimental data obtained in the steady state. While both magainin 2 and pleurocidin are capable of disrupting bacterial membranes, the greater potency of pleurocidin is linked to its ability to penetrate within the bacterial cell. We show that pleurocidin displays much greater conformational flexibility when compared with magainin 2, resists self-association at the membrane surface and penetrates further into the hydrophobic core of the lipid bilayer. Conformational flexibility is therefore revealed as a key feature required of apparently α-helical cationic AMPs for enhanced antibacterial potency. PMID:27874065

  20. Effect of the guide strand 3'-end structure on the gene-silencing potency of asymmetric siRNA.

    PubMed

    Hong, Sun Woo; Park, June Hyun; Yun, Soyeong; Lee, Chang Han; Shin, Chanseok; Lee, Dong-ki

    2014-08-01

    siRNAs are short dsRNAs that mediate efficient target gene silencing in a sequence-specific manner. We previously developed a novel siRNA structure, called asiRNA (asymmetric siRNA), which alleviates the off-target effects associated with conventional siRNA structures without decreasing target gene silencing potency. In the present study, we explored the effect of the guide strand 3'-end structure on the gene silencing potency of asiRNA. Interestingly, asiRNAs with a 21 nt guide strand solely composed of RNA resulted in gene silencing that was more than 6-fold more efficient compared with the corresponding asiRNA guide strand harbouring a dTdT (deoxythymidine dinucleotide) at its 3'-end. We demonstrated that the molecular basis of potency of the asiRNA with a 21 nt guide strand composed solely of RNA was due to the enhanced formation of the RISC (RNA-induced silencing complex) and increased affinity towards hAgo2 (human Argonaute2). Our observations may assist researchers in designing new asiRNAs with high on-target silencing efficiency with low off-target effects, which is critical for applications in both basic research and therapeutic development.

  1. Inflammatory responses and potencies of various lipopolysaccharides from bacteria and cyanobacteria in aquatic environments and water supply systems.

    PubMed

    Ohkouchi, Yumiko; Tajima, Satoshi; Nomura, Masahiro; Itoh, Sadahiko

    2015-04-01

    Inflammatory substances derived from indigenous bacteria in aquatic environments or water systems are of great concern. Lipopolysaccharides (LPSs), one of the major inflammatory substances in water, are usually identified using Limurus amoebocyte lysate (LAL) assay on the basis of their endotoxic activity, but endotoxin levels do not accurately represent their inflammatory potency in humans. In this investigation, the cellular endotoxin contents of pure-cultured bacteria/cyanobacteria, which are frequently detected in water sources and distribution systems, and of indigenous bacteria in a river and in biologically activated carbon (BAC) effluent, were investigated. The indigenous bacteria showed the highest endotoxin contents exceeding 10(-3)EU/cell. The LPSs were then purified from those samples, and their inflammatory potencies were examined using a human monocytic cell line. The LPSs from Acinetobacter lwoffii culture, the river water, and the BAC effluent sample revealed a unique cytokine secretion pattern; they induced both IL-8 and TNF-α more strongly than the other tested bacterial LPSs. These results suggest that natural bacterial/cyanobacterial flora in aquatic environments and water distribution systems have the potential to induce relatively strong inflammatory responses in humans; therefore, further accumulation of data on water quality from the perspective of not just endotoxins but inflammatory potency is needed.

  2. Antimicrobial Peptide Potency is Facilitated by Greater Conformational Flexibility when Binding to Gram-negative Bacterial Inner Membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amos, Sarah-Beth T. A.; Vermeer, Louic S.; Ferguson, Philip M.; Kozlowska, Justyna; Davy, Matthew; Bui, Tam T.; Drake, Alex F.; Lorenz, Christian D.; Mason, A. James

    2016-11-01

    The interaction of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) with the inner membrane of Gram-negative bacteria is a key determinant of their abilities to exert diverse bactericidal effects. Here we present a molecular level understanding of the initial target membrane interaction for two cationic α-helical AMPs that share structural similarities but have a ten-fold difference in antibacterial potency towards Gram-negative bacteria. The binding and insertion from solution of pleurocidin or magainin 2 to membranes representing the inner membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, comprising a mixture of 128 anionic and 384 zwitterionic lipids, is monitored over 100 ns in all atom molecular dynamics simulations. The effects of the membrane interaction on both the peptide and lipid constituents are considered and compared with new and published experimental data obtained in the steady state. While both magainin 2 and pleurocidin are capable of disrupting bacterial membranes, the greater potency of pleurocidin is linked to its ability to penetrate within the bacterial cell. We show that pleurocidin displays much greater conformational flexibility when compared with magainin 2, resists self-association at the membrane surface and penetrates further into the hydrophobic core of the lipid bilayer. Conformational flexibility is therefore revealed as a key feature required of apparently α-helical cationic AMPs for enhanced antibacterial potency.

  3. A robust potency assay highlights significant donor variation of human mesenchymal stem/progenitor cell immune modulatory capacity and extended radio-resistance.

    PubMed

    Ketterl, Nina; Brachtl, Gabriele; Schuh, Cornelia; Bieback, Karen; Schallmoser, Katharina; Reinisch, Andreas; Strunk, Dirk

    2015-12-01

    The inherent immunomodulatory capacity of mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells (MSPCs) encouraged initiation of multiple clinical trials. Release criteria for therapeutic MSPCs cover identity, purity and safety but appropriate potency assessment is often missing. Reports on functional heterogeneity of MSPCs created additional uncertainty regarding donor and organ/source selection. We established a robust immunomodulation potency assay based on pooling responder leukocytes to minimize individual immune response variability. Comparing various MSPCs revealed significant potency inconsistency and generally diminished allo-immunosuppression compared to dose-dependent inhibition of mitogenesis. Gamma-irradiation to block unintended MSPC proliferation did not prohibit chondrogenesis and osteogenesis in vivo, indicating the need for alternative safety strategies.

  4. Avian influenza in ovo vaccination with replication defective recombinant adenovirus in chickens: vaccine potency, antibody persistence, and maternal antibody transfer.

    PubMed

    Mesonero, Alexander; Suarez, David L; van Santen, Edzard; Tang, De-Chu C; Toro, Haroldo

    2011-06-01

    Protective immunity against avian influenza (AI) can be elicited in chickens in a single-dose regimen by in ovo vaccination with a replication-competent adenovirus (RCA)-free human adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad)-vector encoding the AI virus (AIV) hemagglutinin (HA). We evaluated vaccine potency, antibody persistence, transfer of maternal antibodies (MtAb), and interference between MtAb and active in ovo or mucosal immunization with RCA-free recombinant Ad expressing a codon-optimized AIV H5 HA gene from A/turkey/WI/68 (AdTW68.H5(ck)). Vaccine coverage and intrapotency test repeatability were based on anti-H5 hemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibody levels detected in in ovo vaccinated chickens. Even though egg inoculation of each replicate was performed by individuals with varying expertise and with different vaccine batches, the average vaccine coverage of three replicates was 85%. The intrapotency test repeatability, which considers both positive as well as negative values, varied between 0.69 and 0.71, indicating effective vaccination. Highly pathogenic (HP) AIV challenge of chicken groups vaccinated with increasing vaccine doses showed 90% protection in chickens receiving > or = 10(8) ifu (infectious units)/bird. The protective dose 50% (PD50) was determined to be 10(6.5) ifu. Even vaccinated chickens that did not develop detectable antibody levels were effectively protected against HP AIV challenge. This result is consistent with previous findings ofAd-vector eliciting T lymphocyte responses. Higher vaccine doses significantly reduced viral shedding as determined by AIV RNA concentration in oropharyngeal swabs. Assessment of antibody persistence showed that antibody levels of in ovo immunized chickens continued to increase until 12 wk and started to decline after 18 wk of age. Intramuscular (IM) booster vaccination with the same vaccine at 16 wk of age significantly increased the antibody responses in breeder hens, and these responses were maintained at high

  5. Higher Education Exchange, 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    "Higher Education Exchange" publishes case studies, analyses, news, and ideas about efforts within higher education to develop more democratic societies. Contributors to this issue of the "Higher Education Exchange" examine whether institutions of higher learning are doing anything to increase the capacity of citizens to shape…

  6. Higher Education Exchange, 2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    The Higher Education Exchange is part of a movement to strengthen higher education's democratic mission and foster a more democratic culture throughout American society. Working in this tradition, the Higher Education Exchange publishes case studies, analyses, news, and ideas about efforts within higher education to develop more democratic…

  7. Higher Education Exchange, 2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    2014-01-01

    Research shows that not only does higher education not see the public; when the public, in turn, looks at higher education, it sees mostly malaise, inefficiencies, expense, and unfulfilled promises. Yet, the contributors to this issue of the "Higher Education Exchange" tell of bright spots in higher education where experiments in working…

  8. Higher Education Exchange, 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    "Higher Education Exchange" publishes case studies, analyses, news, and ideas about efforts within higher education to develop more democratic societies. Contributors to this issue of the "Higher Education Exchange" examine whether institutions of higher learning are doing anything to increase the capacity of citizens to shape…

  9. Higher Education Exchange, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    "Higher Education Exchange" publishes case studies, analyses, news, and ideas about efforts within higher education to develop more democratic societies. Contributors to this issue of the "Higher Education Exchange" examine whether institutions of higher learning are doing anything to increase the capacity of citizens to shape their future.…

  10. Higher Education Exchange, 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    "Higher Education Exchange" publishes case studies, analyses, news, and ideas about efforts within higher education to develop more democratic societies. Contributors to this issue of the "Higher Education Exchange" examine whether institutions of higher learning are doing anything to increase the capacity of citizens to shape…

  11. Teratogenic potency of valproate analogues evaluated by quantitative estimation of cellular morphology in vitro.

    PubMed

    Berezin, V; Kawa, A; Bojic, U; Foley, A; Nau, H; Regan, C; Edvardsen, K; Bock, E

    1996-10-01

    To develop a simple prescreening system for teratogenicity testing, a novel in vitro assay was established using computer assisted microscopy allowing automatic delineation of contours of stained cells and thereby quantitative determination of cellular morphology. The effects of valproic acid (VPA) and analogues with high as well as low teratogenic activities-(as previously determined in vivo)-were used as probes for study of the discrimination power of the in vitro model. VPA, a teratogenic analogue (+/-)-4-en-VPA, and a non-teratogenic analogue (E)-2-en-VPA, as well as the purified (S)- and (R)-enantiomers of 4-yn-VPA (teratogenic and non-teratogenic, respectively), were tested for their effects on cellular morphology of cloned mouse fibroblastoid L-cell lines, neuroblastoma N2a cells, and rat glioma BT4Cn cells, and were found to induce varying increases in cellular area: Furthermore, it was demonstrated that under the chosen conditions the increase in area correlated statistically significantly with the teratogenic potency of the employed compounds. Setting the cellular area of mouse L-cells to 100% under control conditions, the most pronounced effect was observed for (S)-4-yn-VPA (211%, P = < 0.001) followed by VPA (186%, P < 0.001), 4-en-VPA (169%, P < 0.001) and non-teratogenic 2-en-VPA (137%, P < 0.005) and (R)-4-yn-VPA (105%). This effect was independent of the choice of substrata, since it was observed on L-cells grown on plastic, fibronectin, laminin and Matrigel. However, when VPA-treated cells were exposed to an arginyl-glycyl-aspartate (RGD)-containing peptide to test whether VPA treatment was able to modulate RGD-dependent integrin interactions with components of the extracellular matrix, hardly any effect could be observed, whereas control cells readily detached from the substratum, indicating a changed substrate adhesion of the VPA-treated cells. The data thus indicate that measurement of cellular area may serve as a simple in vitro test in the

  12. Nano-titanium dioxide modulates the dermal sensitization potency of DNCB

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    We determined the ability of a model nanoparticle (NP) (titanium dioxide, TiO2) to modulate sensitization induced by a known potent dermal sensitizer (dinitrochlorobenzene) using a variant of the local lymph node assay called lymph node proliferation assay. BALB/c mice received sub-cutaneous injections of vehicle (2.5 mM sodium citrate), TiO2 NPs (0.004, 0.04 or 0.4 mg/ml) or pigment particles (0.04 mg/ml) both stabilized in sodium citrate buffer at the base of each ear (2x50μl), before receiving dermal applications (on both ears) of 2,4-Dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) (2x25μl of 0.1%) or its vehicle (acetone olive oil – AOO (4:1)) on days 0, 1 and 2. On day 5, the stimulation index (SI) was calculated as a ratio of 3HTdR incorporation in lymphocytes from DNBC-treated mice and AOO-treated controls. In a second experiment the EC3-value for DNCB (0 to 0.1%) was assessed in the absence or presence of 0.04 mg/ml TiO2. In a third experiment, the lymphocyte subpopulations and the cytokine secretion profile were analyzed after TiO2 (0.04 mg/ml) and DNCB (0.1%) treatment. Injection of NPs in AOO-treated control mice did not have any effect on lymph node (LN) proliferation. DNCB sensitization resulted in LN proliferation, which was further increased by injection of TiO2 NPs before DNCB sensitization. The EC3 of DNCB, with prior injection of vehicle control was 0.041%, while injection with TiO2 decreased the EC3 of DNCB to 0.015%. TiO2 NPs pre-treatment did not alter the lymphocyte subpopulations, but significantly increased the level of IL-4 and decreased IL-10 production in DNCB treated animals. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that administration of nano-TiO2 increases the dermal sensitization potency of DNCB, by augmenting a Th2 response, showing the immunomodulatory abilities of NPs. PMID:22621278

  13. Ranking of hair dye substances according to predicted sensitization potency: quantitative structure-activity relationships.

    PubMed

    Søsted, H; Basketter, D A; Estrada, E; Johansen, J D; Patlewicz, G Y

    2004-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis following the use of hair dyes is well known. Many chemicals are used in hair dyes and it is unlikely that all cases of hair dye allergy can be diagnosed by means of patch testing with p-phenylenediamine (PPD). The objectives of this study are to identify all hair dye substances registered in Europe and to provide their tonnage data. The sensitization potential of each substance was then estimated by using a quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) model and the substances were ranked according to their predicted potency. A cluster analysis was performed in order to help select a number of chemically diverse hair dye substances that could be used in subsequent clinical work. Various information sources, including the Inventory of Cosmetics Ingredients, new regulations on cosmetics, data on total use and ChemId (the Chemical Search Input website provided by the National Library of Medicine), were used in order to identify the names and structures of the hair dyes. A QSAR model, developed with the help of experimental local lymph node assay data and topological sub-structural molecular descriptors (TOPS-MODE), was used in order to predict the likely sensitization potential. Predictions for sensitization potential were made for the 229 substances that could be identified by means of a chemical structure, the majority of these hair dyes (75%) being predicted to be strong/moderate sensitizers. Only 22% were predicted to be weak sensitizers and 3% were predicted to be extremely weak or non-sensitizing. Eight of the most widely used hair dye substances were predicted to be strong/moderate sensitizers, including PPD - which is the most commonly used hair dye allergy marker in patch testing. A cluster analysis by using TOPS-MODE descriptors as inputs helped us group the hair dye substances according to their chemical similarity. This would facilitate the selection of potential substances for clinical patch testing. A patch-test series

  14. Microsatellite mutation rates in the eastern tiger salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum tigrinum) differ 10-fold across loci.

    PubMed

    Bulut, Zafer; McCormick, Cory R; Gopurenko, David; Williams, Rod N; Bos, David H; DeWoody, J Andrew

    2009-07-01

    Microsatellites are commonly used for mapping and population genetics because of their high heterozygosities and allelic variability (i.e., polymorphism). Microsatellite markers are generally more polymorphic than other types of molecular markers such as allozymes or SNPs because the insertions/deletions that give rise to microsatellite variability are relatively common compared to nucleotide substitutions. Nevertheless, direct evidence of microsatellite mutation rates (MMRs) is lacking in most vertebrate groups despite the importance of such estimates to key population parameters (e.g., genetic differentiation or theta = 4N (e)micro). Herein, we present empirical data on MMRs in eastern tiger salamanders (Ambystoma tigrinum tigrinum). We conducted captive breeding trials and genotyped over 1,000 offspring at a suite of microsatellite loci. These data on 7,906 allele transfers provide the first direct estimates of MMRs in amphibians, and they illustrate that MMRs can vary by more than an order of magnitude across loci within a given species (one locus had ten mutations whereas the others had none).

  15. Cesarean Delivery Rates Vary 10-Fold Among US Hospitals; Reducing Variation May Address Quality, Cost Issues

    PubMed Central

    Kozhimannil, Katy Backes; Law, Michael R.; Virnig, Beth A.

    2013-01-01

    Cesarean delivery is the most commonly performed surgical procedure in the United States, and cesarean rates are increasing. Working with 2009 data from 593 US hospitals nationwide, we found that cesarean rates varied tenfold across hospitals, from 7.1 percent to 69.9 percent. Even for women with lower-risk pregnancies, in which more limited variation might be expected, cesarean rates varied fifteen-fold, from 2.4 percent to 36.5 percent. Thus, vast differences in practice patterns are likely to be driving the costly overuse of cesarean delivery in many US hospitals. Because Medicaid pays for nearly half of US births, government efforts to decrease variation are warranted. We focus on four promising directions for reducing these variations, including better coordination of maternity care, more data collection and measurement, tying Medicaid payment to quality improvement, and enhancing patient-centered decision making through public reporting. PMID:23459732

  16. A comparison of the potency of newly developed oximes (K347, K628) and currently available oximes (obidoxime, HI-6) to counteract acute neurotoxic effects of Tabun in rats.

    PubMed

    Kassa, Jirí; Karasová, Jana Zdarová; Tesarová, Sandra; Musílek, Kamil; Kuca, Kamil

    2010-01-01

    The ability of newly developed oximes (K347, K628) to reduce tabun-induced acute neurotoxic signs and symptoms was compared with currently available oximes (obidoxime, HI-6) using a functional observational battery. The neuroprotective effects of the oximes studied (K347, K628, obidoxime, HI-6) combined with atropine on rats poisoned with tabun at a sublethal dose (220 microg/kg i.m.; 80% of LD50 value) were evaluated. Tabun-induced neurotoxicity was monitored by a functional observational battery and automatic measurement of motor activity at 24 hours following tabun challenge. The results indicate that all tested oximes combined with atropine enable tabun-poisoned rats to survive 24 hours following tabun challenge. Both newly developed oximes (K347, K628) combined with atropine are able to decrease tabun-induced neurotoxicity in the case of sublethal poisonings but they do not eliminate all tabun-induced acute neurotoxic signs and symptoms. Their ability to decrease the tabun-induced acute neurotoxicity is higher than that of the oxime HI-6 and it is slightly slower than the neuroprotective efficacy of obidoxime. As the neuroprotective potency of both newly developed oximes (K347, K628) is not as high as the potency of obidoxime, they are not a suitable replacement for obidoxime for the treatment of acute tabun poisonings.

  17. India's Higher Education Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altbach, Philip G.

    2014-01-01

    India, with the world's second largest higher education system and a rapidly growing economy as one of the BRIC nations, faces significant challenges in building both capacity and excellence in higher education. India's higher education system is characterized by "islands of excellence in a sea of mediocrity." The mainstream universities…

  18. Disorders in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walton, Clarence C.; Bolman, Frederick deW.

    Conditions affecting the moral and intellectual integrity of American colleges and universities are discussed in a series of papers collected from the 56th American Assembly on "The Integrity of Higher Education." An erosion of public confidence in higher education is noted and it is suggested that the expectations of higher education have not…

  19. Integrated chemical and biological analysis to explain estrogenic potency in bile extracts of red mullet (Mullus barbatus).

    PubMed

    Martínez-Gómez, Concepción; Lamoree, M; Hamers, T; van Velzen, M; Kamstra, J H; Fernández, B; Benedicto, J; León, V M; Vethaak, A D

    2013-06-15

    A biological screening was performed to establish the total exposure to estrogenic compounds of red mullet (Mullus barbatus) collected at several sites along the Spanish Mediterranean coast by testing male fish bile extracts using the in vitro ER-LUC reporter gene assay. In addition, major metabolites were identified and measurements of OH-PAHs (1-naphthol, 9-phenantrol, 9-fluorenol, 1-pyrenol, 1OH-BaP and 3OH-BaP) and alkylphenols (4-n-nonylphenol (4-n-NP) and 4-tertoctylphenol (4-tert-OP)) in the same fish bile extracts were taken by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in electron ionization mode (GC-EI-MS). Relative in vitro estrogenic potencies of the chemically quantified compounds were also tested. The highest biliary concentrations of 1-pyrenol, 9-fluorenol and 4-n-NP were found in fish from Barcelona and from the Mar Menor coastal lagoon. However, these concentrations can be considered relatively low compared to values reported in red mullet from other polluted waters in the Mediterranean Sea. The contribution of 1-pyrenol, 4-n-NP and 4-tert-OP to the total estrogenic potency measured in male fish bile was found to be negligible, indicating the presence of other estrogenic compounds in red mullet bile. Estrogenic potency in bile from male fish was markedly elevated in Mar Menor lagoon (234.8±5.7 pg E2EQ/μl), and further research will be necessary to explain whether the presence of natural and synthetic-hormones in the lagoon contributed to this finding. Values of approximately 15-16E2EQ pg/mg bile can be regarded as preliminary baseline levels of bile estrogenicity in male red mullet from the western Mediterranean Sea.

  20. Development and Characterization of an HPV Type-16 Specific Modified DNA Aptamer for the Improvement of Potency Assays.

    PubMed

    Trausch, Jeremiah J; Shank-Retzlaff, Mary; Verch, Thorsten

    2017-03-21

    Measuring vaccine potency is critical for vaccine release and is often accomplished using antibody-based ELISAs. Antibodies can be associated with significant drawbacks that are often overlooked including lot-to-lot variability, problems with cell-line maintenance, limited stability, high cost, and long discovery lead times. Here, we address many of these issues through the development of an aptamer, known as a slow off-rate modified DNA aptamer (SOMAmer), which targets a vaccine antigen in the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine Gardasil. The aptamer, termed HPV-07, was selected to bind the Type 16 virus-like-particle (VLP) formed by the self-assembling capsid protein L1. It is capable of binding with high sensitivity (EC50 of 0.1 to 0.4 μg/mL depending on assay format) while strongly discriminating against other VLP types. The aptamer competes for binding with the neutralizing antibody H16.V5, indicating at least partial recognition of a neutralizing and clinically relevant epitope. This makes it a useful reagent for measuring both potency and stability. When used in an ELISA format, the aptamer displays both high precision (intermediate precision of 6.3%) and a large linear range spanning from 25% to 200% of a typical formulation. To further exploit the advantages of aptamers, a simplified mix and read assay was also developed. This assay format offers significant time and resource reductions compared to a traditional ELISA. These results show aptamers are suitable reagents for biological potency assays, and we expect that their implementation could improve upon current assay formats.

  1. Development of a Time and Cost Benefit Antibody Binding Test-Based Method for Determination of Rabies Vaccine Potency.

    PubMed

    Asgary, Vahid; Mojtabavi, Nazanin; Janani, Alireza; Mousavi, Tahereh; Hadjati, Jamshid; Khosravy, Mohammad Sadeq; Ahangari Cohan, Reza

    2017-04-01

    This study is an improvement on the antibody binding test, known as ABT method, to develop a simple and fast method in comparison with NIH for determination of rabies vaccine potency. In the current study, several commercial human and veterinary vaccines were tested using both modified ABT and NIH methods. The ED50 was calculated using the probit method and the relative potency of each vaccine was measured based on the reference vaccine. The test was repeated four times to calculate the reproducibility of the method. Statistical analysis indicated that there was no significant difference between the result obtained from NIH and modified ABT method for either human or veterinary vaccines (p > 0.05). In addition, the linearity of the method (R(2)) was calculated as 0.94 by serial dilution of a test vaccine. Coefficient variances were determined as less than and more than 10% for the human and veterinary rabies vaccines, respectively. In conclusion, the findings suggest that the modified method could be considered as an alternative approach for rabies vaccine potency determination in in-process quality control tests at industrial scale. It is a time and cost benefit method and accuracy may further be increased by employing monoclonal antibodies against trimeric form of G glycoprotein. However, the use of serum samples may be useful compared with an artificial mix of antibodies because other components from the serum samples could have a positive impact on cell sensitivity and mimic more the complexity of the immune response. Although the modified test has solved a fundamental problem, it is still not sensitive enough for veterinary vaccine assessment and needs further modifications to obtain the acceptability criteria.

  2. Daily Use, Especially of High-Potency Cannabis, Drives the Earlier Onset of Psychosis in Cannabis Users

    PubMed Central

    Di Forti, Marta; Sallis, Hannah; Allegri, Fabio; Trotta, Antonella; Ferraro, Laura; Stilo, Simona A.; Marconi, Arianna; La Cascia, Caterina; Reis Marques, Tiago; Pariante, Carmine; Dazzan, Paola; Mondelli, Valeria; Paparelli, Alessandra; Kolliakou, Anna; Prata, Diana; Gaughran, Fiona; David, Anthony S.; Morgan, Craig; Stahl, Daniel; Khondoker, Mizanur; MacCabe, James H.; Murray, Robin M.

    2014-01-01

    Cannabis use is associated with an earlier age of onset of psychosis (AOP). However, the reasons for this remain debated. Methods: We applied a Cox proportional hazards model to 410 first-episode psychosis patients to investigate the association between gender, patterns of cannabis use, and AOP. Results: Patients with a history of cannabis use presented with their first episode of psychosis at a younger age (mean years = 28.2, SD = 8.0; median years = 27.1) than those who never used cannabis (mean years = 31.4, SD = 9.9; median years = 30.0; hazard ratio [HR] = 1.42; 95% CI: 1.16–1.74; P < .001). This association remained significant after controlling for gender (HR = 1.39; 95% CI: 1.11–1.68; P < .001). Those who had started cannabis at age 15 or younger had an earlier onset of psychosis (mean years = 27.0, SD = 6.2; median years = 26.9) than those who had started after 15 years (mean years = 29.1, SD = 8.5; median years = 27.8; HR = 1.40; 95% CI: 1.06–1.84; P = .050). Importantly, subjects who had been using high-potency cannabis (skunk-type) every day had the earliest onset (mean years = 25.2, SD = 6.3; median years = 24.6) compared to never users among all the groups tested (HR = 1.99; 95% CI: 1.50- 2.65; P < .0001); these daily users of high-potency cannabis had an onset an average of 6 years earlier than that of non-cannabis users. Conclusions: Daily use, especially of high-potency cannabis, drives the earlier onset of psychosis in cannabis users. PMID:24345517

  3. Departure from optimal O2 level for mouse trophoblast stem cell proliferation and potency leads to most rapid AMPK activation

    PubMed Central

    YANG, Yu; JIANG, Zhongliang; BOLNICK, Alan; DAI, Jing; PUSCHECK, Elizabeth E; RAPPOLEE, Daniel A

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies showed that cultured mouse trophoblast stem cells (mTSCs) have the most rapid proliferation, normal maintenance of stemness/potency, the least spontaneous differentiation, and the lowest level of stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK) when incubated at 2% O2 rather than at the traditional 20% O2 or hypoxic (0.5% and 0% O2) conditions. Switching from 2% O2 induced fast SAPK responses. Here we tested the dose response of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in its active form (pAMPK Thr172P) at O2 levels from 20–0%, and also tested whether pAMPK levels show similar rapid changes when mTSC cultures were switched from the optimal 2% O2 to other O2 conditions. There was a delayed increase in pAMPK levels ~6–8 h after switching conditions from 20% to 2%, 0.5%, or 0% O2. Altering O2 conditions from 2% to either 20%, 0.5%, or 0% led to rapid increase in pAMPK levels within 1 h, similar to the previously reported SAPK response in mTSC cells removed from 2% O2. Twelve hours of 0.5% O2 exposure led to cell program changes in terms of potency loss and suppressed biosynthesis, as indicated by levels of phosphorylated inactive acetyl CoA carboxylase (pACC). Phosphorylation of ACC was inhibited by the AMPK inhibitor Compound C. However, unlike other stressors, AMPK does not mediate hypoxia-induced potency loss in mTSCs. These results suggest an important aspect of stem cell biology, which demands rapid stress enzyme activation to cope with sudden changes in external environment, e.g., from least stressful (2% O2) to more stressful conditions. PMID:27867161

  4. Phenylalanine in the Pore of the Erwinia Ligand-Gated Ion Channel Modulates Picrotoxinin Potency but Not Receptor Function

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The Erwinia ligand-gated ion channel (ELIC) is a bacterial homologue of eukaryotic Cys-loop ligand-gated ion channels. This protein has the potential to be a useful model for Cys-loop receptors but is unusual in that it has an aromatic residue (Phe) facing into the pore, leading to some predictions that this protein is incapable of ion flux. Subsequent studies have shown this is not the case, so here we probe the role of this residue by examining the function of the ELIC in cases in which the Phe has been substituted with a range of alternative amino acids, expressed in Xenopus oocytes and functionally examined. Most of the mutations have little effect on the GABA EC50, but the potency of the weak pore-blocking antagonist picrotoxinin at F16′A-, F16′D-, F16′S-, and F16′T-containing receptors was increased to levels comparable with those of Cys-loop receptors, suggesting that this antagonist can enter the pore only when residue 16′ is small. T6′S has no effect on picrotoxinin potency when expressed alone but abolishes the increased potency when combined with F16′S, indicating that the inhibitor binds at position 6′, as in Cys-loop receptors, if it can enter the pore. Overall, the data support the proposal that the ELIC pore is a good model for Cys-loop receptor pores if the role of F16′ is taken into consideration. PMID:25238029

  5. Comparing the presence, potency, and potential hazard of genotoxins extracted from a broad range of industrial effluents

    SciTech Connect

    White, P.; Rasmussen, J.B.; Blaise, C.

    1996-12-31

    The genotoxicity of dichloromethane extracts from effluent samples collected from 42 industries, including pulp and paper, chemical manufacturing, metal refining, metal surface treatment, and municipal waste water treatment, was examined. Genotoxicity of extracts was found to be related to sample type, industry type, metabolic activation reduced genotoxic potency values per equivalent unit or original sample revealed that effluent particulate particulate matter is on average, almost four orders of magnitude more potent than aqueous filtrates. Suspended particulate matter from organic and inorganic chemical production, petroleum and metal refining, and from metal surface treatment facilities, provided extracts significantly more genotoxic than those from sewage treatment and pulp and paper facilities. Aqueous filtrates from inorganic and organic chemical production, metal refining, and surface treatment facilities were significantly more genotoxic than those emitted by aluminum and petroleum refineries. Overall, the results suggest that pulp and paper mills emit mostly soluble genotoxins, while petroleum and aluminum refineries emit predominantly particle-associated genotoxins. Predicted Ames mutagenic potency values corresponded reasonably well with industrial waste mutagenic potency values published by other researchers. Genotoxic loading values were calculated to quantify the total daily genotoxic emission and potential hazard of each industry. Highest loading were from sewage treatment, pulp and paper, and metal refining facilities. Highest loading values were the SOS genotoxic equivalent of over 30 kg of benzo(a)pyrene per day. The ultimate hazard of genotoxic emissions is not known. Actual hazard assessment is complicated by a poor understanding assessment is complicated by a poor understanding of the postemission behavior of genotoxins. Exposure of downstream biota is likely substantial. 130 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Interim relative potency factors for the toxicological risk assessment of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in food and herbal medicines.

    PubMed

    Merz, Karl-Heinz; Schrenk, Dieter

    2016-11-30

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are among the most potent natural toxins occurring in a broad spectrum of plant species from various families. Recently, findings of considerable contamination of teas/herbal infusions prepared from non-PA plants have been reported. These are obviously due to cross-contamination with minor amounts of PA plants and can affect both food and herbal medicines. Another source of human exposure is honey collected from PA plants. These findings illustrate the requirement for a comprehensive risk assessment of PAs, hampered by the enormous number of different PA congeners occurring in nature. Up to now, risk assessment is based on the carcinogenicity of certain PAs after chronic application to rats using the sum of detected PAs as dose metric. Because of the well-documented large structure-dependent differences between sub-groups of PA congeners with respect to their genotoxicity and (cyto)toxicity, however, this procedure is inadequate. Here we provide an overview of recent attempts to assess the risk of PA exposure and the available literature on the toxic effects and potencies of different congeners. Based on these considerations, we have derived interim Relative Potency (REP) factors for a number of abundant PAs suggesting a factor of 1.0 for cyclic di-esters and open-chain di-esters with 7S configuration, of 0.3 for mono-esters with 7S configuration, of 0.1 for open-chain di-esters with 7R configuration and of 0.01 for mono-esters with 7R configuration. For N-oxides we suggest to apply the REP factor of the corresponding PA. We are confident that the use of these values can provide a more scientific basis for PA risk assessment until a more detailed experimental analysis of the potencies of all relevant congeners can be carried out.

  7. Chemical Modification of Recombinant Interleukin 2 by Polyethylene Glycol Increases Its Potency in the Murine Meth A Sarcoma Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katre, Nandini V.; Knauf, Michael J.; Laird, Walter J.

    1987-03-01

    Recombinant human interleukin 2 purified from Escherichia coli has limited solubility at neutral pH and a short circulatory half-life. This recombinant interleukin 2 was chemically modified by an active ester of polyethylene glycol. The modified interleukin 2 was purified by hydrophobic interaction chromatography and characterized by sodium dodecyl sulfate/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and isoelectric focusing. This conjugate was compared to unmodified recombinant interleukin 2 in vitro and in vivo. Covalent attachment of the hydrophilic polymer polyethylene glycol enhanced the solubility of interleukin 2, decreased its plasma clearance, and increased its antitumor potency in the Meth A murine sarcoma model.

  8. Response to Morfeld (2013): Second commentary to Gebel 2012-established use of cancer potency indices and biological plausibility.

    PubMed

    Gebel, Tom

    2013-11-01

    The evaluations in Gebel (Arch Toxicol 86(7):995-1007, 2012) were carried out according to established procedures in regulatory toxicology. The variability in the available data was taken into account. The quality of the underlying data set should not be overestimated. The relevant conclusion in Gebel (Arch Toxicol 86(7):995-1007, 2012) is that the difference in carcinogenic potency comparing nanosized to microsized respirable granular biodurable particles without known significant specific toxicity (GBP) is low and lower than previously estimated.

  9. Development and statistical validation of a guinea pig model for vaccine potency testing against Infectious Bovine Rhinothracheitis (IBR) virus.

    PubMed

    Parreño, Viviana; López, María Virginia; Rodriguez, Daniela; Vena, María Marta; Izuel, Mercedes; Filippi, Jorge; Romera, Alejandra; Faverin, Claudia; Bellinzoni, Rodolfo; Fernandez, Fernando; Marangunich, Laura

    2010-03-16

    Infectious Bovine Rhinothracheitis (IBR) caused by bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) infection is distributed worldwide. BoHV-1 either alone or in association with other respiratory cattle pathogens causes significant economic losses to the livestock industry. The aim of this work was to validate a guinea pig model as an alternative method to the current BoHV-1 vaccine potency testing in calves. Guinea pigs were immunized with two doses of vaccine, 21 days apart and sampled at 30 days post vaccination (dpv). BoHV-1 antibody (Ab) response to vaccination in guinea pigs, measured by ELISA and virus neutralization (VN), was statistically compared to the Ab response in cattle. The guinea pig model showed a dose-response relationship to the BoVH-1 antigen concentration in the vaccine and it was able to discriminate among vaccines containing 1log(10) difference in its BoHV-1 concentration with very good repeatability and reproducibility (CV < or = 20%). A regression analysis of the Ab titers obtained in guinea pigs and bovines at 30 and 60dpv, respectively, allowed us to classify vaccines in three potency categories: "very satisfactory", "satisfactory" and "unsatisfactory". Bovines immunized with vaccines corresponding to each of these three categories were experimentally challenged with BoVH-1 virus, the level of protection, as measured by reduction of virus shedding and disease severity, correlated well with the vaccine category used. Data generated by 85 experiments, which included vaccination of calves and guinea pigs with 18 reference vaccines of known potency, 8 placebos and 18 commercial vaccines, was subjected to statistical analysis. Concordance analysis indicated almost perfect agreement between the model and the target species for Ab titers measured by ELISA and almost perfect to substantial agreement when Ab titers were measured by VN. Taken together these results indicate that the developed guinea pig model represents a novel and reliable tool to estimate batch

  10. The black agonist-receptor model of high potency sweeteners, and its implication to sweetness taste and sweetener design.

    PubMed

    Farkas, Attila; Híd, János

    2011-10-01

    The dose responses of the most commonly used high potency sweeteners (HPSs) have been measured by a more precise sensory procedure. The data were analyzed by Black's pharmacological model that takes into account not only agonist binding affinity but transduction efficiency as well. HPSs are clearly segregated into 2 groups depending on whether they bind to T1R2 or T1R3 of the receptor heterodimer. Surprisingly, the more potent sweeteners have lower transduction efficiencies. The implications of these on consumer product development and HPS design are discussed.

  11. Replacement of imidazole by a piperidine moiety differentially affects the potency of histamine H3-receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Liedtke, Susanna; Flau, Karsten; Kathmann, Markus; Schlicker, Eberhard; Stark, Holger; Meier, Galina; Schunack, Walter

    2003-01-01

    We examined whether replacement of imidazole by a piperidine or pyrrolidine moiety will affect the potency and affinity of six H3-receptor antagonists. Potencies were determined in superfused mouse brain cortex slices preincubated with [3H]noradrenaline, in which the interaction of the antagonists with histamine with respect to its inhibitory effect on the electrically evoked tritium overflow was studied. Affinities were determined in mouse brain cortex membranes, using the radioligand [3H] N(alpha)-methylhistamine. The concentration-response curve of histamine for its effect on the evoked overflow from mouse brain cortex slices was shifted to the right by the 13 compounds under study. Replacement of the imidazole by a piperidine ring affected the p A2 value as follows: thioperamide, -2.7 log units; clobenpropit, -1.9; proxyfan, -1.3; FUB 138, -1.2. Potency hardly changed (< or =0.4 log units) when imidazole was replaced by piperidine in FUB 181 and by piperidine or pyrrolidine in FUB 153. Binding of [3H] N (alpha)-methylhistamine to mouse brain cortex membranes was inhibited monophasically by all compounds. The p K(i) values closely matched their p A2 values with three exceptions. The p K(i) values of proxyfan, FUB 138, and FUB 153 exceeded their respective p A(2) values by about 1 log unit. To reveal a potential partial agonism, the effect of the three drugs on (1) the electrically evoked tritium overflow and (2) [35S]GTPgammaS binding in mouse cortex preparations was determined. Proxyfan proved to be a partial agonist in both models (with intrinsic activities of 0.2 and 0.3, respectively) whereas FUB 138 and FUB 153 were devoid of agonistic effects. In conclusion, replacement of imidazole by piperidine or pyrrolidine affects the antagonist potencies of six H3-receptor antagonists in a very different manner. The piperidine analogue of FUB 181 (with a p A2 value as high as 7.7) may represent a lead for the development of non-imidazole H3-receptor antagonists. The

  12. Halogen substituents on the aromatic moiety of the tetracaine scaffold improve potency of cyclic nucleotide-gated channel block.

    PubMed

    Kirk, Sarah R; Andrade, Adriana L; Melich, Kenneth; Jackson, Evan P; Cuellar, Elysia; Karpen, Jeffrey W

    2011-11-01

    A series of new tetracaine derivatives with substituents on the aromatic ring was prepared and evaluated for block of retinal rod cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) channels. Aromatic substitutions had little effect starting with the basic tetracaine scaffold, but electron-withdrawing substituents significantly improved the blocking potency of an octyl-tail derivative of tetracaine. In particular, halogen substitutions at either the 2- or 3-position on the ring resulted in compounds that were up to eight-fold more potent than the parent octyl-tail derivative and up to 50-fold more potent than tetracaine.

  13. Halogen substituents on the aromatic moiety of the tetracaine scaffold improve potency of cyclic nucleotide-gated channel block

    PubMed Central

    Kirk, Sarah R.; Andrade, Adriana L.; Melich, Kenneth; Jackson, Evan P.; Cuellar, Elysia; Karpen, Jeffrey W.

    2011-01-01

    A series of new tetracaine derivatives with substituents on the aromatic ring was prepared and evaluated for block of retinal rod cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) channels. Aromatic substitutions had little effect starting with the basic tetracaine scaffold, but electron-withdrawing substituents significantly improved the blocking potency of an octyl-tail derivative of tetracaine. In particular, halogen substitutions at either the 2- or 3-position on the ring resulted in compounds that were up to 8-fold more potent than the parent octyl-tail derivative and up to 50-fold more potent than tetracaine. PMID:21944857

  14. Sulfonamides as Selective NaV1.7 Inhibitors: Optimizing Potency and Pharmacokinetics to Enable in Vivo Target Engagement.

    PubMed

    Marx, Isaac E; Dineen, Thomas A; Able, Jessica; Bode, Christiane; Bregman, Howard; Chu-Moyer, Margaret; DiMauro, Erin F; Du, Bingfan; Foti, Robert S; Fremeau, Robert T; Gao, Hua; Gunaydin, Hakan; Hall, Brian E; Huang, Liyue; Kornecook, Thomas; Kreiman, Charles R; La, Daniel S; Ligutti, Joseph; Lin, Min-Hwa Jasmine; Liu, Dong; McDermott, Jeff S; Moyer, Bryan D; Peterson, Emily A; Roberts, Jonathan T; Rose, Paul; Wang, Jean; Youngblood, Beth D; Yu, Violeta; Weiss, Matthew M

    2016-12-08

    Human genetic evidence has identified the voltage-gated sodium channel NaV1.7 as an attractive target for the treatment of pain. We initially identified naphthalene sulfonamide 3 as a potent and selective inhibitor of NaV1.7. Optimization to reduce biliary clearance by balancing hydrophilicity and hydrophobicity (Log D) while maintaining NaV1.7 potency led to the identification of quinazoline 16 (AM-2099). Compound 16 demonstrated a favorable pharmacokinetic profile in rat and dog and demonstrated dose-dependent reduction of histamine-induced scratching bouts in a mouse behavioral model following oral dosing.

  15. Enhanced Potency of a Broadly Neutralizing HIV-1 Antibody In Vitro Improves Protection against Lentiviral Infection In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Rudicell, Rebecca S.; Kwon, Young Do; Ko, Sung-Youl; Pegu, Amarendra; Louder, Mark K.; Georgiev, Ivelin S.; Wu, Xueling; Zhu, Jiang; Boyington, Jeffrey C.; Chen, Xuejun; Shi, Wei; Yang, Zhi-yong; Doria-Rose, Nicole A.; McKee, Krisha; O'Dell, Sijy; Schmidt, Stephen D.; Chuang, Gwo-Yu; Druz, Aliaksandr; Soto, Cinque; Yang, Yongping; Zhang, Baoshan; Zhou, Tongqing; Todd, John-Paul; Lloyd, Krissey E.; Eudailey, Joshua; Roberts, Kyle E.; Donald, Bruce R.; Bailer, Robert T.; Ledgerwood, Julie; Mullikin, James C.; Shapiro, Lawrence; Koup, Richard A.; Graham, Barney S.; Nason, Martha C.; Connors, Mark; Haynes, Barton F.; Rao, Srinivas S.; Roederer, Mario; Kwong, Peter D.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Over the past 5 years, a new generation of highly potent and broadly neutralizing HIV-1 antibodies has been identified. These antibodies can protect against lentiviral infection in nonhuman primates (NHPs), suggesting that passive antibody transfer would prevent HIV-1 transmission in humans. To increase the protective efficacy of such monoclonal antibodies, we employed next-generation sequencing, computational bioinformatics, and structure-guided design to enhance the neutralization potency and breadth of VRC01, an antibody that targets the CD4 binding site of the HIV-1 envelope. One variant, VRC07-523, was 5- to 8-fold more potent than VRC01, neutralized 96% of viruses tested, and displayed minimal autoreactivity. To compare its protective efficacy to that of VRC01 in vivo, we performed a series of simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) challenge experiments in nonhuman primates and calculated the doses of VRC07-523 and VRC01 that provide 50% protection (EC50). VRC07-523 prevented infection in NHPs at a 5-fold lower concentration than VRC01. These results suggest that increased neutralization potency in vitro correlates with improved protection against infection in vivo, documenting the improved functional efficacy of VRC07-523 and its potential clinical relevance for protecting against HIV-1 infection in humans. IMPORTANCE In the absence of an effective HIV-1 vaccine, alternative strategies are needed to block HIV-1 transmission. Direct administration of HIV-1-neutralizing antibodies may be able to prevent HIV-1 infections in humans. This approach could be especially useful in individuals at high risk for contracting HIV-1 and could be used together with antiretroviral drugs to prevent infection. To optimize the chance of success, such antibodies can be modified to improve their potency, breadth, and in vivo half-life. Here, knowledge of the structure of a potent neutralizing antibody, VRC01, that targets the CD4-binding site of the HIV-1 envelope

  16. Assessment of the sensitizing potency of preservatives with chance of skin contact by the loose-fit coculture-based sensitization assay (LCSA).

    PubMed

    Sonnenburg, Anna; Schreiner, Maximilian; Stahlmann, Ralf

    2015-12-01

    Parabens, methylisothiazolinone (MI) and its derivative methylchloroisothiazolinone (MCI), are commonly used as preservatives in personal care products. They can cause hypersensitivity reactions of the human skin. We have tested a set of nine parabens, MI alone and in combination with MCI in the loose-fit coculture-based sensitization assay (LCSA). The coculture of primary human keratinocytes and allogenic dendritic cell-related cells (DC-rc) in this assay emulates the in vivo situation of the human skin. Sensitization potency of the test substances was assessed by flow cytometric analysis of the DC-rc maturation marker CD86. Determination of the concentration required to cause a half-maximal increase in CD86-expression (EC50sens) allowed a quantitative evaluation. The cytotoxicity of test substances as indicator for irritative potency was measured by 7-AAD (7-amino-actinomycin D) staining. Parabens exhibited weak (methyl-, ethyl-, propyl- and isopropylparaben) or strong (butyl-, isobutyl-, pentyl- and benzylparaben) effects, whereas phenylparaben was found to be a moderate sensitizer. Sensitization potencies of parabens correlated with side chain length. Due to a pronounced cytotoxicity, we could not estimate an EC50sens value for MI, whereas MI/MCI was classified as sensitizer and also showed cytotoxic effects. Parabens showed no (methyl- and ethylparaben) or weak irritative potencies (propyl-, isopropyl-, butyl-, isobutyl-, phenyl- and benzylparaben), only pentylparaben was rated to be irritative. Overall, we were able to demonstrate and compare the sensitizing potencies of parabens in this in vitro test. Furthermore, we showed an irritative potency for most of the preservatives. The data further support the usefulness of the LCSA for comparison of the sensitizing potencies of xenobiotics.

  17. HALO384: a halo-based potency prediction algorithm for high-throughput detection of antimicrobial agents.

    PubMed

    Woehrmann, Marcos H; Gassner, Nadine C; Bray, Walter M; Stuart, Joshua M; Lokey, Scott

    2010-02-01

    A high-throughput (HT) agar-based halo assay is described, which allows for rapid screening of chemical libraries for bioactivity in microorganisms such as yeast and bacteria. A pattern recognition algorithm was developed to identify halo-like shapes in plate reader optical density (OD) measurements. The authors find that the total growth inhibition within a detected halo provides an accurate estimate of a compound's potency measured in terms of its EC(50). The new halo recognition method performs significantly better than an earlier method based on single-point OD readings. An assay based on the halo algorithm was used to screen a 21,120-member library of drug-like compounds in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, leading to the identification of novel bioactive scaffolds containing derivatives of varying potencies. The authors also show that the HT halo assay can be performed with the pathogenic bacterium Vibrio cholerae and that liquid culture EC(50) values and halo scores show a good correlation in this organism. These results suggest that the HT halo assay provides a rapid and inexpensive way to screen for bioactivity in multiple microorganisms.

  18. Relative embryotoxicity of two classes of chemicals in a modified zebrafish embryotoxicity test and comparison with their in vivo potencies.

    PubMed

    Hermsen, Sanne A B; van den Brandhof, Evert-Jan; van der Ven, Leo T M; Piersma, Aldert H

    2011-04-01

    The zebrafish embryotoxicity test (ZET) is a fast and simple method to study chemical toxicity after exposure of the complete vertebrate embryo during embryogenesis in ovo. We developed a novel quantitative evaluation method to assess the development of the zebrafish embryo based on specific endpoints in time, the general morphology score (GMS) system. For teratogenic effects a separate scoring list was developed. The relative effects of eight glycol ethers and six 1,2,4-triazole anti-fungals were evaluated in this system and results were compared with in vivo developmental toxicity potencies. Methoxyacetic acid and ethoxyacetic acid appeared as the most potent glycol ether metabolites, inducing growth retardation and malformations. Other glycol ethers showed no developmental toxicity. Flusilazole appeared the most potent triazole, followed by hexaconazole, cyproconazole, triadimefon, myclobutanil and triticonazole, respectively. In general, the potency ranking of the compounds within their class in the ZET was comparable to their in vivo ranking. In conclusion, the ZET with the GMS system appears an efficient and useful test system for screening embryotoxic properties of chemicals within the classes of compounds tested. This alternative test method may also be useful for the detection of embryotoxic properties of other classes of chemicals.

  19. Potencies of estrogenic compounds in in vitro screening assays and in life cycle tests with zebrafish in vivo.

    PubMed

    Segner, H; Navas, J M; Schäfers, C; Wenzel, A

    2003-03-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the estrogenic potency of environmental estrogens at two testing tiers: at the initial level of in vitro screening assays, and at the level of definitive fish reproduction tests in vivo. The in vitro tests included a recombinant yeast estrogen receptor (ER) assay, a competitive radioreceptor assay using the hepatic ER of carp (Cyprinus carpio), and assays on vitellogenin induction in cultured hepatocytes of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and carp. In vivo, full life cycle tests with zebrafish (Danio rerio) were performed, using fertilization success as estrogen-sensitive reproductive endpoint. The test compounds included the natural estrogen 17beta-estradiol (E2) (only applied in the in vitro assays); the synthetic estrogen ethynylestradiol (EE2); and two xenoestrogens, 4-tert-octylphenol (OP) and bisphenol A (BPA). Among the in vitro assays, differences were observed in the relative ranking of the test substances, and in the absolute sensitivity (EC50 values), although the interassay differences of EC50 values were within one order of magnitude. The in vivo activity of the test compounds was not accurately predicted by the in vitro assays, with respect to neither sensitivity nor ranking. The in vitro assays tended to overestimate the relative potency of the xenoestrogens; i.e. the ratio between the activity of the reference compound, EE2, and that of the test compound. The best prediction of the in vivo fish test results was obtained from the recombinant yeast assay.

  20. Neutralization breadth and potency of serum derived from recently human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected Thai individuals.

    PubMed

    Chaitaveep, Nithinart; Utachee, Piraporn; Chuenchitra, Thippawan; Karasavvan, Nicos; Takeda, Naokazu; Kameoka, Masanori

    2016-05-01

    Neutralizing antibody responses play important roles in controlling several viral infections including human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Potent and broad neutralizing antibody responses have been reported in some HIV-1-infected individuals; therefore, elucidating the mechanisms underlying neutralizing antibody responses will provide important information for the development of anti-HIV-1 vaccines. We herein performed a comparative study on the neutralization breadth and potency of serum samples collected from Thai individuals recently and chronically infected with HIV-1. Neutralization tests using a series of envelope glycoproteins (Env)-recombinant viruses revealed that although several serum samples derived from recently infected individuals did not show any HIV-1-specific neutralizing activity, the remaining serum samples exhibited neutralizing activity not only for recombinant viruses with CRF01_AE Env, but also for viruses with subtypes B and C Env. Furthermore, some serum samples derived from recently infected individuals showed the neutralization potency. Our results may provide a deeper insight into the characteristics of neutralizing antibody responses that develop during the course of HIV-1 infection among individuals in Thailand.

  1. Inhaled dry-powder formoterol and salmeterol in asthmatic patients: onset of action, duration of effect and potency.

    PubMed

    Palmqvist, M; Persson, G; Lazer, L; Rosenborg, J; Larsson, P; Lötvall, J

    1997-11-01

    Salmeterol and formoterol are two long-acting beta2-agonists for inhalation, currently being used in clinical practice. The aim of the present study was to investigate the onset of action, duration of effect and potency of these two beta2-agonists in asthmatic patients. Patients (n=28) were included on the basis of salbutamol stepwise reversibility (100, 100 and 200 microg, given cumulatively; total reversibility > or =15%). In a double-blind placebo-controlled crossover study, the bronchodilating properties of formoterol 6, 12 and 24 microg were compared with the effects of salmeterol 50 microg. Formoterol was given via Turbuhaler and salmeterol via Diskhaler, and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) was monitored during 12 h. Formoterol at all doses had a more rapid onset than salmeterol as judged from bronchodilation at 3 min after the dose. Formoterol at all doses had a similar duration of effect to salmeterol 50 microg, as judged from bronchodilation at 12 h after dose administration. When the relative potency of the two drugs was compared, salmeterol 50 microg was estimated to correspond to formoterol 9 microg (95% confidence interval: 3-19 microg). We confirm that formoterol and salmeterol are both long-acting beta2-agonists, but with some differences in effect profile. We confirm the more rapid onset of action of formoterol compared with salmeterol, and furthermore, no difference in duration of effect is evident.

  2. Novel Bivalent Ligands for D2/D3 Dopamine Receptors: Significant Cooperative Gain in D2 Affinity and Potency

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    This report describes development of a series of novel bivalent molecules with a pharmacophore derived from the D2/D3 agonist 5-OH-DPAT. The spacer length in the bivalent compounds had a pronounced influence on affinity for D2 receptors. A 23-fold increase of D2 affinity was observed at a spacer length of 9 or 10 (compounds 11d and 14b) as compared to monovalent 5-OH-DPAT (Ki; 2.5 and 2.0 vs 59 nM for 11d and 14b vs 5-OH-DPAT, respectively). The functional potency of 11d and 14b indicated a 24- and 94-fold increase in potency at the D2 receptor as compared to 5-OH-DPAT (EC50; 1.7 and 0.44 vs 41 nM for 11d and 14b vs 5-OH-DPAT, respectively). These are the most potent bivalent agonists for the D2 receptor known to date. This synergism is consonant with cooperative interaction at the two orthosteric binding sites in the homodimeric receptor. PMID:23275802

  3. An antibody induction method in mice for the potency assays of diphtheria and tetanus components in combined vaccines.

    PubMed

    Maheshwari, S C; Sharma, S B; Kumar, A; Sokhey, J

    1998-09-01

    Eleven batches of Adsorbed Diphtheria-Tetanus (DT) vaccines and thirteen batches of Adsorbed Diphtheria-Pertussis-Tetanus (DTP) vaccines were tested for the potency of diphtheria and tetanus components by an Antibody Induction Method (AIM) developed in mice. The potency results obtained were found comparable and did not show any statistically significant difference with those obtained by WHO recommended lethal challenge tests for diphtheria in guinea pigs and for tetanus in mice. AIM in mice is more economical as both diphtheria and tetanus components of combined vaccine can be tested in the same experiment and the procedure also eliminates the use of guinea pigs required in the lethal challenge/conventional tests. The data obtained while testing tetanus component by the conventional antibody induction (IP) method in guinea pigs suggests that minimum requirements laid down in i.p. is too low which may be fixed as at least 3 out of 9 guinea pig sera and should contain > or = 4 units of tetanus antitoxin per ml.

  4. Respiratory allergenic potential of plant-derived proteins: Understanding the relationship between exposure and potency for risk assessments.

    PubMed

    Blackburn, Karen; N'jai, Alhaji U; Dearman, Rebecca J; Kimber, Ian; Gerberick, G Frank

    2015-01-01

    Botanical ingredients (ingredients derived from plants) are finding increasing application in personal care products and the public perceives these ingredients to be safe. However, some proteins in botanicals have the potential to cause immediate-type (IgE-mediated) respiratory allergic reactions. Although reports of such reactions are uncommon, when they do occur, they can be severe. Experience with soap containing wheat proteins illustrated that under certain specific conditions, consumers may be affected. Establishing safe exposure levels for botanical proteins has been challenging. Industrial enzymes provide a rich reference dataset based on their historical association with allergic reactions among workers, which includes robust dose-response information. In the absence of similar data on the potency of plant proteins, a conservative default approach has historically been applied based on information derived from allergenic enzymes. In this article we review the historical default approach and dataset for setting limits for plant proteins in botanical ingredients based on analogy to industrial enzymes followed by a synthesis of literature data on allergic reactions following inhalation exposure to plant-derived proteins. The aim is to share relevant background information and display the relationship between exposure and potency as a first step in the development of a strategy for the development of an improved approach to support the risk assessment of plant-derived proteins.

  5. Comparison of Leg Regeneration Potency Between Holometabolous Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Hemimetabolous Locusta migratoria manilensis (Orthoptera: Acrididae).

    PubMed

    Yang, Qingpo; Li, Zhen; Li, Hui; Li, Yanrong; Yang, Yuhui; Zhang, Qingwen; Liu, Xiaoxia

    2016-09-11

    After injury many insects could regenerate lost limb. In this study, Helicoverpa armigera Hubner and Locusta migratoria manilensis (Meyen, 1835) were chosen to compare the regeneration potency of holometabolous and hemimetabolous insects. We employed the classical approach of surgical excision to verify the regeneration ability and to investigate the factors that affect the extent of regeneration. The results found that H. armigera could regenerate intact legs when the larval legs were excised at the first and second instar and that legs of adult H. armigera had a close relationship with their larval counterparts. However, the adult legs became malformed or disappeared when excised at other older instars. For the L. migratoria, we found the legs have weak partial regeneration ability when amputation was conducted at the joint of two segments. The regeneration potency might be stronger the more proximal the operation. Regeneration process had a negative impact on the larval development. This is the first report of complete leg regeneration capacity having a strong correlation with the instar but not with the position where amputation occurred for H. armigera, while for the L. migratoria, partial regenerative ability had a close relationship with the position where amputation occurred but not with instars.

  6. Comparison of Leg Regeneration Potency Between Holometabolous Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Hemimetabolous Locusta migratoria manilensis (Orthoptera: Acrididae).

    PubMed

    Yang, Qingpo; Li, Zhen; Li, Hui; Li, Yanrong; Yang, Yuhui; Zhang, Qingwen; Liu, Xiaoxia

    2016-12-01

    After injury many insects could regenerate lost limb. In this study, Helicoverpa armigera Hubner and Locusta migratoria manilensis (Meyen, 1835) were chosen to compare the regeneration potency of holometabolous and hemimetabolous insects. We employed the classical approach of surgical excision to verify the regeneration ability and to investigate the factors that affect the extent of regeneration. The results found that H. armigera could regenerate intact legs when the larval legs were excised at the first and second instar and that legs of adult H. armigera had a close relationship with their larval counterparts. However, the adult legs became malformed or disappeared when excised at other older instars. For the L. migratoria, we found the legs have weak partial regeneration ability when amputation was conducted at the joint of two segments. The regeneration potency might be stronger the more proximal the operation. Regeneration process had a negative impact on the larval development. This is the first report of complete leg regeneration capacity having a strong correlation with the instar but not with the position where amputation occurred for H. armigera, while for the L. migratoria, partial regenerative ability had a close relationship with the position where amputation occurred but not with instars.

  7. Bispecific antibodies directed to CD4 domain 2 and HIV envelope exhibit exceptional breadth and picomolar potency against HIV-1

    PubMed Central

    Pace, Craig S.; Song, Ruijiang; Ochsenbauer, Christina; Andrews, Chasity D.; Franco, David; Yu, Jian; Oren, Deena A.; Seaman, Michael S.; Ho, David D.

    2013-01-01

    In the absence of an effective HIV-1 vaccine, passive immunization using broadly neutralizing Abs or Ab-like molecules could provide an alternative to the daily administration of oral antiretroviral agents that has recently shown promise as preexposure prophylaxis. Currently, no single broadly neutralizing Ab (bNAb) or combination of bNAbs neutralizes all HIV-1 strains at practically achievable concentrations in vivo. To address this problem, we created bispecific Abs that combine the HIV-1 inhibitory activity of ibalizumab (iMab), a humanized mAb directed to domain 2 of human CD4, with that of anti-gp120 bNAbs. These bispecific bNAbs (BibNAbs) exploit iMab’s potent anti–HIV-1 activity and demonstrated clinical efficacy and safety to anchor and thereby concentrate a second broadly neutralizing agent at the site of viral entry. Two BibNabs, PG9-iMab and PG16-iMab, exhibit exceptional breadth and potency, neutralizing 100% of the 118 viruses tested at low picomolar concentrations, including viruses resistant to both parental mAbs. The enhanced potency of these BibNAbs was entirely dependent on CD4 anchoring, not on membrane anchoring per se, and required optimal Ab geometry and linker length. We propose that iMab-based BibNAbs, such as PG9-iMab and PG16-iMab, are promising candidates for passive immunization to prevent HIV-1 infection. PMID:23878231

  8. Bispecific antibodies directed to CD4 domain 2 and HIV envelope exhibit exceptional breadth and picomolar potency against HIV-1.

    PubMed

    Pace, Craig S; Song, Ruijiang; Ochsenbauer, Christina; Andrews, Chasity D; Franco, David; Yu, Jian; Oren, Deena A; Seaman, Michael S; Ho, David D

    2013-08-13

    In the absence of an effective HIV-1 vaccine, passive immunization using broadly neutralizing Abs or Ab-like molecules could provide an alternative to the daily administration of oral antiretroviral agents that has recently shown promise as preexposure prophylaxis. Currently, no single broadly neutralizing Ab (bNAb) or combination of bNAbs neutralizes all HIV-1 strains at practically achievable concentrations in vivo. To address this problem, we created bispecific Abs that combine the HIV-1 inhibitory activity of ibalizumab (iMab), a humanized mAb directed to domain 2 of human CD4, with that of anti-gp120 bNAbs. These bispecific bNAbs (BibNAbs) exploit iMab's potent anti-HIV-1 activity and demonstrated clinical efficacy and safety to anchor and thereby concentrate a second broadly neutralizing agent at the site of viral entry. Two BibNabs, PG9-iMab and PG16-iMab, exhibit exceptional breadth and potency, neutralizing 100% of the 118 viruses tested at low picomolar concentrations, including viruses resistant to both parental mAbs. The enhanced potency of these BibNAbs was entirely dependent on CD4 anchoring, not on membrane anchoring per se, and required optimal Ab geometry and linker length. We propose that iMab-based BibNAbs, such as PG9-iMab and PG16-iMab, are promising candidates for passive immunization to prevent HIV-1 infection.

  9. Adaptability to pain is associated with potency of local pain inhibition, but not conditioned pain modulation: a healthy human study.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Zhen; Wang, Kelun; Yao, Dongyuan; Xue, Charlie C L; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2014-05-01

    This study investigated the relationship between pain sensitivity, adaptability, and potency of endogenous pain inhibition, including conditioned pain modulation (CPM) and local pain inhibition. Forty-one healthy volunteers (20 male, 21 female) received conditioning stimulation (CS) over 2 sessions in a random order: tonic heat pain (46 °C) on the right leg for 7 minutes and cold pressor pain (1 °C to 4 °C) on the left hand for 5 minutes. Participants rated the intensity of pain continuously using a 0 to 10 electronic visual analogue scale. The primary outcome measures were pressure pain thresholds (PPT) measured at the heterotopic and homotopic location to the CS sites before, during, and 20 minutes after CS. Two groups of participants, pain adaptive and pain nonadaptive, were identified based on their response to pain in the cold pressor test. Pain-adaptive participants showed a pain reduction between peak pain and pain at end of the test by at least 2 of 10 (n=16); whereas the pain-nonadaptive participants reported unchanged peak pain during 5-minute CS (n=25). Heterotopic PPTs during the CS did not differ between the 2 groups. However, increased homotopic PPTs measured 20 minutes after CS correlated with the amount of pain reduction during CS. These results suggest that individual sensitivity and adaptability to pain does not correlate with the potency of CPM. Adaptability to pain is associated with longer-lasting local pain inhibition.

  10. In vitro potency determination of botulinum neurotoxin B based on its receptor-binding and proteolytic characteristics.

    PubMed

    Wild, Emina; Bonifas, Ursula; Klimek, Jolanta; Trösemeier, Jan-Hendrik; Krämer, Beate; Kegel, Birgit; Behrensdorf-Nicol, Heike A

    2016-08-01

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are the most potent toxins known. However, the paralytic effect caused by BoNT serotypes A and B is taken advantage of to treat different forms of dystonia and in cosmetic procedures. Due to the increasing areas of application, the demand for BoNTs A and B is rising steadily. Because of the high toxicity, it is mandatory to precisely determine the potency of every produced BoNT batch, which is usually accomplished by performing toxicity testing (LD50 test) in mice. Here we describe an alternative in vitro assay for the potency determination of the BoNT serotype B. In this assay, the toxin is first bound to its specific receptor molecules. After the proteolytic subunit of the toxin has been released and activated by chemical reduction, it is exposed to synaptobrevin, its substrate protein. Finally the proteolytic cleavage is quantified by an antibody-mediated detection of the neoepitope, reaching a detection limit below 0.1mouseLD50/ml. Thus, the assay, named BoNT/B binding and cleavage assay (BoNT/B BINACLE), takes into account the binding as well as the protease function of the toxin, thereby measuring its biological activity.

  11. Blood plasma sample preparation method for the assessment of thyroid hormone-disrupting potency in effect-directed analysis.

    PubMed

    Simon, Eszter; Bytingsvik, Jenny; Jonker, Willem; Leonards, Pim E G; de Boer, Jacob; Jenssen, Bjørn M; Lie, Elisabeth; Aars, Jon; Hamers, Timo; Lamoree, Marja H

    2011-09-15

    A sample preparation method combining solid-phase extraction (SPE) and liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) was developed to be used in Effect-Directed Analysis (EDA) of blood plasma. Until now such a method was not available. It can be used for extraction of a broad range of thyroid hormone (TH)-disruptors from plasma with high recoveries. Validation of the method using spiked cow plasma showed good recoveries for hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs; 93.8 ± 19.5%), hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls (OH-PCBs; 93.8 ± 15.5%), other halogenated phenols (OHPs; 107 ± 8.1%), and for short-chain (<8 C-atoms) perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs; 85.2 ± 24.6%). In the same extracts, the potency of the compound classes spiked to the cow plasma to competitively bind to transthyretin (TTR) was recovered by 84.9 ± 8.8%. Furthermore, the SPE-LLE method efficiently removed endogenous THs from the extracts, thereby eliminating their possible contribution to the binding assay response. The SPE-LLE method was applied to polar bear plasma samples to investigate its applicability in future EDA studies focusing on TH-disrupting compounds in this top predator species that is exposed to relatively high levels of bioaccumulating pollutants. A first screening revealed TTR-binding potency in the polar bear plasma extracts, which could be explained for 60-85% by the presence of OH-PCBs.

  12. Binding mode and potency of N-indolyloxopyridinyl-4-aminopropanyl-based inhibitors targeting Trypanosoma cruzi CYP51

    DOE PAGES

    Vieira, Debora F.; Choi, Jun Yong; Calvet, Claudia M.; ...

    2014-11-13

    Chagas disease is a chronic infection in humans caused by Trypanosoma cruzi and manifested in progressive cardiomyopathy and/or gastrointestinal dysfunction. Limited therapeutic options to prevent and treat Chagas disease put 8 million people infected with T. cruzi worldwide at risk. CYP51, involved in the biosynthesis of the membrane sterol component in eukaryotes, is a promising drug target in T. cruzi. We report the structure–activity relationships (SAR) of an N-arylpiperazine series of N-indolyloxopyridinyl-4-aminopropanyl-based inhibitors designed to probe the impact of substituents in the terminal N-phenyl ring on binding mode, selectivity and potency. Depending on the substituents at C-4, two distinct ringmore » binding modes, buried and solvent-exposed, have been observed by X-ray structure analysis (resolution of 1.95–2.48 Å). Lastly, the 5-chloro-substituted analogs 9 and 10 with no substituent at C-4 demonstrated improved selectivity and potency, suppressing ≥99.8% parasitemia in mice when administered orally at 25 mg/kg, b.i.d., for 4 days.« less

  13. Tuberculin purified protein derivative (PPD) immunoassay as an in vitro alternative assay for identity and confirmation of potency.

    PubMed

    Ho, Mei M; Kairo, Satnam K; Corbel, Michael J

    2006-01-01

    Tuberculin purified protein derivative (PPD) currently can only be standardised by delayed hypersensitivity skin reactions in sensitised guinea pigs. An in vitro dot blot immunoassay was developed for both identity and confirmation of potency estimation of PPD. Polyclonal antibodies (mainly IgG) were generated and immunoreacted with human, bovine and, to lesser extent, avian PPD preparations. Combining size exclusion chromatography (FPLC-SEC) and dot blot immunoassay, the results showed that PPD preparations were mixtures of very heterogeneous tuberculoproteins ranging in size from very large aggregates to very small degraded molecules. All individual fractions of PPD separated by size were immunoreactive, although those of the largest molecular sizes appeared the most immunoreactive in this in vitro dot blot immunoassay. This method is very sensitive and specific to tuberculoproteins and can be an in vitro alternative for the in vivo intradermal skin assay which uses guinea pigs for identity of PPD preparations. Although the capacity of PPD to elicit cell-mediated immune responses on intradermal testing has to be confirmed by in vivo assay, the dot blot immunoassay offers a rapid, sensitive and animal-free alternative to in vivo testing for confirming the identity of PPD preparations with appropriate potencies. This alternative assay would be particularly useful for national regulatory laboratories for confirming the data of manufacturers and thus reducing the use of animals.

  14. Granular Activated Carbon Treatment May Result in Higher Predicted Genotoxicity in the Presence of Bromide.

    PubMed

    Krasner, Stuart W; Lee, Tiffany Chih Fen; Westerhoff, Paul; Fischer, Natalia; Hanigan, David; Karanfil, Tanju; Beita-Sandí, Wilson; Taylor-Edmonds, Liz; Andrews, Robert C

    2016-09-06

    Certain unregulated disinfection byproducts (DBPs) are more of a health concern than regulated DBPs. Brominated species are typically more cytotoxic and genotoxic than their chlorinated analogs. The impact of granular activated carbon (GAC) on controlling the formation of regulated and selected unregulated DBPs following chlorine disinfection was evaluated. The predicted cyto- and genotoxicity of DBPs was calculated using published potencies based on the comet assay for Chinese hamster ovary cells (assesses the level of DNA strand breaks). Additionally, genotoxicity was measured using the SOS-Chromotest (detects DNA-damaging agents). The class sum concentrations of trihalomethanes, haloacetic acids, and unregulated DBPs, and the SOS genotoxicity followed the breakthrough of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), however the formation of brominated species did not. The bromide/DOC ratio was higher than the influent through much of the breakthrough curve (GAC does not remove bromide), which resulted in elevated brominated DBP concentrations in the effluent. Based on the potency of the haloacetonitriles and halonitromethanes, these nitrogen-containing DBPs were the driving agents of the predicted genotoxicity. GAC treatment of drinking or reclaimed waters with appreciable levels of bromide and dissolved organic nitrogen may not control the formation of unregulated DBPs with higher genotoxicity potencies.

  15. PHOENIX. Higher Wage Careers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bismarck State Coll., ND.

    This document outlines the curriculum plan for the one-semester vocational-technical training component of PHOENIX: A Model Program for Higher-Wage Potential Careers offered by Bismarck State College (North Dakota) which prepares and/or retrains individuals for higher-wage technical careers. The comprehensive model for the program is organized…

  16. Reinventing Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Dianne

    2012-01-01

    Higher education institutions are in the battle of a lifetime as they are coping with political and economic uncertainties, threats to federal aid, declining state support, higher tuition rates and increased competition from for-profit institutions. Amid all these challenges, these institutions are pressed to keep up with technological demands,…

  17. Reinventing Continuing Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walshok, Mary Lindenstein

    2012-01-01

    Re-inventing continuing higher education is about finding ways to be a more central player in a region's civic, cultural, and economic life as well as in the education of individuals for work and citizenship. Continuing higher education will require data gathering, analytical tools, convening authority, interpretive skills, new models of delivery,…

  18. Hypermedia and Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemke, Jay L.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses changes in higher education that are resulting from the use of hypermedia. Topics addressed include the structure of traditional texts; a distributed model for academic communication; independent learning as a model for higher education; skills for hypermedia literacy; database searching; information retrieval; authoring skills; design…

  19. Chicanos in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Juan M., Ed.

    1992-01-01

    This "special theme" journal issue focuses on higher education of Chicanos and Latinos. The journal includes the following articles: (1) "Dilemmas of Chicano and Latino Professors in U.S. Universities" (Hisauro Garza); (2) "Analysis of Tenure Among Hispanic Higher Education Faculty" (Richard R. Verdugo); (3)…

  20. Higher Education in California

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Public Policy Institute of California, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Higher education enhances Californians' lives and contributes to the state's economic growth. But population and education trends suggest that California is facing a large shortfall of college graduates. Addressing this short­fall will require strong gains for groups that have been historically under­represented in higher education. Substantial…

  1. Reimagining Christian Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hulme, E. Eileen; Groom, David E., Jr.; Heltzel, Joseph M.

    2016-01-01

    The challenges facing higher education continue to mount. The shifting of the U.S. ethnic and racial demographics, the proliferation of advanced digital technologies and data, and the move from traditional degrees to continuous learning platforms have created an unstable environment to which Christian higher education must adapt in order to remain…

  2. Higher Education's Caste System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iannone, Ron

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the history of the present caste system in higher education. He shows how the public's perception of this caste system is based on image and not usually on the quality of teaching and curriculum in colleges and universities. Finally, he discusses a model for accessibility to higher education and how higher…

  3. Comparative Higher Education: Bibliography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardozier, V. R.

    This comparative higher education bibliography from the graduate program in Higher Education at University of Texas at Austin provides references with publication dates through 1990 under the following categories: "General and Canada" (85); "Africa (Sub-Sahara)" (23); "Asia" (122); "Australia and New…

  4. Gender and Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bank, Barbara J., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This comprehensive, encyclopedic review explores gender and its impact on American higher education across historical and cultural contexts. Challenging recent claims that gender inequities in U.S. higher education no longer exist, the contributors--leading experts in the field--reveal the many ways in which gender is embedded in the educational…

  5. Higher Education Exchange

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    This volume begins with an essay by Noelle McAfee, a contributor who is familiar to readers of Higher Education Exchange (HEX). She reiterates Mathews' argument regarding the disconnect between higher education's sense of engagement and the public's sense of engagement, and suggests a way around the epistemological conundrum of "knowledge…

  6. Quality in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruben, Brent D., Ed.

    This volume contains 21 new and classic papers and readings on quality philosophies and concepts, first, as they have been applied in business and industry but primarily as they relate to and can be applied in higher education. The introduction is titled "The Quality Approach in Higher Education: Context and Concepts for Change" by Brent…

  7. Minorities in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Justiz, Manuel J., Ed.; And Others

    This book presents 19 papers on efforts to increase the participation of members of minority groups in higher education. The papers are: (1) "Demographic Trends and the Challenges to American Higher Education" (Manuel Justiz); (2) "Three Realities: Minority Life in the United States--The Struggle for Economic Equity (adapted by Don…

  8. Higher Education Exchange 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    Contributors to this issue of the Higher Education Exchange debate the issues around knowledge production, discuss the acquisition of deliberative skills for democracy, and examine how higher education prepares, or does not prepare, students for citizenship roles. Articles include: (1) "Foreword" (Deborah Witte); (2) "Knowledge,…

  9. Recombinant pediocin in L actococcus lactis: increased production by propeptide fusion and improved potency by co‐production with PedC

    PubMed Central

    Back, Alexandre; Mangavel, Cécile; Paris, Cédric; Rondags, Emmanuel; Kapel, Romain; Aymes, Arnaud; Rogniaux, Hélène; Pavlović, Marija; van Heel, Auke J.; Kuipers, Oscar P.; Revol‐Junelles, Anne‐Marie; Cailliez‐Grimal, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Summary We describe the impact of two propeptides and PedC on the production yield and the potency of recombinant pediocins produced in L actococcus lactis. On the one hand, the sequences encoding the propeptides SD or LEISSTCDA were inserted between the sequence encoding the signal peptide of Usp45 and the structural gene of the mature pediocin PA‐1. On the other hand, the putative thiol‐disulfide oxidoreductase PedC was coexpressed with pediocin. The concentration of recombinant pediocins produced in supernatants was determined by enzyme‐linked immunosorbent assay. The potency of recombinant pediocins was investigated by measuring the minimal inhibitory concentration by agar well diffusion assay. The results show that propeptides SD or LEISSTCDA lead to an improved secretion of recombinant pediocins with apparently no effect on the antibacterial potency and that PedC increases the potency of recombinant pediocin. To our knowledge, this study reveals for the first time that pediocin tolerates fusions at the N‐terminal end. Furthermore, it reveals that only expressing the pediocin structural gene in a heterologous host is not sufficient to get an optimal potency and requires the accessory protein PedC. In addition, it can be speculated that PedC catalyses the correct formation of disulfide bonds in pediocin. PMID:26147827

  10. Synergy with rifampin and kanamycin enhances potency, kill kinetics, and selectivity of de novo-designed antimicrobial peptides.

    PubMed

    Anantharaman, Aparna; Rizvi, Meryam Sardar; Sahal, Dinkar

    2010-05-01

    By choosing membranes as targets of action, antibacterial peptides offer the promise of providing antibiotics to which bacteria would not become resistant. However, there is a need to increase their potency against bacteria along with achieving a reduction in toxicity to host cells. Here, we report that three de novo-designed antibacterial peptides (DeltaFm, DeltaFmscr, and Ud) with poor to moderate antibacterial potencies and kill kinetics improved significantly in all of these aspects when synergized with rifampin and kanamycin against Escherichia coli. (DeltaFm and DeltaFmscr [a scrambled-sequence version of DeltaFm] are isomeric, monomeric decapeptides containing the nonproteinogenic amino acid alpha,beta-didehydrophenylalanine [DeltaF] in their sequences. Ud is a lysine-branched dimeric peptide containing the helicogenic amino acid alpha-aminoisobutyric acid [Aib].) In synergy with rifampin, the MIC of DeltaFmscr showed a 34-fold decrease (67.9 microg/ml alone, compared to 2 microg/ml in combination). A 20-fold improvement in the minimum bactericidal concentration of Ud was observed when the peptide was used in combination with rifampin (369.9 microg/ml alone, compared to 18.5 microg/ml in combination). Synergy with kanamycin resulted in an enhancement in kill kinetics for DeltaFmscr (no killing until 60 min for DeltaFmscr alone, versus 50% and 90% killing within 20 min and 60 min, respectively, in combination with kanamycin). Combination of the dendrimeric peptide DeltaFq (a K-K2 dendrimer for which the sequence of DeltaFm constitutes each of the four branches) (MIC, 21.3 microg/ml) with kanamycin (MIC, 2.1 microg/ml) not only lowered the MIC of each by 4-fold but also improved the therapeutic potential of this highly hemolytic (37% hemolysis alone, compared to 4% hemolysis in combination) and cytotoxic (70% toxicity at 10x MIC alone, versus 30% toxicity in combination) peptide. Thus, synergy between peptide and nonpeptide antibiotics has the potential to

  11. Design, synthesis, and antioxidant potency of novel alpha-tocopherol analogues in isolated membranes and intact cells.

    PubMed

    Palozza, Paola; Simone, Rossella; Picci, Nevio; Buzzoni, Lisa; Ciliberti, Nunzia; Natangelo, Anna; Manfredini, Stefano; Vertuani, Silvia

    2008-04-01

    In this study, we have designed novel chromanyl derivatives that share with alpha-tocopherol a chromanyl head but differ in the lateral chain in: (i) length and saturation (FEBL-45, 50, 70), (ii) position of double bonds in Z or E (FEBL-50 and 53 and their respective 6-chromanyl methyl derivatives FEBL-161 and 162), or (iii) presence of additional antioxidant molecules, such as the catechol compound hydroxytyrosol (FEBL-80) or dopamine (FEBL-82, 95). The efficiency of these compounds in preventing free-radical-induced oxidative stress was investigated in isolated membranes as well as intact cells. The results of this study clearly show that all compounds synthesized were active in: (i) inhibiting AAPH- or tert-BOOH-induced lipid peroxidation in microsomes and (ii) preventing H2O2-induced ROS production, cell damage, and heat-shock protein expression in immortalized RAT-1 fibroblasts. Such effects were dose- and time-dependent. Independent of the kind of pro-oxidant used, differences in the antioxidant potency of these compounds were found in relation to the chemical structure with respect to the natural alpha-tocopherol: (1) The concomitant presence of a chromanyl head and an additional aromatic ring markedly increased the antioxidant potency of the molecule. In particular, FEBL-82 and FEBL-95, resulting from the molecular combination of trolox and dopamine, were much more potent than alpha-tocopherol, alpha-tocotrienol, and the other synthetic compounds. Moreover, they were also more potent than trolox and dopamine, used alone or in combination, suggesting synergistic cooperative interactions in the molecule between chromanyl and catechol moieties. (2) The length of the side chain affected the antioxidant properties of the molecule: FEBL-70, which displays a bulky squalene side chain, was less effective than the natural alpha-tocotrienol and the synthetic FEBL-45 and FEBL-50. (3) The presence of polyunsaturated double bonds in the side chain in the Z configuration

  12. Perspectives on Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayhew, Lewis B.

    1971-01-01

    A review of Human Resources and Higher Education: Staff Report of the Commission on Human Resources and Advanced Education (New York; Basic, 1970) by John K. Folger, Helen S. Astin, and Alan E. Bayer. (DB)

  13. Forecasting Higher Education's Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyken, Don; Buck, Tina S.; Kollie, Ellen; Przyborowski, Danielle; Rondinelli, Joseph A.; Hunter, Jeff; Hanna, Jeff

    2003-01-01

    Offers predictions on trends in higher education to accommodate changing needs, lower budgets, and increased enrollment. They involve campus construction, security, administration, technology, interior design, athletics, and transportation. (EV)

  14. A meta-analysis of team-efficacy, potency, and performance: interdependence and level of analysis as moderators of observed relationships.

    PubMed

    Gully, Stanley M; Incalcaterra, Kara A; Joshi, Aparna; Beauien, J Matthew

    2002-10-01

    Meta-analytic techniques were used to examine level of analysis and interdependence as moderators of observed relationships between task-specific team-efficacy, generalized potency, and performance. Sixty-seven empirical studies yielding 256 effect sizes were identified and meta-analyzed. Results demonstrated that relationships are moderated by level of analysis. Effect sizes were stronger at the team level (p = .39) than at the individual level (p = .20). At the team level, both team-efficacy and potency had positive relationships with performance (ps = .41 and .37, respectively). Interdependence significantly moderated the relationship between team-efficacy and performance, but not between potency and performance. The relationship between team-efficacy and performance was stronger when interdependence was high (p = .45) than when it was low (p = .34).

  15. A comparison of the potency of newly developed oximes (K074, K075) and commonly used oximes (obidoxime, HI-6) to counteract tabun-induced neurotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Kassa, Jiri; Karasova, Jana

    2007-01-05

    The neuroprotective effects of newly developed oximes (K074, K075) and currently available oximes (obidoxime, HI-6) in combination with atropine in rats poisoned with tabun at a sublethal dose (180 micro g/kg i.m.; 80% LD(50)) were studied. The tabun-induced neurotoxicity was monitored using a functional observational battery and an automatic measurement of motor activity. The neurotoxicity of tabun was monitored at 24h and 7 days following tabun challenge. The results indicate that all oximes studied in combination with atropine allow all tabun-poisoned rats to survive within 7 days following tabun challenge while two non-treated tabun-poisoned rats died within 2h. Both newly developed oximes combined with atropine seem to be effective antidotes for a decrease in tabun-induced neurotoxicity in the case of sublethal poisoning although they are not able to eliminate tabun-induced neurotoxicity completely. The oxime K075 showed a higher neuroprotective efficacy against tabun than K074 according to the number of eliminated tabun-induced neurotoxic signs at 24h as well as 7 days after tabun challenge. The neuroprotective efficacy of obidoxime in combination with atropine is similar to the potency of newly developed oxime K075 but the ability of the oxime HI-6 to counteract tabun-induced acute neurotoxicity is significantly lower at 24h as well as 7 days after tabun poisoning. Due to their neuroprotective effects, both newly developed oximes (especially K075) appear to be more suitable oximes for the antidotal treatment of acute tabun poisonings than the oxime HI-6.

  16. Relative induction potency of benzo(a)pyrene and dibenzo(a,h) anthracene in environmental samples using the H4IIE cell bioassay

    SciTech Connect

    Willett, K.; Gardinali, P.; Sericano, J.; Wade, T.; Safe, S.

    1995-12-31

    The induction of ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity in H4IIE cells has proven to be a useful assay for assessing the toxic equivalents of complex mixtures of halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons and related compounds in environmental samples. However, there is often a discrepancy between bioassay induction results and toxic equivalents calculated from chemical analysis of samples; the former yielding higher I-TEQs (induction/toxic equivalents). Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a class of chemicals which can significantly contribute to I-TEQ estimates. Benzo(a)pyrene (BAP) and dibenzo(a,h)anthracene (DBA) are both carcinogenic PAHs found in environmental samples, specifically oysters (Crassostrea virginica) collected from Galveston Bay. Dose-response studies were conducted with H4IIE cells to determine the relative induction potency of these two PAHs relative to 2,3,7,8-TCDD. Using probit analysis, the I-TEFs were 0.00144 and 0.0095 for BAP and DBA, respectively. Reconstituted PAH mixtures (744 to 4,466 ng/g total PAHs) with constant percentages of BAP (4.5%) and DEA (3.5%) yielded bioassay derived I-TEQs which ranged from 0.52 to 1.44 ng/g. Oysters treated with the same PAH mix for 30 days differentially accumulated the DBA and BAP over the time course. The bioassay derived I-TEQs of extracts from these oysters ranged from 0.99 to 6.14 ng/g whereas the calculated values using only the I-TEQs of BAP and BDA ranged from 0.04 to 0.57 accounting for only 5--10% of the observed induction response. These results indicate that presence of other PAHs in the treated oyster extracts are highly active as inducers of EROD activity in the H4IIE bioassay.

  17. Folate receptor-targeted liposomes loaded with a diacid metabolite of norcantharidin enhance antitumor potency for H22 hepatocellular carcinoma both in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Liu, Min-Chen; Liu, Lin; Wang, Xia-Rong; Shuai, Wu-Ping; Hu, Ying; Han, Min; Gao, Jian-Qing

    2016-01-01

    The diacid metabolite of norcantharidin (DM-NCTD) is clinically effective against hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but is limited by its short half-life and high incidence of adverse effects at high doses. We developed a DM-NCTD-loaded, folic acid (FA)-modified, polyethylene glycolated (DM-NCTD/FA-PEG) liposome system to enhance the targeting effect and antitumor potency for HCC at a moderate dose based on our previous study. The DM-NCTD/FA-PEG liposome system produced liposomes with regular spherical morphology, with mean particle size approximately 200 nm, and an encapsulation efficiency >80%. MTT cytotoxicity assays demonstrated that the DM-NCTD/FA-PEG liposomes showed significantly stronger cytotoxicity effects on the H22 hepatoma cell line than did PEG liposomes without the FA modification (P<0.01). We used liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry for determination of DM-NCTD in tissues and tumors, and found it to be sensitive, rapid, and reliable. In addition, the biodistribution study showed that DM-NCTD liposomes improved tumor-targeting efficiency, and DM-NCTD/FA-PEG liposomes exhibited the highest efficiency of the treatments (P<0.01). Meanwhile, the results indicated that although the active liposome group had an apparently increased tumor-targeting efficiency of DM-NCTD, the risk to the kidney was higher than in the normal liposome group. With regard to in vivo antitumor activity, DM-NCTD/FA-PEG liposomes inhibited tumors in H22 tumor-bearing mice better than either free DM-NCTD or DM-NCTD/PEG liposomes (P<0.01), and induced considerably more significant cellular apoptosis in the tumors, with no obvious toxicity to the tissues of model mice or the liver tissue of normal mice, as shown by histopathological examination. All these results demonstrate that DM-NCTD-loaded FA-modified liposomes might have potential application for HCC-targeting therapy.

  18. A Model for Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor-Activated Gene Expression Shows Potency and Efficacy Changes and Predicts Squelching Due to Competition for Transcription Co-Activators

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Ted W.; Budinsky, Robert A.; Rowlands, J. Craig

    2015-01-01

    A stochastic model of nuclear receptor-mediated transcription was developed based on activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin (TCDD) and subsequent binding the activated AHR to xenobiotic response elements (XREs) on DNA. The model was based on effects observed in cells lines commonly used as in vitro experimental systems. Following ligand binding, the AHR moves into the cell nucleus and forms a heterodimer with the aryl hydrocarbon nuclear translocator (ARNT). In the model, a requirement for binding to DNA is that a generic coregulatory protein is subsequently bound to the AHR-ARNT dimer. Varying the amount of coregulator available within the nucleus altered both the potency and efficacy of TCDD for inducing for transcription of CYP1A1 mRNA, a commonly used marker for activation of the AHR. Lowering the amount of available cofactor slightly increased the EC50 for the transcriptional response without changing the efficacy or maximal response. Further reduction in the amount of cofactor reduced the efficacy and produced non-monotonic dose-response curves (NMDRCs) at higher ligand concentrations. The shapes of these NMDRCs were reminiscent of the phenomenon of squelching. Resource limitations for transcriptional machinery are becoming apparent in eukaryotic cells. Within single cells, nuclear receptor-mediated gene expression appears to be a stochastic process; however, intercellular communication and other aspects of tissue coordination may represent a compensatory process to maintain an organism’s ability to respond on a phenotypic level to various stimuli within an inconstant environment. PMID:26039703

  19. Evaluation of relative effect potencies (REPs) for dioxin-like compounds to derive systemic or human-specific TEFs to improve human risk assessment.

    PubMed

    van Ede, Karin I; van Duursen, Majorie B M; van den Berg, Martin

    2016-06-01

    Toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) are generally applied for estimating human risk of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds using systemic (e.g., blood) levels, even though these TEFs are established based on intake doses in rodent studies. This review shows that systemic relative effect potencies (REPs) can deviate substantially from intake REPs, but are similar to in vitro-derived REPs. Interestingly, the in vitro REPs for 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-heptachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (HpCDD) and 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran (4-PeCDF) are up to one order of magnitude higher than their in vivo REPs and WHO-TEFs, based on oral intake. In addition, clear species-differences in in vitro REPs were apparent for some congeners. Especially the human-derived REP for polychlorinated biphenyl 126 is one to two orders of magnitude lower than rodent REPs and its current WHO-TEF. Next, suggested adapted systemic or human-specific TEFs for these congeners were applied to calculate changes in systemic TEQ concentrations in studies from the USA, Germany and Japan and compared with either the JECFA TDI or USEPA RfD of TCDD. Overall, the effect of such TEF changes for these three congeners on total TEQ roughly balances each other out in the general population. However, results may be different for situations in which a specific group of congeners dominates. For those congeners that show a distinct deviation between either intake and systemic REPs or between rodent- and human-based in vitro REPs, we propose that especially REPs derived from human-based in vitro models are weighted more heavily in establishing systemic or human-specific TEF values to improve human health risk assessment.

  20. Relative Effect Potency Estimates of Dioxin-like Activity for Dioxins, Furans, and Dioxin-like PCBs in Adults Based on Two Thyroid Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Jusko, Todd A.; Šovˇcíková, Eva; Lancz, Kinga; Chovancová, Jana; Patayová, Henrieta; Palkoviˇcová, L’ubica; Drobná, Beata; Langer, Pavel; Van den Berg, Martin; Dedik, Ladislav; Wimmerová, Soˇna

    2013-01-01

    Background: Toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) are an important component in the risk assessment of dioxin-like human exposures. At present, this concept is based mainly on in vivo animal experiments using oral dosage. Consequently, the current human TEFs derived from mammalian experiments are applicable only for exposure situations in which oral ingestion occurs. Nevertheless, these “intake” TEFs are commonly—but incorrectly—used by regulatory authorities to calculate “systemic” toxic equivalents (TEQs) based on human blood and tissue concentrations, which are used as biomarkers for either exposure or effect. Objectives: We sought to determine relative effect potencies (REPs) for systemic human concentrations of dioxin-like mixture components using thyroid volume or serum free thyroxine (FT4) concentration as the outcomes of interest. Methods: We used a benchmark concentration and a regression-based approach to compare the strength of association between each dioxin-like compound and the thyroid end points in 320 adults residing in an organochlorine-polluted area of eastern Slovakia. Results: REPs calculated from thyroid volume and FT4 were similar. The regression coefficient (β)-derived REP data from thyroid volume and FT4 level were correlated with the World Health Organization (WHO) TEF values (Spearman r = 0.69, p = 0.01 and r = 0.62, p = 0.03, respectively). The calculated REPs were mostly within the minimum and maximum values for in vivo REPs derived by other investigators. Conclusions: Our REPs calculated from thyroid end points realistically reflect human exposure scenarios because they are based on chronic, low-dose human exposures and on biomarkers reflecting body burden. Compared with previous results, our REPs suggest higher sensitivity to the effects of dioxin-like compounds. PMID:23665575

  1. Measured and predicted affinities of binding and relative potencies to activate the AhR of PAHs and their alkylated analogues.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sangwoo; Shin, Woong-Hee; Hong, Seongjin; Kang, Habyeong; Jung, Dawoon; Yim, Un Hyuk; Shim, Won Joon; Khim, Jong Seong; Seok, Chaok; Giesy, John P; Choi, Kyungho

    2015-11-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their alkylated forms are important components of crude oil. Both groups of PAHs have been reported to cause dioxin-like responses, mediated by aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Thus, characterization of binding affinity to the AhR of unsubstituted or alkylated PAHs is important to understand the toxicological consequences of oil contamination on ecosystems. We investigated the potencies of major PAHs of crude oil, e.g., chrysene, phenanthrene and dibenzothiophene, and their alkylated forms (n=17) to upregulate expression of AhR-mediated processes by use of the H4IIE-luc transactivation bioassay. In addition, molecular descriptors of different AhR activation potencies among PAHs were investigated by use of computational molecular docking models. Based on responses of the H4IIE-luc in vitro assay, it was shown that potencies of PAHs were determined by alkylation in addition to the number and conformation of rings. Potencies of AhR-mediated processes were generally greater when a chrysene group was substituted, especially in 1-methyl-chrysene. Significant negative correlations were observed between the in vitro dioxin-like potency measured in H4IIE-luc cells and the binding distance estimated from the in silico modeling. The difference in relative potency for AhR activation observed among PAHs and their alkylated forms could be explained by differences among binding distances in the ligand binding domain of the AhR caused by alkylation. The docking model developed in the present study may have utility in predicting risks of environmental contaminants of which toxicities are mediated by AhR binding.

  2. Impaired neural differentiation potency by retinoic acid receptor-α pathway defect in induced pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Hou, Pei-Shan; Huang, Wen-Chin; Chiang, Wei; Lin, Wei-Che; Chien, Chung-Liang

    2014-12-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are reprogrammed from somatic cells via ectopic gene expression and, similarly to embryonic stem cells (ESCs), possess powerful abilities to self-renew and differentiate into cells of various lineages. However, the neural differentiation potency of iPSCs remains unknown. In this study, we demonstrated the neural differentiation ability of iPSCs compared with ESCs using an retinoic acid (RA) induction system. The neural differentiation efficiency of iPSCs was obviously lower than that of ESCs. Retinoic acid receptor-α (RARα) was critical in the RA-induced neural differentiation of iPSCs, and the effect of RARα was confirmed by applying a specific RARα antagonist ER50891 to ESCs. These findings indicate that iPSCs do not possess the complete properties that ESCs have.

  3. Single prostacyclin receptor of gel-filtered platelets provides a correlation with antiaggregatory potency of PGI2 mimics

    SciTech Connect

    Eggerman, T.L.; Hartzell, C.J.; Selfe, S.; Andersen, N.H.

    1987-03-01

    Gel-filtered human platelets (GFP) display only a single binding site for (/sup 3/H)-PGI2: KD = 61nM, 234 fmol/10(8) platelets (1410 sites/platelet). Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) displays the same receptor density but the KD value increases to 123 nM due to protein binding of PGI2 which lowers its effective concentration. The (/sup 3/H)-PGI2/GFP binding assay has been used to evaluate the molecular basis of aggregation inhibition for prostacyclin analogs and mimics, three PGE type structures, and PGD2. Antiaggregatory IC50s and radioligand binding IC50s correlate for PGE2, E1, and six PGI2 analogs. PGD2, and to a lesser extent 6-oxo-PGE1, display greater antiaggregatory potency than expected based on PGI2-binding site affinity data.

  4. Open source software implementation of an integrated testing strategy for skin sensitization potency based on a Bayesian network.

    PubMed

    Pirone, Jason R; Smith, Marjolein; Kleinstreuer, Nicole C; Burns, Thomas A; Strickland, Judy; Dancik, Yuri; Morris, Richard; Rinckel, Lori A; Casey, Warren; Jaworska, Joanna S

    2014-01-01

    An open-source implementation of a previously published integrated testing strategy (ITS) for skin sensitization using a Bayesian network has been developed using R, a free and open-source statistical computing language. The ITS model provides probabilistic predictions of skin sensitization potency based on in silico and in vitro information as well as skin penetration characteristics from a published bioavailability model (Kasting et al., 2008). The structure of the Bayesian network was designed to be consistent with the adverse outcome pathway published by the OECD (Jaworska et al., 2011, 2013). In this paper, the previously published data set (Jaworska et al., 2013) is improved by two data corrections and a modified application of the Kasting model. The new data set implemented in the original commercial software package and the new R version produced consistent results. The data and a fully documented version of the code are publicly available (http://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/go/its).

  5. Guidelines for the development and validation of new potency assays for the evaluation of umbilical cord blood.

    PubMed

    Spellman, Stephen; Hurley, Carolyn K; Brady, Colleen; Phillips-Johnson, Lisa; Chow, Robert; Laughlin, Mary; McMannis, John; Reems, Jo-Anna; Regan, Donna; Rubinstein, Pablo; Kurtzberg, Joanne

    2011-08-01

    The following commentary was developed by the National Marrow Donor Program Cord Blood Advisory Group and is intended to provide an overview of umbilical cord blood (UCB) processing, summarize the current state of potency assays used to characterize UCB, and define limitations of the assays and future needs of the cord blood banking and transplant community. The UCB banking industry is eager to participate in the development of standardized assays to uniformly characterize cellular therapy products that are manufactured in a variety of ways. This paper describes the desired qualities of these assays and how the industry proposes to co-operate with developers to bring relevant assays to market. To that end, the National Marrow Donor Program (NMDP) Cord Blood Bank Network is available to serve as a resource for UCB testing material, research and development consulting, and product/assay testing in an accredited UCB manufacturing environment.

  6. Introduction to a standardized method for the evaluation of the potency of Bacillus thuringiensis serotype H-14 based products*

    PubMed Central

    Rishikesh, N.; Quélennec, G.

    1983-01-01

    Vector resistance and other constraints have necessitated consideration of the use of alternative materials and methods in an integrated approach to vector control. Bacillus thuringiensis serotype H-14 is a promising biological control agent which acts as a conventional larvicide through its delta-endotoxin (active ingredient) and which now has to be suitably formulated for application in vector breeding habitats. The active ingredient in the formulations has so far not been chemically characterized or quantified and therefore recourse has to be taken to a bioassay method. Drawing on past experience and through the assistance mainly of various collaborating centres, the World Health Organization has standardized a bioassay method (described in the Annex), which gives consistent and reproducible results. The method permits the determination of the potency of a B.t. H-14 preparation through comparison with a standard powder. The universal adoption of the standardized bioassay method will ensure comparability of the results of different investigators. PMID:6601545

  7. Quantitative estimation of diphtheria and tetanus toxoids. 6. Use of different antibody titration methods for evaluation of immunogenicity in animals during potency assay of diphtheria toxoid.

    PubMed

    Lyng, J; Heron, I

    1992-06-01

    Two diphtheria toxoid preparations were compared in potency assays in guinea-pigs using different methods for evaluation of the responses to vaccination. The methods used were the direct skin challenge (Schick test) and ELISA and VERO cell titration of antibodies. The different evaluation methods resulted in the same relative potencies between the toxoids. It was observed that when first-vaccination sera were compared with a second-vaccination serum, the relative antibody concentration depended on whether ELISA or VERO cell titration was used.

  8. Discovery of pyrido[3,4-g]quinazoline derivatives as CMGC family protein kinase inhibitors: Design, synthesis, inhibitory potency and X-ray co-crystal structure.

    PubMed

    Esvan, Yannick J; Zeinyeh, Wael; Boibessot, Thibaut; Nauton, Lionel; Théry, Vincent; Knapp, Stefan; Chaikuad, Apirat; Loaëc, Nadège; Meijer, Laurent; Anizon, Fabrice; Giraud, Francis; Moreau, Pascale

    2016-08-08

    The design and synthesis of new pyrido[3,4-g]quinazoline derivatives is described as well as their protein kinase inhibitory potencies toward five CMGC family members (CDK5, CK1, GSK3, CLK1 and DYRK1A). The interest for this original tricyclic heteroaromatic scaffold as modulators of CLK1/DYRK1A activity was validated by nanomolar potencies (compounds 12 and 13). CLK1 co-crystal structures with two inhibitors revealed the binding mode of these compounds within the ATP-binding pocket.

  9. Aging increases the susceptivity of MSCs to reactive oxygen species and impairs their therapeutic potency for myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Li, Liang; Guo, Yingfei; Zhai, Hongxia; Yin, Yaxin; Zhang, Jinjin; Chen, Haiwei; Wang, Lei; Li, Na; Liu, Runmei; Xia, Yunfeng

    2014-01-01

    Myocardial infarction (MI) is one of the leading causes of death worldwide and Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) transplantation has been considered a promising therapy. Recently, it was reported that the therapeutic effectiveness of MSCs is dependent on the age of the donor, yet the underlying mechanism has not been thoroughly investigated. This study was designed to investigate whether this impaired therapeutic potency is caused by an increased susceptivity of MSCs from old donors to reactive oxygen species (ROS). The MSCs were isolated from the subcutaneous inguinal region of young (8-10 weeks) and old (18 months) Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. By exposing these MSCs to H2O2, we found that the adhesion of MSCs from old donors was damaged more severely. Specifically, decreased expression of integrin and reduced phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase Src and FAK were observed. Furthemore, H2O2 triggered an increased apoptosis of MSCs from old donors. To study the viability and therapeutic potency of MSCs from young and old donors in vivo, these MSCs were transplanted into acute MI model rats. We observed a more rapidly decreased survival rate of the old MSCs in the infarct region, which may be caused by their increased susceptivity to the micro-environmental ROS, as transplantation of the old MSCs with N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), a ROS scavenger, protected them. The low viability of engrafted old MSCs consequently impaired their therapeutic effectiveness, judging by the histology and function of heart. Our study may help to understand the mechanism of MSCs-host interaction during MI, as well as shed light on the design of therapeutic strategy in clinic.

  10. Comparative study of estrogenic potencies of estradiol, tamoxifen, bisphenol-A and resveratrol with two in vitro bioassays.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen; Seifert, Martin; Xu, Ying; Hock, Bertold

    2004-05-01

    This study was undertaken to compare the sensitivity of two in vitro screening test methods and to determine the accuracy of predicted response to spiked laboratory water samples. A newly developed enzyme-linked receptor assay (ELRA) and a widely used yeast estrogen screen (YES) assay were selected to evaluate the estrogenic responses. Four natural, pharmaceutical, xenobiotic or phytobiotic chemicals: 17beta-estradiol (E2), tamoxifen, bisphenol-A and resveratrol were examined, and 17beta-E2 was used as a positive control. 17beta-E2 can strongly induce estrogenic response in both test systems, however, ELRA was found to be more sensitive to 17beta-E2 with a detection limit of 0.07 microg/l compared to 0.88 microg/l in YES assay. Similar results were obtained for bisphenol-A and resveratrol, and their estrogen potencies relative to E2 (100%) determined by ELRA were at least 5.6 times greater than produced by YES assay. ELRA was unable to distinguish the anti-estrogen tamoxifen and YES assay is also poor at distinguishing. Comparison of response to spiked laboratory water samples show that ELRA can give accurate determination to all four chemicals with recoveries among 70-120%, while YES can only give accurate determination to 17beta-E2 and bisphenol-A with recoveries among 69-112%. The comparative results provide evidence that ELRA is more suitable for rapid screening estrogenic potency of the environmental samples. Combination of ELRA and mammalian cellular assay will constitute an advantageous test to specify agonistic or antagonistic effects.

  11. Suppression of Food Intake by Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor Agonists: Relative Potencies and Role of Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4

    PubMed Central

    Jessen, Lene; Aulinger, Benedikt A.; Hassel, Jonathan L.; Roy, Kyle J.; Smith, Eric P.; Greer, Todd M.; Woods, Stephen C.; Seeley, Randy J.

    2012-01-01

    Administration of the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists GLP-1 and exendin-4 (Ex-4) directly into the central nervous system decreases food intake. But although Ex-4 potently suppresses food intake after peripheral administration, the effects of parenteral GLP-1 are variable and not as strong. A plausible explanation for these effects is the rapid inactivation of circulating GLP-1 by dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4), an enzyme that does not alter Ex-4 activity. To test this hypothesis, we assessed the relative potency of Ex-4 and GLP-1 under conditions in which DPP-4 activity was reduced. Outbred rats, wild-type mice, and mice with a targeted deletion of DPP-4 (Dpp4−/−) were treated with GLP-1 alone or in combination with the DPP-4 inhibitor vildagliptin, Ex-4, or saline, and food intake was measured. GLP-1 alone, even at high doses, did not affect feeding in wild-type mice or rats but did reduce food intake when combined with vildagliptin or given to Dpp4−/− mice. Despite plasma clearance similar to DPP-4-protected GLP-1, equimolar Ex-4 caused greater anorexia than vildagliptin plus GLP-1. To determine whether supraphysiological levels of endogenous GLP-1 would suppress food intake if protected from DPP-4, rats with Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and significantly elevated postprandial plasma GLP-1 received vildagliptin or saline. Despite 5-fold greater postprandial GLP-1 in these animals, vildagliptin did not affect food intake in Roux-en-Y gastric bypass rats. Thus, in both mice and rats, peripheral GLP-1 reduces food intake significantly less than Ex-4, even when protected from DPP-4. These findings suggest distinct potencies of GLP-1 receptor agonists on food intake that cannot be explained by plasma pharmacokinetics. PMID:23033273

  12. Effect of the Refrigerator Storage Time on the Potency of Botox for Human Extensor Digitorum Brevis Muscle Paralysis

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Ki Young

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose It is recommended that Botox be used within 5 hours of reconstitution, which results in substantial quantities being discarded. This is not only uneconomic, but also inconvenient for treating patients. The aim of this study was to determine the potencies of Botox used within 2 hours of reconstitution with unpreserved saline, the same Botox refrigerated (at +4℃) 72 hours after reconstitution, and during the next 4 consecutive weeks (weeks 1, 2, 3, and 4). This comparison was used to determine the length of refrigeration time during which reconstituted Botox will maintain the same efficacy as freshly reconstituted toxin. Methods Individual paralysis rates in the extensor digitorum brevis (EDB) compound muscle action potential (CMAP) amplitude and area were measured 1 week after injecting fresh reconstituted 2.5 MU of Botox on one side of the foot, and when the same quantity of Botox that had been refrigerated for a designated time (i.e., 72 h, or 1, 2, 3, or 4 weeks) into the other side of the foot. The EDB CMAP amplitude and area at 12 and 16 weeks postinjection were also measured to compare the efficacy durations in all five comparative groups. Results Ninety-four volunteers were divided into five groups according to the refrigerator storage time of the second Botox injection. The paralysis of the EDBs was significant for each injection of Botox, both fresh and refrigerated, with no statistically significant differences between them, regardless of the refrigeration time. There was a tendency toward increased CMAP amplitude and area at 12 or 16 weeks postinjection (p<0.0001). The duration of effective muscle paralysis did not differ significantly throughout the 16-week follow-up period between all five groups. Conclusions The potency of reconstituted Botox is not degraded by subsequent refrigeration for 4 weeks. However, there are definite concerns regarding its sterility, and hence its safety, since multiple withdrawals from the same vial

  13. Maximizing the potency of an anti-TLR4 monoclonal antibody by exploiting proximity to Fcγ receptors

    PubMed Central

    Loyau, Jérémy; Malinge, Pauline; Daubeuf, Bruno; Shang, Limin; Elson, Greg; Kosco-Vilbois, Marie; Fischer, Nicolas; Rousseau, François

    2014-01-01

    In order to treat Toll like receptor 4 (TLR4)-mediated diseases, we generated a potent antagonistic antibody directed against human TLR4, Hu 15C1. This antibody's potency can be modulated by engaging not only TLR4 but also Fcγ receptors (FcγR), a mechanism that is driven by avidity and not cell signaling. Here, using various formats of the antibody, we further dissect the relative contributions of the Fv and Fc portions of Hu 15C1, discovering that the relationship to potency of the different antibody arms is not linear. First, as could be anticipated, we observed that Hu 15C1 co-engages up to 3 receptors on the same plasma membrane, i.e., 2 TLR4 molecules (via its variable regions) and either FcγRI or FcγRIIA (via the Fc). The Kd of these interactions are in the nM range (3 nM of the Fv for TLR4 and 47 nM of the Fc for FcγRI). However, unexpectedly, neutralization experiments revealed that, due to the low level of cell surface TLR4 expression, the avidity afforded by engagement through 2 Fv arms was significantly limited. In contrast, the antibody's neutralization capacity increases by 3 logs when able to exploit Fc-FcγR interactions. Taken together, these results demonstrate an unforeseen level of contribution by FcγRs to an antibody's effectiveness when targeting a cell surface protein of relatively low abundance. These findings highlight an exploitable mechanism by which FcγR-bearing cells may be more powerfully targeted, envisioned to be broadly applicable to other reagents aimed at neutralizing cell surface targets on cells co-expressing FcγRs. PMID:25484053

  14. Cheminformatics Approach to Gene Silencing: Z Descriptors of Nucleotides and SVM Regression Afford Predictive Models for siRNA Potency.

    PubMed

    Ebalunode, Jerry O; Zheng, Weifan

    2010-12-17

    Short interfering RNA mediated gene silencing technology has been through tremendous development over the past decade, and has found broad applications in both basic biomedical research and pharmaceutical development. Critical to the effective use of this technology is the development of reliable algorithms to predict the potency and selectivity of siRNAs under study. Existing algorithms are mostly built upon sequence information of siRNAs and then employ statistical pattern recognition or machine learning techniques to derive rules or models. However, sequence-based features have limited ability to characterize siRNAs, especially chemically modified ones. In this study, we proposed a cheminformatics approach to describe siRNAs. Principal component scores (z1, z2, z3, z4) have been derived for each of the 5 nucleotides (A, U, G, C, T) from the descriptor matrix computed by the MOE program. Descriptors of a given siRNA sequence are simply the concatenation of the z values of its composing nucleotides. Thus, for each of the 2431 siRNA sequences in the Huesken dataset, 76 descriptors were generated for the 19-NT representation, and 84 descriptors were generated for the 21-NT representation of siRNAs. Support Vector Machine regression (SVMR) was employed to develop predictive models. In all cases, the models achieved Pearson correlation coefficient r and R about 0.84 and 0.65 for the training sets and test sets, respectively. A minimum of 25 % of the whole dataset was needed to obtain predictive models that could accurately predict 75 % of the remaining siRNAs. Thus, for the first time, a cheminformatics approach has been developed to successfully model the structure-potency relationship in siRNA-based gene silencing data, which has laid a solid foundation for quantitative modeling of chemically modified siRNAs.

  15. The in vivo melanocytotoxicity and depigmenting potency of N-2,4-acetoxyphenyl thioethyl acetamide in the skin and hair.

    PubMed

    Jimbow, M; Marusyk, H; Jimbow, K

    1995-10-01

    It has been shown previously that N-acetyl-4-S-cysteaminylphenol (N-Ac-4-S-CAP) is a tyrosinase substrate and a potent depigmenting agent of dark skin and black hair. The present study evaluated the depigmenting potency of an acetyl derivative of N-Ac-4-S-CAP, N-2,4-acetoxyphenyl thioethyl acetamide (NAP-TEA) in the skin and hair. We tested for (i) in vitro metabolites in the skin after topical application, and (ii) in vivo depigmenting potency in the skin and hair. We found that NAP-TEA was stable in water, but was converted to N-Ac-4-S-CAP after topical application to human skin. Therefore, although NAP-TEA was not a tyrosinase substrate, it could react with tyrosinase after being converted to N-Ac-4-S-CAP by O-deacetylation in vivo. NAP-TEA produced marked depigmentation of dark skin (Yucatan pig) after daily topical application. When given by intraperitoneal injection, it resulted in complete loss of hair colour (white) grown at the epilated site in adult C57 black mice after daily administration for 10 days, and incomplete loss of coat colour (silver grey) in newborn C57 black mice after a single administration. The depigmentation of the skin and hair was reversible. Split-dopa preparation and electron microscopy indicated that this depigmentation is primarily related to (i) a marked decrease in the number of functioning melanocytes and melanized melanosomes, (ii) a decrease in the number of melanosomes transferred to keratinocytes, and (iii) selective degeneration/inactivation of melanocytes, and deposition of melanin-like material in the Golgi cisternae, coated vesicles and melanosomes, where tyrosinase is reported to be located. We propose the NAP-TEA is converted in vivo to N-Ac-4-S-CAP which, via interaction with tyrosinase, causes reversible depigmentation of the skin and hair.

  16. Variability of cannabis potency in the Venice area (Italy): a survey over the period 2010-2012.

    PubMed

    Zamengo, Luca; Frison, Giampietro; Bettin, Chiara; Sciarrone, Rocco

    2014-01-01

    Cannabis is the most widely used illicit substance globally, with an estimated annual prevalence in 2010 of 2.6-5.0% of the adult population. Concerns have been expressed about increases in the potency of cannabis products. A high tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) content can increase anxiety, depression, and psychotic symptoms, and can increase the risk of dependence and adverse effects on the respiratory and cardiovascular systems in regular users. The aim of this study was to report statistical data about the potency of cannabis products seized in the north-east of Italy, in a geographical area centred in Venice and extending for more than 10,000  km(2) with a population of more than two million, by investigating the variability observed in THC levels of about 4000 samples of cannabis products analyzed over the period 2010-2012. Overall median THC content showed an increasing trend over the study period from about 6.0% to 8.1% (6.2-8.9% for cannabis resin, 5.1-7.6% for herbal cannabis). The variation in the THC content of individual samples was very large, ranging from 0.3% to 31% for cannabis resin and from 0.1 to 19% for herbal cannabis. Median CBN:THC ratios showed a slightly decreasing trend over the study period, from 0.09 (2010) to 0.03 (2012), suggesting an increasing freshness of submitted materials. Median CBD:THC ratios also showed a decreasing trend over the study from about 0.52 (2010) to 0.18 (2012), likely due to the increase in submissions of materials from indoor and domestic cultivation with improved breeding methods.

  17. Potency evaluation of rabies vaccine for human use: the impact of the reduction in the number of animals per dilution.

    PubMed

    de Moura, Wlamir Corrêa; de Araujo, Humberto Pinheiro; Cabello, Pedro Hernan; Romijn, Phyllis Catharina; Leite, José Paulo Gagliardi

    2009-06-01

    In order to evaluate the effects of reducing the number of animals used in the NIH mouse protection test for potency determination of inactivated rabies vaccines for human use, a retrospective study of the results obtained in the Brazilian National Control Laboratory, Instituto Nacional de Controle de Qualidade em Saúde (INCQS), was performed, comprising 214 vaccine lots. The INCQS Standard Operating Procedure establishes the use of three vaccine dilutions and 18 animals per dilution, separated into two cages with 9 mice each. The results of the two cages of each dilution were considered as two different groups (C1 and C2), and therefore, for each vaccine lot, three results were obtained: one for the standard test (ST) with 18 mice, one using the C1 cages with 9 mice and another using the C2 cages with 9 mice. The results were evaluated as repeated measures of the same method on the same samples. In this study, the effects of the reduction in: (a) the measurement error and its association with the size of measurement, (b) the agreement between the results using the concordance coefficient of correlation, (c) the agreement of categorized results as "Pass" or "Fail" using the Kappa index, (d) the precision of potency determinations using the 95% confidence interval and (e) the incidence of statistically invalid assays due to non-linearity and non-parallelism were evaluated. It was concluded that the results from the NIH mouse protection test using 9 mice per dilution are in good agreement with the results obtained using 18 mice per dilution. Therefore, nine animals per dilution is a suitable number to meet the statistical requirement for valid assays.

  18. Higher than Everest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodge, Paul

    2001-08-01

    Preface; 1. Higher than Everest; 2. Higher than that? - Other high peaks of Mars; 3. Descent into the Martian deep; 4. The cliffs of coprates; 5. A polar crossing; 6. The other Alps - climbing Mt. Blanc; 7. Pico peak - Monadnock of the moon; 8. The great Copernicus traverse; 9. Maxwell, mountains of mystery; 10. Volcanoes of Venus; 11. The cliff of discovery; 12. Descent into the maelstrom; 13. An Ionian adventure; 14. Mountain climbing in pizzaland; 15. Under the frozen sea; 16. Snowboarding through Saturn's rings; 17. Titan's tarry seas; 18. Climbing the cliff of Miranda; 19. The Yellowstone of the solar system; 20. All nine.

  19. Total antioxidant activity and antimicrobial potency of the essential oil and oleoresin of Zingiber officinale Roscoe

    PubMed Central

    Bellik, Yuva

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the essential oil and oleoresin of Zingiber officinale Roscoe. Methods The antioxidant activity was evaluated based on the ability of the ginger extracts to scavenge ABTS°+ free radical. The antimicrobial activity was studied by the disc diffusion method and minimal inhibitory concentration was determined by using the agar incorporation method. Results Ginger extracts exerted significant antioxidant activity and dose-depend effect. In general, oleoresin showed higher antioxidant activity [IC50=(1.820±0.034) mg/mL] when compared to the essential oil [IC50=(110.14±8.44) mg/mL]. In terms of antimicrobial activity, ginger compounds were more effective against Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus, and less effective against Bacillus cereus. Aspergillus niger was least, whereas, Penicillium spp. was higher sensitive to the ginger extracts; minimal inhibitory concentrations of the oleoresin and essential oil were 2 mg/mL and 869.2 mg/mL, respectively. Moreover, the studied extracts showed an important antifungal activity against Candida albicans. Conclusions The study confirms the wide application of ginger oleoresin and essential oil in the treatment of many bacterial and fungal diseases.

  20. Higher Education in Scotland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neave, Guy; Cowper, Henry

    1979-01-01

    Analyzes higher education in Scotland in terms of its history and administrative structure and in light of the myths and beliefs about the traditional Scottish university. Differences from English universities are stressed. Journal available from Editor, Gabriel Fragniere, Institute of Education, 60 rue de la Concorde, B-1050, Brussels, Belgium.…

  1. Creativity in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaspar, Drazena; Mabic, Mirela

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents results of research related to perception of creativity in higher education made by the authors at the University of Mostar from Bosnia and Herzegovina. This research was based on a survey conducted among teachers and students at the University. The authors developed two types of questionnaires, one for teachers and the other…

  2. Women in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pifer, Alan

    Women have traditionally been discriminated against in higher education in both the attainment of degrees and in employment after earning degrees. It has been felt that women are not as capable, reliable, or effective as men in administrative and classroom situations. Statistics show that even at the present time women are underemployed and…

  3. Online Higher Education Commodity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chau, Paule

    2010-01-01

    This article analyzes the current trend towards online education. It examines some of the reasons for the trend and the ramifications it may have on students, faculty and institutions of higher learning. The success and profitability of online programs and institutions such as the University of Phoenix has helped to make the move towards online…

  4. Valuing Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pillay, Gerald J.

    2009-01-01

    The question of the value of higher education is today set in the context of an unprecedented banking and financial crisis. In this context of fundamental change and financial realignment, it is important that we as members of the university remake our case for why the university deserves to be considered alongside all those other worthy causes…

  5. Women in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amano, Masako

    1997-01-01

    The high level of college admission of women in Japan is analyzed relative to changes in social and educational values, continuing evidence of gender tracking, persistent doubts regarding "appropriateness" of higher education for women, employment opportunities and related national legislation, and values held by Japanese women…

  6. Higher Education Exchange, 2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    2013-01-01

    The Kettering Foundation's research has been focused on putting the public back into the public's business for more than thirty years. Some questions that have recently been useful to Kettering researchers as the foundation focuses on its work with institutional actors--especially higher education and its relationship with the public--have…

  7. Videoconferencing in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitcher, Neil; Davidson, Kirsty; Goldfinch, Judy

    2000-01-01

    Describes examples of videoconferencing usage in higher education: project management, dissemination, lecture courses, keynote lectures, small groups, orals and interviews. Gives an account of staff and student experiences in each example, in the context of a collaborative project. Presents evaluation results, leading to a generally favorable…

  8. Futurism in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fazio, Linda S.

    1988-01-01

    The concept of "futurism" in higher education program planning, self-study and goal setting is taking on increasing significance. Two research techniques for "futures forecasting" are discussed: the Delphi and the Scenario. These techniques have been used successfully in institutional self-study and program evaluation.…

  9. Shell Higher Olefins Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lutz, E. F.

    1986-01-01

    Shows how olefin isomerization and the exotic olefin metathesis reaction can be harnessed in industrial processes. Indicates that the Shell Higher Olefins Process makes use of organometallic catalysts to manufacture alpha-olefins and internal carbon-11 through carbon-14 alkenes in a flexible fashion that can be adjusted to market needs. (JN)

  10. Higher Education Exchange.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    This collection of 10 articles and stories highlights ongoing experiments in colleges and universities which address the relationship of higher education institutions and citizenship responsibility. Following a foreword by Deborah White, articles are: "The Civic Roots of Academic Social Science Scholarship in American" (R. Claire Snyder), which…

  11. Unraveling Higher Education's Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Gus; Charles, Maria

    1998-01-01

    The activity-based costing (ABC) method of analyzing institutional costs in higher education involves four procedures: determining the various discrete activities of the organization; calculating the cost of each; determining the cost drivers; tracing cost to the cost objective or consumer of each activity. Few American institutions have used the…

  12. Free Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Jr., Adolph; Szymanski, Sharon

    2004-01-01

    The crisis of affordability in higher education is intensifying. Illustrations of its resonance abound: from the frequent news articles describing and amplifying the crisis and its sources to legislators' and candidates' proposed responses. Republicans' responses tend to be mainly punitive toward institutions; Democrats' proposals are more…

  13. California's Future: Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Hans

    2015-01-01

    California's higher education system is not keeping up with the changing economy. Projections suggest that the state's economy will continue to need more highly educated workers. In 2025, if current trends persist, 41 percent of jobs will require at least a bachelor's degree and 36 percent will require some college education short of a bachelor's…

  14. Higher Education Exchange 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.

    Nine articles discuss the relationship between the higher education community and the public. The articles are: (1) "On a Certain Blindness in Teaching" by Michael S. Roth, who stresses the necessity of political citizenship education for a healthy democracy; (2) "Monocultural Perspectives and Campus Diversity" by Jane Fried,…

  15. Higher Education Interpreting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woll, Bencie; Porcari li Destri, Giulia

    This paper discusses issues related to the training and provision of interpreters for deaf students at institutions of higher education in the United Kingdom. Background information provided notes the increasing numbers of deaf and partially hearing students, the existence of funding to pay for interpreters, and trends in the availability of…

  16. Changing Values & Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagschal, Harry; Beagle, Robert

    A transcript of a two-member panel discussion on changing values and higher education is presented. The transcript includes two speeches and members' responses to the questions of the moderator and audience. The first paper, presented by Robert Beagle (Assistant to the President, Edinboro State College, Pennsylvania) stresses that the key to…

  17. Entrepreneurship and Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Jonathan, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    Stimulating innovative and growth-oriented entrepreneurship is a key economic and societal challenge to which universities and colleges have much to contribute. This book examines the role that higher education institutions are currently playing through teaching entrepreneurship and transferring knowledge and innovation to enterprises and…

  18. Higher Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Office of the Legislative Auditor, St. Paul. Program Evaluation Div.

    This study was commissioned to examine Minnesota's four public higher education systems to identify possible duplication and inefficiency in instructional programs. Study findings indicate that the two-year college systems offer a significant number of occupational programs with low student/teacher ratios, low graduate placement rates, or both.…

  19. Understanding Higher Education Costs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middaugh, Michael F.

    2005-01-01

    Public discussion of higher education costs frequently confuses price with expenditure. This article examines factors associated with increases in the sticker price of a college education and the expenditures incurred by institutions in delivering that education. The discussion suggests that while growth in college tuition is real, access to…

  20. Higher Education Exchange.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    Eight papers, arising from a June 1998 seminar on the professions and public life, examine issues related to the practice of public scholarship and the new connections that institutions of higher education are forging with the public. Following a foreword by Deborah Witte, the papers are: (1) "The Academy and Public Life: Healing the Rift" (Scott…